DAGE-MTI Excel Series User manual

MTi and MTx User Manual
and Technical Documentation
Document MT0100P, Revision N, 27 May 2009 Xsens Technologies B.V. phone +31 88 97367 00 fax +31 88 97367 01 email info@xsens.com internet www.xsens.com Revisions Revision Date By Changes
A June 1 2005
PSL First version.
… … I January 30 2007 SSM
J April 1 2008
PSL K July 1 2008
PSL L August 8 2008 PSL M October 31 2008 N May 27 2009 MMI
HLU MHA
Removed specification of MTi‐28A##G##D (analog outputs) Specified additional interfaces in section 6.2 Physical properties overview Updated the input resistance of SyncIn (section 6.4) Changed the input voltage specification (section 6.3) Updated address information of Xsens Minor text updates
Updated to XKF and firmware rev 2.0 and higher Added information to Absolute max ratings Added FCC DoC Added info on WakeUp procedure Added IP rating on housing Added origin definition of MT Updated: SyncIN detailed specs Updated performance specification for new generation devices Updated to include new device type with 18g acc range Updated DoC Various editorial changes and updates Updated FCC DoC
Added FCC DoC and CE DoC for the USB converters Added NoRotation feature Added timing specification
Added updates of XKF scenarios Added Test & Calibration certificate explanation Added advices for machine_nomag and SyncIn New corporate design © 2005‐2009, Xsens Technologies B.V. All rights reserved. Information in this document is subject to change without notice. Xsens is a registered trademark of Xsens Technologies B.V. MTi and MTx are trademarks of Xsens Technologies B.V. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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Table of Contents 1 REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................................... 1 2 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 1 2.1 PRODUCT DESCRIPTION .................................................................................................................................. 1 2.1.1 MTi – miniature gyro‐enhanced Attitude and Heading Reference Sensor ...................................... 1 2.1.2 MTx – miniature inertial 3DOF Orientation Tracker ........................................................................ 1 2.2 OVERVIEW MTI AND MTX DEVELOPMENT KIT .................................................................................................... 2 2.2.1 Contents .......................................................................................................................................... 2 2.3 TYPICAL USER SCENARIOS ................................................................................................................................ 3 2.3.1 Getting Started with the MT Manager ............................................................................................ 3 2.3.2 Interface through COM‐object API .................................................................................................. 3 2.3.3 Interface through DLL API ............................................................................................................... 4 2.3.4 Direct low‐level communication with MTi or MTx .......................................................................... 4 3 MTI AND MTX SYSTEM OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................ 5 3.1 OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................................................... 5 3.2 XSENS KALMAN FILTER FOR MTI AND MTX ........................................................................................................ 5 3.2.1 Using the acceleration of gravity to stabilize inclination (roll/pitch) .............................................. 5 3.2.2 Using the Earth magnetic field to stabilize Heading (Yaw) ............................................................. 6 3.2.3 Initialization ..................................................................................................................................... 6 3.2.4 XKF Scenarios .................................................................................................................................. 7 3.3 NO ROTATION ASSUMPTION FOR XKF‐3 ............................................................................................................. 8 4 OUTPUT SPECIFICATION ....................................................................................................................... 9 4.1 CO‐ORDINATE SYSTEMS ................................................................................................................................... 9 4.1.1 Calibrated Sensor readings .............................................................................................................. 9 4.1.2 Orientation co‐ordinate system .................................................................................................... 10 4.1.3 North‐East‐Down optional aerospace co‐ordinate system definitions .......................................... 11 4.2 ORIENTATION PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION ..................................................................................................... 12 4.3 ORIENTATION OUTPUT MODES ....................................................................................................................... 12 4.3.1 Quaternion orientation output mode ............................................................................................ 13 4.3.2 Euler angles orientation output mode .......................................................................................... 13 4.3.3 Rotation Matrix orientation output mode .................................................................................... 15 4.4 CALIBRATED DATA PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION ............................................................................................... 16 4.5 CALIBRATED DATA OUTPUT MODE ................................................................................................................... 17 4.5.1 Physical sensor model ................................................................................................................... 17 4.5.2 Calibrated inertial and magnetic data output mode ..................................................................... 18 4.5.3 Un‐calibrated raw output mode .................................................................................................... 19 4.6 RESET OF OUTPUT OR REFERENCE CO‐ORDINATE SYSTEMS .................................................................................... 19 4.6.1 Output with respect to non‐default coordinate frames ................................................................ 19 4.6.2 Arbitrary alignment ....................................................................................................................... 20 4.6.3 Heading reset ................................................................................................................................ 21 4.6.4 Object reset ................................................................................................................................... 21 4.6.5 Alignment reset ............................................................................................................................. 22 4.7 TIMESTAMP OUTPUT .................................................................................................................................... 22 4.8 TEST AND CALIBRATION CERTIFICATE ............................................................................................................... 22 5 BASIC COMMUNICATION .................................................................................................................... 24 5.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................... 24 5.2 STATES ...................................................................................................................................................... 24 © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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5.3 MESSAGES ................................................................................................................................................. 25 5.3.1 Message structure ......................................................................................................................... 25 5.3.2 Message usage .............................................................................................................................. 26 5.3.3 Common messages ........................................................................................................................ 27 5.4 COMMUNICATION TIMING............................................................................................................................. 29 5.5 TRIGGERING & SYNCHRONIZATION .................................................................................................................. 32 5.5.1 External device triggers MTi / MTx ............................................................................................... 32 5.5.2 MTi / MTx triggers external devices .............................................................................................. 33 5.6 INTERNAL CLOCK ACCURACY ........................................................................................................................... 34 5.7 DEFAULT SERIAL CONNECTION SETTINGS .......................................................................................................... 34 5.7.1 General definitions for binary data ............................................................................................... 34 6 PHYSICAL SPECIFICATIONS .................................................................................................................. 35 6.1 PHYSICAL SENSOR OVERVIEW ......................................................................................................................... 35 6.2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OVERVIEW .................................................................................................................... 36 6.2.1 MTi overview ................................................................................................................................. 36 6.2.2 MTx overview ................................................................................................................................ 36 6.3 POWER SUPPLY ........................................................................................................................................... 37 6.4 PHYSICAL INTERFACE SPECIFICATIONS ............................................................................................................... 37 6.4.1 USB‐serial data and power cables overview ................................................................................. 37 6.4.2 Pin and wire color definitions MTi‐28A##G## (MTi RS‐232, standard version) ............................ 39 6.4.3 Pin and wire color definitions MTi‐48A##G## (MTi RS‐485) ......................................................... 40 6.4.4 Pin and wire color definitions MTi‐68A##G## (MTi RS‐422) ......................................................... 41 6.4.5 Pin and wire color definitions MTx‐28A##G## (MTx RS‐232, standard version) ........................... 42 6.4.6 Pin and wire color definitions MTx‐48A##G## (MTx RS‐485 standalone) ..................................... 43 6.4.7 Pin and wire color definitions MTx‐49A##G## (MTx Xbus) ........................................................... 44 6.4.8 Additional interface specifications ................................................................................................ 45 6.5 HOUSING MECHANICAL SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................................... 46 6.5.1 Environmental protection of the housing ...................................................................................... 46 6.5.2 Dimensions MTi ............................................................................................................................. 47 6.5.3 Dimensions MTx ............................................................................................................................ 48 6.6 PHYSICAL LOCATION OF ORIGIN ...................................................................................................................... 49 6.6.1 MTi ................................................................................................................................................ 49 6.6.2 MTx................................................................................................................................................ 50 7 OPERATING GUIDELINES ..................................................................................................................... 51 7.1 NORMAL OPERATING PROCEDURE ................................................................................................................... 51 7.2 PLACEMENT CONSIDERATIONS ........................................................................................................................ 51 7.2.1 Transient accelerations ................................................................................................................. 51 7.2.2 Vibrations ...................................................................................................................................... 51 7.2.3 Magnetic materials and magnets ................................................................................................. 51 8 IMPORTANT NOTICES ......................................................................................................................... 52 8.1 ENVIRONMENTAL OPERATING CONDITIONS ...................................................................................................... 52 8.2 FCC SPECIFIC OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS .......................................................................................................... 53 8.3 SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS .................................................................................................................................. 53 8.4 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS ....................................................................................................................... 54 8.5 MAINTENANCE ............................................................................................................................................ 54 8.5.1 Cleaning ......................................................................................................................................... 54 8.6 WARRANTY AND LIABILITY ............................................................................................................................. 54 8.7 CE DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY FOR THE MT DEVICES .................................................................................... 56 8.8 FCC DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY FOR THE MT DEVICES .................................................................................. 57 © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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8.9 CE DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY FOR THE USB CONVERTERS ............................................................................ 58 8.10 FCC DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY FOR THE USB CONVERTERS...................................................................... 59 8.11 CUSTOMER SUPPORT ............................................................................................................................... 60 © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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1 References Reference id [LLCP] [SDK] [MTM] Document description
“MT Low‐Level Communication Protocol Documentation.pdf”, document id MT0101P
“MT Software Development Kit Documentation.pdf”, document id MT0200P “MT Manager User Manual.pdf”, document id MT0216P
2 Introduction The MTi and MTx are both complete miniature inertial measurement units with integrated 3D magnetometers (3D compass), with an embedded processor capable of calculating roll, pitch and yaw in real time, as well as outputting calibrated 3D linear acceleration, rate of turn (gyro) and (earth) magnetic field data. The major difference between the MTi and the MTx is in the casing shape and weight, connector and general ruggedness. The MTi further supports various advanced IO options such as RS‐422 and a synchronization output. This documentation describes the use, basic communication interfaces and specifications of both the MTi and the MTx. Where they differ it is clearly indicated. 2.1
2.1.1
Product Description MTi – miniature gyro‐enhanced Attitude and Heading Reference Sensor The MTi is a miniature, gyro‐enhanced Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS). Its internal low‐power signal processor provides drift‐free 3D orientation as well as calibrated 3D acceleration, 3D rate of turn (rate gyro) and 3D earth‐magnetic field data. The MTi is an excellent measurement unit for stabilization and control of cameras, robots, vehicles and other equipment. Fields of use • robotics • aerospace • autonomous vehicles • marine industry • bore industry 2.1.2
MTx – miniature inertial 3DOF Orientation Tracker The MTx is a small and accurate 3DOF inertial Orientation Tracker. It provides drift‐free 3D orientation as well as kinematic data: 3D acceleration, 3D rate of turn (rate gyro) and 3D earth‐magnetic field. The MTx is an excellent measurement unit for orientation measurement of human body segments. Example fields of use • biomechanics • exercise and sports • virtual reality • animation • motion capture © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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2.2
Overview MTi and MTx Development Kit Figure 1: Photo of the MT Development Kit (with MTi) 2.2.1
Contents •
•
•
•
•
•
•
MTi or MTx miniature inertial measurement unit Device individual Calibration Certificate A letter with your individual software license code. USB‐serial data and power cable, 5 meters (CA‐USB2) Quick Setup Sheet MTi and MTx User Manual and Technical Documentation [MT0100P]1 MT Software Development Kit CD‐ROM o MT Low‐level communication Documentation PDF [MT0101P] o Quick Setup PDF o MT SDK setup ƒ Xsens WHQL USB driver ƒ MT Manager ƒ XsensCMT.DLL • COM‐object Level 4 • DLL C‐interface ƒ XsensCMTstatic.LIB ƒ CMT Source files (C++) ƒ Example source code (MATLAB) ƒ Documentation • MTi and MTx User Manual and Technical Documentation [MT0100P] • MT Low level communication Documentation [MT0101P] • MT Magnetic Field Mapper Documentation [MT0202P] • CMT doxygen HTML documentation NOTE: the most recent version of the software, source code and documentation can always be downloaded on the support section of www.xsens.com. this document © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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When updating the firmware in your MTx and/or MTi, please make sure to use the latest Firmware Updater (as part of the MT SDK) and the latest firmware, which are all available at our website www.xsens.com. Not using the up‐to‐date Firmware and/or Firmware Updater can render your sensor inoperable in which case the sensor may need to be returned to Xsens for recovery. 2.3
Typical User Scenarios This section is intended to help you find the right documentation for the way you want to use your MTi or MTx. 2.3.1
Getting Started with the MT Manager The easiest way to get started with your MTi or MTx is to use the MT Manager software for Windows XP/Vista. This easy to use software with familiar Windows user interface allows you to: • record data • view 3D orientation in real‐time • view inertial and magnetic sensor data in real time • export log files to ASCII • change and view various device settings and properties • interactively “chat” with the MTi or MTx through a terminal emulator. The MT Manager is therefore an easy way to get to know and to demonstrate the capabilities of the MTi or MTx and to configure the device easily to suit your needs. Applies to: Windows PC platform
ÆPlease refer to the MT Manager User Manual for more information on this topic! 2.3.2
Interface through COM‐object API If you want to develop a Windows software application that uses the MTi or MTx, you can consider using the COM‐object API (XsensCMT.DLL). In particular if you are developing your application within another application such as MATLAB, LabVIEW, Excel, etc. the COM‐object is the preferred interface. The XsensCMT.DLL COM‐object provides easy to use function calls to obtain data from the sensor or to change settings. A COM‐object is a DLL that is registered on the operating system (Windows), so if properly installed you can access the functions of the COM‐object in all Windows applications that support COM. The name of the function interface (IDispatch) is “MotionTracker.CMT”. The COM‐object takes care of the hardware communication interfacing and it is an easy way to get (soft) real‐
time performance. Typically this is preferred when you want to access the MTi or MTx’s capabilities directly in application software such as MATLAB, LabVIEW, Excel (Visual Basic), etc. (examples included in MT SDK). Both polling and events based methods are supported. Applies to: Windows PC platform
ÆPlease refer to the MT Software Development Kit Documentation for more information on this topic! © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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2.3.3
Interface through DLL API If you want to develop a Windows software application using a programming language (C, C++, etc.) that uses the MTi or MTx you can consider using the DLL API. This method of interfacing (the function calls) is similar to the COM object, but is based on a standard C dynamic linked library interface method. So, there is no need to register the DLL on the operating system, the functions are accessed directly in your source code by linking the DLL. The DLL to be used is the XsensCMT.DLL, so it is the same binary as the COM‐object, but a different interface. If you program in C, C++ or other programming languages you will find that the DLL interface provides easier support for structured data, and this is therefore the recommended method. Applies to: Windows PC platform ÆPlease refer to the MT Software Development Kit Documentation for more information on this topic. For a detailed function listing, please refer to the HTML/CHM doxygen documentation. 2.3.4
Direct low‐level communication with MTi or MTx Direct interfacing with the MTi or MTx (RS‐232) is the natural choice if you are looking for full‐control, maximum flexibility and/or have hard real‐time performance requirements. The MTi or MTx’s low power embedded DSP performs all the calculations/calibration, you just retrieve the data from the serial port using the MT binary communication protocol using streaming (free‐running) mode or polling (request) mode. Even this part is made easy for you by the inclusion of the source code (C++) of the Communication MT C++ classes (the CMT source code) in the MT SDK. Example C++ application code should get you quickly started on your development platform of choice. Example code that has been functionally checked and compiled on both Windows and Linux is included. Applies to: Any (RT)OS or processor platform (C++)
ÆPlease refer to the MT Low‐level communication protocol documentation and the doxygen HTML documentation for more information on this topic. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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3 MTi and MTx System Overview 3.1
Overview NOTE: Not all pins available on the connector of all versions of the MT. Please refer to section 6.4 for details. 3.2
Xsens Kalman Filter for MTi and MTx The orientation of the MTi and MTx is computed by Xsens Kalman Filter for 3 degrees‐of‐freedom (3DoF) orientation (XKF‐3). XKF‐3 uses signals of the rate gyroscopes, accelerometers and magnetometers to compute a statistical optimal 3D orientation estimate of high accuracy with no drift for both static and dynamic movements. The design of the XKF‐3 algorithm can be explained as a sensor fusion algorithm where the measurement of gravity (by the 3D accelerometers) and Earth magnetic north (by the 3D magnetometers) compensate for otherwise slowly, but unlimited, increasing (drift) errors from the integration of rate of turn data (angular velocity from the rate gyros). This type of drift compensation is often called attitude and heading referenced and such a system is often called an Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS). 3.2.1
Using the acceleration of gravity to stabilize inclination (roll/pitch) XKF‐3 stabilizes the inclination (i.e. roll and pitch combined, also known as “attitude”) using the accelerometer signals. An accelerometer measures gravitational acceleration plus acceleration due to the movement of the object with respect to its surroundings. XKF‐3 uses the assumption that on average the acceleration due to the movement is zero. Using this assumption, the direction of the gravity can be observed and used to stabilize the attitude. The orientation of the MT in the gravity field is accounted for so that centripetal accelerations or asymmetrical movements can not cause a degraded orientation estimate performance. This assumption is surprisingly powerful, almost all moving objects undergo accelerations if they are moving, but in most cases the average acceleration with respect to the environment during some period of time is zero. The key here is the amount of time over which the acceleration must be averaged for the assumption to hold. During this time, the rate gyroscopes must be able to track the orientation to a high degree of accuracy. In practice, this limits the amount of time over which the assumption holds true. For the class of miniature MEMS rate gyroscopes used in the MT this period of time is about 10‐20 seconds maximum. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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However, for some applications this assumption does not hold. For example an accelerating automobile may generate significant accelerations for time periods lasting longer than the maximum time the MT’s rate gyroscopes can reliably keep track of the orientation. This will severely degrade the accuracy of the orientation estimates with XKF‐3, because the use scenario (application) does not match the assumptions made. Note however, that as soon as the movement does again match the assumptions made, XKF‐3 will recover and stabilize. The recovery to optimal accuracy can take some time. NOTE: To be able to accurately measure orientations as well as position in applications which can encounter long term accelerations we offer a solution that incorporates a GPS receiver (the MTi‐G). 3.2.2
Using the Earth magnetic field to stabilize Heading (Yaw) By default, the heading is stabilized using the local (earth) magnetic field. In other words, the measured magnetic field is used as a compass. If the local Earth magnetic field is temporarily disturbed, XKF‐3 will track this disturbance instead of incorrectly assuming there is no disturbance. However, in case of structural magnetic disturbance (>10 to 20 s) the computed heading will slowly converge to a solution using the 'new' local magnetic north. Note that the magnetic field has no direct effect on the inclination estimate. In the special case the MTi or MTx is rigidly strapped to an object containing ferromagnetic materials, structural magnetic disturbances will be present. Using a so‐called 'magnetic field mapping' (i.e. a 3D calibration for soft and hard iron effects), these magnetic disturbances can be completely calibrated for, allowing the MTi/x to be used as if it would not be secured to an object containing ferromagnetic materials. See section 7.2.3 for more details. 3.2.3
Initialization The XKF‐3 algorithm not only computes orientation, but also keeps track of variables such as sensor biases or properties of the local magnetic field. For this reason, the orientation output may need some time to stabilize once the MT is put into measurement mode. Time to obtain optimal stable output depends on a number of factors. An important factor determining stabilizing time is determined by the time to correct for small errors on the bias of the rate gyroscopes. The bias of the rate gyroscope may slowly change due to different effect such as temperature change or exposure to impact. To reduce stabilizing time, the last computed gyroscope bias can be stored in the sensor unit non‐volatile memory. If the MTi/x is used after only a short period of power‐off the gyro biases will generally not have changed a lot and the stabilizing time will typically be less than 10 seconds. Furthermore, XKF‐3 will converge faster and reach optimal robustness faster if it is started in an area without magnetic disturbances. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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3.2.4
XKF Scenarios As described above, XKF‐3 uses assumptions about the acceleration and the magnetic field to obtain orientation. Because the characteristics of the acceleration or magnetic field differ for different applications, XKF‐3 makes use of scenarios to be able to use the correct assumptions given the application. This way, XKF‐3 can be optimized for different types of movement. For optimal performance, the correct scenario must be set by the user. For information on how to specify a scenario in XKF‐3, please refer to the MT Manager User manual or the MT low‐level communication protocol documentation. The different scenarios are divided in 'human', 'machine' and 'marine' types of motion and are discussed below. XKF‐3 Scenario IMU
Magnetometer
Human ●
●
●
●
●
Human_large_accel Machine Machine_nomag Marine ●
●
●
●
Table 1: The XKF‐3 orientation algorithm uses different sources of information or assumptions depending on the application scenario that is selected. Human Two different scenarios are designed for human movements. The scenario 'human' assumes the somewhat slower movements, also taking into account magnetic disturbances typical for an indoor environment. The scenario 'human_large_accel' is optimized for the fast movements up to an angular velocity of 1200 deg/s and accelerations up to 5 g that may occur during impact. Machine The machine scenario is designed for a very broad range of different movements. These include accelerations that are generally slower and of longer periods of time than accelerations typical for human movement. A separate machine scenario is designed for situations in which the local earth magnetic field is too distorted to be useful. This scenario is labelled ‘machine_nomagfield’, it does not make use of the local earth magnetic field to obtain a heading estimate. This can be advantageous in scenarios in which extreme magnetic disturbances occur, but it has the disadvantage that the heading can not be stabilized and that the gyro bias of the “vertical” gyroscope can not be observed. In other words: a heading change (delta) can be accurately tracked, but for longer periods of time the absolute heading can not be stabilized. Note that the roll and pitch (the inclination, or attitude) are still accurately tracked using rate gyroscopes and accelerometers alone. Consider utilizing the “NoRotation” feature to improve gyro bias observability and decrease heading drift when using this scenario, see also section 3.3. Marine The marine scenario is optimized for low, long term accelerations and mild magnetic disturbances. It is assumed that in a typical marine setting, almost all magnetic disturbances can be accounted for by a so‐called magnetic field mapping procedure. See section 7.2.3 for more details. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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3.3
No rotation assumption for XKF‐3 This section describes the background of the so‐called 'NoRotation' message and filter initialization setting. The MT can be configured to estimate the biases of the rate gyroscopes and other states assuming that the MT is not rotating (i.e. quasi‐static) 2 for a certain period of time. This ‘NoRotation’ procedure can be configured to be invoked automatically at power‐on and/or Reset, or can be invoked manually be sending a message to the MT (SetNoRotation message). Please note that under normal circumstances and normal use the MT will successfully automatically estimate the rate gyroscope biases and there is no need to use the NoRotation feature. Please also note that if the NoRotation procedure is used, the MT must absolutely NOT be rotating during the given period of time that the procedure is active. Otherwise large errors can be introduced in the estimated orientation output. Some error checking is performed to estimate the validity of the NoRotation assumption. Please refer to the MT
Data Status byte, for details see [LLCP] or for MT Manager see [MTM]. Ultimately, the user must be able to assure the validity of the assumption if NoRotation is used. If the validity can not be assured, it is not advisable to use this feature. There are some very particular situations where the NoRotation feature can be considered. Specifically, in applications that can not use the local magnetic field to estimate heading, see [1.5.4], and at the same time does not have significant (>10 deg), and regular, variations in roll and pitch, the gyro bias of the “vertical” rate gyroscope is not observable by XKF‐3. In practice this will mean that the heading will drift by the rate of the vertical gyro bias at that given time. The heading drift rate will not be reduced over time because XKF‐3 can not estimate the “vertical” gyro bias. Using the NoRotation feature appropriately will make the “vertical” gyro bias observable for a short period of time, giving XKF‐3 the opportunity to quickly estimate the “vertical” gyro bias. In practice this will significantly reduce heading drift. However, note that the “vertical” gyro bias is only observable during the period of time that the NoRotation update is applied. So, heading drift over time in such a situation can fundamentally not be prevented, but it can be reduced greatly using the NoRotation feature at least once (at power‐on) or, ideally, regularly if you know the MT is not rotating. If the MT experiences significant and regular variations in roll and pitch using the NoRotation feature should not be necessary. XKF‐3 continuously estimates the gyroscope biases and accounts for them. In case no magnetometer can be used, the gyro bias of only two of the three axes can be estimated in a given orientation. By using the MTi/MTx in different roll and pitch orientations, the gyro bias will slowly be observable in all three axes, since all rate gyro axes will at some point be the vertical one, at least to some degree. Again, this will reduce the rate of heading drift, but some degree of heading drift will always be present unless the magnetic field can be used as a heading reference. As discussed, the NoRotation feature, can be applied by default on power‐on and/or Reset, or can be activated during MeasurementMode. In the first case, the duration of the NoRotation is fixed to 2 seconds. In the latter case a duration in seconds may be specified, depending on knowledge about the duration that the MT is still (to a maximum of 255 seconds). Although the bias estimate will improve for longer intervals, intervals longer than 3 seconds will not significantly improve bias estimate and are therefore not recommended as the chance of error (i.e. not conforming to the absolute assumption of no rotation) will increase. For details on how to use the NoRotation feature using the SDK, see [SDK] and [LLCP], for MT manager see [MTM]. 2
The Earth rotation can be neglected for practical purposes. Document MT0100P.N
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4 Output Specification In this chapter the various output modes of the MTi and MTx are described. The two major modes, Orientation output and Calibrated data output, are discussed separately. However, please note that the two output modes can easily be combined, so that you get a combined data packet of orientation data and inertial calibrated data together, with the same time stamp. 4.1
4.1.1
Co‐ordinate systems Calibrated Sensor readings All calibrated sensor readings (accelerations, rate of turn, earth magnetic field) are in the right handed Cartesian co‐ordinate system as defined in figure 1. This co‐ordinate system is body‐fixed to the device and is defined as the sensor co‐ordinate system (S). The 3D orientation output is discussed below in section 4.1.2. Figure 2 MTi and MTx with sensor‐fixed co‐ordinate system overlaid (S). The co‐ordinate system is aligned to the external housing of the MTi and MTx. The aluminum base plate of the MTi is carefully aligned with the output coordinate system during the individual factory calibration. The alignment of the bottom plane and sides of the aluminum base‐plate with respect to (w.r.t.) the sensor‐fixed output coordinate system (S) is within 0.1 deg. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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High accuracy alignment between the (plastic) housing and the sensor‐fixed output coordinate system (S) is not possible for the MTx for obvious reasons. The actual alignment between the S co‐ordinate system and the bottom part of the plastic housing is guaranteed to <3°. The non‐orthogonality between the axes of the body‐fixed co‐ordinate system, S, is <0.1°. This also means that the output of 3D linear acceleration, 3D rate of turn (gyro) and 3D magnetic field data all will have orthogonal XYZ readings within <0.1° as defined in figure 1. 4.1.2
Orientation co‐ordinate system The MTi and MTx calculate the orientation between the sensor‐fixed co‐ordinate system, S, and a earth‐fixed reference co‐ordinate system, G. By default the local earth‐fixed reference co‐ordinate system used is defined as a right handed Cartesian co‐ordinate system with: • X positive when pointing to the local magnetic North. • Y according to right handed co‐ordinates (West). • Z positive when pointing up. The 3D orientation output (independent of output mode, see section 4.3) is defined as the orientation between the body‐fixed co‐ordinate system, S, and the earth‐fixed co‐ordinate system, G, using the earth‐fixed co‐ordinate system, G, as the reference co‐ordinate system. ordinate system. Local
vertical
Z
z
y
S
MTi and MTx default co-ordinate
system
Z up, default
x
Y
G
X
Local
Magnetic North
Local tangent plane
Z up, default
Figure 3: MT in the earth‐fixed co‐ordinate system Please refer to section 4.5 for further details on output co‐ordinate systems and different options to redefine the output co‐ordinate systems. Document MT0100P.N
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True North vs. Magnetic North As defined above the output coordinate system of the MTi / MTx is with respect to local Magnetic North. The deviation between Magnetic North and True North (known as the magnetic declination) varies depending on your location on earth and can be roughly obtained from various models of the earth’s magnetic field as a function of latitude and longitude. The MTi / MTx can accept a setting of the declination value. This is done by setting the “declination” in the MT Manager, SDK or by direct communication with the sensor. The output will then be offset by the declination and thus referenced to “local” true north. 4.1.3
North‐East‐Down optional aerospace co‐ordinate system definitions It is possible to change the default local tangent plane Euclidean coordinate system to a North‐East‐Down (NED) convention coordinate system. This is often used in aerospace applications. Changing to the NED setting will also change the body‐fixed sensor coordinate system to a Z down coordinate system as indicated in the figure below. Local
vertical
SNED
yNED
MTi and MTx co-ordinate system
Z down
zNED
xNED
GNED
YNED
Local
Magnetic
North
Local tangent plane
Z down (North East Down)
XNED
All co-ordinate systems are right handed.
ZNED
Figure 4: MT in a NED convention coordinate system © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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4.2
Orientation performance specification Typical performance characteristics of MTi and MTx orientation output.
Dynamic Range: Angular Resolution: Repeatability: Static Accuracy (roll/pitch): Static Accuracy (heading)(4): Dynamic Accuracy: Update Rate: 4.3
all angles in 3D 0.05° (3) 0.2° 0.5° 1.0° 2° RMS (5) user settable, max 120 Hz (6) Orientation output modes The orientation as calculated by the MTi or MTx is the orientation of the sensor‐fixed co‐ordinate system (S) with respect to a Cartesian earth‐fixed co‐ordinate system (G). The output orientation can be presented in different parameterizations: • Unit Quaternions (also known as Euler parameters) • Euler angles 7 : roll, pitch, yaw (XYZ Earth fixed type, also known as Cardan or aerospace sequence) • Rotation Matrix (directional cosine matrix) A positive rotation is always “right‐handed”, i.e. defined according to the right hand rule (corkscrew rule). This means a positive rotation is defined as clockwise in the direction of the axis of rotation. NOTE: This section is intended to give detailed information on the definition of the various orientation output modes of the MTi and MTx. The output sequence of the elements in the vectors and matrices defined here holds for all interface options (RS‐232/422/485, API, GUI). For more detailed information about the respective interfaces please refer to their specific documentation; Direct Æ MTi and MTx Low‐level Communication Documentation API Æ MT Software Development Kit Documentation GUI Æ MT Manager 1σ standard deviation of zero‐mean angular random walk 4
in homogenous magnetic environment 5
may depend on type of motion 6
inertial data max update rate is 512 Hz, host PC processing allows 512 Hz orientation update rate 7
Please note that due to the definition of Euler angles there is a mathematical singularity when the sensor‐
fixed x‐axis is pointing up or down in the earth‐fixed reference frame (i.e. pitch approaches ±90°). In practice this means roll and pitch is not defined as such when pitch is close to ±90 deg. This singularity is in no way present in the quaternion or rotation matrix output mode. Document MT0100P.N
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3
4.3.1
Quaternion orientation output mode A unit quaternion vector can be interpreted to represents a rotation about a unit vector n through an angle α. qGS
α
α
= (cos ( ), nsin( )) 2
2
A unit quaternion itself has unit magnitude, and can be written in the following vector format; qGS = (q0 , q1 , q2 , q3 ) q = 1 Quaternions are an efficient, non‐singular description of 3D orientation and a quaternion is unique up to sign: q = −q
An alternative representation of a quaternion is as a vector with a complex part, the real component is the first one, q0. The inverse (qSG) is defined by the complex conjugate (†) of qGS. The complex conjugate is easily calculated; †
qGS
= ( q0 , − q1 , − q2 , − q3 ) = qSG
As defined here qGS rotates a vector in the sensor co‐ordinate system (S) to the global reference co‐ordinate system (G). †
x G = qGS x S qGS
= qGS x S q SG Hence, qSG rotates a vector in the global reference co‐ordinate system (G) to the sensor co‐ordinate system (S), where qSG is the complex conjugate of qGS. The output definition in quaternion output mode is:
q0
q1
q2
q3
MTData
DATA = MID 50 (0x32) All data elements in DATA field are FLOATS (4 bytes) , unless specified otherwise by modifying the OutputSetting Data Format field. 4.3.2
Euler angles orientation output mode The definition used for 'Euler‐angles' here is equivalent to 'roll, pitch, yaw/heading' (also known as Cardan). The Euler‐angles are of XYZ Earth fixed type (subsequent rotation around global X, Y and Z axis, also known as aerospace sequence). © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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•
•
•
φ = roll 8 = rotation around XG, defined from [‐180°…180°] θ = pitch 9 = rotation around YG, defined from [‐90°…90°] ψ = yaw 10 = rotation around ZG, defined from [‐180°…180°] NOTE: Due to the definition of Euler angles there is a mathematical singularity when the sensor‐fixed X‐axis is pointing up or down in the earth‐fixed reference frame (i.e. pitch approaches ±90°). This singularity is in no way present in the quaternion or rotation matrix output mode. The Euler‐angles can be interpreted in terms of the components of the rotation matrix, RGS, or in terms of the unit quaternion, qGS; φGS
θGS
ψ GS
⎛R ⎞
⎛ 2q q + 2q q ⎞
= tan −1 ⎜ 32 ⎟ = tan −1 ⎜ 22 3 2 0 1 ⎟
⎝ R33 ⎠
⎝ 2q0 + 2q3 − 1 ⎠
= − sin −1 ( R31 ) = − sin −1 (2q1q3 − 2q0 q2 ) ⎛ 2q q + 2q q ⎞
⎛R ⎞
= tan −1 ⎜ 21 ⎟ = tan −1 ⎜ 12 2 2 0 3 ⎟
⎝ R11 ⎠
⎝ 2q0 + 2q1 − 1 ⎠
Here, the arctangent (tan‐1) is the four quadrant inverse tangent function. NOTE: that the output is in degrees and not radians. The output definition in Euler‐angle output mode is:
roll
pitch
yaw
MTData
DATA = MID 50 (0x32) All data elements in DATA field are FLOATS (4 bytes) , unless specified otherwise by modifying the OutputSetting Data Format field. “roll” is also known as: “bank” 9
“pitch” is also known as: “elevation” or “tilt” 10
“yaw” is also known as: “heading”, “pan” or “azimuth” Document MT0100P.N
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4.3.3
Rotation Matrix orientation output mode The rotation matrix (also known as Direction Cosine Matrix, DCM) is a well‐known, redundant and complete representation of orientation. The rotation matrix can be interpreted as the unit‐vector components of the sensor coordinate system S expressed in G. For RGS the unit vectors of S are found in the columns of the matrix, so col 1 is XS expressed in G etc. A rotation matrix norm is always equal to one (1) and a rotation RGS followed by the inverse rotation RSG naturally yields the identity matrix I3. RGS RSG = I 3 R = 1 The rotation matrix, RGS, can be interpreted in terms of quaternions; RGS
⎡ q02 + q12 − q22 − q32
⎢
= ⎢ 2q0 q3 + 2q1q2
⎢
⎣ 2q1q3 − 2q0 q2
2q0 q2 + 2q1q3 ⎤
⎥
2q2 q3 − 2q0 q1 ⎥
2q2 q3 + 2q0 q1
q02 − q12 − q22 + q32 ⎦⎥
⎡ 2q02 + 2q12 − 1 2q1q2 − 2q0 q3 2q1q3 + 2q0 q2 ⎤
⎢
⎥
= ⎢ 2q1q2 + 2q0 q3 2q02 + 2q22 − 1 2q2 q3 − 2q0 q1 ⎥
⎢ 2q1q3 − 2q0 q2 2q2 q3 + 2q0 q1 2q02 + 2q32 − 1 ⎥
⎣
⎦
2q1q2 − 2q0 q3
q − q12 + q22 − q32
2
0
or in terms of Euler‐angles; RGS
= RψZ RθY RφX
⎡cosψ − sinψ 0 ⎤ ⎡ cos θ 0 sin θ ⎤ ⎡1
⎢
= ⎢ sinψ cosψ 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0
1
0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎢ 0
⎢⎣ 0
0
1 ⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ − sin θ 0 cos θ ⎦⎥ ⎢⎣ 0
⎡cos θ cosψ sin φ sin θ cosψ − cos φ sinψ
= ⎢⎢ cos θ sinψ sin φ sin θ sinψ + cos φ cosψ
⎢⎣ − sin θ
sin φ cos θ
0
cos φ
sin φ
0 ⎤
− sin φ ⎥⎥
cos φ ⎥⎦
cos φ sin θ cosψ + sin φ sinψ ⎤
cos φ sin θ sinψ − sin φ cosψ ⎥⎥
⎥⎦
cos φ cos θ
As defined here RGS, rotates a vector in the sensor co‐ordinate system (S) to the global reference system (G): x G = RGS x S = ( RSG )T x S It follows naturally that, RSG rotates a vector in the global reference co‐ordinate system (G) to the sensor co‐
ordinate system (S). For the rotation matrix (DCM) output mode it is defined that: RGS
⎡a d
⎢
= ⎢b e
⎢⎣ c f
© Xsens Technologies B.V.
g ⎤ ⎡ R11
h ⎥⎥ = ⎢⎢ R21
i ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ R31
R12
R22
R32
15
R13 ⎤
R23 ⎥⎥ R33 ⎥⎦
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RSG
⎡a b
= ⎢⎢ d e
⎢⎣ g h
c⎤
f ⎥⎥ i ⎥⎦
Here, also the row‐order/col‐order is defined. The output definition in rotation matrix (DCM) output mode is:
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
MTData
DATA = MID 50 (0x32) All data elements in DATA field are FLOATS (4 bytes) , unless specified otherwise by modifying the OutputSetting Data Format field. 4.4
Calibrated data performance specification rate of turn
acceleration
magnetic field temperature
Unit [deg/s]
[m/s2]
[mGauss] [°C] Dimensions 3 axes
3 axes
3 axes
‐ Full Scale [units] +/‐ 300*
+/‐ 50
+/‐ 750
‐55…+125
Linearity [% of FS] 0.1
0.2
0.2
<1 Bias stability [units 1σ] 11
1
0.02
0.1
0.5 12
Scale factor ‐ 0.03 0.5 ‐ [% 1σ]11
stability 13
14
Noise density [units /√Hz] 0.05
0.002
0.5 (1σ)
Alignment [deg] 0.1 0.1 0.1 ‐ error(15) Bandwidth [Hz]
40
30
10
‐ A/D resolution [bits] 16
16
16
12 Table 1, calibrated data performance specification. These specifications are valid for an MTi and MTx with standard configuration. *) The standard configuration of the MTx is with a rate gyro with a range of 1200 deg/s. The following custom configurations are available, standard configuration highlighted in bold. If not specified otherwise the same performance specification as in table 1 is valid. 11
temperature compensated, deviation over operating temperature range (1σ) 12
minimal resolution of digital readout is 0.0625, absolute accuracy is ±0.5 °C 13
The following sensors MT‐28xxxxxx DID<303800, MT‐68xxxxxx DID<310200, MT‐49xxxxxx ID<323800, MT‐
48xxxxxx ID<330200 have different specifications, see MTi and MTx User Manual version J. 14
magnetometer noise density can be susceptible to electro‐magnetic radiation. For example, a 1 kHz amplitude modulated high frequency EM radiation of 80‐1000 MHz of 10 V/m or higher may result in a noise density of 16 times the typical value 15
after compensation for non‐orthogonality (calibration) Document MT0100P.N
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Accelerometer ± 50 m/s2 (5 g) (default)
± 17 m/s2 (1.7 g) ± 180 m/s2 (18 g) Specification amendment
None, see table 1
None, see table 1
Noise density:
0.004 m/s2/√Hz Rate gyroscope ± 1200 deg/s (MTx default) ± 300 deg/s (MTi default)
± 150 deg/s Specification amendment
Noise density: 0.1°/s/√Hz
None, see table 1
Noise density: 0.04°/s/√Hz
Specifications of custom units may vary. 4.5
Calibrated data output mode NOTE: This section is intended to give detailed information on the definition of the calibrated inertial data output modes of the MTi and MTx. The output sequence of the elements of the vectors defined here holds for all interface levels (RS‐232/422, API, GUI). For more detailed information about the respective interfaces please refer to their specific documentation; Direct Æ MTi and MTx Low‐level communication Documentation API Æ MT Software Development Kit Documentation GUI Æ MT Manager 4.5.1
Physical sensor model This section explains the basics of the individual calibration parameters of each MTi and MTx. This explains the values found on the MT Test and Calibration Certificate that comes with each MTi and MTx. The physical sensors inside the MTi and MTx (accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers) are all calibrated according to a physical model of the response of the sensors to various physical quantities, e.g. temperature. The basic model is linear and according to the following relation: s = K T−1 (u − b T ) The model really used is more complicated and is continuously being developed further. From factory calibration each MTi / MTx has been assigned a unique gain matrix, KT and the bias vector, bT This calibration data is used to relate the sampled digital voltages, u, (unsigned integers from the 16 bit ADC’s) from the sensors to the respective physical quantity, s. The gain matrix is split into a misalignment matrix, A, and a gain matrix, G. The misalignment specifies the direction of the sensitive axes with respect to the ribs of the sensor‐fixed coordinate system (S) housing. E.g. the first accelerometer misalignment matrix element a1,x describes the sensitive direction of the accelerometer on channel one. The three sensitive directions are used to form the misalignment matrix: ⎡ a1, x
⎢
A = ⎢ a2, x
⎢ a3, x
⎣
a1, y
a2, y
a3, y
a1, z ⎤
⎥
a2, z ⎥ a3, z ⎥⎦
⎡G1 0 0 ⎤
G = ⎢⎢ 0 G2 0 ⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ 0 0 G3 ⎥⎦
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KT
⎡G1 0
= ⎢⎢ 0 G2
⎢⎣ 0 0
0 ⎤ ⎡ a1, x
⎢
0 ⎥⎥ ⎢ a2, x
G3 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ a3, x
a1, y
a2, y
a3, y
a1, z ⎤
⎥
a2, z ⎥ + O a3, z ⎥⎦
With O representing higher order models and temperature modelling, g‐sensitivity corrections, etc. Each individual MTi and MTx is modeled for temperature dependence of both gain and bias for all sensors and other effects. This modeling is not represented in the simple model in the above equations, but is implemented in the firmware. The basic indicative parameters in the above model of your individual MTi or MTx can be found on the MT Test and Calibration Certificate. 4.5.2
Calibrated inertial and magnetic data output mode Output of calibrated 3D linear acceleration, 3D rate of turn (gyro) and 3D magnetic field data is in sensor‐fixed coordinate system (S). The units of the calibrated data output are as follows: Vector Unit
Acceleration m/s2 Angular velocity (rate of turn) rad/s Magnetic field a.u. (arbitrary units) normalized to earth field strength The calibrated data is “unprocessed”, i.e. only the physical calibration model is applied to the 16‐bit values retrieved from the AD‐converters. There is no additional filtering, or other temporal processing applied to the data. The bandwidths of the signals are as stated in the datasheet and section 4.3. The output definition in calibrated data output mode is:
accX
accY
accZ
gyrX
gyrY
gyrZ magX magY magZ
MTData
DATA = MID 50 (0x32) All data elements in DATA field are FLOATS (4 bytes) , unless specified otherwise by modifying the OutputSetting Data Format field. The accelerometer / rate‐of‐turn / magnetometer data can be individually dis‐ or enabled. See SetOutputSettings message in section 5.3.3. NOTE: The linear 3D accelerometers measure all accelerations, including the acceleration due to gravity. This is inherent to all accelerometers. Therefore, if you wish to use the 3D linear accelerations output by the MTi / nd
MTx to estimate the “free” acceleration (i.e. 2 derivative of position) gravity must first be subtracted. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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4.5.3
Un‐calibrated raw output mode In un‐calibrated raw output format the “raw” readings from the 16‐bit AD‐converters in the MTi / MTx are outputted. This means the physical calibration model described in the previous section is not applied. This gives you open access to the basic level of the sensor unit, but in most cases this level of use is not recommended. However, if your main purpose is for logging and post‐processing, it may be advantageous as it is always possible to go back to the “source” of the signal. In this mode the device temperature is also outputted (housing ambient only). NOTE: The data fields are 2 bytes (16 bits) as opposed to the 3 byte floats for the other output modes. The output definition in un‐calibrated RAW inertial data output mode is:
accX
accY
accZ
gyrX
gyrY
gyrZ magX magY magZ temp
MTData
DATA = MID 50 (0x32) Each data element in DATA field is 2 bytes (16 bit) unsigned integers. See below for reading the temperature data Temperature output format The 2 byte temperature data field in the un‐calibrated raw output mode of the MTi / MTx can be interpreted as a 16 bits, 2‐complement number. However, please note that the resolution of the temperature sensor is not actually 16‐bit but 12‐bit. For example you can interpret the 2‐byte temperature as follows: 00.00hex = 0.0 °C 00.80hex = +0.5 °C FF.80hex = ‐0.5 °C 19.10hex = +25.0625°C E6.F0hex = ‐25.0625 °C The temperature‐field is a 16‐bit two‐complement number of which the last byte represents the value behind the comma. To calculate the temperature value use the formula : if x ≥ 215 T = (– 216 + x) / 256 or T = x / 256 if x < 215, where x is the 16‐bit value of the Temp field. For example, the value 59120 (0xE6F0) corresponds with a temperature of ‐25.0625 °C. 4.6
Reset of output or reference co‐ordinate systems 4.6.1
Output with respect to non‐default coordinate frames In some situations it may occur that the MT sensor axes are not exactly aligned with the axes of the object of which the orientation has to be recorded. It may be desired to output the orientation and/or calibrated inertial data in an object‐fixed frame, as opposed to a sensor‐fixed frame. Four methods have been added to the software to facilitate in obtaining the output in the desired coordinate frames, they are discussed below. 1. Setting an arbitrary rotation matrix to rotate S to the chosen object coordinate system O. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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2.
3.
A heading reset that redefines the X‐axis of the global coordinate frame while maintaining the Z‐axis along the vertical (also known as “boresighting”). After the heading reset the orientation will be expressed with respect to the new global (earth fixed) reference frame. An object reset that defines how the sensor is oriented with respect to the coordinate axes to which it is attached. After the object reset, both the orientation and the calibrated sensor data are expressed with respect to the axes of the object. A combined object/heading reset, referred to as alignment. 4.
NOTE: For all co‐ordinate system reset functions it is important to remember that the housing of the MTx can not be considered an accurate reference. Placement and subsequent aligning must be done very carefully otherwise (alignment) errors may be induced. 4.6.2
Arbitrary alignment If the measured kinematics is required in an object coordinate system (O) with a known orientation with respect to standard sensor coordinate frame (S), the object alignment matrix can also be set with an arbitrary but known orientation. This can be useful if for mechanical reasons the MTi / MTx can only be fastened in some specific orientation. The MTi and MTx Low‐level communication protocol describes the message SetObjectAlignment that is required to set the matrix. The object alignment matrix (ROS) is applied to the output data (RGS) according to the following equations. For 3D orientation data, RGO = RGS ( ROS ) T
and for inertial and magnetic data. sO = ROS sS Example The object alignment matrix is given by ROS
⎡ 0 0 1⎤
⎢
= ⎢ 0 1 0⎥⎥ ⎢⎣ −1 0 0⎥⎦
Here O represents the object coordinate system and S the standard sensor coordinate system described in section 2.1.1. Once the object alignment matrix is set to ROS, the sensor output will be expressed with respect to the object coordinate system drawn in following figure (b). (a)
(b)
The MTi with the sensor coordinate frame (a) and the object coordinate frame (b). Document MT0100P.N
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4.6.3
Heading reset Often it is important that the global Z‐axis remains along the vertical (defined by local gravity vector), but the global X‐axis has to be in a particular direction. In this case a heading reset may be used, this is also known as “bore sighting”. When performing a heading reset, the new global reference frame is chosen such that the global X‐axis points in the direction of the sensor while keeping the global Z‐axis vertical (along gravity, pointing upwards). In other words: The new global frame has the Z axis along gravity, pointing upwards, the X‐
axis in the plane spanned by the vertical and the sensor X‐axis, perpendicular to the global Z‐axis and the Y‐axis such that a right handed coordinate system is formed. NOTE: After a heading reset, the yaw may not be exactly zero, this occurs especially when the X‐axis is close to the vertical. This is caused by the definition of the yaw when using Euler angles, which becomes unstable when the pitch approaches ± 90 deg. 4.6.4
Object reset The object reset function aims to facilitate in aligning the MTi / MTx coordinate frame (S) with the coordinate frame of the object to which the sensor is attached (O). After an object reset, the S coordinate frame is changed to S’ as follows: • the S’ Z‐axis is the vertical (up) at time of reset • the S’ X‐axis equals the S X‐axis, but projected on the new horizontal plane. • the S’ Y‐axis is chosen as to obtain a right handed coordinate frame. NOTE: Once this object reset is conducted, both calibrated data and orientation will be output in the new coordinate frame (S’). The object reset can be used to set the MTi / MTx coordinate frame to that of the object to which it is attached (see figure below). The sensor has to be attached in such a way that the X‐axis is in the XZ‐plane of the object coordinate frame (situation A), i.e. the MTi / MTx can be used to identify the X‐axis of the object. To preserve the global vertical, the object must be oriented such that the object z‐axis is vertical. The object reset causes the new S’ coordinate frame and the object coordinate frame to be aligned (situation B). NOTE: Since the sensor X‐axis is used to describe the direction of the object X‐axis, the reset will not work if the sensor X‐axis is aligned along the Z‐axis of the object. A.
y
sensor
coordinate
frame (S)
B.
x
z
x
z
z
x
new sensor
coordinate
frame (S’)
z
x
Object
coordinate
frame (O)
Object
coordinate
frame (O)
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MTi or MTx coordinate frame before (A) and after (B) object reset. The new Z‐axis of the sensor coordinate frame will be along the vertical. The new direction of the X‐axis will be the old X–axis that is projected on the horizontal plane. 4.6.5
Alignment reset The alignment reset simply combines the Object reset and the Heading reset at a single instant in time. This has the advantage that all co‐ordinate systems can be aligned with a single action. Keep in mind that the new global reference x‐axis (heading) is defined by the object X‐axis (to which XZ‐plane you have aligned the MTi / MTx). NOTE: Once this alignment reset is conducted, both calibrated data and orientation will be output with respect to the new S’ coordinate frame. 4.7
Timestamp output Timestamp output can be enabled or disabled (using the SetOutputSettings message). The timestamp is always last in the data field of the MTData message. Currently, there is one option for the timestamp output, the sample counter which is a 16 bit counter increasing with 1 with each MTData message sent. After reaching (2^16) ‐1= 65535 the sample counter will wrap to zero (0). 4.8
Test and Calibration Certificate Each MTi and MTx is accompanied by an individual Test and Calibration Certificate. This certificate states the calibration values determined during the calibration of the MTi and MTx in Xsens’ calibration facilities. The values are explained here in short: The “Specifications” chapter contains the full ranges and bandwidths of the physical sensors inside. The “Basic test results” describes the noise of the 3 sensor types and it contains residuals in orientation. Noise The noise on the individual sensor signals 16 .
Static accuracy residual The residual calibration error for static orientations at room temperature
Temperature residual The residual calibration error for static orientations over the temperature range “Calibration data” are the values that describe the conversion from the physical phenomenon to a digital output in an orthogonal coordinate system: Gains (bits): Gains (or scale factor) describe the relation between the digital reading in bits and the measured physical signal. Offsets (bits): Digital reading in bits of the sensor no physical signal is measured. Alignment matrix: Non‐orthogonality of the sensor triade. This includes non‐orthogonality in the orientation The resolution of the sensor signals are always limited by the noise in the sensor signal, not by the accuracy or resolution of the analog to digial converter. Exceptions are the temperature and static pressure sensor where quantization can be significant. Document MT0100P.N
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16
of the sensitive system inside the MEMS sensor, the mounting of the sensors on the PCB of the MTi and MTx, the mounting of the PCB’s and the misalignment of the OEM board in the MTi housing. Next to the basic Test and Calibration values documented in the certificate, each device is calibrated according to more complicated models to ensure accuracy (e.g. non‐linear temperature effect, cross coupling between acceleration and angular rate 17 ). 17
Also known as “g‐sensitivity”. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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5 Basic communication 5.1
Introduction This section describes the basics of how to communicate with the MTi / MTx directly on low‐level using RS‐
232/422/485 serial communication with or without the use of an Xsens USB‐serial converter. For a detailed and complete list of all messages please refer to the MT Low‐level Communication Documentation. NOTE: You can skip this chapter if you plan to only interface with the device using Xsens’ GUI software or SDK API. The communication protocol, which is message based, enables the user to change the configuration of the MTi or MTx and to retrieve the data from the device. The communication protocol used for the MTi and MTx is 18
compliant to the MotionTracker communication protocol . The configuration is fully user‐settable, e.g. sample frequency, in‐ & output synchronization, baudrate and data output modes, can all be changed to fit your requirements. All configuration changes must be made while the device is in the so‐called Config State. In this state the device accepts messages that set the output mode or changes to other settings. Whenever the preferred configuration is completed the user can set the device to Measurement State. In this state the device outputs data based the current configuration settings. 5.2
States WakeUp
procedure
No WakeUpAck
received by device
WakeUpAck
received by device
GotoMeasurement
Config
Measurement
GotoConfig
The MTi / MTx has two states, i.e. Config State and Measurement State. In the Config State various settings can be read and written. In the Measurement State the device will output its data message which contains data dependent on the current configuration. There are two different ways to enter the Config State or the Measurement State. At power‐up the device starts the WakeUp procedure, if no action is taken it will then enter Measurement State by default, using its latest stored configuration. 19
Prior to entering the Measurement State, the Configuration message is always sent to the host . This is the configuration that is read from the internal non‐volatile memory and will be used in the Measurement 18
The MotionTracker‐host protocol is a fully documented standard message based protocol developed by Xsens tailor made for the needs of inertial sensors. 19
If the device is set to RAW OutputMode the device will send additional encrypted data to the host after sending the Configuration message. The encrypted data primarily contains the calibration values of the Document MT0100P.N
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State. The data in the Configuration message can always be used to determine the output mode and settings. It is also possible to enter the Config State at power‐up, see WakeUp message description in the MTi and MTx Low‐Level Communication Document. Another way to enter the Config State or Measurement State is to use the GoToConfig or GoToMeasurement messages. The default configuration of the MTi / MTx is shown in the following table. Property Value
Output mode Orientation output
Output settings Orientation in quaternion mode
Sample counter enabled Sample frequency 100 Hz
Baudrate 115k2 bps Output skip factor 0
With the default configuration the MTi / MTx outputs in Measurement State the MTData message at a frequency of 100Hz (based on its internal clock). The MTData message contains the orientation data in quaternions together with a sample counter. If you want to retrieve the output data on request then set Output skip factor to value 65535 (0xFFFF) and send ReqMTData message to the device. For more information see MTi and MTx Low‐Level Communication Document. 5.3
Messages 5.3.1
Message structure The communication with the MTi and MTx is done by messages which are built according to a standard structure. The standard MT message can contain zero to 254 bytes of data and the total length is five to 259 bytes. An MT message contains the following fields: Field PRE Field width 1 byte BID MID LEN 1 byte 1 byte 1 byte DATA CS 0 – 254 bytes 1 byte Description
Preamble, indicator of start of packet Æ 250 (0xFA) Bus identifier / address Æ 255 (0xFF) Message identifier
Value equals number of bytes in DATA field Maximum value is 254 (0xFE). Value 255 (0xFF) is reserved. Data bytes (optional)
Checksum of message
device. This data is referred to as the eMTS data (extended Motion Tracker Specification data). This data is required to be able to later process the data by Xsens software to calculate calibrated inertial data values as well as estimating orientation etc. Document MT0100P.N
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Preamble (PRE) Every message starts with the preamble. This field always contains the value 250 (=0xFA). Bus identifier (BID) or Address All messages used for the MTi and MTx use the address value 255 (0xFF) indicating a “master device”. MT’s used on the Xbus have other BID’s. Message Identifier (MID) This message field identifies the kind of message. For a complete listing of all possible messages see MTi and MTx Low‐Level Communication Document. Length (LEN) Specifies the number of data bytes in the DATA field. Value 255 (=0xFF) is reserved. This means that a message has a maximum payload of 254 bytes. If Length is zero no data field exists. Data (DATA) This field contains the data bytes and it has a variable length which is specified in the Length field. The interpretation of the data bytes are message specific, i.e. depending on the MID value the meaning of the data bytes is different. See the description of the specific message for more details about interpretation of the data bytes. Checksum This field is used for communication error‐detection. If all message bytes excluding the preamble are summed and the lower byte value of the result equals zero, the message is valid and it may be processed. The checksum value of the message should be included in the summation. 5.3.2
Message usage Generally, a message with a certain MID value will be replied with a message with a MID value that is increased by one, i.e. the acknowledge message. Depending on the type of message the acknowledge message has no or a certain number of data bytes. In some cases an error message will be returned (MID = 66 (0x42)). This occurs in case the previous message has invalid parameters, is not valid, or could not be successfully executed. An error message contains an error code in its data field. Example Requesting the device ID of an MTi / MTx: Sending message: ReqDID =
0xFA 0xFF 0x00 0x00 0x01 (hexadecimal values) Receiving message (= Acknowledge): DeviceID =
0xFA 0xFF 0x01 0x04 HH HL LH LL CS (hexadecimal values) The requested Device ID is given in the acknowledged message DeviceID (here shown as: HH HL LH LL, the checksum is CS). As you can see the MID (Message ID) of the acknowledgement is increased by one in comparison with the sending message ReqDID. Some messages have the same MID and depending on whether or not the message contains the data field the meaning differs. This is the case with all the messages that refer to changeable settings. For example, the MID of message requesting the output mode (ReqOutputMode) is the same as the message that sets the output mode (SetOutputMode). The difference between the two messages is that the Length field of ReqOutputMode is zero and non‐zero for SetOutputMode. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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Example Request current output mode: Sending message: ReqOutputMode =
0xFA 0xFF 0xD0 0x00 0x31 (hexadecimal values) Receiving message (= Acknowledge): ReqOutputModeAck =
0xFA 0xFF 0xD1 0x02 MH ML CS (hexadecimal values) ReqOutputModeAck contains data which represents the current mode (= MH & ML). CS stands for the checksum value. To change the output mode you must add the new mode in the data field of the sending message: Set the output mode: Sending message: SetOutputMode =
0xFA 0xFF 0xD0 0x02 MH ML CS (hexadecimal values) Receiving message (= Acknowledge): SetOutputModeAck =
0xFA 0xFF 0xD1 0x00 0x30 (hexadecimal values) 5.3.3
Common messages GoToConfig
MID Data field Direction Valid in 48 (0x30) n/a To MTi / MTx Measurement State & Config State Switches the active state of the device from Measurement State to Config State. This message can also be used in Config State to confirm that Config State is currently the active state. SetOutputMode
MID Data field Direction Valid in 208 (0xD0) MODE (2 bytes) To MTi / MTx Config State Sets the output mode of the MTi / MTx. The output mode can be set to various output modes of which most of them can be combined, like for example calibrated sensor data and orientation data. The un‐calibrated raw inertial data output however can not be used together with any of the other outputs. MODE R
Bit #
15
14
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
MODE bits
Bit 0
Bit 1
Bit 2
Bit 3
Bit 14
© Xsens Technologies B.V.
3
2
1
0
Output mode
Temperature data
Calibrated data
Orientation data
Auxiliary data (see also SetOutputSettings)
Un-calibrated raw data (not in combination with
calibrated sensor data and/or orientation data)
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SetOutputSetings
MID Data field Direction Valid in 210 (0xD2) SETTINGS (4 bytes) To MTi / MTx Config State Sets the output settings of the MTi / MTx. SETTINGS Bit #
Reserved
Reserved
R
R
R
R
R
31 - 24
23 - 16
15
14
13
12
11
R
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SETTINGS bits
Bit 1-0
Bit 3-2
Bit 6-4
Bit 7
Bit 9-8
Bit 13-10
Bit 31-14
Settings
Timestamp output
00 = No timestamp
01 = Sample Counter
Orientation Mode
00 = Quaternion
01 = Euler angles
10 = Matrix
Calibration Mode
Bit 4: 0 = Enable acceleration (XYZ) output
1 = Disable acceleration (XYZ) output
Bit 5: 0 = Enable rate of turn (XYZ) output
1 = Disable rate of turn (XYZ) output
Bit 6: 0 = Enable magnetometer (XYZ) output
1 = Disable magnetometer (XYZ) output
Reserved
Output Format
00 = Float output
01 = Fixed point Signed 12.20 format
Auxiliary Mode
Bit 10: 0 = Enable analog in #1 output
1 = Disable analog in #1 output
Bit 11: Reserved
Bit 12: Reserved
Bit 13: Reserved
Reserved
GoToMeasurement
MID Data field Direction Valid in 16 (0x10) n/a To MTi / MTx Config State Switches the active state of the device from Config State to Measurement State. The current configuration settings are used to start the measurement. Document MT0100P.N
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MTData
MID Data field Direction Valid in 50 (0x32) DATA (length variable) From MTi / MTx Measurement State This message contains the output data depending on the current Output Mode and Output settings. The data field can contain multiple data outputs but the order of outputs is always the same. The following order is used (disabled outputs must be omitted): 1. Temp 2. Calibrated data output 3. Orientation data output 4. Auxiliary data output 5. Status 6. Sample counter Un‐calibrated raw data output can not be used together with other outputs and is therefore not listed. The following text explains the data values of each output. DATA The data can contain multiple outputs. All the different outputs are not described separately here. If not specified otherwise each data value is 4 bytes long by default and corresponds with the single‐
precision floating‐point value as defined in the IEEE 754 standard (= float). Other data formats are also supported. NOTE: RAW inertial data output however can not be used together with any of the other outputs. It is therefore not listed above. Please refer to the MT Low‐Level Communication Document for detailed information on the various DATA modes and options, interpretation of the values as well as a detailed discussion on the DATA fields. The Communication MT (CMT) C++ class has easy to use member functions to retrieve the individual data fields. See MT SDK Documentation. 5.4
Communication Timing For many applications it can be crucial to know exactly the various delays and latencies in a system. In this section it is described how the timing between physical events and the device output are related in the basic usage modes of the MTi and MTx. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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Sampling ADC Physical Calibratio
n
Sensor Fusion Output Data Triggering Hardware trigger only Hardware/
software triggers
When the MTi / MTx is in Measurement State, the internal DSP continuously runs a loop roughly according to the above diagram. The triggering can be generated by device internal sampling triggers, or by external software triggers (polling), or even hardware triggers (normally not recommended). For more information about triggering see section 5.5. The time delay between a physical event (e.g. an orientation change or acceleration) is dictated by two factors; 1. Internal acquisition and calculation time 2. Serial transmission time The internal acquisition and calculation time is dependent on the scenario and the output mode. The following table shows the internal acquisition and computation times of all scenarios and output modes. Since the Xsens Kalman Filter applies different calculations depending on the data available, the computation time is not constant. In the table below the longest (worst case) computation times are listed since these are usually of particular importance for control applications. Internal acquisition time of raw data is 0.19 ms. Scenario + output mode
Calibrated data Orientation worst case acquisition and acquisition and computation time computation time XKF‐3 scenario – Human 0.31 ms
2.55 ms XKF‐3 scenario – Human_large accelerations
0.31 ms
2.55 ms XKF‐3 scenario – Machine 0.31 ms
2.55 ms XKF‐3 scenario – Machine_nomagfield 0.31 ms
2.01 ms XKF‐3 scenario – Marine
0.31 ms
2.55 ms There is no difference between the internal acquisition and computation time of orientation data and calibrated data/orientation data together. The serial transmission time can easily be calculated: total _ bytes _ in _ message * 10bits / byte
= transmissi on _ time communicat ion _ baudrata (bits / s )
These two factors will be discussed using the example of the two common output modes of the MTi and MTx. The bytes in the message consist of the Preamble, BusID, MessageID, length indicator, data itself and the checksum: PREAMBLE BID
MID LEN DATA
CHECKSUM
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The Preamble, BusID, MesssageID, length indicator and checksum together is always 5 bytes. The length of the various data messages is discussed in [LLCP]. Example 1: Calibrated data output mode at 100 Hz with a baud rate of 115200 bps. Calibrated data is 36 bytes. transmissi on _ time =
(36 + 5) * 10bits / byte
= 3.56 ms 115200(bits / s )
Together with the internal acquisition and computation time (1.97 ms for machine_nomag scenario), the total time from acquisition of the data until the reception at the host is 5.53 ms. Example 2: Quaternion orientation data output mode plus timestamp at 120 Hz with a baud rate of 921600 bps. Quaternion orientation data is 16 bytes, timestamp is 2 bytes. transmissi on _ time =
(18 + 5) * 10bits / byte
= 0.25ms 921600(bits / s )
Together with the internal acquisition and computation time (1.97 ms for machine_nomag scenario), the total time from acquisition of the data until the reception at the host is 2.22 ms. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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5.5
Triggering & synchronization In case multiple systems are used during a measurement it is important to have the measurement data synchronized between the systems. Processing synchronised data is much easier because there is no need to resample the data to compensate for timing inaccuracies like clock drift and clock deviations. Synchronization using multiple systems involves 2 important issues: starting the measurement at the same time and having a fixed time relationship of the sampling instances. This section will explain how the MTi / MTx must be setup when using multiple measurement systems. The MTi / MTx have capabilities to be triggered by external devices or trigger external devices. These two scenarios are explained in the following subsections. 5.5.1
External device triggers MTi / MTx In the following figure, a possible configuration is shown where a Motion Tracker and Device A are synchronised. In this example, a clock generator triggers device A and a MTi / MTx ensuring that the two devices are synchronized with each other. MT
USB
Converter
Device A
Trigger in
SyncIn
Clock
generator
The output of the clock generator can be directly connected to the MTi / MTx or to the spare header of the USB converter as shown in the figure above. More information about this can be found in section 6.4.1. NOTE: Always check if the SyncIn specification matches with the trigger signal. See section 6.4. The following MTi / MTx devices support SyncIn, MTi‐28A##G## (MTi RS‐232), MTi‐48A##G## (MTi RS‐485), MTi‐68A##G## (MTi RS‐422) and MTx‐28A##G## (MTx RS‐232). The SyncIn signal can either trigger the transmission of the latest data or the internal sensor sampling. The first SyncIn mode is highly recommended in situations where the clock signal is not reliable and/or accurate. More information is given in the next two sections. For more information about the SyncIn modes and settings see MTi and MTx Low‐Level Communication Document. Transmission of the latest data In this SyncIn mode the internal clock and the stored sample frequency determine when the sampling of the sensor signals start. The data is transmitted only if a trigger is detected on the SyncIn line. This means that the trigger instance will not coincide with the sampling instance of the transmitted data. Because two different clocks are used the time difference between the trigger instance and the sampling instance may also vary during the measurement and at most with a time equal to the used sampling period. Nevertheless this mode is preferred if the clock generator is not that accurate as the internal clock of the MTi / MTx. In this mode a SyncIn trigger will always transmit the latest data available. Document MT0100P.N
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Trigger the sampling of the internal sensors In this SyncIn mode the external signal connected to the SyncIn line of the MTi / MTx starts the sampling (AD conversion) of the sensor signals, i.e. accelerations, rate‐of‐turn, magnetic field and temperature. Next, depending on the OutputMode, the physical calibration and the sensor fusion (XKF) are started. If all data is processed it will be transmitted at a rate depending on the OutputSkipFactor (see MTi and MTx Low‐Level Communication Document). In this SyncIn mode it is important to set the MTi / MTx sample frequency to the same frequency as the trigger signal. Furthermore the trigger signal should have at least the same accuracy as the internal clock of the MTi / MTx (see section 5.6). This is because the stored sample frequency is used in the sensor fusion calculations and is not corrected by deviations in the trigger signal. If the accuracy is not high enough or the sample frequency cannot be accurately matched you must choose the first SyncIn mode (transmission of latest data).Moreover, a sample frequency below 100 Hz is not supported by the MTi / MTx since it would compromise total accuracy, so the trigger frequency must be at least 100 Hz. Note that the output frequencies lower than 100 Hz are supported. 5.5.2
MTi / MTx triggers external devices In case the clock specification of the MTi / MTx is accurate enough for the measurement, the MTi / MTx can provide a sync pulse which is generated based on its internal clock. For more details on clock accuracy see section 5.6. The sync pulse or SyncOut signal will mark the time instance at which the MTi /MTx starts 20
sampling the internal sensors and continue doing this while the MTi / MTx is in measurement state and with the frequency related to the current sample frequency. The signal can be set to either pulse or toggle mode and in case of pulse mode the polarity can be set to negative or positive. For more information about enabling SyncOut and its settings see MTi and MTx Low‐Level Communication Document. To connect the SyncOut signal to an external device you can either make a custom cable that wires the SyncOut pin (see section 6.4) directly from the MTi / MTx or in case you use the USB‐serial data and power cable you can use a spare header in the USB converter for a connection to the SyncOut line (see section 6.4.1). This configuration is shown in the next figure. MT
USB
Converter
Trigger Input
SyncOut
External
device
NOTE: Always check if the input voltage levels and the input impedance of the external device matches the SyncOut specifications (see section 6.4). The following MTi devices support SyncOut: MTi‐28A##G## (MTi RS‐232) and MTi‐48A##G## (MTi RS‐485). 20
Provided that the SyncOut offset setting is zero. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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5.6
Internal clock accuracy The internal clock jitter of the MTi and MTx is less than 25ns. The internal clock of the MTi and MTx which generates the sample timing based on the set sample period is accurate to ±30 ppm over the temperature operating range. In practice this means that the worst case deviation after a 1 hour log is ± 0.108 seconds (= 3600 s ∙ 30 ppm) or 10 sample counts in 360,000 at 100 Hz sample rate (± 0.3 μs/sample @ 100 Hz). NOTE: For long logging times that require synchronization with external clocks or events, means of synchronization with a high‐precision external clock should be considered. 5.7
Default Serial Connection Settings Setting Bits/second (bps): Data bits: Parity: Stop bits: Flow control: Default Value
115200
8
none
1 (21)
none
These settings are the same for the RS‐232 as the RS‐422 versions. The baudrate (bps) setting can be changed by the user. The maximum is 921600 bps and the minimum 9600 bps. Please refer to the MTi and MTx Low‐
level Communication Documentation for details. 5.7.1
General definitions for binary data All binary data communication is done in big‐endian format. Example: Un‐calibrated 16 bits accelerometer output 1275 (decimal) = 0x04FB (hexadecimal) Transmission order of bytes = 0x04 0xFB Calibrated accelerometer output (float, 4 bytes) 9.81 (decimal) = 0x411CF5C3 (hexadecimal) Transmission order of bytes = 0x41 0x1C 0xF5 0xC3 The bit‐order in a byte is always: [MSB…LSB] Æ [bit 7 …bit 0] Two stop bits are needed for devices produced earlier than January 1st 2008 in order to allow correct frame‐
timing. One stop bit is always possible in receive‐only mode. For devices produced since January 1st 2008 one stop bit can be used in any mode. Document MT0100P.N
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21
6 Physical Specifications 6.1
Physical sensor overview MTi and MTx Sensor Fact Table
MEMS solid state, capacitative readout MEMS solid state, monolithic, beam structure, capacitative readout Accelerometers Rate of turn sensor (rate gyroscope) Magnetometer Thin film magnetoresistive
Further, the MTi and MTx have several onboard temperature sensors to allow compensation for temperature dependency of the various sensors. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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6.2
6.2.1
Physical properties overview MTi overview Communication interface: Additional interfaces: Operating voltage 22 : Power consumption 23 : (AHRS/3D orientation mode) Temperature Operating Range: Specified performance Operating Range: Outline Dimensions: Weight: 6.2.2
MTi‐28A##G## Serial digital (RS‐232) SyncIn SyncOut Analog In 4.5‐30 V MTi‐48A##G## Serial digital (RS‐485) SyncIn SyncOut MTi‐68A##G## Serial digital (RS‐422) SyncIn 4.5‐30 V 4.5‐30 V 350 mW 350 mW 350 mW ‐20°C ‐ 55°C ‐20°C ‐ 55°C ‐20°C ‐ 55°C 0°C ‐ 55°C 0°C ‐ 55°C 0°C ‐ 55°C 58 x 58 x 22 mm (W x L x H) 50 g 58 x 58 x 22 mm 58 x 58 x 22 mm (W x L x H) (W x L x H) 50 g 50 g MTx overview Communication Interface: Additional Interfaces: Operating Voltage22: Power consumption23: (AHRS/3D orientation mode) Temperature Operating Range: Specified performance Operating Range: Outline Dimensions: Weight: MTx‐28A##G## Serial digital (RS‐232) SyncIn 4.5‐30 V MTx‐48A##G## Serial digital (RS‐485) ‐ MTx‐49A##G## Serial digital (RS‐485, Xbus) Analog Input 4.5‐30 V 4.5‐30 V 350 mW 350 mW 350 mW ‐20°C ‐ 55°C ‐20°C ‐ 55°C ‐20°C ‐ 55°C 0°C ‐ 55°C 0°C ‐ 55°C 0°C ‐ 55°C 38 x 53 x 21 mm (W x L x H) 30 g 38 x 53 x 21 mm 38 x 53 x 21 mm (W x L x H) (W x L x H) 30 g 30 g 22
The previous revision of the Motion Tracker has a maximum input voltage of 15V instead of 30V. It also has no reverse voltage protection. These Motion Trackers have serial numbers lower than 2000 (last 4 digits only). 23
Power consumption at 5V DC The following sensors MT‐28xxxxxx DID<303800, MT‐68xxxxxx DID<310200, MT‐49xxxxxx ID<323800, MT‐48xxxxxx ID<330200 have different specifications, power consumption will be approximately 90mA@5V = 450mW when using firmware 2.2 or higher. Increasing baudrate from 115k2 to 460k8 will decrease 10% in power consumption for all configurations. Please note that efficiency of the power input stage will decrease with increasing supply voltage. At 5...6 V DC the efficiency is optimal, at 30V DC the efficiency is around 75%. Document MT0100P.N
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6.3
Power supply The nominal power supply of the MTi and MTx is 5V DC. The minimum operating supply voltage is >4.5V and the absolute maximum is <30V. • The sensor works at a power supply of >4.5‐30V 24 . Use only SELV (Separated or Safety extra‐low voltage) power supplies (double isolated) that are short‐circuit proof. • The average operating power consumption is 350mW (~70 mA @ 5V) for the MTi and MTx. The average power consumption may vary slightly with usage mode (DSP load). Please note that efficiency of the power input stage will decrease with increasing supply voltage. At 5…6 V DC the efficiency is optimal, at 30V DC the efficiency is around 75%. • The peak current at startup (power on) can be up to 200mA 25 . • When operated in room temperature the temperature inside the sensor will be 33‐40°C in normal conditions. 6.4
6.4.1
Physical interface specifications USB‐serial data and power cables overview RS‐232 MTi cable (CA‐USB2) RS‐485 MTi cable (CA‐USB4) RS‐422 MTi cable (CA‐USB6) RS‐232 MTx cable (CA‐USB2x) RS‐485 MTx cable (CA‐USB4x) 24
The previous revision of the Motion Tracker has an absolute maximum input voltage of 15V instead of 30V. These Motion Trackers have a serial number lower than 2000 (last four digits only). 25
If an alternative power supply is used check if it can supply these peak currents. Do not use a power supply if the peak supply current is lower than stated. Document MT0100P.N
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The USB‐serial data and power cable delivered with the MTi and MTx Development Kit is compatible with USB 1.1 and higher. Make sure your PC USB outlet is rated to deliver 100 mA or more (all USB compliant outlets should be). The RS‐422 MTi cable (CA‐USB6) is compatible with the RS‐422 version of the MTi. Blue cable markers are located at the connector and the casing for visual distinction between the RS‐232 MTi cable. The MTx can not be ordered with RS‐422 interface therefore no RS‐422 MTx cable is available. The RS‐485 MTi / MTx cable has yellow cable markers to indicate RS‐485 interface instead of RS‐232. The USB‐serial data and power cable provides easy access to the individual pins of the Motion Tracker. Inside the housing there is a free connector that can for example be used for synchronization purposes. The following photo shows the location of the connector. It is a 9‐pins Molex header type 53048‐0910 and it mates with the Molex crimp housing type 51021‐0900 (Farnell InOne code 615122). Farnell also offers crimp leads for these housings, e.g. Farnell InOne code 889570. The 7 pins Molex header is type 53047‐0710 (Farnell InOne code 9732870) and mates with Molex crimp housing type 51021‐0700 (Farnell InOne code 615110). Vcc Gnd Gnd SyncIn Pin 1 The first 5 or 7 pin definitions are the same as the pin definitions of the connected Motion Tracker, i.e. pins one to seven for MTi and pins one to five for MTx. Check the following sections for the pin definitions of your MTi/MTx. Pin 8 is always ground and pin 9 is reserved (do not use this pin). Molex pin MTi RS‐232 MTi RS‐485
MTi RS‐422 Pin 1 VCC VCC
VCC
Pin 2 GND GND
GND
Pin 3 Analog IN Y / A
TX+ / A1 (sensor) Pin 4 TX (sensor) Z / B
TX‐ / B1 (sensor) Pin 5 RX (sensor) Reserved
RX+ / A2 (sensor) Pin 6 SyncOut SyncOut
RX‐ / B2 (sensor) Pin 7 SyncIn SyncIn
SyncIn
Molex pin MTx RS‐232 MTx RS‐485
Pin 1 VCC VCC
Pin 2 GND GND
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Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 5 Pin 6 Pin 7 Reserved TX (sensor) RX (sensor) Reserved SyncIn Z / B
Y / A
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
For definition of wire colors see next sections. The operating temperature of the USB‐serial data and power cable (CA‐USB) is 0 °C ‐ 40°C. The MTi and MTx are designed to be used with the power supply supplied by Xsens (integrated in the RS‐
232/422/485 to USB cable). It is possible to use other power supplies; however this must be done with care. For safety and EMC any power supply used with the device must comply with the Electromagnetic Compatibility directive. 6.4.2
Pin and wire color definitions MTi‐28A##G## (MTi RS‐232, standard version) 6 1
7 5 2 3
4 MTi housing socket ODU L‐series 7 pin female socket (receptacle) back view (solder bucket view) ODU product code: GL0L0C‐T07LCC0‐000 1 6 7 2 3
5 4
MTi USB‐serial cable plug (CA‐USB2) ODU L‐series 7 pin male connector (plug) back view (solder bucket view) Solder contact for AWG 28 wire ODU product code: S10L0C‐T07MCC0‐5200 Pin definitions MTi plug/socket and wire color Signal VCC GND Analog IN © Xsens Technologies B.V.
ODU pin
Pin 1
Pin 2
Pin 3
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TX (sensor) RX (sensor) SyncOut
SyncIn
Pin 4
Pin 5
Pin 6
Pin 7
ODU pin
Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 5 Pin 6 Pin 7 Unitronic
Yellow
Yellow‐green
Black
Beige
Brown
Green
Blue
6.4.3
Elitronic
White
Brown
Green
Yellow
Grey
Pink
Blue
Pin and wire color definitions MTi‐48A##G## (MTi RS‐485) 6 1 7 5 2 3 4 MTi housing socket ODU L‐series 7 pin female socket (receptacle) back view (solder bucket view) ODU product code: GL0L0C‐T07LCC0‐000 1
6
7 2
3
5 4
MTi USB‐serial cable plug (CA‐USB4) ODU L‐series 7 pin male connector (plug) back view (solder bucket view) Solder contact for AWG 28 wire ODU product code: Cable has a yellow marker at the connector side Pin definitions MTi plug/socket and wire color Signal ODU pin
VCC Pin 1
GND Pin 2
Y / A Pin 3
Z / B Pin 4
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S10L0C‐T07MCC0‐5200 Document MT0100P.N
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Reserved SyncOut
SyncIn
Pin 5
Pin 6
Pin 7
ODU pin Unitronic
cable Yellow
Yellow‐green
Black
Beige
Brown
Green
Blue
Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 5 Pin 6 Pin 7 Elitronic
cable White
Brown
Green
Yellow
Grey
Pink
Blue
6.4.4
Pin and wire color definitions MTi‐68A##G## (MTi RS‐422) 6 1 7
5 2 3
4 MTi housing socket ODU L‐series 7 pin female socket (receptacle) back view (solder bucket view) ODU product code: GL0L0C‐T07LCC0‐000 1 6 7 2 3
5 4
MTi USB‐serial cable plug (CA‐USB6) ODU L‐series 7 pin male connector (plug) back view (solder bucket view) Solder contact for AWG 28 wire ODU product code: S10L0C‐T07MCC0‐5200 Cable has a blue marker at the connector side Pin definitions MTi plug/socket and wire color Signal VCC GND TX+ / A1 (sensor) © Xsens Technologies B.V.
ODU pin
Pin 1
Pin 2
Pin 3
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TX‐ / B1 (sensor) RX+ / A2 (sensor) RX‐ / B2 (sensor) SyncIn
Pin 4
Pin 5
Pin 6
Pin 7
ODU pin Unitronic
cable Yellow
Yellow‐green
Black
Beige
Brown
Green
Blue
Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 5 Pin 6 Pin 7 6.4.5
Elitronic
cable White
Brown
Green
Yellow
Grey
Pink
Blue
Pin and wire color definitions MTx‐28A##G## (MTx RS‐232, standard version) MTx housing socket Binder female ridge on upper side 719 socket (receptacle), back MTx USB‐serial cable plug (CA‐USB2x) Binder 719 male connector, back view (solder bucket view) Ridge on upper side Pin definitions MTx plug/socket and wire color
Signal Binder pin
Unitronic cable
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view (solder bucket view) Elitronic cable Document MT0100P.N
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VCC GND TX (sensor) RX (sensor) SyncIn Pin 2 Pin 4 Pin 1 Pin 5 Pin 3 Black
Yellow‐green
Beige
Brown
Blue
Brown
Yellow
White
Grey
Green
6.4.6
Pin and wire color definitions MTx‐48A##G## (MTx RS‐485 standalone) MTx housing socket Binder female ridge on upper side 719 socket (receptacle), back MTx USB‐serial cable plug (CA‐USB4x) Binder 719 male connector, back view (solder bucket view) Ridge on upper side Pin definitions MTx plug/socket and wire color
Signal Binder pin
Unitronic cable
VCC Pin 2 Black
GND Pin 4 Yellow‐green
Z / B Pin 1 Beige
Y / A Pin 5 Brown
Do not use Pin 3 Blue
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view (solder bucket view) Elitronic cable Brown
Yellow
White
Grey
Green
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6.4.7
Pin and wire color definitions MTx‐49A##G## (MTx Xbus) Pin definitions MTx socket and wire color
Signal VCC GND Z / B Y / A Analog IN Binder pin Pin 2 Pin 4 Pin 1 Pin 5 Pin 3 Grey Unitronic
Black
Yellow‐green
Beige
Brown
Blue
Grey Elitronic
Yellow
Grey
White
Green
Brown
Black cable Red Black White Green Blue MTx housing socket Binder 719 female, back view (solder bucket view) ridge on upper side Pin definitions MTx plug and wire color
Signal VCC GND Z / B Y / A Analog IN Binder pin Pin 2
Pin 4
Pin 1
Pin 5
Pin 3
Grey Unitronic
Black
Yellow‐green
Beige
Brown
Blue
MTx housing plug Binder 719 male (receptacle) connector, back view (solder bucket view) ridge on upper side © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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Grey Elitronic
Yellow
Grey
White
Green
Brown
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6.4.8
Additional interface specifications The MTi & MTx has additional interface lines for synchronization and/or analog input support. Which features are supported depends on the type of device. See pin definitions of the device. Analog IN This line supports in 16 bit sampling of an external analog signal of voltage range 0 to 5V at the sampling frequency used by the MTi / MTx. A data field is added to the data message which contains the 16‐bit representation of the analog voltage. To enable this functionality use the SetOutputMode and SetOutputSettings messages with the proper parameters as defined in section 5.3.3. Specification Value
Input voltage range
0 to 5V
Input capacitance
150 pF ADC resolution
16 bit
Analog IN is supported by MTi RS‐232 (MTi‐28A##G##) and MTx Xbus (MTx‐49A##G##). For best performance, connect the Analog IN signal as close to the ODU connector as possible. Dismantle the cable carefully and read the connection instructions in section 6.4. NOTE: Please do not hesitate to contact Xsens (support@xsens.com) if you have problems to get Analog IN to work as expected. SyncIn This digital input can be used to trigger the MTi / MTx for synchronization purposes. The MTi / MTx can wait until a valid trigger is detected and it either starts sampling or sends the latest calculated data. For more information about the SyncIn settings (timing, polarity) see the MT Low‐level Communication Documentation. The signal specifications are listed in the next table. Specification Value
Input range high voltage
3.0 to 20V
Input range low voltage
0.0 to 0.5V
Input resistance >100 MOhm
Latency (offset = 0) 8.6 us
Latency (offset > 0, not including)
12.2 us
Jitter 500ns@115k2, 104ns@921k6 The recommended duty cycle is <10%. = 1ms @ 100Hz sample frequency. Supported by MTi RS‐232 (MTi‐28A##G##), MTi‐68A##G## (MTi RS‐422) and MTx‐28A##G## (MTx RS‐232, standard version). NOTE: Please do not hesitate to contact Xsens (support@xsens.com) if you have problems to get SyncIN to work as expected. SyncOut This is an output signal that can trigger other device(s) for synchronization purposes. The triggering instance is related to the sampling instance of the MTi. The signal parameters like type, offset, skipfactor or width can be customized using the SyncOut settings. See the MT Low‐level Communication Documentation. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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The signal specifications are listed in the next table. Specification Output high voltage
Output low voltage
Minimum ohmic value of load
Latency (offset = 0)
Latency (offset > 0)
Jitter Supported by MTi RS‐232 (MTi‐28A##G##) 6.5
Value
3.0‐3.3V
0.0V
10 kOhm
‐1.1us
+5.4us
40ns
Housing mechanical specifications The plastic parts of the housing are made of polyamide (PA6.6). The MTi bottom plate is made of anodized aluminum (6082). The housing is dust‐proof but not water‐proof. The MTi connector socket and housing assembly features rubber o‐ring sealing and is generally more robust to harsh environments than the MTx. 6.5.1
Environmental protection of the housing MTi The MTi casing is designed to withstand usage in application where dust and occasional water splashing can be expected. Xsens in house testing has confirmed that the casing and connector can withstand temporary environmental circumstances equivalent to Protection Classification IP 66 (sealed against dust, protection against powerful water jet). Please note that the MTi housing connector is water proof, but the supplied connector is not water proof. MTx The MTx casing is designed to be as light weight as possible, and to be friendly for use on a human body. It does not employ protecting O‐rings etc and does therefore not provide protection against water and large amounts of moisture. The housing is dust resistant. The plastic material used for both MTi and MTx have UL94 V2 classification. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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6.5.2
Dimensions MTi © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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6.5.3
Dimensions MTx © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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6.6
Physical location of Origin The MTi and MTx is primarily an orientation sensor and as such it is not important where its internal origin is situated, i.e. the orientation is the same for all positions of the MT as it can be considered a rigid body. However, for applications where accelerations are measured it is important to know the true Origin of the MT, which is defined by the physical location of the accelerometer 26 . Below you can find the translation vector between the origin O of the MT and some convenient external point O’(a screw hole) or O’’ (the intersection between the sides of the MTi) on the outside of the casing. 6.6.1
MTi 26
Keep in mind that the accelerometer itself can not be considered to be “point accelerometer”, i.e. it has a finite size. This means the exact physical location for the different axes may deviate by the finite size of the accelerometer, which is a few millimetres. This effect is neglected here. Document MT0100P.N
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6.6.2
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7 Operating Guidelines 7.1
Normal operating procedure NOTE: Please also refer to the Quick Setup Sheet that came in your Development Kit package. 1. Power‐on the device 2. Optional: check the device is using the settings you need 3. Allow electronics to warm up for about 15 minutes for optimal performance 4. Start measurements 5. Stop measurements 6. Power off device 7.2
7.2.1
Placement considerations Transient accelerations The 3D linear accelerometers in the MTi and MTx are primarily used to estimate the direction of gravity to obtain a reference for attitude (pitch/roll). During long periods (more than a few seconds) of transient “free” accelerations (i.e. 2nd derivative of position) the observation of gravity cannot be made. The XKF sensor fusion algorithms take these effects into account, but nonetheless it is impossible to estimate true vertical without added information. The impact of transient accelerations can be minimized when you take into account a few things when positioning the device. If you want to use the MTi or MTx to measure the dynamics of a moving vehicle/craft it is best to position the measurement device at a position where you expect the least (smallest) transient accelerations. This is typically close to the centre of gravity (CG) of the vehicle/craft since any rotations around the centre of gravity translate into centripetal accelerations at any point outside the point of rotation, which is usually close to the CG. The acceleration of the vehicle as a whole can of course not be taken into account. 7.2.2
Vibrations For best performance the MTi or MTx should be mechanically isolated from vibrations as much as possible. Vibrations are measured directly by the accelerometers. This is not necessarily a problem, but two conditions can make the readings from the accelerometers invalid; 1. The magnitude of the vibration is larger than the range of the accelerometer. This will cause the accelerometer to saturate, which may be observed as a “drift” in the zero‐level of the accelerometer. This will show up in the 3D orientation estimates as an erroneous roll/pitch. 2. The frequency of the vibration is higher than the bandwidth of the accelerometer. In theory, such vibrations are rejected, but in practice they can still give rise to aliasing, especially if close to the bandwidth limit. This can be observed as a low frequency oscillation. Further, high frequency vibrations often tend to have large acceleration amplitudes (see item 1). 7.2.3
Magnetic materials and magnets When an MTi or MTx is placed close or on an object that contains ferromagnetic materials, or that is magnetic by itself, the measured magnetic field is distorted (warped) and causes an error in measured yaw/heading. The earth magnetic field is altered by ferromagnetic materials, permanent magnets or very strong currents (several amperes). In practice, the distance to the object and the amount of ferromagnetic material determines the © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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amount of disturbance. Errors in yaw/heading due to such distortions can be quite large, since the earth magnetic field is very weak in comparison to the magnitude of many sources of distortion. Whether or not an object is ferromagnetic should preferably be checked by using the MTi’s or MTx’s magnetometers. It can also be checked with a small magnet, but be careful, you can easily magnetize hard ferromagnetic materials, causing even larger errors. If you find that some object is magnetized (hard iron effect), this is often the case with for example stainless steels that are normally not magnetic, it may be 27
possible to “degauss ” the object. In most cases when the disturbance of the magnetic field caused by placement of the MTi or MTx on a ferromagnetic object can be corrected for using a specialized calibration procedure commonly known as a “hard‐ and soft iron calibration”. The calibration procedure can be executed in a few minutes and yields a new set of calibration parameters that can be written to the MTi / MTx non‐volatile memory. This calibration procedure is implemented in the software module “Magnetic Field Mapper” that comes with the SDK. The method used in this software is unique in the sense that it allows a user chosen measurement sequence (within certain constraints), and that it allows for full 3D mapping. 3D mapping is important in applications, where the object is rotating through a substantial range of orientations (e.g. a camera). Normal 2D mapping is suitable in applications where the object moves more or less in a single plane (e.g. a car or boat). Disturbance caused by objects in the environment near the MTi or MTx, like file cabinets or vehicles, that 28
move independently, with respect to the device cause a type of distortion that can not be calibrated for . However, the amount of error caused by the disturbance is significantly by XKF and this works best if the correct XKF Scenario is selected for your application. 8 Important notices 8.1
Environmental Operating Conditions The recommended operating temperature of the MTi / MTx hardware is between 0°C and 55°C ambient temperature. If operated outside this temperature range performance may decrease or the device might be damaged. Absolute maximum ratings are between ‐20°C and 55°C. Fast transient temperature fluctuations may cause significant temperature gradients across the device. Such gradients cannot be properly modelled by temperature compensation and may therefore decrease performance. For optimal performance the ambient temperature should remain constant as much as possible during the measurement. NOTE: Never expose the MTi or the MTx to strong magnetic fields. The MTi and MTx contain the absolute possible minimum of ferromagnetic materials (“hard” and “soft” magnetic materials). Nonetheless, some minor components can be magnetized permanently by exposure to strong magnetic fields. This will not damage the unit but will render the calibration of the magnetometers useless, typically observed as a (large) deviation in heading. For mild magnetization it may be possible to compensate for the magnetization of the device by a re‐calibration (magnetic field mapping). Taking care not to expose the MTi or the MTx to strong magnetic fields, such as close proximity of permanent magnets, speakers, electromotor, etc. will make sure magnetization does not occur. 27
Degaussing is a procedure to apply strong alternating magnetic fields with decreasing magnitude in random direction to an object that has been magnetized. The effect of the strong alternating fields is to remove any magnetized (aligned) domains in the object. If you degauss, please make sure the MTi or MTx is not anymore on the object! 28
This type of disturbance is non‐deterministic. Document MT0100P.N
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The MTi and MTx hardware must be kept dry at all times. Condense may damage the internal electronics. The MTi and MTx hardware should be protected from electro static discharges or sources of radiation, as exposure to such source will damage the internal electronics. The MTi and MTx hardware should be protected from violent handling such as drops on hard surfaces. Excessive shocks or violent handling may damage the motion sensors. The MTi and MTx hardware should be protected from strong vibrations. Excessive and continuous vibration may damage the device. Please contact support@xsens.com for more detailed information. 8.2
FCC specific operating instructions NOTE: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures: 1. Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna 2. Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver 3. Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected 4. Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help 8.3
Safety instructions •
CAUTION Read these instructions •
Do not place the MTi or MTx near strong magnetic fields. •
Do not use cables or connectors other than described in this manual. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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8.4
Absolute maximum ratings Stresses above Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. Shock (any axis): 20000 m/s2 (2000 g) 0.5 ms (half‐sine) Input Voltage: ‐0.3 V … 30 V 29 Interface inputs: ‐25 V … 25 V (RX, A and B inputs) Analog IN: ‐0.3 V … 5.3 V or 30 mA, whichever comes first Sync IN: ‐0.3 V … 20 V Operating Temperature: ‐20 °C … 55 °C Storage Temperature: ‐20 °C … 55 °C Humidity: 95% max (non condensing) Stresses beyond those listed here may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the MTi / MTx at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in section 6 of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. 2
NOTE: Drops onto hard surfaces can cause shocks of greater than 20000 m/s (2000 g) exceed the absolute maximum rating of the device. Care should be taken when handling to avoid damage. Drops causing shock greater than absolute maximum ratings may not destroy the device but will permanently alter the properties of the physical motion sensors, which may cause the device to become inaccurate. 8.5
Maintenance The MTi and MTx will not require any maintenance if properly used (see also section 8.1 and 8.4). However, if the Motion Tracker is not functioning according to the specifications please contact Xsens Technologies B.V. (support@xsens.com). 8.5.1
Cleaning Disconnect the MTi or MTx from the power supply and computer. Wipe the case with a damp cloth and mild detergent. Do not use abrasives, isopropyl alcohol, or solvents to clean the case. 8.6
Warranty and liability Xsens Technologies B.V. warrants the products manufactured by it to be free from defects in material and workmanship for a period of 1 year from the date of delivery. Products not subjected to misuse will be repaired, replaced or credit issued at the sole option of Xsens Technologies B.V. Contact support@xsens.com for return material authorization (RMA) prior to returning any items for calibration, repair or exchange. The product must be returned in its original packaging to prevent damage during shipping. The warranty shall not apply to products repaired or altered or removed from the original casing by others than Xsens Technologies B.V. so as, in Xsens Technologies B.V. opinion, to have adversely affected the product, products subjected to negligence, accidents or damaged by circumstances beyond Xsens Technologies B.V.’s control. 29
The previous revision of the Motion Tracker has an absolute maximum input voltage of 15V instead of 30V. These Motion Trackers have a serial number lower than 2000 (last four digits only). Document MT0100P.N
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NOTE: Xsens reserves the right to make changes in its products in order to improve design, performance, or reliability. Subject to the conditions and limitations on liability stated herein, Xsens warrants that the Product as so delivered shall materially conform to Xsens’ then current specifications for the Product, for a period of one year from the date of delivery. ANY LIABILITY OF XSENS WITH RESPECT TO THE SYSTEM OR THE PERFORMANCE THEREOF UNDER ANY WARRANTY, NEGLIGENCE, STRICT LIABILITY OR OTHER THEORY WILL BE LIMITED EXCLUSIVELY TO PRODUCT REPAIR, REPLACEMENT OR, IF REPLACEMENT IS INADEQUATE AS A REMEDY OR, IN XSENS' OPINION IMPRACTICAL, TO REFUND THE PRICE PAID FOR THE PRODUCT. XSENS DOES NOT WARRANT, GUARANTEE, OR MAKE ANY REPRESENTATIONS REGARDING THE USE, OR THE RESULTS OF THE USE, OF THE PRODUCT OR WRITTEN MATERIALS IN TERMS OF CORRECTNESS, ACCURACY, RELIABILITY, OR OTHERWISE. Xsens shall have no liability for delays or failures beyond its reasonable control. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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8.7
CE Declaration of Conformity for the MT devices We, Xsens Technologies BV, of Pantheon 6a 7521 PR Enschede The Netherlands declare under our sole responsibility that our products: MT#‐##A53G35 ( MTx‐28A53G35, MTx‐48A53G35, MTx‐49A53G35, MTi‐28A53G35, MTi‐48A53G35, MTi‐68A53G35), MT#‐##A33G35 ( MTx‐28A33G35, MTx‐48A33G35, MTx‐49A33G35, MTi‐28A33G35, MTi‐48A33G35, MTi‐68A33G35), MT#‐##A83G35 ( MTx‐28A83G35, MTx‐48A83G35, MTx‐49A83G35, MTi‐28A83G35, MTi‐48A83G35, MTi‐68A83G35), MT#‐##A53G15 ( MTx‐28A53G15, MTx‐48A53G15, MTx‐49A53G15, MTi‐28A53G15, MTi‐48A53G15, MTi‐68A53G15), MT#‐##A33G15 ( MTx‐28A33G15, MTx‐48A33G15, MTx‐49A33G15, MTi‐28A33G15, MTi‐48A33G15, MTi‐68A33G15), MT#‐##A83G15 ( MTx‐28A83G15, MTx‐48A83G15, MTx‐49A83G15, MTi‐28A83G15, MTi‐48A83G15, MTi‐68A83G15), MT#‐##A53G25 ( MTx‐28A53G25, MTx‐48A53G25, MTx‐49A53G25, MTx‐49A53G25‐LX, MTi‐
28A53G25, MTi‐48A53G25, MTi‐68A53G25), MT#‐##A33G25 ( MTx‐28A33G25, MTx‐48A33G25, MTx‐49A33G25, MTi‐28A33G25, MTi‐48A33G25, MTi‐68A33G25), MT#‐##A83G25 ( MTx‐28A83G25, MTx‐48A83G25, MTx‐49A83G25, MTi‐28A83G25, MTi‐48A83G25, MTi‐68A83G25), to which this declaration relates, are in conformity with the essential requirements of the EMC Directive: 89/336/EEC and the following Standards and other Normative Documents: EMC Directive: 89/336/EEC EN 61326‐1 (2006) EN 61000‐3‐2 (2006) EN 61000‐3‐3 (1995) + A1 (2001) + A2 (2005) Environment to be used is light industrial / laboratory Class of emission is B and performance criterion B. Test results are summarized in the Electromagnetic Compatibility Test Report with the following document numbers 07C00496RPT02, 08C00494RPT01 and 08C00546RPT01 st
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FCC Declaration of Conformity for the MT devices We, Xsens Technologies BV, of Pantheon 6a 7521 PR Enschede The Netherlands declare under our sole responsibility that our products: MT#‐##A53G35 ( MTx‐28A53G35, MTx‐48A53G35, MTx‐49A53G35, MTi‐28A53G35, MTi‐48A53G35, MTi‐68A53G35), MT#‐##A33G35 ( MTx‐28A33G35, MTx‐48A33G35, MTx‐49A33G35, MTi‐28A33G35, MTi‐48A33G35, MTi‐68A33G35), MT#‐##A83G35 ( MTx‐28A83G35, MTx‐48A83G35, MTx‐49A83G35, MTi‐28A83G35, MTi‐48A83G35, MTi‐68A83G35), MT#‐##A53G15 ( MTx‐28A53G15, MTx‐48A53G15, MTx‐49A53G15, MTi‐28A53G15, MTi‐48A53G15, MTi‐68A53G15), MT#‐##A33G15 ( MTx‐28A33G15, MTx‐48A33G15, MTx‐49A33G15, MTi‐28A33G15, MTi‐48A33G15, MTi‐68A33G15), MT#‐##A83G15 ( MTx‐28A83G15, MTx‐48A83G15, MTx‐49A83G15, MTi‐28A83G15, MTi‐48A83G15, MTi‐68A83G15), MT#‐##A53G25 ( MTx‐28A53G25, MTx‐48A53G25, MTx‐49A53G25, MTx‐49A53G25‐LX, MTi‐
28A53G25, MTi‐48A53G25, MTi‐68A53G25), MT#‐##A33G25 ( MTx‐28A33G25, MTx‐48A33G25, MTx‐49A33G25, MTi‐28A33G25, MTi‐48A33G25, MTi‐68A33G25), MT#‐##A83G25 ( MTx‐28A83G25, MTx‐48A83G25, MTx‐49A13G25, MTi‐28A83G25, MTi‐48A83G25, MTi‐68A83G25), to which this declaration relates, have been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Unintentional Radiator as described in 47 CFR 15 (2007 May, 04 Edition) Class B Digital Device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: 1. This device may not cause harmful interference, and 2. This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation. Test results are summarized in the Electromagnetic Compatibility Test Report with the following document numbers 08C00494RPT01, 08C00546RPT01 and 07C00496RPT02. st
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CE Declaration of Conformity for the USB converters We, Xsens Technologies BV, of Pantheon 6a 7521 PR Enschede The Netherlands declare under our sole responsibility that our products: CA‐USB2# RS232 (CA‐USB2, CA‐USB2x, CA‐USB2G) CA‐USB4# RS485 (CA‐USB4, CA‐USB4x) CA‐USB6# RS422 (CA‐USB6, CA‐USB6x) CA‐USBXM RS232 to which this declaration relates, are in conformity with the essential requirements of the EMC Directive: 89/336/EEC and the following Standards and other Normative Documents: EMC Directive: 89/336/EEC EN 61326‐1 (2006) EN 61000‐3‐2 (2006) EN 61000‐3‐3 (1995) + A1 (2001) + A2 (2005) Environment to be used is light industrial / laboratory Class of emission is B and performance criterion B. Test results are summarized in the Electromagnetic Compatibility Test Report with the following document number 08C00497RPT01 September 23 2008 Enschede, the Netherlands Per Slycke CTO Xsens Technologies BV © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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8.10 FCC Declaration of Conformity for the USB converters We, Xsens Technologies BV, of Pantheon 6a 7521 PR Enschede The Netherlands declare under our sole responsibility that our products: CA‐USB2# RS232 (CA‐USB2, CA‐USB2x, CA‐USB2G) CA‐USB4# RS485 (CA‐USB4, CA‐USB4x) CA‐USB6# RS422 (CA‐USB6, CA‐USB6x) CA‐USBXM RS232 to which this declaration relates, have been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Unintentional Radiator as described in 47 CFR 15 (2007 May, 04 Edition) Class B Digital Device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: 1. This device may not cause harmful interference, and 2. This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation. Test results are summarized in the Electromagnetic Compatibility Test Report with the following document number 08C00497RPT01 September 23 2008 Enschede, the Netherlands Per Slycke CTO Xsens Technologies BV © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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8.11 Customer Support Xsens Technologies B.V. is glad to help you with any questions you may have about the MTi or MTx, or about the use of the technology for your application. Please contact Xsens Customer Support: Î by e‐mail: support@xsens.com Î telephone: +31(0)88‐9736700 To be able to help you, please mention your Motion Tracker Device ID (on the back of the device) and software license registration number in your e‐mail. © Xsens Technologies B.V.
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