Eureka 5890 Series Installation manual

Reference Manual
HP 5890 Series II and
HP 5890 Series II Plus
DHewlett-Packard
Company 1989, 1990, 1991,
1993, 1994
All Rights Reserved.
Reproduction, adaptation,
or translation without
permission is prohibited,
except as allowed under
the copyright laws.
HP part number
05890-90271
First edition—Jun 1989
Printed In U.S.A.
Second edition—Oct 1989
Printed In U.S.A.
Third edition—Jan 1990
Printed In U.S.A.
Fourth edition—Oct 1990
Printed In U.S.A.
Fifth edition—Oct 1991
Printed In U.S.A.
Fifth edition—Mar 1993
Printed In U.S.A.
Sixth edition—Jul 1994
Printed In U.S.A.
Printed in USA
Warranty
The information contained
in this document is subject
to change without notice.
Hewlett-Packard makes no
warranty of any kind with
regard to this material,
including, but not limited
to, the implied warranties
of merchantability and
fitness for a particular
purpose. Hewlett-Packard
shall not be liable for errors
contained herein or for
incidental or consequential
damages in connection with
the furnishing,
performance, or use of this
material.
Safety Information
The HP 5890 Series II and
HP 5890 Series II Plus are
IEC (International
Electrotechnical
Commission) Safety Class 1
instruments. This unit has
been designed and tested in
accordance with recognized
safety standards. Whenever
the safety protection of the
HP 5890 Series II has been
compromised, disconnect
the unit from all power
sources and secure the unit
against unintended
operation.
Safety Symbols
This manual contains
safety information that
should be followed by the
user to ensure safe
operation.
WARNING
A warning calls attention
to a condition or possible
situation that could cause
injury to the user.
CAUTION
A caution calls attention to
a condition or possible
situation that could
damage or destroy the
product or the user’s work.
Little Falls Site
Hewlett-Packard Company
2850 Centerville Road
Wilmington, DE 19808-1610
Important User
Information for In Vitro
Diagnostic Applications
This is a multipurpose
product that may be used
for qualitative or
quantitative analyses in
many applications. If used
in conjunction with proven
procedures (methodology)
by qualified operator, one
of these applications may
be In Vitro Diagnostic
Procedures.
Generalized instrument
performance characteristics
and instructions are
included in this manual.
Specific In Vitro Diagnostic
procedures and
methodology remain the
choice and the
responsibility of the user,
and are not included.
Sound Emission
Certification for Federal
Republic of Germany
If Test and Measurement
Equipment is operated with
unscreened cables and/or
used for measurements in
open set-ups, users have to
assure that under these
operating conditions the
Radio Interference Limits
are still met at the border
of their premises.
The following information
is provided to comply with
the requirements of the
German Sound Emission
Directive dated January 18,
1991
Sound pressure Lp <
70db(A)
During normal operation
At the operator position
According to ISO 7779
(Type Test)
When operating the HP
5890 Series II with cryo
valve option, the sound
78 db(A) during
pressure
cryo valve operation for
short burst pulses.
‘
Schallemission
Werden Meß- und
Testgeräte mit
ungeschirmten Kabeln
und/oder in offenen
Meßaufbauten verwendet,
so ist vom Betreiber
sicherzustellen, daß die
Funk-Entströbedingungen
unter Betriebsbedingungen
an seiner
Grundstücksgrenze
eingehalten werden.
Diese Information steht im
Zusammenhang mit den
Anforderungen der
Maschinenlärminformation
sverordnung vom 18
Januar 1991.
Schalldruckpegel LP < 70
dB(A)
Am Arbeitsplatz
Normaler Betrieb
Nach DIN 45635 T. 19
(Typprüfung)
Bei Betrieb des HP 5890
Serie II mit Cryo Ventil
Option treten beim Oeffnen
des Ventils impulsfoermig
Schalldrucke Lp bis ca. 78
dB(A) auf.
Contents
Chapter 1 — Columns and Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
Column oven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Column placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Packed column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hewlett•Packardcapillary columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Liners/adapters and inserts, general . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inlet/detector liners/adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Packed column inlet liners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detector liners/adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ECD and TCD adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Liner/adapter installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inlet inserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Packed column inlet inserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split/splitless or split•onlycapillary inlet inserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jet replacement, FIDs or NPDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metal capillary columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
12
12
13
14
17
20
20
22
23
24
25
25
27
30
30
Chapter 2 — Keyboard and Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
Displaying setpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering setpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard operation, INET control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protecting setpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loading default setpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33
34
37
38
39
Chapter 3 — Temperature Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
43
Valid setpoint ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cryogenic (sub•ambient)oven control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Programming oven temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oven status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oven safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fault: messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
After a power failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oven temperature calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
46
47
49
50
51
52
53
54
Contents
Chapter 4 — Electronic Flow Sensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
57
Displaying gas flow rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Designating gas type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electronic flow sensor (EFS) calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the zero calibration value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the GAIN calibration value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering specific ZERO and GAIN values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58
59
60
61
61
63
65
Chapter 5 — Signal Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
67
Zeroing signal output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying current setpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Self• setpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User•defined setpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Signal attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
/ ATTN 2!( )
setpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying current RANGE 2!( )
Entering / setpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switching off the +1 mV output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test signal output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instrument network (INET) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
An instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Active workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HP 5890 INET states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INET operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automatic INET reconfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INET configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switching between Global and Local . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INET/HP•ILaddresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HP•ILloopback test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Warn: and fault: messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File compatibility with data handling devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What are the modes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What is the proper mode for my data handling device? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How do I know in which mode my GC is configured now? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How do I change modes? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to convert HP 339X Integrator workfiles from 5890A
to SERIES II mode: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
68
69
70
72
72
75
76
76
77
79
79
81
82
82
83
85
85
86
87
90
92
94
94
94
94
95
97
Contents
Chapter 6 — Inlet Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
99
Packed column inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electronic flow sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Septum•purgedpacked column inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problems at high inlet temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A thermally optimized high•temperatureinlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Septum purge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electronic flow sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split/splitless capillary inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carrier gas considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Initial column head pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Splitless sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Injection technique, split/splitless sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
100
102
103
104
104
105
106
107
108
110
111
114
121
Chapter 7 — Detector Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Capillary makeup gas flow rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FID and NPD jets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flame ionization detector (FID) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FID flameout problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nitrogen•phosphorusdetector (NPD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performance considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electron capture detector (ECD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Requirements for USA owners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Background level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thermal conductivity detector (TCD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Optimizing performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzing for hydrogen, special considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TCD•to•FIDseries connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filament passivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Capillary column considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flame photometric detector (FPD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Optimizing FPD sensitivity and selectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flame ignition problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
123
124
125
126
128
129
132
135
135
140
141
143
146
148
149
149
150
151
151
153
Contents
Chapter 8 — Preventive Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conditioning columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(Re)Packing columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Packed column inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing septa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert/liner care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split/splitless capillary inlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing septa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Liner and/or insert care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Glass inserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Repacking a split insert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metal inserts and/or liners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flame ionization detector (FID) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jet exchange/replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ignition problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nitrogen•phosphorusdetector (NPD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing/replacing the NPD collector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Type B NPD transformer/collector assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reinstallation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electron capture detector (ECD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frequency test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Carrier gas evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thermal cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Packed column: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Capillary column: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radioactivity leak test (wipe test) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thermal conductivity detector (TCD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flame photometric detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cleaning/replacing FPD windows, filters, seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cleaning/replacing the FPD jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FPD leak testing (GC with electronic flow sensor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FPD leak testing (GC without electronic flow sensor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conditioning chemical traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
155
156
158
159
159
160
160
162
163
163
164
165
168
169
169
170
171
171
172
173
177
178
178
181
184
186
188
188
188
189
190
191
191
192
192
192
193
193
197
198
199
200
Contents
Chapter 9 — Chromatographic Troubleshooting . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Baseline symptoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wander and drift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spiking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retention time symptoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retention time drift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retention time wander (reproducibility) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Peak symptoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inverted peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extra peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deformed peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting valve systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chromatographic symptoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Locating leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electronic pressure control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Proper configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switch setting examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 10 — Test Sample Chromatograms . . . . . . . .
Test sample chromatograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
201
202
202
202
203
204
206
207
207
207
209
209
209
209
211
214
214
216
217
218
219
220
221
223
225
241
This page intentionally left blank.
1
Columns and
Fittings
Columns and Fittings
The HP 5890 SERIES II (hereafter referred to as HP 5890) provides
flexibility in choices among inlets, columns, and detectors through use of
liners and adapters, allowing any standard column to be used without
sacrificing performance. Additional flexibility is gained through positions
of inlets and detectors relative to each other and through the large
internal volume of the oven.
This section provides information for the following:
C
The column oven.
C
Fittings.
C
Liners and inserts.
C
ECD and TCD capillary makeup gas adapters.
The first three items must be considered before a column may be
installed properly at either an inlet or a detector. In addition, for an FID
or NPD, and depending upon the column to be installed (packed versus
capillary), the correct jet must be installed before installing the column.
Jet installation is described in Chapter 8, Preventive Maintenance.
For specific information on ordering fittings, liners, and inserts, see
Hewlett•Packard's analytical supplies catalog.
10
Columns and Fittings
Column oven
Column oven
Figure 1-1
Inlet Ftg
Det Ftg
Nut Plate
The Column Oven
The oven door latch, located beneath the lower right corner of the door, is
pressed upward to open the door.
Motor•drivenflaps at the rear of the oven admit room air for cool down or
near•ambientoperation, so the door is kept closed except for access to
columns (the oven cools most efficiently with its door closed).
The oven can maintain temperature down to about 7^C above ambient
without auxiliary cooling. If lower temperatures are required, a
cryogenic valve (for either liquid CO1 or liquid N1) is needed. Liquid CO1
permits reliable temperature control down to -50 ^C; liquid N1 provides
reliable control down to -80 ^C. The maximum oven temperature is
450^C.
11
Columns and Fittings
Column oven
Column placement
Generally, a column may be installed between any inlet and detector.
A rigid 1/4•inchpacked glass column, however, if installed in the B
(rear•most)inlet, can only be installed in the B (rear•most)detector.
Distance relationships among inlets and detectors are shown in
Figure 1•2.
Figure 1-2
Top View
(showing relationship of inlets to detectors)
B
228 + 1 mm
B
A
A
Front
Installation Restrictions, Rigid Columns
Packed column
Packed columns require no physical support other than that provided by
proper installation at inlet and detector fittings.
12
Columns and Fittings
Column oven
Hewlett-Packard capillary columns
Hewlett•Packardcapillary columns are wound on wire frames which
mount on a pair of brackets which slip into slots at the top of the oven
interior.
Figure 1-3
Typical Hewlett-Packard Capillary Columns
13
Columns and Fittings
Fittings
Figure 1-4.
Column Hanger
Part No. 1460-1914
Column Installed
Installed Bracket for Hewlett-Packard Capillary Columns
The bracket has two positions from which to hang the column wire frame.
Depending upon frame diameter, use the position which best centers the
column in the oven. Column ends should come off the bottom of the
frame, making smooth curves to inlet and detector fittings. Avoid
allowing any section of the column itself to come in contact with oven
interior surfaces.
Fittings
The following is a brief comparison of common types of fittings (nuts,
ferrules, O•rings)used to install columns, and to install inlet and detector
liners and/or inserts. Each type has its own set of advantages and
disadvantages:
14
Columns and Fittings
Fittings
C
Graphite O•ringsor ferrules have excellent sealing quality and long
service life, can be used continuously to 400^C, and are generally
recommended for most applications, particularly capillary and glass
columns. They are also recommended for inlet and detector liners, and
for split/splitless capillary inlet inserts.
Since they do not adhere permanently to glass or metal, they can be
removed easily without damage to the column, tubing, liner, or insert.
A rear metal ferrule may be needed if recommended by the
manufacturer.
C
Commonly used with metal columns and tubing, brass nuts and
ferrules on the column prevent damage to inlet and detector liners,
but may develop leaks above 250^C or with temperature
programming.
C
Also commonly used with metal columns and tubing, stainless steel
fittings minimize possibility of leakage at high temperature, but
require care in installing columns; overtightening may damage the
column end or inlet/detector fitting.
C
Teflon ferrules may be used to 250^C but are recommended only for
isothermal work, because they develop leaks when
temperature•programmed.
C
Commonly used with glass columns, Vespel (or graphite•filledVespel)
ferrules are reusable and work well to 350^C. These ferrules may
leak or crack if tightened when cold.
C
Glass columns can be installed using silicone O•rings. For O•ring
installation, a back metal ferrule, reversed, is necessary to provide a
flat surface to seal against.
Silicone O•ringsare useful to about 250^C, but, due to bleed, interfere
in high•sensitivitywork. They also gradually lose elasticity and crack,
so they must be replaced fairly often.
15
Columns and Fittings
Fittings
Table 1-1.
Typical Fittings for Columns and Inlet/Detector Liners, Adapters, and Inserts
Type
Description
Typical Use
Part No.
1/4-inch swage,
stainless steel,
pkg, 20 of each
nut
front ferrule
back ferrule
1/4-inch packed metal columns
5080-8753
1/8-inch swage,
stainless steel,
pkg, 20 of each
nut
front ferrule
back ferrule
1/8-inch packed metal columns
5080-8751
1/4-inch swage,
brass, pkg,
20 of each
nut
front ferrule
back ferrule
1/4-inch packed metal columns
5080-8752
1/8-inch swage,
brass, pkg,
20 of each
nut
front ferrule
back ferrule
1/8-inch packed metal columns
5080-8750
Vespel,
pkg of 10
1/4-inch ferrule
inlet/detector liners,
1/4-inch glass packed columns
5080-8774
Vespel,
pkg of 10
1/8-inch ferrule
metal columns
0100-1107
graphite,
pkg of 10
1.0-mm ferrule
capillary columns
5080-8773
graphite,
pkg of 10
0.5-mm ferrule
capillary columns
5080-8853
graphite
6.35-mm O-ring
inlet/detector liners,
1/4-inch glass packed columns,
split capillary inlet insert
0905-0767
graphite
6.52-mm O-ring
splitless capillary inlet insert (use)
0905-1004
silicone
6.0-mm O-ring
inlet/detector liners
1/4-inch glass packed columns,
split/splitless capillary inlet inserts
0905-0322
silicone
1.0 mm O-ring
capillary columns
0905-0759
Note: Dimensions given are id’s of the O-ring or ferrule.
16
Columns and Fittings
Liners/adapters and inserts, general
Liners/adapters and inserts, general
A liner/adapter is installed from below, inside the oven; it serves both as
an adapter to mate the particular column to the inlet or detector and to
provide correct internal volume for proper operation.
Inserts are used with inlets only, and, when required, are installed from
above, at the top of the inlet; these are discussed specifically later in this
section (see Inlet inserts).
In general, the analysis to be performed determines the column to be
used. The column then dictates hardware required for the inlet and
detector (liner, insert, adapter, jet (FID or NPD)).
Note:
C
A correctly designed 1/4•inchpacked glass column requires no liners
since the column ends themselves serve this purpose.
C
The appropriate liner/adapter, and insert if required, must be
installed prior to installing a column.
Tables 1•2and 1•3summarize hardware required for various
combinations of inlets, columns, and detectors.
17
Columns and Fittings
Liners/adapters and inserts, general
Table 1-2.
Hardware and Recommended Fittings for Packed Column Installation
Packed Columns
1/8-inch Metal
1/4-inch Metal
1/4-inch Glass
Recommended
Column Fittings
1/8-inch
swage-type nut
and ferrules3
1/4-inch
swage-type nut
and ferrules3
1/4-inch swagetype nut and
graphic ferrule or
silicone O-ring(s)
Packed Column
Inlet Liners
19243-805101
or
19243-805301
(requires glass insert)
19243-805201
or
19243-805401
(requires glass insert)
None
FID/NPD2
Liners/Adapters
19231-805211
19231-805301
None
TCD Liners/Adapters
None
19302-800201
19302-800201
(may require
altering the
column)
ECD Liner/Adapters
19301-805301
None
None
1
2
3
18
Use 1/4-inch swage-type nut and Vespel or graphite ferrule to install liner/adapter.
See Chapter 8 for details regarding jet exchange (if necessary).
See information later in this chapter regarding proper installation of swage-type fittings on packed
metal columns.
Columns and Fittings
Liners/adapters and inserts, general
Table 1-3.
Hardware and Recommended Fittings for Capillary Column Installation
Capillary Columns
HP Series 530 ¿
320 ¿m ID
200 ¿m ID
Metal/
Glass
Recommended
Column Fittings
Capillary column
nut and 1.0-mm
graphite ferrule, or
silicone O-ring(s)
Capillary column
nut and 0.5-mm
graphite or
silicone O-ring(s)
Same as 320 ¿m
Same as
HP Series
530 ¿
Packed Column
Inlet Liners
19244-805401
(requires glass
insert)
Not
Recommended
Not
Recommended
Not
Recommended
Split/Splitless &
Split-Only
Capillary Inlet
Split Sampling
18740-60840
with graphite or
silicone O-ring
Same
Same
Same
Split/Splitless
Capillary Inlet
Insert: Splitless
Sampling
18740-80220
with graphite or
silicone O-ring
Same
Same
Same
Programmable
On-Column
Capillary Inlet
Insert
19245-205803
19245-20520
19245-20510
1924520550
FID/NPD2
Liners/Adapters
19244-805501
Same
Same
Same
TCD
Liners/Adapters
18740-20950
and
18740-209603
19232-805501
Same
Same
ECD
Liners/Adapters
19244-805501,3
19233-80530
Same
Same
1
Use 1/4-inch swage-type nut (if a nut is not supplied as part of the adapter) and graphite or Vespel ferrule to
install liner/adapter.
2 0.11-inch jet must be used; see Chapter 8 for information regarding jet exchange (if necessary).
3 Use only if detector is not configured with capillary makeup gas adapter. If makeup adapter is provided, it is
used instead (usually with makeup gas turned off).
19
Columns and Fittings
Inlet/detector liners/adapters
Inlet/detector liners/adapters
Interchangeable stainless steel liners/adapters, installed from inside the
oven, are used with the packed column inlet, and with all detectors,
depending upon the column to be installed.
Packed column inlet liners
Figure 1-5
Liner
Installed Liner, Packed Column Inlet
Liners for the packed column inlet are available in three sizes: one for
1/8•inchcolumns, one for 1/4•inchcolumns, and one for HP Series 530 ¿
capillary columns.
20
Columns and Fittings
Inlet/detector liners/adapters
In addition, liners for the packed column inlet are available to accept
glass inserts (discussed later) for reduced reactivity, to trap nonvolatile
residues, or for use with an HP Series 530 ¿ capillary column.
C
No liner is used with 1/4•inchpacked glass columns. The long leg of
the column fits into the inlet body, replacing the liner. Packing and
glass wool plug must be below the tip of the needle for best results.
C
Metal columns are installed with a liner appropriate for the column
diameter.
C
If necessary, glass columns can be installed using a metal liner
(preferably those accepting a glass insert), but this is not
recommended. There may be problems with dead volume in
connections, and preventing contact of sample with metal surfaces.
21
Columns and Fittings
Inlet/detector liners/adapters
Detector liners/adapters
Figure 1-6
Liner/Adapter
Typical Installed Detector Liner/Adapter
Detectors require a liner/adapter to be installed when used with packed
metal columns (either 1/8•or 1/4•inch),and with any type of capillary
column. Normally, no liner is required with 1/4•inchpacked glass
columns, since the leg of the column itself serves as the liner.
For the FID or NPD, the correct detector jet must be installed prior to
installation of the liner. (If jets must be exchanged, see Chapter 8,
Preventive Maintenance.)
22
Columns and Fittings
Inlet/detector liners/adapters
ECD and TCD adapters
A makeup gas adapter must be installed in the ECD or TCD base to
install a capillary column, and to augment carrier flow through the
column with additional gas flow needed for optimal detector operation.
The adapter must be removed for packed column applications.
In addition, to install an HP Series 530¿ capillary column in an ECD or
TCD having no capillary makeup gas adapter, the following adapters are
used: Part No. 19244•80550for the ECD, and Part No. 18740•20950and
18740•20960for the TCD.
Finally, to use a 1/4•inchcolumn with the TCD (having a base designed
for 1/8•inchcolumns), a 1/8•to 1/4•inchadapter is required (Part No.
19302•80020). For the ECD (having a base designed for 1/4•inch
columns), to use a 1/8•inchcolumn, a 1/4•to 1/8•inchadapter is required
(Part No. 19301•80530).
23
Columns and Fittings
Inlet/detector liners/adapters
Liner/adapter installation
Figure 1-7
Liner
1/4-inch Ferrule
Liner Retainer Nut
Capillary Column Nut
Packed Column Inlet Liner for HP Series 530 ¿
Capillary Column Use
1-mm Graphite Ferrule
Nut and Ferrule Installed on a Liner/Adapter
With one exception, liners/adapters are installed in the same manner;
if the liner/adapter has not been used before, a new ferrule must be
installed.
The single exception is the adapter to install an HP Series 530 ¿ capillary
column in a TCD without provision for capillary makeup gas (Part No.
18740•20950and 18740•20960). In this case, no ferrule is required to
form a seal with the detector base.
Note: A graphite ferrule is strongly recommended; since metal ferrules
tend to lock permanently onto the liner/adapter, their use may require
replacing the entire liner/adapter, should a permanent leak develop.
WARNING
Exercise care! The oven, and/or inlet or detector fittings may be hot
enough to cause burns.
Note: The liner/adapter must be kept as clean as possible to prevent
introducing contamination into the inlet or detector. Use a clean,
lint•freecloth to remove fingerprints, etc., from the end of the
liner/adapter to be inserted into the inlet or detector base. CH2OH
(methanol) may be used as a solvent.
24
Columns and Fittings
Inlet inserts
1. Assemble a brass nut and graphite ferrule onto the liner/adapter.
2. Insert the liner/adapter straight into the detector base as far as
possible.
3. Holding the liner/adapter in this position, tighten the nut finger•tight.
4. Use a wrench to tighten the nut an additional 1/4 turn.
5. Install the column; then heat the oven, inlet, and detector to desired
operating temperatures and, only if necessary to stop leaks, tighten
fittings further.
Inlet inserts
Inserts are used in inlets, and can be installed from the top of the
particular inlet.
Packed column inlet inserts
Figure 1-8
Flared End
Glass Insert for Packed Column Inlet Liner
Assuming the correct inlet liner is installed, a glass insert is installed as
described on the next page.
25
Columns and Fittings
Inlet inserts
WARNING
Exercise care! the oven, and/or inlet, or detector fittings may be hot
enough to cause burns.
Figure 1-9
Flared End
Insert
Installing a Glass Insert in a Packed Column Inlet
1. In handling the insert, avoid contaminating its surface (particularly
its interior).
2. Remove the septum retainer nut and septum.
3. Carefully remove the old insert (if present) by withdrawing it straight
up. A match stick or similar fibrous item may be used as an aid in
lifting the insert from the inlet.
4. Install the new insert by dropping it carefully, straight into the inlet
liner, flared end up.
26
Columns and Fittings
Inlet inserts
Note: For the liner and insert for an HP Series 530 ¿ capillary column, if
the column is already installed, a new insert may not seat properly in the
liner; the column may prevent it from dropping completely into the liner.
If the insert does not drop completely into the liner, do not force it
(either the liner or the column may shatter); instead, remove the column,
seat the insert, and then replace the column.
5. Replace the septum and septum retainer nut.
Split/splitless or split-only capillary inlet inserts
Figure 1-10
Viton O-ring (Preferred)
Viton O-ring
Split Use Splitless Use
Split/Splitless and Split-Only Capillary Inlet and Inserts
A specific inlet insert is required, depending upon the particular
sampling mode. Specific sampling modes include:
C
Split, for major•componentanalyses
C
Purged splitless, for trace•componentanalyses
27
Columns and Fittings
Inlet inserts
The split insert contains packing material (10% OV•1on 80/100 High
Performance Chromosorb•W),held in place by silanized glass wool plugs,
located immediately above a mixing chamber. This ensures proper
volatilization and homogeneous mixing of the sample prior to its entry
into the column.
WARNING
Exercise care! The oven, and/or inlet, or detector fittings may be hot
enough to cause burns.
Caution
If operating in split mode, carrier gas pressure must be reduced before
opening the inlet. If not done, pressure may blow insert packing out of
the inlet, altering its characteristics. Pressure is reduced at the
backpressure regulator for the inlet.
1. In handling the insert, avoid contaminating its surface (particularly
its interior).
2. Remove the insert retainer nut. The septum retainer nut need not be
removed from the insert retainer nut assembly.
28
Columns and Fittings
Inlet inserts
Figure 1-11
Installation, Split/Splitless Capillary Inlet Insert
3. Using tweezers, forceps, or similar tool, remove any insert already in
place.
4. Inspect the new insert to be installed: For a split mode insert, the end
with the mixing chamber and packing is inserted first into the inlet.
5. Place a graphite or silicone O•ringon the insert, about 2 to 3 mm from
its top end.
6. Install the insert, pressing it straight down, as far as possible, into
the inlet.
Caution
Do not add any seal either at the bottom of the inlet or at the bottom of
the insert; to do so will damage the inlet and/or shatter the insert.
7. Replace the insert retainer nut, tightening it to firm finger•tightness
to form a leak•freeseal. Do not overtighten.
29
Columns and Fittings
Jet replacement, FIDs or NPDs
Jet replacement, FIDs or NPDs
Depending upon the column type (packed versus capillary) to be used,
and/or analyses to be performed, exchanging the jet in an FID or NPD
may be necessary. This must be done prior to column installation, and is
particularly important in optimizing FID performance.
Exchanging the jet in either an FID or an NPD is described in Chapter 8,
Preventive Maintenance.
Metal capillary columns
Most metal capillary columns (0.6 to 1.0 mm od) can be connected
directly. Some metal capillaries have a large•diametersleeve soldered on
each end; this must be removed. Use a small triangular file to score the
tubing behind the sleeve; then bend the sleeve back and forth until it
breaks.
It is important to have fresh ends of the column, free of burrs, jagged
edges, and/or loose particles of column, stationary phase, and/or material
from a sealing ferrule or O•ring.
Therefore, whenever the column must be cut to provide fresh ends, use
a suitable file to first score the column at the point at which it is to be
broken. This is done normally after installing on the column the column
nut and ferrule (or O•ring)required for installation.
30
2
Keyboard and
Displays
Keyboard and Displays
Figure 2-1
ACTUAL
HP 5890
SYSTEM
SETPOINT
READY
OVEN
FINAL
TIME
RATE
RUN
NOT
READY
INITIAL
TIME
Oven Status
Alphanumeric
Display
STATUS
STOP
Instrument
Status
START
Run Control
TABLE
Programmable
Cool on Column
Control
Setpoint
Storage
Control
ADD
TIME
DELETE
OVEN
TEMP
INIT
VALUE
IINIT
TIME
RATE
INJ A
PRES
INJ B
PRES
OVEN
TRACK
AUX
TEMP
INJ A
TEMP
INJ B
TEMP
DET A
TEMP
PREVIOUS
NEXT
FINAL
VALUE
FINAL
TIME
OVEN
MAX
DET B
TEMP
EQUIB
TIME
FLOW
PARAM
CRYO
PARAM
FLOW
PURGE
VALVE
TIME
SIG 1
ON
LOAD
SIG 2
OFF
RANG
E2!( )
A
7
8
9
ZERO
B
4
5
6
1
2
3
Signal Definition
and Control
ATTN
2!( )
TCD
SENS
DET
COL
COMP1
COL
COMP2
0
Miscellaneous
Functions
CLEAR
.
HP 5890 SERIES II Keyboard and Display Panel
32
Temperature
Control
STORE
ENTER
Timetable
Control
-
Numeric and
Modifier Keys
Keyboard and Displays
Displaying setpoints
HP 5890 SERIES II (hereafter referred to as HP 5890) operation is
monitored and controlled through its front panel keyboard, and
alphanumeric and LED displays.
Some instrument functions are monitored continuously: signal levels,
temperatures, carrier gas flow rates (if electronic flow sensing is
installed), and inlet purge valve status (if a split/splitless capillary inlet
is installed).
There are two general display areas:
C
Alphanumeric Display. Echoes keys pressed at the HP 5890
keyboard show current setpoint values for instrument functions;
actual values of continuously monitored instrument functions; and
warning, error, information, and diagnostic messages.
C
LED Display. Consists of two parts: the left half (OVEN) displays
oven status during a run; the right half (STATUS) gives overall
instrument status at any given time.
Displaying setpoints
Any particular instrument current value and/or setpoint is displayed at
the alphanumeric display simply by pressing the appropriate instrument
function key followed possibly by additional modifier" keys necessary to
further define the function (i.e., A or B , SIG 1 or SIG 2 , ON or OFF ,
TIME
). For example, pressing OVEN MAX
might give the display:
Figure 2-2
ACTUAL
OVEN
MAXIMUM
SETPOINT
400
Example, a Typical Alphanumeric Setpoint Display
The name of the function key pressed is always displayed, along with the
current setpoint and/or measured values.
33
Keyboard and Displays
Entering setpoints
Examples of possible displays are provided where appropriate throughout
the manual.
If a particular function is not installed in your instrument, an
appropriate message is displayed when the key corresponding to the
function is pressed. For example, if no heated zone controlled by
DET B TEMP
is installed, pressing DET B TEMP gives the display:
Figure 2-3
ACTUAL
DET B
NOT
SETPOINT
INSTALLED
Typical Display, a Function NOT Installed in the Instrument
Entering setpoints
To enter a setpoint value for a particular instrument function, the
function is first displayed by pressing the appropriate key(s).
Once the chosen HP 5890 function is displayed, a new setpoint value can
be entered at any time by pressing appropriate keys 0 through 9 ,
, - , or possibly A , B , ON , or OFF . For a numeric value, ENTER
is pressed to terminate the entry. Figure 2•4summarizes the two steps
involved.
.
34
Keyboard and Displays
Entering setpoints
To display the function and its setpoint:
Figure 2-4
(Instrument Function Key) (
A
or
B
)
necessary for a few
instrument functions
then, EITHER
(
through
0
.,
,-
9
)
ENTER
to enter a new setpoint value
OR, for a few functions,
(
or OFF
ON
)
to switch the function on or off
Steps in Entering a Setpoint Value
For example, to set the A detector zone to 250^C, the following sequence
of keys is pressed:
DET A TEMP
function key
2
5
0
ENTER
numeric key(s)
Once detector A temperature is displayed by pressing DET A TEMP
new setpoint value may be entered at any time thereafter.
, the
Note that the display shows a flashing * (asterisk) while the new
setpoint is entered, disappearing when ENTER is pressed.
When ENTER is pressed, the setpoint value is verified and, if satisfactory,
becomes the new setpoint for the function. If the entered value is not
satisfactory (out of range, or inconsistent with other, related setpoints),
an appropriate message is displayed. A different value may be entered
immediately, without again pressing the particular function key.
35
Keyboard and Displays
Entering setpoints
can be used anytime during an entry, prior to pressing ENTER , to
erase the entry in progress. The * disappears, and the original setpoint
display is restored.
CLEAR
Rules regarding keyboard usage are summarized below:
C
An instrument function key, when pressed, is shown in the display
along with its current setpoint value, and actual value for
continuously monitored functions: signal levels, temperatures, flow
rates.
-
A displayed function is also ready for entering a new setpoint
value simply by pressing appropriate keys.
C
An * (asterisk) is flashed as the new value is entered, indicating an
entry in progress.
C
must terminate a numeric entry. It is also required in
terminating a sequence to assign a particular detector to a given
output signal channel.
ENTER
In general, any display showing the flashing * must be terminated
using ENTER .
Upon pressing ENTER , the value is verified to ensure it is within the
range permitted for the particular function, and/or that the value is
internally consistent with previously defined setpoint values for other,
related functions.
-
If the value is accepted, * disappears from the display indicating
the new value is stored and implemented. For functions whose
values are continuously monitored, * is replaced by the actual
value.
-
If the value is out of range, or inconsistent with another setpoint
value, an appropriate message is displayed. Another setpoint
value may be entered immediately without again pressing the
particular instrument function key.
The original setpoint value remains in force until an acceptable entry
is made.
36
Keyboard and Displays
Keyboard operation, INET control
C
is used anytime during setpoint entry, prior to pressing
to erase the entry in progress.
C
, if pressed when no setpoint entry is in progress, displays
HP 5890 readiness .
C
Run Control Key START , if pressed while a setpoint entry is in
progress, causes the entry to be aborted.
C
If a particular key is not valid, it is simply ignored if pressed during
setpoint entry.
C
While an entry is in progress, other instrument function keys are
ignored if pressed, until the current entry is terminated and stored
( ENTER ) or erased ( CLEAR ).
CLEAR
ENTER
,
CLEAR
Keyboard operation, INET control
In general terms, HP 5890 operation is the same whether the instrument
is under local control or INET control (controlled by a separate device). If
the HP 5890 is to be controlled through INET, the following should be
noted:
C
In the event communication is lost (e.g., by power lost at one or more
devices on the loop, a disconnected INET cable, etc.), HP 5890 START
and STOP keys will be disabled.
C
Should the HP 5890 keyboard exhibit problems (keys inactive) while
under INET control, disconnect INET cables at their HP 5890
receptacles; then switch power to the HP 5890 off, and then on. The
keyboard should behave normally (assuming the HP 5890 itself has
no problems).
C
To restore INET control, check that all devices on the loop are
powered on, and that all INET cables are installed properly. The
system should return to normal operation automatically.
37
Keyboard and Displays
Protecting setpoints
Additional information regarding INET control is available in Chapter 5,
Signal Output. Servicing may be required for one or more devices on the
INET loop if communication cannot be established.
Protecting setpoints
The HP 5890 provides a keyboard lock feature to minimize possibility of
stored setpoints being altered unintentionally. When the HP 5890
keyboard is locked, setpoint values (numeric values, A, B, OFF, and
ON) may only be displayed; they cannot be altered. START and STOP
remain functional, so runs may be started or stopped.
To lock instrument setpoints, first enter the key sequence:
CLEAR
.
-
ENTER
Then press ON to lock the keyboard, or OFF to unlock the keyboard.
Figure 2•5shows displays occurring during this process.
Figure 2-5
ACTUAL
CALIB
AND
TEST
ACTUAL
KEYBOARD
LOCK
KEYBOARD
LOCK
38
SETPOINT
ON
ACTUAL
Keyboard Lock Displays
SETPOINT
[0-0]
OFF
SETPOINT
Keyboard and Displays
Loading default setpoints
With the keyboard locked, Figure 2•6shows the display occurring if a
setpoint entry is attempted:
Figure 2-6
ACTUAL
KEYBOARD
SETPOINT
LOCKED
KEYBOARD LOCKED Message Display
If the HP 5890 keyboard is locked while the instrument is under INET
control, a setpoint file may be loaded into HP 5890 memory from the
controller, but the loaded setpoints cannot then be edited at the HP 5890
keyboard until it is unlocked.
After locking or unlocking the keyboard, return to operation by pressing
any function key (e.g., OVEN TEMP ).
Loading default setpoints
This function permits resetting HP 5890 operating setpoints to a
standard set of values. Only the following information is retained:
C
Calibration constants for oven temperature control
C
All gas flow rate monitoring information (gas types and calibration
constants)
C
Column compensation data, including detector assignments
Note: Since user•definedsetpoints are lost in the process, any critical
HP 5890 setpoints should be recorded for later reentry before proceeding.
Through the keyboard, select CALIB AND TEST mode, function 6:
CLEAR
.
6
39
Keyboard and Displays
Loading default setpoints
Upon pressing ENTER , default setpoints are loaded into memory, erasing
setpoints already present. Table 2•1lists resulting HP 5890 default
setpoints.
Table 2-1. HP 5890 Default Setpoints
Function
Default Setpoint
Inj Temp (A & B):
Det Temp (A & B):
Oven Temp:
Oven Max Temp:
Cryo Cooling:
Cryo Blast
Equib Time:
Init Temp:
Init Time:
Oven Prog Rates:
Final Temp:
Final Time:
Inlet Purge:
Purge Time:
Detector (A & B):
Signal 1 Det:
Signal 2 Det:
50 C, OFF
50 C, OFF
50 C, OFF
400 C
OFF
OFF
3 min
50 C
650 min
0 C/min
0 C
0 min
ON
0 min
OFF
Detector A
Detector B if BOTH detectors A and
B are installed; otherwise, detector A.
0
0, ON
0, ON
Address- 31
Global (unconfigured)
OFF
Empty
OFF
OFF
HIGH
ON
OFF
Range (1 & 2):
Attn (1 & 2):
Zero (1 & 2):
HP-IL (INET):
INET:
Keyboard Lock:
Timetable
Inj A Pres
Inj B Pres
TCD Sens
Oven Track
Constant Flow
40
^
^
^
^
^
^
^
Keyboard and Displays
Loading default setpoints
Note that if the battery protecting memory should fail when main power
is turned off, the default setpoints are loaded into memory when the
battery is replaced. In addition, calibration constants for oven
temperature control and gas flow rate monitoring are also reset to default
values.
41
This page intentionally left blank.
3
Temperature
Control
Temperature Control
Oven temperature, and temperatures of up to five separate heated zones
(detectors, inlets, and/or heated valves), are controlled through keys
shown in Figure 3•1.
Figure 3-1
Oven Control
OVEN
TEMP
INJ A
TEMP
INIT
VALUE
INJ B
TEMP
INIT
TIME
DET A
TEMP
FINAL
VALUE
RATE
AUX
TEMP
OVEN
MAX
DET B
TEMP
EQUIB
TIME
FINAL
TIME
Heated Zone Control
Temperature Control Keys
In these cases, both current setpoint value and current monitored value
are displayed by pressing the appropriate temperature control key. For
example, Figure 3•2shows typical displays obtained by pressing
OVEN TEMP
.
Figure 3-2
ACTUAL
OVEN TEMP
279
Typical Display, Setpoint and Current Value
44
SETPOINT
350
Temperature Control
Note that the ACTUAL value is a measured quantity, while the
SETPOINT value is user•defined:in this example, the setpoint value for
oven temperature might recently have been changed from 250 to 350^C,
and the oven is now heating to the new setpoint. Given sufficient time for
equilibration, ACTUAL and SETPOINT values become equal.
.
In addition to keys 0 through 9 , - ,
defining setpoint values, ON , OFF , A , and
specific key sequences:
,
B
, and ENTER used in
are used in certain
CLEAR
C
and OFF add convenience in being able to switch on or off the
oven, and/or heated zones, without losing their current setpoint
values.
C
and B are used in key sequences defining a multiple•rampoven
temperature program: A as part of key sequences defining
parameters for the second ramp; B as part of key sequences
defining parameters for the third ramp.
ON
A
45
Temperature Control
Valid setpoint ranges
Valid setpoint ranges
Table 3•1lists valid setpoint ranges for the 13 keys controlling oven and
heated zone temperatures.
Table 3-1. Valid Setpoint Ranges For Temperature Control Keys
Valid
Setpoint Range
Key
In
Increments Of
Function
OVEN TEMP
-80 to 450
INIT TEMP
-80 to 450
^
1^C
INIT TIME
0 to 650.00
0.01 minute
Oven Control
RATE
0 to 70
0.1 /minute
Oven Control
FINAL TEMP
-80 to 450
1 C
Oven Control
FINAL TIME
0 to 650.00
0.01 minute
Oven Control
OVEN MAX
70 to 450
1 C
Oven Control
EQUIB TIME
0 to 200.00
0.01 minute
Oven Control
1 C
Zone Control
INJ A TEMP
0 to 400
INJ B TEMP
0 to 400
DET A TEMP
0 to 400*
DET B TEMP
0 to 400*
AUX TEMP
0 to 400
1 C
^
^
^
1^C
1^C
1^C
1^C
Oven Control
Oven Control
Zone Control
Zone Control
Zone Control
Zone Control
NOTE: TOTAL run time will not exceed 650.00 minutes regardless of values entere
INIT TIME
,
RATE
, and FINAL TIME
.
^
*The valid setpoint range for a Flame Ionization Detector is 0 to 450 C.
46
Temperature Control
Cryogenic (sub-ambient) oven control
Cryogenic (sub-ambient) oven control
Liquid N1 or liquid CO1 cryogenic options are for operation at
temperatures less than about 7^C above ambient. This is done through
operation of a valve which opens when coolant is demanded and closes
when the setpoint temperature is reached.
CRYO PARAM
CRYO PARAM
CRYO PARAM
When you press gold
you scroll
through a series of displays for choosing cryogenic options. These options
include CRYO for operation during the entire run, CRYO BLAST, for very
fast cool down between runs, and AMBIENT to regulate on and off times
to optimize coolant use.
Figure 3-3
ACTUAL
CRYO
ON
ACTUAL
CRYO BLAST
For operation during runs at
subambient temperatures.
SETPOINT
ON
ACTUAL
AMBIENT
SETPOINT
For very fast cool down
between runs.
SETPOINT
25
Lets you regulate Cryo and
Cryo Blast on and off times to
optimize coolant use. Default is
25 C and need not be changed
unless
ambient differs by 10 .
^
^
Cryogenic options
The following figures show the oven temperature profile for a typical run,
showing the on and off times for CRYO and CRYO BLAST.
47
Temperature Control
Cryogenic (sub-ambient) oven control
Figure 3-4
75
50
9
^9
CRYO OFF at ambient +15
25
^
CRYO ON
at ambient + 25
(CRYO ON)
Oven profile using CRYO, for operation
during runs at subambient temperatures
Figure 3- 5.
120
80
40
9
^
CRYO BLAST ON
ambient + 50
BLAST OFF
9 CRYO
(30 sec. modulation)
Oven profile using CRYO BLAST, for very fast cool down between runs
48
Temperature Control
Programming oven temperature
Programming oven temperature
HP 5890 oven temperature programming allows up to three ramps, in
any combination of heating or cooling. Keys defining an oven temperature
program include:
INIT TEMP
A setpoint temperature value at which the oven is
maintained at the beginning of a temperature•programmed
run. This is also the temperature to which the oven returns
at termination of the temperature•programmedrun.
When not in a run, the setpoint value for
equals OVEN TEMP .
INIT TIME
Time for which oven temperature is held at
INIT TEMP
INIT TEMP
.
RATE
Rate at which the oven is to be heated or cooled.
FINAL TEMP
Temperature the oven attains at the end of a heating or
cooling ramp.
In a multiple•ramptemperature program, final
temperature for one ramp is also the initial temperature
for the next ramp.
FINAL TIME
Time period over which oven temperature is held at
FINAL TEMP
.
In a multiple•ramptemperature program, final time for one
ramp is also the initial time for the next ramp.
total elapsed time for a run cannot exceed 650 minutes: at 650 minutes,
the run terminates and oven temperature recycles to INIT TEMP . To know
calculated total length of time anticipated for a run, TIME is pressed
repeatedly until a NEXT RUN display is obtained.
49
Temperature Control
Oven status
INIT TIME
In isothermal operation ( RATE = 0 ), if
is set equal to 0
(zero), the HP 5890 internally sets run time to the maximum, 650
minutes.
A
B
is included in key sequences defining parameters for a second ramp;
is included in key sequences defining parameters for a third ramp.
In isothermal operation, and in one•or two•ramptemperature programs,
rate for the next ramp must be set to 0 (zero) to prevent further
programming.
In oven temperature programming, once any one of the five temperature
programming functions ( INIT TEMP , INIT TIME
, RATE , FINAL TEMP , and
FINAL TIME
) is displayed, pressing ENTER , without entering a new
setpoint value, rolls the display successively through the entire group,
(including A and B displays for second and third ramps).
This is an efficient way in which to review and, if necessary, change oven
temperature program setpoints.
Oven status
During a temperature•programmedrun, the LED OVEN display provides
indication of oven status at any given time:
C
Isothermal Run: Assuming INIT TIME
is assigned a value greater
RATE
than 0, and that
= 0, only the INITIAL TIME LED is lit. It
remains lit throughout the run.
C
Single•Ramp Temperature Program: The three LEDs, INITIAL
TIME, RATE, and FINAL TIME, successively light to indicate position
in the temperature program.
C
Multiple•Ramp Temperature Program: The three LEDs, INITIAL
TIME, RATE, and FINAL TIME, successively light to indicate position
in the first temperature program ramp.
Then RATE and FINAL TIME LEDs light alternately as the program
proceeds through the second (and third) ramp(s).
50
Temperature Control
Oven safety
In complex two•or three•rampoven temperature programs, information
as to the part of the program in progress is monitored by pressing
OVEN TEMP
.
Note that, during a ramp, the SETPOINT value displayed is that
calculated to be the correct temperature, based upon specified
heating/cooling rate, and initial and final oven temperatures.
Also, note that if the RATE LED is observed to blink during oven heating,
this indicates the particular RATE value entered is too aggressive for the
given operating conditions: the oven heater is operating at full power and
may not be able to deliver the desired temperature program rate. Such a
situation compromises accuracy in repeating the heating ramp from run
to run.
Oven safety
OFF ) prior to
Normally, the oven should be switched off ( OVEN TEMP
accessing the oven interior (e.g., to change columns, check for leaks, etc.).
For safety, this turns off power to the oven heater, fan, and cryogenic
valve (if installed), but maintains the setpoint value in memory.
The oven is equipped with a shut•offfeature to protect against
unintentional opening of the oven door, and/or the possibility of
mechanical and/or electronic failure affecting oven operation.
At any time during normal above•ambientoperation, if the oven cannot
attain and/or maintain an entered setpoint temperature, a problem is
assumed and the oven is automatically switched off. Examples of possible
problems include the oven door open (or closed but not properly latched),
inoperative oven vent flaps, failure of the oven fan, heater, or
temperature sensor, or electronic problem.
WARNING
If the oven door is opened, a time delay may be observed before the
oven shuts itself off. The closer the oven is to ambient temperature,
the longer the delay will be.
51
Temperature Control
Fault: messages
The message displayed when this occurs is shown in Figure 3•6.
Figure 3-6
ACTUAL
WARN:
OVEN
SHUT
SETPOINT
OFF
Message, Oven SHUT DOWN
The oven remains off until switched on again via the keyboard
ON
( OVEN TEMP
), unless a FAULT: message is displayed (see below,
Fault: messages). Power to the instrument must be switched off, and then
on again to restore operation (setpoints are maintained).
Fault: messages
Figure 3•7shows possible FAULT: messages associated with heated zones
or the oven. In general, the following problems are indicated when a
FAULT: message appears:
C
ADC OFFSET indicates a problem with one or more electronic
components in circuitry associated with temperature control.
C
LINE SENSE indicates a problem with AC power to the instrument
(an excessively high source voltage).
C
Any of the TEMP RDG messages indicate an inoperative temperature
sensor for the indicated zone or oven.
C
OVEN > MAX + 20 indicates oven temperature exceeds the current
OVEN MAX
setpoint value by more than 20^C. Thermal run•awayis
the likely cause.
Note: In case multiple problems exist simultaneously, press
roll through all message displays.
52
CLEAR
to
Temperature Control
After a power failure . . .
Figure 3-7
ACTUAL
FAULT:
ADC
OFFSET
FAULT:
LINE
SENSE
FAULT:
INJA
TEMP
ACTUAL
ACTUAL
DETA
TEMP
OVEN
FAULT:
OVEN
TEMP
SETPOINT
SETPOINT
RDG
ACTUAL
>
SETPOINT
RDG
ACTUAL
FAULT:
SETPOINT
RDG
ACTUAL
FAULT:
SETPOINT
SETPOINT
MAX+20
Thermal Control FAULT: Messages
In addition to the message, the red NOT READY LED blinks. All zones
and the oven are turned off and made inoperative until power is switched
off, and then on again (setpoints are maintained).
After a power failure . . .
Setpoint values are protected during a power failure (even if intentional,
by disconnecting the power cord, or by switching off the HP 5890 at its
main power switch) by a lithium battery (10•yearnominal life) which
maintains power to HP 5890 memory.
After power is restored, a message is displayed, as shown in Figure 3•8.
53
Temperature Control
Oven temperature calibration
Figure 3-8
ACTUAL
PASSED
SELF
TEST
OVEN
RATE
SETPOINT
STATUS
FINAL
TIME
INITIAL
TIME
RUN
NOT
READY
Message Display, Power Failure and Recovery
Heated zones return to their respective setpoint values, after which the
oven returns to its setpoint value.
C If
is displayed after recovery from a power failure, and if
the oven was ON before the power failure, the oven display shows the
actual oven temperature value, and cycles between showing the
setpoint value and OFF until other zones achieve their respective
setpoint temperatures.
OVEN TEMP
C The oven can be switched ON through the keyboard at any time,
without waiting for heated zones to first come to correct temperature.
C An analytical or column compensation run in progress at the time of a
power failure is aborted; similarly, a keyboard entry in progress is
aborted.
Oven temperature calibration
To maximize precision with respect to retention time information,
particularly if retention times are to be compared between
chromatographs, it may be necessary to calibrate oven temperature in the
range of interest using an independent temperature•measuringdevice.
With the factory•setcalibration difference value of 0 (zero), displayed
oven temperature is accurate to within 1% of the actual temperature,
expressed in ^K (Kelvin).
54
Temperature Control
Oven temperature calibration
The HP 5890 provides the means to (if necessary) reset oven temperature
monitoring so the displayed ACTUAL value accurately represents the
correct temperature.
Oven temperature calibration requires entering the difference (delta)
value (in ^C) between an independently measured temperature value
versus the corresponding displayed oven temperature value:
Correction Value =
Measured Temperature (^C) - Displayed Temperature (^C)
For example, if actual measured oven temperature were found to be
148.73 ^C, while the corresponding displayed value was 150.00, the
calibration difference value to be entered would be -1.27.
Setting the oven calibration value
An oven temperature calibration measurement should be made at a
temperature in the middle of the range of interest. Allow ample time (up
to 1/2•hour)for thermal equilibration at the selected temperature; no
drift should be observed. The temperature•sensingprobe should be placed
in the region of the oven occupied by the column(s).
1. Through the keyboard, select CALIB AND TEST mode, function 1:
CLEAR
.
1
ENTER
CALIB is displayed, followed by two values: the observed oven
temperature (to 0.01 ^C), and the current difference (delta)
calibration value.
Note: Record the displayed calibration delta value! If problems are
encountered in recalibration, the value may be reentered.
2. Assuming no drift in temperature, the new difference (delta) value is
then entered by pressing appropriate number keys, followed by ENTER :
appropriate value
ENTER
55
Temperature Control
Oven temperature calibration
3. CALIB DELTA is displayed until ENTER is pressed; then oven
temperature recalibration occurs. Note that, after calibration, the
displayed oven temperature value should match closely the measured
value.
Any delta value within the range -10.00 through +10.00 ^C may be
entered. If a value outside this range is entered, the message
CORRECTION TOO HIGH is displayed.
Assuming the battery protecting HP 5890 memory is operational, a new
calibration constant remains in effect even if the instrument is switched
off, or disconnected from its power source, or if power fails.
56
4
Electronic Flow
Sensing
Electronic Flow Sensing
Two channels of electronic flow rate sensing continuously monitor gas
flow rates (usually carrier) in the HP 5890 SERIES II. Proper scaling of
displayed values for different commonly used gases is defined through
keyboard entries. The two flow channels are distinguished through A
and B .
If carrier gas flows are monitored, A implies flow through column A
(nearest the instrument front); B implies flow through column B (nearest
the instrument rear).
Displayed flow rate values are in ml/minute.
Displaying gas flow rate
Current flow rate is displayed by pressing:
FLOW
A
( or
B
)
Typical gas flow rate displays are shown in Figure 4•1:
Figure 4-1
ACTUAL
FLOW
A
25.4
N2
ACTUAL
NO
FLOW
SENSOR
Typical Electronic Flow Rate Sensor Displays
58
SETPOINT
SETPOINT
Electronic Flow Sensing
Designating gas type
Designating gas type
To scale the displayed flow rate value properly, one of four commonly used
gases must be designated. The appropriate gas type is selected according
to Table 4•1:
Table 4-1. Defining Type of Gas to be Monitored
Number
Gas Type
1
2
He (Helium)
N2 (Nitrogen)
3
4
H2 (Hydrogen)
Ar/CH4 (Methane in Argon)
Preferred Use
TCD
General
Capillary
ECD
To select one of these gases for a particular flow channel, press:
FLOW
B
) to display FLOW A (or FLOW B).
, 3 , or 4 is then pressed, followed by ENTER . Upon pressing
ENTER , the current flow rate is displayed, scaled appropriately for the
chosen gas type.
1
,
(
2
If a gas other than one of the above standard four is used, select He,
N1, H1, or Ar/CH3 according to which one is closest in thermal
conductivity to the gas being used. Under no circumstances should any
corrosive gas be passed through the EFS.
The maximum usable range for H1 is 100 ml/minute. At higher flow rates
( >100 ml/min), where a gas other than He, N1, or Ar/CH3 is being used,
or to ensure maximum accuracy in displayed flow rate, calibration of the
EFS may be necessary.
59
Electronic Flow Sensing
Electronic flow sensor (EFS) calibration
Electronic flow sensor (EFS) calibration
Electronic flow sensor (EFS) calibration may be performed any time to
ensure displayed flow rate accurately represents real gas flow rate
through the sensor. The EFS is factory•calibratedfor four standard
gases, H1, He, N1, and Ar/CH3, within the flow rate range of 0 to 100
ml/min. This covers the majority of chromatographic applications.
Two situations where it would be appropriate to perform recalibration
would be where a nonstandard gas is to be used (e.g., something other
than H1, He, N1, or Ar/CH3), or if flow rates in excess of 100 ml/min are
to be used.
EFS calibration requires setting two values for a given flow
channel•first, the zero value (defined with no flow through the given
flow channel) and then the gain value (calculated, based upon a
measured flow rate value).
WARNING
If calibration is being performed for H2, observe proper safety
precautions to prevent fire or explosion hazard.
Prior to performing the calibration procedure, the following must be done:
60
C
The instrument must be on for at least one hour for thermal
equilibration of the EFS.
C
Since gas flow through the channel to be calibrated will be
interrupted, detectors should be turned off (particularly an NPD or
TCD! ), and the oven cooled to ambient temperature (to protect
columns).
C
A flow•measuringdevice is required, accurate to better than 1 ml/min.
C
The EFS is calibrated to measure volumetric flow at standard
temperature and pressure. Flows measured at ambient temperature
with a bubble flow meter will have to be converted from ambient
temperature and pressure to standard temperature and pressure.
Electronic Flow Sensing
Electronic flow sensor (EFS) calibration
Preparation
1. Access the EFS by removing the left side panel; remove two screws
along its lower edge, slide the panel toward the rear of the
instrument, and then lift.
2. Through the keyboard, select CALIB AND TEST mode, function 2:
CLEAR
.
2
ENTER
GAIN A is displayed, followed by two values: the observed flow rate
through Channel A, and the current gain calibration value for
Channel A.
Setting the zero calibration value
The zero calibration value must be set with no gas flow through the
channel being calibrated.
1. Press ZERO : FLOW A ZERO is displayed, followed by a value (the
current zero calibration value for EFS Channel A). Note that
Channel A is assumed by default; if channel B is to be calibrated
instead, press B .
2. Disconnect the gas source to the particular flow channel being
calibrated. Do not trust an on/off valve, pressure regulator, or mass
flow controller to be an effective shutoff device; any gas flowing
through the EFS will invalidate the zero calibration value.
Disconnect the source at any convenient point (e.g., at the connection
of the supply line into the instrument).
61
Electronic Flow Sensing
Electronic flow sensor (EFS) calibration
3. Locate the EFS module and note its labelling: CHANNEL A/
CHANNEL B, IN/OUT. For the channel being calibrated, locate and
disconnect its OUT fitting; use two wrenches in opposition to prevent
twisting the tubes.
Figure 4-2
Outlet Line, Channel B
Outlet Line, Channel
A
EFS Module
Detail, Electronic Flow Sensor (EFS) Module
4. Install the EFS flow•measuringadapter (Part No. 05890•80620)into
the female OUT fitting to the EFS module. Connect a bubble flow
meter to the adapter.
Allow ample time (up to 1/2•hour)for residual gas within connected
plumbing to bleed off. Verify that absolutely no flow is observed at
the connected bubble flow meter.
62
Electronic Flow Sensing
Electronic flow sensor (EFS) calibration
Figure 4-3
EFS Flow-Measuring Adapter (Part No. 05890-80620)
5. Assuming there is no gas flow through the channel being calibrated,
press ENTER at the keyboard. This updates the zero calibration value.
Setting the GAIN calibration value
After the zero calibration value is set at zero flow rate through the given
channel, the gain calibration value must be set, based upon a measured
flow rate.
1. At the keyboard, press FLOW : GAIN A (or GAIN B) is displayed,
followed by two values (the observed flow rate through the channel,
and the current gain calibration value for the channel).
2. Reconnect the gas supply to the channel being calibrated. Do not
reconnect the OUT fitting for the particular channel.
3. Using a suitable flow•measuringdevice (accurate to better than
1 ml/min) connected at the OUT fitting for the given channel, adjust
flow through the channel so measured flow rate is approximately in
the middle of the range to be used. For example, if the range of flow
rates to be used is between 50 and 150 ml/min, measured flow rate
should be adjusted to about 100 ml/min.
63
Electronic Flow Sensing
Electronic flow sensor (EFS) calibration
Note: The HP 5890 has a timer function that may be used as an aid
in measuring flow rate (see the Operating Manual, Chapter 4).
C
Press
C
After obtaining the desired flow rate, press:
CLEAR
C
to access the timer function.
TIME
.
ENTER
2
to return to setting the gain value.
EFS channel A is assumed. Press
calibrated.
B
if Channel B is being
4. Allow ample time for flow rate to equilibrate (no drift should be
observed).
5. Assuming no drift in measured flow rate, note the flow rate value at
the connected flow•measuringdevice. Enter this measured value
through the keyboard:
Measured Value
Upon pressing
ENTER
ENTER
, CALIBRATING is displayed.
6. After a short time, GAIN A (or GAIN B) is again displayed, followed by
the observed flow rate and a new gain calibration value based upon
the measured flow rate.
Note that the displayed flow rate value now should be quite close to
the measured flow rate value. If not, drift may have occurred, so the
process should be repeated.
7. This completes EFS calibration. Remove the flow•measuringadapter,
reconnect channel OUT fittings (use two wrenches in opposition to
avoid twisting tubes), replace the left side panel, and restore the
instrument to service.
64
Electronic Flow Sensing
Electronic flow sensor (EFS) calibration
Entering specific ZERO and GAIN values
Calibration values for zero and gain should be recorded when a
particular channel is calibrated. They can then be reentered through the
keyboard if necessary, without repeating the entire calibration procedure.
To enter specific zero and gain calibration values:
1. Select CALIB AND TEST mode, function 2:
CLEAR
.
ENTER
2
GAIN A (or GAIN B) is displayed, followed by two values (the observed
flow rate through the channel and the current gain calibration value
for the channel).
Note that Channel A is assumed by default. If Channel B is to be
calibrated instead, press B .
2. Enter the desired gain calibration value, preceded by
-
Numeric Value
-
:
ENTER
is necessary to signify entry of a gain calibration value, rather
than a measured flow rate.
-
3. Press ZERO : FLOW A ZERO is displayed, followed by a value (the
current zero calibration value for EFS Channel A).
Note that Channel A is assumed by default. If Channel B is to be
calibrated instead, press B .
4. Enter the desired zero calibration value:
Numeric Value
ENTER
Note that alternately pressing ZERO or FLOW displays either the zero
calibration value or the gain calibration value for the given channel (A
or B).
65
This page intentionally left blank.
5
Signal Output
Signal Output
A standard signal channel, controlled via SIG 1 , always is provided.
A second signal channel, controlled via SIG 2 , is provided if Option 550/
Accessory 19242A (Communications Interface Board ), or Option 560/
Accessory 19254A (RS•232), is installed.
Output sources include detector signal(s), heated zone or oven
temperatures, carrier gas flow rates, column compensation run data, or
test chromatographic data. If both signal channels are present, each may
output information simultaneously from the same source, or from two
different sources.
For either channel, two separate levels of ANALOG output are provided,
depending upon the analog signal cable used: +1 V or 1 mV.
0 to +1 mV:
-0.01 to +1 V:
for strip chart recorders.
for electronic integrators with analog inputs.
The two output levels are independent, and may be connected
simultaneously to separate data•receivingdevices.
Note: A tick mark (electrical pulse) is produced at the +1 mV analog
START
STOP
output when either
or
is pressed, and when a run
times out (run time elapses). These marks locate beginning and ending
points in a chromatogram plotted at a continuously running strip chart
recorder.
Zeroing signal output
Acting on +1 mV and +1 V analog outputs, ZERO defines a constant
offset which is then subtracted from the output signal (prior to signal
or ATTN 2!( )
).
attenuation by RANGE 2!( )
68
Signal Output
Zeroing signal output
The function of ZERO is to subtract a constant background signal from
the detector signal. Background signal sources include the detector itself
(background level depending upon detector type), column bleed, or
contaminants in supply gas(es).
Displaying current
setpoint
ZERO
Current ZERO setpoint value is displayed by pressing the appropriate
signal channel key ( SIG 1 or SIG 2 ), followed by ZERO (or simply press
ZERO
alone, if the desired signal channel is already displayed). Typical
displays are shown in Figure 5•1.
Figure 5-1
ACTUAL
SIG
1
ZERO
SETPOINT
104.5
ACTUAL
SIG
2
NOT
SETPOINT
INSTALLED
ACTUAL
ZERO
1
104.5
SETPOINT
OFF
ACTUAL
ZERO
Typical
ZERO
LIMIT
=
SETPOINT
83000
Displays
Table 5•1lists conversions between detector units and the scale used for
ZERO
setpoint values.
Table 5-1.
ues
Detector
Conversions from Detector Units to
ZERO
Setpoint Val-
Conversion
(1.0 ZERO unit = )
FID & NPD
1.0 pA (1.0 } 10- 12 A)
TCD
25 ¿V (2.5 } 10- 5 V)
ECD
10 Hz
69
Signal Output
Zeroing signal output
Self-
ZERO
setpoint
Referencing Figure 5•2for the +1 V output, note that using ZERO can
increase dynamic range available for signal output by shifting an existing
constant offset signal to a lower level (usually electrical zero). There are
limits to this, however, so it is good practice to have background reduced
as much as possible by minimizing column bleed, using clean supply
gases, and by performing proper detector maintenance.
Figure 5-2
ZERO
1 V Output: Canceling Baseline Offset (the self-
function)
1.0 V maximum
output level
O + 1.000 V
U
T
P
U
T
0.9 V usable
dynamic range
V
O
L + 0.100 V
T
A
G
E
0V Š
ZERO
ENTER
pressed
Constant 0.100 V
detector background
signal
HP 5890 SERIES II electrical zero
-0.010 V
Effect of
70
ZERO
on the +1 V Analog Output
1.0 V usable
dynamic range
Signal Output
Zeroing signal output
Figure 5-3
1 mV Output: Canceling Baseline Offset (the self-
ZERO
function)
1.0 mV maximum output level
O + 1.000 mV
U
T
P
U
T
0.9 mV usable
dynamic range
V
O
L
T
A + 0.100 mV
G
E
ZERO
1.0 mV usable
dynamic range
ENTER
pressed
Constant 0.1 mV
detector background
signal
+ 0.006 mV
HP 5890 SERIES II electrical zero
0 mV
Effect of
ZERO
on the +1 mV Analog Output
The example in Figure 5•2is in terms of the +1 V analog output. In
Figure 5•3,identical treatment is made for the +1 mV output, except that
the signal is shifted to an offset somewhat above electrical zero. This
ensures a small positive offset (about 6% of full scale) in pen position at a
connected chart recorder, and permits uninterrupted plotting, even if a
small negative baseline drift occurs.
Once current ZERO
channel, pressing
signal value.
setpoint value is displayed for the desired signal
causes the value to be changed to the current
ENTER
Self• ZERO should be done only at times of quiet chromatographic
activity (i.e., not during a run). To do so during an active run may cause a
baseline shift at the recording/integrating device.
71
Signal Output
Signal attenuation
Note: If a self• ZERO determination is performed on an active signal
exceeding the maximum permitted setpoint value for ZERO (see
User•defined ZERO setpoint), the maximum setpoint value is assigned
and the message SIG 1 (or 2) ZERO TOO HIGH is displayed.
User-defined
ZERO
setpoint
If the self• ZERO setpoint value determination is not appropriate for a
particular application, any value from -830000.0 through 830000.0
may be entered at the keyboard.
Entering a value less than the self• ZERO value shifts background
baseline upward (but at the expense of available output range); for
example, to capture negative peaks, or to compensate for negative
baseline drift.
Signal attenuation
Analog signal output levels (+1 mV or +1 V outputs) for either signal
channel (controlled by SIG 1 , and by SIG 2 if Option 550/Accessory
19242A or Option 560/Accessory 19254A is installed) are attenuated via
RANGE 2!( )
and ATTN 2!( )
.
For RANGE 2!( ) , each step to a higher setpoint value decreases the output
signal level by a factor of 2 (half the previous level). Also, RANGE 2!( )
affects signal level at both the +1 V and +1 mV analog outputs.
Signal
+1 V Output Level =
!
RANGE 2 ( )
2
!
affects only the +1 mV analog output: each step to a higher
value reduces the output signal level (as defined by RANGE 2!( ) ) by half.
ATTN 2 ( )
Signal
+1 mV Output Level =
72
!
RANGE 2 ( )
2
} 2
!
ATTN 2 ( )
Signal Output
Signal attenuation
Thus, signal output level at the +1 mV analog output may be set
separately from that at the +1 V output.
Table 5•2gives values permitted for either function, and the output
affected.
Table 5-2.
Key
!
RANGE 2 ( )
!
ATTN 2 ( )
Valid Setpoints for
Permitted
Setpoints
!
RANGE 2 ( )
ATTN 2!( )
and
Affected Output
0 to 13
Both +1 mV & +1 V
0 TO 10
Only +1 mV
OFF
,
ON
Note: ATTN 2!( )
functions only for the +1 mV output, and acts on the
signal after it has been ranged by RANGE 2!( ) .
Generally, if both an integrator or A/D converter (+1 V output) and chart
recorder (+1 mV output) are connected to the same signal channel,
RANGE 2!( )
should be set properly first for the integrator or computer,
then ATTN 2!( )
set appropriately for the chart recorder.
To minimize integration error for an integrator or A/D converter,
RANGE 2!( )
normally should be set to the lowest value possible, provided
the largest peaks of interest do not exceed 1 volt. Attenuation functions
at the integrating device or computer are then used to ensure that plotted
peaks remain on scale.
!
selects and sizes a portion of the full dynamic range for the
signal source assigned to an output channel. The portion selected is sized
such that the highest possible value for the portion does not exceed
maximum output voltage allowed for the given output (+1 mV or +1 V).
RANGE 2 ( )
!
further selects and sizes a portion of the ranged signal for
the +1 mV output to ensure that the signal does not exceed +1 mV.
ATTN 2 ( )
73
Signal Output
Signal attenuation
For analytical information from a detector, proper settings for RANGE 2!( )
and ATTN 2!( )
are determined such that peaks of interest are on scale
at the integrator or chart recorder: peaks of interest must neither flat
top by exceeding the allowed maximum output level, nor be too small to
be measured. Table 5•3lists maximum detector output producing +1 volt
at the +1V output for each RANGE 2!( )
setpoint value.
Table 5-3. Detector Output Producing a 1 V Signal
Maximum Detector Signal
Producing +1 V Output
!
RANGE 2 ( )
74
FID & NPD (pA)
TCD
(mV, High Gain)
0
1.0 } 103
25
1
2.0 } 103
50
2
4.0 } 103
3
8.0 } 103
4
1.6 } 104
5
3.2 } 104
6
6.4 } 104
7
1.3 } 105
8
2.6 } 105
9
5.1 } 105
10
1.0 } 106
11
2.0 } 106
12
4.1 } 106
13
8.2 } 106
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
TCD
(mV, Low Gain)
800
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
ECD (kHz)
10
20
40
80
160
320
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
Signal Output
Signal attenuation
From Table 5•3,note that for a TCD, RANGE 2!( )
= 0 is suitable for
virtually all applications since the entire linear output range of the
detector is included. Likewise, RANGE 2!( )
settings from 0 through 5 cover
the entire useful output range for an ECD. Only an FID or NPD may
require use of the higher RANGE 2!( )
settings.
Displaying current
!
/
RANGE 2 ( )
!
ATTN 2 ( )
setpoints
Current setpoint value for RANGE 2!( )
or ATTN 2!( )
is displayed by
SIG
1
pressing the appropriate signal channel key (
or SIG 2 ), followed
by either RANGE 2!( )
or ATTN 2!( )
(or simply press RANGE 2!( )
or
ATTN 2!( )
alone, if the desired signal channel is already displayed).
For example, the following key sequence displays current setpoint for
RANGE 2!( )
for the SIG 2 output channel:
!
SIG 2
RANGE 2 ( )
Typical displays that occur are shown in Figure 5•4.
Figure 5-4
ACTUAL
SIGNAL
1
RANGE
10
ACTUAL
SIGNAL
1
1
10
SETPOINT
ATTN
10
NOT
INSTALLED
ACTUAL
SIG 2
SETPOINT
ATTN
ACTUAL
SIGNAL
SETPOINT
OFF
SETPOINT
Typical Signal Channel Displays
75
Signal Output
Signal attenuation
Note that if RANGE 2!( )
or ATTN 2!( )
is pressed without first pressing
SIG 1
SIG
2
or
, SIGNAL 1 channel is assumed (and displayed). If
desired, SIG 2 can then be pressed to display the same function for the
SIGNAL 2 channel.
Entering
!
/
RANGE 2 ( )
!
setpoints
ATTN 2 ( )
!
A new setpoint value is entered for either
the key sequence:
SIG 1
(or
SIG 2
)
!
RANGE 2 ( )
(or
RANGE 2 ( )
!
or
!
) Numeric Value
ATTN 2 ( )
using
ATTN 2 ( )
ENTER
Once channel and function are displayed, appropriate keys for the new
value are pressed, followed by ENTER to terminate the entry.
Switching off the +1 mV output
The +1 mV signal output can be switched off, providing no signal to the
data•receivingdevice. This is often useful in setting the zero position at a
connected strip chart recorder.
This is done through the following key sequence:
SIG 1
(or
SIG 2
)
!
ATTN 2 ( )
OFF
The third example display in Figure 5•4is typical after pressing
OFF
.
After setting the pen to the desired zero position at the connected chart
recorder, the current attenuation value is restored by pressing ON .
Entering a new
76
!
ATTN 2 ( )
value overrides OFF.
Signal Output
Test signal output
Test signal output
A test chromatogram, consisting of three peaks, is permanently stored in
the HP 5890. Each peak is approximately 1/10 the height of the previous
peak, with the first (tallest) peak having a height value of about 125 mV
at RANGE 2!( )
= 0 (+ 1 V analog output); half•heightwidth of this peak is
about 0.13 minutes.
Figure 5-5
LIST: LIST
PEAK CAPACITY:
HP 5890:
RANGE
=0
2”()
=0
ATTN
2”()
1 V Analog Output
ZERO
ATT 2!
CHT SP
PK WD
THRSH
AR REJ
=
=
=
=
=
=
1159
3, •1.5
7
1.3
3.13
3
3
START
.25
.75
1.25
STOP
RUN #
8
AREA%
RT
AREA
3.25 7939433
3.75 793533
1.25
79394
TOTAL AREA =
MUL FACTOR =
TYPE
BB
PB
BB
AR/HT
3.135
3.135
3.134
AREA%
93.397
9.335
3.898
8812133
1.3333E+33
Typical HP 5890 Test Chromatogram
(using an HP 3390A Reporting Integrator)
77
Signal Output
Test signal output
To access this function, the following key sequence is entered:
SIG 1
(or
SIG 2
)
9
ENTER
Test plot mode is confirmed by the display SIGNAL 1 (or 2) TEST
PLOT. Pressing SIG 1 (or SIG 2 ) a second time displays the current
signal level value (which is 0.0 initially). This permits monitoring the
output signal.
The chromatogram is initiated by pressing START . The chromatogram
continues to cycle until STOP is pressed. Each cycle is about 1•1/2
minutes in length.
Note:
C
Setpoint values assigned to RANGE 2!( )
and ATTN 2!( )
affect level of
the test signal output, as do equivalent functions on the receiving
device.
C
An oven temperature program (e.g., a setpoint value for RATE other
than 0) must be set up at the HP 5890 for the test plot to function.
The test chromatogram is useful as a troubleshooting aid in deciding
whether a lost or noisy signal observed at a connected integrating or
chart recording device is due to a chromatographic problem (lost sample
due to leaks, noise due to a dirty detector, etc.), versus problems either
with the integrating/recording device itself, or in its connecting cables.
If the test chromatogram does not exhibit any problems at the
integrating/recording device, a chromatographic problem is likely to exist;
if the test chromatogram exhibits noise, or does not appear at all, the
problem is not likely to be chromatographic.
78
Signal Output
Instrument network (INET)
Instrument network (INET)
The Instrument Network (INET) is a path for various devices to
communicate with each other (data and/or commands). INET permits a
group of devices (consisting of a controller, and some number of data
Producers and data Consumers) to function as a single, unified
system.
INET permits:
C
Management of active workspace (described below) among
instruments, a controller, and storage and print media.
C
Sharing of run and readiness conditions among INET instruments.
C
Sharing of setpoint and parameter information among INET
instruments.
C
Automation of data collection, sample tracking, and report generation.
Note: In default operation the HP 5890 supplies only Signal 1 data to
the INET loop. That is, HP 5890 data supplied to the INET loop is
defined according to the assignment made via SIG 1 . To use Signal 2
data instead, signal reassignment is done at the HP 5890.
The controller
INET is a series•connectedloop of devices, with the output of each device
connected to the input of the next. A message sent from a particular
device travels around the loop, returning to the same instrument as
confirmation of transmission. Thus, the loop must be continuous, and all
devices must be on for the loop to function.
79
Signal Output
Instrument network (INET)
Figure 5-6
Sampler
IN
OUT
S/ECM
OUT IN
OUT IN
5890
HP 5890 SERIES II Gas Chromatograph
Controller & Integrator
Typical INET Loop
Each INET must have one (and only one) device defined as the
controller. The controller is responsible for network configuration
when the network is first connected and powered on.
The controller then retains this status for subsequent loop operations,
maintaining its responsibility as network traffic manager. Note that
the device defined as controller usually has other capabilities.
The controller assigns addresses to each device on the loop, and
configures them to operate in orderly fashion. In addition, the controller
provides user access to the network configuration so desired changes can
be made.
For a typical analytical system, the default, automatic configuration
should be acceptable in most cases. For specific information regarding
80
Signal Output
Instrument network (INET)
configuration, consult appropriate manual(s) for the controller device
(the HP 5890 is never a controller).
An instrument
Addresses
An instrument is a device, housing together a collection of functions,
and having a single model number. It has a single pair (IN and OUT) of
INET cable connections.
The INET controller assigns each instrument a unique address, in order,
around the loop. Thus, addresses correspond to the physical order of
connections around the loop.
Note that the controller usually is also an instrument in that it has
capability of performing various analytical tasks (for example,
integration).
Data or a command message destined for a particular instrument is
labelled with the corresponding address for the instrument.
Setpoints
The controller passes setpoints among INET instruments (including
itself), and to and from local storage. Setpoints are grouped according to
the instrument to which they belong, and labelled with the
corresponding INET address. Setpoint traffic is automatic, once
appropriate commands are entered at the controller.
If an instrument receives setpoints intended for a different instrument
because of an address error, it rejects them, causing the controller to
print an error message.
Generally, each instrument provides a means for entering its own
setpoints (i.e., a keyboard or control panel). The HP 19405A S/ECM is an
exception: its setpoints are defined through the controller.
81
Signal Output
Instrument network (INET)
Except for the controller, each instrument handles setpoints for
instrument(s) other than itself only as blocks of data to be transmitted,
but not altered.
Active workspace
Each device in an INET loop provides storage area for its own setpoints
and parameters. These individual storage areas (each containing
setpoints and parameters for the specific instrument) are also available
to any other device in the loop. For example, the controller may access
them for listing and/or storage.
HP 5890 INET states
At the HP 5890, when a part of INET, the RUN LED provides indication
of INET status:
C
If the RUN LED is off, the INET system is in its idle state, waiting for
initiation of some action (e.g., starting a run, listing information, etc).
In this state, the HP 5890 NOT READY LED is turned on if the
HP 5890 is not ready, and/or if the INET system itself is not ready
(e.g., if a device on the loop is busy). A message SYSTEM NOT READY
will appear on the HP 5890 if some other device on the INET loop
reports not ready, and the HP 5890 is itself ready.
CLEAR
82
may be pressed to display things that are not ready.
C
If the RUN LED is blinking, the INET system is in pre•runor
post•runoperation (e.g., a sampler cycling, a report in progress, etc).
In addition, either SYSTEM IN PRE-RUN or SYSTEM IN POST-RUN
is displayed if CLEAR is pressed. The NOT READY LED is on only if
the HP 5890 itself is not ready.
C
If the RUN LED is on, a run is in progress. The NOT READY LED is
turned on only if the HP 5890 itself should become not ready.
Signal Output
Instrument network (INET)
INET operation
In using the INET function, chromatographic parameters are entered
normally through the HP 5890 keyboard. Integration parameters are
entered at the controller. Parameters for other devices on the INET loop
may be entered at the controller, or at their own keyboards. Collectively,
the separate sets of parameters constitute a single set of parameters for
an analysis.
The intent here is to discuss INET operation only from the point of view
of the HP 5890. For specific information regarding INET loop control
(configuration, workfile storage and recall, etc), consult the appropriate
operation manuals for the INET controller device. Also consult
appropriate manual(s) for other devices (sampler/event control module,
etc) configured in the loop.
Typical displays occurring when the HP 5890 is under INET control are
shown in Figure 5•7.
Figure 5-7
INET Displays
ACTUAL
UNDER
REMOTE
CONTROL
ACTUAL
SYSTEM
NOT
FILE
SETPOINT
READY
ACTUAL
SETPOINT
SETPOINT
SETPOINT
LOADED
Typical INET Loop Displays
C
Keyboard setpoint entry is not allowed at the HP 5890 while a
workfile or method is stored or listed at the controller: UNDER
REMOTE CONTROL is displayed if an entry is attempted.
83
Signal Output
Instrument network (INET)
If a setpoint entry at the HP 5890 keyboard is in progress when a
workfile or method is stored or listed at the controller, the entry is
aborted. After the operation finishes, the HP 5890 returns to the same
setpoint display.
C
When a stored workfile or method is recalled to active workspace at
the controller, its setpoints are automatically downloaded into devices
on the INET loop, including the HP 5890. Successful download at the
HP 5890 is confirmed by the display, SETPOINT FILE LOADED. Any
instrument function key (e.g., OVEN TEMP ), or CLEAR , erases the
message.
If a setpoint entry at the HP 5890 keyboard is in progress when
a workfile or method is recalled, the entry is aborted.
84
C
If problems occur in transferring chromatographic setpoints to the
HP 5890, the HP 5890 retains its present setpoints, so there is no
indication at the HP 5890 that transfer was attempted. Appropriate
error messages are printed at the controller device.
C
SYSTEM NOT READY, if displayed, indicates one or more devices on
the INET loop report not ready.
C
UNDER REMOTE CONTROL is displayed if, from a host computer
system, a command has been entered to lock the HP 5890 keyboard to
prevent alteration of setpoints, and entry of a setpoint value is
attempted at the HP 5890.
C
In case of INET system failure, the HP 5890 may be operated by itself
(INET cables should be disconnected at the HP 5890). If, as a result of
the failure, the HP 5890 keyboard does not respond normally to key
presses, switch off the instrument at its main power switch. Upon
restoring power, the keyboard should be active.
Signal Output
INET configuration
Automatic INET reconfiguration
In the following circumstances, INET automatically reconfigures under
direction of the controller:
C
Recovery from a power failure.
C
Recovery from any particular device on the loop being switched off,
then on again.
C
Recovery from a disconnected (then reconnected) loop cable.
Consult appropriate manuals for the controller in the event of problems
arising from any of these circumstances.
INET configuration
The CONFIGURE NETWORK function provides four features: verifying
the INET address for the HP 5890 (as determined through automatic loop
configuration), setting the default HP•ILaddress to be used when the
HP 5890 is connected to some device where addresses must be set
manually (i.e., no automatic loop configuration), switching the INET
function at the HP 5890 between global or local, and verifying INET
signal definitions. Each feature is discussed separately.
Figure 5-8
ACTUAL
CONFIGURE
NETWORK
ACTUAL
GLOBAL
ADDR:
ACTUAL
LOCAL
SETPOINT
ADDR:
SETPOINT
8,31
SETPOINT
8,31
CONFIGURE NETWORK Displays
85
Signal Output
INET configuration
Figure 5•8shows displays resulting from the key sequence:
CLEAR
.
ENTER
3
Switching between Global and Local
With regard to the INET function at the HP 5890, there are two
operating modes: global or local. In global mode (default mode),
HP 5890 START and STOP keys, when pressed, affect other devices on the
INET loop. In local mode, however, pressing START or STOP at the
HP 5890 affects only the HP 5890. A run may be started or stopped at the
HP 5890 without affecting other devices on the INET loop.
In local mode, note that the HP 5890 remains part of the INET system;
it reports its readiness to the system and pressing START and STOP
keys on other devices on the INET loop (e.g., the controller) will affect
HP 5890 operation.
Once in CONFIGURE NETWORK, pressing ON or OFF switches,
respectively, between global or local mode shows resulting displays as in
Figure 5•9.
Figure 5-9
ACTUAL
GLOBAL
ADDR:
ACTUAL
LOCAL
ADDR:
SETPOINT
8,31
SETPOINT
8,31
INET GLOBAL/LOCAL Displays
An example of where having the HP 5890 in local mode might be useful
is in the case of conditioning a column: the HP 5890 may be started or
stopped as desired without affecting other devices on the INET loop.
86
Signal Output
INET configuration
Note that global mode has two states: if GLOBAL flashes (default mode)
when displayed, the HP 5890 is in global mode, but not configured into
the INET system. When the HP 5890 is properly configured into the
INET system, GLOBAL is displayed continuously. This feature provides a
convenient diagnostic to determine if system configuration has occurred
(at least as far as the HP 5890 is concerned).
INET/HP-IL addresses
Figure 5•10shows displays occurring either in verifying an INET address
set through automatic loop configuration or in entering a specific HP•IL
default address used when the HP 5890 is included in an HP•ILloop
without automatic configuration. The address is maintained in
battery•protectedmemory along with other instrument setpoints.
Figure 5-10
ACTUAL
GLOBAL
ADDR:
SETPOINT
8,31
ACTUAL
DEFAULT
ADDRESS
SETPOINT
*
25
ACTUAL
GLOBAL
ADDR:
SETPOINT
8,25
ACTUAL
ADDRESS
LIMIT
=
SETPOINT
31
INET/HP-IL ADDR: Displays
Verifying the HP 5890 INET address
In Figure 5•10,note the two numeric values following ADDR:. The first
of these numbers is the INET address for the HP 5890, determined via
automatic loop configuration.
87
Signal Output
INET configuration
The specific number shown depends upon how INET cables are
connected among devices included in the loop. The value shown in the
example (8) implies the HP 5890 is the first instrument on the loop,
starting from the OUT receptacle on the controller device (the controller
is always defined as 0). A 9 indicates the HP 5890 is the second device
on the loop, etc, to a maximum value of 31.
If cabling is altered, or if one or more devices are powered off and then on
again, automatic loop configuration, initiated by the controller, updates
the displayed value accordingly.
Setting the default HP-IL address
Remaining displays in Figure 5•10show the process of defining a specific
HP•ILaddress for the HP 5890. Entry of any value from 8 through 31 is
permitted. An attempt to enter an invalid value results in the ADDRESS
LIMIT message shown.
INET-HP 5890 signal definition
INET signal definition (defined at the controller) may be verified at the
HP 5890. To display the definitions, enter:
CLEAR
(
88
.
SIG 1
3
or
ENTER
SIG 2
)
Signal Output
INET configuration
Figure 5•11 shows resulting displays.
Figure 5-11
INET-HP 5890
Signal Definition
ACTUAL
GLOBAL
ADDR:
ACTUAL
SIG
1
ON
RANGED
SIG
1
ON
FULL
ACTUAL
2
SETPOINT
SETPOINT
RANGE
ACTUAL
SIG
SETPOINT
8,31
SETPOINT
OFF
INET Signal Definition Displays
From the displays, the following may be noted:
C
HP 5890 signal channels are designated SIG 1 or SIG 2.
C
ON indicates the given signal channel is considered active by the
controller; data from this signal channel is transmitted to other
devices on the INET loop.
Similarly, OFF indicates the channel is considered inactive; no data
from this signal channel is transmitted to other devices on the loop.
It is important to note that ON or OFF in this context are strictly
INET definitions, defined at the system controller. They do not, for
example, bear any relationship to whether or not a given detector
assigned to the signal channel is turned on or off.
89
Signal Output
HP-IL loopback test
C
RANGED versus FULL RANGE indicates the dynamic range for the
data to be transmitted to other devices on the loop; dynamic range for
RANGED data is set at the HP 5890 according to the setpoint for
RANGE 2!( )
. Dynamic range for FULL RANGE data is limited only by
the detector itself. The choice of the type of data to be transmitted is
set at the controller.
HP-IL loopback test
The HPIL LOOPBACK TEST may be performed any time to verify that
HP 5890 INET communication is performing satisfactorily. Testing
involves setting up the HP 5890 to send an INET message directly to
itself by connecting its INET output to its INET input. The following
procedure is used:
1. Disconnect INET cables at their respective INSTRUMENT NETWORK
IN and OUT receptacles on the HP 5890 (located beneath the top right
cover panel).
2. Choose either one of the cables and disconnect it at the next device on
the INET loop.
3. Connect this free cable to both IN and OUT INSTRUMENT NETWORK
receptacles on the HP 5890.
4. Enter the following key sequence:
CLEAR
.
7
ENTER
Upon pressing ENTER , the test is performed: the HP 5890 both sends
and verifies a diagnostic message to itself through the connected cable.
Each press of ENTER repeats the test. Each test requires about one
second. Figure 5•12shows displays to be expected.
90
Signal Output
HP-IL loopback test
Figure 5-12
ACTUAL
HPIL
LOOPBACK
ACTUAL
PASSED
SELF
SELF
SETPOINT
TEST
ACTUAL
FAILED
SETPOINT
TEST
SETPOINT
TEST
HPIL LOOPBACK TEST Displays
The message PASSED SELF TEST indicates INET, at least with respect
to the HP 5890, is performing satisfactorily. If FAILED SELF-TEST is
displayed, a bad cable may be indicated; install a different INET cable
and repeat the test. If FAILED SELF-TEST is displayed again for a second
cable, electronic problems within the HP 5890 are indicated.
Note: The loopback test may be used to check for continuity in an
INET cable; an open cable causes test failure. Verify that the cable is at
fault (rather than the HP 5890) by testing a second cable.
If an intermittent cable problem is suspected, the test may be repeated as
necessary while flexing the cable (particularly at its plugs). An ohmmeter
should also be used to test for problems; it is a reliable method for testing
continuity.
91
Signal Output
Warn: and fault: messages
Warn: and fault: messages
Figure 5-13
ACTUAL
WARN:
INET
WARN:
SIGNAL
WARN:
NO
FAULT:
INET
SETPOINT
TIMEOUT
ACTUAL
SETPOINT
CHANGED
ACTUAL
ACTUAL
INET
CPU
ACTUAL
FAULT:
INET
RAM
ACTUAL
FAULT:
INET
ROM
ACTUAL
FAULT:
ATTN1
DAO1
SETPOINT
RAM
SETPOINT
TEST
SETPOINT
TEST
SETPOINT
TEST
ACTUAL
FAULT:
SETPOINT
CPU
ACTUAL
FAULT:
SETPOINT
DETECTORS
SETPOINT
TEST
Signal Control WARN: and FAULT: Messages
Figure 5•13shows possible WARN: and FAULT: messages associated
with signal functions. In general, the following problems are indicated if
the following messages appear:
C
92
WARN: INET TIMEOUT is displayed if information transmission on
the INET loop is interrupted; for example, if an INET loop cable is
accidentally disconnected.
Signal Output
Warn: and fault: messages
C
WARN: SIGNAL CHANGED and/or WARN: NO DETECTORS is
displayed if a detector previously assigned to a particular signal
channel is found to be absent; for example, if the signal board for a
given detector should fail or be removed for service.
C
FAULT: INET CPU is displayed if the processor (and/or its associated
circuitry) for HP 5890 INET operations should fail.
HP 5890 diagnostics generating the above message displays are active at
all times in normal operation. The next group appears only if a problem is
found to exist at HP 5890 power•on:
C
Remaining FAULT: INET messages are displayed if problems are
diagnosed in INET circuitry.
C
FAULT: ATTN1 TEST and/or FAULT: DAC1 TEST occur if problems are
diagnosed in signal path circuitry for a particular signal channel
(channel 1, in the example displays).
In general, if signal problems are suspected, power to the HP 5890 may
be turned off, and then on again to perform internal self•testing.
Appropriate message displays occur if problems are found to exist.
Note: In case multiple problems exist simultaneously, press
roll through NOT READY and/or FAULT: displays.
Note that, with exception of WARN: OVEN SHUT OFF,
displayed WARN: message.
CLEAR
CLEAR
to
erases any
For WARN: messages, the instrument remains operational, except for
the function indicated by the message: the message is erased upon
pressing any instrument function key (e.g., OVEN TEMP ). For FAULT:
messages, in addition to the message, the red NOT READY LED blinks:
the instrument CANNOT be operated until the problem is corrected.
If a WARN: or FAULT: message occurs in normal operation, try
switching power to the instrument off, and then on again. If the problem
recurs when power is restored, service procedures are indicated.
93
Signal Output
File compatibility with data handling devices
File compatibility with data handling devices
You must have the HP 5890 SERIES II in the proper mode for file
compatibility with your data handling device.
What are the modes?
There are 2 file transfer modes: HP 5890A and HP 5890 SERIES II.
HP 5890A File Transfer Mode
HP 5890 SERIES II File Transfer Mode
Transmits HP 5890 setpoints:
Transmits HP 5890 setpoints plus:
Timetable events
Inlet pressure and temperature programs
Up to 450 oven and FID temperature
Cryo Blast and Ambient setpoints
TCD sensitivity
Aux temperature setpoint
^
What is the proper mode for my data handling device?
Selection of the proper mode depends on the product and version of your
software.
How do I know in which mode my GC is configured now?
1. Turn power off, then on.
2. Check the GC display.
94
Signal Output
File compatibility with data handling devices
Figure 5-14
ACTUAL
HP 5890A mode
EMULATION MODE OK
ACTUAL
HP 5890 SERIES II mode
SETPOINT
SETPOINT
PASSED SELF TEST
GC Displays for File Transfer Modes
How do I change modes?
1. Turn power off.
2. Remove the GC side panel, and locate the main PC board.
Figure 5-15
Top Hinge for Grounding
Main PC Board
Finding the Main PC Board.
3. Find component P15 on the main PC board.
95
Signal Output
File compatibility with data handling devices
Figure 5-16
P6
P5
P15
P2
P3
P13
P12
Main PC Board
Finding component P15 on the Main PC Board.
4. Set the jumper (Part No. 1258•0141)for the proper mode. To avoid
electrostatic damage to the main board, ground yourself to the GC
chassis with an ESD strap, or touch an unpainted area of the oven
such as the door hinge.
Figure 5-17
HP 5890A mode
Setting the jumper.
96
HP 5890 SERIES II mode
Signal Output
File compatibility with data handling devices
How to convert HP 339X Integrator workfiles from 5890A to
SERIES II mode:
1. Turn the GC off.
2. Follow the previous instructions to set the GC for 5890A mode (use
proper grounding).
3. Download the workfile from the integrator.
4. Turn GC power off.
5. Remove the P15 jumper. (Now the GC is in SERIES II mode.)
6. Turn GC power on.
7. Add SERIES II setpoints (time table, etc).
8. Store the workfile at the integrator.
Note: Using STORE on the HP 5890 SERIES II, up to 4 integrator
workfiles can be converted with each jumper change sequence.
97
This page intentionally left blank.
6
Inlet Systems
Inlet Systems
This chapter provides information for the following HP 5890 SERIES II
(hereafter referred to as HP 5890) inlet systems:
C
Packed column inlet
C
Septum•purgedpacked column inlet
C
Split/splitless capillary inlet
For cool on•columninformation, see the manual Programmable Cool
On•ColumnInlet. Maintenance information is provided in Chapter 8,
Preventive Maintenance.
Packed column inlet
The packed column inlet may be used with HP Series 530 ¿ capillary
columns, metal packed or glass packed columns. Additionally, on•column
injection is possible with 1/4•inchglass packed columns. The packed
column inlet is optimized for low to intermediate temperatures
(200-300 ^C).
100
Inlet Systems
Packed column inlet
Figure 6-1
Septum Retainer Nut
Septum
Liner
Glass Insert
Carrier Gas
Graphite Ferrule
Swage-type Nut and
Ferrules
Column
Packed Column Inlet
101
Inlet Systems
Packed column inlet
Figure 6-2
Trap(s)
External Internal
Plumbing Plumbing
Mass
Flow
Controller
Carrier
Gas
Packed Column
Inlet
Pressure
Gauge
Electronic
Flow Sensor
(optional)
To
Detector
Column
Flow Diagram, Packed Column Inlet (with electronic flow sensor)
Liquid sample is rapidly volatilized inside the inlet. To ensure complete
volatilization, inlet temperature typically should be at least 20^C greater
than the highest oven temperature to be used.
Assuming column and liner (plus insert, if used) are properly installed
and the system is leak•free,the following is information necessary for
proper operation.
Electronic flow sensor
If Electronic Flow Sensing (EFS) is installed in the carrier gas system to
the inlet, total supply flow rate through the system may be displayed
(see Chapter 4, Electronic Flow Sensing, for details). This is particularly
convenient in situations when carrier flow must be turned off (as when
changing gas supplies, or if supplies must be turned off nightly,
weekends, etc.).
Note: The EFS requires at least one hour for thermal equilibration for
reliable readings.
102
Inlet Systems
Packed column inlet
Assuming the system to be leak•free(and if total flow is < 200 ml/min),
after setting the desired column flow rate, total flow through the system
should be noted via the EFS.
The original column flow rate is reestablished simply by adjusting the
mass flow controller so the original total system flow rate value is
displayed again.
Septum-purged packed column inlet
The septum•purgedpacked column inlet may be used with HP Series
530 ¿ capillary columns, metal packed or glass packed columns.
Additionally, on•columninjection is possible with 1/4•inchglass packed
columns.
The septum•purgedinlet provides superior reproducibility and
quantitative accuracy at high inlet temperatures (250 to 400^C).
Figure 6-3
Trap(s)
External
Plumbing
Internal
Plumbing
Pressure
Gauge
Mass
Flow
Controller
Carrier
Gas
Septum Purge
Packed Column
Inlet
Electronic
Flow Sensor
(optional)
To
Detector
Forward
Pressure Regulator
Septum
Purge
Vent
Out
In
Column
Fixed
Restrictor
Flow Diagram, Septum-Purged Packed Column Inlet
103
Inlet Systems
Packed column inlet
Problems at high inlet temperatures
A common problem with conventional packed column inlets operated at
high temperatures is septum bleed and the associated ghost peaks. To
minimize this effect, some inlet systems are designed with steep
temperature gradients throughout the entire upper length of the inlet to
provide a cool septum and minimal ghost peaks. However, this
temperature gradient allows condensation of high boiling point
compounds resulting in nonreproducibility and discrimination against
these compounds. (This effect has sometimes been mistakenly called
needle fractionation.)
A thermally optimized high-temperature inlet
The septum•purgedpacked column inlet has been thermally optimized to
provide an extremely uniform thermal profile throughout the flash
vaporization region. This thermal profile remains very close to the inlet
setpoint temperature throughout most of the gas stream. Then, up in the
purge region of the inlet, a very steep temperature gradient is forced with
a large cooling fin. This results in longer septum life, and reduced ghost
peaking when run in a nonpurging mode.
104
Inlet Systems
Packed column inlet
Figure 6-4
^
Injection Port Setpoint
Temperature 350 C
Bottom of Septum
10
20
30
Syringe Tip
40
50
60
70
80
90
^
Base of Injection
Port
50
35
C
Ove
n100
^
150 C
Oven
^
300
C
Oven
150
200
250
300
350
Temperature in Gas Stream — C
^
400
Thermal Profiles
This optimized thermal profile allows very reproducible results and
virtually eliminates injection port discrimination against high boiling
point components. When combined with fast automated injection,
excellent quantitative accuracy is possible.
Septum purge
Best results are obtained by running a very low septum purge flow (1 to
2 ml/min. of purge flow is recommended•never more than 10% of column
flow rate). Once the purge flow has been set, it will remain constant,
regardless of changes in column head pressure or column flow rate. An
alternate septum nut is provided which allows operation without purge
flow if desired.
105
Inlet Systems
Packed column inlet
When operating the inlet with septum purge, low bleed septa are
unnecessary and the selection of septa should be made primarily for good
sealing and extended septa life reasons.
On a periodic basis (every 1 to 2 months), the Teflon•coatedO•ring
sealing the purge cavity should be replaced.
Electronic flow sensor
If Electronic Flow Sensing (EFS) is installed in the carrier gas system to
the inlet, total supply flow rate through the system may be displayed
(see Chapter 7, Electronic Flow Sensing, for details). This is particularly
convenient in situations when carrier flow must be turned off (as when
changing gas supplies, or if supplies must be turned off nightly,
weekends, etc.).
Note: The EFS requires at least one hour for thermal equilibration for
reliable readings.
Assuming the system to be leak•free(and if total flow is < 200 ml/min),
after setting the desired column flow rate, total flow through the system
should be noted via the EFS.
The original column flow rate is reestablished simply by adjusting the
mass flow controller so the original total system flow rate value is
displayed again.
106
Inlet Systems
Split/splitless capillary inlet
Split/splitless capillary inlet
Figure 6-5
A. CAPILLARY COLUMN
Sealing
O-Ring
1
Insert
1, 2, or
3
2
Split
3
Direct
Injection
Splitless
B. PACKED COLUMN
Item
No.
1
1
2
3
4
5*
Description
Part
Number
Sealing
O-Ring
Split Insert (packed)18740-60840
Split Insert (unpacked)18740-80190
Direct Injection Insert18740-80200
Splitless Insert
18740-80220 Available
1/8-in. Column Insert18709-80030 for Purchase
1/4-in. Column Insert18745-80010
*NOTE: Not shown
4
Split/Splitless Capillary Inlet
1/4” Packed
Glass Column
Packed
Metal
Column
107
Inlet Systems
Split/splitless capillary inlet
The multiple•modesplit/splitless capillary inlet system may be used with
any of the common types of capillary columns (fused silica, quartz, glass,
metal).
Specific sampling modes include:
C
Split, for major•componentanalyses.
C
Purged splitless, for trace•componentanalyses.
Each mode requires installation of a specific inlet insert.
Figure 6-6
Packing
SPLIT
SPLITLESS
Available Inlet Inserts
Note that performance in capillary analyses is closely related to the
insert used (and sampling mode). Inserts supplied are average , suitable
for good performance over a variety of general applications. For
specialized applications, however, to optimize inlet performance,
custom•madeinserts may be used: any custom•madeinsert must not
exceed 6.52 mm od, and must be 78.5 + 0.1 mm in length to operate
properly.
Carrier gas considerations
Carrier gas choice, and its average linear velocity through the column,
strongly influences column efficiency, analysis time, and system stability.
108
Inlet Systems
Split/splitless capillary inlet
In general, the carrier gas is chosen to maximize component resolution
and detector performance while minimizing overall analysis time.
Figure 6•7,a family of van Deemter curves for common carrier gases,
illustrates the effect of gas choice and linear velocity (¿) on column
efficiency (HETP, Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate) for a
particular column and analysis.
Figure 6-7
^
C17 at 175 C
k = 4.95
Glass W.C.O.T.
OV-101
25 m x 0.25 mm
1.2
N2
1.0
H.E.T.P. .8
(mm)
He
.6
H2
.4
.2
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Average Linear Velocity (cm/sec)
H.E.T.P. versus Linear Velocity (¿)
Where temperature programming is to be performed, a linear velocity
value should be chosen in the region 1•1/2to 2•1/2times the linear
velocity at the minimum point on the HETP curve for the particular
carrier gas. This minimizes change in column efficiency over the
temperature range used.
Where column efficiency is not an important consideration, or in
isothermal operation, any reasonable linear velocity value may be chosen.
109
Inlet Systems
Split/splitless capillary inlet
Van Deemter curves demonstrate advantages of using either He or H1 as
carrier gas. From the curves, several observations may be made:
C
Minima for He and H2 occur at much higher average linear
velocities than N2. Thus, He, or even better, H2, can be used at far
higher velocities than N2 with only small loss in efficiency. Use of H2
or He allows shorter overall analysis times.
C
An additional benefit in using H2 is that high velocities can be
achieved at relatively low column head pressures.
C
For any given compound, the minimum in the N2 curve is quite
pronounced; consequently, there is only a small linear velocity range
over which column efficiency is maximized.
C
H1, and He to a lesser extent, exhibit relatively flat minima. Both are
better suited as carrier gases when temperature•programmed
analyses are performed.
An unrelated problem with N2 is that it is available in many grades and
is often contaminated with water and/or light hydrocarbons. He and H2
are typically available in higher purities.
Overall, H1 is the best carrier gas choice, with He nearly as good.
Initial column head pressure
In using capillary columns, linear velocity through the column must be
set. This, in turn, is controlled by pressure at the head of the column.
Pressure required to obtain a particular velocity depends primarily upon
bore (ID) and length of the particular column and oven temperature.
Hewlett•Packardfused•silicacapillary columns may be conveniently
broken into several categories based upon their bores. Table 6•1lists
suggested initial pressures for some capillary column bores and lengths.
110
Inlet Systems
Split/splitless capillary inlet
Table 6-1.
Suggested Initial Column Pressures (kPa) for
Various Capillary Column Bores and Lengths
Nominal Length (m)
Nominal
ID (mm)
12
25
50
0.20
135
223
347
0.32
45
82
137
0.53
11
23
42
It must be emphasized that values in this table are recommended
as starting points only!
Values listed are independent of carrier gas used.
It is important to note that flow settings made for one particular column
are not necessarily correct for any other column, or for every application.
Column flow rate should be verified, and adjustments made as necessary,
whenever the column or other parts of the flow system are changed.
Split sampling
WARNING
In performing split sampling, when using hazardous chemicals, and/or
H2 carrier gas, effluent from the split vent should be vented to a fume
hood or appropriate chemical trap.
111
Inlet Systems
Split/splitless capillary inlet
Figure 6-8
External Internal
Plumbing Plumbing
Septum
Purge
Control
Capillary
Inlet
(C)
Trap(s)
Mass
Electronic
Flow
Flow
Controller Sensor
(optional)
(P)
IN
N.C
(S)
COM
N.O
To
Solenoid
Detector
Valve
Carrier
Gas
Septum
Purge
Vent
OUT
Pressure
Gauge
IN
OUT
Split
Vent
Backpressure
Regulator
GA
Column
Flow Diagram, Split Operation
Due to short sample residence time inside the inlet, the technique
requires rapid volatilization; thus, inlet temperature must be high
enough to ensure this.
The backpressure regulator in the split vent path maintains constant
pressure at the head of the column. Total inlet flow, controlled by a mass
flow controller, divides between a septum purge path and flow down the
inlet insert.
Flow through the insert is divided again, between flow into the column
and flow around the bottom of the insert, up between the outside of the
insert and inlet body, and on to the split vent.
The split ratio is defined as:
Split Ratio =
Split Vent Flow Rate + Column Flow Rate
Column Flow Rate
where flow rates are volumetric, measured in ml/min.
112
Inlet Systems
Split/splitless capillary inlet
The split ratio is an indicator of the fraction of total sample entering the
column: the higher the value, the less sample enters the column.
For setting flow for split sampling, see Chapter 4 of the HP 5890
Operating Manual.
Verifying inlet purge status
Verify that inlet purge flow is currently on, and will remain on
throughout runs to be made in split sampling mode.
C
To display current inlet purge status:
PURGE/VALVE
A
( or
If OFF is displayed, press
C
)
to restore inlet purging.
ON
To display elapsed time during a run when inlet purging will be
halted:
PURGE/VALVE
C
B
A
( or
B
)
TIME
OFF
To display elapsed time during a run when inlet purging will be
restored:
PURGE/VALVE
(or
ON
A
( or
B
)
TIME
ON
alone if PURGE TIME is already displayed)
For split sampling, both times should be set to 0.00 and inlet purging
must currently be ON. If necessary, this is done simply by pressing 0
ENTER
when PURGE TIME OFF (or ON) is displayed.
113
Inlet Systems
Split/splitless capillary inlet
Splitless sampling
For splitless operation, the dilute sample is vaporized inside the inlet
insert. Most of the sample is then swept onto the column.
For full column efficiency, vaporized sample components must
reconcentrate at the head of the column prior to separation; without
reconcentration, peak widths of eluting components reflect inlet insert
volume rather than column efficiency. Reconcentration occurs via two
processes, the solvent effect or cold trapping ; these are both discussed
on the next page.
Since the technique requires flow through the inlet insert to enter the
column during injection, solvent vapor throughout the inlet continues to
enter the column even after sample component reconcentration. This can
create a long, substantial solvent tail, obscuring peaks of interest. Thus,
after a short time interval, the inlet insert is purged of solvent vapor.
After the inlet insert is purged, oven temperature is increased, causing
solvent trapped at the head of the column to volatilize and move through
the column. Sample components are thus released to be separated.
Since sample residence time inside the inlet is longer than in split
sampling, the inlet may be operated at a lower temperature: 150 to
200^C is adequate for most applications.
Solvent effect
One mode of sample reconcentration is the solvent effect which requires
vaporized sample components to be retained by a region of stationary
phase and absorbed solvent at the head of the column. In this region, the
front of the sample plug undergoes stronger retention than does the rear:
solvent•saturatedstationary phase acts as a barrier to sample
components, thereby reducing their bandwidths.
114
Inlet Systems
Split/splitless capillary inlet
Figure 6-9
Needle
C Low Volatility Solute
C High Volatility Solute
(a)
Carrier Gas
Column
(b)
(c)
(d)
The Solvent Effect
The solvent effect is described in great detail elsewhere: see Grob, K. and
Grob, K., Jr., Journal of Chromatography, 94, page 53 (1974); Grob, K.
and Grob, G., Chromatographia, 5, page 3 (1972).
To reconcentrate sample components via the solvent effect, oven
temperature must be low enough so solvent remains at the head of the
column for a sufficiently long time period. A good guideline is to have the
column 10 to 30^C below the solvent boiling point. Table 6•2gives boiling
points for some common solvents, along with suggested initial oven
temperature ranges to use the solvent effect efficiently.
115
Inlet Systems
Split/splitless capillary inlet
Table 6-2.
Some Common Solvents: Suggested Initial Oven
Temperatures to Use the Solvent Effect
Solvent
Diethyl Ether
n-Pentane
Methylene Chloride
Carbon Disulfide
Chloroform*
Methanol*
n-Hexane
Ethyl Acetate*
Acetonitrile
n-Heptane
i-Octane
Toluene
^
Boiling Point
( C)
^
Suggested Initial Oven
Temperature Range ( C)
36
36
40
46
61
65
69
77
82
98
99
111
10 to 25
10 to 25
10 to 30
10 to 35
25 to 50
35 to 55
40 to 60
45 to 65
50 to 70
70 to 90
70 to 90
80 to 100
* Should be used only with cross-linked stationary phases.
The best solvent for a given application is found by trial and error,
depending upon sample solubility and volatility, column polarity and type
of stationary phase, and detector selectivity/sensitivity.
Note that, because of the solvent effect, retention times for the same
components, but dissolved in different solvents, may be different: the
solvent, once chosen for a particular application, should be used
throughout.
Cold trapping
Cold trapping is a second mode of reconcentration: where column
temperature is low enough, vaporized components may condense into the
liquid phase.
116
Inlet Systems
Split/splitless capillary inlet
A general guideline is that components boiling at least 150^C above the
column temperature will be reconcentrated by cold trapping at the head
of the column. Components with lower boiling points are reconcentrated
via the solvent effect.
Temperature programming
Multiple•rampoven temperature programming is advantageous: the
oven is held at an appropriately cool temperature at injection to create
an environment for component reconcentration.
It is then programmed upward rather quickly to release lighter
components held by the solvent effect; then programmed higher yet, but
at a lower rate, to release heavier components held by cold trapping.
Sample requirements
Injection volume is generally in the range 0.5 to 2 ¿l. Individual
component concentrations must not be so great as to overload the column.
Retention indices for components of interest should be greater than 600.
The maximum amount of sample injected without column overload
depends upon column bore, loading efficiency, and component polarity.
Inlet temperature
Because gas flow through the inlet insert during injection is reduced to
that flowing through the column, sample residence time inside the insert
is longer than with split sampling.
For this reason, relatively lower inlet temperatures may be used: a
temperature in the range 150 to 200^C is adequate for most samples.
Note that lower temperature also reduces volume required by vaporized
sample, reducing possibility of sample flash back.
For samples with high boiling components (> C21), a higher inlet
temperature may be required.
117
Inlet Systems
Split/splitless capillary inlet
A recommended procedure is to perform a series of analyses at
increasingly higher inlet temperatures using components representative
of those of interest, and analyzed using the conditions for later sample
analyses. The optimum temperature is where maximum area counts are
obtained, and there is no evidence of thermal degradation products.
Solvent purity
Reconcentration traps any solvent impurities at the head of the column,
which may interfere with peaks of interest. A solvent blank run to check
solvent purity is strongly recommended before the solvent is used to
dilute samples for analysis.
Inlet insert purge
After injection, sufficient time is allowed for solvent and sample
components to reconcentrate at the head of the column; then solvent
vapor within the inlet insert is vented (purged).
The specific time delay after injection for insert purging to occur depends
upon the components, solvent, and injection volume, flow rate through
the inlet, and internal insert volume (approximately 1 ml); generally, a
time within the range 0.3 to 2 minutes is reasonable.
118
Inlet Systems
Split/splitless capillary inlet
Figure 6-10
+ 1.2% Deviation
~20
Area
Counts
ppm n-C14 (Cold Trapped)
+ 1.2% Deviation
~10
ppm n-C11 (Solvent Effect)
Solvent: Isooctane
Column: 16.5 m x 0.25 mm SE-54
80 C (0.5 min)
170^C @ 15^/min
Sample Size: 1.3 ml (Manual Injection)
Injection Rate: 1 ml/sec
Purge Flows: 5 ml/min, Septum: 60 ml/min, Inlet
^
10
20
–
30
40
50
Purge Activation Time, Sec
60
Effect of Inlet Purge Activation Time on Area Counts
Noting Figure 6•10,waiting too long does not increase component peak
areas, but does increase interference by the solvent tail. Purging too early
risks venting light components, not allowing sufficient time for heavier
components to enter the column, and/or not having sufficient solvent
enter the column to ensure good reconcentration.
A recommended procedure is to analyze a known standard using
conditions identical to those to be used for later sample analyses. Ideally,
the standard should be representative (in both components chosen and
their respective concentrations) of unknown samples to be analyzed.
Perform a series of analyses with increasingly delayed insert purge times:
the optimal time is where maximum area counts are obtained with least
interference by the solvent.
119
Inlet Systems
Split/splitless capillary inlet
Figure 6-11
External Internal
Plumbing Plumbing
Septum
Purge
Control
Capillary
Inlet
(C)
Trap(s)
(P)
IN
Mass Electronic
Flow Flow Sensor
Controller (optional)
N.C.
COM
(S)
OUT
GA
IN
N.O.
To
Solenoid
Detector Valve
Carrier
Gas
Septum
Purge
Vent
Pressure
Gauge
OUT
Split
Vent
Backpressure
Regulator
Column
Flow Diagram, Splitless Operation (inlet purge)
Figure 6-12
External Internal
Plumbing Plumbing
(C)
Trap(s)
(P)
IN
Mass
Electronic
Flow
Flow
Controller Sensor
(optional)
Carrier
Gas
Septum Septum
Purge
Purge
Control
Vent
Capillary
Inlet
N.C.
COM
(S)
To
Detector
N.O.
Solenoid
Valve
Column
Flow Diagram, Splitless Operation (during injection)
120
GA
IN
OUT
Pressure
Gauge
OUT
Split
BackVent
pressure
Regulator
Inlet Systems
Split/splitless capillary inlet
Noting Figures 6•11 and 6•12,the splitless sampling process is as follows:
C
Before Injection: Carrier gas flow enters through the mass flow
controller, into the top of the inlet. A small fraction is split off to purge
the septum and insert seal, then flows on to the purge vent.
The remainder flows down the insert where it divides again: a
fraction passes into the column while the rest flows around the
bottom of the insert, up between the outside of the insert and the inlet
body itself, and on to the split vent.
C
At Injection: A solenoid valve (splitless solenoid valve) is actuated
just prior to injection, to prevent carrier flow from exiting at the
bottom of the insert. Flow through the insert now passes only through
the column.
The remainder flows through the top of the inlet to the split vent, via
the solenoid valve and backpressure regulator.
C
After Injection: At a predefined time after injection, the solenoid
valve returns to its original state, restoring purge flow through the
inlet insert.
In going from column flow + septum purge flow at injection (typically less
than 5 ml/min), to total flow (column + split vent + septum purge)
through the inlet (typically 50 to 100 ml/min), residual solvent vapor
(1 to 5% of total injected solvent) is swept from the inlet.
Note that since carrier gas vents through the backpressure regulator,
column head pressure (and, therefore, column flow rate) remains
constant even when total flow through the insert is changed (injection
versus insert purging).
Injection technique, split/splitless sampling
Proper injection technique is required for reproducible, quantitative data.
The following steps should yield good results:
1. Rinse the syringe with solvent, completely filling and expelling the
syringe several times.
121
Inlet Systems
Split/splitless capillary inlet
2. Wipe excess solvent from the syringe needle.
3. Without introducing air, draw in excess sample.
4. Position the syringe plunger for the required injection volume. Wipe
excess sample from the needle.
5. Draw in air until the sample/solvent is entirely within the syringe
barrel. The sample is ready for injection.
This method results in the syringe filled as shown in Figure 6•13.
Figure 6-13
Solvent
Sample
Plunger
Air
Properly Filled Syringe for Split or Splitless Sampling
Solvent following the sample (about 0.7 ¿l) helps to wash sample
components from the syringe and needle bore.
For split sampling, with high gas velocity through the inlet, injection
must be made in a continuous, rapid manner. Any lack of smooth motion
may cause multiple injections.
For splitless sampling, with low gas velocity through the inlet, injection
may be at a slower pace, but must also be done smoothly. Also, note that
retention times depend upon amount injected, so total sample volume
injected should be kept constant.
Note: In analyzing samples containing heavy components (e.g., C13 with
a boiling point of 391^C), it may be necessary to leave the needle in the
inlet for up to 10 seconds after injection. This reduces needle
fractionation occurring with such components.
122
7
Detector Systems
Detector Systems
This chapter provides information for the five HP 5890 SERIES II
(hereafter referred to as HP 5890) detector systems:
C
Flame Ionization Detector (FID)
C
Nitrogen•PhosphorusDetector (NPD)
C
Electron Capture Detector (ECD)
C
Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD)
C
Flame Photometric Detector (FPD)
Capillary makeup gas flow rate
Detectors are designed to operate best with a carrier flow rate of at least
20 ml/min, typical of packed column applications. Carrier flow rates less
than about 10 ml/min (typically capillary applications) require capillary
makeup gas to ensure a total flow rate (carrier + makeup) of at least
20 ml/min. The TCD is an exception, requiring a total flow rate of only
5 ml/min.
For the FID, NPD, and TCD, HP Series 530 ¿ capillary columns may be
used without capillary makeup gas, as long as carrier flow rate is between
10 and 20 ml/min. Some loss of detector sensitivity may occur at lower
flow rates.
For the ECD, capillary makeup gas should be used even with HP Series
530 ¿ capillary columns, because the large cell size requires high total
flow rate (at least 25 ml/min).
Makeup gas is added directly to H1 for an FID or NPD within the
detector flow manifold; for an ECD or TCD, it is added into the column
effluent stream via a capillary makeup gas adapter fitted into the
detector column inlet.
124
Detector Systems
FID and NPD jets
Supply pressure for capillary makeup gas should be set to about 276 kPa
(40 psi).
FID and NPD jets
Depending upon the column type to be used, and/or analyses to be
performed, exchanging the jet in an FID or NPD may be necessary. Table
7•1lists available jets.
Note: If switching from packed column operation to capillary operation,
the jet for capillary use must be installed prior to column installation.
Table 7-1. Available FID / NPD Jets
Part No.
Jet Tip ID (inch)*
Use
18789-80070
0.030
Packed Column Only
(FID only: Simulated Distillation,
TCD-to-FIS series operation.)
18710-20119
0.018
Packed Column (Standard, FID and NPD)
19244-80560
0.011
Capillary Column (FID and NPD)
(FID: high sensitivity, packed column)
* Measured at the jet tip.
For an FID, the 0.011•inchjet maximizes detector sensitivity and must
be used with capillary columns; if used with packed columns, flame•out
and clogging problems may occur.
For an NPD, exchanging jets is less critical to detector sensitivity: the
0.011•or 0.018•inchjet may be used with either packed or capillary
columns. The 0.011•inchjet must be used with capillary columns.
In packed column applications, the 0.011•inchjet may be tried first. The
0.018•inchjet may then be exchanged if problems are encountered. See
Chapter 8, Preventive Maintenance, for specific details regarding jet
exchange.
125
Detector Systems
Flame ionization detector (FID)
Flame ionization detector (FID)
Figure 7-1
FID Collector
Assembly
Inlet
H2
Inlet
Jet
Flame Ionization Detector (FID)
The flame ionization detector (FID) responds to compounds that produce
ions when burned in a H1•airflame. These include all organic
compounds, although a few (e.g., formic acid, acetaldehyde) exhibit poor
sensitivity.
126
Detector Systems
Flame ionization detector (FID)
Compounds producing little or no response include:
Rare gases
Nitrogen Oxides
Silicon Halides
H1O
NH2
N1
CO
CO1
CS1
O1
N1
*CCl3
* Measured at the jet tip.
This selectivity can be advantageous: for example, H1O or CS1, used as
solvent, do not produce large solvent peaks.
The system is linear for most organic compounds, from the minimum
detectable limit through concentrations greater than 10% times the
minimum detectable limit. Linear range depends on each specific
compound; it is directly proportional to sensitivity of the FID toward the
given compound.
In general, where sample components of interest are in high
concentration, increased air flow may be necessary (up to 650 ml/min).
Where components of interest are in low concentration, reduced air flow
rates are acceptable (375 to 425 ml/min).
For maximum sensitivity, it is recommended that a standard sample be
made containing components of interest in concentrations expected. By
experimenting with different carrier, air, and H1 flow rates, the standard
is used to determine flow rates giving maximum response.
127
Detector Systems
Flame ionization detector (FID)
FID flameout problems
When using pressure programming with large id columns (i.e. 530 ¿
columns) it is possible to blow the FID flame out if pressure (flow)
becomes too high. If this occurs, either lower the pressure ramp or switch
to a more restrictive column (longer and/or smaller id).
Figure 7-2
External
Plumbing
Final Pressure Regulators
and Gauges
Traps
Compressed
Air
Internal
Plumbing
Flow Manifold Block
Vent
Power
to Ignitor
to Ignitor
Power
Detector
PRESS
TO
IGNITE
Ignitor
Button
AIR
On/Off
Air
Hydrogen
Gas
HYDROGEN
On/Off
Hydrogen
(Plus Makeup
Gas)
Capillary
Makeup
Gas
On/Off
Flow Diagram, Flame Ionization Detector (FID)
128
MAKEUP
GAS
From
Inlet
Column
Detector Systems
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
Figure 7-3
NPD Collector
Assembly
Air Inlet
NPD Collector
Active Element
Jet
H2 Inlet
Nitrogen-Phosphorus Detector (NPD)
The nitrogen•phosphorusdetector uses a jet and collector similar to the
FID; however, the collector contains a small alumina cylinder coated with
a rubidium salt (the active element) which is heated electrically. In the
presence of this thermionic source, nitrogen•and phosphorus•containing
organic molecules are efficiently ionized. Ions are collected, and the
resulting current is measured.
129
Detector Systems
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
H1 and air are required, but at flows significantly less than those for an
FID. Normal FID•typeionizations are therefore minimal, so response to
compounds not containing nitrogen or phosphorus is reduced. Thus, the
detector is both sensitive to and selective toward only compounds
containing nitrogen and/or phosphorus.
The electrical power for heating the active element is supplied through a
toroidal transformer located inside the NPD detector cover. The toroidal
transformer secondary winding is connected directly to the
collector/active element assembly. The electrical heating current passes
directly through the small platinum wire that is also used to position the
active element inside the collector.
The active element of the NPD operates in a very delicate thermal
balance that is dependent on several different variables. The magnitude
of the response of the NPD is a function of the temperature of the active
element and of the active zone around the active element itself. Because
of this temperature dependence, the output of the detector is very
sensitive to anything that affects the temperature of this active zone.
Some of the important variables and their effects are listed below.
1. Increasing detector temperature. This increases the active element
temperature and the response.
2. Increasing electrical power to the active element. This increases
active element temperature and increases the response.
3. Increasing hydrogen flow. This increases the active element
temperature as well as increasing the size of the active zone around
the active element; both effects will result in increased response.
4. Increasing air flow to the detector. Normally this cools the active
element slightly and decreases the response. (The overall effect is
much less than the hydrogen flow effects.) Increasing the air flow also
decreases the residence time of a given peak in the active zone of the
active element and decreases response.
5. Increasing the carrier gas flow. This cools the active zone slightly,
decreasing response. This also decreases the residence time of a
component in the active zone and decreases response.
130
Detector Systems
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
Other gas flow effects of too high flow rates of the hydrogen may allow a
true flame to exist around the active element. This would overheat the
active element severely and destroy the specific response. Too low flow
rates of air tend to quench the background response of the active
element, and this results in a re•equilibrationtime that is too long to
establish proper background response (negative solvent peaks killing the
active element).
Figure 7-4
External
Plumbing
Final Pressure Regulators
and Gauges
Internal
Plumbing
Active Element
Power
Traps
Compressed
Air
Power to
Active Element
Detector
Flow Manifold Block
AIR
On/Off
Hydrogen
Gas
Air
HYDROGEN
On/OffHydrogen
(Plus Makeup
Gas)
Capillary
Makeup
Gas
From
Inlet
MAKEUP GAS
On/Off
Column
Flow Diagram, Nitrogen-Phosphorus Detector (NPD)
131
Detector Systems
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
Performance considerations
Contamination
Very little contamination can create serious NPD problems. Common
sources include:
C
Columns and/or glass wool treated with H2PO3 (phosphoric acid)
C
Phosphate•containingdetergents
C
Cyano•substitutedsilicone columns (XE•60,OV•225,etc.)
C
Other nitrogen•containingliquid phases
C
Any liquid phase deactivated for analysis of basic compounds
C
Fingerprints
C
Leak•detectionfluids
C
Laboratory air
Contamination in the NPD can be either a positive type or a negative
type of contamination. A positive type of contamination is one that gives
a more positive offset than would normally result with a clean system.
When this happens there is a tendency to try to operate the detector with
too little power to the active element, with the final result that the
detector does not appear as sensitive as desirable (because the
temperature of the active element is actually less than normal).
If the contamination is a negative type of contamination, then there is a
tendency to quench the reactions that give rise to the specific response
desired. This quenching can be only partial, resulting in less sensitivity
than expected, or at very high contamination levels, a complete
quenching of all signals from the detector. This latter type of quenching is
(usually) only seen on sample peaks where the apex of the peak actually
goes back down toward the baseline.
132
Detector Systems
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
Residual silanizing reagents from derivatization, and/or bleed from
silicone columns, may coat the active element with silicon dioxide. This
decreases ionization efficiency, reducing sensitivity.
If silanizing is necessary, remove excess reagent before injection. Silicone
columns should be well conditioned and loaded less than 5%.
Active element lifetime
Lifetime of the active element is reduced by the silicon dioxide coating,
described above, and by irreversible loss of rubidium salt.
Rubidium loss is caused by overheating the active element, particularly if
element power is on when gas flows, particularly carrier, are interrupted.
The detector must be turned off or element power reduced to zero when
changing columns, replacing septa, and/or replacing gas cylinders. Power
to the element with gas flow off can destroy an element within a few
minutes.
Humidity also affects element lifetime adversely: keep the detector warm
(100 to 150^C) when not in use. A collector removed from an NPD for an
extended period of time, or spare collectors, should be stored in a
desiccator.
Element lifetime is extended by using the lowest element power possible,
consistent with maintaining sufficient detector sensitivity and selectivity
for the particular analyses.
Generally, sensitivity and selectivity toward nitrogen decreases first as
the element ages. Phosphorus response is affected less.
It is good practice to have a spare collector available for replacement
purposes. A recoating kit is available (Part No. 5080•8872)to rejuvenate
the active element in an old collector.
133
Detector Systems
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
Both detector baseline and sensitivity change with carrier flow rate due
to change in temperature of the active element. This is the reason for the
baseline drift in pressure•controlledinlet systems (capillary inlets) when
temperature•programmingthe column. The amount of change in the
detector response is proportional to the ratio of the total column flow
change (temperature sensitive) to the makeup gas flow (not temperature
sensitive), i.e., total column flow change divided by makeup gas flow.
Element power should be adjusted after any change in carrier flow rate.
Septa should be checked for leaks daily or replaced regularly. An upward
baseline shift at injection is often due to a leaky septum.
Caution
Turn the detector off to avoid damaging the active element before
changing septa.
When the detector is first turned on, its sensitivity and signal level
change slowly over several hours. Therefore, for applications requiring
very stable operation, leave the detector on overnight, lowering oven
temperature to prevent contaminating the active element with column
bleed.
To preserve the active element lifetime, it is good practice to reduce the
power to the active element whenever the detector will not be operated
for extended periods of time (such as over the weekend). To determine the
proper amount of power reduction, plot the normal offset and note the
displayed zero value (20-30 would be in the normal range). Then reduce
the power setting slightly until the displayed zero value (offset) just goes
to zero or to a value close to zero (lower than 5 picoamps). In this way the
temperature of the active element will be lowered such that there will be
little loss of rubidium but the active element will still be kept hot enough
to prevent contamination (condensation) while in standby.
134
Detector Systems
Electron capture detector (ECD)
Electron capture detector (ECD)
WARNING
The effluent gas stream from the detector must be vented to a fume
hood to prevent possible contamination of the laboratory with
radioactive material.
Specific cleaning procedures are provided in Chapter 8, Preventive
Maintenance.
Requirements for USA owners
WARNING
Detector venting must be in conformance with the latest revision of
Title 10, Code Of Federal Regulations, Part 20 (including Appendix B).
This detector is sold under General License: owners may not open the
detector cell or use solvents to clean it. Additional information is
available in the Publication Information For General Licensees, Pub.
No. 43•5953•1798(D).
Owners of this detector must perform a radioactive leak test (wipe test)
at least every six months. The procedure is described in Chapter 8,
Preventive Maintenance.
135
Detector Systems
Electron capture detector (ECD)
WARNING
In the extremely unlikely event that both the oven and the ECD heated
zone should go into thermal runaway (maximum, uncontrolled heating
in excess of 400^C) at the same time, and that the ECD remains
exposed to this condition for more than 12 hours, the following must be
done:
C
After turning off main power and allowing the instrument to cool,
cap ECD inlet and exhaust vent openings. Wear disposable plastic
gloves and observe normal safety precautions.
C
Return the cell for exchange, following directions included with the
form General License Certification (HP Pub. No. 43•5954•7621).
It is unlikely, even in this very unusual situation, that radioactive
material will escape the cell. Permanent damage to the 63Ni plating
within the cell is possible, however, so the cell must be returned for
exchange.
136
Detector Systems
Electron capture detector (ECD)
Figure 7-5
y
Anode
Anode Purge
Vent
Plated 63Ni Surface
Nickel Plating
Fused Silica Liner
Makeup Gas Adapter
Makeup Gas
Column
Electron Capture Detector (ECD)
The electron capture detector (ECD) cell contains ]"Ni, a radioactive
isotope emitting high•energyelectrons (µ•particles).These undergo
repeated collisions with carrier gas molecules, producing about 100
secondary electrons for each initial µ•particle.
Further collisions reduce energy of these electrons into the thermal
range. These low energy electrons are then captured by suitable sample
molecules, thus reducing total electron population within the cell.
137
Detector Systems
Electron capture detector (ECD)
Uncaptured electrons are collected periodically by applying short•term
voltage pulses to cell electrodes. This cell current is measured and
compared to a reference current, and the pulse interval is then adjusted
to maintain constant cell current.
Therefore, pulse rate (frequency) rises when an electron•capturing
compound is passing through the cell. The pulse rate is converted to a
voltage, linearly related to amount of electron•capturingmaterial in the
cell.
Figure 7-6
Detector
Anode Purge Flow
Vent
External
Plumbing
Final Pressure Regulators
and Gauges
Traps
Internal
Plumbing
Makeup Gas Adapters
Capillary Columns
Only
Flow Manifold Block
PURGE FLOW
Capillary
Makeup
Gas
On/Off
MAKEUP GAS
On/Off
Column
Flow Diagram, Electron Capture Detector (ECD)
Thus, the ECD responds to compounds having an affinity for electrons
(for example, such halogenated materials as pesticides and related
compounds). Table 7•2gives general indication of expected sensitivity to
different classes of organic compounds.
138
Detector Systems
Electron capture detector (ECD)
Table 7-2. General ECD Sensitivity to Various Classes of Compounds
Chemical Type
Relative Sensitivity
Hydrocarbons
1
Ethers, esters
10
Aliphatic alcohols, ketones, amines;
mono-Cl, mono-F compounds
100
Mono-Br, di-Cl and di-F compounds
1000
Anhydrides and tri-Cl compounds
104
Mono-I, di-Br and nitro compounds
105
Di-I, tri-Br, poly-Cl and poly-F compounds
106
These are only approximate figures; sensitivity varies widely within each
group, depending upon structure of the material. For example, DDT
(5 chlorine atoms/molecule) can be measured in the 1 to 10 picogram
range.
The ECD is designed for use either with N1 or with 5% CH3 in Ar as
carrier gas. A switch selects operation with either carrier gas; the ECD
does not operate properly if the switch is incorrectly set. See Chapter 5 of
the Operating Manual.
Because of its high sensitivity, the ECD should never be used without
traps (moisture, chemical), should be in good condition, and should be
installed in the carrier gas supply line. For capillary systems, this must
also be done for the makeup gas supply.
An ECD is normally used to detect compounds that are reactive enough
to interact with metal columns. Therefore, only 1/4•inchpacked glass, or
fused silica, or glass capillary columns are recommended with this
detector.
139
Detector Systems
Electron capture detector (ECD)
Considerations for packed column operation
Either N1 or Ar containing 5 or 10% CH3, may be used as carrier gas.
N1 yields somewhat higher sensitivity, but it is accompanied by higher
noise; minimum detectable limit is about the same. N1 sometimes
produces a negative solvent peak. Ar/CH3 gives greater dynamic range.
The carrier gas must be dry and O1•free.Moisture and O1 traps are
strongly recommended for highest sensitivity. Because plastic tubing is
permeable to many gases, use copper tubing for all connections.
Total flow into the detector must be at least 20 ml/min to prevent peak
tailing.
Considerations for capillary column operation
H1 carrier gas (with N1 makeup gas) gives best column performance.
Ar/CH3 as makeup gas may also be used. For most purposes, 60 ml/min of
makeup gas is satisfactory. For very fast runs this can be increased to 100
ml/min to sharpen peaks, but some sensitivity will be lost since the ECD
is a concentration•dependentdetector.
H1 or He carrier gas affords the best column performance with reduced
retention times. Ar/CH3 or N1 makeup gas is used in the range of
30-60 ml/min. Since the ECD is a concentration dependent detector,
reduced sensitivity is obtained at higher flow rates.
Moisture and O1 traps for carrier gas are essential with capillary/ECD
operation.
Temperature
Some compounds exhibit strong dependence of response to detector
temperature. The effect may be either positive or negative. Different
detector temperatures may be tried, always remaining above the oven
temperature, to determine the effect on sensitivity. Generally a detector
temperature between 250-300 ^C is satisfactory for most applications.
140
Detector Systems
Electron capture detector (ECD)
Background level
If the ECD system becomes contaminated, whether from impurities in
the carrier (or makeup) gas, or from column or septum bleed, a significant
fraction of detector dynamic range may be lost. In addition, the output
signal becomes noisy.
To check background level, allow ample time for components from
previous analyses to be flushed from the system, and then make a blank
run (one with no sample injected).
Prior to the run, enter the following:
DET
SIG 1
A
(or
( or
SIG 2
)
B
)
ON
A
( or
B
)
Pressing SIG 1 (or SIG 2 ) again displays the signal source assigned to
the particular output channel.
Ideally, the value displayed should be within the range 10 to 40 (100 to
400 Hz), indicating a clean system. For trace•levelanalysis, a reading of
20 to 60 is recommended. A large value of more than 50 (500 Hz)
indicates a contaminated system and thermal cleaning should be
performed (see Chapter 8, Preventive Maintenance).
141
Detector Systems
Electron capture detector (ECD)
A very clean system may produce a value below the low end of 10 (100
Hz). To correct this condition, an adjustment is made to the present
potentiometer located on the ECD electronics board.
ECD Potentiometer Switch
Up: Adj
Down: Fixed
ECD Potentiometer Adjustment
ECD Potentiometer Switch and Adjustment
1. Remove the right side of the panel.
2. Flip the switch up to the Adj. position.
3. Using a small screwdriver, turn the potentiometer clockwise until the
background level is at or slightly above 20 (200 Hz, low reading for
trace analysis).
4. Replace the right side of the panel.
142
Detector Systems
Thermal conductivity detector (TCD)
Thermal conductivity detector (TCD)
Figure 7-7
HP 5890 SERIES II TCD Cell
VENT (60 ml/
min)
VENT (60 ml/
min)
24
36
24
0 ml/min
Switching
Flow 1
(off)
Filament
Channel
Filament
Channel
24
6
6
30 ml/min
Column
Flow
36
30 ml/min
Switching
Flow 2
(on)
30 ml/min
Switching
Flow 1
(on)
36
30 ml/min
Column
Flow
0 ml/min
Switching
Flow 2
(off)
Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD)
143
Detector Systems
Thermal conductivity detector (TCD)
The thermal conductivity detector (TCD) detects the difference in thermal
conductivity between column effluent flow (carrier gas + sample
components) and a reference flow of carrier gas alone; it produces voltage
proportional to this difference. The voltage then becomes the output
signal to the connected chart recording or integrating device.
The TCD uses a single filament to examine alternately relative thermal
conductivities of reference versus column effluent gas streams every
200 msec. At this frequency, the detector is insensitive to thermal drift.
Factors which influence TCD response include the following:
Caution
C
Temperature difference between the filament versus the surrounding
detector block
C
Flow rate ratio between carrier effluent versus reference gas streams
C
Type of carrier/reference gas used
The TCD filament can be permanently damaged if gas flow through the
detector is interrupted while the filament is operating. Make sure the
detector is off whenever changes/adjustments are made affecting gas
flows through the detector.
Likewise, exposure to O2 can permanently damage the filament. Make
sure the entire flow system associated with the TCD is leak•freeand
that carrier/reference gas sources are uncontaminated before turning
on the detector. Do not use Teflon tubing, either as column material or
as gas supply lines, because it is permeable to O2.
Since the TCD responds to any compound whose thermal conductivity is
different from that of the carrier gas, H1 and He are most commonly used
as carrier gases, with H1 giving somewhat greater sensitivity. However,
H1 forms explosive mixtures with air (O1), and some components,
particularly unsaturated compounds, may react with H1. He produces
almost as much sensitivity as H1 and is free from problems of reactivity
with sample components or the filament. N1 or Ar may be used but give
lower response for most materials; however, they are useful if H1 or He is
being analyzed.
144
Detector Systems
Thermal conductivity detector (TCD)
Because of its exceptionally high thermal conductivity and chemical
inertness, He is the recommended carrier gas: it gives large thermal
conductivity differences with all compounds except H1 (considerations
necessary in H1 analyses are discussed later). With He as carrier, the
TCD exhibits universal response. For propane, the sensitivity limit is
about 400 picograms/ml of He carrier gas.
The TCD exists in two configurations: either its exhaust vent tube exits
at the top of the detector or the exhaust vent tube returns to the inside of
the oven for connection to an FID or other device.
Figure 7-8
External
Plumbing
Internal
Plumbing
Detector
Final Pressure Regulators
and Gauges
Filament
Electronics
Traps
Solenoid Switching
Flow Manifold Block
Valve
Reference
Gas
REFERENCE
On/Off
Reference
Makeup Gas
Capillary
Makeup
Gas
MAKEUP GAS
From
Inlet
Column
On/Off
Makeup Gas Adapter:
Capillary Columns Only
Flow Diagram, Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD)
145
Detector Systems
Thermal conductivity detector (TCD)
Optimizing performance
The following sections aid in choosing operating parameters to obtain
optimal TCD performance.
Temperature
TCD sensitivity increases as the temperature difference between the
detector filament (automatically set) and the surrounding detector body
(chosen detector zone temperature) increases.
To minimize changes in detector sensitivity with different operating
temperatures, filament temperature is maintained at a relatively
constant difference above detector operating temperature. Filament
resistance (proportional to temperature) is monitored, and power is
adjusted as needed to maintain the filament at constant temperature.
Figure 7-9
500
Filament Temperature
400
Filament 300
Temp
(^C)
200
—T
50^C
Block Temperature
135^C
100
0
0
100
200
30
0
Detector Temperature (Body
Temp) ^C
Filament Temperature versus Detector Block Temperature
146
400
Detector Systems
Thermal conductivity detector (TCD)
As Figure 7•9shows, however, the lower the detector zone temperature,
the greater is the temperature difference between the filament versus the
surrounding detector body temperature. Thus, for maximum sensitivity,
the detector zone should be operated at the lowest temperature possible
(limited by highest boiling components condensing inside the detector).
Also, a second advantage is one of increased filament lifetime.
Gas flow rates
After the detector and instrument are allowed time for thermal
stabilization (about 1/2•hourafter the oven and zones achieve desired
setpoint values), two gas flow rates, column and reference gas, must be
set independently.
After setting optimal carrier gas flow rate through the column, Figure
7•10may be used to determine the corresponding optimal reference flow
rate.
Figure 7-10
60
55
50
Relative
Response
Column Flow Rate:
30 ml/min
45
Column Flow Rate:
20 ml/min
40
35
Column Flow Rate:
60 ml/min
0
20
40
60
80
100
Reference Gas Flow Rate
(ml/min)
TCD Response versus Reference Flow Rate
147
Detector Systems
Thermal conductivity detector (TCD)
Note that TCD response becomes relatively flat (insensitive) to reference
gas flow rates equal to, or somewhat greater than, flow rate through the
column.
Analyzing for hydrogen, special considerations
Only H1 has thermal conductivity greater than He. However, binary
mixtures of small amounts of H1 (< 20%) in He at moderate temperatures
exhibit thermal conductivities less than either component alone.
Thus, depending on concentration and temperature, a H1 peak may
appear as positive, negative, a split peak, or as a W when using He as
carrier. The phenomenon disappears at higher temperatures.
Note: Alternatively, N1 or Ar may be used as carrier when analyzing for
H1; this eliminates problems inherent in using He as carrier, but detector
sensitivity is substantially reduced toward components other than H1.
To ensure normal peak shape in H1 analyses with He as carrier, it is
advisable to operate the detector at relatively high temperature (between
200 and 300^C).
A specific detector operating temperature is found by analyzing a known
range of H1 concentrations, increasing operating temperature until the
H1 peak exhibits normal shape and is always in the same direction
(negative • relative to normal response to air or propane), regardless of
concentration. This temperature also ensures high sensitivity and good
linear dynamic range.
Since an H1 peak is negative, detector polarity must be inverted at
appropriate times so the peak appears positive to a connected integrator
or chart recorder.
148
Detector Systems
Thermal conductivity detector (TCD)
TCD-to-FID series connection
The following describes, for a TCD whose exhaust vent returns to the
inside of the oven, connecting the TCD to an FID.
C
If necessary (see NOTE below), exchange the standard FID jet for the
0.030•inchjet (Part No. 18789•80070).Information about jet exchange
is available in Chapter 8, Preventive Maintenance.
Note: Use of the 0.030•inchjet is necessary only in cases where FID
flame lighting problems occur due to increased gas flow rate through the
FID, or TCD response is affected adversely due to the increased back
pressure on the TCD.
Since the 0.030•inchjet reduces FID sensitivity, it is recommended that
operation with the standard 0.018•inchjet be tried first, before deciding
to switch to the 0.030•inchjet.
C
Inside the oven, connect the TCD oven•returnexhaust vent tube to
the base of the FID using the TCD•to•FIDjumper tube (Part No.
19302•80600)and standard 1/8•inchstainless steel swage•typenuts
and ferrules.
Ferrules should be preset, and two wrenches should be used in
opposition in tightening the nut to prevent twisting the tube.
Note: Use of the TCD•to•FIDjumper tube is critical to achieve lowest
possible detector background noise.
This completes series connection of an FID with a TCD.
Filament passivation
The TCD filament is a tungsten•rheniumalloy whose surface has been
chemically passivated.
Passivation protects against damage due to O1, but chemically active
components such as acids and halogenated compounds may attack the
149
Detector Systems
Thermal conductivity detector (TCD)
filament. The immediate symptom is a permanent change in detector
sensitivity due to change in filament resistance.
If possible, such offending materials should be avoided. If this is not
possible, the filament may have to be replaced frequently.
Capillary column considerations
The TCD cell filament channel has an internal volume of about 3.5 ¿l.
This small cell volume makes it suitable for use with capillary columns.
In performing capillary analyses with the TCD, the following should be
noted:
C
Since a portion of the column passes through the TCD heated block
and into the cell itself, zone temperature for the TCD should not be
set greater than the maximum temperature allowed for the column.
A higher zone temperature may cause column bleed.
C
After setting column flow rate, makeup gas should be set so total flow
rate (column + makeup) is 5 ml/min. Reference gas should be turned
off while making this measurement.
C
150
-
Measure the column flow rate.
-
Open (counterclockwise) the On/Off valve for TCD makeup gas
flow.
-
Use a small screwdriver to adjust the variable restrictor at the
center of the On/Off valve as necessary to obtain the desired total
flow rate.
After makeup gas is adjusted, reference gas should be 1.5 times the
total flow from the column plus makeup. Therefore, if column plus
makeup flow is 30 ml/min, then reference flow = 45 ml/min. Also, with
makeup, the column should be pushed all the way up into the detector
and backed off approximately 1 mm. However, when not using
makeup gas (when using Series 530 at a relatively high flow rate),
then the column should be only 1 to 2 mm above the ferrule. If you
want to position the column all the way up for maximum inertness,
then continue to use makeup and set it to 1 to 2 ml/min.
Detector Systems
Flame photometric detector (FPD)
Flame photometric detector (FPD)
Optimizing FPD sensitivity and selectivity
FPD sensitivity and selectivity are affected by several important
parameters. These are listed below, with suggested ways to optimize for
each application.
A. FPD Flow Rates. FPD flow rates are the most critical for optimizing
either sensitivity or selectivity (these do not necessarily have the
same optimal conditions). The most critical flow parameter is the
hydrogen/air (or hydrogen/oxygen) ratio. Less critical are the
auxiliary nitrogen/carrier combined flows.
A suggested way to set near•optimalflows is to begin with
recommended flow rates located in the HP 5890 Operating Manual.
Then vary each gas until a local maximum is reached. Optimize
hydrogen first, then air (or oxygen), and lastly the auxiliary nitrogen
flows. This may require a couple of iterations (tries). Adjusting these
flows is most easily done by just varying the supply pressure
regulator setting. Figure 7•11 plots approximate FPD flows versus
supply pressure for all FPD gases.
Note: Take care that adjusting the supply gas pressure does not
change some other flow supplied by the same regulator.
151
Detector Systems
Flame photometric detector (FPD)
Figure 7-11
Pressure-psig
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
140
X
}
120
X
+
100
}
Flow 80
ml/min
60
}
40
20
}
0X
E
0
}
}E
X
E
50
100
+
X
+
+
} = Hydrogen
X+
E
X = Nitrogen
E = Oxygen
E
+ = Air
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
Pressure-kPa
FPD Flows versus Supply Pressures
B. Detector Temperature. Detector heated zone temperature can have a
significant effect on sensitivity. If analyzing thermally labile or very
unstable compounds, a lower heated zone temperature may give the
best results. If analyzing compounds with high boiling points, the
detector temperature should be set at least 25^C but not > 300^C
above the final oven temperature (but not greater than 300^C!).
C. Quenching. Quenching can result to some degree if sulfur or
phosphorus peaks coelute with large hydrocarbon peaks. For many
applications, this effect can be reduced by better chromatographic
separation of peaks by varying the oven temperature program
conditions and/or column selection. In cases where there is a large
continuous hydrocarbon background, better selectivity of sulfur to
carbon may be obtained by adjusting the hydrogen or air (oxygen)
flow rate.
152
Detector Systems
Flame photometric detector (FPD)
Flame ignition problems
Two common flame ignition problems are:
A loud pop results on ignition and the flame will not light or stay lit.
If a loud pop occurs on ignition, it is usually caused by an incorrect
ignition sequence. The correct ignition sequence is:
1. Open the auxiliary Nitrogen Valve if required.
2. Open the Air/Oxygen Valve fully counterclockwise (CCW).
3. Press in and hold the Ignitor Valve.
4. Open the Hydrogen Valve fully counterclockwise (CCW). On doing
this, there should be a slight pop.
Note: A loud pop is caused by opening the hydrogen valve before
pressing the ignitor, thereby igniting a volume rich in hydrogen. This
should not damage the detector but is unpleasant to hear. Always open
the hydrogen valve after pressing the ignitor.
If the FPD flame won’t light or stay lit, check/do the following:
1. Be sure there is a problem. Under some conditions, the flame lights so
quietly that the pop is nearly inaudible. Also, especially in oxygen
mode, the increase in signal offset on the LED display is usually only
a few counts. Flame ignition is best verified by holding a mirror or
shiny surface near the aluminum exhaust tube (with the rubber drip
tube removed) and observing condensation (if the flame is lit).
2. If the flame doesn’t light at all, be sure the glow plug circuit is
working. This is most easily done by observing the LED display,
which should go to greater than 65500 counts when the ignitor switch
is pressed. If the LED display doesn’t change with the ignitor switch
pressed, either the circuit is open (check the pin connections at the
detector flow manifold block, the lead connection on the glow plug,
and the appropriate 5A fuse on the instrument’s main circuit board).
153
Detector Systems
Flame photometric detector (FPD)
3. Under some operating conditions, it is important to continue to hold
the ignitor switch in for several seconds after opening the hydrogen
valve fully counterclockwise.
4. Under some operating conditions, the flame may be more easily lit
with the rubber drip tube removed. After lighting the flame, reinstall
the drip tube and FPD cover assembly.
5. Under some conditions, the flame may be more easily lit with the
detector temperature raised to 200^C or higher (but do not exceed the
detector’s maximum temperature of 300^C) and ignite the flame.
After the flame is lit, set the detector to the required temperature.
6. If none of the above are sufficient to light the flame, try increasing the
hydrogen supply pressure by 20-40%. After igniting the flame,
reduce the hydrogen supply pressure to the initial value.
7. If the flame still won’t light after trying the preceding steps, there
may be a large leak in the system. This can result in measured flow
rates being significantly different from actual flow rates, resulting in
nonideal ignition conditions. Thoroughly leak•checkthe whole system.
154
8
Preventive
Maintenance
Preventive Maintenance
This chapter includes maintenance, cleaning, and leak•testingHP 5890
SERIES II (hereafter referred to as HP 5890) inlet and detector systems.
Conditioning columns
Columns may contain contaminants; conditioning drives off unwanted
volatiles, making the column fit for analytical use.
New packed columns should be conditioned since they often contain
volatile contaminants absorbed from the air. It may also be necessary to
condition a used column that has been stored for some time without end
caps or plugs to exclude air.
Conditioning is not a serious problem with capillary columns since there
is little stationary phase. For the same reason, however, conditioning
must be gentle not to drive stationary phase from the column.
The following are general guidelines for conditioning:
1. Switch off detectors! Shut off support gases, if any, to detectors
(particularly H1!).
2. a. If the column to be conditioned is already installed, disconnect its
detector end.
b. If the column to be conditioned is not already installed, connect
one end to an available inlet. Do not connect the remaining end to
a detector!
For a split/splitless (or split•only)capillary inlet, if a capillary
column is to be conditioned, install the proper insert and attach
the column in the normal manner, making certain about 7.5 mm of
column extends above (in front of) the column nut ( 25 mm from

156
Preventive Maintenance
Conditioning columns
back of nut). Adjust the septum purge flow rate to no more than
6 ml/min.
c. Cap inlet fittings into detector(s) to prevent entry of air and/or
contaminants.
3. Establish a stable flow of carrier gas through the column. He is
preferred; however, N1 is adequate for conditioning packed columns.
Do not use H1 because it vents into the column oven during
conditioning.
a. For 1/8•and 1/4•inchcolumns (with 2 mm id), a flow rate of about
30 ml/min is sufficient; for 1/4•inchcolumns (with 4 mm id), a flow
rate of about 50 ml/min is adequate.
b. For a rigid glass capillary column (with 0.25 mm id), establish a
head pressure (in psi) equal to about half the column length (in
meters). For example, a 50 m column should have a head pressure
of about 25 psi (172 kPa).
c. For a fused silica capillary column, establish a column head
pressure (in psi) equal to column length (in meters).
4. Set oven temperature to 100^C for about an hour. Then slowly raise
oven temperature to the conditioning temperature for the column
(never greater than the maximum temperature limit for the column;
30^C less than the maximum is usually sufficient).
Caution
Overheating may shorten column lifetime.
Conditioning may continue overnight for packed columns and can be
much less for capillary columns.
5. If the conditioned column is not to be used immediately, remove it
from the oven and cap its ends to prevent entry of air, moisture,
and/or contaminants.
157
Preventive Maintenance
(Re)Packing columns
(Re)Packing columns
In packing columns (particularly 1/4•inchglass columns), one must
consider the type of packing, column bore, and type (metal or glass), the
method of sample introduction (flash vaporization or on•column),inlet or
detector base requirements.
The method of sample introduction and/or the inlet/detector configuration
determines the distance from the column end at which packing should
start. Only general guidelines can be given here.
1. For FIDs and NPDs, at the detector end of the column, make sure
neither packing nor a glass wool plug retaining the packing comes in
contact with the bottom of the detector jet.
2. For 1/8•inchcolumns, where flash volatilization is used, packing
should be as close to the inlet end of the column as feasible, leaving
room for a glass wool plug to retain packing material.
Figure 8-1
Inlet End Flash
Vaporization
Detector
End
45 mm
(1 3/4 in)
75
mm
(3 in)
Glass Wool
Packing Limits for 1/4-inch Glass Columns
3. For 1/4•inchglass columns, since the inlet end serves as a liner, room
must be provided to ensure flash volatilization and to ensure the
syringe needle does not directly contact the glass wool plug and/or
packing material. See Figure 8•1for recommended packing limits.
158
Preventive Maintenance
Packed column inlet
Packed column inlet
Changing septa
Septum lifetime is dependent upon frequency of use and upon needle
quality; burrs, sharp edges, rough surfaces, or a blunt end on the needle
decreases septum lifetime.
A leaking septum is evidenced by longer retention times, loss of response,
and/or loss of column head pressure as well as degradation in detector
signal quality (the signal becoming increasingly noisy). Where the
instrument is used on a regular basis, daily septum replacement is
recommended.
Figure 8-2
Septum
Septum Retainer
Nut
Packed Column Inlet, Replacing the Septum
Caution
Turn off the detector (particularly a TCD or NPD!) before interrupting
column flow.
159
Preventive Maintenance
Packed column inlet
Caution
Column flow is interrupted while changing septa; since some columns
may be damaged at elevated temperature without carrier flow, cool the
oven to ambient before proceeding.
WARNING
Exercise care! The oven and/or inlet or detector fittings may be hot
enough to cause burns.
Turn off carrier flow and decrease head pressure to zero. Remove the
septum retainer nut and old septum. Insert a new septum. Replace the
septum retainer nut, tightening it to finger•tightness(as tight as possible
by hand without using any kind of tool). Do not overtighten; the retainer
nut is spring•loadedto provide sufficient pressure for sealing. Restore
carrier flow.
Insert/liner care
Cleaning inlet inserts and/or liners is discussed under Liner and/or
insert care, later in this chapter.
Leaks
Leaks in the gas plumbing system can affect chromatographic results
dramatically. The following procedure checks the flow system up to but
not including the column connection. If this portion of the system proves
to be leak free, refer to procedures later in this chapter to leak•checkthe
detector.
1. Turn off detectors. As necessary, set oven and heated zone
temperatures to ambient and allow zones to cool. Turn off gas supplies
at their sources.
2. Remove any installed column and cap the inlet at its column fitting.
3. Turn on gas to the inlet at its source and adjust its supply pressure to
344 kPa (50 psi).
160
Preventive Maintenance
Packed column inlet
4. Fully open the mass flow controller counterclockwise and wait 1 to
2 minutes to ensure equilibrium.
5. Turn off gas to the inlet at its source.
6. Wait 10 minutes while observing carrier source pressure. If it drops
less than 7 to 14 kPa (1 to 2 psi), the system (through the inlet
column fitting) is considered leak free.
Evidence of leakage requires the inlet system be leak•checked.
Repressurize the system as necessary, and
C
Caution
Use a suitable leak•detectionfluid to check for leakage fittings.
Correct or replace leaking fittings as needed.
Leak•detectionfluids often leave contaminating residues; after each
application, the area checked should be rinsed with CH3OH (methanol)
and allowed to dry.
C
After verifying fittings are leak•free,there are two locations at the
inlet itself where leakage may occur: at the septum, and at the
column connection.
-
The column connection is checked using a leak•detectionfluid.
-
The septum is checked with a bubble flow meter by pressing its
rubber inlet tube tightly onto the needle entrance in the septum
retainer nut or simply replacing the septum.
161
Preventive Maintenance
Packed column inlet
Figure 8-3
Packed Column Inlet, Leak-Checking the Septum
Cleaning
Turn off the heated zone for the inlet and allow it to cool.
Remove the septum retainer nut and septum; remove also the column
and inlet liner. Using a suitable light source, illuminate the inside of the
inlet from inside the oven while looking through the inlet from the top. If
there is evidence of contamination or deposits, the inlet should be
cleaned.
Use a swab and an appropriate solvent to scrub interior walls until
deposits are removed. A suitable wire may be used to dislodge solid
particles carefully. Dry thoroughly with compressed, filtered, dry air or
N1 before reassembling.
WARNING
162
To avoid possible eye injury, wear eye protection when using
compressed gas.
Preventive Maintenance
Split/splitless capillary inlets
Split/splitless capillary inlets
Changing septa
For a conventional disk•typeseptum, lifetime is dependent upon needle
quality; needles should be sharply pointed and free of burrs or rough
surfaces.
Choice of septum material is less critical than with a packed column inlet
since the septum is continually purged. Thus, septa can be chosen
primarily for durability. Septa, 11 mm (Part No. 5181•1263,package of
25) are recommended.
Note that regardless of the material, septa must be clean and free of
particulate matter.
WARNING
Exercise care! The oven and/or inlet or detector fittings may be hot
enough to cause burns.
Caution
If operating in split mode, carrier gas pressure must be reduced before
opening the inlet. If not done, pressure may blow insert packing out of
the inlet, altering its characteristics.
Caution
Column flow is interrupted while changing septa; since capillary
columns may be damaged at elevated temperature without carrier flow,
cool the oven to ambient before proceeding.
163
Preventive Maintenance
Split/splitless capillary inlets
1. Loosen and remove the septum retainer nut. Remove and discard the
old septum, found either in the top of the inlet or inside the septum
retainer nut.
Figure 8-4
Capillary Inlet
Septum Replacement, Split/Splitless and Split-Only Capillary Inlet
2. The new septum is placed in the top of the inlet base. Make sure that
sealing surfaces at the top of the inlet and inside the retainer nut are
clean (no particulate matter).
3. Replace the septum retainer nut, tightening it to finger•tightness(as
tight as possible by hand without using any kind of tool). Do not
overtighten; the retainer nut is spring•loadedto provide sufficient
pressure for sealing.
Insert care
Cleaning inlet inserts is discussed under Liner and/or insert care, later
in this chapter.
164
Preventive Maintenance
Split/splitless capillary inlets
Leaks
For proper inlet operation, it is essential the entire system be leak•tight.
The following procedure should be performed in initial checkout, or any
time a leak is suspected.
1. Switch off detector!
2. Install an inlet plug (a paper clip or similar•gaugewire) in the same
manner as a capillary column.
Figure 8-5
Capillary Inlet Plug Installed for Leak Test
3. Adjust the split•flowflow controller to about 60 ml/min.
4. Adjust or set the column head pressure to obtain a column pressure
of 138 kPa (20 psi).
gold
INJ B PRES
2
0
ENTER
Set inlet B pressure to 20 psi.
5. Shut off septum purge or cap the septum purge vent with a suitable
swagelok fitting. Verify that it is shut off with a soap film (bubble)
flow meter.
165
Preventive Maintenance
Split/splitless capillary inlets
6. Turn off flow to the inlet by turning off carrier gas at the flow
controller (fully clockwise, turning it only until it bottoms, and then
no further).
7. Adjust the back pressure regulator clockwise, an additional 1/4•turn
or set the electronic pressure control to 145 kPa (21 psi) and observe
column pressure at the gauge for about ten minutes.
If the system is leak•free,pressure will remain between 131 and 138 kPa
(19 to 20 psi); if it drops, a leak exists. If there is leakage, turn on the
carrier gas supply and
C
Caution
Use a suitable leak•detectionfluid to check appropriate plumbing
connections behind the flow panel and onto the supply itself. Repair
or replace fittings and components as necessary.
Leak•detectionfluids often leave contaminating residues: After each
application, the area checked should be rinsed with CH3OH (methanol)
and allowed to dry.
C
Check the inlet itself at three possible locations:
-
The septum.
-
The column connection.
-
The seal (O•ring)around the insert retainer nut.
Note: The following checks may be done at any time during normal
operation without either disconnecting the column or sealing the inlet.
Simply pressurize the system and check for overall leak•down.
C
166
Check for septum leakage by using a bubble flow meter: press its
inlet tube onto the top of the inlet needle guide (septum retainer nut).
Making sure the tube is flush with the surface of the inlet, check the
bubble meter for evidence of leakage. Replace the septum if leakage is
observed.
Preventive Maintenance
Split/splitless capillary inlets
C
Use leak detection fluid to check for leakage at the column nut. If
leakage is observed, try tightening the nut first. If leakage continues,
replace the ferrule.
Note that if the inlet is hot, leak detection fluid may boil, giving false
indication of a leak.
C
If the septum and column nut prove to be leak•free,replace the seal
(O•ring)on the inlet insert.
Repressurize the system and check again for overall system
leak•down.
Figure 8-6
Flow Module:
Split/Splitless
Capillary Inlet
Location of the Split/Splitless Capillary Inlet Solenoid Valve
167
Preventive Maintenance
Split/splitless capillary inlets
Figure 8-7
Solenoid Valve
Assembly
Solenoid Valve, Split/Splitless Capillary Inlet
Cleaning
Turn off the heated zone for the inlet and allow it to cool.
Remove septum retainer nut, septum, insert retainer nut, and inlet
insert; also remove the column. Using a suitable light source, illuminate
the inside of the inlet. If there is evidence of contamination or deposits,
the inlet should be cleaned.
Use a swab and an appropriate solvent to scrub interior walls until
deposits are removed. A suitable wire may be used to dislodge solid
particles carefully. Dry thoroughly with compressed, filtered, dry air or
N1 before reassembling. Vent lines can be removed for cleaning or
replaced as necessary.
Compressed, dry air or N1 may also be used to blow out any loose
contaminating particles.
WARNING
168
To avoid possible eye injury, wear eye protection when using
compressed gas.
Preventive Maintenance
Liner and/or insert care
Liner and/or insert care
Regardless of the inlet system, inlet inserts and/or liners must be kept
clean for optimum performance, particularly their interiors from which
contamination may enter the column and/or interact with sample
components.
Note: Excessive contamination anywhere on an insert or liner should be
avoided, particularly its interior.
Ideally, clean replacement liners and/or inserts should be available for
quick exchange when necessary.
Liners and/or inserts are treated differently, depending upon whether
they are of glass or metal.
Glass inserts
WARNING
C
If a split insert (for a split/splitless, or split•only, capillary inlet
system) is to be cleaned, remove its packing.
C
Because contamination is often in the form of carbonaceous materials
(insoluble in organic solvents), immersion in concentrated chromic
acid (for up to 24 hours) is recommended as the first cleaning step.
Concentrated chromic acid is highly toxic and corrosive. Observe proper
safety precautions.
C
After chromic acid, inserts are rinsed in distilled H1O, CH2OH
(methanol) and (CH2)1CO (acetone), and then dried thoroughly in an
oven at 105^C.
C
After washing and drying, a small brush or suitable wire may be used
to dislodge solids from interior surfaces, followed by using
compressed, filtered, dry air or N1 to blow any loose material out of
the insert.
C
Finally, the glass surface should be deactivated using any
recommended procedure.
169
Preventive Maintenance
Liner and/or insert care
Repacking a split insert
Since, for a split insert, its packing material is discarded in cleaning, the
insert must be repacked.
Note: Repacking with small•diameterglass beads is not recommended:
they are usually contaminated with metal filings due to sieving
procedures used. If they must be used, thorough cleaning (chemical and
physical) is required.
C
Use a fresh, small amount of a conventional coated packing such as
2% OV•1on 100/120 mesh, Chromosorb W•HP.
C
Packing is held in place between plugs of silanized glass wool (Part
No. 8500•1572).
Figure 8-8
Glass
Wool
35 mm
Packing
Packing Requirements, Split Insert
C
170
To ensure compatibility with standard 2•inchsyringe needles, there
should be at least 35 mm between the top of the insert and the top of
the packed section.
Preventive Maintenance
Flame ionization detector (FID)
Metal inserts and/or liners
C
Do not use concentrated acid(s) on metal inserts or liners!
C
The insert is washed with noncorrosive solvents (H1O, CH2OH
(methanol), (CH2)1CO (acetone), CH1Cl1 (methylene chloride), etc),
and then dried thoroughly in an oven at 105^C.
C
After washing and drying, a suitable wire may be used to dislodge
solids from interior surfaces, followed by compressed, filtered, dry air
or N1 to blow any loose material out of the insert or liner.
C
For any of the inserts used with the dedicated on•columncapillary
inlet, use a stainless steel cleaning wire (Part No. 19245•20570;
0.007•inch(0.2 mm) od, 1.5•inch(3.8 cm) long, package of 4) to
dislodge solid material.
Flame ionization detector (FID)
In addition to the detector itself, other systems associated with the
detector may also require routine maintenance.
WARNING
Flame ionization detectors use H2 gas as fuel. If H2 flow is on, and no
column is connected to the detector inlet fitting, H2 gas can flow into
the oven and create an explosion hazard. Inlet fittings must have
either a column or a cap connected at all times.
171
Preventive Maintenance
Flame ionization detector (FID)
Jet exchange/replacement
Depending upon the column type to be used, and/or analyses to be
performed, exchanging the jet in an FID may be necessary.
Figure 8-9
Flame Ionization Detector
Note: The proper jet must be installed prior to column installation.
If switching from packed column operation to capillary operation, the jet
for capillary use must be installed prior to column installation.
Depending upon the column type to be installed (packed versus
capillary), the proper jet must be installed. Table 8•1lists available jets:
172
Preventive Maintenance
Flame ionization detector (FID)
Table 8-1. Available FID/NPD Jets
Part No.
Jet Tip ID (inch)*
Use
18789-80070
0.030
Packed Column Only
(FID only: Simulated Distillation,
TCD-to-FID series operation)
18710-20119
0.018
Packed Column
(Standard, FID and NPD)
19244-80560
0.011
Capillary Column
(FID and NPD)
(FID: high sensitivity, packed column)
* Measured at the jet tip.
NOTE: The 0.011-inch jet optimizes performance with capillary columns.
If used with packed columns, FID flame-out may occur with solvent peaks.
Because jet exchange requires disassembling the collector assembly from
the detector base, it is also a convenient opportunity to inspect the
detector collector and base for contaminating deposits. Proceed to the
next section to disassemble the detector, to exchange the jet, and to
perform any necessary cleaning.
Cleaning
Both the jet and the collector bore require occasional cleaning to remove
deposits (usually consisting of white silica from column bleed, or black,
carbonaceous soot). Such deposits reduce sensitivity and cause
chromatographic noise and spikes.
173
Preventive Maintenance
Flame ionization detector (FID)
Figure 8-10
Collector Assembly
Cover Removed, Flame Ionization Detector (FID)
Turn off the detector and its heated zone; also turn off gases to the
detector (particularly H1!). Allow time for the detector zone to cool. Open
the top cover at its front edge to access the detector.
1. Using a Pozidriv•typescrewdriver, remove three screws around the
detector cover, and remove the cover.
2. Remove the FID collector assembly by pulling it straight up.
3. Use a cleaning brush (Part No. 8710•1346)to scrub the interior of the
collector.
Using compressed air or N1, blow out loose material from inside the
collector.
WARNING
174
Wear proper eye protection when using compressed gas for cleaning
purposes.
Preventive Maintenance
Flame ionization detector (FID)
Wash the collector in distilled water, hexane, and/or CH2OH
(methanol). Dry in an oven at 70^C for at least 1/2•hour.
Figure 8-11
FID Collector Assembly
4. Using a 1/4•inchhex nut driver, unscrew (counterclockwise) and
remove the jet from the detector base.
175
Preventive Maintenance
Flame ionization detector (FID)
Figure 8-12
Je
t
FID Jet
5. The jet exists in three sizes: 0.030•,0.018•,or 0.011•inch.Use a
cleaning wire (0.016•inchod, 12•inchlength, Part No. 18765•20070)to
loosen/remove internal deposits. Be careful in using the wire with the
0.011•inchjet.
Wash both the internal bore and exterior of the jet with a 1:1 (V/V)
solution of CH2OH (methanol) and (CH2)1CO (acetone).
6. Clean the detector base cavity using solvents, a swab, and compressed
air or N1.
7. Reinstall the jet, tightening it to finger•tightness,and then an
additional 1/8•turn.
Caution
Do not overtighten the jet! Overtightening may permanently deform
and damage the jet, the detector base, or both.
8. Replace the collector, being certain the spring contact on the
interconnect is in good contact with the groove on the collector.
176
Preventive Maintenance
Flame ionization detector (FID)
Figure 8-13
Sprin
g
Interconnect
FID Signal Board Interconnect
9. Reassemble the detector cover.
Ignition problems
Before proceeding, make sure that gases are plumbed correctly, the
system is leak•free,flow rates are set correctly, and external lines have
been well purged.
Note: If Helium is being used as carrier/makeup gas, be aware that
flame lighting problems may occur at very high flow rates ( > 50 ml/min).
If problems arise with He carrier/makeup gas, try using the lowest flow
rate possible, consistent with obtaining good chromatography.
Assuming these things are correct, that the detector is contaminant•free,
and that the ignitor is operational, if ignition problems persist, a
damaged jet may be the cause.
Remove and inspect the jet, looking for galled or scored sealing surfaces,
burrs, a bent or crimped tube, etc. Even if no external damage is visible,
the jet may be damaged internally by overtightening. For this reason, it
177
Preventive Maintenance
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
is best to have a new jet on hand to exchange if a damaged jet is
suspected.
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
In addition to the detector itself, other systems associated with the
detector may also require routine maintenance.
WARNING
Nitrogen•phosphorusdetectors use H2 gas as fuel. If H2 flow is on, and
no column is connected to the detector inlet fitting, H2 gas can flow into
the oven and create an explosion hazard. Inlet fittings must have either
a column or a cap connected at all times.
Cleaning
Both the jet and the detector base require occasional cleaning to remove
deposits (usually consisting of white silica from column bleed). Such
deposits reduce sensitivity and cause chromatographic noise and spikes.
Figure 8-14
Flame Ionization and Nitrogen-Phosphorus Detectors
178
Preventive Maintenance
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
Turn off the detector and its heated zone; also turn off gases to the
detector (particularly H1! ). Allow time for the detector zone to cool. Open
the top cover at its front edge to access the detector.
1. Using a Pozidriv•typescrewdriver, remove three screws around the
detector cover and carefully remove the cover (see Caution below).
Note that the transformer supplying power to the active element is
secured to the inside of the cover. It may be left in place, but be
careful not to stress its leads, either those to the collector, or those to
the detector signal board.
Caution
Figure 8-15
NPD Collector Assembly
Active Element
Active Element Transformer
NPD Collector and Active Element Power Supply Transformer
WARNING
Wear proper eye protection when using compressed gas for cleaning
purposes.
179
Preventive Maintenance
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
2. a. Using compressed air or N1, blow out loose material from inside
the collector. Do this carefully so as not to disturb the active
element.
Caution
Do not attempt to clean the inside of the collector by inserting objects
such as wires or brushes; to do so may damage the active element.
b. Wash the collector in hexane or isooctane. Then carefully dry the
collector using compressed air or N1.
Caution
Avoid polar solvents, especially water; polar solvents may dissolve the
rubidium salt coating on the active element.
Note: Avoid touching the lower end of the collector itself (end nearest the
jet); fingerprints and/or other contamination may cause baseline drift and
noise.
3. If worn or cracked, replace the collector sealing gasket (Part No.
0905•0915;see Figure 8•11).
4. Using a 1/4•inchhex nut driver, unscrew (counterclockwise) and
remove the jet from the detector base (see Figure 8•12).
5. The jet exists in two sizes: 0.018•or 0.011•inch.Use a cleaning wire
(0.016•inchod, 12•inchlength, Part No. 18765•20070)to
loosen/remove internal deposits. Be careful using the wire with the
0.011•inchjet.
Wash both the internal bore and exterior of the jet with a 1:1 (V/V)
solution of CH2OH (methanol) and (CH2)1CO (acetone). Dry the jet
with compressed, clean air or N1 and heat in an oven at 70^C for at
least 1/2•hour.
6. Clean the detector base cavity using solvents, a swab, and compressed
air or N1.
7. Reinstall the jet, tightening it to finger•tightness,and then an
additional 1/8•turn.
180
Preventive Maintenance
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
Caution
Do not overtighten the jet! Overtightening may permanently deform
and damage the jet, the detector base, or both.
8. Replace the NPD collector, and transformer and cover assembly. Be
certain the spring contact to the signal board is in good contact with
the groove on the collector (see Figure 8•13).During reassembly do
not touch the lower portion of the collector assembly because
fingerprints and/or other contamination may (will) cause baseline
drift and/or noise.
Removing/replacing the NPD collector
Figure 8-16
Collector Body
NPD Collar
NPD Active Element
Note Position of Collector
Cross-Section, Assembled Type A NPD Collector
181
Preventive Maintenance
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
Figure 8-17
Type A
Type B
Detector
Cover
Transformer
Brass
Collar
Teflon Spacer
Transformer Strap
Steel Spring
Spacer
Collector
O-ring
Collector Body
NPD Collector and Collector Assembly
Whenever the collector must be removed from the detector cover of a Type
A NPD, the following procedure should be used:
Note: During disassembly do not touch the lower portion of the collector
assembly. Use clean, lint•freegloves to prevent contamination of the
assembly. Suitable gloves (HP Part No. 8650•0030)are available.
1. Following the procedure under Cleaning, remove the collector
assembly from the detector base. A 1.5•mmhex wrench is required for
disassembly.
2. Loosen the setscrew in the brass collar at the top of the collector
assembly. Remove the transformer lead from the collar; then remove
the collar itself.
The remaining transformer lead does not need to be disconnected to
remove the collector. However, if desired, it is easily removed by
loosening the setscrew in the stainless steel portion of the collector
body.
182
Preventive Maintenance
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
3. Remove the Teflon spacer and stainless steel spring spacer from the
top of the collector body.
4. Loosen the setscrew in the Teflon portion of the collector body.
5. Grasping the collector at its top end (to avoid contaminating its
detecting end), withdraw it from the collector body. Some resistance to
this occurs until the O•ringseal becomes free.
6. Noting the following, reassemble in the reverse order:
C
The O•ringseal should be placed onto the collector. The collector is then
inserted into the collector body from the top. Insert it only far enough to
extend a few millimeters past the bottom face of the collector body.
C
The stainless steel spring spacer must be installed with its tabs toward
the collector body (against the stainless steel portion).
C
The Teflon spacer must be mounted with its flat (ungrooved) side toward
the collector body (against the stainless steel spring spacer).
7. Inspect the brass collar; note that the hole through it is slightly larger
on one side than the other. Install the brass collar onto the end of the
collector so the side with the larger hole is toward the collector body.
8. Press the assembly together firmly by pressing down on the brass
collar while holding the collector body. Make sure the sealing O•ring
has seated itself into the collector body.
9. While holding the assembly together, note Figure 8•16to verify the
collector is correctly positioned. If so, tighten the setscrew in the
collector body to secure the collector.
If the collector is extended too far beyond the lower end of the
collector body, it is likely the brass collar is installed upside down.
Reposition the collector in the collector body, reinstall the brass collar,
and press the assembly together again.
10. While holding the assembly together, replace the transformer lead
into the brass collar (loosening the setscrew further may be
necessary). Orient the collar so the lead is adjacent to the transformer
183
Preventive Maintenance
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
lead on the collector body. Tighten the setscrew to secure the wire and
collar.
Type B NPD transformer/collector assembly
Figure 8-18.
Type B NPD Detector Assembly
Remove the transformer/collector assembly from the Type B NPD cover
as follows:
Caution
During disassembly do not touch the lower portion of the collector
assembly. Use clean, lint•freegloves to prevent contamination of the
assembly. Suitable gloves (HP Part No. 8650•0030)are available.
1. Remove the two screws holding the transformer inside the cover.
2. Remove the two screws holding the collector insulator to the cover.
These are removed from the top side.
3. Slide the transformer wires through the slot in the cover by
maneuvering the uninsulated portion of the wires to the slotted hole.
184
Preventive Maintenance
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
4. Remove the collector from the collector assembly as follows:
C
Loosen the 1.5•mmscrew holding the transformer secondary wire to the
top of the collector and disconnect the wire. The hex key wrench required
is a 1.5•mmsize and was provided with the instrument.
C
Loosen the 1.5 hex key screw holding the brass connector to the collector
top and remove the brass connector.
C
Remove the Teflon spacer and the stainless steel spacer/spring from the
top of the collector body.
C
Loosen the 1.5•mmhex key screw holding the collector into the collector
body and pull the collector out the top of the collector body. Grasp only
the top portion of the collector to avoid contamination. If you plan to
reinstall the collector, lay it aside on a clean surface until ready for
reassembly. See below for cleaning instructions.
5. The jet can be removed for cleaning or replacement (if the jet is very
dirty it should be replaced) with the 1/4•in.nutdriver supplied with
the instrument. Using the nutdriver, unscrew (turn jet
counterclockwise) and remove the jet from the detector base.
Caution
C
The jet exists in two sizes: 0.018•in.and 0.011•in.id. A cleaning wire
may be used to help remove deposits from the bore of the jet (jet cleaning
wire, Part No. 18765•20070is 12 inches of 0.016 od wire that can be used
for this purpose).
C
Wash both the bore and the exterior of the jet with a 1:1 (V/V) solution of
methanol and acetone. The jet may also be cleaned in an ultrasonic bath
in the same solution. It is best to dry the jet and bake it out in an oven
(70 to 150^C) before replacing it in the detector. After cleaning, apply a
small amount of lubricant to the threads of the jet. The lubricant is
necessary to prevent galling of the threads in the detector base.
C
The detector base may be cleaned using solvents (such as used for the
jet), a cleaning swab, or wire brush, and dried with low•pressure
compressed air.
The detector should be cold and the instrument unplugged to avoid the
danger of the flammable solvents flashing and possibly igniting the
fumes.
185
Preventive Maintenance
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
Reinstallation
1. Reinstall the jet in the detector base (using a 1/4•inchnut driver).
Make sure that the threads are clean and free of burrs that could
cause damage. If there is any binding, the cause should be
determined and corrected before proceeding. If a torque wrench is
available, no more than 1 Nm (newton meter) of torque should be
used to install a new jet.
Caution
Do not overtighten the jet! Overtightening may permanently damage
the jet, the detector base, or both.
2. Cleaning and reassembly of the collector/collector assembly is as
follows:
C
Caution
Do not attempt to clean out the inside of the collector by inserting
objects such as wires or brushes•to do so may damage the active
element.
C
186
Powdery deposits may be removed from the interior of the collector by
gently blowing out the loose material with low•pressurecompressed air
or nitrogen.
Inspect the collector assembly to make sure that the active element is
centered in the tube and is not shorted to the side and that it is
positioned horizontally.
Preventive Maintenance
Nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD)
C
All collectors should be washed off with GE grade hexane or a similar
solvent before reinstalling in the instrument to remove any grease,
fingerprints, or other contaminants. Soak the entire collector in a vial of
hexane for several minutes (2-10). Remove the collector, touching only
the top portion, and scrub the lower, outer collector tube with a clean
wipe soaked with hexane. Dry off the excess hexane solvent.
C
Place a new O•ringon the collector and place it into the collector body
assembly from the top. Carefully position the collector tube so that the
bevel on the outer tube is positioned properly in relation to the bottom
edge of the collector body. Tighten the collector holding screw firmly
against the collector tube. This connection is both a mechanical
connection and an electrical contact.
C
Complete the collector assembly as follows: Wear clean, lint•freegloves
to avoid contaminating the collector assembly; (1) make sure the O•ring
is depressed into the groove in the collector body; (2) examine the
collector sealing gasket for wear or cracks and replace if necessary; (3)
place the stainless steel spacer/spring onto the collector/body assembly;
(4) place the Teflon spacer on top of the spring•the side with the groove
faces up; (5) if necessary, replace the bottom transformer secondary wire
into the hole in the collector body and tighten the setscrew onto the wire
connector.
C
Attach the brass collar to the top of the collector tube and tighten the
collar•holdingscrew. The smaller hole in the brass collar faces up.
C
Insert the top transformer secondary wire into the slot in the brass collar
and tighten the wire•holdingscrew on the bare wire. This must be a
good electrical connection, but take care and do not completely cut the
wire with the screw.
C
Carefully position the transformer/collector body assembly into the cover
and fasten the Teflon insulator of the collector body in place with the two
screws. Do not overtighten the screws into the Teflon and strip the
threads.
C
Carefully position the transformer with both end covers in place between
the threaded standoffs and fasten in place with the two screws. Place the
assembled detector cover in place onto the detector base and fasten in
place with the three screws.
187
Preventive Maintenance
Electron capture detector (ECD)
Electron capture detector (ECD)
Frequency test
Note: For high sensitivity operation, and starting from a cold system, 24
hours may be necessary before baseline is completely stabilized. Use
low•bleedsepta and condition a new septum prior to use in an unused
inlet for several hours with 1 to 5 ml/min carrier flow rate.
Using normal operating conditions, and allowing at least two hours after
the last sample was injected, enter the following:
DET
SIG 1
A
( or
( or
)
ON
) (
A
B
SIG 2
or
B
)
If the displayed value exceeds 100 (1000 Hz), indicating a high
background signal, investigate the following possibilities:
C
Contaminated carrier gas trap(s) and/or supply
C
Insufficient column conditioning
C
Contaminated detector
C
Column, inlet, and/or septum bleed
C
Leaks
C
Anode insulation leakage
Carrier gas evaluation
Because of its very high sensitivity, the ECD is particularly prone to
contamination problems, including contaminants entering the system via
the carrier gas source.
The following procedure should be performed whenever a new carrier gas
source is installed:
1. With the instrument on and operating normally, cool the oven to
ambient, turn off the detector, turn off carrier flow to the detector, and
188
Preventive Maintenance
Electron capture detector (ECD)
remove the column to the ECD. If a capillary column was installed,
remove also the makeup gas adapter in the detector base.
2. Disconnect the carrier gas source line at its fitting on the HP 5890.
3. Using a Vespel ferrule, and adapters as necessary, connect the carrier
source line to the detector base, including any traps in the line.
4. Set carrier pressure to about 7 kPa (1 psi) and check for flow through
the detector.
5. Leaving the oven door open, enter any temperature for the detector
up to 250^C.
6. Enter the following:
DET
SIG 1
A
( or
( or
SIG 2
B
)
ON
) (
A
or
B
)
7. Within 15 minutes, displayed signal values should be within the
range 40 to 100 (400 to 1000 Hz); there may be downward drift.
8. If displayed values are greater than this range, trap(s) may be at
fault. Connect the carrier gas supply line directly to the detector base
and repeat the test.
If values are now within range, trap(s) are likely at fault; if still out of
range, the carrier gas supply itself may be contaminated.
Leaks
Note: This test assumes that flow system components upstream from
the detector (inlet, column) are leak•free.
1. Set inlet, oven, and detector temperatures to ambient and allow time
for cooling. Turn off the detector, and turn off its carrier flow.
2. Use a vent plug (Part No. 5060•9055)to cap the ECD exhaust vent.
3. Set carrier gas pressure at the inlet to the instrument to 103 kPa
(15 psi). Open the carrier gas mass flow controller fully to ensure that
189
Preventive Maintenance
Electron capture detector (ECD)
flow through the system is available. Allow time for the system to
become fully pressurized.
4. Close carrier gas flow at its source and monitor system pressure.
5. The system may be assumed to be leak•freeif no pressure drop is
observed over a 10•minuteperiod.
6. If leakage is observed, use an appropriate leak•detectingfluid to
check for leaks at detector column fittings and at the plugged vent.
7. The detector body itself is not a likely source of leaks; in any case,
it cannot be disassembled without special license from the Nuclear
Regulatory Commission or Agreement State Licensing Agency (USA
only).
Thermal cleaning
Caution
Detector disassembly and/or cleaning procedures other than thermal
should be performed only by personnel trained and licensed
appropriately to handle radioactive materials. Trace amounts of
radioactive 63Ni may be removed during other procedures, causing
possible hazardous exposure to µ•and X•radiation(bremsstrahlung).
Cleaning by bake•out of the detector is performed only after verification
that carrier supply gas and flow system components, are leak•and
contaminant•free.
WARNING
190
To prevent possible hazardous contamination of the area with
radioactive material, the detector exhaust vent always must be
connected to a fume hood, or otherwise vented in compliance with the
latest revision of Title 10, CFR, Part 20, or with state regulations with
which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has entered into an
agreement (USA only). For other countries, consult with the
appropriate agency for equivalent requirements.
Preventive Maintenance
Electron capture detector (ECD)
Packed column:
1. Close the anode purge on/off valve.
2. Remove the column from the detector; install in its place an empty
glass column.
3. Establish normal carrier gas flow rate (20 to 30 ml/min); set oven
temperature to 250^C.
4. Open the anode purge on/off valve.
5. Heat the ECD to 350^C. Allow thermal cleaning to continue for 3 to
12 hours. If the displayed value does not drop below 60 (600Hz),
indicating a high background signal, it is recommended that the
detector be returned to Hewlett-Packard for cleaning.
Capillary column:
1. Close the makeup gas and anode purge on/off valve.
2. Remove the column from the makeup gas detector.
3. Install a paper clip or similar gauge wire in the same manner as a
capillary column.
4. Open the makeup gas on/off valve and establish a makeup gas flow
rate of 50 to 60 ml/min.
5. Open the anode purge on/off valve.
6. Set the oven temperature to 250^C.
7. Heat the ECD to 350^C. Allow thermal cleaning to continue for 3 to
12 hours. If the displayed value does not drop below 60 (600Hz),
indicating a high background signal, it is recommended that the
detector be returned to Hewlett•Packardfor cleaning.
191
Preventive Maintenance
Thermal conductivity detector (TCD)
Radioactivity leak test (wipe test)
ECDs must be tested for radioactive leakage at least every six months.
Records of tests and results must be maintained for possible inspection by
the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and/or responsible state agency.
More frequent tests may be conducted when necessary.
The procedure used is the wipe test. A wipe test kit (Part No.
18713•60050)is supplied with each new ECD. Its contents are listed in
Table 8•2:
Table 8-2. HP 5890 Radioactivity Leak Test (Wipe Test) Kit
Item
Description
Part No.
1
Envelope
05750-80036
4
2
Envelope
05890-90920
4
3
Information Card
18713-90040
12
4
Filter Paper, Circular
3150-0429
12
5
Service Note
5950-3586
1
6
Plastic Bag
9222-0308
12
Qty
Thermal conductivity detector (TCD)
Cleaning
Cleaning by bake•out of the detector is performed only after verification
that carrier supply gas and flow system components, are leak•and
contaminant•free.
1. Turn off the detector!
DET
A
( or
B
)
OFF
2. Remove the column from the detector; cap the detector column fitting.
192
Preventive Maintenance
Flame photometric detector
Caution
Failure to turn off the TCD and to cap the detector column fitting may
cause irreparable damage to the filament due to O2 entering the
detector.
3. Establish normal reference gas flow rate (20 to 30 ml/min) through
the detector (set oven temperature to 250^C).
4. Heat the detector to 400^C; allow thermal cleaning to continue for
several hours.
Flame photometric detector
Cleaning/replacing FPD windows, filters, seals
Column bleed and/or effluent can contaminate the first quartz window
(heat shield) nearest the detector module. Dust, fingerprints, atmospheric
contaminants can dirty both quartz windows, the filter, and/or the
photomultiplier tube (PMT) window. Contamination anywhere along the
light path between flame and PMT can reduce detector sensitivity.
Turn the detector off.
Turn off hydrogen, air (or oxygen), and auxiliary nitrogen supplies to the
detector (manifold on•offvalves); for convenience, carrier flow and other
temperature zones may be left on and at their respective setpoints. Allow
time for the detector module to cool.
Remove the PMT assembly from the detector module and remove the
filter. Use lint•freelens tissue to clean the filter (both sides) carefully, and
the PMT window seen inside the housing. Be careful not to scratch
surfaces; do not use any cleaning fluid that might leave a film upon
drying.
Inspect the filter; chips, scratches, and/or cracks in the light path scatter
light, reducing detector sensitivity. Replace filter(s) as necessary (sulfur
mode filter, Part No. 19256•80000;phosphorus mode filter, Part No.
19256•80010).
193
Preventive Maintenance
Flame photometric detector
Likewise, damage to the PMT window cannot be tolerated; if necessary,
replace the PMT or call Hewlett•Packardsupport.
1. Remove four screws to remove the PMT adapter flange. Remove the
adapter carefully; a quartz window is exposed and may fall out. The
window is cleaned in a manner similar to the filter.
2. Remove four more screws to remove the stainless steel coupling.
Remove the coupling carefully; the remaining quartz window may fall
out. Clean the window in a manner similar to the filter.
Note placement and types of seals found on disassembled parts. Seals
should be replaced on reassembly. (See Figure 8•21for seal part
numbers.)
Inspect the windows; chips missing, scratches, and/or cracks in the light
path scatter light, reducing detector sensitivity. Replace window(s) if
necessary (first window•Part No. 19256•80030;second window•Part
No. 19256•80060.)
Reassemble parts in reverse order, making sure all seals are of the proper
type and in their respective proper locations. Tighten screws firmly to
ensure gas•tightand light•tightseals. If the filter has a silvered side, it
should face the flame (indicator arrows (>) on edge of filter should point
toward the PMT).
194
Preventive Maintenance
Flame photometric detector
Figure 8-20.
10
8
A
B
C
9
11
5
7
4
6
x
a
3 to 6 mm
O-ring
(8)
2
1
D
16
E
6
7
15
19
20
21
14
12
13
22
4 Places
3
27
Subassembly Parts Identification
195
Preventive Maintenance
Flame photometric detector
Figure 8-21.
F
25
23
17
26
29
28
24 (4
30
Item
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Description
Weldment, Base
Gigabore Liner/Ferrule Assembly (see note)
Lockwasher
Lower Heater Block
Weldment, Transfer Tube
Nut, Brass, 1/4-inch id
Ferrule, Vespel, 1/4-inch id
O-ring-Kalrez, Transfer Tube
Weldment, Jet
O-ring-Kalrez, Jet Cartridge
Heater/Sensor Assembly
Spacer, Ignitor
Glow Plug
O-ring-Kalrez, Ignitor
Weldment, Block
Exit Tube Assembly
O-ring, Orange, 1.05-inch id (Silicone)
Drip Tube, Silicone Rubber
Gasket, Head Shield
Window, First Heat Shield
Disk, Heat Shield
Coupling, Stainless Steel
Window, Second Heat Shield
Screw, M3 x 25 mm long
O-ring, Orange, 0.926-inch id (Silicone)
Flange Adapter
Screw, M3 x 12 mm long
Flange Ring
Clamp
O-ring, Brown, 1.239-inch id (Viton)
Part No.
19256-80540
19256-60590
2190-0108
19256-20500
19256-80550
0100-0056
0100-1061
0905-1101
19256-80580
0905-1103
19256-60540
19256-20590
0854-0141
0905-1102
19256-80560
19256-20700
0905-1104
19256-20730
19256-80040
19256-80030
19256-20580
19256-20550
19256-80060
0515-0065
0905-0955
19256-20510
0515-0911
19256-00200
19256-00090
0905-1100
Subassembly Parts Identification
196
Qty
1
1
4
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
4
1
1
1
11
G
H
Places)
Preventive Maintenance
Flame photometric detector
NOTE: Once installed, the ferrule cannot be removed from the liner for
reuse unless both parts are still warm.
Cleaning/replacing the FPD jet
If a response problem is encountered (sensitivity, noise, selectivity), the
FPD jet should be inspected for deposits and, if necessary, cleaned or
replaced. To service the jet properly, the detector module should be
removed from the instrument, followed by appropriate service:
1. Turn off power to the gas chromatograph and disconnect the main
power cord. Remove the detector covers.
2. Turn off hydrogen, air (or oxygen) and auxiliary nitrogen supplies to
the detector (manifold on/off valves). For convenience, carrier flow
may be left on. Allow time for heated zones to cool to safe
temperatures.
3. Remove the photomultiplier tube (PMT) assembly from the detector
module; also remove the filter. Set both in a safe place. Also, remove
exhaust tubing (1/4•inchswage fitting) and the chimney assembly
(two M4 screws on sides). Then loosen the U clamp that locks the
burner to support bracket (Part No. 19256•00080),and disconnect the
jet assembly from the transfer line tube. Carefully lift the detector
module vertically from the transfer tube so as not to damage the fused
silica liner. See Caution and WARNING notes which follow.
Note: It is unnecessary to disconnect any plumbing, ignitor leads, or
the heater/sensor. Leave all attached and disconnect the detector
block from the transfer line at the 1/4•inchswage fitting; then gently
lift block and rotate it enough to access the jet.
4. Remove and inspect the jet assembly. Use a suitable wire to remove
any deposits.
5. This is also an ideal time to inspect/clean the glow plug (see Flame
ignition problems) and inspect/clean the quartz windows (see
Cleaning/replacing windows, filter, seals).
197
Preventive Maintenance
Flame photometric detector
6. Use compressed gas, air, or N2 to blow out loose particles from the jet
and/or detector module body.
7. Inspect and clean deposits from the jet bore and from the threads
using a suitable wire. If the jet is damaged in any way, it should be
replaced. It is good practice to replace the jet rather than cleaning it,
particularly when extremely high sensitivity is required.
8. A new Kalrez O•ringseal (Part No. 0905•1103) must be used when
reinstalling the jet into the burner chamber.
9. Reassemble all parts of the detector module; reassemble the module
onto the instrument. A new Vespel ferrule (6.4 mm id, Part No.
0100•1061)should be used to seal the detector module to the transfer
line.
Caution
Be careful not to crush or side load the fused silica liner when
reinstalling the detector.
WARNING
Whenever working with exposed fused silica tubing, wear eye
protection; fragments of fused silica could be released if the fused silica
is fractured or crushed.
10. Reinstall the PMT assembly on the detector module; restore
instrument gases and power.
FPD leak testing (GC with electronic flow sensor)
If the system has an electronic flow sensor (EFS) with any FPD gas
plumbed through it (air, oxygen, hydrogen, or carrier), the system can be
checked easily and quickly. First, close all supply gases except for the one
plumbed through the EFS. Then cap off the detector exhaust tube with a
1/4•inchSwagelok plug (Part No. 0100•0196)and a 40% graphitized
Vespel ferrule (Part No. 0100•1061).
With the flow system deadheaded and one pressurized gas plumbed
through the EFS, the flow reading should drop very close to zero. If not,
198
Preventive Maintenance
Flame photometric detector
this indicates a leak in the system. Begin checking possible leak sources
and monitor the EFS to determine when the leak has been eliminated.
Possible leak sources, in order of probability are:
1. septum
2. column fittings
3. supply line swage•typeplumbing connections
4. detector block O•ringor Vespel seals
5. other system plumbing
Caution
When leak•testingthe flow system under pressure, do not exceed
210 kPa (30 psig), because higher pressures may damage the detector
block window or seals.
FPD leak testing (GC without electronic flow sensor)
If a leak is suspected in an instrument without an electronic flow sensor,
possible leak sources can be checked in the order listed (1 through 5)
above. This can be done by capping off the detector exhaust and
pressurizing the system to 140 kPa (20 psig). Then close off the supply
flow and monitor the rate of pressure drop. Pressure should drop no
more than 7 kPa (1 psig) per minute.
WARNING
If using liquid solution to locate leaks, to avoid a potential shock
hazard, place the main power switch in its off position and disconnect
the main power cord. Be careful not to spill leak solution on electrical
leads•especially the detector heater leads!
Note: Except when leak testing, it is best to leave the detector module at
operating temperature at all times (whether the flame is lit or
extinguished) to minimize thermal expansion/contraction.
199
Preventive Maintenance
Conditioning chemical traps
Conditioning chemical traps
Remove the trap from its installed location and attach it to a clean, dry
gas source (helium or nitrogen). Attach the 1/8•inchend (male) of the
chemical trap assembly to the reconditioning gas source using a graphite
or a graphitized Vespel ferrule (Part No. 0100-1 107) and swage nut (Part
No. 0100-0058), as metal type ferrules will damage the sealing surface of
the 1/8•inchadapter. Remove the O•ring(Part No. 5180•4181),as the
conditioning temperature will destroy it. Set oven temperature to 300^C.
Establish a purge gas flow of 60 to 100 ml/min overnight (sixteen hours).
200
9
Chromatographic
Troubleshooting
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Introduction
This chapter is concerned with diagnosis: the process of going from
unexpected behavior of the HP 5890 SERIES II (hereafter referred to as
HP 5890) (symptoms) to the probable location of the difficulty (causes).
Problems arise from many causes. Some of these are:
C
Electronic or mechanical failure
C
Contamination in critical areas, such as detectors
C
Incorrect or inappropriate setpoints
C
Leaks, column or septum bleed, or other chromatographic difficulties
These may interact to a bewildering degree: For example, baseline
problems may arise from any of the above areas. Accordingly, this chapter
is organized by symptoms, with reference to most probable causes.
Baseline symptoms
Position
1. Baseline not at left (lower) part of chart:
C
Check the zero of your recording device: An attenuation or range
change during the run may be responsible.
C
Check TCD signal polarity.
2. Baseline position changes suddenly during the run:
C
202
This usually results from a range or attenuation change.
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Baseline symptoms
C
It can also result from valve operations: If valves are being
switched during a run, examine the valve time program to see if
the change coincides with a valve operation.
C
This symptom also can occur if the septum suddenly begins to
leak; Avoid the problem by changing septa regularly.
C
Offset•see troubleshooting procedure for the particular detector
in use.
Wander and drift
Baseline wander or drift may occur when a flow or temperature setting is
changed. If the system is not stabilized at the new conditions before
starting a run, some baseline changes are to be expected. Cases following
assume that sufficient stabilization time has elapsed since the last
change in operating conditions.
Wander and drift are often accompanied by noise, discussed below.
1. Baseline moves steadily upscale or downscale (drift) during the run:
C
This is most frequently seen during temperature programming:
Operation with a single column (no column compensation) at
moderate to low attenuation causes this. If dual columns are used,
check that the signal mode is correct for column compensation.
C
It is also possible the compensation is insufficient (upscale
movement) or too great (downscale movement).
This cause of drift is minimized by thorough column conditioning.
Operating at lower oven temperature also helps but prolongs the
analysis. Use of a chromatographically equivalent column with
higher temperature limit is also possible.
203
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Baseline symptoms
2. Baseline is erratic, moves up and down (wander):
C
Suspect a leak in the system: Check septum condition and replace
if necessary. Check column connections.
If the leak is at the detector end of the column, retention times are
stable from run to run, but sensitivity is reduced. If it is at the
inlet end, sensitivity is reduced and retention times are delayed.
Noise
Noise is rapid vertical baseline fluctuations, broadening the baseline and
giving it a hairy appearance. Noise is different from spiking; spikes are
isolated events, rather than almost continuous, and are described on the
next page.
Some noise is inevitable with any detector. At high attenuation it is
invisible but appears as attenuation is decreased. Noise limits useful
detector sensitivity; thus, it should be minimized.
1. Noise appears suddenly on a previously clean baseline:
C
Consider all changes made recently in the system: Reduced
attenuation, for example, makes noise more apparent, though the
absolute noise level is unchanged.
C
New septa may contribute noise from bleed of low molecular
weight material. If noise decreases when inlet temperature is
lowered, this is a likely cause. Only highest quality septa should
be used.
C
Contaminated carrier gas: If a tank was replaced recently, and
the old one is available and has some gas left in it, try the older
tank to determine if noise decreases.
If the new gas is so badly contaminated it saturates traps,
changing to the old gas may not show improvement until traps are
regenerated. This problem is most common with N1 carrier gas,
since suppliers may exercise less care than with other common
carrier gases.
204
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Baseline symptoms
C
Contaminated detector gases (hydrogen and air).
C
Air currents from a fan or air conditioner blowing across the top of
the instrument may interfere with gas exiting from the detector.
This is a possible, though not very likely, cause of noise since
detectors are well protected. Switching off the air current source
or shielding the detector area identifies this problem.
C
An inadequately tightened collector on an FID or NPD generates
noise.
C
A contaminated detector results in noise.
2. Noise increases gradually to an unacceptable level:
C
This symptom indicates gradual buildup of the noise source,
rather than an abrupt change as discussed above. FI detectors are
susceptible to gradual buildup of deposits in the collector. In
extreme cases spiking occurs along with increased noise level.
Silicon dioxide deposits are formed when bleed from a silicone
column is burned in the flame. This material is removed
mechanically. Preventive measures include use of low column
loadings, stationary phases with high•temperaturelimit, thorough
column conditioning before use, and the lowest possible oven
temperatures for the analysis.
C
Carbon deposits may form from solvents that burn poorly
(primarily chlorinated materials and aromatics). If possible, avoid
such solvents. If they are necessary, periodic cleaning of the
collector is required.
C
Gradual noise increase may occur from saturated carrier gas drier
or chemical traps. When these approach their capacities,
contaminants begin to pass through and create noise. Trap and
drier regeneration or replacement eliminates this source of noise.
205
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Baseline symptoms
Spiking
Spikes are isolated baseline disturbances, usually as sudden (and large)
upscale movements. If accompanied by noise, the noise problem should be
solved first, since spiking may disappear at the same time.
1. Spikes appear whenever the chart is running:
C
The cause is almost always electronic in origin: Loose connections
are likely. Check signal cable connections at the detector and
controller ends.
C
A dirty slidewire on a recorder may cause this; see the
maintenance section of your recorder manual.
C
Loose or dirty contacts between printed circuit boards and their
connectors may be responsible. Read appropriate sections
regarding servicing boards and connectors for the HP 5890.
2. Spikes appear on chromatograms but not when the recorder is
isolated (no input signal):
C
This indicates a detector problem: In extremely dirty FID
collectors, particles may break away, causing disturbances in the
most sensitive area of the detector. This appears on the chart as a
spike.
C
A less common cause is column packing particles being blown into
the detector: A loose or inadequate glass wool plug at the detector
end of the column may fail. As particles are blown through the
detector, the disturbance generates a spike. This may happen with
any detector, but FIDs and NPDs are particularly susceptible
because of the narrow bore of the jet.
The bottom of the jet in FIDs and NPDs extends into the end of a
packed column. If the bottom touches the glass wool plug at the
end of the packing, spikes are produced.
206
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Retention time symptoms
Retention time symptoms
Retention time drift
Retention time drift is a steady increase or decrease of retention times in
successive runs. Erratic times (both directions) are discussed below as
retention time wander.
1. In a series of runs, retention times suddenly increase:
C
This may be due to an oven temperature change or to change in
flow; verify setpoints.
C
A blown septum is a possibility. If this happens, the change is
probably at the beginning of a run.
C
The carrier gas tank may be nearly empty.
2. In a series of runs, retention times suddenly decrease:
C
This is likely to be due to a setpoint change, either in oven
temperature or in carrier gas flow rate; verify both.
Retention time wander (reproducibility)
1. Retention time reproducibility is erratic throughout the run:
C
If the runs are made with manual injection, the suspect is
injection technique. Variation in time between sample injection
and pressing START causes variation in retention times. With
automatic injection this possibility is minimized.
C
Oven temperature variation may cause this; monitor oven
temperature during a run to check this.
207
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Retention time symptoms
2. Reproducibility is good early in the run but not toward the end:
C
This may occur in temperature•programminga very densely
packed column; as column contents expand with heating,
resistance to flow may be so great that a mass flow controller
cannot maintain constant flow. Try increasing carrier source
pressure.
If this is the cause, the problem will either vanish or its onset will
move later in the run.
C
This may indicate too low a starting temperature; many stationary
phases have a minimum operating temperature, usually the
melting point of the material. Below this temperature, gas•solid
chromatography is performed; above it, gas•liquidchromatography
is performed. If an oven temperature program passes through this
range, results can be very erratic.
3. Reproducibility is good later in the run but not for the first few peaks:
C
When earliest peaks elute very rapidly, they may not have had
time to achieve chromatographic equilibrium with the stationary
phase; they act like solvent peaks and are blown straight through
the column.
A useful rule is that peaks of interest should require at least four
times as long to appear as an unretained solvent or air peak. If
this problem is suspected, try reducing oven temperature 30^C to
approximately double the retention times.
4. Retention time changes with amount of sample:
C
Sample is overloading the column: When there is more sample
than the stationary phase can handle, peaks will be deformed and
shifted from correct retention times.
In gas•liquidchromatography an overloaded peak shifts to a
longer retention time and tails on its trailing edge. With gas•solid
chromatography the effect is the opposite. Try diluting the sample
or injecting less.
208
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Peak symptoms
Peak symptoms
No peaks
This is usually due to operator error; possibilities include injection on the
wrong column, incorrect signal assignment, attenuation too high (peaks
are present but not visible), a bent syringe needle in an automatic
sampler, etc. Check system parameters for the analysis.
Inverted peaks
This is likely an inappropriate signal assignment definition (e.g., B - A
with sample injected on column A) or incorrect polarity with a TCD.
Extra peaks
These are divided into two classes: Additiona l peaks appear on the
chart in addition to those expected from the sample. Ghost peaks appear
even when no sample is injected (and also appear among the genuine
peaks during a sample run).
1. Peaks appear during a blank run:
These are ghost peaks, usually found during
temperature•programmedruns; the cause is contaminants trapped at
the head of the column at the relatively cool starting temperature.
These are released and chromatographed as column temperature
rises.
Ghost peaks are often observed when a column has been at the
starting temperature for some time. For example, the first few runs in
the morning often contain ghost peaks.
C
Ghost peaks may arise from septum bleed, carrier gas impurities,
and contamination in plumbing by oils, grease, and other
materials. Less commonly, they may be caused by reaction of
209
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Peak symptoms
stationary phase with trace levels of O1, H1O, and/or other
materials present in the carrier gas.
C
A contaminated inlet may also produce ghost peaks. Residues in
the inlet are volatilized or pyrolyzed and swept onto the head of
the column. Try reducing inlet temperature; if this eliminates or
reduces ghosts, the inlet should be cleaned.
2. Additional peaks appear when pure sample is injected:
C
These might be ghost peaks as described above. Make a blank run;
if the peaks persist, they are not sample related.
C
A common cause of extra peaks, assuming the sample is pure, is
degradation of one or more components by an overheated inlet.
Test this by reducing inlet temperature.
Operate the inlet at as low a temperature as possible without
causing peak broadening due to slow vaporization. Also, perhaps a
more volatile solvent can be used. In extreme cases, derivatize the
sample before analysis.
C
210
Metal columns may also degrade the sample. Extra peaks in this
case are usually broader than their immediate neighbors since
they are generated along the entire length of the column. If this is
the cause, changing to an all•glasssystem may be necessary.
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Peak symptoms
Deformed peaks
The ideal peak, rarely occurring in chromatography, is a pure Gaussian
shape. In practice, some asymmetry is always present, particularly near
the baseline.
1. The peak rises normally, then drops sharply to baseline:
Figure 9-1.
Overloaded Peak
C
The most likely cause is column overload; dilute the sample
ten•foldand run it again.
C
This may also be two (or more) closely merged (unresolved) peaks;
lower oven temperature 30^C and repeat the analysis. If partial
separation is seen, merged peaks are present.
2. The peak rises sharply and then falls normally to baseline:
Figure 9-2.
Abnormal Interaction with Column Material
211
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Peak symptoms
C
Interaction with column material is a frequent cause. Silanized
support may help. An all•glasssystem may be required if metal
column tubing is the source.
C
Column overload with a gas sample often shows this effect; try
injecting less.
C
This may be a merged peak situation: Running at lower (30^C)
oven temperature will increase resolution, perhaps enough to
reveal merged peaks.
C
Low inlet temperature may cause this, as can poor injection
technique.
3. Top (apex) of the peak is deformed:
Figure 9-3.
Detector Overload
C
Detector overload is the probable cause: The distortion is not
easily seen on the chart but reveals itself in an integrator report.
In extreme cases, doubling amount injected causes little or no
increase in peak size.
Inject less sample, or dilute it, whichever is more convenient
(dilution is usually the best approach). Since the detector is at the
upper limit of its response, substantial dilution (100 times or
more) is needed to be well within normal operating range of the
detector.
212
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Peak symptoms
4. Top (apex) of the peak is split:
Figure 9-4.
FID/NPD Flameout, or TCD with H1 (in He Carrier)
C
Verify that this is not a merged peak situation: Reduce oven
temperature 30^C and repeat the run. If the split peak becomes
better resolved, it is probably a merged pair.
C
Gross overload of an FID may cause the top of the peak to invert,
giving appearance of a split peak. Check gas flows; overload is
more likely when flows are too low.
Dilute the sample by a factor of at least 10 and repeat the run:
If the split disappears, overload is the problem. It is advisable to
dilute samples even more, by 100 or 1000, to ensure the detector is
not close to its overload condition. Such dilution generally
improves linearity as well.
C
H1 peaks, analyzed with a TCD using He carrier, often shows a
split top.
213
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting valve systems
Troubleshooting valve systems
Chromatographic symptoms
Troubleshooting valves and their related plumbing is primarily a matter
of systematic checking and verification of unimpaired mechanical
operation of any moving part. This requires an understanding of how the
valve functions internally and how the plumbing is configured. A
plumbing diagram is essential for effective troubleshooting.
The following symptom•causelist gives the most commonly encountered
problems and solutions found with valves.
Loss of sensitivity or excessive drift
Several possible causes exist for overall deterioration of the
chromatogram.
214
C
Contamination in the valve requires a thorough cleaning.
C
Internal leakage necessitates a complete disassembly and
inspection of the mating surfaces.
C
Poor temperature control may require a full check of electronic
and thermal components.
C
Lack of proper conditioning techniques, columns, etc.
C
Failure or deterioration of other components (i.e., columns,
detectors, etc.).
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting valve systems
Loss of peaks in specific areas of the chromatogram
Entire sections of chromatographic data can be lost due to a valve that
does not rotate or one that rotates improperly. Other than obvious
component failures (i.e., solenoid, actuator, etc.), generally improper
adjustments and misalignments cause most problems.
C
Check that adequate air (about 482 kPa or 70 psi) is supplied.
C
Check if the valve is rotating at all.
C
If the valve rotates, check for proper alignment of the actuator or
mechanical binding or slippage of connecting parts.
C
Check for blocked flow paths with valve in both positions.
Baseline upsets
Frequently baseline upsets may be seen on chromatograms when valves
are switched. These upsets are normally caused by pressure changes
within the system, injections of large volume samples, or by changing the
amount of restriction in the flow path. These upsets will become more of a
problem when high sensitivity is required. Addition of a fixed restriction
downstream from the valve may help minimize the upset. When possible,
changes in column length may also help reduce the upsets. Fixed
restrictors are used immediately before flame detectors to prevent
flameout and are used in some instances to prevent pressure surges from
damaging TCD filaments. Needle valves (Nupro) can be used as
adjustable restrictors; however, they are used typically where a matched
restriction is desired and not for preventing pressure or flow surges.
Often confused with baseline upsets, an offset is a shift in the baseline
that does not return quickly to the original level. Baseline offsets may be
caused by air leaks but more commonly are due to a change in gas purity
or flow rate in the detector. Poor carrier gas or improperly conditioned
filters and traps should be suspected whenever offsets occur.
215
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Locating leaks
Extraneous peaks
Air peaks are sometimes seen in a chromatogram when leakage occurs
because the valve rotor does not seal properly. These leaks may not be
detectable by using the soap•bubblemethod. The leak test procedure is
described in the Site Prep and Installation Manual.
If a leak is suspected but cannot be located with soap bubbles, a pressure
check will determine definitely if a leak exists. Extraneous peaks can
occur sometimes due to improper conditioning of the valve or
contamination. If leaks are not apparent, clean or condition the valve.
Obviously other causes, totally unrelated to the valve, may exhibit
similar symptoms. Impure (i.e., containing water) carrier gas can cause
extraneous peaks.
Locating leaks
Leak•checkingthe plumbing involved in a valve configured system must
be done carefully and methodically. Several methods may be used, and
the best choice will depend upon expediency, accessibility, and the
magnitude of the leak. Refer to Setting initial supply pressures and
leak•testingin the Site Prep and Installation Manual for details.
216
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Pressure check
Pressure check
The pressure•checkmethod will indicate, but sometimes not isolate, a
leak in the flow path. Since this method does not necessarily isolate the
leak, one of the leak•checkmethods may be needed to locate the leak
specifically.
Note that each valve in a system has two flow paths, on and off. A leak
sometimes occurs in only one of these two positions. Check both.
1. Disconnect the detector from the valve system.
2. Cap the valve system at its outlet and pressurize to 689 kPa (100 psi).
Allow 2 to 5 minutes for pressure to equilibrate. (If a flow sensor
exists, it should read zero flow.)
3. Turn the knob on the regulator counterclockwise until it turns freely.
The regulator is now turned off and the gauge is indicating pressure
within the valve system.
4. Commonly, the pressure will drop quickly for approximately 30-60
seconds; then stabilize. After this initial drop, the gauge should not
show more than a 6.89 to 13.78 kPa (1 to 2 psi) drop during a
10•minuteperiod.
5. If no leak is indicated, actuate all valves and repeat steps 2 through 4.
6. If a leak does show up, try to pinpoint the source with a soap•bubble
technique. Do not assume the leak must exist only at a valve. Often
plumbing connections such as unions or bulkhead fittings are at fault.
7. If the leak cannot be found easily, divide the system in half and repeat
the pressure check. Continue dividing by halves, and pressure check
until the leak is isolated.
217
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Electronic pressure control
Electronic pressure control
The electronic pressure control option provides very accurate and precise
control of column head pressure, resulting in retention time
reproducibility of better than 0.02% RSD when there are no column
effects. The inlet pressure can be set constant, programmed, or set to
maintain a desired column flow rate. This mass flow control can be
maintained even at vacuum column outlet pressures. A safety shutdown
feature stops the run and can trigger an alarm if the column breaks or
pressure otherwise falls. In addition, a bypass flow maintains a small
positive column pressure in the event of power failure, protecting the
analytical column.
Electronic Pressure Control Problems
Symptom
Possible Cause
Not enough pressure
(Safety shutdown activated)
1. Septum leaks or is missing
2. Column is broken
3. Column ferrule seal leaks
4. Gas supply is off
5. Supply pressure is inadequate
6. Desired pressure may not be achieveable with
the column in use.
Pressure goes to O or max.
1. Configuration is wrong. See the section Proper
configuration.
Not Ready light flickers
(oscillating pressure)
1. Septum and/or column connection leaks.
2. Pressure set higher than the operating limit
Pressure not controllable
1. Configuration is wrong. See the section Proper
configuration.
If you have checked these possible causes and still have a problem, call
HP Service.
218
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Electronic pressure control
Safety shutdown
Systems equipped with electronic pressure programming have a safety
shutdown feature to prevent gas leaks from creating a safety hazard. If
the system cannot reach a pressure setpoint it beeps. After about 45
seconds the beep will stop and the message:
ACTUAL
SETPOINT
EPPB: SAFETY SHUTDOWN
will appear on the display, and the system will shut down by turning off
all electronic pressure and heated zones, and locking the keyboard.
A safety shutdown can occur when:
1. There is a leak in the system (see Pressure control problems). This
includes missing septa or columns!
2. The column is not restrictive enough to reach desired pressure (i.e.,
530 ¿ columns will not go to 100 psi with available flow). Note: When
using pressure programming, this may occur during a pressure ramp
to too high a pressure.
3. There is insufficient supply pressure.
4. Configuration is set wrong. Check the mode switch on the inlet
controller board (see Proper configuration).
To recover from a safety shutdown, turn the GC power off, then on. Then
reset temperature and pressure zones to desired values. (After safety
shutdown, pressure setpoint is automatically reset to zero.)
219
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Electronic pressure control
Proper configuration
If the inlet is not working at all, there may be a configuration problem.
1. Turn GC power off, and remove the side panel of the GC.
2. Check if the red switches on the inlet controller board are set for your
configuration.
3. Turn the GC on.
220
Chromatographic Troubleshooting
Electronic pressure control
Switch setting examples
IN A1 or IN B1
RIGHT, currently unused PID
IN A0 or IN B0
LEFT, Programmable Cool On-Column (PID) /
RIGHT, Purged Packed Inlet & Split/Splitless Capillary
Inlet (PID)
LEFT, (FPR) Programmable Cool On-Column Inlet &
Purged Packed Inlet / RIGHT, (BPR) Split/Splitless
Capillary Inlet
MODE A or MODE B
EPC A or EPC B
LEFT, Electronic Pressure Control present / RIGHT,
Electronic Pressure Control not present
EXAMPLE
INLET B = Split/Splitless Inlet with Electronic Pressure Control
INLET A = Any Non-Electronic Pressure Controlled Inlet
LEFT = OPEN
RIGHT = CLOSED
IN B1
IN B0
RIGHT
RIGHT
MODE B
RIGHT
EPC B
LEFT
IN A1
RIGHT
IN A0
MODE A
RIGHT
EPC A
RIGHT
RIGHT
NOTE
This group of switches controls the
A position inlet. If another electronic
pressure controlled inlet is installed in the
A position, this group of switches must be
set according to the instructions for that
particular inlet.
221
This page intentionally left blank.
10
Test Sample
Chromatograms
Test Sample Chromatograms
This chapter contains typical examples of test sample chromatograms.
They may be used as a general guide to instrument performance.
It is assumed that both the instrument and proper test column are
installed, that general keyboard control is understood (temperature
control, defining signal output, etc.), and that specific operating
information for the given inlet and detector is also understood. If not,
consult the HP 5890 SERIES II Operating Manual as necessary before
proceeding with test chromatogram procedures.
Note that injection volumes listed with operating conditions in the
following chromatograms do not necessarily indicate total absolute
volume injected. Volume given is simply the graduation (plunger position)
read from a standard 10 ¿l syringe. For a heated inlet, actual sample
volume injected will also include an additional 0.4-0.7 ¿l, the volume of
sample volatilized from inside the syringe needle. For the dedicated
on•columninlet (unheated), the syringe plunger position more accurately
represents true injected volume.
Also note that the following procedures and results are intended only to
provide evidence of a properly functioning inlet and/or detector system;
they are not necessarily suitable to test a given system against its
specification limits.
224
Test Sample Chromatograms
Test sample chromatograms
Test sample chromatograms
Figure 10-1.
HP 5890 Test Sample Operating
Conditions
Detector Type FID (or FIDw/MUG)
Temp 250 DEGREES C
Inlet Type PACKED (OR PURGED
PACKED).
Temp 200 DEGREES C
Operating Mode
N/A
Purge Time On
N/A
min
Purge Time Off
N/A
min
Oven Temp Programmed (1 ramp)
Init Temp
110 DEGREES C
Init Time
0
min
Ramp
Rate
15
Fin Temp
150
Fin Time
1
Range 8
COLUMN:
Part No.
Dimensions
Sta Phase
FLOW RATES
Carrier (He) 20 +/•
Hydrogen
33 +/•
Air
400 +/•
Makeup (N2)
10 +/•
Split Vent
N/A
Septum Purge
1•2
1
1
20
1
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
SAMPLE:
Type
FID Sample
Inj Volume
1 ¿l
Part No. 18710•60170
Composition 0.03%(V/V)each
C14,C15,C16 normal paraffin
hydrocarbons in hexane
19095(#100)
530¿ MID; 5 M
Methyl Silicone
32
START
1.41 C14
1.95
C15
2.55
C16
Flame Ionization Detector (FID)
225
Test Sample Chromatograms
Test sample chromatograms
Figure 10-2.
HP 5890 Test Sample Operating
Conditions
Detector Type NPD (or NPDw/MUG)
Temp 220 DEGREES C
Inlet Type PACKED (OR PURGED
PACKED).
Temp 170 DEGREES C
Operating Mode
N/A
Purge Time On
N/A
min
Purge Time Off
N/A
min
Oven Isothermal
Init Temp
170 DEGREES C
Init Time
3.0
min
Ramp
Rate
0
Fin Temp
Fin Time
Range 0
COLUMN:
Part No.
Dimensions
Sta Phase
FLOW RATES
Carrier (He) 20 +/• 1
Hydrogen
3.5 +/• 0.1
Air
100•120 +/• 10
Makeup (He)
10+/•1
Split Vent
N/A
Septum Purge
1•2
SAMPLE:
Type
NP-FID Sample
Inj Volume
3 ¿l
Part No. 18789•60060
Composition 0.65 ppm azobenzene,
100 ppm octadecane, 1.0 ppm
malathion in isooctane
19095S(#100)
530¿ MID; 5 M
Methyl Silicone
START
IF
IF
.659 AZOBENZENE
IF C18
2.138 MALATHION
ST
Nitrogen-Phosphorus Detector (NPD)
226
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
Test Sample Chromatograms
Test sample chromatograms
Figure 10-3.
HP 5890 Test Sample Operating Conditions
Detector Type ECD(or ECDw/MUG)
Temp 300 DEGREES C
Inlet Type PACKED (OR PURGED
PACKED).
Temp 200 DEGREES C
Operating Mode
N/A
Purge Time On
N/A
min
Purge Time Off
N/A
min
Oven Temp Isothermal
Init Temp
160 DEGREES C
Init Time
N/A
min
Ramp
Rate
0
Fin Temp
Fin Time
Range 2
COLUMN:
Part No.
Dimensions
Sta Phase
FLOW RATES
Carrier (N2)
Hydrogen
Air
Makeup (N2)
Split Vent
Septum Purge
30 +/• 1
N/A
N/A
30 +/• 1
N/A
1•2
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
SAMPLE:
Type
ECD Sample
Inj Volume
1 ¿l
Part No. 18713•60040
Composition 33 pg/¿l(0.033
ppm(W/V)) each: and
aldrin in isooctane
19095S(#100)
530¿ MID; 5 m
Methyl Silicone
START
.12
.88
2.35
LINDANE
ALDRIN
STOP
Electron Capture Detector (ECD)
227
Test Sample Chromatograms
Test sample chromatograms
Figure 10-4.
HP 5890 Test Sample Operating
Conditions
Detector Type TCD(or TCDw/MUG)
Temp 300 DEGREES C
Inlet Type PACKED (OR PURGED
PACKED).
Temp 250 DEGREES C
Operating Mode
N/A
Purge Time On
N/A
min
Purge Time Off
N/A
min
Oven Temp Programmed (1 ramp)
Init Temp
110 DEGREES C
Init Time
1
min
Ramp
Rate
15
Fin Temp
150
Fin Time
1
Range
0
COLUMN:
Part No.
Dimensions
Sta Phase
19095S(#100)
530¿ MID; 5 M
Methyl Silicone
FLOW RATES
Carrier (He) 20 +/• 1
Hydrogen
N/A
Air
N/A
Makeup (He)
1•2
Split Vent
N/A
Septum Purge
1•2
Reference (He) 30+/•1
SAMPLE:
Type
FID Sample
Inj Volume
3 ¿l
Part No. 18710•60170
Composition 0.03%(V/V)each
C14,C15,C16 normal paraffin
hydrocarbons in hexane
START
.25
2.42
3.38
3.76
C14
C15
C16
ST
Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD)
228
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
Test Sample Chromatograms
Test sample chromatograms
Figure 10-5.
HP 5890 Test Sample Operating
Conditions
FLOW RATES
Detector Type FIDw/MUG
Carrier (He) 15 +/• 1
ml/min
Temp 250 DEGREES C
Hydrogen
30 +/• 1
ml/min
Inlet Type Ded On-Col Cap
Air
400 +/• 20
ml/min
Oven Track
On
Makeup
(N2)
20
+/•
1
ml/min
Temp N/A
C
Split Vent
N/A
ml/min
Operating Mode
N/A
Septum Purge 5 +/• 1
ml/min
Purge Time On
N/A
min
Purge Time Off
N/A
min
Oven Temp Temp Programmed (1
ramp)
Init Temp
60 DEGREES C
min
Init Time
0.5
Ramp
SAMPLE:
Rate
20
Type
FID Sample
Fin Temp
185
Inj
Volume
1 ¿l
Fin Time
1
Part
No.
18710•60170
Flow Param (EPP)
Composition 0.03%(V/V)each:
Constant Flow
Off
C14,C15, and C16 normal paraffin
Range
4
hydrocarbons in hexane.
COLUMN:
Part No.
19095(#100)
Dimensions
530¿ MID; 5 M
Sta Phase
Methyl Silicone
START
.112
.331
.267
4.743 C14
5.398 C15
6.322 C16
FID-On-Column Capillary Inlet
229
Test Sample Chromatograms
Test sample chromatograms
Figure 10-6.
HP 5890 Test Sample Operating Conditions
FLOW RATES
Detector Type FIDw/MUG
Carrier (He) 15 +/• 1
ml/min
Temp 250 DEGREES C
Hydrogen
30 +/• 1
ml/min
Inlet Type SPLIT ONLY OR
Air
400 +/• 20
ml/min
SPLIT/SPLITLESS Temp 200 DEG C
Makeup
(N2)
20
+/•
1
ml/min
Operating Mode SPLIT(PURGE ON)
Split Vent
200 +/• 20
ml/min
min
Purge Time On
0
Septum Purge 5 +/• 1
ml/min
Purge Time Off
0
min
Oven Temp Programmed (1 ramp)
Init Temp
100 DEGREES C
Init Time
0
min
SAMPLE:
Ramp
Type
Capillary Sample
Rate
20
Inj Volume
1 ¿l
Fin Temp
180
Part No. 18740•60900
Fin Time
1
Composition: Soln of 0.1%(w/w)
Range
7
n-nonane,n-hexadecane and 0.1%
(w/w)each of 1-octanol,nonanol,
COLUMN:
n-undecane,naphthalene,2-decaPart No.
19095Z•121
none,n-dadecane,n-tridecane,
Dimensions
530¿ ; 10 M
1-pentadecane in tetradecane.
Sta Phase
Methyl Silicone
START
.40
C9
2.21 2.35
2.81
2.64
3.67
ST
FID-Split Mode Capillary Inlet
230
C16
Test Sample Chromatograms
Test sample chromatograms
Figure 10-7.
HP 5890 Test Sample Operating
Conditions
Detector Type NPD w/MUG
Temp 220 DEGREES C
Inlet Type Split only or
split/splitless
Temp 200 DEGREES C
Operating Mode Split(Purge on)
Purge Time On
0
min
Purge Time Off
0
min
Oven Isothermal
Init Temp
180 DEGREES C
Init Time
5.0
min
Ramp
Rate
0
Fin Temp
Fin Time
Range 0
COLUMN:
Part No.
Dimensions
Sta Phase
FLOW RATES
Carrier (He) 15 +/• 1
Hydrogen
3.5 +/• 0.1
Air
100•120 +/• 10
Makeup (He)
10+/•1
Split Vent
80+/•5
Septum Purge
5+/•1
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
SAMPLE:
Type
NP-FID Sample
Inj Volume
2 ¿l
Part No. 18789•60060
Composition 0.65 ppm azobenzene,
100 ppm octadecane, 1.0 ppm
malathion in isooctane
19095Z(#121)
530¿ MID; 10 M
START
1.35 AZOBENZENE
2.37 C18
3.22 MALATHION
ST
NPD-Split Mode Capillary Inlet
231
Test Sample Chromatograms
Test sample chromatograms
Figure 10-8.
HP 5890 Test Sample Operating
Conditions
Detector Type ECDw/MUG
Temp 300 DEGREES C
Inlet Type Split only or
splitless
Temp 200 DEGREES C
Operating Mode Split(Purge on)
Purge Time On
0
min
Purge Time Off
0
min
Oven Temp Isothermal
Init Temp
170 DEGREES C
Init Time
N/A
min
Ramp
Rate
0
Fin Temp
Fin Time
Range 0
COLUMN:
Part No.
Dimensions
Sta Phase
FLOW RATES
Carrier (He)
Hydrogen
Air
Makeup (N2)
Split Vent
Septum Purge
15 +/• 1
N/A
N/A
60 +/• 2
60 +/• 2
5 +/• 1
SAMPLE:
Type
ECD Sample
Inj Volume
1 ¿l
Part No. 18713•60040
Composition 33 pg/¿l (0.033
ppm (W/V)) each: lindane
and aldrin in isooctane
19095S(#100)
530¿ MID; 5 m
Methyl Silicone
.37
.43
1.13 LINDANE
2.64 ALDRIN
ST
ECD-Split Mode Capillary Inlet
232
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
Test Sample Chromatograms
Test sample chromatograms
Figure 10-9.
HP 5890 Test Sample Operating
Conditions
Detector Type TCDw/MUG
FLOW RATES
Temp 300 DEGREES C
Carrier (He) 15 +/• 1
Inlet Type Split only or
Hydrogen
N/A
Air
N/A4
split/splitless
Makeup (He)
10 +/• 1
Temp 250 DEG C
Split Vent
200 +/• 10
Operating Mode Split(Purge on)
Septum Purge 5 +/• 1
Purge Time On
0
min
Reference (He)37 +/• 1
Purge Time Off
0
min
Oven Temp Programmed
Init Temp
100 DEGREES C
Init Time
1
min
Ramp
Rate
10
SAMPLE:
Fin Temp
150
Type
Capillary
Fin Time
2
Inj Volume
1 ¿l
Range
0
Part No. 18740•60900
Composition See Split/FID
COLUMN:
Part No.
19095Z(121)
Dimensions
530¿ MID; 5 M
Sta Phase
Methyl Silicone
START
.11
.25
3.64
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
.15
C9
3.85
.42
4.45
4.78
6.48
C16
TCD-Split Mode Capillary Inlet
ST
233
Test Sample Chromatograms
Test sample chromatograms
Figure 10-10.
HP 5890 Test Sample Operating
Conditions
Detector Type NPD w/MUG)
Temp 220 DEGREES C
Inlet Type Ded On-Col Cap
Oven Track
On
Temp N/A
C
Operating Mode N/A
Purge Time On
min
Purge Time Off
min
Oven Isothermal
Init Temp
170 DEGREES C
Init Time
5.0
min
Ramp
Rate
0
Fin Temp
Fin Time
Flow Param (EPP)
Constant Flow
Off
Range 0
FLOW RATES
Carrier (He) 15 +/• 1
Hydrogen
4 +/• 1
Air
90 +/• 10
Makeup (He)
10+/•1
Split Vent
N/A
Septum Purge
5+/•1
SAMPLE:
Type
NP-FID Sample
Inj Volume
3 ¿l
Part No. 18789•60060
Composition 0.65 ppm azobenzene,
100 ppm octadecane, 1.0 ppm
malathion in isoioctane
COLUMN:
Part No.
19095S(#100)
Dimensions
530¿ MID; 5 M
Sta Phase Methyl Silicone
START
<P
IF
IF
.896
AZOBENZENE
IF
1.966 OCTADECANE
3.356
ST
NPD-On-Column Capillary Inlet
234
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
MALATHION
Test Sample Chromatograms
Test sample chromatograms
Figure 10-11.
HP 5890 Test Sample
Conditions
Detector Type TCDw/MUG
Temp 300 DEGREES C
Inlet Type Ded On-Col
Oven Track
On
Temp N/A
C
Operating Mode
N/A
Purge Time On
N/A
min
Purge Time Off
N/A
min
Oven Temp Programmed (1 ramp)
Init Temp
60 DEGREES C
Init Time
0.5
min
Ramp
Rate
20
Fin Temp
180
Fin Time
1
Flow Param (EPP)
Constant Flow
Off
Range
0
COLUMN:
Part No.
Dimensions
Sta Phase
Operating
FLOW RATES
Carrier (He) 20 +/• 1
Hydrogen
N/A
Air
N/A
Makeup (He)
5+/•1
Split Vent
N/A
Septum Purge
5+/•1
Reference (He) 37+/•1
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
SAMPLE:
Type
FID Sample
Inj Volume
3 ¿l
Part No. 18710•60170
Composition 0.03%(V/V)each
C14,C15,C16 normal paraffin
hydrocarbons in hexane.
19095S(#100)
530¿ MID; 5 M
Methyl Silicone
4.23
C14
4.82 C15
5.38
C16
TCD-On-Column Capillary Inlet
235
Test Sample Chromatograms
Test sample chromatograms
Figure 10-12.
HP 5890 Test Sample Operating
Conditions
Detector Type ECDw/MUG
Temp 300 DEGREES C
Inlet Type Ded On-Column
Oven Track
On
Temp
N/A
Operating Mode
N/A
Purge Time On
N/A
min
Purge Time Off
N/A
min
Oven Isothermal
Init Temp
170 DEGREES C
Init Time
N/A
min
Ramp
Rate
0
Fin Temp
Fin Time
Flow Param (EPP)
Constant Flow
Off
Range 2
FLOW RATES
Carrier (He)
Hydrogen
Air
Makeup (N2)
Split Vent
Septum Purge
15 +/• 1
N/A
N/A
60+/•2
N/A
60+/•1
SAMPLE:
Type
ECD Sample
Inj Volume
1 ¿l
Part No. 18713•60040
Composition 33 pg/¿l
(0.033 ppm (W/V)) each: lindane
and aldrin in isooctane
COLUMN:
Part No.
19095S(#100)
Dimensions
530¿ MID; 5 m
Sta Phase Methyl Silicone
.35
.43
1.29
3.35 ALDRIN
ECD-On-Column Capillary Inlet
236
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
LINDANE
Test Sample Chromatograms
Test sample chromatograms
Figure 10-13.
HP 5890 Test Sample Operating
Conditions
Detector
Type FPD
Temp 200 DEGREES C
Inlet Type PACKED OR PURGED
PACKED
Temp 200
DEGREES C
Operating Mode
N/A
Purge Time On
N/A
min
Purge Time Off
N/A
min
Oven Temp Programmed (1 ramp)
Init Temp
110 DEGREES C
Init Time
0
min
Ramp Rate
___10
Fin Temp
__170
Fin Time
____3
Range 5
COLUMN:
Part No.
19095S•100
Dimensions
5 M Length, 530 ¿ ID
Sta Phase Methyl Silicone
START IF.07
Sulfer
Filter
FLOW RATES (FPD AIR MODE FLOWS)
Carrier (N2)
20 +/• 1
Hydrogen
75 +/• 2
Air
100 +/• 3
Makeup (N2)
0
Split Vent
N/A
Septum Purge
1•2
SAMPLE:
Type
FPD Sample
Inj Volume
1 ¿l
Part No. 19395•60580
COMPOSITION: 20 ng/¿l
(20.0 ppm W/V) each of
1-dodecanethiol and
tributylphosphate in isooctane
START
1.73
2.11 DODECANETHIOL
3.16 TRIBUTYLPHOSPHATE
ZE
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
IF.07
.44
Phosphorus
Filter
2.10 DODECANETHIOL
2.46
TRIBUTYLPHOS3.16
PHATE
ZE
FPD Packed Column Inlet
237
Test Sample Chromatograms
Test sample chromatograms
Figure 10-14.
HP 5890 Test Sample Operating
Conditions
Detector
Type FPD
Temp 200 DEGREES C
Inlet Type SPLIT ONLY OR
SPLIT/SPLITLESS
Temp 200
DEGREES C
Operating Mode
SPLIT(PURGE ON)
Purge Time On
0
min
Purge Time Off
0
min
Oven Temp Programmed (1 ramp)
Init Temp
110 DEGREES C
Init Time
0
min
Ramp Rate
___10
Fin Temp
_ 170
Fin Time
____3
Range 5
COLUMN:
Part No.
19095Z•121
Dimensions
5 M Length, 530 ¿ ID
Sta Phase Methyl Silicone
START
IF
.11
.84
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
SAMPLE:
Type
FPD Sample
Inj Volume
2 ¿l
Part No. 19305•60580
COMPOSITION: 20 ng/¿l
(20.0 ppm W/V) each of
1-dodecanethiol and
tributylphosphate in isooctane
START
Sulfer
Filter
2.88 DODECANETHIOL
3.70 TRIBUTYLPHOSPHATE
ZE
.11
.71
Phosphorus
Filter
2.88 DODECANETHIOL
3.70
TRIBUTYLPHOSPHATE
ZE
FPD Split Mode Capillary Inlet
238
FLOW RATES (FPD AIR MODE FLOWS)
Carrier (N2)
20 +/• 1
Hydrogen
75 +/• 2
Air
100 +/• 3
Makeup (N2)
0
Split Vent
200 +/• 20
Septum Purge
5 +/• 1
Test Sample Chromatograms
Test sample chromatograms
Figure 10-15.
HP 5890 Test Sample Operating
Conditions
Detector
Type FPD
Temp 200 DEGREES C
Inlet Type DED ON-COL CAP
Oven Track
On
Temp N/A DEGREES C
Operating Mode
N/A
Purge Time On
N/A
min
Purge Time Off
N/A
min
Oven Temp Programmed (1 ramp)
Init Temp
90
DEGREES C
Init Time
1.0
min
Ramp
(1)
(2)
Rate
20
10
Fin Temp
110
170
Fin Time
0
3
Flow Param (EPP)
Constant Flow
Off
Range 5
COLUMN:
Part No.
19095S•100
Dimensions
5 M Length, 530 ¿ ID
Sta Phase Methyl Silicone
START
FLOW RATES (FPD AIR MODE FLOWS)
Carrier (N2)
20 +/• 1
Hydrogen
75 +/• 2
Air
100 +/• 3
Makeup (N2)
0
Split Vent
N/A
Septum Purge
5 +/• 1
SAMPLE:
Type
FPD Sample
Inj Volume
1 ¿l
Part No. 19395•60580
COMPOSITION: 20 ng/¿L
(20.0 ppm W/V) each of
1-dodecanethiol and
tributylphosphate in isooctane
.13
1.91
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
ml/min
START
Sulfer
Filter
.13
.49
1.45
Phosphorus
Filter
4.06 DODECANETHIOL
4.08
4.57
3.35
TRIBUTYLPHOS5.37
PHATE
IF
IF
FPD On-column Inlet
239
This page intentionally left blank.
Index
A
adapters, 17
detector, 22
ECD, 23
installation, 24
TCD, 23
alphanumeric display, 33
B
baseline problems
noise, 204
position, 202
spiking, 206
wander and drift, 203
C
calibration
electronic flow sensor, 60
oven temperature, 54
capillary columns, metal, 30
clear dot function, 39
cold trapping, 116
collector
replacing NPD, 181
type B NPD, 184
column
adapters, 17
bracket, 14
capillary, 13
conditioning, 156
ferrules, 14
fittings, 14
inserts, 17
liners, 17
nuts, 14
o-rings, 14
packed, 12
packing, 158
placement, 12
conditioning, column, 156
configuration, 220
cryogenic oven control, 47
D
default setpoints, loading, 39
displaying
gas flow rate, 58
setpoints, 33
displays, 32
E
ECD, 188
carrier gas evaluation, 188
cleaning, 190
frequency test, 188
leaks, 189
on•columntest chromatogram, 236
radioactivity leak test, 192
split inlet test chromatogram, 232
test chromatogram, 227
wipe test, 192
electronic flow sensing, 58
241
Index
electronic flow sensor (EFS)
calibration, 60
packed inlet, 102, 106
electronic pressure control troubleshooting,
218
entering setpoints, 34
F
fault: messages, 52
ferrules, 14
FID, 171
ignition problems, 177
jet replacement, 30, 172, 173
on•columntest chromatogram, 229
split inlet test chromatogram, 230
test chromatogram, 225
FID flameout problems, 128
fittings, 14
flash back, 117
flow sensing, 58
FPD, 193
cleaning/replacing jet, 197
cleaning/replacing windows, filters, seals,
193
leak testing
with EFS, 198
without EFS, 199
on•columntest chromatogram, 239
packed column test chromatogram, 237
split inlet test chromatogram, 238
G
gas
carrier considerations, split/splitless
capillary inlet, 108
designating type, 59
flow rate display, 58
242
I
ignition problems, FID, 177
INET, keyboard control, 37
inlet
initial column head pressure, 110
insert purge, 118
packed
problems at high temperatures, 104
septum purge, 105
packed column, 100, 159
purge status, 113
septum purged packed column, 103
split/splitless capillary, 107
carrier gas considerations, 108
thermally optimized high temperature, 104
inlet liners, packed column, 20
inserts, 17
care of, 169
glass, 169
inlet, 25
metal, 171
packed column inlet, 25
repacking a split, 170
split/splitless or split only capillary inlet, 27
J
jet cleaning, 173
FPD, 197
jet replacement
FID, 172
FID, NPD, 30
FPD, 197
K
keyboard, 32
INET control, 37
lock, 38
rules, 36
Index
L
leaks
ECD, 189
FPD with EFS, 198
FPD without EFS, 199
packed column inlet, 160
pressure checking, 217
split/splitless capillary inlet, 165
valves, 216
O
o-rings, 14
oven, 11
isothermal, 49
programming temperature, 49, 117
safety, 51
status, 50
temperature calibration, 54
LED display, 33
P
lighting problems, FID, 177
liners, 17
care of, 169
detector, 22
installation, 24
metal, 171
packed column inlet, 100, 159
changing septum, 159
cleaning, 162
leaks, 160
lock keyboard, 38
peak problems
deformed peaks, 211
extra peaks, 209
inverted peaks, 209
no peaks, 209
M
metal capillary columns, 30
N
noise problems, 204
packing columns, 158
power fail, 53
INET, 37
pressure, initial column, split/splitless
capillary, 110
NPD, 178
cleaning, 178
jet replacement, 30
on•columntest chromatogram, 234
replacing collector, 181
split inlet test chromatogram, 231
test chromatogram, 226
pressure check, 217
nuts, 14
retention time problems
drift, 207
wander, 207
preventive maintenance, 156
R
radioactivity leak test, ECD, 192
243
Index
S
septum, changing
packed column inlet, 159
split/splitless capillary inlet, 163
septum purge, packed inlet, 105
septum purged packed column inlet, 103
setpoint protection, 38
setpoints
displaying, 33
entering, 34
ranges, 46
solvent effect, 114
T
TCD, 192
cleaning, 192
on•columntest chromatogram, 235
split inlet test chromatogram, 233
test chromatogram, 228
temperature control, 44
temperature programming, oven, 49
test chromatograms, 224
troubleshooting, 202
troubleshooting electronic pressure control,
218
solvent purity, 118
spiking problems, 206
split capillary inlet inserts, 27
split ratio, 112
split sampling, 111
split/splitless capillary inlet, 107, 163
cleaning, 168
insert care, 164
leaks, 165
split/splitless inlet inserts, 27
split/splitless sampling, injection technique,
121
splitless sampling, 114
inlet insert purge, 118
inlet temperature, 117
sample requirements, 117
solvent purity, 118
sub•ambientoven control, 47
244
V
valves
locating leaks, 216
troubleshooting, 214
W
wipe test, ECD, 192