Blackberry ENTERPRISE SOLUTION SECURITY - SECURITY FOR DEVICES WITH BLUETOOTH WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY - TECHNICAL User guide

Version: 5.0
Service Pack: 4
Security Technical
Overview
BlackBerry Enterprise Server for
Microsoft Exchange
Published: 2014-01-17
SWD-20140117135425071
Contents
1
New in this release..........................................................................................................................10
2
Overview........................................................................................................................................ 11
BlackBerry Enterprise Solution security.............................................................................................................................. 11
Security features of the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution.......................................................................................................12
Architecture: BlackBerry Enterprise Solution...................................................................................................................... 13
3
Keys on a device............................................................................................................................. 18
Enforcing the FIPS mode of operation on a device...............................................................................................................19
Device transport keys ........................................................................................................................................................ 20
States for device transport keys .................................................................................................................................. 20
Where the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution stores device transport keys ....................................................................... 21
Generating device transport keys.................................................................................................................................22
Data flow: Generating a device transport key using BlackBerry Desktop Software version 4.0 or later............................ 24
Message keys ....................................................................................................................................................................24
Data flow: Generating a message key on a BlackBerry Enterprise Server ......................................................................25
Data flow: Generating a message key on a device ........................................................................................................ 25
Content protection keys .....................................................................................................................................................26
Data flow: Turning on content protection using a BlackBerry Enterprise Server.............................................................27
Data flow: Generating a content protection key on a device.......................................................................................... 27
Data flow: Deriving an ephemeral key that protects a content protection key and ECC private key................................. 28
Principal encryption keys .................................................................................................................................................. 29
Data flow: Generating a principal encryption key.......................................................................................................... 29
PIN encryption keys .......................................................................................................................................................... 29
4
Encrypting data that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and a device send to each other ...................31
Algorithms that the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution uses to encrypt data............................................................................. 31
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution uses AES to encrypt data................................................................................ 32
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution uses Triple DES to encrypt data...................................................................... 33
Data flow: Sending an email message to a device using BlackBerry transport layer encryption.............................................34
Data flow: Sending an email message from a device using BlackBerry transport layer encryption.........................................35
5
Managing BlackBerry Enterprise Solution security...........................................................................36
Using an IT policy to manage BlackBerry Enterprise Solution security................................................................................. 36
Preconfigured IT policies............................................................................................................................................. 36
Using IT policy rules to manage BlackBerry Enterprise Solution security.......................................................................38
Sending an IT policy over the wireless network............................................................................................................. 38
Assigning IT policies and resolving IT policy conflicts....................................................................................................38
Best practice: Controlling which applications can use the GPS feature on a device ............................................................. 41
Using IT administration commands to protect a lost or stolen device................................................................................... 42
Data flow: Sending the Specify new device password and lock device IT administration command when content
protection is turned on ................................................................................................................................................43
Managing device access to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server..............................................................................................44
Using a segmented network to help prevent the spread of malware.....................................................................................45
Moving a device to a BlackBerry Enterprise Server that uses a different BlackBerry Configuration Database ....................... 45
Configuring the IT Policy Viewer icon on a device................................................................................................................ 46
6
Device storage space ..................................................................................................................... 47
Changing when a device cleans the device memory ........................................................................................................... 48
When a device overwrites data in the device memory..........................................................................................................49
Deleting all device data from the device storage space .......................................................................................................49
When a device deletes all device data.......................................................................................................................... 50
Using IT policy rules to specify when a device must delete device data ........................................................................ 50
Resetting a device to factory default settings ...............................................................................................................51
Data flow: Deleting all device data from a device ......................................................................................................... 51
Scrubbing the memory of a device when deleting all device data.........................................................................................52
Scrubbing the device heap in RAM when deleting all device data ................................................................................ 52
Scrubbing the flash memory on a device when deleting all device data ........................................................................ 53
Scrubbing the user files on a device when deleting all device data ............................................................................... 53
7
Securing devices in your organization’s environment for personal use and work use.........................54
How a device classifies what data and applications are for work use or personal use............................................................54
Data and applications that a device classifies for work use........................................................................................... 55
Data and applications that a device classifies for personal use..................................................................................... 56
Preventing a user from compromising work data on a device...............................................................................................56
Preventing a user from pasting work data into a personal application............................................................................57
Preventing a user from forwarding work data using personal channels..........................................................................57
Prevent a user from using the work contact list in personal email accounts and personal calendars.............................. 58
Controlling the browsing traffic in the BlackBerry Browser............................................................................................58
Preventing a user from backing up work data that is stored on a device........................................................................ 58
Protecting work data on a media card.......................................................................................................................... 59
Deleting only work data from a device.................................................................................................................................59
Data flow: Deleting only work data from a device ......................................................................................................... 61
Managing third-party applications on a smartphone that a user uses for personal purposes.................................................62
Managing add-on applications on a device that a user uses for personal purposes...............................................................62
IT policy rules that apply to devices that users use for personal purposes............................................................................ 63
8
Protecting data on a device.............................................................................................................64
Encrypting user data on a locked device............................................................................................................................. 64
Configuring the encryption of device data on a locked device ...................................................................................... 64
Data flow: Encrypting user data on a locked device...................................................................................................... 65
Data flow: Decrypting user data on an unlocked device................................................................................................ 65
Encrypting the device transport key on a locked device.......................................................................................................66
What happens when a user resets a device after you turn on content protection for the device transport key ................ 66
Resetting a device password when content protection is turned on..................................................................................... 67
Data flow: Resetting a device password when content protection is turned on ..............................................................67
Protecting passwords that a device stores ..........................................................................................................................68
Protecting data that a device stores on a media card.......................................................................................................... 69
Data flow: Generating an encryption key for a media card............................................................................................ 69
How the BlackBerry Attachment Service protects data on a device..................................................................................... 70
Best practice: Protecting the BlackBerry Attachment Service...................................................................................... 70
How a device protects its operating system and the BlackBerry Device Software ................................................................ 71
How a device authenticates the boot ROM code and binds the device processor when the device turns on ......................... 71
9
Protecting the data that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores in your organization's
environment................................................................................................................................... 72
Where the BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores messages and user data in the messaging environment ..............................72
Data that the BlackBerry Configuration Database stores .................................................................................................... 73
Best practice: Protecting the data that the BlackBerry Configuration Database stores.................................................. 73
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device protect IT policies ..................................................................................75
10
Protecting communication with a device......................................................................................... 77
Opening a direct connection between a device and a BlackBerry Router.............................................................................77
Advantages of using the BlackBerry Router protocol.................................................................................................... 77
Data flow: Authenticating a device with the BlackBerry Enterprise Server using the BlackBerry Router protocol ........... 78
Closing a direct connection between a device and BlackBerry Router.......................................................................... 78
Impersonation attacks that the BlackBerry Router protocol is designed to prevent .......................................................78
How the BlackBerry Router protocol uses the Schnorr identification scheme to open an authenticated connection.......79
Data flow: Using the BlackBerry Router protocol to open an authenticated connection................................................. 79
Data flow: Using the BlackBerry Router protocol to close an authenticated connection.................................................81
Cryptosystem parameters that the BlackBerry Router protocol uses ............................................................................ 82
Best practice: Protecting plain text messages that a device sends over the wireless network............................................... 83
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Server protects connections between a device and the Internet or intranet..........................84
Protecting HTTP connections from a device to content servers and application servers using HTTPS...................................85
Warning messages for invalid certificates ...........................................................................................................................85
Permitting TLS connections to websites that use invalid certificates ................................................................................... 86
When a website certificate changes............................................................................................................................. 86
When IT policy rule changes affect TLS settings........................................................................................................... 86
How a device protects a connection to a WAP gateway....................................................................................................... 87
What happens to data that is not delivered to a device ....................................................................................................... 87
What happens to data that is not delivered because the connection between a BlackBerry Enterprise Server and
the BlackBerry Infrastructure closes............................................................................................................................ 87
What happens to data that is not delivered because a device is not available on the wireless network............................88
11
Protecting communications in your organization's environment.......................................................89
How a BlackBerry Enterprise Server and the BlackBerry Infrastructure authenticate with each other...................................89
What happens when a BlackBerry Enterprise Server and the BlackBerry Infrastructure open an initial connection ....... 90
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution protects a TCP/IP connection between a BlackBerry Enterprise Server
and the BlackBerry Infrastructure................................................................................................................................90
Data flow: Authenticating a BlackBerry Enterprise Server with the BlackBerry Infrastructure........................................ 91
How a BlackBerry Enterprise Server and messaging server protect a connection to each other ........................................... 91
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Server components and the BlackBerry MVS protect communication .................................92
How the BlackBerry Desktop Manager protects communication using the BlackBerry inter-process protocol...................... 93
Data flow: Authenticating the application loader tool or Roxio Media Manager with the BlackBerry Desktop
Software using the BlackBerry inter-process protocol ..................................................................................................93
How the BlackBerry Collaboration Service connects to an instant messaging server and collaboration clients on devices .... 94
Protecting your organization’s resources when using BlackBerry MDS Connection Service integrated authentication.......... 94
Architecture: BlackBerry MDS Connection Service integrated authentication............................................................... 95
How the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service uses Kerberos to help protect your organization's resources...................96
Identifying the resources that users can access using BlackBerry MDS Connection Service integrated
authentication.............................................................................................................................................................96
Data flow: Retrieving a resource when using BlackBerry MDS Connection Service integrated authentication.................96
Protecting your organization’s resources when you configure BlackBerry Administration Service single sign-on...................98
Architecture: BlackBerry Administration Service single sign-on.................................................................................... 98
How BlackBerry Administration Service single sign-on uses Kerberos to help protect your organization’s resources...... 99
How the BlackBerry Administration Service completes Kerberos authentication...........................................................99
Data flow: Accessing the BlackBerry Administration Service console and BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager when
you configure BlackBerry Administration Service single sign-on................................................................................. 100
12
Activating a device .......................................................................................................................102
Activating a device over the wireless network ................................................................................................................... 102
Data flow: Activating a device over the wireless network ................................................................................................... 103
13
Managing certificates on a device................................................................................................. 104
Purpose of certificates on a device................................................................................................................................... 104
Importing certificates onto a device.................................................................................................................................. 104
Configuring BlackBerry devices to enroll certificates over the wireless network..................................................................105
Managing an enrolled certificate...................................................................................................................................... 105
Determining the status of certificates using a CRL or OCSP............................................................................................... 106
Data flow: Enrolling a certificate when the certification authority approves certificate requests automatically ....................107
Data flow: Enrolling a certificate when a certification authority administrator approves certificate requests ....................... 108
Data flow: Enrolling a certificate using an RSA certification authority................................................................................. 109
14
Protecting BlackBerry Device Software updates ........................................................................... 111
Protecting BlackBerry Device Software updates over the wireless network........................................................................ 111
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution protects BlackBerry Device Software updates over the wireless network
using encryption....................................................................................................................................................... 111
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution protects BlackBerry Device Software updates over the wireless network
using IT policies and content protection.....................................................................................................................112
Battery power requirements for BlackBerry Device Software updates over the wireless network .................................112
Data flow: Preparing to send a BlackBerry Device Software update over the wireless network..................................... 112
How a device validates a BlackBerry Device Software update over the wireless network............................................. 113
Updating the BlackBerry Device Software from an update web site .................................................................................. 113
Protecting cryptographic services data when updating the BlackBerry Device Software from an update web site ....... 113
Data flow: Generating a BlackBerry services key that protects cryptographic services data ........................................ 114
Data flow: Backing up cryptographic services data using the BlackBerry Desktop Manager........................................ 115
Data flow: Restoring cryptographic services data using the BlackBerry Desktop Manager or BlackBerry
Application Web Loader............................................................................................................................................ 115
15
Extending messaging security to a device ..................................................................................... 116
Extending messaging security using PGP encryption.........................................................................................................116
PGP public keys and PGP private keys ...................................................................................................................... 117
Retrieving PGP keys from a PGP Universal Server or LDAP servers............................................................................. 117
Encryption algorithms that the device supports for PGP encryption ........................................................................... 118
Data flow: Sending an email message using PGP encryption ......................................................................................118
Data flow: Receiving a PGP encrypted message ........................................................................................................ 119
Extending messaging security using S/MIME encryption................................................................................................... 120
S/MIME certificates and S/MIME private keys ............................................................................................................ 120
Retrieving S/MIME certificates and checking certificate status .................................................................................. 121
S/MIME encryption algorithms .................................................................................................................................. 121
Data flow: Sending an email message using S/MIME encryption ................................................................................ 122
Data flow: Receiving an S/MIME-encrypted email message ....................................................................................... 123
Extending messaging security using IBM Notes encryption............................................................................................... 124
Protecting the password for an IBM Notes .id file....................................................................................................... 124
Data flow: Sending an email message using IBM Notes encryption............................................................................. 125
Data flow: Receiving an IBM Notes encrypted message..............................................................................................126
Extending messaging security for attachments ................................................................................................................ 127
Data flow: Viewing an attachment in a PGP encrypted message or S/MIME-encrypted message .................................127
Data flow: Viewing an attachment that is encrypted using S/MIME encryption, PGP/MIME encryption, or OpenPGP
encryption ................................................................................................................................................................128
Data flow: Sending an S/MIME-protected email message that contains attachments that are located on a device........128
Data flow: Forwarding an S/MIME-protected email message that contains attachments that are not located on a
device.......................................................................................................................................................................129
16
Configuring two-factor authentication and protecting Bluetooth connections................................. 131
BlackBerry Smart Card Reader.........................................................................................................................................131
Advanced Security SD cards ............................................................................................................................................131
Two-factor authentication ............................................................................................................................................... 132
Verifying that a device is bound to a smart card..........................................................................................................132
Data flow: Turning on two-factor authentication using a smart card............................................................................ 133
Creating two-factor authentication methods ..............................................................................................................133
Two-factor content protection ......................................................................................................................................... 134
Data flow: Turning on two-factor content protection................................................................................................... 134
Unbinding a smart card from a device.............................................................................................................................. 135
Protecting Bluetooth connections on a device.................................................................................................................. 136
Using CHAP to open a Bluetooth connection between the BlackBerry Desktop Software and a device........................ 136
17
Wi-Fi enabled devices...................................................................................................................137
Types of Wi-Fi networks ...................................................................................................................................................137
Security features of a Wi-Fi enabled device.......................................................................................................................138
Protecting a connection between a Wi-Fi enabled device and an enterprise Wi-Fi network ................................................140
How a Wi-Fi enabled device can connect to the BlackBerry Infrastructure ........................................................................140
How an SSL connection between a Wi-Fi enabled device and the BlackBerry Infrastructure protects data ..................141
Data flow: Opening an SSL connection between the BlackBerry Infrastructure and a Wi-Fi enabled device .................141
Cipher suites that a Wi-Fi enabled device supports for opening SSL connections and TLS connections........................141
Managing how a device connects to an enterprise Wi-Fi network ......................................................................................143
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution protects sensitive Wi-Fi information .................................................................... 143
Using a VPN with a device ............................................................................................................................................... 144
Permitting a Wi-Fi enabled device to log in to a VPN concentrator.............................................................................. 144
Using a segmented network to reduce the spread of malware on an enterprise Wi-Fi network that uses a VPN ........... 145
Supported UI settings for VPN concentrators............................................................................................................. 145
Using a captive portal to connect to an enterprise Wi-Fi network or Wi-Fi hotspot ............................................................. 150
Protecting a connection between a Wi-Fi enabled device and an enterprise Wi-Fi network using RSA SecurID................... 151
Data flow: Generating a token code for a software token.............................................................................................152
Layer 2 security methods that a device supports .............................................................................................................. 153
WEP encryption ........................................................................................................................................................153
WPA authentication.................................................................................................................................................. 154
18
IEEE 802.1X standard .................................................................................................................. 155
Roaming in an enterprise Wi-Fi network ...........................................................................................................................155
Data flow: Authenticating a Wi-Fi enabled device with a work Wi-Fi network using the IEEE 802.1X standard .................... 156
EAP authentication methods that a Wi-Fi enabled device supports....................................................................................157
LEAP authentication .................................................................................................................................................157
PEAP authentication ................................................................................................................................................ 157
EAP-TLS authentication ............................................................................................................................................157
EAP-TTLS authentication ..........................................................................................................................................158
EAP-FAST authentication ......................................................................................................................................... 158
EAP-SIM authentication ........................................................................................................................................... 158
Encryption keys that a Wi-Fi enabled device supports for use with layer 2 security methods ..............................................159
Support for the use of CCKM with EAP authentication methods ........................................................................................ 159
Using certificates with PEAP authentication, EAP-TLS authentication, or EAP-TTLS authentication .................................. 160
19
Controlling applications on a device ............................................................................................. 161
Creating an application for a smartphone......................................................................................................................... 161
Specifying the methods that users can use to install applications on a smartphone........................................................... 161
Specifying the resources that applications can access on a device.................................................................................... 162
Using application control policy rules to control the resources that applications can access on a smartphone............. 162
How code signing controls the resources that applications can access on a smartphone............................................ 166
Permitting an application to encode data on a smartphone............................................................................................... 167
Removing applications that a user installed when a user deletes all smartphone data........................................................167
Removing add-on applications from a device....................................................................................................................168
Controlling which applications can access NFC features on a device................................................................................. 168
Controlling which applications can access the secure element on a device........................................................................169
20
RIM Cryptographic API................................................................................................................. 170
Cryptographic algorithms and cryptographic codes that the RIM Cryptographic API supports............................................ 170
Symmetric block algorithms that the RIM Cryptographic API supports........................................................................170
Stream encryption algorithms that the RIM Cryptographic API supports..................................................................... 171
Asymmetric encryption algorithms that the RIM Cryptographic API supports.............................................................. 171
Key agreement scheme algorithms that the RIM Cryptographic API supports............................................................. 171
Signature scheme algorithms that the RIM Cryptographic API supports......................................................................172
Key generation algorithms that the RIM Cryptographic API supports...........................................................................172
Message authentication codes that the RIM Cryptographic API supports....................................................................173
Message digest codes that the RIM Cryptographic API supports.................................................................................173
TLS and WTLS protocols that the RIM Cryptographic API supports ................................................................................... 173
Cipher suites for the key establishment algorithm that the RIM Cryptographic API supports ....................................... 174
Symmetric algorithms that the RIM Cryptographic API supports ................................................................................ 174
Hash algorithms that the RIM Cryptographic API supports .........................................................................................175
Limitations of RIM Cryptographic API support for cipher suites for the key establishment algorithm .................................. 175
21
Related resources.........................................................................................................................176
22
Glossary....................................................................................................................................... 179
23
Legal notice ................................................................................................................................. 187
Security Technical Overview
New in this release
New in this release
1
The table lists the updated security features for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server 5.0 SP4 that are described in this
document.
Feature
Description
Transcoder encryption
If your organization uses a transcoder to provide an additional level of encryption
for data that is sent to and from smartphones, you can specify whether the
BlackBerry transport layer encryption or the transcoder encryption is applied
last if the smartphone supports the option to apply the transcoder encryption
after the transport layer encryption.
10
Security Technical Overview
Overview
Overview
2
BlackBerry Enterprise Solution security
The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution consists of various products and components that are designed to extend your
organization’s communication methods to BlackBerry devices. The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution is designed to help
protect data that is in transit at all points between a device and the BlackBerry Enterprise Server. To help protect data that
is in transit over the wireless network, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device use symmetric key cryptography to
encrypt the data sent between them. The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution is designed to prevent third parties, including
wireless service providers, from accessing your organization's potentially sensitive information in a decrypted format.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution uses confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity, which are principles for information
security, to help protect your organization from data loss or alteration.
Principles
Description
confidentiality
The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution uses symmetric key cryptography to help
make sure that only intended recipients can view the contents of email
messages.
integrity
The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution uses symmetric key cryptography to help
protect every email message that the device sends and to help prevent third
parties from decrypting or altering the message data.
Only the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and the device know the value of the keys
that they use to encrypt messages and recognize the format of a decrypted and
decompressed message. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server or the device rejects
a message automatically if it is not encrypted with keys that they recognize as
valid.
authenticity
Before the BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends data to the device, the device
authenticates with the BlackBerry Enterprise Server to prove that the device
knows the device transport key that is used to encrypt data.
11
Security Technical Overview
Overview
Security features of the BlackBerry
Enterprise Solution
Feature
Description
data protection
The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution is designed to protect data that is in transit
between the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and a BlackBerry device and data
that is in transit between your organization’s messaging server and the email
application on a user’s computer. The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution encrypts
data that is stored on the device and in the BlackBerry Configuration Database.
To help protect data that is stored on the device, you can require a user to
authenticate to the device using a password, a smart card, or both.
encryption key protection
The device is designed to protect the encryption keys that are stored on the
device. The device encrypts the encryption keys when the device is locked.
control of device connections
The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution is designed to control the following
connections:
•
connections using Bluetooth technology to and from the device
•
connections from a Wi-Fi enabled device to enterprise Wi-Fi networks
The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution is designed to control which devices can
connect to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server.
control of the behavior of the device
and BlackBerry Desktop Software
12
To control the behavior of the device and BlackBerry Desktop Software, you can
send IT administration commands, IT policies, and application control policies
to the device. You can use IT administration commands, IT policies, and
application control policies to perform the following actions:
•
You can send IT administration commands to lock the device, permanently
delete work data, permanently delete user information and application data,
and return the device settings to the default values.
•
You can send an IT policy to a device to change security settings. You can
use the IT policy to enforce the device password and BlackBerry Smart Card
Reader password.
•
You can send an application control policy to a device to control whether
third-party applications are available and can connect to the device and
whether third-party applications or add-on applications developed by
Research In Motion can access work data.
Security Technical Overview
Overview
Architecture: BlackBerry Enterprise
Solution
The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution consists of various components that permit you to extend your organization’s
communication methods to BlackBerry devices.
13
Security Technical Overview
Overview
Component
Description
BlackBerry Administration Service
The BlackBerry Administration Service is a BlackBerry Enterprise Server
component that connects to the BlackBerry Configuration Database. You can
use the BlackBerry Administration Service to manage BlackBerry Enterprise
Server components, user accounts, and features for a device.
14
Security Technical Overview
Overview
Component
Description
BlackBerry Attachment Service
The BlackBerry Attachment Service is a BlackBerry Enterprise Server
component that converts supported message attachments into a format that the
user can view on a device.
BlackBerry Collaboration Service
The BlackBerry Collaboration Service is a BlackBerry Enterprise Server
component that provides a connection between your organization's instant
messaging server and the collaboration client on a device.
BlackBerry Configuration Database
The BlackBerry Configuration Database is a relational database that contains
configuration information that BlackBerry Enterprise Server components use.
The BlackBerry Configuration Database stores the following information:
•
details about the connection from a BlackBerry Enterprise Server to the
wireless network
•
contact list
•
address mappings between PINs and email addresses for BlackBerry MDS
Connection Service push features
•
read-only copies of device transport keys, which encrypt the message keys
that encrypt data that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and a device send
between each other
BlackBerry Controller
The BlackBerry Controller is a BlackBerry Enterprise Server component that
monitors other BlackBerry Enterprise Server components and restarts them if
they stop responding.
BlackBerry Desktop Software
The BlackBerry Desktop Software is an integrated suite of applications that a
user installs on the user's computer. It manages the association between a
device and the email account, synchronizes organizer data, calendar entries,
and inboxes, and permits the user to download applications and BlackBerry
Device Software updates to a device.
BlackBerry device
A device provides the user with access to BlackBerry services such as
messaging and browsing.
BlackBerry Device Software
The BlackBerry Device Software consists of applications on a device that permit
the user to send and receive email messages, PIN messages, and text
messages; manage calendar entries; and so on.
BlackBerry Dispatcher
The BlackBerry Dispatcher is a BlackBerry Enterprise Server component that
compresses and encrypts all data that a device sends and receives. The
BlackBerry Dispatcher sends the data through the BlackBerry Router, to and
from the wireless network.
BlackBerry Enterprise Server
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server consists of various components that process,
route, compress, encrypt, and send data over the wireless network to a device.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server is designed to open a two-way connection that
is highly secure between the user's email account and the device. The
15
Security Technical Overview
Component
Overview
Description
BlackBerry Enterprise Server uses the connection to send email messages
inside your organization's firewall.
BlackBerry Infrastructure
The BlackBerry Infrastructure is designed to manage the wireless transport of
messages between the wireless network and a device.
BlackBerry Internet Service
The BlackBerry Internet Service provides a subscriber with messaging service
and access to Internet content on a device.
BlackBerry Mail Store Service
The BlackBerry Mail Store Service connects to the messaging servers in your
organization's environment and retrieves the contact information that the
BlackBerry Administration Service requires to search for user accounts on the
messaging servers.
BlackBerry MDS Connection Service
The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service is a BlackBerry Enterprise Server
component that permits the user to access web content, the Internet, or your
organization's intranet from a device. The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service
also permits applications on a device to connect to your organization's
application servers or content servers to retrieve application data and updates.
BlackBerry Messaging Agent
The BlackBerry Messaging Agent is a BlackBerry Enterprise Server component
that connects to your organization's messaging server to provide messaging
services, calendar management, contact lookups, attachment viewing, and
attachment downloading. The BlackBerry Messaging Agent also generates
device transport keys and acts as a gateway for the BlackBerry Synchronization
Service to access organizer data on the messaging server. The BlackBerry
Messaging Agent synchronizes configuration data between the BlackBerry
Configuration Database and user mailboxes.
BlackBerry Mobile Voice System
The BlackBerry MVS integrates your organization's PBX phone system with the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server to extend desk phone features to a device.
BlackBerry Policy Service
The BlackBerry Policy Service is a BlackBerry Enterprise Server component that
sends IT policies and IT administration commands and provisions service books.
The BlackBerry Policy Service sends service books to configure settings for
features and components on a device.
BlackBerry profiles database
The BlackBerry profiles database is an IBM Domino database that the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server for IBM Domino uses to store configuration data
for the user account.
BlackBerry Provisioning System
The BlackBerry Provisioning System is designed to permit wireless service
providers to configure and manage BlackBerry services for their subscribers. A
wireless service provider can assign, activate, deactivate, suspend, and resume
BlackBerry services and check the current status of service requests for a
device on the wireless network.
16
Security Technical Overview
Overview
Component
Description
BlackBerry Router
The BlackBerry Router is a BlackBerry Enterprise Server component that
connects to the wireless network to send data to and from a device. The
BlackBerry Router also sends data over your organization's network to a device
that is connected to a computer that hosts the BlackBerry Device Manager.
BlackBerry Smart Card Reader
The BlackBerry Smart Card Reader controls access to your organization's
sensitive communications using Bluetooth technology and the latest encryption
technologies. The BlackBerry Smart Card Reader permits an organization to use
two-factor authentication.
BlackBerry state databases
The BlackBerry state databases are Domino databases that the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server for IBM Domino uses to store data that associates email
messages that a device sends or receives to corresponding messages in the
user's email application. The data in the BlackBerry state databases supports
features such as email message reconciliation, email message forwarding, email
message filing, and replying with text.
BlackBerry Synchronization Service
The BlackBerry Synchronization Service is a BlackBerry Enterprise Server
component that synchronizes organizer data between a device and your
organization's messaging server over the wireless network.
instant messaging server
The instant messaging server stores instant messaging accounts.
messaging server
The messaging server receives, sends, and stores all email messages.
organization's application server or
content server
Your organization's application server or content server provides push
applications and intranet content that the BlackBerry MDS Services use to
install on a device.
17
Security Technical Overview
Keys on a device
Keys on a device
3
The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution generates keys that are designed to protect the data that is stored on a BlackBerry
device and the data that the device and BlackBerry Enterprise Server send between each other.
18
Security Technical Overview
Keys on a device
Key
Description
content protection key
The content protection key encrypts user data on the device when the device is
locked.
device transport key
The device transport key encrypts the message keys.
ECC private key
The ECC private key decrypts data when the user unlocks the device.
ECC public key
The ECC public key encrypts the stored data that the device receives when the
device is locked.
ephemeral key
The ephemeral key encrypts the ECC public key, ECC private key, and content
protection key on the device.
PIN encryption key
The PIN encryption key scrambles PIN messages.
principal encryption key
If you or a user turns on content protection, the principal encryption key
encrypts the device transport key and PIN encryption key that is specific to your
organization when the device is locked.
message keys
The message keys encrypt data sent to and from the device.
Enforcing the FIPS mode of operation on a
device
FIPS are computer-system standards that were developed by the United States federal government and specify
requirements for security algorithms. The BlackBerry device uses the AES cipher-based DRBG as the FIPS-validated
random source. The device uses the FIPS 186-2 DSA PRNG as the non-FIPS random source. You can configure the
Enforce FIPS Mode of Operation IT policy rule to specify whether a device must operate in FIPS mode.
You can also configure the Force Cryptographic Power Analysis Protection IT policy rule to specify whether a device must
use algorithms that are protected against cryptographic power analysis (if available).
If the Enforce FIPS Mode of Operation IT policy rule or the Force Cryptographic Power Analysis Protection IT policy rule is
enabled, the device displays this information in the Security Status Information section, in the Security options on the
device.
For more information about using IT policy rules, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Policy Reference Guide. For more
information about the DRBG function, see NIST Special Publication 800-90. For more information about the DSA PRNG
function, see Federal Information Processing Standard - FIPS PUB 186-2.
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Security Technical Overview
Keys on a device
Device transport keys
The device transport key encrypts the message keys that help protect the data sent between a BlackBerry Enterprise
Server and BlackBerry device. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device generate the device transport key when a user
activates the BlackBerry device.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device do not send the device transport key over the wireless network when they
generate the device transport key or when they exchange messages.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution is designed so that only the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device know the value of
the device transport key. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device reject a data packet if they do not recognize the
format of a data packet or do not recognize the device transport key that protects the data packet.
States for device transport keys
The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution generates device transport keys on a regular basis so that a potentially malicious user
cannot access all data sent between a BlackBerry Enterprise Server and BlackBerry device if that user compromises a
device transport key. As the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution generates device transport keys, the device transport keys
change state from pending to current to previous.
State
Description
pending
A pending device transport key is the device transport key that the BlackBerry
Enterprise Solution generates to replace the current device transport key. If the
user generates the device transport key using the BlackBerry Desktop Software,
the BlackBerry Desktop Software sends the pending device transport key to the
device when the user connects the device to the computer.
The messaging environment and BlackBerry Configuration Database store the
pending device transport key.
current
A current device transport key is the device transport key that the device
currently uses to encrypt and decrypt message keys.
previous
A previous device transport key is the device transport key that the device used
before the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution generated the current device
transport key.
The device stores previous device transport keys in flash memory for 7 days. The
device stores previous device transport keys so that a user can decrypt
messages even after the user generates a new device transport key while
messages are queued.
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Security Technical Overview
State
Keys on a device
Description
The messaging server and BlackBerry Configuration Database store the
previous device transport key that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device
used most recently.
A potentially malicious user cannot use the previous device transport key to
learn the currrent device transport key. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and
device discard the key pair after they generate the device transport key. If a
potentially malicious user compromises both the static private key and
ephemeral private key for a device transport key, other device transport keys
that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device generate are not
compromised.
Where the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution stores device
transport keys
The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution stores current, pending, and previous device transport keys in the BlackBerry
Configuration Database, in the messaging environment, and on each BlackBerry device.
A device stores the device transport keys in a key store database in flash memory. The key store database is designed to
prevent a potentially malicious user from copying the device transport keys to a computer by trying to back up the device
transport keys. A potentially malicious user cannot extract key data from flash memory.
To avoid compromising the device transport keys that are stored in the BlackBerry Configuration Database or in the
messaging environment, you must protect the BlackBerry Configuration Database and the storage location of the device
transport key in the messaging environment.
Messaging environment
Storage location on the messaging environment
IBM Domino
BlackBerry profiles database
Microsoft Exchange
mailbox of the email application on the user’s computer
Novell GroupWise
—
Where the BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores device transport keys in a
Microsoft Exchange environment
In a Microsoft Exchange environment, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores the device transport keys in a hidden folder
that is named BlackBerryHandheldInfo. The BlackBerryHandheldInfo folder is located in a root folder of the mailbox for the
user account on the Microsoft Exchange Server. The BlackBerryHandheldInfo folder stores the following data:
•
message of class RIM.BlackBerry.Handheld.Config that contains the user's configuration information,
including the device transport key
21
Security Technical Overview
•
Keys on a device
device transport keys in binary form with tags that indicate whether the status of the device transport keys is pending
(0x6002 tag), current (0x6003 tag), or previous (0x6004 tag)
Where the BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores device transport keys in an
IBM Domino environment
In an IBM Domino environment, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores the device transport keys in a Domino database
that is named BlackBerryProfiles.nsf. The BlackBerry profiles database contains configuration information for every user
account that exists in the Data directory. The BlackBerry profiles database stores an account record that contains the
RIMCurrentEncryptionKeyText field, RIMPendingEncryptionKeyText field, and RIMPreviousEncryptionKeyText field. The
fields stores the device transport keys for every user account in a hexadecimal string using alphanumeric characters.
Generating device transport keys
Generating the first device transport key for a device during the activation
process
If a user connects a BlackBerry device to a computer for the first time and activates the device, the BlackBerry Desktop
Software generates the device transport key and sends it to the device and messaging server.
If a user activates the device over the wireless network, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device negotiate to select the
strongest algorithm that they both support (either AES or Triple DES) and use that algorithm to generate a device transport
key. To generate public keys for key rollover on the device and create a strong, cryptographically protected connection
between the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device, the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution uses the SPEKE authentication
method and the activation password for the device.
For more information about the SPEKE authentication method, visit http://standards.ieee.org/ to read Password-Based
Public Key Cryptography (P1363.2).
Security characteristics for generating the first device transport key
Characteristics
Description
authentication and integrity
The wireless activation process verifies that only a user with the correct
activation password can activate a BlackBerry device that you associate with a
BlackBerry Enterprise Server.
prevention of offline dictionary attacks
The wireless activation process is designed so that a potentially malicious user
cannot determine a user's password by viewing the protocol packets that the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device send between each other.
prevention of online dictionary attacks
The wireless activation process is designed so that the BlackBerry Enterprise
Server prevents a potentially malicious user from activating a device if that user
types an incorrect activation password more than five times.
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Security Technical Overview
Keys on a device
Characteristics
Description
long-term public keys exchanged
The wireless activation process verifies that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
and device can exchange the device transport key in a manner that is designed
to be highly secure when they generate a new device transport key.
Generating subsequent device transport keys for a device
By default, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and BlackBerry device generate subsequent device transport keys every 30
days. If a pending device transport key exists and a user connects a device to a computer, the current device transport key
on the device becomes the previous device transport key and the pending device transport key becomes the current
device transport key. If no pending device transport key exists, you, the user, or the BlackBerry Desktop Software can
generate a device transport key.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device generate the device transport key using existing long-term public keys and
the ECMQV key exchange algorithm to negotiate a device transport key. This method is designed so that a potentially
malicious user is unable to calculate the device transport key. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device discard the key
pair after they generate the device transport key.
For more information about the ECMQV key exchange algorithm, see NIST: Special Publication 800-56: Recommendation
on Key Establishment schemes, Draft 2.0 and the Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography.
Security characteristics for generating subsequent device transport keys
Characteristics
Description
authentication
Authentication means that only a BlackBerry device that a user authenticates
with or a BlackBerry Enterprise Server can generate subsequent device
transport keys. Authentication is designed so that a potentially malicious user
cannot use another device to impersonate an activated device and generate a
device transport key.
password independent
Password independent means that the user does not require an activation
password and you do not have to perform any actions when you or a user
generates a subsequent device transport key.
flexible initiation
Flexible initiation means that you or a user can generate a subsequent device
transport key at any time.
PFS
PFS means that subsequent device transport keys are independent of previous
device transport keys. A device transport key does not help the potentially
malicious user decrypt data that another device transport key protects.
Generating a device transport key manually
To generate a device transport key on an activated BlackBerry device, a user can click Regenerate Encryption Key, in the
device options, in the security options. The device sends the request to generate a device transport key to the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server over the wireless network.
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Security Technical Overview
Keys on a device
A user can also generate a device transport key using the BlackBerry Desktop Manager. By default, the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server sends a request to the BlackBerry Desktop Manager every 30 days to prompt the user to generate a new
device transport key on the device, even if the user chooses to generate the device transport key manually using the
BlackBerry Desktop Manager.
You can use the BlackBerry Administration Service to start the process to generate a new device transport key.
Data flow: Generating a device transport key using
BlackBerry Desktop Software version 4.0 or later
In BlackBerry Desktop Software version 4.0 or later, the process to generate a device transport key uses the current time
and cursor movements as the seeds to generate random data.
To generate the device transport key, the BlackBerry Desktop Software performs the following actions:
1. prompts the user to move the cursor
2. uses the srand function of the C programming language to examine the lowest 12 bits of the x and y co-ordinates of the
new cursor location
If the bits are different from the previous sample, the BlackBerry Desktop Software stores the bits, which generates 3
bytes of randomness. If the bits are the same as the bits in the previous sample, the BlackBerry Desktop Software does
not store any bits.
3. uses the srand function to examine the next bits, after the srand function waited for a random interval between 50
milliseconds and 150 milliseconds
The srand function continues to wait for random intervals and examine bits until the BlackBerry Desktop Software
stores 384 bytes of randomness.
4. retrieves 384 bytes of randomness from the Microsoft Cryptographic API, for a total of 768 bytes
5. hashes the 384 bytes of randomness from the cursor co-ordinates and the 384 bytes of randomness from the Microsoft
Cryptographic API with SHA-512 to produce 512 bits of data
6. frees the computer memory that is associated with the unused bits
7. generates the device transport key using the first 256 bits of data if the BlackBerry Desktop Software supports AES
encryption, or the first 128 bits of data if the BlackBerry Desktop Software supports Triple DES encryption
8. deletes any bits of data that it does not use to generate the device transport key
Message keys
A BlackBerry Enterprise Server and BlackBerry device generate one or more message keys that are designed to protect the
integrity of the data (for example, short keys or large messages) that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device send
between each other. If a message exceeds 2 KB and consists of several data packets, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and
device generate a unique message key for each data packet.
24
Security Technical Overview
Keys on a device
Each message key consists of random data that is designed to make it difficult for a third party to decrypt, re-create, or
duplicate the message key.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device do not store the message keys but they free the memory that is associated
with the message keys after the BlackBerry Enterprise Server or device uses the message keys to decrypt the message.
Data flow: Generating a message key on a BlackBerry
Enterprise Server
A BlackBerry Enterprise Server is designed to use the DSA PRNG function to generate a message key.
To generate a message key, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions:
1. retrieves random data from multiple sources for the seed, using a technique that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
derives from the initialization function of the ARC4 encryption algorithm
2. uses the random data to reorder the contents of a 256-byte state array (also known as a 2048-bit state array)
If the Microsoft Cryptographic API exists on the computer that hosts the BlackBerry Enterprise Server, the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server requests 512 bits of randomness from the Microsoft Cryptographic API to increase the randomness of
the data.
3. adds the 256-byte state array into the ARC4 algorithm to further randomize the 256-byte state array
4. draws 521 bytes from the 256-byte state array
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server draws an additional 9 bytes for the 256-byte state array, for a total of 521 bits (512 +
9 = 521) to make sure that the pointers before and after the generation process are not in the same place, and in case
the first few bytes of the 256-byte state array are not random.
5. uses SHA-512 to hash the 521-byte value to 64 bytes
6. uses the 64-byte value to seed the DSA PRNG function
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores a copy of the seed in a file. When the BlackBerry Enterprise Server restarts, it
reads the seed from the file and uses the XOR function to compare the stored seed with the new seed.
7. uses the DSA PRNG function to generate 256 pseudorandom bits for use with AES encryption and 128 pseudorandom
bits for use with Triple DES encryption
8. uses the pseudorandom bits with AES encryption or Triple DES encryption to generate the message key
For more information about the DSA PRNG function, see Federal Information Processing Standard - FIPS PUB 186-2.
Data flow: Generating a message key on a device
A BlackBerry device uses the DRBG function if the device is operating in FIPS mode, and the DSA PRNG function if the
device is not operating in FIPS mode, to generate a message key.
To generate a message key, the device performs the following actions:
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Security Technical Overview
Keys on a device
1. Retrieves random data from multiple sources to generate the seed using a technique that the device derives from the
initialization function of the ARC4 encryption algorithm
2. Uses the random data to reorder the contents of a 256-byte state array (also known as a 2048-bit state array)
3. Adds the 256-byte state array into the ARC4 encryption algorithm to further randomize the 256-byte state array
4. Draws 521 bytes from the ARC4 state array
The device draws an additional 9 bytes for the 256-byte state array, for a total of 521 bytes (512 + 9 = 521) to make
sure that the pointers before and after the call are not in the same place, and in case the first few bytes of the ARC4
state array are not random
5. Uses SHA-512 to hash the 521-byte value to 64 bytes
6. Uses the 64-byte value to seed the DRBG function (if the device is not operating in FIPS mode, the device uses the DSA
PRNG function)
The device stores a copy of the seed in a file. When the device restarts, it reads the seed from the file and uses the XOR
function to compare the stored seed with the new seed.
7. Uses the DRBG function to generate 128 pseudorandom bits for use with Triple DES encryption and 256
pseudorandom bits for use with AES encryption (if the device is not operating in FIPS mode, the device uses the DSA
PRNG function)
8. Uses the pseudorandom bits to create the message key
For more information about the DRBG function, see NIST Special Publication 800-90. For more information about the DSA
PRNG function, see Federal Information Processing Standard - FIPS PUB 186-2.
Content protection keys
When you or a user turns on content protection for a BlackBerry device, the BlackBerry device generates a content
protection key. The content protection key is designed to encrypt user data on the BlackBerry device when it is locked.
When the BlackBerry device is locked, an encryption process begins. The BlackBerry device frees the memory that it
associates with the content protection key and ECC private key that it stores in RAM. The BlackBerry device then uses the
ECC public key to encrypt new data that it receives.
When a user unlocks a BlackBerry device, the BlackBerry device decrypts the content protection key and ECC private key
in flash memory. When the user wants to view data, the BlackBerry device uses the content protection key or ECC private
key to decrypt the data before the BlackBerry device displays it. An unlocked BlackBerry device uses the content
protection key to encrypt new data that the user types or adds to the BlackBerry device, or that the BlackBerry device
receives.
26
Security Technical Overview
Keys on a device
Data flow: Turning on content protection using a
BlackBerry Enterprise Server
You can turn on content protection using a BlackBerry Enterprise Server when you configure the Content Protection
Strength IT policy rule.
1. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions:
a
selects b randomly
b
calculates B = bP
c
stores b in the BlackBerry Configuration Database
d
sends B in the IT policy to the BlackBerry device
2. The device performs the following actions:
a
verifies that B is a valid public key
b
selects d randomly
c
calculates D = dP
d
stores D in flash memory
e
calculates K = dB
f
uses K to encrypt the current device password
g
uses the encrypted device password to encrypt the content protection key
h
permanently deletes d and K
When the device permanently deletes d, the device is designed so that a potentially malicious user cannot use the data
that remains on the device to recover K. Only the BlackBerry Enterprise Server knows b and can recalculate
K = dB = dbP = bD if the BlackBerry Enterprise Server is provided with D. The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution uses K when it
resets the device password when content protection is turned on.
Data flow: Generating a content protection key on a
device
When you or a BlackBerry device user turns on content protection on the device for the first time, the device performs the
following actions:
1. Uses a DRBG function to generate a content protection key (if the device is not operating in FIPS mode, the device uses
a DSA PRNG function)
2. Generates an ECC key pair with a bit length that you or the user determines
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Security Technical Overview
Keys on a device
3. Prompts the user to type the device password
4. Derives an ephemeral 256-bit AES encryption key from the device password, using PKCS #5
5. Uses the ephemeral key to encrypt the content protection key and ECC private key
6. Stores the encrypted content protection key, encrypted ECC private key, and ECC public key in flash memory
The content protection key is a semi-permanent 256-bit AES encryption key. If the user changes the device password, the
device uses the new password to derive a new ephemeral key. The device uses the new ephemeral key to re-encrypt the
versions of the content protection key and ECC private key that are in flash memory.
For more information about the DRBG function, see NIST Special Publication 800-90. For more information about the DSA
PRNG function, see Federal Information Processing Standard - FIPS PUB 186-2. For more information about PKCS #5, visit
www.rsa.com to see PKCS #5: Password-Based Cryptography Standard.
Data flow: Deriving an ephemeral key that protects a
content protection key and ECC private key
A BlackBerry device uses an ephemeral key to encrypt a content protection key and ECC private key. The device derives
the ephemeral key, which is an AES-256 encryption key, from the device password using PKCS #5.
To derive an ephemeral key, the device performs the following actions:
1. selects a 64-bit salt (which is random data that the BlackBerry device mixes with the device password)
The salt prevents two identical passwords from turning into the same key.
2. concatenates the salt, password, and salt again into a byte array (for example, Salt|Password|Salt)
3. hashes the byte array with SHA-256
4. stores the resulting hash in a byte array that is called a key
(key) =
SHA256(Salt|Password|Salt)
5. hashes the key 18 more times and stores the result in the key each time
For example, for i=0 to 18, the device performs the following actions:
(key) = SHA256(key)
i++
done
The final hash creates the ephemeral key.
For more information, visit www.rsa.com to see PKCS #5: Password-Based Cryptography Standard.
28
Security Technical Overview
Keys on a device
Principal encryption keys
When you or a user turns on content protection for device transport keys, a BlackBerry device generates a principal
encryption key and stores it in flash memory. The device uses the principal encryption key to encrypt the device transport
keys that are stored on the device in flash memory and the PIN encryption key that is specific to your organization. The
device encrypts the principal encryption key using the content protection key. When the device receives data that the
device transport key encrypts while the device is locked, the device uses the principal encryption key to decrypt the device
transport key that is in flash memory.
Data flow: Generating a principal encryption key
When you or a user turns on content protection for device transport keys on a BlackBerry device for the first time, the
device performs the following actions:
1. generates a principal encryption key, which is an AES-256 encryption key
2. stores the decrypted principal encryption key in RAM
3. uses the existing content protection key to encrypt the principal encryption key
4. stores the encrypted principal encryption key in flash memory
When the device locks, the device uses the decrypted principal encryption key to encrypt the device transport keys that are
stored in the flash memory of the device.
PIN encryption keys
The PIN encryption key is a Triple DES 168-bit key that a BlackBerry device uses to encrypt PIN messages that it sends to
other devices and to authenticate and decrypt PIN messages that it receives from other devices. If a BlackBerry device
user knows the PIN of another device, the user can send a PIN message to the device. Unlike an email message that a user
sends to an email address, a PIN message bypasses the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and your organization's network.
By default, each device uses the same global PIN encryption key, which Research In Motion adds to the device during the
manufacturing process. The global PIN encryption key permits every device to authenticate and decrypt every PIN
message that the device receives. Because all devices share the same global PIN encryption key, there is a limit to how
effectively PIN messages are encrypted. PIN messages are not considered as confidential as email messages that are sent
from the BlackBerry Enterprise Server, which use BlackBerry transport layer encryption. Encryption using the global PIN
encryption key is sometimes referred to as "scrambling".
If the security policies of your organization require additional confidentiality for PIN messages, you can generate a PIN
encryption key that is specific to your organization or configure S/MIME encryption or PGP encryption for PIN messages.
29
Security Technical Overview
Keys on a device
A device that has a PIN encryption key that is specific to your organization can perform the following actions:
•
can only encrypt PIN messages sent to other devices on your organization's network that use the same PIN encryption
key
•
can only decrypt PIN messages that are sent from devices that use the global PIN encryption key or PIN messages from
other devices on your organization's network that use the same PIN encryption key
•
cannot decrypt PIN messages sent from devices that use a PIN encryption key from another organization
You can generate a PIN encryption key for your organization and send it to devices using the BlackBerry Administration
Service.
When you use a PIN encryption key that is specific to your organization, BlackBerry Messenger messages also use the PIN
encryption key. If you use a PIN encryption key that is specific to your organization, you limit users so that they can only use
BlackBerry Messenger with other users in your organization and you create a closed community within your organization.
Optionally, you can configure the Firewall Block Incoming Messages IT policy rule to block PIN messages that are sent from
devices that have the global PIN encryption key. For more information, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Policy
Reference Guide.
30
Security Technical Overview
Encrypting data that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and a device send to each other
Encrypting data that the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server
and a device send to each
other
4
To encrypt data that is in transit between the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and a BlackBerry device in your organization,
the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution uses BlackBerry transport layer encryption. BlackBerry transport layer encryption is
designed to encrypt data from the time that a device user sends a message from the device to when the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server receives the message, and from the time that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends a message to when
the device receives the message.
Before the device sends a message, it compresses and encrypts the message using the device transport key. When the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server receives a message from the device, the BlackBerry Dispatcher decrypts the message using
the device transport key, and then decompresses the message.
Algorithms that the BlackBerry Enterprise
Solution uses to encrypt data
The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution uses AES or Triple DES as the symmetric key cryptographic algorithm for encrypting
data. By default, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server uses the strongest algorithm that both the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
and the BlackBerry device support for BlackBerry transport layer encryption.
If you configure the BlackBerry Enterprise Server to support AES and Triple DES, by default, the BlackBerry Enterprise
Solution generates device transport keys using AES encryption. If a device uses BlackBerry Device Software version 3.7 or
earlier or BlackBerry Desktop Software version 3.7 or earlier, the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution generates the device
transport keys of the device using Triple DES.
31
Security Technical Overview
Encrypting data that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and a device send to each other
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution uses AES to
encrypt data
By default, when a BlackBerry device supports AES, the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution uses AES for BlackBerry transport
layer encryption. The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution uses AES in CBC mode to generate the message keys and device
transport keys. The keys consist of 256 bits of data.
BlackBerry Enterprise Server version 4.0 or later, BlackBerry Device Software version 4.0 or later, and BlackBerry Desktop
Software version 4.0 or later support AES.
For more information about how the BlackBerry Enterprise Server uses AES for BlackBerry transport layer encryption to
communicate with devices, visit www.blackberry.com/support to read article KB05429.
How a device uses the AES algorithm to help protect user data and keys
The BlackBerry device implementation of the AES algorithm is designed to help protect user data and keys (such as the
device transport key and ephemeral key) from traditional attacks and side-channel attacks.
A traditional attack tries to exploit data that a cryptographic system stores or transmits. The potentially malicious user tries
to determine the key or the plain-text data by exploiting a weakness in the design of the cryptographic algorithm or
protocol.
The potentially malicious user uses a side-channel attack to try to exploit the physical properties of the device
implementation of the AES algorithm using power analysis (for example, SPA and DPA) and electromagnetic analysis (for
example, SEMA and DEMA). A potentially malicious user tries to determine the keys that the device uses by measuring and
analyzing the power consumption or the electromagnetic radiation that the device emits during cryptographic operations.
The device uses a masking operation, table splitting, and a random mask application to help protect the keys and plain-text
data against side-channel attacks at all points during the encryption and decryption operations.
Data flow: Running a masking operation during the first AES calculation when
content protection is turned on
During the first AES calculation, the BlackBerry device performs the following actions if you or a user turned on content
protection:
1. runs a masking operation by performing the following actions:
a
creates a mask table (M), where each table entry is a random value
b
creates a masked version of the S-Box table (S') that is used within AES
c
periodically and randomly changes the order of all table entries
2. runs the result of step 1 as the input through both M and S'
3. combines the output of step 2 from M and S'
4. deletes the mask and produces the AES output
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Security Technical Overview
Encrypting data that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and a device send to each other
Data flow: Running a masking operation during subsequent AES calculations when
content protection is turned on
A BlackBerry device performs the following actions:
1. performs the masking operation by periodically and randomly permuting all table entries in every calculation
2. runs the input through both M and S'
3. combines the output from M and S'
4. deletes the mask and produces the AES output
Data flow: Running a masking operation when a device does not use content
protection
If you or a user did not turn on content protection, a BlackBerry device performs the following actions during an AES
calculation:
1. masks the output from the round key
2. masks the AES S-Box input
3. masks the AES S-Box output
How the AES algorithm creates S-Box tables and uses round keys and
masks
A BlackBerry device permutes each AES S-Box entry at random and masks each entry with a random value.
The BlackBerry device masks the round keys with random values and any S-Box masks that the AES algorithm requires to
work. Round keys are subkeys that the key schedule calculates for each round of encryption.
The BlackBerry device changes the random masks periodically and uses extra S-Box data to make identification of the SBox table difficult, whether the BlackBerry device uses the S-Box table in the encryption process, decryption process, or
key schedule process.
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution uses Triple
DES to encrypt data
The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution uses a two-key Triple DES encryption algorithm to generate message keys and device
transport keys. In the three iterations of the DES algorithm, the first 56-bit key in outer CBC mode encrypts the data, the
second 56-bit key decrypts the data, and the first key encrypts the data again.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution stores the message keys and device transport keys as 128-bit binary strings with each
parity bit in the least significant bit of each of the 8 bytes of key data. The message keys and device transport keys have
overall key lengths of 112 bits and include 16 bits of parity data.
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Security Technical Overview
Encrypting data that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and a device send to each other
All versions of the BlackBerry Enterprise Server, BlackBerry Device Software, and BlackBerry Desktop Software support
Triple DES.
For more information about Triple DES, see Federal Information Processing Standard - FIPS PUB 81 [3].
Data flow: Sending an email message to a
device using BlackBerry transport layer
encryption
1. A sender sends an email message to a BlackBerry device user.
2. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions:
a
compresses the email message
b
encrypts the email message using the message key
c
encrypts the message key using the device transport key of the device
d
sends the encrypted email message and encrypted message key to the device
3. The BlackBerry device user clicks on the email message on the device to open it.
4. The device performs the following actions:
34
a
decrypts the message key using the device transport key
b
decrypts the email message using the message key
c
decompresses the email message
d
displays the email message to the user
Security Technical Overview
Encrypting data that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and a device send to each other
Data flow: Sending an email message from a
device using BlackBerry transport layer
encryption
1. A sender sends an email message from a BlackBerry device to a recipient.
2. The device performs the following actions:
a
compresses the email message
b
encrypts the compressed email message using the message key
c
encrypts the message key using the device transport key of the device
d
sends the encrypted message key and encrypted email message to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
3. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions:
a
decrypts the message key using the device transport key
b
decrypts the email message using the message key
c
decompresses the email message
d
forwards the email message to the recipient
35
Security Technical Overview
Managing BlackBerry Enterprise Solution security
Managing BlackBerry
Enterprise Solution security
5
Using an IT policy to manage BlackBerry
Enterprise Solution security
You can use an IT policy to control and manage BlackBerry devices, the BlackBerry Desktop Software, and the BlackBerry
Web Desktop Manager in your organization's environment. An IT policy consists of multiple IT policy rules that manage the
security and behavior of the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution. For example, you can use IT policy rules to manage the
following security features and behaviors of the device:
•
encryption (for example, encryption of user data and messages that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server forwards to
message recipients) and encryption strength
•
use of a password or pass phrase
•
connections that use Bluetooth wireless technology
•
protection of user data and device transport keys on the device
•
control of device resources, such as the camera or GPS, that are available to third-party applications
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server includes preconfigured IT policies that you can use to manage the security of the
BlackBerry Enterprise Solution. The Default IT policy includes IT policy rules that are configured to indicate the default
behavior of the device or BlackBerry Desktop Software.
After a device user activates a device, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server automatically sends to the device the IT policy that
you assigned to the user account or group. By default, if you do not assign an IT policy to the user account or group, the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends the Default IT policy. If you delete an IT policy that you assigned to the user account or
group, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server automatically re-assigns the Default IT policy to the user account and resends the
Default IT policy to the device.
For more information, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Policy Reference Guide.
Preconfigured IT policies
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server includes the following preconfigured IT policies that you can change to create IT policies
that meet the requirements of your organization.
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Security Technical Overview
Managing BlackBerry Enterprise Solution security
Preconfigured IT policy
Description
Default
This policy includes all the standard IT policy rules that are set on the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server.
Individual-Liable Devices
Similar to the Default IT policy, this policy prevents BlackBerry device users from
accessing organizer data from within the social networking applications on their
BlackBerry devices.
This policy permits users to access their personal calendar services and email
messaging services (for example, their BlackBerry Internet Service accounts),
update the BlackBerry Device Software using methods that exist outside your
organization, make calls when devices are locked, and cut, copy, and paste text.
Users cannot forward email messages from one email messaging service to
another.
You can use the Individual-Liable Devices IT policy if your organization includes
users who purchase their own devices and connect the devices to a BlackBerry
Enterprise Server instance in your organization's environment.
Basic Password Security
Similar to the Default IT policy, this policy also requires a basic password that
users can use to unlock their devices. Users must change the passwords
regularly. The IT policy includes a password timeout that locks devices.
Medium Password Security
Similar to the Default IT policy, this policy also requires a complex password that
users can use to unlock their devices. Users must change the passwords
regularly. This policy includes a maximum password history and turns off
Bluetooth technology on devices.
Medium Security with No 3rd Party
Applications
Similar to the Medium Password Security, this policy requires a complex
password that a user must change frequently, a security timeout, and a
maximum password history. This policy prevents users from making their
devices discoverable by other Bluetooth enabled devices and prevents devices
from downloading third-party applications.
Advanced Security
Similar to the Default IT policy, this IT policy also requires a complex password
that users must change frequently, a password timeout that locks devices, and a
maximum password history. This policy restricts Bluetooth technology on
devices, turns on strong content protection, turns off USB mass storage, and
requires devices to encrypt external file systems.
Advanced Security with No 3rd Party
Applications
Similar to the Advanced Security IT policy, this IT policy requires a complex
password that users must change frequently, a password timeout that locks
devices, and a maximum password history. This policy restricts Bluetooth
technology on devices, turns on strong content protection, turns off USB mass
storage, requires devices to encrypt external file systems, and prevents devices
from downloading third-party applications.
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Security Technical Overview
Managing BlackBerry Enterprise Solution security
Using IT policy rules to manage BlackBerry Enterprise
Solution security
You can use IT policy rules to customize and control the actions that the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution can perform.
To use an IT policy rule on a BlackBerry device, you must verify that the BlackBerry Device Software version supports the IT
policy rule. For example, you cannot use the Disable Camera IT policy rule to control whether a BlackBerry device user can
access the camera on the device if the BlackBerry Device Software version does not support the IT policy rule. For
information about the BlackBerry Device Software version that is required for a specific IT policy rule, see the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server Policy Reference Guide.
If you create a custom IT policy that does not permit users to change their user information on their devices, you can only
apply this custom IT policy to devices running BlackBerry Device Software 5.0 or later.
The BlackBerry Administration Service groups the IT policy rules by common properties or by application. Most IT policy
rules are designed so that you can assign them to multiple user accounts and groups.
Sending an IT policy over the wireless network
If your organization's environment includes C++ based BlackBerry devices that are running BlackBerry Device Software
version 2.5 or later or Java based devices that are running BlackBerry Device Software version 3.6 or later, the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server can send changes to IT policies to a device over the wireless network automatically. When the device
receives an updated IT policy or a new IT policy, the device, BlackBerry Desktop Software, and BlackBerry Web Desktop
Manager apply the configuration changes immediately.
By default, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server is designed to resend an IT policy to the device within a short period of time
after you update the IT policy using the BlackBerry Administration Service. You can also resend an IT policy to a specific
device manually. You can configure the BlackBerry Enterprise Server to resend the IT policy to the device at scheduled
intervals regardless of whether you changed the IT policy.
Assigning IT policies and resolving IT policy conflicts
You can assign IT policies directly to a user account or to a group. By default, if you do not assign an IT policy to a user
account or a group that the user is a member of, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server applies the Default IT policy to the user
account. If you assign an IT policy to a group that a user account is a member of, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server applies
the group IT policy to the user account. If you assign an IT policy to the user account directly, the BlackBerry Enterprise
Server applies this IT policy to the user account instead of the group IT policy or Default IT policy.
If a user account is a member of multiple groups that have different IT policies, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server must
determine which IT policy to apply to the user account. You must use one of the following reconciliation options:
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Security Technical Overview
Method
Managing BlackBerry Enterprise Solution security
Description
Apply one IT policy to the user account The BlackBerry Enterprise Server applies one of the group IT policies to the user
account. You specify rankings for the available IT policies using the BlackBerry
Administration Service and the BlackBerry Enterprise Server applies the IT
policy with the highest ranking.
If you upgrade to BlackBerry Enterprise Server 5.0 SP2 or later from a previous
version of the BlackBerry Enterprise Server, this is the default method for
resolving IT policy conflicts.
Apply multiple IT policies to the user
account
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server applies all of the group IT policies to the user
account, resulting in a combined IT policy that has a unique ID. The BlackBerry
Enterprise Server resolves conflicting IT policy rules using the ranking of the
available IT policies that you specified using the BlackBerry Administration
Service. If an IT policy rule is different in the multiple IT policies, the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server applies the rule setting from the IT policy that you ranked the
highest.
If you install BlackBerry Enterprise Server 5.0 SP2 or later, this is the default
method for resolving IT policy conflicts.
Reconciliation rules for conflicting IT policies when you apply one IT
policy to the user account
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server can apply only one IT policy to a user account. Since you can assign IT policies to user
accounts, groups, or the BlackBerry Domain, the BlackBerry Administration Service uses predefined rules to determine
which IT policy it can apply to a user account.
The BlackBerry Administration Service might have to reconcile conflicting IT policies if you perform any of the following
actions:
•
add an IT policy to or remove an IT policy from a user account or group
•
change an IT policy
•
change the ranking of IT policies
•
delete an IT policy
Scenario
Rule
You add a new user account to a BlackBerry Enterprise
Server. You do not assign an IT policy directly to the user
account and you do not add the user to a group.
The IT policy that you assigned to the BlackBerry Domain,
or the Default IT policy that is assigned to the BlackBerry
Domain, is assigned to the user account.
You assign an IT policy to a user account and a different IT
policy to a group that the user account belongs to.
The IT policy that you assign to a user account takes
precedence over an IT policy that you assign to a group. An
IT policy that you assign to a group takes precedence over
the IT policy that you assign to the BlackBerry Domain (or
the Default IT policy).
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Security Technical Overview
Managing BlackBerry Enterprise Solution security
Scenario
Rule
A user account belongs to multiple groups. You assign
multiple IT policies to the groups but do not assign an IT
policy to the user account.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server applies the IT policy that
you ranked the highest in the BlackBerry Administration
Service to the user account.
Reconciliation rules for conflicting IT policies when you apply multiple IT
policies to a user account
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server can apply multiple IT policies to a user account if the user account is a member of
multiple groups that have different IT policies. Since you can assign IT policies to user accounts, groups, or the BlackBerry
Domain, the BlackBerry Administration Service uses predefined rules to apply an IT policy to a user account.
The BlackBerry Administration Service might have to reconcile conflicting IT policies if you perform any of the following
actions:
•
add an IT policy to or remove an IT policy from a user account or group
•
change an IT policy
•
change the ranking of IT policies
•
delete an IT policy
Scenario
Rule
You add a new user account to a
BlackBerry Enterprise Server. You do
not assign an IT policy directly to the
user account and you do not add the
user account to a group.
The Default IT policy (applied at the BlackBerry Domain level) is assigned to the
user account.
You assign an IT policy to a user
account and different IT policies to the
groups that the user account belongs
to.
The IT policy that you assign to a user account takes precedence over the IT
policies that you assign to the groups that the user belongs to. An IT policy that
you assign to a group takes precedence over the Default IT policy (applied at the
BlackBerry Domain level).
A user account belongs to multiple
groups. You assign multiple IT policies
to the groups but you do not assign an
IT policy to the user account.
If you assign multiple IT policies to the groups that the user account belongs to,
the BlackBerry Enterprise Server resolves the IT policy rule settings in the
multiple IT policies and assigns a combined IT policy that has a unique ID to the
user account. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server resolves conflicting settings for
IT policy rules by applying the rule setting from the IT policy that you ranked the
highest in the BlackBerry Administration Service.
For example, you configure the Disable Photo Camera IT policy rule to Yes in IT
policy A and to No in IT policy B. If you rank IT policy A higher than IT policy B,
the Yes setting is applied for this rule.
A user account belongs to two groups.
You assign the first group IT policy A,
which has the Allow Browser IT policy
40
When the BlackBerry Enterprise Server resolves conflicting rule settings, any
rule settings that have been explicitly configured to a value take precedence
over IT policy rule settings that are blank (these rules revert to the default value).
Security Technical Overview
Managing BlackBerry Enterprise Solution security
Scenario
Rule
rule as blank (which means that it uses
the default value of Yes). You assign
the second group IT policy B, which
has the Allow Browser IT policy rule set
to No. You ranked IT policy A higher
than IT policy B in the BlackBerry
Administration Service.
For example, in this scenario, the Allow Browser IT policy rule setting from IT
policy B, No, is applied to the user account even though IT policy A is ranked
higher than IT policy B, because the Allow Browser IT policy rule is blank in IT
policy A. If the Allow Browser IT policy rule was configured to Yes in IT policy A,
the Yes value would be applied to the user account.
Best practice: Controlling which
applications can use the GPS feature on a
device
By default, if a third-party application or a preloaded BlackBerry Application on a BlackBerry device supports the GPS
feature, the application can use the GPS feature. For example, BlackBerry Maps is a preloaded BlackBerry Application that
uses the GPS feature to permit a user to locate a global position.
Best practice
Description
Control which application on the
device can use the GPS feature.
Consider preventing a third-party application or preloaded BlackBerry
Application from accessing the global position of the device.
To apply this best practice, you can use one of the following methods:
Control when the device reports its
location to the BlackBerry Enterprise
Server.
•
To prevent the device from permitting all third-party applications and
preloaded BlackBerry Applications from accessing the GPS feature, change
the value of the Disable GPS IT policy rule to Yes.
•
To prevent a third-party application from using the GPS feature, change the
value of the Is Access to the GPS API Allowed application control policy rule
to Not Permitted. Assign the application control policy to the software
configuration.
By default, the device does not use the GPS feature to report its location to the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server. If you change the value for the Enable Enterprise
Location Tracking IT policy rule to Yes, consider configuring the interval after
which a device reports its location to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server.
To apply this best practice, you can use the Enterprise Location Tracking
Interval IT policy rule. You can also use the Enterprise Location Tracking User
Prompt Message IT policy rule to create a message that the device displays to
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Security Technical Overview
Best practice
Managing BlackBerry Enterprise Solution security
Description
notify the user that you turned on the ability of the device to report its location to
the BlackBerry Enterprise Server.
Using IT administration commands to
protect a lost or stolen device
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server includes IT administration commands that you can send over the wireless network to
protect sensitive data on a BlackBerry device. You can use the commands to lock the device, permanently delete work
data, permanently delete user information and application data, and return the device settings to the default values.
IT administration command
Description
Specify new device password and lock
device
This command creates a new password and locks a device over the wireless
network. You can communicate the new password to the user verbally when the
BlackBerry device user locates the device. When the user unlocks the device,
the device prompts the user to accept or reject the new password.
You can use this command if the device is lost. If you or a user turned on content
protection and a device is running BlackBerry Device Software 4.3.0 or later,
you can use this command. If you or a user turned on two-factor content
protection, you cannot use this command.
Delete only the organization data and
remove device
This command permanently deletes all work data that the device stores and
removes the device from the BlackBerry Enterprise Server. All personal data
remains on the device.
You can send this command to a personal device when a user no longer works at
your organization and you want to delete work data from the device.
You can also specify whether you want to delete or disable a user account from
the BlackBerry Enterprise Server after the device deletes all work data.
Delete all device data and remove
device
42
This command permanently deletes all user information and application data
that the device stores. You can configure the following options when you use this
command:
•
specify a delay, in hours, that must occur before the device starts to delete
all the user information and application data
•
require the device to return to its factory default settings when it receives
this command
•
specify whether to permit the user to stop permanently deleting data from
the device and making the device unavailable during the delay period
Security Technical Overview
IT administration command
Managing BlackBerry Enterprise Solution security
Description
You can send this command to a device that you want to distribute to another
user in your organization, or to a device that is lost and that the user might not
recover.
You can also specify whether you want to delete or disable a user account from
the BlackBerry Enterprise Server after the device deletes all user information
and application data.
Data flow: Sending the Specify new device password
and lock device IT administration command when
content protection is turned on
1. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends the Specify new device password and lock device IT administration command
and the new BlackBerry device password to the device.
2. The device performs the following actions:
a
selects r randomly
b
stores r in RAM
c
calculates D' = rD = rdP
d
calculates h = SHA-1( B )
e
sends D' and h to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
3. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions:
a
uses h to determine which B the device used and which b to use
b
verifies that D' is a valid public key
c
calculates K' = bD' = brdP = rdB = rK (the BlackBerry Enterprise Server knows only rK and cannot calculate K
without r)
d
calculates h = SHA-1( D' )
e
sends the new device password, K', and h to the device
4. The device performs the following actions:
a
uses h to verify that K' is associated with D' and r
b
verifies that K' is a valid public key
c
calculates r-1K' = r-1rK = K
d
permanently deletes r
e
uses K to decrypt the content protection key
43
Security Technical Overview
f
Managing BlackBerry Enterprise Solution security
permanently deletes K
5. The device performs the following actions:
a
selects d randomly
b
calculates D = dP
c
stores D in flash memory
d
calculates K = dB
e
uses K to encrypt the new BlackBerry device password
f
uses the encrypted new password to encrypt the content protection key
Managing device access to the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server
You can use the Enterprise Service Policy to control which BlackBerry devices can connect to a BlackBerry Enterprise
Server. By default, after you turn on the Enterprise Service Policy, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server permits connections
from any device that you previously associated with the BlackBerry Enterprise Server. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server
also prevents connections from any device that you associate with the BlackBerry Enterprise Server after you turn on the
Enterprise Service Policy.
You can configure an allowed list to determine which devices can access a BlackBerry Enterprise Server. A device that
meets the criteria that you specify in the allowed list can associate with the BlackBerry Enterprise Server when the device
activates over the wireless network.
You can define the following types of criteria:
•
specific device PINs
•
range of device PINs
•
specific manufacturers
•
specific device models
The BlackBerry Administration Service includes lists of permitted manufacturers and models of devices that you
associated with the BlackBerry Enterprise Server previously.
You can permit a user to override the Enterprise Service Policy so that a device can connect to the BlackBerry Enterprise
Server even if you configure the allowed list with criteria that exclude that device.
For more information, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Administration Guide.
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Security Technical Overview
Managing BlackBerry Enterprise Solution security
Using a segmented network to help prevent
the spread of malware
To help prevent the spread of malware in your organization’s network, you can use firewalls to divide your organization’s
network or LAN into segments to create a segmented network. Each segment can manage the network traffic for a specific
BlackBerry Enterprise Server component. A segmented network is designed to improve the security and performance of
the segments by filtering out data that is not sent to the correct segment.
To configure the BlackBerry Enterprise Server in a segmented network, you must install each BlackBerry Enterprise Server
component on a computer that is separate from the computers that host other components and then place each computer
in its own network segment. If you configure the BlackBerry Enterprise Server in a segmented network, you create an
architecture that is designed to prevent the spread of potential attacks from one computer that hosts a component to
another computer within your organization’s LAN. A segmented network architecture is designed to isolate attacks and
contain them on one computer. To permit communication with other components, when you install each component in its
own segment, you open only the port numbers that the components use.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and components, with the exception of the BlackBerry Router, do not support installation
in a DMZ. For more information about configuring the BlackBerry Router in the DMZ, visit www.blackberry.com/go/
serverdocs to see Placing the BlackBerry Router in the DMZ.
For more information about the port numbers that the components use, visit www.blackberry.com/go/serverdocs to see the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server Administration Guide.
Moving a device to a BlackBerry Enterprise
Server that uses a different BlackBerry
Configuration Database
If you move a BlackBerry device to a BlackBerry Enterprise Server that uses a different BlackBerry Configuration Database
without using the BlackBerry Enterprise Transporter, you or a user must permanently delete all user data and application
data, the device transport key, and the IT policy public key from the device.
You or the user must reactivate the device to generate a new device transport key. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server that
you move the device to must generate an IT policy key pair and digitally sign and send the IT policy and the IT policy public
key to the device before the device can communicate with the BlackBerry Enterprise Server.
The BlackBerry Configuration Database that you migrated the device to stores the BlackBerry Enterprise Server name, the
device transport key, and the IT policy private key.
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Security Technical Overview
Managing BlackBerry Enterprise Solution security
Configuring the IT Policy Viewer icon on a
device
The IT policy viewer permits a BlackBerry device user to view IT policy rules that were configured for a BlackBerry device
that is running BlackBerry Device Software 6.0 or later. Only devices that you activate on a BlackBerry Enterprise Server
include the IT policy viewer.
The IT policy viewer can display IT policy rules from the following policy groups:
•
Camera policy group
•
Password policy group
•
Security policy group (except for the Forbidden Passwords IT policy rule and Duress Notification Address IT policy rule)
The IT policy viewer can also display the following IT policy rules:
•
Disable Voice Note Recording IT policy rule
•
Password Required IT policy rule
•
Minimum Password Length IT policy rule
•
Maximum Password Age IT policy rule
•
Password Pattern Checks IT policy rule
•
Disable Bluetooth IT policy rule
To open the IT policy viewer, in the Security options on the device, a user can click View IT Policy. A user can also change
the device options so that the IT Policy Viewer icon appears in a folder that the user chooses on the device. To require that
the IT Policy Viewer Icon appears in a folder on the device, you can use the Force Display IT Policy Viewer Icon on
Homescreen IT policy rule.
46
Security Technical Overview
Device storage space
Device storage space
6
The BlackBerry device storage space consists of various sections that store BlackBerry device user data and sensitive
information such as encryption keys. Third-party applications on a device cannot write to or access the sections that store
sensitive information.
The following sections are a part of the device storage space.
Section
Description
application storage
The application storage is an internal file system on a device that stores
application data and user data. Application storage is the only place on a device
from which applications can be run. Sections of application storage can store
files that a user downloads or saves to device memory. You cannot remove the
application storage from the device.
The application storage is encrypted when content protection is turned on.
built-in media storage
The built-in media storage stores files that a user saves on a device. The device
uses and exposes the built-in media storage the same way that the device uses
and exposes a media card.
When you permanently delete or a user permanently deletes all device data, the
device deletes all files from the built-in media storage, except for the file system
partition called System, which includes sample pictures and sample ring tones.
The built-in media storage is encrypted when content protection is turned on.
NV store
The NV store persists in application storage, and only the operating system of
the device can write to it. Third-party application code cannot write to the NV
store.
media card
The media card is a microSD card that a device user inserts in the device to
extend the amount of storage on the device. A user can save, access, and
encrypt files on the media card using the device.
When you permanently delete or a user permanently deletes device data, the
device deletes the files from the media card only if the device is running
BlackBerry Device Software 5.0 or later and if you configure the Media Card
Format on Device Wipe IT policy rule.
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Security Technical Overview
Device storage space
Changing when a device cleans the device
memory
By default, the memory cleaner application runs on a BlackBerry device when the device is inactive for a specified period
of time. You or a BlackBerry device user can change when the memory cleaner application runs when any the following
conditions exist:
•
The user synchronizes the device with a computer.
•
The user locks the device.
•
The device locks after it is inactive for a specified period of time.
•
The user changes the time or time zone on the device.
To change when the memory cleaner application runs, you can use IT policies or the user can turn on or turn off the
memory cleaner application in the Security options on the device.
You or the user cannot turn off the memory cleaner application on the device if any of the following conditions exist:
•
You or the user turns on content protection on the device.
•
An application uses the RIM Cryptographic API to create a private key or symmetric key.
•
An application that registers with the memory cleaner application requires that memory cleaning application be turned
on.
•
The device user installs the S/MIME Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones on the device and a private key
exists on the device.
•
The user installs the PGP Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones on the device and a private key exists on the
device.
If you or the user turns on the memory cleaner application, based garbage collection process uses the memory cleaner
application automatically. The garbage collection process overwrites data that the device no longer uses.
For more information about the IT policy rules that you can use to change when the memory cleaner application runs, see
the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Policy Reference Guide.
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Security Technical Overview
Device storage space
When a device overwrites data in the device
memory
A BlackBerry device continually runs the memory cleaner application during the based garbage collection process to
overwrite data in the device memory that the device no longer uses.
The device runs the garbage collection process when any of the following conditions exist:
•
You or a device user turns on content protection for the device.
•
An application uses the RIM Cryptographic API to create a private key or symmetric key.
•
A third-party application turns on the garbage collection process by registering with the memory cleaner application on
the device. The memory cleaner application instructs applications to empty caches and to free the device memory that
is associated with sensitive application data that the applications no longer use.
•
A BlackBerry device user installs the S/MIME Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones on the device.
•
A device user installs the PGP Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones on the device.
When the device runs the garbage collection process, the garbage collection process overwrites the data that the device no
longer uses with zeroes, periodically runs the memory cleaner application, and overwrites the memory that the memory
cleaner application frees.
Deleting all device data from the device
storage space
A BlackBerry device is designed to permanently delete the following data from the NV store, application storage, and builtin media storage:
•
all BlackBerry device user data
•
any references to your organization’s PIN encryption key
•
any references to the device transport key
•
if applicable, authentication information (for example, the binding information of the smart card)
•
IT policy public key
•
if you reset the device to the factory default settings, any references to past hashes of the device password
•
record of time that elapsed since the user last turned on the device
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Security Technical Overview
Device storage space
•
if you reset the device to the factory default settings, the IT policy that is stored on the device
•
if a user selects the Include third party applications option or the User Installation Application option on the device, all
third-party applications and application data
If you or a user turned on content protection, the device uses a memory-scrub process to overwrite the application storage
on the device and built-in media storage. The memory-scrub process complies with United States government
requirements for deleting sensitive user data, including US Department of Defense Directive 5220.22-M and NIST Special
Publication 800-88.
For BlackBerry Device Software 5.0 and later, if you configure the Media Card Format on Device Wipe IT policy rule, the
device can delete all user data from a media card. By default, the user can choose to delete third-party applications and
the user data on the media card when the user permanently deletes all device data.
When a device deletes all device data
The BlackBerry device is designed to delete all device data from the device storage space when any of the following events
occurs:
•
The user clicks Wipe Device, Wipe Handheld, or Security Wipe in the security options on the device.
•
The user types the device password incorrectly more times than the Set Maximum Password Attempts IT policy rule or
the password option on the device permits. The default value is ten attempts.
•
The user runs the application loader tool and types the device password incorrectly more times than the Set Maximum
Password Attempts IT policy rule permits.
•
The user uses the application loader tool to delete all user data and application data on the device. The user can
choose not to delete the device applications.
•
You send the Delete all device data and remove device IT administration command to the device with or without a delay
(in hours), to the device. The maximum delay is 168 hours (7 days).
•
You click the Remove user data from current device option in the BlackBerry Administration Service after you connect
the device to the BlackBerry Administration Service. This option deletes all data and applications from the device even
if service books do not exist on the device.
For more information about the security options on the device, see the user guide for the device.
Using IT policy rules to specify when a device must
delete device data
You can configure the following IT policy rules to require that a BlackBerry device automatically deletes device data after a
specific time or under specific conditions.
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Security Technical Overview
Device storage space
IT policy rule
Description
Secure Wipe Delay After IT Policy
Received
This rule specifies the length of time (in hours) after a device receives an IT
policy update or the Delete all device data and remove device IT administration
command before the device deletes all BlackBerry device user data.
Secure Wipe Delay After Lock
This rule specifies the length of time (in hours) after a device locks before the
device deletes all user data.
Secure Wipe if Low Battery
This rule specifies whether a device deletes all user data if the battery power
level is low enough that the BlackBerry device turns off the wireless transceiver.
For more information, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Policy Reference Guide.
Resetting a device to factory default settings
When a BlackBerry device resets to the factory default settings, the device overwrites the device storage space. If you or a
BlackBerry device user turned on content protection, the device also uses a memory-scrub process to overwrite the
application storage on the device and built-in media storage. When the device runs the memory-scrub process, it deletes
any residual unmapped data.
You can use the Reset to Factory Defaults on Wipe IT policy rule to require that a device reset to the factory default settings
when the device receives the Delete all device data and remove device IT administration command over the wireless
network. When you change the value for the IT policy rule to Yes and send the IT administration command to the device,
the device resets to the factory default settings and permanently deletes all applicable device data from the device storage
space. If the device is running BlackBerry Device Software 4.5 or later, the device also deletes the Reset to Factory
Defaults on Wipe IT policy and removes third-party applications.
If the device is running BlackBerry Device Software 4.5 or later and you change the value for the IT policy rule to Yes, the
device resets to factory default settings when you send the IT administration command, when the user permanently
deletes device data, or when the user exceeds the maximum number of times the user can try to type the device password.
Data flow: Deleting all device data from a device
When you delete all BlackBerry device data from a device using the Delete all device data and remove device IT
administration command, the device performs the following actions:
1. Adds a Device Under Attack flag to the NV store
If a user removes the battery or the battery power drops to zero before the device deletes all data, when the user
replaces the battery, the process continues because the Device Under Attack flag is still present.
2. Restarts
3. Deletes the IT policy public key from the NV store to remove the binding between the device and the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server
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Security Technical Overview
Device storage space
The device can bind to another BlackBerry Enterprise Server at a later time. The device does not use the memory-scrub
process to overwrite the IT policy public key because it is not a protected or hidden value.
4. If applicable, deletes authentication information from the NV store
For example, the device deletes the binding information for the smart card. The device can bind to another smart card
at a later time.
5. Deletes data in the persistent store in application storage, including references to the device transport key and the copy
of the principal encryption key
6. If you or a BlackBerry device user turned on content protection, overwrites the copy of the principal encryption key with
zeroes
7. If applicable, formats the built-in media storage on the device
8. Overwrites the application storage with zeroes
9. Deletes the device password from the NV store
10. If you or a user turned on content protection, the memory-scrub process overwrites the file system of the device
application storage and built-in media storage
The memory-scrub process overwrites the device heap in RAM, which changes the state of each bit four times.
11. If you or a user specified that the data on the media card must be deleted, the memory-scrub process overwrites the
media card
12. Deletes the Device Under Attack flag from the NV store
Scrubbing the memory of a device when
deleting all device data
When you or a user deletes all BlackBerry device data for a device when content protection is turned on, the device runs
the memory scrub process to overwrite the device heap that is in RAM, the flash memory, and the files that a user saved on
the device.
Scrubbing the device heap in RAM when deleting all
device data
To overwrite the BlackBerry device heap that is in RAM for a device when content protection is turned on, the device
changes the state of each bit four times. The memory scrub process for a device performs the following actions:
1. writes 0x33 to each byte (0011 00112)
2. writes all bytes to 0x00 (0000 00002)
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Security Technical Overview
Device storage space
3. writes 0xCC to each byte (1100 11002)
4. writes all bytes to 0x00 (0000 00002)
5. writes 0x55 to each byte (0101 01012)
6. writes all bytes to 0x00 (0000 00002)
7. writes 0xAA to each byte (1010 10102)
Scrubbing the flash memory on a device when deleting
all device data
For a BlackBerry device that is running BlackBerry Device Software version 4.6 or later and that has content protection
turned on, the memory scrub process overwrites the NAND flash memory by writing a single character before it deletes the
data. The memory scrub process writes 0x00 to each byte (0000 00002). The memory scrub process deletes all blocks and
changes all bytes to 0xFF (1111 11112).
For a device that is running a version of BlackBerry Device Software that is earlier than version 4.6 and that has content
protection turned on, the memory scrub process overwrites the NOR flash memory by changing the state of each bit four
times. The memory scrub process performs the following actions:
1. writes 0x33 to each byte (0011 00112)
2. writes all bytes to 0xFF to each byte (1111 11112)
3. writes 0xCC to each byte (0x1100 11002)
4. writes all bytes to 0xFF (1111 11112)
5. writes 0x55 to each byte (0x0101 01012)
6. writes all bytes to 0xFF (1111 11112)
7. writes 0xAA to each byte (0x1010 10102)
8. writes all bytes to 0xFF (1111 11112)
Scrubbing the user files on a device when deleting all
device data
If a BlackBerry device supports a partition of flash memory to store files that a user saved to the on-board device memory
and you or a user turned on content protection, the memory scrub process overwrites that section of the device memory by
writing a single character before the memory scrub process deletes the data. The memory scrub process performs the
following actions:
1. writes 0x55 to each byte (0101 01012)
2. writes 0xAA to each byte (1010 10102)
3. deletes all blocks, and changes all bytes to 0xFF (1111 11112) or 0x00 (0000 00002)
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Security Technical Overview
Securing devices in your organization’s environment for personal use and work use
Securing devices in your
organization’s environment for
personal use and work use
7
Your organization might want to permit BlackBerry device users to use BlackBerry devices for both personal use and work
use. For example, your organization might want to permit users to activate personal devices on a BlackBerry Enterprise
Server or permit users to use devices that your organization purchases for personal use.
If devices are running a BlackBerry Device Software version that can distinguish between personal data and work data,
security features and options on the devices allow the devices to treat your organization’s data and applications differently
from personal data and applications. The features and options have the following benefits:
•
permit your organization to control access to your organization’s data and applications on the devices
•
help prevent your organization’s data from being compromised
•
provide a unified experience for users when they access personal data and work data
•
permit your organization to delete your organization’s data and applications from personal devices when users are no
longer a part of your organization
How a device classifies what data and
applications are for work use or personal
use
To control what happens to your organization’s data and applications on a BlackBerry device, you can configure a device to
distinguish between data and applications that are for personal use and data and applications that are for work use. You
must set the Enable Separation of Work Content IT policy rule to Yes before the device can distinguish between work data
and personal data.
By default, after you configure the Enable Separation of Work Content IT policy rule, core applications can access work
data, personal data, or both. For example, the email application can access both work data and personal data because a
BlackBerry device user can use the email application to manage the work email account and personal email accounts. To
determine whether a third-party application or an add-on application developed by Research In Motion can access work
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Security Technical Overview
Securing devices in your organization’s environment for personal use and work use
data, you must configure the "Is access to the corporate data API allowed" application control policy rule. The device
checks this rule to determine which applications can access work data.
After you configure the Enable Separation of Work Content IT policy rule, the following events can occur:
•
the device and BlackBerry Enterprise Server do not synchronize personal organizer data
•
an application can determine whether it can access work data
•
after applications that can access work data register with the device, the applications can delete work data without
deleting personal data when the device notifies the applications that they must delete work data
To help a device determine which data is work data, you can provide the device with domain information for your
organization. You can specify a list of domain names, email address domains, and certificate server domains that are
specific to your organization in the Work Domains IT policy rule. For example, if a user sends an email message to a contact
that is not in the contact list on the device, the device can use the domain information in the Work Domains IT policy rule to
determine whether the contact is a work contact.
Data and applications that a device classifies for work
use
A BlackBerry device classifies the following data and applications for work use:
•
email messages and attachments that are sent to the BlackBerry device user's work email account and the email
messages and attachments that the user sends from the work email account
•
draft email messages that the user creates using their work email account
•
calendar entries that the user creates using their work calendar
•
contacts that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server synchronizes with the user's work email account
•
organizer data, such as tasks and memos
•
applications that you send to the device from a BlackBerry Enterprise Server, and that have the "Is access to the
corporate data API allowed" application control policy rule set to Allow
•
files that the user accesses and downloads from your organization's network using the Files application
•
files on media cards that are created by applications that can access work data (except for media applications)
The BlackBerry device classifies email addresses in the user's contact list as work email addresses using the domains that
you specify in the Work Domains IT policy rule.
After the device classifies data for work use, the user cannot reclassify the data for personal use. For example, if a user
selects a work email account in the Send Using field of a draft email message and starts typing a message in the body, the
user cannot change the selected work email account to a personal email account. However, the user can reclassify
personal data as work data. For example, if the user selects a personal email account in the Send Using field of a draft
email message, the user can change the selected personal email account to a work email account even after they start
typing a message in the body of the email.
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Security Technical Overview
Securing devices in your organization’s environment for personal use and work use
Data and applications that a device classifies for
personal use
A BlackBerry device classifies the following data and applications for personal use:
•
email messages and attachments that a BlackBerry device user sends from any email account (for example, a personal
email account) except for the work email account
•
contacts that the device synchronizes with personal email accounts (for example, Google Mail contacts)
•
phone data (phone data is considered to be personal data but the call history and call logs are deleted when you delete
work data)
•
instant messages that a user sends or receives using BlackBerry Messenger
•
text messages that a user sends or receives using PIN messaging, SMS text messaging, or MMS messaging
•
applications that have the "Is access to the corporate data API allowed" application control policy rule set to Deny
•
content that is stored for the BlackBerry Browser (the BlackBerry Browser is a personal application but the cache is
deleted when you delete work data)
•
maps
•
media application data (for example, the camera, video, music, or voice recorder)
•
passwords that the Password Keeper encrypts
Preventing a user from compromising work
data on a device
A BlackBerry device is designed to separate work data from personal data so that you can help prevent a BlackBerry
device user from compromising your organization’s data by using personal channels to unintentionally send work data. You
can configure several features to help prevent a user from compromising your organization’s data on a device:
•
prevent a user from pasting work data into a personal application
•
prevent a user from forwarding work data using a personal channel
•
prevent a user from using the work contact list in personal email accounts and personal calendars
•
prevent a user from backing up work data
•
control the browser traffic in BlackBerry Browser
•
protect the work data that a user stores on a media card
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Security Technical Overview
Securing devices in your organization’s environment for personal use and work use
Preventing a user from pasting work data into a
personal application
To help prevent a BlackBerry device user from pasting work data into a personal application, you can set the Enable
Separation of Work Content IT policy rule to Yes so that the following guidelines apply to the user:
•
a user can cut, copy, and paste work data from a work application to another work application
•
a user cannot cut, copy, and paste work data from a work application to a personal application
•
a user can cut, copy, and paste personal data from a personal application to a work application or another personal
application
If a user tries to paste work data to a personal application, the BlackBerry device displays a warning message.
By default, the Enable Separation of Work Content IT policy rule is set to No. The device does not distinguish between work
data and personal data.
If you set the Enable Separation of Work Content IT policy rule to Yes, a user can select a work email account in the Send
Using field of a draft email message, paste work data into the body of the email message, and then change the selected
work email account in the Send Using field to a personal email account before the user sends the email message. If you
would like to prevent the user from changing the work email account to a personal email account, you should also set the
Require Work Resources For Conducting Work Activities IT policy rule to Yes. By default, the Require Work Resources For
Conducting Work Activities IT policy rule is set to No.
Preventing a user from forwarding work data using
personal channels
To help prevent a BlackBerry device user from forwarding work data using personal channels, you can set the Disable
Forwarding of Work Content Using Personal Channels IT policy rule to Yes. Personal channels include the BlackBerry
Internet Service, SMS text messages, MMS messages, PIN messages, and BlackBerry Messenger. When you set the
Disable Forwarding of Work Content Using Personal Channels IT policy rule to Yes, the device permits the user to follow
these guidelines:
•
a user can forward work email messages, contacts, calendar entries, tasks, or memos using a work email account
•
a user cannot forward work email messages, contacts, calendar entries, tasks, or memos using personal channels
If the user tries to forward work email messages, contacts, calendar entries, tasks, or memos using personal channels, the
device is designed to display a warning message and does not permit the user to complete the task.
By default, the Disable Forwarding of Work Content Using Personal Channels IT policy rule is set to No. The device does not
distinguish between work data and personal data when users forward data.
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Security Technical Overview
Securing devices in your organization’s environment for personal use and work use
Prevent a user from using the work contact list in
personal email accounts and personal calendars
By default, a BlackBerry device does not prevent a BlackBerry device user from using personal email accounts or personal
calendars to send email messages or calendar appointments to email addresses in the work contact list. For example, a
user can send email messages to work email addresses using a personal email account and create meetings with work
email addresses in a personal calendar.
To help prevent a user from using personal email accounts or personal calendars to send email messages or calendar
appointments to email addresses in the work contact list, you can set the Require Work Resources For Conducting Work
Activities IT policy rule to Yes. When you set this rule to Yes, a user must use the work email account to send email
messages to work email addresses and the work calendar to send calendar invites to work email addresses.
Controlling the browsing traffic in the BlackBerry
Browser
A BlackBerry device user can use the BlackBerry Browser to browse the Internet and your organization’s intranet. The
device does not consider the BlackBerry Browser to be a work application. You can change the behavior of the BlackBerry
Browser depending on the IT policies that you configure in your organization's environment:
•
If you do not want users to browse using the Internet Browser, set the Allow IBS Browser IT policy rule to No.
•
If you do not want users to browse using Wi-Fi hotspots, set the Allow Hotspot Browser IT policy rule to No.
•
If you do not want users to browse using WAP, set the Enable WAP Config IT policy rule to No.
•
If you want users to browse using only the BlackBerry Enterprise Server, set the Allow Other Browser Services IT policy
rule to No.
•
If you do not want users to browse using the BlackBerry Enterprise Server, set the Allow Browser IT policy rule to No.
You can also configure pull rules to prevent a user from accessing specific web servers using the BlackBerry Browser. For
more information about configuring pull rules, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Administration Guide.
BlackBerry 6 permits you to control the browser transport selection for the BlackBerry Browser. For more information
about browser transport selection, see the Selecting Browser Transport Technical Note.
Preventing a user from backing up work data that is
stored on a device
By default, if your organization's environment includes BlackBerry Enterprise Server for Microsoft Exchange (5.0 SP3 or
later) or BlackBerry Enterprise Server for IBM Domino (5.0 SP3 or later), a BlackBerry device user can back up both work
58
Security Technical Overview
Securing devices in your organization’s environment for personal use and work use
data and personal data on a computer using the BlackBerry Desktop Software and BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager. The
user can restore the data to the device that the user backed up after the BlackBerry Device Software is updated or when
issues occur that require the user to restore the information.
In rare circumstances, when a user restores work data, a device might not be able to recognize the data as work data and
might treat it as personal data. For example, if a user restores data from an existing device to a new device that the user did
not activate on the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and that has the radio turned off, the new device might not recognize the
data as work data.
If you want to prevent the user from backing up work data, you can change the value of the Desktop Backup IT policy rule
to No organizational databases. When you set the rule to No organizational databases, the device does not back up the
following information:
•
organizer data such as tasks or memos
•
work contacts
•
work calendar entries
Protecting work data on a media card
By default, a BlackBerry device stores all data in unencrypted format on a media card. When you set the Enable Separation
of Work Content IT policy rule to Yes, the device automatically encrypts all work data on a media card using a device key.
You can perform any of the following actions to further protect the work data on a media card:
•
Prevent a user from storing any data on media cards by setting the Disable External Memory IT policy rule to Yes.
•
Prevent a user from transferring data to a media card over a USB connection by setting the Disable USB Mass Storage
IT policy rule to Yes.
•
Permit the user to store data on media cards, but specify that the device must encrypt all data and not just work data.
To configure this option, set the External File System Encryption Level IT policy rule to one of the following values:
•
Encrypt to User Password (excluding multi-media directories)
•
Encrypt to User Password (including multi-media directories)
•
Encrypt to Device Key (excluding multi-media directories)
•
Encrypt to Device Key (including multi-media directories)
•
Encrypt to User Password and Device Key (excluding multi-media directories)
•
Encrypt to User Password and Device Key (including multi-media directories)
Deleting only work data from a device
To help protect your organization's data on a personal BlackBerry device, you can permit your organization to delete work
data from a device when a user no longer works at your organization. You can use the BlackBerry Administration Service to
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Security Technical Overview
Securing devices in your organization’s environment for personal use and work use
require that a personal device remove only work data when the device receives the Delete only the organization data and
remove device IT administrative command over the wireless network. All personal data remains on the device. A
BlackBerry device user cannot use the device or make emergency calls while the device deletes the work data.
The device permanently deletes the following work data:
Item
Description
email messages
•
email messages that are sent to the user's work email account and the
email messages that the user sends from the work email account
•
draft email messages that the user creates using their work email account
attachments
attachments that are sent to the user's work email account and the
attachments that the user sends from the work email account
calendar entries
calendar entries that the user creates using their work calendar
contacts
contacts that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server synchronizes with the user's
work email account
memos
all memos
tasks
all tasks
call history
although the device defines phone data for personal use, the call history entries
are deleted when you delete work data
call logs
although the device classifies phone data as personal data, the call log files are
deleted when you delete work data
the BlackBerry Browser cache
although the device specifies the BlackBerry Browser for personal use, the
BlackBerry Browser cache is deleted when you delete work data
files
•
files that the user accesses and downloads from your organization's
network using the Files application
•
files on media cards that are created by applications that can access work
data (except for media applications)
•
work data is not deleted from the media card if the media card is not
available when the device deletes work data, however the user cannot
access work data on the media card after the device removes work data
IT policy
IT policy that is associated with your organization
PIN encryption key
references to your organization's PIN encryption key
device transport key
references to the device transport key which prevents the device from
communicating with the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
work service books
service books on the device that the device classifies for work use
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Securing devices in your organization’s environment for personal use and work use
Data flow: Deleting only work data from a device
When you delete only work data from a BlackBerry device using the Delete all organizational device data IT administration
command, the device performs the following actions:
1. Adds a Corporate Device Under Attack flag to the NV store
If a user removes the battery or the battery power drops to zero before the device deletes all work data, when the user
replaces the battery, the process continues because the Corporate Device Under Attack flag is still present.
2. Displays a notification that the device will begin deleting work data in 2 minutes
If a user removes the battery or the battery power drops to zero before the process ends, when the user replaces the
battery, the process of deleting work data continues but the device does not display a notification that the device will
begin deleting work data.
3. Turns off the wireless transceiver
4. Notifies any applications on the device (for example, the Messages application, Calendar application, and registered
third-party applications) that manage work data that they must delete the work data that they are responsible for from
the device. The applications then delete the work data that they manage on the device.
Any applications on the device that manage work data must register with the device to receive a notification from the
device when they must delete the work data that they are responsible for. If applications on the device that manage
work data do not register with the device, the work data that they are responsible for may not be deleted.
5. Deletes all device transport keys
6. Sends an acknowledgement to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server that the work data was successfully deleted from the
device
7. Displays a notification that the device successfully removed work data from the device and that the device is going to
restart
8. Restarts
9. Deletes the IT policy public key from the NV store to remove the binding between the device and the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server which terminates its connection with the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
The device can bind to another BlackBerry Enterprise Server at a later time. The device does not use the memory-scrub
process to overwrite the IT policy public key because it is not a protected value or hidden value.
10. Deletes the Corporate Device Under Attack flag from the NV store
11. Sends an IT policy change notification to all applications so that applications that depend on the IT policy can make
changes if required
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Securing devices in your organization’s environment for personal use and work use
Managing third-party applications on a
smartphone that a user uses for personal
purposes
By default, a BlackBerry smartphone classifies all applications as work applications that can access work data.
After you set the Enable Separation of Work Content IT policy rule to Yes, if you do not want specific third-party applications
to access work data such as work contacts, you can consider performing any of the following actions:
•
Create a software configuration for all unlisted applications and set the "Is access to the corporate data API allowed"
application control policy rule to Deny. This prevents all third-party applications from accessing work data. If you want
to allow specific third-party applications to access work data, you can create a software configuration that allows only
third-party applications that you specify to access work data.
•
Create a software configuration for each application that you want to prevent from accessing work data and set the "Is
access to the corporate data API allowed" application control policy rule to Deny. This prevents third-party applications
that you specify from accessing work data and allows all third-party applications that you do not specify to access work
data.
•
Create a software configuration and set the disposition for unlisted applications to Disallowed. This prevents a
BlackBerry smartphone user from installing any third-party applications on the smartphone that you did not specifically
list in the software configuration.
•
Create a software configuration that lists specific applications and set the disposition to Disallowed. This prevents a
user from installing the third-party applications that you listed in the software configuration.
For more information, visit www.blackberry.com/go/serverdocs to see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Administration
Guide.
Managing add-on applications on a device
that a user uses for personal purposes
By default, a BlackBerry device classifies all add-on applications developed by Research In Motion as work applications
that can access work data.
After you set the Enable Separation of Work Content IT policy rule to Yes, if you do not want add-on applications to access
work data such as work contacts, you can use existing IT policy rules to prevent the applications from accessing work data.
For example, you can set the Disable Organizer Data Access for Social Networking Applications IT policy rule to Yes to
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Security Technical Overview
Securing devices in your organization’s environment for personal use and work use
prevent add-on applications such as Facebook for BlackBerry smartphones and MySpace for BlackBerry smartphones
from accessing the work calendar and work contact list.
The Enable Separation of Work Content IT policy rule has some effect on add-on applications. For example, if you set the
Enable Separation of Work Content IT policy rule to Yes, the Facebook application prevents users from pasting work data.
To prevent add-on applications developed by RIM from accessing work data, the "Is access to the corporate data API
allowed" application control policy rule for the applications must be set to Deny. If this application control policy rule is not
set to Deny, users can copy and paste work data into the applications.
For more information about which applications are add-on applications developed by RIM, browse to www.blackberry.com/
support to read KB24317.
IT policy rules that apply to devices that
users use for personal purposes
The following IT policy rules apply to BlackBerry devices that BlackBerry device users use for personal purposes:
IT policy group
IT policy rule
Browser
•
Allow Hotspot Browser
•
Allow IBS Browser
Device Only
Enable WAP Config
Global
Allow Browser
Personal Devices
•
Disable Forwarding of Work Content Using Personal Channels
•
Enable Separation of Work Content
•
Require Work Resources for Conducting Work Activities
•
Work Domains
•
Desktop Backup
•
Disable External Memory
Security
•
Disable USB Mass Storage
•
External File System Encryption Level
For more information about the IT policy rules, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Policy Reference Guide.
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting data on a device
Protecting data on a device
8
Encrypting user data on a locked device
If you or a BlackBerry device user turns on content protection, you or the user can configure a locked device to encrypt
stored user data and data that the locked device receives. When you or a user turns on content protection, a locked device
is designed to use AES-256 encryption to encrypt stored data and an ECC public key to encrypt data that the locked device
receives.
For example, the locked device uses content protection to encrypt the following items:
•
subject, location, meeting organizer, attendees, and any notes in all appointments or meeting requests
•
all contact information in the contact list except for the contact title and category
•
subject, email addresses of intended recipients, message body, and attachments in all email messages
•
title and information that is included in the body of a note for all memos (also known as posted messages)
•
subject and all information that is included in the body of tasks (also known as posted all day appointments)
•
if you use software tokens, contents of the .sdtid file seed that is stored in flash memory
•
all data that is associated with third-party applications that a user installs on the device
•
in the BlackBerry Browser, content that web sites or third-party applications push to the device, any web sites that the
user saves on the device, and the browser cache
•
all text that replaces the text automatically that the user types on the device
You can change the Content Protection of Contact List IT policy rule to Required to prevent the user from turning off
content protection for the contact list on the device. If you change the Content Protection of Contact List IT policy rule to
Required, the device does not permit call display and does not share contacts over a Bluetooth connection when the
device is locked.
Configuring the encryption of device data on a locked
device
You can turn on content protection of BlackBerry device data on a locked device using the Content Protection Strength IT
policy rule. You can choose a strength level that corresponds to the ECC key strength that your organization requires.
A user can turn on content protection in the security options, in the encryption options on the device. The user can change
the content protection strength to the same level that you specify using the IT policy rule or to a higher level.
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting data on a device
To make content protection optional or to prevent an administrator or a user from turning on content protection for a device
that is running BlackBerry Device Software 6.0 or later, you can use the Content Protection Usage IT policy rule.
After you or a user configures content protection, a device uses the ECC private key to decrypt an email message that it
received when it was locked. The longer the ECC private key, the more time the device requires to decrypt messages. You
must choose a strength level that optimizes the encryption strength or that optimizes the decryption process.
The device uses the device password to generate an ephemeral key that the device uses to encrypt the content protection
key and ECC private key. If you change the content protection strength to Stronger so that the device uses a 283-bit ECC
private key, you can consider changing the Minimum Password Length IT policy rule to enforce a minimum password
length of 12 characters for the device password. If you change the content protection strength to Strongest so that the
device uses a 571-bit ECC private key, you can consider changing the Minimum Password Length IT policy rule to enforce a
minimum password length of 21 characters for the device password. These password lengths maximize the encryption
strength that the longer ECC private keys are designed to provide. A shorter password length produces a weaker ephemeral
key.
Data flow: Encrypting user data on a locked device
When a BlackBerry device locks for the first time after you or a user turns on content protection, the device performs the
following actions:
1. uses the content protection key to automatically encrypt the bulk of its stored user data and application data
2. frees the device memory that is associated with the decrypted content protection key and the decrypted ECC private
key that is stored in RAM
3. uses the ECC public key to encrypt data that it receives
Data flow: Decrypting user data on an unlocked device
1. A user types the correct BlackBerry device password to unlock a device.
2. The device performs the following actions:
a
uses the password to derive the ephemeral key
b
uses the ephemeral key to decrypt the encrypted content protection key and ECC private key that are stored in flash
memory
c
stores the decrypted content protection key and ECC private key in RAM
d
uses the decrypted content protection key to decrypt the user data when the user tries to access user data (for
example, an email message) that the device received and encrypted while it was locked
e
uses the decrypted ECC private key to decrypt the user data and access the ECC-encrypted items (for example, the
message body, subject, or recipient) when the user tries to access user data that the device encrypted while it was
locked
When the device opens ECC-128 encrypted items (usually less than 40 messages), the device uses the ECC private key to
decrypt the ECC-encrypted items. The device re-encrypts the items with the content protection key the next time that the
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting data on a device
device locks. If the device does not complete the re-encryption process before the user unlocks the device, the device
resumes re-encryption when it locks again.
Encrypting the device transport key on a
locked device
If you turn on content protection for device transport keys, a BlackBerry device uses the principal encryption key to encrypt
the device transport keys that are stored in flash memory. The device encrypts the principal encryption key using the
content protection key. When a locked device receives data that is encrypted using the device transport key, it uses the
decrypted principal encryption key to decrypt the device transport key in flash memory and then uses the decrypted device
transport key to decrypt data.
When you, a user, or a password timeout locks the device, the wireless transceiver remains on and the device does not
delete the memory that is associated with the principal encryption key or device transport key. The device is designed to
prevent the decrypted principal encryption key and the decrypted device transport key from appearing in flash memory.
You can turn on content protection for device transport keys on the device when you configure the Force Content
Protection of Master Keys IT policy rule. When you turn on content protection of device transport keys, the device uses the
ECC key strength that you specified in the Content Protection Strength IT policy rule to encrypt the device transport keys.
What happens when a user resets a device after you
turn on content protection for the device transport key
If you turn on content protection of device transport keys, a BlackBerry device performs the following actions when a user
resets the device by removing and reinserting the battery:
•
turns off the data connection over the wireless network
•
suspends serial bypass connections if your organization's environment includes an enterprise Wi-Fi network and the
device can connect directly to a BlackBerry Router
•
frees the memory that is associated with all data and keys, including the decrypted principal encryption key
•
locks itself
The device is designed to turn off the data connection and serial bypass connection while the content protection key is
unavailable to decrypt the principal encryption key in flash memory. Until a user unlocks the device, the device cannot
receive and decrypt data. The device does not turn off the wireless transceiver and can still receive phone calls, SMS text
messages, and MMS messages.
When the user unlocks the device after resetting it, the device performs the following actions:
•
uses the content protection key to decrypt the principal encryption key in flash memory
•
stores the decrypted principal encryption key in flash memory
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Security Technical Overview
•
connects to the BlackBerry Infrastructure
•
resumes serial bypass connections
•
receives data from the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
Protecting data on a device
Resetting a device password when content
protection is turned on
If you or a BlackBerry device user turns on content protection for a BlackBerry device that is running BlackBerry Device
Software version 4.3 or later, you can reset the device password using a BlackBerry Enterprise Server version 4.1 SP5 or
later. The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution uses the remote password reset cryptographic protocol to reset the device
password when content protection is turned on. The device does not prompt the user for the old device password.
The remote password reset cryptographic protocol is designed to provide the following features:
•
permit the device to encrypt the content protection key again with the new password, without the old password being
available
•
prevent a hardware-based attack on the device from recovering the content protection key without knowing either the
device password or the IT policy private key that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server generates for the device
•
prevent the BlackBerry Enterprise Server from accessing any data that a potentially malicious user could use to recover
the content protection key
To reset the device password, you send the Specify new device password and lock device IT administration command to
the device. You should send the IT administration command to a content-protected device that is in the possession of the
user only. If you send the IT administration command to a device that is in the possession of a potentially malicious user,
that user can use a hardware-based attack to recover the key pair that the device created when it received the IT policy.
The potentially malicious user can use the key pair to decrypt all the data on the device.
Data flow: Resetting a device password when content
protection is turned on
The process flow is designed so that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server cannot reconstruct the encryption key at a later time.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions when you send the Specify new device password and lock
device IT administration command to a BlackBerry device when content protection is turned on:
1. generates an encryption key using the IT policy public key and the NIST recommended 521-bit elliptic curve over a
prime field
2. encrypts the content protection key using the encryption key and the new device password (which is also encrypted)
3. sends the data required to reconstruct the encryption key to the device
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting data on a device
Cryptosystem parameters that the remote password reset cryptographic
protocol uses
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and BlackBerry device are designed to share the following cryptosystem parameters
when they use the remote password reset cryptographic protocol.
Uppercase parameters represent elliptic curve points. Lowercase parameters represent scalars. The elliptic curve group
operations are additive.
Parameter
Description
E(Fq)
This parameter represents the NIST approved 521-bit random elliptic curve over Fq,
which has a cofactor of 1.
Fq
This parameter represents a finite field of prime order q.
P
This parameter represents a point of E that generates a prime subgroup of E(Fq) of
order p.
B = bP
This parameter represents the long-term IT policy public key and IT policy private key
pair that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server generates for the BlackBerry device. The
BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores b in the BlackBerry Configuration Database and
sends B to the BlackBerry device in the IT policy.
D = dP
This parameter represents the key pair that the BlackBerry device creates when it
receives B. The BlackBerry device stores D, but it deletes d to prevent a hardwarebased attack from recovering d and B and then calculating K = dB.
K = dB
This parameter represents the encryption key that the BlackBerry device uses to
encrypt the content protection key.
r
This parameter represents a short-term random number that the BlackBerry device
stores in RAM.
D' = rD
This parameter represents a blinded version of D.
K' = bD' = brD = rK
This parameter represents a blinded version of K.
Protecting passwords that a device stores
A BlackBerry device user can use the password keeper to store all passwords that the user uses to access applications and
web sites from a BlackBerry device. The password keeper is designed to protect the passwords with a password keeper
password. The user is required to remember only the password keeper password.
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting data on a device
The first time that the user opens the password keeper on the device, the user must create the password keeper password.
The password keeper encrypts the information that it stores using AES-256 encryption, and uses the password keeper
password to decrypt the information when the user types the password keeper password. The device deletes all device
data if a user types the password keeper password incorrectly 10 times.
In the password keeper, a user can perform the following actions:
•
type a password and its identifying information (for example, which application the user can access using the
password), and save the information
•
generate random passwords that are designed to improve password strength
•
copy passwords and paste them into an application or password prompt for a web site
Protecting data that a device stores on a
media card
To protect the data that a BlackBerry device stores on a media card, you can configure the External File System Encryption
Level IT policy rule, or a user can configure the corresponding option on the device. You can use this rule or option to
configure whether the device encrypts the data using a password that a user provides, a device key that is randomly
generated and stored in the NV store, or both.
A media card can store a master key and the code-signing keys that are included in the header information of encrypted
files. The code-signing keys permit only applications that signed the files to access the files. A device is designed to use the
master key that is stored on the media card to decrypt and encrypt files on the media card. The master key and codesigning keys use AES encryption. The device is designed to check the code-signing keys when the device opens the input
streams or output streams of an encrypted file and to use code-signing with RSA-1024 encryption to control access to
objects on the media card.
When a user stores a file on a media card for the first time after you or the user turns on encryption of media cards, the
device decrypts the encryption key for the media card file and uses it to encrypt the stored file. The device does not encrypt
files that a user transfers to the media card using a USB mass storage device.
The device, a computer, and other devices that use the media card can modify encrypted files (for example, truncate files)
on the media card. The device is not designed to perform integrity checks on data in encrypted files.
For more information, visit www.blackberry.com/go/serverdocs to read Enforcing encryption of internal and external file
systems on BlackBerry devices Technical Overview.
Data flow: Generating an encryption key for a media
card
When you or a user turns on encryption of media cards for the first time, a BlackBerry device generates an encryption key
(also known as a session key) for a media card.
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting data on a device
To generate an encryption key, the BlackBerry device performs the following actions:
1. generates an AES-256 encryption key
2. stores the encryption key in the NV store in RAM on the BlackBerry device
3. XORs the AES-256 encryption key with another AES-256 encryption key that is encrypted with a password to generate
the encryption key for the media card
4. encrypts the encryption key for the media card using the AES-256 encryption key
5. stores the encrypted encryption key for media cards on the media card
How the BlackBerry Attachment Service
protects data on a device
A BlackBerry device uses the BlackBerry Attachment Service to process an attachment in an email message or calendar
entry so that the user can view the attachment on the device. The BlackBerry Attachment Service is designed to prevent a
potentially malicious application from accessing data on the device by using binary format parsing to open the attachment
and process it.
After the BlackBerry Attachment Service processes the attachment, the BlackBerry Router sends the attachment to the
device for rendering. If the attachment in the email message or calendar entry is an application, the device does not run
the application.
For more information about the attachment file formats that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server supports, see the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server Feature and Technical Overview.
Best practice: Protecting the BlackBerry Attachment
Service
To help prevent the spread of potential attacks from the computer that hosts the BlackBerry Attachment Service to other
computers in your organization’s network, consider the following guidelines:
•
Install the BlackBerry Attachment Service on a computer that is separate from the computer that hosts the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server.
•
Place the computer that hosts the BlackBerry Attachment Service in its own network segment.
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting data on a device
How a device protects its operating system
and the BlackBerry Device Software
Each time a user turns on a BlackBerry device, specific components on the device automatically check the authenticity of
the device operating system and the integrity of the BlackBerry Device Software. The BlackBerry Device Software must
pass these security checks before the user can run the BlackBerry Device Software and before the user can update the
BlackBerry Device Software over the wireless network.
How a device authenticates the boot ROM
code and binds the device processor when
the device turns on
A BlackBerry device processor provides an authentication method that is designed to verify that the boot ROM code is
permitted to run on a device. The manufacturing process installs the boot ROM code in flash memory on the device. The
boot ROM code is the root of trust on devices. The RIM signing authority system, which signs the boot ROM code for a
device during the manufacturing process, uses an RSA public key to sign the boot ROM code. The processor is configured
during the manufacturing process to store information that the processor can use to verify the digital signature of the boot
ROM code.
When a user turns on a device, the processor runs internal ROM code that reads the boot ROM from flash memory and
verifies the digital signature of the boot ROM code using the RSA public key. If the verification process is successful, the
boot ROM is permitted to run on the device. If the verification process is not successful, the processor stops running.
The process of binding a processor to a boot ROM can occur when the processor is manufactured, the device is
manufactured, or the BlackBerry Device Software is configured, depending on the manufacturer and model number of the
processor.
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting the data that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores in your organization's environment
Protecting the data that the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server
stores in your organization's
environment
9
Where the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
stores messages and user data in the
messaging environment
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores the messages and user data for a BlackBerry device in the messaging
environment so that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server can maintain a connection between a user’s email account and the
device. To avoid compromising the user data that is stored in the messaging environment, you must protect the storage
location in the messaging environment.
Messaging environment
Storage location
IBM Domino
The following Domino databases store data for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server:
72
•
The BlackBerry state database stores an entry that opens a connection
between each original email message in a user’s IBM Notes Inbox and the
same email message on the user’s device. Each user account has a uniquely
named BlackBerry state database.
•
The BlackBerry profiles database stores configuration information for each
user account, including the identification information for the device and the
device transport key. The BlackBerry profiles database stores a link to a
BlackBerry state database and stores other information that the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server uses to manage how email messages are sent to and from
the device.
Security Technical Overview
Protecting the data that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores in your organization's environment
Messaging environment
Storage location
Microsoft Exchange
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores user data in hidden folders in the
Microsoft Exchange mailbox for the user.
Novell GroupWise
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores user data in the POA where the user
account is located.
Data that the BlackBerry Configuration
Database stores
The BlackBerry Configuration Database stores the following information:
•
name of each BlackBerry Enterprise Server
•
unique SRP authentication keys and unique SRP IDs, or UIDs, that each BlackBerry Enterprise Server uses in the SRP
authentication process to open a connection to the wireless network
•
IT policy private keys of the IT policy key pairs that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server generates for each BlackBerry
device
•
PIN of each device
•
read-only copies of each device transport key
•
copy of your organization’s user directory
•
a semi-permanent reference to user data using the Novell GroupWise MessageID in the database synchronization
tables that are named MBMailSync, MBCalendarSync, MBPIMSync, and MBFolderSync (BlackBerry Enterprise Server
for Novell GroupWise only)
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server components that do not connect to a messaging server can access the information that
the BlackBerry Configuration Database stores.
Best practice: Protecting the data that the BlackBerry
Configuration Database stores
Best practice
Description
Audit connections to the Microsoft SQL
Server.
Consider the following guidelines:
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting the data that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores in your organization's environment
Best practice
Delete unsecured, old setup files.
Description
•
At a minimum, write failed connection attempts to the Microsoft SQL
Server log file and review the log file regularly.
•
When possible, save log files to a different hard disk drive than the one
that the data files are stored on.
Consider deleting Microsoft SQL Server setup files that might contain
plaintext, credentials encrypted with weak public keys, or sensitive
information that the Microsoft SQL Server logged to a Microsoft SQL Server
version-dependent location during the Microsoft SQL Server installation
process.
Microsoft distributes the Killpwd tool, which is designed to locate and delete
passwords from unsecured, old setup files in your organization’s
environment. For more information, visit www.support.microsoft.com to read
article KB263968.
Limit the permission level of the Microsoft
SQL Server.
Consider associating each Microsoft SQL Server service with a Windows
account that the service derives its security context from.
Microsoft SQL Server permits the sa account and, in some cases, other user
accounts to access operating system calls based on the security context of
the account that runs the Microsoft SQL Server service. If you do not limit the
permission level of the Microsoft SQL Server, an attacker might use these
operating system calls to attack any other resource that the account has
access to.
Make the Microsoft SQL Server port
numbers that are monitored by default on
your organization’s firewall unavailable.
Consider configuring your organization’s firewall to filter packets that are
addressed to TCP port 1433, addressed to UDP port 1434, or associated
with named instances.
Protect the sa account using a password.
Consider assigning a password to the sa account on the Microsoft SQL
Server, even on servers that require Windows authentication. The password
is designed to prevent an empty or weak password for the sa account from
being exposed if an administrator of the database resets the Microsoft SQL
Server for mixed mode authentication.
Protect the Microsoft SQL Server
installation from Internet-based attacks.
Consider the following guidelines:
Use a secure file system.
74
•
Require Windows Authentication Mode for connections to the Microsoft
SQL Server to restrict connections to Windows user accounts and
domain user accounts, and turn on credentials delegation. Windows
Authentication Mode does not require you to store passwords on the
computer.
•
Use stronger authentication protocols, required password complexity,
and required expiration times.
Consider the following guidelines:
Security Technical Overview
Protecting the data that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores in your organization's environment
Best practice
Use Microsoft SQL Server Management
Studio.
Description
•
Use NTFS for the Microsoft SQL Server because it is more stable and
recoverable than FAT file systems, and NTFS permits security options
such as file and directory ACLs and EFS.
•
Do not change the permissions that the Microsoft SQL Server specifies
during the Microsoft SQL Server installation process. The Microsoft SQL
Server creates appropriate ACLs on registry keys and files if it detects
NTFS.
•
If you must change the account that runs the Microsoft SQL Server,
decrypt the files that you could access using the old account and encrypt
them again for access using the new account.
Consider the following guidelines:
•
Use Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio to change the account
that is associated with a Microsoft SQL Server service, if required.
Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio configures the appropriate
permissions on the files and registry keys that the Microsoft SQL Server
uses.
•
Do not use the Microsoft Management Console Services applet to
change the account that is associated with a Microsoft SQL Server
service. To use this applet, you must manually change the Windows
registry, the permissions for the NTFS file system, and Windows user
rights.
For more information, visit www.support.microsoft.com to read article
KB283811.
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and
device protect IT policies
After the BlackBerry Enterprise Server installation process creates the BlackBerry Configuration Database, the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server generates an IT policy key pair that it can use to authenticate and protect the IT policy. When you assign
a BlackBerry device to the user account and activate the device, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends the IT policy and
the IT policy public key to the device.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores the IT policy private key in the BlackBerry Configuration Database. The BlackBerry
Enterprise Server uses the IT policy private key to digitally sign all data packets that include IT policy data when the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends the IT policy to the device. The device uses the IT policy public key in the NV store to
authenticate the digital signature on the IT policy.
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting the data that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores in your organization's environment
A device stores the digitally signed IT policy and the IT policy public key in the NV store in flash memory. When the device
stores the IT policy and IT policy public key, the device binds the IT policy to itself so that the device can use the IT policy to
control its behavior.
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting communication with a device
Protecting communication with
a device
10
Opening a direct connection between a
device and a BlackBerry Router
A BlackBerry device can use the BlackBerry Router protocol to bypass the SRP-authenticated connection to the
BlackBerry Infrastructure and open a direct connection to a BlackBerry Router. The device can open a direct connection to
the BlackBerry Router if a BlackBerry device user connects the device to a computer that hosts the BlackBerry Device
Manager. A device can also open a direct connection to the BlackBerry Router over an enterprise Wi-Fi network using port
4101. A direct connection between the BlackBerry Router and device is referred to as least-cost routing because it
eliminates the cost of using the BlackBerry Infrastructure.
Before the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device can send any data to each other, the device must authenticate with
the BlackBerry Enterprise Server by verifying the device transport key. The device opens an authenticated connection to
the BlackBerry Router after the device authenticates with the BlackBerry Enterprise Server. The BlackBerry Router does
not know the value of the device transport key that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device share.
If the device connects to the BlackBerry Router over the enterprise Wi-Fi network, after the BlackBerry Router opens an
authenticated connection, the BlackBerry Router communicates with the device over the enterprise Wi-Fi network using
port 4101. If you do not configure the BlackBerry Router to connect only to a Wi-Fi network, the BlackBerry Router verifies
that the PIN belongs to a device that is registered with the BlackBerry Infrastructure.
If you want the BlackBerry Router and device to use the BlackBerry Router protocol, you can consider installing the
BlackBerry Router on a computer that is separate from the computer that hosts the BlackBerry Enterprise Server to
prevent a potentially malicious attacker from having direct access to the computer that hosts the BlackBerry Enterprise
Server. If the BlackBerry Router is placed in the DMZ, you must open port 4101 on the internal-facing firewall to permit
communication between the BlackBerry Device Manager and BlackBerry Router.
Advantages of using the BlackBerry Router protocol
You can use the BlackBerry Router protocol to experience the following advantages:
•
You or a BlackBerry device user can connect multiple BlackBerry devices to a single computer that hosts a BlackBerry
Device Manager.
•
The BlackBerry Router rejects connections from devices that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server has not authenticated.
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Security Technical Overview
•
Protecting communication with a device
A device can provide all email messaging services and data services using the BlackBerry Router protocol except for
activation over the wireless network. After a user starts the activation process over the wireless network, the user can
connect the device to a computer that hosts the BlackBerry Device Manager to complete the activation process.
Data flow: Authenticating a device with the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server using the BlackBerry Router protocol
1. A user connects a BlackBerry device to a computer that hosts the BlackBerry Device Manager or connects a device to
an enterprise Wi-Fi network.
2. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device use the BlackBerry Router protocol to verify that the device knows the
device transport key.
The BlackBerry Router protocol uses two runs of the elliptic curve version of the Schnorr identification scheme to
provide mutual authentication between the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device.
3. The BlackBerry Router opens an authenticated connection.
Closing a direct connection between a device and
BlackBerry Router
If a user disconnects a BlackBerry device from a computer that hosts the BlackBerry Device Manager, closes the
BlackBerry Device Manager, or disconnects the device from an enterprise Wi-Fi network, the device restores the
connection to the BlackBerry Infrastructure over the wireless network automatically. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and
BlackBerry Router use the BlackBerry Router protocol to close the authenticated connection to the device. The BlackBerry
Router protocol is designed to permit only an authenticated party to close the connection. The BlackBerry Router uses a
single execution of the Schnorr identification scheme to authenticate the close command that the BlackBerry Enterprise
Server sends to the BlackBerry Router.
Impersonation attacks that the BlackBerry Router
protocol is designed to prevent
The BlackBerry Router protocol is designed to prevent a potentially malicious user from impersonating a BlackBerry device
or a BlackBerry Enterprise Server.
To impersonate the device, the potentially malicious user sends messages to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server so that the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server believes it is communicating with the device. To impersonate the BlackBerry Enterprise
Server, the potentially malicious user sends messages to the device so that the device believes it is communicating with the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server.
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting communication with a device
To perform either of these impersonation attacks, the potentially malicious user must send the device transport key value
(also known as s) to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server or device, which requires the potentially malicious user to solve the
discrete log problem to determine s or the hash of s.
How the BlackBerry Router protocol uses the Schnorr
identification scheme to open an authenticated
connection
The implementation of the Schnorr identification scheme in the BlackBerry Router protocol uses a group of large prime
order, which is the additive group of elliptic curve points for a prime p.
The BlackBerry Router protocol is designed to perform the following actions:
•
use the NIST recommended 521-bit elliptic curve group
•
verify that the points supplied by the parties involved in the communication are members of the elliptic curve group
•
verify that RD does not equal RB , to prevent the recovery of h by a potentially malicious user
•
verify that e does not equal 0, to prevent the recovery of h by a potentially malicious user
•
verify that R does not equal the point at infinity, to verify that R is a valid public key
•
verify that R does not equal the point at infinity, to verify that R is a valid public key
•
reset any corrupted data that it finds to a random value so that the BlackBerry Router protocol can proceed past the
point that it detects corrupted data
Because the BlackBerry Router protocol can proceed past the point that it detects corrupted data, the BlackBerry Router
protocol is unsuccessful at completion only. This measure is designed to prevent various timing attacks.
Data flow: Using the BlackBerry Router protocol to
open an authenticated connection
1. The BlackBerry device and BlackBerry Enterprise Server hash the current device transport key using SHA-512.
2. The device performs the following actions:
a
selects a random value rD, where 1 < rD < p - 1 and calculates RD = rDP
b
sends RD and a device transport key identifier (KeyID) to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
3. The BlackBerry Router performs the following actions:
a
observes the data that the device sends and verifies that the value RD is not the point at infinity
b
if RD is the point at infinity, the BlackBerry Router configures RD to a random value
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Security Technical Overview
c
Protecting communication with a device
sends RD and KeyID to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
4. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions:
a
calculates that as RD approaches the point at infinity, RD is random
b
selects a random value rB , where 1 < rB < p - 1 and calculates RB = rBP
c
if RD = RB , calculates another value of RB
d
selects a random value eD , where 1 < eD < p - 1
e
sends RB , eD , and KeyID to the device
5. The BlackBerry Router performs the following actions:
a
observes the data that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends
b
verifies that the value RB is random when the value RB approaches the point at infinity or when RD = RB
c
verifies that the value eD is random when the value eD = 0
d
sends RB , eD , and KeyID to the device
6. The device performs the following actions:
a
verifies that the value RB is random when the value RB approaches the point at infinity or when RD = RB
b
verifies that the value eD is random when the value eD = 0
c
calculates yD = h - eDrD mod p
d
selects a random value eB , where 1 < eB < p - 1
e
sends yD and eB to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
7. The BlackBerry Router performs the following actions:
a
observes the data that the device sends
b
verifies that the value eB is random if e B = 0 or eB = eD
c
forwards yD and eB to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
8. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions:
a
verifies that the value eB is random when the value eD = eB
b
verifies that the value eD is random when the value eD = 0
c
computes yB = h - eBrB (mod p)
d
sends yB to the device
9. One of the following actions occurs:
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•
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device open an authenticated connection to each other if the device accepts
yB.
•
The device does not accept the connection request, and the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device do not open
an authenticated connection to each other, if the device calculates the following:
Security Technical Overview
Protecting communication with a device
yBP + eBRB ≠ hP
•
The BlackBerry Router does not accept the connection request if the BlackBerry Router calculates the following:
yBP + eBRB ≠ yDP + eDRD
•
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server does not accept the connection request if the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
calculates the following:
yDP + eDRD ≠ hP
•
The BlackBerry Router stores RD , RB , yDP + eDRD , eD , and eB if the device accepts yB .
10. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores RD , RB , eD , eB , and h.
11. The BlackBerry Router overwrites yB and yD in memory with zeroes.
12. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server overwrites yB , yD , and rB in memory with zeroes.
13. The device overwrites yB , yD , and rD in memory with zeroes.
Data flow: Using the BlackBerry Router protocol to
close an authenticated connection
1. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions:
a
selects a random value rC , where 1 < rc < p - 1
b
calculates RC = rCP
c
calculates another RC value if RC = RB , or RC = RD
d
sends the value RC to the BlackBerry Router
2. The BlackBerry Router performs the following actions:
a
verifies that the value RC is random when the value RC approaches the point at infinity
b
verifies that the value RC is random when the value RC = RB , or RC = RD
c
selects a random value eC , where 1 < ec < p - 1
d
calculates another eC value if eC = eD , or ec = eB
e
sends the value eC to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
3. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions:
a
verifies that the value eC is random when the value eC = 0
b
verifies that the value eC is random when the value eC = eB , or eC = eD
c
calculates yC = h - eCrC mod p
d
sends the value yC to the BlackBerry Router
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting communication with a device
4. The BlackBerry Router performs one of the following actions:
•
The BlackBerry Router closes the authenticated connection to the BlackBerry device on behalf of the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server if the BlackBerry Router accepts yC.
•
The BlackBerry Router does not close the authenticated connection to the device if the BlackBerry Router
calculates the following:
yCP + eCRC ≠ yDP + eDRD
Cryptosystem parameters that the BlackBerry Router
protocol uses
The BlackBerry Router, BlackBerry Enterprise Server, and BlackBerry device are designed to share the following
cryptosystem parameters when they use the BlackBerry Router protocol.
Parameter
Description
E(Fq)
This parameter represents the NIST approved 521-bit random elliptic curve over Fq, which
has a cofactor of 1. The BlackBerry Router protocol does all math operations in the groups
E(Fq) and Zp.
Fq
This parameter represents a finite field of prime order q.
P
This parameter represents a point of E that generates a prime subgroup of E(Fq) of order p.
xR
This parameter represents the elliptic curve scalar multiplication, where x is the scalar and R
is a point on E(Fq).
s
This parameter represents the value of the device transport key.
h
This parameter represents the SHA-512 hash of s.
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Protecting communication with a device
Best practice: Protecting plain text
messages that a device sends over the
wireless network
Plain text messages include SMS text messages, MMS messages, and PIN messages. A BlackBerry device can send SMS
text messages and MMS messages over a wireless TCP/IP connection.
Best practice
Description
Prevent a user from sending,
Consider the following guidelines:
forwarding, or replying to specific types
• Prevent a user from forwarding or replying to a message using a BlackBerry
of message on the device.
Enterprise Server that did not deliver the original message.
•
Prevent a user from using an email account to forward or reply to a PIN
message or reply to an email message with a PIN message.
To apply this best practice, you can use the Disable Forwarding Between
Services IT policy rule.
Prevent external connections to a
device.
Consider preventing applications on a device from opening external connections
(for example, to WAP, SMS, MMS, or other public gateways).
To apply this best practice, you can use the Allow External Connections IT policy
rule.
Require S/MIME encryption or PGP
encryption for PIN messages.
Consider preventing a user from sending PIN messages that are not S/MIME
encrypted or PGP encrypted if your organization uses a highly secure messaging
solution such as the S/MIME Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones or
the PGP Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones.
To apply this best practice, you can use the Disable Peer-to-Peer Normal Send
IT policy rule.
Prevent a device from using the global
PIN encryption key.
Considering the following guidelines:
•
Limit the number of devices in your organization’s environment that can
receive BlackBerry Messenger messages and PIN messages that use the
global PIN encryption key.
•
Limit the number of devices in your organization that can receive PIN
messages that use the PIN encryption key that is specific to your
organization, the global PIN encryption key, or both.
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Security Technical Overview
Best practice
Protecting communication with a device
Description
To apply this best practice, you can use the Firewall Block Incoming Messages
IT policy rule.
Require a user to verify whether the
user wants to send a message.
Consider configuring the device so that the user must verify whether the user
wants to send an email message, SMS text message, MMS message, or PIN
message.
To apply this best practice, you can use the Confirm on Send IT policy rule.
Turn off unsecured messaging on the
device.
Consider turning off unsecured messaging to make sure that all communication
for the device that starts in your organization travels through your organization’s
messaging environment.
To turn off SMS text messaging, you can use the Allow SMS IT policy rule.
To turn off MMS messaging, you can use the Disable MMS IT policy rule.
To turn off PIN messaging, you can use the Allow Peer-to-Peer Messages IT
policy rule. When you turn off PIN messaging, a user can receive PIN messages
on the device but cannot send PIN messages from the device.
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
protects connections between a device and
the Internet or intranet
A user can use the BlackBerry Browser and BlackBerry Applications on a BlackBerry device to access the Internet and
your organization’s intranet. The BlackBerry Browser and BlackBerry Java Applications can accept and respond to push
requests from push applications. The BlackBerry Browser and BlackBerry Java Applications use the BlackBerry MDS
Connection Service to access the Internet and your organization's intranet.
To access data on the Internet or your organization’s intranet, the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service uses HTTP, TCP/IP,
and the BlackBerry MDS security protocol. The BlackBerry MDS security protocol is a Research In Motion proprietary
protocol that is designed to protect messages that the device sends using the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service. The
BlackBerry MDS Connection Service and device use BlackBerry transport layer encryption to help protect your
organization’s applications and the Internet data that a user receives on the device.
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting communication with a device
Protecting HTTP connections from a device
to content servers and application servers
using HTTPS
If a third-party application on a BlackBerry device can access servers on the Internet, you can configure the BlackBerry
MDS Connection Service to use HTTPS to provide additional authentication and security for the connection. The device
supports HTTPS in proxy mode using a proxy server or in direct mode using TLS.
If you configure HTTPS using a proxy server, the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service uses cipher suite components of Sun
JSSE version 1.4.1 to open the connection for the device. Typically, HTTP connections open faster using a proxy server
than TLS.
If you configure HTTPS using TLS, the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service uses the TLS and WTLS key establishment
algorithms, symmetric algorithms, and hash algorithms that the RIM Cryptographic API supports to open the connection
for the device. The device uses TLS to encrypt data that an application sends to content servers. The BlackBerry MDS
Connection Service does not decrypt data that it sends over the wireless network. You can use TLS when only the end
points of the transaction are trusted (for example, with banking services). A device that is running BlackBerry Device
Software version 3.6.1 or later supports TLS for connections.
Warning messages for invalid certificates
If a BlackBerry device user visits a website that presents an invalid certificate, the BlackBerry device displays one of the
following warning messages:
Warning message
Description
Domain Name Mismatch
The server uses a domain name that does not match any of the domain names
in the server's certificate.
Expired Certificate
The certificate is expired.
Not Yet Valid
The certificate has not yet reached the date when it becomes valid.
Untrusted Certificate
The certificate cannot be trusted because there is a problem with the certificate
chain or the certification authority.
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting communication with a device
Warning message
Description
Weak Crypto Algorithm
Your organization considers the algorithm that is used in the certificate chain to
be weak.
Permitting TLS connections to websites that
use invalid certificates
If a BlackBerry device user visits a website that presents an invalid certificate, the BlackBerry device displays a warning
message to indicate that the security of the connection cannot be verified. The warning dialog box provides the user with
the following options:
•
Continue: the user should select this option if the user trusts the website. If the user selects Continue, the device adds
the website to the Server Exceptions list in the TLS settings on the device. The device does not display a warning
message for that web site again. The user can view or delete entries in the Server Exceptions list.
•
Stop: the user should select this option if the user does not trust the website. If the user selects Stop, the device closes
the connection between the device and the website.
•
Details: the user should select this option if the user is not sure about whether to trust the website. If the user selects
Details, the device shows information about the invalid certificate and permits the user to view the certificate.
When a website certificate changes
If the certificate for a website changes, the website is removed from the Server Exceptions list in the TLS settings on the
BlackBerry device. A device does not display a notification that the website was removed from the Server Exceptions list.
The next time that the BlackBerry device user visits the website after the website was removed from the list, if the new
certificate that the website presents is invalid, the device displays a warning message indicating that the security of the
connection cannot be verified. If the user trusts the website, the user must add the website to the Server Exceptions list
again.
When IT policy rule changes affect TLS settings
If you change the values for any IT policy rules in the TLS Application policy group that affect TLS settings, any websites in
the Server Exceptions list that are affected by the change remain in the Server Exceptions list. If a BlackBerry device user
connects to a website and encounters a TLS warning that is restricted by an IT policy rule, the website is removed from the
Server Exceptions list and the BlackBerry device displays a warning message indicating that the security of the connection
cannot be verified. The warning dialog box presents the user with the following options:
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting communication with a device
•
Stop: the user should select this option if the user wants to close the connection between the device and the website.
•
Details: the user should select this option if the user wants to see more information about why the certificate is invalid.
When the user selects Details, the device shows information about the invalid certificate and indicates that the policy
does not permit the connection.
For more information about IT policy rules, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Policy Reference Guide.
How a device protects a connection to a
WAP gateway
BlackBerry Device Software versions 3.2 SP1 and later supports WTLS, which is designed to provide additional security
when a BlackBerry device connects to a WAP gateway. A device can connect to a WAP gateway to access services that are
provided by your organization's wireless service provider or to access a web site. WTLS encrypts and decrypts information,
authenticates users, and provides data integrity.
For more information about WAP gateways, see your organization’s wireless service provider.
What happens to data that is not delivered
to a device
What happens to data that is not delivered because the
connection between a BlackBerry Enterprise Server
and the BlackBerry Infrastructure closes
Ten minutes after the connection between a BlackBerry Enterprise Server and the BlackBerry Infrastructure closes, the
BlackBerry Infrastructure notifies the sender’s BlackBerry device and deletes the message that is not delivered. The
wireless network can queue up to 5 undelivered messages for up to 7 days. If more than 5 undelivered messages exist in
the queue, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server stores the messages in the BlackBerry Configuration Database. The
BlackBerry Infrastructure does not store data to send to devices.
If the BlackBerry Infrastructure is not responding and the connection closes unexpectedly, the wireless network deletes the
undelivered messages. The device does not receive the messages and it does not send acknowledgment packets to the
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting communication with a device
BlackBerry Enterprise Server. When the BlackBerry Infrastructure becomes available again, the BlackBerry Enterprise
Server resends messages that it did not receive acknowledgment packets for.
What happens to data that is not delivered because a
device is not available on the wireless network
When a user sends a message from a BlackBerry device, the BlackBerry Infrastructure might not be able to deliver the
message to a device immediately if the device is not available on the wireless network. A device might not be available if it
is outside a wireless coverage area or if the device is turned off.
If the BlackBerry Infrastructure cannot deliver a message after 10 minutes, the BlackBerry Infrastructure notifies the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server and deletes the message. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server requests a notification message
from the BlackBerry Infrastructure when the device becomes available over the wireless network. When the device
becomes available over the wireless network, the BlackBerry Infrastructure notifies the BlackBerry Enterprise Server. The
BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends the message to the device.
If the message is not delivered after 7 days, the BlackBerry Infrastructure notifies the sender’s device that it cannot deliver
the message.
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting communications in your organization's environment
Protecting communications in
your organization's
environment
11
How a BlackBerry Enterprise Server and the
BlackBerry Infrastructure authenticate with
each other
The BlackBerry Infrastructure and BlackBerry Enterprise Server must authenticate with each other before they can
transfer data. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server uses SRP to authenticate with and connect to the BlackBerry
Infrastructure.
SRP is a point-to-point protocol that runs over TCP/IP. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server uses SRP to contact the
BlackBerry Infrastructure and open a connection. When the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and BlackBerry Infrastructure
open a connection, they perform the following actions:
•
authenticate with each other
•
exchange configuration information
•
send and receive data
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and BlackBerry Infrastructure use the SRP authentication key when they authenticate
with each other. The SRP authentication key is a 20-byte encryption key that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and
BlackBerry Infrastructure share.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends only outgoing traffic to a BlackBerry device using an authenticated connection to
the BlackBerry Infrastructure.
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Security Technical Overview
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What happens when a BlackBerry Enterprise Server
and the BlackBerry Infrastructure open an initial
connection
After a BlackBerry Enterprise Server and the BlackBerry Infrastructure open an initial connection over the Internet, the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server is designed to send a basic information packet to the BlackBerry Infrastructure immediately.
A basic information packet includes version information, SRP identifiers, and other information that is required to open an
SRP connection. Both the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and BlackBerry Infrastructure can recognize the basic information
packet. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and BlackBerry Infrastructure can use the basic information packet to configure
the parameters of the SRP implementation.
The BlackBerry Infrastructure does not send basic information packets to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server until after the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends a packet to the BlackBerry Infrastructure. This process permits the BlackBerry
Infrastructure to be backward compatible with previous BlackBerry Enterprise Server versions, which close the SRP
connection if they receive unrecognized basic information packets.
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution protects a
TCP/IP connection between a BlackBerry Enterprise
Server and the BlackBerry Infrastructure
After a BlackBerry Enterprise Server and the BlackBerry Infrastructure open an SRP connection, the BlackBerry Enterprise
Server uses a persistent TCP/IP connection to send data to the BlackBerry Infrastructure. The BlackBerry Infrastructure
uses wireless network protocols (for example, GSM or EDGE) to send data to the BlackBerry device. The TCP/IP connection
between the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and BlackBerry Infrastructure is designed to be highly secure in the following
ways:
•
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server deletes data traffic that it receives from any source other than the messaging server,
or from the device through the BlackBerry Infrastructure or BlackBerry Desktop Software.
•
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device use BlackBerry transport layer encryption to encrypt the data that they
send to each other. No intermediate point decrypts and encrypts the data again.
•
No data traffic of any kind can occur between the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and either the wireless network or the
device unless the BlackBerry Enterprise Server can decrypt the data using a valid device transport key. Only the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device have the correct device transport key.
You must configure your organization’s firewall or proxy server to permit the BlackBerry Enterprise Server to start and
maintain an outgoing connection to the BlackBerry Infrastructure over TCP port 3101.
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting communications in your organization's environment
Data flow: Authenticating a BlackBerry Enterprise
Server with the BlackBerry Infrastructure
1. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends a data packet that contains its unique SRP identifier to the BlackBerry
Infrastructure to claim the SRP identifier.
2. The BlackBerry Infrastructure sends a random challenge string to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server.
3. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends a challenge string to the BlackBerry Infrastructure.
4. The BlackBerry Infrastructure hashes the challenge string with the SRP authentication key using HMAC with the SHA-1
algorithm. The BlackBerry Infrastructure sends the resulting 20-byte value to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server as a
challenge string.
5. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server hashes the challenge string with the SRP authentication key, and sends a challenge
response to the BlackBerry Infrastructure.
6. The BlackBerry Infrastructure performs one of the following actions:
•
accepts the challenge response and sends a confirmation to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server to complete the
authentication process and configure an authenticated SRP connection
•
rejects the challenge response
If the BlackBerry Infrastructure rejects the challenge response, the authentication process is not successful. The
BlackBerry Infrastructure and BlackBerry Enterprise Server close the SRP connection. If a BlackBerry Enterprise
Server uses the same SRP authentication key and SRP identifier to connect to (and then disconnect from) the
BlackBerry Infrastructure 5 times in 1 minute, the BlackBerry Infrastructure deactivates the SRP identifier to help
prevent a potentially malicious user from using the SRP identifier to create conditions for a DoS attack.
How a BlackBerry Enterprise Server and
messaging server protect a connection to
each other
A BlackBerry Enterprise Server is designed to connect to the following messaging servers in a highly secure manner.
Messaging server
Description
IBM Domino
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and the Domino server communicate using
the Notes RPC protocol.
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Security Technical Overview
Messaging server
Protecting communications in your organization's environment
Description
A user who activates a BlackBerry device when the device is connected to a
computer can encrypt data that is in transit between the Domino server and a
Notes Inbox.
For more information, see the online help for Domino.
Microsoft Exchange
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and Microsoft Exchange Server can
communicate using Microsoft Exchange Web Services or the Microsoft
Exchange Server RPC protocol over a MAPI connection.
When the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and Microsoft Exchange Server
communicate using Microsoft Exchange Web Services they use an SSL
connection.
A user can use 128-bit encryption to encrypt RPC communication over the MAPI
connection between the Microsoft Exchange server and Microsoft Outlook. For
more information about turning on encryption, see the documentation for
Microsoft Exchange
.
Novell GroupWise
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server is designed to use a trusted application key to
open a connection to the Novell GroupWise server. To generate the trusted
application key, an administrator of Novell GroupWise runs the trusted
application key generator, specifies the location of the primary domain of Novell
GroupWise, and specifies the application name that the BlackBerry Enterprise
Server can use to connect to the Novell GroupWise server. The trusted
application key is a 64-byte ASCII string.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server connects to a user’s mailbox in a highly secure
manner using the trusted application key. The Novell GroupWise server verifies
the trusted application key and permits the BlackBerry Enterprise Server to
open a connection to the Novell GroupWise database for the user.
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
components and the BlackBerry MVS
protect communication
BlackBerry Enterprise Server components and the BlackBerry Mobile Voice System use the BlackBerry inter-process
protocol to help protect the data that the components send to each other. The BlackBerry inter-process protocol uses a
communication password to generate a session key that encrypts the data that the components send to each other. The
BlackBerry Collaboration Service, BlackBerry MDS Connection Service, BlackBerry Policy Service, BlackBerry
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting communications in your organization's environment
Synchronization Service, and BlackBerry MVS share a communication password. The BlackBerry Messaging Agent and
BlackBerry Dispatcher share a different communication password. The communication passwords are designed to prevent
a potentially malicious user from viewing data that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server components and the BlackBerry MVS
send to each other.
When a BlackBerry Enterprise Server component or the BlackBerry MVS opens a connection to the BlackBerry Dispatcher,
the BlackBerry inter-process protocol is designed to use SPEKE to generate the session key. The key generation process
uses the communication password of the BlackBerry Enterprise Server component or BlackBerry MVS and generates an
AES-256 encryption key, which is the session key. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server components and BlackBerry MVS use
the session key to encrypt the data that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server components and BlackBerry MVS sends to other
BlackBerry Enterprise Server components that share the same communication password.
How the BlackBerry Desktop Manager
protects communication using the
BlackBerry inter-process protocol
The application loader tool of the BlackBerry Desktop Manager or the Roxio Media Manager for BlackBerry smartphones
can prompt BlackBerry Desktop Manager version 4.2 or later for the BlackBerry device password.
To protect the BlackBerry device password, when the application loader tool or Roxio Media Manager for BlackBerry
smartphones connects to the BlackBerry Desktop Manager, the BlackBerry Desktop Manager uses the BlackBerry interprocess protocol.
The application loader tool and Roxio Media Manager for BlackBerry smartphones share a communication password with
the BlackBerry Desktop Manager. The BlackBerry inter-process protocol is designed to use the communication password
to protect any communication between the BlackBerry Desktop Manager and the application loader tool or Roxio Media
Manager for BlackBerry smartphones.
Data flow: Authenticating the application loader tool or
Roxio Media Manager with the BlackBerry Desktop
Software using the BlackBerry inter-process protocol
1. The application loader tool of the BlackBerry Desktop Software or Roxio Media Manager opens a connection to
BlackBerry Desktop Software version 4.2 or later.
2. The BlackBerry Desktop Software implementation of the BlackBerry inter-process protocol performs the following
actions:
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Security Technical Overview
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a
uses a shared secret password (also known as the communication password) and the ECDH protocol with a 521-bit
curve to create a device transport key
b
uses the device transport key to create two encryption keys and two HMAC-SHA-256 keys
c
uses one encryption key and one HMAC key to encrypt and authenticate data that BlackBerry Desktop Software
version 4.2 or later sends over the communication channel to the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution components that
share the communication password
The BlackBerry inter-process protocol uses one encryption key and one HMAC key to encrypt and authenticate data that
BlackBerry Desktop Software version 4.2 receives over the communication channel from the application loader tool or
Roxio Media Manager.
How the BlackBerry Collaboration Service
connects to an instant messaging server
and collaboration clients on devices
The BlackBerry Collaboration Service is designed to connect to an instant messaging server and the collaboration clients
on BlackBerry devices. If your organization’s instant messaging server is Microsoft Office Live Communications Server
2005 or Microsoft Office Communications Server 2007, the BlackBerry Collaboration Service connects to the Microsoft
Office Communicator Web Access server using HTTPS or HTTP.
Protecting your organization’s resources
when using BlackBerry MDS Connection
Service integrated authentication
You can configure the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service to support Integrated Windows authentication so that
BlackBerry device users can access the intranet or shared files from the BlackBerry Browser or the Files application on
devices. By default, if you configure the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service and users access the intranet or a shared file,
the users must authenticate with your organization’s domain controller by providing their Microsoft Active Directory
account passwords. In BlackBerry Enterprise Server 5.0 SP2, you can configure the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service
so that users are not required to type a password each time they want to access a resource.
If you configure the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service to support Integrated Windows authentication, the BlackBerry
MDS Connection Service uses the Kerberos protocol and constrained delegation to help protect your organization’s
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting communications in your organization's environment
environment and authenticate and authorize users. The Kerberos protocol is designed to permit the BlackBerry MDS
Connection Service to verify user accounts in Microsoft Active Directory. Constrained delegation is designed to limit the
resources that the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service can provide authenticated users access to.
If you want to configure both BlackBerry Administration Service single sign-on and BlackBerry MDS Connection Service
integrated authentication, you should configure separate Microsoft Active Directory accounts for the BlackBerry
Administration Service and BlackBerry MDS Connection Service.
Architecture: BlackBerry MDS Connection Service
integrated authentication
Component
Description
BlackBerry MDS Connection Service
The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service permits BlackBerry device users to
access web content, the Internet, or your organization's intranet. It also permits
applications on devices to connect to your organization's application servers or
content servers for application data and updates.
domain controller
A domain controller is a server that authenticates and authorizes Windows users
and Windows servers with a Windows domain.
Microsoft Active Directory
Microsoft Active Directory is an LDAP directory that stores user information.
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Security Technical Overview
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How the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service uses
Kerberos to help protect your organization's resources
BlackBerry MDS Connection Service integrated authentication is designed to use the Kerberos protocol and constrained
delegation to authenticate BlackBerry device users in your organization’s network in a highly secure manner. BlackBerry
MDS Connection Service authenticates with Microsoft Active Directory on behalf of users, verify the users' identities, and
retrieve the resource on behalf of the users.
The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service hosts a Kerberos service that permits it to verify users. To support BlackBerry
MDS Connection Service integrated authentication, you must configure Microsoft Active Directory accounts in the
Microsoft Active Directory domains that include the resources and configure constrained delegation for the Microsoft
Active Directory accounts. To configure constrained delegation, you must configure the Microsoft Active Directory
accounts to trust only the Kerberos service that is hosted by the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service.
When the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service starts, it authenticates with the Microsoft Active Directory domain using the
Microsoft Active Directory account. The domain controller issues the Kerberos keys and Kerberos service ticket to the
Kerberos service. The Kerberos keys permit the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service to verify the Kerberos service tickets
for users.
Identifying the resources that users can access using
BlackBerry MDS Connection Service integrated
authentication
If you configure the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service to support the Kerberos protocol and constrained delegation, you
must use the BlackBerry Administration Service to specify the pull rules that identify the shared files or intranet resources
that you want to permit Integrated Windows authentication for. You must assign the pull rules to groups or user accounts so
that the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service can determine which user accounts to apply the pull rules to. Pull rules
permit you to specify the shared files or intranet resources in your organization’s network that you want users to access
from BlackBerry devices and the authentication method that you want users to use to access the shared files or Intranet
resources.
For information about configuring pull rules, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Administration Guide.
Data flow: Retrieving a resource when using
BlackBerry MDS Connection Service integrated
authentication
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting communications in your organization's environment
1. The BlackBerry device user navigates to a resource on your organization’s intranet or on a file share (for example, a
web page or shared file) using the BlackBerry Browser or Files application on the BlackBerry device.
2. The device encrypts and compresses an HTTP request for the resource and sends the encrypted HTTP request to the
BlackBerry Router using BlackBerry transport layer encryption.
3. The BlackBerry Router forwards the encrypted HTTP request to the BlackBerry Dispatcher.
4. The BlackBerry Dispatcher decrypts and decompresses the HTTP request and forwards the request to the BlackBerry
MDS Connection Service.
5. The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service performs the following actions:
•
verifies whether the resource is located in a Microsoft Active Directory domain that is configured for Integrated
Windows authentication
•
checks the pull rules assigned to the user accounts and verifies that the user must use Integrated Windows
authentication to access the resource
•
connects to the Microsoft Active Directory using its Microsoft Active Directory account that is configured for
constrained delegation
•
retrieves the Microsoft Active Directory user name for the user from Microsoft Active Directory
•
retrieves the Kerberos service ticket for the user from Microsoft Active Directory using the S4U2proxy extension
•
encodes the service ticket using Base-64 encoding and adds the service ticket to the header of the HTTP request
•
resends the request for the resource to the web server or file system that hosts the resource
6. The web server or file system returns the resource to BlackBerry MDS Connection Service.
7. The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service forwards the resource to the BlackBerry Dispatcher.
8. The BlackBerry Dispatcher encrypts and compresses the resource and splits it into packages and sends the packages
to the BlackBerry Router.
9. The BlackBerry Router sends the packages to the device using BlackBerry transport layer encryption.
10. The device decrypts and decompresses the packages and displays the resource to the user.
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Protecting your organization’s resources
when you configure BlackBerry
Administration Service single sign-on
You can configure the BlackBerry Administration Service so that administrators or BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager users
must log in to the BlackBerry Administration Service console or BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager using Microsoft Active
Directory authentication. If you configure the BlackBerry Administration Service to support Microsoft Active Directory
authentication in BlackBerry Enterprise Server 5.0 SP2, you can also configure single sign-on so that administrators or
users can access the BlackBerry Administration Service console or BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager directly without
logging in.
If you configure single sign-on, the BlackBerry Administration Service uses the Kerberos protocol and constrained
delegation to help protect your organization’s environment and authenticate and authorize administrators and users. The
Kerberos protocol is designed to permit the BlackBerry Administration Service to verify administrator accounts and user
accounts in Microsoft Active Directory. Constrained delegation is designed to limit the resources that the BlackBerry
Administration Service can provide authenticated administrators and users access to.
Architecture: BlackBerry Administration Service single
sign-on
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Component
Description
BlackBerry Administration Service
The BlackBerry Administration Service permits you to manage the BlackBerry
Domain, which includes BlackBerry Enterprise Server components, user
accounts, and features for BlackBerry device administration.
domain controller
A domain controller is a server that authenticates and authorizes Windows users
and Windows servers with a Windows domain.
Microsoft Active Directory
Microsoft Active Directory is an LDAP directory that stores user information.
How BlackBerry Administration Service single sign-on
uses Kerberos to help protect your organization’s
resources
BlackBerry Administration Service single sign-on implements Kerberos authentication which permits the BlackBerry
Administration Service to authenticate administrators and BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager users in your organization’s
network in a highly secure manner.
The BlackBerry Administration Service includes two Kerberos services that it uses to authenticate with browsers. The
BlackBerry Administration Service application server and BlackBerry Administration Service web server host the Kerberos
services. The BlackBerry Administration Service requires two Kerberos services so that it can authenticate the web layer
and application layer. The Kerberos service that the BlackBerry Administration Service web server hosts verifies requests
from browsers to access the web layer. The Kerberos service that the BlackBerry Administration Service application server
hosts verifies requests from the BlackBerry Administration Service web server to access the application layer.
The Kerberos services are identified using SPNs that you create and assign to a Microsoft Active Directory account. You
must create the Microsoft Active Directory account as a Kerberos service account in the Microsoft Active Directory domain
that includes the BlackBerry Administration Service and configure constrained delegation for the Microsoft Active
Directory account. You must configure the Microsoft Active Directory account to trust only the Kerberos service that the
BlackBerry Administration Service application server hosts for constrained delegation and only when the BlackBerry
Administration Service application service is using Kerberos.
If your organization’s environment includes multiple Microsoft Active Directory account forests, you must configure a
Microsoft Active Directory account for each account forest. However, you do not need to configure constrained delegation
for the Microsoft Active Directory accounts that you configure in the account forests.
How the BlackBerry Administration Service completes
Kerberos authentication
When the BlackBerry Administration Service starts, it authenticates with the Microsoft Active Directory domain using the
Microsoft Active Directory account. The domain controller issues the Kerberos keys and Kerberos service ticket for the two
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Kerberos services. The Kerberos keys permit the BlackBerry Administration Service to verify the Kerberos service tickets
that browsers send during single sign-on.
Browsers that support Integrated Windows authentication can obtain the Kerberos service ticket automatically for the
BlackBerry Administration Service when administrators or users browse to the BlackBerry Administration Service console
or BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager.
The Kerberos service that the BlackBerry Administration Service web server hosts uses its Kerberos keys to verify the
Kerberos service tickets that browsers send when they request access to the BlackBerry Administration Service console or
BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager. If the Kerberos service tickets are valid, the BlackBerry Administration Service web
server delegates the request to the BlackBerry Administration Service application server.
To delegate the request, the BlackBerry Administration Service web server creates a service ticket using its identity for the
Kerberos service that the BlackBerry Administration Service application server hosts. When the Kerberos service that the
BlackBerry Administration Service application server hosts verifies the service ticket, the BlackBerry Administration
Service completes the Kerberos authentication process for the administrators or users and the administrators or users can
view the BlackBerry Administration Service console home page or BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager home page.
Data flow: Accessing the BlackBerry Administration
Service console and BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager
when you configure BlackBerry Administration Service
single sign-on
1. An administrator or a BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager user uses a browser to navigate to the BlackBerry
Administration Service web page (https://<BAS_pool_FQDN>/webconsole/login) or BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager
web page (https://<BAS_pool_FQDN>/webdesktop/login).
2. The BlackBerry Administration Service web server sends an HTTP Negotiate request to the browser to start single signon authentication.
For more information about the HTTP Negotiate request, see http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms995330.aspx.
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3. The browser retrieves the TGT of the administrator or user from the ticket cache on the computer that the administrator
or user is using.
The browser uses the TGT to request the service ticket for the BlackBerry Administration Service web server (which is
named HTTP/<BAS_pool_FQDN>) from the domain controller.
4. The domain controller provides the browser with the service ticket for the BlackBerry Administration Service web
server.
5. The browser sends the service ticket to the BlackBerry Administration Service web server in response to the HTTPNegotiate request.
6. The BlackBerry Administration Service web server performs the following actions:
•
It validates the service ticket using the Kerberos key that it received from the domain controller when the
BlackBerry Administration Service services started.
•
It requests a service ticket for the BlackBerry Administration Service application server (which is named
BASPLUGIN111/<BAS_pool_FQDN>) on behalf of the user.
7. The domain controller provides the BlackBerry Administration Service web server with the service ticket for the
BlackBerry Administration Service application server.
8. The BlackBerry Administration Service web server sends the service ticket to the BlackBerry Administration Service
application server.
9. The BlackBerry Administration Service application server performs the following actions:
•
It validates the service ticket using the Kerberos key that it received from the domain controller when the
BlackBerry Administration Service services started. If the service ticket is valid, the administrator or user is
authenticated successfully with the BlackBerry Administration Service using Kerberos.
•
It checks if the administrator or user is a BlackBerry device user or a BlackBerry Administration Service
administrator.
•
It checks the role of the administrator or user and assigns the administrator or user the permissions that are
associated with the role.
•
It sends a security session to the BlackBerry Administration Service web server for the administrator or user.
10. The BlackBerry Administration Service web server redirects the administrator or user to the BlackBerry Administration
Service console home page or BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager home page.
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Security Technical Overview
Activating a device
Activating a device
12
When a user activates a BlackBerry device, the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution authenticates the user and associates the
device with a BlackBerry Enterprise Server. During the activation process, the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution generates a
device transport key.
A user can activate the device over the wireless network, when the device is connected to a computer that is running the
BlackBerry Desktop Software, or when the device is connected to a computer and the user is logged in to the BlackBerry
Web Desktop Manager or BlackBerry Administration Service. The user must have a valid email address so that the user can
activate the device and register the device with the wireless network.
Activating a device over the wireless
network
If a user activates a BlackBerry device over the wireless network, the user must authenticate with the device using an
activation password that you provide. You can create an activation password using the BlackBerry Administration Service
and communicate it to the user. You can also use IT policy rules to configure password requirements (such as duration,
length, and strength), to specify password patterns, and to prevent specific passwords. For more information, see the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server Policy Reference Guide.
The device uses the activation password to generate the device transport key. The device transport key authenticates the
user and is designed to secure communication between the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device.
An activation password has the following characteristics:
•
applies to the user’s email account
•
is not valid after five unsuccessful attempts to activate the device
•
expires if the user does not activate the device within the default period of time (48 hours), or a period of up to 720
hours that you can specify when you create the activation password
After the user activates the device, the BlackBerry Enterprise Server deletes the activation password. The user cannot use
the same activation password to activate other devices.
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Activating a device
Data flow: Activating a device over the
wireless network
1. A user opens the activation application on the BlackBerry device, and types the appropriate email address and
activation password.
2. The device sends an activation request to the BlackBerry Infrastructure using standard BlackBerry protocols. The
BlackBerry Infrastructure uses SMTP to send an activation message to the user’s email account. The activation
message contains routing information for the device and public keys.
3. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends an activation response to the device. The activation response contains routing
information for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and the long-term public keys of the BlackBerry Enterprise Server.
4. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device use the initial key establishment protocol to generate a device transport
key and verify it. If the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device mutually verify the device transport key, the activation
process proceeds. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device use the device transport key to encrypt further
communication between each other without sending the device transport key over the wireless network.
5. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions:
•
sends the appropriate service books to the device so that the user can send messages from and receive messages
on the device
•
sends data (such as calendar entries, contacts, tasks, memos, and device options) to the device, if you turn on
wireless organizer data synchronization and wireless backup
For more information about the activation process, see the BlackBerry Wireless Enterprise Activation Technical Overview.
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Security Technical Overview
Managing certificates on a device
Managing certificates on a
device
13
Purpose of certificates on a device
A certificate is a digital document that binds the identity and public key of a certificate subject. Each certificate has a
corresponding private key that is stored separately. A certification authority signs the certificate to verify that it can be
trusted.
A BlackBerry device can use certificates to:
•
Authenticate using SSL when it connects to web pages that use HTTPS
•
Encrypt and sign email messages and PIN messages using S/MIME encryption
•
Authenticate with an enterprise Wi-Fi network
Importing certificates onto a device
To permit a BlackBerry device to use certificates, you or a BlackBerry device user must import the certificates into the key
store database in application storage. To import certificates, you or the user can use one or more of the following methods:
•
Download certificates from the user's computer using the certificate synchronization tool in BlackBerry Desktop
Software
•
Enroll certificates over the wireless network
•
Copy certificates from a media card or smart card
•
Import certificates from an email attachment
To enroll certificates over the wireless network or copy them from a media card or smart card, you must use a device that is
running BlackBerry Device Software 5.0 or later.
After you or the user imports the certificates, the device adds the certificates to the certificate list on the device.
For more information about how to import certificates, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Administration Guide and the
user guide for the device.
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Managing certificates on a device
Configuring BlackBerry devices to enroll
certificates over the wireless network
You can configure the BlackBerry Enterprise Server to permit BlackBerry devices to enroll certificates that the devices can
use with any PKI-enabled application or process. You can permit devices to enroll the certificates instead of instructing
users to send the certificates to themselves in an email message or use the certificate synchronization tool in the
BlackBerry Desktop Software. When you configure the BlackBerry Enterprise Server to permit devices to enroll certificates,
you can control how users request certificates and which certification authority issues the certificates.
For example, you might want Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry devices to enroll certificates so that they can authenticate to an
enterprise Wi-Fi network.
You can enroll certificates from one of the following certification authorities:
•
RSA certification authority
•
Microsoft standalone certification authority
•
Microsoft enterprise certification authority
During the enrollment process, the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service can verify the certificate if the certificate includes
an email address in the subject DN. The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service verifies the certificate by checking if the
email address in the subject DN of the certificate matches the email address that is assigned to the device. For more
information about the enrollment process, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution Security Technical Overview.
You can make the certificate enrollment process required so that devices automatically start the certificate enrollment
process after the devices receive the updated IT policy from the BlackBerry Enterprise Server. If you do not make the
certificate enrollment process required, you must instruct users to start the CA Profile Manager on the devices manually.
Managing an enrolled certificate
After a BlackBerry device enrolls a certificate, the CA Profile Manager monitors the certificate's expiry date and revocation
status. When the expiry date approaches or the certification authority revokes the certificate, the CA Profile Manager
generates a new public-private key pair, and starts the certificate enrollment process for a new certificate.
The certificate enrollment process can also start again if you change the following IT policy rules and resend the IT policy:
•
Certificate Authority Profile Name
•
Certificate Authority Type
•
Certificate Authority Host
•
Common Name Components
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Security Technical Overview
•
Custom Microsoft Certificate Authority Certificate Template
•
Distinguished Name Components
•
Key Algorithm
•
Key Length
•
Microsoft Certificate Authority Certificate Template
•
RSA Certificate Authority Certificate ID
•
RSA Jurisdiction ID
Managing certificates on a device
A certificate enrollment process does not delete the existing certificate from the device key store or notify the certification
authority that the certificate is no longer in use. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server deletes the existing certificate from the
BlackBerry Configuration Database when the certificate enrollment process starts for a new certificate.
Also, if a certificate is expired or revoked, you or a BlackBerry device user can update the certificates on the device using
the certificate synchronization tool in the BlackBerry Desktop Software or by copying an updated certificate from a media
card or smart card.
For more information about deleting or revoking certificates, see the user guide for the device.
Determining the status of certificates using
a CRL or OCSP
To determine the status of a certificate, you can configure the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service to access CRL servers
and OCSP servers on behalf of a BlackBerry device. The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service can retrieve the status of the
certificate and provide the status to the device.
For more information about configuring the CRL servers and OCSP servers that the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service
uses to retrieve the status of certificates, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Administration Guide. For more information
about certificate status indicators, see the user guide for the device.
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Managing certificates on a device
Data flow: Enrolling a certificate when the
certification authority approves certificate
requests automatically
After a BlackBerry device receives an IT policy that includes a certification authority profile, the enrollment process can
start automatically, or you can instruct a user to start it. This process flow assumes that the certification authority in your
organization's environment is a Microsoft enterprise certification authority.
1. The CA Profile Manager on the device generates the key pair for the certificate.
2. The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service authenticates the user.
3. The device requests the user's distinguished name from the BlackBerry Enterprise Server.
4. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server retrieves the user's distinguished name from the messaging server and sends the
distinguished name to the device.
5. The device encrypts the key pair, and stores the key pair, distinguished name, and profile ID for the certification
authority in the persistent store in flash memory.
6. The CA Profile Manager creates the PKCS #10 certificate request, and signs it with the private key.
7. The device sends the certificate request, profile ID for the certification authority, and Windows login information to the
BlackBerry MDS Connection Service.
8. The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service performs one of the following actions:
•
sends the certificate chain to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server if the certificate chain is in the BlackBerry MDS
Connection Service cache
•
retrieves the certificate chain from the certification authority and sends it to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server if the
certificate chain is not in the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service cache
9. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends the certificate chain to the device.
10. The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service sends a status update to the device and sends the certificate request to the
certification authority that is associated with the profile ID.
11. The certification authority issues the certificate, publishes it to the LDAP server, and notifies the BlackBerry MDS
Connection Service that the certificate is available.
12. The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service performs the following actions:
a
retrieves the certificate from the LDAP server that the certification authority publishes the certificate to
b
sends the certificate to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
13. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions:
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Security Technical Overview
Managing certificates on a device
a
verifies the certificate by checking whether the public key matches the public key that is stored in the BlackBerry
Configuration Database
b
sends the certificate to the device over the wireless network
14. The device adds the certificate and private key to the key store.
Data flow: Enrolling a certificate when a
certification authority administrator
approves certificate requests
After a BlackBerry device receives an IT policy that includes a certification authority profile, the enrollment process can
start automatically or you can instruct a user to start it. This process flow assumes that the certification authority in your
organization's environment is a Microsoft enterprise certification authority.
1. The CA Profile Manager on the device generates the key pair for the certificate.
2. The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service authenticates the user.
3. The device requests the user's distinguished name from the BlackBerry Enterprise Server.
4. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server retrieves the user's distinguished name from the messaging server and sends the
distinguished name to the device.
5. The device encrypts the key pair, and stores the key pair, distinguished name, and profile ID for the certification
authority in the persistent store in flash memory.
6. The CA Profile Manager creates the PKCS #10 certificate request and signs it with the private key.
7. The device sends the certificate request, profile ID for the certification authority, and Windows login information to the
BlackBerry MDS Connection Service.
8. The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service performs one of the following actions:
•
sends the certificate chain to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server if the certificate chain is in the BlackBerry MDS
Connection Service cache
•
retrieves the certificate chain from the certification authority and sends it to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server if the
certificate chain is not in the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service cache
9. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends the certificate chain to the device.
10. The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service sends a status update to the device and sends the certification request to the
certification authority that is associated with the profile ID.
11. The certification authority performs the following actions:
a
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waits for the certification authority administrator to approve the certificate request
Security Technical Overview
b
Managing certificates on a device
after the certification authority administrator approves the certificate request, issues the certificate, and sends the
certificate to the user in an email message
12. The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service performs the following actions:
a
polls the user's mailbox on the messaging server, at specified intervals, for the certificate
b
sends the certificate to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server after the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service retrieves the
certificate
13. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions:
a
verifies the certificate by checking whether the public key matches the public key that is stored in the BlackBerry
Configuration Database
b
sends the certificate to the device over the wireless network
14. The device adds the certificate and private key to the key store.
Data flow: Enrolling a certificate using an
RSA certification authority
After a BlackBerry device receives an IT policy that includes a certification authority profile, the enrollment process can
start automatically or you can instruct a user to start it.
1. The CA Profile Manager on the device generates the key pair for the certificate.
2. The device requests the user's distinguished name from the BlackBerry Enterprise Server.
3. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server retrieves the user's distinguished name from the messaging server and sends the
distinguished name to the device.
4. The device encrypts the key pair, and stores the key pair, distinguished name, and profile ID for the certification
authority in the persistent store in flash memory.
5. The CA Profile Manager creates the PKCS #10 certificate request and signs it with the private key.
6. The device sends the certificate request and the name of the certification authority profile to the BlackBerry MDS
Connection Service.
7. The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service performs one of the following actions:
•
sends the certificate chain to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server if the certificate chain is in the BlackBerry MDS
Connection Service cache
•
retrieves the certificate chain from the certification authority and sends it to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server if the
certificate chain is not in the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service cache
8. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends the certificate chain to the device.
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Managing certificates on a device
9. The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service sends a status update to the device and sends the certificate request to the
certification authority that is associated with the name of the certification authority profile.
10. The certification authority performs the following actions:
a
waits for the certification authority administrator to approve the certificate request
b
after the certification authority administrator approves the certificate request, issues the certificate, and sends the
URL for the certificate in an email message to the user
11. The BlackBerry Messaging Agent receives the email message and extracts the issue ID of the message from the URL
and stores it in the BlackBerry Configuration Database.
12. The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service performs the following actions:
a
polls the BlackBerry Configuration Database every 5 minutes for the issue ID of the message, reconstructs the URL,
and sends the URL to the certification authority to retrieve the certificate
b
sends the certificate to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server after retrieving the certificate
13. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server perfoms the following actions:
a
verifies the certificate by checking whether the public key matches the public key that is stored in the BlackBerry
Configuration Database
b
sends the certificate to the device over the wireless network
14. The device adds the certificate and private key to the key store.
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting BlackBerry Device Software updates
Protecting BlackBerry Device
Software updates
14
Protecting BlackBerry Device Software
updates over the wireless network
You can update the BlackBerry Device Software on a BlackBerry device over the wireless network. You can use the
BlackBerry Administration Service to search for updates that match the device and wireless service provider, and send the
updates. You can also permit your organization's wireless service provider to send the BlackBerry Device Software
updates.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution protects the BlackBerry Device Software updates using encryption, IT policies, content
protection, and battery power requirements.
For more information about BlackBerry Device Software updates, see the BlackBerry Device Software Update Guide.
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution protects
BlackBerry Device Software updates over the wireless
network using encryption
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server, BlackBerry Infrastructure, BlackBerry Provisioning System administration web site, and
BlackBerry device protect data for BlackBerry Device Software updates over the wireless network. You can use the
BlackBerry Provisioning System administration web site when you want to permit your organization’s wireless service
provider to update the BlackBerry Device Software.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device encrypt all data that they send between each other, including BlackBerry
Device Software updates, using BlackBerry transport layer encryption.
The device validates the digital signatures of the following information to verify integrity:
•
control messages that the device receives from the BlackBerry Infrastructure or BlackBerry Provisioning System
administration web site
•
BlackBerry Device Software update instructions that the device requests and receives from the BlackBerry
Infrastructure or BlackBerry Provisioning System administration web site
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Protecting BlackBerry Device Software updates
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution protects
BlackBerry Device Software updates over the wireless
network using IT policies and content protection
The default values for the Default IT policy determine that only the BlackBerry Enterprise Server can send available
updates and request a BlackBerry device to update the BlackBerry Device Software. A wireless service provider cannot
send available BlackBerry Device Software updates to the device unless you change the value for the Allow Non Enterprise
Upgrade IT policy rule to Yes.
When you or a user turns on the content protection feature on a device, the device protects user data in the following ways:
•
requires the user to type the device password before the BlackBerry Device Software update process can back up or
restore user data
•
requires the device to encrypt stored user data during the BlackBerry Device Software update process
Battery power requirements for BlackBerry Device
Software updates over the wireless network
The battery power level on a BlackBerry device must be 50% or greater for the BlackBerry device to retrieve an update
package over the wireless network. If the battery power level is below the minimum requirement, the update process
suspends. The BlackBerry device prompts the user to recharge the battery and start the BlackBerry Device Software
update process again. If the battery power level returns to 50%, the BlackBerry device resumes retrieving the update
package from the BlackBerry Infrastructure.
The battery power requirement is designed to protect the BlackBerry device against attacks from a potentially malicious
user who might try to take advantage of low battery power during a BlackBerry Device Software update.
Data flow: Preparing to send a BlackBerry Device
Software update over the wireless network
Before the BlackBerry Infrastructure sends a BlackBerry Device Software update to a BlackBerry device, the BlackBerry
Infrastructure performs the following actions:
1. generates an ECDSA key periodically using ECC over a 521-bit curve
2. signs the ECDSA key using a stored root certificate
3. signs the BlackBerry Device Software update that it sends to the BlackBerry device using the digitally signed ECDSA
key
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Security Technical Overview
Protecting BlackBerry Device Software updates
How a device validates a BlackBerry Device Software
update over the wireless network
When a BlackBerry device receives a BlackBerry Device Software update from the BlackBerry Infrastructure, it verifies that
the ECDSA key uses a public key that is shared by all devices that support BlackBerry Device Software updates over the
wireless network. The device verifies the digital signature on the ECDSA key using a stored root certificate.
Updating the BlackBerry Device Software
from an update web site
You can configure the IT policy rules that are included in the Wired Software Updates policy group to permit a user to
update the BlackBerry Device Software from an update web site using the BlackBerry Desktop Manager or BlackBerry
Application Web Loader. The user can use the update process to update the BlackBerry Device Software from a computer
that is outside your organization’s network (for example, from home).
During the update process, a BlackBerry device activates itself automatically over the wireless network so that the user can
use a computer that is outside your organization’s network to update the BlackBerry Device Software. When a user who
does not use the BlackBerry Desktop Manager visits the update web site, the user must download and install Microsoft
ActiveX components on the computer before the user can update the BlackBerry Device Software. The update process can
take from 15 minutes to 2 hours, depending on the type of update, amount of device data, and number of applications that
are installed on the device. A user cannot use the device or make emergency calls during the update process.
BlackBerry Device Software versions 5.0 and later, BlackBerry Desktop Manager versions 5.0.1 and later, and BlackBerry
Application Web Loader versions 1.1.0 and later support BlackBerry Device Software updates from an update web site.
For more information about the IT policy rules that are included in the Wired Software Updates policy group, see the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server Policy Reference Guide. For more information about the BlackBerry Application Web Loader,
see the BlackBerry Application Web Loader Developer Guide.
Protecting cryptographic services data when updating
the BlackBerry Device Software from an update web
site
When a user updates the BlackBerry Device Software from an update web site, the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution backs
up cryptographic services data (for example, cryptographic keys and service books) from a BlackBerry device to the user’s
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Protecting BlackBerry Device Software updates
computer. To protect the cryptographic services data, the device encrypts the cryptographic services data using a
BlackBerry services key.
The device stores the BlackBerry services key in the NV store in flash memory. Neither the user nor third-party applications
can access the location in the NV store where the device stores the BlackBerry services key. If you or a user turns on
content protection, the device also encrypts the BlackBerry services key using the content protection key.
After the device encrypts the cryptographic services data, the BlackBerry Desktop Manager or BlackBerry Application Web
Loader backs up the encrypted cryptographic services data to a database and stores the database on the user’s computer
as an .ipd file.
When the update process completes, the BlackBerry Desktop Manager or BlackBerry Application Web Loader restores the
cryptographic services data to the device. Only the device that encrypted the cryptographic services data can decrypt the
cryptographic services data. The device can decrypt the cryptographic services data only once. The device deletes the
BlackBerry services key from the NV store after the device decrypts the cryptographic services data.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution does not back up or restore cryptographic services data except during the BlackBerry
Device Software update process from an update web site. When the user backs up or restores device data by selecting the
backup and restore options in the BlackBerry Desktop Manager, the back up and restore processes do not access
cryptographic services data.
Data flow: Generating a BlackBerry services key that
protects cryptographic services data
The BlackBerry device uses an ephemeral AES-256 encryption key (called the BlackBerry services key) to encrypt the
cryptographic services data. To generate the BlackBerry services key, the device performs the following actions:
1. generates a random password from a random source of 32 bytes
2. generates a random salt from a random source of 8 bytes
3. concatenates the salt, password, and salt again into a byte array (for example, Salt|Password|Salt)
4. hashes the byte array using SHA-256
5. stores the resulting hash in a byte array that is called a key
(key) =
SHA256(Salt|Password|Salt)
6. hashes the key 18 more times and stores the result in a key each time
For example, for i=0 to 18, the device performs the following actions:
(key) = SHA256(key)
i++
done
The final hash creates the BlackBerry services key.
7. stores the BlackBerry services key in a location of the NV store that third-party applications and the user cannot access
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Protecting BlackBerry Device Software updates
Data flow: Backing up cryptographic services data
using the BlackBerry Desktop Manager
1. A user connects a BlackBerry device to the BlackBerry Desktop Manager and selects the option to update the
BlackBerry Device Software.
2. The BlackBerry Desktop Manager determines that cryptographic services data require backup during the update
process. It sends the device a command to encrypt the cryptographic services data.
3. The device performs the following actions:
a
generates a BlackBerry services key and stores the BlackBerry services key in the NV store
b
encrypts the cryptographic services data using the BlackBerry services key
c
encrypts the BlackBerry services key using the content protection key if you or the user turns on content protection
4. The BlackBerry Desktop Manager backs up the encrypted cryptographic services data in a database on the user’s
computer as an .ipd file.
Data flow: Restoring cryptographic services data using
the BlackBerry Desktop Manager or BlackBerry
Application Web Loader
1. After the update process completes, the BlackBerry Desktop Manager or BlackBerry Application Web Loader
determines that cryptographic services data must be restored to the BlackBerry device. The BlackBerry Desktop
Manager or BlackBerry Application Web Loader sends a device a command to restore the cryptographic services data.
2. The device performs the following actions:
a
retrieves the BlackBerry services key and verifies that the BlackBerry services key was not used previously
b
decrypts the BlackBerry services key if you or a user turn on content protection
3. The BlackBerry Desktop Manager restores the encrypted cryptographic services data to the device.
4. The device performs the following actions:
a
decrypts the encrypted cryptographic services data using the BlackBerry services key
b
restores the decrypted cryptographic data
c
deletes the BlackBerry services key from the NV store
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Security Technical Overview
Extending messaging security to a device
Extending messaging security
to a device
15
If your organization's messaging environment supports highly secure messaging technology such as PGP encryption or S/
MIME encryption, you can configure the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution to encrypt a message using PGP encryption or S/
MIME encryption so that the message remains encrypted when the BlackBerry Enterprise Server forwards the message to
the email applications of recipients. To extend messaging security, the sender and recipient must install highly secure
messaging technology on the computers that host the email applications and on their BlackBerry devices, and you must
configure the devices to use the highly secure messaging technology.
Extending messaging security using PGP
encryption
You can extend messaging security for the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution and permit a BlackBerry device user to send and
receive PGP protected email messages and PGP protected PIN messages on a BlackBerry device. The BlackBerry
Enterprise Solution supports the OpenPGP format and PGP/MIME format on the device.
To extend messaging security, you must instruct the device user to install the PGP Support Package for BlackBerry
smartphones on the device and to transfer the PGP private key of the device user to the device. The device user can use
the PGP private key to digitally sign, encrypt, and send PGP protected messages from the device. If a device user does not
install the PGP Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones, the device displays an error message when the device user
tries to open PGP protected messages.
To require the device user to use PGP encryption when forwarding or replying to messages, you can configure the PGP
Force Digital Signature IT policy rule and the PGP Force Encrypted Messages IT policy rule.
The PGP Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones is designed to support encoding and decoding Unicode messages
and permits PGP encryption using keys or passwords. The PGP Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones permits the
device to encrypt PGP protected email messages or PGP protected PIN messages using a password that the sender and
recipient both know.
For more information about the OpenPGP format, see RFC 2440. For more information about the PGP/MIME format, see
RFC 3156.
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Extending messaging security to a device
PGP public keys and PGP private keys
The PGP Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones uses public key cryptography with PGP public keys and PGP
private keys.
Key
Description
PGP public key
The PGP Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones uses the PGP public key
of the recipient to encrypt outgoing email messages and the PGP public key of
the sender to verify digital signatures on incoming email messages.
The PGP public key is designed so that recipients and senders can distribute
and access the key without compromising it. The PGP public key is stored
typically on the PGP Universal Server or an LDAP server.
PGP private key
The PGP Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones uses the PGP private
key of the sender to digitally sign outgoing email messages and the PGP private
key of the recipient to decrypt incoming email messages.
To make sure that security is not compromised, you must make sure that private
key information remains private to the key owner. The BlackBerry device stores
the PGP private key.
Retrieving PGP keys from a PGP Universal Server or
LDAP servers
If your organization’s environment includes a PGP Universal Server, the administrator of the PGP Universal Server can
configure the email policy of the PGP Universal Server. After a user installs the PGP Support Package for BlackBerry
smartphones, a BlackBerry device can retrieve and enforce the email policy of the PGP Universal Server for all email
messages that the user sends.
The device is designed to use the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service to connect to the PGP Universal Server or any LDAP
server that a user specifies on the device or that you specify using the BlackBerry Administration Service. The BlackBerry
MDS Connection Service uses standard protocols, such as HTTP and TCP/IP, to permit the device to retrieve PGP public
keys, PGP key status, and X.509 certificate status from the PGP Universal Server or an LDAP server over the wireless
network. The BlackBerry MDS Connection Service can connect to LDAP servers using LDAPS.
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Extending messaging security to a device
Encryption algorithms that the device supports for PGP
encryption
When you turn on PGP encryption, the default value of the PGP Allowed Content Ciphers IT policy rule specifies that a
BlackBerry device can use any of the following encryption algorithms to encrypt email messages and PIN messages:
AES-256, AES-192, AES-128, CAST-128, or Triple DES-168. You can change the value to use a subset of the encryption
algorithms if your organization’s security policies require it.
The PGP public key of the recipient indicates which encryption algorithm the recipient’s email application supports, and
the device is designed to use that encryption algorithm. By default, if the PGP public key of the recipient does not include a
list of encryption algorithms, the device encrypts the email message or PIN message using Triple DES.
Data flow: Sending an email message using PGP
encryption
If a sender installs the PGP Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones on a BlackBerry device, the device encrypts
outgoing email messages.
1. The device performs the following actions:
118
a
uses the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service to retrieve the PGP public key of the recipient from the PGP Universal
Server or LDAP server
b
encrypts the email message using the PGP public key of the recipient
c
uses BlackBerry transport layer encryption to encrypt the PGP encrypted message
Security Technical Overview
d
Extending messaging security to a device
sends the message that is encrypted using BlackBerry transport layer encryption and PGP encryption to the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server
2. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server removes the BlackBerry transport layer encryption and sends the PGP encrypted
message to the recipient.
Data flow: Receiving a PGP encrypted message
If a recipient installs the PGP Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones on a BlackBerry device, the device decrypts
incoming PGP encrypted messages.
1. A sender uses the PGP technology on the email application to encrypt an email message using the PGP public key of
the recipient.
2. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions:
a
retrieves the email message from the messaging server
b
uses BlackBerry transport layer encryption to encrypt the PGP encrypted message
c
sends the email message encrypted using BlackBerry transport layer encryption and PGP encryption to the device
3. The device performs the following actions:
a
decrypts the BlackBerry transport layer encryption and stores the PGP encrypted message in the flash memory of
the device
b
decrypts the PGP encrypted message using the PGP private key of the recipient and displays the contents of the
email message when the recipient opens the email message on the device
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Extending messaging security using S/MIME
encryption
You can extend messaging security for the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution and permit a BlackBerry device user to send and
receive S/MIME-protected email messages and S/MIME-protected PIN messages on a BlackBerry device.
To extend messaging security, you or the device user must install the S/MIME Support Package for BlackBerry
smartphones on the device and transfer the S/MIME private key of the device user to the device. The S/MIME Support
Package for BlackBerry smartphones is designed to work with email applications such as Microsoft Outlook, Microsoft
Outlook Express, and IBM Notes, and with PKIs such as Netscape, Entrust Authority Security Manager version 5 and later,
and Microsoft certification authorities.
The device user uses the S/MIME private key to decrypt S/MIME-protected messages on the device and to sign, encrypt,
and send S/MIME-protected messages from the device. If the BlackBerry Enterprise Server receives an S/MIME-encrypted
message but the device user did not install the S/MIME Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones, the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server sends a message to the device to indicate that the device does not support S/MIME-encrypted messages.
After the device user installs the S/MIME Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones, the device user can synchronize
and manage S/MIME certificates and S/MIME private keys using the certificate synchronization tool of the BlackBerry
Desktop Manager. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server does not apply an appended disclaimer to S/MIME-protected
messages that the device user sends from the device. Digital signatures on S/MIME-protected messages that the device
sends are not valid if disclaimers are appended to the messages.
To require the device user to use S/MIME encryption when forwarding or replying to messages, you can configure the S/
MIME Force Digital Signature IT policy rule and the S/MIME Force Encrypted Messages IT policy rule.
The S/MIME Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones is also designed to support the following features:
•
encoding and decoding of Unicode messages
•
ability to use a password, which the sender and recipient each know, to encrypt S/MIME-protected email messages or
PIN messages
•
ability to read S/MIME certificates that are stored on a smart card
S/MIME certificates and S/MIME private keys
The S/MIME Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones uses public key cryptography with S/MIME certificates and S/
MIME private keys to encrypt and decrypt email messages and PIN messages. The S/MIME Support Package for
BlackBerry smartphones use PKI protocols to search for and retrieve S/MIME certificates and certificate status over the
wireless network.
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Item
Description
S/MIME certificate
When a user sends an email message or PIN message from a BlackBerry device,
the device uses the S/MIME certificate of the recipient to encrypt the message.
When a user receives a signed email message or signed PIN message on a
device, the device uses the S/MIME certificate of the sender to verify the
message signature.
S/MIME private key
When a user sends a signed email message or signed PIN message from a
device, the device hashes the message using SHA-1, SHA-2, or MD5. The
device then uses the S/MIME private key of the user to digitally sign the message
hash.
When a user receives an encrypted email message or encrypted PIN message
on a device, the device uses the private key of the user to decrypt the message.
The device stores the private key.
Retrieving S/MIME certificates and checking certificate
status
The S/MIME Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones is designed so that the BlackBerry device and the certificate
synchronization tool of the BlackBerry Desktop Manager can perform the following actions:
•
use LDAP, LDAPS, or DSML to search for and retrieve S/MIME certificates of recipients from LDAP servers or DSML
certificate servers
•
use OCSP to check the revocation status of S/MIME certificates
•
retrieve the revocation status of S/MIME certificates from a certificate revocation list
S/MIME encryption algorithms
When you turn on S/MIME encryption, the default value of the S/MIME Allowed Content Ciphers IT policy rule specifies that
a BlackBerry device can use any of the following encryption algorithms to encrypt messages: AES-256, AES-192, AES-128,
CAST-128, RC2-128, or Triple DES. By default, the device cannot use the RC2-64 algorithm and RC2-40 algorithm to
encrypt S/MIME messages. You can change the value of the S/MIME Allowed Content Ciphers IT policy rule to use a subset
of the encryption algorithms if your organization’s security policies require it.
If a BlackBerry device user wants to send an email message to a recipient that the user previously received an email
message from, the device is designed to store the encryption algorithms that the recipient’s email application can support,
and use one of those encryption algorithms. By default, if the device cannot determine the encryption algorithms that the
recipient’s email application can support, the device encrypts the email message using Triple DES.
You can use the Weak Digest Algorithms IT policy rule to specify the algorithms that your organization considers to be
weak. The device uses the list of weak algorithms in the Weak Digest Algorithms IT policy rule when the device verifies the
following information:
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Security Technical Overview
Extending messaging security to a device
•
An S/MIME-enabled application did not use a weak algorithm to generate the digital signatures on the email messages
that the device receives.
•
The certificate chains for the certificates that an S/MIME-enabled application used to digitally sign email messages that
the device receives do not contain hash values generated using a weak algorithm.
Data flow: Sending an email message using S/MIME
encryption
If a sender installs the S/MIME Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones on a BlackBerry device, the device encrypts
outgoing email messages.
1. The device performs the following actions:
a
checks the BlackBerry device key store for the S/MIME certificate of the recipient
b
if the BlackBerry device key store does not include the S/MIME certificate of the recipient, uses the BlackBerry
MDS Connection Service to retrieve the S/MIME certificate of the recipient from the LDAP server or DSML server
and verify the certificate status
c
encrypts the email message with the S/MIME certificate of the recipient or a password that the sender specifies
d
if the sender specifies a password, combines the password with random bytes to generate an encryption key that is
specific to S/MIME encryption
e
uses BlackBerry transport layer encryption to encrypt the S/MIME-encrypted message
f
sends the message that is encrypted using BlackBerry transport layer encryption and S/MIME encryption to the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server
2. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server decrypts the BlackBerry transport layer encryption and sends the S/MIME-encrypted
message to the recipient.
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Security Technical Overview
Extending messaging security to a device
3. The recipient decrypts the S/MIME-encrypted message using the S/MIME private key or a password that the sender
provides.
Data flow: Receiving an S/MIME-encrypted email
message
If a recipient installs the S/MIME Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones, the BlackBerry device decrypts incoming
email messages.
1. The sender uses the S/MIME technology on the email application to encrypt the email message using the S/MIME
certificate of the recipient.
2. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions:
a
retrieves the S/MIME-encrypted message from the messaging server
b
encrypts the email message a second time with S/MIME encryption if the email message is signed-only or weakly
encrypted and if you turned on the Turn on S/MIME encryption on signed and weakly encrypted messages option in
the BlackBerry Administration Service
c
uses BlackBerry transport layer encryption to encrypt the S/MIME-encrypted message
d
sends the email message that is encrypted using BlackBerry transport layer encryption and S/MIME encryption to
the device
3. The device decrypts the BlackBerry transport layer encryption and stores the S/MIME-encrypted message in
BlackBerry device memory.
4. When the recipient opens the email message on the device, the device decrypts the S/MIME-encrypted message using
the S/MIME private key of the recipient and displays the message contents. If the email message is encrypted with a
password, the recipient types the password to decrypt the S/MIME-encrypted message.
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Security Technical Overview
Extending messaging security to a device
Extending messaging security using IBM
Notes encryption
By default, if your organization's environment includes IBM Notes API version 7.0 or later and either BlackBerry Enterprise
Server version 4.1 or later for IBM Domino or the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Express for IBM Domino 5.0 SP2 or later, a
BlackBerry device can decrypt messages that are encrypted using Notes encryption.
If your organization's environment includes BlackBerry Enterprise Server version 5.0 or later or BlackBerry Enterprise
Server Express version 5.0 SP2 or later, a user with BlackBerry Device Software version 5.0 or later, can encrypt messages
using Notes encryption. When the user creates, forwards, or replies to a message, the user can indicate whether the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server or BlackBerry Enterprise Server Express must encrypt the message before it sends the
message to the recipients.
To use Notes encryption on the device, the device user must import a copy of the Notes .id file into the user's message
database using the BlackBerry Desktop Software or iNotes. If your organization's environment includes Domino version
8.5.1 or later and either BlackBerry Enterprise Server version 5.0 SP1 or later or BlackBerry Enterprise Server Express 5.0
SP2 or later, you can configure the BlackBerry Enterprise Server or BlackBerry Enterprise Server Express to import the
Notes .id file automatically into the user's message database from the Notes ID vault.
To require the user to use Notes encryption when forwarding or replying to messages, you can configure the Require Notes
Native Encryption For Outgoing Messages IT policy rule. To prevent a user from forwarding or replying to Notes protected
messages, you can configure the Disable Notes Native Encryption Forward And Reply IT policy rule.
Protecting the password for an IBM Notes .id file
How a device protects the password for an IBM Notes .id file
After a user imports an IBM Notes .id file and password for the Notes .id file to the user's message database, the device
encrypts the password in device memory using AES encryption and the device transport key. The device decrypts the
password before it calls the required security functions in the Notes API.
The device deletes the plain-text password from the device memory when it receives a notification from the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server cannot decrypt a message, when the device resets, or when the
Notes password expires. (The default expiration period is 24 hours.) You can use the Native Encryption Password Timeout
IT policy rule to specify the maximum duration (in minutes) that the device stores the plain-text password for the Notes .id
file.
You can change the timeout value to 0 to require the user to type the password to decrypt each Notes encrypted email
message that the user receives on the device.
When Notes encryption is not available, the user can turn on Notes encryption manually by importing the Notes .id file or by
changing the password using the BlackBerry Desktop Software or IBM Domino Web Access client.
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Security Technical Overview
Extending messaging security to a device
How the BlackBerry Messaging Agent protects the password for an IBM
Notes .id file
After a user imports an IBM Notes .id file and the password for the Notes .id file to the user's message database, the
BlackBerry Messaging Agent encrypts the Notes .id file and password in the BlackBerry Messaging Agent memory cache
using AES encryption and the device transport key.
The BlackBerry Messaging Agent deletes the Notes .id file and the plain-text password when the BlackBerry Enterprise
Server cannot decrypt a message, when the BlackBerry Enterprise Server restarts, or when the password expires. (The
default timeout value is 24 hours.)
The BlackBerry Messaging Agent does not delete the encrypted password in the BlackBerry Messaging Agent memory
cache. You can change the duration that the BlackBerry Messaging Agent caches the password for. For information about
changing the duration that the BlackBerry Messaging Agent caches the password for, visit www.blackberry.com/support to
read article KB12420.
If the user types a password incorrectly more than 10 times consecutively within 1 hour, the BlackBerry Messaging Agent
makes secure messaging unavailable for 1 hour. This period increases each time that the user exceeds the maximum
number of unsuccessful password attempts. The period increases by 10-minute increments to a maximum of 24 hours.
When the user types the password correctly, the BlackBerry Messaging Agent restores the default value of 1 hour.
Data flow: Sending an email message using IBM Notes
encryption
1. A user indicates, using the menu in the messages application, that the BlackBerry device must encrypt the email
message.
2. The device performs the following actions:
a
prompts the user for the password for the IBM Notes .id file
b
configures the email message for Notes encryption
c
encrypts the email message using BlackBerry transport layer encryption
d
sends the email message and password to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
3. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server decrypts the email message using BlackBerry transport layer encryption.
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Security Technical Overview
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4. The BlackBerry Messaging Agent on the BlackBerry Enterprise Server decrypts the cached password for the Notes .id
file and validates the password that the device sent. If the BlackBerry Messaging Agent can verify the password, the
BlackBerry Messaging Agent uses the password to encrypt the message using Notes encryption.
5. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends the encrypted email message to the messaging server so that the messaging
server can deliver it to the recipient.
Data flow: Receiving an IBM Notes encrypted message
1. A user uses the IBM Notes application on the user’s computer to encrypt a message using the password for the
Notes .id file.
2. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions:
a
retrieves the Notes encrypted message from the messaging server
b
encrypts the Notes encrypted message using BlackBerry transport layer encryption
c
sends the encrypted message to the BlackBerry device
3. The device decrypts the message using BlackBerry transport layer encryption and stores the message without
decrypting the Notes encryption.
4. The user tries to open the Notes encrypted message on the device.
5. The BlackBerry Messaging Agent on the BlackBerry Enterprise Server decrypts the cached password for the Notes .id
file and uses the password to decrypt the message. If the BlackBerry Messaging Agent does not have the password,
from the menu in the messages application, the user must select More, More All, or Open Attachment to send the
decrypted message to the device.
6. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server deletes the decrypted password from the BlackBerry Messaging Agent memory
cache and sends the decrypted message to the device.
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Security Technical Overview
Extending messaging security to a device
Extending messaging security for
attachments
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server supports attachments in PGP protected messages and S/MIME-protected messages. It
also permits a BlackBerry device user to view encrypted attachments on a BlackBerry device. For PGP protected
messages, the device supports OpenPGP format and PGP/MIME format. For S/MIME-protected messages, the device
supports Triple DES, AES-128, AES-192 or AES-256.
You can use the PGP Allowed Encrypted Attachment Mode IT policy rule and the S/MIME Allowed Encrypted Attachment
Mode IT policy rule to control whether users can view encrypted attachments on their devices. By default these rules
permit a device to request decrypted attachment information from the BlackBerry Enterprise Server automatically when a
user opens a protected message.
On a device that is running BlackBerry 7 or later in a Microsoft Exchange environment, you can use the S/MIME
Attachment Support IT policy rule to control whether users can send and forward attachments in S/MIME-protected
messages. The S/MIME Attachment Support IT policy rule can be set to one of the following values:
•
None, which prevents the device from sending attachments in S/MIME-protected messages.
•
End-to-End, which permits the device to send attachments in new S/MIME-protected messages that the sender
composes, if the attachments are located on the sender's device.
•
End-to-End or Trusted BES, which permits the device to send attachments in S/MIME-protected messages whether or
not the attachments are located on the sender's device.
By default, the "End-to-End or Trusted BES" value is configured for this rule.
Data flow: Viewing an attachment in a PGP encrypted
message or S/MIME-encrypted message
The S/MIME Allowed Encrypted Attachment Mode IT policy rule or PGP Allowed Encrypted Attachment Mode IT policy rule
determines how a BlackBerry device responds when it receives a PGP/MIME encrypted message or S/MIME-encrypted
message that contains an attachment. These rules determine whether the following actions occur automatically when the
user opens the email message, or whether the user must request the actions manually.
1. A device sends the message key and a request for the data in the attachment header to the BlackBerry Enterprise
Server.
2. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server uses the message key to decrypt the email message and access the data in the
attachment header. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends the data in the attachment header to the device.
3. The device processes the data in the attachment header with the email message and displays the associated
attachment information so that the user can select the attachment for viewing.
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Data flow: Viewing an attachment that is encrypted
using S/MIME encryption, PGP/MIME encryption, or
OpenPGP encryption
1. The BlackBerry device sends the message key and a request for the attachment data to the BlackBerry Enterprise
Server.
2. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server uses the message key to decrypt the email message and access the attachment data
that corresponds to the data in the attachment header. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server decrypts the attachment and
sends the rendered attachment data to the device.
3. The device displays the attachment.
To help protect the decrypted attachment data that the device stores, you can turn on content protection.
Data flow: Sending an S/MIME-protected email
message that contains attachments that are located on
a device
On a BlackBerry device that is running BlackBerry 7 or later in a Microsoft Exchange environment, you can use the S/MIME
Attachment Support IT policy rule.
The S/MIME Attachment Support IT policy rule determines how a device responds when a BlackBerry device user sends a
new S/MIME-protected message with an attachment, forwards an S/MIME-protected message with an attachment, or
replies to an S/MIME-protected email message with an attachment. By default, this rule is set to the "End-to-End or Trusted
BES" value. When the user composes and sends an S/MIME-protected message that includes attachments that are
located on the device, it uses End-to-End mode. In all other scenarios (even when a user forwards an S/MIME-protected
message after downloading the original message attachment to the device), the device uses Trusted BES mode.
1. A user performs the following actions when the user composes an email message:
a
Attaches at least one file to the email message
b
Selects the S/MIME encoding action for the email message (for example, sign, encrypt, or sign and encrypt using S/
MIME)
c
Sends the email message
2. The email application on the device performs the following actions:
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a
Generates an email message including attachments
b
Encrypts, signs, or encrypts and signs the email message using S/MIME
Security Technical Overview
c
Extending messaging security to a device
Sends the email message to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
3. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends the email to the recipient's inbox.
Data flow: Forwarding an S/MIME-protected email
message that contains attachments that are not
located on a device
On a BlackBerry device that is running BlackBerry 7 or later in a Microsoft Exchange environment, you can use the S/MIME
Attachment Support IT policy rule.
The S/MIME Attachment Support IT policy rule determines how a device responds when a BlackBerry device user sends a
new S/MIME-protected email message with an attachment, forwards an S/MIME-protected email message with an
attachment, or replies to an S/MIME-protected email message with an attachment. By default, this rule is set to the "Endto-End or Trusted BES" value, which means the device can forward email messages with attachments whether or not the
attachments are located on the device. When the device forwards encrypted email messages that include attachments
that are not located on the device, it uses Trusted BES mode.
1. A user performs the following actions when the user forwards a message:
a
Selects whether the message should be signed, encrypted, or signed and encrypted using S/MIME
b
If applicable, attaches any new message attachments
c
Sends the message
2. The email application on the device performs the following actions:
a
Creates a message header that contains information about whether the user wants the forwarded message to be
signed, encrypted, or signed and encrypted using S/MIME. If the original message that the user forwards was
encrypted, the message header includes a key for decrypting the original message.
b
Sends the partial message, which includes the new message body, any new attachments that are located on the
device, and the message header, to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server.
3. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions when it receives the partial message:
a
Parses the message header
b
Obtains the original message and performs one of the following actions:
•
If the original sender signed the message that a user is forwarding, removes all of the original signatures
•
If the original sender encrypted the message that a user is forwarding, decrypts the message using the key in
the message header
•
If the original sender signed and encrypted the message that a user is forwarding, decrypts the message using
the key in the message header and then removes all of the original signatures
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Extending messaging security to a device
c
Appends all of the attachments from the original message, any new message attachments, and the original
message body to the new message
d
If the user indicates that the new message must be signed, sends a Message Signature Request to the device, waits
for a reply from the device, and adds the signature into the message
e
If the user indicates that the new message must be encrypted, encrypts the full message
f
Sends the message to the recipient's inbox
Security Technical Overview
Configuring two-factor authentication and protecting Bluetooth connections
Configuring two-factor
authentication and protecting
Bluetooth connections
16
BlackBerry Smart Card Reader
The BlackBerry Smart Card Reader is an accessory that, when used in proximity to a Bluetooth enabled BlackBerry device
or a Bluetooth enabled computer, permits a user to authenticate with a smart card and log in to the BlackBerry device or
computer.
The BlackBerry Smart Card Reader is designed to perform the following actions:
•
communicate with BlackBerry devices and computers using Bluetooth technology version 1.1 or later and, by default,
use AES-256 encryption on the application layer
•
permit a user to use two-factor authentication to access BlackBerry services and PKI applications
•
permit a user to digitally sign and encrypt email messages and receive encrypted messages on the BlackBerry device
when the user installs the S/MIME Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones
•
store all encryption keys in RAM only and never write the keys to flash memory
The BlackBerry Smart Card Reader permits a user to prove the user’s identity to the BlackBerry device or a computer using
what the user has (smart card) and what the user knows (smart card password).
For more information, see the BlackBerry Smart Card Reader Security Technical Overview.
Advanced Security SD cards
Similar to the BlackBerry Smart Card Reader, an Advanced Security SD card permits a user to prove the user’s identity to
the BlackBerry device using what the user has (smart card) and what the user knows (smart card password). The
BlackBerry Enterprise Solution supports Advanced Security SD cards that use the security system for the MCEX smart
card.
You can configure a BlackBerry device to require that a user uses an Advanced Security SD card to perform the following
actions:
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•
unlock the BlackBerry device and access BlackBerry services and PKI applications using two-factor authentication
•
digitally sign and encrypt email messages and PIN messages using S/MIME encryption when the user installs the S/
MIME Support Package for BlackBerry smartphones on the BlackBerry device
•
decrypt S/MIME-encrypted email messages and PIN messages
•
import certificates that are stored on the Advanced Security SD card into the NV store of the BlackBerry device flash
memory
•
open SSL connections
To configure the BlackBerry device to support an Advanced Security SD card, a user must insert the Advanced Security SD
card into the BlackBerry device and install the smart card driver of the Advanced Security SD card on the BlackBerry
device using the BlackBerry Desktop Manager. After the user installs the smart card driver on the BlackBerry device, the
user can configure the driver settings in the security options, on the Smart Card screen.
To control how a BlackBerry device can use an Advanced Security SD card, you can use the Force Smart Card Two-Factor
Authentication IT policy rule, Force Smart Card Two Factor Challenge Response IT policy rule, or Disable Certificate or Key
Import From External Memory IT policy rule.
To permit third-party applications on the BlackBerry device to access the Advanced Security SD card, a developer can use
the SmartCard API in the BlackBerry Java Development Environment.
BlackBerry Device Software versions 5.0 and later support Advanced Security SD cards.
For more information about configuring the BlackBerry device to support an Advanced Security SD card, see the user
guide for the BlackBerry device. For more information about using IT policy rules, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
Policy Reference Guide.
Two-factor authentication
You can use the BlackBerry Smart Card Reader or an Advanced Security SD card to require a user to use a smart card and
the smart card password to prove the user’s identity before the BlackBerry device unlocks. If a user installs a smart card
authenticator, smart card driver, and the driver for the smart card reader on the BlackBerry device, you or the user can
configure two-factor authentication on the BlackBerry device to bind the BlackBerry device to the installed smart card.
After the BlackBerry device binds to the smart card, the BlackBerry device requires the user to use the smart card to
authenticate before the BlackBerry device unlocks.
To require that a user authenticate with the BlackBerry device using the smart card, you can configure the Force Smart
Card Two-Factor Authentication IT policy rule in the BlackBerry Administration Service. If you do not require the user to
authenticate with the BlackBerry device using a smart card, the user can turn on or turn off two-factor authentication in the
BlackBerry device options, in the security options, in the User Authenticator field.
Verifying that a device is bound to a smart card
After a user turns on two-factor authentication, the BlackBerry device prompts the user to insert the smart card into the
BlackBerry Smart Card Reader. The device displays the label and card type of the bound smart card.
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Configuring two-factor authentication and protecting Bluetooth connections
If the device is running BlackBerry Device Software version 3.6, the smart card information that the device displays when it
prompts the user to insert the smart card into the BlackBerry Smart Card Reader is the only indication that a smart card is
bound to the device.
If the device is running BlackBerry Device Software version 4.0 or later, the device displays the smart card information
when it prompts the user to insert the smart card. The user can view the smart card information in the device options, in
the security options. The Initialized field specifies whether the device authenticated with and is bound to the smart card.
Data flow: Turning on two-factor authentication using a
smart card
When you or a user turns on two-factor authentication with the BlackBerry Smart Card Reader, the BlackBerry device
performs the following actions:
1. locks
2. prompts the user to type the BlackBerry device password when the user tries to unlock the BlackBerry device
3. requires the user to specify a BlackBerry device password, if the user has not yet specified one
4. prompts the user to type the smart card password to turn on two-factor authentication using the smart card
5. binds to the smart card by storing the following binding information in the NV store in the BlackBerry device memory
that the user cannot access:
•
name of a class that the BlackBerry Smart Card Reader requires
•
binding information format for the smart card type (for example, the type for CAC is GSA CAC)
•
name of a Java class that the smart card code requires
•
unique 64-bit identifier that the smart card provides
•
smart card label that the smart card provides (for example, HISLOP.GREG.1234567890)
6. pushes the current IT policy to the BlackBerry Smart Card Reader
Creating two-factor authentication methods
The BlackBerry Java Development Environment version 5.0 includes the User Authenticator API that a developer can use
to create two-factor authentication methods. A user can use the two-factor authentication methods with the BlackBerry
device password to unlock a BlackBerry device. After the developer creates an authentication method using the User
Authenticator API, you can install the authentication method on the BlackBerry device using a software configuration.
To configure the BlackBerry device so that the user must provide the BlackBerry device password and authenticate using a
two-factor authentication method before the BlackBerry device unlocks, you change the Allowed Authentication
Mechanisms IT policy rule to Other and configure the Is Access to the User Authenticator API Allowed application control
policy rule.
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Configuring two-factor authentication and protecting Bluetooth connections
The User Authenticator API permits a developer to add a field to the password dialog box on the BlackBerry device for the
authentication method. You can create as many two-factor authentication methods as the security policies of your
organization require.
BlackBerry Device Software versions 5.0 and later support the User Authenticator API.
For more information about the User Authenticator API, see the BlackBerry Java Development Environment Fundamentals
Guide.
Two-factor content protection
Two-factor content protection on the BlackBerry device is designed to protect the content protection decryption keys with
both a private key that is stored on a smart card and the device password.
To store the private key, you can use either a smart card with the BlackBerry Smart Card Reader or an Advanced Security
SD card. The content protection key is not transferred from the device to the BlackBerry Smart Card Reader or Advanced
Security SD card.
Two-factor content protection requires the device password, a smart card, and an authentication certificate that is stored
on the device. The authentication certificate must contain the public key for the private key that is stored on the smart
card. If the authentication certificate expires or is revoked, a user can continue to use it for two-factor content protection
until the user creates and configures a new certificate to use with two-factor content protection.
You or a user can configure two-factor content protection. By default, if a user has a smart card and an authentication
certificate on the device, the user can turn on two-factor content protection. To make two-factor content protection
required or optional, or to prevent a user from configuring it, you can use the Two Factor Content Protection Usage IT policy
rule. To unlock the device after you or a user turns on two-factor content protection, the user must type the device
password and smart card PIN on the login screen in the appropriate fields.
If you or a user turns on two-factor content protection, you cannot change the device password using the BlackBerry
Administration Service. Only the user can change the device password on the device.
BlackBerry Device Software 5.0 and later and BlackBerry Smart Card Reader 2.0 and later support two-factor content
protection. You must verify that the IT policies that you can use to manage two-factor content protection are available on
your organization’s BlackBerry Enterprise Server. BlackBerry Enterprise Server 5.0 SP1 and later include the IT policies
that you require to manage two-factor content protection.
Data flow: Turning on two-factor content protection
1. When you or a BlackBerry device user turns on two-factor content protection on the BlackBerry device for the first time,
the device performs the following actions:
134
a
generates a random 256-bit symmetric key for the smart card authenticator
b
derives an ephemeral AES-256 key from the symmetric key for the smart card authenticator and the device
password, using PKCS #5
c
uses the ephemeral key to encrypt the content protection key and ECC private keys
Security Technical Overview
Configuring two-factor authentication and protecting Bluetooth connections
d
stores the encrypted content protection key and encrypted ECC private keys in the device memory
e
generates a 256-bit pseudorandom number
f
computes the SHA-256 hash of the pseudorandom number and uses it to encrypt the symmetric key for the smart
card authenticator, and stores the symmetric key for the smart card authenticator in the device memory
g
encrypts the pseudorandom number using the public key in the authentication certificate that you configured for
use with two-factor content protection, and stores the encrypted pseudorandom number in the device memory
h
discards the pseudorandom number, the SHA-256 hash of the pseudorandom number, the ephemeral key, and the
key for the smart card authenticator
2. When the device locks, the device discards the content protection key and ECC private keys.
3. When a user unlocks the device, the device retrieves the encrypted copy of the pseudorandom number from the device
memory and sends it to the smart card authenticator.
4. The smart card authenticator decrypts the encrypted copy of the pseudorandom number that was stored in the device
memory.
5. The device performs the following actions:
a
retrieves the encrypted copy of the key for the smart card authenticator from the device memory and decrypts it
using the SHA-256 hash of the decrypted pseudorandom number
b
uses the key for the smart card authenticator and the device password to generate a 256-bit ephemeral key
c
uses the 256-bit ephemeral key to decrypt the ECC private keys and content protection key
d
repeats steps 1e to 1h
The device generates a new pseudorandom number each time the user unlocks the device.
Unbinding a smart card from a device
When you or a BlackBerry device user deletes all device data or turns off two-factor authentication, the BlackBerry device
turns off two-factor authentication with the installed smart card and permanently deletes the binding information for the
smart card from the device.
The device permanently deletes the binding information for the smart card from the NV store in application storage so that
a user can authenticate with the device using a new smart card. You can permanently delete the binding information for
the smart card from the device by sending the Delete all device data and remove device IT administration command to the
device.
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Security Technical Overview
Configuring two-factor authentication and protecting Bluetooth connections
Protecting Bluetooth connections on a
device
Bluetooth wireless technology permits a Bluetooth enabled BlackBerry device to open a wireless connection with other
Bluetooth devices that are within a 10-meter range (for example, a hands-free car kit or wireless headset).
The device creates a Bluetooth profile, which specifies how applications on the device and on other Bluetooth devices
connect and communicate. The device uses the Bluetooth profile to open serial connections to Bluetooth enabled devices
using virtual serial ports.
You can use IT policies to manage a Bluetooth enabled device. By default, a Bluetooth enabled device that runs
BlackBerry Device Software version 4.0 or later includes the following security measures:
•
You or a user can turn off the Bluetooth wireless technology for the device.
•
The user must request a connection or pairing on the device with another Bluetooth device and type a passkey (also
known as a shared secret key) to complete the pairing.
•
The user can specify whether to encrypt data sent to and from the device over a Bluetooth connection. The BlackBerry
Enterprise Solution uses the passkey to generate encryption keys.
•
The device prompts the user each time a Bluetooth device tries to connect to the device.
For more information, see Security for BlackBerry Devices with Bluetooth Wireless Technology.
Using CHAP to open a Bluetooth connection between
the BlackBerry Desktop Software and a device
A Bluetooth enabled BlackBerry device can use CHAP to open a Bluetooth connection to the BlackBerry Desktop
Software. To open a Bluetooth connection, the device or BlackBerry Desktop Software can use CHAP to send a challenge.
The device or BlackBerry Desktop Software can subsequently use the SHA-1 algorithm to calculate a response to the
challenge or to validate the response of the other party, depending on which party started the process to open the
Bluetooth connection.
When the device uses CHAP, the device never sends the device password over an unprotected connection. The device
combines the challenge with the device password to authenticate with the BlackBerry Desktop Software.
For more information about CHAP, see RFC 1994.
136
Security Technical Overview
Wi-Fi enabled devices
Wi-Fi enabled devices
17
Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry devices permit users with qualifying data plans to access BlackBerry services over a mobile
network, Wi-Fi network, or both networks simultaneously.
When users can access a mobile network and Wi-Fi network simulaneously, users can perform multiple tasks over both
networks. For example, a user with a BlackBerry 8820 smartphone can send messages over a Wi-Fi network and can make
a call over the mobile network at the same time.
If users' mobile network providers make UMA technology (GAN technology) available, and users have subscribed to the
UMA feature, Wi-Fi enabled devices can access the mobile network providers' voice services and data services over a
mobile network or a Wi-Fi network.
Wi-Fi enabled devices can open a Wi-Fi connection from an enterprise Wi-Fi network or, with a VPN session, from a home
Wi-Fi network or Wi-Fi hotspot to connect directly to the BlackBerry Router.
Wi-Fi enabled devices are designed to open a connection to the BlackBerry Internet Service to access the BlackBerry MDS
Connection Service, BlackBerry Messenger, and other devices for PIN messaging. You can verify with your organization's
wireless service provider whether your organization's service plan provides access to these services over a Wi-Fi network.
Types of Wi-Fi networks
Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry devices can access BlackBerry services using enterprise Wi-Fi networks, home Wi-Fi networks,
or hotspots.
Type
Description
Enterprise Wi-Fi networks
An enterprise Wi-Fi network has multiple wireless access points to provide
ubiquitous coverage, hotspot coverage, or ubiquitous and hotspot coverage. You
can use a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device in any coverage area.
You can configure an enterprise Wi-Fi network to require layer 2 authentication.
An organization might consider an enterprise Wi-Fi network to be untrusted and
require that all Wi-Fi connections to the organization's network occur through a
VPN concentrator. You must configure Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry devices to
support the authentication type that your organization uses.
An enterprise Wi-Fi network permits optimized access to the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server over a direct IP connection to the BlackBerry Router.
Home Wi-Fi networks
A home Wi-Fi network uses a single access point to provide Internet access
through a broadband gateway. The broadband gateway can implement NAT and
137
Security Technical Overview
Type
Wi-Fi enabled devices
Description
permit VPN connections through the firewall. You can configure a home Wi-Fi
network with layer 2 security and password authentication. You must configure
BlackBerry devices to support the authentication that the home Wi-Fi network
requires.
A home Wi-Fi network permits users to access all BlackBerry services from Wi-Fi
enabled BlackBerry devices using the BlackBerry Infrastructure.
Hotspots
A hotspot offered by an ISP, a mobile network provider, or a property owner can
provide a Wi-Fi connection in public and semipublic areas. The network can be
an open network without layer 2 security and use a captive portal for
authentication. The captive portal blocks all network traffic except traffic that
uses HTTP and it redirects HTTP requests to a login page.
After a user logs in to the hotspot, the captive portal permits the user to access
wireless network services.
Hotspots can use a firewall and they can permit VPN connections. A hotspot
permits users to access all BlackBerry services from their Wi-Fi enabled
BlackBerry devices using the BlackBerry Infrastructure.
Security features of a Wi-Fi enabled device
Feature
Description
Activation of BlackBerry devices over an Activation of devices over an enterprise Wi-Fi network is designed to simplify
enterprise Wi-Fi network
the actions of activating or updating devices.
Authenticated connection with
BlackBerry Router
An authenticated connection with a BlackBerry Router permits devices to open
a direct connection to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server after they authenticate
with the BlackBerry Router.
Devices connected to an enterprise Wi-Fi network do not use an SRP
connection to send data to the BlackBerry Enterprise Server.
BlackBerry transport layer encryption
BlackBerry transport layer encryption is designed to encrypt messages that the
device and the BlackBerry Enterprise Server send between each other after
they open an authenticated connection.
Direct access to the BlackBerry
Infrastructure over a Wi-Fi connection
Direct access to the BlackBerry Infrastructure over a Wi-Fi connection permits
Wi-Fi enabled devices to access BlackBerry services over the Internet, even if
UMA is not available.
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Security Technical Overview
Feature
Wi-Fi enabled devices
Description
You can verify with your organization's wireless service provider that your
organization's service plan supports access to BlackBerry services over a Wi-Fi
connection.
Encrypted communication over the WiFi network
Devices support multiple security methods that are designed to encrypt
communication over the enterprise Wi-Fi network between the device and
wireless access points or a network firewall on the enterprise Wi-Fi network.
Expanded groups of Wi-Fi and VPN
configuration settings
Expanded groups of Wi-Fi and VPN configuration settings permit you to control
Wi-Fi connections from devices.
Limited connections
Wi-Fi enabled devices are designed to reject incoming connections, to support
limited connections in infrastructure mode only, and to prevent ad-hoc mode
(also known as peer-to-peer) connections.
Multiple Wi-Fi and VPN profiles
Multiple Wi-Fi and VPN profiles are designed to address user requirements in a
variety of different environments.
Proxy server
Devices supports the use of a transparent proxy server that you can configure
between the enterprise Wi-Fi network and the device.
Software token provisioning
Software token provisioning is designed to permit you to provision and manage
the seed for software token authentication on devices. You can use software
token authentication for VPN connections.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server is designed to work with the RSA
Authentication Manager to provide software token support for use with layer 2
and layer 3 authentication on supported devices.
User-specific configuration settings and
IT policy rules
User-specific configuration settings and IT policy rules are designed to simplify
the configuration of user-specific Wi-Fi and VPN information (such as user IDs
and passwords).
Wireless backup of Wi-Fi and VPN
profiles
Backup of Wi-Fi and VPN profiles on devices over a Wi-Fi connection permits
users to restore the profiles, if necessary.
139
Security Technical Overview
Wi-Fi enabled devices
Protecting a connection between a Wi-Fi
enabled device and an enterprise Wi-Fi
network
A Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device is designed to connect to enterprise Wi-Fi networks that use the IEEE® 802.11®
standard. The IEEE 802.11i standard uses the IEEE 802.1X standard for authentication and key management to protect
enterprise Wi-Fi networks. The IEEE 802.11i standard specifies that organizations must use the PSK protocol or the IEEE
802.1X standard as the access control methods for Wi-Fi networks.
When you configure a Wi-Fi enabled device to use an enterprise Wi-Fi network, you must configure the enterprise Wi-Fi
network and device to protect all message data and application data that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and device send
to each other. For example, to help protect data, you can configure the device to authenticate with the enterprise Wi-Fi
network before the device can access the enterprise Wi-Fi network. You can also configure the device and the enterprise
Wi-Fi network to encrypt any communication that they send to each other.
For more information about protecting an enterprise Wi-Fi network, see the documentation from your organization’s Wi-Fi
solution provider.
How a Wi-Fi enabled device can connect to
the BlackBerry Infrastructure
A Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device can connect directly to the BlackBerry Infrastructure over the Internet to access the
data services that a wireless service provider offers, even if UMA is not available. If UMA is available, the device can also
access the voice services. A direct connection from the device to the BlackBerry Infrastructure is an alternative to the
connection from the device to the BlackBerry Infrastructure over the mobile network. If a user’s wireless service provider
makes UMA technology (also known as GAN technology) available, and the user subscribes to the UMA feature, the device
is designed to open an SSL connection to the GANC using an IPSec VPN tunnel over an enterprise Wi-Fi network.
The device and BlackBerry Infrastructure send all data to each other over an SSL connection. The SSL connection is
designed to encrypt the data that the device and BlackBerry Infrastructure send between each other.
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Security Technical Overview
Wi-Fi enabled devices
How an SSL connection between a Wi-Fi enabled
device and the BlackBerry Infrastructure protects data
An SSL connection between a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device and the BlackBerry Infrastructure is designed to provide
the same protection that an SRP connection between the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and BlackBerry Infrastructure
provides. It is designed so that a potentially malicious user cannot use the SSL connection to send data to or receive data
from the device.
If a potentially malicious user tries to impersonate the BlackBerry Infrastructure, the device is designed to prevent the
connection. The device verifies whether the public key of the SSL certificate of the BlackBerry Infrastructure matches the
private key of the root certificate that is preloaded on the device during the manufacturing process. If a user accepts a
certificate that is not valid, the connection cannot open unless the device can also authenticate with a valid BlackBerry
Enterprise Server or valid BlackBerry Internet Service.
Data flow: Opening an SSL connection between the
BlackBerry Infrastructure and a Wi-Fi enabled device
1. A Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device sends a request to the BlackBerry Infrastructure to open an SSL connection.
2. The BlackBerry Infrastructure sends its SSL certificate to the device.
3. The device uses a root certificate that is preloaded on the device to verify the SSL certificate. If the user deleted the root
certificate, the device prompts the user to trust the SSL certificate.
4. The device opens the SSL connection.
Cipher suites that a Wi-Fi enabled device supports for
opening SSL connections and TLS connections
A Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device supports various cipher suites for direct mode SSL/TLS when the device opens SSL
connections or TLS connections to the BlackBerry Infrastructure or to web servers that are external to your organization.
The device supports the following cipher suites, in order, when it opens SSL connections:
•
SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA
•
SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5
•
SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
•
SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
•
SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
141
Security Technical Overview
•
SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA
•
SSL_DH_anon_WITH_RC4_128_MD5
•
SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA
•
SSL_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA
•
SSL_DH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
•
SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5
•
SSL_DH_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA
•
SSL_DHE_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA
•
SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA
•
SSL_DH_anon_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA
•
SSL_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5
•
SSL_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA
The device supports the following cipher suites, in order, when it opens TLS connections:
•
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA
•
TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5
•
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_DH_anon_WITH_RC4_128_MD5
•
TLS_DH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5
142
Wi-Fi enabled devices
Security Technical Overview
•
TLS_DHE_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_DHE_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_DH_anon_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA
•
TLS_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5
•
TLS_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA
Wi-Fi enabled devices
Managing how a device connects to an
enterprise Wi-Fi network
To manage how a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device connects to an enterprise Wi-Fi network, you can use IT administration
commands, IT policy rules, and configuration settings. You can turn on or turn off Wi-Fi access for the device in BlackBerry
Enterprise Server version 4.1 SP3 or later, and manage Wi-Fi configuration settings and VPN configuration settings for user
accounts in BlackBerry Enterprise Server version 4.1 SP2 or later.
When you configure an IT policy or configuration setting, a user cannot override the value on the device.
At an application level, you can specify the types of connections that an application can make. When you configure
application control policies, you can control whether the application can access the enterprise Wi-Fi network.
For more information about specifying whether an application can access an enterprise Wi-Fi network, see Protecting the
BlackBerry Device Platform Against Malware. For more information about using IT policy rules and configuration settings,
see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Administration Guide and the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Policy Reference Guide .
How the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution
protects sensitive Wi-Fi information
To permit a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device to access a Wi-Fi network, you must send sensitive Wi-Fi information such as
encryption keys and passwords to the device using Wi-Fi profiles, VPN profiles, and IT policy rules. After the device receives
the sensitive Wi-Fi information, the device encrypts the encryption keys and passwords and stores them in flash memory in
an area that third-party applications cannot access.
The BlackBerry Enterprise Server encrypts the sensitive Wi-Fi information that it sends to the device and stores the
sensitive Wi-Fi information in the BlackBerry Configuration Database. You can help protect the sensitive Wi-Fi information
in the BlackBerry Configuration Database using access controls and configuration settings.
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Security Technical Overview
Wi-Fi enabled devices
Using a VPN with a device
If your organization’s environment includes VPNs, such as an IPSec VPN, you can configure a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry
device to authenticate with the VPN so that it can access your organization's network. A VPN provides an encrypted tunnel
between a device and your organization’s network.
A VPN solution consists of a VPN client on the device and a VPN concentrator. The device can use the VPN client to
authenticate with the VPN concentrator, which acts as the gateway to your organization's network. Each device includes a
VPN client that supports several VPN concentrators. The VPN client on the device is designed to use strong encryption to
authenticate with the VPN concentrator. It creates an encrypted tunnel between the device and VPN concentrator that the
device and your organization's network can use to communicate.
After you configure the VPN, the device can use a layer 2 security method to connect to the enterprise Wi-Fi network, and
use the VPN to authenticate with your organization's network. In this scenario, the enterprise Wi-Fi network is an untrusted
network, and only the VPN can authenticate with your organization's network.
For a list of supported VPN concentrators, visit www.blackberry.com/support to read article KB13354.
Permitting a Wi-Fi enabled device to log in to a VPN
concentrator
To permit a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device to log in to a VPN concentrator automatically after it connects to an enterprise
Wi-Fi network, you or a user can configure a VPN profile that includes a user name and password for authentication with
the VPN concentrator. Depending on your organization’s security policy, you or the user can save the user name and
password for authentication with the VPN concentrator on the device. When you or the user saves the user name and
password, the device does not prompt the user for the user name and password the first time or each time that the device
connects to the enterprise Wi-Fi network.
The device is also compatible with VPN environments that use two-factor authentication using hardware tokens or software
tokens for credentials. When the device tries to log in to the VPN, the device uses credentials that the token generates or
that the user provides.
For more information about configuring VPN profiles, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Administration Guide.
144
Security Technical Overview
Wi-Fi enabled devices
Using a segmented network to reduce the spread of
malware on an enterprise Wi-Fi network that uses a
VPN
When a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device connects to an enterprise Wi-Fi network that uses a VPN, the device might permit
the VPN concentrator to send data directly to a BlackBerry Enterprise Server over your organization's network. The VPN
concentrator sends data over port 4101. In this scenario, only the VPN concentrator connects to the enterprise Wi-Fi
network.
To configure your organization’s VPN concentrator to prevent it from opening unnecessary connections to your
organization’s network, you can configure a segmented network. In a segmented network, you can divide components of
your organization’s network using firewalls to reduce the spread of malware.
For more information about reducing the spread of malware, see Protecting the BlackBerry device platform against
malware.
Supported UI settings for VPN concentrators
BlackBerry 7.1 supports the configuration of the following UI settings for the VPN concentrators that BlackBerry devices
connect to.
VPN1
Powe
r
Cisco
VPN
3000
Series
Concentr
ator
Gateway Credential
(PSK): Username
(Group Name)
X
X
X
Gateway Credential
(PSK): Password
(Group Password)
X
X
XAuth Credential
(PSK): Username
XAuth Credential
(PSK): Password
UI setting
VPN
Firewall
Brick
Secure
Nortel
Computi Symante
NetScree
Networks ng
c Raptor
n
Contivity Sidewind Firewall
er
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
145
Security Technical Overview
UI setting
VPN1
Powe
r
Wi-Fi enabled devices
Cisco
VPN
3000
Series
Concentr
ator
XAuth Credential:
Enable Extended
Authentication
X
VPN
Firewall
Brick
Secure
Nortel
Computi Symante
NetScree
Networks ng
c Raptor
n
Contivity Sidewind Firewall
er
X
X
X
Gateway Auth (PKI):
Client Certificate
X
X
X
X
Gateway Auth (PKI):
CA Certificate
X
X
X
X
DNS Config:
Dynamically
determine DNS
X
X
X
X
X
X
External Network:
Subnet IP address 1
X
External Network:
Subnet mask 1
X
XAuth Credential:
Extended
Authentication
X
IKE: DH Group
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
IKE: Cipher
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
IKE: Hash
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
IPSec: Perfect
Forward Secrecy
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
IPSec: Crypto and
Hash Suite
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
XAuth Credential:
Soft Token
146
X
X
X
Security Technical Overview
Wi-Fi enabled devices
Supported configurations for the Cisco VPN 3000 Series Concentrator
The following table describes the configurations that BlackBerry 7.1 supports for the Cisco VPN 3000 Series Concentrator.
Configuration setting
Configuration 1
Configuration 2
Gateway Credential (PSK): Username
(Group Name)
X
X
Gateway Credential (PSK): Password
(Group Password)
X
X
Configuration 3
Configuration 4
XAuth Credential (PSK): Username
X
X
XAuth Credential (PSK): Password
X
X
XAuth Credential: Enable Extended
Authentication
X
X
Gateway Auth (PKI): Client Certificate
X
X
Gateway Auth (PKI): CA Certificate
X
X
DNS Config: Dynamically determine
DNS
X
X
X
X
IKE: DH Group
Group 1
Group 1, 2
Group 5
Group 1, 5
IKE: Cipher
3DES, AES128
3DES, AES128
AES256
3DES, AES256
IKE: Hash
HMAC MD5,
HMAC SHA1
HMAC MD5,
HMAC SHA1
HMAC SHA1
HMAC MD5,
HMAC SHA1
IPSec: Crypto and Hash Suite
3DES-MD5,
AES128-SHA1
3DES-MD5,
AES128-SHA1
AES256-SHA1
3DES-MD5,
AES256-SHA1
NAT timeout
Default
Default
Default
Default
Supported configurations for the Cisco PIX Firewall
The following table describes the configurations that BlackBerry 7.1 supports for the Cisco PIX Firewall.
Configuration setting
Configuration 1
Configuration 2
Gateway Credential (PSK): Username
(Group Name)
X
X
Configuration 3
Configuration 4
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Security Technical Overview
Wi-Fi enabled devices
Configuration setting
Configuration 1
Configuration 2
Gateway Credential (PSK): Password
(Group Password)
X
X
Configuration 3
Configuration 4
XAuth Credential (PSK): Username
X
X
XAuth Credential (PSK): Password
X
X
XAuth Credential: Enable Extended
Authentication
X
X
Gateway Auth (PKI): Client Certificate
X
X
Gateway Auth (PKI): CA Certificate
X
X
DNS Config: Dynamically determine
DNS
X
X
X
X
IKE: DH Group
Group 1, 2, 5
Group 1, 2, 5
Group 5
Group 5
IKE: Cipher
DES, 3DES,
AES128, AES192,
AES256
DES, 3DES,
AES128, AES192,
AES256
AES256
AES256
IKE: Hash
HMAC MD5,
HMAC SHA1
HMAC MD5,
HMAC SHA1
HMAC SHA1
HMAC SHA1
IPSec: Crypto and Hash Suite
DES-SHA1, 3DESMD5, 3DES-SHA1,
AES128-MD5,
AES128-SHA1,
AES192-MD5,
AES192-SHA1,
AES256-MD5,
AES256-SHA1
DES-SHA1, 3DES- AES256-SHA1
MD5, 3DES-SHA1,
AES128-MD5,
AES128-SHA1,
AES192-MD5,
AES192-SHA1,
AES256-MD5,
AES256-SHA1
AES256-SHA1
NAT timeout
Default
Default
Default
IPSec: Perfect Forward Secrecy
Default
Supported configurations for the Cisco IOS Easy VPN
The following table describes the configurations that the BlackBerry 7.1 supports for the Cisco IOS Easy VPN.
Configuration setting
Configuration 1
Configuration 2
Gateway Credential (PSK): Username (Group Name)
X
X
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Security Technical Overview
Wi-Fi enabled devices
Configuration setting
Configuration 1
Configuration 2
Gateway Credential (PSK): Password (Group Password)
X
X
XAuth Credential (PSK): Username
X
XAuth Credential (PSK): Password
X
XAuth Credential: Enable Extended Authentication
X
DNS Config: Dynamically determine DNS
X
X
IKE: DH Group
Group 1
Group 1, 2, 5
IKE: Cipher
3DES
DES, 3DES, AES128,
AES192, AES256
IKE: Hash
HMAC MD5
HMAC MD5, HMAC SHA1
IPSec: Crypto and Hash Suite
3DES-MD5
DES-SHA1, 3DES-SHA1,
AES128-SHA1, AES192SHA1, AES256-MD5,
AES256-SHA1
NAT timeout
Default
Default
Supported configurations for the Secure Computing Sidewinder
The following table describes the configurations that BlackBerry 7.1 supports for the Secure Computing Sidewinder.
Configuration setting
Configuration 1
Gateway Credential (PSK): Username (Group Name)
X
Gateway Credential (PSK): Password (Group Password)
X
XAuth Credential (PSK): Username
X
XAuth Credential (PSK): Password
X
XAuth Credential: Enable Extended Authentication
X
DNS Config: Dynamically determine DNS
X
External Network: Subnet IP address 1
X
External Network: Subnet mask 1
X
IKE: DH Group
Group 1
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Wi-Fi enabled devices
Configuration setting
Configuration 1
IKE: Cipher
3DES
IKE: Hash
HMAC MD5
IPSec: Crypto and Hash Suite
3DES-MD5
NAT timeout
Default
Supported configurations for Nortel Networks Contivity
The following table describes the configurations that BlackBerry 7.1 supports for Nortel Networks Contivity.
Configuration setting
Configuration 1
Configuration 2
Gateway Credential (PSK): Username (Group Name)
X
X
Gateway Credential (PSK): Password (Group Password)
X
X
XAuth Credential (PSK): Username
X
XAuth Credential (PSK): Password
X
DNS Config: Dynamically determine DNS
X
XAuth Credential: Extended Authentication
X
X
IKE: DH Group
Group 1
Group 1
IKE: Cipher
3DES
3DES
IKE: Hash
HMAC MD5
HMAC MD5
IPSec: Crypto and Hash Suite
3DES-MD5
3DES-MD5
NAT timeout
Default
Default
Using a captive portal to connect to an
enterprise Wi-Fi network or Wi-Fi hotspot
A captive portal uses web-based authentication to permit a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device to connect to an enterprise
Wi-Fi network or Wi-Fi hotspot. The BlackBerry device can use a captive portal to access an IP segment of the enterprise
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Wi-Fi enabled devices
Wi-Fi network or Wi-Fi hotspot. After the BlackBerry device connects to the enterprise Wi-Fi network or Wi-Fi hotspot, the
user can browse to an HTML login page for a web site that permits the enterprise Wi-Fi network or Wi-Fi hotspot to
authenticate with the BlackBerry device before the BlackBerry device can access the web site.
If your organization uses a captive portal, you can permit a user to access the captive portal using the WLAN Login browser
on the BlackBerry device. The user must authenticate with the WLAN Login browser using the login information that you
provide.
When the BlackBerry device authenticates with the captive portal, the user can use the BlackBerry Browser on the
BlackBerry device to access other web sites and data services that are available on the enterprise Wi-Fi network or Wi-Fi
hotspot.
Protecting a connection between a Wi-Fi
enabled device and an enterprise Wi-Fi
network using RSA SecurID
You can use software tokens to provide layer 2 authentication or layer 3 authentication on a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry
device. When you configure a software token for a user, the device is designed to use the passcode to authenticate the user
to the Wi-Fi network using PEAP authentication, EAP-GTC authentication, EAP-FAST authentication, EAP-TTLS
authentication, or a VPN.
The RSA SecurID Library on the device permits the device to periodically generate token codes for a software token. The
device imports a seed, which consists of random data, and uses the seed to initialize the software token algorithm. The
software token algorithm generates token codes on the device.
An RSAadministrator can use RSA Authentication Manager 6.1 or later to configure an optional password to encrypt the
seed. The RSA SecurID library on the device can decrypt the seed using the optional password. The RSA SecurID library
uses code signing to help prevent third-party applications from changing or reading the information that the RSA SecurID
library stores on the device.
When the user opens a Wi-Fi connection or VPN connection that requires two-factor authentication on the device, the
device prompts the user to type the software token PIN. The RSA SecurID Library adds the software token PIN to the
beginning of the current token code to create a passcode that the device uses in the two-factor authentication process.
BlackBerry transport layer encryption is designed to protect the seed when the BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends it over
the transport layer. The device uses Research In Motion proprietary protocols that are designed to be highly secure to
perform all communication necessary to retrieve the seed on behalf of the RSA SecurID Library.
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Wi-Fi enabled devices
Data flow: Generating a token code for a software token
1. An RSA administrator uses the RSA Authentication Manager to import a seed as a soft token file in .asc format to a
software token database and issue the software token file in .sdtid format. If necessary, the administrator can perform
one or more of the following actions:
•
Permit a user to specify the software token PIN
•
Configure the RSA SecurID to automatically generate and send a software token PIN to a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry
device
•
Require the user to specify the software token PIN the first time that the user tries to complete RSA authentication
on the device
•
Bind the seed to a specific device PIN
•
Specify an optional password to encrypt the .sdtid seed file
2. You assign the .sdtid file seed for the device to the user account in the BlackBerry Administration Service. If required,
you specify the optional password that the device can use to decrypt the seed.
3. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server performs the following actions:
a
Stores the .sdtid seed file in the BlackBerry Configuration Database.
b
Pushes the .sdtid seed file (and the password, if the RSAadministrator specified one) to the device during the
activation process and each time that the RSA administrator changes the .sdtid seed file for the device.
4. The device performs the following actions:
a
Imports the .sdtid seed file. If the RSA administrator specified a password in the RSA Authentication Manager to
encrypt the .sdtid file seed, the device uses the password to decrypt the .sdtid seed file. If the RSA administrator
specified that the .sdtid seed file must bind to a specific device PIN, only the device with the specific PIN can
import the seed.
b
Stores the .sdtid seed file in flash memory.
c
Imports a copy of the .sdtid seed file into the RSA SecurID on the device.
5. The RSA SecurID randomly generates a password to encrypt the .sdtid seed file.
6. The RSA SecurID library on the device authenticates with the RSA Authentication Agent and initializes the software
token algorithm one time for each minute.
7. Each time the user tries to open a Wi-Fi connection or VPN connection that requires RSA authentication, the device
uses the initialized algorithm to combine the .sdtid file seed with random data that is based on the time and generate a
new token code for the software token.
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Security Technical Overview
Wi-Fi enabled devices
Layer 2 security methods that a device
supports
You can configure a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device to use security methods for layer 2 (also known as the IEEE 802.11
link layer) so that the device can authenticate with a wireless access point and the device and access point can encrypt
data that they send between each other. The device supports the following layer 2 security methods:
•
Open (no security method)
•
WEP encryption (64-bit and 128-bit)
•
IEEE 802.1X standard and EAP authentication using EAP-FAST, EAP-SIM, EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, LEAP, and PEAP
To support IEEE 802.1X methods, the device has a built-in supplicant.
The device also supports TKIP and AES-CCMP encryption for WPA-Personal, WPA2-Personal, WPA-Enterprise, and WPA2Enterprise. When the device is roaming from one access point to another access point, the device supports the IEEE
802.11r standard that is included in the Wi-Fi CERTIFIED Voice-Enterprise program.
If your organization’s enterprise Wi-Fi network uses EAP authentication, you can permit and deny device access to the
enterprise Wi-Fi network by updating your organization’s central authentication server. You are not required to update the
configuration of each access point.
For more information about IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.1X, see www.ieee.org/portal/site. For more information about EAP
authentication, see RFC 3748.
WEP encryption
WEP encryption uses a matching encryption key at a wireless access point and on a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device to
protect the connection to a Wi-Fi network. The encryption key can be 40 bits in length (for 64-bit WEP encryption) or 104
bits in length (for 128-bit WEP encryption). To configure a device to use WEP encryption, you must send WEP encryption
keys to the device using IT policy rules or configuration settings.
By current industry standards, WEP encryption is not a cryptographically strong security solution. WEP encryption
weaknesses include the following scenarios:
•
A potentially malicious user might capture transmissions over the wireless network and might deduce WEP encryption
keys in very little time.
•
A potentially malicious user might use a man-in-the-middle attack to change packets that are encrypted using WEP
encryption.
You can use a VPN to provide data confidentially if your organization uses WEP encryption. A VPN can authenticate and
encrypt access to your organization’s network.
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Wi-Fi enabled devices
For more information about configuring WEP encryption, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Administration Guide.
WPA authentication
The IEEE 802.1X standard specifies the WPA protocol as an access control method for work Wi-Fi networks. You can also
use WPA authentication in small-office environments and home environments where you cannot configure server-based
authentication.
To configure WPA authentication, you can use the PSK protocol to send a passphrase that matches the key or passphrase
for the wireless access points to a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device. The access points and device use a passphrase to
generate layer 2 encryption keys. The passphrase can be up to 256 bits. All access points and each device in your
organization must share the same passphrase.
The PSK protocol is designed to use TKIP keys or AES-CCMP keys to protect communications over the enterprise Wi-Fi
network. The PSK protocol relies on the passphrase to control whether a device can access the work Wi-Fi network.
The device is compatible with the WPA-Personal specification and WPA2-Personal specification.
For more information about configuring the device to support WPA authentication, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
Administration Guide.
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Security Technical Overview
IEEE 802.1X standard
IEEE 802.1X standard
18
The IEEE 802.1X standard defines a generic authentication framework that a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device and an
enterprise Wi-Fi network can use for authentication. The EAP framework that the IEEE 802.1X standard uses for
authentication is specified in RFC3748.
The device supports EAP authentication methods that meet the requirements of RFC4017. The device uses the EAP
authentication methods to authenticate with the enterprise Wi-Fi network. Some EAP authentication methods (for
example, EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, EAP-FAST, or PEAP) use credentials to provide mutual authentication between the device
and the enterprise Wi-Fi network.
The device is compatible with the WPA-Enterprise and WPA2-Enterprise specifications.
Roaming in an enterprise Wi-Fi network
The BlackBerry device is designed to minimize loss of network connectivity when it moves from one wireless access point
to another in an enterprise Wi-Fi network that uses WPA2-Enterprise authentication. If the enterprise Wi-Fi network
supports Wi-Fi CERTIFIED Voice-Enterprise, the device uses the IEEE 802.11r standard to move from one wireless access
point to another. If the enterprise Wi-Fi network does not use Wi-Fi CERTIFIED Voice- Enterprise, the device uses the IEEE
802.11i standard with the IEEE 802.1X standard to move from one wireless access point to another.
When the device uses the IEEE 802.11i standard with the IEEE 802.1X standard, the key exchange that occurs during EAP
authentication generates the required keying material. The device and a wireless access point use the keying material
when they create the PMK.
The device and wireless access point can cache the PMK. The PMK caching process permits the device and the access
point to generate session keys and skip EAP authentication during subsequent connections. PMK caching helps reduce
the roaming latency for the device when the device moves to another access point in an enterprise Wi-Fi network.
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Security Technical Overview
IEEE 802.1X standard
Data flow: Authenticating a Wi-Fi enabled
device with a work Wi-Fi network using the
IEEE 802.1X standard
If you configured a wireless access point to use the IEEE 802.1X standard, the access point permits communication using
EAP authentication only. This process flow assumes that you configured a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device to use an EAP
authentication method to communicate with the access point.
1. The Wi-Fi enabled device associates itself with the access point that you configured to use the IEEE 802.1X standard.
The device sends its credentials (typically a user name and password) to the access point.
2. The access point sends the credentials to the authentication server.
3. The authentication server performs the following actions:
a
authenticates the device on behalf of the access point
b
instructs the access point to permit access to the work Wi-Fi network
c
sends Wi-Fi credentials to the device to permit it to authenticate with the access point
4. The access point and device use EAPoL-Key messages to generate encryption keys (for example, WEP, TKIP, or AESCCMP, depending on the EAP authentication method that the device uses).
When the device sends EAPoL messages, the device uses the encryption and integrity requirements that the EAP
authentication method specifies. When the device sends EAPoL-Key messages, the device uses the ARC4 algorithm or
AES algorithm to provide integrity and encryption.
After the access point and device generate the encryption key, the device can access the work Wi-Fi network.
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IEEE 802.1X standard
EAP authentication methods that a Wi-Fi
enabled device supports
LEAP authentication
LEAP authentication is designed to improve WEP authentication. You can use LEAP authentication to authenticate a Wi-Fi
enabled BlackBerry device with a work Wi-Fi network, generate WEP encryption keys that are unique to the device, and
configure the work Wi-Fi network to update the WEP encryption keys automatically during a session with the device.
The device supports using LEAP authentication with a user name and password. The device uses a one-way function to
encrypt the password before it sends the password to the authentication server on the work Wi-Fi network. You can
configure password policies on a work Wi-Fi network that require the device to use LEAP authentication to connect to the
work Wi-Fi network.
LEAP authentication does not provide mutual authentication between the device and work Wi-Fi network.
PEAP authentication
PEAP authentication permits a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device to authenticate with an authentication server and access a
work Wi-Fi network. PEAP authentication uses TLS to create an encrypted tunnel between the device and the
authentication server. The device uses the TLS tunnel to send the authentication credentials to the authentication server.
The device supports PEAPv0 and PEAPv1 for PEAP authentication. The device also supports EAP-MS-CHAPv2 and EAPGTC as second-phase protocols during PEAP authentication. The device can use the second-phase protocols to exchange
credentials with the work Wi-Fi network.
To configure PEAP authentication, you must install a root certificate on the device that corresponds with the authentication
server certificate and install client certificates, if required.
For more information, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Administration Guide.
EAP-TLS authentication
EAP-TLS authentication uses a PKI to permit a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device to authenticate with an authentication
server and access a work Wi-Fi network. EAP-TLS authentication uses TLS to create an encrypted tunnel between the
device and the authentication server. EAP-TLS authentication uses the TLS encrypted tunnel and a client certificate to
send the credentials of the device to the authentication server.
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IEEE 802.1X standard
The device supports EAP-TLS authentication when the authentication server and client use certificates that meet specific
requirements for authentication. To configure EAP-TLS authentication, you must install a client certificate and a root
certificate on the device that corresponds to the certificate of the authentication server. For more information, see the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server Administration Guide.
For more information about EAP-TLS authentication, see RFC 2716.
EAP-TTLS authentication
EAP-TTLS authentication extends EAP-TLS authentication to permit a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device and an
authentication server to authenticate with each other. When the authentication server uses its certificate to authenticate
with the device and open a protected connection to the device, the authentication server uses an authentication protocol
over the protected connection to authenticate the device.
The device supports EAP-MS-CHAPv2 and MS-CHAPv2 as second-phase protocols during EAP-TTLS authentication so
that the device can exchange credentials with the work Wi-Fi network.
To configure EAP-TTLS authentication, you must install the root certificate on the device that corresponds to the certificate
of the authentication server. For more information, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Administration Guide.
EAP-FAST authentication
EAP-FAST authentication uses PAC to open a TLS connection to a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device and verify the
supplicant credentials of the device over the TLS connection.
The device supports EAP-MS-CHAPv2 and EAP-GTC as second-phase protocols during EAP-FAST authentication so that
the device can exchange authentication credentials with the work Wi-Fi network. The device supports using automatic PAC
provisioning with EAP-FAST authentication only.
For more information about EAP-FAST authentication, see RFC 4851.
EAP-SIM authentication
EAP-SIM authentication uses a GSM SIM card to authenticate a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device with a work Wi-Fi network
and distribute session keys. EAP-SIM authentication uses a challenge-response method without mutual authentication.
The device supports using EAP-SIM authentication with the credentials on the GSM SIM card only. The user is not required
to type or select credentials on the device.
The user identity that EAP-SIM uses for authentication on the device is built from IMSI using the 3GPP technical
specification 3GPP-TS-23.003.
The device can receive at least two challenges from the authentication server to provide stronger authentication.
For more information about EAP-SIM authentication, see RFC 4186.
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Security Technical Overview
IEEE 802.1X standard
Encryption keys that a Wi-Fi enabled device
supports for use with layer 2 security
methods
A Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device supports AES-CCMP encryption keys, TKIP encryption keys, and WEP encryption keys.
The device supports the use of AES-CCMP with the following authentication methods:
•
EAP-FAST authentication
•
EAP-TLS authentication
•
EAP-TTLS authentication
•
PEAP authentication
•
PSK authentication
The device supports the use of TKIP with the following authentication methods:
•
EAP-FAST authentication
•
EAP-TLS authentication
•
EAP-TTLS authentication
•
PEAP authentication
•
PSK authentication
For more information about AES-CCMP and TKIP, visit www.ieee.org/portal/site.
Support for the use of CCKM with EAP
authentication methods
A Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device supports the use of CCKM with all supported EAP authentication methods to improve
roaming between wireless access points. The device does not support the use of CCKM with the Cisco CKIP encryption
algorithm or the AES-CCMP encryption algorithm.
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IEEE 802.1X standard
Using certificates with PEAP authentication,
EAP-TLS authentication, or EAP-TTLS
authentication
If your organization uses PEAP authentication, EAP-TLS authentication, or EAP-TTLS authentication to protect the wireless
access points for your organization’s work Wi-Fi network, a Wi-Fi enabled BlackBerry device must authenticate mutually
with an access point using an authentication server. To generate the certificates that the device and authentication server
use to authenticate with each other, you require a certification authority.
For PEAP authentication, EAP-TLS authentication, or EAP-TTLS authentication to be successful, the device must trust the
certificate of the authentication server. The device does not trust the certificate of the authentication server automatically.
Before you can configure the device to trust the certificate of the authentication server, the following conditions must exist:
•
A certification authority that the device and authentication server mutually trust must generate the certificate of the
authentication server and a certificate for the device.
•
The device must store the root certificates in the certificate chain for the certificate of the authentication server.
Each device stores a list of root certificates that are issued by certification authorities that it trusts.
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Security Technical Overview
Controlling applications on a device
Controlling applications on a
device
19
Creating an application for a smartphone
An application developer can create an application for BlackBerry smartphones using a variety of developer tools.
Applications can perform the following actions on a smartphone:
•
Share application data with other applications
•
Access user data such as calendar entries, email messages, and contacts
•
Control smartphone resources, such as the camera or GPS
Some applications are preloaded on smartphones. You can use the BlackBerry Administration Service to install and
manage applications on smartphones. A user can also download and install applications on a smartphone using a
computer or over the wireless network.
For more information on the tools available for application developers, visit www.blackberry.com/developers .
Specifying the methods that users can use
to install applications on a smartphone
BlackBerry smartphone users can install applications using the following methods:
•
Using the BlackBerry App World storefront
•
Using a browser
•
Using a media card
•
Over a USB connection (for example, using the BlackBerry Desktop Software or BlackBerry Application Web Loader)
You can use the Application Installation Methods IT policy rule to specify which application installation options are
available to a user. You can also use the Installation from Specified URLs Only IT policy rule to specify a list of web
addresses that a user can download applications from.
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Controlling applications on a device
For more information about using IT policy rules, visit www.blackberry.com/go/serverdocs to see the BlackBerry Enterprise
Server Policy Reference Guide.
Specifying the resources that applications
can access on a device
You can specify which applications a BlackBerry device user can download and install on a BlackBerry device and the
resources on the device that the applications can access. If you control the applications that a user can install and limit the
resources that the applications can access, you can help protect the device from malware. You can also help prevent
damage to the device, applications, device data, and your organization’s network.
You can use application control policy rules and code signing to control the resources that applications can access on
devices and to help prevent malware on devices.
For more information about helping to prevent malware on devices, see Protecting Devices From Malware.
Using application control policy rules to control the
resources that applications can access on a
smartphone
You can use application control policy rules to specify whether users can install applications on BlackBerry smartphones
and to specify the permissions for applications.
You can use application control policy rules to specify whether applications can access the following resources on
smartphones:
•
Data or applications (for example, Messages application, phone)
•
Smartphone key store
•
Network connections
•
Near field communications
•
Secure element
•
Smartphone settings
•
Security timer
•
BlackBerry APIs (for example, GPS API, User Authenticator API, Module Management API)
When you assign an application control policy to a software configuration and assign the software configuration to user
accounts or groups, users might not be able to use all of the features of the applications that are included in the software
configuration. For example, if you set the "Are External Network Connections Allowed" application control policy rule to
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Security Technical Overview
Controlling applications on a device
"Not permitted", a game that is installed on a smartphone may not be able to send high scores back to a central server
since the game is not permitted to access the Internet.
You can assign application control policies to software configurations so that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server limits the
permitted application behavior to a subset of user accounts that it trusts.
Smartphones revoke the application control policy and reset if the permissions for applications that the application control
policy is applied to become more restrictive. Smartphones permit users to make application permissions more restrictive,
but never less restrictive, than the permissions that you specify.
For more information about configuring application control policies, visit www.blackberry.com/go/serverdocs to see the
BlackBerry Enterprise Server Administration Guide.
Application permissions for applications that users install on a
smartphone
Users can set permissions that control how applications that users install on a BlackBerry smartphone interact with the
other applications on the smartphone. For example, a user can control whether an application that the user installs on the
smartphone can access data or the Internet, make calls, or use Bluetooth connections.
If a user adds an application to the smartphone, the smartphone is designed to prevent the application from sending or
receiving data without the user's knowledge. For a selected application or all your third-party applications, before an
application sends or receives data, you can turn on a prompt that allows you to accept or deny the connection request for a
specific location or resource.
Smartphones permit users to make application permissions more restrictive, but never less restrictive, than the
permissions that you specify.
The following table shows the application permissions and their default settings:
Permission
Category
Default setting
Description
USB
Connections
Allow
A user can set whether applications can
use physical connections, such as a USB
cable, that a user set up for the
smartphone.
Bluetooth
Connections
Allow
A user can set whether applications can
use Bluetooth connections.
Phone
Connections
Prompt
A user can set whether applications can
make calls or access call logs.
Location Data
Connections
Prompt
A user can set whether applications can
use the GPS location information on the
smartphone.
Server Network
Connections
•
A user can set whether applications can
access the Internet or your organization's
intranet using your organization's
network.
Allow (BlackBerry 7
and later)
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Permission
Internet
Wi-Fi
Controlling applications on a device
Category
Connections
Default setting
•
Prompt (BlackBerry
Device Software 6.0
and earlier)
•
Allow (BlackBerry 7
and later)
•
Prompt (BlackBerry
Device Software 6.0
and earlier)
Description
A user can set whether applications can
access the Internet through a wireless
service provider (for example, using a
direct Internet connection or WAP
gateway).
Connections
Allow
A user can set whether applications can
use Wi-Fi connections.
Near Field Communication Connections
Allow
A user can set whether applications can
use NFC connections.
Cross Applications
Communication
Interactions
Allow
A user can set whether applications can
communicate and share data with other
applications on the smartphone.
Device Settings
Interactions
Allow
A user can set whether applications can
turn on or turn off the smartphone or
change smartphone options, such as
display options.
Media
Interactions
Allow
A user can set whether applications can
access media files on the smartphone.
Application Management
Interactions
Allow
A user can set whether applications can
add or delete application modules or
access module information such as an
application name or version.
Themes
Interactions
Allow
A user can set whether the smartphone
can use applications as a source for
customized themes.
Input Simulation
Interactions
Deny
A user can set whether applications can
simulate actions, such as pressing a key
on the smartphone.
Browser Filtering
Interactions
Deny
A user can set whether applications can
register browser filters with the browser
on the smartphone to add, change, or
delete website content before it appears
in the browser.
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Controlling applications on a device
Permission
Category
Default setting
Description
Recording
Interactions
Prompt
A user can set whether applications can
take screen shots of the smartphone
screen or use other applications on the
smartphone to take pictures or
recordings.
Security Timer Reset
Interactions
Deny
A user can set whether applications can
reset the duration that the smartphone
remains unlocked after the user stops
using it.
Display Information While
Locked
Interactions
Deny
A user can set whether applications can
display information while the smartphone
is locked.
Email
User Data
Allow
A user can set whether applications can
access email messages, SMS text
messages, MMS messages, or PIN
messages on the smartphone.
Organizer Data
User Data
Allow
A user can set whether applications can
access organizer data such as contacts,
calendar entries, tasks, or memos on the
smartphone.
Files
User Data
Allow
A user can set whether applications can
access files that the user stores on the
smartphone. For example, a user can set
whether applications can access files that
a user transfers to the smartphone using
the media manager tool of the BlackBerry
Device Software or Bluetooth technology.
Security Data
User Data
Allow
A user can set whether applications can
access certificates or keys in the key
store on the smartphone.
Secure Element
User Data
Allow
A user can set whether applications can
access confidential information, such as
credit card numbers, coupons, loyalty
cards, and public transit passes, that are
stored on the smartphone's secure
element. Depending on the smartphone
model and wireless service provider, the
smartphone might not use a secure
element.
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Controlling applications on a device
Application permissions for applications that users install as trusted
applications on a smartphone
Some applications that a user installs on a BlackBerry smartphone prompt the user to install the application as a trusted
application. If the user accepts the prompt and installs the application as a trusted application, all permissions for the
application are set to Allow except for the following permissions:
Permission
Setting
Input Simulation
Deny
Browser Filtering
Deny
Recording
Prompt
Security Timer Reset
Prompt
Display Information While Locked
Deny
Secure Element
Prompt
How code signing controls the resources that
applications can access on a smartphone
Some APIs in the BlackBerry Java SDK are protected APIs. Protected APIs expose methods that can access user data or
other information on BlackBerry smartphones that is considered sensitive. When an application uses protected APIs, the
application must be digitally signed with code signing keys before the application can be deployed.
Application developers can request access to a set of code signing keys from blackberry.com/SignedKeys/. The developer
must digitally sign the application before it can be installed on a smartphone. Code signing does not certify or approve an
application, but it allows Research In Motion to identify the author of a potentially malicious application that uses sensitive
APIs.
In addition to API control, code signing can be used to restrict or share access to application data by other applications on
a smartphone.
For more information about code signing and applications, visit www.blackberry.com/go/serverdocs to see the BlackBerry
Java SDK Security Development Guide.
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Security Technical Overview
Controlling applications on a device
Permitting an application to encode data on
a smartphone
A developer can use the Transcoder API to create an encoding scheme for data that a BlackBerry Enterprise Server and
BlackBerry smartphone send between each other. The Transcoder API is part of the BlackBerry Java SDK. The BlackBerry
Enterprise Server and the smartphone can use the encoding scheme to encode and decode all gateway message envelope
packets that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and the smartphone send between each other. The encoding scheme adds
a transcoder ID to the beginning of the encoded data.
By default, the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution encrypts the encoded data using BlackBerry transport layer encryption. If
the Primary Transcoder IT policy rule specifies that the transcoder is outside, the data is encrypted using BlackBerry
transport layer encryption first, and then encoded by the transcoder if both the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and the
smartphone support it.
Before an application can access the Transcoder API, the BlackBerry Signing Authority Tool must digitally sign the .cod
file. The BlackBerry Signing Authority Tool uses the code signing keys to authorize and authenticate the Transcoder
implementation code.
To permit the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and the smartphone to use the encoding scheme, you must specify the hash of
the application's .cod file in the Security Transcoder Cod File Hashes IT policy rule. To use the transcoder to encode the
data after BlackBerry transport layer encryption is applied, you must also set the Primary Transcoder IT policy rule.
If the RIM Cryptographic API does not support a specific algorithm, the developer can use the Transcoder API to add the
algorithm to the encoding schemes. The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution applies the encoding schemes to any outgoing
data that the BlackBerry transport layer encryption applies to. By default, the Transcoder API supports all algorithms that
the RIM Cryptographic API supports.
If you permit applications to use the Transcoder API on the smartphone, the applications might impact the security,
usability, and performance of the BlackBerry Enterprise Solution. It might also cause the smartphone to lose data.
Removing applications that a user installed
when a user deletes all smartphone data
If a user clicks Security Wipe in the security options on a BlackBerry smartphone, the user can select the User Installed
Applications option at the same time. If the user selects this option, when the smartphone permanently deletes user data, it
also removes all applications that a user installed on the smartphone, along with the application data.
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Security Technical Overview
Controlling applications on a device
Removing add-on applications from a
device
You can create a software configuration to remove all add-on applications that are preloaded on a BlackBerry device. You
can create an allowed list of applications by creating a software configuration and setting the disposition for unlisted
applications to Disallowed. This removes all add-on applications developed by RIM and any third-party applications that
you do not list as Required or Optional within the software configuration.
You can also create a custom software configuration to remove one or more add-on applications that are preloaded on a
device but allow other add-on applications to remain on the device. To remove specific applications, you must add them to
the application repository, then add them to the software configuration, and set the disposition for them to Disallowed.
After you associate the software configuration to a group, multiple user accounts, or a single user account, the applications
are removed from the device and the user cannot reinstall them.
The specific version of the application that you are removing must be included in the software configuration; versions other
than the one you specify (for example, earlier and later versions) are not removed.
Users can also remove add-on applications that are preloaded on the device by deleting them from the application list on
the device.
For more information about how to control third-party applications and add-on applications and how to remove third-party
applications and add-on applications from a device, visit www.blackberry.com/support to read KB05392. For more
information about which applications are add-on applications developed by RIM, visit www.blackberry.com/support to read
KB24317.
Controlling which applications can access
NFC features on a device
NFC technology is a short-range, wireless technology that is designed to allow BlackBerry device users to quickly exchange
information between their BlackBerry devices and smart accessories, smart payment terminals, and smart tags.
You can use the "Is Access to NFC Allowed" application control policy rule to control which applications on the device can
access NFC features. The NFC features on the device are tag reading, tag writing, and card emulation. This rule includes
one of the following values:
•
Allow: the application is permitted to access the NFC features on the device. The user can set the Near Field
Communication permission to Allow, Prompt, or Deny in the Application Management options on the device.
•
Not permitted: the application is not allowed to access the NFC features on the device. The user can only set the Near
Field Communication permission to Deny in the Application Management options on the device.
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Security Technical Overview
•
Controlling applications on a device
Prompt user: the device displays a message that provides the user with the option to Allow or Deny the application's
request to access NFC features on the device. The user can set the Near Field Communication permission to Prompt or
Deny in the Application Management options on the device.
For descriptions of application control policy rules, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Policy Reference Guide. For more
information about configuring application control policy rules, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Administration Guide.
Controlling which applications can access
the secure element on a device
You can use the "Is Access to the Secure Element Allowed" application control policy rule to control which applications on
the BlackBerry device can access the secure element. The secure element stores information, such as credit card
information and identification, so that the device can use NFC features. This rule includes the following values:
•
Allow: the application is permitted to access the secure element on the device. The BlackBerry device user can set the
Secure Element permission to Allow, Prompt, or Deny in the Application Management options on the device.
•
Not permitted: the application is not allowed to access the secure element on the device. The user can only set the
Secure Element permission to Deny in the Application Management options on the device.
•
Prompt user: the device displays a message that provides the user with the option to Allow or Deny the application's
request to access the secure element on the device. The user can set the Secure Element permission to Prompt or
Deny in the Application Management options on the device.
For descriptions of application control policy rules, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Policy Reference Guide. For more
information about configuring application control policy rules, see the BlackBerry Enterprise Server Administration Guide.
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Security Technical Overview
RIM Cryptographic API
RIM Cryptographic API
20
The RIM Cryptographic API that is on a BlackBerry device and in the BlackBerry Java Development Environment consists
of a Java interface that includes an encryption algorithm, a key agreement scheme, a signature scheme algorithm, a key
generation algorithm, a message authentication code, cipher suites, a message digest, and a hash code.
A developer can use the BlackBerry JDE to access the RIM Cryptographic API to create an application that can run on the
device. The developer is not required to change or access the encryption code directly because all calls to the native C++
encryption code are sent through the Java code.
Research In Motion uses code signing to authorize and authenticate an application and permit it to run on the device. Code
signing is also used to control the ability of the application to access the RIM Cryptographic API.
Cryptographic algorithms and cryptographic
codes that the RIM Cryptographic API
supports
Symmetric block algorithms that the RIM
Cryptographic API supports
Symmetric block algorithms use PKCS #5 for padding. The RIM Cryptographic API supports the CBC, CFB, ECB, OFB, and
X modes for all algorithms. The RIM Cryptographic API implements the modes separately from the symmetric block
algorithms.
Algorithm
Key length (bits)
AES
128, 192, and 256
CAST5
128
DES
56
RC2
8 to 1024
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Security Technical Overview
RIM Cryptographic API
Algorithm
Key length (bits)
RC5
0 to 2040
Skipjack
80
Triple DES
112 and 168
Stream encryption algorithms that the RIM
Cryptographic API supports
The RIM Cryptographic API supports the ARC4 algorithm, with an unlimited key length, as the symmetric stream
encryption algorithm.
The RIM Cryptographic API supports the ECIES algorithm, with an unlimited key length (160 bits to 571 bits for seeding), as
the asymmetric stream encryption algorithm.
Asymmetric encryption algorithms that the RIM
Cryptographic API supports
Algorithm
Key length (bits)
Type
ElGamal
512 to 4096
discrete logarithm
RSA raw
512 to 4096
integer factorization
RSA with OAEP formatting
512 to 4096
integer factorization
RSA with PKCS #1 formatting (versions 512 to 4096
1.5 and 2.0)
integer factorization
Key agreement scheme algorithms that the RIM
Cryptographic API supports
Algorithm
Key length (bits)
Type
Diffie-Hellman
512 to 4096
discrete logarithm
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Security Technical Overview
RIM Cryptographic API
Algorithm
Key length (bits)
Type
ECDH
160 to 571
(Elliptic Curve) discrete logarithm
ECMQV
160 to 571
(Elliptic Curve) discrete logarithm
KEA
1024
discrete logarithm
Signature scheme algorithms that the RIM
Cryptographic API supports
If the signature scheme algorithm that a developer wants to use is the RSA algorithm using ANSI X9.31, ANSI X9.31 uses
one of the following algorithms for the required message digest code: SHA-1, SHA-2, or RIPEMD-160.
Algorithm
Key length (bits)
Type
DSA
512 to 1024
discrete logarithm
ECDSA
160 to 571
(Elliptic Curve) discrete logarithm
ECNR
160 to 571
(Elliptic Curve) discrete logarithm
RSA using ANSI X9.31
512 to 4096
integer factorization
RSA using PKCS #1 (versions 1.5 and
2.0)
512 to 4096
integer factorization
RSA using PSS
512 to 4096
integer factorization
Key generation algorithms that the RIM Cryptographic
API supports
Algorithm
Key length (bits)
Type
Diffie-Hellman
512 to 4096
discrete logarithm
DSA
512 to 1024
discrete logarithm
Elliptic Curve
160 to 571
(Elliptic Curve) discrete logarithm
RSA
512 to 2048
integer factorization
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Security Technical Overview
RIM Cryptographic API
Message authentication codes that the RIM
Cryptographic API supports
Code
Key length (bits)
CBC-MAC
variable (block cipher key length)
HMAC
variable
Message digest codes that the RIM Cryptographic API
supports
Code
Digest length (bits)
MD2
128
MD4
128
MD5
128
RIPEMD
128, 160
SHA
160, 224, 256, 384, 512
TLS and WTLS protocols that the RIM
Cryptographic API supports
The RIM Cryptographic API supports the cipher suite components for the TLS protocol and WTLS protocol that apply only
to direct mode SSL/TLS and WTLS.
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Security Technical Overview
RIM Cryptographic API
Cipher suites for the key establishment algorithm that
the RIM Cryptographic API supports
Direct mode SSL
Direct mode TLS
WTLS
DH_anon
DH_anon
RSA _768, DH_anon, DH_anon_512,
DH_anon_768
DH_anon_EXPORT
DH_anon_EXPORT
RSA_anon_512
DHE_DSS
DHE_DSS
RSA_512
DHE_DSS_EXPORT
DHE_DSS_EXPORT
RSA_anon_768
RSA
RSA
RSA
RSA_EXPORT
RSA_EXPORT
RSA_anon
Symmetric algorithms that the RIM Cryptographic API
supports
Direct mode SSL
Direct mode TLS
WTLS
DES
ARC4-128
RC5® -64
DES-40
RC5-56
ARC4-128
DES
RC5-128
ARC4-128
Triple DES
DES-40
ARC4-128
AES-128
DES
ARC4-128
AES-256
Triple DES
ARC4-40
ARC4-40
RC5-40
Triple DES
DES-40
RC5
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Security Technical Overview
RIM Cryptographic API
Hash algorithms that the RIM Cryptographic API
supports
Direct mode SSL
Direct mode TLS
WTLS
MD5
MD5
SHA
SHA-1
SHA-1
SHA-40, SHA-80, MD5, MD5-40,
MD5-80
Limitations of RIM Cryptographic API
support for cipher suites for the key
establishment algorithm
The RIM Cryptographic API implementation of the TLS protocol and WTLS protocol supports the use of the RSA public key
algorithm, DSA public key algorithm, and Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm, with the following limitations.
Cipher suite type
Typical component limitation
export
RSA and Diffie-Hellman: 1024 bytes or less
non-export
non elliptic curve operations: 4096 bytes
Limitations to non-export cipher suite types are due to the computational constraints of a BlackBerry device.
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Security Technical Overview
Related resources
Related resources
21
Resource
Information
BlackBerry Enterprise Server Feature
and Technical Overview
•
understanding BlackBerry Enterprise Server architecture
BlackBerry Enterprise Server
Installation Guide
•
understanding system requirements
•
performing preinstallation tasks
•
installing the BlackBerry Enterprise Server
•
generating and changing device transport keys
•
configuring extended messaging encryption
•
managing security
•
protecting lost or stolen BlackBerry devices
•
understanding BlackBerry Enterprise Server IT policy rules and application
control policy rules
•
using IT policies and application control policies
•
understanding the BlackBerry Signing Authority Tool implementation of
public key cryptography
•
installing, configuring, and managing the BlackBerry Signing Authority Tool
•
restricting access to APIs
•
understanding BlackBerry APIs in the BlackBerry Java Development
Environment
•
understanding APIs, classes, and methods with limited access
•
retrieving custom IT policy rules from the IT policy API
•
installing applications using the BlackBerry Desktop Software
•
publishing applications over the wireless network
BlackBerry Enterprise Server
Administration Guide
BlackBerry Enterprise Server Policy
Reference Guide
BlackBerry Signing Authority Tool
Administrator Guide
BlackBerry Java Development
Environment Fundamentals Guide
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Security Technical Overview
Related resources
Resource
Information
BlackBerry Java Development
Environment Development Guide
•
using controlled APIs
•
using code signatures
BlackBerry Smart Card Reader Security •
Technical Overview
Enforcing Encryption of Internal and
External File Systems on BlackBerry
Devices Technical Overview
Erasing File Systems on BlackBerry
Devices Technical Overview
PGP Support Package for BlackBerry
Devices Security Technical Overview
Protecting the BlackBerry Device
Platform Against Malware
understanding highly secure pairings between the device and BlackBerry
Smart Card Reader
•
understanding how the initial key establishment protocol works
•
understanding how the connection key establishment protocol works
•
understanding which data items devices encrypt by default
•
using encryption to protect stored files in the on-board device memory and
media cards
•
understanding which data items are deleted from device memory when you
or a user deletes the device memory
•
understanding the different methods of permanently deleting device
memory
•
understanding PGP security and encryption
•
using PGP Universal Server to store and manage PGP keys
•
searching for and validating PGP keys
•
sending and receiving PGP messages
•
understanding the default behavior of the device
•
understanding malware vulnerabilities on the device
•
managing the risk of malware attacks
•
using IT policy rules, application control rules, and code signing to help
contain malware on the device
S/MIME Support Package for
•
BlackBerry Devices Technical Overview
•
understanding S/MIME security and encryption
Security for BlackBerry Devices with
Bluetooth Wireless Technology
•
Bluetooth wireless technology overview
•
using and protecting Bluetooth enabled devices
managing S/MIME certificates on the device and a computer
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Security Technical Overview
Resource
www.blackberry.com/security
178
Related resources
Information
•
risks of using Bluetooth wireless technology on mobile devices
•
understanding BlackBerry Enterprise Solution security
Security Technical Overview
Glossary
Glossary
22
3GPP
Third Generation Partnership Project
Advanced Security
SD card
An Advanced Security SD card is a media card that complies with the Advanced Security SD
Extension Specification that the SD Association developed. BlackBerry devices support only
microSD cards that use the MCEX security system.
AES
Advanced Encryption Standard
AES-CCMP
Advanced Encryption Standard Counter Mode CBCMAC Protocol
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
API
application programming interface
ARC4
Alleged Rivest's Cipher 4
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
BlackBerry device
key
The BlackBerry device key is a randomly generated key that a BlackBerry device uses to encrypt
data on media cards.
BlackBerry device
key store
The BlackBerry device key store stores certificates, key pairs, and PGP keys that a BlackBerry
device can use to help protect messages, access web sites, and connect to an enterprise Wi-Fi
network. To access the items in the key store, the user must type a key store password.
BlackBerry device
memory
The BlackBerry device memory consists of the NV store, flash memory, RAM, on-board device
memory, and BlackBerry device key store.
BlackBerry interprocess protocol
The BlackBerry inter-process protocol is a BlackBerry proprietary protocol that generates the
session key that BlackBerry Enterprise Solution components, such as the BlackBerry Enterprise
Server and BlackBerry Mobile Voice System, can use to communicate in a highly securely
manner with each other. The BlackBerry inter-process protocol generates the session key based
on the communication password.
BlackBerry interprocess protocol
encryption
BlackBerry inter-process protocol encryption encrypts communication between BlackBerry
Enterprise Solution components to prevent other parties from viewing the data that the
components send between each other.
BlackBerry MDS
BlackBerry Mobile Data System
BlackBerry MDS
security protocol
The BlackBerry MDS security protocol is a BlackBerry proprietary protocol that helps protect the
data that a BlackBerry device and the BlackBerry MDS Connection Service send between each
other.
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Security Technical Overview
Glossary
BlackBerry MVS
BlackBerry Mobile Voice System
BlackBerry
transport layer
encryption
BlackBerry transport layer encryption (formerly known as standard BlackBerry encryption) uses
a symmetric key encryption algorithm to help protect data that is in transit between a BlackBerry
device and the BlackBerry® Enterprise Server when the data is outside an organization's firewall.
CA
certification authority
CAC
Common Access Card
CAST
Carlisle Adams Stafford Tavares
CBC
cipher block chaining
CCKM
Cisco Centralized Key Management
CFB
cipher feedback
CHAP
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
CKIP
Cisco Key Integrity Protocol
CLDC
Connected Limited Device Configuration
code-signing keys
Code-signing keys are the keys that are stored on media cards that sign files so that a user can
install and run the files on a BlackBerry device.
communication
password
The communication password is a password that BlackBerry Enterprise Solution components
use for the BlackBerry inter-process protocol. The communication password is designed to
prevent a potentially malicious user from viewing the data that the components send to each
other.
content protection
Content protection helps protect user data on a locked BlackBerry device by encrypting the user
data using the content protection key and ECC private key.
content protection
key
The content protection key encrypts user data on a BlackBerry device when the device is locked.
DEMA
Differential Electromagnetic Analysis
DES
Data Encryption Standard
device transport key
The device transport key (formerly known as the master encryption key) is unique to a
BlackBerry device. The BlackBerry device and BlackBerry Enterprise Server use the device
transport key to encrypt the message keys.
DH
Diffie-Hellman
DHE
Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral
DoS
denial of service
DNS
Domain Name System
DPA
Differential Power Analysis
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Security Technical Overview
Glossary
DRBG
deterministic random bit generator
DSA
Digital Signature Algorithm
DSML
Directory Service Markup Language
DSML-enabled
server
A BlackBerry device uses a DSML-enabled server to search for and download certificates.
DSS
Digital Signature Standard
EAP
Extensible Authentication Protocol
EAPoL
Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN
EAP-FAST
Extensible Authentication Protocol Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling
EAP-GTC
Extensible Authentication Protocol Generic Token Card
EAP-MS-CHAP
Extensible Authentication Protocol Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
EAP-SIM
Extensible Authentication Protocol Subscriber Identity Module
EAP-TLS
Extensible Authentication Protocol Transport Layer Security
EAP-TTLS
Extensible Authentication Protocol Tunneled Transport Layer Security
ECB
electronic code book
ECC
Elliptic Curve Cryptography
ECC private key
The ECC private key decrypts the data that a BlackBerry device received when the BlackBerry
device was locked.
ECC public key
The ECC public key encrypts the data that a BlackBerry device receives when the BlackBerry
device is locked.
ECDH
Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman
ECDSA
Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm
ECIES
Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Standard
ECMQV
Elliptic Curve Menezes-Qu-Vanstone
ECNR
Elliptic Curve Nyberg Rueppel
EDE
Encryption-Decryption-Encryption
EDGE
Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution
Enterprise Service
Policy
The Enterprise Service Policy controls which BlackBerry devices can connect to a BlackBerry
Enterprise Server.
ephemeral key
The ephemeral key encrypts the ECC public key, ECC private key, and content protection key.
FIPS
Federal Information Processing Standards
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Security Technical Overview
Glossary
flash memory
The flash memory is an internal file system on a BlackBerry device that stores application data
and user data.
GAN
generic access network
GANC
generic access network controller
global PIN
encryption key
The global PIN encryption key is a key that is added to all BlackBerry devices during the
manufacturing process. The global PIN encryption key permits devices to encrypt, decrypt, and
authenticate PIN messages that are exchanged between devices.
gateway message
envelope
The gateway message envelope protocol is a Research In Motion proprietary protocol that allows
the transfer of compressed and encrypted data between the wireless network and BlackBerry
devices. The protocol defines a routing layer that specifies the types of message contents
allowed and the addressing information for the data. Gateways and routing components use this
information to identify the type and source of the BlackBerry device data, and the appropriate
destination service to route the data to.
GPS
Global Positioning System
GSA
General Services Administration
GSM
Global System for Mobile Communications
HMAC
keyed-hash message authentication code
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Sockets Layer
HTTPS
Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Sockets Layer
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IKE
Internet Key Exchange
IMSI
International Mobile Subscriber Identity
initial key
establishment
protocol
The initial key establishment protocol is a BlackBerry proprietary protocol that the BlackBerry
Enterprise Solution uses to generate the first device transport key for a BlackBerry device.
IT administration
command
An IT administration command is a command that you can send over the wireless network to
protect sensitive information on a BlackBerry device or delete all BlackBerry device data.
IP
Internet Protocol
IPsec
Internet Protocol Security
IT policy
An IT policy consists of various IT policy rules that control the security features and behavior of
BlackBerry smartphones, BlackBerry PlayBook tablets, the BlackBerry Desktop Software, and
the BlackBerry Web Desktop Manager.
IT policy private key
The IT policy private key is a key that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server uses to sign an IT policy
before the BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends the IT policy to a BlackBerry device.
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Security Technical Overview
Glossary
IT policy public key
The IT policy public key is a key that a BlackBerry device uses to authenticate the IT policy that
the BlackBerry Enterprise Server sends.
IT policy rule
An IT policy rule permits you to customize and control the actions that BlackBerry smartphones,
BlackBerry PlayBook tablets, the BlackBerry Desktop Software, and the BlackBerry Web
Desktop Manager can perform.
JSSE
Java Secure Socket Extension
KEA
Key Exchange Algorithm
key rollover protocol
The key rollover protocol is a BlackBerry proprietary protocol that the BlackBerry Enterprise
Solution uses to generate subsequent device transport keys for a BlackBerry device.
LAN
local area network
LDAP
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
LDAPS
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol over SSL
LEAP
Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol
MAC
message authentication code
MAPI
Messaging Application Programming Interface
MCEX
Mobile Commerce Extension
MD5
Message-Digest Algorithm, version 5
message keys
The message keys encrypt the data that is sent to and from a BlackBerry device.
messaging server
A messaging server sends and processes messages and provides collaboration services, such as
updating and communicating calendar and address book information.
MIDP
Mobile Information Device Profile
MMS
Multimedia Messaging Service
MS-CHAP
Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
NAT
network address translation
NFC
Near Field Communication
NIST
National Institute of Standards and Technology
NTFS
New Technology File System
NTLM
NT LAN Manager
NV
nonvolatile
NV store
The NV store is a nonvolatile store that persists in application storage on a BlackBerry device.
Only the operating system of the BlackBerry device can write to it. Third-party applications
cannot write to the NV store.
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Security Technical Overview
Glossary
OAEP
Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding
OCSP
Online Certificate Status Protocol
OFB
output feedback
PAC
proxy auto-configuration
PBX
Private Branch Exchange
PEAP
Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
PFS
Perfect Forward Secrecy
persistent store in
flash memory
The persistent store in flash memory stores data for a BlackBerry device. By default, third-party
applications cannot access the persistent store. When it deletes all device data, the BlackBerry
device deletes the data in the persistent store.
PGP/MIME
PGP Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
PIN
personal identification number
PKCS
Public-Key Cryptography Standards
PKI
Public Key Infrastructure
PMK
pairwise master key
POA
Post Office Agent
principal encryption
key
The principal encryption key encrypts the device transport key when a BlackBerry device is
locked if content protection is turned on.
PRNG
pseudorandom number generator
PSK
pre-shared key
PSS
Probabilistic Signature Scheme
PSK
pre-shared key
RC
Rivest's Cipher
remote password
reset cryptographic
protocol
The remote password reset cryptographic protocol is a BlackBerry proprietary protocol that
permits you to reset the BlackBerry device password when content protection is turned on.
RFC
Request for Comments
BlackBerry signing
authority system
RIPEMD
RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest
RPC
remote procedure call
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Security Technical Overview
Glossary
S/MIME
Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
SEMA
Simple Electromagnetic Analysis
SHA
Secure Hash Algorithm
SIM
Subscriber Identity Module
SMS
Short Message Service
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SPA
Simple Power Analysis
SPEKE
Simple Password-authenticated Exponential Key Exchange
SRP
Server Routing Protocol
SRP authentication
SRP authentication is an authentication method that the BlackBerry Enterprise Server and
BlackBerry Infrastructure use to authenticate with each other.
SRP authentication
key
The SRP authentication key is a 20-byte shared encryption key that the BlackBerry Enterprise
Server and BlackBerry Infrastructure use to authenticate with each other during SRP
authentication.
SRP ID
The SRP ID is a unique identifier for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server that the BlackBerry
Enterprise Server uses to identify itself to the BlackBerry Infrastructure during SRP
authentication.
SSL
Secure Sockets Layer
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol
TKIP
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
TLS
Transport Layer Security
Triple DES
Triple Data Encryption Standard
UID
unique identifier
UMA
Unlicensed Mobile Access
USB
Universal Serial Bus
VPN
virtual private network
WAP
Wireless Application Protocol
WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy
WLAN
wireless local area network
WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access
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Security Technical Overview
WTLS
186
Glossary
Wireless Transport Layer Security
Security Technical Overview
Legal notice
Legal notice
23
©2014 BlackBerry. All rights reserved. BlackBerry® and related trademarks, names, and logos are the property of
BlackBerry Limited and are registered and/or used in the U.S. and countries around the world.
3GPP is a trademark of European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). Bluetooth is a trademark of Bluetooth
SIG. ANSI is a trademark of the American National Standards Institute. Cisco, Cisco IOS, and PIX are trademarks of Cisco
Systems, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and certain other countries. Entrust Authority is a trademark of
Entrust, Inc. Facebook is a trademark of Facebook, Inc. GSM is a trademark of the GSM MOU Association. Google Mail is a
trademark of Google Inc. IBM, Domino, Lotus, iNotes, and Notes are trademarks of International Business Machines
Corporation. IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.11i, IEEE 802.1X, and IEEE are trademarks of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers, Inc. Microsoft, Outlook, and Windows are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. MySpace is a trademark of
MySpace, Inc. Netscape is a trademark of Netscape Communication Corporation. NetScreen is a trademark of Juniper
Networks, Inc. Nortel Networks and Contivity are trademarks of Nortel Networks Limited. Novell and GroupWise are
trademarks of Novell, Inc. PGP is a trademark of PGP Corporation. Roxio is a trademark of Sonic Solutions. RC4, RC5, RSA,
and RSA SecurID are trademarks of RSA Security. Secure Computing and SideWinder are trademarks of McAfee, Inc. Sun
and Java are trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Symantec is a trademark of Symantec Corporation. VPN Firewall
Brick is a trademark of Alcatel-Lucent USA Inc. VPN-1 Power is a trademark of Check Point Software Technologies Ltd. WiFi Wi-Fi Protected Access, WPA, and WPA2 are trademarks of the Wi-Fi Alliance. All other trademarks are the property of
their respective owners.
This documentation including all documentation incorporated by reference herein such as documentation provided or
made available at www.blackberry.com/go/docs is provided or made accessible "AS IS" and "AS AVAILABLE" and without
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This documentation might contain references to third-party sources of information, hardware or software, products or
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Party Products and Services including, without limitation the content, accuracy, copyright compliance, compatibility,
performance, trustworthiness, legality, decency, links, or any other aspect of Third Party Products and Services. The
inclusion of a reference to Third Party Products and Services in this documentation does not imply endorsement by
BlackBerry of the Third Party Products and Services or the third party in any way.
EXCEPT TO THE EXTENT SPECIFICALLY PROHIBITED BY APPLICABLE LAW IN YOUR JURISDICTION, ALL CONDITIONS,
ENDORSEMENTS, GUARANTEES, REPRESENTATIONS, OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY CONDITIONS, ENDORSEMENTS, GUARANTEES, REPRESENTATIONS OR
WARRANTIES OF DURABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE, MERCHANTABILITY, MERCHANTABLE
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QUALITY, NON-INFRINGEMENT, SATISFACTORY QUALITY, OR TITLE, OR ARISING FROM A STATUTE OR CUSTOM OR A
COURSE OF DEALING OR USAGE OF TRADE, OR RELATED TO THE DOCUMENTATION OR ITS USE, OR PERFORMANCE
OR NON-PERFORMANCE OF ANY SOFTWARE, HARDWARE, SERVICE, OR ANY THIRD PARTY PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
REFERENCED HEREIN, ARE HEREBY EXCLUDED. YOU MAY ALSO HAVE OTHER RIGHTS THAT VARY BY STATE OR
PROVINCE. SOME JURISDICTIONS MAY NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES AND
CONDITIONS. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS RELATING TO THE
DOCUMENTATION TO THE EXTENT THEY CANNOT BE EXCLUDED AS SET OUT ABOVE, BUT CAN BE LIMITED, ARE
HEREBY LIMITED TO NINETY (90) DAYS FROM THE DATE YOU FIRST ACQUIRED THE DOCUMENTATION OR THE ITEM
THAT IS THE SUBJECT OF THE CLAIM.
TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW IN YOUR JURISDICTION, IN NO EVENT SHALL
BLACKBERRY BE LIABLE FOR ANY TYPE OF DAMAGES RELATED TO THIS DOCUMENTATION OR ITS USE, OR
PERFORMANCE OR NON-PERFORMANCE OF ANY SOFTWARE, HARDWARE, SERVICE, OR ANY THIRD PARTY
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES REFERENCED HEREIN INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY OF THE FOLLOWING
DAMAGES: DIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL, EXEMPLARY, INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, OR AGGRAVATED
DAMAGES, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF PROFITS OR REVENUES, FAILURE TO REALIZE ANY EXPECTED SAVINGS,
BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOSS OF BUSINESS INFORMATION, LOSS OF BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY, OR CORRUPTION
OR LOSS OF DATA, FAILURES TO TRANSMIT OR RECEIVE ANY DATA, PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH ANY
APPLICATIONS USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH BLACKBERRY PRODUCTS OR SERVICES, DOWNTIME COSTS, LOSS OF
THE USE OF BLACKBERRY PRODUCTS OR SERVICES OR ANY PORTION THEREOF OR OF ANY AIRTIME SERVICES, COST
OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS, COSTS OF COVER, FACILITIES OR SERVICES, COST OF CAPITAL, OR OTHER SIMILAR
PECUNIARY LOSSES, WHETHER OR NOT SUCH DAMAGES WERE FORESEEN OR UNFORESEEN, AND EVEN IF
BLACKBERRY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW IN YOUR JURISDICTION, BLACKBERRY SHALL HAVE NO
OTHER OBLIGATION, DUTY, OR LIABILITY WHATSOEVER IN CONTRACT, TORT, OR OTHERWISE TO YOU INCLUDING
ANY LIABILITY FOR NEGLIGENCE OR STRICT LIABILITY.
THE LIMITATIONS, EXCLUSIONS, AND DISCLAIMERS HEREIN SHALL APPLY: (A) IRRESPECTIVE OF THE NATURE OF
THE CAUSE OF ACTION, DEMAND, OR ACTION BY YOU INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO BREACH OF CONTRACT,
NEGLIGENCE, TORT, STRICT LIABILITY OR ANY OTHER LEGAL THEORY AND SHALL SURVIVE A FUNDAMENTAL
BREACH OR BREACHES OR THE FAILURE OF THE ESSENTIAL PURPOSE OF THIS AGREEMENT OR OF ANY REMEDY
CONTAINED HEREIN; AND (B) TO BLACKBERRY AND ITS AFFILIATED COMPANIES, THEIR SUCCESSORS, ASSIGNS,
AGENTS, SUPPLIERS (INCLUDING AIRTIME SERVICE PROVIDERS), AUTHORIZED BLACKBERRY DISTRIBUTORS (ALSO
INCLUDING AIRTIME SERVICE PROVIDERS) AND THEIR RESPECTIVE DIRECTORS, EMPLOYEES, AND INDEPENDENT
CONTRACTORS.
IN ADDITION TO THE LIMITATIONS AND EXCLUSIONS SET OUT ABOVE, IN NO EVENT SHALL ANY DIRECTOR,
EMPLOYEE, AGENT, DISTRIBUTOR, SUPPLIER, INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR OF BLACKBERRY OR ANY AFFILIATES OF
BLACKBERRY HAVE ANY LIABILITY ARISING FROM OR RELATED TO THE DOCUMENTATION.
Prior to subscribing for, installing, or using any Third Party Products and Services, it is your responsibility to ensure that
your airtime service provider has agreed to support all of their features. Some airtime service providers might not offer
Internet browsing functionality with a subscription to the BlackBerry® Internet Service. Check with your service provider for
availability, roaming arrangements, service plans and features. Installation or use of Third Party Products and Services with
BlackBerry's products and services may require one or more patent, trademark, copyright, or other licenses in order to
avoid infringement or violation of third party rights. You are solely responsible for determining whether to use Third Party
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Products and Services and if any third party licenses are required to do so. If required you are responsible for acquiring
them. You should not install or use Third Party Products and Services until all necessary licenses have been acquired. Any
Third Party Products and Services that are provided with BlackBerry's products and services are provided as a
convenience to you and are provided "AS IS" with no express or implied conditions, endorsements, guarantees,
representations, or warranties of any kind by BlackBerry and BlackBerry assumes no liability whatsoever, in relation
thereto. Your use of Third Party Products and Services shall be governed by and subject to you agreeing to the terms of
separate licenses and other agreements applicable thereto with third parties, except to the extent expressly covered by a
license or other agreement with BlackBerry.
Certain features outlined in this documentation require a minimum version of BlackBerry Enterprise Server, BlackBerry
Desktop Software, and/or BlackBerry Device Software.
The terms of use of any BlackBerry product or service are set out in a separate license or other agreement with BlackBerry
applicable thereto. NOTHING IN THIS DOCUMENTATION IS INTENDED TO SUPERSEDE ANY EXPRESS WRITTEN
AGREEMENTS OR WARRANTIES PROVIDED BY BLACKBERRY FOR PORTIONS OF ANY BLACKBERRY PRODUCT OR
SERVICE OTHER THAN THIS DOCUMENTATION.
Certain features outlined in this documentation might require additional development or Third Party Products and Services
for access to corporate applications.
BlackBerry Limited
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Canada N2K 0A7
BlackBerry UK Limited
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Published in Canada
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