DAQ VXI-SC-1102 Programming instructions

Data Acquisition
Basics Manual
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
January 1998 Edition
Part Number 320997C-01
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NI-PGIA™, PXI™, RTSI™, and SCXI™ are trademarks of National Instruments Corporation.
Product and company names listed are trademarks or trade names of their respective companies.
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Contents
About This Manual
Organization of This Manual ...........................................................................................xiii
Conventions Used in This Manual...................................................................................xiv
Related Documentation....................................................................................................xvii
Customer Communication ...............................................................................................xvii
PART I
Before You Get Started
Chapter 1
How To Use This Book
Chapter 2
Installing and Configuring Your Data Acquisition Hardware
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Hardware Support ..............................................................2-4
Installing and Configuring Your National Instruments Device.......................................2-6
Installing and Configuring Your DAQ Device Using NI-DAQ 5.x, 6.0 ...........2-6
Configuring Your DAQ Device Using NI-DAQ 4.8.x on the Macintosh .........2-6
Installing and Configuring Your SCXI Chassis ................................................2-9
Hardware Configuration .....................................................................2-9
NI-DAQ 5.x, 6.0 Software Configuration...........................................2-10
NI-DAQ 4.8.x Software Configuration...............................................2-10
Configuring Your Channels in NI-DAQ 5.x, 6.0 ..............................................2-13
Chapter 3
Basic LabVIEW Data Acquisition Concepts
Location of Common DAQ Examples.............................................................................3-1
Locating the Data Acquisition VIs in LabVIEW.............................................................3-3
DAQ VI Organization......................................................................................................3-4
Easy VIs.............................................................................................................3-4
Intermediate VIs ................................................................................................3-5
Utility VIs..........................................................................................................3-5
Advanced VIs ....................................................................................................3-5
VI Parameter Conventions...............................................................................................3-6
Default and Current Value Conventions..........................................................................3-7
Common DAQ VI Parameters .........................................................................................3-7
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Error Handling................................................................................................................. 3-8
Channel, Port, and Counter Addressing .......................................................................... 3-9
Channel Name Addressing................................................................................ 3-10
Channel Number Addressing ............................................................................ 3-10
Limit Settings .................................................................................................................. 3-12
Data Organization for Analog Applications.................................................................... 3-14
Chapter 4
Where You Should Go Next
Questions You Should Answer ....................................................................................... 4-3
PART II
Catching the Wave with Analog Input
Chapter 5
Things You Should Know about Analog Input
Defining Your Signal ...................................................................................................... 5-1
What Is Your Signal Referenced To? ............................................................... 5-2
Grounded Signal Sources ................................................................... 5-2
Floating Signal Sources ...................................................................... 5-3
Choosing Your Measurement System ............................................................................. 5-4
Resolution ......................................................................................................... 5-4
Device Range .................................................................................................... 5-5
Signal Limit Settings......................................................................................... 5-6
Considerations for Selecting Analog Input Settings ....................................................... 5-7
Differential Measurement System .................................................................... 5-9
Referenced Single-Ended Measurement System .............................................. 5-11
Nonreferenced Single-Ended Measurement System......................................... 5-11
Channel Addressing with the AMUX-64T...................................................................... 5-13
The AMUX-64T Scanning Order ..................................................................... 5-14
Important Terms You Should Know ............................................................................... 5-17
Chapter 6
One-Stop Single-Point Acquisition
Single-Channel, Single-Point Analog Input .................................................................... 6-1
Multiple-Channel Single-Point Analog Input ................................................................. 6-3
Using Analog Input/Output Control Loops..................................................................... 6-6
Using Software-Timed Analog I/O Control Loops........................................... 6-6
Using Hardware-Timed Analog I/O Control Loops ......................................... 6-7
Improving Control Loop Performance.............................................................. 6-9
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Chapter 7
Buffering Your Way through Waveform Acquisition
Can You Wait for Your Data? .........................................................................................7-1
Acquiring a Single Waveform...........................................................................7-2
Acquiring Multiple Waveforms ........................................................................7-3
Simple-Buffered Analog Input Examples........................................................................7-5
Simple-Buffered Analog Input with Graphing..................................................7-5
Simple-Buffered Analog Input with Multiple Starts .........................................7-7
Simple-Buffered Analog Input with a Write to Spreadsheet File .....................7-8
Triggered Analog Input .....................................................................................7-8
Do You Need To Access Your Data during Acquisition?...............................................7-8
Continuously Acquiring Data from Multiple Channels ....................................7-10
Asynchronous Continuous Acquisition Using DAQ Occurrences....................7-11
Circular-Buffered Analog Input Examples......................................................................7-12
Basic Circular-Buffered Analog Input ..............................................................7-13
Other Circular-Buffered Analog Input Examples .............................................7-13
Cont Acq&Chart (buffered).vi............................................................7-14
Cont Acq&Graph (buffered).vi...........................................................7-14
Cont Acq to File (binary).vi................................................................7-14
Cont Acq to File (scaled).vi ................................................................7-14
Cont Acq to Spreadsheet File.vi .........................................................7-14
Simultaneous Buffered Waveform Acquisition and Waveform Generation ...................7-14
Chapter 8
Controlling Your Acquisition with Triggers
Hardware Triggering........................................................................................................8-1
Digital Triggering..............................................................................................8-2
Digital Triggering Examples...............................................................8-4
Digital Triggering Examples...............................................................8-5
Analog Triggering .............................................................................................8-5
Analog Triggering Examples ..............................................................8-7
Software Triggering .........................................................................................................8-8
Conditional Retrieval Examples .........................................................8-11
Chapter 9
Letting an Outside Source Control Your Acquisition Rate
Externally Controlling Your Channel Clock ...................................................................9-3
Externally Controlling Your Scan Clock.........................................................................9-6
Externally Controlling the Scan and Channel Clocks .....................................................9-8
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PART III
Making Waves with Analog Output
Chapter 10
Things You Should Know about Analog Output
Single-Point Output ......................................................................................................... 10-1
Buffered Analog Output .................................................................................................. 10-1
Chapter 11
One-Stop Single-Point Generation
Single-Immediate Updates .............................................................................................. 11-1
Multiple-Immediate Updates........................................................................................... 11-3
Chapter 12
Buffering Your Way through Waveform Generation
Buffered Analog Output .................................................................................................. 12-1
Changing the Waveform during Generation: Circular-Buffered Output ........................ 12-4
Eliminating Errors from Your Circular-Buffered Application........................................ 12-6
Buffered Analog Output Examples ................................................................................. 12-6
Chapter 13
Letting an Outside Source Control Your Update Rate
Externally Controlling Your Update Clock..................................................................... 13-1
Supplying an External Test Clock from Your DAQ Device........................................... 13-3
Chapter 14
Simultaneous Buffered Waveform Acquisition and Generation
Using E-Series MIO Boards............................................................................................ 14-1
Software Triggered ........................................................................................... 14-2
Hardware Triggered .......................................................................................... 14-3
Using Legacy MIO Boards.............................................................................................. 14-4
Software Triggered ........................................................................................... 14-4
Hardware Triggered .......................................................................................... 14-6
Using Lab/1200 Boards................................................................................................... 14-7
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PART IV
Getting Square with Digital I/O
Chapter 15
Things You Should Know about Digital I/O
Types of Digital Acquisition/Generation.........................................................................15-2
Chapter 16
When You Need It Now—Immediate Digital I/O
Chapter 17
Shaking Hands with a Digital Partner
Sending Out Multiple Digital Values ..............................................................................17-3
Non-Buffered Handshaking .............................................................................................17-5
Buffered Handshaking .....................................................................................................17-6
Simple Buffered Examples................................................................................17-7
Circular-Buffered Examples..............................................................................17-9
PART V
SCXI—Getting Your Signals in Great Condition
Chapter 18
Things You Should Know about SCXI
What Is Signal Conditioning?..........................................................................................18-1
Amplification ...................................................................................................................18-3
Isolation ...........................................................................................................................18-4
Filtering............................................................................................................................18-4
Transducer Excitation ......................................................................................................18-5
Linearization ....................................................................................................................18-5
Chapter 19
Hardware and Software Setup for Your SCXI System
SCXI Operating Modes ...................................................................................................19-4
Multiplexed Mode for Analog Input Modules ..................................................19-4
Multiplexed Mode for the SCXI-1200 (Windows).............................19-4
Multiplexed Mode for Analog Output Modules................................................19-5
Multiplexed Mode for Digital and Relay Modules ...........................................19-5
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Parallel Mode for Analog Input Modules ......................................................... 19-5
Parallel Mode for the SCXI-1200 (Windows).................................... 19-6
Parallel Mode for Digital Modules ................................................................... 19-6
SCXI Software Installation and Configuration ............................................................... 19-6
Chapter 20
Special Programming Considerations for SCXI
SCXI Channel Addressing .............................................................................................. 20-1
SCXI Gains...................................................................................................................... 20-3
SCXI Settling Time........................................................................................... 20-5
Chapter 21
Common SCXI Applications
Analog Input Applications for Measuring Temperature and Pressure............................ 21-2
Measuring Temperature with Thermocouples .................................................. 21-2
Temperature Sensors for Cold-Junction Compensation ..................... 21-3
Amplifier Offset ................................................................................. 21-5
VI Examples ....................................................................................... 21-6
Measuring Temperature with RTDs ................................................................. 21-10
Measuring Pressure with Strain Gauges ........................................................... 21-13
Analog Output Application Example .............................................................................. 21-16
Digital Input Application Example ................................................................................. 21-17
Digital Output Application Example............................................................................... 21-19
Multi-Chassis Applications ............................................................................................. 21-20
Chapter 22
SCXI Calibration—Increasing Signal Measurement Precision
EEPROM—Your System’s Holding Tank for Calibration Constants ............................ 22-1
Calibrating SCXI Modules .............................................................................................. 22-3
SCXI Calibration Methods for Signal Acquisition ........................................... 22-4
One-Point Calibration......................................................................... 22-5
Two-Point Calibration ........................................................................ 22-6
Calibrating SCXI Modules for Signal Generation ............................................ 22-8
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PART VI
Counting Your Way to High-Precision Timing
Chapter 23
Things You Should Know about Counters
Knowing the Parts of Your Counter ................................................................................23-2
Knowing Your Counter Chip...........................................................................................23-3
DAQ-STC..........................................................................................................23-4
Am9513 .............................................................................................................23-4
8253/54 ..............................................................................................................23-4
Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
Generating a Square Pulse ...............................................................................................24-1
DAQ-STC and Am9513 ....................................................................................24-2
8253/54 ..............................................................................................................24-3
Generating a Single Square Pulse ....................................................................................24-4
DAQ-STC, Am9513..........................................................................................24-4
8253/54 ..............................................................................................................24-6
Generating a Pulse Train..................................................................................................24-9
Generating a Continuous Pulse Train................................................................24-9
DAQ-STC, Am9513 ...........................................................................24-10
8253/54................................................................................................24-12
Generating a Finite Pulse Train.........................................................................24-13
DAQ-STC, Am9513 ...........................................................................24-14
DAQ-STC ...........................................................................................24-16
8253/54................................................................................................24-17
Counting Operations When All Your Counters Are Used ..............................................24-20
Knowing the Accuracy of Your Counters .......................................................................24-22
8253/54................................................................................................24-22
Stopping Counter Generations.........................................................................................24-23
DAQ-STC, Am9513..........................................................................................24-23
8253/54 ..............................................................................................................24-23
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Chapter 25
Measuring Pulse Width
Measuring a Pulse Width................................................................................................. 25-1
Determining Pulse Width ................................................................................................ 25-2
DAQ-STC ......................................................................................................... 25-2
Am9513............................................................................................................. 25-4
8253/54.............................................................................................................. 25-5
Controlling Your Pulse Width Measurement .................................................................. 25-6
DAQ-STC or Am9513 ...................................................................................... 25-6
Buffered Pulse and Period Measurement ........................................................................ 25-7
Increasing Your Measurable Width Range ..................................................................... 25-8
Chapter 26
Measuring Frequency and Period
Knowing How and When to Measure Frequency and Period ......................................... 26-1
DAQ-STC, Am9513 ......................................................................................... 26-2
8253/54.............................................................................................................. 26-2
Connecting Counters to Measure Frequency and Period ................................................ 26-3
DAQ-STC, Am9513 ......................................................................................... 26-3
Measuring the Frequency and Period of High Frequency Signals .................................. 26-4
DAQ-STC ......................................................................................................... 26-4
Am9513............................................................................................................. 26-5
DAQ-STC, Am9513 ......................................................................................... 26-6
8253/54.............................................................................................................. 26-7
Measuring the Period and Frequency of Low Frequency Signals................................... 26-8
DAQ-STC ......................................................................................................... 26-8
Am9513............................................................................................................. 26-9
DAQ-STC, Am9513 ......................................................................................... 26-10
8253/54.............................................................................................................. 26-10
Chapter 27
Counting Signal Highs and Lows
Connecting Counters to Count Events and Time ............................................................ 27-1
Am9513............................................................................................................. 27-2
Counting Events .............................................................................................................. 27-3
DAQ-STC ......................................................................................................... 27-3
Am9523............................................................................................................. 27-4
8253/54.............................................................................................................. 27-6
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Counting Elapsed Time ...................................................................................................27-7
DAQ-STC..........................................................................................................27-7
Am9513 .............................................................................................................27-9
8253/54 ..............................................................................................................27-11
Chapter 28
Dividing Frequencies
DAQ-STC, Am9513..........................................................................................28-2
8253/54 ..............................................................................................................28-3
PART VII
Debugging Your Data Acquisition Application
Chapter 29
Debugging Techniques
Hardware Connection Errors ...........................................................................................29-1
Software Configuration Errors.........................................................................................29-2
VI Construction Errors.....................................................................................................29-2
Error Handling...................................................................................................29-2
Single-Stepping through a VI............................................................................29-3
Execution Highlighting .....................................................................................29-4
Using the Probe Tool.........................................................................................29-4
Setting Breakpoints and Showing Advanced DAQ VIs....................................29-4
APPENDICES, GLOSSARY, AND INDEX
Appendix A
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Common Questions
Appendix B
Customer Communication
Glossary
Index
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FIGURES AND TABLES
Figures
Figure 2-1.
Figure 2-2.
Figure 2-3.
Figure 2-4.
Figure 2-5.
Figure 2-6.
Figure 2-7.
Installing and Configuring DAQ Devices............................................... 2-2
How NI-DAQ Relates to Your System and DAQ Devices .................... 2-3
NI-DAQ Device Window Listing ........................................................... 2-7
Accessing the Device Configuration Window in NI-DAQ .................... 2-7
Device Configuration and I/O Connector Windows in NI-DAQ ........... 2-8
Accessing the NI-DAQ SCXI Configuration Window........................... 2-11
SCXI Configuration Window in NI-DAQ .............................................. 2-11
Figure 3-1.
Figure 3-2.
Figure 3-3.
Figure 3-4.
Figure 3-5.
Figure 3-6.
Figure 3-7.
Figure 3-8.
Figure 3-9.
Figure 3-10.
Figure 3-11.
Figure 3-12.
Figure 3-13.
Figure 3-14.
Accessing the Data Acquisition Palette .................................................. 3-3
Data Acquisition VIs Palette................................................................... 3-3
Analog Input VI Palette Organization .................................................... 3-4
LabVIEW Help Window Conventions ................................................... 3-6
LabVIEW Error In Input and Error Out Output Error Clusters.............. 3-9
Channel String Controls.......................................................................... 3-10
Channel String Array Controls ............................................................... 3-11
Limit Settings, Case 1 ............................................................................. 3-13
Limit Settings, Case 2 ............................................................................. 3-13
Example of a Basic 2D Array ................................................................. 3-14
2D Array in Row Major Order................................................................ 3-15
2D Array in Column Major Order .......................................................... 3-15
Extracting a Single Channel from a Column Major 2D Array ............... 3-16
Analog Output Buffer 2D Array ............................................................. 3-16
Figure 5-1.
Figure 5-2.
Figure 5-3.
Figure 5-4.
Figure 5-5.
Figure 5-6.
Figure 5-7.
Figure 5-8.
Figure 5-9.
Figure 5-10.
Types of Analog Signals ......................................................................... 5-1
Grounded Signal Sources........................................................................ 5-2
Floating Signal Sources .......................................................................... 5-3
The Effects of Resolution on ADC Precision ......................................... 5-4
The Effects of Range on ADC Precision ................................................ 5-5
The Effects of Limit Settings on ADC Precision.................................... 5-6
8-Channel Differential Measurement System......................................... 5-9
Common-Mode Voltage ......................................................................... 5-10
16-Channel RSE Measurement System .................................................. 5-11
16-Channel NRSE Measurement System ............................................... 5-12
Figure 6-1.
Figure 6-2.
Figure 6-3.
AI Sample Channel VI............................................................................ 6-1
Acquiring Data Using the Acquire 1 Point from 1 Channel VI.............. 6-2
Acquiring a Voltage from Multiple Channels
with the AI Sample Channels VI ......................................................... 6-3
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Contents
Figure 6-4.
Figure 6-5.
Figure 6-6.
Figure 6-7.
Figure 6-8.
The AI Single Scan VI Help Diagram.....................................................6-4
Using the Intermediate VIs for a Basic Non-Buffered Application ........6-4
The Cont Acq&Chart (Immediate) VI Block Diagram...........................6-5
Software-Timed Analog I/O....................................................................6-7
Analog IO Control Loop (HW-Timed) VI Block Diagram ....................6-8
Figure 7-1.
Figure 7-2.
Figure 7-3.
Figure 7-4.
Figure 7-5.
Figure 7-6.
Figure 7-7.
Figure 7-8.
Figure 7-9.
Figure 7-10.
Figure 7-11.
Figure 7-12.
How Buffers Work ..................................................................................7-2
The AI Acquire Waveform VI ................................................................7-3
The AI Acquire Waveforms VI...............................................................7-3
Using the Intermediate VIs to Acquire Multiple Waveforms .................7-4
Simple Buffered Analog Input Example .................................................7-6
Simple Buffered Analog Input with Graphing ........................................7-6
Taking a Specified Number of Samples with the Intermediate VIs........7-7
Writing to a Spreadsheet File after Acquisition ......................................7-8
How a Circular Buffer Works .................................................................7-9
Continuously Acquiring Data with the Intermediate VIs........................7-11
Continuous Acq&Chart (Async Occurrence) VI ....................................7-12
Basic Circular-Buffered Analog Input Using the Intermediate VIs........7-13
Figure 8-1.
Figure 8-2.
Figure 8-3.
Figure 8-4.
Figure 8-5.
Figure 8-6.
Figure 8-7.
Figure 8-8.
Figure 8-9.
Diagram of a Digital Trigger...................................................................8-2
Digital Triggering with Your DAQ Device ............................................8-3
Block Diagram of the Acquire N Scans Digital Trig VI .........................8-4
Diagram of an Analog Trigger ................................................................8-6
Analog Triggering with Your DAQ Device............................................8-6
Block Diagram of the Acquire N Scans Analog Hardware Trig VI .......8-7
Timeline of Conditional Retrieval...........................................................8-9
The AI Read VI Conditional Retrieval Cluster .......................................8-10
Block Diagram of the Acquire N Scans Analog Software Trig VI.........8-11
Figure 9-1.
Figure 9-2.
Figure 9-3.
Figure 9-4.
Figure 9-5.
Figure 9-7.
Channel and Scan Intervals Using the Channel Clock............................9-1
Round-Robin Scanning Using the Channel Clock ..................................9-2
Example of a TTL Signal ........................................................................9-3
Getting Started Analog Input Example VI ..............................................9-4
Setting the Clock Source Code for External Conversion Pulses
for E-Series Devices .............................................................................9-5
Externally Controlling Your Scan Clock with the Getting Started
Analog Input Example VI ....................................................................9-7
Controlling the Scan and Channel Clock Simultaneously ......................9-8
Figure 11-1.
Figure 11-2.
Single Immediate Update Using the AO Update Channels VI ...............11-1
Single Immediate Update Using the AO Update Channel VI.................11-2
Figure 9-6.
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Figure 11-3.
Figure 11-4.
Single Immediate Update Using Intermediate VI................................... 11-2
Multiple Immediate Updates Using Intermediate VI.............................. 11-3
Figure 12-1.
Figure 12-2.
Figure 12-3.
Figure 12-4.
Figure 12-5.
Figure 12-6.
Waveform Generation Using the AO Generate Waveforms VI ............. 12-2
Waveform Generation Using the AO Waveform Gen VI....................... 12-2
Waveform Generation Using Intermediate VIs ...................................... 12-3
Circular Buffered Waveform Generation
Using the AO Continuous Gen VI ....................................................... 12-4
Circular Buffered Waveform Generation Using Intermediate VIs......... 12-5
Display and Output Acq’d File (Scaled) VI ........................................... 12-6
Figure 13-1.
Generate N Updates-ExtUpdateClk VI................................................... 13-2
Figure 14-1.
Simultaneous Input/Output Using the Simul AI/AO Buffered
(E-series MIO) VI ................................................................................ 14-2
Simultaneous Input/Output Using the Simul AI/AO Buffered
Trigger (E-series MIO) VI ................................................................... 14-3
Simultaneous Input/Output Using the Simul AI/AO Buffered
(Legacy MIO) VI ................................................................................. 14-5
Simultaneous Input/Output Using the Simul AI/AO Buffered
Trigger (Legacy MIO) VI .................................................................... 14-6
Figure 14-2.
Figure 14-3.
Figure 14-4.
Figure 15-1.
Digital Ports and Lines............................................................................ 15-1
Figure 16-1.
The Easy Digital VIs............................................................................... 16-2
Figure 17-1.
Figure 17-2.
Figure 17-3.
Figure 17-4.
Figure 17-5.
Figure 17-6.
Connecting Signal Lines for Digital Input.............................................. 17-3
Connecting Digital Signal Lines for Digital Output ............................... 17-4
Non-Buffered Handshaking Using the DIO Single Read/Write VI........ 17-5
Non-Buffered Handshaking Using the DIO Single Read/Write VI........ 17-6
Pattern Generation Using the DIO-32 Series Devices ............................ 17-7
Pattern Generation Using DAQ Devices
(Other Than DIO-32 Series Devices)................................................... 17-8
Reading Data with the Digital VIs Using Digital Handshaking
(DIO-32 Series Devices) ...................................................................... 17-8
Reading Data with the Digital VIs Using Digital Handshaking ............. 17-9
Digital Handshaking Using a Circular Buffer ........................................ 17-10
Figure 17-7.
Figure 17-8.
Figure 17-9.
Figure 18-1.
Figure 18-2.
Common Types of Transducers/Signals and Signal Conditioning ......... 18-3
Amplifying Signals near the Source to Increase
Signal-to-Noise Ratio........................................................................... 18-3
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Figure 19-1.
Figure 19-2.
Figure 19-3.
SCXI System ...........................................................................................19-1
Components of an SCXI System.............................................................19-2
SCXI Chassis...........................................................................................19-3
Figure 21-1.
Figure 21-2.
Figure 21-3.
Figure 21-4.
Figure 21-5.
Continuous Transducer Measurement VI................................................21-6
Measuring a Single Module with the Acquire and Average VI ..............21-7
Measuring Temperature Sensors Using the Acquire and Average VI ....21-8
Continuously Acquiring Data Using Intermediate VIs ...........................21-9
Measuring Temperature Using Information
from the DAQ Channel Wizard............................................................21-11
Figure 21-6. Measuring Temperature Using the Convert RTD Reading VI................21-12
Figure 21-7. Half-Bridge Strain Gauge........................................................................21-13
Figure 21-8. Measuring Pressure Using Information
from the DAQ Channel Wizard............................................................21-15
Figure 21-9. Convert Strain Gauge Reading VI...........................................................21-15
Figure 21-10. SCXI-1124 Update Channels VI .............................................................21-17
Figure 21-11. Inputting Digital Signals through an SCXI Chassis
Using Easy Digital VIs .........................................................................21-17
Figure 21-12. Outputting Digital Signals through an SCXI Chassis
Using Easy Digital VIs .........................................................................21-19
Figure 23-1.
Figure 23-2.
Counter Gating Modes ............................................................................23-3
Wiring a 7404 Chip to Invert a TTL Signal ............................................23-4
Figure 24-1.
Figure 24-2.
Figure 24-3.
Figure 24-4.
Figure 24-5.
Figure 24-6.
Figure 24-7.
Figure 24-8.
Pulse Duty Cycles ...................................................................................24-2
Positive and Negative Pulse Polarity.......................................................24-2
Pulses Created with Positive Polarity and Toggled Output ....................24-3
Phases of a Single Negative Polarity Pulse .............................................24-3
Physical Connections for Generating a Square Pulse .............................24-4
Diagram of Delayed Pulse-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI ...................................24-5
Diagram of Delayed Pulse-Int (DAQ-STC) VI.......................................24-6
External Connections Diagram from the Front Panel
of Delayed Pulse (8253) VI ..................................................................24-6
Frame 0 of Delayed Pulse (8253) VI.......................................................24-7
Frame 1 of Delayed Pulse (8253) VI.......................................................24-8
Frame 2 of Delayed Pulse (8253) VI.......................................................24-9
Physical Connections for Generating a Continuous Pulse Train ............24-10
Diagram of Cont Pulse Train-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI ...............................24-10
Diagram of Cont Pulse Train-Int (DAQ-STC) VI...................................24-11
External Connections Diagram from the Front Panel
of Cont Pulse Train (8253) VI..............................................................24-12
Figure 24-9.
Figure 24-10.
Figure 24-11.
Figure 24-12.
Figure 24-13.
Figure 24-14.
Figure 24-15.
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Contents
Figure 24-16.
Figure 24-17.
Figure 24-18.
Figure 24-19.
Figure 24-20.
Figure 24-21.
Figure 24-22.
Figure 24-23.
Figure 24-24.
Figure 24-25.
Figure 24-26.
Figure 24-27.
Figure 24-28.
Figure 24-29.
Figure 25-1.
Figure 25-2.
Figure 25-3.
Figure 25-4.
Diagram of Cont Pulse Train (8253) VI ................................................. 24-13
Physical Connections for Generating a Finite Pulse Train ..................... 24-14
Diagram of Finite Pulse Train-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI ............................. 24-14
Diagram of Finite Pulse Train-Int (DAQ-STC) VI................................. 24-15
External Connections Diagram from the Front Panel
of Finite Pulse Train Adv (DAQ-STC) VI........................................... 24-16
Diagram of Finite Pulse Train-Adv (DAQ-STC) VI .............................. 24-17
External Connections Diagram from the Front Panel
of Finite Pulse Train (8253) VI............................................................ 24-17
Frame 0 of Finite Pulse Train (8253) VI ................................................ 24-18
Frame 1 of Finite Pulse Train (8253) VI ................................................ 24-19
Frame 2 of Finite Pulse Train (8253) VI ................................................ 24-20
CTR Control VI Front Panel and Block Diagram .................................. 24-21
Uncertainty of One Timebase Period...................................................... 24-22
Using the Generate Delayed Pulse and Stopping the
Counting Operation.............................................................................. 24-23
Stopping a Generated Pulse Train........................................................... 24-23
Figure 25-7.
Figure 25-8.
Figure 25-9.
Counting Input Signals to Determine Pulse Width................................. 25-1
Physical Connections for Determining Pulse Width .............................. 25-2
Diagram of Measure Pulse Width (DAQ-STC) VI................................. 25-2
Menu Choices for Type of Measurement for the Measure Pulse Width
or Period(DAQ-STC) VI...................................................................... 25-3
Diagram of Measure Pulse Width (9513) VI .......................................... 25-4
Menu Choices for Type of Measurement for the Measure Pulse Width
or Period (9513) VI .............................................................................. 25-4
Diagram of Measure Short Pulse Width (8253) VI ................................ 25-5
Measuring Pulse Width with Intermediate VIs....................................... 25-7
Diagram of Meas Buffered Pulse-Period (DAQ-STC).vi....................... 25-7
Figure 26-1.
Figure 26-2.
Figure 26-3.
Figure 26-4.
Figure 26-5.
Figure 26-6.
Figure 26-7.
Figure 26-8.
Figure 26-9.
Figure 26-10.
Figure 26-11.
Measuring Square Wave Frequency ....................................................... 26-1
Measuring a Square Wave Period........................................................... 26-2
External Connections for Frequency Measurement................................ 26-3
External Connections for Period Measurement ...................................... 26-3
Diagram of Measure Frequency-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI .......................... 26-4
Diagram of Measure Frequency-Easy (9513) VI.................................... 26-5
Frequency Measurement Example Using Intermediate VIs ................... 26-6
Diagram of Measure Frequency > 1 kHz (8253) VI............................... 26-7
Diagram of Measure Period-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI................................. 26-8
Diagram of Measure Period-Easy (9513) VI .......................................... 26-9
Measuring Period Using Intermediate Counter VIs................................ 26-10
Figure 25-5.
Figure 25-6.
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
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© National Instruments Corporation
Contents
Figure 27-1.
Figure 27-2.
Figure 27-3.
Figure 27-5.
Figure 27-6.
Figure 27-7.
Figure 27-8.
Figure 27-9.
Figure 27-10.
Figure 27-11.
Figure 27-12.
Figure 27-13.
Figure 27-14.
External Connections for Counting Events .............................................27-1
External Connections for Counting Elapsed Time..................................27-1
External Connections to Cascade Counters
for Counting Events..............................................................................27-2
External Connections to Cascade Counters
for Counting Elapsed Time ..................................................................27-3
Diagram of Count Events-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI.....................................27-3
Diagram of Count Events-Int (DAQ-STC) VI ........................................27-4
Diagram of Count Events-Easy (9513) VI ..............................................27-5
Diagram of Count Events-Int (9513) VI .................................................27-5
Diagram of Count Events (8253) VI .......................................................27-6
Diagram of Count Time-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI .......................................27-7
Diagram of Count Time-Int (DAQ-STC) VI ..........................................27-8
Diagram of Count Time-Easy (9315) VI ................................................27-9
Diagram of Count Time-Int (9513) VI....................................................27-10
Diagram of Count Time (8253) VI..........................................................27-11
Figure 28-1.
Figure 28-2.
Wiring Your Counters for Frequency Division.......................................28-1
Programming a Single Divider for Frequency Division .........................28-2
Figure 29-1.
Figure 29-2.
Error Checking Using the General Error Handler VI..............................29-3
Error Checking Using the Simple Error Handler VI ...............................29-3
Figure 27-4.
Tables
Table 2-1.
Table 2-2.
Table 2-3.
Table 5-1.
Table 5-2.
Table 5-3.
Table 5-4.
Table 9-1.
LabVIEW DAQ Hardware Support for Windows
with NI-DAQ 5.x, 6.0 ...........................................................................2-4
LabVIEW DAQ Hardware Support for Macintosh
with NI-DAQ 4.8.x ...............................................................................2-5
LabVIEW DAQ Hardware Support for Macintosh
with NI-DAQ 6.0..................................................................................2-5
Measurement Precision for Various Device Ranges
and Limit Settings.................................................................................5-8
Analog Input Channel Range ..................................................................5-13
Scanning Order for Each DAQ Device Input Channel
with One or Two AMUX-64Ts ............................................................5-15
Scanning Order for Each DAQ Device Input Channel
with Four AMUX-64Ts ........................................................................5-16
External Scan Clock Input Pins...............................................................9-6
© National Instruments Corporation
xix
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Contents
Table 13-1.
External Update Clock Input Pins........................................................... 13-2
Table 18-1.
Phenomena and Transducers................................................................... 18-1
Table 20-1.
SCXI-1100 Channel Arrays, Input Limits Arrays, and Gains ................ 20-4
Table 25-1.
Internal Counter Timebases and Their Corresponding
Maximum Pulse Width Measurements ................................................ 25-9
Table 27-1.
Adjacent Counters for Counter Chips..................................................... 27-2
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
xx
© National Instruments Corporation
About This Manual
The LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual includes the information
you need to get started with data acquisition and LabVIEW. You should
have a basic knowledge of LabVIEW before you try to read this manual. If
you have never worked with LabVIEW, please read through the LabVIEW
QuickStart Guide or the LabVIEW Online Tutorial before you begin. This
manual shows you how to configure your software, teaches you basic
concepts needed to accomplish your task, and refers you to common
example VIs in LabVIEW. If you have used LabVIEW for data acquisition
before, you can use this book as a troubleshooting guide.
This manual supplements the LabVIEW User Manual, and assumes that
you are familiar with that material. You also should be familiar with the
operation of LabVIEW, your computer, your computer's operating system,
and your data acquisition (DAQ) board.
Organization of This Manual
The LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual is organized by sections,
which in turn are made up of chapters. The sections in this manual are as
follows:
•
Part I, Before You Get Started, contains all the information you should
know before you start learning about data acquisition with LabVIEW.
•
Part II, Catching the Wave with Analog Input, contains basic
information about acquiring data with LabVIEW, including acquiring
a single point or multiple points, triggering your acquisition, and using
outside sources to control acquisition rates.
•
Part III, Making Waves with Analog Output, contains basic
information about generating data with LabVIEW, including
generating a single point or multiple points.
•
Part IV, Getting Square with Digital I/O, describes basic concepts
about how to use digital signals with data acquisition in LabVIEW,
including immediate and handshaked digital I/O.
•
Part V, SCXI—Getting Your Signals in Great Condition, contains
basic information about setting up and using SCXI modules with your
data acquisition application, special programming considerations,
common SCXI applications, and calibration information.
© National Instruments Corporation
xxi
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
About This Manual
•
Part VI, Counting Your Way to High-Precision Timing, describes
the different ways you can use counters with your data acquisition
application, including generating a pulse or pulses; measuring pulse
width, frequency, and period; counting events and time; and dividing
frequencies for precision timing.
•
Part VII, Debugging Your Data Acquisition Application, contains an
explanation of ways you can debug your data acquisition application
to make sure your application is accurate and runs smoothly.
•
Appendix A, LabVIEW Data Acquisition Common Questions, lists
answers to questions frequently asked by LabVIEW users.
•
Appendix B, Customer Communication, contains forms you can use to
request help from National Instruments or to comment on our products
and manuals.
•
The Glossary contains an alphabetical list and description of terms
used in this manual, including abbreviations, acronyms, metric
prefixes, mnemonics, and symbols.
•
The Index contains an alphabetical list of key terms and topics in this
manual, including the page where you can find each one.
Conventions Used in This Manual
The following conventions are used in this manual:
[]
Square brackets enclose optional items—for example, [response].
<>
Angle brackets enclose the name of a key on the keyboard—for example,
<shift>. Angle brackets containing numbers separated by an ellipsis
represent a range of values associated with a bit or signal name—for
example, DBIO<3..0>.
-
A hyphen between two or more key names enclosed in angle brackets
denotes that you should simultaneously press the named keys—for
example, <Control-Alt-Delete>.
»
The » symbol leads you through nested menu items and dialog box options
to a final action. The sequence File»Page Setup»Options» Substitute
Fonts directs you to pull down the File menu, select the Page Setup item,
select Options, and finally select the Substitute Fonts options from the
last dialog box.
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
xxii
© National Instruments Corporation
About This Manual
bold
Bold text denotes the names of menus, menu items, parameters, dialog
boxes, dialog box buttons or options, icons, windows, Windows 95 tabs,
or LEDs.
bold italic
Bold italic text denotes a note, caution, or warning.
italic
Italic text denotes variables, emphasis, a cross reference, or an introduction
to a key concept. This font also denotes text from which you supply the
appropriate word or value, as in Windows 3.x.
monospace
Text in this font denotes text or characters that you should literally enter
from the keyboard, sections of code, programming examples, and syntax
examples. This font is also used for the proper names of disk drives, paths,
directories, programs, subprograms, subroutines, device names, functions,
operations, variables, filenames and extensions, and for statements and
comments taken from programs.
monospace bold
Bold text in this font denotes the messages and responses that the computer
automatically prints to the screen. This font also emphasizes lines of code
that are different from the other examples.
monospace italic
Italic text in this font denotes that you must enter the appropriate words or
values in the place of these items.
Platform
Text in this font denotes information related to a specific platform.
NI-DAQ 4.8.x
NI-DAQ 4.8.x refers to functions supported only on the Macintosh for
NUBus DAQ products.
NI-DAQ 5.x
NI-DAQ 5.x refers to functions supported only on Windows DAQ products.
NI-DAQ 6.0
NI-DAQ 6.0 refers to functions supported only on Windows and PCI-based
Macintosh DAQ products.
This icon to the left of bold italicized text denotes a note, which alerts you
to important information.
© National Instruments Corporation
xxiii
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
About This Manual
LabVIEW Data Types
Each VI description gives a data type picture for each input and output
parameter, as illustrated in the following table:
Control
Indicator
Data Type
Signed 8-bit integer
Signed 16-bit integer
Signed 32-bit integer
Unsigned 8-bit integer
Unsigned 16-bit integer
Unsigned 32-bit integer
Single-precision floating-point number
Double-precision floating-point number
Extended-precision floating-point
number
String
Boolean
Array of signed 32-bit integers
2D Array of signed 32-bit integers
Cluster
File Refnum
Abbreviations, acronyms, metric prefixes, mnemonics, symbols, and terms
are listed in the Glossary.
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
xxiv
© National Instruments Corporation
About This Manual
Related Documentation
The following documents contain information you might find helpful as
you read this manual:
•
LabVIEW User Manual
•
G Programming Reference Manual
•
LabVIEW Function and VI Reference Manual
•
LabVIEW QuickStart Guide
•
LabVIEW Online Reference, available online by selecting
Help»Online Reference
•
LabVIEW Online Tutorial, which you launch from the LabVIEW
dialog box
•
Application Note 025, Field Wiring and Noise Considerations for
Analog Signals
•
The user manuals for the data acquisition boards you use
Customer Communication
National Instruments wants to receive your comments on our products and
manuals. We are interested in the applications you develop with our
products, and we want to help if you have problems with them. To make it
easy for you to contact us, this manual contains comment and configuration
forms for you to complete. These forms are in Appendix B, Customer
Communication, at the end of this manual.
© National Instruments Corporation
xxv
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Part I
Before You Get Started
This section contains all the information you should know before you
start learning about data acquisition with LabVIEW.
Part I, Before You Get Started, contains the following chapters:
•
Chapter 1, How To Use This Book, explains how this manual is
organized.
•
Chapter 2, Installing and Configuring Your Data Acquisition
Hardware, explains how to set up your system to use data acquisition
with LabVIEW and your Data Acquisition hardware.
•
Chapter 3, Basic LabVIEW Data Acquisition Concepts, explains key
concepts in understanding how data acquisition works with LabVIEW.
•
Chapter 4, Where You Should Go Next, directs you to the chapter or
chapters in the manual best suited to answer questions about your data
acquisition application.
1
How To Use This Book
This chapter explains how this manual is organized. The following outline
shows you what information you can find in this manual.
Part I: Before You Get Started
How to Use This Book
Installing and Configuring Your Data Acquisition Hardware
Basic LabVIEW Data Acquisition Concepts
Where You Should Go Next
Part II: Catching the Wave with Analog Input
Things You Should Know about Analog Input
One-Stop Single-Point Acquisition
Buffering Your Way through Waveform Acquisition
Controlling Your Acquisition with Triggers
Letting an Outside Source Control Your Acquisition Rate
Part III: Making Waves with Analog Output
Things You Should Know about Analog Output
One-Stop Single-Point Generation
Buffering Your Way through Waveform Generation
Letting an Outside Source Control Your Update Rate
Simultaneous Buffered Waveform Acquisition and Generation
Part IV: Getting Square with Digital I/O
Things You Should Know about Digital I/O
When You Need It Now—Immediate Digital I/O
Shaking Hands with a Digital Partner
© National Instruments Corporation
1-1
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Chapter 1
How To Use This Book
Part V: SCXI—Getting Your Signals in Great Condition
Things You Should Know about SCXI
Hardware and Software Setup for Your SCXI System
Special Programming Considerations for SCXI
Common SCXI Applications
SCXI Calibration—Increasing Signal Measurement Precision
Part VI: Counting Your Way to High-Precision Timing
Things You Should Know about Counters
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
Measuring Pulse Width
Measuring Frequency and Period
Counting Signal Highs and Lows
Dividing Frequencies
Part VII: Debugging Your Data Acquisition Application
Debugging Techniques
If you already have started a LabVIEW DAQ application, please refer to
Chapter 2, Installing and Configuring Your Data Acquisition Hardware,
to check your configuration. Refer to Part VII, Debugging Your Data
Acquisition Application, for information on common errors for your
application. The following flowchart shows the steps to follow before
running your application:
Install and Configure Your Hardware
Learn Basic Data Acquisition Concepts
Go to Your Specific Application Section
Review LabVIEW Example Applications
Learn How to Debug Your Application
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
1-2
© National Instruments Corporation
Chapter 1
How To Use This Book
1.
Install and Configure Your Hardware—When you install
LabVIEW, the program prompts you to have the data acquisition
(DAQ) drivers installed. This manual guides you through setting up
NI-DAQ software with your DAQ device and SCXI hardware. You
should read any unique installation instructions for your platform in
Chapter 2, Installing and Configuring Your Data Acquisition
Hardware.
2.
Learn Basic Data Acquisition Concepts—Chapter 3, Basic
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Concepts, shows you the location of
DAQ example VIs; DAQ VI organization; VI parameter conventions;
default and current value conventions; common VI parameter
definitions; error handling; channel, port and counter addressing;
limit settings; and data organization for analog applications.
3.
Go to Your Specific Application Section—Chapter 4, Where You
Should Go Next, shows you where to find information in this manual
for your application.
4.
Review LabVIEW Example Applications—The remaining chapters
teach you basic concepts in analog input and output, digital I/O,
counters, and SCXI. Each application section first lists example VIs,
then describes the basic concepts needed to understand these example
VIs. Whenever possible, you should have the VI open as you refer to
these examples.
5.
Learn How to Debug Your Application—Chapter 29, Debugging
Techniques, describes the different ways you can debug your
application. This chapter helps you troubleshoot for common
programming errors.
Now you can begin the rewarding adventure of data acquisition with
LabVIEW.
© National Instruments Corporation
1-3
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Installing and Configuring Your
Data Acquisition Hardware
2
This chapter explains how to set up your system to use data acquisition
with LabVIEW and your data acquisition hardware. The chapter contains
hardware installation and configuration and software configuration
instructions and some general information and techniques.
Note
Get DAQ Device
Information VI
The LabVIEW installer prompts you to have the NI-DAQ driver software
installed. All National Instruments data acquisition (DAQ) devices are packaged
with NI-DAQ driver software. The version of NI-DAQ packaged with your
DAQ device might be newer than the version installed by LabVIEW. You can
determine the NI-DAQ version in LabVIEW by running the Get DAQ Device
Information VI, located in Functions»Data Acquisition»Calibration and
Configuration.
After installing LabVIEW and the NI-DAQ driver, follow the steps
in Figure 2-1 to install your hardware and complete the software
configuration. LabVIEW uses the software configuration information
to recognize your hardware and to set default DAQ parameters.
© National Instruments Corporation
2-1
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Chapter 2
Installing and Configuring Your Data Acquisition Hardware
Install Plug-in Devices
Use Your Configuration Utility
to Configure Devices
No
Yes
Using SCXI?
Install and Configure SCXI
Use the DAQ Channel Wizard
to Configure Channels
Read Chapter 3, Basic Data Acquisition Concepts,
and Chapter 4, Where You Should Go Now
Figure 2-1. Installing and Configuring DAQ Devices
NI-DAQ driver software provides LabVIEW with a high-level interface to
DAQ devices and signal conditioning hardware.
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
2-2
© National Instruments Corporation
Chapter 2
Installing and Configuring Your Data Acquisition Hardware
Figure 2-2 shows the relationship between LabVIEW, NI-DAQ, and
DAQ hardware.
LabVIEW VIs
NI-DAQ Drivers
Data Acquisition Devices
Figure 2-2. How NI-DAQ Relates to Your System and DAQ Devices
(NI-DAQ 4.8.x for Macintosh) NI-DAQ 4.8.x for the Macintosh device drivers
are bundled in a single file that determines which drivers to load. When you
restart your computer, this control panel driver, called NI-DAQ, determines
which devices are installed in the system and loads their corresponding
drivers. NI-DAQ uses its control panel settings to determine what
SCXI hardware is configured and what the default device settings are for
devices in the computer. If you use DMA, NI-DAQ also communicates
with the NI-DMA/DSP for DMA services. When you install LabVIEW,
the installer places both of these files on your hard drive.
(NI-DAQ 6.0 for Macintosh) The NI-DAQ Driver, called NI-DAQ is installed
in the National Instruments folder in your Macintosh Extensions folder.
(NI-DAQ 5.x, 6.0 for Windows) The NI-DAQ Driver, called NIDAQ.DLL in
Windows 3.x and NIDAQ32.DLL in Windows 95/NT, is installed in your
Windows system directory.
© National Instruments Corporation
2-3
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Chapter 2
Installing and Configuring Your Data Acquisition Hardware
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Hardware Support
National Instruments periodically upgrades LabVIEW to add support for
new DAQ hardware. To make sure this version of LabVIEW supports the
hardware you use, refer to the following tables.
Table 2-1. LabVIEW DAQ Hardware Support for Windows with NI-DAQ 5.x, 6.0
Device Type
Devices Supported
AT Series
Devices
AT-AO-6/10, AT-DIO-32F, AT-DIO-32HS, AT-MIO-16/16D,
AT-MIO-16DE-10, AT-MIO-16E-1, AT-MIO-16E-2, AT-MIO-16E-10,
AT-MIO-16F-5, AT-MIO-16X, AT-MIO-16XE-50, AT-MIO-64E-3,
AT-MIO-64F-5, AT-AI-16XE-10, AT-MIO-16XE-10, AT-5102, AT-5411
PC Series
Devices
Lab-PC+, PC-AO-2DC, PC-DIO-24, PC-DIO-96, PC-LPM-16,
PC-OPDIO-16, PC-TIO-10, PC-DIO-96PnP, PC-DIO-24PnP,
PC-LPM-16PnP, PC-516, Lab-PC-1200, Lab-PC-1200AI, PC-4350,
PC-4060*
PCI Series
Devices
PCI-MIO-16E-1, PCI-MIO-16E-4, PCI-MIO-16XE-50, PCI-MIO-16E-10,
PCI-1200, PCI-DIO-96, PCI-5102, PCI-5411, PCI-DIO-32HS, PCI-4350,
PCI-6031E, PCI-6032E, PCI-6033E, PCI-6051E, PCI-4060*, PCI-6110E*,
PCI-6111E*
PXI Series
Devices
PXI-6040E, PXI-6070E, PXI-6533, PXI-1010*, PXI-4060*, PXI-5102*,
PXI-DIO-96*
NEC Devices
NEC-AI-16E-4, NEC-AI-16XE-50, NEC-MIO-16E-4, NEC-MIO-16XE-50
External Devices
AMUX-64T, SC-2040, SC-2042-RTD, SC-2043-SG, DAQPad-12001,
DAQPad-MIO-16XE-501, SC-2345, DAQPad-6020E* (USB),
DAQPad-6507* (USB), DAQPad-4350* (USB)
PCMCIA
Devices
DAQCard-500, DAQCard-700, DAQCard-1200, DAQCard-AO-2DC,
DAQCard- DIO-24, DAQCard-AI-16E-4, DAQCard-AI-16XE-50,
DAQCard-516, DAQCard-4050, DAQCard-5102, DAQCard-4350,
DAQCard-4050, DAQCard-DIO-32HS, DAQCard-6533
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
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© National Instruments Corporation
Chapter 2
Installing and Configuring Your Data Acquisition Hardware
Table 2-1. LabVIEW DAQ Hardware Support for Windows with NI-DAQ 5.x, 6.0 (Continued)
Device Type
Devices Supported
SCXI Chassis and
Modules
SCXI-1000, SCXI-1000DC, SCXI-1001, SCXI-1100, SCXI-1102,
SCXI-1120, SCXI-1120D, SCXI-1121, SCXI-1122, SCXI-1124, SCXI-1140,
SCXI-1141, SCXI-1160, SCXI-1161, SCXI-1162, SCXI-1162HV,
SCXI-1163, SCXI-1163R, SCXI-12001, SCXI-2000, SCXI-2400,
SCXI-1126*
VXI Modules
VXI-MIO-64E-1, VXI-MIO-64XE-50, VXI-DIO-128, VXI-AO-48XDC,
VXI-SC-1150, VXI-SC-1102, VXI-SC-1000
*These
devices are supported only under DAQ 6.0. DAQ 5.x does not support these devices.
1The
DAQPad-MIO-16XE-50 and DAQPad-1200 do not work with NEC PC-9800 Series computers. The SCXI-1200 will
work with NEC PC-9800 Series computers ONLY when used with Remote SCXI.
Table 2-2. LabVIEW DAQ Hardware Support for Macintosh with NI-DAQ 4.8.x
Device Type
Devices Supported
Plug-In Devices
DAQCard-500, DAQCard-700, DAQCard-1200, DAQCard-DIO-24,
DAQCard-AO-2DC, Lab-LC, Lab-NB, NB-DIO-24, NB-DIO-32F,
NB-DIO-96, NB-DMA-8-G, NB-DMA2800, NB-MIO-16, NB-MIO-16X,
NB-TIO-10, NB-AO-6, NB-A2150, NB-A2100, NB-A2000, PCI-1200,
PCI-DIO-96, PCI-MIO-16XE-50
External Devices
AMUX-64T, SC-2040, SC-2042-RTD, SC-2043-SG
SCXI Modules
SCXI-1000, SCXI-1001, SCXI-1100, SCXI-1102, SCXI-1120, SCXI-1121,
SCXI-1122, SCXI-1124, SCXI-1140, SCXI-1141, SCXI-1160, SCXI-1161,
SCXI-1162, SCXI-1162HV, SCXI-1163, SCXI-1163R
Table 2-3. LabVIEW DAQ Hardware Support for Macintosh with NI-DAQ 6.0
Device Type
Devices Supported
PCI Series
Devices
PCI-MIO-16E-1, PCI-MIO-16E-4, PCI-MIO-16XE-10, PCI-MIO-16XE-50,
PCI-6031E (PCI-MIO-64XE-10), PCI-6032E (PCI-AI-16XE-10),
PCI-6033E (PCI-AI-64XE-10), PCI-6071E (PCI-MIO-64E-1), PCI-DIO-96,
PCI-1200, PCI-DIO-32HS
DAQCard and
PCMCIA cards
DAQCard-AI-16E-4, DAQCard-AI-16XE-50, DAQCard-1200,
DAQCard-700, DAQCard-500, DAQCard-516, DAQCard-AO-2DC,
DAQCard-DIO-24, DAQCard-6533
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If you have any other questions regarding hardware support for LabVIEW,
refer to Appendix B, Hardware Capabilities, in the LabVIEW Function and
VI Reference Manual, or the LabVIEW Online Reference, by selecting
Help»Online Reference....
Installing and Configuring Your
National Instruments Device
Some DAQ devices have jumpers to set analog input polarity, input mode,
analog output reference, and so on. Before you install your device, check
your hardware user manuals to see if your device has jumpers and how to
change its settings. You then can determine whether you need to change
any jumper settings. Record any jumper settings that you change so that
you can enter the information correctly in the configuration utility.
The next step depends on what version of NI-DAQ you have. Go to the
appropriate section below to continue the configuration of your devices.
Installing and Configuring Your DAQ Device Using NI-DAQ 5.x, 6.0
You can refer to the NI-DAQ Configuration Utility online help file for
specific instructions on how to install and configure your DAQ device.
If you are using Windows 3.x or Windows NT 3.5.1, you can find the
help file in the Program Group LabVIEW. If you are using Windows 95
or Windows NT 4.0, you can find the help file in Start»Programs»
LabVIEW»NI-DAQ Configuration Utility Help. If you are using
a Macintosh, you can find the help file in the Help menu of the
NI-DAQ Configuration Utility.
Configuring Your DAQ Device Using NI-DAQ 4.8.x on the Macintosh
After you check and record your jumper settings, turn off your computer
and insert your National Instruments devices.
Turn your computer back on. You can find NI-DAQ in your control
panels folder. The NI-DAQ icon looks like the one shown to the left.
Double-click on this icon to launch NI-DAQ.
When you launch the program, NI-DAQ displays a list of all of the devices
in your computer. Each device has a small list of attributes, as shown in
Figure 2-3. The number specified in the device line is the logical device
number that NI-DAQ assigned to the device. You will use this number in
LabVIEW as the device number to select that device for any operation.
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Figure 2-3. NI-DAQ Device Window Listing
Now show the Device Configuration window by selecting the
Device Configuration option from the menu as shown in Figure 2-4.
Figure 2-4. Accessing the Device Configuration Window in NI-DAQ
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Figure 2-5 shows the NI-DAQ Device Configuration window. When you
are in the Device Configuration window of the utility, you can edit the
default settings for parameters, such as analog input polarity and range
on a per-device basis. If you are using AMUX-64T or signal conditioning
devices with your DAQ device, select the appropriate device using the
Accessories menu. LabVIEW uses these settings when initializing the
device instead of the default settings listed in the descriptions of the
hardware configuration VIs. (You can use these VIs to change any
setting recorded by NI-DAQ.) When you click on the name of the device,
NI-DAQ displays the I/O connector for the device, as shown in Figure 2-5.
Figure 2-5. Device Configuration and I/O Connector Windows in NI-DAQ
You also can find helpful information by clicking on the Help button. If at
any time during configuration you need to view a list of the LabVIEW DAQ
error codes and their meanings, you can do so by clicking on the NI-DAQ
menu bar, located to the right of the Help button, and choosing Errors.
Note
Some DAQ devices, such as the Lab-NB and NB-MIO-16 devices, require
hardware jumper changes in addition to software configuration. Consult your
DAQ device hardware reference manual for more information.
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Installing and Configuring Your SCXI Chassis
The following section describes the procedures for installing and
configuring your SCXI chassis.
Hardware Configuration
Your SCXI hardware kit includes the Getting Started with SCXI manual,
which contains detailed instructions for assembling your SCXI system,
module jumper settings, cable assemblies, and terminal blocks. The
following are the basic steps you must complete to assemble your
SCXI system.
1.
Check the jumpers on your modules. Generally, you will leave the
jumpers in their default positions. However, the Getting Started with
SCXI manual contains a section for each module type that lists cases
where you might want to change the jumper settings.
2.
Turn off the chassis power. Plug in your modules through the front of
the chassis. You can put the modules in any slot. For simplicity, start
with slot 1 on the left side of the chassis and move right with each
additional module. Be sure to tightly screw the modules into the
chassis frame.
3.
If you are using an SCXI-1180 feedthrough panel, you must install the
SCXI-1180 in the slot immediately to the right of the module that you
will cable to the DAQ device. Otherwise, the cable connectors might
not fit together conveniently.
4.
If you have more than one chassis, select a unique jumpered address
for each additional chassis by using the jumpers directly behind the
front panel of the chassis.
5.
Plug the appropriate terminal blocks into the front of each module and
screw them tightly into the chassis frame.
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6.
7.
If you are using a DAQ device in your computer to control your
SCXI chassis, connect the mounting bracket of the SCXI-134x
(where x is a number) cable assembly to the back of one of the modules
and screw it into the chassis frame. Connect the other end of the cable
to the DAQ device in your computer. In multiplexed mode, you only
need to cable one module to the DAQ device. In most cases, it does not
matter which module you cable. The following are two special cases
where you should cable a specific module to the device:
a.
If you use SCXI-1140 modules with other types of modules, you
need to cable one of the SCXI-1140 modules to the DAQ device.
b.
If you use analog input modules and other types of modules, you
need to cable one of the analog input modules to the DAQ device.
Turn on your chassis power.
Refer to the Getting Started with SCXI manual for more information about
related topics, such as multichassis cabling.
NI-DAQ 5.x, 6.0 Software Configuration
Refer to the NI-DAQ Configuration Utility online help file for specific
instructions about configuring your SCXI device. If you use Windows 3.x
or Windows NT 3.5.1, you can find the help file in the Program Group
LabVIEW. If you use Windows 95 or Windows NT 4.0, you can find
the help file in Start»Programs» LabVIEW»NI-DAQ Configuration
Utility Help. If you use a Macintosh, you can find the help file in the
Help menu of the NI-DAQ Configuration Utility.
NI-DAQ 4.8.x Software Configuration
To use SCXI with LabVIEW and NI-DAQ 4.8.x, you must enter
the configuration for each SCXI chassis using NI-DAQ. Select
SCXI Configuration in the NI-DAQ menu bar to bring up the
SCXI Configuration window as shown in Figure 2-6.
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Figure 2-6. Accessing the NI-DAQ SCXI Configuration Window
Figure 2-7 shows NI-DAQ with the SCXI Configuration window selected.
Figure 2-7. SCXI Configuration Window in NI-DAQ
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1.
Leave the Chassis set to 1 if you have only one chassis. You will use
this number to access the SCXI chassis from your application. If you
have multiple chassis, advance the Chassis to configure the next
chassis after you finish configuring the first chassis.
2.
Select the appropriate chassis type for your chassis. This activates the
remaining fields on the panel.
3.
If you only have one chassis, leave the Address field and the address
jumpers on your SCXI chassis set to 0. If you have additional chassis,
you must select a unique hardware-jumpered address for each chassis
and enter it in the Address field.
4.
Leave the Method set to Serial, which means that LabVIEW
communicates with the chassis serially using a DIO port of the plug-in
DAQ device. The Path automatically sets itself to the device number
of the appropriate DAQ device when you enter the Cabled Device
information in step 5b.
5.
Enter the configuration for each slot in the chassis. The fields in the
bottom two sections of the window reflect the settings for the selected
Module number. Refer to your SCXI chassis hardware manual to
determine how the slots in a chassis are numbered. You must set the
following fields for each SCXI module you install:
a.
Module type—Select the correct module type for the module
installed in the current slot. If the current slot does not have a
module, leave this field set to None and advance the Module
number to the next slot.
b.
Cabled Device—If the module in the current slot is directly
cabled to a DAQ device in your computer, set this field to the
device number of that DAQ device. Leave the Cabled Device field
set to None if the module in the current slot is not directly cabled
to a DAQ device. If you are operating your modules in multiplexed
mode, you only need to cable one module in each chassis to your
DAQ device. If you are not using multiplexed mode, refer to the
SCXI Operating Modes section of Chapter 19, Hardware and
Software Setup for Your SCXI System, for instructions about
module cabling.
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Installing and Configuring Your Data Acquisition Hardware
Operating Mode—The system defaults to the multiplexed
operating mode, which is recommended for almost all
SCXI applications. The operating modes available for each
SCXI module type are described in the SCXI Operating Modes
section of Chapter 19, Hardware and Software Setup for Your
SCXI System.
If the module is an analog input module, enter the gain and filter
settings for each channel in the bottom section of the window. The
system disables the Channel control for any modules that use
only one gain and filter setting for the entire module.
Configuring Your Channels in NI-DAQ 5.x, 6.0
Once you install and configure your hardware, you can configure your
channels. LabVIEW DAQ software includes a channel configuration
application, the DAQ Channel Wizard, you can use to configure the analog
and digital channels on your DAQ device—DAQ plug-in boards,
stand-alone DAQ products, or SCXI modules. In NI-DAQ 5.x only analog
input channels can be configured. The DAQ Channel Wizard helps you
define the physical quantities you are measuring or generating on each
DAQ Hardware channel by querying for information about the physical
quantity being measured, the sensor or actuator being used, and the
associated DAQ hardware. As you configure channels in the DAQ Channel
Wizard, you give each channel configuration a unique name which is used
when addressing your channels in LabVIEW. The channel configurations
you define are saved in a file that instructs the NI-DAQ Driver how to scale
and process each DAQ channel by its name. You can simplify the
programming required to measure your signal by using the DAQ Channel
Wizard to configure your channels.
Refer to the DAQ Channel Wizard online help file for specific instructions
on how to use the DAQ Channel Wizard. If you use Windows 3.x, you can
find the help file in the Program Group LabVIEW. If you use Windows 95
or NT 4.0, you can find the help file in Start»Programs»LabVIEW»
DAQ Channel Wizard Help. Macintosh users can find the help file in the
NI-DAQ folder. You can also launch the help file on any platform by
clicking the Help button in the DAQ Channel Wizard.
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Refer to the Channel Name Addressing section of Chapter 3, Basic
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Concepts, for information about how to use
your named channels in LabVIEW.
Now that you have successfully installed and configured your
DAQ hardware for LabVIEW, read Chapter 3, Basic LabVIEW Data
Acquisition Concepts, for more information about data acquisition with
LabVIEW.
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Basic LabVIEW Data
Acquisition Concepts
This chapter explains key concepts in understanding how data acquisition
works with LabVIEW. Before you start building your data acquisition
(DAQ) application, you should know some of the following basic
LabVIEW DAQ concepts:
•
Location of Common DAQ Examples
•
Locating the Data Acquisition VIs in LabVIEW
•
DAQ VI Organization
•
VI Parameter Conventions
•
Common DAQ VI Parameters
•
Default and Current Value Conventions
•
Error Handling
•
Channel, Port, and Counter Addressing
•
Limit Settings
•
Data Organization for Analog Applications
If you do not already understand basic programming concepts in
LabVIEW, refer to the LabVIEW User Manual or the G Programming
Reference Manual for help with programming in LabVIEW.
Location of Common DAQ Examples
(NI-DAQ 5.x, 6.0) The easiest way to locate a particular DAQ example is to
run the DAQ Solution Wizard. You can access the DAQ Solution Wizard
by clicking on the DAQ Solution Wizard button when you first launch
LabVIEW, or by selecting DAQ Solution Wizard from the File menu in
LabVIEW.
The DAQ examples address many common applications involving
data acquisition in LabVIEW. You can find these examples in
labview\examples\daq. The following list briefly describes the
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VI libraries (designated by the .llb file extension) and directories located
in the daq directory.
anlogin
Folder containing the anlogin.llb VIs that
perform analog input and the strmdsk.llb VIs
that can write or stream the acquired data to disk.
anlogout
Folder containing the anlogout.llb VIs that
generate single values or multiple values
(waveforms) to output through analog channels.
anlog_io
Folder containing the anlog_io.llb VIs for
analog I/O control loops and simultaneous analog
input and output.
counter
Folder containing the DAQ-STC.llb,
Am9513.llb, and 8253.llb libraries of VIs that
count the rising and falling edges of TTL signals,
generate TTL pulses, and measure the frequency
and period of TTL signals.
digital
Folder containing the digio.llb VIs that
perform immediate digital I/O and digital
handshaking.
scxi
Folder containing the scxi_ai.llb,
scxi_ao.llb, and scxi_dig.llb VIs, for use
with SCXI modules.
solution
Folder containing the benchtop.llb,
control.llb, datalog.llb, and
transduc.llb VIs, a variety of ready-to-run
application VIs.
run_me.llb
Library containing the VIs that perform basic
operations concerning analog I/O, digital I/O, and
counters.
Each chapter in this manual teaches the basic concepts behind several of the
DAQ examples. For a brief description of any example, open the example
VI and choose Windows»Show VI Info for a text description of the
example. You also can choose Help»Show Help to open the Help window.
When the Help window is open, you can put your cursor over any front
panel or block diagram item and see a description of that item in the
window.
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Locating the Data Acquisition VIs in LabVIEW
You can find the Data Acquisition VIs in the Functions palette from your
block diagram in LabVIEW. When you put your cursor over each of the
icons in the Functions palette, LabVIEW displays the palette name you are
about to access at the top of the Functions palette. You can find the Data
Acquisition icon near the bottom of the Functions palette, as shown in
Figure 3-1.
Display of Palette Name
Data Acquisition Icon
Figure 3-1. Accessing the Data Acquisition Palette
The Data Acquisition palette contains six subpalette icons that take you to
the different classes of DAQ VIs. Figure 3-2 shows what each of the icons
in the Data Acquisition palette mean.
Analog Output VIs
Digital I/O VIs
Analog Input VIs
Counter VIs
Calibration and
Configuration VIs
Signal Conditioning VIs
Figure 3-2. Data Acquisition VIs Palette
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DAQ VI Organization
In most of the DAQ VI subpalettes, the VIs are arranged in different levels
according to their functionality. You can find some of the following four
levels of DAQ VIs within the DAQ VI subpalettes.
•
Easy VIs
•
Intermediate VIs
•
Utility VIs
•
Advanced VIs
A good example of a palette that contains all of the available levels of
DAQ VIs is the Analog Input palette. Figure 3-3 shows this palette.
Easy Analog Input VIs
Intermediate
Analog Input VIs
Advanced
Analog Input VIs
Analog Input Utility VIs
Figure 3-3. Analog Input VI Palette Organization
Easy VIs
The Easy VIs perform simple DAQ operations and are typically the first
row of VIs in the DAQ palettes. You can run these VIs from the front panel
or use them as subVIs in basic applications.
These VIs are stand-alone in that you only need one Easy VI to perform
each basic DAQ operation. Unlike intermediate- and advanced-level VIs,
Easy VIs automatically alert you to errors with a dialog box that asks you
to stop the execution of the VI or to ignore the error.
The Easy VIs actually are usually composed of Intermediate VIs, which
are in turn composed of Advanced VIs. The Easy VIs provide a basic,
convenient interface with only the most commonly used inputs and outputs.
For more complex applications, you should use the intermediate- or
advanced-level VIs for more functionality and better performance.
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Refer to your particular type of VI in the LabVIEW Function and VI
Reference Manual for specific VI information, or refer to the LabVIEW
Online Reference, by selecting Help»Online Reference....
Intermediate VIs
The Intermediate VIs have more hardware functionality and efficiency in
developing your application than the Easy VIs. Actually, the Intermediate
VIs contain groups of Advanced VIs, but they use fewer parameters and do
not have some of the more advanced capabilities.
Intermediate VIs give you more control over error-handling than the Easy
VIs. With each VI, you can check for errors or pass the error cluster on to
other VIs.
Note
Most LabVIEW data acquisition examples shown in this manual are based on the
Intermediate VIs. You can find these example VIs in the examples folder.
Utility VIs
The Utility VIs, found in many of the LabVIEW DAQ palettes, are also
intermediate-level VIs and thus have more hardware functionality and
efficiency in developing your application than the Easy VIs. Read the
previous Intermediate VIs section for more information on how these
operate.
Advanced VIs
The Advanced VIs are the lowest-level interface to the DAQ driver. Very
few applications require the use of the Advanced VIs. Use the Advanced
VIs when the Easy or Intermediate VIs do not have the inputs necessary to
control an unusual DAQ function. Advanced VIs return the greatest
amount of status information from the DAQ driver. This manual primarily
focuses on applications using the Easy or Intermediate VIs.
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VI Parameter Conventions
In each LabVIEW DAQ VI front panel or Help window, the appearance
of the control and indicator labels denote the importance of that parameter.
Control and indicator names in bold typically must be wired to a node on
the block diagram for your application to run. Controls and indicators not
necessary for your program to operate appear in plain text. You rarely need
to use the parameters with labels in square brackets ([ ]). Keep in mind that
these conventions apply only to the information in the Help window and
on the front panel. Both this manual and the LabVIEW Function and VI
Reference Manual list all parameter names in bold to distinguish them from
other elements of the text. The default inputs appear in parentheses to the
right of the parameter names.
Figure 3-4 illustrates these Help window parameter conventions for the
AI Read One Scan VI. As the window text for this VI indicates, you should
wire the device (if you are not using channel names), channels, error in,
and iteration input parameters and the scaled data and error out output
parameters. In order to pass error information from one VI to another,
connect the error out cluster of the current VI to the error in cluster of
the next VI. The coupling & input config, input limits, and output units
input parameters and the binary data output parameter are optional
parameters. You rarely need to use the number of AMUX boards
parameter.
Figure 3-4. LabVIEW Help Window Conventions
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Default and Current Value Conventions
To use the DAQ VIs, you should know the difference between a default
input, a default setting, and a current setting. A default input is the default
value of a front panel control. When you do not wire an input to a terminal
of a VI, the default input for the control associated with that terminal passes
to the driver. In the Help window, default inputs appear in parentheses to
the right of the parameter names. A default setting is a default parameter
value recorded in the driver. The current setting is the value of a control at
any given moment. The default setting of a control becomes the current
setting and remains so until you change the value of the control.
In many cases, a control input defaults to a certain value (most often 0),
which means you can use the current setting. For example, the default input
for a parameter may be do not change the current setting, and
the current setting may be no AMUX-64T boards. If you change the value
of such a parameter, the new value becomes the current setting.
Common DAQ VI Parameters
The device input on analog I/O, digital I/O, and counter VIs specifies the
number assigned to your DAQ device in the DAQ configuration software.
Your software assigns a unique number to each DAQ device. The device
parameter usually appears as an input to the configuration VIs. Another
common configuration VI output, task ID, assigns your specific
I/O operation and device a unique number that identifies it throughout
your program flow. The task ID can also contain group information about
the channels and gain used in your operation.
Some DAQ VIs perform either the device configuration or the
I/O operation, while other DAQ VIs perform both configuration and the
operation. The VIs that handle both functions have an iteration input.
When your VI has the iteration set to 0, LabVIEW configures the
DAQ device and then performs the specific I/O operation. For iteration
values greater than 0, LabVIEW uses the existing configuration to perform
the I/O operation. You can improve the performance of your application
by not configuring the DAQ device every time an I/O operation occurs.
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Typically, you should wire the iteration input to an iteration terminal in a
loop as shown in the following illustration.
Wiring the iteration input this way means the device is only configured
on the first I/O operation. Subsequent I/O operations use the existing
configuration.
Error Handling
Each Easy VI contains an error handling VI. A dialog box appears
immediately if an error occurs in an Easy VI.
Every Intermediate and Advanced VI contains an error in input cluster and
an error out output cluster, as shown in Figure 3-5. The clusters contain a
Boolean that indicates whether an error occurred, the code for the error, and
source or the name of the VI that returned the error. If error in indicates an
error, the VI passes the error information to error out and does not execute
any DAQ functions.
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Figure 3-5. LabVIEW Error In Input and Error Out Output Error Clusters
For more information on error handling, refer to Part VII, Debugging Your
Data Acquisition Application, in this manual.
Channel, Port, and Counter Addressing
The Analog Input and Analog Output VIs have a channel list parameter
where you can specify the channels from which the VIs read or to which
they write. The Digital Input and Output VIs have a similar parameter,
called digital channel list and the equivalent value is called counter list
for the Counter VI’s. For ease of understanding of channel addressing
concepts, the channel list, digital channel list, and counter list parameters
are referred to as channel list in this section. Any special exceptions for
these parameters will be noted.
Each channel you specify in the channel list becomes a member of a group.
For each group, you can acquire or generate data on the channels listed in
the group. VIs scan (during acquisition) or update (during generation) the
channels in the same order they are listed. To erase a group, pass an empty
channel list and the group number to the VI or assign a new channel list
to the group. Changing groups can only be done at the Advanced VI level.
Refer to the LabVIEW Function and VI Reference Manual or the LabVIEW
Online Reference, by selecting Help»Online Reference..., for more
information.
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Channel Name Addressing
If you use the DAQ Channel Wizard to configure your analog and digital
channels, you can address your channels by name in the channel list
parameter in LabVIEW. channel list can be an array of strings or, as with
the Easy VIs, a scalar string control, as shown in Figure 3-6. If you have a
channel list array, you can use one channel entry per array element, specify
the entire list in a single element, or use any combination of these two.
If you enter multiple channel names in channel list, all of the channels in
the list must be configured for the same DAQ Device. If you configure
channels with names of temperature and pressure, both of which are
measured by the same DAQ Device, you can specify a list of channels
in a single element by separating them by commas—for example
temperature,pressure. In specifying channel names, spelling and
spaces are important, but case is not.
Figure 3-6. Channel String Controls
Using channel names, you do not need to wire the device, input limits,
or input config input parameters. The device input is always ignored
by LabVIEW when using channel names. LabVIEW configures your
hardware in terms of your channel configuration. Unless you need to
overwrite your channel name configuration, do not wire input limits or
input config; allow LabVIEW to set them up for you. In addition,
LabVIEW orders and pads the channels specified in channel list for you
as needed according to any special device requirements.
Channel Number Addressing
If you are not using channel names to address your channels, you can
address your channels by channel numbers in the channel list parameter.
The channel list can be an array of strings or, as with the Easy VIs, a
scalar string control. If you have a channel list array, you can use one
channel entry per array element, specify the entire list in a single element,
or use any combination of these two methods. For instance, if 0, 1, and 2
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are your channels, you can specify a list of channels in a single element by
separating the individual channels by commas—for example, 0, 1, 2.
Or, because 0 refers to the first channel in a consecutive channel range and
2 refers to the last channel, you can specify the range by separating the first
and last channels with a colon—for example, 0:2.
Some Easy and Advanced Digital VIs and Intermediate Counter VIs only
need one port or counter to be specified. For more information, refer to the
LabVIEW Function and VI Reference Manual or the LabVIEW Online
Reference. Choose Help»Show Help and put your cursor on the VI to view
the VI Help window for the VI you intend to use.
LabVIEW recognizes three types of analog channels on a DAQ device:
onboard, AMUX-64T, and SCXI channels. It recognizes two types of
digital ports and counters: onboard and SCXI. This section describes
addressing onboard channels, ports, and counters. AMUX-64T
addressing is described later in Chapter 5, Things You Should Know
about Analog Input. SCXI channel, port, and counter addressing is
described in Chapter 18, Things You Should Know about SCXI.
Onboard channels refer to analog or digital I/O channels provided by the
plug-in DAQ device. If x is an onboard channel, you can specify this by
entering x or OBx as the channel list element. Refer to the description of
your device in your hardware user manual for restrictions on channel order.
Figure 3-7 shows several ways you can address onboard channels 0, 1, and
2. The top three examples apply to VIs whose channel parameters are string
arrays. The bottom two examples apply to VIs whose channel parameters
are scalar strings.
Figure 3-7. Channel String Array Controls
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Note
Basic LabVIEW Data Acquisition Concepts
Refer to Appendix B, Hardware Capabilities, in the LabVIEW Function and VI
Reference Manual for the number of channels your device can acquire data from
at one time, or refer to the LabVIEW Online Reference, by selecting Help»Online
Reference....
Limit Settings
Limit settings are the maximum and minimum values of the analog
signal(s) you are measuring or generating. The pair of limit setting values
can be unique for each analog input or output channel. For analog input
applications, the limit setting values must be within the range for the
device. For more information on the range for your device, refer to
Chapter 5, Things You Should Know about Analog Input.
Each pair of limit setting values forms a cluster. (Analog output limits have
a third member, the reference source; but, for simplicity, LabVIEW refers
to limit settings as a pair of values.) LabVIEW uses an array of these
clusters to assign limits to the channels in your channel string array.
If you use the DAQ Channel Wizard to configure your analog input
channels, the unit applied to the limit settings is the physical unit you
specified for a particular channel name in the DAQ Channel Wizard. For
example, if you configured a channel in the DAQ Channel Wizard to have
physical units of Deg C, the limit settings are treated as limits in degrees
Celsius. LabVIEW configures your hardware to make the measurement in
terms of your channel name configuration. Unless you need to overwrite
your channel name configuration, do not wire this input; allow LabVIEW
to set it up for you.
If you are not using the DAQ Channel Wizard, the default unit applied to
the limit settings is usually volts, although the unit applied to the limit
settings may be volts, current, resistance, or frequency, depending on the
capability and configuration of your device.
The default range of the device, set in the configuration utility or by
LabVIEW according to the channel name configuration in the DAQ
Channel Wizard, is used whenever you leave the limit settings terminal
unwired or you enter 0 for your upper and lower limits.
As the previous Channel, Port, and Counter Addressing section explains,
LabVIEW uses an array of strings to specify which channels belong to a
group. Also, remember LabVIEW lists as few as one channel to as many as
all of the device’s channels in a single array element in the channel string
array. LabVIEW also assigns all the channels listed in a channel string
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array element the same settings in the corresponding limit settings cluster
array element. Figure 3-8 illustrates one case of this.
Figure 3-8. Limit Settings, Case 1
In this example, channels 0:3 (or 0, 1, 2, and 3) are assigned limits of
10.00 to –10.00. Channel 4 has limits of 5.00 to –5.00. Channels 5, 6,
and 7 have limit settings of 1.00 to 0.00.
If the limit settings cluster array has fewer elements than the channel
string array, LabVIEW assigns any remaining channels the limit settings
contained in the last entry of the limit settings cluster array. Figure 3-9
illustrates this case.
Figure 3-9. Limit Settings, Case 2
In this example, channels 0, 1, 2, and 3 have limits of 10.00 to –10.00.
There are more channels left, but the limit settings cluster array is
exhausted. Therefore, the remaining channels (4, 5, 6, and 7) are also
assigned limits of 10.00 to –10.00.
The Easy Analog Input VIs have only one pair of input limits. This pair
forms a single cluster element. If you specify the default limit settings, all
channels scanned with these VIs will have identical limit settings. The Easy
Analog Output VIs do not have limit settings. All the Intermediate VIs,
both analog input and output, have the channel string array and the limit
settings (or input limits) cluster array on the same VI. Assignment of
limits to channels works exactly as described above. Refer to the LabVIEW
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Function and VI Reference Manual for more information on how to assign
limit settings to a particular analog channel using the Advanced VIs, the
Group Config VI and the Hardware Config VI, or refer to the LabVIEW
Online Reference, by selecting Help»Online Reference....
In analog applications, you not only specify the range of the signal, you
must also specify the range and the polarity of the device. A unipolar range
is a range containing either positive or negative values, but never both.
A bipolar range is a range that has both positive and negative values.
When a device uses jumpers or dip switches to select its range and polarity,
you must enter the correct jumper setting in the configuration utility.
In DAQ hardware manuals and in the configuration utility, you may find
reference to the concept of gain. Gain is the amplification or attenuation
of a signal. Most National Instruments DAQ devices have programmable
gains (no jumpers), but some SCXI modules require the use of jumpers
or dip switches. For all DAQ devices used with LabVIEW, the gain is
determined by limit settings. However, for some SCXI modules, you must
enter the gain in the configuration utility.
Data Organization for Analog Applications
If you acquire data from more than one channel multiple times, the data is
returned as a two-dimensional (2D) array. If you were to create a 2D array
and label the index selectors on a LabVIEW front panel, the array might
look like Figure 3-10.
Figure 3-10. Example of a Basic 2D Array
The two vertically-arranged boxes on the left are the row and column index
selectors for the array. The top index selects a row and the bottom index
selects a column.
You can organize data for a 2D array in one of two ways. First, you can
organize the data by rows. If the array contained data from analog input
channels, this would mean that each row holds data from one channel.
Selecting a row selects a channel. Selecting a column selects a scan of data.
This ordering method is often referred to as row major order. When you
create data in a nested For Loop, the inner loop creates a row for each
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iteration of the outer loop. If you were to label your index selectors for a
row major 2D array, the array might look like Figure 3-11.
Figure 3-11. 2D Array in Row Major Order
You also can organize 2D array data by columns. The Analog Input VIs in
LabVIEW organize their data in this way. Each column holds data from one
channel, so selecting a column selects a channel. Selecting a row selects
a scan of data. This ordering method is often called column major order.
If you were to label your index selectors for a column major 2D array, the
array might look like Figure 3-12.
Figure 3-12. 2D Array in Column Major Order
To graph a column major order 2D array, you must configure the waveform
chart or graph to treat the data as transposed by turning on this option in the
graph pop-up menu.
Note
This option appears in gray until you wire the 2D array to a graph. To convert
the data to row major order, select Functions»Array & Cluster»Transpose
2D Array.
If you want to extract a single channel from a column major 2D array,
use the Index Array function from Functions»Array & Cluster. Add a
dimension so that you have two black rectangles in the lower left corner.
The top rectangle selects the row and the bottom rectangle selects the
column. Popup on the row rectangle and select Disable Indexing. Now,
when you select a column (or channel) by wiring your selection to the
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bottom rectangle, the Index Array function produces the entire column of
data as a 1D array, as shown in Figure 3-13.
Figure 3-13. Extracting a Single Channel from a Column Major 2D Array
Analog output buffers that contain data for more than one channel are also
column major 2D arrays. To create such an array, first make the data from
each output channel a 1D array. Then select the Build Array function from
Functions»Array & Cluster. Add as many input terminals (rows) to the
Build Array terminal as you have channels of data. Wire each 1D array to
the Build Array terminal to combine these arrays into a single row major
2D array. Then use the Transpose 2D Array function to convert the array to
a column major array. The finished array is ready for the AO Write VI, as
shown in Figure 3-14.
Figure 3-14. Analog Output Buffer 2D Array
Now that you have read some basic LabVIEW DAQ concepts, you can go
to the section(s) that describe your specific application. For information
about how you can answer questions about your application to narrow
down where you should go next for help in this manual, refer to Chapter 4,
Where You Should Go Next.
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Where You Should Go Next
4
This chapter directs you to the chapter in the manual best suited to answer
questions about your data acquisition application. You answer a series of
questions that help determine the purpose of your application. The
questions start very broad and narrow in scope until you are referred to a
specific section in the manual dealing with your type of application.
Note
This manual is divided into parts. You always should read the Things You Should
Know about chapter at the beginning of each part specific to your application. The
Things You Should Know about chapters teach you about basic concepts dealing
with your application.
Use the following flowchart as a guide as you answer the questions that
follow it. The questions should pinpoint the sections in the manual that you
should read for your particular application.
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Chapter 4
Where You Should Go Next
Plug-in DAQ Device Only
Analyzing
Analog or Digital
Signals?
Analog
Digital
Read about the DAQ Channel Wizard
in Chapters 2 and 3, and Section 5,
SCXI–Getting
Your Signals in Great Condition.
Digital
Latched
Counter
Digital or
Counter Interfacing?
Latched or
Non-Latched Digital
I/O?
Read Chapter 17, Shaking Hands
with a Digital Partner.
Acquisition
SCXI
Type of
Measuring Device?
Non-Latched
Read Chapter 24, Generating a
Square Pulse or Pulse Train.
Read Chapter 25, Measuring
Pulse Width.
Read Chapter 16, When You Need
It Now–Immediate Digital I/O.
Read Chapter 26, Measuring
Frequency and Period.
Generation
Signal Acquisition
or Generation?
Read Chapter 27, Counting Signal
Highs and Lows.
Both
Read Chapter 14, Simultaneous Buffered
Waveform Acquisition and Generation.
Read Chapter 28,
Dividing Frequencies.
Single-Point
or Multiple-Point
Generation?
Single
Multiple
Internal or
External?
Internal
Read Chapter 11, One-Stop
Single-Point Generation.
Read Chapter 12, Buffering Your
Way through Waveform Generation.
Single
Read Chapter 23, Things You
Should Know about Counters.
Single-Point
or Multiple-Point
Acquisition?
External
Read Chapter 13, Letting an Outside
Source Control Your Update Rate.
Multiple
Read Chapter 6, One-Stop
Single-Point Acquisition.
Yes
Internal
Read Chapter 8, Controlling
Your Acquisition with Triggers.
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
No
Triggering a Signal?
Using an Internal
or External Clock?
Read Chapter 7, BufferingYour
Way Through Waveform Acquisition.
4-2
External
Read Chapter 9, Letting an Outside
Source Control Your Acquisition Rate.
© National Instruments Corporation
Chapter 4
Where You Should Go Next
Questions You Should Answer
1. Measuring Device: DAQ Device or SCXI Module?
Are you working in a noisy environment? If you are, then you may have
Signal Conditioning eXtensions for Instrumentation (SCXI) modules
connected to your DAQ device or the parallel port of your computer.
SCXI modules can filter and isolate noise from signals. They can also
amplify low signals. SCXI modules expand the number of channels to
acquire or generate data.
DAQ devices are primarily used alone when extra signal conditioning is not
necessary.
If you are using a DAQ device, then read question 2. If you are using SCXI,
go to Part V, SCXI—Getting Your Signals in Great Condition.
2. Analog or Digital Signal Analysis?
Does your signal have two discrete values that are TTL signals? If so, then
you have a digital signal. Otherwise, you have an analog signal. The type
of information you would need to know from an analog signal is the level
(discrete value), shape, and frequency content.
Analog or Digital Signal Acquisition or Generation?
If you want to measure and analyze signals from a source outside the
computer, you want to acquire signals. If you want to send signals to an
outside instrument to control its operation, then you want to generate
signals.
If you want to acquire analog signals, go to question 4. If you want to
generate analog signals, refer to question 5. If you want to acquire and
generate analog signals, refer to the Using Analog Input/Output Control
Loops section of Chapter 6, One-Stop Single-Point Acquisition.
If you want to acquire or generate digital signals, read the next question.
3. Digital or Counter Interfacing?
Digital I/O interfaces primarily with binary operations, such as turning
external equipment on or off or sense logic states, such as the on/off
position of the switch. Counters generate individual digital pulses or waves
or count digital events, like how many times a digital signal rises or falls
in value.
If you are performing digital I/O, refer to question 7. If you need to use
counters, read question 8.
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Where You Should Go Next
4. Single-Point or Multiple-Point Acquisition?
Do you want to acquire a signal value(s) at one time or over a period of
time at a certain rate? If you measure a signal at a given instant of time,
you are performing single-point acquisition. If you measure signals over a
period of time at a certain rate, then you are performing multiple-point or
waveform acquisition.
If you want single-point acquisition, refer to Chapter 6, One-Stop
Single-Point Acquisition. If you want multiple-point acquisition, read
question 6.
5. Single-Point or Multiple-Point Generation?
Are you outputting a steady (DC) signal or are you generating a changing
signal at a certain rate? A constant or slowly-changing signal output is
called single-point generation. The output of a changing signal at a certain
rate is called multiple-point or waveform generation.
If you want to perform single-point generation, refer to Chapter 11,
One-Stop Single-Point Generation. If you want multiple point generation,
refer to Chapter 12, Buffering Your Way through Waveform Generation.
6. Triggering a Signal or Using a Clock?
You can start an analog acquisition when a certain analog or digital value
occurs by triggering the acquisition.
If you want to trigger an analog acquisition, refer to Chapter 8, Controlling
Your Acquisition with Triggers.
Multiple-Point Acquisition with an Internal or External Clock?
Multiple point or waveform acquisition can be done at a rate set by an
internal DAQ device clock or an external clock. The external clock will be
a TTL signal produced at a certain rate.
If you want to acquire a waveform at the rate of an external signal, refer to
Chapter 9, Letting an Outside Source Control Your Acquisition Rate. If not,
read Chapter 7, Buffering Your Way through Waveform Acquisition.
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Chapter 4
Where You Should Go Next
7. Non-Latched or Latched Digital I/O?
If you want your program to read the latest digital input or immediately
write a new digital output value, you should use non-latched (immediate)
digital I/O. When a DAQ device accepts or transfers data after a digital
pulse has been received, it is called latched (handshaked) digital I/O. With
latched digital I/O, you can store the values you want to transfer in a buffer.
Only one value will be transferred after each handshaked pulse.
If you want to use non-latched (immediate) digital I/O, refer to Chapter 16,
When You Need It Now— Immediate Digital I/O. If you need to perform
latched (handshaked) digital I/O, refer to Chapter 17, Shaking Hands with
a Digital Partner.
8. Counters: Counting or Generating Digital Pulses?
If you want to generate digital pulses from a counter at a certain rate, read
Chapter 24, Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains. If you want to
measure the width of a digital pulse, refer to Chapter 25, Measuring Pulse
Width. If you want to measure the frequency or period of a digital signal,
refer to Chapter 26, Measuring Frequency and Period. If you just want to
count how many times a digital signal rises or falls, refer to Chapter 27,
Counting Signal Highs and Lows. To learn how to slow the frequency of a
digital signal, refer to Chapter 28, Dividing Frequencies.
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Part II
Catching the Wave with Analog Input
This section contains basic information about acquiring data with
LabVIEW, including acquiring a single point or multiple points,
triggering your acquisition, and using outside sources to control
acquisition rates.
Part II, Catching the Wave with Analog Input, contains the following
chapters:
•
Chapter 5, Things You Should Know about Analog Input, explains
basic concepts on using analog input with LabVIEW.
•
Chapter 6, One-Stop Single-Point Acquisition, shows you how to
acquire one data point from a single channel and then one data point
from each of several channels using LabVIEW, and explains how
software-timing and/or hardware-timing affects the performance of
analog I/O.
•
Chapter 7, Buffering Your Way through Waveform Acquisition,
reviews the different methods of reading multiple channels and
explains how LabVIEW stores the acquired data with each method.
•
Chapter 8, Controlling Your Acquisition with Triggers, explains how
to set your analog acquisition to occur at a certain time using either
software or hardware triggering methods.
•
Chapter 9, Letting an Outside Source Control Your Acquisition Rate,
shows you how to control your data acquisition rate by some other
external source in your system.
5
Things You Should Know
about Analog Input
Hunting has been a part of survival from the beginning of time. People
used to hunt for the things they needed to survive, like food and water.
Today, engineers and scientists use data acquisition to “hunt down” the
information they need to survive in the information age. This chapter
focuses on defining the tools you need to be a successful hunter in the
world of data acquisition.
Defining Your Signal
You and your friends plan a hunting trip for this weekend. What do you
plan to bring with you? This question is really not valid, because you must
know first what you will be hunting before you pack your fishing pole or
elephant rifle. The same idea applies to scientists and engineers engaged
in the quest for information. You must know the defining characteristics
of what you want to “hunt,” be it a wild animal or an analog signal.
You cannot just say, “I will hunt voltages,” or even “I will hunt analog
voltages.” Voltages come in various forms. This chapter gives you the
terms, tools, and techniques designed to help show you the best way to
catch your wave.
You can break down analog signals into three categories: DC, time domain,
and frequency domain. You must ask yourself, “Is the information I seek
primarily contained in the level, the shape, or the frequency content of my
signal?” Figure 5-1 illustrates which signals correspond to certain types of
signal information.
ADC/DAC
(slow)
DC
Analog Signal
0.985
Level
t
Time Domain
ADC/DAC
(fast)
t
Shape
Frequency Domain
ADC (fast)
Analysis
f Freq. Content
Figure 5-1. Types of Analog Signals
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Chapter 5
Things You Should Know about Analog Input
You might be saying to yourself, “I know that I have a thermocouple and
that the primary information (temperature) is contained in the level of the
analog voltage. Now I am ready to go hunting!” Well, you are almost ready
to hunt, but you first must figure out a few more signal characteristics
before you can begin. For example, to what is your signal referenced? How
fast does the signal vary with time? The rate you sample determines how
often the A/D conversions take place. A fast sampling rate acquires more
points in a given time, and therefore can often form a better representation
of the original signal than a slow sampling rate. According to the Nyquist
Theorem, you must sample at a rate greater than twice the maximum
frequency component in that signal to get accurate frequency information
about that signal. The frequency at one half the sampling frequency is
referred to as the Nyquist frequency. For more information on the Nyquist
frequency, refer to the section Sampling Considerations in Chapter 11,
Introduction to Analysis in LabVIEW of the LabVIEW User Manual.
What Is Your Signal Referenced To?
Signals come in two forms: referenced and non-referenced signal sources.
More often, referenced sources are said to be grounded signals, and
non-referenced sources are called floating signals.
Grounded Signal Sources
Grounded signal sources have voltage signals that are referenced to a
system ground, such as earth or a building ground. Devices that plug into a
building ground through wall outlets, such as signal generators and power
supplies, are the most common examples of grounded signal sources, as
shown in Figure 5-2.
+
_
Vs
Ground
Figure 5-2. Grounded Signal Sources
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Chapter 5
Things You Should Know about Analog Input
Floating Signal Sources
Floating signal sources contain a signal, such as a voltage, that is not
connected to an absolute reference, such as earth or a building ground.
Some common examples of floating signals are batteries, battery-powered
sources, thermocouples, transformers, isolation amplifiers, and any
instrument that explicitly floats its output signal. Notice that in Figure 5-3
neither terminal of the floating source is connected to the electrical outlet
ground.
+
_
Vs
Ground
Figure 5-3. Floating Signal Sources
Now that you know how your signal is referenced, read on to learn about
the different systems available to acquire these signals.
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 5
Things You Should Know about Analog Input
Choosing Your Measurement System
Now that you have defined your signal, you must choose a measurement
system. You have an analog signal, so you must convert the signal with an
ADC measurement system, which converts your signal into information
the computer can understand. Some of the issues you must resolve before
choosing a measurement system are your ADC bit resolution, device range,
and signal range.
Resolution
The number of bits used to represent an analog signal determines the
resolution of the ADC. You can compare the resolution on a DAQ device
to the marks on a ruler. The more marks you have, the more precise your
measurements. Similarly, the higher the resolution, the higher the number
of divisions into which your system can break down the ADC range, and
therefore, the smaller the detectable change. A 3-bit ADC divides the
range into 23 or 8 divisions. A binary or digital code between 000 and 111
represents each division. The ADC translates each measurement of the
analog signal to one of the digital divisions. Figure 5-4 shows a sine wave
digital image as obtained by a 3-bit ADC. Clearly, the digital signal does
not represent the original signal adequately, because the converter has too
few digital divisions to represent the varying voltages of the analog signal.
By increasing the resolution to 16 bits, however, the ADC’s number of
divisions increases from 8 to 65,536 (216). The ADC can now obtain an
extremely accurate representation of the analog signal.
Amplitude (volts)
16 Bit Versus 3 Bit Resolution
(5kHz Sine Wave)
10.00
8.75
7.50
6.25
5.00
3.75
2.50
1.25
0
0
111
16-bit
110
101
100
011
010
3-bit
001
000
50
100
Time (µs)
150
200
Figure 5-4. The Effects of Resolution on ADC Precision
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Chapter 5
Things You Should Know about Analog Input
Device Range
Range refers to the minimum and maximum analog signal levels that the
ADC can digitize. Many DAQ devices feature selectable ranges, so you can
match the ADC range to that of the signal to take best advantage of the
available resolution. For example, in Figure 5-5, the 3-bit ADC, as shown
in the left chart, has eight digital divisions in the range from 0 to 10 volts.
If you select a range of –10.00 to 10.00 volts, as shown in the right chart,
the same ADC now separates a 20 volt range into eight divisions. The
smallest detectable voltage increases from 1.25 to 2.50 volts, and you
now have a much less accurate representation of the signal.
Range = -10V to 10V
111
Amplitude (volts)
Amplitude (volts)
Range = 0V to 10V
10.00
8.75
7.50
6.25
5.00
3.75
2.50
1.25
0
0
110
101
100
011
010
001
000
50
100
150
Time (µs)
200
10.00
7.50
5.00
2.50
0
-2.50
-5.00
-7.50
-10.00
0
111
110
101
100
011
010
001
000
50
100
150
Time (µs)
200
Figure 5-5. The Effects of Range on ADC Precision
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 5
Things You Should Know about Analog Input
Signal Limit Settings
Limit settings are the maximum and minimum values of the signal you are
measuring. A more precise limit setting allows the ADC to use more
digital divisions to represent the signal. Figure 5-6 shows an example of
this theory. Using a 3-bit ADC and a device range setting of 0.00 to
10.00 volts, Figure 5-6 shows the effects of a limit setting between 0 and
5 volts and 0 and 10 volts. With a limit setting of 0 to 10 volts, the ADC
uses only four of the eight divisions in the conversion. But using a limit
setting of 0 to 5 volts, the ADC now has access to all eight digital divisions.
This makes the digital representation of the signal more accurate.
10.00
8.75
111
110
7.5
101
6.25
100
5.00
V
011
3.75
010
2.50
001
1.25
Limit Settings 0 to 10V
000
0.00
10.00
8.75
7.5
6.25
V
5.00
111
110
101
100
011
010
001
000
3.75
2.50
1.25
0.00
Limit Settings 0 to 5V
Limit Settings 0 to 5V
Figure 5-6. The Effects of Limit Settings on ADC Precision
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© National Instruments Corporation
Chapter 5
Things You Should Know about Analog Input
Considerations for Selecting Analog Input Settings
The resolution and device range of a DAQ device determine the smallest
detectable change in the input signal. You can calculate the smallest
detectable change, called the code width, using the following formula.
device range
codewidth = --------------------------------resolution
2
For example, a 12-bit DAQ device with a 0 to 10 V input range detects a
2.4 mV change, while the same device with a –10 to 10 V input range
detects only a change of 4.8 mV.
10
device range
--------------------------------- = ------ = 2.4 mV
12
resolution
2
2
20
device range
--------------------------------- = ------ = 4.8 mV
12
resolution
2
2
A high resolution A/D converter provides a smaller code width given a
device voltage ranges shown above.
10
device range
--------------------------------- = ------ = .15 mV
16
resolution
2
2
20
device range
--------------------------------- = ------ = .3 mV
16
resolution
2
2
The smaller your code width, the more accurate your measurements
will be.
There are times you must know whether your signals are unipolar or
bipolar. Unipolar signals are signals that range from 0 value to a positive
value (i.e., 0 to 5 V). Bipolar signals are signals that range from a negative
to a positive value (i.e., –5 to 5 V). To achieve a smaller code width if
your signal is unipolar, specify that the device range is unipolar, as shown
previously. If your signal range is smaller than the device range, you should
set your limit settings to values that more accurately reflect your signal
range. Table 5-1 shows how the code width of the 12-bit DAQ devices vary
with device ranges and limit settings, because your limit settings
automatically adjust the gain on your device.
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Table 5-1. Measurement Precision for Various Device Ranges and Limit Settings
Device Voltage Range
Limit Settings
Precision1
0 to 10V
0 to 10 V
0 to 5 V
0 to 2.5 V
0 to 1.25 V
0 to 1 V
0 to 0.1 V
0mV to 20 mV
2.44mV
1.22 mV
610 µV
305 µV
244 µV
24.4 µV
4.88 µV
–5 to 5V
–5 to 5V
–2.5 to 2.5 V
–1.25 to 1.25 V
–0.625 to 0.625 V
–0.5 to 0.5 V
–50mV to 50 mV
–10mV to 10 mV
2.44 mV
1.22 mV
610 µV
305 µV
244 µV
24.4 µV
4.88 µV
–10 to 10V
–10 to 10 V
–5 to 5 V
–2.5 to 2.5 V
–1.25 to 1.25 V
–1 to 1 V
–0.1 to 0.1 V
–20mV to 20 mV
4.88 mV
2.44 mV
1.22 mV
610 µV
488 µV
48.8 µV
9.76 µV
1The value of 1 LSB of the 12-bit ADC. In other words, the voltage increment corresponding
to a change of 1 count in the ADC 12-bit count.
For more information on the device range and limit settings for your device,
refer to the tables in Appendix B, Hardware Capabilities, in the LabVIEW
Function and VI Reference Manual, or to the LabVIEW Online Reference,
available by selecting Help»Online Reference…. In these tables, there is
information on gain settings for each device. For more information on gain,
refer to the Limit Settings section of Chapter 3, Basic LabVIEW Data
Acquisition Concepts.
Now that you know which kind of ADC to use and what settings to use
for your signal, you can connect your signals to be measured. On most
DAQ devices, there are three different ways to configure your device to
read the signals: Differential, Referenced Single-Ended (RSE), and
Non-Referenced Single-Ended (NRSE).
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Differential Measurement System
In a differential measurement system, you do not need to connect either
input to a fixed reference, such as earth or a building ground. DAQ devices
with instrumentation amplifiers can be configured as differential
measurement systems. Figure 5-7 depicts the 8-channel differential
measurement system used in the MIO series devices. Analog multiplexers
increase the number of measurement channels while still using a single
instrumentation amplifier. For this device, the pin labeled AIGND
(the analog input ground) is the measurement system ground.
MUX
CH0+
CH2+
CH1+
Instrumentation Amplifier
CH7+
+
+
MUX
–
CH0–
Vm
CH2–
CH1–
–
CH7–
AIGND
Figure 5-7. 8-Channel Differential Measurement System
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In general, a differential measurement system is preferable because it
rejects not only ground loop-induced errors, but also the noise picked up in
the environment to a certain degree. Use differential measurement systems
when all input signals meet the following criteria:
•
Low-level signals (i.e., less than 1 V)
•
Long or non-shielded cabling/wiring traveling through a noisy
environment
•
Any of the input signals require a separate ground-reference point or
return signal
An ideal differential measurement system reads only the potential
difference between its two terminals—the (+) and (–) inputs. Any
voltage present at the instrumentation amplifier inputs with respect to the
amplifier ground is called a common-mode voltage. An ideal differential
measurement system completely rejects (does not measure) common-mode
voltage, as shown in Figure 5-8.
Instrumentation Amplifier
Grounded Signal Source
Common Mode Voltage,
Ground Potential, Noise, etc.
+
+
Vs
–
–
+
Measured Voltage
–
+
–
Vcm
Figure 5-8. Common-Mode Voltage
While a differential measurement system is often the best choice, a
single-ended configuration uses twice as many measurement channels.
A single-ended measurement system is acceptable when the magnitude of
the induced errors is smaller than the required accuracy of the data.
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Referenced Single-Ended Measurement System
A referenced single-ended (RSE) measurement system, is used to measure
a floating signal, because it grounds the signal with respect to building
ground. Figure 5-9 depicts a 16-channel RSE measurement system. You
only should use this measurement system when you need a single-end
system and your device does not work with nonreferenced single-ended
measurement.
MUX
CH0
CH2
Instrumentation Amplifier
CH1
+
+
–
CH15
Vm
–
AIGND
Figure 5-9. 16-Channel RSE Measurement System
Nonreferenced Single-Ended Measurement System
DAQ devices often use a variant of the RSE measurement technique,
known as the nonreferenced single-ended (NRSE) measurement system. In
an NRSE measurement system, all measurements are made with respect to
a common reference, because all of the input signals are already grounded.
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Figure 5-10 depicts an NRSE measurement system where AISENSE is the
common reference for taking measurements and AIGND is the system
ground. All signals must share a common reference at AISENSE.
MUX
CH0+
CH1+
Instrumentation Amplifier
CH2+
+
+
–
CH15+
Vm
–
AISENSE
AIGND
Figure 5-10. 16-Channel NRSE Measurement System
In general, a differential measurement system is preferable because it
rejects not only ground loop-induced errors, but also the noise picked up in
the environment to a certain degree. On the other hand, the single-ended
configuration allows for twice as many measurement channels and is
acceptable when the magnitude of the induced errors is smaller than the
required accuracy of the data. You can use single-ended measurement
systems when all input signals meet the following criteria:
•
High Level Signals (normally, greater than 1 V)
•
Short or Properly-Shielded Cabling/Wiring Traveling through a
Noise-Free Environment (normally, less than 15 ft.)
•
All Signals Can Share a Common Reference Signal at the Source
Use differential connections when your system violates any of the above
criteria.
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Channel Addressing with the AMUX-64T
An AMUX-64T external multiplexer device expands the number of
analog input signals a plug-in DAQ device can measure. You can address
AMUX-64T channels when you attach one, two, or four AMUX-64T
devices to a plug-in DAQ device. With this device, you can multiplex four,
eight, or 16 AMUX-64T channels into one device channel. The scanning
order of these AMUX-64T channels is fixed. To specify a range of
AMUX-64T channels, enter the device channel into which the range is
multiplexed in the channel list. For example, if you have no AMUX-64T
devices, a channel list element of 0 specifies device channel 0. If you have
a AMUX-64T device, a channel list element of 0 specifies channels 0
through 3 on each AMUX-64T device. Table 5-2 shows the number of
channels available on a DAQ device with an external multiplexer.
Table 5-2. Analog Input Channel Range
Number of
AMUX-64Ts
Channel Range
(Single-Ended)
Channel Range
(Differential)
0
0 through 15
0 through 7
1
AM1!0 through AM1!63
AM1!0 through AM1!31
2
AM1!0 through AM1!63,
AM2!0 through AM2!63
AM1!0 through
AM1!31,
AM2!0 through AM2!31
4
AM1!0 through AM1!63,
AM2!0 through AM2!63,
AM3!0 through AM3!63,
AM4!0 through AM4!63
AM1!0 through
AM1!31,
AM2!0 through
AM2!31,
AM3!0 through
AM3!31,
AM4!0 through AM4!31
You specify the number of AMUX devices through the configuration utility
or the AI Hardware Config VI. Refer to the LabVIEW Function and VI
Reference Manual or the LabVIEW Online Reference, available by
selecting Help»Online Reference…, for more information on this VI.
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The AMUX-64T Scanning Order
This section explains how LabVIEW scans channels from the AMUX-64T.
You must know this scanning order so that you can determine which analog
input channel LabVIEW scanned during a data acquisition operation.
The scanning counters on the AMUX-64T and on the DAQ device
perform automatic scanning of the AMUX-64T analog input channels.
When you perform a multiple-channel scanned data acquisition with an
AMUX-64T, a counter on the DAQ device switches the DAQ device
multiplexers.
When you connect a single AMUX-64T device to the DAQ device, you
must scan four AMUX-64T input channels for every DAQ device channel.
If you attach two AMUX-64T devices to the DAQ device, LabVIEW
scans eight AMUX-64T channels for every DAQ device input channel.
For example, assume that channels 0 through 3 on AMUX-64T device 1
and channels 0 through 3 on AMUX-64T device 2 are multiplexed together
into DAQ device channel 0. In this case, LabVIEW scans the first four
channels on AMUX-64T device 1, followed by the first four channels on
AMUX-64T device 2.
If you attach four AMUX-64T devices to the DAQ device, LabVIEW
scans 16 AMUX-64T channels for every DAQ device input channel.
For example, channels 0 through 3 on AMUX-64T device 1, 2, 3, and 4 are
multiplexed together into DAQ device channel 0. In this case, LabVIEW
scans the first four channels on device 1, followed by the first four channels
on device 2, the first four channels on device 3, and then the first four
channels on device 4.
The order in which LabVIEW scans channels depends on the channel list
you specify in the AI Group Config VI. You specify this channel list as
an array of DAQ device channel numbers indicating the order in which
LabVIEW scans the DAQ device channels. When scanning multiple
channels, list only the device channels—not the AMUX-64T channels.
(You only use the AMy!x syntax in your channel list when you sample
a single AMUX-64T channel.) LabVIEW then scans four, eight, or
16 channels for every device channel for one, two, or four AMUX-64T
devices, respectively. However, the AMUX-64T has a fixed scanning order.
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Table 5-3 shows the order in which LabVIEW scans the AMUX-64T
channels for every DAQ device input channel when you use one or two
AMUX-64T devices. Table 5-3 shows the order in which LabVIEW scans
the AMUX-64T channels for every DAQ device input channel when you
use four AMUX-64T devices.
If you want to scan more than one AMUX-64T channel, you must enter the
device channels in your scan list.
Table 5-3. Scanning Order for Each DAQ Device Input Channel
with One or Two AMUX-64Ts
AMUX-64T Channels
DAQ
Device
Channel
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
© National Instruments Corporation
One Device
Two Devices
Device 1
Device 1
Device 2
0, 1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6, 7
8, 9, 10, 11
12, 13, 14, 15
16, 17, 18, 19
20, 21, 22, 23
24, 25, 26, 27
28, 29, 30, 31
32, 33, 34, 35
36, 37, 38, 39
40, 41, 42, 43
44, 45, 46, 47
48, 49, 50, 51
52, 53, 54, 55
56, 57, 58, 59
60, 61, 62, 63
0, 1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6, 7
8, 9, 10, 11
12, 13, 14, 15
16, 17, 18, 19
20, 21, 22, 23
24, 25, 26, 27
28, 29, 30, 31
32, 33, 34, 35
36, 37, 38, 39
40, 41, 42, 43
44, 45, 46, 47
48, 49, 50, 51
52, 53, 54, 55
56, 57, 58, 59
60, 61, 62, 63
0, 1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6, 7
8, 9, 10, 11
12, 13, 14, 15
16, 17, 18, 19
20, 21, 22, 23
24, 25, 26, 27
28, 29, 30, 31
32, 33, 34, 35
36, 37, 38, 39
40, 41, 42, 43
44, 45, 46, 47
48, 49, 50, 51
52, 53, 54, 55
56, 57, 58, 59
60, 61, 62, 63
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Table 5-4. Scanning Order for Each DAQ Device Input Channel with Four AMUX-64Ts
DAQ
Device
Channel
AMUX-64T Channels
Device 1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
0, 1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6, 7
8, 9, 10, 11
12, 13, 14, 15
16, 17, 18, 19
20, 21, 22, 23
24, 25, 26, 27
28, 29, 30, 31
32, 33, 34, 35
36, 37, 38, 39
40, 41, 42, 43
44, 45, 46, 47
48, 49, 50, 51
52, 53, 54, 55
56, 57, 58, 59
60, 61, 62, 63
Device 2
0, 1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6, 7
8, 9, 10, 11
12, 13, 14, 15
16, 17, 18, 19
20, 21, 22, 23
24, 25, 26, 27
28, 29, 30, 31
32, 33, 34, 35
36, 37, 38, 39
40, 41, 42, 43
44, 45, 46, 47
48, 49, 50, 51
52, 53, 54, 55
56, 57, 58, 59
60, 61, 62, 63
Device 3
0, 1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6, 7
8, 9, 10, 11
12, 13, 14, 15
16, 17, 18, 19
20, 21, 22, 23
24, 25, 26, 27
28, 29, 30, 31
32, 33, 34, 35
36, 37, 38, 39
40, 41, 42, 43
44, 45, 46, 47
48, 49, 50, 51
52, 53, 54, 55
56, 57, 58, 59
60, 61, 62, 63
Device 4
0, 1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6, 7
8, 9, 10, 11
12, 13, 14, 15
16, 17, 18, 19
20, 21, 22, 23
24, 25, 26, 27
28, 29, 30, 31
32, 33, 34, 35
36, 37, 38, 39
40, 41, 42, 43
44, 45, 46, 47
48, 49, 50, 51
52, 53, 54, 55
56, 57, 58, 59
60, 61, 62, 63
To determine which AMUX-64T channels LabVIEW scans and the
scanning order, perform the following steps.
1.
Locate the channel for each DAQ device channel in your channel list
in the DAQ Device Channel column in Table 5-3 or 5-4. Start with the
first device channel and continue through the list in your specified
channel order.
2.
Read from left to right along the table row where you located the
channel number to find the AMUX-64T scanning order.
To read a single AMUX-64T channel, use channel specifier AMy!x. This
specifier returns data from channel x of the AMUX-64T with ID y. To read
more than one AMUX-64T channel, use channel specifier OBx:y. This
specifier returns data from the AMUX-64T channels that correspond to
device channel x through device channel y.
When the channel list contains a single AMUX-64T channel, you must
also specify the number of the AMUX-64T device, as shown in the
following table.
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Things You Should Know about Analog Input
Channel Specified
AMy!x
Channel x on AMUX-64T device y.
AM4!8
Channel 8 on AMUX-64T device 4.
You refer to AMUX-64T channels only when a single AMUX-64T channel
comprises the entire list. Otherwise, you refer to them indirectly through
the device channels that you use to scan the AMUX-64T channels. Refer to
Appendix B, Hardware Capabilities, of the LabVIEW Function and VI
Reference Manual, or the LabVIEW Online Reference, available by
selecting Help»Online Reference…, for more information on addressing
AMUX-64T channels.
Refer to the AMUX-64T User Manual for more information on the external
multiplexer device.
Important Terms You Should Know
The following are some definitions of common terms and parameters that
you should remember when acquiring your data.
•
A scan is one acquisition or reading from each channel in your channel
string.
•
Number of scans to acquire refers to the number of data acquisitions
or readings to acquire from each channel in the channel string.
Number of samples is the number of data points you want to sample
from each channel.
•
The scan rate determines how many times per second LabVIEW
acquires data from channels. scan rate enables interval scanning
(a longer interval between scans than between individual channels
comprising a scan) on devices that support this feature. channel clock
rate defines the time between the acquisition of consecutive channels
in your channel string. For more information on scan and channel
clock rates, refer to Chapter 9, Letting an Outside Source Control Your
Acquisition Rate.
For specific information about the Analog Input VIs, refer to Chapter 14,
Introduction to the LabVIEW Data Acquisition VIs, in the LabVIEW
Function and VI Reference Manual, or to the LabVIEW Online Reference,
available by selecting Help»Online Reference….
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6
One-Stop Single-Point
Acquisition
This chapter shows you how to acquire one data point from a single channel
and then one data point from each of several channels using LabVIEW.
Single-Channel, Single-Point Analog Input
A single-channel, single-point analog input is an immediate, non-buffered
operation. In other words, the software reads one value from an input
channel and immediately returns the value to you. This operation does
not require any buffering or timing. You should use single-channel,
single-point analog input when you need one data point from one channel.
An example of this would be if you periodically needed to monitor the fluid
level in a tank. You can connect the transducer that produces a voltage
representing the fluid level to a single channel on your DAQ device and
initiate a single-channel, single-point acquisition whenever you want to
know the fluid level.
For most basic operations, use the AI Sample Channel VI, located in
the Functions»DAQ»Analog Input palette. The Easy Analog Input VI,
AI Sample Channel, measures the signal attached to the channel you
specify on your DAQ device and returns the scaled value. Figure 6-1 shows
how to wire this VI.
Figure 6-1. AI Sample Channel VI
Note
If you set up your channel in the DAQ Channel Wizard, you do not need to enter
the device or input limits. Instead, enter a channel name in the channel input, and
the value returned is relative to the physical units you specified for that channel in
the DAQ Channel Wizard. If you specify the input limits, they are treated as being
relative to the physical units of the channel. LabVIEW ignores the device input
when channel names are used. This principal applies throughout this manual.
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Figure 6-2 shows how you program the Acquire 1 Point from 1 Channel
VI, located in labview\examples\daq\anlogin\anlogin.llb,
using the AI Sample Channel VI to acquire data.
Figure 6-2. Acquiring Data Using the Acquire 1 Point from 1 Channel VI
The Acquire 1 Point from 1 Channel VI initiates an A/D conversion on the
DAQ device and returns the scaled value as an output. The high limit is the
highest expected level of the signals you want to measure. The low limit is
the lowest expected level of the signals you want to measure. If you want
to acquire multiple point from a single channel, see Chapter 7, Buffering
Your Way through Waveform Acquisition.
Single-channel acquisition makes acquiring one channel very basic, but
what if you need to take more than one channel sample? For instance,
you might need to monitor the temperature of the fluid as well as the fluid
level of the tank. In this case, two transducers must be monitored. You can
monitor both transducers using a multiple-channel, single-point acquisition
in LabVIEW.
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Multiple-Channel Single-Point Analog Input
With a multiple-channel, single-point read (or scan), LabVIEW returns the
value on several channels at once. Use this type of operation when you have
multiple transducers to monitor and you want to retrieve data from each
transducer at the same time. Your DAQ device executes a scan across each
of the specified channels and returns the values when finished. Refer to
Appendix B, Hardware Capabilities, in the LabVIEW Function and VI
Reference Manual, for the number of channels your device can scan at one
time. You also can refer to the LabVIEW Online Reference, available by
selecting Help»Online Reference….
The Easy I/O VI, AI Sample Channels, acquires single values from
multiple channels. The AI Sample Channels VI performs a single A/D
conversion on the specified channels and returns the scaled values in a
1-dimensional (1D) array. The expected range for all the signals, specified
by high limit and low limit inputs, applies to all the channels. Figure 6-3
shows how to acquire a signal from multiple channels with this VI.
Note
Remember to use commas to delimit individual channels in the channel string,
or use a colon to indicate an inclusive list of channels.
Figure 6-3. Acquiring a Voltage from Multiple Channels with the AI Sample Channels VI
You can benefit from using the Easy Analog Input VIs because you only
need one icon in your diagram to perform the task, there are only a few
basic inputs to the VIs, and the VIs have built-in error checking; however,
the lack of programming flexibility with these VIs can be a limitation.
Because Easy VIs have only a few inputs, you cannot implement some of
the more detailed features of DAQ devices, such as triggering or interval
scanning. In addition, these VIs always reconfigure at start-up. When you
need a hi-speed or efficiently-run program, these configurations can slow
down processing time. When you need speed and more efficiency, use
the Intermediate VIs, which configure an acquisition only once and then
continually acquire data without ever re-configuring. The Intermediate VIs
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also offer more error handling control, more hardware functionality, and
efficiency in developing your application than the Easy VIs. You typically
use the Intermediate VIs to perform buffered acquisitions. You can read
more about buffered acquisitions in Chapter 7, Buffering Your Way
through Waveform Acquisition. The Intermediate Analog Input VI, AI
Single Scan VI, does multiple-channel, single-point acquisitions, as shown
in Figure 6-4.
Figure 6-4. The AI Single Scan VI Help Diagram
The AI Single Scan VI returns one scan of data. You can also use this VI
to read only one point if you specify one channel. Use this VI only in
conjunction with the AI Config VI.
Figure 6-5 shows a simplified block diagram for non-buffered applications.
LabVIEW calls the AI Config VI, which configures the channels, selects
the input limits (the high limit and low limit inputs in the Easy VIs), and
generates a taskID. The program passes the taskID and the error cluster to
the AI Single Scan VI, which returns the data in an array (one point for each
channel specified).
Figure 6-5. Using the Intermediate VIs for a Basic Non-Buffered Application
Figure 6-6 shows how you can program the AI Config and AI Single
Scan VIs to perform a series of single scans by using software timing
(a While Loop) and processing each scan. This example shows the
Cont Acquire&Chart (immediate) VI, which you can find in
labview\examples\daq\anlogin\anlogin.llb.
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The advantage to using the intermediate-level VIs is that you do not have
to configure the channels every time you want to acquire data as you do
when using the Easy VIs. To call the AI Config VI only once, put it outside
of the While Loop in your program. The AI Config VI configures channels,
selects a high/low limit, and generates a taskID. Then, the AI Config VI
passes the taskID and error cluster into the While Loop, where LabVIEW
calls the AI Single Scan VI to retrieve a scan. The program then passes the
returned data to the My Single-Scan Processing VI. With this VI, you can
program whatever processing needs your application calls for, such as
looking for a limit to be exceeded. The VI then passes the data through
the build array function to a waveform chart for display on the front panel.
The Wait Until Next ms Multiple (metronome) function controls the
loop timing. You enter a scan rate, the application converts the value into
milliseconds and passes the converted value to the Wait Until Next ms
Multiple function. The loop then executes at the rate of scanning. The loop
ends when you press the stop button or an when error occurs. Once the loop
finishes, the Simple Error Handler VI displays any errors that occurred on
the screen.
Figure 6-6. The Cont Acq&Chart (Immediate) VI Block Diagram
The previous examples use software-timed acquisition. With this type of
acquisition, the CPU system clock controls the rate at which you acquire
data. Your system clock can be interrupted by user interaction, so if you do
not need a precise acquisition rate, use software-timed analog input.
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Using Analog Input/Output Control Loops
When you want to output analog data after receiving some analog input
data, use analog input/output (I/O) control loops. With control loops, this
process is repeated over and over again.
The single-point analog input and output VIs support several analog
I/O control loops at once because you can acquire analog inputs from
several different channels in one scan, and write all the analog output
values with one update. You perform a single analog input call, process the
analog output values for each channel and then perform a single analog
output call to update all the output channels.
The following sections describe the two different types of analog I/O
control loop techniques: software-timed and hardware-timed analog I/O.
Using Software-Timed Analog I/O Control Loops
With software-timed analog control loops the analog acquisition rate and
subsequent control loop rate are controlled by a software timer such as the
Wait Until Next Millisecond multiple timer. The acquisition is performed
during each loop iteration when the AI Single Scan VI is called and the
control loop is executed once for each time interval. Your loop timing can
be interrupted by any user interaction, which means your acquisition rate is
not as consistent as that which can be achieved through hardware-timed
control loops. Generally, if you do not need a precise acquisition rate for
your control loop, software timing is appropriate.
Besides user interaction, a large number or large-sized front panel
indicators, like charts and graphs, affect control loop rates. Refreshing the
monitor screen interrupts the system clock, which controls loop rates.
Therefore, you should keep the number of charts and graphs to a minimum
when you are using software-timed control loops.
An example of software-timed control loops is the Analog IO Control Loop
(immed) VI located in labview\examples\daq\anlog_io\
anlog_io.llb.
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The following diagram shows how to perform software-timed analog I/O
using the AI Read One Scan and AO Write One Update VIs.
Figure 6-7. Software-Timed Analog I/O
The AI Read One Scan VI configures your DAQ device to acquire data
from analog input channels 0 and 1. Once your program acquires a data
point from channels 0 and 1, it performs calculations on the data and
outputs the results through analog output channels 0 and 1. Because the
iteration count is connected to the AI Read One Scan and AO Write One
Update VIs, the application configures the DAQ device for analog input
and output only on the first iteration of the loop. The loop rate as well as
the acquisition rate is specified by loop rate. The reason why the actual
loop period is important is because user interaction affects the loop and
acquisition rate. For example, pressing the mouse button interrupts the
system clock, which controls the loop rate. If your analog acquisition rate
for control loops does not need to be consistent, then use software-timed
control loops.
For more control examples, refer to the VIs located in
examples\daq\solution\control.llb.
Using Hardware-Timed Analog I/O Control Loops
For a more precise timing of your control loops, and more precise analog
input scan rate, use hardware-timed control loops.
An example of hardware-timed, non-buffered control loops is the Analog
IO Control Loop (hw timed) VI located in labview\examples\daq\
anlog_io\anlog_io.llb.
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With hardware-timed control loops, your acquisition is not interrupted by
user interaction. Hardware-timed analog input automatically places the
data in your DAQ device FIFO buffer at an interval determined by the
analog input scan rate. You can synchronize your control loop diagram to
this precise analog input scan rate by repeatedly calling the AI Single Scan
VI to read the oldest data in the FIFO.
The AI Single Scan VI returns as soon as the next scan has been acquired
by the DAQ Device. If more than one scan is stored in the DAQ device
FIFO when the AI Single Scan VI is called, then the LabVIEW diagram
was not able to keep up with the acquisition rate. You can detect this by
monitoring the data remaining output of the AI Single Scan VI. In other
words, you have missed at least one control loop interval. This indicates
that your software overhead is preventing you from keeping up with your
hardware-timed loop rate. In Figure 6-8, the loop too slow Boolean
indicator is set to TRUE whenever this occurs.
Figure 6-8. Analog IO Control Loop (HW-Timed) VI Block Diagram
In this diagram, the AI Config VI configures the device to acquire data on
channels 0 and 1. The application does not use a buffer created in CPU
memory, but instead uses the DAQ device FIFO. input limits (also known
as limit settings) affects the expected range of the input signals. For more
information on input limits (limit settings), refer to Chapter 3, Basic
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Concepts. The AI Start VI begins the analog
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acquisition at the loop rate (scan rate) parameter. On the first iteration of
the loop, the AI Single Scan VI reads the newest data in the FIFO. Some
data may have been acquired between the execution of the AI Start and the
AI Single Scan VIs. On the first iteration of the loop, the application reads
the latest data acquired between the AI Start and the AI Single Scan VIs.
On every subsequent iteration of the loop, the application reads the oldest
data in the FIFO, which is the next acquired point in the FIFO.
If more than one value was stored in the DAQ device FIFO when you read
it, your application was not able to keep up with the control loop acquisition
and you have not responded with one control loop interval. This eventually
leads to an error condition, which makes the loops complete. After the
application completes analog acquisition and generation, then the AI Clear
VI clears the analog input task.
Figure 6-8 also includes a waveform chart in the control loop. This reduces
your maximum loop rate. You can speed up the maximum rate of the
control loop by removing this graph indicator.
You easily can add other processing to your analog I/O control loop by
putting the analog input, control loop calculations and analog output in
the first frame of a sequence inside the loop, and additional processing in
subsequent frames of the sequence. Keep in mind that this additional
processing must be less than your control loop interval. Otherwise, you will
not be able to keep up with your control loop rate.
Improving Control Loop Performance
There are some performance issues you should take into account if you plan
to have other VIs or loops execute in parallel with your hardware-timed
control loop. When you call the AI Single Scan VI in a hardware-timed
control loop, the VI waits until the next scan is acquired before returning,
which means that the CPU is waiting inside the NI-DAQ driver until the
scan is acquired. Consequently, if you try to run other LabVIEW VIs or
while loops in the same diagram in parallel with your hardware-timed
control loop, they may run more slowly or intermittently. You can reduce
this problem by putting a software delay (with the Wait (ms) VI) at the end
of your loop after you write your analog output values. Your other
LabVIEW VIs and loops can then execute during this time.
Another good technique is to poll for your analog input without waiting
in the driver. You can set the AI Single Scan VI time limit in sec to
zero. Then, the VI reads the DAQ Device FIFO and returns immediately,
regardless of whether the next scan was acquired. The AI Single Scan VI
scaled data output array is empty if the scan was not yet acquired. Poll for
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your analog input by using a Wait (ms) or Wait Until Next ms Multiple
function together with the AI Single Scan VI in a while loop within your
control loop diagram. Set the wait time smaller than your control loop
interval (at least half as small). If the scaled data output array is not empty,
exit the polling loop passing out the scaled data array and execute the rest
of your control loop diagram. This method does not return data as soon as
the scan has been acquired, as in the example described previously, but
provides ample time for other VIs and loops to execute. This method is a
good technique for balancing the CPU load between several loops and VIs
running in parallel.
In the previously described techniques, if you are using software delays for
control loop speeds greater than 1 Hz turn the Use Default Timer option
off in the Performance dialog box in your LabVIEW Preferences. Turning
this off gives you approximately 1 ms software timer resolution, instead of
the default 55 ms timer resolution.
For more control examples, refer to the VIs located in
examples\daq\solution\control.llb.
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Waveform Acquisition
7
If you want to take more than one reading on one or more channels, there
are two techniques you can use depending on what you want to do with the
data after you acquire it. This chapter reviews these different methods and
explains how LabVIEW stores the acquired data with each method. You
will discover which method you should use by answering the following
questions.
•
Do you want to analyze your data as it is being acquired or after it has
been acquired?
•
Do you want to acquire a predetermined or indefinite number of data
points?
If you want to analyze your data as it is being measured and the number of
data points does not matter, read the Do You Need To Access Your Data
during Acquisition? section in this chapter. If you acquire a predetermined
number of data points and you want to analyze the data after it has been
acquired, refer to the Can You Wait for Your Data? section in this chapter.
Also, throughout the chapter there are some basic examples of some
common data acquisition (DAQ) applications that use these two methods.
Can You Wait for Your Data?
One way to acquire multiple data points for one or more channels is to use
the non-buffered methods described in the previous chapter in a repetitive
manner. For example, you could compare this method to a trip to the
grocery store. You need to get 20 items from the store, but because you
can’t carry all 20 items at once, you decide you must make 20 separate trips
to the store. Grocery shopping in this manner would be very inefficient and
time consuming. The same applies for when you are acquiring a single data
point from one or more channels over and over. Also, with this method of
acquisition, you do not have accurate control over the time between each
sample or channel. Going back to the example of grocery shopping, it
would be much more efficient to use a shopping bag to hold all 20 food
items at once, so that you only have to make one trip. In the same sense,
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you can use a data buffer in computer memory as your shopping bag with
which you acquire data.
With buffered I/O, LabVIEW transfers data taken at timed intervals from
a DAQ device to a data buffer in memory. Figure 7-1 illustrates how the
data fills up the buffer only once, however the overall size of the buffer is
specified in your VI. In this illustration, think of N as the number of scans
or updates the buffer can hold, and T as the trigger occurrence whether
the trigger is because of an external signal or the start of the execution of
your VI. Refer to Chapter 8, Controlling Your Acquisition with Triggers,
for more descriptions on triggering your acquisition from another signal.
T
writing and reading
N
Figure 7-1. How Buffers Work
In your VI, you must specify the number of samples to be taken and the
number of channels from which LabVIEW will take the samples. From this
information, LabVIEW allocates a buffer in memory to hold a number of
data points equal to the number of samples per channel multiplied by the
number of channels. As the data acquisition continues, the buffer fills with
the data; however, the data may not actually be accessible until LabVIEW
acquires all the samples (N). Once the data acquisition is complete, the data
that is in the buffer can be analyzed, stored to disk, or displayed to the
screen by your VI.
Acquiring a Single Waveform
You can acquire a waveform from a single channel by using the
AI Acquire Waveform VI, shown in Figure 7-2. You can find this VI in
Functions»DAQ»Analog Input. Because AI Acquire Waveform is an
Easy Analog Input VI, it has the minimal number of inputs needed to
acquire a waveform from a single channel. These minimal inputs are the
device, channel string, number of samples from the channel, and the
sample rate. You can programmatically set the gain by setting the
high limit and the low limit. Using only the minimal set of inputs makes
programming the VI easier, but the VI lacks more advanced capabilities,
such as triggering. Built-in error handling is another useful feature of the
Easy VIs. If an error occurs, the program stops running and notifies you
with a dialog box explaining the error.
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Note
Buffering Your Way through Waveform Acquisition
If you set up your channel in the DAQ Channel Wizard, you do not need to enter
the device or input limits. Instead, enter a channel name in the channel input, and
the value returned is relative to the physical units you specify for that channel in
the DAQ Channel Wizard. If input limits are specified, they also are treated as
relative to the physical units of the channel. LabVIEW ignores the device input
when channel names are used. This principal applies throughout this manual.
Figure 7-2. The AI Acquire Waveform VI
Acquiring Multiple Waveforms
You can acquire more than one waveform at a time with another of the Easy
Analog Input VIs, AI Acquire Waveforms, shown in Figure 7-3. This VI
also has a minimal set of inputs, but it allows inputs of more than one
channel to read and returns data from all channels read.
Figure 7-3. The AI Acquire Waveforms VI
The channel input for this VI is a string where you can enter a list of
channels. Refer to Chapter 3, Basic LabVIEW Data Acquisition Concepts,
for more information on channel specification in LabVIEW. LabVIEW
outputs a two-dimensional (2D) array in the waveforms output for this VI,
where each channel has a different column and the samples are in each
row. See Chapter 3, Basic LabVIEW Data Acquisition Concepts, for more
information on how data is organized for analog applications. You can
set the high limit and low limit inputs for all the channels to the same
value. For more information on gain specifications, refer to Chapter 3,
Basic LabVIEW Data Acquisition Concepts. Like the other Easy VIs,
you cannot use any advanced programming features with the AI Acquire
Waveforms VI. The built-in error checking of this VI alerts you to any
errors that occur in the program.
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You also can acquire multiple waveforms using the Intermediate VIs.
The Intermediate VIs provide more control over your data acquisition
processes, like being able to read any part of the buffer. An example similar
to Figure 7-4 is the Acquire N Scans VI, located in labview\examples\
daq\anlogin\anlogin.llb. With these Intermediate Analog Input VIs,
you must wire a taskID to identify the DAQ operation and the set of
channels used in the acquisition and to make sure the VIs execute in the
correct order.
Figure 7-4. Using the Intermediate VIs to Acquire Multiple Waveforms
With these VIs, not only can you configure triggering, coupling,
acquisition timing, retrieval, and additional hardware, but you also can
control when each step of the data acquisition process occurs. With
the AI Config VI, you can configure the different parameters of the
acquisition, such as the channels to be read and the size of the buffer to use.
In the AI Start VI, you specify parameters used in your program to start the
acquisition, such as number of scans to acquire, the rate at which your VI
takes the data, and the trigger settings. In the AI Read VI, you specify
parameters to retrieve the data from the data acquisition buffer. Then,
your application calls the AI Clear VI to deallocate all buffers and other
resources used for the acquisition by invalidating the taskID. If an error
occurs in any of these VIs, your program passes the error through the
remaining VIs to the Simple Error Handler VI, which notifies you of
the error.
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For many DAQ devices, the same ADC samples many channels instead of
only one. The maximum sampling rate per channel is
maximum sampling rate
----------------------------------------------------------------number of channels
The scan rate input in all the VIs described above is the same as the
sampling rate per channel. To figure out your maximum scan rate, you
must divide the maximum sampling rate by the number of channels.
In Appendix B, Hardware Capabilities, in the LabVIEW Function
and VI Reference Manual, maximum sampling rates are listed for each
DAQ device. You also can refer to the LabVIEW Online Reference,
available by selecting Help»Online Reference….
Note
When using the NB-A2100 or the NB-A2150 boards, specifying an odd buffer size
or an odd number of samples when acquiring data with one channel results in
–10089 badTotalCountErr. To avoid this error, specify an even number of
samples and throw away the extra sample.
Simple-Buffered Analog Input Examples
Following are several different examples of simple-buffered analog input.
Simple-Buffered Analog Input with Graphing
Figure 7-5 show how you can use the AI Acquire Waveforms VI to acquire
two waveforms from channels 0 and 1 and then display the waveforms on
separate graphs. This type of VI is useful in comparing two or more
waveforms, or in analyzing how a signal looks before and after going
through a system. In this illustration, 1,000 scans of channels 0 and 1 are
taken at the rate of 5,000 scans per second. The Actual Scan Period output
displays in the actual timebase on the x-axis of the graphs. Remember that
each column of the 2D array contains the information for each channel.
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Figure 7-5. Simple Buffered Analog Input Example
If you want to display the data on the same graph, look again at the Acquire
N Scans example VI, found in labview\examples\daq\anlogin\
anlogin.llb. Figure 7-6 shows a simple buffered input application that
uses graphing.
Figure 7-6. Simple Buffered Analog Input with Graphing
For a 2D array to be displayed on a waveform graph, each row of data must
represent a single plot. This is because waveform graphs are in row-major
order. Because the channel data is in each column, you must transpose the
2D array. Transposing the array can be done easily by popping-up on the
front panel of the graph and choosing Transpose Array.
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Simple-Buffered Analog Input with Multiple Starts
In some cases, you might not want to acquire contiguous data, like in an
oscilloscope application. In this case, you would only want to take a
specified number of samples as a snapshot of what the input looks like
periodically. For an example using the Intermediate VIs, open the Acquire
N-Multi-Start VI found in labview\examples\daq\anlogin\
anlogin.llb. The Acquire N-Multi-Start VI, shown in Figure 7-7, is
similar to the Acquire N Scans example, except the acquisition only occurs
each time the start button on the front panel is pressed.
Figure 7-7. Taking a Specified Number of Samples with the Intermediate VIs
This example is similar to the standard simple buffered analog input VI, but
now both the AI Start and AI Read VIs are in a While Loop, which means
the program takes a number of samples every time the While Loop iterates.
Note
The AI Read VI returns 1,000 samples, taken at 5,000 samples per second, every
time the While Loop iterates; however, the duration of the iterations of the While
Loop can vary greatly. This means that, with this VI, you can control the rate at
which samples are taken, but you may not be able to designate exactly when your
application starts acquiring each set of data. If this start-up timing is important to
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your program, read the Do You Need To Access Your Data during Acquisition?
section in this chapter to see how to control acquisition start-up times.
Simple-Buffered Analog Input with a Write to Spreadsheet File
If you want to write the acquired data to a file, there are many file formats
in which you can store the data. The spreadsheet file format is used most
often because you can read it using most spreadsheet applications for later
data graphing and analysis. In LabVIEW, you can use VIs to send data to a
file in spreadsheet format or read back data from such a file. You can locate
these VIs in Functions»File I/O. The VI used in this example is the
Write to Spreadsheet File VI, shown in Figure 7-8. In this exercise, the
Intermediate analog input VIs acquire an array of data, graph the data using
the actual sample period for the x-axis timebase, and create a spreadsheet
file containing the data.
Figure 7-8. Writing to a Spreadsheet File after Acquisition
Triggered Analog Input
For information on starting your acquisition with triggers, refer to
Chapter 8, Controlling Your Acquisition with Triggers.
Do You Need To Access Your Data during Acquisition?
You can apply the simple buffering techniques in many DAQ applications,
but there are some applications where these techniques are not appropriate.
If you need to acquire more data than your computer’s memory can hold,
or if you want to acquire data over long periods of time, you should not use
these simple-buffered techniques. For these types of applications, you
should set up a circular buffer to store acquired data in memory. In the
previous section, buffered input was compared to shopping for groceries.
You typically use a cart or bag (your buffer) to hold as many groceries
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(your acquired data) as possible, so that you only have to make one trip to
the store. In this case, imagine that you must prepare a meal and you are
unable to go shopping—yet periodically you need things from the store for
your recipe. If you send someone else to the store for you, you can continue
to prepare dinner while someone else retrieves the other items you need.
You can compare this scenario to circular-buffered data acquisition, shown
in Figure 7-9. Using a circular buffer, you can set up your device to
continuously acquire data in the background while LabVIEW retrieves the
acquired data.
Incoming Data
from the Board
to the PC
(AI Start.vi)
End of Data
Current Read Mark
End of Data
Data transferred from PC
buffer to LabVIEW
(AI Read.vi)
Current Read Mark
End of Data
End of Data
Current Read Mark
Figure 7-9. How a Circular Buffer Works
A circular buffer differs from a simple buffer only in how LabVIEW places
the data into it, and retrieves data from it. A circular buffer is filled with
data, just as a simple buffer; however, when it gets to the end of the buffer,
it returns to the beginning and fills up the same buffer again. This means
data can read continuously into computer memory, but only a defined
amount of memory can be used. Your VI must retrieve data in blocks, from
one location in the buffer, while the data enters the circular buffer at a
different location, so that unread data is not overwritten by newer data.
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Because of the buffer maintenance, you can only use the Intermediate or
Advanced VIs with this type of data acquisition.
While a circular buffer works well in many applications, there are two
possible problems that can occur with this type of acquisition: your VI
could try to retrieve data from the buffer faster than data is placed into it,
or your VI might not retrieve data from the buffer fast enough before
LabVIEW overwrites the data into the buffer. When your VI tries to read
data from the buffer that has not yet been collected, LabVIEW waits for the
data your VI requested to be acquired and then returns the data. If your VI
does not read the data from the circular buffer fast enough, the VI sends
back an error, advising you that the data that you retrieved from the buffer
is overwritten data.
Continuously Acquiring Data from Multiple Channels
You can acquire time-sampled data continuously from one or more
channels with the Intermediate VIs. An example using these VIs is the
Acquire & Process N Scans VI, found in labview\examples\daq\
anlogin\anlogin.llb. This example is shown in Figure 7-10. There
are inputs for setting the channels, size of the circular buffer, scan rate, and
the number of samples to retrieve from the circular buffer each time. This
VI defaults to a input buffer size of 2,000 samples and 1,000 number of
scans to read at a time, which means the VI reads in half of the buffer’s
data while the VI fills the second half of the buffer with new data.
Note
The number of scans to read can be any number less than the input buffer size.
If you do not retrieve data from the circular buffer fast enough, your unread
data will be overwritten by newer data. You can resolve this problem in one
of three ways: by adjusting the input buffer size, scan rate, or the number
of scans to read at a time parameters. If your program overwrites data in
the buffer, then data is coming into the buffer faster than your VI can read
all of the previous buffer data, and LabVIEW returns an error code –10846
overWriteError. You can increase the size of the buffer so that it takes
longer to fill up, which leaves your VI with more time to read data from it.
If you slow down the scan rate, you reduce the speed at which the buffer
fills up, which also leaves more time for your program to retrieve data.
You can also increase the number of scans to read at a time, which will
retrieve more data out of the buffer each time and effectively reduce the
number of times to access the buffer before it becomes full. Check the
output scan backlog to see how many data values remain in the circular
buffer after the read.
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Figure 7-10. Continuously Acquiring Data with the Intermediate VIs
Because this uses Intermediate VIs, you also can control parameters such
as triggering, coupling, and additional hardware.
Asynchronous Continuous Acquisition Using DAQ Occurrences
The main advantage of the last section is that you are free to manipulate
your data between calls to AI Read.vi. One limitation, however,
is that the acquisition is synchronous. This means that once you call
AI Read.vi, you cannot perform any other tasks until AI Read.vi
returns your acquired data. If your DAQ device is still busy collecting data,
you will have to sit idle until it finishes.
If you need the efficiency of not having to wait for AI Read.vi, then
asynchronous acquisition is for you. You can acquire asynchronous
continuous data from multiple channels using the same intermediate
DAQ VIs by adding DAQ Occurrences. Figure 7-11 shows an
example of how to do this. This is the diagram of the Cont Acq&Chart
(Async Occurrence) VI, located in labview\examples\daq\
anlogin\anlogin.llb. Notice that it is very similar to Figure 7-10.
The difference is that here you will use the DAQ Occurrence Config VI
and the Wait on Occurrence function to control the reads. The first
DAQ Occurrence Config VI sets the DAQ Event. In this example the
DAQ Event is to set the occurrence every time a number of
scans is acquired equal to the value of general value A,
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where general value A is the number of scans to read at a time. Inside
the while loop, the Wait on Occurrence function sleeps in the background
until the chosen DAQ Event takes place. Notice that the timed out output
from the Wait on Occurrence function is wired to the selection terminal of
the case structure that encloses the AI Read VI. This means that AI Read
will not be called until the number of scans to read at a time have
been acquired. The result is that the while loop is effectively put to sleep,
because you do not try to read the data until you know it has been acquired.
This frees up processor time to do other tasks while you are waiting for
the DAQ Event. If the DAQ Occurrence times out, the timed out output
value would be TRUE, and AI Read would never be called. When your
acquisition is complete, DAQ Occurrence is called again to clear all
occurrences.
Figure 7-11. Continuous Acq&Chart (Async Occurrence) VI
Circular-Buffered Analog Input Examples
The only differences between the simple-buffered applications and
circular-buffered applications in the block diagram is the number of scans
to acquire input of the AI Start VI is set to 0, and now we must call the
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AI Read VI repeatedly to retrieve your data. These changes can be applied
to many of the examples in the previous section on simple buffered analog
input, however we will review the basic circular-buffered analog input VI
here, and describe some other example VIs that are included with
LabVIEW.
Basic Circular-Buffered Analog Input
Figure 7-12 shows an example VI that brings data from channel 0 at a rate
of 1,000 samples/s into a buffer that can hold 4,000 samples. This type of
example might be handy if you wanted to watch the data from a channel
over a long period of time, but you could not store all the data in memory
at once. The AI Config VI sets up the channel specification and buffer size,
then the AI Start VI initiates the background data acquisition and specifies
the rate. Inside the While Loop, the AI Read VI repeatedly reads blocks of
data from the buffer of a size equal to either 1,000 scans or the size of the
scan backlog—whichever one is larger. The VI does this by using the
Max & Min function to determine the larger of the two values. You do not
have to use the Max & Min function in this way for the application to work,
but the function helps control the size of the scan backlog, which is how
many samples that are left over in the buffer. This VI continuously reads
and displays the data from channel 0 until an error occurs or until you press
the Stop button.
Figure 7-12. Basic Circular-Buffered Analog Input Using the Intermediate VIs
Other Circular-Buffered Analog Input Examples
There are many other circular-buffered analog input VIs that are included
with your LabVIEW application. The following sections briefly explain
some of these VIs. You can find the first two VIs in labview\examples\
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daq\anlogin\anlogin.llb and the rest of the example VIs in
labview\examples\daq\anlogin\strmdsk.llb. For information on
how these examples work and how to modify them, open Windows»Show
VI Information or open the Help window by choosing Help»Show Help.
Cont Acq&Chart (buffered).vi
The Cont Acq&Chart (buffered).vi demonstrates circular-buffered
analog input similarly to the previous example, but this VI includes other
front panel inputs.
Cont Acq&Graph (buffered).vi
The Cont Acq & Graph (buffered).vi is similar to the
Cont Acq&Chart (buffered).vi, except this VI displays data in a
waveform graph.
Cont Acq to File (binary).vi
In the Cont Acq to File (binary).vi, your program acquires data
through circular-buffered analog input and stores it in a specified file as
binary data. This process is more commonly called streaming to disk.
Cont Acq to File (scaled).vi
The Cont Acq to File (scaled).vi is similar to the previous binary
VI, with the exception that this VI writes the acquired data to a file as scaled
voltage readings rather than binary values.
Cont Acq to Spreadsheet File.vi
The Cont Acq to Spreadsheet File.vi continuously reads data that
LabVIEW acquires in the circular buffer, and stores this data to a specified
file in spreadsheet format. You can view the data stored in a spreadsheet
file by this VI in any spreadsheet application.
Simultaneous Buffered Waveform Acquisition
and Waveform Generation
You might discover that along with your analog input acquisition, you also
would like to output analog data. If so, see Chapter 14, Simultaneous
Buffered Waveform Acquisition and Generation.
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Controlling Your Acquisition
with Triggers
8
The single-point and waveform acquisitions described in the previous
sections start at random times relative to the data. But, there are times that
you may need to be able to set your analog acquisition to start at a certain
time. An example of this would be if you wanted to measure the
temperature of an object after applying heat to it. An electrical thermometer
sends a step voltage to your data acquisition (DAQ) device after the heating
process completes. If you have no way to begin measuring data
immediately after your device receives the step voltage, then you must
acquire more points, some before the step voltage and some after it in order
to capture the data you need. As you can see, this solution is an inefficient
use of computer memory and disk space, because you must allocate and use
more than is necessary. Sometimes the data you need may be closer to the
front of the buffer and other times it may be closer to the end of the buffer.
However, there is a way to start an acquisition based on the condition or
state of an analog or digital signal. This technique is commonly called
triggering. Generally, a trigger is any event that causes or starts some form
of data capture. There are two basic types of triggering—hardware and
software triggering. In LabVIEW, you can use software triggering to start
acquisitions or use it with an external device to perform hardware
triggering.
Hardware Triggering
Hardware triggering lets you set the start time of an acquisition and gather
data at a known position in time relative to a trigger signal. External devices
produce hardware trigger signals. In LabVIEW, you specify the triggering
conditions that must be reached before acquisition begins. Once the
conditions are met, the acquisition begins immediately. You can also
analyze the data before trigger.
There are two specific types of hardware triggers: digital and analog. In the
following two sections, you will learn about the necessary conditions to
start an acquisition with a digital or an analog signal.
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Digital Triggering
A digital trigger is usually a transistor-transistor logic (TTL) level signal
having two discrete levels—a high and a low level. When moving from
high to low or low to high, a digital edge is created. There are two types of
edges: rising and falling. You can set your analog acquisition to start as a
result of the rising or falling edge of your digital trigger signal.
In Figure 8-1, the acquisition begins after the falling edge of the
digital trigger signal. Usually digital trigger signals are connected to
STARTTRIG*, EXTTRIG*, DTRIG, or PFI pins on your DAQ device.
If you want to know which pin your device has, check your hardware
manual, or refer to the AI Trigger Config VI description in Chapter 18,
Advanced Analog Input VIs, of the LabVIEW Function and VI Reference
Manual. You also can refer to the LabVIEW Online Reference, available by
selecting Help»Online Reference….The STARTTRIG* and EXTTRIG*
pins, which have and asterisk after their names, regard a falling edge signal
as a trigger. Make sure you account for this when specifying your triggering
conditions.
TTL Signal
Connect to STARTTRIG*, EXTTRIG*,
or DTRIG Pins
Falling Edge of Signal
Data Capture Initiated
Figure 8-1. Diagram of a Digital Trigger
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Figure 8-2 shows a timeline of how digital triggering works for
post-triggered data acquisition. In this example, an external device sends a
trigger, or TTL signal, to your DAQ device. As soon as your DAQ device
receives the signal, and your trigger conditions are met, your device begins
acquiring data.
External
Device
Digital Trigger
Signal
DAQ
Device
DAQ Device waits for digital trigger conditions.
Then …
Analog Data
External
Device
DAQ
Device
Figure 8-2. Digital Triggering with Your DAQ Device
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Digital Triggering Examples
A common example of digital triggering in LabVIEW is the Acquire N
Scans Digital Trig VI, found in labview\examples\daq\anlogin\
anlogin.llb. This VI, as shown Figure 8-3, uses the Intermediate VIs to
perform a buffered acquisition, where LabVIEW stores data in a memory
buffer during acquisition. After the acquisition completes, the VI retrieves
all the data from the memory buffer and displays it. Figure 8-3 shows the
block diagram of this example VI.
Figure 8-3. Block Diagram of the Acquire N Scans Digital Trig VI
For more information on buffered acquisitions, refer to Chapter 7,
Buffering Your Way through Waveform Acquisition.
You must tell your device the conditions on which to start acquiring data.
For this example, the choose trigger type Boolean should be set to START
OR STOP TRIGGER. You should only use the START & STOP TRIGGER
when you have two triggers: start and stop. In addition, if you use a
DAQ device with PFI lines (e.g., E-series 5102 devices), you can specify
the trigger signal condition in the trigger channel control in the analog
chan & level cluster. For more information on valid trigger channel names,
refer to the AI Trigger Config VI description, in Chapter 18, Advanced
Analog Input VIs, of the LabVIEW Function and VI Reference Manual, or
to the LabVIEW Online Reference, available by selecting Help»Online
Reference…. This chapter only describes applications that use one digital
trigger. For more information on two-triggered applications, look at the
description for the AI Trigger Config VI, found in Chapter 18, Advanced
Analog Input VIs, in the LabVIEW Function and VI Reference Manual, or
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to the LabVIEW Online Reference, available by selecting Help»Online
Reference….
In LabVIEW, you can acquire data both before and after a digital trigger
signal. If the pretrigger scans is greater than 0, your device acquires data
before the triggering conditions are met and subtract the pretrigger scans
value from the number of scans to acquire value to determine the number
of scans to collect after the triggering conditions are met. If pretrigger
scans is 0, you acquire the number of scans to acquire after the triggering
conditions are met.
Before you start acquiring data, you must specify in the trigger edge input
whether the acquisition should be triggered on the rising or falling edge of
the digital trigger signal. You also can specify a value for the time limit, the
maximum amount of time the VI waits for the trigger and requested data.
Digital Triggering Examples
The Acquire N Scans Digital Trig VI example holds the data in a memory
buffer until your device completes the acquisition. The number of data
points you need to acquire must be small enough to fit in memory. This VI
only views and processes the information after the acquisition. If you need
to view and process information during the acquisition, use the Acquire
& Proc N Scans-Trig VI, found in labview\examples\daq\anlogin\
anlogin.llb. If you expect multiple digital trigger signals that will start
multiple acquisitions, use the example VI, Acquire N-Multi-Digital Trig,
located in labview\examples\daq\anlogin\anlogin.llb.
Analog Triggering
You connect analog trigger signals to the analog input channels—the same
channels where you connect analog data. Your DAQ device monitors the
analog trigger channel until trigger conditions are met. You configure the
DAQ device to wait for a certain condition of the analog input signal, like
the signal level or slope (either rising or falling). Once the device identifies
the trigger conditions, it starts an acquisition.
Note
If you are using channel names configured in the DAQ Channel Wizard, the
signal level is treated as being relative to the physical units specified for the
channel. For example, if you configure a channel called temperature to have a
physical unit of Deg. C, the value you specify for the trigger signal level is relative
to Deg. C. If you are not using channel names, the signal level is treated as volts.
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In Figure 8-4, the analog trigger is set to start the data acquisition on the
rising slope of the signal, when the signal reaches 3.2.
3.2
———————— —————————————
Level and Slope of
Signal Initiates Data Capture
0
Figure 8-4. Diagram of an Analog Trigger
Figure 8-5 explains analog triggering for post-triggered data acquisition
using a timeline. You configure your DAQ hardware in LabVIEW to begin
taking data when the incoming signal is on the rising slope and when the
amplitude reaches 3.2. Your DAQ device begins capturing data when the
specified analog trigger conditions are met.
External
Device
Analog Trigger
Signal
DAQ
Device
DAQ Device waits until analog trigger
conditions are met. Then …
External
Device
Analog Data
DAQ
Device
Figure 8-5. Analog Triggering with Your DAQ Device
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Controlling Your Acquisition with Triggers
Analog Triggering Examples
A common example of analog triggering in LabVIEW is the Acquire
N Scans Analog Hardware Trig VI, located in labview\examples\
daq\anlogin\anlogin.llb. This VI, as shown in Figure 8-6, uses the
Intermediate VIs to perform buffered acquisition, where data is stored in a
memory buffer during acquisition. After the acquisition completes, the VI
retrieves all the data from the memory buffer and displays it.
Figure 8-6. Block Diagram of the Acquire N Scans Analog Hardware Trig VI
For more information on buffered acquisition, read Chapter 7, Buffering
Your Way through Waveform Acquisition.
You must tell your device the conditions on which to start acquiring data.
In LabVIEW, you can acquire data both before and after an analog trigger
signal. If the pretrigger scans is greater than 0, your device acquires data
before the triggering conditions and subtracts the pretrigger scans value
from the number of scans to acquire value to determine the number of
scans to collect after the triggering conditions are met. If pretrigger scans
is 0, then the number of scans to acquire will be acquired after the
triggering conditions are met.
Before you start acquiring data, you must specify in the trigger slope input
if the acquisition is going to be triggered on the rising or falling edge of the
analog trigger signal. Aside from specifying the slope, you must enter the
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trigger channel where the analog triggering signal will be connected
as well as the trigger level on the triggering signal needed to begin
acquisition. In other words, once you specify the channel of the triggering
signal, LabVIEW will wait until the slope and trigger level conditions are
met before starting a buffered acquisition. If you use channel names
configured in the DAQ Channel Wizard, trigger level is treated as being
relative to the physical units specified for the channel in the DAQ Channel
Wizard. Otherwise, trigger level is treated as volts.
The Acquire N Scans Analog Hardware Trig VI example, located in
labview\examples\daq\anlogin\anlogin.llb, holds the data in a
memory buffer until the device completes data acquisition. The number
of data points you want to acquire must be small enough to fit in memory.
This VI only views and processes the information after the acquisition.
If you need to view and process information during the acquisition, use the
Acquire & Proc N Scans-Trig VI, located in labview\examples\daq\
anlogin\anlogin.llb. If you expect multiple analog trigger signals that
will start multiple acquisitions, use the example Acquire N-Multi-Analog
Hardware Trig VI, located in labview\examples\daq\anlogin\
anlogin.llb.
Software Triggering
With software triggering, you can simulate an analog trigger using
software. This form of triggering is often used in situations where hardware
triggers are not available. Another name for software triggering signals,
specifically analog signals, is conditional retrieval. With conditional
retrieval, you set up your DAQ device to collect data, but the device does
not return any data to LabVIEW unless the data meets your retrieval
conditions. LabVIEW scans the input data and performs a comparison with
the conditions, but does not store the data until it meets your specifications.
Figure 8-7 shows a timeline of events that typically occur when you
perform conditional retrieval.
The read/search position pointer traverses the buffer until it finds the scan
location where the data has met the retrieval conditions. Offset indicates
the scan location from which the VI begins reading data relative to the
read/search position. A negative offset indicates that you need pretrigger
data (data prior to the retrieval conditions). If offset is greater than 0, you
need posttrigger data (data after retrieval conditions).
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Controlling Your Acquisition with Triggers
Signal Checked for
Trigger Conditions
External
Device
DAQ
Device
Rest of Data
When trigger conditions are met (at Scan 4) …
When Offset = 0
read/search position
Scan Scan Scan Scan Scan Scan Scan Scan
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Start reading data
When Offset < 0
read/search position
Scan Scan Scan Scan Scan
5
1
2
3
4
Scan Scan Scan
6
7
8
Offset
Start reading data
When Offset > 0
Scan Scan
2
1
read/search position
Scan Scan Scan Scan
5
6
3
4
Offset
Scan
7
Scan
8
Start reading data
Figure 8-7. Timeline of Conditional Retrieval
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The conditional retrieval cluster of the AI Read VI specifies the analog
signal conditions of retrieval, as shown in Figure 8-8.
Figure 8-8. The AI Read VI Conditional Retrieval Cluster
Note
Remember that the actual data acquisition is started by running your VI and that
the conditional retrieval just controls the returning of data already being acquired.
When acquiring data with conditional retrieval, you typically store the data
in a memory buffer, similar to hardware triggering applications. After you
start running the VI, the data is placed in the buffer. Once the retrieval
conditions have been met, the AI Read VI searches the buffer for the
desired information. As with hardware analog triggering, you specify the
analog channel of the triggering signal by specifying its channel index, an
index number corresponding to the relative order of a single channel in a
channel list. You also specify the slope (rising or falling) and the level of
the trigger signal.
Note
The channel index might not be equal to the channel value. The Channel to
Index.vi can be used to get the channel index for a channel. You can find this VI
in Data Acquisition»Calibration and Configuration.
The AI Read VI begins searching for the retrieval conditions in the buffer
at the read/search position, another input of the AI Read VI. The offset, a
value of the conditional retrieval input cluster, is where you specify the
scan locations from which the VI begins reading data relative to the
read/search position. A negative offset indicates data prior to the retrieval
condition pretrigger data, and a positive offset indicates data after the
retrieval condition posttrigger data. The skip count input is where you
specify the number of times the trigger conditions are met. The hysteresis
input is where you specify the range you will use to meet retrieval
conditions. Once the slope and level conditions on channel index have
been found, the read/search position indicates the location where the
retrieval conditions were met.
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If you are using channel names configured in the DAQ Channel Wizard,
level and hysteresis are treated as being relative to the physical units
specified for the channel. If you are not using channel names, these inputs
are treated as volts.
For more information on the conditional retrieval input cluster, look at the
AI Read VI description in Chapter 16, Intermediate Analog Input VIs, in
the LabVIEW Function and VI Reference Manual, or the LabVIEW Online
Reference, available by selecting Help»Online Reference….
Conditional Retrieval Examples
The Acquire N Scans Analog Software Trig VI example, located in
labview\examples\daq\anlogin\anlogin.llb, uses the
Intermediate VIs, as shown in Figure 8-9.
Figure 8-9. Block Diagram of the Acquire N Scans Analog Software Trig VI
The main difference between this software triggering example and
hardware triggering is the use of the conditional retrieval input for the
AI Read VI. You set up the trigger channel, trigger slope, and trigger
level the same way for both triggering methods. The pretrigger scans
value will be negated and connected to the offset value in the conditional
retrieval cluster of the AI Read VI. When the trigger conditions are met,
the VI will return the requested number of scans.
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9
Letting an Outside Source
Control Your Acquisition Rate
Typically, a data acquisition (DAQ) device uses internal counters to
determine the rate to acquire data, but sometimes you might need to capture
your data at the rate of particular signals in your system. For example,
you can also read temperature channels every time a pulse occurs which
represents pressure rising above a certain level. In this case, internal
counters are inefficient for your needs. You must control your acquisition
rate by some other, external source.
You can compare a scan of your channels to taking a snapshot of the
voltages on your analog input channels. If you set your scan rate to 10 scans
per second, you are taking 10 snapshots each second of all the channels in
your channel list. In this case, an internal clock within your device (the scan
clock) sets the scan rate, which controls the time interval between scans.
Also, remember that most DAQ devices (those that do not sample
simultaneously) proceed from one channel to the next depending on the
channel clock rate. Therefore, the channel clock is the clock controlling
the time interval between individual channel samples within a scan, which
means the channel clock proceeds at a faster rate than the scan clock.
The faster the channel clock rate, the more closely in time your system
samples the channels within each scan, as shown in Figure 9-1.
Note
For devices with both a scan and channel clock, lowering the scan rate does not
change the channel clock rate.
0 1 2 3
channel interval
0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3
scan interval
Figure 9-1. Channel and Scan Intervals Using the Channel Clock
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Some DAQ devices do not have scan clocks, but rather use round-robin
scanning. Figure 9-2 shows an example of round-robin scanning.
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
channel interval
Figure 9-2. Round-Robin Scanning Using the Channel Clock
The devices that always perform round-robin scanning include, but are not
limited to, the following:
•
NB-MIO-16
•
PC-LPM-16
•
PC-LPM-16PnP
•
PC-516
•
DAQCard-500
•
DAQCard-516
•
DAQCard-700
•
Lab-NB, Lab-SE
•
Lab-LC
With no scan clock, the channel clock is used to switch between each
channel at an equal interval. The same delay exists between all channel
samples, as well as between the last channel of a scan and the first channel
in the next scan. (For boards with scan and channel clocks, round-robin
scanning occurs when you disable the scan clock by setting the scan rate to
zero and using the interchannel delay of the AI Config VI to control your
acquisition rate.)
Finally, remember that LabVIEW is scan-clock oriented. In other words,
when you select a scan rate, LabVIEW automatically selects the channel
clock rate for you. LabVIEW selects the fastest channel clock rate that
allows adequate settling time for the Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC).
LabVIEW adds an extra 10-µs to the interchannel delay to compensate for
any unaccounted factors. However, LabVIEW does not consider this
additional delay for purposes of warnings. If you have specified a scan rate
that is adequate for acquisition but too fast for LabVIEW to apply the
10-µs delay, it configures the acquisition but does not return a warning.
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You can set your channel clock rate with the interchannel delay input of
the AI Config VI, which calls the Advanced AI Clock Config VI to actually
configure the channel clock. The simplest method to select an interchannel
delay is to gradually increase the delay, or clock period, until the data
appears consistent with data from the previous delay setting.
Refer to your hardware manuals for the required settling time for your
channel clock. You can also find the interchannel delay by running the
low-level AI Clock Config VI for the channel clock with no frequency
specified.
Externally Controlling Your Channel Clock
There are times when you might need to control the channel clock
externally. The channel clock rate is the same rate at which analog
conversions occur. For instance, suppose you need to know the strain value
at an input, every time an infrared sensor sends a pulse. Most DAQ devices
have an EXTCONV* pin or a PFI pin on the I/O connector for providing
your own channel clock. This external signal must be a TTL level signal.
The asterisk on the signal name indicates that the actual conversion occurs
on the falling edge of the signal, as shown in Figure 9-3. For devices with
PFI lines, you can select either the rising edge of falling edge using
LabVIEW. With devices that have a RTSI connector, you can get your
channel clock from other National Instruments DAQ devices.
falling edge
rising edge
TTL Signal
Figure 9-3. Example of a TTL Signal
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Figure 9-4 shows you the Acquire N Scans-ExtChanClk VI, located in
labview\examples\daq\anlogin\anlogin.llb. This example
demonstrates how to set up your acquisition for an externally controlled
channel clock. The VI includes the AI Clock Config VI and the clock
source was connected to the I/O connector.
Figure 9-4. Getting Started Analog Input Example VI
You can enable external conversions by calling the Advanced-level
AI Clock Config VI. Remember that the AI Clock Config VI, which is
called by the AI Config VI, normally sets internal channel delay
automatically or manually with the interchannel delay control. However,
calling the AI Clock Config VI after the AI Config VI resets the channel
clock so that it comes from an external source for external conversion.
Also, notice that the scan clock is set to 0 to disable it, allowing the channel
clock to control the acquisition rate.
Note
The 5102 devices do not support external channel clock pulses, because there is
no channel clock on the device.
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On most devices, external conversions occur on the falling edge of the
EXTCONV* line. Consult your hardware reference manual for timing
diagrams. On devices with PFI lines (e.g., E-series devices), you can set the
Clock Source Code input of AI Clock Config VI to the PFI pin with either
falling or rising edge or use the default PFI2/Convert* pin where the
conversions occur on the falling edge, as shown in Figure 9-5.
Figure 9-5. Setting the Clock Source Code for External Conversion Pulses
for E-Series Devices
Note
The AT-MIO-16, AT-MIO-16D, NB-MIO-16, and NB-MIO-16X cannot support
both an external channel clock and a digital trigger signal at the same time. You
must choose one or the other.
Because LabVIEW determines the length of time before the AI Read VI
times out based on the interchannel delay and scan clock rate, you may
need to force a time limit for the AI Read VI, as shown previously in
Figure 9-4.
Note
On the Lab-PC+ and 1200 devices, the first clock pulse on the EXTCONV* pin
configures the acquisition but does not cause a conversion. However, all
subsequent pulses cause conversions.
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Externally Controlling Your Scan Clock
External scan clock control may be more useful than external channel clock
control if you are sampling multiple channels, but may not be as obvious to
find because it does not have the input on the I/O connector labeled
ExtScanClock, the way the EXTCONV* pin does.
Note
Some MIO devices have an output on the I/O connector labeled SCANCLK.
This cannot be used as an input.
The appropriate pin to input your external scan clock can be found in the
Table 9-1.
Table 9-1. External Scan Clock Input Pins
Device
Note
External Scan Clock Input Pin
AT-MIO-16
AT-MIO-16F-5
AT-MIO-16X
AT-MIO-16D
AT-MIO-64F-5
OUT2
All E-Series Devices
Any PFI Pin
Lab-PC+
1200 devices
OUT B1
Some devices do not have internal scan clocks and therefore do not support
external scan clocks. These devices include, but are not limited to the following:
NB-MIO-16, PC-LPM-16, PC-LPM-16PnP, PC-516, DAQCard-500,
DAQCard-516, DAQCard-700, Lab-NB, Lab-SE, and Lab-LC.
After connecting your external scan clock to the correct pin, set up
the external scan clock in software. In Figure 9-6, the example
Acquire N Scans-ExtScanClk VI located in labview\examples\daq\
anlogin\anlogin.llb shows how to do this. Two advanced VIs,
AI Clock Config and AI Control, are used in place of the intermediate
AI Start VI. This allows access to the clock source input. This is necessary
because it allows access to the clock source string which is used to identify
the PFI pin to be used for the scan clock for E-series boards. The clock
source also includes the clock source code (on the front panel) which is set
to I/O connector. The 0 wired to the Clock Config VI disables the internal
clock.
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Figure 9-6. Externally Controlling Your Scan Clock with the Getting Started
Analog Input Example VI
The NB-MIO-16X cannot support external scan clocks as the other devices
can. The device layout does not allow you to directly provide an external
scan clock. Instead, you can offer a timebase to the internal counter,
counter 5, that generates the scan clock. Do this by sending a timebase into
the source 5 pin and calling the Advanced VIs used by the AI Clock Config
VI. In addition, you need to wire the alternate clock rate specifications as
shown below into the AI Clock Config VI. Remember that the which clock
input of the AI Clock Config VI should be set to scan clock (1).
Note
You must divide the timebase by some number between 2 and 65,535 or you will
get a bad input value error.
Because LabVIEW determines the length of time before AI Read times out
based on the interchannel delay and scan clock rate, you may need to force
a time limit into AI Read. In Figure 9-6, the time limit is 5 seconds.
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Externally Controlling the Scan and Channel Clocks
You can control the scan and channel clocks simultaneously by combining
the two previous sections. However, make sure that you follow the proper
timing. Figure 9-7 demonstrates how you can set up your application to
control both clocks.
Figure 9-7. Controlling the Scan and Channel Clock Simultaneously
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Part III
Making Waves with Analog Output
This section contains basic information about generating data with
LabVIEW, including generating a single point or multiple points.
Part III, Making Waves with Analog Output, contains the following
chapters:
•
Chapter 10, Things You Should Know about Analog Output, explains
how to use LabVIEW to produce all of the different types of analog
output signals.
•
Chapter 11, One-Stop Single-Point Generation, shows you which VIs
to use in LabVIEW to perform single-point updates.
•
Chapter 12, Buffering Your Way through Waveform Generation,
shows you which VIs to use in LabVIEW to perform buffered analog
updates.
•
Chapter 13, Letting an Outside Source Control Your Update Rate,
shows you which VIs to use in LabVIEW to control your update rate
with an external source.
•
Chapter 14, Simultaneous Buffered Waveform Acquisition
and Generation, describes how to perform buffered waveform
acquisition and generation simultaneously on the same DAQ device.
Things You Should Know
about Analog Output
10
Some measuring systems require that analog signals be generated by a data
acquisition (DAQ) device. Each of these analog signals can be a steady or
slowly changing signal, or a continuously changing waveform. The next
few sections show you how to use LabVIEW to produce all of these
different types of signals. First, you should learn about the various
situations in which you might need to produce an analog signal.
Single-Point Output
When the signal level at the output is more important than the rate at which
the output value changes, you need to generate a steady DC value. You can
use the single-point analog output VIs to produce this type of output. With
single-point analog output, any time you want to change the value on an
analog output channel, you must call one of the VIs that produces a single
update (a single value change). Therefore, you can change the output value
only as fast as LabVIEW calls the VIs. This technique is called software
timing. You should use software timing if you do not need high speed
generation or very accurate timing. Refer to Chapter 11, One-Stop
Single-Point Generation, for more information on single-point output.
Buffered Analog Output
Sometimes in performing analog output, the rate that your updates occur is
just as important as the signal level. This is called waveform generation, or
buffered analog output. For example, you might want your DAQ device to
act as a function generator. You can do this by storing one cycle of sine
wave data in an array, and programming the DAQ device to generate the
values continuously in the array one point at a time at a specified rate. This
is known as single-buffered waveform generation. But what if you want to
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Things You Should Know about Analog Output
generate a continually changing waveform? For example, you might have
a large file stored on disk that contains data you want to output. Because
LabVIEW cannot store the entire waveform in a single buffer, you must
continually load new data into the buffer during the generation. This
process requires the use of circular-buffered analog output in LabVIEW.
To learn more about single or circular buffering, read Chapter 12, Buffering
Your Way through Waveform Generation.
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One-Stop Single-Point
Generation
11
In the preceding chapter, you learned the appropriate time to use
single-point updates. This chapter shows you which VIs to use in
LabVIEW to perform these updates.
Single-Immediate Updates
The most basic way to program single-point updates in LabVIEW is by
using the Easy Analog Output VI, AO Update Channels. Figure 11-1
shows a diagram of a VI that writes values to one or more output Channels
on the output data acquisition (DAQ) Device.
Figure 11-1. Single Immediate Update Using the AO Update Channels VI
Notice that an array of values is passed as an input to the VI. The first
element in the array corresponds to the first entry in the channel string,
and the second array element corresponds to the second channel entry.
If you use channel names configured in the DAQ Channel Wizard in your
channel string, values is relative to the physical units you specify in the
DAQ Channel Wizard. Otherwise, values is relative to volts. For more
information on channel string syntax, refer to Chapter 3, Basic LabVIEW
Data Acquisition Concepts. Remember that Easy VIs already have built-in
error handling.
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Chapter 11
One-Stop Single-Point Generation
While Figure 11-1 shows how to write values for multiple channels,
Figure 11-2 shows the diagram of the Generate 1 Point on 1 Channel VI
located in labview\examples\daq\anlogout\anlogout.llb, which
generates one value for one channel.
Figure 11-2. Single Immediate Update Using the AO Update Channel VI
If you want more control over the limit settings for each channel, you also
can program a single-point update using the Intermediate Analog Output
VI, AO Write One Update. Figure 11-3 shows an example of using this VI.
Figure 11-3. Single Immediate Update Using Intermediate VI
In this example, your program passes the error information to the Simple
Error Handler VI. The iteration input optimizes the execution of this VI
if you want to place it in a loop. For more information, look at the next
section. With Intermediate VIs, you gain more control over when you can
check for errors.
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Chapter 11
One-Stop Single-Point Generation
Multiple-Immediate Updates
Figure 11-4 shows the block diagram of a VI that performs
multiple updates. The Write N Updates example VI, located in
labview\examples\daq\anlogout\anlogout.llb, is similar to
Figure 11-4. The diagram shown in Figure 11-4 resembles the one shown
in Figure 11-3, except that the While Loop executes the subVI repeatedly
until either the error status or the stop Boolean is TRUE. You can use the
Easy Analog Output VI, AO Write One Update, in a loop, but this is
inefficient because the Easy I/O VIs configure the device every time they
execute. The AO Write One Update VI configures the device only when the
value of the iteration input is set to 0.
Figure 11-4. Multiple Immediate Updates Using Intermediate VI
Figure 11-4 shows an immediate, software-timed analog output VI
application. This means that software timing in a loop controls the update
rate. One good reason to use immediate, software-timed output is that your
application calculates or processes output values one at a time; however,
remember that software timing is not as accurate as hardware-timed analog
output. For more information on hardware-timed analog output, refer to
Chapter 12, Buffering Your Way through Waveform Generation.
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Buffering Your Way through
Waveform Generation
12
In Chapter 10, Things You Should Know about Analog Output, you learned
when to use buffered analog updates. This chapter shows you which VIs to
use in LabVIEW to perform these updates.
Buffered Analog Output
You can program single-buffered analog output in LabVIEW using an Easy
Analog Output VI, AO Generate Waveforms VI, as shown in Figure 12-1.
This VI writes an array of output values to the analog output channels at
a rate specified by update rate. For example, if channels consists of
two channels and the waveforms two-dimensional array consists of
two columns containing data for the two channels, LabVIEW writes values
from each column to the corresponding channels at every update interval.
After LabVIEW writes all the values in the two-dimensional array to the
channels, the VI stops. The signal level on the output channels maintains
the value of the final value row in the two-dimensional array until
another value is generated. If you use channel names configured in the
DAQ Channel Wizard in channels, waveforms is relative to the units
specified in the DAQ Channel Wizard. Otherwise, waveforms is relative
to volts.
Easy VIs contain error handling. If an error occurs in the AO Generate
Waveforms VI, a dialog box appears displaying the error number and
description, and the VI stops running.
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Buffering Your Way through Waveform Generation
Figure 12-1. Waveform Generation Using the AO Generate Waveforms VI
As with single-point analog output, you can use the Analog Output Utility
VI, AO Waveform Gen VI, for most of your programming needs. This VI
has several inputs and outputs that the Easy I/O VI does not have. You have
the option of having the data array generated once, several times, or
continuously through the generation count input. Figure 12-2 shows an
example diagram of how to program this VI.
Figure 12-2. Waveform Generation Using the AO Waveform Gen VI
In this example, LabVIEW generates the data in the array two times before
stopping.
The Generate N Updates example VI, located in labview\examples\
daq\anlogout\anlogout.llb, uses the AO Waveform Gen VI. Placing
this VI in a loop and wiring the iteration terminal of the loop to the iteration
input on the VI optimizes the execution of this VI. When iteration is 0,
LabVIEW configures the analog output channels appropriately. If iteration
is greater than 0, LabVIEW uses the existing configuration, which
improves performance. With the AO Waveform Gen VI, you also can
specify the limit settings input for each analog output channel. For more
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Buffering Your Way through Waveform Generation
information on limit settings, refer to Chapter 3, Basic LabVIEW Data
Acquisition Concepts.
If you want even more control over your analog output application, use the
set of Intermediate DAQ VIs, as shown in Figure 12-3.
Figure 12-3. Waveform Generation Using Intermediate VIs
With these VIs, you can set up an alternate update clock source (such as an
external clock or a clock signal coming from another device) or return the
update rate. The AO Config VI sets up the channels you specify for analog
output. The AO Write VI places the data in the buffer, the AO Start VI
begins the actual generation at the update rate, and the AO Wait VI waits
until the waveform generation completes. Then, the AO Clear VI
unconfigures the analog channels.
The Generate Continuous Sinewave VI, located in labview\examples\
daq\anlogout\anlogout.llb, is similar in structure to Figure 12-3.
This example VI continually outputs a sine waveform through the channel
you specify.
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Chapter 12
Buffering Your Way through Waveform Generation
Changing the Waveform during
Generation: Circular-Buffered Output
When the waveform data is too large to fit in a memory buffer or is
constantly changing, use a circular buffer to output the data. You also can
use the Easy Analog Output VIs in a loop to create a circular-buffered
output; but this sacrifices efficiency because Easy VIs configure, allocate,
and deallocate a buffer every time they execute, which causes time gaps
between the data output. Figures 12-4 and 12-5 show two different ways to
perform circular-buffered analog output using the Intermediate VIs in
LabVIEW. Figure 12-4 shows the AO Continuous Gen VI, which is more
efficient than the Easy Analog Output VIs in that it configures and allocates
a buffer when its iteration input is 0 and deallocates the buffer when the
clear generation input is TRUE.
Figure 12-4. Circular Buffered Waveform Generation Using the AO Continuous Gen VI
With the AO Continuous Gen VI, you can configure the size of the data
buffer and the limit settings of each channel. For more information on how
to set limit settings, refer to Chapter 3, Basic LabVIEW Data
Acquisition Concepts.
The Continuous Generation example VI, located in labview\examples\
daq\anlogout\anlogout.llb, uses the AO Continuous Gen VI. In this
example, the data completely fills the buffer on the first iteration. On
subsequent iterations, new data is written into one half of the buffer while
the other half continues to output data.
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Buffering Your Way through Waveform Generation
To gain more control over your analog output application, use the
Intermediate VIs shown in Figure 12-5. With these VIs, you can set up an
alternate update clock source and you can monitor the update rate the VI
actually uses. The AO Config VI sets up the channels you specify for
analog output. The AO Write VI places the data in a buffer. The AO Start
VI begins the actual generation at the update rate. The AO Write VI in the
while loop writes new data to the buffer until you press the stop button.
Then, the AO Clear VI unconfigures the analog channels.
Figure 12-5. Circular Buffered Waveform Generation Using Intermediate VIs
The Function Generator VI, located in labview\examples\daq\
anlogout\anlogout.llb, is a more advanced example than the one
shown in Figure 12-5. This VI changes the output waveform on-the-fly,
responding to changing signal types (sine or square), amplitude, offset,
update rate, and phase settings on the front panel.
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Chapter 12
Buffering Your Way through Waveform Generation
Eliminating Errors from Your
Circular-Buffered Application
If you get error number –10843 underFlowErr, while performing
circular-buffered output, it means your program can not write data fast
enough to the buffer to output the data at the update rate. To solve this
problem, decrease the speed of the update rate. If adjusting the update rate
does not get rid of the error in your application, increase the buffer size.
Buffered Analog Output Examples
You can find the example VIs mentioned in this chapter—Generate
N Updates, Generate Continuous Sinewave, Continuous Generation,
and Function Generator—in labview\examples\daq\anlogout\
anlogout.llb. Another example VI in this library you might find
helpful, Display and Output Acq’d File (scaled) VI, is shown in
Figure 12-6.
Figure 12-6. Display and Output Acq’d File (Scaled) VI
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Chapter 12
Buffering Your Way through Waveform Generation
You can use this VI in conjunction with the Cont Acq to File (scaled) VI,
located in labview\examples\daq\anlogin\anolgin.llb. The
Display and Output Acq’d File (scaled) VI also is described in Chapter 7,
Buffering Your Way through Waveform Generation. After running the
Cont Acq to File (scaled) VI and saving your acquired data to disk, you can
run the Display and Output Acq’d File (scaled) VI to generate your data
from the file you created. This example uses circular buffered output. If you
want to generate the data at the same rate at which it was acquired, you
must know the rate at which your data was acquired, and use that as the
update rate.
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13
Letting an Outside Source
Control Your Update Rate
Data acquisition (DAQ) devices use internal counters and timers to
determine the rate of data generation. However, you might encounter times
when you need to generate data in synch with other signals in your system.
For example, you might need to output data to a test circuit every time that
test circuit emits a pulse. In this case, internal counter/timers are inefficient
for your needs. You need to control the update rate with your own external
source of pulses.
Externally Controlling Your Update Clock
Chapter 12, Letting an Outside Source Control Your Update Rate,
mentions that for more control over your analog output applications, you
can use the Intermediate DAQ VIs. This chapter explains how to use these
Intermediate VIs to generate data using an external update clock.
The update clock controls the rate digital to analog conversions occur.
To control your data generation externally, you must supply this clock
signal to the appropriate pin on the I/O connector of your DAQ device.
The clock source you supply must be a TTL signal. Figure 13-1 shows the
Generate N Updates-ExtUpdateClk VI, located in labview\examples\
daq\anlogout\anlogout.llb, which applies this process.
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Chapter 13
Letting an Outside Source Control Your Update Rate
Figure 13-1. Generate N Updates-ExtUpdateClk VI
To use an external update clock, you must set the clock source of the
AO Start VI to I/O connector. When you connect your external clock,
you find that different DAQ devices use different pins for this input.
However, if you select Show VI Info… in the Windows menu of the
example VI, you find that all the I/O connections are explained for you.
These input pins also are described in Table 13-1.
Table 13-1. External Update Clock Input Pins
Device
Input External Update Clock Pin
All E-Series Devices
with analog output
PFI5/UPDATE*
Non E-Series MIO type devices
OUT2
Lab-PC+
1200 devices
AT-AO-6/10
EXTUPDATE*
For waveform generation, you must supply an array of waveform data.
The example VI in Figure 13-1 uses data created in the Compute Waveform
VI. When you run the example VI, the data is output on channel 0
(the DAC0OUT pin) of your DAQ device.
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Chapter 13
Letting an Outside Source Control Your Update Rate
Supplying an External Test Clock from Your DAQ Device
Suppose you want to use this external update clock approach, but you do
not have your external clock available. You can create an external test clock
using outputs from a counter/timer on your DAQ device, and then wire the
output to your external update clock source.
If your DAQ device has an FOUT or FREQ_OUT pin, you can generate
a 50% duty cycle TTL pulse train using the Generate Pulse Train
on FOUT or FREQ_OUT VI, located in labview\examples\daq\
counter\DAQ-STC.llb. The advantage of this VI is that it does not use
one of the available counters, which you might need for other reasons.
You can also use the Pulse Train VIs to create an external test clock.
These VIs are located in examples\daq\counter\DAQ-STC.llb,
examples\daq\counter\Am9513.llb, and
examples\daq\counter\8253.llb.
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Simultaneous Buffered
Waveform Acquisition
and Generation
14
In Chapter 7, Buffering Your Way through Waveform Acquisition, you
learned how to acquire multiple data points via an intermediate software
buffer. In Chapter 12, Buffering Your Way through Waveform Generation,
you learned how to generate multiple points of data by first writing them
to a software buffer. This chapter describes how to perform buffered
waveform acquisition and generation simultaneously on the same
DAQ device.
Using E-Series MIO Boards
E-series devices, such as the PCI-MIO-16E-1, have separate counters
dedicated to analog input and analog output timing. For this reason, they
are the easiest choice for simultaneous input/output.
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Chapter 14
Simultaneous Buffered Waveform Acquisition and Generation
Software Triggered
Figure 14-1 shows the diagram of the Simul AI/AO Buffered
(E-series MIO) VI located in labview\examples\daq\anlog_io\
anlog_io.llb.
Figure 14-1. Simultaneous Input/Output Using the
Simul AI/AO Buffered (E-series MIO) VI
This example VI uses familiar Intermediate DAQ VIs. This example VI
uses the same VIs you used for analog input in Chapter 7—AI Config,
AI Start, AI Read, and AI Clear—for waveform acquisition here. This
example VI also uses the same VIs you used for analog output in
Chapter 12—AO Config, AO Write, AO Start, and AO Clear—for
waveform generation here. By following the error cluster wire, which
enters each DAQ VI on the bottom left and exits on the bottom right, you
can see that because of data dependency, the waveform generation starts
before the waveform acquisition, and each task is configured to run
continuously. This example VI is considered software triggered because it
starts via software when you push the Run button.
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Simultaneous Buffered Waveform Acquisition and Generation
Once you call the AO Start and AI Start VIs, the While Loop executes.
Inside the While Loop, the AI Read VI returns acquired data from the
analog input buffer. There is not a call to the AO Write VI inside the While
Loop because it is not needed if the same data from the first AO Write VI
is regenerated continuously. If you want to generate new data each time the
While Loop iterates, you could add an AO Write VI inside the While Loop.
The While Loop stops when an error occurs or you press the Stop button.
Your DAQ device resources are cleared by calling the AI Clear and
AO Clear VIs after the loop stops.
For a complete description, instructions, and I/O connections for this VI,
select Windows»Show VI Info… from the front panel of the VI.
Hardware Triggered
Figure 14-2 shows the diagram of the Simul AI/AO Buffered Trigger
(E-series MIO) VI located in labview\examples\daq\anlog_io\
anlog_io.llb.
Figure 14-2. Simultaneous Input/Output Using the
Simul AI/AO Buffered Trigger (E-series MIO) VI
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Chapter 14
Simultaneous Buffered Waveform Acquisition and Generation
Although this VI is similar to the example in Figure 14-1, it is more
advanced because it uses a hardware trigger. The waveform acquisition
trigger is set up with the trigger type input to the AI Start VI set to
digital A (start), and by default this trigger is expected on the PFI0 pin.
Hardware triggering for waveform generation requires an additional VI.
The AO Trigger and Gate Config VI is an advanced analog output VI for
E-series boards only. The trigger parameters are set using three inputs. The
trigger or gate source is used to choose the source of your trigger, such
as a PFI pin or a RTSI pin. The trigger or gate source specification is
used in conjunction with the trigger or gate source to choose which PFI
or RTSI pin number to use, such as 0 through 9 for a PFI pin. The
trigger or gate condition is used to select a rising or falling trigger edge.
The default analog output trigger for this example is a rising edge on PFI0.
Because this is the same pin as the analog input trigger, the waveform
acquisition and generation starts simultaneously. However, they are not
controlled by independent counter/timers, so you can run them at different
rates.
For a complete description, instructions, and I/O connections for this VI,
select Windows»Show VI Info… from the front panel of the VI.
Using Legacy MIO Boards
Legacy MIO devices, such as the AT-MIO-16, have a total of five counters,
of which two or more can be used for data acquisition and generation.
However, certain counters are dedicated to certain tasks, and you must be
aware of this as you design your system.
Software Triggered
Figure 14-3 shows the diagram of the Simul AI/AO Buffered (legacy MIO)
VI located in labview\examples\daq\anlog_io\anlog_io.llb.
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Simultaneous Buffered Waveform Acquisition and Generation
Figure 14-3. Simultaneous Input/Output Using the
Simul AI/AO Buffered (Legacy MIO) VI
Because legacy MIO-type boards have only one clock available for signal
acquisition (scan timing) and generation (update timing), the same clock
is used for both. The acquisition uses counter 2 by default. The
generation is set up to use the I/O connector at the clock source input to the
AO Start VI. Because the I/O connector scan clock input is the OUT2 pin,
which already has the acquisition timing signal on it, no external clock
wiring is required. The result is that the waveform acquisition and
generation start simultaneously and occur at the same rate using the same
clock. Your waveform generation occurs at the same rate as the scan rate
you choose for waveform acquisition.
For a complete description, instructions, and I/O connections for this VI,
select Windows»Show VI Info… from the front panel of the VI.
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Chapter 14
Simultaneous Buffered Waveform Acquisition and Generation
Hardware Triggered
Figure 14-4 shows the diagram of the Simul AI/AO Buffered Trigger
(legacy MIO) VI located in labview\examples\daq\anlog_io\
anlog_io.llb.
Figure 14-4. Simultaneous Input/Output Using the
Simul AI/AO Buffered Trigger (Legacy MIO) VI
The only difference between this example VI and the example in
Figure 14-3 is the trigger type input to the AI Start VI is set to digital A
(start) trigger. This sets up the waveform acquisition for a digital trigger.
Because the waveform generation uses the same counter/timer as the
waveform acquisition, it also is dependent on the digital trigger.
For a complete description, instructions, and I/O connections for this VI,
select Windows»Show VI Info… from the front panel of the VI.
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Chapter 14
Simultaneous Buffered Waveform Acquisition and Generation
Using Lab/1200 Boards
Lab/1200 boards, such as the Lab-PC-1200 or the DAQCard-1200, also
can perform simultaneous waveform acquisition and generation. The
approach is very similar to the previous descriptions. Refer to the examples
Simul AI/AO Buffered (Lab/1200) VI and Simul AI/AO Buffered Trigger
(Lab/1200) VI located in labview\examples\daq\anlog_io\
anlog_io.llb to see how this acquisition and generation is performed.
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Part IV
Getting Square with Digital I/O
This section describes basic concepts about how to use digital signals
with data acquisition in LabVIEW, including immediate and
handshaked digital I/O.
Part IV, Getting Square with Digital I/O, contains the following chapters:
•
Chapter 15, Things You Should Know about Digital I/O, explains basic
concepts on digital I/O.
•
Chapter 16, When You Need It Now— Immediate Digital I/O, explains
how to use digital lines to acquire and generate data immediately.
•
Chapter 17, Shaking Hands with a Digital Partner, shows you how
you can synchronize digital data transfers between your DAQ devices
and instruments.
15
Things You Should Know
about Digital I/O
Digital I/O interfaces are often used to control processes, generate patterns
for testing, and communicate with peripheral equipment like heaters,
motors, and lights. Digital I/O components on DAQ devices and
SCXI modules consist of hardware parts that generate or accept binary
on/off signals. As shown in the diagram below, all digital lines are grouped
into ports on DAQ devices and banks on SCXI modules. The number of
digital lines per port or bank is specific to the particular device or module
used, but most ports or banks consist of four or eight lines. Except for the
TIO-10 and E-Series devices, all lines within the same port or bank must all
be of the same direction (either input or output), as shown in Figure 15-1.
By writing to or reading from a port, you can set or retrieve simultaneously
the states of multiple digital lines. Refer to Appendix B, Hardware
Capabilities, of the LabVIEW Function and VI Reference Manual, your
hardware user manual, or refer to the LabVIEW Online Reference, by
selecting Help»Online Reference…, for port information on your device.
Output Lines
Data latches
and drivers
Data latches
and drivers
Output Port
Input Port
Input Lines
Device or Module
Figure 15-1. Digital Ports and Lines
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Chapter 15
Things You Should Know about Digital I/O
Types of Digital Acquisition/Generation
There are two types of digital acquisition/generation—nonlatched
(or immediate) and latched (or handshaked). With nonlatched or
immediate digital I/O, your system updates the digital lines immediately.
Latched or handshaked digital I/O is when a device or module accepts or
transfers data after a digital pulse has been received. There are two types
of latched (handshaked) digital I/O: non-buffered and buffered. Not all
devices and modules support latched (handshaked) digital I/O. Refer to the
hardware tables in Appendix B, Hardware Capabilities, of the LabVIEW
Function and VI Reference Manual, your hardware manual, or refer to the
LabVIEW Online Reference, by selecting Help»Online Reference…, to
see if your device or module supports it.
For specific information about the Digital I/O VIs, refer to Chapter 14,
Introduction to the LabVIEW Data Acquisition VIs, in the LabVIEW
Function and VI Reference Manual, or refer to the LabVIEW Online
Reference, by selecting Help»Online Reference….
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When You Need It Now—
Immediate Digital I/O
16
This chapter focuses on transferring data across a single port. The most
common way to use digital lines is with nonlatched (immediate) digital I/O.
All DAQ devices and SCXI modules with digital components support
this mode.
When your program calls a function in nonlatched digital I/O mode,
LabVIEW immediately updates the digital line or port output state or
returns the current digital value of an input line, depending on the digital
line direction. LabVIEW inputs or outputs only one value on each digital
line in this mode. You can completely configure port (and sometimes line)
direction in software, and you can switch directions repeatedly in a
program if necessary.
A typical example of when you might use nonlatched (immediate) digital
I/O is in controlling or monitoring relays. You can also use multiple ports
or groups of ports to perform digital I/O functions. In order to group digital
ports, you must use Intermediate or Advanced VIs in LabVIEW. You can
read more about grouping multiple digital ports in the next chapter,
Chapter 17, Shaking Hands with a Digital Partner.
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Chapter 16
When You Need It Now— Immediate Digital I/O
You can use the Easy Digital VIs for nonlatched digital I/O. Figure 16-1
shows the Easy VIs and their various inputs and outputs. The four Easy VIs
can read data from or write data to a single digital line or to an entire port
immediately. For an example of how to use the Easy Digital VIs, refer to
the Read 1 Point from Digital Line and Write 1 Point to Digital Line VIs in
labview\examples\daq\digital\digio.llb. Use the Easy Digital
VIs for most digital testing purposes. All of the Easy Digital VIs have error
reporting.
Figure 16-1. The Easy Digital VIs
If you have configured channels using the DAQ Channel Wizard,
digital channel can consist of a digital channel name. The channel name
may refer to either a port or a line in a port. You do not need to specify
device, line, or port width as these inputs are not used by LabVIEW if a
channel name is specified in digital channel. For more information about
using the DAQ Channel Wizard to configure your channels, refer to the
Configuring Your Channels in NI-DAQ 5.x, 6.0 section of Chapter 2,
Installing and Configuring Your Data Acquisition Hardware. For more
information about using channel names, refer to the Channel Name
Addressing section of Chapter 3, Basic LabVIEW Data
Acquisition Concepts.
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Chapter 16
When You Need It Now— Immediate Digital I/O
As an alternative, digital channel can consist of a port number. The port
number specifies the port of digital lines that you will use during your
digital operation. In this case, you must also specify device, line, and
port width where applicable to further define your digital operation.
The device input identifies the DAQ device you are using. The line input is
an individual port bit or line in the port specified by digital channel. The
port width input specifies the number of lines that are in the port you are
using.
The pattern or line state is the value(s) you want to read from or write to
a device. Pattern values can be displayed in decimal (default), hexadecimal,
octal, or binary form. Refer to Chapter 9, Numeric Controls and Indicators,
in the G Programming Reference Manual for instructions on how to change
the display of a numeric control or indicator. The iteration input optimizes
your digital operation. When iteration is zero (the default value),
LabVIEW calls the DIO Port Config VI (an Intermediate VI) to configure
the port. If iteration is greater than zero, LabVIEW uses the existing
configuration, which improves performance. You can wire this input to
an iteration terminal of a loop. Every time iteration is zero, you call the
DIO Port Config VI, which resets the digital line values to their default
values. If you want to use the same digital values from one loop iteration to
another, only set iteration to zero for the first iteration of the loop, then
change it to a value greater than zero.
If you are using an SCXI module for nonlatched digital I/O and are not
using channel names, refer to the SCXI Channel Addressing section in
Chapter 20, Special Programming Considerations for SCXI, for
instructions on how to specify port numbers.
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17
Shaking Hands with
a Digital Partner
You have just learned that in LabVIEW using non-latched (immediate)
digital I/O, you can use digital lines to acquire and generate data. But what
if you want to pass a digital pattern after receiving a digital pulse? In this
case, you should use latched digital I/O, also called handshaking. For
example, you may want to acquire an image from a scanner. The scanner
sends a pulse to your DAQ device after the image has been scanned and it
is ready to transfer the data. Then, your DAQ device reads a digital pattern,
which can be 8, 16, or 32 bits in length. Your DAQ device then sends a
pulse to the scanner to let it know the digital pattern has been read. The
scanner sends out another pulse when it is ready to send another digital
pattern. After your DAQ device receives this digital pulse, it reads the data.
This process repeats until all the data is transferred. As you can see, the
ability to handshake gives you the ability to synchronize digital data
transfer between your DAQ device and instrument.
The following list shows the DAQ devices that support digital handshaking.
Note
•
AT-MIO-16D
•
AT-MIO-16DE-10
•
1200 Series devices
•
DIO-24 (DAQCard, NB, and PC, including PnP)
•
DIO-32F (NB and AT)
•
DIO-32HS (AT and PCI)
•
DIO-96 (PCI, NB, PCI, and PC, including PnP)
•
Lab Series devices (NB, LC, and PC)
Combining channel names configured in the DAQ Channel Wizard and
handshaking are not supported in LabVIEW 5.0.
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Chapter 17
Shaking Hands with a Digital Partner
Another example of when you can use handshaking is if you wanted to
test the durability of a product prototype. Each durability test would be
performed with a different piece of machinery for the same amount of
time. For each test, you can turn the machinery on and off with a specific
variation of handshaked digital I/O, known as pattern generation. Internal
counters would serve to generate the handshaking signal that initiates
a digital transfer. Counters output digital pulses at a steady frequency.
Thus, you can generate and retrieve patterns at a constant rate because the
handshaking signal would be produced at a constant rate. However, you
can use this rate only if the instrument or external hardware does not work
with or require communication signals for its data transfers. Only the
DIO-32 Series devices support pattern generation.
If you have an external signal controlling your digital I/O operation,
you should connect the outside signal to the I/O connector or the
RTSI connector. For more information on these connectors, refer to your
hardware manual for your device. The names and functions of handshaking
signals vary. For the DIO-32 Series devices, there are two handshaking
lines—the REQ (request) line and the ACK (acknowledge) line. Use the
REQ line as the handshaking line to trigger digital input. You can use the
ACK line as the handshaking line to trigger digital output.
For all other 8255-based DAQ devices that perform handshaking, there are
four handshaking signals: Strobe Input (STB), Input Buffer Full (IBF),
Output Buffer Full (OBF), and Acknowledge Input (ACK). You use the
STB and IBF signals for digital input operations and the OBF and ACK
signals for digital output operations. When the STB line is low, LabVIEW
loads data into the DAQ device. After the data has been loaded, IBF is high,
which tells the external device that the data has been read. For digital
output, OBF is low while LabVIEW sends the data to an external device.
After the external device receives the data, it sends a low pulse back on the
ACK line. Check your DAQ device hardware manual for information on
which digital port(s) can be configured for handshaking signals.
For all the DAQ devices that support handshaking, there are separate
handshaking lines for each digital port.
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Chapter 17
Shaking Hands with a Digital Partner
Sending Out Multiple Digital Values
You can group multiple ports together so you can send more digital values
out at a time. The order of grouped ports affects which handshaking lines
you use. If you want to group ports 0 and 1 and you list the ports in the order
of 0:1, then you should use the handshaking lines associated with port 1.
In other words, always use the handshaking lines associated with the last
port in the list. So, if the ports are listed 1:0, then you should use the
handshaking lines associated with port 0.
For 8255-based devices that perform handshaking, you must connect all the
STB lines together if you are using more than one port or grouping ports
for digital input, as shown in Figure 17-1. Connect only the IBF line of the
last port in the port list to the other device. No connection is needed for the
IBF signals for the other ports in the port list.
STB*
Port x 1
IBF
STB*
Port x 2
IBF
STB*
Port x n
External Device
IBF
(last port in portList)
Figure 17-1. Connecting Signal Lines for Digital Input
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If you use more than one port or grouping ports for digital output on
DAQ devices other than DIO-32 Series devices, connect only the
handshaking signals of the last port in the port list, as shown in Figure 17-2.
ACK*
Port x 1
OBF*
ACK*
Port x 2
OBF*
ACK*
Port x n
External Device
OBF*
(last port in portList)
Figure 17-2. Connecting Digital Signal Lines for Digital Output
There are two types of digital handshaking: non-buffered and buffered.
Non-buffered handshaking is similar to nonlatched digital I/O because
LabVIEW updates the digital lines immediately after every digital or
handshaked pulse.
Note
For the DIO-32HS devices, LabVIEW returns immediately after storing data in
its FIFO.
With buffered handshaking, LabVIEW stores digital values in memory to
be transferred after every handshaked pulse. Both non-buffered and
buffered handshaking transfer only one digital value after each handshaked
pulse. For basic digital applications, use non-buffered handshaking. Use
buffered handshaking when your application requires multiple
handshaking pulses to be created. By using a buffer with multiple
handshaking pulses, the software spends less time reading or writing data,
leaving more time for other operations.
Note
On the DIO-32 Series devices with non-buffered handshaking, you can group 1,
2, or 4 ports together. For buffered handshaking on the DIO-32 Series devices,
you can group only 2 or 4 ports together.
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You can use only Intermediate or Advanced Digital VIs for digital
handshaking in LabVIEW. The Intermediate VIs work for most all
non-buffered and buffered digital handshaking applications. However, for
some DAQ devices, you may need to use a combination of Intermediate and
Advanced VIs.
Non-Buffered Handshaking
Non-buffered handshaking takes place when your program transfers one
digital value after receiving a digital pulse on the handshaking lines.
LabVIEW does not store these digital values in computer memory. You
should only use non-buffered handshaking when you expect only a few
digital handshaking pulses. For multiple-pulsed applications, you should
use buffered handshaking, which you can learn about in the next section of
this chapter, Buffered Handshaking. Figure 17-3 shows an example of
non-buffered handshaking using the Intermediate VI, DIO Single
Read/Write. In this example, LabVIEW reads the data from the digital
port(s).
Figure 17-3. Non-Buffered Handshaking Using the DIO Single Read/Write VI
Typically, you want to put the DIO Single Read/Write VI inside a loop.
You can use the iteration input (the terminal where the loop iteration is
connected) to optimize your digital operation. When iteration is 0
(default), LabVIEW calls the Advanced VI, DIO Group Config, to
configure the port(s). If iteration is greater than zero, LabVIEW uses the
existing configuration, which improves performance. Every time your
program calls the DIO Group Config VI, the digital line values are reset to
their default values. If you want to set the digital line values once and keep
the same values from one loop iteration to the next, set iteration to 0 on the
first iteration of the loop, then set iteration to 1. When group direction is
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equal to 1 (default), all the ports listed in port list are treated as inputs.
The number of elements in the data read input will be the same as the
product of the number of ports in the group and the number to read input.
Figure 17-4 shows how you can use non-buffered handshaking to
write data. The programming flow resembles the read operation above.
The updates to write array must contain as many elements as the number
of ports multiplied by the number of values to write.
Figure 17-4. Non-Buffered Handshaking Using the DIO Single Read/Write VI
Buffered Handshaking
Buffered handshaking allows you to store multiple points in computer
memory. Use this technique if multiple pulses are expected on the
handshaking lines. Buffered handshaking comes in two forms: simple and
circular. You can use simple-buffered handshaking on all DAQ devices
that support handshaking; but you can perform circular-buffered
handshaking only on the AT-DIO-32F and DIO-32HS devices. You can
think of a simple buffer as a storage place in computer memory, where
buffer size equals the number of updates multiplied by the number of ports.
A circular buffer differs from a simple buffer only in the way your program
places the data into it and retrieves data from it. A circular buffer fills
with data the same as a simple buffer, but when it gets to the end of the
buffer LabVIEW returns to the beginning of the buffer and fills up the
same buffer again. You should use simple-buffered handshaking when
you have a predetermined number of values to acquire or generate. Use
circular-buffered handshaking when you want to acquire or generate data
continuously.
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Simple Buffered Examples
The block diagram in Figure 17-5 uses the Intermediate VIs to perform
pattern generation using the DIO-32 Series devices. An example VI
included with LabVIEW similar to the diagram below is the Digital
Buffered Handshaking VI, found in labview\examples\daq\
digital\digio.llb. Notice the port list contains more than one port
number, which means the ports are grouped together.
Figure 17-5. Pattern Generation Using the DIO-32 Series Devices
The For Loop generates the digital data to output. The amount of data
generated equals the number of ports in the port list multiplied by the
number of updates. The direction input specifies whether the ports
are configured for input or output. The DIO Wait VI waits until the digital
buffered input or output operation completes before returning to the
main VI. The DIO Clear VI halts any transfers and clears the group port
configuration. If you want an external source to supply the handshaking
signals, you can specify the handshake source to be an external signal
entering through the I/O connector (handshake source = 2 which is the
default value) or the RTSI connector (handshake source = 3). You only
need to use the clock frequency if you are performing pattern generation
(having an internal handshake source).
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For DAQ devices other than the DIO-32 Series devices, you can use a VI
similar to the one above to output digital data. The main difference is that
you use an Advanced Digital VI, DIO Buffer Control, instead of the
DIO Start VI, as shown in Figure 17-6. You should use the DIO Buffer
Control VI because the DIO Start VI contains Digital Clock Config and
Digital Mode Config VIs that work only with the DIO-32 Series devices.
You do not need to use the Handshake source and clock frequency inputs,
because of the external handshaking signal source.
Figure 17-6. Pattern Generation Using DAQ Devices
(Other Than DIO-32 Series Devices)
Reading information is similar to writing data when using digital
handshaking. In the example shown in Figure 17-7, the VI is reading data
into the DIO-32 Series devices while using external handshaking. For
the DIO-32 Series devices, the DIO Config VI can set or change the
handshaking mode, for instance whether you trigger digital communication
on an edge or at a certain level.
Figure 17-7. Reading Data with the Digital VIs Using Digital Handshaking
(DIO-32 Series Devices)
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For the other devices that support digital handshaking, the example would
be the same as above except the handshaking mode input would be deleted
from the DIO Config VI and the DIO Start VI would be replaced with the
DIO Buffer Control VI. Also, you do not need the handshake source
and clock frequency inputs for most devices, because of the external
handshaking signal source. Figure 17-8 shows the VI used for all
DAQ devices other than the DIO-32 Series.
Figure 17-8. Reading Data with the Digital VIs Using Digital Handshaking
Circular-Buffered Examples
Circular-buffered handshaking is similar to simple-buffered handshaking
in that both types of handshaking place data in a buffer; however, a circular
buffer application returns to the beginning of the buffer when it reaches the
end, and fills the same buffer again.
Note
Remember that circular-buffered handshaking works only on the AT-DIO-32F
and DIO-32HS devices.
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Figure 17-9 shows an example of a circular-buffered application. In this
example, you are reading or writing digital values continually until you stop
the VI or an error occurs. In order to create a circular buffer, you must create
a buffer that is at least twice as large as the number of scans/updates you
want to read at a time. You can have an internal or external handshake
source. If your handshake source is internal, remember to specify the rate
at which you read values with the clock frequency. Scan backlog specifies
how many values are left in the buffer after you read. The number read
input indicates the total number of values that have been read from the
buffer because the VI started executing.
Figure 17-9. Digital Handshaking Using a Circular Buffer
Digital handshaking, whether non-buffered or buffered, inputs or outputs
digital patterns only after your computer receives a digital pulse. Not all
DAQ devices support digital handshaking. The DIO-32 Series devices
have internal as well as external handshaking signals and support
circular-buffered I/O. Other DAQ devices that support handshaking accept
only external handshaking signals. You should use digital handshaking
when you need to generate or retrieve a digital pattern after a digital event,
or pulse, is detected.
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© National Instruments Corporation
Part V
SCXI—Getting Your Signals
in Great Condition
This section contains basic information about setting up and using
SCXI modules with your data acquisition application, special
programming considerations, common SCXI applications, and
calibration information.
Part V, SCXI—Getting Your Signals in Great Condition, contains the
following chapters:
•
Chapter 18, Things You Should Know about SCXI, includes basic
concepts on how to use SCXI modules with LabVIEW for data
acquisition.
•
Chapter 19, Hardware and Software Setup for Your SCXI System,
explains how to set up your SCXI hardware to work with data
acquisition in LabVIEW.
•
Chapter 20, Special Programming Considerations for SCXI, describes
special programming considerations for SCXI in LabVIEW which
include channel addressing, gains (limit settings), and settling time.
•
Chapter 21, Common SCXI Applications, cover example VIs for
analog input, analog output, and digital SCXI module.
•
Chapter 22, SCXI Calibration—Increasing Signal Measurement
Precision, teaches you how to calibrate SCXI modules and shows you
where LabVIEW stores your calibration constants.
Things You Should Know
about SCXI
18
Signal Conditioning eXtensions for Instrumentation (SCXI) is a
highly-expandable signal conditioning system. The next few chapters
describe the basic concepts of signal conditioning, the setup procedure for
SCXI hardware, the hardware operating modes, the procedure for software
installation and configuration, the special programming considerations for
SCXI in LabVIEW, and some common SCXI applications.
Note
For a better understanding of signal conditioning concepts, the chapters in
Part V refer to SCXI. However, the concepts and techniques discussed in these
chapters also apply to VME eXtension for Instrumentation Signal Conditioning
(VXI-SC).
What Is Signal Conditioning?
Electrical signals can be generated by transducers to measure physical
phenomena, such as temperature, force, sound, or light. Table 18-1 lists
some common transducers.
Table 18-1. Phenomena and Transducers
Phenomena
© National Instruments Corporation
Transducer
Temperature
Thermocouples
Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs)
Thermistors
Integrated circuit sensor
Light
Vacuum tube photosensors
Photoconductive cells
Sound
Microphone
Force and pressure
Strain gauges
Piezoelectric transducers
Load cells
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Table 18-1. Phenomena and Transducers (Continued)
Phenomena
Transducer
Position
(displacement)
Potentiometers
Linear voltage differential transformer
(LVDT)
Optical encoder
Fluid flow
Head meters
Rotational flowmeters
Ultrasonic flowmeters
pH
pH electrodes
To measure signals from transducers, you must convert them into a form
that a data acquisition (DAQ) device can accept. For example, the output
voltage of most thermocouples is very small and susceptible to noise.
Therefore, you may need to amplify and/or filter the thermocouple output
before digitizing it. The manipulation of signals to prepare them for
digitizing is called signal conditioning. The following are some common
types of signal conditioning.
•
Amplification
•
Isolation
•
Filtering
•
Transducer excitation
•
Linearization
Figure 18-1 shows some common types of transducers/signals and the
required signal conditioning for each.
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Chapter 18
Things You Should Know about SCXI
Transducers/Signals
Signal Conditioning
Thermocouples
Amplification, Linearization, and
Cold-Junction Compensation
RTDs
Current Excitation, Four Wire
and Three Wire Configuration,
Linearization
Strain Gauges
Voltage Excitation Bridge
Configuration, and Linearization
Common Mode
or High Voltages
Isolation Amplifiers
(Optical Isolation)
Loads Requiring AC Switching
or Large Current Flow
Electromechanical Relays
or Solid-State Relays
Signals with High
Frequency Noise
Lowpass Filters
DAQ Board
Figure 18-1. Common Types of Transducers/Signals and Signal Conditioning
Amplification
The most common type of signal conditioning is amplification. The two
advantages to amplifying electrical signals are that it improves the accuracy
of the resulting digitized signal and that it reduces noise.
For the highest possible accuracy, amplify the signal so the maximum
voltage swing equals the maximum input range of the analog-to-digital
converter (ADC) (otherwise known as a digitizer). Your system should
amplify low-level signals at the DAQ device or at the SCXI module located
nearest to the signal source, as shown in Figure 18-2.
Noise
Instrumentaion
Amplifier
+
-
MUX
ADC
Lead Wires
Low-Level Signal
External
Amplifier
DAQ Board
Figure 18-2. Amplifying Signals near the Source to Increase Signal-to-Noise Ratio
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Note
You can minimize noise that lead wires pick up by using shielded cables or a
twisted pair of cables, and by minimizing wire length. Also, keeping signal wires
away from AC power cables and monitors will help reduce 50 Hz or 60 Hz noise.
If you amplify the signal at the DAQ device, the signal is measured and
digitized with noise that may have entered the lead wires. However if you
amplify the signal close to the signal source with an SCXI module, noise
has a less destructive effect on the signal. In other words, the digitized
representation is a better reflection of the original low-level signal. For
more information, consult Application Note 025, Field Wiring and Noise
Considerations for Analog Signals. You can access this note from the
NI Fax-on-Demand system as well as the BBS, World Wide Web, or
FTP site, the numbers for which are located in the front of this manual.
Isolation
Another common way to use SCXI is to isolate the transducer signals from
the computer for safety purposes. When the signal being monitored
contains large voltage spikes that could damage the computer or harm the
operator, you should not directly connect the signal to a DAQ device
without some type of isolation. Another reason for isolation is to make sure
that the measurements from the DAQ device are not affected by differences
in ground potentials. When the DAQ device and the signal are not
referenced to the same ground potential, a ground loop may occur. Ground
loops can cause an inaccurate representation of the measured signal. If the
potential difference between the signal ground and the DAQ device ground
is large, then damage may even occur to the measuring system. Using
isolated SCXI modules will eliminate the ground loop and ensure that the
signals are accurately measured.
Filtering
Signal conditioning systems can filter unwanted signals or noise from the
signal you are trying to measure. You can use a noise filter on low-rate
(or slowly-changing) signals, like temperature, to eliminate
higher-frequency signals that can reduce the accuracy of the digitized
signal. A common use of a filter is to eliminate the noise from a 60 Hz
AC power line. A lowpass filter of 4 Hz, which exists on several SCXI
modules, is suitable for removing the 60 Hz AC noise from signals sampled
at low rates. A lowpass filter eliminates all signal frequency components
above the cutoff frequency. The SCXI-1141 module has lowpass filters that
have software-selectable cutoff frequencies from 10 Hz to 25 kHz.
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Transducer Excitation
Signal conditioning systems can generate excitation for some transducers.
Strain gauges and RTDs require external voltage and currents, respectively,
to excite their circuitry into measuring physical phenomena. This type of
excitation is similar to a radio which needs power to receive and decode
audio signals. Some plug-in DAQ devices and SCXI modules, including
the SCXI-1121 and SCXI-1122 modules, provide the necessary excitation
for transducers.
Linearization
Many transducers, such as thermocouples, have a nonlinear response to
changes in the physical phenomena being measured. LabVIEW can
linearize the voltage levels from transducers, so the voltages can be scaled
to the measured phenomena. LabVIEW provides simple scaling functions
to convert voltages from strain gauges, RTDs, thermocouples, and
thermistors.
For specific information about the VIs you can use with your SCXI module
in LabVIEW, refer to Chapter 29, Calibration and Configuration VIs, in
the LabVIEW Function and VI Reference Manual, or refer to the LabVIEW
Online Reference, by selecting Help»Online Reference….
© National Instruments Corporation
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Hardware and Software Setup
for Your SCXI System
19
SCXI hardware provides signal conditioning close to the signal source and
increases the number of analog and digital signals that can be analyzed by
a data acquisition (DAQ) device. With PC compatible computers, SCXI
can be configured in two ways—a front-end signal conditioning system for
plug-in DAQ devices, or an external data acquisition and control system.
Furthermore, when SCXI is configured as an external data acquisition and
control system, it can be connected to the computer’s parallel port using an
SCXI-1200, or the computer’s serial port using either an SCXI-2000
remote chassis or an SCXI-2400 remote communications module in an
SCXI-100x chassis. For Macintosh computers, SCXI hardware can only be
used as a front-end signal conditioning system for plug-in DAQ devices.
Figure 19-1 demonstrates these configurations.
PC Plug-In
DAQ Board
Conditioned
Signals
SCXI Signal
Conditioning
Modules
SCX
I-10
01
SCXI
1140
SCXI
1140
SCXI
1140
SCXI
1140
SCX
I
MAINFR
AME
Front-End Signal Conditioning for Plug-In Data Acquisition Boards
Parallel Port Link
SCXI Signal
Conditioning and
DAQ Modules
SCX
I-10
01
SCXI
1140
SCXI
1140
SCXI
1140
SCXI
1140
SCXI
1140
SCX
MAINFR
I
AME
SCXI-1200 12-Bit Data
Acquisition and Control Module
External Data Acquisition and Control System
Figure 19-1. SCXI System
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Figure 19-2 shows the components of an SCXI system. An SCXI system
consists of an SCXI chassis that houses signal conditioning modules,
terminal blocks that plug directly into the front of the modules, and a cable
assembly that connects the SCXI system to a plug-in DAQ device or the
parallel or serial port of a computer. If you are using SCXI as an external
DAQ system where there are no plug-in DAQ devices, you can use the
SCXI-1200 module, which is a multifunction analog, digital, and timing
I/O (counters) module. The SCXI-1200 can control several SCXI signal
conditioning modules installed in the same chassis. The functionality of the
SCXI-1200 module is similar to the plug-in 1200 series devices.
SCX
I-10
01
SCXI
1140
SCXI
1140
SCX
MAINFR
I
AME
Terminal
Blocks
Signal
Conditioning
and/or
Data Acquisition
Modules
SCXI Chassis
SCXI
Cable Assembly
(or Parallel Port
Cable)
Plug-in
DAQ Board
(Optional)
Personal Computer
Figure 19-2. Components of an SCXI System
Refer to the SCXI tables in Appendix B, Hardware Capabilities, of the
LabVIEW Function and VI Reference Manual, for tables containing
specifications for all the SCXI modules, or refer to the LabVIEW Online
Reference, by selecting Help»Online Reference…. This appendix also
includes a list of all the SCXI modules and the compatible terminal blocks.
How do you connect the transducers to the SCXI modules? How do you set
the jumpers on the SCXI modules before they are placed in the chassis? For
information on how to set up each module and transducer, consult your
hardware user manuals and the Getting Started with SCXI manual.
How do you transfer data from the SCXI chassis to the DAQ device or
parallel or serial port? Figure 19-3 shows a diagram of an SCXI chassis.
When you use SCXI as a front-end signal conditioning system, the analog
and digital bus backplane, also known as the SCXIbus, transfers analog
and/or digital data to the DAQ device. Some of the analog and digital lines
on the DAQ device are reserved for SCXI chassis communication. To find
out which lines are reserved on your device, refer to the tables in
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Appendix B, Hardware Capabilities, in the LabVIEW Function and VI
Reference Manual, or refer to the LabVIEW Online Reference, by selecting
Help»Online Reference….
Conditioned Signals to
DAQ Board or
Parallel Port
SC
XI-
10
00
SC
MA
IN
XI
FR
AM
E
Analog and Digital
Bus Backplane
Unconditioned Signals
from Transducers
Figure 19-3. SCXI Chassis
When you use SCXI as an external DAQ system, only some of the digital
I/O lines of the DAQ device are reserved for SCXI chassis communication
when other modules are present. The DAQ device digitizes any analog
input data and transfers it back to the computer through the parallel or
serial port.
Note
When using Remote SCXI, be aware of the sampling rate limitations due to the
fact that the data is sent over the serial port. To reduce delays in serial port
communication, National Instruments recommends that you use the fastest baud
rate possible for your computer’s serial port. If you have a 16550 or compatible
universal asynchronous receiver-transceiver (UART), you can use baud rates up
to 57,600 baud. If you have an 8250 or compatible UART, you can only use up to
19,200 baud.
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SCXI Operating Modes
The SCXI operating mode determines the way that DAQ devices
access signals. There are two basic operating modes for SCXI modules,
multiplexed and parallel. You designate the mode in the operating mode
input in the configuration utility. Also, you may have to set up jumpers on
the module for the correct operating mode. Check your SCXI module user
manual for more information.
Note
National Instruments recommends that you use the multiplexed mode for most
purposes.
Multiplexed Mode for Analog Input Modules
When an analog input module operates in multiplexed mode, all of its
input channels are multiplexed to one module output. When you cable a
DAQ device to a multiplexed analog input module, the DAQ device has
access to that module's multiplexed output, as well as all other modules
in the chassis through the SCXIbus. The analog input VIs route the
multiplexed analog signals on the SCXIbus for you transparently. So, if
you operate all modules in the chassis in multiplexed mode, you only need
to cable one of the modules directly to the DAQ device.
Note
MIO/AI devices, and Lab-PC+ and 1200 devices support multiple-channel and
multiple-scan acquisitions in multiplexed mode. The Lab-NB and Lab-LC,
LPM devices, and DAQCard-700 support only single-channel or single-scan
acquisitions in multiplexed mode.
When you cable a DAQ device to a multiplexed module, the multiplexed
output of the module (and all other multiplexed modules in the chassis)
appears at analog input channel 0 of the DAQ device by default.
Multiplexed Mode for the SCXI-1200 (Windows)
In multiplexed mode, the SCXI-1200 can access the analog signals on the
SCXI bus. The DAQ VIs can multiplex the channels of analog input
modules and send them on the SCXI bus.This means that if you configure
the SCXI-1200 for multiplexed mode, you can read the multiplexed output
from other SCXI analog input modules in the chassis.
Note
The SCXI-1200 only reads analog input module channels configured in
multiplexed mode, not in parallel mode.
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Hardware and Software Setup for Your SCXI System
Make sure that you change the jumper in the SCXI-1200 to the ground
position to connect the SCXI-1200 and SCXIbus grounds together. Refer to
the SCXI-1200 User Manual for more details.
Multiplexed Mode for Analog Output Modules
Because LabVIEW communicates with the multiplexed modules over the
SCXIbus backplane, you must only cable one multiplexed module in each
chassis to a DAQ device to communicate with any multiplexed modules in
the chassis.
Multiplexed Mode for Digital and Relay Modules
Multiplexed mode is referred to as serial mode in the digital and relay
module hardware manuals. When you operate your digital or relay module
in multiplexed mode, LabVIEW communicates the module channel states
serially over the SCXIbus backplane.
Parallel Mode for Analog Input Modules
When an analog input module operates in parallel mode, the module
sends each of its channels directly to a separate analog input channel of the
DAQ device cabled to the module. You cannot multiplex parallel outputs
of a module on the SCXIbus. You must cable a DAQ device directly to a
module in parallel mode to access its input channels. In this configuration,
the number of channels available on the DAQ device limits the total
number of analog input channels. In some cases, however, you can cable
more than one DAQ device to separate modules in an SCXI chassis. For
example, you can use two NB-MIO-16X or AT-MIO-16E-2 devices
operating in parallel mode and cable each one to a separate SCXI-1120
module in the chassis. For more information on how to configure the cabled
device, refer to the NI-DAQ Configuration Utility Online Help file in
Windows, or the Installing and Configuring Your SCXI Chassis section in
Chapter 2, Installing and Configuring Your Data Acquisition Hardware,
for the Macintosh.
By default, when a module operates in parallel mode, the module sends its
channel 0 output to differential analog input channel 0 of the DAQ device,
the channel 1 output to analog input channel 1 of the DAQ device, and
so on.
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When you use the analog input VIs, specify the correct onboard channel for
each parallel SCXI channel. If you are using a range of SCXI channels,
LabVIEW assumes the onboard channel numbers match the SCXI channel
numbers. Refer to the SCXI Channel Addressing section in Chapter 20,
Special Programming Considerations for SCXI, for the proper SCXI
channel syntax.
Parallel Mode for the SCXI-1200 (Windows)
In parallel mode, the SCXI-1200 reads only its own analog input channels.
The SCXI-1200 does not have access to the analog bus on the SCXI
backplane in parallel mode. You should use parallel mode if you are not
using other SCXI analog input modules in the chassis with the SCXI-1200.
Parallel Mode for Digital Modules
When you operate a digital module in parallel mode, the digital lines on
your DAQ device directly drive the individual digital channels on your
SCXI module. You must cable a DAQ device directly to every module
operated in parallel mode.
You may want to use parallel mode instead of multiplexed mode for faster
updating or reading of the SCXI digital channels. For the fastest
performance in parallel mode, you can use the appropriate onboard port
numbers instead of the SCXI channel string syntax in the digital VIs. Refer
to the hardware tables in Appendix B, Hardware Capabilities, in the
LabVIEW Function and VI Reference Manual for the digital ports used in
parallel mode on each DAQ device, or refer to the LabVIEW Online
Reference, by selecting Help»Online Reference….
Note
If you are using a DIO-96, an AT-MIO-16D, or an AT-MIO-16DE-10 device, you
can also operate a digital module in parallel mode using the digital ports on the
second half of the NB5 or R1005050 ribbon cable (lines 51 – 100). Therefore, the
DIO-96 can operate two digital modules in parallel mode, one module using the
first half of the ribbon cable (lines 1 – 50), and another module using the second
half of the ribbon cable (lines 51 – 100).
SCXI Software Installation and Configuration
After you assemble your SCXI system, you must run the configuration
utility to enter your SCXI configuration. LabVIEW needs the configuration
information to program your SCXI system correctly. Refer to Chapter 2,
Installing and Configuring Your Data Acquisition Hardware.
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20
When you want LabVIEW to acquire data from SCXI analog input
channels, you use the analog input VIs in the same way that you acquire
data from onboard channels. You also read and write to your SCXI relays
and digital channels using the digital VIs in the same way that you read and
write to onboard digital channels. You can write voltages to your SCXI
analog output channels using the analog output VIs. The following sections
describe special programming considerations for SCXI in LabVIEW which
include channel addressing, gains (limit settings), and settling time.
Note
This chapter does not apply if you use the DAQ Channel Wizard to configure
your channels. If you use the DAQ Channel Wizard, you address SCXI
channels the same way you address on-board channels—by specifying the
channel name(s). LabVIEW configures your hardware by selecting the best
input limits and gain for the named channel based on the channel
configuration. For more information about using the DAQ Channel Wizard to
configure your channels, see the Configuring Your Channels in NI-DAQ 5.x, 6.0
section of Chapter 2, Installing and Configuring Your Data Acquisition Hardware.
For more information about using channel names, refer to the Channel Name
Addressing section of Chapter 3, Basic LabVIEW Data Acquisition Concepts.
SCXI Channel Addressing
If you operate a module in parallel mode, you can specify an SCXI channel
either by specifying the corresponding onboard channels or by using the
SCXI channel syntax described in this section. If you operate the modules
in multiplexed mode, you must use the SCXI channel syntax.
An SCXI channel number has four parts: the onboard channel (optional),
the chassis ID, the module number, and the module channel.
In the following table of examples, x is any chassis ID, y is any module
number, a is any module channel, and b is any module channel greater
than a. z is the onboard channel from which the conditioned data is
retrieved. If you operate in multiplexed mode, analog input channel 0 reads
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the data from the first cabled chassis. If you use VXI-SC submodules,
LabVIEW ignores the onboard channel, since VXI-DAQ provides a special
channel for retrieving data from submodules.
Channel List Element
Channel Specified
OBz!SCx!MDy!a
Channel a on the module in slot y of the
chassis with ID x is multiplexed into
onboard channel z.
OBz!SCx!MDy!a:b
Channels a through b inclusive on the
module in slot y of the chassis with ID x
are multiplexed into onboard channel z.
The channel input for DAQ VIs is either a string (with the Easy I/O VIs)
or an array of strings. Each string value can only list the channels for one
module. With the array structure for channel values, you can list the
channels for several modules. In other words for one scanning operation,
you can scan several modules. You can scan an arbitrary number of
channels for each module, but the channels of each module must be
scanned in consecutive, ascending order.
Note
You do not need the SCXI channel string syntax to access channels on the
SCXI-1200 module. Use 0 for channel 0, 1 for channel 1, and so on. The
SCXI-1200 module is identified by its logical device number.
Note
When you connect any type of SCXI module to a DAQ device, certain analog input
and digital lines on the DAQ device are reserved for SCXI control. On MIO Series
devices, lines 0, 1, and 2 are unavailable. On MIO-E Series devices, lines 0, 1, 2,
and 4 are unavailable. For more channel information refer to the LabVIEW
Online Reference, by selecting Help»Online Reference….
For the fastest performance in parallel mode on digital modules, you can
use the appropriate onboard port numbers instead of the SCXI channel
string syntax in the digital VIs.
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SCXI Gains
SCXI modules provide higher analog input gains than those available on
most DAQ plug-in devices.
Note
Before reading this section, you should have already read the Limit Settings
section in Chapter 3, Basic LabVIEW Data Acquisition Concepts.
Enter the gain jumper settings in the NI-DAQ Configuration utility for each
channel on each module with jumpered gains. LabVIEW stores these gain
settings and uses them to scale the input data. When you use the input
limits control of the analog input VIs, LabVIEW chooses onboard gains
that complement the jumpered SCXI gains to achieve the given input limits
as closely as possible.
For analog input modules with programmable gains, LabVIEW uses the
gain setting you enter in the NI-DAQ Configuration utility for each module
as the default gain for that module. LabVIEW uses the default gain for the
module whenever you leave the input limits terminal to the analog input
VIs unwired, or if you enter 0 for your upper and lower input limits.
You can experiment with the default gain setting by using the original
Getting Started Analog Input VI found in labview\examples\daq\
run_me.llb. This VI does not use input limits. After you execute the VI,
you can open the NI-DAQ Configuration utility while LabVIEW is open
and change the default gain setting there. Be sure to save your changes by
choosing File»Save (for the NI-DAQ 4.8.x, save changes by closing the
utility) before switching back to LabVIEW to run the VI again. Remember
that the larger the gain setting, the more precise your measurements will be
as long as the signal is within the resulting range of the channel.
When you use the input limits to specify non-zero limits for a module with
programmable gains, LabVIEW chooses the most appropriate SCXI gain
for the given limits. LabVIEW selects the highest SCXI gain possible for
the given limits, and then selects additional DAQ device gain if necessary.
If your module has programmable gains and only one gain for all channels
and you are using an MIO/AI DAQ device, you can specify different input
limits for channels on the same module by splitting up your channel range
over multiple elements of the channel array, and using a different set
of input limits for each element. LabVIEW selects one module gain
suitable for all of the input limits for that module, then chooses different
MIO/AI gains to achieve the different input limits. The last three examples
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in Table 20-1 illustrate this method. The last example shows a channel list
with two modules.
Table 20-1. SCXI-1100 Channel Arrays, Input Limits Arrays, and Gains
Array
Index
SCXI-1100
Channel List Array
Input Limits
Array
LabVIEW
Selected
SCXI Gain
LabVIEW
Selected
MIO/AI Gain
0
ob0!sc1!md1!0:7
–0.01 to 0.01
1000
1
0
ob0!sc1!md1!0:7
–0.001 to 0.001
2000
51
0
sc1!md1!0:7
–0.001 to 0.001
2000
1
0
1
ob0!sc1!md1!0:3
ob0!sc1!md1!4:15
–0.1 to 0.1
–0.01 to 0.01
100
100
1
10
0
1
ob0!sc1!md1!0:15
ob0!sc1!md1!16:31
–0.01 to 0.01
–1.0 to 1.0
10
10
1002
1
0
1
2
ob0!sc1!md1!0:3
ob0!sc1!md1!4:15
ob0!sc1!md2!0:7
–1.0 to 1.0
–0.1 to 0.1
–0.01 to 0.01
10
10
1000
1Applies
1
10
1
if the MIO/AI device supports a gain of 5 (some MIO/AI devices do not).
2 This case
forces a smaller gain at the SCXI module than at the MIO/AI device, because the input limits for the next channel
range on the module require a small SCXI gain. This type of gain distribution is not recommended because it defeats the
purpose of providing amplification for small signals at the SCXI module. The small input signals are only amplified by
a factor of 10 before they are sent over the ribbon cable, where they are very susceptible to noise. To use the optimum
gain distribution for each set of input signals, do not mix very small input signals with larger input signals on the same
SCXI-1100 module, unless you are sampling them at different times.
You can open the advanced VI, AI Hardware Config, to see the gain
selection. After running this VI, the group channel settings cluster array
at the right side of the panel shows the settings for each channel. The gain
indicator displays the total gain for the channel, which is the product of the
SCXI gain and the DAQ device gain, and the actual limit settings. The
group channel settings cluster array also shows the input limits for each
channel.
LabVIEW always scales the input data as you specified, unless you select
binary data only. Therefore, the gains are transparent to the application.
You can specify the input signal limits and let LabVIEW do the rest.
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SCXI Settling Time
The filter and gain settings of your SCXI modules affect the settling time
of the SCXI amplifiers and multiplexers. You should always enter your
jumpered filter settings and your jumpered gain settings (if applicable) in
the configuration utility. LabVIEW uses the gain and filter settings to
determine a safe interchannel delay that allows the SCXI amplifiers and
multiplexers to settle between channel switching before sampling the next
channel.
LabVIEW calculates the delay for you. If you set a scan rate that is too fast
to allow for the default interchannel delay, LabVIEW shrinks the
interchannel delay and returns a warning from the AI Start or AI Control
VIs. You can refer to your hardware manuals for SCXI settling times.
You can open the advanced-level AI Clock Config VI to retrieve the
channel clock selection. Set the which clock control to channel clock 1,
and set the clock frequency to –1.00 (no change). Now run the VI. The
actual clock rate specification cluster is on the right side of the panel.
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21
Now that you have your SCXI system set up and you are aware of the
special SCXI programming considerations, you should learn about some
common SCXI applications. This section will cover example VIs for
analog input, analog output, and digital modules. For analog input, you will
learn how to measure temperature (with thermocouples and RTDs) and
strain (with strain gauges) using the SCXI-1100, SCXI-1102, SCXI-1121,
SCXI-1122, and SCXI-1141 modules. If you are not measuring
temperature or pressure, you can still gain basic conceptual information on
how to measure voltages with an analog input module. Read these sections
and then apply the information to measuring your transducer.
Another analog input module, the SCXI-1140, is a simultaneous sampling
module. All the channels acquire voltages at the same time, which means
you can preserve interchannel phase relationships. After all channel
voltages are sampled by going into hold mode, the software will read one
channel at a time. When a scan of channels is done, the SCXI-1140 module
returns to track mode until the next scan period. Both of these operations
are performed by the analog input VIs. You can use any of the data
acquisition (DAQ) VIs, located in the labview\examples\daq\
anlogin\anlogin.llb, or the Getting Started Analog Input VI, found
in labview\examples\daq\run_me.llb, to acquire data from the
SCXI-1140 module.
For analog output, you will learn how to output voltage or current values
using the SCXI-1124 module. For digital I/O, you will learn how to input
values on the SCXI-1162/1162HV modules and output values on the
SCXI-1160, SCXI-1161, and SCXI-1163/1163R modules.
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Analog Input Applications for
Measuring Temperature and Pressure
Two common transducers for measuring temperature are thermocouples
and RTDs. A common transducer for measuring pressure is strain gauges.
Read the following sections on special measuring considerations needed
for each transducer.
If you use the DAQ Channel Wizard to configure your analog input
channels, you can simplify the programming needed to measure your
channels. This section describes methods of measuring data using named
channels configured in the DAQ Channel Wizard and using the
conventional method.
Note
For more information about using the DAQ Channel Wizard to configure your
channels, refer to the Configuring Your Channels in NI-DAQ 5.x, 6.0 section of
Chapter 2, Installing and Configuring Your Data Acquisition Hardware. For more
information about using channel names, refer to the Channel Name Addressing
section of Chapter 3, Basic LabVIEW Data Acquisition Concepts.
Measuring Temperature with Thermocouples
If you want to measure the temperature of the environment, you can use the
temperature sensors in the terminal blocks. But if you want to measure the
temperature of an object away from the SCXI chassis, you must use a
transducer, like a thermocouple. A thermocouple is a junction of two
dissimilar metals that gives varying voltages based on the temperature.
However, when using thermocouples, you need to compensate for the
thermocouple voltages produced at the screw terminal because the junction
with the screw terminals itself forms another thermocouple. You can use
the resulting voltage from the temperature sensor on the terminal block for
cold-junction compensation. The cold-junction compensation voltage is
used when linearizing voltage readings from thermocouples into
temperature values.
The SCXI modules used to measure temperature in this section are
SCXI-1100, SCXI-1102, SCXI-1120, SCXI-1120D, SCXI-1121,
SCXI-1122, and SCXI-1141. All of the terminal blocks used with these
modules have temperature sensors which can be used as cold-junction
compensation.
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In addition, the SCXI-1100, SCXI-1141, and SCXI-1122 offer a way for
you to ground the module amplifier inputs so you can read the amplifier
offset. You can subtract the amplifier offset value to determine the actual
voltages. For more information on temperature sensors and amplifier
offsets, continue on to the following two sections.
Temperature Sensors for
Cold-Junction Compensation
The temperature sensors in the terminal blocks for the analog input
modules can be used for cold-junction compensation. If you are operating
your SCXI modules in multiplexed mode as recommended, you should
leave the cold-junction sensor jumper on the terminal block in the mtemp
(factory default) position. If you are using parallel mode, you can use the
dtemp jumper setting.
Note
The SCXI-1102 only uses the cjtemp string in multiplexed mode.
To read the temperature sensor, use the standard SCXI string syntax in the
channels array with mtemp substituted for the channel number, as shown
in the following table.
Channel List Element
© National Instruments Corporation
Channel Specified
ob0!scx!mdy!mtemp
The temperature sensor configured in
mtemp mode on the multiplexed module
in slot y of the chassis with ID x.
ob0!scx!mdy!cjtemp
The temperature sensor configured in
cjtemp mode on the multiplexed module
of the SCXI-1102 in slot y of the chassis
with ID x.
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If you want to read the cold-junction temperature sensor in dtemp mode,
you can read the following onboard channels for these modules.
Modules
Channel
SCXI-1100
1
SCXI-1120/SCXI-1120
15 (use referenced single-ended mode)
SCXI-1121
4
SCXI-1122
1
For example, you can run the Getting Started Analog Input VI, found in
labview\examples\daq\run_me.llb, with the channel string
ob0!sc1!md1!mtemp to read the temperature sensor on the terminal block
that is connected to the module in slot 1 of SCXI chassis 1.
SCXI terminal blocks have two different kinds of sensors: an Integrated
Circuit (IC) sensor or a thermistor. For terminal blocks that have IC sensors,
such as the SCXI-1300 and the SCXI-1320, you can multiply the voltage
read from the IC sensor by 100 to get the ambient temperature in degrees
Centigrade at the terminal block. For terminal blocks that have thermistors,
such as the SCXI-1303, SCXI-1322, SCXI-1327, and SCXI-1328, use the
Thermistor Conversion VI from Functions»Data Acquisition»Signal
Conditioning to convert the raw voltage data into units of temperature.
You cannot sample other SCXI channels from the same module while you
are sampling the mtemp sensor. However, if you are in parallel mode, you
can sample the dtemp sensor along with other channels on the same
module at the same time because you are not performing any multiplexing
on the SCXI module. You also can sample the cjtemp sensor along with
other channels on the SCXI-1102, but cjtemp must be the first channel in
the channel list.
For greater accuracy, take several readings from the temperature sensor and
average those readings to yield one value. If you do not want to average
several readings, take a single reading using the Easy Analog Input VI, AI
Sample Channel.
For more information, look at the SCXI Thermocouple example VIs, found
in labview\examples\daq\scxi\scxi_ai.llb. These VIs use the
mtemp string to read the temperature sensor and use the reading for
thermocouple cold junction compensation.
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Amplifier Offset
The SCXI-1100, SCXI-1122, and SCXI-1141 have a special calibration
feature that enables LabVIEW to ground the module amplifier inputs so
that you can read the amplifier offset. For the other SCXI analog input
modules, you must physically wire your terminals to ground. The measured
amplifier offset is for the entire signal path including the SCXI module and
the DAQ device.
To read the grounded amplifier on the SCXI-1100 or SCXI-1122, use the
standard SCXI string syntax in the channels array with calgnd substituted
for the channel number. Refer to the following table for an example of this.
Channel List Element
ob0!scx!mdy!calgnd
Channel Specified
(SCXI-1100 and SCXI-1122 only)
The grounded amplifier of the module
in slot y of the chassis with ID x.
For example, you can run the Getting Started Analog Input VI, found
in the labview\examples\daq\run_me.llb, with the channel string
ob0!sc1!md1!calgnd to read the grounded amplifier of the module in
slot 1 of SCXI chassis 1. The voltage reading should be very close to 0 V.
The AI Start VI grounds the amplifier before starting the acquisition, and
the AI Clear VI removes the grounds from the amplifier after the
acquisition completes.
The SCXI-1141 has a separate amplifier for each channel, so you must
specify the channel number when you ground the amplifier. To specify the
channel number, attach the channel number to the end of the string calgnd.
For example, calgnd2 grounds the amplifier inputs for channel 2 and reads
the offset. You can also specify a range of channels. The string calgnd0:7
grounds the amplifier inputs for channels 0 through 7 and reads the offset
for each amplifier.
Use the Scaling Constant Tuner VI from Functions»Data Acquisition»
Signal Conditioning to modify the scaling constants so that LabVIEW
automatically compensates for the amplifier offset when scaling
binary data to voltage. The SCXI-1100 Voltage example, found in
labview\examples\daq\scxi\scxi_ai.llb, shows you a way to use
the Scaling Constant Tuner VI.
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VI Examples
If you use the DAQ Channel Wizard to configure your channels, you
can simplify the programming needed to measure your signal. LabVIEW
configures the hardware with the appropriate input limits and gain, and
performs cold-junction compensation, amplifier offsets, and scaling for
you. To measure a channel using a channel name, you can use the Easy VIs
or the Continuous Transducer VI located in labview\examples\daq\
solution\transduc.llb, as shown in Figure 21-1. Enter the name of
your configured channel in the channels input. The device input value is
not used by LabVIEW when you use channel names. The acquired data is
in the physical units you specified in the DAQ Channel Wizard.
Figure 21-1. Continuous Transducer Measurement VI
The remainder of this section describes how to measure temperature with
the SCXI-1100 and SCXI-112x modules using thermocouples when you do
not use the DAQ Channel Wizard. The temperature examples below use
both cold-junction measurements and amplifier offsets. In SCXI analog
input examples, you cannot set the scaling constants with the Easy VIs
(determined by the amplifier offset). With the Intermediate VIs, you can
change the scaling constants before acquisition begins, while the Advanced
VIs include functions that are not necessary to accurately measure
temperature with SCXI modules. The examples described in this section
use Intermediate VIs along with transducer-specific VIs.
First, you should learn how to measure temperature using the SCXI-1100
with thermocouples. You can use the example SCXI-1100 Thermocouple
VI located in labview\examples\daq\scxi\scxi_ai.llb. Open the
VI and continue reading this section.
To reduce the noise on the slowly varying signals produced by
thermocouples, you can average the data and then linearize it. For greater
accuracy, you can measure the amplifier offset, which helps scale the data
and lets you eliminate the offset error from your measurement. The
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diagram below shows how you can program the Acquire and Average VI
to measure the amplifier offset. You can find this VI in vi.lib\daq\
zdaqutil.llb. This VI acquires 100 measurements from the amplifier
offset, designated in the offset channel input by calgnd, and then averages
the measurements. When you determine the amplifier offset, you must
always use the same input limits and clock rates that you will be using in
the acquisition. The Acquire and Average VI can measure the amplifier
offset of many modules at once, but in Figure 21-2, it only measures one
module.
Figure 21-2. Measuring a Single Module with the Acquire and Average VI
After measuring the amplifier offset, measure the temperature sensor for
cold-junction compensation. Both the amplifier offset and cold-junction
measurements should be taken before any thermocouple measurements
are taken. To measure temperature sensors, you use the Acquire and
Average VI. The main differences between the amplifier offset
measurement and temperature sensor measurement are the channel string
and the input limits. If have set the temperature sensor in mtemp mode
(the most common mode), you access the temperature by using mtemp.
If you have set the temperature sensor in dtemp mode, you read the
corresponding DAQ device onboard channel. Make sure you use the
temperature sensor input limits which are different from your acquisition
input limits. To read from a temperature sensor based on an IC sensor or
a thermistor, set the input limit range from +2 to –2 V.
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Figure 21-3. Measuring Temperature Sensors Using the Acquire and Average VI
After determining the average amplifier offset and cold-junction
compensation, you can acquire data using the Intermediate VIs as shown in
Figure 21-4. This example continually acquires data until an error occurs or
the user stops the execution of the VI. In order to perform continuous,
hardware-timed acquisition, you need to set up a buffer. In this case, the
buffer is 10 times the number of points acquired for each channel. Before
you initiate the acquisition with the AI Start VI, you need to set up the
binary-to-voltage scaling constants by using the Scaling Constant Tuner
VI. This VI, which you can find in Functions»Data Acquisition»Signal
Conditioning, passes the amplifier offset to the DAQ driver so that
LabVIEW accounts for the amplifier offset as the AI Read VI retrieves the
data. After the compensated voltage data from the AI Read VI is averaged,
the voltage values are converted to temperature and linearized by using the
Convert Thermocouple Reading VI in Functions»Data Acquisition»
Signal Conditioning. After completing the acquisition, remember to
always clear the acquisition by using the AI Clear VI.
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Figure 21-4. Continuously Acquiring Data Using Intermediate VIs
Another temperature acquisition example using the SCXI-1100 module is
SCXI Temperature Monitor VI located in labview\examples\daq\
scxi\scxi_ai.llb. This VI continually acquires thermocouple readings
and sets an alarm if the temperature readings go above a user-defined limit.
You can use the SCXI-1100 examples with the SCXI-1122 module.
Both modules have the capability to programmatically measure the
amplifier offsets and both modules need the cold-junction compensation
to linearize thermocouple measurements. The main differences between
the two modules include the type of temperature sensors available on
their terminal blocks and the way module channels are multiplexed. The
SCXI-1100 uses a CMOS multiplexer, which is capable of fast-channel
multiplexing, whereas the SCXI-1122 uses a electromechanical relay to
switch one of its 16 channels. Because the SCXI-1122 uses a relay, this
module imposes a minimum interchannel delay of 10 ms. Scanning
multiple SCXI-1122 channels many times can quickly wear out the relay.
To avoid this, acquire data from the SCXI-1122 module a single channel
at a time. For further information on reading SCXI-1122 channels, refer to
the SCXI-1122 User Manual, or the SCXI-1122 Voltage example VI in
labview\examples\ daq\scxi\scxi_ai.llb.
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If you are measuring temperature with the SCXI-1120 and SCXI-1121
modules, refer to the example VI, SCXI-1120/1121 Thermocouple, located
in labview\examples\daq\scxi\scxi_ai.llb. This VI is similar to
the VI used to measure temperature on the SCXI-1100. Both VIs average
and linearize temperature data using the Intermediate analog input VIs. The
two main differences between the VIs are that the SCXI-1120/1121 VI does
not measure the amplifier offset, and the input limits for the module and the
temperature sensor are different from the input limits for the SCXI-1100.
The SCXI-1120 and SCXI-1121 modules do not have the internal switch
used to programmatically ground the amplifiers as in the SCXI-1100 for
the amplifier offset measurement. If you want to determine the amplifier
offset, you have to manually wire the amplifier terminals to ground and
use a separate VI to read the offset voltage. You can also manually
calibrate the SCXI-1120 and SCXI-1121 to remove any amplifier offset
on a channel-by-channel basis. Refer to the SCXI-1120 or SCXI-1121
user manuals for specific instructions.
Measuring Temperature with RTDs
Resistance-Temperature Detectors (RTDs) are temperature-sensing
devices whose resistance increase with temperature. They are known for
their accuracy over a wide temperature range. RTDs require current
excitation to produce a measurable voltage. RTDs are available in 2-wire,
3-wire, or 4-wire configuration. The lead wires in the 4-wire configuration
are resistance-matched. If you use a 2-wire or 3-wire RTD, they are
unmatched. Resistance in the lead wires that connect your RTD to the
measuring system will add error to your readings. If you are using lead
lengths greater than 10-feet, you will need to compensate for this lead
resistance. RTDs are also classified by the type of metal they use. The most
common metal is platinum.
For more information about how the lead wires affect
RTD measurements as well as general RTD information, refer to the
Measuring Temperature with RTDs application note. You can find this note
on the NI Fax-on-Demand system or by accessing the NI BBS, World Wide
Web, or FTP site, the numbers for which are in the front of this manual.
Signal conditioning is needed to interface an RTD to a DAQ device or an
SCXI-1200 module. Signal conditioning required for RTDs include current
excitation for the RTD, amplification of the measured signal, filtering of
the signal to remove unwanted noise, and isolation of the RTD and
monitored system from the host computer. Typically, you would use the
SCXI-1121 module with RTDs because it easily performs all the signal
conditioning listed previously. You must set up the excitation level, gain,
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and filter settings on the SCXI-1121 module with jumpers as well as in
your system’s configuration utility. For information on how to connect and
configure the RTD with the SCXI-1121 module, look at the Getting Started
with SCXI manual or the RTD application note mentioned previously.
The SC-2042 RTD is a signal conditioning device designed specifically for
RTD measurement and can be used as an alternative to SCXI modules. For
more information, refer to the National Instruments catalog.
You do not have to worry about cold-junction compensation with RTDs
as you do when measuring thermocouples. To build an application in
LabVIEW, you can use the Easy I/O analog input VIs. If you are measuring
multiple transducers on several different channels, you will need to scan
the necessary channels with little overhead. Because the Easy I/O VIs
reconfigure your SCXI module every time your application performs an
acquisition, it is recommended that you use the Intermediate analog
input VIs.
Using the DAQ Channel Wizard to configure your channels can simplify
the programming needed to measure your signal, as shown in Figure 21-5.
LabVIEW configures the hardware with appropriate input limits and gain,
measures the RTD, and scales the measurement for you. Enter the name of
your configured channel in the channels input parameter. The acquired
data is in the physical units you specify in the DAQ Channel Wizard.
Figure 21-5. Measuring Temperature Using Information from the DAQ Channel Wizard
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Figure 21-5 continually acquires data until an error occurs or you stop the
VI from executing. To perform a continuous hardware-timed acquisition,
you must set up a buffer. In this example, the buffer is 10 times the number
of points acquired for each channel. For each acquisition, your device
averages the temperature data. After completing the acquisition, always
clear the acquisition by using the AI Clear VI.
If you are not using the DAQ Channel Wizard, you must use the
RTD Conversion VI in addition to specifying additional input
parameters, as shown in Figure 21-6. The Convert RTD Reading VI, in
Functions»Data Acquisition»Signal Conditioning, converts the voltage
read from the RTD to a temperature representation.
Note
You should only use the RTD conversion function in LabVIEW for platinum
RTDs. If you do not have a platinum RTD, the voltage-temperature relation will
be different, so the LabVIEW conversion function cannot be used.
Figure 21-6. Measuring Temperature Using the Convert RTD Reading VI
Figure 21-6 continually acquires data until an error occurs or you stop
the VI from executing. In order to perform a continuous hardware-timed
acquisition, you need to set up a buffer. In this example, the buffer is
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10 times the number of points acquired for each channel. After your device
averages the voltage data from the AI Read VI, it converts the voltage
values to temperature. After completing the acquisition, remember to
always clear the acquisition by using the AI Clear VI.
Measuring Pressure with Strain Gauges
Strain gauges give varying voltages in response to stress or vibrations
in materials. Strain gauges are thin conductors attached to the material
to be stressed. Resistance changes in parts of the strain gauge to indicate
deformation of the material. Strain gauges require excitation (generally
voltage excitation) and linearization of their voltage measurements.
Depending on the strain gauge configuration, another requirement for
using strain gauges with SCXI is a configuration of resistors. As shown in
Figure 21-7, the resistance from the strain gauges combined with the
SCXI hardware form a diamond-shaped configuration of resistors, know
as a Wheatstone bridge. When you apply a voltage to the bridge, the
differential voltage (Vm) varies as the resistor values in the bridge change.
The strain gauge usually supplies the resistors that change value with strain.
R1 = R
2
Rg
R1
- V
DC Voltage
Excitation
R2
Supplied by signal
conditioning hardware
+
m
Rg
Physical strain gauge
Rg is value at rest
Figure 21-7. Half-Bridge Strain Gauge
Strain gauges come in full-bridge, half-bridge, and quarter-bridge
configurations. For a full-bridge strain gauge, the four resistors of the
Wheatstone bridge are physically located on the strain gauge itself. For a
half-bridge strain gauge, the strain gauge supplies two resistors for the
Wheatstone bridge while the SCXI module supplies the other two resistors,
as shown above. For a quarter-bridge strain gauge, the strain gauge only
supplies one of the four resistors for a Wheatstone bridge. For more
information on how to connect your strain gauge to SCXI, refer to the
Getting Started with SCXI manual.
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The SCXI-1121 and the SCXI-1122 modules are commonly used with
strain gauges because they include voltage or current excitation and internal
Wheatstone bridge completion circuits. You can also use the signal
conditioning device SC-2043SG as an alternative to SCXI modules. The
device is designed specifically for strain gauge measurements. For more
information on this device, refer to your National Instruments catalog.
You can set up your SCXI module to amplify strain gauge signals or filter
noise from signals. In order to set up the excitation level, gain, and filter
settings, consult your Getting Started with SCXI manual for the necessary
hardware configuration and Chapter 2, Installing and Configuring Your
Data Acquisition Hardware, for software configuration.
To build a strain gauge application in LabVIEW, you can use the Easy I/O
analog input VIs. If you are measuring multiple transducers on several
different channels, you need to scan the necessary channels as quickly as
possible. Because the Easy I/O VIs reconfigure your SCXI module every
time the VI is called, you should use the Intermediate analog input VIs as
well as the Strain Gauge Conversion VI, as shown in the following
example. The Convert Strain Gauge Reading VI, located in
Functions»DAQ»DAQ Utilities, converts the voltage read by the strain
gauge to units of strain.
Using the DAQ Channel Wizard to configure your channels simplifies the
programming required to measure your signal, as shown in Figure 21-8.
LabVIEW configures the hardware with the appropriate input limits and
gain, measures the strain gauge, and scales the measurement for you. Enter
the name of your configured channel in the channels input. You do not
need to wire the device or input limits input. The acquired data is in the
physical units you specified in the DAQ Channel Wizard.
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Figure 21-8. Measuring Pressure Using Information from the DAQ Channel Wizard
Figure 21-8 continually acquires data until an error occurs or you stop the
VI from executing. In order to perform continuous acquisition, you need to
set up a buffer. In this example, the buffer is 10 times the number of points
acquired for each channel. After your device averages the voltage data from
the AI Read VI, it converts the voltage values to strain values. After
completing the acquisition, remember to always clear the acquisition by
using the AI Clear VI.
When measuring strain gauge data, there are some parameters on the
Convert Strain Gauge Reading VI, shown in Figure 21-9, you should know.
Figure 21-9. Convert Strain Gauge Reading VI
Vsg, the strain gauge value, is the only parameter wired in the previous
VI diagram. The other parameters for this VI have default values but those
values may not be correct for your strain gauge. You should check the
following parameters: Vinit, the voltage across the strain gauge before
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strain is applied (always measure at the beginning of the VI); Bridge
Configuration; Vex, the excitation voltage; Rl, the lead resistance; and Rg,
the resistance of the strain gauge before strain is applied. You can usually
ignore the lead resistance, Rl, for strain gauges unless the leads are several
feet. For more information on any of the parameters for this VI, refer to
Chapter 30, Signal Conditioning VIs, in the LabVIEW Function and VI
Reference Manual, or refer to the LabVIEW Online Reference, by selecting
Help»Online Reference….
Analog Output Application Example
You can output isolated analog signals using the SCXI-1124 analog output
module. If you use the DAQ Channel Wizard to configure your analog
output channels, generating signals using the SCXI-1124 is no different
from the techniques in Part III, Making Waves with Analog Output.
The remainder of this section describes how to generate signals with the
SCXI-1124 when you do not use the DAQ Channel Wizard.
The SCXI-1124 can generate voltage and current signals. Refer to the
example analog output VI, SCXI-1124 Update Channels VI, located in
labview\examples\daq\scxi\scxi_ao.llb. This VI uses the analog
output Advanced VIs because the output mode (whether you have voltage
or current data) must be accessible in order to change the value, as shown
in Figure 21-10. The program calls the AO Group Config VI to specify
the device and output channels. The AO Hardware Config VI specifies
the output mode and the output range, or limit settings, for all the channels
specified in the channels string. This advanced-level VI is the only place
where you can specify a voltage or current output mode. If you are
going to output voltages only, you may want to use the AO Config VI
(an Intermediate VI), instead of the AO Group Config and AO Hardware
Config VIs. You can program individual output channels of the SCXI-1124
for different output ranges by using the arrays for channels, output mode,
and limit settings. The AO Single Update VI initiates the update of the
SCXI-1124 output channels. To help debug your VIs, it is always helpful to
display any errors, in this case using the Simple Error Handler VI.
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Figure 21-10. SCXI-1124 Update Channels VI
Digital Input Application Example
To input digital signals through an SCXI chassis, you can use the
SCXI-1162 and SCXI-1162HV modules and the Easy Digital VI,
Read from Digital Port, as shown in Figure 21-11.
Figure 21-11. Inputting Digital Signals through an SCXI Chassis Using Easy Digital VIs
If you configure channels using the DAQ Channel Wizard, digital channel
can consist of a digital channel name. The channel name can refer to either
a port or a line in a port. You do not need to specify device, line, or port
width, as theses inputs are not used by LabVIEW if a channel name is
specified in digital channel.
As an alternative, digital channel can be expressed in the SCx!MDy!0
format, where you are trying to input from the digital input module on slot
y of chassis x. The last identifier is always port 0, because the whole
module is considered one port. In this example, you must also specify
device and port width. The port width should be the number of lines in
a port on your SCXI module if you are operating in multiplexed mode.
For the SCXI-1162 and SCXI-1162HV, the port width is 32 lines. If you
are operating in parallel mode, the port width should be the number of
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lines on your DAQ device. The DIO-32F device can access all 32 lines of
the SCXI modules at once by using the SCXI-1348 cable assembly. The
DIO-24 and the DIO-96 devices can only access the first 24 lines of these
modules when configured in parallel mode. For the fastest performance in
parallel mode, you can use the appropriate onboard port numbers instead of
the SCXI channel string syntax.
Use the iteration input to optimize your digital operation. When iteration
is 0 (default), LabVIEW calls the DIO Port Config VI (an Advanced VI) to
configure the port. If iteration is greater than zero, LabVIEW bypasses
reconfiguration and remembers the last configuration, which improves
performance. You can wire this input to an iteration terminal of a loop. With
the DIO-24 and DIO-96 devices, every time you call the DIO Port Config
VI, the digital line values are reset to default values. If you want to maintain
the integrity of the digital values from one loop iteration to another, do not
set iteration to 0 except for the first iteration of the loop.
For an example on SCXI digital input, refer to SCXI-1162/1162HV Digital
Input VI located in labview\examples\daq\scxi\scxi_dig.llb.
Even though this VI uses Advanced VIs, it is functionally equivalent to the
Easy I/O Digital VI, Read from Digital Port.
Note
The DIO Port Config VI resets output lines on adjacent ports on the same
8255 chip for DIO-24, DIO-96, AT-MIO-16D, AT-MIO-16DE, and Lab and
1200 Series devices.
Note
If you are also using SCXI analog input modules, make sure your cabling
DAQ device is cabled to one of them.
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Digital Output Application Example
To output digital signals through an SCXI chassis, you can use the
SCXI-1160, SCXI-1161, SCXI-1163, and SCXI-1163R modules and the
digital Easy Digital VI, Write to Digital Port, as shown in Figure 21-12.
Figure 21-12. Outputting Digital Signals through an SCXI Chassis
Using Easy Digital VIs
If you configure channels using the DAQ Channel Wizard, digital channel
can consist of a digital channel name. The channel name can refer to either
a port or a line in a port. You do not need to specify device, line, or port
width, as theses inputs are not used by LabVIEW if a channel name is
specified in digital channel.
As an alternative, digital channel can be expressed in the scx!mdy!0
format, where you are trying to output from the digital output module on
slot y of chassis x. The last identifier is always port 0, because the whole
module is considered one port. In this case, you must also specify device
and port width. The port width should be the number of lines on your
SCXI module if you are operating in multiplexed mode. The SCXI-1160
has 16 relays, the SCXI-1161 has 8 relays, and the SCXI-1163/1163R have
32 relays. You can not use the SCXI-1160 or SCXI-1161 in parallel mode.
For the SCXI-1163/1163R the port width in parallel mode should be the
number of lines on your DAQ device or SCXI-1200 module. The DIO-32F
device can access all 32 lines of the SCXI-1163/1163R modules at once by
using the SCXI-1348 cable assembly. The DIO-24 and the DIO-96 devices
can only access the first 24 lines of the SCXI-1163/1163R when configured
in parallel mode. For the fastest performance in parallel mode, you can use
the appropriate onboard port numbers instead of the SCXI channel string
syntax.
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Use the iteration input to optimize your digital operation. When iteration
is 0 (default), LabVIEW calls the DIO Port Config VI (an Advanced VI)
to configure the port. If iteration is greater than zero, LabVIEW bypasses
reconfiguration and remembers the last configuration, which improves
performance. You can wire this input to an iteration terminal of a loop.
Every time you call the DIO Port Config VI the digital line values are reset
to default values. If you want to maintain the integrity of the digital values
from one loop iteration to another, do not set iteration to 0 except for the
first iteration of the loop.
For an example on SCXI digital output, refer to SCXI-116x Digital
Output VI located in labview\examples\daq\scxi\scxi_dig.llb.
Even though this VI uses Advanced VIs, it is functionally equivalent to
the Easy Digital VI, Write to Digital Port.
Note
If you also are using SCXI analog input modules, make sure your cabling
DAQ device is cabled to one of them.
Multi-Chassis Applications
Multiple SCXI-1000, SCXI-1000DC, or SCXI-1001 chasses can be
daisy-chained using the SCXI-1350 or SCXI-1346 multichassis cable
adapters and an MIO Series DAQ device other than the
DAQPad-MIO-16XE-50. Every module in each of the chassis must be in
multiplexed mode. Only one of the chassis will be connected directly to the
DAQ device. Also, if you are using Remote SCXI with RS-485, you can
daisy chain up to 31 chasses on a single RS-485 port. Because you can only
configure up to 16 devices on the NI-DAQ Configuration utility, you can
only have up to 16 SCXI-1200s in your system.
Note
Lab Series devices, LPM devices, DAQCard-500, 516 devices, DAQCard-700,
1200 Series (other than SCXI-1200), and DIO-24 devices do not support
multi-chassis applications.
If you use the DAQ Channel Wizard to configure your analog input
channels, you simply address channels in multiple chasses by their channel
names. Channel names can be combined, separated by commas, to measure
data from multiple modules in a daisy-chain configuration at the same time.
For example, if you have a named channel called temperature on one
module in the daisy-chain and pressure on another module in the same
daisy-chain, your channels array could be temperature, pressure. You
must enter the chasses in a sequential order in the NI-DAQ Configuration
Utility, assigning the first chassis in the chain an ID number of 1, the second
chassis an ID number of 2, and so forth.
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If you are not using the DAQ Channel Wizard, there are special
considerations for addressing the channels. When you daisy-chain multiple
chasses to a single DAQ device (non-Remote SCXI), each chassis
multiplexes all of its analog input channels into a separate onboard analog
input channel. The first chassis in the chain uses onboard channel 0, the
second chassis in the chain uses onboard channel 1, and so on. To access
channels in the second chassis, you must select the correct onboard channel
as well as the correct chassis ID. The string ob1!sc2!md1!0 means
channel 0 on the module in slot 1 of SCXI chassis 2, multiplexed into
onboard channel 1. Remember to use the correct chassis ID number from
the configuration utility and to put the jumpers from the power supply
module in the correct position for each chassis.
When an MIO/AI Series device is cabled by a ribbon cable or shielded
cable to multiple chasses, the number of reserved analog input channels
depends on the number of chasses. On MIO Series devices, lines 0, 1,
and 2 are unavailable. On MIO-E Series devices, lines 0, 1, 2, and 4 are
unavailable. For more channel information refer to the LabVIEW Online
Reference, by selecting Help»Online Reference….
When you access digital SCXI modules, you do not use onboard channels.
Therefore, if you have multiple chassis, you only have to choose the correct
SCXI chassis ID and module slot.
When you use Remote SCXI to address analog input channels, specify the
device number of the SCXI-1200 that is located in the same chassis
containing the analog input module from which you take samples.
You can perform DAQ operations on channels in multiple SCXI chassis at
the same time. For example, the first element of your channels array could
be ob0!sc1!md1!0:31, and the second element of the channels array
could be ob1!sc2!md1!0:31. Then, LabVIEW would scan 32 channels
on module 1 of SCXI chassis 1, using onboard channel 0, then the
32 channels on module 1 in SCXI chassis 2, using onboard channel 1.
Remember that the scan rate you specify is how many scans per second
LabVIEW performs. For each scan, LabVIEW reads every channel in the
channels array. One restriction is that the channel list for each module must
be consecutive.
You can practice reading channels from different chassis by using the
channel strings explained above in the Easy VIs.
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Signal Measurement Precision
22
Your SCXI module ships to you pre-calibrated for the specified accuracy
at the factory. You only need to recalibrate the module if the precision of
your signal measurement is not acceptable because of shifts in
environmental conditions.
Before learning about how to calibrate, you should understand where
LabVIEW stores your calibration constants.
Note
This chapter does not apply to the SCXI-1200. For calibration on the SCXI-1200,
you should use the 1200 Calibrate VI, which you can find in Functions»Data
Acquisition»Calibration and Configuration. If you are using an SCXI-1200 in a
Remote SCXI configuration, National Instruments recommends that you connect
directly to your parallel port to perform calibration, because it works much faster.
EEPROM—Your System’s Holding Tank for
Calibration Constants
When you calibrate your SCXI module in LabVIEW, the calibration
constants can be stored in Electronically Erasable Programmable
Read-Only Memory (EEPROM). EEPROM could be compared to a holding
tank for calibration constant information in your module’s memory. There
are 3 parts to this holding tank: the factory area, the default load area, and
the user area, shown in the following diagram.
Note
Only the SCXI-1122, SCXI-1124, SCXI-1102, and SCXI-1141 have EEPROMs.
All other SCXI modules do not store calibration constants.
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Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
(EEPROM)
Factory
Area
Note
User
Area
•
The factory area has a set of factory calibration constants already
stored in it when you receive your SCXI module. You cannot write into
the factory area, but you can read from it, so you can always access and
use these factory constants if they are appropriate for your application.
•
The default load area is where LabVIEW automatically looks to load
calibration constants the first time you access the module. When the
module is shipped, the default load area contains a copy of the factory
calibration constants.
You may overwrite the constants stored in the default load area of EEPROM with
a new set of constants using the SCXI Cal Constants VI. To learn more about this
VI, refer to Chapter 29, Calibration and Configuration VIs, in the LabVIEW
Function and VI Reference Manual, or refer to the LabVIEW Online Reference, by
selecting Help»Online Reference….
•
Note
Default Load
Area
The user area is an area for you to store your own calibration constants
that you calculate using the SCXI Cal Constants VI. You can also put
a copy of your own constants in the default load area if you want
LabVIEW to automatically load your constants for subsequent
operations. You can read and write to the user area.
You should use the user area in EEPROM to store any calibration constants that
you may need to use later. This safeguards you from accidentally overwriting your
constants in the default load area, because you will have two copies of your new
constants and you can revert to the factory constants by copying the factory area
to the default load area without wiping out your new constants entirely.
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The following sections explain how to calibrate your SCXI modules to
achieve the levels of accuracy that you desire.
Calibrating SCXI Modules
The SCXI Cal Constants VI in LabVIEW automatically calculates the
calibration constants for your module with the precision you need for your
particular application. You can find this VI in Functions»DAQ»
Calibration and Configuration. Refer to Chapter 29, Calibration and
Configuration VIs, in the LabVIEW Function and VI Reference Manual for
specifics on the SCXI Cal Constants VI and each of its parameters, or refer
to the LabVIEW Online Reference, by selecting Help»Online
Reference….
By default, calibration constants for the SCXI-1102, SCXI-1122, and
SCXI-1141 are loaded from the module EEPROM. The SCXI-1141 has
only gain adjust constants in the EEPROM; it does not have the binary
zero offset. All other analog input modules (excluding the SCXI-1102,
SCXI-1122, and SCXI-1141) do not have calibration constants by default
and do not assume any binary offset and ideal gain settings. This means you
must use one of the procedures described in the SCXI Calibration Methods
for Signal Acquisition section to store calibration constants for your module
if it is not an SCXI-1102, SCXI-1122, or SCXI-1141.
You can determine calibration constants based specifically on your
application setup, which includes your type of DAQ device, your
DAQ device settings, and your cable assembly—all combined with your
SCXI module and its configuration settings.
Note
If your SCXI module has independent gains on each channel, the calibration
constants for each channel are stored at each gain setting.
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SCXI Calibration Methods for Signal Acquisition
There are two ways you can calibrate your SCXI module—through
one-point calibration or two-point calibration. The following illustration
explains why you may need to calibrate your SCXI module.
Binary Reading
Ideal Reading
Actual Reading
Gain Error
Vos
Actual Voltage
in Binary Representation
Binary Offset
In this picture, you can see the difference between the ideal reading and the
actual reading. This difference is called Vos, or the binary offset, before the
two readings intersect. The difference in slope between the actual and ideal
readings is called the gain error.
One-point calibration removes the Vos (binary offset) by measuring a
0 volt signal and comparing the actual reading to it. Two-point calibration
removes the Vos (binary offset) and corrects gain error by first performing
a one-point calibration. Then you measure a voltage at x volts and compare
it to the actual reading. The x must be as close as possible to the full-scale
range. The following sections explain how to perform a one-point and
two-point calibration.
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One-Point Calibration
These steps show you how to perform a one-point calibration calculation in
LabVIEW. You should use one-point calibration when you only need to
adjust the binary offset in your module. If you need to adjust both the binary
offset and the gain error of your module, read the Two-Point Calibration
section later in this chapter.
Note
If you are using an AT-MIO-16F-5, AT-MIO-64F-5, AT-MIO-16X device or
an E-series device, you should calibrate your DAQ device first using either the
MIO Calibrate VI or E-Series Calibrate VI.
1.
Make sure you set the SCXI gain to the gain you want to use in your
application. If your modules have gain jumpers or DIP switches, they
must be set appropriately. Refer to your SCXI module user manual for
jumper or switch setting information. If your modules have
software-programmable gain, use the input limits parameter in the
AI Config VI to set gain.
2.
Program the module for a single-channel operation by using the
AI Config VI with the channel that you are calibrating as the channels
parameter in the VI.
3.
Ground your SCXI input channel to determine the binary zero offset.
You should ground inputs because offset can vary at different voltage
levels due to gain error. If you are using an SCXI-1100 or SCXI-1122,
you can ground your input channels without external hookups by
substituting the channel string with calgnd as the channel number.
For other modules, you need to wire the positive and negative channel
inputs together at the terminal block and wire them to the chassis
ground.
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4.
Use the AI Single Scan VI to take several readings and average them
for greater accuracy. Set the DAQ device gain settings to match the
settings you plan to use in your application. If you are using an
AT-MIO-16F-5, AT-MIO-64F-5, or AT-MIO-16X, use the MIO
Configure VI to enable dithering, which makes your averaged data
more accurate. The dither mode is always enabled on E-series devices.
By using the AI Start and AI Read VIs, instead of the AI Single Scan
VI, you can average over an integral number of 60 Hz or 50 Hz power
line cycles (sine waves) to eliminate line noise. You now have your first
volt/binary measurement: volt = 0.0 or the applied voltage at your
input channel, and binary is your binary reading or binary average.
5.
Use the SCXI Cal Constants VI with your volt/binary measurement
from step 4 as the Volt/Amp 1 and Binary 1 inputs in your VI,
respectively. (These input names may vary depending on your
application setup.) For example, if your volt/binary measurement from
step 4 was 0.00 volts and 2, then you would enter the values into your
front panel controls as shown in the following illustration.
Two-Point Calibration
These steps show you how to perform a two-point calibration calculation
in LabVIEW. You should use two-point calibration when you need to
correct both the binary offset and the gain error in your SCXI module.
Note
If you are using an AT-MIO-16F-5, AT-MIO-64F-5, or AT-MIO-16X device or
an E-series device, you should calibrate your DAQ device first using either the
MIO Calibrate VI or E-Series Calibrate VI.
Follow steps 1 through 5 in the previous section, One-Point Calibration.
6.
Now apply a known, stable, non-zero voltage to your input channel at
the terminal block. This input voltage should be close to the upper limit
of your input voltage range for the given gain setting. For example, if
your input voltage range is –5 to 5V, you would want to apply an input
voltage that is as close to 5 volts as possible, but not exceeding 5 volts.
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Note
SCXI Calibration—Increasing Signal Measurement Precision
7.
Take another binary reading or average of readings. If your binary
reading is the maximum binary reading for your DAQ device, try a
smaller input voltage. This is your second volt/binary measurement.
8.
Use the SCXI Cal Constants VI with the first volt/binary measurement
from step 4 as Volt/Amp 1 and Binary 1 inputs, and the second
measurement from step 7 as Volt/Amp 2 and Binary 2 inputs of the
VI. The following illustration shows how you should enter the values
into these inputs in LabVIEW if your volt/binary measurements are
0V/0 and 5V/2045. Keep in mind that your input names may vary
depending on your application setup.
9.
If you are using SCXI-1102 or SCXI-1122 inputs, you can save the
constants in the module user area in EEPROM. Store constants in the
user area as you are calibrating, and then use SCXI Cal Constants VI
again at the end of your calibration sequence to copy the calibration
table in the user area to the default load area in EEPROM. Remember,
constants stored in the default load area can be overwritten. If you want
to use a set of constants later, keep a copy of the constants stored in the
user area in EEPROM.
If you are storing calibration constants in the SCXI-1102 or SCXI-1122
EEPROM, your binary offset and gain adjust factors must not exceed the ranges
given in the respective module user manuals.
For other analog input modules, you must store the constants in the
memory. Unfortunately, calibration constants stored in the memory are lost
at the end of a program session. You can solve this problem by creating a
file and saving the calibration constants to this file. You can load them
again in subsequent application runs by passing them into the SCXI Cal
Constants or the Scale Constant Tuner VIs.
Repeat the above procedure for any additional channel or gain settings you
want to calibrate.
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Calibrating SCXI Modules for Signal Generation
When you output a voltage or current value to your SCXI analog output
module, LabVIEW uses the calibration constants loaded for the given
module, channel, and output range to scale the voltage or current value to
the appropriate binary value to write to the output channel. By default,
calibration constants for the SCXI-1124 are loaded into the memory from
the EEPROM default load area.
Recalibrate your SCXI analog output module by following these steps.
1.
Use the AO Single Update VI to output a binary value. If you are
calibrating a voltage output range, enter 0 in the binary array input
of the VI. If you are calibrating current range, enter 255 into the
binary array input of the VI.
2.
Measure the output voltage or current at the output channel with a
voltmeter or ammeter. This is your first volt/binary measurement:
Binary 1 = 0, and Volt/Amp 1 is the voltage or current you measured
at the output.
3.
Use the AO Single Update VI to output a binary value of 4,095.
4.
Measure the output voltage or current at the output channel. This is
your second volt/binary measurement: Binary 2 should be 4,095 and
Volt/Amp 2 is the voltage or current you measured at the output.
5.
Use SCXI Cal Constants VI with the first voltage/binary measurement
from step 2 as the Volt/Amp 1 and Binary 1 inputs and the second
measurement from step 4 as the Volt/Amp 2 and Binary 2 inputs of
the VI.
You can save the constants on the module in the user area in EEPROM. Use
the user area as you are calibrating, and then use SCXI Cal Constants VI
again at the end of your calibration sequence to copy the calibration table
in the user area to the default load area in EEPROM. Remember that
constants that are stored in the default load area can be overwritten. If you
want to use the constants later, you should store a backup copy of the
constants in the user area in EEPROM.
Repeat the procedure above for each channel and range you want to
calibrate. Subsequent analog outputs will use your new constants to scale
voltage or current to the correct binary value.
For more information on the SCXI Cal Constants VI, refer to Chapter 29,
Calibration and Configuration VIs, in the LabVIEW Function and VI
Reference Manual, or refer to the LabVIEW Online Reference, by selecting
Help»Online Reference….
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
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© National Instruments Corporation
Part VI
Counting Your Way
to High-Precision Timing
This section describes the different ways you can use counters with your
data acquisition application, including generating a pulse or pulses;
measuring pulse width, frequency, and period; counting events and
time; and dividing frequencies for precision timing.
Part VI, Counting Your Way to High-Precision Timing, contains the
following chapters:
•
Chapter 23, Things You Should Know about Counters, shows you how
to add high-precision timing to your data acquisition (DAQ) system by
using counters and explains basic counter concepts.
•
Chapter 24, Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains, describes the
ways you can generate a square pulse or multiple pulses (called pulse
trains) using the counters available on your data acquisition (DAQ)
device with the Easy, Intermediate, and Advanced Counter VIs in
LabVIEW.
•
Chapter 25, Measuring Pulse Width, describes how you can use a
counter to measure pulse width.
•
Chapter 26, Measuring Frequency and Period, describes the various
ways you can measure frequencies and periods using the counters on
your data acquisition (DAQ) device.
•
Chapter 27, Counting Signal Highs and Lows, teaches you how to use
counters to count external events or elapsed time.
•
Chapter 28, Dividing Frequencies, shows you how to divide the
available device frequencies to get the frequency you need for your
data acquisition application.
23
Things You Should Know
about Counters
Counters add counting or high-precision timing to your data acquisition
(DAQ) system. Counters respond to and output Transistor-Transistor Logic
(TTL) signals—square-pulse signals that are 0V (low) or 5V (high) in
value. The following diagram shows a TTL signal.
+5 V
Signal Transitions
or Edges
0V
Even though counters just count the signal transitions (edges) of a
TTL source signal, you can use this counting capability in many ways.
•
You can generate square TTL pulses for clock signals and triggers for
other DAQ applications.
•
You can measure the pulse width of TTL signals.
•
You can measure the frequency and period of TTL signals.
•
You can count TTL signal transitions (edges) or elapsed time.
•
You can divide the frequency of TTL signals.
The counter chapters that follow this chapter describe each of these counter
functions.
© National Instruments Corporation
23-1
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Chapter 23
Things You Should Know about Counters
Knowing the Parts of Your Counter
The following illustration shows a basic model of a counter.
GATE
OUT
Count Register
SOURCE
(CLK)
A counter consists of a SOURCE or CLK input pin, a GATE input pin, an
OUT output pin, and a count register. In plug-in device diagrams and in the
LabVIEW Function Reference and VI Reference Manual, these counter
parts are called SOURCEn (or CLKn), GATEn, and OUTn, where n is the
number of the counter.
The parts of a counter work together as follows. Signal transitions (edges)
are counted at the SOURCE input. The count register can be preloaded with
a count value, and then for each counted edge, the counter increments or
decrements the count register. The count register value always reflects the
current count of signal edges. Reading the count register does not change
its value. The GATE input can be used to control when counting occurs in
your application. You can also use a counter with no gating, allowing the
software to initiate the counting operation.
The OUT pin can be toggled according to available counter programming
modes to generate various TTL pulses and pulse trains.
Use the OUT signal of a counter to generate various TTL pulse waveforms.
If you are incrementing the count register value, you can configure the
OUT signal to either toggle signal states or pulse when the count register
reaches a certain value. The highest value of a counter is called the
terminal count (TC). If you are decrementing, the count register TC value
will be 0. If you chose to have pulsed output, then the counter outputs a high
pulse that is equal in time to one cycle of the counter’s SOURCE signal,
which can be either an internal or external signal. If you chose to have a
toggled output, the state of the output signal changes from high to low or
low to high. If you want more control over the length of high and low
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© National Instruments Corporation
Chapter 23
Things You Should Know about Counters
outputs, then you should use a toggled output. Refer to Chapter 24,
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains, for more information.
Multiple counters can be concatenated for a greater counting range on most
devices. For more information on how to concatenate counters, refer to
Chapter 27, Counting Signal Highs and Lows.
Knowing Your Counter Chip
Most National Instruments DAQ devices contain one of three different
counter chips: the DAQ-STC, the Am9513, or the 8253/54 chip. Typically,
E-series boards (for example the AT-MIO-16E-1) use the DAQ-STC chip,
legacy-type MIO boards (for example the AT-MIO-16) use the Am9513
chip, and low cost Lab/1200 type boards (for example the Lab-PC-1200)
use the 8253/54 chip. If you are not sure which chip your device uses, refer
to your hardware manual.
Rising Edge Gating
SOURCE
Counter Value
2
1
3
5
4
6
7
8
9
10
count rising SOURCE edge
4
5
6
7
8
count rising SOURCE edge
GATE
Falling Edge Gating
SOURCE
Counter Value
1
3
2
GATE
High-Level Gating
SOURCE
Counter Value
1
4
3
2
5
6
count rising SOURCE edge
GATE
Low-Level Gating
SOURCE
Counter Value
1
2
3
4
5
6
count rising SOURCE edge
GATE
Figure 23-1. Counter Gating Modes
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Chapter 23
Things You Should Know about Counters
DAQ-STC
You can configure the DAQ-STC to count either low-to-high or
high-to-low transitions of the SOURCE input. The counter has a 24-bit
count register with a counting range of 0 to 224-1. It can be configured to
increment or decrement for each counted edge. Furthermore, whether the
count register increments or decrements can be controlled with an external
digital line which is useful for encoder applications. Of the gating modes
shown in Figure 23-1, the gating modes the DAQ-STC supports depends
upon the application. You can set the configuration parameters discussed
above using the Advanced VI, CTR Mode Config.vi.
Am9513
You can configure the Am9513 to count either low-to-high or high-to-low
transitions of the SOURCE input. The counter has a 16-bit count register
with a counting range of 0 to 65535, and can be configured to increment or
decrement for each counted edge. The Am9513 supports all of the gating
modes shown in Figure 23-1. You can set the configuration parameters
discussed above using the Advanced VI, CTR Mode Config.vi.
8253/54
The 8253/54 chip counts low-to-high transitions of the CLK input. The
counter has a 16-bit count register with a counting range of 65535 to 0
that decrements for each counted edge. Of the gating modes shown in
Figure 23-1, the 8253/54 supports only High Level Gating. For single pulse
output, the 8253/54 can only create negative polarity pulses. For this
reason, some applications require the use of a 7404 inverter chip to produce
a positive pulse. The 14-pin 7404 is a common chip available from many
electronics stores, and can be powered with the 5 volts available on most
DAQ boards. Figure 23-2 shows how to wire a 7404 chip to invert a signal.
Figure 23-2. Wiring a 7404 Chip to Invert a TTL Signal
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© National Instruments Corporation
Chapter 23
Things You Should Know about Counters
For specific information about the Counter VIs in LabVIEW, refer to
Chapter 14, Introduction to the LabVIEW Data Acquisition VIs, in the
LabVIEW Function and VI Reference Manual, or the LabVIEW Online
Reference, available by selecting Help»Online Reference….
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
24
Generating a Square Pulse
or Pulse Trains
This chapter describes the ways you can generate a square pulse or multiple
pulses (called pulse trains) using the counters available on your data
acquisition (DAQ) device with the example VIs in LabVIEW.
Generating a Square Pulse
There are many applications where you may need to generate TTL pulses.
TTL pulses can be used as clock signals, gates, and triggers. You can use a
pulse train of known frequency to determine an unknown TTL pulse width.
You also can use a single pulse of known duration to determine an
unknown TTL signal frequency, or use a single pulse to trigger an analog
acquisition.
There are two basic types of counter signal generation—toggled and
pulsed. When a counter reaches a certain value, a counter configured for
toggled output changes the state of the output signal, while a counter
configured for pulsed output outputs a single pulse. The width of the pulse
is equal to one cycle of the counter’s SOURCE signal.
The following is a list of terms you should know before outputting a pulse
or pulse train using LabVIEW.
•
phase 1 refers to the first phase or delay to the pulse.
•
phase 2 refers to the second phase or the pulse itself.
•
period is the sum of phase 1 and phase 2.
•
Frequency is the reciprocal of the period (1/period).
•
In LabVIEW, you can adjust and control the times of phase 1 and
phase 2 in your counting operation. You do this by specifying a duty
cycle. The duty cycle equals:
phase 2
---------------------,
period
© National Instruments Corporation
24-1
where period = phase 1 + phase 2
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
Examples of various duty cycles are shown in Figure 24-1. The first line
shows a duty cycle of 0.5, where, phase 1 and phase 2 are the same
duration. A signal with a 0.5 duty cycle acts as a SOURCE for counter
operations. The second line shows a duty cycle of 0.1, where phase 1 has
increased and phase 2 has decreased. The final line shows a large duty
cycle of 0.9 where phase 1 is very short and the phase 2 duration is longer.
counter starts
phase 1
phase 2
Duty Cycle = 0.5
Duty Cycle = 0.1
Duty Cycle = 0.9
Figure 24-1. Pulse Duty Cycles
Note
A high duty cycle denotes a long pulse phase relative to the delay phase.
How you generate a square pulse varies depending upon which counter
chip your DAQ hardware has. Most National Instruments DAQ devices
contain one of three different counter chips: the DAQ-STC, the Am9513,
or the 8253/54 chip. If you are unsure which chip your device uses, refer to
your hardware documentation.
DAQ-STC and Am9513
When generating a pulse or pulse train with the DAQ-STC or
Am9513 chip, you can define the polarity of the signal as positive or
negative. Figure 24-2 shows these pulse polarities. Notice that for a signal
with a positive polarity, the initial state is low, while a signal with negative
polarity has a positive initial state.
Positive Polarity
Negative Polarity
Figure 24-2. Positive and Negative Pulse Polarity
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Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
Each counter-generated pulse consists of two parts—phase 1 and phase 2.
If the counter is configured to output a signal with positive polarity and
toggled output, as shown in the following diagram, the period of time
from when the counter starts counting to the first rising edge is called
phase 1. The time between the rising and the following falling edge is
called phase 2. If you configure the counter to generate a continuous pulse
train, the counter repeats this process many times as shown on the bottom
line of Figure 24-3.
counter starts
phase 1
phase 2
Single Pulse
phase 1
phase 2
phase 1
phase 2
Pulse Train
Figure 24-3. Pulses Created with Positive Polarity and Toggled Output
8253/54
When generating a pulse with the 8253/54 chip, the hardware limits you
to a negative polarity pulse, as shown in Figure 24-2. The period of time
from when the counter starts counting to the falling edge is called phase 1.
The time between the falling and following rising edge is called phase 2.
Figure 24-4 shows these phases for a single negative polarity pulse. If you
need to create a positive polarity pulse, you can connect your negative
polarity pulse to an external 7404 inverter chip.
counter starts
phase 1
phase 2
Figure 24-4. Phases of a Single Negative Polarity Pulse
When generating a pulse train with the 8253/54 chip, the hardware limits
you to positive polarity pulses. Furthermore, the value loaded in the count
register is divided equally to create phase 1 and phase 2. This means you
will always get a 0.5 duty cycle if the count register is loaded with an even
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
number. If you load the count register with an odd number, phase 1 will be
longer than phase 2 by one cycle of the counter’s CLK signal.
Now that you know the terms involving generating a single square pulse or
a pulse train, you can learn about the LabVIEW VIs, and the physical
connections needed to implement your application.
Generating a Single Square Pulse
When do you need to generate a single square pulse? A single pulse can
be used to trigger analog acquisition or to gate another counter operation.
A single pulse can also be used to stimulate a device or circuit for which
you need to acquire and test the response.
DAQ-STC, Am9513
Figure 24-5 shows two ways to connect your counter to generate a square
pulse. In the Basic Connection, the edges of the internal SOURCE signal
are counted to generate the output signal, the GATE is not used (software
start) and the pulse signal on the OUT pin gets connected to your device.
The Optional Connections use an external SOURCE from your device and
is gated by your device. You can use either or both of these options.
Basic Connection
SOURCE
OUT
Your Device
Count Register
GATE
Optional Connections
SOURCE
Your Device
OUT
Count Register
Your Device
GATE
Figure 24-5. Physical Connections for Generating a Square Pulse
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
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© National Instruments Corporation
Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
Figure 24-6 shows the diagram of the Delayed Pulse-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI
located in labview\examples\daq\counter\DAQ-STC.llb. You
could also use the example Delayed Pulse-Easy (9513) VI located in
labview\examples\daq\counter\Am9513.llb. These examples use
the Easy level Generate Delayed Pulse VI.
The Generate Delayed Pulse VI, found in Functions»Data Acquisition»
Counter, tells your device to generate a single delayed pulse. This VI is
self-contained and checks for errors automatically. With the Generate
Delayed Pulse VI, you must connect the pulse delay (phase 1) and
pulse width (phase 2) controls to define the output pulse. Sometimes the
actual pulse delay and pulse width are not the same as you specified.
Figure 24-6. Diagram of Delayed Pulse-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI
If you need more control over when the counter begins generating a single
square pulse, use Intermediate VIs instead of the Easy VIs. Figure 24-7
shows the diagram of the Delayed Pulse-Int (DAQ-STC) VI located in
labview\examples\daq\counter\DAQ-STC.llb. You can also use
the example Delayed Pulse-Int (9513) VI located in labview\examples\
daq\counter\Am9513.llb. These examples show how to generate a
single pulse using Intermediate level VIs. The Delayed Pulse Generator
Config VI configures the counter and the Counter Start VI generates the
TTL signal. An example of this is generating a pulse as a result of meeting
certain conditions. If you used the Easy Counter VI, the VI configures and
then immediately starts the pulse generation. With the Intermediate VIs,
you can configure the counter long before the actual pulse generation
begins. As soon as you want a pulse to be generated, the counter can
immediately begin without having to configure the counter. In this
situation, using Intermediate VIs improves performance.
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
Figure 24-7. Diagram of Delayed Pulse-Int (DAQ-STC) VI
You must stop the counter if you want to use it for other purposes. For
more information on stopping counters, refer to the Stopping Counter
Generations section at the end of this chapter.
8253/54
The example Delayed Pulse (8253) VI located in labview\examples\
daq\counter\8253.llb shows how to generate a negative polarity
pulse. Due to the nature of the 8253/54 chip, three counters are used to
generate this pulse. Since only Counter 0 is internally connected to a clock
source, it is used to generate the timebase. Counter 1 is used to create the
pulse delay which gates Counter 2. Counter 2 is used to generate the
pulse, which occurs on the OUT pin. Using multiple counters requires
external wiring which is shown in Figure 24-8 as well as being described
on the front panel of the VI.
Figure 24-8. External Connections Diagram from the Front Panel
of Delayed Pulse (8253) VI
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© National Instruments Corporation
Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
This example uses a sequence structure to divide the basic tasks involved.
Figure 24-9 shows frame 0 of the sequence where all of the counters
are reset. Notice that counters 1 and 2 are reset so their output states start
out high.
Figure 24-9. Frame 0 of Delayed Pulse (8253) VI
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
Figure 24-10 shows frame 1 of the sequence where the counters are set up
for different counting modes. Counter 0 is set up to generate a timebase
using the ICTR Timebase Generator subVI. Counter 1 is set up to toggle
its output (low-to-high) when it reaches terminal count (TC). This toggled
output is used to gate Counter 2. Counter 2 is set up to output a low pulse
when its gate goes high.
Figure 24-10. Frame 1 of Delayed Pulse (8253) VI
Figure 24-11 shows frame 2 of the sequence where a delay occurs so the
delayed pulse has time to complete before the example can be run again.
This is useful if the example is used as a subVI that is called repeatedly.
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
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© National Instruments Corporation
Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
Figure 24-11. Frame 2 of Delayed Pulse (8253) VI
While this example works well for most pulses, it does have limitations
when your pulse delay gets very short (in the microsecond range), or
when the ratio of pulse delay to pulse width gets very large. For a
complete description of this example, refer to the information found in
Windows»Show VI Info….
Generating a Pulse Train
There are two types of pulse trains: continuous and finite. You can use a
continuous pulse train as the SOURCE (CLK) of another counter or as the
clock for analog acquisition (or generation). You can use a finite pulse train
as the clock of an analog acquisition that acquires a predetermined number
of points, or to provide a finite clock to an external circuit.
Generating a Continuous Pulse Train
How you generate a continuous pulse varies depending upon which counter
chip your DAQ hardware has. Most National Instruments DAQ devices
contain one of three different counter chips: the DAQ-STC, the Am9513,
or the 8253/54 chip. If you are not sure which chip your device uses, refer
to your hardware manual.
© National Instruments Corporation
24-9
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
DAQ-STC, Am9513
Figure 24-12 shows how to connect your counter and device to generate a
continuous pulse train. The edges of the internal source signal are counted
to generate the output signal. You obtain the continuous pulse train for your
external device from the counter’s OUT pin. You can optionally gate the
operation with a signal connected to the GATE input pin. Instead of having
an internal timebase as your SOURCE, you can connect an external signal.
counter
your
device
source
out
gate
your
device
Figure 24-12. Physical Connections for Generating a Continuous Pulse Train
Figure 24-13 shows the diagram of the Cont Pulse Train-Easy (DAQ-STC)
VI located in labview\examples\daq\counter\DAQ-STC.llb.
You can also use the example Cont Pulse Train-Easy (9513) VI located
in labview\examples\daq\counter\Am9513.llb. These examples
show how to use the Easy Counter VI, Generate Pulse Train, to specify the
frequency, duty cycle, and pulse polarity of your pulse train. The number
of pulses parameter defaults to 0 for continuous generation. When you
press the STOP button, the while loop stops and a second call to Generate
Pulse Train with the number of pulses set to –1 stops the counter.
Figure 24-13. Diagram of Cont Pulse Train-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI
If you are generating a pulse train and want more control over when the
counter starts, use the Intermediate VIs. Figure 24-14 shows the diagram
of the Cont Pulse Train-Int (DAQ-STC) VI located in labview\
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
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© National Instruments Corporation
Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
examples\daq\counter\DAQ-STC.llb. You could also use the
example Cont Pulse Train-Int (9513) VI located in labview\examples\
daq\counter\Am9513.llb. These examples show how to generate a
simple pulse train using Intermediate VIs.
Figure 24-14. Diagram of Cont Pulse Train-Int (DAQ-STC) VI
With this VI you can specify the frequency, duty cycle, and pulse polarity
of your pulse train. If the duty cycle is set to 0.0 or 1.0, the closest
achievable duty cycle is used to generate a train of positive or negative
pulses. The Continuous Pulse Generator Config VI configures the counter
for the operation and the Counter Start VI controls the initiation of the pulse
train. For example, you may want to generate a continuous pulse train as
the result of meeting certain conditions. If you use the Easy VI, the pulse
train starts immediately. With the Intermediate VIs you can configure the
counter at the beginning of your application, then wait to call Counter Start
after the conditions are met. This approach will improve performance.
When the STOP button is pressed, the while loop stops and Counter Stop
is called to stop the pulse train.
You must stop the counter if you want to use it for other purposes. For
more information on stopping counters, refer to the Stopping Counter
Generations section at the end of this chapter.
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
8253/54
Figure 24-15 shows how to connect your counter and device to generate a
continuous pulse train. If you use counter 0, an internal source is counted
to generate the output signal. If you use counter 1 or 2, you will need to
connect your own source to the CLK pin. You obtain the continuous pulse
train for your external device from the counter's OUT pin.
Figure 24-15. External Connections Diagram from the Front Panel
of Cont Pulse Train (8253) VI
Figure 24-16 shows the diagram of the Cont Pulse Train (8253) VI located
in labview\examples\daq\counter\8253.llb. This example shows
how to use the Generate Pulse Train (8253) VI to generate a continuous
pulse train. When using Counter 0 with this VI, you can specify the desired
frequency. The actual frequency shows the closest frequency to your
desired frequency that the counter was able to achieve. The actual duty
cycle will be as close to 0.5 as possible for your actual frequency. When
using Counter 1 or Counter 2, you specify the divisor factor N to be used
to divide your supplied source. You can optionally enter the user supplied
timebase if you want the VI to calculate your actual frequency and actual
duty cycle. When the STOP button is pressed, the while loop stops and a
call to ICTR Control resets the counter, stopping the generation. For a
complete description of this example, refer to the information found in
Windows»Show VI Info….
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
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© National Instruments Corporation
Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
Figure 24-16. Diagram of Cont Pulse Train (8253) VI
Generating a Finite Pulse Train
How you generate a finite pulse varies depending upon which counter chip
your DAQ hardware has. Most National Instruments DAQ devices contain
one of three different counter chips: the DAQ-STC, the Am9513, or the
8253/54 chip. If you are not sure which chip your device uses, refer to your
hardware manual.
You can use the Easy I/O VI, Generate Pulse Train, or a stream of
Intermediate VIs to generate a finite pulse train. With either technique,
you must use two counters as shown in the connection diagram in
Figure 24-17. Refer to Chapter 27, Counting Signal Highs and Lows, for
more information on how to determine counter-1 and how to use the
adjacent counter VI. The maximum number of pulses in the pulse train is
216 – 1, for Am9513 devices and 224 – 1 for DAQ-STC devices.
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
Figure 24-17 shows the physical connections to produce a finite pulse train
on the OUT pin of a counter. counter generates the finite pulse train with
high-level gating. counter-1 provides counter with a long enough gate
pulse to output the number of desired pulses. You must externally connect
the OUT pin of the counter-1 to the GATE pin of counter. You also can
gate counter-1.
Figure 24-17. Physical Connections for Generating a Finite Pulse Train
DAQ-STC, Am9513
Figure 24-18 shows the diagram of the Finite Pulse Train-Easy
(DAQ-STC) VI located in labview\examples\daq\counter\
DAQ-STC.llb. You can also use the example Finite Pulse Train-Easy
(9513) VI located in labview\examples\daq\counter\Am9513.llb.
These examples show how to use the Easy counter VI, Generate Pulse
Train, to generate a finite pulse train. With this VI you can specify the
number of pulses, frequency, duty cycle, and pulse polarity of your pulse
train. The Wait+(ms) VI is used as a delay before the counters are reset. The
Intermediate VI, Counter Stop, is called twice to stop the counters.
Figure 24-18. Diagram of Finite Pulse Train-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI
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Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
You can also create a finite pulse train using Intermediate VIs. Figure 24-19
shows the diagram of the Finite Pulse Train-Int (DAQ-STC) VI located in
labview\examples\daq\counter\DAQ-STC.llb. You could also use
the example Finite Pulse Train-Int (9513) VI located in
labview\examples\daq\counter\Am9513.llb. These examples
show how to use the Intermediate VIs Continuous Pulse Generator Config
and Delayed Pulse Generator Config.
Figure 24-19. Diagram of Finite Pulse Train-Int (DAQ-STC) VI
In this operation, you use counter to generate a continuous pulse train with
level gating while using counter-1 to generate a minimum delayed pulse
to gate the counter long enough to generate the desired number of pulses.
The Continuous Pulse Generator Config VI configures counter to
generate a continuous pulse train. Then, the Delayed Pulse Generator
Config VI configures counter-1 to generate a single delayed pulse. The
first Counter Start VI in the flow begins the continuous pulse generation
and the next Counter Start VI generates a pulse after a specified time.
The gate mode must be specified as level-gating on the Continuous Pulse
Generator Config VI in order for the counter to wait for the gate signal
from counter-1. The gate mode for the Delayed Pulse Generator Config VI
can be set to a single or multiple edges. In other words, you could produce
one finite pulse train or multiple pulse trains. The GATE signal for
counter-1 can be from an external device or from another counter on
your DAQ device.
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
DAQ-STC
With the DAQ-STC chip, you have the ability to internally route the OUT
of one counter to the GATE of the next higher order counter, as shown in
Figure 24-20. You can optionally GATE counter-1. Notice that while you
still use two counters, you do not need to externally wire between the OUT
of counter-1 and the GATE of counter.
Figure 24-20. External Connections Diagram from the Front Panel
of Finite Pulse Train Adv (DAQ-STC) VI
The example Finite Pulse Train-Adv (DAQ-STC) VI located in
labview\examples\daq\counter\DAQ-STC.llb takes advantage of
this internal wiring. Figure 24-21 shows the diagram of this example,
which uses the Advanced counter VIs. The top row of counter VIs sets
up counter to output a pulse train. Notice that the gate source input to
the CTR Mode Config VI is set to output of next lower order
counter. This sets the internal wiring such that counter will be gated by
counter-1. The bottom row of counter VIs sets up counter-1 to output a
single pulse. The width of the pulse is calculated so it gates counter just
long enough to output the chosen number of pulses. For a complete
description of this example, refer to the information found in
Windows»Show VI Info….
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Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
Figure 24-21. Diagram of Finite Pulse Train-Adv (DAQ-STC) VI
8253/54
Generating a finite pulse train with the 8253/54 chip uses all three counters.
Figure 24-22 shows how to externally connect your counters. Since
counter 0 is internally connected to a clock source, it is used to generate
the timebase used by counter 1 and counter 2. counter 1 generates a single
low pulse used to gate counter 2. Since counter 2 must be gated with a
high pulse, the output of counter 1 is passed through a 7404 inverter chip
prior to being connected to the GATE of counter 2. counter 2 is set up to
generate a pulse train at its OUT pin.
Figure 24-22. External Connections Diagram from the Front Panel
of Finite Pulse Train (8253) VI
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
The example Finite Pulse Train (8253) VI located in labview\
examples\daq\counter\8253.llb shows how to generate a finite
pulse train. This example uses a sequence structure to divide the basic tasks
involved. Figure 24-23 shows frame 0 of the sequence where all of the
counters are reset. Notice counter 1 is reset so its output state starts high.
Figure 24-23. Frame 0 of Finite Pulse Train (8253) VI
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Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
Figure 24-24 shows frame 1 of the sequence where the counters are set up
for different counting modes. Counter 0 is set up to generate a timebase
using the ICTR Timebase Generator VI. Counter 1 is set up to output a
single low pulse using the ICTR Control VI. Counter 2 is set up to output
a pulse train using the ICTR Timebase Generator VI.
Figure 24-24. Frame 1 of Finite Pulse Train (8253) VI
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
Figure 24-25 shows frame 2 of the sequence where a delay occurs so that
the finite pulse train has time to complete before the example can be run
again. This is useful if the example is used as a subVI where it may get
called over and over. For a complete description of this example, refer to
the information found in Windows»Show VI Info….
Figure 24-25. Frame 2 of Finite Pulse Train (8253) VI
Counting Operations When All Your Counters Are Used
The DAQ-STC and Am9513 have counting operations available even
when all the counters have been used.
DAQ-STC devices feature a FREQ_OUT pin and Am9513 devices feature
an FOUT pin. On these pins you can generate a 0.5 duty cycle square wave
without using any of the available counters.
The CTR Control VI, found in Functions»Data Acquisition»Counters»
Advanced Counters, enables and disables the FOUT signal and sets the
square wave frequency. The square wave frequency is defined by the
FOUT timebase signal divided by the FOUT divisor. The front panel and
block diagram below show an FOUT output configured to generate a
25,000 Hz square wave.
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Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
Figure 24-26. CTR Control VI Front Panel and Block Diagram
You can also refer to the Generate Pulse Train on FREQ_OUT VI located
in examples\daq\counter\DAQ-STC.llb, or the Generate Pulse Train
on FOUT VI located in examples\daq\counter\Am9513.llb. These
examples generate a pulse train on these outputs.
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
Knowing the Accuracy of Your Counters
When you generate a waveform, there can be an uncertainty of up to one
timebase period between the start signal and the first counted edge of the
timebase. This is due to the uncertainty in the exact relation of the start
signal, which the software calls or the gate signal supplies to the first edge
of the timebase, as shown in Figures 24-27.
1 timebase period
timebase
starting
signal
phase 1
phase 2
output
uncertainty of
1 timebase period
Figure 24-27. Uncertainty of One Timebase Period
8253/54
In addition to the above uncertainty, the 8253/54 chip has an additional
uncertainty when used in mode 0. Mode 0 generates a low pulse for a
chosen number of clock cycles, but a software delay is involved. This
delay is because with mode 0 the counter output is set low by a software
write to the mode setting. Afterward the count can be loaded and the
counter starts counting down. The time between setting the output to low
and loading the count is included in the output pulse. This time was found
to be 20 microseconds when tested on a 200 MHz Pentium computer.
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Chapter 24
Generating a Square Pulse or Pulse Trains
Stopping Counter Generations
You can stop a counting operation in several ways. You can restart a
counter for the same operation it just completed, you can reconfigure it to
do something else, or you can call a specific VI to stop it. All of these
methods allow you to use counters for different operations without
resetting the entire board.
DAQ-STC, Am9513
Figure 24-28 shows how to stop a counter using the Intermediate VI,
Counter Stop. Notice that the Wait+ (ms) VI is called before Counter Stop.
The Wait+ (ms) VI allows you to wire a time delay so that the previous
counter operation has time to complete before the Counter Stop VI is
called. The Wait+ (ms) and Counter Stop VIs are located in
Functions»Data Acquisition»Counter»Intermediate Counter.
Figure 24-28. Using the Generate Delayed Pulse and Stopping the Counting Operation
To stop a generated pulse train, another Generate Pulse Train VI can
be used with the number of pulses input set to –1. Figure 24-29 shows
an example of this. This example expects that a pulse train is already
being generated. The call to Generate Pulse Train VI stops the counter,
and the call to Generate Delayed Pulse VI sets the counter up for a
different operation.
Figure 24-29. Stopping a Generated Pulse Train
8253/54
Calling ICTR Control VI with a control code of 7 (reset) can stop a counter
on the 8253/54 chip. Examples are shown in Figures 24-9 and 24-23.
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
25
Measuring Pulse Width
This chapter describes how you can use a counter to measure pulse width.
There are several reasons you may need to determine pulse width. For
example, if you need to determine the duration of an event, you would want
your application to measure the width of a pulse that occurs during that
event. Another example is determining the interval between two events. In
this case, you would measure the pulse width between the two events. An
example of when you might use this type of application is determining the
time interval between two boxes on a conveyor belt or the time it takes one
box to be processed through an operation. The event would be an edge
every time a box goes by a point, which prompts a digital signal to change
in value.
Measuring a Pulse Width
You can measure an unknown pulse width by counting the number of
pulses of a faster known frequency that occur during the pulse to be
measured. Connect the pulse you want to measure to the GATE input pin
and a signal of known frequency to the SOURCE (CLK) input pin, as
shown in Figure 25-1. The pulse of unknown width (Tpw) gates the counter
configured to count a timebase clock of known period (Ts). The pulse width
equals the timebase period times the count, or: Tpw = Ts × count. The
SOURCE (CLK) input can be an external or internal signal.
GATE
OUT
Tpw
Count Register
frequency
source
SOURCE
(CLK)
Ts
Figure 25-1. Counting Input Signals to Determine Pulse Width
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 25
Measuring Pulse Width
An internal signal is based upon the type of counter chip on your
DAQ device. With DAQ-STC devices, you have a choice between internal
timebases of 20 MHz and 100 kHz. With Am9513 devices, you can choose
internal timebases of 1 MHz, 100 kHz, 10 kHz, 1 kHz, and 100 Hz.
With 8253/54 devices, the internal timebase is either 2 MHz or 1 MHz,
depending on which board you have.
Figure 25-2 shows how to physically connect the counter on your device to
measure pulse width.
counter
your
device
source
out
gate
Figure 25-2. Physical Connections for Determining Pulse Width
Determining Pulse Width
How you determine a pulse width depends upon which counter chip is
on your DAQ device. If you are uncertain of which counter chip your
DAQ device has, refer to your hardware manual.
DAQ-STC
Figure 25-3 shows the diagram of the Measure Pulse-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI
located in labview\examples\daq\counter\DAQ-STC.llb, which
uses the Easy VI, Measure Pulse Width or Period.
Figure 25-3. Diagram of Measure Pulse Width (DAQ-STC) VI
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Chapter 25
Measuring Pulse Width
The Measure Pulse Width or Period VI counts the number of cycles of the
specified timebase, depending on your choice from the type of
measurement menu located on the front panel of the VI. The type of
measurement menu choices for this VI are shown in Figure 25-4.
Figure 25-4. Menu Choices for Type of Measurement
for the Measure Pulse Width or Period(DAQ-STC) VI
Use the first two menu choices when you want to measure the width of a
single pulse. In these cases, the GATE of the counter must start out in the
opposite phase of the pulse you want to measure. For example, if you
choose measure high pulse width of a single pulse, the GATE must start
out low when you run the VI. If you attempt to measure a single high pulse,
and the GATE is already high (such as in the middle of a pulse train) when
you run the VI, an error will occur.
Use the last two menu choices when you want to measure the width of a
single pulse within a train of multiple pulses. In these cases, it is the
previous GATE transition which arms the counter to measure the next
pulse. For example, if you choose measure one high pulse width of
multiple pulses, the first high-to-low GATE transition from one pulse
would arm the counter to measure the very next pulse.
The timebase you choose determines how long a pulse you can measure
with the 24-bit counter. For example, the 100 kHz timebase allows you to
measure a pulse up to 224 × 10µs = 167 seconds long. The 20 MHz timebase
allows you to measure a pulse up to 838 ms long. For a complete
description of this example, refer to the information found in
Windows»Show VI Info….
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 25
Measuring Pulse Width
Am9513
Figure 25-5 shows the diagram of the Measure Pulse-Easy (9513) VI
located in labview\examples\daq\counter\Am9513.llb, which
uses the Easy VI, Measure Pulse Width or Period.
Figure 25-5. Diagram of Measure Pulse Width (9513) VI
The Measure Pulse Width or Period VI counts the number of cycles of the
specified timebase, depending on your choice from the type of
measurement menu located on the front panel of the VI. The type of
measurement menu choices for this VI are shown in Figure 25-6.
Figure 25-6. Menu Choices for Type of Measurement
for the Measure Pulse Width or Period (9513) VI
Either menu choice can be used to measure the width of a single pulse, or
to measure a pulse within a train of multiple pulses. However, the pulse
must occur after the counter starts. This means it may be difficult to
measure a pulse within a fast pulse train. This is because the counter uses
high level gating. If the counter is started in the middle of a pulse, it will
measure the remaining width of that pulse.
The timebase you choose determines how long a pulse you can measure
with the 16-bit counter. For example, the 100 Hz timebase allows you to
measure a pulse up to 216 × 10ms = 655 seconds long. The 1 MHz timebase
allows you to measure a pulse up to 65 ms long. Since a faster timebase
yields a more accurate pulse width measurement, it is best to use the fastest
timebase possible without the counter reaching terminal count (TC).
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Chapter 25
Measuring Pulse Width
The valid? output of the example VI indicates whether the counter
measured the pulse without overflowing (reaching TC). However, valid?
does not tell you whether a whole pulse was measured when measuring a
pulse within a pulse train. For a complete description of this example, refer
to the information found in Windows»Show VI Info….
8253/54
Figure 25-7 shows the diagram of the Measure Short Pulse Width
(8253) VI located in labview\examples\daq\counter\8253.llb.
Figure 25-7. Diagram of Measure Short Pulse Width (8253) VI
This VI counts the number of cycles of the internal timebase of Counter 0
to measure a high pulse width. You can measure a single pulse or a pulse
within a train of multiple pulses. However, the pulse must occur after the
counter starts. This means it may be difficult to measure a pulse within a
fast pulse train because the counter uses high level gating. If you want to
measure a low pulse width, you need to insert a 7404 inverter chip between
your pulse source and the GATE input of counter 0.
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Chapter 25
Measuring Pulse Width
On the example diagram, the first call to ICTR Control VI sets up
counting mode 4, which tells the counter to count down while the gate input
is high. The Get Timebase (8253) VI is used to get the timebase of your
DAQ device. A DAQ device with an 8253/54 counter has an internal
timebase of either 1 MHz or 2 MHz, depending on the device. Inside the
while loop, ICTR Control VI is called to continually read the count register
until one of four conditions are met:
1.
The count register value has decreased, but is no longer changing
(it is finished measuring the pulse).
2.
The count register value is greater than the previously read value
(an overflow has occurred).
3.
An error has occurred.
4.
Your chosen time limit has been reached.
After the while loop, the final count is subtracted from the originally loaded
count of 65535 and multiplied by the timebase period to yield the pulse
width. Finally, the last ICTR Control VI resets the counter. Notice that this
VI uses only Counter 0. If Counter 0 has an internal timebase of 2 MHz,
the maximum pulse width you can measure is 216 × 0.5 µs = 32 ms. For a
complete description of this example, refer to the information found in
Windows»Show VI Info….
Controlling Your Pulse Width Measurement
How you control your pulse width measurement depends upon which
counter chip is on your DAQ device. If you are uncertain of which counter
chip you DAQ device has, refer to your hardware manual.
DAQ-STC or Am9513
Figure 25-8 shows one approach to measuring pulse width using the
Intermediate VIs Pulse Width or Period Meas Config, Counter Start,
Counter Read, Counter Stop. You can use these VIs to control when the
measurement of the pulse widths begins and ends. The Pulse Width or
Period Config VI configures a counter to count the number of cycles of a
known internal timebase. The Counter Start VI begins the measurement.
The Counter Read VI determines if the measurement is complete and
displays the count value. After the while loop is stopped, the Counter
Stop VI stops the counter operation. Finally, the General Error Handler VI
notifies you of any errors.
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Chapter 25
Measuring Pulse Width
Figure 25-8. Measuring Pulse Width with Intermediate VIs
Buffered Pulse and Period Measurement
With the DAQ-STC chip, LabVIEW provides a buffer for counter
operations. You would typically use buffered counter operations when you
have a gate signal to trigger a counter several times. Figure 25-9 shows the
diagram of the Meas Buffered Pulse-Period (DAQ-STC) VI located in
labview\examples\daq\DAQ-STC.llb.
Figure 25-9. Diagram of Meas Buffered Pulse-Period (DAQ-STC).vi
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 25
Measuring Pulse Width
With this example, you can perform four types of buffered measurements:
1.
Buffered period measurement, which measures a number of periods in
a pulse train.
2.
Buffered semi-period measurement, which measures a number of high
and low pulse in a pulse train.
3.
Buffered pulse width measurement, which measures a number of high
or low pulses in a pulse train.
4.
Buffered counting, where each rising edge loads the current count into
a finite buffer.
This example uses a single buffer—circular buffering is not supported.
The diagram uses the following Advanced VIs: CTR Group Config,
CTR Buffer Config, CTR Mode Config, CTR Control, and CTR Buffer
Read. CTR Group Config takes the counter and device and sets up a
taskID. CTR Buffer Config sets up a finite buffer whose size is determined
by the value you enter in counts per buffer. CTR Mode Config determines
what type of counting operation to perform based on your choices for gate
parameters and config mode. CTR Control starts the counting operation,
but does not return until the counting has completed. CTR Buffer Read
reads the buffer of data and returns the values to buffered counts. The
buffered times are determined by dividing the counts by your chosen
timebase. For a complete description of this example, refer to the
information found in Windows»Show VI Info….
Increasing Your Measurable Width Range
The maximum counting range of a counter, together with the chosen
internal timebase, determine how long of a pulse width can be measured.
Remember the internal timebase acts as the SOURCE. When measuring the
pulse width of a signal, you count the number of source edges that occur
during the pulse being measured. The counted number of SOURCE edges
cannot exceed the counting range of the counter. Slower internal timebases
allow you to measure longer pulse widths, but faster timebases give you a
more accurate pulse width measurement. If you need a slower timebase
than is available on your counter as shown in Table 25-1, you can set up an
additional counter for pulse train generation and use the OUT of that
counter as the SOURCE of the counter measuring pulse width.
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Chapter 25
Measuring Pulse Width
Table 25-1. Internal Counter Timebases and Their Corresponding
Maximum Pulse Width Measurements
Counter Type
DAQ-STC
Am9513
8253/54
Internal
Timebases
Maximum Pulse Width
Measurement
20 MHz
838 ms
100 kHz
167 s
1 MHz
65 ms
100 kHz
655 ms
10 kHz
6.5 s
1 kHz
65 s
100 Hz
655 s
2 MHz*
32 ms
1 MHz*
65 ms
*A DAQ device with an 8253/54 counter will have one of these internal timebases
available on counter 0, but not both.
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
26
Measuring Frequency
and Period
This chapter describes the various ways you can measure frequencies and
periods of TTL signals using the counters on your data acquisition (DAQ)
device. One cycle of a signal, known as the period, is measured in units of
time — usually seconds. The inverse of period is frequency, which is
measured in cycles per second or hertz (Hz). The rate of your signal and the
type of counter on your DAQ device determine whether you use frequency
or period measurement. An example of when you would want to know the
frequency of a signal is if you need to monitor the shaft speed of the motor.
Knowing How and When to Measure
Frequency and Period
A common way to measure the frequency of a signal is to measure the
number of pulses that occur during a known time period. For example,
Figure 26-1 illustrates the measurement of a pulse train of an unknown
frequency (fs) by using a pulse of a known width (TG). The frequency of
the waveform equals the count divided by the known pulse width
(frequency = count/TG). The period is always the reciprocal of the
measured frequency (period = 1/fs). You typically use frequency
measurement for high frequency signals where the signal to be measured
is approaching or faster than the chosen internal timebase.
GATE
TG
pulse of known width
OUT
Count Register
SOURCE (CLK)
input of unknown
frequency, fs
Figure 26-1. Measuring Square Wave Frequency
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Chapter 26
Measuring Frequency and Period
DAQ-STC, Am9513
For period measurement, you count the number of pulses of a known
frequency (fs) during one period of the signal to be measured. As shown in
Figure 26-2, the signal of a known frequency is connected to the SOURCE,
and the signal to be measured is connected to the GATE. The period is the
count divided by the known frequency (TG = count/fs).
GATE
OUT
TG
Count Register
SOURCE
input of known
frequency, fs
Figure 26-2. Measuring a Square Wave Period
You typically use period measurement for low frequency signals where
the signal to be measured is significantly slower than the chosen internal
timebase. The internal timebases for the DAQ-STC are 20 MHz and
100 kHz. The internal timebases for the Am9513 are 1 MHz, 100 kHz,
10 kHz, 1 kHz, and 100 Hz. Whether you use period measurement or
frequency measurement, you can always obtain the other measurement by
taking the inverse of the current one as shown in the following equations.
1
period measurement = -----------------------------------------------------------frequency measurement
1
frequency measurement = --------------------------------------------------period measurement
8253/54
The 8253/54 chip does not support period measurement, but you can use
frequency measurement for a pulse train and take the inverse to get the
period. The frequency examples discussed in this chapter calculate the
period for you.
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Chapter 26
Measuring Frequency and Period
Connecting Counters to Measure Frequency and Period
Figure 26-3 shows typical external connections for measuring frequency.
In the figure, your device provides the signal with the frequency to be
measured to the SOURCE (CLK) of counter. It can optionally control the
GATE of counter-1. The OUT of counter-1 supplies a known pulse to the
GATE of counter. Finally, counter counts the number of cycles of the
unknown pulse during the known GATE pulse.
Figure 26-3. External Connections for Frequency Measurement
DAQ-STC, Am9513
Figure 26-4 shows typical external connections for measuring period.
In the figure, your device provides the signal with the period to be
measured to the GATE of counter. A timebase of known frequency is
supplied to the SOURCE. This is usually an internal timebase, but it could
be externally supplied. It is important that the counting range of your
counter is not exceeded during the period measurement. The range of the
Am9513 is 65,335, and the range of the DAQ-STC is 16,777,216. If the
counting range is exceeded, you can pick a slower internal timebase.
Figure 26-4. External Connections for Period Measurement
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 26
Measuring Frequency and Period
Measuring the Frequency and Period
of High Frequency Signals
How you measure the frequencty and period of high frequency signals
depends on the counter chip on your DAQ device. If you are unsure of
which chip your DAQ device has, refer to your hardware documentation.
DAQ-STC
Figure 26-5 shows the Measure Frequency-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI located
in labview\examples\daq\DAQ-STC.llb. This example uses the
Easy VI, Measure Frequency which can be found in Functions»
Data Acquisition»Counter.
Figure 26-5. Diagram of Measure Frequency-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI
This VI initiates the counter to count the number of rising edges of a
TTL signal at the SOURCE of counter during a known pulse at the GATE
of counter. The width of that known pulse is determined by gate width.
Frequency is the output for this example, and period is calculated by
taking the inverse of the frequency. Remember, you must externally wire
your signal to be measured to the SOURCE of counter, and the OUT
of counter-1 must be wired to the GATE of counter. For a complete
description of this example, refer to the information found in
Windows»Show VI Info….
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Chapter 26
Measuring Frequency and Period
Am9513
Figure 26-6 shows the Measure Frequency-Easy (9513) VI located in
labview\examples\daq\Am9513.llb. This example uses the
Easy VI, Measure Frequency which can be found in Functions»
Data Acquisition»Counter.
Figure 26-6. Diagram of Measure Frequency-Easy (9513) VI
This VI initiates the counter to count the number of rising edges of a
TTL signal at the SOURCE of counter during a known pulse at the GATE
of counter. The width of that known pulse is determined by gate width.
Frequency is the output for this example, and period is calculated by
taking the inverse of the frequency. The valid? output lets you know if
the measurement completed without an overflow. The number of counters
to use input lets you choose one counter for 16-bit measurement or two
counters for 32-bit measurement. Remember that you must externally
wire your signal to be measured to the SOURCE of counter, and the OUT
of counter-1 must be wired to the GATE of counter. For a complete
description of this example, refer to the information found in
Windows»Show VI Info….
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 26
Measuring Frequency and Period
DAQ-STC, Am9513
If you need more control over when your frequency measurement begins
and ends, use the Intermediate VIs instead of the Easy VIs. Figure 26-7
shows one approach for this that uses the Event or Time Counter Config,
Adjacent Counters, Delayed Pulse Generator Config, Counter Start,
CTR Control, Counter Read, and Counter Stop VIs. The Delayed Pulse
Generator Config VI configures counter to count the number of pulses
while its GATE is high. The Adjacent Counters VI is used to determine the
correct counter-1. The Delayed Pulse Generator Config VI then configure
counter-1 to generate a single pulse for the GATE signal. The Counter
Start VI begins the counting operation for counter first, then counter-1.
The CTR Control VI is an Advanced VI which is used to check if the GATE
pulse has completed. The Counter Read VI returns the count value from
counter, which is used to determine the frequency and pulse width. Finally,
the Counter Stop VI stops the counter operation.
Figure 26-7. Frequency Measurement Example Using Intermediate VIs
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Chapter 26
Measuring Frequency and Period
8253/54
Figure 26-8 shows the Measure Frequency > 1kHz (8253) VI located in
labview\examples\daq\8253.llb.
Figure 26-8. Diagram of Measure Frequency > 1 kHz (8253) VI
This VI initiates the counter to count the number of rising edges of a
TTL signal at the CLK of counter during a known pulse at the GATE of
counter. The known pulse is created by counter 0, and its width is
determined by gate width. The maximum width of the pulse is 32 ms if
your DAQ device has a 2 MHz internal timebase, and 65 ms if your DAQ
device has a 1 MHz internal timebase. This maximum pulse is why this
example only reads frequencies higher than 1 kHz. A frequency of 1 kHz
generates 32 cycles during the 32 ms pulse. As this cycle count decreases
(as with lower frequencies), the frequency measurement becomes less
accurate. Frequency is the output for this example, and period is determined
by taking the inverse of the frequency. You must externally wire the signal
to be measured to the CLK of counter, and the OUT of counter 0 must be
wired through a 7404 inverter chip to the GATE of counter.
The diagram of the previous example uses the ICTR Control, Get
Timebase (8253), and Wait + (ms) VIs. The first two ICTR Control VIs
reset counter and counter 0. The next ICTR Control sets up counter to
count down while its GATE input is high. The Get Timebase (8253) VI
returns the internal timebase period for counter 0 of device. This value is
multiplied by the gate width to yield the count to be loaded into the count
register of counter 0. The next ICTR Control VI loads this count and sets
up counter 0 to output a low pulse, during which cycles of the signal to be
measured are counted.
One advantage of this example is that it only uses two counters. However,
this example has two notable limitations. One limitation is that it cannot
accurately measure low frequencies. If you need to measure lower
© National Instruments Corporation
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Measuring Frequency and Period
frequencies, use the Measure Frequency < 1 kHz (8253) VI located in
labview\examples\daq\8253.llb. This VI uses three counters. The
other limitation is that there is a small software dependency, which causes
counter 0 to output a pulse slightly longer than the count it is given. This
is the nature of the 8253 chip, and it can increase the readings of high
frequencies. To avoid this software delay, use the Measure Frequency - Dig
Start > 1 kHz (8253) located in labview\examples\daq\8253.llb. For
a complete description of each example, refer to the information found in
Windows»Show VI Info….
Measuring the Period and
Frequency of Low Frequency Signals
How you measure the period and frequency of low frequency signals
depends on which counter chip is on your DAQ device. If you are uncertain
which chip your DAQ device has, refer to your hardware documentation.
DAQ-STC
Figure 26-9 shows the Measure Period-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI located in
labview\examples\daq\DAQ-STC.llb. This example uses the Easy
VI, Measure Pulse Width or Period located in Functions»Data
Acquisition»Counter.
Figure 26-9. Diagram of Measure Period-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI
You connect your signal of unknown period to the GATE of counter.
The counter measures the period between successive rising edges of your
TTL signal by counting the number of internal timebase cycles that occur
during the period. The period is the count divided by the timebase. The
frequency is determined by taking the inverse of the period. You must
choose timebase such that the counter does not reach its highest value,
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Chapter 26
Measuring Frequency and Period
or terminal count (TC). With a timebase of 20 MHz, the DAQ-STC
can measure a period up to 838 ms. With a timebase of 100 kHz,
you can measure a period up to 167 seconds.
Am9513
Figure 26-10 shows the example Measure Period-Easy (9513) VI
located in labview\examples\daq\Am9513.llb. This example uses
the Easy VI, Measure Pulse Width or Period located in Functions»
Data Acquisition»Counter.
Figure 26-10. Diagram of Measure Period-Easy (9513) VI
You connect your signal of unknown period to the GATE of counter. The
counter measures the period between successive rising edges of your TTL
signal by counting the number of internal timebase cycles that occur during
the period. The period is the count divided by the timebase. The frequency
is determined by taking the inverse of the period. The valid? output
indicates if the period was measured without overflow. Overflow occurs
when the counter reaches its highest value, or terminal count (TC). You
must choose timebase such that it does not reach TC. With a timebase of
1 MHz, the Am9513 can measure a period up to 65 ms. With a timebase of
100 Hz, you can measure a period up to 655 seconds.
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 26
Measuring Frequency and Period
DAQ-STC, Am9513
If you need more control over when period measurement begins and ends,
use the Intermediate VIs instead of the Easy VIs. Figure 26-11 shows how
to measure period and frequency.
Figure 26-11. Measuring Period Using Intermediate Counter VIs
The Intermediate VIs used in Figure 26-11 include Pulse Width or Period
Meas Config, Counter Start, Counter Read, and Counter Stop. The Pulse
Width or Period Meas Config VI configures the counter for period
measurement. The Counter Start begins the counting operation. Counter
Read returns the count value from the counter, which is used to determine
the period and frequency.
8253/54
The 8253/54 chip does not support period measurement, but you can
use frequency measurement for a pulse train and take the inverse to get
the period. The Measure Frequency < 1 kHz (8253) VI located in
labview\examples\daq\8253.llb measures frequency and calculates
the period for you.
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© National Instruments Corporation
27
Counting Signal Highs and Lows
This chapter describes the various ways you can count TTL signals using
the counters on your data acquisition (DAQ) device. Counters can count
external events such as rising and falling edges on the SOURCE (CLK)
input pin. They can also count elapsed time using the rising and falling
edges of an internal timebase. A useful example of counting events would
be if you wanted to calculate the output of a production line. A useful
example of counting time would be if you wanted to calculate how long it
takes to produce one item on a production line.
Connecting Counters to Count Events and Time
Figure 27-1 shows typical external connections for counting events. In the
figure, your device provides the TTL signal to be counted, and it is
connected to the SOURCE (CLK) of counter. The number of events
counted is determined by reading the count register of counter.
Figure 27-1. External Connections for Counting Events
Figure 27-2 shows typical external connections for counting elapsed
time. In the figure, your device provides a pulse to the GATE of counter.
While the gate pulse is high, counter counts a known internal timebase.
Dividing the count by the internal timebase determines the elapsed time.
Figure 27-2. External Connections for Counting Elapsed Time
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Chapter 27
Counting Signal Highs and Lows
Am9513
With the Am9513, you can extend the counting range of a counter by
connecting the OUT of one counter to the SOURCE of the next higher
order counter (counter+1). This is called cascading counters. By cascading
counters you can increase your counting range from a 16-bit counting range
of 65,535 to a 32-bit counting range of 4,294,967,295. The Am9513 chip
has a set of 5 counters where higher order counters can be cascaded. The
TIO-10 device has two Am9513 chips for a total of 10 counters. Table 27-1
identifies adjacent counters on the Am9513 (one and two chips). This
information is useful when cascading counters.
Table 27-1. Adjacent Counters for Counter Chips
Next Lower Counter
Counter
Next Higher Counter
5
1
2
1
2
3
2
3
4
3
4
5
4
5
1
10
6
7
6
7
8
7
8
9
8
9
10
9
10
6
Figure 27-3 shows typical external connections for cascading counters
when counting events. Notice that the OUT of counter is connected to the
SOURCE of counter+1.
Figure 27-3. External Connections to Cascade Counters for Counting Events
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Chapter 27
Counting Signal Highs and Lows
Figure 27-4 shows typical external connections for cascading counters
when counting elapsed time. Notice that the OUT of counter is connected
to the SOURCE of counter+1.
Figure 27-4. External Connections to Cascade Counters for Counting Elapsed Time
Counting Events
How you count events depends upon which counter chip is on your
DAQ device. If you are uncertain which counter your DAQ device has,
refer to your hardware documentation.
DAQ-STC
Figure 27-5 shows the Count Events-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI located
in labview\examples\daq\DAQ-STC.llb. This example uses the
Count Events or Time-Easy VI which can be found in Functions»
Data Acquisition»Counter.
Figure 27-5. Diagram of Count Events-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI
This VI initiates the counter to count the number of rising edges of a
TTL signal at the SOURCE of counter. The counter continues counting
until the STOP button is pressed. Remember that you must externally wire
your signal to be counted to the SOURCE of counter. For a description of
this example, refer to the information found in Windows»Show VI Info….
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 27
Counting Signal Highs and Lows
If you need more control over when your event counting begins and ends,
use the Intermediate VIs instead of the Easy VIs. Figure 27-6 shows the
Count Events-Int (DAQ-STC) VI located in labview\examples\
daq\DAQ-STC.llb.
Figure 27-6. Diagram of Count Events-Int (DAQ-STC) VI
This example uses the following Intermediate VIs: Event or Time Counter
Config, Counter Start, Counter Read, and Counter Stop. The Event or Time
Counter Config VI configures counter to count the number of rising edges
of a TTL signal at its SOURCE input pin. The Counter Start VI begins the
counting operation for counter. The Counter Read VI returns the count
until the STOP button is pressed or an error occurs. Finally, the Counter
Stop VI stops the counter operation. Remember that you must externally
wire your signal to be counted to the SOURCE of counter. You can
optionally gate counter with a pulse to control when it starts and stops
counting. To do this, wire your pulse to the GATE of counter, and choose
the appropriate gate mode from the front panel menu. For a complete
description of this example, refer to the information found in
Windows»Show VI Info….
Am9523
Figure 27-7 shows the Count Events-Easy (9513) VI located in
labview\examples\daq\Am9513.llb. This example uses the
Count Events or Time-Easy VI which can be found in Functions»
Data Acquisition»Counter.
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Chapter 27
Counting Signal Highs and Lows
Figure 27-7. Diagram of Count Events-Easy (9513) VI
This VI initiates the counter to count the number of rising edges of a
TTL signal at the SOURCE of counter. The counter continues counting
until the STOP button is pressed. Remember that you must externally wire
your signal to be counted to the SOURCE of counter. Additionally, you
can cascade two counters by choosing two counters (32-bits) in the
number of counters to use menu. This will extend your counting range to
over 4 billion. You must also wire the OUT of counter to the SOURCE of
counter+1 for this increased counting range. For a complete description of
this example, refer to the information found in Windows»Show VI Info….
If you need more control over when your event counting begins and
ends, use the Intermediate VIs instead of the Easy VIs. Figure 27-8 shows
the Count Events-Int (9513) VI located in labview\examples\
daq\Am9513.llb.
Figure 27-8. Diagram of Count Events-Int (9513) VI
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 27
Counting Signal Highs and Lows
This example uses the following Intermediate VIs: Event or Time Counter
Config, Counter Start, Counter Read, and Counter Stop. The Event or Time
Counter Config VI configures counter to count the number of rising edges
of a TTL signal at its SOURCE input pin. The Counter Start VI begins the
counting operation for counter. The Counter Read VI returns the count
until the STOP button is pressed or an error occurs. Finally, the Counter
Stop VI stops the counter operation. Remember that you must externally
wire your signal to be counted to the SOURCE of counter. You can
optionally gate counter with a pulse to control when it starts and stops
counting. To do this, wire your pulse to the GATE of counter, and choose
the appropriate gate mode from the front panel menu. Additionally, you
can cascade two counters by choosing two counters (32-bits) in the
number of counters to use menu. This will extend your counting range to
over 4 billion. You must also wire the OUT of counter to the SOURCE of
counter+1 for this increased counting range. For a complete description of
this example, read the information found in Window»Show VI Info….
8253/54
Figure 27-9 shows the Count Events (8253) VI located in
labview\examples\daq\8253.llb. This example uses the
Intermediate VI, ICTR Control which can be found in Functions»
Data Acquisition»Counter»Intermediate Counter.
Figure 27-9. Diagram of Count Events (8253) VI
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Chapter 27
Counting Signal Highs and Lows
This VI initiates the counter to count the number of rising edges of a
TTL signal at the CLK of counter. Looking at the diagram, the first call to
ICTR Control loads the count register and sets up counter to count down.
The second call to ICTR Control reads the count register. Inside the first
while loop, the count is read until it changes. While the count register has
been previously loaded, the new value is not active until the first edge is
counted on the CLK pin. Once the first edge comes in, the second while
loop takes over and continually reads the count until the STOP button is
pressed or an error occurs. Remember that you must externally wire your
signal to be counted to the CLK of counter. For a complete description of
this example, refer to the information found in Windows»Show VI Info….
Counting Elapsed Time
How you count elapsed time depends upon which counter chip is on your
DAQ device. If you are unsure of which chip your DAQ device has, refer
to your hardware documentation.
DAQ-STC
Figure 27-10 shows the Count Time-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI located in
labview\examples\daq\DAQ-STC.llb. This example uses the
Count Events or Time-Easy VI, which can be found in Functions»
Data Acquisition»Counter.
Figure 27-10. Diagram of Count Time-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI
This VI initiates the counter to count the number of rising edges of a known
internal timebase at the SOURCE of counter. The Count Events or Time
VI takes care of dividing the count by the timebase frequency to determine
the elapsed time. The counter continues timing until the STOP button is
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Chapter 27
Counting Signal Highs and Lows
pressed. You do not need to make any external connections. The length of
time that can be counted depends on the maximum count of the counter and
the chosen timebase. For example, the 16,777,216 (24-bit) count of the
DAQ-STC and a timebase of 20 MHz can count time for 838 ms. Using the
100 kHz timebase, you can count time for 167 seconds. For a complete
description of this example, refer to the information found in
Windows»Show VI Info….
If you need more control over when your elapsed timing begins and ends,
use the Intermediate VIs instead of the Easy VIs. Figure 27-11 shows the
Count Time-Int (DAQ-STC) VI located in labview\examples\
daq\DAQ-STC.llb.
Figure 27-11. Diagram of Count Time-Int (DAQ-STC) VI
This example uses the following Intermediate VIs: Event or Time Counter
Config, Counter Start, Counter Read, and Counter Stop. The Event or Time
Counter Config VI configures counter to count the number of rising edges
of a known internal timebase. The Counter Start VI begins the counting
operation for counter. The Counter Read VI returns the count until the
STOP button is pressed or an error occurs. The count value is divided by
the timebase to determine the elapsed time. Finally, the Counter Stop VI
stops the counter operation. You do not need to make any external
connections, but you can optionally gate counter with a pulse to control
when it starts and stops timing. To do this, wire your pulse to the GATE of
counter, and choose the appropriate gate mode from the front panel menu.
For a complete description of this example, refer to the information found
in Windows»Show VI Info….
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Chapter 27
Counting Signal Highs and Lows
Am9513
Figure 27-12 shows the Count Time-Easy (9513) VI located in
labview\examples\daq\Am9513.llb. This example uses the Count
Events or Time-Easy VI, which can be found in Functions»Data
Acquisition»Counter.
Figure 27-12. Diagram of Count Time-Easy (9315) VI
This VI initiates the counter to count the number of rising edges of a known
internal timebase at the SOURCE of counter. The Count Events or Time
VI takes care of dividing the count by the timebase frequency to determine
the elapsed time. The counter continues timing until the STOP button is
pressed. You do not need to make any external connections if the number
of counters to use menu is set to one counter (16-bits). If you set the
number of counters to use menu to two counters (32-bits), you must
externally wire the OUT of counter to the SOURCE of counter+1. The
length of time that can be counted depends on the maximum count of the
counter(s) and the chosen timebase. For example, the 65535 (16-bit) count
of the Am9513 and a timebase of 1 MHz can count time for 65 ms. Using
the 100 Hz timebase and two counters (32-bits), you can count time for over
a year. For a complete description of this example, refer to the information
found in Windows»Show VI Info….
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 27
Counting Signal Highs and Lows
If you need more control over when your elapsed timing begins and
ends, use the Intermediate VIs instead of the Easy VIs. Figure 27-13
shows the Count Time-Int (9513) VI located in labview\examples\
daq\Am9513.llb.
Figure 27-13. Diagram of Count Time-Int (9513) VI
This example uses the following Intermediate VIs: Event or Time Counter
Config, Counter Start, Counter Read, and Counter Stop. The Event or Time
Counter Config VI configures counter to count the number of rising edges
of a known internal timebase. The Counter Start VI begins the counting
operation for counter. The Counter Read VI returns the count until the
STOP button is pressed or an error occurs. The count value is divided by
the timebase to determine the elapsed time. Finally, the Counter Stop VI
stops the counter operation. You can optionally gate counter with a pulse
to control when it starts and stops timing. To do this, wire your pulse to
the GATE of counter, and choose the appropriate gate mode from the
front panel menu. Additionally, you can cascade two counters by choosing
two counters (32-bits) in the number of counters to use menu. This
extends your elapsed time range. You must also wire the OUT of counter
to the SOURCE of counter+1 for this increased range. For a complete
description of this example, refer to the information found in
Windows»Show VI Info….
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Chapter 27
Counting Signal Highs and Lows
8253/54
Figure 27-14 shows the Count Time (8253) VI located in
labview\examples\daq\8253.llb. This example uses the
ICTR Control-Int VI, which can be found in Functions»
Data Acquisition»Counter»Intermediate Counter.
Figure 27-14. Diagram of Count Time (8253) VI
This VI initiates the counter to count the number of rising edges of a
TTL timebase at the CLK of counter. Counter 0 creates the timebase.
Looking at the diagram, the Timebase Generator (8253) VI sets up
Counter 0 to generate a timebase by dividing down its internal timebase.
The first call to ICTR Control loads the count register and sets up counter
to count down. Inside the while loop, ICTR Control reads the count, which
is divided by the actual timebase frequency to determine the elapsed time.
The elapsed time increments until the STOP button is pressed or an error
occurs. The last two calls to ICTR Control reset Counter 0 and counter.
Remember that you must externally wire the OUT of Counter 0 to the
CLK of counter. You can optionally gate counter with a pulse to control
when it starts and stops timing. To do this, wire your pulse to the GATE of
counter. For a complete description of this example, refer to the information
found in Windows»Show VI Info….
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
28
Dividing Frequencies
Dividing TTL frequencies is useful if you want to use an internal timebase
and the frequency you need does not exist. You can divide an existing
internal frequency to get what you need. You can also divide the frequency
of an external TTL signal. Frequency division results in a pulse or pulse
train from a counter for every N cycles of an internal or external source.
Counters can only decrease (divide down) the frequency of the source
signal. The resulting frequency is equal to the input frequency divided
by N (timebase divisor). N must be an integer number greater than 1.
Performing frequency division on an internal signal is called a down
counter. Frequency division on an external signal is called a signal divider.
Figure 28-1 shows typical wiring for frequency division.
counter
your
device
source
out
gate
your
device
Frequency Division for a Signal Divider
counter
your
device
source
out
gate
your
device
Frequency Division for a Down Counter
Figure 28-1. Wiring Your Counters for Frequency Division
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Chapter 28
Dividing Frequencies
DAQ-STC, Am9513
Figure 28-2 shows an example of a signal divider. It uses the Intermediate
counter VIs Down Counter or Divide, Counter Start, and Counter Stop.
Figure 28-2. Programming a Single Divider for Frequency Division
The Down Counter or Divide Config VI configures the specified counter to
divide the SOURCE signal by the timebase divisor value and output a
signal when the counter reaches its terminal count (TC). Using Down
Counter or Divide Config VI, you can configure the type of output to be
pulse or toggled. The diagram above outputs a high pulse lasting one cycle
of the source signal once the counter reaches its TC. For more information
on the different types of signal outputs, refer to the Down Counter or Divide
Config VI description in Chapter 27, Intermediate Counter VIs, of the
LabVIEW Function and VI Reference Manual, or the LabVIEW Online
Reference, available by selecting Help»Online Reference…. The diagram
above counts the rising edges of the SOURCE signal, the default value of
the source edge input. In order to figure out where the inputs and outputs
are located on this VI, remember to use the Help window. Open this
window by choosing Help»Show Help.
The Counter Start VI tells the counter to start counting the SOURCE signal
edges. The counter only stops the frequency division when the stop button
is pressed. The Counter Stop VI stops the counter immediately and clears
the count register. It is a good idea to always check your errors at the end
of an operation to see if the operation was successful.
You can alter the Down Counter or Divide Config VI to create a
down counter. To do this, change the timebase value from 0.0
(external SOURCE) to a frequency available on your counter. With the
Am9513 chip, you can choose timebases of 1 MHz, 100 kHz, 10 kHz,
1 kHz, and 100 Hz. With the DAQ-STC chip, you can choose timebases
of 20 MHz and 100 kHz.
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Chapter 28
Dividing Frequencies
Instead of triggering frequency division for signal dividers and down
counters by software, as previously described, you can trigger using the
GATE signal. You can trigger while the GATE signal is high, low, or on the
rising or falling edge. For more information, refer to the Down Counter or
Divide Config VI description in Chapter 27, Intermediate Counter VIs, of
the LabVIEW Function and VI Reference Manual, or the LabVIEW Online
Reference, available by selecting Help»Online Reference….
8253/54
To divide a frequency with the 8253/54 counter chip, use the example Cont
Pulse Train (8253) VI located in labview\examples\daq\8253.llb.
This example is explained in Chapter 24 in the Generating a Pulse Train
section. For a complete description of this example, refer to the information
found in Windows»VI Info….
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Part VII
Debugging Your Data
Acquisition Application
This section contains an explanation of ways you can debug your data
acquisition application to make sure your application is accurate and
runs smoothly.
Part VII, Debugging Your Data Acquisition Application, contains the
following chapter:
•
Chapter 29, Debugging Techniques, shows you some tips to help
figure out why your VI is not working.
Debugging Techniques
29
Is your VI not working as you expected? This chapter shows you some tips
to help figure out why your VI is not working. First, find your LabVIEW
User Manual because this manual is referenced in this section. With
LabVIEW data acquisition (DAQ) applications, you might find errors in
hardware connections, software configuration, or VI construction. The goal
of this chapter is to help you narrow down where the problem is in your
program flow.
Hardware Connection Errors
When no error occurs, but the data is not what you expected, then you
may want to check your hardware connections and jumper settings.
For example, if you have an analog input application, make sure your
signals are properly grounded. For more information on analog input
configuration issues, refer to Chapter 5, Things You Should Know
about Analog Input.
For SCXI modules, you must verify that gain jumpers are set up properly.
To verify how a DAQ device gets set to a certain gain (or limit setting
as noted in the software), refer to Chapter 3, Basic LabVIEW Data
Acquisition Concepts. Another common SCXI hardware error is using
digital lines on your DAQ device that are reserved for communication
with the SCXI modules.
In order to test that your hardware has not been damaged, connect a
known voltage to the channels you are using. To check the location of
any hardware connections, refer to your hardware user manual.
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 29
Debugging Techniques
Software Configuration Errors
As you check hardware connections, it is a good idea to verify that the
NI-DAQ software configuration reflects your hardware setup. For possible
difficulties with software configuration, read Chapter 2, Installing and
Configuring Your Data Acquisition Hardware, the chapter of this manual
that describes your specific application, or the NI-DAQ User Manual.
(Windows) In the NI-DAQ Configuration utility, you can use the NI-DAQ
Test Panels to verify that your device is operating properly. Refer to the
NI-DAQ Configuration Utility Help for more details.
VI Construction Errors
The various sections below describe methods to find problems with VI
construction. All the techniques described can be used by themselves or in
conjunction with one another.
Error Handling
The best way to determine if your application executed without an error is
to use one of the error handler VIs in your application. The Error Handler
VIs are located in Functions»Time & Dialog. You can only use these VIs
with Intermediate and Advanced VIs. Easy I/O VIs already include error
handling capabilities within each VI. Each Intermediate and Advanced VI
has an error input and output clusters (named error in and error out,
respectively). The error clusters contain a Boolean that indicates whether
an error occurred, the error code for the error, and the name of the VI that
returned the error. If error in indicates an error, the VI returns the same
error information in error out, and does not perform any DAQ operations.
When you use any of the Intermediate or Advanced VIs in a While Loop,
you should stop the loop if the status in the error out cluster reads TRUE.
If you wire the error cluster to the General Error Handler VI or the Simple
Error Handler VI, the VI deciphers the error information and describes the
error to you. Figures 29-1 and 29-2 show how to wire a typical DAQ VI to
an error handler.
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Chapter 29
Debugging Techniques
Figure 29-1. Error Checking Using the General Error Handler VI
Figure 29-2. Error Checking Using the Simple Error Handler VI
The following figure shows an example of the dialog box the Error Handler
VIs display if an error occurs.
Please refer to the LabVIEW Function and VI Reference Manual or the
LabVIEW Online Reference, available by selecting Help»Online
Reference…, for more information on the error handler VIs.
Single-Stepping through a VI
Single-stepping through a VI allows you to execute one node at a time in
the block diagram. A node can be subVIs, functions, structures, formula
nodes, and attribute nodes. Refer to Chapter 2, Creating VIs, in the
LabVIEW User Manual, and Chapter 4, Executing and Debugging VIs and
SubVIs, in the G Programming Reference Manual for more information
about single-stepping.
© National Instruments Corporation
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Chapter 29
Debugging Techniques
Execution Highlighting
Execution highlighting (the light bulb button on the diagram) shows you
how data passes from one node to another in your program. When you turn
execution highlighting on, data movement is marked by bubbles moving
along the wires. Refer to Chapter 2, Creating VIs, in the LabVIEW User
Manual, and Chapter 4, Executing and Debugging VIs and SubVIs, in the
G Programming Reference Manual for more information about execution
highlighting.
Using the Probe Tool
If your VI is producing questionable results, you may want to use the Probe
tool to check intermediate values in a VI. The Probe tool will help you
narrow down where the incorrect results are occurring. Refer to Chapter 2,
Creating VIs, in the LabVIEW User Manual and Chapter 4, Executing and
Debugging VIs and SubVIs, in the G Programming Reference Manual for
more information on using the probe.
Setting Breakpoints and Showing Advanced DAQ VIs
Once you have narrowed down the location of an error to a subVI,
you can set a breakpoint on that subVI to cause VI execution to pause
before executing the subVI. You can now see what values get passed
in or are generated by the Advanced VIs, single-step through the subVI’s
execution, probe wires to see data, or change values of front panel
controls. Refer to Chapter 2, Creating VIs, in the LabVIEW User Manual
and Chapter 4, Executing and Debugging VIs and SubVIs, in the
G Programming Reference Manual for more information on how to set a
breakpoint.
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A
LabVIEW Data Acquisition
Common Questions
This appendix lists answers to questions frequently asked by
LabVIEW users.
Where is the best place to get up to speed quickly with data acquisition
and LabVIEW?
Read the LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual and look at the
run_me.llb examples, in labview\examples\daq\run_me.llb,
included with the package. In Windows, run the DAQ Channel Wizard and
the DAQ Solution Wizard.
What is the easiest way to address my AMUX-64T board with my
MIO board?
Set the number of AMUX boards used in the NI-DAQ Configuration utility
(nidaqconf.exe on Windows or NI-DAQ control panel on Macintosh).
Then in the channel string inputs specify the onboard channel. For example,
with one AMUX-64T board, the channel string 0:1 will acquire data from
AMUX channels 0 through 7, and so on.
What are the advantages/disadvantages of reading AI Read’s backlog
rather than a fixed amount of data?
Reading the backlog is guaranteed not to cause a synchronous wait for the
data to arrive. However, it adds more delay until the data is processed
(because the data was available on the last call) and it can require constant
reallocation or size adjustments of the data acquisition read buffer in
LabVIEW.
What is the easiest way to verify that my board works and is acquiring
data from my signals?
Run one of the examples in the labview\examples\daq folder or run the
test panel for your board in the NI-DAQ Configuration utility.
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Appendix A
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Common Questions
How can I tell when a continuous data acquisition operation does not
have enough buffer capacity?
The scan backlog rises with time, either steadily or in jumps, or takes a long
time to drop to normal after an interrupting activity like mouse movement.
If you can open another VI during the operation without receiving an
overrun error you should have adequate buffer capacity.
I want to group two or more ports using my DIO32, DIO24, or
DIO-96 board, but I do not want to use handshaking. I just want to
read one group of ports just once. How can I set it up in software?
Use Easy I/O VIs (Write to Digital Port or Read from Digital Port) or
Advanced Digital VIs (DIO Port Config, DIO Port Write or DIO Port
Read), and set multiple ports in the port list. For Easy I/O VIs, you can
specify up to four ports in the port list. Whatever data you try to output to
each port of your “group” will correspond to each element of the data array.
This also applies for input.
I want to use the OUT1, OUT2, OUT3 and IN1, IN2, IN3 pins on my
DIO-32F board. How do I address those pins using the Easy I/O Digital
VIs in LabVIEW?
These output and inputs pins are addressed together as port 4. OUT1 and
IN1 are referred to as bit 0, OUT2 and IN2 are referred to as bit 1, and
OUT3 and IN3 are referred to as bit 2. Only the NB-DIO-32F has three pins
for each direction. If you use the Write To Digital Port VI, you will output
on the OUT pins, and if you use the Read From Digital Port VI, you will
input from the IN pins.
I want to be able to write up to four lines on the digital port on my
jumpered MIO (non E-series) board while also reading in four lines of
digital data on the remaining free digital lines. How do I do this?
Use the DIO Port Config VI twice; once to configure four lines for output
and once more to configure four lines for input. Now call the DIO Port
Write VI or the DIO Port Read VI for the appropriate lines. Avoid calling
the Easy I/O VIs for digital I/O, as they reconfigure the port direction each
time the VI is called.
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
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© National Instruments Corporation
Appendix A
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Common Questions
I want to use a TTL digital trigger pulse to start data acquisition on
my DAQ device. I noticed there are two types of triggers: Digital
Trigger A, and Digital Trigger A&B. Which digital trigger setting
should I use and where should I connect the signal?
You should use Digital Trigger A, which stands for “first trigger,” to start a
data acquisition. Digital Trigger B, which stands for “second trigger,”
should only be used if you are doing both a start AND a stop trigger for
your data acquisition. Connect your trigger signal to either STARTTRIG*
(pin 38) if you are using an AT-MIO-16, AT-MIO-16D, NB-MIO-16X, or
EXTTRIG* or DTRIG for any other board that has that pin. If you are using
an E-series device, you can select which PFI pin to connect to. If you do not
specify the PFI pin, it uses the defaults as the PFI pin names suggest, for
example, PFI0/TRIG1. The only analog input boards on which you cannot
do a digital trigger are the LPM devices, DAQCard-700, DAQCard-500,
and the 516 devices. Refer to the AI Trigger Config description in
Chapter 18, Advanced Analog Input VIs, in the LabVIEW Function and VI
Reference Manual, or the LabVIEW Online Reference, available by
selecting Help»Online Reference…, for more information on the use of
digital triggers on your DAQ device.
Note
The NB-MIO-16 has an EXTTRIG* pin, but cannot support start and stop
triggering.
When are the data acquisition devices initialized?
All data acquisition devices are initialized automatically when the first
DAQ VI is loaded in on a diagram when you start LabVIEW. You can also
initialize a particular device by calling the Device Reset VI.
(Windows) I open a VI that calls a DAQ VI, or drop a DAQ subVI on a
block diagram, and crash.
The first time a DAQ VI is loaded into memory in LabVIEW, LabVIEW
opens the Dynamic Link Library (dll) that controls data acquisition.
A crash at this time indicates a problem communicating with the driver.
This may indicate there is a conflict with another device in the machine.
To determine the source of the problem, quit LabVIEW and Windows,
re-launch Windows, and run the NI-DAQ Configuration Utility. Run a
simple configuration test with the DAQ devices in the machine. If this
results in a crash, there is probably a conflict with another device in the
machine or the driver’s file versions do not correspond for some reason.
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Appendix A
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Common Questions
If not, you need to obtain the latest version of the DAQ driver from the
NI BBS, World Wide Web, or FTP site.
We have also seen cases where the video driver conflicts with both the
NI-DAQ Configuration Utility and LabVIEW. You can obtain the
Error Messages and Crashes Common Questions document from the
NI Fax-on-Demand system.
(Windows) I bought LabVIEW for Windows and also have a slightly
older DAQ device from National Instruments. I installed the entire
LabVIEW package, but should I go ahead and install my NI-DAQ for
Windows drivers that I originally got with the board?
In most cases, the answer is no. The LabVIEW installer installs a set of
DAQ driver files that are guaranteed to work with LabVIEW, whereas if
you happen to install an older version of the drivers afterwards, you may
run into many problems. You may even end up crashing your computer
every time you do any data acquisition. If you buy a new DAQ device and
if you already have LabVIEW installed, it is safe to install the NI-DAQ for
Windows drivers from those disks. In any case, make sure you install and
use the latest version of the NI-DAQ drivers, unless a dialog box at
installation tells you your board is no longer supported on that version.
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
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© National Instruments Corporation
Customer Communication
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documentation. When you contact us, we need the information on the Technical Support Form and
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questions as quickly as possible.
National Instruments has technical assistance through electronic, fax, and telephone systems to quickly
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Bulletin Board Support
National Instruments has BBS and FTP sites dedicated for 24-hour support with a collection of files
and documents to answer most common customer questions. From these sites, you can also download
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
B-2
© National Instruments Corporation
Technical Support Form
Photocopy this form and update it each time you make changes to your software or hardware, and use
the completed copy of this form as a reference for your current configuration. Completing this form
accurately before contacting National Instruments for technical support helps our applications
engineers answer your questions more efficiently.
If you are using any National Instruments hardware or software products related to this problem,
include the configuration forms from their user manuals. Include additional pages if necessary.
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LabVIEW Hardware and Software Configuration Form
Record the settings and revisions of your hardware and software on the line to the right of each item.
Complete a new copy of this form each time you revise your software or hardware configuration, and
use this form as a reference for your current configuration. Completing this form accurately before
contacting National Instruments for technical support helps our applications engineers answer your
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Documentation Comment Form
National Instruments encourages you to comment on the documentation supplied with our products.
This information helps us provide quality products to meet your needs.
Title:
LabVIEW™ Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Edition Date: January 1998
Part Number: 320997C-01
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Glossary
Prefix
Meaning
Value
k-
kilo-
103
M-
mega-
106
m-
milli-
10 –3
µ-
micro-
10 –6
n-
nano-
10 –9
Numbers/Symbols
1D
One-dimensional.
2D
Two-dimensional.
A
A
Amperes.
AC
Alternating current.
A/D
Analog-to-digital.
ADC
Analog-to-digital converter. An electronic device, often an integrated
circuit, that converts an analog voltage to a digital number.
ADC resolution
The resolution of the ADC, which is measured in bits. An ADC with
16 bits has a higher resolution, and thus a higher degree of accuracy than
a 12-bit ADC.
AI
Analog input.
AI device
An analog input device that has AI in its name, such as the NEC-AI-16E-4.
AIGND
The analog input ground pin on a DAQ device.
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Glossary
amplification
A type of signal conditioning that improves accuracy in the resulting
digitized signal and to reduce noise.
Am9513-based devices
These MIO devices do not have an E- in their names. These devices include
the NB-MIO-16, NB-MIO-16X, NB-A2000, NB-TIO-10, and
NB-DMA2800 on the Macintosh; and the AT-MIO-16, AT-MIO-16F-5,
AT-MIO-16X, AT-MIO-16D, and AT-MIO-64F-5 in Windows.
AMUX devices
See analog multiplexers.
anlogin.llb
A LabVIEW DAQ library containing VIs that perform analog input with
DAQ devices and can write or stream the acquired data to disk.
anlog_io.llb
A LabVIEW DAQ library containing VIs for analog I/O control loops.
analog input group
A collection of analog input channels. You can associate each group with
its own clock rates, trigger and buffer configurations, and so on. A channel
cannot belong to more than one group.
Because each board has one ADC, only one group can be active at any
given time. That is, once a control VI starts a timed acquisition with
group n, subsequent control and read calls must also refer to group n.
You use the task ID to refer to the group.
analog multiplexer
Devices that increase the number of measurement channels while still using
an single instrumentation amplifier. Also called AMUX devices.
anlogout.llb
A LabVIEW DAQ library containing VIs that generate single values or
multiple values (waveforms) to output through analog channels.
analog output group
A collection of analog output channels. You can associate each group with
its own clock rates, buffer configurations, and so on. A channel cannot
belong to more than one group.
analog trigger
A trigger that occurs at a user-selected level and slope on an incoming
analog signal. Triggering can be set to occur at a specified voltage on either
an increasing or a decreasing signal (positive or negative slope).
AO
Analog output.
array
Ordered, indexed set of data elements of the same type.
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© National Instruments Corporation
Glossary
B
BCD
Binary-coded decimal.
bipolar
A signal range that includes both positive and negative values
(for example, –5 to 5 V).
buffer
Temporary storage for acquired or generated data.
C
cascading
Process of extending the counting range of a counter chip by connecting to
the next higher counter.
channel
Pin or wire lead to which you apply or from which you read the analog or
digital signal. Analog signals can be single-ended or differential. For digital
signals, you group channels to form ports. Ports usually consist of either
four or eight digital channels.
channel clock
The clock controlling the time interval between individual channel
sampling within a scan. Boards with simultaneous sampling do not have
this clock.
channel name
A unique name given to a channel configuration in the DAQ Channel
Wizard.
circular-buffered I/O
Input/output operation that reads or writes more data points than can fit in
the buffer. When LabVIEW reaches the end of the buffer, LabVIEW
returns to the beginning of the buffer and continues to transfer data.
clock
Hardware component that controls timing for reading from or writing to
groups.
cluster
A set of ordered, unindexed data elements of any data type including
numeric, Boolean, string, array, or cluster. The elements must be all
controls or all indicators.
code width
The smallest detectable change in an input voltage of a DAQ device.
column-major order
A way to organize the data in a 2D array by columns.
common-mode voltage
Any voltage present at the instrumentation amplifier inputs with respect to
amplifier ground.
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Glossary
conditional retrieval
configuration utility
A method of triggering in which you to simulate an analog trigger using
software. Also called software triggering.
Refers to NI-DAQ on the Macintosh, nicfg16.exe on Windows 3.1, and
nidaqcfg.exe on Windows 95/NT.
conversion device
Device that transforms a signal from one form to another. For example,
analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) for analog input, digital-to-analog
converters (DACs) for analog output, digital input or output ports, and
counter/timers are conversion devices.
counter.llb
A LabVIEW DAQ library containing VIs that count the rising and falling
edges of TTL signals, generate TTL pulses, and measure the frequency and
period of TTL signals.
counter/timer group
A collection of counter/timer channels. You can use this type of group for
simultaneous operation of multiple counter/timers.
coupling
The manner in which a signal is connected from one location to another.
D
D/A
Digital-to-analog.
DAC
Digital-to-analog converter. An electronic device, often an integrated
circuit, that converts a digital number into a corresponding analog voltage
or current.
DAQ Channel Wizard
Utility that guides you through naming and configuring your DAQ analog
and digital channels.
DAQ Solution Wizard
Utility that guides you through specifying your DAQ application, from
which it provides a custom DAQ solution.
data acquisition
Process of acquiring data, typically from A/D or digital input plug-in
boards.
data flow
Programming system consisting of executable nodes in which nodes
execute only when they have received all required input data and produce
output automatically when they have executed. LabVIEW is a dataflow
system.
default input
The default value of a front panel control.
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© National Instruments Corporation
Glossary
default setting
A default parameter value recorded in the driver. In many cases, the
default input of a control is a certain value (often 0) that means use the
current default setting. For example, the default input for a parameter
may be do not change current setting, and the default setting may be
no AMUX-64T boards. If you do change the value of such a parameter,
the new value becomes the new setting. You can set default settings for
some parameters in the configuration utility.
device
A DAQ device inside your computer or attached directly to your computer
through a parallel port. Plug-in boards, PC cards, and devices such as the
DAQPad-1200, which connects to your computer’s parallel port, are all
examples of DAQ devices. SCXI modules are distinct from devices, with
the exception of the SCXI-1200, which is a hybrid.
device number
The slot number or board ID number assigned to the device when you
configured it.
DIFF
Differential. A differential input is an analog input consisting of two
terminals, both of which are isolated from computer ground and whose
difference you measure.
differential
measurement system
A way you can configure your device to read signals, in which you do not
need to connect either input to a fixed reference, such as the earth or a
building ground.
digio.llb
A LabVIEW DAQ library containing VIs that perform immediate digital
I/O and digital handshaking with DAQ devices and SCXI modules.
digital input group
A collection of digital input ports. You can associate each group with its
own clock rates, handshaking modes, buffer configurations, and so on.
A port cannot belong to more than one group.
digital output group
A collection of digital output ports. You can associate each group with its
own clock rates, handshaking modes, buffer configurations, and so forth.
A port cannot belong to more than one group.
digital trigger
A TTL signal that you can use to start or stop a buffered data acquisition
operation, such as buffered analog input or buffered analog output.
DIO devices
Refers to all devices with the letters DIO in their name, unless otherwise
noted.
DIP
Dual Inline Package.
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Glossary
dithering
The addition of Gaussian noise to an analog input signal. By applying
dithering and then averaging the input data, you can effectively increase the
resolution by another one-half bit.
DLL
Dynamic Link Library.
DMA
Direct Memory Access. A method by which data you can transfer data to
computer memory from a device or memory on the bus (or from computer
memory to a device) while the processor does something else. DMA is the
fastest method of transferring data to or from computer memory.
down counter
Performing frequency division on an internal signal.
driver
Software that controls a specific hardware device, such as a data acquisition
board.
DSP
Digital Signal Processing.
E
E-series MIO board
Boards, such as the PCI-MIO-16E-1 and the AT-MIO-16E-2 which use
the MITE chip (on PCI boards for bus mastering), the DAQ-PnP chip for
Plug and Play configuration, the DAQ-STC chip for instrumentation class
counting and timing, and the NI-PGIA for high accuracy analog input
measurements.
EEPROM
Electrically erased programmable read-only memory. Read-only memory
that you can erase with an electrical signal and reprogram.
EISA
Extended Industry Standard Architecture.
event
The condition or state of an analog or digital signal.
external trigger
A voltage pulse from an external source that triggers an event such as
A/D conversion.
F
FIFO
A first-in-first-out memory buffer. In a FIFO, the first data stored is the first
data sent to the acceptor.
filtering
A type of signal conditioning that allows you to filter unwanted signals
from the signal you are trying to measure.
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© National Instruments Corporation
Glossary
floating signal sources
Signal sources with voltage signals that are not connected to an absolute
reference or system ground. Some common example of floating signal
sources are batteries, transformers, or thermocouples. Also called
nonreferenced signal sources.
G
gain
The amplification or attenuation of a signal.
GATE input pin
A counter input pin that controls when counting in your application occurs.
grounded measurement
system
See referenced single-ended measurement system.
grounded signal sources
Signal sources with voltage signals that are referenced to a system
ground, such as the earth or a building ground. Also called referenced
signal sources.
group
A collection of input or output channels or ports that you define. Groups
can contain analog input, analog output, digital input, digital output, or
counter/timer channels. A group can contain only one type of channel,
however. You use a task ID number to refer to a group after you create it.
You can define up to 16 groups at one time.
To erase a group, you pass an empty channel array and the group number
to the group configuration VI. You do not need to erase a group to change
its membership. If you reconfigure a group whose task is active, LabVIEW
clears the task and returns a warning. LabVIEW does not restart the task
after you reconfigure the group.
H
handle
Pointer to a pointer to a block of memory; handles reference arrays and
strings. An array of strings is a handle to a block of memory containing
handles to strings.
handshaked digital I/O
A type of digital acquisition/generation where a device or module accepts
or transfers data after a digital pulse has been received. Also called latched
digital I/O.
hardware triggering
A form of triggering where you set the start time of an acquisition and
gather data at a known position in time relative to a trigger signal.
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Glossary
hex
Hexadecimal.
Hz
Hertz. The number of scans read or updates written per second.
I
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.
immediate digital I/O
A type of digital acquisition/generation where LabVIEW updates the
digital lines or port states immediately or returns the digital value of an
input line. Also called nonlatched digital I/O.
input limits
The upper and lower voltage inputs for a channel. You must use a pair of
numbers to express the input limits. The VIs can infer the input limits from
the input range, input polarity, and input gain(s). Similarly, if you wire the
input limits, range, and polarity, the VIs can infer the onboard gains when
you do not use SCXI.
input range
The difference between the maximum and minimum voltages an analog
input channel can measure at a gain of 1. The input range is a scalar value,
not a pair of numbers. By itself the input range does not uniquely determine
the upper and lower voltage limits. An input range of 10 V could mean an
upper limit of +10 V and a lower of 0 V or an upper limit of +5 V and a
lower limit of –5 V.
The combination of input range, polarity, and gain determines the input
limits of an analog input channel. For some boards, jumpers set the input
range and polarity, while you can program them for other boards. Most
boards have programmable gains. When you use SCXI modules, you also
need their gains to determine the input limits.
interrupt
A signal indicating that the central processing unit should suspend its
current task to service a designated activity.
interval scanning
Scanning method where there is a longer interval between scans than there
is between individual channels comprising a scan.
I/O
Input/output. The transfer of data to or from a computer system involving
communications channels, operator interface devices, and/or data
acquisition and control interfaces.
ISA
Industry Standard Architecture.
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© National Instruments Corporation
Glossary
isolation
A type of signal conditioning in which you isolate the transducer signals
from the computer for safety purposes. This protects you and your
computer from large voltage spikes and makes sure the measurements from
the DAQ device are not affected by differences in ground potentials.
K
Kwords
1,024 words of memory.
L
Lab/1200 boards
Boards, such as the Lab-PC-1200 and the DAQCard-1200, which use the
8253 type counter/timer chip.
LabVIEW
Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench.
latched digital I/O
A type of digital acquisition/generation where a device or module accepts
or transfers data after a digital pulse has been received. Also called
handshaked digital I/O.
Legacy MIO board
Boards, such as the AT-MIO-16, which typically are configured with
jumpers and switches and are not Plug and Play compatible. They also use
the 9513 type counter/timer chip.
limit settings
The maximum and minimum voltages of the analog signals you are
measuring or generating.
linearization
A type of signal conditioning in which LabVIEW linearizes the voltage
levels from transducers, so the voltages can be scaled to measure physical
phenomena.
LSB
Least Significant Bit.
M
MB
Megabytes of memory. 1 MB is equal to 1,024 KB.
memory buffer
See buffer.
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Glossary
multibuffered I/O
Input operation for which you allocate more than one memory buffer so
you can read and process data from one buffer while the acquisition fills
another.
multiplexed mode
An SCXI operating mode in which analog input channels are multiplexed
into one module output so that your cabled DAQ device has access to the
module’s multiplexed output as well as the outputs on all other multiplexed
modules in the chassis through the SCXI bus. Also called serial mode.
multiplexer
A set of semiconductor or electromechanical switches with a common
output that can select one of a number of input signals and that you
commonly use to increase the number of signals measured by one ADC.
N
NB
NuBus.
NI-DAQ
The NI-DAQ configuration utility on the Macintosh.
NI-PNP.EXE
A stand-alone executable that NI-DAQ installs in your NI-DAQ root drive
that detects and configures any Plug and Play devices you have in your
computer.
NI-PNP.INI
A file, generated by the NI-PNP.EXE, that contains information about all
the National Instruments devices in your computer, including Plug and
Play devices.
NIDAQCFG.EXE
The NI-DAQ configuration utility in Windows.
nodes
Execution elements of a block diagram consisting of functions, structures,
and subVIs.
nonlatched digital I/O
A type of digital acquisition/generation where LabVIEW updates the
digital lines or port states immediately or returns the digital value of an
input line. Also called immediate digital I/O.
non-referenced signal
sources
Signal sources with voltage signals that are not connected to an absolute
reference or system ground. Also called floating signal sources. Some
common example of non-referenced signal sources are batteries,
transformers, or thermocouples.
Non-referenced
single-ended (NRSE)
measurement system
All measurements are made with respect to a common reference, but the
voltage at this reference can vary with respect to the measurement system
ground.
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Glossary
NRSE
Nonreferenced single-ended.
O
onboard channels
Channels provided by the plug-in data acquisition board.
OUT output pin
A counter output pin where the counter can generate various TTL pulse
waveforms.
output limits
The upper and lower voltage or current outputs for an analog output
channel. The output limits determine the polarity and voltage reference
settings for a board.
P
parallel mode
A type of SCXI operating mode in which the module sends each of its input
channels directly to a separate analog input channel of the device to the
module.
pattern generation
A type of handshaked (latched) digital I/O in which internal counters
generate the handshaked signal, which in turn initiates a digital transfer.
Because counters output digital pulses at a constant rate, this means you
can generate and retrieve patterns at a constant rate because the handshaked
signal is produced at a constant rate.
PGIA
Programmable Gain Instrumentation Amplifier.
Plug and Play devices
Devices that do not require dip switches or jumpers to configure resources
on the devices. Also called switchless devices.
postriggering
The technique you use on a data acquisition board to acquire a programmed
number of samples after trigger conditions are met.
pretriggering
The technique you use on a data acquisition board to keep a continuous
buffer filled with data, so that when the trigger conditions are met, the
sample includes the data leading up to the trigger condition.
pulse trains
Multiple pulses.
pulsed output
A form of counter signal generation by which a pulse is outputted when a
counter reaches a certain value.
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Glossary
R
read mark
Points to the scan at which a read operation begins. Analogous to a file
I/O pointer, the read mark moves every time you read data from an input
buffer. After the read is finished, the read mark points to the next unread
scan. Because multiple buffers are possible, you need both the buffer
number and the scan number to express the position of the read mark.
read mode
Indicates one of the four reference marks within an input buffer that
provides the reference point for the read. This reference can be the read
mark, the beginning of the buffer, the most recently acquired data, or the
trigger position.
referenced signal sources Signal sources with voltage signals that are referenced to a system ground,
such as the earth or a building ground. Also called grounded signal sources.
referenced single-ended
(RSE) measurement
system
All measurements are made with respect to a common reference or a
ground. Also called a grounded measurement system.
RMS
Root Mean Square.
row-major order
A way to organize the data in a 2D array by rows.
RSE
Referenced Single-Ended.
RTD
Resistance Temperature Detector. A temperature-sensing device whose
resistance increases with increases in temperature.
RTSI
Real-Time System Integration bus. The National Instruments timing bus
that interconnects data acquisition boards directly, by means of connectors
on top of the boards, for precise synchronization of functions.
run_me.llb
A LabVIEW DAQ VI library containing VIs that perform basic operations
concerning analog I/O, digital I/O, and counters.
S
sample
A single (one and only one) analog or digital input or output data point.
sample counter
The clock that counts the output of the channel clock, in other words, the
number of samples taken. On boards with simultaneous sampling, this
counter counts the output of the scan clock and hence the number of scans.
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Glossary
scan
One or more analog or digital input samples. Typically, the number of input
samples in a scan is equal to the number of channels n the input group. For
example, one pulse from the scan clock produces one scan which acquires
one new sample from every analog input channel in the group.
scan clock
The clock controlling the time interval between scans. On boards with
interval scanning support (for example, the AT-MIO-16F-5), this clock
gates the channel clock on and off. On boards with simultaneous sampling
(for example, the EISA-A2000), this clock clocks the track-and-hold
circuitry.
scan rate
The number of times (or scans) per second that LabVIEW acquires data
from channels. For example, at a scan rate of 10Hz, LabVIEW samples
each channel in a group 10 times per second.
scan width
The number of channels in the channel list or number of ports in the port
list you use to configure an analog or digital input group.
SCXI
Signal Conditioning eXtensions for Instrumentation. The National
Instruments product line for conditional low-level signals within an
external chassis near sensors, so only high-level signals in a noisy
environment are sent to data acquisition boards.
scxi_ai.llb
A LabVIEW DAQ library containing VIs specific to analog input
SCXI modules.
scxi_ao.llb
A LabVIEW DAQ library containing VIs specific to analog output
SCXI modules.
scxi_dig.llb
A LabVIEW DAQ library containing VIs specific to digital SCXI modules.
sec
Seconds.
settling time
The amount of time required for a voltage to reach its final value within
specified limits.
signal conditioning
The manipulation of signals to prepare them for digitizing.
signal divider
Performing frequency division on an external signal.
simple-buffered I/O
Input/output operation that uses a single memory buffer big enough for all
of your data. LabVIEW transfers data into or out of this buffer at the
specified rate, beginning at the start of the buffer and stopping at the end of
the buffer. You use simple buffered I/O when you acquire small amounts
of data relative to memory constraints.
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Glossary
single-ended inputs
Analog inputs that you measure with respect to a common ground.
software trigger
A programmed event that triggers an event such as data acquisition.
software triggering
A method of triggering in which you to simulate an analog trigger using
software. Also called conditional retrieval.
SOURCE input pin
An counter input pin where the counter counts the signal transitions.
STC
System Timing Controller.
strain gauge
A thin conductor, which is attached to a material, that detects stress or
vibrations in that material.
subVI
VI used in the block diagram of another VI; comparable to a subroutine.
switchless device
Devices that do not require dip switches or jumpers to configure resources
on the devices. Also called Plug and Play devices.
syntax
The set of rules to which statements must conform in a particular
programming language.
T
task
A timed I/O operation using a particular group. See task ID.
task ID
A number generated by LabVIEW, which identifies to the NI-DAQ drive
the task at hand.
The following table gives the function code definitions.
.
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Function Code
I/O Operation
1
analog input
2
analog output
3
digital port I/O
4
digital group I/O
5
counter/timer I/O
G-14
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Glossary
TC
Terminal count. The highest value of a counter.
toggled output
A form of counter signal generation by which the output changes the state
of the output signal from high to low, or low to high when the counter
reaches a certain value.
top-level VI
VI at the top of the VI hierarchy. This term is used to distinguish the VI
from its subVIs.
track-and-hold
A circuit that tracks an analog voltage and holds the value on command.
transducer excitation
A type of signal conditioning that uses external voltages and currents to
excite the circuitry of a signal conditioning system into measuring physical
phenomena.
trigger
Any event that causes or starts some form of data capture.
U
unipolar
A signal range that is either always positive or negative, but never both
(for example 0 to 10 V, not –10 to 10 V).
update
One or more analog or digital output samples. Typically, the number of
output samples in an update is equal to the number of channels in the output
group. For example, one pulse from the update clock produces one update
which sends one new sample to every analog output channel in the group.
update rate
The number of output updates per second.
update width
The number of channels in the channel list or number of ports in the port
list you use to configure an analog or digital output group.
V
V
Volts.
VDC
Volts, Direct Current.
VI
Virtual Instrument. A LabVIEW program; so-called because it models the
appearance and function of a physical instrument.
Vref
Voltage reference.
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Glossary
W
waveform
Multiple voltage readings taken at a specific sampling rate.
wire
Data path between nodes.
write mark
Points to the update at which a write operation begins. Analogous to a
file I/O pointer, the write mark moves every time you write data into an
output buffer. After the write is finished, the write mark points to the next
update to be written. Because multiple buffers are possible, you need both
the buffer number and the update number to express the position of the
write mark.
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Index
Numbers
Acquire N Scans Analog Hardware Trig example
VI, 8-7 to 8-8
Acquire N Scans Analog Software Trig example
VI, 8-11
Acquire N Scans Digital Trig example VI,
8-4 to 8-5
Acquire N Scans example VI, 7-4, 7-6
Acquire N Scans-ExtChanClk example VI,
9-4, 9-6
acquisition rate. See external control.
ADC
limit settings effects (figure), 5-6
measurement precision for various device
ranges and limit settings (table), 5-8
range effects (figure), 5-5
resolution, 5-4
effects on precision (figure), 5-4
adjacent counters for counter chips (table), 27-2
Adjacent Counters VI, 26-6
Advanced VIs. See also VIs.
analog output SCXI example,
21-16 to 21-17
buffered pulse and period
measurement, 25-8
external control of channel clock, 9-4
finite pulse train generation, 24-16
non-buffered handshaking, 17-5
overview, 3-5
simple-buffered handshaking, 17-7 to 17-9
AI Acquire Waveform VI, 7-2 to 7-3
AI Acquire Waveforms VI
multiple-waveform acquisition, 7-3
simple-buffered analog input with graphing,
7-5 to 7-6
8253/54 counter
accuracy, 24-22
continuous pulse train generation,
24-12 to 24-13
description, 23-4
determining pulse width, 25-5 to 25-6
dividing frequencies, 28-3
elapsed time counting, 27-11
events counting, 27-6 to 27-7
finite pulse train generation, 24-17 to 24-20
frequency and period measurement
high frequency signals, 26-7 to 26-8
how and when to measure, 26-2
low frequency signals, 26-10
internal timebases with corresponding
maximum pulse width measurements
(table), 25-9
single square pulse generation, 24-6 to 24-9
square pulse generation, 24-3 to 24-4
stopping counter generations, 24-23
A
ACK (Acknowledge Input) line, 17-2
ACK (Acknowledge) line, 17-2
Acquire & Process N Scans VI, 7-10
Acquire & Proc N Scans-Trig example VI,
8-5, 8-8
Acquire 1 Point from 1 Channel VI, 6-2
Acquire and Average VI, 21-7
Acquire N-Multi-Analog Hardware Trig
example VI, 8-8
Acquire N-Multi-Digital Trig example VI, 8-5
Acquire N-Multi-Start example VI, 7-7
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Index
one-point calibration, 22-6
SCXI temperature measurement, 21-8
simple-buffered analog input with
multiple starts, 7-7
simultaneous buffered waveform
acquisition and generation,
14-2 to 14-3
software triggering, 8-10
AI Sample Channel VI, 6-1 to 6-2
AI Sample Channels VI, 6-3
AI Single Scan VI
basic non-buffered application, 6-4
hardware-timed analog I/O control loops,
6-8 to 6-9
improving control loop performance,
6-9 to 6-10
multiple-channel single-point analog
input, 6-4
one-point calibration, 22-6
software-timed analog I/O control
loops, 6-6
AI Start VI
hardware-timed analog I/O control loops,
6-8 to 6-9
multiple-waveform acquisition, 7-4
one-point calibration, 22-6
scan clock control, 9-6
SCXI temperature measurement, 21-8
simple-buffered analog input with
multiple starts, 7-7
simultaneous buffered waveform
acquisition and generation,
14-2 to 14-3
Am9513 counter
continuous pulse train generation,
24-10 to 24-11
controlling pulse width measurement,
25-6 to 25-7
counting operations with no counters
available, 24-20 to 24-21
description, 23-4
determining pulse width, 25-4 to 25-5
AI Clear VI
hardware-timed analog I/O control
loops, 6-9
multiple-waveform acquisition, 7-4
SCXI temperature measurement, 21-8
simple-buffered analog input with
multiple starts, 7-7
simultaneous buffered waveform
acquisition and generation,
14-2 to 14-3
AI Clock Config VI
external control of channel clock, 9-4
external conversion pulses, 9-4
retrieving channel clock setting, 20-5
scan clock control, 9-6, 9-7
AI Config VI
basic non-buffered application, 6-4
hardware-timed analog I/O control
loops, 6-8
interchannel delay, 9-2
multiple-channel single-point analog
input, 6-5
multiple-waveform acquisition, 7-4
one-point calibration, 22-5
simple-buffered analog input with
multiple starts, 7-7
simultaneous buffered waveform
acquisition and generation, 14-2
AI Control VI, 9-6
AI Hardware Config VI, 20-4
AI Read One Scan VI, 6-7
AI Read VI
advantages and disadvantages of reading
backlog, A-1
asynchronous continuous acquisition
using DAQ Occurrences, 7-11 to 7-12
conditional retrieval cluster, 8-10
conditional retrieval example, 8-11
controlling startup times (note), 7-7
forcing time limit for, 9-5, 9-7
multiple-waveform acquisition, 7-4
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Index
channel clock control, 9-3 to 9-5, 9-8
circular-buffered analog input examples,
7-12 to 7-14
continuous acquisition from multiple
channels, 7-10 to 7-11
defining signals, 5-1 to 5-2
digital triggering, 8-2 to 8-5
external control of acquisition rate,
9-1 to 9-3
hardware triggering, 8-1 to 8-8
measurement systems, 5-4 to 5-6
multiple-channel single point analog
input, 6-3 to 6-5
multiple waveform acquisition, 7-3 to 7-5
scan clock control, 9-6 to 9-7, 9-8
SCXI applications for measuring
temperature (example), 21-2 to 21-13
selecting input settings, 5-7 to 5-12
calculating code width, 5-7
considerations for selecting,
5-7 to 5-8
differential measurement system,
5-9 to 5-10
measurement precision for various
device ranges and limit settings
(table), 5-8
nonreferenced single-ended
measurement system, 5-11 to 5-12
referenced single-ended
measurement system, 5-11
signals, 4-3, 5-1 to 5-6
single-buffered analog input examples,
7-5 to 7-8
single-channel single point analog input,
6-1 to 6-2
single waveform acquisition, 7-2 to 7-3
software triggering, 8-8 to 8-11
terminology, 5-17
triggering, 8-5 to 8-8
dividing frequencies, 28-2 to 28-3
events or elapsed time counting
connecting counters, 27-2 to 27-3
elapsed time, 27-9 to 27-10
events, 27-4 to 27-6
finite pulse train generation,
24-14 to 24-15
frequency and period measurement
connecting counters, 26-3
high frequency signals, 26-5 to 26-26
how and when to measure, 26-2
low frequency signals, 26-9 to 26-10
internal timebases with corresponding
maximum pulse width measurements
(table), 25-9
single square pulse generation,
24-4 to 24-6
square pulse generation, 24-2 to 24-3
stopping counter generations, 24-23
amplification
increasing signal-to-noise ratio
(figure), 18-4
methods for minimizing noise
(note), 18-4
amplifier offset, reading, 21-5
AMUX-64T devices
addressing with MIO boards, A-1
analog input channel range (table), 5-13
channel addressing, 5-13 to 5-17
scanning order for DAQ devices,
5-14 to 5-17
four AMUX-64Ts (table), 5-16
one or two AMUX-64Ts (table), 5-15
specifying number for AMUX-64T
device (table), 5-17
analog input. See also buffered waveform
acquisition.
AMUX-64T external multiplexer device,
5-12 to 5-17
analog input/output control loops,
6-6 to 6-10
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Index
single-immediate updates, 11-1 to 11-2
single-point output
choosing between single-point or
multiple-point generation, 4-4
overview, 10-1
analog output SCXI modules
application example, 21-16 to 21-17
multiplexed mode, 19-5
analog-to-digital converter (ADC). See ADC.
analog triggering
description, 8-5 to 8-6
diagram, 8-6
examples, 8-7 to 8-8
timeline for post-triggered data
acquisition (figure), 8-6
anlogin DAQ example file, 3-2
anlog_io.llb DAQ example file, 3-2
anlogout.llb DAQ example file, 3-2
AO Clear VI
circular-buffered output, 12-5
simultaneous buffered waveform
acquisition and generation,
14-2 to 14-3
waveform generation, 12-3
AO Config VI
analog output SCXI example, 21-16
circular-buffered output, 12-5
simultaneous buffered waveform
acquisition and generation, 14-2
waveform generation, 12-3
AO Continuous Gen VI, 12-4
AO Generate Waveforms VI, 12-1 to 12-2
AO Group Config VI, 21-16
AO Hardware Config VI, 21-16
AO Single Update VI
analog output SCXI example, 21-16
calibrating SCXI modules for signal
generation, 22-8
analog input/output control loops, 6-6 to 6-10
hardware-timed control loops, 6-7 to 6-9
improving performance, 6-9 to 6-10
overview, 6-6
software-timed control loops, 6-6 to 6-7
Analog Input palette, 6-1
analog input SCXI modules
applications for measuring temperature
(example), 21-2 to 21-13
multiplexed mode, 19-4 to 19-5
parallel mode, 19-5 to 19-6
analog input signals
choosing a measurement system,
5-4 to 5-6
choosing between analog and digital
signals, 4-3
defining signals, 5-1 to 5-2
device voltage range, 5-5
floating signal sources, 5-3
grounded signal sources, 5-2
referenced and non-referenced, 5-2
resolution of ADC, 5-4
signal voltage range (limit settings), 5-6
types of analog signals (figure), 5-1
Analog IO Control Loop (HW timed) VI, 6-8
Analog IO Control Loop VI, 6-6 to 6-7
analog multiplexers (AMUX), 5-9. See also
AMUX-64T devices.
analog output
buffered
overview, 10-1 to 10-2
stored in 2D arrays, 3-16
waveform generation, 12-1 to 12-3
circular-buffered, 12-4 to 12-5
eliminating errors, 12-6
multiple-immediate updates, 11-3
SCXI analog output application example,
21-16 to 21-17
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Index
buffered waveform acquisition, 7-1 to 7-14
circular-buffered analog input,
7-12 to 7-14
asynchronous continuous acquisition
using DAQ occurrences,
7-11 to 7-12
continuous acquisition from multiple
channels, 7-10 to 7-11
determining adequate buffer
capacity, A-2
examples, 7-12 to 7-14
overview, 7-8 to 7-10
how buffers work, 7-2
simple-buffered analog input
data buffer overview, 7-1 to 7-2
displaying waveforms on graphs
(example), 7-5 to 7-6
multiple-waveform acquisition,
7-3 to 7-5
sampling with multiple starts
(example), 7-7 to 7-8
single-waveform acquisition,
7-2 to 7-3
waiting to analyze data, 7-1 to 7-2
buffered waveform acquisition and generation,
simultaneous, 14-1 to 14-7
E-series MIO boards, 14-1 to 14-4
hardware triggered, 14-3 to 14-4
software triggered, 14-2 to 14-3
Lab/1200 boards, 14-7
legacy MIO boards, 14-4 to 14-6
hardware triggered, 14-6
software triggered, 14-4 to 14-5
AO Start VI
circular-buffered output, 12-5
external control of update clock, 13-2
simultaneous buffered waveform
acquisition and generation,
14-2 to 14-3
waveform generation, 12-3
AO Trigger and Gate Config VI, 14-4
AO Update Channel VI, 11-2
AO Update Channels VI, 11-1
AO Wait VI, 12-3
AO Waveform Gen VI, 12-2
AO Write One Update VI, 6-7
multiple-immediate updates, 11-3
single-immediate updates, 11-2
AO Write VI
circular-buffered output, 12-5
simultaneous buffered waveform
acquisition and generation,
14-2 to 14-3
waveform generation, 12-3
Array & Cluster option, 3-15
arrays
transposing, 3-15, 3-16, 7-6
two-dimensional (2D) arrays,
3-14 to 3-16
B
bipolar range, 3-14, 5-7
breakpoints, setting, 29-4
buffered handshaking, 17-6 to 17-10
circular-buffered examples, 17-9 to 17-10
simple-buffered examples, 17-7 to 17-9
buffered pulse and period measurement,
25-7 to 25-8
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Index
circular-buffered analog input
asynchronous continuous acquisition
using DAQ occurrences, 7-11 to 7-12
continuous acquisition from multiple
channels, 7-10 to 7-11
examples
basic circular-buffered analog
input, 7-13
Cont Acq to File (binary).vi, 7-14
Cont Acq to File (scaled).vi, 7-14
Cont Acq to Spreadsheet File.vi, 7-14
Cont Acq&Chart (buffered).vi, 7-14
Cont Acq&Graph (buffered).vi, 7-14
how circular buffers work (figure), 7-9
overview, 7-8 to 7-10
circular-buffered analog output
changing waveform during generation,
12-4 to 12-5
eliminating errors, 12-6
circular-buffered digital I/O examples,
17-9 to 17-10
clocks. See channel clock; scan clock;
update clock.
code width, calculating, 5-7
cold junction compensation, 21-3 to 21-4
column major order, 3-15 to 3-16
common-mode voltage
defined, 5-10
illustration, 5-10
common questions about LabVIEW data
acquisition, A-1 to A-4
conditional retrieval, 8-8. See also
software triggering.
configuration. See installation
and configuration.
Cont Acq to File (binary).vi, 7-14
Cont Acq to File (scaled).vi, 7-14, 12-7
Cont Acq to Spreadsheet File.vi, 7-14
buffered waveform generation
buffered analog output, 12-1 to 12-3
choosing between single-point or
multiple-point generation, 4-4
circular-buffered output, 12-4 to 12-5
eliminating errors, 12-6
overview, 10-1 to 10-2
stored in 2D arrays, 3-16
bulletin board support, B-1
C
calibration. See SCXI calibration.
cascading counters
defined, 27-2
external connections (figure), 27-2, 27-3
channel addressing
AMUX-64T devices, 5-13 to 5-17
analog input channel range
(table), 5-13
scanning order, 5-14 to 5-17
SCXI modules, 20-1 to 20-2
VI channel, port, and counter addressing,
3-9 to 3-12
channel clock, 9-3 to 9-5
channel and scan intervals using channel
clock (figure), 9-1
considerations for specific boards
(notes), 9-5
controlling externally, 9-3 to 9-5
rate parameter, 5-17
setting channel clock rate, 9-3
simultaneous control of scan and channel
clocks, 9-8
TTL signal (example), 9-3
channel configuration, in NI-DAQ 5.x or 6.0,
2-13 to 2-14
Channel to Index VI (note), 8-10
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Index
Count Time (8253) VI, 27-11
Count Time-Easy (9513) VI, 27-9
Count Time-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI,
27-7 to 27-8
Count Time-Int (9513) VI, 27-10
Count Time-Int (DAQ-STC) VI, 27-8
counter addressing for VIs, 3-9 to 3-12
counter chips used in National Instruments
devices, 23-3 to 23-5. See also 8253/54
counter; AM9513 counter;
DAQ-STC counter.
Counter Read VI
controlling pulse width
measurement, 25-6
counting events
Am9513, 27-6
DAQ-STC, 27-4
counting time
Am9513, 27-10
DAQ-STC, 27-8
measuring frequency and period
high frequency signals, 26-6
low frequency signals, 26-10
Counter Start VI
continuous pulse train generation, 24-11
controlling pulse width
measurement, 25-6
counting events
Am9513, 27-6
DAQ-STC, 27-4
counting time
Am9513, 27-10
DAQ-STC, 27-8
dividing frequencies, 28-2
finite pulse train generation, 24-15
measuring frequency and period
high frequency signals, 26-6
low frequency signals, 26-10
single square pulse generation, 24-5
Cont Acq&Chart (Async Occurrence) VI,
7-11 to 7-12
Cont Acq&Chart (buffered).vi, 7-14
Cont Acq&Graph (buffered).vi, 7-14
Cont Acquire&Chart (immediate) VI,
6-4 to 6-5
Cont Pulse Train (8253) VI, 24-12, 28-3
Cont Pulse Train-Easy (9513) VI, 24-10
Cont Pulse Train-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI, 24-10
Cont Pulse Train-Int (9513) VI, 24-11
Cont Pulse Train-Int (DAQ-STC) VI,
24-10 to 24-11
continuous acquisition from multiple
channels, 7-10 to 7-11
Continuous Generation example VI,
12-4, 12-6
Continuous Pulse Generator Config VI
finite pulse train generation, 24-15
single square pulse generation, 24-11
continuous pulse train generation,
24-9 to 24-13
8253/54, 24-12 to 24-13
DAQ-STC and Am9513, 24-10 to 24-11
Continuous Transducer VI, 21-6
control loops. See analog input/output
control loops.
Convert RTD Reading VI, 21-12
Convert Strain Gauge Reading VI,
21-14 to 21-15
Convert Thermocouple Reading VI, 21-8
Count Events (8253) VI, 27-6 to 27-7
Count Events-Easy (9513) VI, 27-4 to 27-5
Count Events-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI, 27-3
Count Events-Int (9513) VI, 27-5 to 27-6
Count Events-Int (DAQ-STC) VI, 27-4
Count Events or Time Easy VI
events, 27-3
time
Am9513, 27-9
DAQ-STC, 27-7 to 27-8
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Index
pulse train generation, 24-9 to 24-20
continuous pulse train, 24-9 to 24-13
finite pulse train, 24-13 to 24-20
pulse width measurement, 25-1 to 25-9
controlling pulse width
measurement, 25-6 to 25-7
determining pulse width,
25-2 to 25-6
increasing measurable width range,
25-8 to 25-9
square pulse generation, 24-1 to 24-4
single square pulse generation,
24-4 to 24-9
stopping counter generations, 24-23
timebase uncertainty, 24-22
CTR Buffer Config VI, 25-8
CTR Buffer Read VI, 25-8
CTR Control VI
buffered pulse and period
measurement, 25-8
enabling and disabling FOUT signal,
24-20 to 24-21
measuring frequency and period, 26-6
CTR Group Config VI, 25-8
CTR Mode Config VI
buffered pulse and period
measurement, 25-8
finite pulse train generation, 24-16
current setting for VIs, 3-7
current value conventions for VIs, 3-7
customer communication, xvii, B-1 to B-2
Counter Stop VI
controlling pulse width
measurement, 25-6
counting events
Am9513, 27-6
DAQ-STC, 27-4
counting time
Am9513, 27-10
DAQ-STC, 27-8
dividing frequencies, 28-2
finite pulse train generation, 24-14
measuring frequency and period
high frequency signals, 26-6
low frequency signals, 26-10
stopping counter generations, 24-23
counter.llb DAQ example file, 3-2
counters
accuracy of counters, 24-22
basic functions, 23-1 to 23-5
capabilities, 23-1
choosing between counting methods, 4-5
counting events or elapsed time,
27-1 to 27-11
connecting counters, 27-1 to 27-3
elapsed time, 27-7 to 27-11
events, 27-3 to 27-7
counting operations with no counters
available, 24-20 to 24-21
digital vs. counter interfacing, 4-3
dividing frequencies, 28-1 to 28-3
frequency and period measurement,
26-1 to 26-10
connecting counters for
measuring, 26-3
high frequency signals, 26-4 to 26-8
how and when to measure,
26-1 to 26-2
low frequency signals, 26-8 to 26-10
gating modes (figure), 23-3
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
D
daisy chaining SCXI chassis, 21-20 to 21-21
DAQ Channel Wizard
limit settings, 3-12
SCXI programming considerations
(note), 20-1
I-8
© National Instruments Corporation
Index
data acquisition. See also analog input; VIs.
analog input/output control loops,
6-6 to 6-10
basic LabVIEW data acquisition
concepts, 3-1 to 3-16
data organization for analog
applications, 3-14 to 3-16
limit settings, 3-12 to 3-14
location of common DAQ examples,
3-1 to 3-2
buffered. See buffered
waveform acquisition.
common questions about LabVIEW data
acquisition, A-1 to A-4
important terms, 5-17
multiple-channel single-point, 6-3 to 6-5
single-channel single-point, 6-1 to 6-2
triggered. See triggered data acquisition.
data acquisition hardware. See hardware.
Data Acquisition palette, 3-4
data organization for analog applications,
3-14 to 3-16
column major order, 3-15 to 3-16
row major order, 3-14 to 3-15
two-dimensional (2D) arrays,
3-14 to 3-16
data types for LabVIEW, xvi
debugging VIs, 29-1 to 29-4
error handling, 29-2 to 29-3
execution highlighting, 29-4
hardware connection errors, 29-1
setting breakpoints and showing advanced
DAQ VIs, 29-4
single-stepping through VIs, 29-3
software configuration errors, 29-2
using Probe tool, 29-4
VI construction errors, 29-2 to 29-4
default input for VIs, 3-7
default setting for VIs, 3-7
DAQ examples
list of example files, 3-2
locations, 3-1 to 3-2
DAQ hardware. See hardware; installation
and configuration.
DAQ Occurrence Config VI, 7-11 to 7-12
DAQ Solution Wizard, 3-1
DAQ-STC counter
continuous pulse train generation,
24-10 to 24-11
controlling pulse width measurement,
25-6 to 25-7
counting operations with no counters
available, 24-20 to 24-21
description, 23-4
determining pulse width, 25-2 to 25-3
dividing frequencies, 28-2 to 28-3
events or elapsed time counting
events, 27-3 to 27-4
time, 27-7 to 27-28
finite pulse train generation
using Advanced VIs, 24-16 to 24-17
using Easy and Intermediate VIs,
24-14 to 24-15
frequency and period measurement
connecting counters, 26-3
high frequency signals, 26-4, 26-6
how and when to measure, 26-2
low frequency signals,
26-8 to 26-9, 26-10
internal timebases with corresponding
maximum pulse width measurements
(table), 25-9
single square pulse generation,
24-4 to 24-6
square pulse generation, 24-2 to 24-3
stopping counter generations, 24-23
DAQ VIs. See VIs.
© National Instruments Corporation
I-9
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Index
non-buffered handshaking, 17-5 to 17-6
overview, 15-1 to 15-2
SCXI application examples
digital input, 21-17 to 21-18
digital output, 21-19 to 21-20
sending out multiple digital values,
17-3 to 17-5
Digital Mode Config VI, 17-8
digital ports and lines, 15-1
digital SCXI application examples
digital input, 21-17 to 21-18
digital output, 21-19 to 21-20
digital SCXI modules
multiplexed mode for digital and relay
modules, 19-5
parallel mode, 19-6
digital triggering
defined, 8-2
description, 8-2 to 8-3
diagram of signal connections, 8-2
examples, 8-4 to 8-5
timeline for post-triggered data
acquisition (figure), 8-3
DIO Buffer Control VI, 17-8 to 17-9
DIO Clear VI, 17-7
DIO Config VI, 17-8 to 17-9
DIO Group Config VI, 17-5
DIO Port Config VI
digital input application example
(note), 21-18
immediate digital I/O, 16-3
DIO Single Read/Write VI, 17-5 to 17-6
DIO Start VI, 17-8
DIO Wait VI, 17-7
Disable Indexing option, 3-15
Display and Output Acq'd File (scaled) VI,
12-6 to 12-7
dividing frequencies, 28-1 to 28-3
Delayed Pulse (8253) VI, 24-6 to 24-9
Delayed Pulse-Easy (9513) VI, 24-5
Delayed Pulse-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI, 24-5
Delayed Pulse Generator Config VI
finite pulse train generation, 24-15
measuring frequency and period, 26-6
single square pulse generation, 24-5
Delayed Pulse-Int (9513) VI, 24-5
Delayed Pulse-Int (DAQ-STC) VI, 24-5, 24-6
delays for improving control loop
performance, 6-9 to 6-10
device voltage range, 5-5
considerations for selecting analog input
settings, 5-7 to 5-8
description, 5-5
effect on ADC precision (figure), 5-5
measurement precision for various ranges
and limit settings (table), 5-8
differential measurement system, 5-9 to 5-10
channel differential system (figure), 5-9
common mode voltage (figure), 5-10
when to use, 5-10
digital and relay SCXI modules, 19-5
Digital Buffered Handshaking VI, 17-7
Digital Clock Config VI, 17-8
digital DAQ example file, 3-2
digital I/O
buffered handshaking, 17-6 to 17-10
circular-buffered examples,
17-9 to 17-10
simple-buffered examples,
17-7 to 17-9
choosing between non-latched or latched
digital I/O, 4-5
digital vs. counter interfacing, 4-3
handshaking (latched) digital I/O,
17-1 to 17-2
immediate (non-latched) digital I/O,
16-1 to 16-3
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
I-10
© National Instruments Corporation
Index
multiple-immediate updates, 11-3
multiple-waveform acquisition, 7-3
overview, 3-4 to 3-5
single-channel single-point analog
input, 6-1
single-immediate updates, 11-1 to 11-2
single square pulse generation, 24-5
single-waveform acquisition, 7-2 to 7-3
strain gauge application, 21-14
waveform generation, 12-1 to 12-2
edges of signals, 23-2
EEPROM, for storing calibration constants,
22-1 to 22-3
default load area, 22-2
factory area, 22-2
user area, 22-2
elapsed time counting. See events or elapsed
time counting.
electronic support services, B-1 to B-2
Error Handler VIs, 29-2
error handling
debugging VIs, 29-2 to 29-3
error in and error out output clusters,
3-8 to 3-9
Event or Time Counter Config VI
counting events
Am9513, 27-6
DAQ-STC, 27-4
counting time
Am9513, 27-10
DAQ-STC, 27-8
measuring frequency and period, 26-6
events or elapsed time counting, 27-1 to 27-11
adjacent counters for counter chips
(table), 27-2
connecting counters, 27-1 to 27-3
Am9513, 27-2 to 27-3
cascading counters (figure), 27-2
external connections (figures), 27-1
documentation
conventions used in manual, xiv-xvi
flowchart for finding information, 4-2
how to use this book, 1-1 to 1-3
organization of manual, xiii-xiv
related documentation, xvii
down counter, 28-1, 28-2
Down Counter or Divide VI, 28-2
E
e-mail support, B-2
E-series MIO boards, for simultaneous
buffered waveform acquisition and
generation, 14-1 to 14-4
hardware triggered, 14-3 to 14-4
software triggered, 14-2 to 14-3
Easy Counter VI
continuous pulse train generation, 24-10
finite pulse train generation, 24-14
single square pulse generation, 24-5
Easy VIs. See also VIs.
addressing OUT and IN pins on DIO-32F
board, A-2
continuous pulse train generation, 24-10
counting elapsed time
Am9513, 27-9
DAQ-STC, 27-7 to 27-8
counting events, 27-3 to 27-24
digital input application, 21-17 to 21-18
digital output application, 21-19 to 21-20
finite pulse train generation, 24-14
grouping two or more ports, A-2
immediate digital I/O, 16-2
limitations, 6-3
measuring frequency and period
high frequency signals, 26-4 to 26-5
low frequency signals, 26-8 to 26-9
multiple-channel single-point analog
input, 6-3
© National Instruments Corporation
I-11
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Index
Finite Pulse Train-Easy (9513) VI, 24-14
Finite Pulse Train-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI, 24-14
finite pulse train generation, 24-13 to 24-20
8253/54, 24-17 to 24-20
DAQ-STC, 24-16 to 24-17
DAQ-STC and Am9513, 24-14 to 24-15
physical connections (figure), 24-14
Finite Pulse Train-Int (9513) VI, 24-15
Finite Pulse Train-Int (DAQ-STC) VI, 24-15
floating signal sources, 5-3
FOUT pin, 13-3, 24-20
FREQ_OUT pin, 13-3, 24-20
frequency and period measurement,
26-1 to 26-10
connecting counters for measuring, 26-3
equation for obtaining
measurements, 26-2
high frequency signals, 26-4 to 26-8
how and when to measure, 26-1 to 26-2
low frequency signals, 26-8 to 26-10
square wave frequency measurement
(figure), 26-1
square wave period measurement
(figure), 26-2
frequency division, 28-1 to 28-3
8253/54, 28-3
DAQ-STC and Am9513, 28-2 to 28-3
wiring (figure), 28-1
FTP support, B-1
Function Generator VI, 12-5, 12-6
Functions palette
Array & Cluster, 3-15
DAQ, 6-1
illustration, 3-3
locating VIs, 3-3
elapsed time, 27-7 to 27-11
8253/54, 27-11
Am9513, 27-9 to 27-10
DAQ-STC, 27-7 to 27-28
events, 27-3 to 27-7
8253/54, 27-6 to 27-7
Am9513, 27-4 to 27-6
DAQ-STC, 27-3 to 27-4
execution highlighting, 29-4
external control
acquisition rate, 9-1 to 9-8
channel and scan intervals using
channel clock (figure), 9-1
channel clock control, 9-3 to 9-5
choosing between triggering and
external clock control, 4-4
description, 9-1 to 9-3
round-robin scanning (figure), 9-2
scan clock control, 9-6 to 9-7
simultaneous control of scan and
channel clocks, 9-8
update clock, 13-1 to 13-3
Generate N Updates-ExtUpdateClk
VI, 13-1 to 13-2
input pins (table), 13-2
supplying test clock from DAQ
device, 13-3
external conversion pulses, 9-4 to 9-5
EXTUPDATE* signal (table), 13-2
F
fax and telephone support, B-2
Fax-on-Demand support, B-2
filtering, 18-4
Finite Pulse Train (8253) VI, 24-17 to 24-20
Finite Pulse Train-Adv (DAQ-STC) VI,
24-16, 24-17
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
I-12
© National Instruments Corporation
Index
G
H
gain, defined, 3-14
gains (SCXI)
default gain, 20-3
description, 20-3 to 20-5
SCXI-1100 channel arrays, input limits
array, and gains (table), 20-4
GATE input, for counters, 23-2
General Error Handler VI
debugging VIs, 29-2 to 29-3
pulse width measurement, 25-6
Generate Continuous Sinewave VI, 12-3, 12-6
Generate Delayed Pulse VI
single square pulse generation, 24-5
stopping counter generations, 24-23
Generate N Updates example VI, 12-2, 12-6
Generate N Updates-ExtUpdateClk VI,
13-1 to 13-2
Generate Pulse Train on FOUT VI,
13-3, 24-21
Generate Pulse Train on FREQ_OUT VI,
13-3, 24-21
Generate Pulse Train VI
continuous pulse train generation
8253/54, 24-12 to 24-13
DAQ-STC and Am9513, 24-10
finite pulse train generation, DAQ-STC
and Am9513, 24-14
stopping counter generations, 24-23
supplying external test clock, 13-3
Get DAQ Device Information VI, 2-1
Get Timebase (8253) VI, 25-6
Getting Started Analog Input example VI
channel clock control (figure), 9-4
reading amplifier offset, 21-5
scan clock control (figure), 9-7
temperature sensor, 21-4
graphing simple-buffered analog input
(example), 7-5 to 7-6
grounded signal sources, 5-2
handshaking (latched) digital I/O,
17-1 to 17-10
buffered handshaking, 17-6 to 17-10
circular-buffered examples,
17-9 to 17-10
simple-buffered examples,
17-7 to 17-9
connecting signal lines
digital input (figure), 17-3
digital output (figure), 17-4
DAQ devices supporting digital
handshaking, 17-1
defined, 15-2
grouping ports for DIO-32 devices
(notes), 17-4
non-buffered handshaking, 17-5 to 17-6
overview, 17-1 to 17-2
sending out multiple digital values,
17-3 to 17-5
hardware. See also installation and
configuration.
debugging connection errors, 29-1
LabVIEW data acquisition
hardware support
Macintosh systems (table), 2-5
Windows environment (table),
2-4 to 2-5
relationship between LabVIEW, NI-DAQ,
and DAQ hardware (figure), 2-3
hardware-timed analog input/output control
loops, 6-7 to 6-9
hardware triggering, 8-1 to 8-8
analog
description, 8-5 to 8-6
examples, 8-7 to 8-8
digital
description, 8-2 to 8-3
examples, 8-4 to 8-5
overview, 8-1
© National Instruments Corporation
I-13
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Index
I
asynchronous continuous acquisition
using DAQ occurrences, 7-11 to 7-12
circular-buffered output, 12-5
continuous acquisition from multiple
channels, 7-10 to 7-11
continuous pulse train generation,
24-10 to 24-11
controlling pulse width measurement,
25-6 to 25-7
counting elapsed time
8253/54, 27-11
Am9513, 27-10
DAQ-STC, 27-8
counting events
8253/54, 27-6 to 27-7
Am9513, 27-5 to 27-6
DAQ-STC, 27-4
dividing frequencies, 28-2 to 28-3
finite pulse train generation, 24-15
measuring frequency and period
high frequency signals, 26-6
low frequency signals, 26-10
multiple-channel single-point analog
input, 6-3 to 6-4
multiple-waveform acquisition, 7-4 to 7-5
non-buffered handshaking, 17-5 to 17-6
overview, 3-5
SCXI temperature measurement
examples, 21-6, 21-8
simple-buffered handshaking, 17-7
simultaneous buffered waveform
acquisition and generation,
14-2 to 14-3
single-immediate updates, 11-2
single square pulse generation, 24-5
stopping counter generations, 24-23
strain gauge application, 21-14
waveform generation, 12-3
interval scanning, 5-17
isolation of transducer signals, 18-4
IBF (Input Buffer Full) line, 17-2
ICTR Control-Int VI
counting events, 27-6
counting time, 27-11
immediate digital I/O. See nonlatched
digital I/O.
immediate updates
multiple, 11-3
single, 11-1 to 11-2
Index Array function, 3-15
initialization of data acquisition boards, A-3
Input Buffer Full (IBF) line, 17-2
input range, and input setting selection,
5-7 to 5-8
installation and configuration
channel configuration in NI-DAQ 5.x or
6.0, 2-13 to 2-14
DAQ devices
installing and configuring
(figure), 2-2
using NI-DAQ 4.8.x on Macintosh,
2-6 to 2-8
using NI-DAQ 5.x or 6.0, 2-6
debugging software configuration
errors, 29-2
LabVIEW data acquisition
hardware support
Macintosh systems (table), 2-5
Windows environment (table),
2-4 to 2-5
relationship between LabVIEW, NI-DAQ,
and DAQ hardware (figure), 2-3
SCXI chassis
hardware configuration, 2-9 to 2-10
software configuration
NI-DAQ 4.8.x on Macintosh
systems, 2-10 to 2-13
NI-DAQ 5.x or 6.0, 2-10
Intermediate VIs. See also VIs.
advantages, 6-4 to 6-5
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
I-14
© National Instruments Corporation
Index
L
M
Lab/1200 boards, simultaneous buffered
waveform acquisition and generation, 14-7
LabVIEW software
basic LabVIEW data acquisition
concepts, 3-1 to 3-16. See also VIs.
data organization for analog
applications, 3-14 to 3-16
location of common DAQ examples,
3-1 to 3-2
common questions about LabVIEW,
A-1 to A-4
data acquisition hardware support
Macintosh systems (table), 2-5
Windows environment (table),
2-4 to 2-5
data types, xvi
relationship between LabVIEW, NI-DAQ,
and DAQ hardware (figure), 2-3
latched digital I/O. See handshaking (latched)
digital I/O.
legacy MIO boards, simultaneous buffered
waveform acquisition and generation,
14-4 to 14-6
hardware triggered, 14-6
software triggered, 14-4 to 14-5
limit settings
considerations for selecting analog input
settings, 5-7 to 5-8
description, 5-6
effect on ADC precision (figure), 5-6
measurement precision for various device
ranges and limit settings (table), 5-8
SCXI gains, 20-3 to 20-5
VI limit settings, 3-12 to 3-14
linearizing voltage levels, 18-5
Macintosh systems
configuring DAQ devices, 2-6 to 2-8
LabVIEW data acquisition hardware
support (table), 2-5
NI-DAQ driver files, 2-3
SCXI chassis
hardware configuration, 2-9 to 2-10
software configuration, 2-10 to 2-13
manual. See documentation.
maximum sampling rate per channel, 7-5
Meas Buffered Pulse-Period (DAQ-STC) VI,
25-7 to 25-8
Measure Frequency - Dig Start > 1kHz (8253)
VI, 26-8
Measure Frequency < 1kHz (8253) VI,
26-8, 26-10
Measure Frequency > 1kHz (8253) VI, 26-7
Measure Frequency-Easy (9513) VI, 26-5
Measure Frequency-Easy (DAQ-STC)
VI, 26-4
Measure Frequency VI, 26-4, 26-5
Measure Period-Easy (9513) VI, 26-9
Measure Period-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI, 26-8
Measure Pulse-Easy (9513) VI, 25-4
Measure Pulse-Easy (DAQ-STC) VI, 25-2
Measure Pulse Width or Period VI
determining pulse width
Am9513, 25-4
DAQ-STC, 25-2 to 25-3
measuring low frequency signals, 26-9
Measure Short Pulse Width (8253) VI, 25-5
measurement system
choosing, 5-4 to 5-6
differential measurement system,
5-9 to 5-10
nonreferenced single-ended measurement
system, 5-11 to 5-12
referenced single-ended measurement
system, 5-11
© National Instruments Corporation
I-15
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Index
nonlatched digital I/O, 16-1 to 16-3
channel names, 16-2 to 16-3
defined, 15-2
resetting digital lines to default
values, 16-3
using Easy Digital VIs, 16-2
nonreferenced single-ended (NRSE)
measurement system, 5-11 to 5-12
18-channel NRSE system (figure), 5-12
when to use, 5-12
Nyquist frequency, 5-2
Nyquist Theorem, 5-2
Microsoft Windows. See Windows
environment.
MIO boards. See E-series MIO boards; legacy
MIO boards.
multiple-channel single-point analog input,
6-3 to 6-5
multiple-immediate updates, 11-3
multiple-waveform acquisition
choosing between single-point and
multi-point acquisition, 4-4
procedure for acquiring, 7-3 to 7-5
multiplexed mode (SCXI)
analog input modules, 19-4 to 19-5
analog output modules, 19-5
channel addressing, 20-1 to 20-2
digital and relay modules, 19-5
SCXI-1200 (Windows), 19-4 to 19-5
My Single Scan Processing VI, 6-5
O
OBF (Output Buffer Full) line, 17-2
one-point calibration, 22-4 to 22-6
OUT output pin, 23-2
OUT2 signal (table), 13-2
Output Buffer Full (OBF) line, 17-2
N
NI-DAQ software
driver files
deciding which driver version to
use, A-4
Macintosh versions, 2-3
versions of NI-DAQ drivers
(note), 2-1
Windows versions, 2-3
installing
NI-DAQ 4.8.x on Macintosh,
2-6 to 2-8
NI-DAQ 5.x or 6.0, 2-6
relationship between LabVIEW, NI-DAQ,
and DAQ hardware (figure), 2-3
NIDAQ32.DLL file, 2-3
NIDAQ.DLL file, 2-3
non-buffered handshaking, 17-5 to 17-6
non-referenced signal sources, 5-2
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
P
parallel mode (SCXI)
analog input modules, 19-5 to 19-6
channel addressing, 20-1 to 20-2
digital modules (Macintosh and
Windows), 19-6
SCXI-1200 (Windows), 19-6
parameters for VIs
common DAQ VI parameters, 3-7 to 3-8
conventions, 3-6
pattern generation, 17-2
period measurement. See frequency and period
measurement.
PFI5/UPDATE* signal (table), 13-2
polling for analog input, 6-9 to 6-10
I-16
© National Instruments Corporation
Index
Pulse Width or Period Meas Config VI
controlling pulse width measurement,
25-6 to 25-7
measuring low frequency signals, 26-10
pulsed counter signal generation, 24-1
ports
digital ports and lines, 15-1
grouping ports without handshaking, A-2
VI port addressing, 3-9 to 3-12
writing to digital port while reading
digital data, A-2
pressure measurement with strain gauges
(example), 21-13 to 21-16
Probe tool, 29-4
pulse generation, square. See square
pulse generation.
Pulse Generator Config VI, 26-6
pulse train generation, 24-9 to 24-20
8253/54, 24-3 to 24-4
continuous pulse train, 24-9 to 24-13
8253/54, 24-12 to 24-13
DAQ-STC and Am9513,
24-10 to 24-11
DAQ-STC and Am9513, 24-2 to 24-3
duty cycles (figure), 24-2
finite pulse train, 24-13 to 24-20
8253/54, 24-17 to 24-20
DAQ-STC, 24-16 to 24-17
DAQ-STC and Am9513,
24-14 to 24-15
physical connections (figure), 24-14
pulse width measurement, 25-1 to 25-9
buffered pulse and period measurement,
25-7 to 25-8
controlling pulse width measurement,
25-6 to 25-7
counting input signals (figure), 25-1
determining pulse width, 25-2 to 25-6
increasing measurable width range,
25-8 to 25-9
measuring pulse width, 25-1 to 25-2
overview, 25-1
physical connections for determining
pulse width (figure), 25-2
© National Instruments Corporation
Q
questions
about using DAQ devices, 4-3 to 4-5
LabVIEW data acquisition common
questions, A-1 to A-4
R
range and polarity of device, setting, 3-14
range of device voltage
considerations for selecting analog input
settings, 5-7 to 5-8
description, 5-5
effect on ADC precision (figure), 5-5
measurement precision for various device
ranges and limit settings (table), 5-8
Read from Digital Line VI, 16-2
Read from Digital Port VI
digital input application, 21-17 to 21-18
immediate digital I/O, 16-2
referenced signal sources, 5-2
referenced single-ended (RSE) measurement
system, 5-11
18-channel RSE system (figure), 5-11
relay SCXI modules, 19-5
Remote SCXI, sampling rate limits
(note), 19-3
REQ (Request) line, 17-2
Resistance-Temperature Detectors (RTDs),
21-10 to 21-13
resolution of ADC, 5-4
effects on ADC precision (figure), 5-4
round-robin scanning (figure), 9-2
row major order, 3-14 to 3-15
I-17
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Index
SCXI-1122 Voltage example, 21-9
SCXI 1124 Update Channels VI,
21-16 to 21-17
SCXI-1162/1162HV Digital Input VI, 21-18
SCXI-1200 module
multiplexed mode (Windows),
19-4 to 19-5
parallel mode (Windows), 19-6
SCXI application examples, 21-1 to 21-21
analog input application for measuring
temperature, 21-2 to 21-13
analog output application, 21-16 to 21-17
DAQ example files, 3-2
digital input application, 21-17 to 21-18
digital output application, 21-19 to 21-20
multi-chassis applications,
21-20 to 21-21
overview, 21-1 to 21-2
pressure measurement with strain gauges,
21-13 to 21-16
temperature measurement applications
amplifier offset, 21-5
sensors for cold-junction
compensation, 21-3 to 21-4
using RTDs, 21-10 to 21-13
using thermocouples, 21-2 to 21-3
VI examples, 21-6 to 21-10
SCXI Cal Constants VI
automatic calculation of calibration
constants, 22-3
calibrating SCXI modules for signal
generation, 22-8
loading saved calibration constants,
22-7, 22-8
one-point calibration, 22-5
overwriting default constants in
EEPROM, 22-2
two-point calibration, 22-7
RSE (referenced single-ended) measurement
system, 5-11
RTD Conversion VI, 21-12
RTDs for measuring temperature,
21-10 to 21-13
run_me.llb DAQ example file, 3-2
S
SC-2042 RTD device, 21-11
Scale Constant Tuner VIs, 22-7
Scaling Constant Tuner VI, 21-5, 21-8
scan clock, 9-6 to 9-7
channel and scan intervals using channel
clock (figure), 9-1
devices without scan clocks (note), 9-6
input pins (table), 9-6
MIO device ScanClock output (note), 9-6
scan-clock orientation of LabVIEW, 9-2
simultaneous control of scan and channel
clocks, 9-8
scans
channel clock rate parameter, 5-17
defined, 5-17
interval scanning, 5-17
maximum scan rate, calculating, 7-5
number of samples parameter, 5-17
number of scans to acquire
parameter, 5-17
round-robin scanning (figure), 9-2
scan rate parameter, 5-17
SCXI-116x Digital Output VI, 21-20
SCXI-1100 One-Point Calibration example,
22-5 to 22-6
SCXI-1100 Thermocouple VI, 21-6
SCXI-1100 Two-Point calibration example,
22-6 to 22-7
SCXI-1100 Voltage example, 21-5
SCXI-1120/1121 Thermocouple example
VI, 21-10
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Index
SCXI programming considerations,
20-1 to 20-5
channel addressing, 20-1 to 20-2
gains, 20-3 to 20-5
SCXI-1100 channel arrays, input
limits array, and gains (table), 20-4
settling time, 20-5
SCXI Temperature Monitor VI, 21-9
settling time (SCXI), 20-5
Show Help option, 3-2
Show VI Info option, 3-2
signal conditioning
amplification, 18-3 to 18-4
common transducers (table), 18-1 to 18-2
common types of signal
conditioning, 18-2
conditioning for common types of
transducers/signals (figure), 18-3
defined, 18-2
filtering, 18-4
isolation, 18-4
linearization, 18-5
transducer excitation, 18-5
signal divider, 28-1
signal edges, 23-2
signal voltage range. See limit settings.
signals. See also analog input signals.
choosing between analog and digital
signal analysis, 4-3
simple-buffered analog input
data buffer overview, 7-1 to 7-2
examples
displaying waveforms on graphs,
7-5 to 7-6
sampling with multiple starts,
7-7 to 7-8
multiple-waveform acquisition, 7-3 to 7-5
single-waveform acquisition, 7-2 to 7-3
waiting to analyze data, 7-1 to 7-2
SCXI calibration, 22-1 to 22-8
EEPROM for storing calibration
constants, 22-1 to 22-3
default load area, 22-2
factory area, 22-2
user area, 22-2
one-point calibration, 22-4 to 22-6
overview, 22-3
signal acquisition, 22-4 to 22-7
signal generation, 22-8
two-point calibration, 22-6 to 22-7
SCXI modules
components
chassis (figure), 19-3
illustration, 19-2
overview, 19-2
hardware configurations
illustration, 19-1
overview, 19-1
Windows or Macintosh systems,
2-9 to 2-10
sampling rate limits for Remote SCXI
(note), 19-3
software configuration
Macintosh systems, 2-10 to 2-13
Windows environment, 2-10
when to use, 4-3
SCXI operating modes, 19-3 to 19-6
multiplexed mode
analog input modules, 19-4 to 19-5
analog output modules, 19-5
channel addressing, 20-1 to 20-2
digital and relay modules, 19-5
SCXI-1200 (Windows), 19-4 to 19-5
parallel mode
analog input modules, 19-5 to 19-6
channel addressing, 20-1 to 20-2
digital modules (Macintosh and
Windows), 19-6
SCXI-1200 (Windows), 19-6
© National Instruments Corporation
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Index
software triggering
conditional retrieval examples, 8-11
description, 8-8 to 8-11
timeline of conditional retrieval
(figure), 8-9
solution DAQ example files, 3-2
SOURCE input, for counters, 23-2
spreadsheet files
Cont Acq to Spreadsheet File.vi, 7-14
simple-buffered-analog input
example, 7-8
square pulse generation, 24-1 to 24-4
8253/54, 24-3 to 24-4
DAQ-STC and Am9513, 24-2 to 24-3
duty cycle (figure), 24-2
overview, 24-1 to 24-2
single square pulse generation,
24-4 to 24-9
8253/54, 24-6 to 24-9
DAQ-STC and Am9513,
24-4 to 24-6
terminology related to, 24-1
square wave frequency, measuring
(figure), 26-1
STB (Strobe Input) line, 17-2
Strain Gauge Conversion VI, 21-14
strain gauges for measuring pressure
(example), 21-13 to 21-16
Strobe Input (STB) line, 17-2
Simple Error Handler VI
analog output SCXI example, 21-16
debugging VIs, 29-2 to 29-3
multiple-channel single-point analog
input, 6-5
single-immediate updates, 11-2
Simul AI/AO Buffered (E-series MIO) VI,
14-2 to 14-3
Simul AI/AO Buffered (Lab/1200) VI, 14-7
Simul AI/AO Buffered (legacy MIO) VI,
14-4 to 14-5
Simul AI/AO Buffered Trigger (E-series MIO)
VI, 14-3 to 14-4
Simul AI/AO Buffered Trigger (Lab/1200)
VI, 14-7
Simul AI/AO Buffered Trigger (legacy MIO)
VI, 14-6
simultaneous buffered waveform acquisition
and generation. See buffered waveform
acquisition and generation, simultaneous.
single-channel single-point analog input
choosing between single-point and
multi-point acquisition, 4-4
description, 6-1 to 6-2
single-ended measurement system
nonreferenced, 5-11 to 5-12
referenced, 5-11
single-immediate updates, 11-1 to 11-2
single-point analog output
choosing between single-point or
multiple-point generation, 4-4
overview, 10-1
single-stepping through VIs, 29-3
single-waveform acquisition, 7-2 to 7-3
software configuration errors, debugging, 29-2
software-timed analog input/output control
loops, 6-6 to 6-7
software timing, 10-1
LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
T
technical support, B-1 to B-2
telephone and fax support, B-2
temperature measurement applications (SCXI)
amplifier offset, 21-5
sensors for cold-junction compensation,
21-3 to 21-4
using RTDs, 21-10 to 21-13
using thermocouples, 21-2 to 21-3
VI examples, 21-6 to 21-10
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© National Instruments Corporation
Index
U
terminal count (TC), 23-2
thermocouples for measuring temperature
(example), 21-2 to 21-3
timebase period uncertainty, 24-22
toggled counter signal generation, 24-1
transducers
common transducers (table), 18-1 to 18-2
excitation, 18-5
linearization, 18-5
signal conditioning for common types of
transducers/signals (figure), 18-3
Transpose 2D Array option (note), 3-15
transposing arrays, 3-15, 3-16, 7-6
triggered data acquisition, 8-1 to 8-11
analog hardware triggering
description, 8-5 to 8-6
examples, 8-7 to 8-8
deciding which digital trigger
setting to use, A-3
digital hardware triggering
description, 8-2 to 8-3
examples, 8-4 to 8-5
hardware triggering, 8-1 to 8-8
overview, 8-1
software triggering
conditional retrieval examples, 8-11
description, 8-8 to 8-11
triggering vs. external clock control, 4-4
triggering, defined, 8-1
triggers, defined, 8-1
two dimensional (2D) arrays, 3-14 to 3-16
analog output buffers, 3-16
column major order, 3-15 to 3-16
extracting single channel, 3-15 to 3-16
illustration, 3-14
row major order, 3-14 to 3-15
two-point calibration, 22-6 to 22-7
© National Instruments Corporation
unipolar range, 3-14, 5-7
update clock, controlling externally,
13-1 to 13-3
Generate N Updates-ExtUpdateClk VI,
13-1 to 13-2
input pins (table), 13-2
overview, 13-1
supplying test clock from DAQ
device, 13-3
Utility VIs, 3-5
V
VIs. See also Advanced VIs; Easy VIs;
Intermediate VIs.
channel, port, and counter addressing,
3-9 to 3-12
common DAQ VI parameters, 3-7 to 3-8
crashing VIs in Windows, A-3
data organization for analog applications,
3-14 to 3-16
debugging, 29-1 to 29-4
default and current value conventions, 3-7
error handling, 3-8 to 3-9
finding VIs in LabVIEW, 3-3
limit settings, 3-12 to 3-14
organization, 3-4 to 3-5
parameter conventions, 3-6
SCXI examples, 21-6 to 21-10
Utility VIs, 3-5
W
Wait (ms) VI, 6-9, 6-10
Wait on Occurrence function, 7-11 to 7-12
Wait+(ms) VI
finite pulse train generation, 24-14
stopping counter generations, 24-23
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LabVIEW Data Acquisition Basics Manual
Index
Wait Until Next ms Multiple VI
improving control loop performance, 6-10
multiple-channel single-point analog
input, 6-5
software-timed analog I/O control
loops, 6-6
waveform acquisition. See buffered
waveform acquisition.
waveform acquisition and generation,
simultaneous. See buffered waveform
acquisition and generation, simultaneous.
waveform generation. See buffered
waveform generation.
Wheatstone bridge, 21-13
Windows environment
crashing VIs, A-3 to A-4
installation and configuration
DAQ devices, 2-6
SCXI hardware, 2-9 to 2-10
SCXI software, 2-10
LabVIEW data acquisition hardware
support (table), 2-4 to 2-5
NI-DAQ drivers, 2-3
problems with older DAQ drivers, A-4
Write N Updates example VI, 11-3
Write to Digital Line VI, 16-2
Write to Digital Port VI
digital output application, 21-19 to 21-20
immediate digital I/O, 16-2
Write to Spreadsheet File VI, 7-8
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