v. 021109 PGM200X O w n e r ’ s M an u a l Before You Begin Thank you for purchasing the Powerline PGM200X. This gym is part of the Powerline line of quality strength training machines, which let you target specific muscle groups to achieve better muscle tone and overall body conditioning. To maximize your use of the equipment please study this Owner’s Manual thoroughly. Unpacking the Equipment The PGM200X is carefully tested and inspected before shipment. We have shipped the unit in several pieces that require assembly. Ask for assistance during the assembly process. Carefully unpack the boxes and lay the pieces on the floor near the area where you plan to use the equipment. Be careful to assemble all components in the sequence presented in this guide. If any items are missing, contact the dealer from whom you purchased the unit or call 1-800-556-3113 (M-F 8:30-5:00) for the dealer nearest you. Powerline continually seeks ways to improve the performance, specifications and product manuals in order to ensure that only superior products are released from our factories. Please take the time to carefully read through this manual thoroughly. Instructions contained in this document are not intended to cover all details or variations possible with Powerline equipment, or to cover every contingency that may be met in conjunction with installation, operation, maintenance or troubleshooting of the equipment. Even though we have prepared this manual with extreme care, neither the publisher nor the author can accept responsibility for any errors in, or omission from, the information given. Should additional information be required, or should situations arise that are not covered by this manual, the matter should be directed to your local Powerline representative, or the Service Department in Forest Park, Illinois. Any Questions? Call (800) 556-3113 2 Important Safety Instructions Before beginning any fitness program, you should obtain a complete physical examination from your physician. Il est conseille de subir un examen medical complet avant d’entreprendre tout programme d’exercise. Si vous avez des etourdissements ou des faiblesses, arretez les exercices immediatement. Antes de comenzar cualquier programma de ejercicios, deberias tener un examen fisico con su doctor. When using exercise equipment, you should always take basic precautions, including the following: The PGM200X is designed for your enjoyment. By following these precautions and using common sense, you will have many safe and pleasurable hours of healthful exercise with your Powerline PGM200X. • Read all instructions before using the PGM200X. These instructions are written to ensure your safety and to protect the unit. • Do not allow children on or near the equipment. • Use the equipment only for its intended purpose as described in this guide. Do not use accessory attachments that are not recommended by the manufacturer. Such attachments might cause injuries. • Wear proper exercise clothing and shoes for your workout, no loose clothing. • Use care when getting on or off the unit. • Do not overexert yourself or work to exhaustion. • If you feel any pain or abnormal symptoms, stop your workout immediately and consult your physician. • Never operate unit when it has been dropped or damaged. Return the equipment to a service center for examination and repair. • Never drop or insert objects into any opening in the equipment. • Always check the unit and its cables before each use. Make sure that all fasteners and cables are secure and in good working condition. • Do not use the equipment outdoors or near water. After assembly, you should check all functions to ensure correct operation. If you experience problems, first recheck the assembly instructions to locate any possible errors made during assembly. If you are unable to correct the problem, call the dealer from whom you purchased the machine or call 1-800-556-3113 (M-F 8:30-5:00) for the dealer nearest you. Obtaining Service Please use this Owner’s Manual to make sure that all parts have been included in your shipment. When ordering parts, you must use the part number and description from this Owner’s Manual. Use only Powerline replacement parts when servicing this machine. Failure to do so will void your warranty and could result in personal injury. For information about product operation or service, go to Powerline Equipment at www.bodysolid.com or contact an authorized Powerline Equipment dealer or a Powerline Equipment factory-authorized service company or contact Powerline Equipment customer service at one of the following: Personal Safety During Assembly Toll Free: 1-800-556-3113 Phone: 1-708-427-3555 Fax: 1-708-427-3556 • It is strongly recommended that a qualified dealer assemble the equipment. Assistance is required. • Before beginning assembly, please take the time to read the instructions thoroughly. Or write to: Powerline Service Department 1900 S. Des Plaines Ave. Forest Park, IL 60130 USA • Read each step in the assembly instructions and follow the steps in sequence. Do not skip ahead. If you skip ahead, you may learn later that you have to disassemble components and that you may have damaged the equipment. • Assemble and operate the PGM200X on a solid, level surface. Locate the unit a few feet from the walls or furniture to provide easy access. Retain this Owner’s Manual for future reference. Part numbers are required when ordering parts. 3 Safety Guidelines Successful resistance training programs have one prominent feature in common... safety. Resistance training has some inherent dangers, as do all physical activities. The chance of injury can be greatly reduced or completely removed by using correct lifting techniques, proper breathing, maintaining equipment in good working condition, and by wearing the appropriate clothing. 1. It is highly recommended that you consult your physician before beginning any exercise program. This is especially important for individuals over the age of 35, or persons with pre-existing health problems. 2. Always warm up before starting a workout. Try to do a total body warm up before you start. It is especially important to warm up the specific muscle groups you are going to be using. This can be as simple as performing a warm up set of high repetitions and light weight for each exercise. 3. Use proper form. Focus on only working the muscle groups intended for the exercise you are doing. If there is strain elsewhere, you may need to re-evaluate the amount of weight that is involved with the lift. Keeping proper form also includes maintaining control through an entire range of motion. 4. Breath properly. Inhale during the eccentric phase of the exercise, and exhale during the lifting, or concentric phase. Never hold your breath during any part of an exercise. 5. Always wear the appropriate clothing and shoes when exercising. Wearing comfortable athletic shoes with good support and loose fitting, breathable clothing will reduce the risk of injury. 6. Maintaining equipment in proper operating condition is of utmost importance for a safe resistance training program. Pulleys and cables should be checked for wear frequently and replaced as needed. Equipment should be lubricated as indicated by the manufacturer. 7. Read and study all warning labels on this machine. It is absolutely necessary that you familiarize yourself and all others with the proper operation of this machine prior to use. 8. Keep hands, limbs, loose clothing and long hair well out of the way of all moving parts. 9. Do not attempt to lift more weight than you can control safely. 10. Inspect the machine daily for loose or worn parts. If a problem is found do not allow the machine to be used until all parts are tightened or worn or defective parts are repaired or replaced. 54 Assembly Instructions Assembly of the PGM200X takes professional installers about 2 hours to complete. If this is the first time you have assembled this type of equipment, plan on significantly more time. Professional installers are highly recommended! However, if you acquire the appropriate tools, obtain assistance, and follow the assembly steps sequentially, the process will take time, but is fairly easy. Assembly Tips Do not fully tighten bolts until instructed to do so. Read all “Notes” on each page before beginning each step. Note: After assembly, you should check all functions to ensure correct operation. If you experience problems, first recheck the assembly instructions to locate any possible errors made during assembly. If you are unable to correct the problem, call the dealer from whom you purchased the machine or call 1-800-556-3113 for the dealer nearest you. While you may be able to assemble the PGM200X using the illustrations only, important safety notes and other tips are included in the text. Some pieces may have extra holes that you will not use. Use only those holes indicated in the instructions and illustrations. NOTE: To find out the length of a particular bolt, measure its shank (the long, narrow part beneath the head). Refer to the following diagram: 5 STE P 1 Be careful to assemble all components in the sequence they are presented. NOTE: Finger tighten all hardware in this step. Do Not wrench tighten until end of step 3. A. Attach Oval End Cap (1) to Middle Connect Tube (A). B. Attach two Oval End Caps (1) to Rear Support Tube (B). C. Attach Rear Support Tube (B) to Middle Connect Tube (A) using: Two 30 (M10x55 hex head bolt) Four 50 (f10 washer) Two 40 (M10 nylon lock nut) D. Attach Right Elbow Tube (C) and Left Elbow Tube (D) to Middle Connect Tube (A) using: Two 31 (M10x60 hex head bolt) Four 50 (f10 washer) Two 40 (M10 nylon lock nut) Note: Adjust hole position as necessary according to your body height. Please check highlighted section in diagram. E. Affix Elbow Pads (N) to Right Elbow Tube (C) and Left Elbow Tube (D) using: Four 33 (M8x20 hex head bolt) Four 54 (f10 spring washer) Four 51 (f8 washer) 6 STE P 1 Above shows Step 1 assembled and completed. 7 STE P 2 Be careful to assemble all components in the sequence they are presented. NOTE: Finger tighten all hardware in this step. Do Not wrench tighten until end of step 3. A. Attach Fixing Tube (E) to Middle Connect Tube (A) using: Two 30 (M10x55 hex head bolt) Four 50 (f10 washer) Two 40 (M10 nylon lock nut) Note: Adjust hole position as necessary according to your body height. Please check highlighted section in diagram. B. Install two Square End Caps (5) onto Adjust Tube (F). C. Install Chest Pad (M) onto Adjust Tube (F) using: Two 32 (M8x40 hex head bolt) Two 54 (f10 spring washer) Two 51 (f8 washer) D. Slide Adjust Tube Assembly into Fixing Tube (E) and fix the position using Pop-pin (20). E. Install Leg Pad (L) onto Middle Connect Tube (A) using: Four 33 (M8x20 hex head bolt) Four 54 (f10 spring washer) Four 51 (f8 washer) 8 STE P 2 Above shows Step 2 assembled and completed. 9 STE P 3 Be careful to assemble all components in the sequence they are presented. NOTE: Finger tighten all hardware in this step. Do Not wrench tighten until end of step 3. A. Lay Sliding Tube (G) on a flat surface. Affix Connect Tube (H) in the center of the Sliding Tube Frame (G) glide bars. B. Position four Rollers (8) between Right Foot Plate Tube (J) and Connect Tube (H). Secure the assembly using: Four 34 (M8x50 hex head bolt) Eight 51 (f8 washer) Four 41 (M8 nylon lock nut) Eight 60 (Spacer) C. Again position four Rollers (8) between Left Foot Plate Tube (K) and Connect Tube (H). Secure the assembly using: Four 34 (M8x50 hex head bolt) Eight 51 (f8 washer) Four 41 (M8 nylon lock nut) Eight 60 (Spacer) D. Slide the entire Sliding Tube assembly onto Rear Support Tube (B) using: Two 30 (M10x55 hex head bolt) Four 50 (f10 washer) Two 40 (M10 nylon lock nut) E. Enjoy your workout! NOTE: To avoid serious injury, the Weight Horn Collar must be used to lock the weight plates onto the weight post of Connect Tube (H). 10 STE P 3 Above shows Step 3 assembled and completed. 11 Important Safety Instructions Be sure that all users carefully read and understand all warning, safety and maintenance labels on the machine before each use. Failure to do so may result in serious injury. It is imperative that you retain this Owner’s Manual and be sure all warning labels are legible and intact. Replacement Owner’s Manuals and labels are available from your local dealer. If you have any questions about the operation, set up or maintenance of this machine please call our customer service department at 1-800-556-3113 (M-F 8:30-5:00). #DWRULE-4 Warning Label for Rules #DWSM-5 Warning Label for Maintenance 12 Warning Safety and Maintenance of Cables Although Powerline Equipment provides the highest quality of materials and workmanship in its products, the fact remains that component parts eventually wear out over time and with use. This is particularly true with reference to pliable moving parts such as cables. In spite of any expressed and/or implied warranties, intervening factors such as improper use, unusually heavy use, improper installation, improper alignment, poor maintenance, etc. serve to drastically reduce the usable life and safety of cables. Be advised that dangerous conditions can arise even during warranty periods and that any expressed and/or implied warranties Do Not Negate the owner’s responsibility to thoroughly, carefully and daily inspect all cables on this machine. Serious injury can occur if you are struck by falling weights or moving parts. The risk that you assume by using this type of equipment can be reduced by following a few simple steps: Cable inspection should be performed daily. Inspect all cables, the nylon coating on all cables and the area near the fittings at each end of each cable. Replace any damaged or worn cables immediately. Do not allow the machine to be used until damaged or worn cables are replaced. Important: Cables are wear items. It is your responsibility to prevent unexpected breakage. The actual wire strands, the fittings and the nylon coating itself must all be scrutinized. Using or allowing a machine to be used with a suspect cable can result in serious injury. The nylon coating on a cable is essential for cable life and safety. Visually inspect all cables and pulleys. Look at the cables as they travel around the cams and pulleys. A cable that is wearing may exhibit a “ballooned” or broken coating in the area that passes over the pulley. Damage to the coating is an early warning signal. A cable should be replaced if the nylon coating is missing, is damaged in anyway, has pulled or shrunk from the fittings at the end of the cables, or if it is discolored. Discoloration of the cable coating is an early indication of internal problems such as wear or fraying. Annual cable replacement (semiannual in multi-user settings) is strongly recommended as an additional precaution. The rate at which cables wear depends on many factors including: number of users, number of repetitions, weight setting, misuse, abuse, etc. Because of this, periodic cable replacement is not a sufficient safeguard against unexpected breakage. Nothing short of a thorough, careful, daily inspection constitutes an adequate safety program. 13 Warnings, Safety & Maintenance UPHOLSTERY: Precision craftsmanship assures Powerline Equipment’s ability to consistently deliver products of the highest standards. Our products have been carefully designed to ensure safe, efficient long term operation. However, it must be realized that safe use of this equipment requires that owners carefully read and follow the Powerline Equipment use recommendations, warnings, and maintenance guidelines in this Owners Manual. Routine inspection and maintenance is of critical importance to ensure the maximum safety and performance of the PGM200X. Powerline Equipment uses the highest quality materials available, but wear is inevitable. Therefore, you must carefully inspect your equipment as outlined in the Maintenance Schedule on the next page. Including maintaining the equipment the owner’s responsibility is also to: l Visually inspect the cables for fraying, cracking, peeling or discoloration. l Check slack in cables and re-adjust cable tension if needed. See pages 38-39. l Periodically take the time to use a mild soap or a mild vinyl upholstery cleaner. Avoid using any abrasive cleaner not intended for use on vinyl. l Keep sharp or pointed objects out of your pockets and clear of all upholstery. l Periodically inspect all nuts and bolts. Tighten if needed. If bolts seem to loosen periodically, use Loctite 242 for a long-term cure. l Go through a re-tightening sequence periodically to ensure that all hardware is properly tensioned. l Wipe clean with a dust free rag. Lubricate with a Silicon or Teflon based lubricant. ADJUSTMENTS / LOCKING PINS / TIGHTENING KNOBS: CABLES: GUIDE RODS: l Be sure to always provide adequate supervision to all end-users. l Be sure to instruct all end-users of proper usage. l Be sure all supervisors and personal trainers who instruct end-users on equipment are properly trained and know the function and importance of every adjustment and setting. Also, be sure these trainers provide proper instruction to end-users on the fundamentals of strength training. l While the machine is not in use. Carefully run your fingers along the cable to feel for thinning or bulging areas. Replace cables immediately at the first sign of damage or wear. Do not use equipment until damaged cable has been replaced. l Wipe down after every workout. NUTS/BOLTS/FASTENERS: Be advised that dangerous conditions can arise even during a warranty period. A warranty does not negate the owner’s responsibility to thoroughly, carefully and daily inspect the machine. l Check all pieces for signs of visible wear or damage. l Check springs in Snap Links and Pop Pins for proper tension and alignment. l If the spring sticks or has lost its rigidity, replace it immediately. ANTI-SKID SURFACES: l Replace if they appear worn or become slippery. WARNING INSTRUCTION LABELS: l Check that jam nut at Weight Stack is tight. 14 l Inspect and familiarize yourself with all safety warnings and other user information on decals. For POWERLINE Customer Service: http://www.bodysolid.com/support/powerline/docs.html 15 PHRASES, TERMS, TIPS & GUIDELINES *,--W®/,-W®/*-®E®1 ® • • • BEGINNER’S GUIDELINES Work out at least two times a week. Include six to eight exercises that train major muscle groups. Perform two or three sets of at least eight to 12 repetitions. AEROBIC Exercise that primarily uses oxygen to burn fuel at low to moderate levels of intensity. Running and jogging are examples of aerobic exercise. EXERCISE LARGE MUSCLES FIRST You should work your large muscle groups ﬁrst (ie. squat, bench press, lat pulldown) before you exercise your small muscle groups (ie. biceps curls, tricep pressdowns, lateral raises). ANAEROBIC Exercise that primarily uses the body’s stored fuel for energy. Intense weight lifting is an example of an anaerobic exercise. EXERCISE PROGRAM DURATION A weight training routine should take anywhere from 45 minutes to one hour to complete. Add another 20 to 60 minutes when you include stretching, warm-up, aerobics and cool-down. ATROPHY Decrease of a muscle caused by the decrease in the size of its cells because of inactivity. GIVE YOUR MUSCLES A REST You’ll get the most out of strength training if you give your muscles at least 48 hours rest to recover and rebuild between strength training workouts. BALLISTIC STRETCHING A stretching technique that involves a bouncing or bobbing movement during the stretch. The ﬁnal position is not held. This is not a recommended stretching technique. HYPERTROPHY Enlargement of a muscle caused by an increase in the size of its cells in response to weight training. BREATHING Never hold your breath during any part of an exercise. Holding your breath may cause severe intra-thoracic pressure and raise blood pressure leading to dizziness, blackout or other complications. The rule of thumb is to exhale on exertion and inhale on the return part of the exercise. CARDIOVASCULAR Referring to the heart, lungs, and other periphery systems involved in the transport of oxygen throughout the body. CHALLENGE YOUR MUSCLES All strength training should progress gradually, using increases in weight until your goals are reached. Then, change your workout to include increased reps or a higher weight resistance. Alter the order of your exercises, perform multiple sets or different exercises to maintain results or reach new goals. CHANGE ROUTINE Beginner’s please note: If you want to make changes in the exercise routine that you do, wait until about the six to eight week point. Advanced lifters may want to change routines to avoid plateaus in gaining size or strength. CIRCUIT TRAINING Exercise stations that consist of various combinations of weight training, ﬂexibility, calisthenics, and aerobic exercise. CONCENTRIC MUSCLE ACTION The muscle shortens while contracting against resistance. ECCENTRIC MUSCLE ACTION The muscle lengthens while contracting against resistance. EXERCISE FREQUENCY Exercise each muscle group 2-3 times per week. Allow a minimum of 48 hours rest for each muscle group worked. If you are doing a total-body workout, three training sessions per week, performed on every second day, is adequate. INTENSITY The degree to which the body is worked during exercise. ISOKINETIC EXERCISE Resistance is given at a ﬁxed velocity of movement with accommodating intensity. A machine that moves you through an entire range of motion at a preset speed and will not change no matter how much pressure is put forth by the individual. ISOMETRIC EXERCISE Contracts the muscle statically without changing its length. Example: Attempting to lift a weight heavier than you can handle, but cannot move. ISOTONIC EXERCISE Shortens and lengthens the muscle through a complete range of motion. This deﬁnes weight training with full range of motion. MUSCLE FATIGUE Fatigue is when you can’t possibly do another rep without sacriﬁcing form. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE The ability to perform repetitive muscular contractions against some resistance. MUSCULAR STRENGTH The maximum force that can be applied by a muscle during a single maximum contraction. OSTEOPOROSIS A decrease in bone density. PLYOMETRIC EXERCISE A technique that includes speciﬁc exercises which encompass a rapid stretch of a muscle eccentrically, followed immediately by a rapid concentric contraction of that muscle for the purpose of facilitating and developing a forceful explosive movement over a short period of time. Examples of these are using medicine balls for upper extremity and depth jumping for lower extremity. 16 32 PHRASES, TERMS, TIPS & GUIDELINES *,--W®/,-W®/*-®E®1 ® S TA R T I N G R E S I S TANCE LEVEL If you begin weight training at too high a level, you risk serious injury. You will also develop poor form, which will hinder your efforts and discourage you. Use this as a guideline: if you cannot lift the weight eight times with proper form, the weight is too heavy. Similarly, don’t choose too light a weight; the last two or three repetitions of your set should be difﬁcult. POWER Power is the rate of performing work. Power during a repetition is deﬁned as the weight lifted times the vertical distance the weight is lifted divided by the time to complete the repetition. Power during a repetition can be increased by lifting the same weight the same vertical distance in a shorter period of time. Power can also be increased by lifting a heavier resistance the same vertical distance in the same period of time as a lighter resistance. REST INTERVAL Allow a brief pause between sets to give your muscles a chance to partially recover before working them again. For power and muscle size development allow a 3 to 4 minute rest interval between sets. For muscular endurance and deﬁnition allow a 30 second rest interval. For strength training allow a 60 to 90 second rest interval. RISK SHOULD NOT EXCEED BENEFIT If the risk of a speciﬁc exercise exceeds its potential beneﬁt, it is best to stay on the conservative side. There are several ways to work speciﬁc muscle groups. Choose those that provide minimal risk. Ask a ﬁtness professional for guidance. PROGRESS GRADUALLY Increase reps before increasing resistance. Reduce rest intervals between sets to increase intensity. PROGRESSIVE RESISTANCE The principle of continually adding more weight to a speciﬁc exercise as your muscles become stronger to adapt to the heavier weights. ROUTINE The speciﬁc exercises, sets, reps and weight for a speciﬁc body part. SET This is a group of repetitions performed continuously without stopping. While a set can be made up of any number of repetitions, sets typically range from 1 to 15 repetitions. PROPER FORM Focus on the proper motion of the exercise and concentrate on the speciﬁc muscles being used. Do not sacriﬁce proper form to lift heavier weight or to perform more repetitions. Proper form also means lifting in a smooth, ﬂuid motion. If you feel strain elsewhere, you should re-evaluate the amount of weight you are lifting or have a qualiﬁed professional critique your exercise motion. SMALL MUSCLE GROUP EXERCISE Single joint movement and isolation exercises (i.e. bicep curls, tricep pressdowns and leg extensions). PROPER POSTURE Maintaining proper posture will greatly reduce chances of injury and maximize exercise beneﬁt. When standing always keep your feet shoulder-width apart. Do not lock your knees. Locking your knees can put unnecessary strain on them. Keep your back ﬂat and straight, making sure not to twist or arch it in order to complete a repetition. SPEED OF MOVEMENT Strength training movements should be slow and controlled. Do not use momentum to complete an exercise movement. Momentum puts unnecessary stress on tendons, ligaments and joints. Using momentum in your exercise movements does not develop increased strength. STATIC STRETCHING A stretching technique that involves holding a speciﬁc muscle or muscle group at a desired length for a certain period of time. This type of stretching is highly recommended. PROPER TECHNIQUE To get the most out of strength training and to reduce the chance of injury, use proper weight training techniques. These include working your muscles through their full range of motion (but not locking any joints), lifting at a speed at which you can control the weight and stop easily if necessary. STOP TRAINING IF YOU FEEL PAIN If you feel pain during a speciﬁc exercise stop immediately. Any continuation may aggravate an existing injury. Re-evaluate your routine to make sure that you are doing a proper warm up. Decrease the amount of weight you are lifting. Talk to a qualiﬁed personal trainer, health professional or your doctor. RANGE OF MOTION Moving through a complete range of motion (ROM) allows the muscles to stretch before contraction and increases the number of muscle ﬁbers being recruited. This produces maximum contraction and force. By working the full ROM, ﬂexibility will be maintained and possibly increased. STRENGTH Strength is the maximal amount of force a muscle or muscle group can generate in a speciﬁed movement pattern at a speciﬁed velocity of movement. REPETITION A repetition is one complete movement of an exercise. It normally consists of two phases: the concentric muscle action, or lifting of the resistance, and the eccentric muscle action, or lowering of the resistance. WARM UP This cannot be stressed enough. Many workout-related injuries can be avoided by a proper warm up routine. Try to do a total body warm up before you start training. A good example of a total body warm up is using a stationary bike, treadmill, elliptical, rowing or skiing machine. It is especially important to warm up speciﬁc muscle groups you are going to be using. Your muscles need a 5 to 15 minute warm up as well as a brief cool down. This can be as simple as performing a warm up set of high repetitions and light weight (25% to 50% of your training weight) for each exercise. REPETITION MAXIMUM (RM) This is the maximum number of repetitions per set that can be performed at a given resistance with proper lifting technique. Thus, a set at a certain RM implies the set is performed to momentary voluntary fatigue. 1RM is the heaviest resistance that can be used for one compete repetition of an exercise. 10 RM is a lighter resistance that allows completion of 10 (but not 11) repetitions with proper exercise technique. WORKOUT The routine, speciﬁc exercises, weights, sets, and reps for one or more body parts. 17 33 1/,/" ® Good nutrition is a diet in which foods are eaten in proper quantities and with the needed distribution of nutrients to maintain good Health. Malnutrition, on the other hand, is the result of a diet in which there is an under consumption, overconsumption, or unbalanced consumption of nutrients that leads to disease or an increased susceptibility to disease. What is stated in the above deﬁnitions is the fact that proper nutrition is essential to good health. A history of poor nutritional choices will eventually lead to poor health consequences. There are many substances necessary for the proper functioning of the body. Nutrients are the substances that the body requires for the maintenance of health, growth, and to repair tissues. Nutrients can be divided into six classes: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water. Carbohydrates, or “carbs”, are nutrients that are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and are essential sources of energy in the body. Grains, vegetables, and fruits are excellent sources of carbohydrates. It is recommended that at least 55% to 60% of the total number of calories consumed come from carbohydrates (American Diabetes Association, Diabetes & Exercise, 1990). It is further recommended that 10% or less of the total calories consumed come from simple sugars like a candy bar. One of the many beneﬁts of consuming foods that are high in complex carbohydrates, such as rice, pasta, and whole grain breads, is that they also typically contain dietary ﬁber. Dietary ﬁber is a term used when referring to substances found in plants that cannot be broken down by the human digestive system. Although ﬁber cannot be digested, it is important in helping to avoid cancers of the digestive system, hemorrhoids, constipation, and diverticular disease because it helps food move quickly and easily through the digestive system. It is recommended that people consume 20 to 30 grams of ﬁber per day (American Diabetes Association, Diabetes & Exercise, 1990). Excellent sources of dietary ﬁber are grains, vegetables, legumes, and fruit. Fats are an essential part of a healthy diet and serve vital functions in the human body. Among the functions performed by fats are temperature regulation, protection of vital organs, distribution of some vitamins, energy production, and formation of component parts of cell membranes. Like carbohydrates, fats are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. However, their chemical structure is different. Both animals and plants provide sources of fat. Saturated fats come primarily from animal sources and are typically solid at room temperature. Plant sources of saturated fats are palm oil, coconut oil, and cocoa butter. A high NUTRITION intake of saturated fats is directly related to increased cardiovascular disease. Unsaturated fats are typically liquid at room temperature. Corn, peanut, canola, and soybean oil are sources of unsaturated fats. It is recommended that no more than 30% of one’s diet be composed of fats. Ten percent or less of the total calories consumed should come from saturated fats. One way to reduce saturated fat intake would be to substitute margarine for butter. Proteins are substances composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Proteins are made by combining amino acids. Amino acids are nitrogen-containing building blocks for proteins that can be used for energy. Amino acids can combine in innumerable ways to form proteins, and it is estimated that tens of thousands of different types of proteins exist in the body. It is the ordering of the amino acids that provides the unique structure and function of proteins. There are proteins in both meat products and plant products. Animal sources of protein such as milk, meat and eggs contain the eight essential amino acids (amino acids that the body cannot synthesize and therefore must be ingested). Plant sources of protein such as beans, starchy vegetables, nuts, and grains do not always contain all eight amino acids. Because of this, vegetarians must consume a variety of protein-containing foods. It is recommended that proteins make up 10% to 15% of one’s daily calories. This will ensure adequate protein for growth, maintenance, and the repair of cells. Protein requirements for adults are not as high as those recommended for infants, children, and young adults. Note: individuals who are training intensely will have an increase in their protein requirements. characterized by a decrease in the total amount of bone mineral in the body and by a decrease in strength of the remaining bone. This condition is most common in the elderly but may also exist in younger people who have diets inadequate in calcium or vitamin D or both. Iron is another mineral that is often under consumed by Americans. This is especially true of women. The oxygen-carrying properties of hemoglobin (blood) depend on the presence of iron. Anemia is a condition characterized by a decreased capacity to transport oxygen in the blood, and is also common in those lacking a sufﬁcient amount of iron intake. Red meat and eggs are excellent sources of iron. Additionally spinach, lima and navy beans, and prune juice are excellent vegetarian sources of iron. Sodium, on the other hand, is a mineral that many Americans over-consume. High sodium intake has been linked with hypertension, as well as high blood pressure. People can substantially reduce their sodium intake by limiting consumption of processed foods and decreasing the amount of salt added to foods when cooking. In conclusion...don’t forget hydration. Water is considered an essential nutrient because of its vital role in the normal functioning of the body. Water contributes approximately 60% of the total body weight and is essential in creating an environment in which all metabolic processes occur. Water is necessary to regulate temperature and to transport substances throughout the body. Minerals are inorganic molecules that serve a variety of functions in the human body. The minerals that appear in the largest quantities (calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, and magnesium) are often called macrominerals. Other minerals are also essential to normal functioning of the body, but because they exist in smaller quantities (chromium, iron, copper, ﬂuoride, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc) they are called microminerals. Follow these basic nutritional guidelines for gains in strength and lean muscle mass: 1. Choose your foods carefully. Try getting your carbohydrates from sources such as rice, vegetables, beans, whole grains, pasta and fruit. Good protein sources include ﬁsh, chicken, turkey, lean meat and low-fat or nonfat dairy products. 2. Minimize your fat intake. 3. Drink a minimum of 10 eight-ounce glasses of water each day. 4. Eat four to six small meals a day, about three hours apart. Small meals are more easily digested and result in greater nutrition absorption. 5. Avoid eating junk food and fast food. 6. Time your protein intake of 40-55 grams approximately 75 minutes after your workout. 7. Immediately following your workout, replenish your glycogen stores with approximately 50-75 grams of carbohydrates. A mineral that is often consumed in inadequate amounts by Americans is calcium. Calcium is a mineral important in the mineralization of bone, muscle contraction, and the transmission of nerve impulses. Osteoporosis is a disease For more information on nutrition visit your local library or book store. There are many excellent books available. Vitamins are organic substances that are essential to the normal functioning of the human body. Although vitamins do not contain energy to be used by the body, these substances are essential in the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. Because of the critical role vitamins play, it is necessary that they exist in proper quantities in the body. 18 34 8, -®*,- ,*/" EXERCISE PRESCRIPTION ® Sets Rest Periods Between Workouts Resistance Used Order of Exercise Sets are deﬁned as a combination of any number of reps of one exercise. The number of sets used in a workout is directly related to training results. Typically, two to three sets are used by intermediate and advanced lifters to achieve optimum gains in strength. Experts agree that multiple-set systems work best for the development of strength and muscular endurance. Gains will be made at a faster rate by using a multiple-set system than gains achieved through a single-set system. The use of a single set of an exercise is recommended and very effective for individuals who are untrained or just beginning a resistance training program. One-set programs might also be used for simple maintenance once you are in shape. It is important to note that low-volume set programs will increase strength in untrained individuals, but more complex physiological adaptations, such as gains in muscle mass, tone, size, and performance usually requires higher-volume set training for the best results. Multiple sets of an exercise present a more intense training stimulus to the muscles during each set. Once your desired initial ﬁtness level has been achieved, multiple-set performances of the exercise using the proper resistance (with speciﬁc rest periods between sets) will take you to the next level of strength training, endurance, and muscular development. The amount of rest between training sessions depends on the recovery ability of the individual. Most experts agree that three workouts per week with one day of rest between sessions allows adequate recovery, especially for the beginner. If the resistance training is not excessive, only moderate amounts of delayed muscular soreness should be experienced one day after the session. As the lifter advances and his or her body is better able to tolerate and recuperate from the resistance exercise sessions, the frequency of training can be increased. Well-conditioned athletes may be capable of, and need training frequencies of 4 to 5 days in a row to improve signiﬁcantly and achieve their desired goals. When consecutive training day sequences are used, it is usually beneﬁcial to do different exercises for the same muscle groups and use different resistances for the exercises. When training is performed on consecutive days, it often involves the use of a split routine (different body parts exercised each day), or a split program (different exercises for the same body part performed each day). There are many books available at the library or your local book store for the intermediate and advanced weight training enthusiast. It is also recommended that you work with a qualiﬁed personal trainer to achieve your ultimate goals. The amount of resistance used for a speciﬁc exercise is probably the most important variable in resistance training. When designing a resistance training program, a weight for each exercise must be chosen. The use of repetition maximums (RM): the exact resistance that allows only a speciﬁc number of repetitions to be performed, is probably the easiest method for determining a resistance. Typically, one uses a training RM target or a RM target zone. Example: If your RM zone is 8 to 12 repetitions and you cannot lift the weight at least 8 times using proper form, the weight is too heavy. On the other hand, if you can easily lift the weight 12 times, the weight is too light. In either case, the weight needs to be changed. As the strength level of the lifter changes over time, the resistance is adjusted so a true RM target or target zone resistance is used. Leaders in the ﬁeld of strength and conditioning believe that working the larger muscle groups ﬁrst (chest, back, legs), should take priority over training the smaller muscle groups (biceps, triceps, deltoids, calves). The reason behind this exercise order is that the exercises performed in the beginning of the workout are the ones that are going to require the greatest amount of muscle mass to perform. Hence, exercising the smaller muscle groups ﬁrst will deplete the body of the energy necessary to stimulate the larger muscle groups. Armto-leg ordering allows for some recovery of the arm muscles while the leg muscles are exercised. “Stacking” exercises is a common practice among body builders as a way to attempt to bring about muscle hypertrophy. Stacking is loading up different exercises on the same muscle group (ie. standing bicep curls, preacher curls, one arm concentration curls). The exercise order will have a signiﬁcant impact on the training stimulus stress level in a training session. Rest Periods Between Sets and Exercises One frequently overlooked variable in exercise prescription is the length of the rest period between sets and between different exercises. Your desired ﬁtness goals will normally determine the amount of time you allow your body to rest. Exercises involving high repetitions (15 to 20) and a high number of sets (3 to 4) with short rest periods (30 seconds) between sets will raise metabolic demands. This in turn will burn excess body fat and increase muscular endurance. Short rest periods are a characteristic of circuit weight training, and the resistances used are typically lighter. This type of workout is best for trimming body fat and toning muscle. Exercises with heavier resistance and fewer sets usually have a longer resting period between sets. The results of using this method are normally increased muscular strength and mass. If the desired outcome is to gain overall muscle mass, your exercise prescription should lean toward a higher weight resistance doing 2 to 6 repetitions per set, with a rest period of 3 to 4 minutes between each set. Scheduling Training Finding the time to do it is one of the most difﬁcult aspects of a training program. Once you have established a time to workout you should plan a training routine based on what muscles to involve on which day. As previously discussed, the larger muscle groups such as the chest, back, and legs should take priority over working the smaller muscle groups. Give your muscles at least 48 hours (but no more than 72 hours) of rest in between sessions. 19 35 /, ®/*-®",® ,£TRAINING TIPS FOR BEGINNER’S ® ARE YOU A “BEGINNER”? A beginner can be classiﬁed as someone who has never touched a weight, may have lifted for a while, but has taken a substantial amount of time off, or has not consistently trained over the last six months. If you happen to fall into any of these categories, pay close attention, because the following information will be detrimental to the start of your training program. As a beginner, one of the most common mistakes is doing too much. Because beginners often make good gains quickly, many fall into the trap of thinking that more is better. This may be true later in the training equation, but not for the novice. Some of the most common injuries occur as a result of taking on too much, too soon. One of the questions most frequently asked is, “How much weight should I use?” Determining the weight for each exercise will vary from person to person. The weight for each exercise will be lifted in sets and repetitions. Repetition is deﬁned as one execution of any exercise. A set is a combination of any number of repetitions of one exercise. Experimentation at each exercise station is a good technique for determining the starting weight for an individual. Take the chest press exercise for example. Performing this exercise with a weight that can be pressed 30 times with ease will not help you achieve any particular goals. Adding the appropriate amount of weight that will allow you to perform a maximum of 8 to 12 repetitions will help you obtain the results you desire. On the other hand, if you put too much weight on the press bar and press it 4 or 5 times, then common sense will tell you to reduce the weight, wait a few minutes, then try again. Remember, never sacriﬁce perfect form just for the sake of lifting heavier weight. This is a sure-ﬁre, one-way trip down the road to injury. Making muscles work hard, with proper form is the name of the game. Now that you understand how to test each station for your starting amount of resistance, you should know which muscles to train ﬁrst. Training the large muscles groups ﬁrst, such as your chest, legs, and back, should be done before training your small muscle groups like the arms, shoulders, and calves. Starting with the large muscle groups will help you achieve and maintain quicker gains. The large muscles groups will require more stimulation and a higher intensity level than the smaller muscle groups. Training your arms with all-out intensity and training your chest immediately afterwards will not leave you with enough energy necessary to properly stimulate the muscle ﬁbers in your chest. Moreover, because the triceps are required in chest press movements, your arm muscles will fail much more quickly than your chest muscles, which will also hold back your chest training. As a beginner, you will ﬁnd that your gains will come quickly. The excitement and enthusiasm that comes with these gains may cause you to spend even more time on your gym. Take it easy! Remember, just as too little exercise won’t stimulate muscle growth...too much exercise won’t either. You need to give your body plenty of rest, especially if you’re still sore from the last workout. This will keep you fresh and growing stronger. NEVER TRAIN A BODY PART THAT IS STILL SORE FROM THE PREVIOUS WORKOUT. Performing some ﬂexibility exercises is a good way to keep the blood ﬂowing through the sore area, but do not train these muscles again until you are feeling recovered. Speaking of soreness, there is something else that you, as a beginner, should be aware of: If you work out - your muscles will get sore. The majority of muscle soreness comes from microtears and a build up of lactic acid in the muscle ﬁbers. This is the result of intense exercise. Muscle soreness can become a problem when the body is pushed too fast and too quickly. As a beginner, tendons, ligaments, joints and tissues have not yet developed the ability necessary to recover from high intensity exercise. A general warm up of stretching and light calisthenics prior to exercise can possibly reduce the amount of post-exercise muscle soreness. A good cool down of stretching and cardio work may also decrease muscle soreness. Now that we have laid a good foundation of the “do’s and don’ts”, let’s get into something a little more speciﬁc. The Beginner’s Strength Training Program. One of the best beginner’s programs is the three-days-a-week routine. For example, do a whole-body workout on Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Use the other days for rest and recuperation. As previously discussed, you want to start with the large muscle groups ﬁrst, then move on to the small muscle groups. Perform one exercise per muscle group that consists of 2 or 3 sets of 8 to 12 repetitions. Follow this routine for at least six to eight weeks in order for your body to establish the proper stimulation for growth. One or two exercises per muscle group may not sound like enough to produce any results, but if you’re a beginner - it most deﬁnitely will. As you continue to train and your body adapts to your exercise routine and recuperative demands you place upon it, you’ll be able to add more sets and exercises to your routine. Another point that is highly recommended is the assistance of a personal trainer. Through the use of a personal trainer you can learn the mechanics and techniques of exercise, how to use proper form to avoid injury and details on proper nutrition. A good trainer will also provide MOTIVATION. When choosing a personal trainer, here are some tips: Choose an individual that is certiﬁed through an accredited association. This is a good way to ensure that he or she is qualiﬁed to give you what you need. Also, take a look at what kind of shape they are in. If you want to be in great shape, look for a trainer who is in great shape. They will know what it takes to get results. Here are a few recommended organizations: • National Strength & Conditioning (719) 632-6722 • American College of Sports Medicine (317) 637-9200 • National Academy of Sports Medicine (312) 929-5101 Sample Workout Routine When Training For STRENGTH Exercises Leg Press / Squat Leg Extension Leg Curl Calf Raise Bench / Chest Press Incline Press Incline Pec Fly Lat Pulldown Seated Row Military Press Upright Row Bicep Curl Tricep Pressdown Tricep Extension Resistance Ab Crunch Resistance Oblique Crunch Reps Sets 6 to 10 8 to 12 8 to 12 8 to 12 3 or 4 2 or 3 2 or 3 2 or 3 6 to 10 8 to 12 8 to 12 8 to 12 8 to 12 8 to 12 8 to 12 8 to 12 8 to 12 8 to 12 2 or 3 2 or 3 2 or 3 2 or 3 2 or 3 2 or 3 2 or 3 2 or 3 2 or 3 2 or 3 20 to 30 2 or 3 20 to 30 2 or 3 Rest period between sets should be about 60 to 90 seconds. 2036 "" ®-/COMMON®/, TRAINING MISTAKES ® 1. Lack of Adequate Warm-Up and Inadequate Flexibility 2. Improper Form 3. Too Much Weight 4. Not Enough Weight 5. Not Enough Rest Between Workouts 6. Overtraining 7. Poor Diet and Supplementation 8. Stale Routines A warmed muscle is a more ﬂexible muscle that’s better able to lift heavier weights and work in a full range of motion. Those warmed muscles also greatly reduce your chance of training injuries. The use of improper form is a good way to keep you out of the gym. Not only does improper form cause injuries, it also doesn’t allow for adequate muscle-ﬁber stimulation. Overloading the muscles is a good way to promote muscular growth, but packing on too much weight can cause a snowball effect of improper form, injuries, and down time from your routine. Not lifting enough weight will prohibit the stimulation necessary for muscular growth. Keep challenging your self to lift heavier weights on a progressive basis always maintaining proper form. If you’re still sore from your previous workout, you don’t have to go back at it just because it’s your scheduled day. Give your body an extra day off to fully recover so when you return you will be able to give 100%. It’s not how much time you spend working out, but what you accomplish that really matters. Try to keep your resistance workouts within 45 to 60 minutes per session. Eating the right combination of foods, along with good supplementation, will greatly promote your success. Make your diet 50 percent carbohydrate, 35 percent protein, 15 percent fat, and take a good multivitamin and protein / carbohydrate supplement. Don’t forget the water- at least 80 ounces a day! Hydration is critical. Your body adapts very quickly to the demands placed upon it. That’s why you should have a variety of exercises and routines that you can do. To keep your body growing, you’ve got to keep it off-guard. Changing your exercises and routines is a sure way to do it. 21 37 PERSONAL PROGRAM *,-" ®*,", It is important to ﬁrst establish speciﬁc and realistic goals. You should determine your long term goal and then set a series of short term goals that will help you attain your long term goal. The most common goals are: `ÕÀ>ViÊEÊiwÌ VÀi>ÃiÊ-ÌÀi}Ì vÊÞÕÀÊ«iÀÃ>Ê }>ÃÊÛÛiÊ Ã}Ê> VÃ`iÀ>LiÊ >ÕÌÊvÊL`ÞÊ v>ÌÊÞÕÊÜÊii`Ê ÌÊvVÕÃÊÀiÊÊ >iÀLVÊiÝiÀVÃiÊ >`ÊÜi} ÌÊÌÀ> }ÊvÀÊÕÃVÕ>ÀÊ i`ÕÀ>ViÊ>` `iwÌ°ÊvÊÞÕÀÊ }>ÃÊÛÛiÊ>Ê >À}iÊVÀi>ÃiÊ ÊÕÃViÊÃâiÊ ÞÕÊÜÊii`ÊÌÊ vVÕÃÊÊ«ÜiÀÊ >`ÊÕÃViÊ>ÃÃÊ Üi} ÌÊÌÀ>}°Ê i«i`}ÊÊ ÞÕÀÊ}>Ã]ÊÞÕÊ ÜÊ >ÛiÊ`vviÀ iÌÊÕÌÀÌ> ÀiµÕÀiiÌÃ° *ÜiÀÊEÊÕÃViÊ>ÃÃ 22 38 Once you have determined your personal goals, you will need to set up a schedule that helps you attain them. Set up a schedule that includes the number of workouts per week, the type of workout activity, the time of day for each workout, and the actual workout program. Don’t forget to factor in the warm up and cool down periods. You may have to modify your current lifestyle to accommodate your new schedule. It’s very important to include the following basic components to achieve successful results: -/,/ ," Ê8, - 7/Ê/, 1/,/" DETERMINE YOUR TRAINING METHOD /, ®9"1,®/, ®/" There are three basic types of weight training methods: 1. Training for muscular endurance and deﬁnition 2. Training for strength 3. Training for power and muscle mass You should select a training method that reﬂects both your present ﬁtness level and your long term goals. You should begin carefully and with proper professional guidance. You can always move from one training method to another as you progress. If you are beginner, you should start slowly and carefully, gradually increasing the frequency and intensity of your training. Always play it safe – be realistic about your goals and your schedule. Realistic goals are safer and easier to follow. Which is the right training method for you? First, take a look at your present physique and determine your objectives. Do you want a trim, toned, well-deﬁned body? Are you involved in a sport where speed, strength and power are most important? Maybe you want bulging muscles and a terriﬁc V-shape torso so you look great on the beach. Once you make a decision on what the ﬁnal results should be, you can set up your personal program using the proper training method to achieve your goals. 7 V ÊÌÀ>}ÊiÌ `ÊÃÊÀ} ÌÊvÀÊÞÕ¶ FOR MUSCULAR ENDURANCE & DEFINITION FOR STRENGTH This training method incorporates achieving and maintaining a high cardiovascular (heart) rate and helps burn away excess fatty tissue. It also adds muscle deﬁnition and muscular endurance to your entire body. Exercises are most commonly performed for 15 to 20 repetitions and 3 to 4 sets using a light to moderate weight. The rest period between sets should be about 30 seconds. These short rest intervals will help maintain an elevated heart rate and prevent the muscles from cooling down. This type of training is the most popular of the three and is designed speciﬁcally for increasing strength throughout the muscle and the muscle-tendon junction. This type of training is especially important for athletes. Normally, exercises are performed using moderate to heavy weight for 8 to 12 repetitions and 2 to 3 sets. The rest period between sets should be from 60 to 90 seconds. This allows a degree of muscle recovery before you hit them again. FOR POWER AND MUSCLE MASS This is the method most often used by bodybuilders and is recommended only for the intermediate and advanced lifter. The weights used are heavy — this shocks the muscles and stimulates a more rapid increase in muscle size. Usually exercises are performed for 2 to 6 repetitions and 3 to 4 sets using very heavy weight. The rest period between sets should be from 3 to 4 minutes. The prolonged rest periods allow ample time for recovery between sets. - Ê9"1,Ê*,-" Ê,"1/ ,-/\ You need to decide which of the above training methods is best suited to accomplish your personal goals. - " \ Study the exercise poster that came with your Body-Solid machine and select one or two exercises per body part (body parts are listed to the left of the exercise pictures). Be sure to include exercises for all body parts. If you leave out certain body parts your exercise routine and your body will not be balanced. If you are trying to increase muscle mass or increase strength to a muscle group it is alright to add extra exercises to the area you are particularly concerned about. /,\ Coordinate your body part exercise program and your personal schedule. If you select one exercise per body part you can normally do your entire routine in the same workout. If you choose to do more than 12 exercises you may decide to divide your workout routine into upper and lower body exercises. You can split your schedule to work upper body one day and lower body the next day. Remember to rest each particular muscle group 48 hours before working it again. 23 39 "1,/\ Order the exercises in your routine so you are working the large muscle groups ﬁrst and the small muscle groups last. /\ Keep a record! Write down the exercises, number of sets, number of reps and the amount of resistance (weight). Beginnerʼs Sample Workout Routine When Training For Deﬁnition Exercise Reps Chest Press 15 to 20 Lat Pulldown 15 to 20 Shoulder Press 15 to 20 Tricep Pressdown 15 to 20 Bicep Curl 15 to 20 Leg Press/Squat 15 to 20 Leg Extension 15 to 20 Leg Curl 15 to 20 Calf Raise 15 to 20 Ab Crunch 20 to 30 Sets 3 or 4 3 or 4 3 or 4 3 or 4 3 or 4 3 or 4 3 or 4 3 or 4 3 or 4 3 or 4 Rest period between sets should be about 30 seconds. EXERCISE TIPS 8, -®/*Listed below are Body-Solid’s picks of the best exercises you can do for each body part. These exercises can be done using free weights, machines and multi-station gyms. Learn to do each exercise in proper form. You can make substitutions in your training and try variations of each using different Body-Solid grips, cable attachments and accessories to slightly change the emphasis of a particular exercise. Note: Many movements, especially multijoint exercises, work more than one muscle group. For example, your front deltoids and triceps are stimulated during bench / chest pressing movements. CHEST This powerful muscle group is the cornerstone of a well-developed upper body. To most thoroughly work your pecs, include both pressing and ﬂy movements and vary the angle of the bench from decline to ﬂat to incline. BENCH / CHEST PRESS INCLINE PRESS DECLINE PRESS PEC FLY INCLINE FLY DECLINE FLY CABLE CROSSOVER DIPS SHOULDERS The shoulder joint, which has the greatest range of motion of all joints in the body, is best worked by training all three deltoid heads. Include a pressing movement followed by a raise for each of the three heads. SHOULDER PRESS BEHIND THE NECK PRESS FRONT DELTOID RAISE LATERAL (SIDE) DELTOID RAISE BENT-OVER LATERAL DELTOID RAISE REVERSE PEC-FLY UPPER BACK A powerful upper back is marked by both middle-back thickness and width (the sought-after V-taper). This is best achieved by combining various rows with pull-downs and pull-ups. Remember to vary your grip to slightly change the stimulus. PULL UP UPRIGHT ROW LAT PULLDOWN SEATED ROW BENT OVER ROW HIGH ROW REVERSE GRIP PULLDOWN TRAPS A signature muscle of a strong upper back, well-developed traps help prevent neck injury. Shrug movements should be done with heavy weights in a straight up-anddown motion. STRAIGHT BAR SHRUG DUMBBELL SHRUG BEHIND THE BACK SHRUG UPRIGHT ROW LOWER BACK Important not only for spinal protection but also because it’s the seat of power for many exercises. If you spend a great deal of time crunching for abs, you need to balance your training for complete development and muscular balance. PULL UP UPRIGHT ROW LAT PULLDOWN SEATED ROW BENT OVER ROW HIGH ROW REVERSE GRIP PULLDOWN TRICEPS This three-headed muscle on the back of your arm is involved in extension of the elbow. Like the biceps, the triceps cross the elbow and shoulder joints. Because of this, you can and should work the triceps through a variety of angles to ensure complete development. LYING TRICEPS EXTENSION CABLE TRICEPS EXTENSION CABLE TRICEPS PRESSDOWN CLOSE-GRIP BENCH PRESS REVERSE-GRIP PRESSDOWN TRICEPS PRESS DIPS BICEPS / FOREARMS A two-headed muscle, the biceps’ primary focus is to ﬂex your elbow and supinate your wrist. The ability to build your biceps peak is largely genetic, but exercises that maximally stress the short head will help. BICEPS STANDING BICEP CURL SEATED BICEP CURL INCLINE CURL PREACHER CURL CONCENTRATION CURL ONE-ARM CABLE CURL FOREARMS WRIST CURL REVERSE WRIST CURL ABDOMINALS The rectus abdominus has upper and lower regions. Include both upper and lower ab movement to emphasize those areas, and do twisting movements to work the obliques for complete development. UPPER AB REGION CABLE AB CRUNCH DECLINE BENCH CRUNCH LOWER AB REGION REVERSE CRUNCH HANGING KNEE RAISE HIP THRUST OBLIQUES CABLE SIDE BEND OBLIQUE CRUNCH THIGHS / GLUTES The main muscles of the thighs are the quadriceps which are composed of four muscles. You have several others near the hip joint, including the body’s largest muscle group, the gluteals. Multijoint movements (in which action occurs at both the hip and knee joints) are your best choice to work these muscles. BACK SQUAT FRONT SQUAT LEG PRESS LUNGE REVERSE LUNGE STEP-UP LEG EXTENSION (does not work glutes) HAMSTRINGS On the back of the thighs, the hamstrings balance the quads and allow for a wide range of movement. Good exercise choices include those that work the hamstrings and both the hip and knee joints. DEADLIFT STIFF-LEGGED DEADLIFT GOOD MORNING LYING LEG CURL SEATED LEG CURL ONE-LEGGED STANDING LEG CURL CALVES Calves consist of two major muscles, the gastrocnemius and soleus. The latter is best worked when the knee is ﬂexed, as in the seated calf raise. STANDING CALF RAISE SEATED CALF RAISE DONKEY CALF RAISE LEG PRESS CALF RAISE HACK SQUAT CALF RAISE 24 40 ANATOMY CHART /"9® ,/ 25 41 / --®" FITNESS GOALS 42 26 8, -®" EXERCISE LOG 43 27 8, -®" EXERCISE LOG 44 28 8, -®" EXERCISE LOG 45 29 STRETCHING -/,/ The following pages show illustrations with descriptions of static stretching for warm up and post-exercise cool down. Remember... stretch your large muscle groups ﬁrst and do all stretches in a smooth, slow, controlled manner. Flexibility is an important component of physical ﬁtness and needs to be addressed in a resistance training program. The two main purposes for stretching are injury prevention and a faster rate of recovery from exercise. Stretching should be performed in both the warm up and cool down phases of a training session. A good general guideline is that each workout session should be preceded by 5 to 15 minutes of general warm up, followed by 8 to 12 minutes of stretching, and concluded with 4 to 5 minutes of post-exercise stretching. A regular stretching program will loosen muscle tissue, allowing an increased range of motion. This helps prevent microtears at the muscle-tendon junction. Almost 90% of all injuries from muscle strain occur at the muscle-tendon junction. Repeated injury at this junction can lead to a build-up of scar tissue, which impedes range of motion and adds stress to the joints. Begin by stretching the major muscle groups ﬁrst. Move in and out of your stretches with smooth, slow, controlled motion. Hold the stretch for at least 10 seconds when you feel you have reached your muscle’s maximum distance. Do not use fast, hurried or reckless motions when stretching. Fast and bouncy motions will increase the risk of injury. The most common and most popular type of stretching is the static stretching technique. This form of stretching involves voluntary, complete relaxation of the muscles while they are elongated. A static stretch is a constant, steady stretch in which the end position is held for 10 to 30 seconds. This technique is popular because it is easy to learn, effective, and accompanied by minimal soreness with the least risk of injury. Ballistic stretching involves a bouncing or bobbing movement during the stretch. The ﬁnal position in the movement is not held. Ballistic stretching is unpopular because of the increased amount of delayed muscle soreness and the possibility of injury during the stretching exercise. Ballistic stretching is not recommended. A dynamic stretch involves ﬂexibility during sport speciﬁc movements. Dynamic stretching is similar to ballistic stretching in that it utilizes movement, but dynamic stretching includes movements that may be speciﬁc to a sport or movement pattern. Dynamic stretching is most common among track and ﬁeld athletes, but is also used in other sports, such as basketball and volleyball. An example of dynamic stretching would be a track sprinter performing high knees with an emphasis on knee height and arm action, not on horizontal speed. 30 46 STRETCHING -/,/ 1**,Ê Cross Arm in Front of Chest MUSCLE(S) AFFECTED: latissimus dorsi and teres major 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Stand or sit with the right arm slightly ﬂexed (15° to 30°) and adducted across the chest. Grasp the upper arm just above the elbow, placing the left hand on the posterior side of the upper arm. Pull the right arm across the chest (toward the left) with the left hand. Hold for 10 seconds. Repeat with the left arm. 1**,Ê Arms Straight Up Above Head (Pillar) MUSCLE(S) AFFECTED: latissimus dorsi and wrist ﬂexors 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Stand with arms in front of torso, ﬁngers interlocked with palms facing each other. Slowly straighten the arms above the head with palms up. Continue to reach upward with hands and arms. While continuing to reach upward, slowly reach slightly backward. Hold for 10 seconds. Ê "7,Ê Spinal Twist (Pretzel) MUSCLE(S) AFFECTED: internal oblique, external oblique and spinal erectors 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sitting with legs straight and upper body nearly vertical, place right foot on left side of left knee. Place back of left elbow on right side of right knee, which is now bent. Place right palm on ﬂoor 12 to 16 inches behind hips. Push right knee to the left with left elbow while turning shoulders and head to the right as far as possible. Try to look behind the back. Hold for 10 seconds. Repeat with left leg. Stretching the lower back from seated position Semi-Leg Straddle MUSCLE(S) AFFECTED: spinal erectors 3. 4. Stretching the shoulders, chest and upper back Stretching the lower back and sides "7,Ê 1. 2. Stretching the upper back Sitting, knees ﬂexed 30 to 50 degrees, let the legs totally relax. Point the knees outward; the lateral side of the knees may or may not touch the ﬂoor. Lean forward from waist and reach forward with extended arms. Hold position for 10 to 15 seconds. Bending and relaxing legs decreases hamstring involvement and increases lower back stretch. 47 31 STRETCHING -/,/ -Side Bend with Straight Arms MUSCLE(S) AFFECTED: external oblique, latissimus dorsi and serratus anterior 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Stand with feet 14 to 16 inches apart. Interlace the ﬁngers with palms facing each other. Reach upward with straight arms. Keeping arms straight, lean from waist to left side. Do not bend knees. After moving as far as possible, hold for 10 seconds. Repeat to the left side. Stretching the sides, upper back and shoulders -"1, Seated Lean-Back MUSCLE(S) AFFECTED: deltoids and pectoralis major 1. 2. 3. 4. Sitting with legs straight and arms extended, place palms on ﬂoor about 12 inches behind hips. Point ﬁngers away (backward) from body. Slide hands backward and lean backward. Hold for 10 seconds. -/ Straight Arms Behind Back MUSCLE(S) AFFECTED: deltoids and pectoralis major 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Stretching shoulders joints Stretching the chest Standing, place both arms behind back. Interlock ﬁngers with palms facing each other. Straighten arms fully. Slowly raise the straight arms. Hold for 10 to 15 seconds. Keep head upright and neck relaxed. Remember... do all stretches in a smooth, slow, controlled manner. 32 48 -/,/ STRETCHING *"-/,",Ê"Ê/ Sitting Toe Touch MUSCLE(S) AFFECTED: hamstrings, spinal erectors and gastrocnemius 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sit with the upper body nearly vertical and legs straight. Lean forward from waist and grasp toes with each hand, slightly pull toes towards the upper body, and pull chest towards leg. (If you are very stiff, try to grasp the ankles.) Hold for 10 seconds. Release toes and relax foot. Grasp ankles and continue to pull chest towards legs. Hold for 10 seconds. Still grasping the ankles, point away from body and continue to pull chest towards legs. Hold for 10 seconds. Stretching the hamstrings with emphasis on insertion of the hamstrings and calves. Stretching the hamstrings with emphasis on the middle portion. Stretching the hamstrings with emphasis on the upper portion. ," Butterﬂy MUSCLE(S) AFFECTED: adductors and sartorius 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sitting with the upper body nearly vertical and legs straight, ﬂex both knees as the soles of the feet come together. Pull feet toward body. Place hands on feet and elbows on legs. Pull torso slightly forward as elbows push legs down. Hold for 10 to 15 seconds. 33 49 Stretching the groin. STRETCHING -/,/ Ê ," Straddle (Spread Eagle) MUSCLE(S) AFFECTED: gastrocnemius, hamstrings, spinal erectors, adductors and sartorius 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Sit with the upper body nearly vertical and legs straight, and spread legs as far as possible. With right hand, grasp toes of right foot and pull on toes slightly, while pulling chest toward right leg. Hold for 10 seconds. Release toes and relax foot. Grasp ankle and continue to pull chest toward right leg. Hold for 10 seconds. Point toes away from body and continue to pull chest toward right leg. Hold for 10 seconds. Repeat process with the left leg. Repeat process by grasping right toes with right hand and left toes with left hand. Move the torso forward and toward the ground. Stretching the hamstring and groin with emphasis on insertion of the hamstrings and calves. Stretching the hamstring and groin with emphasis on the upper portion. Stretching the groin, lower back and hamstring. 34 50 -/,/ STRETCHING Ê *"-/,",Ê"Ê"7,Ê Step Stretch MUSCLE(S) AFFECTED: gastrocnemius and soleus; also, achilles tendon 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Have ready a step or board 3 to 4 inches high. Place balls of both feet on the step or board, 1 inch from its edge. With straight legs, lower heels as far as possible. Hold for 10 to 15 seconds. To stretch achilles tendon, raise heels slightly. Slightly ﬂex the knees and then lower the heels. This stretch will be felt in the achilles tendon. Hold for 10 to 15 seconds. For a more intense and individualized stretch, perform this stretch with one leg at a time. Preparing to stretch the achilles tendon by slightly bending the knee. Stretching the calves standing on a step. 35 51 Stretching the achilles tendon by lowering the heel. HARDWARE (Actual Size Shown) Part# 31 M10x60 Partial Thread Hex Head Bolt Part# 34 M8x50 Partial Thread Hex Head Bolt Part# 30 M10x55 Partial Thread Hex Head Bolt Part# 32 M8x40 Partial Thread Hex Head Bolt Part# 33 M8x20 Full Thread Hex Head Bolt 36 HARDWARE (Actual Size Shown) Part# 50 M10 Flat Washer Part# 40 M10 Nylon Lock Nut Part# 51 M8 Flat Washer Part# 41 M8 Nylon Lock Nut Part# 54 M8 Spring Washer Part# 43 M10 Nut 37 ,®*,/-®-/ Hardware List 9Ê +/9Ê ÊÊÊ*,/Ê ÊÊÊÊÊ- ,*/" PART# QTY DESCRIPTION 1 A LOWER MAIN FRAME P1LMF-A 1 B REAR LEGMiddle Connect Tube P1RL-B A 1 1 C REAR UPRIGHT P1RU-C B 1 Rear Support Tube 1 D UPPER MAIN FRAME P1UMF-D C 1 Right Elbow Tube 1 E REAR UPPER P1RUB-E D 1 Left BEAM Elbow Tube 2 F WEIGHT RAISER P1WR-F E 1 Fixing Tube 2 G GUIDE ROD P1GR-G F 1 Adjust Tube 1 H FLAT PLATE P1FP-H G 1 Sliding Tube 1 J FRONT FOOT PLATE P1FFP-J H 1 Connect Tube 1 K LEG EXTENSION ARM P1LEA-K J 1 Right Foot Plate Tube 1 L SEAT PAD FRAME P1SPF-L K 1 Left Foot Plate Tube 1 M BACK PAD FRAME P1BPF-M L 1 Leg Pad 1 N BACK PAD ADJUSTMENT P1BPA-N M 1 Chest Pad 1 P STABILIZING LEG P1SL-P N 2 Elbow Pad 1 Q PRESS ARM PIVOT P1PAP-Q 1 R PRESS ARM P1PA-R 1 S RIGHT HANDLE P1RH-S 1 T LEFT HANDLE P1LH-T 1 U PRESS ARM PULLEY COVER P1PAPC-U 1 V UPPER FLOATING PULLEY BRACKET P1UFPB-V 1 W LEG PRESS PULLEY BRACKET P1LPPB-W 1 X LAT BAR P1LB-X 1 Y LOW ROW BAR P1LRB-Y 2 AA BACK/SEAT PAD P1PAD-AA *>ÀÌÊÕLiÀÃ]ÊiÞÊÕLiÀÃ]Ê>`Ê`iÃVÀ«ÌÊ>ÀiÊÀiµÕÀi`ÊÜ iÊÀ`iÀ}Ê«>ÀÌÃ° 38 61 ,7,®-/ Hardware List 9Ê +/9Ê ÊÊÊ*,/Ê CEC1.75 2PART# CEC2X2 2 2 CMS1.125 3 4 CPP4.25 4 11 1 CS.75X10 5 1 2 CSB.75X1.25 6 2 3 CEC1X2 7 2 CAS.31X.37 8 9 4 CRG1.5X5.5 9 4 5 CRG1.25X5.5 10 10 6 CREC1.5 11 6 CREC1.25 12 2 7 CRPP 13 1 8 CPS.37 14 16 11 CPP3.5 15 6 CSHAFT 16 1 12 CEC3X1.5 17 6 20 CRC 18 2 30 CRS 19 19 CPB2X2 20 4 31 CTSPP 21 2 32 CFMR 22 6 33 CEC1X2 23 4 CPREC 24 6 34 CPW3 25 6 40 CTSPP6 26 1 41 CSL 27 4 CRD 29 2 43 CWSP 30 1 50 CSR 31 1 51 CSC 32 1 CCES 33 1 54 CSRTB 34 1 60 CSHAB.37X2 35 1 CWSP10 36 15/20 CTP10 37 1 CAS 38 1 CFRB1X18 39 2 CACN 40 1 CRP1X1 41 1 CRG1.5X20 42 2 CBP 43 1 CRG1.5X6 44 2 CSH.5X3 45 1 CTC 46 4 CJN.37 47 2 CBB.31 48 2 CCHAIN 49 1 1 ÊÊÊÊÊ- ,*/" END CAP 1DESCRIPTION 3/4” X 1 3/4” QTY END CAP 2” X 2” METAL SPACER 1 1/8”L X 3/8”ID 3 40x80 Oval End Cap PULLEY 4 1/4”OD SHAFT 3/4”f25 X 10”L 6 Round End Cap STEEL BUSHING 3/4”ID X 1 1/4”OD 1 Weight Horn Collar END CAP 1” X 2” 4 f505/16” Round End Cap ALLEN SCREW X 3/8” FULL THREAD RUBBER GRIP 1 1/2” X 5 1/2” End Cap 2 25x50 Square RUBBER GRIP 1 1/4” X 5 1/2” 1 Deck Bumper ROUND END CAP 1 1/2” 2 Handle Tip ROUND END CAP 1 1/4” ROUND POP PIN 8 Roller PULLEY SPACER 3/8”ID 2 Rubber Stopper PULLEY 3 1/2”OD 2 SHAFT 5/8”Rubber O.D. X 8”LStopper END CAP 3” X 1 1/2” 1 Pop-Pin RUBBER COVER 6 M10x55 Hex Head Bolt RUBBER STOP 1 1/16” O.D. X 1 1/2”L 2 M10x60 PLASTIC BUSHING 2” Hex X 2” Head Bolt T-SHAPPEDM8x40 POP PINHex Head Bolt 2 FOAM ROLLER 8 M8x20 Hex Head Bolt END CAP 1” X 2” 8 M8x50 Hex Head Bolt PLASTIC ROLLER END CAP PLASTIC WASHER 3”OD Lock Nut 8 M10 Nylon T-SHAPPED POP PIN 6” 8 M8 Nylon Lock Nut SNAP LINK 1 M10 Nut RUBBER DONUT WEIGHT STACK 16 f10 PIN Washer SELECTOR ROD 26 f8 Washer SHAFT COLLAR 10 Spring Washer CABLE ENDf10 SHAFT SELECTORf12xf8.5x8 ROD TOP BOLTSpacer 16 SOCKET HEAD ALLEN BOLT 3/8” X 2” WEIGHT STACK PLATE 10lbs. TOP PLATE 10lbs. AB STRAP FOAM ROLLER BAR 1” X 18” ACORN CAP NUT 3/16” pre-installed RUBBER PAD 1” X 1” RUBBER GRIP 1 1/2” X 20” LAT BAR PAD RUBBER GRIP 1 1/2” X 6” SHAFT 1/2” X 3” FOOT CAPS 1 1/2” X 3” JAM NUT 3/8” BRONZE BUSHING 5/16”ID CHAIN *>ÀÌÊÕLiÀÃ]ÊiÞÊÕLiÀÃ]Ê>`Ê`iÃVÀ«ÌÊ>ÀiÊÀiµÕÀi`ÊÜ iÊÀ`iÀ}Ê«>ÀÌÃ° 62 39 Exploded View Diagram PGM200x w w w. p o w e r l i n e f i t n e s s . c o m 1900 S. Des Plaines Ave. Forest Park, Il 60130 1 (800) 556-3113 Hours: M-F 8:30 - 5:00 2009. Body-Solid. All rights reserved. Body-Solid reserves the right to change design and specifications when we feel it will improve the product. c Copyright Body-Solid machines maintain several patented and patent pending features and designs. All rights reserved on all design patents and utility patents.