Bridge/Router Interface (BRIM) User`s Guide

Title Page
Bridge/Router Interface (BRIM)
User’s Guide
Notice
Cabletron Systems reserves the right to make changes in speciÞcations and other information
contained in this document without prior notice. The reader should in all cases consult Cabletron
Systems to determine whether any such changes have been made.
The hardware, Þrmware, or software described in this manual is subject to change without notice.
IN NO EVENT SHALL CABLETRON SYSTEMS BE LIABLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT,
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Copyright © 1999 by Cabletron Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.
Order Number: 9031617-04 April 1999
Cabletron Systems, Inc.
P.O. Box 5005
Rochester, NH 03866-5005
SPECTRUM, MiniMMAC, FNB, Multi Media Access Center, and DNI are registered trademarks,
and Portable Management Application, IRM, IRM2, IRM3, IRBM, ESXMIM, ETSMIM, EMME,
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i
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1.
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Cabletron Systems, Inc., 35 Industrial Way, Rochester, New Hampshire 03867-0505.
2.
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ii
Contents
Chapter 1
Introduction
Using the BRIM UserÕs Guide..................................................................................... 1-2
Related Manuals............................................................................................................ 1-3
BRIM Management Applications ............................................................................... 1-3
Software Conventions .................................................................................................. 1-4
Using the Mouse .................................................................................................... 1-4
Common Device Window Fields......................................................................... 1-6
Using Window Buttons......................................................................................... 1-7
Getting Help .................................................................................................................. 1-8
Using On-line Help................................................................................................ 1-8
Accessing On-line Documentation...................................................................... 1-8
Getting Help from the Cabletron Systems Global Call Center ....................... 1-9
Chapter 2
Bridging
Bridging Basics .............................................................................................................. 2-1
About Transparent Bridging ................................................................................ 2-1
About Source Route Bridging .............................................................................. 2-2
About Source Route-Transparent Bridges.......................................................... 2-3
About Source Route-Translational Bridges ........................................................ 2-4
Viewing and Managing Bridging Interfaces ............................................................. 2-5
The Bridge Status Window .......................................................................................... 2-7
Accessing Bridge Status Window Options......................................................... 2-9
Enabling and Disabling Bridging ............................................................................. 2-14
Enabling and Disabling Individual Interfaces................................................. 2-14
Enabling and Disabling All Installed Interfaces.............................................. 2-14
Bridge Statistics ........................................................................................................... 2-15
Performance Graphs............................................................................................ 2-15
ConÞguring Performance Graphs.............................................................. 2-17
Bridge Detail Breakdown ............................................................................ 2-18
Bridge Port Detail Breakdown.................................................................... 2-19
Interface Statistics ................................................................................................ 2-20
CSMACD Statistics .............................................................................................. 2-23
PPP Link Statistics ............................................................................................... 2-25
Dot5 Errors............................................................................................................ 2-28
Source Route Statistics ........................................................................................ 2-31
Spanning Tree .............................................................................................................. 2-34
Bridge Level.......................................................................................................... 2-35
Bridge Port Level ................................................................................................. 2-37
ConÞguring Spanning Tree ................................................................................ 2-39
iii
Contents
Changing Bridge Priority ............................................................................ 2-39
Changing the Spanning Tree Algorithm Protocol Type .......................... 2-39
Changing Hello Time ................................................................................... 2-40
Changing Max Age Time ............................................................................. 2-40
Changing Forwarding Delay Time............................................................. 2-40
Changing Port Priority................................................................................. 2-41
Changing Path Cost...................................................................................... 2-41
Filtering Database ....................................................................................................... 2-41
ConÞguring the Filtering Database ................................................................... 2-45
Special Filter Databases .............................................................................................. 2-47
Ethernet and Token Ring Special Filter Database Windows ......................... 2-48
Special Filter Database Window ........................................................................ 2-49
DeÞning and Editing Filters in the Special Database ..................................... 2-51
Changing the Receive Ports................................................................................ 2-52
Changing the Port Filtering Action ................................................................... 2-52
Setting the Port Filtering Action ................................................................. 2-52
Clearing the Port Filtering Action .............................................................. 2-53
Enabling and Disabling a Filter ......................................................................... 2-53
Saving a Set of Filters to a File............................................................................ 2-53
Interface ConÞguration .............................................................................................. 2-54
Bridge Methods .................................................................................................... 2-55
Setting the Bridge Method.................................................................................. 2-56
Protocol Transmission Methods......................................................................... 2-56
Source Route ConÞguration ...................................................................................... 2-57
Source Routing Information ............................................................................... 2-58
Source Route ConÞguration ............................................................................... 2-59
Making and Setting Changes ............................................................................. 2-62
Using the Find Source Address Feature................................................................... 2-63
Using the Port Source Addresses Window.............................................................. 2-64
Setting the Aging Time........................................................................................ 2-65
Using the Token Ring Bridge and Port ConÞguration Windows......................... 2-65
Duplex Modes.............................................................................................................. 2-70
Setting the Duplex Mode ............................................................................. 2-72
Ethernet Port ConÞguration ............................................................................... 2-72
Fast Ethernet Port ConÞguration....................................................................... 2-73
Setting the Operational Mode for the FE-100TX ...................................... 2-76
Setting the Operational Mode for the FE-100FX ...................................... 2-77
SONET Port ConÞguration........................................................................................ 2-77
SONET/SDH ConÞguration .............................................................................. 2-77
SONET/SDH Statistics........................................................................................ 2-79
ConÞguring SmartTrunking ...................................................................................... 2-85
ConÞguring Broadcast Suppression......................................................................... 2-88
Token Ring Bridge Mode ........................................................................................... 2-89
Setting Token Ring Bridge Mode ....................................................................... 2-90
Setting Bridge Translation.......................................................................................... 2-91
Enabling and Disabling Auto and Dual Translate Modes ............................. 2-92
ConÞguring Token Ring Packet Translation .................................................... 2-93
ConÞguring Novell Token Ring Packet Translation ................................ 2-93
The IBM Translation Table .................................................................................. 2-94
The SNAP Translation Table............................................................................... 2-96
iv
Contents
ConÞguring SNAP Translation................................................................... 2-96
Using the Novell Translation Window .................................................................... 2-97
Using the Physical View Windows for the ETWMIM ........................................... 2-99
Ethernet Port Physical View............................................................................... 2-99
Token Ring Port Physical View........................................................................ 2-101
Chapter 3
FDDI Applications
Accessing the FDDI Menu ........................................................................................... 3-2
The ConÞguration Window......................................................................................... 3-2
Connection Policy Window ......................................................................................... 3-5
Station List Window ..................................................................................................... 3-8
FDDI Performance Window ...................................................................................... 3-10
Setting the Time Interval..................................................................................... 3-11
Chapter 4
WAN Applications
Accessing the WAN Status Windows ........................................................................ 4-1
Viewing WAN Interface Status ................................................................................... 4-2
ConÞguring the Synchronous Connection......................................................... 4-3
ConÞguring T-1 Ports............................................................................................ 4-5
Using the T1 FracTable ConÞguration Window ........................................ 4-7
ConÞguring the Fractional Table........................................................... 4-8
Restoring a Fractional Table................................................................... 4-9
Changing the Interface Line Coding .................................................... 4-9
Displaying the WAN Logical View .......................................................................... 4-10
Changing WAN Logical Settings....................................................................... 4-11
Viewing the WAN Port Admin/Status .................................................................... 4-12
Synchronous Admin/Status............................................................................... 4-12
T1 Admin/Status ................................................................................................. 4-13
Enabling and Disabling WAN T1 Interfaces............................................. 4-14
Displaying Synchronous Port Statistics ................................................................... 4-14
Chapter 5
ATM Configuration
Accessing the ATM Connections Window ................................................................ 5-1
ConÞguring Connections............................................................................................. 5-3
Adding a New Connection................................................................................... 5-4
Deleting a Connection........................................................................................... 5-5
Index
v
Contents
vi
Chapter 1
Introduction
Using this guide; related manuals; management applications available for BRIMs; software
conventions; getting help; contacting Cabletron Systems Global Call Center
Welcome to the Cabletron SystemsÕ SPECTRUM¨ Element Manager
Bridge/Router Interface (BRIM) UserÕs Guide. We have designed this guide
to serve as a reference for using SPECTRUM Element Manager for all types
of BRIMs.
Cabletron SystemsÕ Bridge/Router Interface Modules (BRIMs) provide ßexible,
integrated bridging functionality (including trafÞc Þltering by destination, source,
type Þeld, and 64-byte data offset, and support for the Spanning Tree Algorithm)
or routing functionality to the network hub. By accommodating several media
types and topologies, these network interfaces connect to any standard Local Area
Network (LAN) or Wide Area Network (WAN).
Since BRIMs plug into CabletronÕs Intel i960-based products (e.g., EMM-E6,
ESXMIM, MicroMMAC, and MicroMMAC-T), SPECTRUM Element Manager
views the hub and bridge/router as a single entity. The following BRIMs are
supported by SPECTRUM Element Manager:
BRIM-A6
BRIM-A6DP
The ATM Bridge/Router Interface Modules feature high
speed ATM connectivity (at rates up to 155 Mbps). They
are fully compatible with the 9A000 ATM Switch Module
for the SmartSwitch¨ 9000, and Fore SystemsÕ ASX-200.
They support the IETF AToM MIB, Multi-Protocol
Encapsulation over AAL5, and many other protocols,
and meet ATM Forum UNI speciÞcations. The BRIM-A6
supports a single ATM interface, and the BRIM-A6DP
supports two redundant ATM interfaces.
BRIM-E6
The Ethernet BRIM has a user-conÞgurable Ethernet Port
Interface Module (EPIM) port that provides media
ßexibility for AUI, UTP, STP, Þber or coax cable.
1-1
Introduction
NOTE
BRIM-E100
The Fast Ethernet BRIM has a user-conÞgurable Fast
Ethernet Port Interface Module (FEPIM) port that
provides either 100BASE-TX connectivity (via an RJ-45
interface) or 100BASE-FX connectivity (via an MMF
interface with an SC connector).
BRIM-F6
The FDDI Bridge/Router Interface Module is a
translational FDDI to Ethernet bridge, via media
conÞgurable Fiber Port Interface Module (FPIM)
connectors using MMF or SMF Þber, or UTP or STP
copper. The BRIM-F6 supports the IETF FDDI MIB and
dual homing. Its DAS attachment is ANSI-compliant.
BRIM-W6
The WAN Bridge/Router Interface Module supports
Synchronous, T1 and E1 connections. It carries PPP,
Frame Relay and X.25 protocols through its WAN Port
Interface Modules.
Cabletron Systems has discontinued manufacturing several BRIMs, including the
BRIM-WT1, the Cisco BRIM-W/E, the BRIM-A100, the BRIM-T6, the BRIM-FO, the
BRIM-FD1, the BRIM-FD2, and the BRIM-F5.
Using the BRIM User’s Guide
Each chapter in this guide describes one major functionality or a collection of
several smaller functionalities that the BRIM adds to the device. This guide
contains information about software functions which are accessed directly from
the device icon; for information about management functions which are accessed
via the SPECTRUM Element Manager platform, consult the SPECTRUM Element
Manager UserÕs Guide, and SPECTRUM Element Manager Tools Guide, and the
Remote Administration Tools UserÕs Guide.
Chapter 1, Introduction, provides a list of related documentation, describes
certain software conventions, and shows you how to contact Cabletron SystemsÕ
Global Call Center.
Chapter 2, Bridging, provides a comprehensive look at all management options
associated with the bridge portion of the device, including Bridge Performance
Graphs, Spanning Tree, and the Filtering and Special Filtering Databases.
Chapter 3, FDDI Applications, describes the FDDI management windows,
including ConÞguration, Connection Policy, Station List, and Performance.
Chapter 4, WAN Applications, describes the windows available for WAN Port
conÞguration, and the Synchronous Port Statistics window.
Chapter 5, ATM ConÞguration, describes how to conÞgure Permanent Virtual
Circuits (PVCs) for the ATM interface(s) available on the ATM BRIM.
1-2
Using the BRIM User’s Guide
Introduction
We assume that you have a general working knowledge of Ethernet IEEE 802.3,
FDDI, WAN, and ATM type data communications networks and their physical
layer components, and that you are familiar with general bridging concepts.
Related Manuals
The BRIM UserÕs Guide is only part of a complete document set designed to
provide comprehensive information about the features available to you through
SPECTRUM Element Manager. Other guides which include important
information related to managing the BRIM include:
Cabletron SystemsÕ SPECTRUM Element Manager UserÕs Guide
Cabletron SystemsÕ SPECTRUM Element Manager Tools Guide
Cabletron SystemsÕ SPECTRUM Element Manager Remote Administration Tools
UserÕs Guide
Cabletron SystemsÕ SPECTRUM Element Manager Remote Monitoring (RMON)
UserÕs Guide
Cabletron SystemsÕ SPECTRUM Element Manager Alarm and Event Handling
UserÕs Guide
Cabletron SystemsÕ Network Troubleshooting Guide
Microsoft CorporationÕs Microsoft Windows UserÕs Guide
For more information about the capabilities of the BRIM and the host device in
which it is installed, consult the appropriate hardware documentation.
For more information about the capabilities of SPECTRUM Element Manager for
the host device, consult its UserÕs Guide.
BRIM Management Applications
When a device (e.g., MicroMMAC, NBR-620, EMM-E6, or ESXMIM) has a BRIM
installed and enabled, additional applications will be available from the Chassis
View window. These applications will depend on the type of BRIM installed in
your device.
Related Manuals
¥
Bridge Status will be available from the Device menu for all devices with
BRIMs installed. The Bridging options that are available from the Bridge Status
window will vary depending on the device and the type of BRIM you have
installed; see Chapter 2, Bridging, for details on the bridge applications.
¥
Router Utilities (Basic Router ConÞguration and Advanced Router
ConÞguration) will be available from the Tools menu when a BRIM is
installed and enabled on your device. For more information, see the Routing
Services ConÞguration Guide.
1-3
Introduction
TIP
¥
FDDI menu will be available on devices that have an FDDI BRIM installed and
enabled; see Chapter 3, FDDI Applications, for details.
¥
WAN Status will be available from the Device menu for devices that have a
WAN BRIM installed and enabled; see Chapter 4, WAN Applications, for
details.
¥
ATM Connections will be available from the Device menu for devices that
have an ATM BRIM installed and enabled; see Chapter 5, ATM ConÞguration,
for details.
If you cannot determine if you have a BRIM installed in your device or are unsure of the
type of installed BRIM, the I/F Summary window can help you Þnd the answer. To access
this window, select DeviceÐ>I/F Summary from your deviceÕs Chassis View window.
This windowÕs Description Þeld lists the interface descriptions for the device, including
the type of BRIM installed in the device (e.g., Ctron FDDI BRIM port). The BRIM port(s)
will always be listed at the end of the interface list, after all the non-BRIM interfaces.
Software Conventions
SPECTRUM Element ManagerÕs device user interface contains a number of
elements which are common to most windows and which operate the same
regardless of which window they appear in. A brief description of some of the
most common elements appears below; note that the information provided here is
not repeated in the descriptions of speciÞc windows and/or functions.
NOTE
In accordance with Year 2000 compliance requirements, SPECTRUM Element Manager
displays and allows you to set all dates with four-digit year values.
Using the Mouse
This document assumes you are using a Windows-compatible mouse with two
buttons; if you are using a three button mouse, you should ignore the operation of
the middle button when following procedures in this document. Procedures
within the SPECTRUM Element Manager document set refer to these buttons as
follows:
1-4
Software Conventions
Introduction
Left Mouse Button
Right Mouse Button
Figure 1-1. Mouse Buttons
For many mouse operations, this document assumes that the left (primary) mouse
button is to be used, and references to activating a menu or button will not
include instructions about which mouse button to use.
However, in instances in which right (secondary) mouse button functionality is
available, instructions will explicitly refer to right mouse button usage. Also, in
situations where you may be switching between mouse buttons in the same area
or window, instructions may also explicitly refer to both left and right mouse
buttons.
Instructions to perform a mouse operation include the following terms:
¥
Pointing means to position the mouse cursor over an area without pressing
either mouse button.
¥
Clicking means to position the mouse pointer over the indicated target, then
press and release the appropriate mouse button. This is most commonly used
to select or activate objects, such as menus or buttons.
¥
Double-clicking means to position the mouse pointer over the indicated
target, then press and release the mouse button two times in rapid succession.
This is commonly used to activate an objectÕs default operation, such as
opening a window from an icon. Note that there is a distinction made between
Òclick twiceÓ and Òdouble-click,Ó since Òclick twiceÓ implies a slower motion.
¥
Pressing means to position the mouse pointer over the indicated target, then
press and hold the mouse button until the described action is completed. It is
often a pre-cursor to Drag operations.
¥
Dragging means to move the mouse pointer across the screen while holding
the mouse button down. It is often used for drag-and-drop operations to copy
information from one window of the screen into another, and to highlight
editable text.
Software Conventions
1-5
Introduction
Common Device Window Fields
Similar descriptive information is displayed in boxes at the top of most
device-speciÞc windows in SPECTRUM Element Manager, as shown in
Figure 1-2.
Device
Name
IP Address
Location
MAC
Address
Figure 1-2. Sample Window Showing Group Boxes
Device Name
Displays the user-deÞned name of the device. The device name can be changed
via the System Group window; see the Generic SNMP UserÕs Guide for details.
IP Address
Displays the deviceÕs IP (Internet Protocol) address; this will be the IP address
used to deÞne the device icon. IP addresses are assigned via Local Management
for the device; they cannot be changed via SPECTRUM Element Manager.
Location
Displays the user-deÞned location of the device. The location is entered through
the System Group window; see the Generic SNMP UserÕs Guide for details.
1-6
Software Conventions
Introduction
MAC Address
The physical layer address assigned to the interface associated with the IP address
used to deÞne the device icon when it was added to SPECTRUM Element
Manager. MAC addresses are hard-coded in the device, and are not conÞgurable.
Informational Þelds describing the boards and/or ports being modeled are also
displayed in most windows:
Board Number
Displays the number indicating the position of the monitored board in the chassis.
Port Number
Displays the number of the monitored port.
Active Users
Indicates the number of users processing information through the deviceÕs
repeater channel, board, or port, as determined by MAC addresses.
Uptime
Displays the amount of time, in a days hh:mm:ss format, that the device has been
running since the last start-up.
Using Window Buttons
The Cancel button that appears at the bottom of most windows allows you to exit
a window and terminate any unsaved changes you have made. You may also
have to use this button to close a window after you have made any necessary
changes and set them by clicking on the OK, Set, or Apply button.
An OK, Set, or Apply button appears in windows that have conÞgurable values;
it allows you to conÞrm and SET changes you have made to those values. In some
windows, you may have to use this button to conÞrm each individual set; in other
windows, you can set several values at once and conÞrm the sets with one click
on the button.
The Help button brings up a Help text box with information speciÞc to the
current window. For more information on the Help button, see Using On-line
Help, page 1-8.
The command buttons, for example Bridge, call up a menu listing the windows,
screens, or commands available for that topic.
Any menu topic followed by ... (three dots) Ñ for example Statistics... Ñ calls up
a window or screen associated with that topic.
Software Conventions
1-7
Introduction
Getting Help
This section describes different methods of getting help for questions or concerns
you may have while using SPECTRUM Element Manager.
Using On-line Help
You can use the BRIM window Help buttons to obtain information speciÞc to the
device. When you click on a Help button, a window will appear which contains
context-sensitive on-screen documentation that will assist you in the use of the
window and its associated command and menu options. Note that if a Help
button is grayed out, on-line help has not yet been implemented for the associated
window.
From the Help menu accessed from the host deviceÕs Chassis View window menu
bar, you can access on-line Help speciÞc to the Chassis View window, as well as
bring up the Chassis Manager window for reference. Refer to the deviceÕs userÕs
guide for information on the Chassis View and Chassis Manager windows.
NOTE
All of the online help windows use the standard Microsoft Windows help facility. If you
are unfamiliar with this feature of Windows, you can select Help from the Windows
Start menu, or Help Ñ>How to Use Help from the primary SPECTRUM Element
Manager window, or consult your Microsoft Windows product UserÕs Guide.
Accessing On-line Documentation
The complete suite of documents available for SPECTRUM Element Manager
can be accessed via a menu option from the primary window menu bar:
Help Ñ> Online Documents. If you chose to install the documentation when you
installed SPECTRUM Element Manager, selecting this option will launch AdobeÕs
Acrobat Reader and a menu Þle which provides links to all other available
documents.
TIP
1-8
If you have not yet installed the documentation, the Online Documents option will not
be able to access the menu Þle. In order to activate this option, you must run the
setup.exe again to install the documentation component. See your Installation Guide
for details.
Getting Help
Introduction
Getting Help from the Cabletron Systems Global Call Center
If you need technical support related to SPECTRUM Element Manager, or if you
have any questions, comments, or suggestions related to this manual or any of
our products, please feel free to contact the Cabletron Systems Global Call Center
via one of the following methods:
By phone:
(603) 332-9400
24 hours a day, 365 days a year
By mail:
Cabletron Systems, Inc.
PO Box 5005
Rochester, NH 03866-5005
By Internet mail:
support@ctron.com
FTP:
ftp.ctron.com (134.141.197.25)
Login
Password
By BBS:
Modem Setting
anonymous
your email address
(603) 335-3358
8N1: 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, No parity
For additional information about Cabletron Systems products, visit our
World Wide Web site: http://www.cabletron.com/. For technical support,
select Service and Support.
Getting Help
1-9
Introduction
1-10
Getting Help
Chapter 2
Bridging
About bridging methods; viewing and managing bridging interfaces; using the Bridge Status window;
viewing bridge statistics; using Spanning Tree; using the Filtering Database; configuring duplex
modes; using the Interface Configuration window; and setting Bridge Translation
Bridging Basics
Bridges are used in local area networks to connect two or more network segments
and to control the ßow of packets between the segments. Ideally, bridges forward
packets to another network segment only when necessary.
Bridges are also used to increase the fault tolerance in a local area network by
creating redundant bridge paths between network segments. In the event of a
bridge or bridge segment failure, an alternate bridge path will be available to
network trafÞc, without signiÞcant interruption to its ßow.
The method a bridge uses to forward packets, choose a bridge path, and ensure
that a sending stationÕs messages take only one bridge path depends on the
bridgeÕs type: Transparent (generally used in Ethernet or FDDI environments) or
Source Routing (generally used in Token Ring environments), source
routing-transparent, or source route-transparentÑthe two latter being
combinations that are found in a mixed network environment.
About Transparent Bridging
Transparent bridges are most common in Ethernet networks. Individual
Transparent bridges monitor packet trafÞc on attached network segments to learn
where end stations reside in relation to each segment by mapping the Source
Address of each received frame to the port (and segment) it was detected on. This
information gets stored in the bridgeÕs Filtering Database.
When in the Forwarding state, the bridge compares a packetÕs destination address
to the information in the Filtering Database to determine if the packet should be
forwarded to another network segment or Þltered (i.e., not forwarded). A bridge
2-1
Bridging
Þlters a packet if it determines that the packetÕs destination address exists on the
same side of the bridge as the source address.
If two or more bridges are connected to the same Ethernet LAN segmentÑplaced
in parallelÑonly a single bridge must be allowed to forward data frames onto
that segment. If two or more bridges were forwarding data frames onto the same
Ethernet segment, the network would soon be ßooded.
With a data loop in the topology, bridges would erroneously associate a single
source address with multiple bridge ports, and keep proliferating data by
forwarding packets in response to the ever-changing (but incorrect) information
stored in their Filtering Database.
To avoid such data storms, Transparent bridges communicate with one another
on the network by exchanging Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) to determine
the network topology and collectively implement a Spanning Tree Algorithm
(STA) that selects a controlling bridge for each LAN segment. This ensures that
only a single data route exists between any two end stations and that topology
information remains current.
About Source Route Bridging
Source Routing is typically used to connect two or more Token Ring network
segments. Source Route bridges differ from Transparent bridges in that they do
not build and then use a physical address database to make forwarding decisions.
Instead, the source end station transmits packets with a header that contains
routing information (added by bridges in the network topology during a route
discovery process between end stations); once a route has been determined, a
Source Route bridge simply reads the header of a source routed packet to
determine whether it is a participant in routing the packet.
In Source Routing, sending and receiving devices employ broadcast
packetsÑknown as explorer packetsÑto determine the most efÞcient route for a
message to travel. Generally, before a station sends a message, it will Þrst send a
test packet to all stations on the same ring; if the sending station receives a
response to this packet, it assumes that the destination station is on the same ring
and therefore it will not include routing information in frames sent to that station
in the future. Any further packets issued between stations will appear to be
transparent-style frames without embedded routing information.
If the sending station does not receive a response to the test packet, it will send
explorer packets to the destination; the explorer packets will be propagated by the
networkÕs bridges as either All Paths Explorer (APE) packets or as Spanning Tree
Explorer (STE) packets. The task of both packet types is to get the destination
station to return speciÞc route information to the sending station. They achieve
this by including an identiÞer for each ring the explorer packet traversed and for
each bridge between any rings).
Since the data ßow on a Source Routed network is determined by end stations
(unlike a Transparently bridged network), a looped bridge topology is not an
issue for data ßow. APE packets are sent from the source station over every
2-2
Bridging Basics
Bridging
possible bridge path to the end station. The original APE frame contains no
routing information (e.g., bridge numbers and ring numbers). As the frame is
propagated along all available paths to the destination station, each bridge along
the way adds its own bridge and ring numbers to the packetÕs RIF before
forwarding it, thereby providing route information.
In response to each received APE packet, the destination station directs a reply to
the sending station. On receiving the replies, the sending station ideally assumes
that the Þrst returned reply contains the most efÞcient route. The sending station
then stores the route information and uses it to send subsequent transmissions to
the same station.
Because APE frames do increase network trafÞc, some sites may use STE explorer
frames as an alternate method of route discovery. With STE exploration, a
Spanning Tree Algorithm (either conÞgured automatically via BPDUs or
manually via management) is maintained for the sole purpose of determining
how to direct an explorer frame during route discovery.
During the discovery process, a source station will send out STE explorer frames
into a bridged topology. If a bridge is in a forwarding state according to Spanning
Tree, it will forward an explorer frame onto its attached LAN segment (appending
the Bridge and LAN Segment IdentiÞers in the appropriate area of the RIF); if the
bridge is Þltering, it will discard the explorer frames. In this fashion, only a single
explorer frame will reach each individual LAN segment.
Ultimately, the destination station will receive only a single STE packet, and will
respond with APE packets (that return to the sending station on all possible
bridge paths) or an STE packet (that returns to the sending station via in the
reverse route of the STE explorer packet).
Although the Spanning Tree Algorithm determines the bridge path an STE takes
to the destination station, during future communication between the stations,
bridges along the route will use Source Routing to forward the packet (i.e., the
bridges will read the Routing Information Field in the header of speciÞcally
routed frames to decide whether to forward them).
About Source Route-Transparent Bridges
Because network topologies have developed in which bridges must be able to
handle network trafÞc from end stations which support source routing and others
which do not, a hybrid type of bridgeÑSource Route-Transparent (SRT) Ñ
combines elements of both bridging methods.
An end stationÕs network drivers can be conÞgured in software to use a bit setting
in the source address portion of a data frame to indicate whether the station is to
operate in a Source Route or Transparently bridged network environment. The
Routing Information Indicator (RII) bit of the source address is set to 1 if the
station is to use Source Routing; if the station is to operate in a Transparently
bridged environment, the RII bit is left unchanged (i.e., at 0).
Bridging Basics
2-3
Bridging
Not all end stations in a Token Ring environment have network drivers which
support Source RoutingÑwhether the drivers are improperly conÞgured via
management or they simply are not source-route capable.
In a network with a mix of Source Route and Transparent end stations, data
frames from both station types must be bridged correctly. An SRT bridge inspects
the RII bit setting of incoming frames to determine whether they should be
Transparently bridged (if the RII bit was at 0) or Source Routed (if the RII bit was
set to 1) to their destination and will use the appropriate bridge method to
forward the frame.
NOTE
Cabletron has extended the functionality of Ethernet ports on translational bridges, so the
ports can be set to Source Route mode. When an Ethernet port is in Source Route mode
and receives an SR packet from a Token Ring port, it will save the Source Routing
information and send out the packet transparently. When the response comes back, the
source routing information will be restored and then sent to the Token Ring port.
About Source Route-Translational Bridges
Because SmartSwitch 2000, 6000, and 9000 modules have the ability to combine
mixed network topologies, yet another hybrid bridge methodÑcalled a Source
Route Translational bridge (SR-TB)Ñis used by a number of these SmartSwitch
modules.
An SR-TB bridge supports both Source Routing and Transparent bridging
capabilities, with the added requirement of maintaining Source Route
information across an FDDI interfaceÑeither the SmartSwitch 9000 FNB
backplane, or an installed FDDI High Speed Interface Module (HSIM).
An SR-TB bridge does this by ÒtranslatingÓ the Token Ring physical frame format
(by stripping out routing information, if necessary) so that the frameÕs source
address can be recognized on an FDDI, Ethernet, or ATM segment; then, when
data is returned to the source, the bridge restores the necessary route information
to forward it along a bridged Token Ring environment.
For data that is restricted to the Token Ring networks available from the SR-TB
bridgeÕs front panel, the bridging method is user-conÞgurable via local
management to be Source Route-only (bridged packets must include RIF
information and will be source routed; no transparent bridging is enabled),
Source Route-Transparent (bridging method will be determined by whether the
RII bit is set), or Transparent only (no source routed packets will be bridged).
Remote management of these interfaces is based upon their current mode (as set
through local management).
For data that will ultimately be sent across an FDDI interface to an ATM, Ethernet,
FDDI, or another Token Ring segment, the Routing Information Field will be
stripped from the packet so the packet can be transparently bridged onto Ethernet
or FDDI media; however, the RIF information as well as the source address of the
packet is stored in a RIF cache of the SR-TB bridge. When data is returned to that
source address, the SR-TB bridge can look up the address information in its RIF
2-4
Bridging Basics
Bridging
cache, append the proper Routing Information onto the packet, and then forward
the data to the Token Ring segment.
The RIF cache is a software table that can store up to 8192 entries. An SR-TB
bridge updates its RIF cache much like a Transparent bridge dynamically updates
its Filtering Database: it learns new address information by listening to incoming
packets on each port, saves that information to an Address Database, andÑif the
address was learned to be Source-Route capableÑupdates routing information
for that source address in the RIF cache. Every time a packet arrives from an FDDI
interface for a MAC address that is communicating through the SR-TB bridgeÕs
front panel, the RIF cache table is searched for an address/RIF match.
There are conÞguration issues when a Token Ring module receives a packet from
an FDDI interface for a destination address that is unknown, and not in its
Address Database or RIF cache. You must conÞgure your SR-TB bridge to treat
incoming packets with an unknown destination address as either a Source Route
or Transparently bridged packet (since Token Ring end stations attached to the
module may or may not support Source Routing).
If the bridge is conÞgured to treat an incoming packet with unknown addresses as
a Source Routed frame, it will forward it using either STE or ARE frames. If the
bridge is conÞgured to treat an incoming packet with an unknown destination as
a Transparently bridged frame, it simply forwards the frame.
After a packet with a previously unknown destination has been bridged
successfully, and communication begins between the two end nodes, the RIF
cache will be updated and packets will be translated as described previously.
Viewing and Managing Bridging Interfaces
With SPECTRUM Element Manager, you can view and manage each bridging
interface supported by your device, including any installed interface modules,
such as BRIMs (Bridge/Router Interface Modules) and HSIMs (High Speed
Interface Modules).
You can manage your bridge by using the following windows:
¥
The Bridge Status window provides you with basic information about the
current status of the deviceÕs bridging interfaces, and allow you to enable or
disable bridging at each of those interfaces. The Bridge Status window also lets
you access further windows to conÞgure bridging at the device. See The
Bridge Status Window, page 2-7, for details.
¥
Bridge statisticsÑincluding the Performance Graph, Interface Statistics,
CSMACD Statistics, PPP Link Statistics, Dot5 Error Statistics, and Source
Route Statistics windowsÑgraphically display the trafÞc passing between
your bridged networks, and let you compare and contrast trafÞc and errors
processed by each interface. See Bridge Statistics, page 2-15 for details.
Viewing and Managing Bridging Interfaces
2-5
Bridging
2-6
¥
The Spanning Tree window shows bridge port information and protocol
parameters relating to the Spanning Tree AlgorithmÑthe method of
determining the controlling bridge when a series of bridges are placed in
parallel; see Spanning Tree, page 2-34, for details.
¥
With the Filtering Database window, you can see the contents of the Static and
Learned databasesÑthe two address databases which construct the IEEE 802.1
Source Address Table. The bridge uses the contents of these databases to make
its packet Þltering and forwarding decisions. You can conÞgure entries in these
databases to increase bridging efÞciency across your network. See Filtering
Database, page 2-41, for details.
¥
The Ethernet Special Filter Database and Token Ring Special Filter Database
windows let you conÞgure special Þltering schemes. With these schemes, you
can enter Þlter parameters for a frame based on the contents of its source or
destination address Þeld, type Þeld, or data Þeld (with offset)Ñthen specify
the bridging action to take place at each port when a frame matching your
speciÞcations is encountered (see Special Filter Databases, page 2-47).
¥
The I/F ConÞguration port-level menu option invokes the Interface
ConÞguration window, which allows you to select a bridging method for a
Token Ring bridging interface. This window also allows you to select one of
three transmission methods that should be used when unknown addresses are
received from end stations attached to the selected bridge port. See Using the
Novell Translation Window, page 2-97, for details.
¥
The Source Route ConÞguration option enables you to conÞgure source
routed trafÞc passing between bridge ports; see Source Route ConÞguration,
page 2-57, for details.
¥
The Bridge ConÞguration option allows you to set address and routing
information for all interfaces on a Token Ring bridging device, including the
Bridge Number and the Virtual Ring Number. It also allows you to set source
route bridging parameters at the device level. See Using the Token Ring
Bridge and Port ConÞguration Windows, page 2-65, for details.
¥
The Port ConÞguration option allows you to view the address and routing
information for an individual Token Ring bridging interface. This window
displays information that is set at the device level via the Bridge ConÞguration
window, such as the Bridge Number and the Virtual Ring Number. It also
allows you to set source route bridging parameters for that port. See Using the
Token Ring Bridge and Port ConÞguration Windows, page 2-65, for details.
¥
The Duplex Modes window lists each interface on your device and whether
or not it is operating in Full Duplex mode. The window allows you to switch
full duplex mode on and off for each interface on the device. Full Duplex
Switched Ethernet (FDSE) mode allows the interface to transmit and receive
information simultaneously, effectively doubling the available bandwidth. See
Using the Token Ring Bridge and Port ConÞguration Windows, page 2-65,
for details.
Viewing and Managing Bridging Interfaces
Bridging
NOTE
¥
The SmartTrunk option invokes the SmartTrunk ConÞguration and Status
window, which enables you to group interfaces logically to achieve greater
bandwidth between devices that support this feature. There is no limit to the
number of ports that can be included in a single trunk, nor is there a limit to
the number of trunked instances that can be supported. See ConÞguring
SmartTrunking, page 2-85, for details.
¥
The Broadcast Suppression window enables you to monitor the number of
broadcast packets received by each interface of a selected device, and
conÞgure the maximum number of broadcast packets that will be forwarded
to other interfaces; see ConÞguring SmartTrunking, page 2-85, for details.
¥
The Token Ring Bridge Mode window lets you select which type of bridging
will be used by the Token Ring bridging deviceÑTransparent, Source Routing,
or Source Route Transparent; see Token Ring Bridge Mode, page 2-89, for
details.
¥
The Bridge Translation window allows you to control the necessary
translation of frames that must occur for Token Ring frames to be bridged to
Ethernet. This window offers Auto and Dual modes for translation and
includes the IBM and SNAP Translation tables. See Setting Bridge
Translation, page 2-91, for details.
¥
The Novell Translation window enables you to conÞgure each module port
for translation of Novell packets that are received and transmitted across a
Token Ring bridge; see Using the Novell Translation Window, page 2-97, for
details.
The menu options that are available will vary depending on the type of device you are
monitoring, and on the type of bridge interfaces supported by the device.
The following sections detail how to use each of the bridge management
windows.
The Bridge Status Window
The Bridge Status window provides you with basic information about the current
status of bridging across your device. Color-coding of each port display allows
you to quickly ascertain the status of each interface. The Bridge Status window
also lets you access further windows to control bridging at your device.
To access the Bridge Status window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the Device selection in the menu bar. A menu will appear.
2. Click on Bridge Status. The Bridge Status window, Figure 2-1, will appear.
The Bridge Status Window
2-7
Bridging
Figure 2-1. The Bridge Status Window
NOTE
When you Þrst open the Bridge Status window the Prev and Next buttons will be grayed
out, and a message will appear stating that the application is initializing and processing
each interface. You will not be able to scroll the display until after all the bridging
interfaces have been processed. The Prev and Next buttons are activated when a device
supports over four bridge interfaces, so that you can scroll the display to show all
interfaces.
The following information is provided by the Bridge Status window for the
monitored device as a whole and for each individual bridging interface.
Up Time
At the top of the Bridge Status window, you can see the time period (in a days,
hours, minutes, seconds format) that has elapsed since the device was last reset or
initialized.
2-8
The Bridge Status Window
Bridging
Bridge State on Interface
Indicates the state of bridging over the port interface. Possible bridge states and
their corresponding colors are:
¥
Forwarding (green)ÑThe port is on-line and forwarding packets across the
bridge from one network segment to another.
¥
Disabled (blue)ÑBridging at the port has been disabled by management; no
trafÞc can be received or forwarded on this port, including conÞguration
information for the bridged topology.
¥
Listening (magenta)ÑThe port is not adding information to the Þltering
database. It is monitoring Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) trafÞc while
preparing to move to the forwarding state.
¥
Learning (magenta)ÑThe Forwarding database is being created, or the
Spanning Tree Algorithm is being executed because of a network topology
change. The port is monitoring network trafÞc, and learning network
addresses.
¥
Blocking (orange)ÑThe port is on-line, but Þltering trafÞc from going across
the bridge from one network segment to another. Bridge topology information
will be forwarded by the port.
Interface Type
Indicates the interface type which applies to each device bridging port interface
(e.g., ethernet). The interface type (ifType) is a mandatory object type from the
SNMP MIB II Interface (if) Group.
Bridge Address
Indicates the physical address of the bridge interface.
Speed
Indicates the speed of the interface in Mbps or Gbps.
Accessing Bridge Status Window Options
At the top of the Bridge Status window, you can click Bridge to access a menu
that provides other bridge management options. Depending on which device you
are monitoring via SPECTRUM Element Manager, the following bridge
management options will be available:
¥
The Module Type window displays a description of the device that is
currently being monitored.
¥
The Find Source Address window allows you to discover the bridge interface
through which a particular MAC address is communicating; see Using the
Find Source Address Feature, page 2-62, for details.
¥
The Performance Graph window displays statistics for trafÞc across the entire
bridge; see Performance Graphs, page 2-15, for details.
The Bridge Status Window
2-9
Bridging
2-10
¥
The Spanning Tree window allows you to set the Spanning Tree Algorithm
parameters for bridging on your device; see Spanning Tree, page 2-34, for
details.
¥
The SmartTrunk option invokes the SmartTrunk ConÞguration and Status
window, which enables you to group interfaces logically to achieve greater
bandwidth between devices, if both devices support the SmartTrunk feature.
There is no limit to the number of ports that can be included in a single
Òtrunk,Ó nor is there a limit to the number of trunked ÒinstancesÓ that can be
supported. See ConÞguring SmartTrunking, page 2-85, for details.
¥
The Filtering Database window lets you see the contents of the Static and
Learned databasesÑthe two address databases which construct the IEEE 802.1
Source Address Table. The bridge uses the contents of these databases to make
its packet Þltering and forwarding decisions. You can conÞgure the bridgeÕs
acquired and permanent Þltering databases to Þlter or forward trafÞc across
the device. See Filtering Database, page 2-41, for details.
¥
The Ethernet Special Filter Database window lets you conÞgure a special
Þltering scheme at your bridge. With this scheme, you can enter Þlter
parameters for a frame based on the contents of its source or destination
address Þeld, type Þeld, or data Þeld (with offset); you can then specify the
bridging action to take place at each port when a frame matching your
speciÞcations is encountered. See Special Filter Databases, page 2-47, for
details.
¥
The Token Ring Special Filter Database window enables you to deÞne
complex Þlters for transparently-bridged Token Ring frames based upon
receive port, source or destination MAC address, Token Ring data type, or data
Þeld information (up to 64 bytes); see Special Filter Databases, page 2-47, for
details.
¥
The Token Ring Bridge Mode window lets you select which type of bridging
will be used by the Token Ring bridging deviceÑTransparent, Source Routing,
or Source Route Transparent; see Token Ring Bridge Mode, page 2-89, for
details.
¥
The Bridge Translation window allows you to control the necessary
translation of frames that must occur for Token Ring frames to be bridged to
Ethernet. This window offers Auto and Dual modes for translation and
includes the IBM and SNAP Translation tables. See Setting Bridge
Translation, page 2-91, for details.
¥
The Novell Translation window enables you to conÞgure each module port
for translation of Novell packets that are received and transmitted across a
Token Ring bridge; see Using the Novell Translation Window, page 2-97, for
details.
¥
The Duplex Modes window allows you to conÞgure duplex mode (on or off)
for supporting interfaces on the device; see Using the Token Ring Bridge and
Port ConÞguration Windows, page 2-65, for details.
The Bridge Status Window
Bridging
¥
Enable Bridge and Disable Bridge options allow you to administratively
activate or deactivate bridging at the device level; see (Enabling and
Disabling Bridging, page 2-14, for details.
¥
The Bridge ConÞguration option opens a window that allows you to set
address and routing information for all interfaces on a Token Ring bridging
device, including the Bridge Number and the Virtual Ring Number. It also
allows you to set source route bridging parameters at the device level. See
Using the Token Ring Bridge and Port ConÞguration Windows, page 2-65,
for details.
The individual bridge port index ( ) menu that you can access from the Bridge
Status window will provide the following options, depending on which device
you are monitoring through SPECTRUM Element Manager:
¥
The Connection Type window displays a text description of the connection
type of the selected bridge interface.
¥
The Description option displays a text description of a bridge interface from
the ifDescr value of the ifIndex related to the selected port.
¥
The Performance Graph window graphically displays the trafÞc passing
between your bridged networks, and lets you compare and contrast trafÞc
processed by each interface; see Performance Graphs, page 2-15, for details.
¥
The Source Addressing window displays the contents of the deviceÕs Filtering
Database with respect to a selected port. This will display the source MAC
addresses that have been detected by the port as it forwards data across the
network. The window also lets you set the aging timer that controls how long
an inactive MAC address will continue to be stored in the Source Address
Database before being aged out. See Source Route ConÞguration, page 2-62,
for details.
¥
The PPP Link Status option invokes the PPP Link Statistics Window, which
enables you to view color-coded statistics related to the PPP (Point-to-Point
Protocol) link at the selected interface; see PPP Link Statistics, page 2-25, for
details.
¥
The Source Route Statistics option opens a window that allows you to view
statistics for source routed trafÞc passing between bridging ports. The window
enables you to view the frames that were received, transmitted, and discarded
by the bridge. See Source Route Statistics, page 2-31, for details.
¥
The I/F ConÞguration port-level menu option invokes the Interface
ConÞguration window, which allows you to select a bridging method for a
Token Ring bridging interface. This window also allows you to select one of
three transmission methods that should be used when unknown addresses are
received from end stations attached to the selected bridge port. See Using the
Novell Translation Window, page 2-97, for details.
¥
The Source Route ConÞguration option opens a window that enables you to
conÞgure source routed trafÞc passing between bridging ports; see Source
Route ConÞguration, page 2-57, for details.
The Bridge Status Window
2-11
Bridging
2-12
¥
The Port ConÞguration option opens a window that allows you to view the
address and routing information for an individual Token Ring bridging
interface. This window displays information that is set at the device level via
the Bridge ConÞguration window, such as the Bridge Number and the Virtual
Ring Number. It also allows you to set source route bridging parameters for
that port. See Using the Token Ring Bridge and Port ConÞguration
Windows, page 2-65, for details.
¥
The Dot5 Errors invokes a window that allows you to view 802.5 statistics for
the selected bridging interface on a Token Ring bridging device; see Dot5
Errors, page 2-28, for details.
¥
The RMON MAC Layer option opens the Token Ring Statistics window for
Token Ring devices that support RMON, which enables you to view a
statistical breakdown of trafÞc on the monitored Token Ring interface
(network segment). Note that if the RMON Default MIB component is
disabled, the RMON MAC Layer menu option will launch the Interface
Statistics window. Refer to the RMON UserÕs Guide for more information on
how to enable and disable RMON MIB components. For more information
about this menu option, refer to the Statistics chapter in the Remote
Monitoring (RMON) UserÕs Guide, and/or the appropriate device-speciÞc
UserÕs Guide.
¥
The RMON Promiscuous Stats option opens the Token Ring Promiscuous
Statistics window, which allows you to view statistical information about
those packets that carry the normal data ßow across a bridging interface
(network segment). Note that if the RMON Default MIB component is
disabled, the RMON Promiscuous Stats menu option will launch the Interface
Statistics window. Refer to the Remote Monitoring (RMON) UserÕs Guide for
more information on how to enable and disable RMON MIB components. For
more information about this menu option, refer to the Statistics chapter in the
RMON UserÕs Guide, and/or the appropriate device-speciÞc UserÕs Guide.
¥
The I/F Statistics option activates the Interface Statistics Port window, which
allows you to view color-coded statistical information about each individual
bridge port on the currently monitored device; see Interface Statistics,
page 2-20, for details.
¥
The ConÞguration option opens a window that enables you to conÞgure the
selected bridge interface for either full duplex or standard mode; see Ethernet
Port ConÞguration, page 2-72, for details.
¥
The Alarm ConÞguration option appears as a menu choice for Ethernet
devices which support RMON, and invokes the RMON Basic Alarm
ConÞguration window that enables you to create alarms or actions at a speciÞc
bridge interface based on rising and falling thresholds for Broadcast/Multicast
packets, Kilobits, or Total Errors. Note that if the RMON Default MIB
component is disabled, the Alarm ConÞguration menu option will still appear
and the window will still display; however, you will not have the ability to set
anything. Refer to the Remote Monitoring (RMON) UserÕs Guide for more
information on how to enable and disable RMON MIB components. For more
The Bridge Status Window
Bridging
information about this window, refer to the RMON Alarms and Events
chapter in the RMON UserÕs Guide, and/or the appropriate device-speciÞc
UserÕs Guide.
¥
The Statistics option appears as a menu choice for Ethernet devices which
support RMON, and it opens the Ethernet Statistics window, which enables
you to view a statistical breakdown of trafÞc at the monitored Ethernet
network segment. Note that if the RMON Default MIB component is disabled,
the Statistics menu option will launch the Interface Statistics window. Refer to
the Remote Monitoring (RMON) UserÕs Guide for more information on how
to enable and disable RMON MIB components. For more information about
this menu option, refer to the Statistics chapter in the RMON UserÕs Guide,
and/or the appropriate device-speciÞc UserÕs Guide.
¥
The Sonet/SDH ConÞguration window enables you to determine whether
any installed FE-100Sx Fast Ethernet Port Interface Modules or APIM-2x ATM
Port Interface Modules, both of which provide direct access to SONET
(Synchronous Optical Network) networks, will operate according to SONET
or SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) standards; see SONET/SDH
ConÞguration, page 2-77, for details.
¥
The Sonet Statistics option opens a window that will let you view some of the
statistical information related to any installed FE100-Sx Fast Ethernet Port
Interface Modules or APIM-2x ATM Port Interface Modules; see SONET/SDH
Statistics, page 2-79, for details.
¥
The Physical View option allows you to view the physical state of the Ethernet
bridge port through the ETW EtherPhysStatus window and the Token Ring
bridge port through the Token Ring Phys Status window when you are
monitoring an ETWMIM via SPECTRUM Element Manager; see Using the
Physical View Windows for the ETWMIM, page 2-99, for details.
¥
The CSMACD Stats option opens a window that enables you to view
color-coded statistical information for some Ethernet bridging interfaces,
including receive errors, transmission errors, and collision errors. See
CSMACD Statistics, page 2-23, for details.
¥
Enable and Disable options allow you to administratively enable or disable
bridging at the selected interface; see Enabling and Disabling Bridging,
page 2-14, for details.
The Bridge Status Window
2-13
Bridging
Enabling and Disabling Bridging
When you disable a bridge port, you disconnect that portÕs network from the
bridge entirely. The port does not forward any packets, nor does it participate in
Spanning Tree operations. Nodes connected to the network can still communicate
with each other, but they canÕt communicate with the bridge and other networks
connected to the bridge. When you enable a port, the port moves from the
Disabled state through the Learning and Listening states to the Forwarding or
Blocking state (as determined by Spanning Tree).
Enabling and Disabling Individual Interfaces
To disable an individual port interface from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on the desired Port button (
) to display the port menu.
2. Click on Enable to restart bridging on the selected interface, or Disable to
halt bridging across the selected interface.
To disable an individual port interface from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the appropriate port index to access the Port menu.
2. Click on Enable to restart bridging on the selected interface, or Disable to
halt bridging across the selected interface.
Enabling and Disabling All Installed Interfaces
To disable bridging across all interfaces installed in a device from the Bridge
Status window:
1. Click on Bridge to display the Bridge menu.
2. Click on Enable Bridge to enable bridging across all installed interfaces, or to
Disable Bridge to disable bridging across all installed interfaces.
To disable bridging across all interfaces installed in a device from the Chassis
View window:
1. Click on the Board Index of the device of interest; the Board menu will
appear.
2. Click on Enable Bridge to enable bridging across all installed interfaces, or to
Disable Bridge to disable bridging across all installed interfaces.
2-14
Enabling and Disabling Bridging
Bridging
Bridge Statistics
The following sections describe Statistics windows that are available for the
bridge that is being monitored via SPECTRUM Element Manager, both at the
device and port levels.
Performance Graphs
You use Bridge Performance Graphs to view a color-coded strip chart that shows
you the trafÞc being bridged through all networks or an individual network
supported by your device. You can conÞgure the display to show frames Þltered,
forwarded, or transmitted across the device or its individual bridging interfaces,
as well as the number of errors experienced at both levels. The graph has an X axis
that indicates the 60-second interval over which charting occurs continuously,
while its Y axis measures the number of packets or errors that are processed by
the device or its bridging interfaces.
You can select the type of errors you wish to monitor by using the available menu
buttons. When you click on the error type you wish to view, the name of that error
will appear in the button, and the Performance Graph will refresh. The graph will
now generate a strip chart based on the newly deÞned parameters.
At the device level, a Detail button on the window allows you to compare the
packets forwarded, Þltered, or transmitted on all networks supported by the
device, as well as errors on all networks.
For a selected bridged network, the Detail button allows you to view the number
of packets forwarded to, or received from, each other network supported by the
device.
To access the device-level Bridge Performance Graph window from the Bridge
Status window:
1. Click on Bridge to display the Bridge menu.
2. Click on Performance Graph. The Bridge Performance Graph window,
Figure 2-2, will appear. (The individual port Bridge Performance Graph
windows are similar, except that they display a graph applicable to the
selected interface.)
To access the device-level Bridge Performance Graph window from the Chassis
View window:
1. Click on the Board Index of the device of interest; the Board menu will
appear.
2. Click on Performance Graph. The Bridge Performance Graph window,
Figure 2-2, will appear.
Bridge Statistics
2-15
Bridging
To access the port-level Bridge Performance Graph window from the Bridge
Status window:
1. Click on the desired Port button (
) to display the Port menu.
2. Click on Performance Graph. The Bridge Performance Graph window will
appear.
To access the port-level Bridge Performance Graph window from the Chassis
View window:
1. Click on the appropriate port index to access the Port menu.
2. Click on Performance Graph. The Bridge Performance Graph window will
appear.
NOTE
The graphic displayed in Figure 2-2 is a device-level window; the window that is
displayed at the port level is virtually identical to the one at the device level.
Figure 2-2. Bridge Performance Graph
You can select the following statistics to display in the Bridge Performance Graph
or Bridge Port Performance Graph. Statistics are provided numerically (as an
average or peak value) and graphically. The device is polled for the graphed
information every 2 seconds, and numeric values are updated based on this poll.
The graph updates at the Þxed two-second interval. For the Þrst 60 seconds of
graphing, you will note the graph lines extending as each intervalÕs data is added
to the graph. Once the Þrst 60 seconds has passed, the newest data is added at the
right edge of the graph, and the oldest data is scrolled off to the left.
2-16
Bridge Statistics
Bridging
Peak statistics are based on the peak level of activity returned from a single poll
since the Performance Graph window was invoked. A date and time is provided
for peak levels.
The Average statistics are updated every two seconds as averaged over the
previous four poll intervals (i.e., averaged over a sliding eight-second time
window).
Frames Forwarded (Green)
Forwarded
The number of frames forwarded by an individual port
or the device as a whole.
Nothing
Filtered (Magenta)
Filtered
Nothing
Errors (Red)
Total Errors
Nothing
Xmitted (Blue)
Xmitted
Nothing
The Frames Forwarded function is currently not
measuring any statistics.
The total number of frames Þltered by an individual port
or the device as a whole.
The Filtered scale is not currently measuring the number
of packets Þltered by the bridge at the device or port
level.
The total number of errors detected at a single port or on
the device as a whole.
The Errors scale is currently not measuring any type of
error packets coming through the device or port.
The total number of frames transmitted by the selected
bridge interface, or all bridge interfaces.
The Xmitted scale is not currently measuring the number
of packets Þltered by the bridge or the individual
interface.
Configuring Performance Graphs
To conÞgure the Bridge Performance Graph:
1. Using the mouse, click on Forwarded (with green statistics to the right). The
Forwarded menu will appear. Click on the desired mode.
2. Click on Filtered (with magenta statistics to the right). The Filtered menu will
appear. Click on the desired mode.
3. Click on Total Errors (with red statistics to the right). The Errors menu will
appear. Click on the desired mode.
Bridge Statistics
2-17
Bridging
4. Click on Xmitted (with blue statistics to the right). The Xmitted menu will
appear. Click on the desired mode.
Once you have selected a new mode, it will appear in its respective button, and
after the next poll the Performance Graph will refresh and begin to measure using
the new mode.
Bridge Detail Breakdown
The Bridge Detail Breakdown window allows you to compare the number of
frames forwarded, Þltered, and transmitted on the network segments connected
to each interface of your device bridge, as well as the number of errors
experienced on each interface.
NOTE
The Bridge Detail Breakdown window will not be available if your device has more than
13 bridge ports.
To access this window from the Bridge performance graph, click on Detail. The
Bridge Detail Breakdown window, Figure 2-3, will appear.
Figure 2-3. The Bridge Detail Breakdown Window
The following information is available for the network segments connected to
each of the bridge ports on the device, and any installed BRIM or HSIM port.
The information is expressed both numerically and in pie charts. Each portÕs
2-18
Bridge Statistics
Bridging
network segment has a corresponding color for its statistics or pie chart segments.
Depending on your particular bridge and its conÞguration, the segments are
color-coded as follows:
¥
¥
¥
¥
¥
¥
¥
¥
¥
¥
¥
¥
¥
LAN 1 = light red
LAN 2 = light green
LAN 3 = yellow
LAN 4 = light gray
LAN 5 = light cyan
LAN 6 = light blue
LAN 7 = green
LAN 8 = red
LAN 9 = hot pink =
LAN 10 = light magenta
LAN 11 = blue
LAN 12 = cyan
LAN 13 = black
The values given in these Þelds are cumulative totals.
Frames Forwarded
The total number of frames forwarded on each portÕs network segment, as read
from the device after each poll interval.
Filtered
The total number of frames Þltered on each portÕs network segment, as read from
the device after each poll interval.
Errors
The total number of frames (either inbound or outbound) containing errors which
prevented them from being processed by each bridge interface, as reported from
the device during the last poll interval.
Xmitted
The total number of frames transmitted over each portÕs network segment, as
read from the device after each poll interval.
Bridge Port Detail Breakdown
For the selected bridge interface, the Bridge Port Detail Breakdown window
allows you to view the number of packets forwarded to or received from each of
the other interfaces on your device.
To access the Bridge Port Detail Breakdown window from the port Bridge
performance graph, click Detail. The Bridge Port Detail Breakdown window,
Figure 2-4, will appear.
Bridge Statistics
2-19
Bridging
Figure 2-4. The Bridge Port Detail Breakdown Window
The following information is available for each bridge interface on the device. The
information is expressed both numerically and in pie charts. The colors
corresponding to the forwarding interfaces will vary, depending on which
interface is selected.
Forwarded to
The number of frames forwarded by the selected bridge interface to each other
interface on the bridge, as read from the device after each poll interval.
Forwarded from
The total number of frames received by the selected bridge interface from each of
the other bridge interfaces, as read from the device after each poll interval.
Interface Statistics
You can use the interface Statistics window to view color-coded statistical
information for each individual bridge port on your device. Statistics are
provided for both transmit and receive packets at each port, as well as error and
buffering information.
Color-coded pie charts in the middle of the window lets you graphically view
statistics for Unicast, Non-Unicast, Discarded and Error packets.
To access the Statistics window from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on the desired Port button (
) to display the Port menu.
2. Click on I/F Statistics. The port I/F Statistics window will appear.
2-20
Bridge Statistics
Bridging
To access the Statistics window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the appropriate port index to access the Port menu.
2. Click on I/F Statistics. The port I/F Statistics window will appear.
Figure 2-5. I/F Statistics Window
The following three informational Þelds appear in the upper portion of the
window:
Description
Displays the interface description for the currently selected port.
Address
Displays the MAC (physical) address of the selected port.
Type
Displays the interface type of the selected port.
NOTE
Bridge Statistics
The polling interval is set using the Device Management page of the options window
accessed via the ToolsÑ>Options selection from the SPECTRUM Element Manager
primary window menu bar. Refer to the UserÕs Guide for information on setting device
polling intervals.
2-21
Bridging
The following transmit and receive statistics Þelds are displayed in the lower
portion of the window. The Þrst four statistics are also graphically displayed in a
pie chart. The statistics are read directly from the device, and are updated with
each poll from SPECTRUM Element Manager to the device.
Unicast
Displays the number of packets transmitted to, or received from, this interface
that had a single, unique source or destination address. These statistics are
displayed in the pie chart (color-coded green).
Non-Unicast
Displays the number of packets transmitted to, or received from, this interface
that had a source or destination address that is recognized by more than one
device on the network segment. The non-unicast Þeld includes a count of
broadcast packetsÑthose that are recognized by all devices on a segment. These
statistics are displayed in the pie chart (color-coded dark blue).
Discarded
Displays the number of packets which were discarded even though no errors
were detected to prevent transmission. One possible reason for discarding such a
packet could be to free up buffer space.
The discarding of good packets indicates a very busy network. If a device
routinely discards packets, it usually means that network trafÞc is overwhelming
the device. A change in network conÞguration (such as the addition of a bridge or
switch) may help reduce network congestion.
These statistics are displayed in the pie chart (color-coded hot pink).
Error
Displays the number of packets received or transmitted that contained errors.
These statistics are displayed in the pie chart (color-coded red).
Unknown Protocol
Displays the number of packets received which were discarded because of an
unknown or unsupported protocol. The device bridge interface will discard the
packet and increment this counter if it canÕt recognize the packet.
Packets Received
Displays the number of packets received by this interface.
Transmit Queue Size
The number of packets currently queued by the device for transmission from this
interface. The amount of device memory devoted to buffer space, and the trafÞc
level on the target network, determine how large the output packet queue can
grow before the device begins to discard packets.
Packets Transmitted
Displays the number of packets transmitted by this interface.
2-22
Bridge Statistics
Bridging
CSMACD Statistics
The CSCMACD Statistics menu option is available for some Ethernet bridging
interfaces. Receive errors, transmission errors, and collision errors are the
statistics displayed in this window. Three color-coded pie charts allow you to
graphically view the breakdowns of each statistics group.
To access the CSMACD Statistics window from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on the desired Port button (
) to display the Port menu.
2. Click on CSMACD Stats. The device CSMACD Statistics window, Figure 2-6,
will appear.
To access the CSMACD Statistics window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the appropriate port index to access the Port menu.
2. Click on CSMACD Stats. The device CSMACD Statistics window, Figure 2-6,
will appear.
Figure 2-6. CSMACD Statistics Window
Each of the receive, transmission, and collision errors are described in detail
below.
Receive Errors
Indicates the errors detected while the selected interface was receiving a
transmission. Possible receive errors are:
Bridge Statistics
2-23
Bridging
¥
AlignmentÑThe number of frames received on a particular interface that
contain a nonintegral number of bytes (color-coded green). Misaligned
packets can result from a MAC layer packet formation problem, or from a
cabling problem that is corrupting or losing data.
¥
FCSÑThe number of frames received on a particular interface that are an
integral number of bytes in length, but do not pass the FCS (Frame Check
Sequence) check.
FCS, or Frame Check Sequence, errors occur when packets are somehow
damaged in transit. When each packet is transmitted, the transmitting
interface computes a frame check sequence (FCS) value based on the contents
of the packet, and appends that value to the packet. The receiving interface
performs the same computation; if the FCS values differ, the packet is assumed
to have been corrupted and is counted as an FCS error.
¥
SQE TestÑDisplays the number of times that the SQE Test Error message is
generated by the PLS sublayer on the selected interface.
The SQE (Signal Quality Error) Test tests the collision detect circuitry after each
transmission. If the SQE Test fails, a SQE Test Error is sent to the interface to
indicate that the collision detect circuitry is malfunctioning.
¥
Carrier SenseÑDisplays the number of times that the carrier sense condition
was lost or never asserted when attempting to transmit a frame on a particular
interface.
Carrier sense describes the action an interface desiring to transmit will take to
listen to the communication channel to see if any other interface is
transmitting. If a Òcarrier is sensed,Ó the sensing interface will wait a random
length of time, and then attempt to transmit.
¥
Frame Too LongÑDisplays the number of frames received on this interface
that exceed the maximum permitted frame size.
¥
Internal MACÑThe number of frames that could not be received by the
interface due to an internal MAC sublayer receive error. These errors are only
counted if a Frame Too Long, Alignment, or FCS Error did not occur along
with the internal MAC error.
¥
Receive ErrorsÑDisplays the total number of receive errors of all types that
were detected by the selected interface while it was receiving a transmission.
Transmission Errors
Indicates the errors that occurred while the selected interface was attempting to
transmit frames. Possible transmission errors are:
¥
2-24
DeferredÑ Displays the number of frames for which the Þrst transmission
attempt on this interface is delayed because the medium is busy.
Bridge Statistics
Bridging
¥
Internal MACÑThe number of frames for which transmission fails due to an
internal MAC sublayer transmit error. This error is only counted in this
window if there have not been corresponding Late Collisions, Excessive
Collisions, or Carrier Sense Errors.
¥
Transmit ErrorsÑThe total number of transmission errors of all types that
occurred while the selected interface was attempting to transmit frames.
Collision Errors
Indicates the collision errors that occurred during transmission from this
interface. Possible collision errors are:
¥
SingleÑDisplays the number of transmitted frames on the selected interface
for which transmission was prevented by one collision.
¥
MultipleÑDisplays the number of transmitted frames on the selected
interface for which transmission was prevented by more than one collision.
¥
LateÑDisplays the number of times that a collision has been detected on this
interface later than 51.2 microseconds into the transmission of the packet on a
10 Mbit/s system or later than 5.12 microseconds on a 100 Mbit/s system.
¥
ExcessiveÑDisplays the number of transmitted frames on the selected
interface for which transmission was prevented by excessive collisions.
¥
Collision ErrorsÑDisplays the total number of collision errors of all types that
occurred during transmission from this interface.
PPP Link Statistics
The PPP Link Status option opens the PPP Link Statistics window, which enables
you to view color-coded statistics related to the PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) link
at the selected interface.
The Point-to-Point Protocol is a standard method of transporting multiprotocol
datagrams over point-to-point links. A PPP Link provides full-duplex
communication between the endpoints, allowing a simultaneous bidirectional
operation that should maintain the order in which data packets are transmitted.
To access the PPP Link Statistics window from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on the desired Port button (
) to display the port menu.
2. Click on PPP Link Status. The PPP Link Statistics window, Figure 2-7, will
appear.
To access the PPP Link Statistics window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the appropriate port index to access the Port menu.
2. Click on PPP Link Status. The PPP Link Statistics window, Figure 2-7, will
appear.
Bridge Statistics
2-25
Bridging
Figure 2-7. PPP Link Statistics Window
Each of the errors and statistics related to the PPP Link at the selected bridging
interface is described in detail below.
Errors
Indicates the errors that occurred which relate to the PPP Link at the selected
bridging interface. Possible error types are:
2-26
¥
Bad AddressesÑThe Bad Addresses Þeld displays the number of packets
received with an incorrect Address Þeld.
¥
Bad ControlsÑThe Bad Controls Þeld displays the number of packets
received on the selected interface that have an incorrect Control Þeld.
¥
Packets Too LongÑThe Packets Too Long Þeld displays the number of
received packets that were discarded because their length exceeded the MRU
(Maximum Receive Unit). Note that packets that are longer than the MRU and
that are successfully received and processed are not included in the count.
¥
Bad FCSsÑThe Bad FCSs Þeld displays the number of received packets that
were discarded due to having an incorrect FCS (Frame Check Sequence) value.
Bridge Statistics
Bridging
¥
Total ErrorsÑThe Total Errors Þeld displays the total number of errors of all
types: Bad Addresses, Bad Controls, Packets Too Long, and Bad FCSs.
Statistics
Lists statistics Þelds which are related to the PPP Link at the selected bridging
interface. Possible statistics Þelds are:
Bridge Statistics
¥
Local MRUÑThe Local MRU Þeld displays the current value of the MRU
(Maximum Receive Unit) for the local PPP entity. This value is the MRU that
the remote entity uses when sending packets to the local PPP entity. The MRU
is the maximum length of data information (included ÒpaddedÓ data octets,
but excluding the Protocol Þeld which identiÞes the datagramÕs protocol type)
that can be received by this interface. The default MRU size is 1500 octets. The
auto-negotiation process may establish another value for MRU if consent is
given at both ends of the PPP link (if either the local or remote PPP entity
informs the other that larger packets can be sent, or requests that smaller
packets be sent).
¥
Remote MRUÑThe Remote MRU Þeld displays the current value of the MRU
(Maximum Receive Unit) established for the remote interface at the other end
of the PPP Link. This value is the MRU that the local entity uses when sending
packets to the remote PPP entity.
¥
Local to Peer ACC MapÑThe Local to Peer ACC Map Þeld displays the
current value of the Asynchronous Control Character (ACC) Map used for
sending packets from the local PPP entity to the remote PPP entity. In effect,
this is the ACC Map that is required to ensure that all characters can be
successfully transmitted through the local modem. The actual ACC Map used
on the transmit side of the link will be a combination of the local nodeÕs
pppLinkConÞgTransmitACCMap and the remote nodeÕs
pppLinkConÞgReceiveACCMap.
¥
Peer to Local ACC MapÑThe Peer to Local ACC Map Þeld displays the
Asynchronous Control Character (ACC) Map used by the remote PPP entity
when transmitting packets to the local PPP entity. In effect, this is the ACC
Map that is required to ensure that the local modem will successfully receive
all characters. The actual ACC Map used on the receive side of the link will be
a combination of the local nodeÕs pppLinkConÞgReceiveACCMap and the remote
nodeÕs pppLinkConÞgTransmitACCMap.
¥
Local to Remote Protocol CompressionÑThe Local to Remote Protocol
Compression Þeld determines whether or not the local PPP entity uses
Protocol Compression when transmitting packets to the remote PPP entity.
¥
Remote to Local Protocol CompressionÑThe Remote to Local Protocol
Compression Þeld determines whether or not the remote PPP entity uses
Protocol Compression when transmitting packets to the local PPP entity.
¥
Local to Remote AC CompressionÑThe Local to Remote AC Compression
Þeld determines whether or not the local PPP entity uses Address and Control
(AC) Compression when transmitting packets to the remote PPP entity.
2-27
Bridging
¥
Remote to Local AC CompressionÑThe Remote to Local AC Compression
Þeld determines whether or not the remote PPP entity uses Address and
Control (AC) Compression when transmitting packets to the local PPP entity.
¥
Transmit FCS SizeÑThe Transmit FCS Size Þeld displays the size of the Frame
Check Sequence (FCS), in bits, that the local node generates when sending
packets to the remote node.
¥
Receive FCS SizeÑThe Receive FCS Size Þeld displays the size of the Frame
Check Sequence (FCS), in bits, that the remote node generates when sending
packets to the local node.
Dot5 Errors
The Dot5 Errors menu option invokes the Station Statistics window, which
enables you to view IEEE 802.5 error statistics reported for a Token Ring bridge
interface.
To access the Station Statistics window from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on the desired Port button (
) to display the port menu.
2. Click on Dot5 Errors. The Station Statistics window, Figure 2-8, will appear.
To access the Station Statistics window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the appropriate port index to access the Port menu.
2. Click on Dot5 Errors. The Station Statistics window, Figure 2-8, will appear.
2-28
Bridge Statistics
Bridging
Figure 2-8. Dot5 Errors Statistics Window
Each type of IEEE 802.5 error detected by the selected station port is described in
detail below.
Line Errors
The Line Errors Þeld displays the number of the line errors detected by the
selected port. This error indicates the presence of a non-data bit between the
starting and ending delimiters of data or a frame check sequence (FCS) error.
Burst Errors
The Burst Errors Þeld displays the number of burst errors detected by the selected
port. This error indicates a bit information encoding error when there are no
transitions between 0 and 1 over Þve half-bit times.
A. C. Errors
The A. C. Errors Þeld displays the number of A. C. errors detected by the selected
port. These errors count protocol data units (PDUs) that contain errors in the A or
C bits.
Bridge Statistics
2-29
Bridging
Abort Sequences
The Abort Sequences Þeld displays the number of abort sequences transmitted by
the selected port. These occur when an adapter has frames to transmit and
receives a token, but does not detect an ending delimiter on the token after its
access control Þeld. This indicates that the token is corrupted. The station
transmits abort delimiters to halt frame transmission before its expected
end-frame sequence, re-queues the frame(s) for transmission, but does not release
the corrupt token.
Internal Errors
The Internal Errors Þeld displays the number of recoverable internal errors
detected by the selected port. These are recorded when a station recognizes a
recoverable internal error in its adapter, and removes itself from the ring. This is
considered a solid hard error, since the ring automatically reconÞgures.
Lost Frames
The Lost Frames Þeld displays the number of non-returned frames detected by
the selected port. These occur when a transmitting stationÕs TRR (Timer, Return to
Repeat) timer expires (after 4.1 milliseconds) before the end of its frame returns.
This timer ensures that the station returns to the data repeat state (i.e., retrieves
the token, strips it of data, and issues a new token to the ring). Lost frames are
usually caused by a station entering or leaving the ring as the frame is circulating.
Congestion Errors
The Congestion Errors Þeld displays the number of times the selected port has not
been able to copy a protocol data unit (PDU) addressed to it because of a lack of
internal buffering.
F. C. Errors
The F. C. Errors Þeld displays the number of protocol data units (PDUs)
addressed to the selected station with the A bits already set to 1. This error
indicates that a possible electrical line disturbance or a duplicate address has
occurred on the ring.
Token Errors
The Token Errors Þeld displays the number of times that the selected station,
acting as the active monitor, detected an error condition that needed a token
transmitted.
Soft Errors
The Soft Errors Þeld displays the number of soft errors detected by the selected
port. Although soft errors do not cause ring failure, they degrade the performance
of the ring network.
Hard Errors
The Hard Errors Þeld displays the number of immediately recoverable fatal errors
detected by the selected port. These are errors which halt normal operation of the
ring, and are usually caused by faults in the ring hardware, equipment, or wiring.
2-30
Bridge Statistics
Bridging
Signal Loss
The Signal Loss Þeld displays the number of times that the selected port has
detected the loss of a signal condition from the ring.
Transmit Beacons
The Transmit Beacons Þeld displays the number of beacon frames transmitted by
the selected station.
Recoveries
The Recoveries Þeld displays the number of claim token frames the monitored
station has received or transmitted after a ring purge frame.
Lobe Wires
The Lobe Wires Þeld displays the number of open or short circuits detected in the
lobe data path.
Removes
The Removes Þeld displays the number of Remove Ring Station MAC frame
requests detected by the selected port.
Singles
The Singles Þeld displays the number of times the selected station has detected
that it is the only station on the ring. This error may indicate that the station is the
Þrst on the ring or that there is a hardware problem.
Frequency Errors
The Frequency Errors Þeld displays the number of times that the selected station
detected a larger-than-allowed difference between the incoming frequency and
the expected frequency.
Source Route Statistics
The Source Route Statistics menu option invokes the Bridge Source Routing
window, which allows you to compare the statistics on frames received,
transmitted, and discarded at the Token Ring interfaces of devices that are
bridging from a source routing network to a transparent network.
To access the Bridge Source Routing window from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on the desired Port button (
) to display the port menu.
2. Click on Source Route Statistics. The Bridge Source Routing window,
Figure 2-9, will appear.
Bridge Statistics
2-31
Bridging
To access the Bridge Source Routing window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the appropriate port index to access the Port menu.
2. Click on Source Route Statistics. The Bridge Source Routing window,
Figure 2-9, will appear.
Figure 2-9. The Bridge Source Routing Window
The Bridge Source Routing window provides basic statistics for source routed
trafÞc passing between the bridging ports. Pie charts graphically break down the
statistical information. All statistics are calculated since the device was last reset
or powered up. The following window Þelds are listed in the Bridge Source
Routing window:
Received Frames
Frame types received by the bridge ports
¥
Specif. RoutedÑDisplays the total number of SpeciÞcally Routed Explorer
frames received by the indicated port from its attached segment.
These frames have data and routing information and are following a known
route from source to destination.
¥
All Paths Expl.ÑDisplays the total number of All Path Explorer frames
received by the indicated port from its attached segment.
When a sending station needs to determine the best route to an intended
destination, it transmits an All Paths Explorer (APE) frame. The APE frame
contains no routing information; it is propagated along all available paths to
2-32
Bridge Statistics
Bridging
the destination station, which then directs a reply back to the source. The Þrst
reply received by the original sending station is considered the most efÞcient
route and is used in subsequent transmissions.
¥
Span. Tree Expl.ÑDisplays the total number of Spanning Tree Explorer (STE)
frames received by the indicated port from its attached segment. STE frames,
also known as Single Route Broadcast frames, follow the topology established
by the Spanning Tree Algorithm.
Transmitted Frames
List of Frame types transmitted by the bridge ports
¥
Specif. RoutedÑDisplays the total number of SpeciÞcally Routed Frames
transmitted by the indicated port onto its attached segment.
¥
All Paths Expl.ÑDisplays the total number of All Path Explorer frames
transmitted by the indicated port onto its attached segment.
¥
Span Tree Expl.ÑDisplays the total number of Spanning Tree Explorer (STE)
frames transmitted by the indicated port onto its attached segment.
Discards
List of Frames discarded by the bridge ports.
¥
Segment MismatchÑDisplays the number of explorer frames discarded
because their routing descriptor Þeld contained an invalid value for a segment
attached to the port.
The routing information Þeld of a SpeciÞcally Routed frame contains LAN
Segment In (Ring In)ÐBridge NumberÐLAN Segment Out (Ring Out)
information. If the bridgeÕs LAN Segment Out value does not match the LAN
Segment Out speciÞed in the frameÕs Routing Information Field, the bridge
logs a Segment Mismatch and discards the frame.
Bridge Statistics
¥
Duplicate SegmentÑDisplays the number of frames discarded because the
frameÕs Routing Information Field identiÞes a particular segment more than
once.
¥
Hop Cnt. ExceededÑDisplays the number of All Paths Explorer frames
discarded at the speciÞed port because they exceeded the number of routing
descriptors (bridge hops) speciÞed by the Hop Count Limit.
2-33
Bridging
Spanning Tree
The Bridge Spanning Tree window allows you to display and modify the deviceÕs
bridge port information and protocol parameters relating to the Spanning Tree
Algorithm.
In a network design with multiple bridges placed in parallel (i.e, attached to the
same LAN), data loops must be prevented. The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) is
the method that bridges use to communicate with each other to ensure that only a
single data route exists between any two end stations.
On a LAN interconnected by multiple bridges, Spanning Tree selects a controlling
Root Bridge and Port for the entire bridged LAN, and a Designated Bridge and
Port for each individual LAN segment. A Designated Port/Bridge for a LAN
segment forwards frames from that LAN towards the Root Bridge, or from the
Root Bridge onto the LAN. All other bridge ports attached to that LAN are
conÞgured to Þlter (block) frames.
When data passes from one end station to another across a bridged LAN, it is
forwarded through the Designated Bridge/Port for each LAN segment towards
the Root Bridge, which in turn forwards frames towards Designated
Bridges/Ports on its opposite side.
During the Root Bridge Selection process, all bridges on the network
communicate STA information via Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs). With
BPDUs, all network bridges collectively determine the current network topology
and communicate with each other to ensure that the topology information is kept
current.
To access the Bridge Spanning Tree window from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on Bridge to display the Bridge menu.
2. Click on Spanning Tree. The Bridge Spanning Tree window, Figure 2-10, will
appear.
To access the Bridge Spanning Tree window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the Board Index of the device of interest; the Board menu will
appear.
2. Click on Spanning Tree. The Bridge Spanning Tree window, Figure 2-10, will
appear.
2-34
Spanning Tree
Bridging
Figure 2-10. Bridge Spanning Tree Window
The Bridge Spanning Tree window displays STA parameters and allows you to
alter parameters for the device bridge as a whole, and for each individual
bridging interface.
The values displayed apply to the currently-selected bridging interface,
highlighted in the lower right quadrant of the window. To view or alter the
parameters of another interface, click on the appropriate Port X name listed in the
quadrant.
Bridge Level
Bridge Priority
This Þeld displays the ÒpriorityÓ component of the deviceÕs unique bridge
identiÞer. The Spanning Tree Algorithm assigns each bridge a unique identiÞer,
which is derived from the bridgeÕs MAC address and the Priority. The bridge with
the lowest value of bridge identiÞer is selected as the Root. A lower priority
number indicates a higher priority; a higher priority enhances a bridgeÕs chance
of being selected as the Root.
You can edit this text box to change network topology, if needed. The default
value is 8000; the range is 0ÑFFFF hexadecimal.
Spanning Tree
2-35
Bridging
TIP
Part of a bridgeÕs IdentiÞer is based on its MAC address. In most network installations,
performance differences between bridges may be negligible. You may, however, Þnd your
data bottle-necked in installations where both a low-performance bridge and a
high-performance bridge are attached to the same LAN segment and the two (or more)
bridges have the same Priority component set (e.g., at the default 8000 Hex). In such a
scenario you may want to alter the Priority component of the higher performance bridge to
ensure that it becomes root for the segment (or overall root). Remember, if Priority
components are equal, the bridge on the segment with the lowest MAC address would
have a better chance of being selected as the root bridgeÑas it would have a lower Bridge
IdentiÞer. If your bridges come from multiple vendors, they will have different MAC
address values (e.g., Cabletron devices have a lower MAC address than 3Com devices); if
they come from the same vendor, the bridge with the earlier manufacture date will have the
lower MAC address value.
Root Bridge
Displays the MAC address of the bridge that is currently functioning as the Root
Bridge.
Root Cost
Indicates the cost of the data path from this bridge to the Root Bridge. Each port
on each bridge adds a ÒcostÓ to a particular path that a frame must travel. For
example, if each port in a particular path has a Path Cost of 1, the Root Cost
would be a count of the number of bridges along the path. (You can edit the Path
Cost of bridge ports as described later.) The Root BridgeÕs Root Cost is 0.
Root Port
This Þeld displays the identiÞer (the physical index number) of the device bridge
port that has the lowest cost path to the Root Bridge on the network. If the device
is currently the Root Bridge, this Þeld will read 0.
Protocol
Displays the Spanning Tree Algorithm Protocol type the device is currently using.
The choices are:
¥
¥
¥
802.1
DEC (DEC Lanbridge 100)
None
The following four Þelds display values used for various Spanning Tree timers
that are set at the Root Bridge and this bridge. In Spanning Tree operations, the
value used for the tree is the one set at the Root Bridge (with the exception of
Hold Time, which is a Þxed value), but you can change the value for each bridge
on your network in the event that it becomes Root.
2-36
Spanning Tree
Bridging
Hello Time
This parameter indicates, in seconds, the length of time the Root Bridge (or bridge
attempting to become the Root) waits before resending ConÞguration BPDUs.
The range for this Þeld is 1 to 10 seconds, with a default value of 2 seconds. The
Root Bridge sets the Hello Time.
Max Age
This parameter displays the bridgeÕs BPDU aging timer. This controls the
maximum time a BPDU can be retained by the bridge before it is discarded.
During normal operation, each bridge in the network receives a new
ConÞguration BPDU before the timer expires. If the timer expires before a
ConÞguration BPDU is received, it indicates that the former Root is no longer
active. The remaining bridges begin Spanning Tree operation to select a new Root.
The current Root Bridge on the network sets the Max Age time. The range for this
Þeld is 6 to 40 seconds, with a default value of 20 seconds.
Forwarding Delay
This parameter displays the time period which elapses between states while the
bridge is moving to the Forwarding state. For example, while moving from a
Blocking to a Forwarding state, the port Þrst moves from Blocking to Listening to
BPDU activity on the network, remains there for the Forward Delay period, then
moves to the Learning State (and remains in it for the Forward Delay period), and
Þnally moves into a Forwarding state. This timer is set by the Root Bridge. During
a topology change, the Forward Delay is also used as the Filtering Database
Aging Time, which ensures that the Filtering Database maintains current
topology information.
Hold Time
This parameter displays, in seconds, the minimum time that can elapse between
the transmission of ConÞguration BPDUs through a bridge port. The Hold Time
ensures that ConÞguration BPDUs are not transmitted too frequently through any
bridge port. Receiving a BPDU starts the Hold Timer. After the Hold Timer
expires, the port transmits its ConÞguration BPDU to send conÞguration
information to the Root. The Hold Time is a Þxed value, as speciÞed by the IEEE
802.1d speciÞcation.
Bridge Port Level
The following Þelds are applicable to each bridge port on the device.
Priority
If two or more ports on the same bridge are connected to the same LAN segment,
they will receive the same Root ID/Root Cost/Bridge ID information in
ConÞguration BPDUs received at each port. In this case, the BPDUÕs Port ID
informationÑthe transmitting portÕs identiÞer and its manageable Priority
componentÑis used to determine which is the Designated Port for that segment.
Spanning Tree
2-37
Bridging
A lower assigned value gives the port a higher Priority when BPDUs are
compared. The allowable range is 0ÑFF hexadecimal (0Ñ255 decimal); the
default is 80 hexadecimal.
Path Cost
Displays the cost that this port will contribute to the calculation of the overall
Root path cost in a ConÞguration BPDU transmitted by this bridge port. You can
lower a portÕs Path Cost to make the port more competitive in the selection of the
Designated PortÑfor example, you may want to assign a lower path cost to a port
on a higher performance bridge. The allowable range is 1 to 65,535.
Designated Cost
Displays the cost of the path to the Root Bridge of the Designated Port on the
LAN to which this port is attached. This cost is added to the Path Cost to test the
value of the Root Path Cost parameter received in ConÞguration BPDUs.
Designated Root
Displays the unique bridge identiÞer of the bridge that is assumed to be the Root
Bridge.
Designated Bridge
Displays the network address portion of the Bridge ID (MAC address/priority
component) for the bridge that is believed to be the Designated Bridge for the
LAN associated with this port.
The Designated Bridge ID, along with the Designated Port and Port IdentiÞer
parameters for the port, is used to determine whether this port should be the
Designated Port for the LAN to which it is attached. The Designated Bridge ID is
also used to test the value of the Bridge IdentiÞer parameter in received BPDUs.
Designated Port
Displays the network address portion of the Port ID (which includes a
manageable priority component) of the port believed to be the Designated Port
for the LAN associated with this port.
The Designated Port ID, along with the Designated Bridge and Port IdentiÞer
parameters for the port, is used to determine whether this port should be the
Designated Port for the LAN to which it is attached. Management also uses it to
determine the Bridged LAN topology.
Topology
This indicates how many times the bridgeÕs Topology Change ßag has been
changed since the device was last powered up or initialized. It also indicates the
time elapsed since the topology last changed. The Topology Change ßag
increments each time a bridge enters or leaves the network, or when the Root
Bridge ID changes.
2-38
Spanning Tree
Bridging
Configuring Spanning Tree
The Bridge Spanning Tree window allows you to update the following
parameters for your device bridge. When you have Þnished making changes to
the following individual parameters, you must click on Set at the bottom of the
Spanning Tree window to write the changes to the device.
NOTE
Any values you set at the bridge will cause a Topology Change ßag to be issued in the next
ConÞguration BPDUs it transmits. This will cause the bridged network to immediately
recalculate Spanning Tree and change topology accordingly.
Changing Bridge Priority
To change the part of the bridge address that contains the identiÞer used in the
Spanning Tree Algorithm for priority comparisons:
1. Highlight the Bridge Priority field.
2. Enter the new identifier, in hexadecimal format; the allowed range is 0-FFFF
hexadecimal.
3. Click on Set.
The selected Bridge Priority will be applied to the bridge (a lower number
indicates a higher priority in the root selection process).
Changing the Spanning Tree Algorithm Protocol Type
To change the type of protocol used in Spanning Tree:
1. Click the mouse on the appropriate option button: 802.1, DEC, or None.
2. Click on Set.
The selected Spanning Tree Algorithm protocol type will be applied to the bridge.
If you selected None, the Spanning Tree Algorithm will be disabled (if it already
was enabled). If STA Protocol Type was changed from None to IEEE 802.1 or DEC,
you must restart the bridge for the newly selected STA protocol to be applied.
!
All bridges in a network must use the same Spanning Tree version. Mixing Spanning Tree
Algorithm protocols will cause an unstable network.
CAUTION
Spanning Tree
2-39
Bridging
Changing Hello Time
If the bridge is the Root Bridge, or is attempting to become the Root, and you
want to change the length of time the bridge waits between sending conÞguration
BPDUs:
1. Highlight the Hello Time field, and type in a new value.
2. Click on Set.
The IEEE 802.1d speciÞcation recommends that Hello Time = 2 seconds, with an
allowable range of 1 to 10 seconds.
Changing Max Age Time
If the device is the Root Bridge or attempting to become the Root, and you want to
change the maximum time that bridge protocol information will be kept before it
is discarded:
1. Highlight the Max Age field, and type in a new value.
2. Click on Set.
The IEEE 802.1d speciÞcation recommends that Max Age = 20 seconds, with an
allowable range of 6 to 40 seconds.
Changing Forwarding Delay Time
If the device is the Root Bridge or attempting to become the Root, and you want to
change the time period the bridge will spend in the Listening state (e.g. either
listening to BPDU activity on the network while moving from the Blocking to the
Learning state or in the Learning state while the bridge is moving from the
Listening to the Forwarding state):
1. Highlight the Forwarding Delay field, and type in a new value.
2. Click on Set.
The IEEE 802.1d speciÞcation recommends that Forward Delay = 15 seconds, with
an allowable range of 4 to 30 seconds.
NOTE
To ensure proper operation of the Spanning Tree Algorithm, the IEEE 802.1d speciÞcation
recommends that you always observe the following relationship between Forwarding
Delay, Max Age, and Hello Time:
2 x (Forwarding Delay - 1.0) > Max Age > 2 x (Hello Time +1.0)
2-40
Spanning Tree
Bridging
Changing Port Priority
To change the part of the Port Priority used in priority comparisons:
1. If necessary, select the desired port by clicking the mouse to highlight the port
in the lower right quadrant of the window. The lower left quadrant of the
window will now allow you to edit parameters for the selected port.
2. Highlight the port Priority field, and enter the new priority identifier. Only valid
hexadecimal numbers (0 to FF) are allowed in this field. The default is 80
hexadecimal.
3. Click on Set. The new port priority will be saved.
Changing Path Cost
To change the Path Cost:
1. If necessary, select the desired port by clicking the mouse to highlight the port
in the lower right quadrant of the window. The lower left quadrant of the
window will now allow you to edit parameters for the selected port.
2. Highlight the Path Cost field, and type in a new value from 1 to 65535 decimal
(default is 100 decimal).
3. Click on Set.
The new path cost will be applied to the port.
Filtering Database
The Filtering Database, which makes up the IEEE 802.1 Source Address Table, is
used to determine which frames will be forwarded or Þltered across the deviceÕs
bridging ports.
During initialization, the bridge copies the contents of its Permanent Database to
the Filtering Database. Next, the bridge learns network addresses by entering the
source address and port association of each received packet into the Filtering
Database. When in the Forwarding state, the bridge examines each received
packet, checks it against the Special Database (refer to Special Filter Databases,
page 2-47), and then (if no special Þltering applies) compares the destination
address to the contents of the Filtering Database.
If the destination address is located on the network from which the packet was
received, the bridge Þlters (does not forward) the packet. If the destination
address is located on a different network, the bridge forwards the packet to the
appropriate network. If the destination address is not found in the Filtering
Database, the bridge forwards the packet to all networks. To keep Filtering
Database entries current, older entries are purged after a period of time, which is
called the Dynamic Aging Time.
Filtering Database
2-41
Bridging
The Filtering Database consists of two separate databases: the Static and the
Learned Databases.
The Static Database contains addresses that are entered by a network
administrator. You add these addresses directly to the database while the bridge is
powered up, or to the deviceÕs battery-backed RAM so that they are stored on
shutdown until the next power-up.
The Learned Database consists of addresses that accumulate as part of the
bridgeÕs learning process as it is up and running. These do not remain in the
Source Address Table when the system is shut down. The Learned Database also
contains the addresses that are in the Static Database upon start-up of the bridge.
Entries to the Source Address Table are one of four types: Permanent, Static,
Dynamic, or Learned.
¥
Permanent entries are addresses that you add to the Static Database (via the
Filtering Database window) that are stored in the deviceÕs battery-backed
RAM. Since they remain in the device on shutdown or restart, they are
considered ÒPermanent.Ó
¥
Static entries are addresses that you add to the Static Database (via the
Filtering Database window). These entries remain in the device until it is shut
down.
¥
Dynamic entries are addresses that you add to the Static Database (via the
Filtering Database window). With the Aging Time feature, you set the time
period that these addresses are saved in the Source Address Table. Addresses
that have not transmitted a packet during one complete cycle of the aging
timer are deleted from the database.
¥
Learned entries are addresses that are added to the Learned Database through
the bridgeÕs learning process. With the Aging Time feature, you set the time
period that these addresses are saved in the Source Address Table. Addresses
which are inactive within a cycle of the aging timer are dropped from the
database.
Learned address entries are divided into two types, Learned and Self. Address
entries classiÞed as Learned have transmitted frames destined for a device
attached to a device portÕs connected segment. Address entries classiÞed as
Self are those that have sent a frame with a destination address of one of the
deviceÕs bridging ports.
At the Filtering Database window (Figure 2-11, page 2-43), you can view the
number of entries of each type: Permanent, Static, Dynamic, or Learned.
NOTE
2-42
Even though new entries into the Filtering Database are added as Static entries by
default, note that some devices do not support Static entries. For these devices, once you
add an entry into the Filtering Database, it must be changed to a Permanent type before
clicking on OK to apply the change. If the entry is not changed to a Permanent type before
clicking on OK, you will receive a Set Failed message.
Filtering Database
Bridging
A scrollable Address Entry panel allows you to:
¥
View the address entries in the Filtering Database.
¥
Alter an entryÕs type (e.g., from Learned to Permanent, Dynamic, or Static).
¥
View and conÞgure the bridging action taking place on the packets entering
each of the bridging ports.
In addition, you can use buttons to add individual addresses to, or delete them
from, these databases, or clear all Permanent, Static, or Dynamic entries in the
database.
To access the Filtering Database window from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on Bridge to display the Bridge menu.
2. Click on Filtering Database. The Filtering Database window, Figure 2-11, will
appear.
To access the Filtering Database window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the Board Index of the device of interest; the Board menu will
appear.
2. Click on Filtering Database. The Filtering Database window, Figure 2-11, will
appear.
Figure 2-11. The Filtering Database Window
Filtering Database
2-43
Bridging
The following Þelds are listed in the top portion of the Filtering Database
window.
List
The List checkboxes indicate whether the associated entry type (Permanent,
Static, Dynamic, or Learned) will be displayed in the scrollable table of address
entries. A check next to the entry type indicates that it will be displayed.
Type
Indicates the type of entry in the database.
Number
Displays the current number of Permanent, Static, Dynamic, and Learned
Address entries.
Capacity
Indicates the total capacity of each entry type in the Static and Learned databases.
Aging Time
Indicates the length of time, in seconds, that Dynamic and Learned Addresses in
the Source Address Table are allowed to remain inactive before they are dropped
from the database. The allowable time range for these entries is 10 to 1,000,000
seconds. Aging time is not applicable to Static or Permanent entries. You can
conÞgure this Þeld, as described in the next section.
The following Þelds are applicable to the scrollable Address Entry panel of
Filtering Database entries.
Address
Lists the addresses for which the bridgeÕs Filtering Database has forwarding
and/or Þltering information.
Type
Indicates the type of an entry in the database. The possible types are Static,
Dynamic, Learned, Self, or Permanent. You can alter the entry type, as described
in the next section.
Source Port
Indicates the port number on which the address entry was Þrst detected. A
question mark (?) indicates that the address entry was not a learned entry, but
Port Filtering information applies to it (i.e., the entry is a created Permanent,
Dynamic, or Static entry and has corresponding Þltering information).
Receive Port
Indicates the number of the port on which a frame must be received in order for
the entryÕs Port Filtering information to apply. An asterisk (*) indicates that the
receive port is promiscuous, and applies to all ports of the bridge (assuming no
conßicting entry applies). You can change the receive port, as described in the
following section.
2-44
Filtering Database
Bridging
Port Filtering
Indicates the action that will take place at each bridge port when it receives
frames from the selected address entry. A green arrow indicates that the frames
received from the address will be forwarded to the portÕs associated segment
(
). A red circle indicates that frames will be Þltered (blocked) from the portÕs
associated segment (
). You can change the Port Filtering action, as described
in the next section. (Note that port Þltering is scrollable among all the potential
ports; however, only two consecutive ports can be viewed simultaneously.)
Configuring the Filtering Database
You can conÞgure the Filtering Database by:
¥
Altering the Aging Time for Dynamic and Learned entries.
¥
Changing the type of entry with the Type buttons.
¥
Changing the Receive port for the Þlter.
¥
Changing the Port Filtering action at each bridge port.
¥
Adding or deleting individual Filtering Database entries.
¥
Clearing all Permanent, Static, or Dynamic entries from the Filtering Database.
Note that although conÞguration changes will appear in the window, no action
actually takes place in the bridgeÕs Filtering Database until you click on the OK
button in the bottom right of the window. This saves the new conÞguration.
NOTE
When you reconÞgure the Filtering Database and click OK, the screen will clear
temporarily and a message will appear to indicate that the information is being updated.
When the changes have been successfully set and the Filtering Database has updated, the
screen information will be refreshed.
If you change the window without clicking on OK, then attempt to exit the
window by clicking on Cancel, a text box will appear stating ÒChanges have been
made. Cancel them?Ó. Click on Yes to exit the window without changing the
Filtering Database, or select No to return to the window.
Altering the Aging Time
To alter the Aging Time for Dynamic and Learned entries:
1. Highlight the Aging Time field with the cursor.
2. Type in the new Aging Time (allowable range is 10 to 1,000,000 seconds).
Filtering Database
2-45
Bridging
NOTE
Note that the Filtering Database Aging Time is the same as the Aging Time displayed
(and conÞgured) via the Source Addresses window. Setting the Aging Time in the
Filtering Database window also changes the time in the Source Addresses window, and
vice versa.
Changing the Type of Entry
You can change any entry type from its current type (Learned, Self, Permanent,
Static, or Dynamic) to either a Permanent, Static, or Dynamic entry. To do so:
1. Click on the shadowed Type button. A menu will appear with the three types
to which the entry can be changed.
2. Highlight the desired type.
Changing the Receive Port
You can change the Receive port of an address entry in the scrollable panel, so
that a frame must be received at the speciÞed port for the Þltering action to apply.
To do so, click on the Receive port in the panel. With each click, the Receive port
will cycle to the next port (e.g., from * (promiscuous), to 1, to 2, to 3, to 4, to 5, etc.).
Changing the Port Filtering Action
You can change the Port Filtering action at each bridge port from its current action
to the opposing action.
1. Maneuver the scroll bar until the desired port is in the Port Filtering panel.
2. Click on the port to alter its filtering action from forwarding frames from the
associated address (
), to filtering frames (
) (or vice versa).
Adding or Deleting Individual Entries
You can add or delete entries individually from the Filtering Database.
To add an address:
1. Click on the New button. A window (Figure 2-12) will appear.
Figure 2-12. Filter DatabaseÑNew Filter Window
2. In the Filter Address field, type in the address (Hex format) for which you
desire bridging. Be sure to add “-” as a separator between each byte in the
address.
2-46
Filtering Database
Bridging
3. In the Receive Port field, type in the port at which the address must be
detected for bridging to take place. If you enter a value of 0 in this field, the
Receive Port is considered promiscuous (i.e., any port), and will be
designated by an “*” in the Address Entry panel.
4. Click on OK.
5. Specify the Port Filtering action on the address entry as described in the
previous section.
To delete an address:
1. Click to highlight the address entry in the Address Entry panel that you wish to
delete from the filtering database.
2. Click on Delete.
Clearing All Permanent, Static, or Dynamic Entries
To erase all Permanent, Static, or Dynamic entries from the Filtering Database,
click on the associated Clear button in the upper portion of the window.
Special Filter Databases
While the Filtering Database deÞnes Þlters for all packets from a particular source
address, the Ethernet Special Filter Database and the Token Ring Special Filtering
Databases allow you to Þlter packets through an Ethernet or a Token Ring bridge,
respectively, using a special Þltering scheme.
When a packet is received at an Ethernet bridging interface, it is Þrst checked
against the Ethernet Special Filter Database to see if any Þltering action applies to
it. Because of this, an entry in the Ethernet Special Filter Database takes
precedence over a Þlter entry in the Filtering Database that would otherwise
apply to the packet.
The Ethernet Special Filter Database allows you to:
¥
DeÞne and save a Þlter based on a combination of Source Address, Destination
Address, Ethernet Data Type, and Data (including the offset).
¥
Specify the receive ports at which the Þlter will take effect.
¥
Specify the forwarding/Þltering action at each bridging port of the device.
When checking for Transparent Þltering information, the bridge Þrst checks the
Token Ring Special Filter Database to see if any Þltering action applies to it.
Because of this, a Þlter entry in the Token Ring Special Filter Database takes
precedence over a Þlter entry in the Filtering Database that would otherwise
apply to the packet.
Special Filter Databases
2-47
Bridging
Looking at each enabled Þlter, starting with the lowest numbered Þlter, the bridge
compares the following Þelds to the corresponding Þelds in the received packet:
¥
¥
¥
¥
Destination address
Source address
Ethernet or Token Ring data type
Up to 16 hex integers (64 bytes) of the data Þeld
In addition, a Þlter can also specify at which port or ports the packet must be
received for the Þlter to be applicable. If a received packet matches all the contents
of an enabled Þlter, the bridge forwards the packet to the deÞned set of ports.
Filters provide broad conÞguration ßexibility. For example, you can deÞne
multiple scenarios for a single Þlter by specifying different combinations of
receive port/destination port. You can use wildcard characters in Þlter Þelds to
force a match with particular bits of the received packetÕs destination address,
source address, type, or data. You can specify an offset for the data Þeld, to specify
the starting point in the data where the bridge looks for the match. For entries that
donÕt match any of the enabled Þlters, you can conÞgure the bridge to Þlter or
forward the entry or pass the Þlter/forward decision to the Filtering Database.
Ethernet and Token Ring Special Filter Database Windows
At the Ethernet and Token ring Special Filter Database windows, Figure 2-13, you
can view a list of the special Þlters for the selected bridge. There are 19 available
Þlters in the Special Filter Database. You can not add any additional Þlters. You
can view Þve of these Þlters at a time in the Special Filter Database window. Use
the scroll bars to view the other fourteen Þlters.
When you Þrst open the window, all Þlters will be undeÞned. For each Þeld,
bytes will be initialized with Òmatch-anyÓ characters (xx) for each digit. Any
hexadecimal byte will be accepted as valid for the corresponding wildcard (xx)
characters. For example, a Source Address Þlter deÞned as Òxx-xx-xx-xx-bf-coÓ
will pass the Þrst four bytes of a frameÕs source address unconditionally, but the
last two bytes must match the Òbf-coÓ Þlter.
To access the Ethernet or Token Ring Special Filter Database window from the
Bridge Status window:
1. Click on Bridge to display the Bridge menu.
2. Click on Ethernet or Token Ring Special Filter Database. The selected
Special Filter Database window, Figure 2-13, will appear.
To access the Ethernet or Token Ring Special Filter Database window from the
Chassis View window:
1. Click on the Board Index of the device of interest; the Board menu will
appear.
2. Click on Ethernet or Token Ring Special Filter Database. The selected
Special Filter Database window, Figure 2-13, will appear.
2-48
Special Filter Databases
Bridging
Figure 2-13. Ethernet and Token Ring Special Filter Database Windows
Special Filter Database Window
The following Þelds are available in the Special Filter Database window:
File
An X in this checkbox indicates that the Þlter is associated with the Þle name
shown in the title bar of the window. If a Þle has not yet been saved, the title bar
will display the Þlter name Òuntitled. ßtÓ. A saved Þle name is only displayed in
the title bar after you have opened a saved Þlter Þle or saved your current Þlters.
Enable
A Þlled-in circle indicates the Þlter is enabled.
Special Filter Databases
2-49
Bridging
Destination Address
Displays a six-byte hexadecimal Þeld for the Þlter which can be used to Þlter on
Destination Addresses, in whole or in part.
Source Address
Displays a six-byte hexadecimal Þeld for the Þlter which can be used to Þlter on
Source Addresses, in whole or in part.
Data Type
Displays the hexadecimal two-byte Þeld for the Þlter which can be used to mask
out a speciÞed protocol type Þeld. Examples of protocol type are:
¥
¥
¥
¥
0800 = IP
8137 = Novell
0bad = Banyan
80f3 = AppletalkARP
Data Offset
Indicates the offset (in bytes, from the beginning of the data in the packet) where
the Data Mask will be applied. The default for this Þeld is 0000 (no data offset).
An example of a valid offset to enter into this Þeld is 0016 (16 bytes).
Data Mask
Displays the 64-byte overlay used to Þlter on packets. The Data Mask is applied to
the packet after the Þxed part of the packet, data includes Source Address,
Destination Address, and Type Þelds. The Þlter applies the mask directly at the
start of the data portion of the packet unless there is a Data Offset. If a Data Offset
has been deÞned, the mask will apply to the data that comes after the speciÞed
offset in the packet.
Receive Port(s)
Indicates the ports at which the packet must be received for Þltering information
to be applied. Note that you can only immediately see one receive port per Þlter,
even though you can set more than one receive port for the Þltering action to
apply. The receive port Þeld can display each individual device bridge port, or
Ò*.Ó The Ò*Ó indicates that a packet can be received at any port for the Þlter to
apply (i.e., the port is promiscuous).
Port Filtering
forwarding
blocking
Indicates the forwarding/blocking information for the
Þlter at each port on the device. Note that you can only
view two ports at a time.
Use the scroll bar at the top of the column to view the
hidden ports.
Selected Filter
This Þeld, visible at the bottom of the window, displays the number of the Þlter
that is currently highlighted. The possible range is from 01-19.
2-50
Special Filter Databases
Bridging
Defining and Editing Filters in the Special Database
You can edit an existing Þlter or deÞne a new Þlter using the following steps:
1. Click to select the filter you wish to edit. The filter is selected when it is
highlighted. When the bridge uses the Special Database, it starts with the
lowest numbered enabled filter.
2. Click Edit. The Special Database Filter window, Figure 2-14, will appear with
the following fields:
Destination Address (six-byte hexadecimal field)
Source Address (six-byte hexadecimal field)
Type (two-byte hexadecimal field)
Data Offset (decimal field)
Data Mask (64-byte hexadecimal data mask)
Figure 2-14. The Special Database Filter Window
3. If you are editing an existing filter, the fields will reflect the current
configuration. A filter that has not yet been defined will have wildcards (xx) in
every field.
If you want to completely reconfigure an existing filter, click on Clear. This will
revert all the fields to all xx’s.
4. Highlight the field which you want to define, and enter the appropriate
information.
5. When you have finished defining the filter, click on OK. This will save the filter
you created and return you to the Special Filter Database window, where the
configured filter will be displayed.
Special Filter Databases
2-51
Bridging
NOTE
If you do not wish to save what you have entered in the Special Database Filter Window,
click on the Cancel button. This will cancel what you have entered into this window and
return you to the Special Filter Database window.
6. Click on OK to save the changes you have made and exit the Special
Database Filter window.
Changing the Receive Ports
You can set the receive ports in the Special Filter Database window either before
or after you deÞne a Þlter. These are the ports at which the frame must be received
for the Þltering parameters to apply. The default selection is Port 1.
To designate a receive port, click on the receive port icon ( ) for the Þlter. As you
click on the icon, it will cycle though the ports (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. until the end of
the interface table, and Ò*Ó). When you have selected a port, you can set the port
Þltering action that will apply when the packet is received at that particular port
(refer to the following section for further information).
In this fashion, you can specify all receive ports at which the packet must be
received and the designated Þltering action which will apply when the packet is
received at each port. Selecting Ò*Ó (promiscuous or any port) will apply the Þlter
and its speciÞed Þltering action to all ports on the device.
Remember that you can only view a single receive port and its Þltering action. To
check all receive ports for a single Þlter, you must click on the receive port icon to
cycle through the series of ports.
Changing the Port Filtering Action
Use the port icons under the Port Filtering section of the Special Filter Database
window to determine the port Þltering action associated with the Þlter when it is
received at a speciÞed receive port. You can select the port Þltering action either
before or after deÞning the Þlter. By default, the Þltering action is initially not set
at any port. You must click on a port to invoke the Þltering action symbols. After
the Þrst port is set (either to Þltering or blocking), the remaining ports in the Þlter
are set to blocking until you specify otherwise.
Setting the Port Filtering Action
When you set the port Þltering action for a Þlter, you determine whether the port
will block or forward packets which match the ÞlterÕs speciÞcations. To set port
Þltering action, click on the desired port icon (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, up to 32) to toggle
from blocking (
) to forwarding (
) or vice versa.
2-52
Special Filter Databases
Bridging
You can set the port Þltering action for the bridging port on each port of the
device, as well any BRIM ports.
Clearing the Port Filtering Action
When you clear the port Þltering action of a Þlter, all ports that were conÞgured to
forwarding or blocking will be reset to no action. Note that when you clear port
Þltering for a Þlter, the Þltering or blocking action will be simultaneously cleared
at all of its receive ports.
In order to clear the port Þltering action, use the following steps.
1. Click to select the filter whose port filtering action you would like to disable.
2. Click on Clear Port Filtering. This will clear the port filtering action for the
selected filter at all of its receive ports. The port filtering symbols will appear in
cleared mode.
Enabling and Disabling a Filter
To determine if a Þlter is enabled, check the Enable option button.
To enable a Þlter:
1. Click on the empty Enable button. When the button is filled (
enabled.
), the filter is
To disable a Þlter:
1. Click on the filled Enable button. When the button is empty (
disabled.
), the filter is
Saving a Set of Filters to a File
When you have deÞned a set of Þlters, you can save that set to a Þle. This allows
you to conveniently recall a series of Þlters when the need arises.
To save a set of Þlters:
1. Make sure that all filters that you want contained in the set have the File
checkbox checked.
2. Click on Filters. A menu will appear.
3. Click on Save As. A standard Microsoft Windows Save File window will
appear.
4. In the File name field, specify the file name and file path in which you want to
save the filter series.
5. Click on OK. The file will be saved as indicated.
Special Filter Databases
2-53
Bridging
To update the file while it is still open, click on the Save selection from the
Filters pull-down menu.
To open an existing Þle containing a Þlter set:
1. Click on Filters. A menu will appear.
2. Click on Open. A standard Microsoft Windows Open File window will appear.
3. To specify the file:
In the File name field, specify the file to open by path and name
or
Use the Look in drop-down list box and associated file list to select the
desired file, and click to highlight it.
4. Click on Open.
The Þlters will appear in the Special Filter Database window, with all parameters
(File, Enable, Source and Destination Address, Data Type and Offset, Data Mask,
Receive Port, and Port Filtering Action) displayed as they were conÞgured at the
last Þle save.
Interface Configuration
The I/F ConÞguration port-level menu option invokes the Interface
ConÞguration window, which allows you to select a bridging method for a Token
Ring bridging interface. You can also make this selection via the Token Ring
Bridge Mode window; see Token Ring Bridge Mode, page 2-89, for details.
This window also allows you to select one of three transmission methods that
should be used when unknown addresses are received from end stations attached
to the selected bridge port.
To access the Interface ConÞguration window from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on the desired Port button (
) to display the Port menu.
2. Click on I/F Configuration. The Interface Configuration window, Figure 2-15,
will appear.
To access the Interface ConÞguration window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the appropriate bridge port index to access the Port menu.
2. Click on I/F Configuration. The Interface Configuration window, Figure 2-15,
will appear.
2-54
Interface Configuration
Bridging
Figure 2-15. Interface ConÞguration Window
Bridge Methods
The options available in the Bridge Method Þeld are as follows:
Transparent
When the bridge is set to Transparent mode, the bridge will only transmit
transparent frames from the Token Ring connection. If a source route frame is
received by the bridge, the Source Route information in the frame will be dropped
from the packet. (A transparent frame is the same as a source route frame without
a RIFÑRouting Information Field.)
Source Routing
When the bridge is set to Source Routing mode, the bridge will only transmit
source route frames from the Token Ring connection.You should set the bridging
mode to Source Route when you are bridging from Ethernet to Token Ring. The
source route information (as conÞgured via the Ethernet portÕs Source Route
ConÞguration window, page 2-57) will be appended to the RIF for frames
transmitted on the Token Ring.
Interface Configuration
2-55
Bridging
Source Route Transparent
When the bridge is set to Source Route Transparent, the bridge will transmit both
transparent and source route frames. The frames received which have source
route information will be transmitted as source route, while frames received that
are transparent will be transmitted as transparent.
Setting the Bridge Method
1. Click on the option button next to the bridging mode you would like your Token
Ring bridge port to use: Transparent Bridge, Source Routing, or Source
Route Transparent.
2. Click on Set to apply the desired mode.
Protocol Transmission Methods
The options in the Protocol Transmission for Unknown Address Þeld are as
follows:
TCP/IP
Determines whether IP frames received at the interface should be forwarded as
transparent frames, source route frames, or both.
IPX
Determines whether IPX frames received at the interface should be forwarded as
transparent frames, source route frames, or both.
NetBIOS
Determines whether NetBIOS frames received at the interface should be
forwarded as transparent frames, source route frames, or both.
SNA
Determines whether SNA frames received at the interface should be forwarded as
transparent frames, source route frames, or both.
Other
Determines whether frames of all other protocols not mentioned above (IP, IPX,
NetBIOS, and SNA) that are received at the interface should be forwarded as
transparent frames, source route frames, or both.
If Transparent is selected, the frame is forwarded out of the bridge interface as a
transparent frame. If Source Route is selected, the frame is forwarded out of the
bridge interface as a source route frame. If Auto is selected, the frame is
forwarded out of the bridge interface as both a transparent frame and as a source
route frame.
2-56
Interface Configuration
Bridging
To select the transmission method for TCP/IP, IPX, SNA, NetBIOS or Other
protocols:
1. Click on the option button next to the transmission method you would like your
Token Ring bridge port to use: Transparent, Source Route, or Auto.
2. Click on Set to apply the desired mode.
Source Route Configuration
With the Source Route ConÞguration window, you can view address and routing
information, and set source route bridging parameters for bridging interfaces.
To access the Source Route ConÞguration window from the Bridge Status
window:
1. Click on the desired Port button (
) to display the port menu.
2. Click on Source Route Configuration. The Source Route Configuration
window, Figure 2-16, will appear.
To access the Source Route ConÞguration window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the appropriate bridge port index to access the Port menu.
2. Click on Source Route Configuration. The Source Route Configuration
window, Figure 2-16, will appear.
Figure 2-16. Source Route ConÞguration Window
Source Route Configuration
2-57
Bridging
Source Routing Information
Source Routing is a bridging technique developed by IBM and the 802.5 standards
committee in which a bridge routes frames based on the contents of their media
access control frame header, rather than by maintaining a Þltering database to
determine whether a packet should be forwarded or Þltered. Source Routing
functions as follows:
¥
An end point station transmits discovery (explorer) frames to a particular
destination address in order to seek the best route through a bridged topology
to that node. These frames are broadcast over the entire network.
In a network topology with parallel bridges, multiple paths may be available
to the same destination. In this case, the explorer frame may be further deÞned
as:
-
All Routes Explorer, so that all possible routes to the destination are
recorded, and multiple explorer frames can reach the same segment.
-
Spanning Tree Explorer (also known as Single Route Broadcast), so that
only one path is possible to a segment (i.e., through a designated bridge in
a Spanning Tree topology), and only one explorer frame will be forwarded
onto each segment. The Spanning Tree can be conÞgured either
automatically (i.e., by algorithm) or manually.
¥
When a source routing bridge processes the explorer frame, it adds a unique
identiÞer to the frame in a reserved portion of the frame. This identiÞes the
segment the frame was received from, followed by the speciÞc bridge, and
Þnally the segment it was forwarded onto.
¥
When the discovery frame (or frames if more than one route is possible)
reaches its destination, it contains a complete record of bridge hops on its
route.
¥
The destination address then returns All Routes Explorer (using speciÞcally
routed frames) and Single Route (Spanning Tree) Explorer frames (using All
Routes Broadcast frames), to the source address.
¥
The source station selects one path from the returned explorer frames, and
includes that path speciÞcation (with bridge and segment identiÞers) in
subsequent transmissions to that particular destination.
All bridges in the topology then examine the routing information Þeld of a
speciÞcally source routed frame and either forward it if there is a match in the
routing informationÑor if it is an All Routes explorer frameÑor discard it.
Source Route Configuration
The Source Route ConÞguration window allows you to view IP address and
routing information, and to view and set source route bridging parameters for
any bridging device which supports this menu option.
2-58
Source Route Configuration
Bridging
NOTE
It is recommended that the device be restarted when changes are made that affect source
route bridging in order to clear the buffers, but you do not need to restart for the changes
to take effect.
The following Þelds are available in the Source Route ConÞguration Window:
IP Address
This Þeld displays the Internet Protocol (IP) address, which acts as a logical
identiÞer on the network, currently assigned to each port on the device. This is
needed for SNMP network management capability. The IP address is expressed in
dotted decimal notation (four decimal values between 0 and 255, separated by a
period, e.g., 255.255.255.255).
This Þeld can only be edited (with the correct security access) via Local
Management for the device. Refer to the appropriate device-speciÞc UserÕs Guide
for more information.
Subnet Mask
A subnet mask is used by a device to determine whether a destination address
exists within its own subnetwork (logical division of the network by router or
gateway) and can be reached directly, or whether it is unknown and therefore
must be delivered to a router (as speciÞed by the deviceÕs IP routing table or
default gateway address).
A subnet mask should be set at the device if it will issue SNMP traps in a routed
environment, so that the trap messages it generates will be routed correctly.
A subnet mask acts as a Þlter for destination IP addresses. It is a 32-bit quantity in
which all bits that correspond to the network portion (both site and subnet
identifying bits) of the deviceÕs IP address are set to 1, and all bits that correspond
to the host portion are set to 0.
The device will logically AND a destination trap IP address with the subnet mask
to determine which portion of the address identiÞes the network/ subnetwork.
The device then compares the result on a bit-to-bit basis with the
network-identifying bits in its own IP address. If the network portions match, the
bridging device transmits the trap onto its subnetwork. If they do not match, the
device transmits the trap through a router or gateway.
This Þeld can only be edited (with the correct security access) via Local
Management for the device (or the MIBTree utility). Refer to the appropriate
device-speciÞc UserÕs Guide for more information.
MAC Address
This Þeld displays the Media Access Control (MAC) layer address which
identiÞes the ports/interfaces of the bridging device on a network. This six-byte
address is set at the factory and is unique to each interface. Each byte is identiÞed
in bit order starting with the most signiÞcant bit. You cannot conÞgure this Þeld.
Source Route Configuration
2-59
Bridging
The following Þelds apply to the Source Route ConÞguration window:
Local Segment
This Þeld displays the unique segment number that identiÞes the segment
attached to the selected interface (either of the Token Ring or FDDI interfaces).
The bridge adds the Local Segment number to the routing information Þeld of
source route discovery frames. Valid values range from 0 to 4095.
Target Segment
This Þeld displays the unique segment number of the target segment that the
source routed frame will be forwarded to. Valid values range from 0 to 4095.
Hop Count Limit
The maximum number of routing descriptors (i.e., bridge hops) allowed for an All
Routes Explorer or a Spanning Tree Explorer frame received by the device. This
will reduce the unnecessary propagation of explorer frames through the network.
You can use the Set button at the bottom of the window to change the Hop
Count for the port, as explained in Making and Setting Changes, page 2-62.
The allowable range of values for this Þeld is 0 to 28.
Spanning Tree Expl.
This read-only Þeld displays the action currently being applied to Spanning Tree
Explorer frames received by the indicated port. This Þeld will appear in one of
two ways:
¥
If the Spanning Tree Mode for the bridge is set to Auto (as explained in the
following section), this Þeld will display the Spanning Tree Port State for the
indicated port.
If set to Auto, the device is subject to the Spanning Tree Algorithm. Each port
will treat incoming frames according to its current Spanning Tree bridging
state (i.e., Forwarding, Disabled, Listening, Learning, Blocking, or Broken).
¥
2-60
If the Spanning Tree Mode is set to Manual (as explained in the following
section) this Þeld will display either Enabled or Disabled as the Spanning Tree
Port Enable State for the indicated port.
Source Route Configuration
Bridging
Bridge Number
The Bridge Number uniquely identiÞes a bridge port when more than one bridge
is used to span the same two segments. The Bridge Number should be in the
range of 0 to 15.
You can use the Set button at the bottom of the window to change the bridge
number of the port, as explained in Making and Setting Changes, page 2-62.
Current source routing protocols allow a range of 0 to 15 (0ÐF hexadecimal) for
the bridge number identiÞer. If no bridge number is assigned to the device, a
default value of 1 will appear in this Þeld.
Spanning Tree Mode
Indicates how a port on the device will behave with an incoming single-route
broadcast (Spanning Tree ExplorerÑSTE) frame. You can conÞgure this Þeld with
the option buttons and checkboxes, or via the MIBTools utility or local
management.
This Þeld allows you to conÞgure a Spanning Tree for your network. You can set
the Spanning Tree Mode to Auto or Manual using the option buttons. We
recommend that all bridges in your network topology have the same setting for
Spanning Tree Mode (i.e., all set to Auto or all set to Manual).
Auto
If the Spanning Tree Mode is set to Auto, a port that implements
the Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) and is enabled and in the
forwarding state will accept and relay STE frames onto its
attached segment.
Using STA, a bridge port will only forward frames if it is the
designated port for its attached segment. A port is ÒdesignatedÓ
for its segment if it has the lowest Root Path Cost of all bridge
ports attached to that segment. The Root Path Cost is the lowest
total path cost calculated by adding the costs of each port along
the path of a frame that traverses the bridge topology from the
root to that port (including its own path cost).
If two ports on a segment have equal Root Path Costs, the port on
the bridge with the highest priority bridge identiÞer (for
convenience sake, that have the lowest numerical value) will be
chosen as the root port.
You can affect Spanning Tree topology by changing the deviceÕs
bridge priority (Bridge Label) and path cost for its port pair (path
cost increment) via the Spanning Tree window, page 2-34.
Manual
If the Spanning Tree Mode is set to Manual, you can manually
conÞgure the bridge to forward STE frames (i.e., manually
establish a Spanning Tree for STE frames by determining which
bridge in a parallel series of bridges will forward these frames).
If you set the Spanning Tree Mode to Manual, you can use the Enable or Disable
checkboxes to set a portÕs Spanning Tree Enable State to:
¥
Enabled (participating in frame relay).
Source Route Configuration
2-61
Bridging
¥
Disabled (not participating in the bridging process or in operation of the
Spanning Tree Algorithm and protocol). If the Spanning Tree Mode is set to
Disabled, the bridge port will not send or accept any STE frames. Any STE
frame received will be discarded. The Spanning Tree Expl Þeld at the
ConÞguration window, and the STE Frames Þeld at the Status window will
both read ÒDisabled.Ó
Making and Setting Changes
The Source Route ConÞguration window allows you to affect changes for the
following Source Route Bridging parameters: Bridge Number, Local Segment,
Target Segment, Hop Count Limit, and the deviceÕs Spanning Tree Mode.
To make a change to Bridge Number, Local Segment, Target Segment, or Hop
Count Limit, use the mouse to highlight the existing value in the desired Þeld,
and type in a new value.
To set the Spanning Tree Mode to Auto or Manual, click on the option button next
to the appropriate selection. If set to Auto, a Spanning Tree Algorithm will
calculate the deviceÕs priority in a series of parallel bridges to determine a root
bridge on the network. If set to Manual, you conÞgure a Spanning Tree by
administratively enabling or disabling each bridging port on the network.
When the deviceÕs Spanning Tree Mode is set to Manual, you can change how a
bridge port will treat a Spanning Tree Explorer frame. Use the Enable checkbox to
allow STE frame forwarding at the port, or use the Disabled checkbox to prevent
STE frame forwarding at the port. Click on the Enabled or Disabled checkbox to
make your selection.
When you make changes in the Source Route ConÞguration window, they are not
implemented at the device until you click on the Set button. This will cause the
device to reboot. Since rebooting the device will bring it down for several
minutes, a ÒReset with new parameters?Ó pop-up dialog box will appear to
ensure that you are ready. Click on OK to set the changes, or Cancel to return to
the Source Route ConÞguration window.
Using the Find Source Address Feature
You can select the Find Source Address option to discover which bridging
interface a speciÞed source MAC address is communicating through. When you
select the Find Source Address option, a search is made of the 802.1d Bridge
Filtering Database to discover the bridge interface associated with the address
that you specify. If the search is successful, the corresponding interface will ßash
in the Chassis View window. See Filtering Database, page 2-41, for details.
Use the Find Source Address feature as follows:
1. Click to display the Device menu.
2. Click again on Find Source Address. The following window will appear.
2-62
Using the Find Source Address Feature
Bridging
Figure 2-17. Find Source Address Window
3. In the text field in the middle of the window, enter a valid MAC address in
hexadecimal format and then click OK.
If the address is found in the 802.1d Bridge Filtering Database, the port through
which the address is communicating will ßash in the front panel Chassis View
display.
If the address is not found in the Filtering Database, a separate window will
appear with a ÒCanÕt Find Source AddressÓ message.
Using the Port Source Addresses Window
You can use the port-level Source Addresses window to view all the MAC
addresses that are communicating through a selected bridge interface.
To open the Source Addresses window from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on the desired Port button (
) to display the Port menu.
2. Click on Source Addressing. The Port Source Addresses window,
Figure 2-18, will appear.
To open the Source Addresses window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the appropriate port index to access the Port menu.
2. Click on Source Addressing. The Port Source Addresses window,
Figure 2-18, will appear.
Using the Port Source Addresses Window
2-63
Bridging
Figure 2-18. Port Source Addresses Window
The Port Source Addresses window displays the MAC addresses of all devices
that have transmitted packets that have been forwarded through the selected
bridging interface during the last cycle of the Filtering DatabaseÕs deÞned aging
timer (learned addresses that have not transmitted a packet during one complete
cycle of the aging timer are purged from the Source Address Table). For more
information, see Filtering Database, page 2-41.
NOTE
The aging time displayed in the Port Source Addresses window is the same as the aging
time displayed in the Filtering Database window. The aging time can be set from either
window, and any changes to its value will be reßected in both locations.
Setting the Aging Time
The Filtering Database Aging Time is user-conÞgurable through the Device Aging
Time window.
To alter the Aging Time for Dynamic and Learned entries:
1. Click the I-bar cursor ( ) next to the Device Aging Time field. The Device
Aging Time window, Figure 2-19, will appear.
2-64
Using the Port Source Addresses Window
Bridging
Figure 2-19. Device Aging Time Window
2. Type in the new Aging Time, in seconds, then click on OK. The allowable
range is 10 to 1000000 seconds; the default is 300 seconds.
Using the Token Ring Bridge and Port Configuration
Windows
The Bridge ConÞguration and the Port ConÞguration windows available for
Token Ring devices look similar and are used for similar purposes, with the only
exception being that the former window contains values that apply to the device
as a whole, while the latter contains values that apply to the selected port.
The Bridge ConÞguration window provides a global capability to conÞgure all of
the Token Ring bridging interfaces on a device simultaneously as well as set the
bridge number and virtual ring number (target ring).
The Port ConÞguration window provides the capability to conÞgure individual
Token Ring bridging interfaces on a device. This window displays the
information that is set at the device level via the Bridge ConÞguration window,
such as the Bridge Number and the Virtual Ring NumberÑboth of which are
read-only Þelds in the Port ConÞguration window.
The Ring Number Þeld is the only Þeld that is not common to both windows,
because this value cannot be set globally on a device. It appears in the Port
ConÞguration window only, since the value assigned to this Þeld must be unique
to each interface.
To access the Bridge ConÞguration window from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on Bridge to display the Bridge menu.
2. Click on Bridge Configuration. The Bridge Configuration window,
Figure 2-20, will appear.
Using the Token Ring Bridge and Port Configuration Windows
2-65
Bridging
To access the Bridge ConÞguration window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the Board Index of the device of interest; the Board menu will
appear.
2. Click on Bridge Configuration. The Bridge Configuration window,
Figure 2-20, will appear.
Figure 2-20. Bridge ConÞguration Window
To access the Port ConÞguration window from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on the desired Port button (
) to display the port menu.
2. Click on Port Configuration. The Port Configuration window, Figure 2-21, will
appear.
To access the Port ConÞguration window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the appropriate port index to access the Port menu.
2. Click on Port Configuration. The Port Configuration window, Figure 2-21, will
appear.
2-66
Using the Token Ring Bridge and Port Configuration Windows
Bridging
Figure 2-21. Port ConÞguration Window
The Bridge ConÞguration and Port ConÞguration window Þelds are deÞned as
follows:
Bridge Number
Displays and allows you to set the number assigned to Token Ring bridge. This
value is limited to the hexadecimal range of 0 through F. This Þeld is settable in
the Bridge ConÞguration window and read-only in the Port ConÞguration
window.
Virtual Ring Number
Displays and allows you to set the number of the target segment connected to the
selected bridge. This value is limited to the hexadecimal range of 001 through FFF.
This Þeld is settable in the Bridge ConÞguration window and read-only in the
Port ConÞguration window.
Ring Number
Displays and allows you to set the segment number that uniquely identiÞes the
segment to which this port is connected. This value is limited to the hexadecimal
range of 001 through FFF. This Þeld appears in the Port ConÞguration window
only.
Using the Token Ring Bridge and Port Configuration Windows
2-67
Bridging
Port Mode
Displays the three port mode options that are deÞned as follows:
¥
LobeÑallows direct-attach station connections (acting as a concentrator port).
¥
StationÑprovides station emulation.
¥
TPIM RI/ROÑallows attachment to Þber TPIMs on standard workgroup
hubs or direct-attachment to devices, such as servers, via Þber adapter cards.
If the device does not support this mode of operation, this option will be
grayed out.
Novell Translation
Displays the three bit-order options that are available for translationÑEnable
LLC (Logical Link Control Translation), Enable DLC (Data Link Layer
Translation), and Disable (No translation will take place). See Using the Novell
Translation Window, page 2-97, for more information.
Ring Speed
Displays the selected ring speed, 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps.
Bridge Mode/Explorer Type
Displays the available bridging mode and explorer frame type combinations:
2-68
Source Route
Transparent/Transparent
Indicates the bridge forwards packets
so they know the route and the devices they
pass through to reach their destination.
Explorer frames have no embedded routing
information
Source Route
Transparent/Are
Indicates that the bridge forwards packets
so they know the route and the devices they
pass through to reach their destination.
ARE (All Routes Explorer) packets are sent
to the destination station if the sending
station does not receive a response to a test
packet.
Source Route
Transparent/STE
Indicates that the bridge forwards packets so
they know the route and the devices they
pass through to reach their destination.
STE (Spanning Tree Explorer) packets are
sent to the destination station if the sending
station does not receive a response to a test
packet.
Source Route/ARE
Indicates that the bridge forwards packets
so they do not know the route or the
devices they pass through to reach their
destination. ARE (All Routes Explorer)
Using the Token Ring Bridge and Port Configuration Windows
Bridging
packets are sent to the destination station if
the sending station does not receive a
response to a test packet.
WARNING
Source Route/STE
Indicates that the bridge forwards packets so
they do not know the route or the devices
they pass through to reach their destination.
STE (Spanning Tree Explorer) packets are
sent to the destination station if the sending
station does not receive a response to a test
packet.
Transparent/Transparent
Indicates that the two network segments are
connected so that a single data route exists
between any two end stations. Explorer
frames have no embedded routing
information
If the ports on the selected bridge have different conÞgurations, none of these options are
selected. Do not select any of these options unless you want to set all ports on the selected
bridge to a single mode.
To set the Bridge number or the Virtual Ring Number in the Bridge ConÞguration
window:
1. Click in the Bridge Number or the Virtual Ring Number field in the upper
portion of the Bridge Configuration window. Enter a hexadecimal value
between 0 and F in the Bridge Number field, or a hexadecimal value between
001 and FFF in the Virtual Ring Number field.
2. Click on Set to apply the change, or click on Cancel to exit the window without
applying the change.
To set the Ring Number in the Port ConÞguration window:
1. Click in the Ring Number field in the upper portion of the Port Configuration
window. Enter a hexadecimal value between 001 and FFF.
2. Click on Set to apply the change, or click on Cancel to exit the window without
applying the change.
To set the Port Mode, Novell Translation, or Ring Speed globally for all bridge
interfaces on a device in the Bridge ConÞguration window or for an individual
interface in the Port ConÞguration window:
1. Click on the empty option button adjacent to one of the choices in the selected
field. When the option button is filled ( ), the selected choice will be enabled.
2. Click on Set to apply the change, or click on Cancel to exit the window without
applying the change.
Using the Token Ring Bridge and Port Configuration Windows
2-69
Bridging
To select the Bridge Mode/Explorer Type globally for all bridge interfaces on a
device in the Bridge ConÞguration window or for an individual interface in the
Port ConÞguration window:
1. Click in the Bridge Mode/Explorer Type pull-down list box. Select one of the
available choices: Source Route Transparent/Transparent, Source Route
Transparent/ARE, Source Route Transparent/STE, Source Route/ARE,
Source Route/STE, and Transparent/Transparent. The default selection is
Transparent/Transparent.
2. Click on Set to apply the change, or click on Cancel to exit the window without
applying the change.
Duplex Modes
Some of the bridge interfaces on a device will support Full Duplex Switched
Ethernet (FDSE) mode. Enabling full duplex mode on an interface allows the
interface to receive and transmit packets at the same time, effectively doubling the
available bandwidth.
On an Ethernet connection that is not using full duplex mode, the interface can
either transmit or receive packets. The interface has to wait for one activity to be
completed before switching to the next activity (receive or transmit).
Using the full duplex mode allows for faster transmission of packets over
Ethernet connections because the bridging interface can transmit and receive
packets; the interface does not have to wait for one activity to be completed before
switching to the next one.
WARNING
Full Duplex should only be enabled on an interface that has a connection to a single
destination address at the other end of the connection (i.e., it is not a segment with an
attached repeater cascading the connection to multiple destination addresses).
Full Duplex mode disables the collision detection circuitry at the interface, so that both
Transmit and Receive wires can be used simultaneously. With a single destination address
at the other end of the connection (for example, if the connection was to a full duplex
interface on another switching module, or if a single Þle server was connected to the full
duplex switch port), this essentially doubles the available bandwidth from 10 Mbit/sec to
20 Mbit/sec. Note that the interface at the other end of the connection must also have Full
Duplex enabled at the attached interface.
Full Duplex mode must be disabled if the interface is communicating with multiple
destinations simultaneously (i.e., if a repeater is cascaded from the interface), since
Ethernet relies on Collision Sense for proper operation.
2-70
Duplex Modes
Bridging
The Duplex Modes Window
The bridge-level Duplex Modes window allows you to enable and disable full
duplex mode capability for each bridging interface on your device. The window
lists each interface on the device and whether full duplex is ÒONÓ or ÒOFFÓ for
each interface.
To access the Duplex Modes window from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on Bridge to display the Bridge menu.
2. Click on Duplex Modes. The Duplex Modes window, Figure 2-22, will appear.
To access the Duplex Modes window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the Board Index of the device of interest; the Board menu will
appear.
2. Click on Duplex Modes. The Duplex Modes window, Figure 2-22, will appear.
Figure 2-22. Duplex Modes Window
The following information is displayed in the Duplex Modes window:
Interface
Lists the bridging interfaces available on the device (Interface 1, Interface 2, and
so on).
Full Duplex
Displays the current state of full duplex on each interface. Possible values for this
Þeld are as follows:
Connect A
Duplex Modes
Indicates that the interface is connected to MMAC
Channel A and does not support full duplex mode
(Interface 1 only). You will not be able to change the
value of this Þeld from this window.
2-71
Bridging
ON
Indicates that full duplex mode is being used on this
interface.
OFF
Indicates that full duplex mode is not being used on this
interface.
N/A
Indicates that full duplex mode is not available on this
interface.
Setting the Duplex Mode
You set an interface to use or not use Full Duplex Switched Ethernet by turning
the full duplex capability ON or OFF from this window.
To turn the full duplex mode ON or OFF:
1. In the Duplex Modes window, highlight the interface you want to change.
2. Double-click on the highlighted interface. The interface list will be briefly
grayed-out as the set is being made to the device.
If the set is successful, the interface list will reactivate and the Full Duplex:
indicator will switch from ON to OFF or OFF to ON.
If you attempt to set an interface to full duplex mode that does not support this
feature, you will receive a “Set Failed” error message.
3. Click on Cancel to close the window.
NOTE
Because full duplex conÞguration takes place as you set each change individually, any
changes that have been completed up to the point of clicking on Cancel will have been set
at the device. Make sure that you have undone any unwanted changes before exiting the
window.
Ethernet Port Configuration
You can also conÞgure duplex modes from the Port ConÞguration window.
To access the Port ConÞguration window from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on the desired Port button (
) to display the Port menu.
2. Click on Configuration. The Port Configuration window for the selected
Ethernet interface, Figure 2-23, will appear.
To access the Port ConÞguration window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the appropriate port index to access the Port menu.
2. Click on Configuration. The Port Configuration window for the selected
Ethernet interface, Figure 2-23, will appear.
2-72
Duplex Modes
Bridging
Figure 2-23. Port ConÞguration Window
This window will indicate which mode is being used on the interface, standard
mode or full duplex mode.
Standard Mode
Standard mode is being used on this interface. In standard mode, the interface can
transmit or receive packets. The interface has to wait for one activity to be
completed before switching to the next activity (receive or transmit).
Full Duplex
Full duplex mode is being used on this interface. In full duplex mode, the
interface receives and transmits packets at the same time.
You set an interface to use standard or full duplex by selecting the appropriate
mode from this window. When you open the Port ConÞguration window the
currently used mode appears selected.
To change the mode from standard to full duplex mode or from full duplex to
standard mode, click in the option button of the appropriate option and then click
on Apply. To cancel the action without applying any changes, click on Cancel.
Fast Ethernet Port Configuration
You can use the port-level Fast Ethernet ConÞguration window to manually
conÞgure 100Base-TX Fast Ethernet ports and FE100-TX Fast Ethernet Interface
Modules (FEPIMs) for 10Base-T and 100Base-TX full or half duplex operation.
You can also conÞgure them to auto-negotiate with the device at the other end of
the connection, based upon each deviceÕs Advertised and Remote Capabilities.
If you are monitoring a device with 100Base-FX Fast Ethernet ports, you can use
the Fast Ethernet ConÞguration window to manually conÞgure them to full or
half duplex operation. No auto-negotiation is available for the 100Base-FX ports,
and by extension, no Advertised or Remote capabilities.
Duplex Modes
2-73
Bridging
From this window you can manually set the operational mode of the port,
determining the speed of the port (10 Mbps or 100 Mbps), and whether it uses full
duplex or standard mode bridging.
You can also set a 100Base-TX port to auto-negotiation so that the appropriate
operational mode can be determined automatically (using the Advertised
Abilities of the local interface that you determine, and the Remote Capabilities of
the Remote Link). The mode you set will determine the speed of the port and
whether it uses full duplex or standard mode bridging.
To access the Fast Ethernet ConÞguration window from the Bridge Status
window:
1. Click on the desired Port button (
) to display the Port menu.
2. Click on Configuration. The Fast Ethernet Configuration Port X window
(where X represents the port number of the selected interface), Figure 2-24,
will appear.
To access the Fast Ethernet ConÞguration window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the appropriate port index to access the Port menu.
2. Click on Configuration. The Fast Ethernet Configuration Port X window
(where X represents the port number of the selected interface), Figure 2-24,
will appear.
Figure 2-24. Fast Ethernet ConÞguration Port X Window
From this window you can manually set the operational mode of the port, orÑfor
100Base-TX interfacesÑset the port to auto-negotiation so that the appropriate
operational mode can be determined automatically. The mode you set will
2-74
Duplex Modes
Bridging
determine the speed of the port and whether it uses full duplex or standard mode
bridging.
The following information about the selected Fast Ethernet port is displayed:
Port Type
Displays the type of Fast Ethernet port for example, FE-100TX or FE-100FX.
Link State
Displays the connection status of the selected port: Link or No Link.
Current Operational Mode
Displays the mode that the port is operating in at the present time. Possible
operational modes include 10Base-T, 10Base-T Full Duplex, 100Base-TX,
100Base-TX Full Duplex, 100Base-FX or 100Base-FX Full Duplex.
If no current operational mode is returned, it indicates the port is operating under
auto-negotiation.
Desired Operational Mode
Displays the operational mode that you want to conÞgure for this port. The
following operational modes are available for each port:
FE-100TX
Auto-Negotiation, 10Base-T, 10Base-T Full Duplex,
100Base-TX, and 100Base-TX Full Duplex.
FE-100FX
100Base-FX and 100Base-FX Full Duplex
See Setting the Operational Mode for the FE-100TX, page 2-76, and Setting the
Operational Mode for the FE-100FX, page 2-77, for details.
Advertised Abilities
This Þeld works in conjunction with auto-negotiation on FE-100TX ports. During
auto-negotiation, the local hardware will advertise all selected modes in
descending bandwidth order: 100Base-TX Full Duplex, 100Base-TX, 10Base-T Full
Duplex, and 10Base-T.
Of the selected abilities, the highest mode available on the port on the other side
of the connection will automatically be used. The Advertised Abilities will only be
used when auto-negotiation is enabled.
Remote Capabilities
This Þeld displays the advertised abilities of the remote hardware at the other end
of the link from the FE-100TX port. Again, possible advertised abilities by the
remote partner include 10Base-T, 10Base-T Full Duplex, 100Base-TX, or
100Base-TX Full Duplex.
If auto-negotiation is not enabled or supported at either the local or remote
interface, or if there is no active link, all entries in this Þeld will be grayed out.
Duplex Modes
2-75
Bridging
NOTE
Auto-negotiation is not available on the FE-100FX; therefore, the Advertised Abilities
and Remote Capabilities section of the Fast Ethernet ConÞguration window will be
grayed out when you are viewing the port conÞguration of an FE-100FX.
!
If you choose to select a speciÞc mode of operation (rather than auto-negotiation), you
should be sure that the link partner supports the same mode. Otherwise, no link will be
achieved.
CAUTION
If you select a full duplex mode and the link partner supports the same wire speed but not
full duplex, a link will be achieved, but it will be unstable and will behave erratically.
If you select auto-negotiation, the local node will try to match the mode of the link partner,
even if the link partner is not set to auto-negotiate, and even if the local node must use a
mode which it is not currently advertising.
Setting the Operational Mode for the FE-100TX
You can manually set the FE-100TX to use any one of four operational modes. You
can also set the port to auto-negotiation, which allows the port to determine for
itself the best operational mode using the Advertised Abilities and Remote
Capabilities of the local and remote interface, respectively.
If you want to manually conÞgure the mode:
1. Click on the Desired Operational Mode list-box, and select one of the
following modes:
10Base-T—10 Mbps connection, Standard Mode
10Base-T Full Duplex—10 Mbps connection, Duplex Mode
100Base-TX—100 Mbps connection, Standard Mode
100Base-TX Full Duplex—100 Mbps connection, Duplex Mode
2. Click on Apply. The mode that you have chosen will be set at the port.
If you want the port to use auto-negotiation:
1. Click on the Desired Operational Mode list-box and select Auto
Negotiation.
2. Click in the Advertised Abilities check boxes to select either 10Base-T,
10Base-T Full Duplex, 100Base-TX, or 100Base-TX Full Duplex.
3. Click on Apply.
2-76
Duplex Modes
Bridging
When an active link is established, the operational mode will be dynamically
set based on the modes selected in the Advertised Abilities field and the
speeds and modes supported by the attached device; see the definition for
Advertised Abilities on page 2-75.
Setting the Operational Mode for the FE-100FX
You can manually set the FE-100FX to use either of two operational modes:
1. Click on the Desired Operational Mode list-box, and select one of the
following modes:
•
100Base-FX—100 Mbps connection, Standard Mode
•
100Base-FX Full Duplex—100 Mbps connection, Duplex Mode
2. Click on Apply. The mode that you have chosen will be set at the port.
SONET Port Configuration
The FE100-Sx series of Fast Ethernet Port Interface Modules, and the APIM-2x
series of ATM Port Interface Modules provide SONET (Synchronous Optical
Network) access for some of CabletronÕs devices. SONET interfaces link
high-speed local or metropolitan area networks by using an OC-3 connection
(leased from your local telco or Internet service provider) to a SONET ring.
If your device is equipped with an FE100-Sx or an APIM-2x port interface
module, you can use the SONET/SDH ConÞguration window to set its operating
parameters, and the SONET/SDH Statistics window to view performance
information for the interface (which can tell you if your telco/service provider is
meeting any guarantees regarding network reliability).
SONET/SDH Configuration
The SONET/SDH ConÞguration window lets you determine whether your
FE-100Sx or APIM-2x port interface module will operate according to SONET or
SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) standards.
SONET is the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard for the
optical transport of data according to the transmission standards in effect in
North America (United States/Canada), Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong.
ANSI sets industry standards in the U.S. for the telecommunications industry,
among other industries.
The basic SONET building block signal (transmitted at 51.84 Mbps) is referred to
as STS-1 (Synchronous Transport Signal Level 1). SONET can multiplex (or
combine) STS-1 signals into STS-N signals, where N is some integer multiple of
STS-1 signals.
SONET Port Configuration
2-77
Bridging
The ITU, or International Telecommunications Union (formerly known as the
CCITTÑthe Consultative Committee on International Telegraph and Telephone)
incorporated the SONET standard into its Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
recommendations, which address differences between the European and North
American transmission standards. The ITU sets standards for international
communications (except for nations adhering to ANSI standards). SDH is a world
standard, and as such, the SONET standard is considered a subset within it.
The SDH transmission hierarchy uses the STM-1 (Synchronous Transfer Module
Level 1) as its basic building block signal (transmitted at 155.52 Mbps). Again,
there are STM-N signals, which are STM-1 signals that have been multiplexed into
a higher signaling rate.
Table 2-1. SONET/SDH Transmission Hierarchies
SONET
Bit Rate
SDH
STS-1/OC-1
51.84 Mbps
Ñ
STS-3/OC-3 (supports
FE-100Sx and APIM-2x
in SONET operational
mode)
155.52 Mbps
STM-1 (supports
FE-100Sx and APIM-2x
in SDH operational
mode)
STS-12/OC-12
622.08 Mbps
STM-4
STS-24/OC-24
1244.16 Mbps
Ñ
STS-48/OC-48
2588.32 Mbps
STM-16
STS-192/OC-192
9953.28 Mbps
STM-64
You should be sure that the operational mode for both the local and remote ends
of the SONET connection is set appropriately for your region. Setting the wrong
operational mode may cause errors to be generated during transmission, since
there are slight differences in framing SONET and SDH signals.
To access the SONET/SDH ConÞguration window from the Bridge Status
window:
1. Click on the desired Port button (
) to display the Port menu.
2. Click on SONET/SDH Configuration. The SONET/SDH Configuration: Port X
window, Figure 2-25, will appear.
To access the SONET/SDH ConÞguration window from the Chassis View
window:
1. Click on the appropriate port index to access the Port menu.
2. Click on SONET/SDH Configuration. The SONET/SDH Configuration: Port X
window, Figure 2-25, will appear.
2-78
SONET Port Configuration
Bridging
Figure 2-25. SONET/SDH ConÞguration Window
To set the operational mode of the SONET port via the SONET/SDH
ConÞguration window:
1. Click on the option button adjacent to the appropriate selection, SONET or
SDH, to choose the data transmission standard to be used by the interface.
2. Click on Apply to set your change at the interface, or Cancel to exit the
SONET/SDH Configuration window without applying any changes.
SONET/SDH Statistics
SONET/SDH statistics are available for each FE100-Sx, APIM-2x, or other SONET
port interface modules installed in your device. The same statistics apply whether
you have conÞgured the interface to operate according to SONET or SDH
transmission standards.
The FE100-Sx and the APIM-2x port interface modules are SONET
path-terminating equipment (PTE). They act as an endpoint of an end-to-end
connection between themselves and another similar port interface module. As
endpoints, they are capable of generating and receiving the Path Overhead
information contained within the SPE (Synchronous Payload Envelope) of the
base-level SONET or SDH signals. Simply put, overhead is the extra bits in the
digital stream that relay information besides trafÞc signals.
The Path Overhead provides for end-to-end performance monitoring of the link,
the signal label (the content of the SPE, including status of mapped payloads), the
pathÕs current status, and path trace capabilities.
The SONET/SDH Statistics window enables you to view some of the error
information contained within the Path Overhead that your FE100-Sx or APIM-2x
is receiving from the remote endpoint.
The window will inform you whether there have been speciÞc defects
experienced on the SONET link, and if the network has experienced any
signiÞcant unavailability time as a result.
SONET Port Configuration
2-79
Bridging
With a SONET link, there are three levels of error conditionsÑanomalies, defects,
and failures.
¥
Anomalies are small discrepancies between a desired and actual characteristic
of an item, which when occurring singly will not interrupt the ability of the
SONET network elements to perform their required functions.
¥
Defects indicate that anomalies have reached a level where the ability of the
SONET network elements to perform their required functions has been
interrupted. Defects are used in performance monitoring and in determining
the faultÕs cause, and have impact on consequent actions on the network.
¥
Failures indicate that a network element has been unable to perform its
required functions beyond a maximum time allocated to a given error
condition.
These errors can occur in any of the four optical layers of a SONET network,
which are (in order from lowest to highest layer in the hierarchy) the physical
Medium, Section, Line, and Path layers.
¥
The Medium layer is the Photonic layer that physically converts electrical
signals to optical signals.
¥
The Section layer deals with the transport of frames across the optical
medium, including framing and scrambling data for transmission, the error
monitoring and maintenance between section-layer elements (such as signal
regenerators/repeaters), and orderwire (provisioning channels).
¥
The Line layer is responsible for reliably transporting the higher-level Path
layer payload and overhead across the physical medium. It is responsible for
synchronizing (clocking) the data transmission, multiplexing signals into a
single channel, error monitoring and maintenance between line-layer
elements (such as Add/Drop Multiplexers), and switching to secondary data
paths should the primary path experience failure.
¥
The Path layer transports services between path-terminating equipment.
It maps signals into a format required by the line layer, and reads, interprets,
and modiÞes path overhead for performance monitoring and automatic
protection switching.
Error reporting occurs at the Section, Line, and Path layers, and is carried within
the corresponding SONET overhead. In terms of the SONET protocol stack, the
three layers with overhead are mapped to the SONET link as shown in the
following diagram.
2-80
SONET Port Configuration
Bridging
The statistics and errors indicators provided in the SONET/SDH statistics
window are taken from both the end-to-end Path layer, and from the Section layer
between the FE100-Sx or APIM-2x and the Add/Drop Multiplexer to which it is
connected. They reßect errors that may be occurring on your customer premises
equipment, as well as errors that may be occurring at the Line or Section layers
within the SONET MAN/WAN ring itself.
LinePathTerminating
Terminating OC-3c Equipment—
Equipment— link Telco/SP ADM
(FE100-Sx
(Add/Drop
or APIM-2x)
Multiplexer)
Regenerators
Section
LinePathTerminating
Equipment— OC-3c Terminating
Equipment—
link
Telco/SP ADM
(FE100-Sx
(Add/Drop
or APIM-2x)
Multiplexer)
Line
Path
To access the SONET/SDH Statistics window from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on the desired Port button (
) to display the Port menu.
2. Click on SONET/SDH Statistics. The SONET/SDH Statistics window for that
interface, Figure 2-26, will appear.
To access the SONET/SDH Statistics window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the appropriate port index to access the Port menu.
2. Click on SONET/SDH Statistics. The SONET/SDH Statistics window for that
interface, Figure 2-26, will appear.
Figure 2-26. The SONET/SDH Statistics Window
SONET Port Configuration
2-81
Bridging
Errors
The Errors indicators at the bottom of the SONET/SDH Statistics window show
the status of the SONET link as reported by the monitored interface, by indicating
whether the link has experienced Loss of Pointer, Loss of Signal, or Loss of
Frame defects or failures during the current 15-minute interval.
Note that Loss of Pointer is detected at the Path level on the SONET link, meaning
that the error occurred anywhere on the end-to-end link between the connected
FE100-Sx or APIM-2x devices that are customer premises equipment (CPE); Loss
of Signal and Loss of Frame are detected at the Section level, meaning that the
error occurred on the SONET section between the monitored CPE device and the
ADM node (line-terminating equipmentÑLTE) to which it is connected.
Note also that these indicators simply show which error conditions have been
detected during the last 15-minute interval; they do not alter the display of the
statistics above.
¥
Loss of PointerÑSONET uses ÒpointersÓ to compensate for frequency and
phase variations as data is being transmitted across the optical network, so that
data is not delayed or lost on the network. Basically, a pointer is a data offset
value that indicates where in the frame that the ÒpayloadÓ (user data and path
overhead) begins, so that it can be differentiated from the Òtransport
overheadÓ (the information in the frame used for transporting it across the
SONET network).
A Loss of Pointer (LOP) defect occurs when either a valid pointer is not
detected in eight consecutive SONET STS-N frames, or when eight
consecutive frames are detected with the New Data Flag (NDF) set without
being validly combined into an STS-N(c)Ña concatenated STS-N signalÑto
carry a larger payload.
An LOP defect is cleared when three consecutive frames are detected with
either a valid pointer and a normal NDF, or a valid concatenation indicator.
Note that incoming Alarm Indicator Signals (which are alarm messages
generated by the line and section layers that are propagated along the path to
indicate a loss of signal condition on upstream network elements) cannot
contribute to an LOP defect.
A Loss of Pointer failure is declared when a defect condition persists for a
period of 2 to 3 seconds; the LOP failure is cleared when there is no defect
condition detected for 9.5 to 10.5 seconds
¥
Loss of SignalÑIncoming SONET signals are monitored for Loss of Signal
(LOS) errors, which indicate a loss of physical signal failure (either optical or
electrical) at the source (e.g., a laser failure) or in the transmission facility (e.g.,
a Þber cut). Loss of signal is detected in the data (before scrambling) by an Òall
zerosÓ pattern, which indicates that there are no light pulses for OC-N optical
interfaces (on the line-terminating equipment or a regenerator), or no voltage
transitions for STS-1 or STS-3 electrical interfaces (on path-terminating
equipment, such as the FE100-Sx or APIM-2x).
A state of no transitions that lasts 2.3 µs (microseconds) or less is insigniÞcant.
2-82
SONET Port Configuration
Bridging
A state of no transitions that lasts between 2.3 µs and 100 µs is declared an LOS
defect. The LOS defect is cleared after a 125 µs interval (the time required to
transmit one frame on a SONET network) during which no LOS defect is
detected.
If the LOS defect persists for a period of 2 to 3 seconds, an LOS failure will be
declared, an alarm indicator will be set, and an alarm message will be sent to
an Operations Systems application (responsible for overseeing the entire
network). The LOS failure is cleared when the LOS defect is absent for a period
of 9.5 to 10.5 seconds.
A Loss of Signal may also be detected if the received signal level (e.g., the
incoming optical power) falls below a Bit Error Rate (BER) threshold of 1 in
103. A BER is the number of coding violations detected in an interval of time
(usually one second). A predicted BER of 1 in 103 means that during each
second, there is an error ratio of 1 errored bit per 1,000 bits sent. This state
clears when two consecutive framing patterns are received, and no Òall zerosÓ
LOS conditions are detected in the intervening time (one frame).
Note that for path- or line-terminating SONET network elements, LOS failure
detection is also linked to the declaration or clearing of Loss of Frame (LOF)
failures (described below). If there was a previously existing LOF failure at the
time an LOS failure is declared, the LOF failure will be cleared; if an existing
LOS failure is cleared, but LOF failure conditions still exist, an LOF failure will
be immediately declared on clearing the LOS failure.
¥
Loss of FrameÑSONET frames uses A1 and A2 framing bytes in the section
overhead to indicate the beginning of the frame. An Out of Frame (OOF)
alignment defect (also known as a Severely Errored FrameÑSEFÑdefect)
occurs when four consecutive SONET frames are received with invalid
patterns in these framing bytes. This defect is cleared when two consecutive
SONET frames are received with valid framing patterns.
A Loss of Frame (LOF) defect occurs when this OOF/SEF defect persists for a
period of 3 milliseconds. This defect is cleared when the incoming signal
remains continuously in-frame for a period of 1 to 3 milliseconds.
An LOF failure is declared when an LOF defect persists for a period of 2 to 3
seconds (except when a Loss of Signal defect or failure is present, as described
above). An LOF failure is cleared if an LOS failure is declared, or when the LOF
defect is absent for 9.5 to 10.5 seconds.
Statistics
Statistics are given for both the Near-End and Far-End of the SONET/SDH path.
Far-end statistics are taken from the far-end block error code (FEBE)Ñused to
indicate that the remote entity at the far-end of the path has detected errored data
Ñwithin the Path Overhead of SONET frames.
You can view statistics for the current 15-minute interval, or accumulated over the
last one-, eight-, or 24-hour period by clicking on the appropriate selection button.
SONET Port Configuration
2-83
Bridging
¥
Errored SecondsÑThe counter associated with the number of Errored
Seconds, or Far-End Errored Seconds, encountered by a SONET/SDH Path in
the speciÞed interval.
An Errored Second (ES) is a second with one or more coding violations (bit
parity errors) at the associated layer reported at the Section, Line, or Path layer
of the SONET link, or a second during which at least one or more incoming
defects (e.g., Loss of Signal, Loss of Pointer, or Loss of Frame) has occurred at
that layer. Coding Violations are Bit Interleaved Parity (BIP) errors that are
detected in the incoming signal (as described below).
¥
Severely Errored SecondsÑThe number of Severely Errored Seconds, or
Far-End Severely Errored Seconds, encountered by a SONET/SDH Path in the
speciÞed interval.
A Severely Errored Second (SES) is a second with X or more coding violations
(bit parity errors) reported at the Section, Line, or Path layer of the SONET link,
or a second during which at least one or more incoming defects (e.g., Loss of
Signal, Loss of Pointer, or Loss of Frame) has occurred at that layer. The
statistic provided in this Þeld is provided by the STS-Path level of the link.
Values of X at each layer depend on the linkÕs line rate and the Bit Error Rate.
For the STS-Path layer, with a line rate of 51.84 Mbps (STS-1) and a BER of 1.5
x 10-7, X is 9; with a line rate of 155.52 Mbps (STS-3) and a BER of 1 x 10-7, X is
16.
If the FE100-Sx or APIM-2x is experiencing consecutive Severely Errored
Seconds, it may indicate an impending period of network unavailability
(which begins at the onset of 10 consecutive SESs). Periods of unavailability
can severely impact service (e.g., the disconnection of switched services).
Availability is restored at the onset of 10 consecutive error-free seconds.
¥
Severely Errored Framing SecondsÑThe counter associated with the number
of Severely Errored Framing Seconds encountered by a SONET/SDH Section
in the speciÞed interval. A Severely Errored Framing Second (SEFS) is a second
containing one or more SEF events. This counter is only counted at the Section
Layer, and is not available as a Far-End counter.
¥
Code ViolationsÑThe number of Coding Violations (CVs) encountered by a
SONET/SDH Path interface, or the number of Far-End Coding Violations
reported via the far-end block error count to the monitored SONET/SDH Path
interface, in the speciÞed interval.
Coding Violations are Bit Interleaved Parity (BIP) transmission errors that are
detected in the incoming signal. Bit Interleaved Parity is a check at the
receiving interface that groups all bits in a block into a unit (e.g., a byte), then
veriÞes the block for parity for each bit position in the group by making sure
that the number of bits set to the value Ô1Õ is either even or odd, as reported by
the transmitting entity.
2-84
SONET Port Configuration
Bridging
Configuring SmartTrunking
The SmartTrunk menu option invokes the SmartTrunk ConÞguration and Status
window, which allows you to group interfaces logically to achieve greater
bandwidth between devices when both devices support this feature. There is no
limit to the number of ports that can be included in a single Òtrunk.Ó
NOTE
SmartTrunking is designed to work in the traditional bridging mode only, and is not
available if a switch is in the SecureFast VLAN mode. The SecureFast VLAN architecture
supports a fully-meshed topology, which has beneÞts similar to SmartTrunking.
To access the SmartTrunk ConÞguration and Status window from the Bridge
Status window:
1. Click on Bridge to display the Bridge menu.
2. Click on SmartTrunk. The SmartTrunk Configuration and Status window,
Figure 2-27, will appear.
To access the SmartTrunk ConÞguration and Status window from the Chassis
View window:
1. Click on the Board Index of the device of interest; the Board menu will
appear.
2. Click on SmartTrunk. The SmartTrunk Configuration and Status window,
Figure 2-27, will appear.
Figure 2-27. The SmartTrunk ConÞguration and Status Window
Configuring SmartTrunking
2-85
Bridging
The SmartTrunk ConÞguration and Status window displays all of the ports on the
selected device. The following information is given for each port:
Port
Displays each port on the selected module. Use the scroll bar to the right of the list
box to view information for all available ports.
Name
Displays the interface description of the selected port.
Mode
Displays the connection type for each port, either User or Network. User
connections do not participate in SmartTrunking; Network connections do. At
least two ports (from two separate chassis) must be designated as Network
connections to participate in SmartTrunking. All FNB interfaces must be
designated as User connections.
SmartTrunk State
Displays the current operating state of each listed port. The possible states
include:
¥
NoneÑThe port is operating as a normal switch port.
¥
BlockingÑThe port is load sharing, but in the blocked mode. While the
module performs the function of determining if there is a network loop, data
is temporarily blocked on new SmartTrunk ports and on any port that becomes
newly linked.
¥
Load SharingÑThe port is actively load-sharing with other ports.
Instance
Displays the number of ports associated with each loop.
# SmartTrunks
Displays the total number of load-sharing ports in the loop.
The only conÞgurable Þelds in the SmartTrunk ConÞguration and Status window
are the two Þelds with option buttons, each with two possible settings:
SmartTrunk (with the options of Enable and Disable) and Enable and Disable
Port # X (with the options of LoadSharing and Disable).
NOTE
2-86
When you Þrst open the SmartTrunk ConÞguration and Status Screen, the Enable and
Disable Port # X Þeld will be labeled SmartTrunk State Port #. After you click on a
port number in the list box, the Þeld title will change to Enable and Disable Port # X.
Configuring SmartTrunking
Bridging
To enable or disable SmartTrunking at the device level:
1. Click on the option button adjacent to the value you wish to set in the Device
Level SmartTrunk field: Enable or Disable.
When the option button is filled, the following confirmation window
(Figure 2-28) will appear:
Figure 2-28. Device Level SmartTrunking ConÞrmation Window
2. Click on Yes to apply your selection, or No to exit the confirmation window
without applying the change.
3. Click on Refresh to ensure that changes are applied.
To enable or disable SmartTrunkiing on an individual interface:
1. Click to select the interface whose Load Sharing status you wish to change.
The interface number will then be listed as “X” in the Enable/Disable Port # X
field.
2. Click on the option button adjacent to the value you wish to set: LoadSharing
or Disable. When the option button is filled, the following confirmation window
(Figure 2-29) will appear:
Figure 2-29. Example LoadSharing ConÞrmation Window
3. Click on Yes to apply your selection, or No to exit the confirmation window
without applying the change.
4. Click on Refresh to ensure that changes are applied.
Configuring SmartTrunking
2-87
Bridging
NOTE
When you Þrst open the SmartTrunk ConÞguration and Status Screen, the Enable and
Disable Port # X Þeld will be labeled SmartTrunk State Port #. After you click on a
port number in the list box, the Þeld title will change to Enable and Disable Port # X.
Configuring Broadcast Suppression
Excessive broadcasts to all ports, or broadcast storms, can result in severe
network performance problems, and possibly cause the network to crash. Devices
which support the broadcast suppression feature provide automatic protection
against broadcast and multicast storms.
In many ways, broadcast suppression is similar to Þltering. To protect against
storms, an acceptable rate for broadcast trafÞc across a port is deÞned. Once the
user-deÞned threshold has been reached on an interface, broadcast frames will be
dropped and an SNMP trap message will be sent to the network management
station.
To access the Broadcast Suppression window:
1. Click on the Device menu from the Chassis View window.
2. Click on Broadcast Suppression. The Broadcast Suppression window,
Figure 2-30, will appear.
Figure 2-30. The Broadcast Suppression Window
In the Broadcast Suppression Window, each interface of the device that is being
monitored can be individually conÞgured for automatic broadcast and multicast
storm protection.
2-88
Configuring Broadcast Suppression
Bridging
You can also deÞne what level of broadcasts the device will recognize as a
broadcast storm by specifying the number of broadcast packets that can be
transmitted within a given time period.
To conÞgure a port for broadcast storm protection:
1. Click to highlight the entry for the port you wish to configure for automatic
broadcast storm protection.
2. In the Time on Selected Ports field, enter the desired time period in seconds.
Note that a value of 0 will disable the threshold alarm.
3. In the Transmit (Frames Per Second) Threshold on Selected Ports field,
enter the number of broadcast packets that will be the threshold for the time
period set in Step 2.
4. Click Apply and your settings will be added to the window. Click Cancel to
close the window.
Token Ring Bridge Mode
The Token Ring Bridge Mode window allows you to choose one of the three
different modes of bridging on the deviceÕs Token Ring bridge port: Source Route
Transparent, Source Routing, or Transparent. The default setting is Source Route
Transparent.
To access the Token Ring Bridge Mode window from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on Bridge to display the Bridge menu.
2. Click on Token Ring Bridge Mode. The Token Ring Bridge Mode window,
Figure 2-31, will appear.
To access the Token Ring Bridge Mode window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the Board Index of the device of interest; the Board menu will
appear.
2. Click on Token Ring Bridge Mode. The Token Ring Bridge Mode window,
Figure 2-31, will appear.
Token Ring Bridge Mode
2-89
Bridging
Figure 2-31. Token Ring Bridge Mode Window
The following options are available in the Token Ring Bridge Mode Window:
Transparent
When the bridge is set to Transparent mode, the bridge will only transmit
transparent frames from the Token Ring connection. If a source route frame is
received by the bridge, the Source Route information in the frame will be dropped
from the packet. (A transparent frame is the same as a source route frame without
a RIFÑRouting Information Field.)
Source Routing
When the bridge is set to Source Routing mode, the bridge will only transmit
source route frames from the Token Ring connection.You should set the bridging
mode to Source Route when you are bridging from Ethernet to Token Ring. The
source route information (as conÞgured via the Ethernet portÕs Source Route
ConÞguration window, page 2-57) will be appended to the RIF for frames
transmitted on the Token Ring.
Source Route Transparent
When the bridge is set to Source Route Transparent, the bridge will transmit both
transparent and source route frames. The frames received which have source
route information will be transmitted as source route, while frames received that
are transparent will be transmitted as transparent.
Setting Token Ring Bridge Mode
1. Click on the option button next to the bridging mode you would like your Token
Ring bridge port to use: Transparent Bridge, Source Routing, or Source
Route Transparent.
2. Click on OK to close the window and set the bridge to the desired mode.
2-90
Token Ring Bridge Mode
Bridging
Setting Bridge Translation
When bridging between Ethernet and Token Ring networks, it is necessary to
alter the MAC (Media Access Control) layer information. The Bridge Translation
window controls the default frame translation that will occur for Token Ring
frames that are bridged to Ethernet.
If the device that is being monitored via SPECTRUM Element Manager is set to
operate in Auto Translation Mode, it has the ability to learn the frame type that is
used for a given Source Address from its Ethernet MAC address.
However, when the Token Ring bridge port receives a frame from an unlearned
Ethernet MAC address, it is necessary to conÞgure the default Token
Ring-to-Ethernet frame translation. When the bridge is operating in Auto
Translation Mode, the learned frame type for a given Ethernet MAC address will
override the default setting which may be conÞgured in this window.
To access the Bridge Translation window from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on Bridge to display the Bridge menu.
2. Click on Bridge Translation. The Bridge Translation window, Figure 2-32, will
appear.
To access the Bridge Translation window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the Board Index of the bridging device of interest; the Board menu
will appear.
2. Click on Bridge Translation. The Bridge Translation window, Figure 2-32, will
appear.
Setting Bridge Translation
2-91
Bridging
Figure 2-32. Bridge Translation Window
Enabling and Disabling Auto and Dual Translate Modes
When Auto Translate mode is enabled, the bridge will learn, from its Ethernet
ports, which frame format each source address is using. When the bridge
forwards a Token Ring packet to one of these learned source addresses, it will
automatically translate the packet to the correct frame format.
When Dual Translate mode is enabled, the bridge will translate a Token Ring
broadcast or multicast packet to both Ethernet frame formats (i.e., Ethernet
Type-II and Novell 802.3) when the format has not been learned previously.
To enable or disable translation:
1. Click on the empty Enable or Disable option button. When the option button
is filled ( ), the selected translation mode is enabled or disabled.
NOTE
2-92
When Auto Translate mode is enabled, it will override any other settings you conÞgure in
this window.
Setting Bridge Translation
Bridging
Configuring Token Ring Packet Translation
The middle section of the Bridge Translation window allows you to select the
Ethernet frame format the bridge will use to translate various packet types that
have been transported across Token Ring media.
Figure 2-33. Token Ring Packet Translation
The three Token Ring packet types you can conÞgure for translation are:
¥
¥
¥
Novell packets
IP packets (including ARP packets)
AppleTalk ARP packets
You can set each type of packet to either Enet (Ethernet) or SNAP (Token Ring
802.5 with SNAP) packet formats.
To set a selected packet type to Enet or SNAP:
1. Click on the empty Enet or SNAP option button, located to the right of the
selected packet type. When the option button is filled ( ), the selected packet
format is enabled.
NOTE
For the Novell Token Ring packet the SNAP format is invalid. When the SNAP format is
selected the packet will actually be translated into Novell 802.3 format.
If you are using Appletalk Phase-II, the mode of Appletalk ARP should be set to SNAP.
Configuring Novell Token Ring Packet Translation
The next section of the window allows you to select the bit ordering of the
hardware addresses located in the data Þeld of a Novell Token Ring packet. The
data Þeld contains all bytes of the packet, with the exception of the MAC header
and CRC byte. For more information about bit ordering and translation, see
Using the Novell Translation Window, page 2-97.
Figure 2-34. ConÞguring Bit Order Translation
Setting Bridge Translation
2-93
Bridging
There are two bit-order options:
¥
LSBÑLeast SigniÞcant Bit
¥
MSBÑMost SigniÞcant Bit
To set the bit order:
1. Click on the empty LSB or MSB option button. When the option button is filled
( ), the selected bit order is enabled.
NOTE
Novell recommends setting the bit order to LSB (Least SigniÞcant Bit) when bridging
between Token Ring and Ethernet. When the bridge is set to operate in LSB mode, all the
NIC cards on the Token Ring network should also be conÞgured to operate in LSB mode.
The IBM Translation Table
The IBM Translation Table allows you to conÞgure the mode of frame translation
for IBM SNA frames bridged from a Token Ring network to an Ethernet network.
The device will translate IBM SNA frames using any of the Þve default SAP
Service Access Point) addresses to Ethernet Type-II frames with a type code of
80D5; these default SAP addresses are shown in the IBM Format Table as the Þrst
Þve entries.
Figure 2-35. The IBM Format Table
If the state on the entry is enabled, then the translation for the Token Ring frame
with the given SAP address will be translated to Ethernet Type-II frame format.
If the state of the entry is disabled, the frame will be bridged as a 802.2 frame
maintaining the SAP address information.
From the IBM Translation window you can change the Þrst Þve default SAP
address entries, or add up to 15 additional entries to the table for the purpose of
translating IBM SNA frames.
To view all the entries in the table you must click on the scroll box to the right of
the displayed entry. A small scrollable window will appear. You can scroll
through the window to view all the entries.
2-94
Setting Bridge Translation
Bridging
The table contains the following information Þelds:
Index
Displays the index of an entry in the Token Ring-to-Ethernet Translation table for
IBM protocols. This number can be from 1 to 20.
SAP
Displays the SAP (Service Access Point) value of an IBM protocol. The bridge will
translate all Token Ring 802.5 packets without a SNAP header and with this SAP
value to Ethernet packets with Ethernet type set to 80D5. The default values
included in the table are 0x00, 0x04, 0x08, 0xF0, and 0xFC; you can change any of
these defaults, and/or add up to 15 additional SAP values.
State
Displays whether or not this entry will be used in the packet translation process.
If the state is Enabled the entry is used; if the state is Disabled the entry is not
used.
To conÞgure IBM Translation:
1. Click on the scroll box next to the entry and the scrollable window of entries
will appear.
2. Click on the entry you want to change. The IBM Translation Table Entry
Window, Figure 2-36, will appear.
Figure 2-36. IBM Translation Table Entry Window
The Table Entry Þeld will display the index of the entry you are viewing and
conÞguring.
1. To change the SAP Value of this entry, highlight the current value and type a
new one. The SAP Value must be one hexadecimal octet.
2. To set whether this entry will be used in the translation process, click on the
SAP State button to toggle between Enabled and Disabled.
3. Click on OK to save your changes to the IBM Translation table. The new
values will now appear in the window.
Setting Bridge Translation
2-95
Bridging
The SNAP Translation Table
The SNAP format table contains Ethernet type Þeld entries that the bridge uses to
determine how to translate a Token Ring (802.5 with SNAP) packet to an Ethernet
packet. If a Token Ring packet is received that matches the Ethernet type Þeld of
an enabled entry, the bridge will translate the Token Ring packet to the frame
format speciÞed by the button above the table. Otherwise, it will translate the
packet to the opposite frame format.
Figure 2-37. SNAP Format Table
The SNAP Format Table contains the following Þelds:
Index
Displays the index of an entry in the Token Ring-to-Ethernet Translation table for
Ethernet type Þelds. The index can range between 1 and 20.
SNAP
Displays the Ethernet type Þeld value which the bridge will use to translate all
Token Ring 802.5 packets with a SNAP header and this type Þeld to the format
speciÞed by the button. The Ethernet type Þeld value must be two octets.
State
Displays if this entry will be used in the packet translation process. If the state is
Enabled the entry is used; if the state is Disabled the entry is not used.
Configuring SNAP Translation
When you choose the SNAP format, you select the Ethernet frame format to
which the bridge translates all Token Ring packets with a SNAP header whose
Ethernet type resides in the table and whose entry is enabled.
To conÞgure the SNAP Translation Table:
1. Click on the SNAP Format button on the Bridge Translation window. It will
toggle between the Enet and SNAP formats. The format that appears in the
button is the one that is currently being used.
2. Click on the scroll box next to the entry and the scrollable window of entries
will appear.
2-96
Setting Bridge Translation
Bridging
3. Click on the entry you want to change. The SNAP Translation table,
Figure 2-38, will appear.
Figure 2-38. SNAP Translation Table
The Table Entry Þeld will display the index of the entry you are viewing and
conÞguring.
1. To change the SNAP Value (the type field) of this entry, highlight the current
value and type a new one. The SNAP value must be two octets.
2. To set whether this entry will be used in the translation process, click on the
SNAP State button to toggle between enabled and disabled.
3. Click on OK to save your changes to the SNAP Translation table. The new
values will now appear in the table.
Using the Novell Translation Window
The Token Ring-speciÞc Novell Translation window allows you to conÞgure each
bridge port for translation of Novell packets that are received and transmitted
across a Token Ring bridge.
The need for translation arises from the way that stations on Token Ring, FDDI,
and Ethernet media read and write bits. Ethernet transmits and receives each
address byte in Least SigniÞcant Bit Þrst (LSB) order; Token Ring transmits and
receives each address byte in Most SigniÞcant Bit Þrst (MSB) order; and FDDI
transmits each address byte using MSB, and receives using LSB. Translational
bridges must use the appropriate form of LSB/MSB address bit conversion to
allow the destination station to properly recognize its address when a packet
arrives. This conversion is necessary for both IP and IPX (Novell protocol)
packets.
When you select a translation mode, the MAC addresses in the Novell header or
in the MAC header of Novell packets received will be converted from most
signiÞcant bit format to least signiÞcant bit format. LLC layer translation converts
the MAC address in the Novell header; Data Link Layer Translation converts the
MAC address in the MAC header.
Using the Novell Translation Window
2-97
Bridging
To access the Novell Translation window from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on Bridge to display the Bridge menu.
2. Click on Novell Translation. The Novell Translation window, Figure 2-39, will
appear.
To access the Novell Translation window from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the Board Index of the bridge module of interest; the Board menu
will appear.
2. Click on select Novell Translation. The Novell Translation window,
Figure 2-39, will appear.
Figure 2-39. Novell Translation Window
Translation modes available are:
¥
Data Link Layer Translation
¥
LLC Layer (Logical Link Control) Translation
¥
None
If Data Link Layer Translation is selected, translation is performed within the
data link layer for Novell packets. This translation provides most signiÞcant bit to
least signiÞcant bit conversion on the source/destination MAC addresses located
in the MAC header.
Devices that support Data Link Layer Translation include:
9T125-08
9T125-24
9T425-16
3T0x-04
2-98
Using the Novell Translation Window
Bridging
If LLC Layer Translation is selected, translation is performed within the logical
link control layer for Novell packets. This translation provides most signiÞcant bit
to least signiÞcant bit conversion on the source/destination MAC addresses
located in the IPX header. The default choice is LLC Layer Translation.
Devices that support LLC translation include:
9T122-08
9T122-24
9T425-16
3T0x-04
If None is selected, no translation is performed. This option should be selected
when IPX packets are not traveling from Token Ring to either FDDI or Ethernet
media.
To select a translation mode:
1. Click on the empty option button adjacent to the desired translation mode.
2. Click Set to implement the change.
Using the Physical View Windows for the ETWMIM
When you are viewing and conÞguring the bridging capabilities of an ETWMIM,
there are a couple special views available. These are described below.
Ethernet Port Physical View
The Physical View allows you to view the physical state of the Ethernet port when
you are monitoring an ETWMIM via SPECTRUM Element Manager.
To use the Physical View option from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on the Ethernet bridge port (Port 1). The Ethernet bridge port menu will
appear.
2. Click on Physical View. The ETWMIM EtherPhysStatus (Ethernet Physical
Status) window, Figure 2-40, will appear.
To use the Physical View option from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the Ethernet bridge interface (Port 1). The Ethernet bridge port menu
will appear.
2. Click on Physical View. The ETWMIM EtherPhysStatus (Ethernet Physical
Status) window, Figure 2-40, will appear.
Using the Physical View Windows for the ETWMIM
2-99
Bridging
Figure 2-40. Ethernet Port Physical View
The following status Þelds are available in the Ethernet Port Physical View
window:
Active Port
This Þeld will have an enabled check box next to the active port conÞguration
option you have selected for your ETWMIM Ethernet port.
¥
If you have conÞgured the ETWMIM for use with the Ethernet backplane
connection, the X will appear in the BackPlane checkbox.
¥
If you have opted to use a front panel EPIM for your Ethernet connection, the
X will appear in the EPIM checkbox.
You cannot change your active port conÞguration from this window. It must be
changed physically on the ETWMIM itself.
Epim Type
This Þeld will show the type of EPIM you have installed via the front panel of
your ETWMIM, if applicable. The types of EPIMs are listed below, along with the
type of segment each will be connected to.
¥
¥
¥
¥
¥
¥
¥
¥
EPIM-TÑ10BASE-T Twisted Pair Segment
EPIM-F1/F2ÑFiber Optic Link Segment
EPIM-F3ÑSingle Mode Fiber Optic Link Segment
EPIM-CÑThin-net segment
EPIM-AÑAUI cable segment
EPIM-XÑAUI cable segment
EPIM UnknownÑThe EPIM type cannot be determined
N/AÑThe backplane connection is being used.
Link State
This Þeld will display the link state of the EPIM Ethernet port. The possible
states are:
2-100
¥
LinkedÑindicates a link has been established on the EPIM.
¥
UnlinkedÑindicates a link has not been established on the EPIM.
Using the Physical View Windows for the ETWMIM
Bridging
¥
UnknownÑindicates the status of the EPIM link is unknown, or not valid for
the type of EPIM installed.
¥
N/AÑindicates that the backplane connection is being used.
Token Ring Port Physical View
The Physical View option allows you to view and conÞgure the physical set up of
the Token Ring port when you are monitoring an ETWMIM via SPECTRUM
Element Manager.
To use the Physical View option from the Bridge Status window:
1. Click on the Token Ring bridge port (Port 2). The Token Ring bridge port menu
will appear.
2. Click on Physical View. The ETWMIM Token Ring Phys(ical) Status window,
Figure 2-41, will appear.
To use the Physical View option from the Chassis View window:
1. Click on the Token Ring bridge port (Port 2). The Token Ring bridge port menu
will appear.
2. Click on Physical View. The ETWMIM Token Ring Phys(ical) Status window,
Figure 2-41, will appear.
Figure 2-41. Token Ring Port Physical View
Using the Physical View Windows for the ETWMIM
2-101
Bridging
The following Status Fields are available in the Token Ring Port Physical View
window:
Ring Speed
Displays the current ring speed conÞgured for your Token Ring port. You can
change the ring speed from this window by clicking on the option button next to
the desired ring speed: 4 Megabits/second or 16 Megabits/second. When you
reconÞgure the ring speed, the new speed will appear in the text box in this Þeld.
Ring State
Displays the state of the ETWMIMÕs Token Ring MAU with respect to the ring.
When the ring is Òopen,Ó the Token Ring MAU is participating in the ring poll
process and is receiving and transmitting data onto the ring. When the ring is
Òclosed,Ó the MAU is removed from the ring, and data is not being transmitted or
received on the ring. You can change the ring state from this window by clicking
on the option button next to the desired option: Open or Close. If you
successfully reconÞgure the ring state, the new state will appear in the text box in
this Þeld.
FNB State
The FNB State section displays, and lets you conÞgure, the state of the backplane
FNB connectors on the ETWMIM.
The right-hand side of the window displays the current connection conÞguration
for the FNB connectors on the ETWMIM, and lets you alter those options by using
the appropriate option button selections:
2-102
¥
Connect Left indicates that the ETWMIM is/will be connected on the FNB to
the Þrst board to its left in the MMAC chassis with a valid right FNB
connection.
¥
Disconnect Left indicates that the ETWMIM is/will be disconnected on the
FNB from any boards to its left in the MMAC chassis.
¥
Connect Right indicates that the ETWMIM is/will be connected on the FNB
to the Þrst board to its right in the MMAC chassis with a valid left FNB
connection.
¥
Disconnect Right indicates that the ETWMIM is/will be disconnected on the
FNB from any boards to its right in the MMAC chassis.
¥
Enable Bypass indicates that the ETWMIM is/will be in bypass state. It will
not be connected to any boards on its left or right. In a shunting chassis, the
FNB will bypass the board to maintain the integrity of the ring across the
chassis.
¥
Disable Bypass indicates that the ETWMIM is/will be inserted into the FNB,
according to the established FNB connection options above.
Using the Physical View Windows for the ETWMIM
Bridging
The left-hand side of the window indicates the results of the current FNB
conÞguration, with an X next to the appropriate state of the FNB connection:
Connected Left, Connected Right, Bypassed, Right Connection Fault, or Left
Connection Fault. For example, if you choose Connect Right and Disconnect Left,
then click OK, the Connected Right and Left Connect Fault Þelds will appear with
an X next to them.
Active Monitor
This Þeld allows you to conÞgure whether or not the ETWMIMÕs onboard
management station will engage in the active monitor contention process, which
occurs as part of the recovery procedures initiated after certain ring error
situations.
If you select Enable, the station will contend in the process used to establish a ring
station as an Active Monitor.
If you select Disable, the station will not contend, even if the contention process is
activated for the ring. Note that if the ETWMIM is currently serving as the active
monitor, it will continue in that role until the next contention.
The box to the left of the choices will reßect your actions by displaying On when
the Active Monitor has been enabled, and Off when the Active Monitor has been
disabled.
Using the Physical View Windows for the ETWMIM
2-103
Bridging
2-104
Using the Physical View Windows for the ETWMIM
Chapter 3
FDDI Applications
Concentrator Configuration window; Connection Policy window; Station List window; Concentrator
Performance window
The FDDI menu, available on devices with an installed and enabled FDDI BRIM,
lets you access windows to view information about the Station Management
(SMT) entity supported by your FDDI BRIM. The SMT entity provides the system
management services for the FDDI protocols, including connection management,
node conÞguration, management statistics, and ring recovery. SMT is composed
of various subcomponent functions, including Connection Management (CMT)
and Ring Management (RMT).
The submenus that provide FDDI management are:
¥
ConÞguration, which displays the current conÞguration of the FDDI BRIM,
and the status of the ring; see The ConÞguration Window, page 3-2, for
details.
¥
Connection Policy, which displays the types of connections between the four
FDDI PHY (port) types Ð A, B, M, and S Ð that will be allowed by the FDDI
BRIM; see the Connection Policy Window, page 3-5 for details.
¥
Station List, which displays the conÞguration of the FDDI BRIM managed
ring, including the number of nodes, node addresses (both Canonical and
MAC), node class, and current ring topology; see Station List Window,
page 3-8 for details.
¥
Performance displays the number of frames transmitted and received on the
ring, error and lost frames detected on the ring, and the number of ring
initializations; see FDDI Performance Window, page 3-10.
3-1
FDDI Applications
Accessing the FDDI Menu
1. Click on the FDDI menu in your device Chassis View window and click again
to select the appropriate Station Management (SMT) entity to reveal the
following FDDI menu (Figure 3-1).
Figure 3-1. The FDDI Menu
2. Click on the desired selection. When you select one of these options, the
associated FDDI window will appear.
TIP
The title bar of the selected FDDI submenu windows will display the index number of the
SMT entity for which information is being displayed.
The Configuration Window
The ConÞguration window, Figure 3-2, displays the FDDI BRIM conÞguration,
the operating state of the FDDI ring, and the parameters relating to ring
initialization.
Figure 3-2. The FDDI ConÞguration Window
3-2
Accessing the FDDI Menu
FDDI Applications
The FDDI ConÞguration window displays the following Þelds:
MAC State
This Þeld indicates the current state of the MAC on the FDDI ring associated with
the selected SMT entity. The RMT component of SMT monitors MAC operation
and takes actions necessary to aid in achieving an operational ring. RMT occurs
on a per-MAC basis and aids in the detection and resolution of failures, such as
stuck beaconing and the presence of duplicate addresses.
¥
Not AvailableÑthere is no MAC on the FDDI ring associated with this SMT
entity, or the selected SMT entity is not attached to the main ring through the
backplane FNB A and B ports.
¥
Ring-OpÑthe ring is functioning normally. While in this state, the MAC being
managed is part of an operational FDDI ring.
¥
IsolatedÑthe SMT has just initialized RMT or RMT has entered this state
during a path test (trace) after ring beaconing; RMT is not aware of the ring
path or state.
¥
Non-OpÑthe MAC being managed by the selected SMT is participating in
ring recovery; the ring is not operational.
¥
DetectÑthe claim (beacon) process of the FDDI ring protocol has exceeded
one second. In this state, the ring is still alive, but no data is being transmitted.
This may indicate a problem on the ring, including the detection of duplicate
address conditions.
¥
Non-Op-DupÑthe ring is not operational; the address of the MAC under the
control of the SMT entity is a duplicate of another MAC on the ring. The
duplicate address condition prevented ring recovery and initialization after a
claim and beacon process. This state will not occur unless you are using
locally-administered addresses, as factory-set MAC addresses are unique.
¥
Ring-Op-DupÑthe ring is operational; however, the address of the MAC
under control of the SMT entity has been found to be a duplicate of another
MAC on the ring. Corrective actions will be attempted before the duplicate
address condition causes ring initialization to fail after the claim and beacon
recovery process. Like Non-Op-Dup, this state will not occur unless you are
using locally-administered addresses.
¥
DirectedÑthe beacon process did not complete within 7 seconds. The selected
SMT has directed the controlled MAC to send beacon frames to notify the
other stations that a serious problem exists on the ring, and a Trace state is soon
to follow.
¥
TraceÑa problem exists on the ring which could not be corrected during the
beaconing process, and a Trace has been initiated. During a Trace (or Path
Test), the SMT sends a signal that forces its nearest upstream neighbor to
remove from the ring and conduct a self-test. If the ring does not recover, each
subsequent upstream station will be forced to remove from the ring and
conduct self-tests until the problem has been corrected. While the test is being
conducted, ring management re-enters the isolated state.
The Configuration Window
3-3
FDDI Applications
SMT Version
Displays the version number of the Station Management (SMT) entity. SMT
frames have a version ID Þeld that identiÞes the structure of the SMT frame Info
Þeld. The version number is included in the SMT frame so that a receiving station
can determine whether or not its SMT version is able to communicate with the
SMT version of another station. Knowing the version number allows the station
to handle version mismatches. Each station supports a range of SMT versions.
The supported version range is identiÞed within the ietf-fddi MIB by two
smtTable attributes: snmpFddiSMTLoVersionId and snmpFddiSMTHiVersionId. If a
received frame is not within the supported version range, the frame is discarded.
SMT provides the system management services for the FDDI protocols,
including connection management, node conÞguration, error recovery, and
management frame encoding.
T-Req. (Requested Target Token Rotation Time)
The token rotation time bid made by the selected SMT entity during ring
initialization. Each station detecting that the ring must be initialized begins a
claim token process and issues a stream of Claim Frames, which negotiate the
value assigned to the Target Token Rotation Time (TTRT). The information Þeld of
these frames contains the issuing stationÕs bid for the value of TTRT. Each
claiming station inspects incoming Claim frames (from other issuing stations) and
either continues its own bid (and removes the competing Claim Frame from the
ring) or defers (halts transmission of its own bid and repeats the competing bid)
according to the following hierarchy of arbitration:
¥
A Claim Frame with the lowest TTRT bid has precedence.
¥
If the values of TTRT are equal, the frame with the longest source address
(48 vs. 16 bits) has precedence.
¥
If both TTRT value and source address length are equal, the frame with the
highest address has precedence.
The FDDI BRIM is shipped with a T-Req = 83 msec (earlier versions of Þrmware)
or 6 msec (later Þrmware versions). T-Req is stored within the MIB in units of
nanoseconds (one billionth of a second) rather than milliseconds (one thousandth
of a second); SPECTRUM Element Manager converts nanoseconds to
milliseconds for display purposes. You can use any SNMP Set Request tool to edit
the T-Req value; just remember that you must enter your value in nanoseconds,
rather than milliseconds.
T-Neg. (Negotiated)
The winning time negotiated in the ring initialization sequence.
Concentrator M Ports
This Þeld displays the number of Master (M) ports on the modular concentrator
controlled by the FDDI BRIM. A Master port is a port that provides a connection
for Single Attachment Station (SAS) devices to the FDDI network.
3-4
The Configuration Window
FDDI Applications
Concentrator Non-M Ports
This Þeld display the number of non-Master ports (A, B, or S ports) on the
modular FDDI BRIM concentrator.
Number of MACs
The number of Media Access Control entities present in the FDDI BRIM,
indicating the number of ring port pairs. For the FDDI BRIM, this number
will be 1.
MAC Path
This Þeld displays the conÞguration of the MAC with respect to the logical ring,
as determined by the Connection Management (CMT) portion of SMT. CMT
controls the establishment of a media attachment to the FDDI network, the
connections with other nodes in the ring, and the internal conÞguration of the
various entities within a node. CMT provides the link conÞdence test and
speciÞes a Link Error Monitor (LEM) which monitors active links on a per-link
basis to ensure that failing links are detected and, if required, removed from the
network. Possible values are:
¥
Primary 1Ñthe Primary 1 FDDI ring is being used.
¥
Secondary 1Ñthe Secondary 1 FDDI ring is being used.
¥
Primary 2Ñthe Primary 2 FDDI ring is being used.
¥
Secondary 2Ñthe Secondary 2 FDDI ring is being used.
¥
LocalÑthe MAC is not inserted into a primary or secondary path of a dual
ring, but may be connected to one or more other nodes.
¥
IsolatedÑthe MAC has no connection to the ring or other concentrator ports.
¥
Unknown or ?ÑSPECTRUM Element Manager cannot determine the MAC
path for the FDDI BRIM.
Ring Configuration
The current conÞguration of the MAC and physical layers of the A and B ports.
Connection Policy Window
The SMT Connection Policy determines which types of connections are allowed
among the four FDDI port types: A, B, M (Master), and S (Slave). FDDI protocol
forbids MasterÐ>Master connections; all other connection types are legal,
although some are considered to be undesirable.
Connection Policy Window
3-5
FDDI Applications
The following table summarizes the FDDI connection rules:
Table 3-1. FDDI Connection Rules
A
B
S
M
A
V, U
V
V, U
V, P
B
V
V, U
V, U
V, P
S
V, U
V, U
V
V
M
V
V
V
X
V – valid connection
X – illegal connection
U – undesirable (but legal) connection
P – valid, but when both A and B are connected to M ports (a dual-homing
configuration), only the B connection is used.
!
Though technically legal under FDDI connection rules, undesirable connections will
cause a twisted or wrapped ring.
CAUTION
The Connection Policy window, Figure 3-3, lists potential connection types in a
ÒReject X-YÓ format, where X represents a port on the FDDI BRIM, and Y
represents the attaching node. A check in the checkbox next to a Connection
Policy indicates that it is an illegal connection.
Figure 3-3. The Connection Policy Window
3-6
Connection Policy Window
FDDI Applications
TIP
You can use any SNMP Set Request or MIB tool to edit the Connection Policy for your
device by setting the fddimibSMTConnectionPolicy MIB OID (part of the MIBII FDDI
Transmission MIB (RFC1512). fddimibSMTConnectionPolicy is simply a 16-bit integer
value (ranging from 32768 to 65535) that corresponds to the connection policy (in the
ÒReject X-YÓ format, where X represents a port on the FDDI Switch Module, and Y
represents the attaching node).
To set the connection policy for the device, total the bit values corresponding to
the desired connection policy according to the table below, and then use your SNMP
Set Request or Mib tool to set the value for the appropriate SMT index. For example,
to set a connection policy that disallowed the undesirable A-A or B-B connections
you would set the fddimibSMTConnectionPolicy MIB OID to 32,801:
32,768 (reject M-M, required) + 32 (reject B-B) + 1 (reject A-A).
Policy
reject A-A
reject A-B
reject A-S
reject A-M
reject B-A
reject B-B
reject B-S
reject B-M
reject S-A
reject S-B
reject S-S
reject S-M
reject M-A
reject M-B
reject M-S
reject M-M
Power
20 (1)
21 (2)
22 (4)
23 (8)
24 (16)
25 (32)
26 (64)
27 (128)
28 (256)
29 (512)
210 (1,024)
211 (2,048)
212 (4,096)
213 (8,192)
214 (16,384)
215 (32,768 Ð a permanently set value for this bit)
Each device has its own connection policy; however, when two devices attempt to
connect, their combined established connection policies dictate the connections
that will be allowed. In an attempted connection between two nodes, the most
lenient policy will determine whether the connection (as long as it is legal) can be
made. For example, if two FDDI nodes attempt an AÐ>A connection, and this
connection is not allowed at one FDDI node but allowed at the other, the
connection would be accepted. If the connection policy at both nodes disallows
the connection, the connection will be rejected.
This is a read-only window; you currently cannot edit the FDDI BRIMÕs
connection policy directly from this window.
Connection Policy Window
3-7
FDDI Applications
Station List Window
The Station List displays the conÞguration of the FDDI BRIM managed ring,
including the number of nodes on the ring, node addresses (both Canonical and
MAC), node class, and ring topology.
Figure 3-4. The Station List Window
The upper section of the Station List window displays information about the
FDDI BRIM managed ring.
Number of Nodes
The number of stations inserted into the FDDI ring to which the FDDI BRIM
MAC is connected.
Address Mode
Displays the current mode being used to display the addresses of the devices in
the Station List. The two possible modes are Canonical (FDDI) or MAC (Ethernet).
To change the current Address Mode, click on the Address Mode button at the
bottom of the window. The current address mode will change in the Address
Mode Þeld and the Stations panel.
3-8
Station List Window
FDDI Applications
The Stations Panel section displays a list of the stations on the ring to which the
selected SMT is connected, in ring sequence beginning with the MAC, along with
each stationÕs node class and current topology.
#
An index number assigned to each station that indicates its position on the ring in
relation to the FDDI BRIM. The monitored FDDI BRIM is always 1.
MAC Address
Displays the manufacturer-set MAC address of the node inserted into the ring.
MAC addresses are hard-coded into the device and are not conÞgurable.
Node Class
Displays the type of ring device. Possible values are:
Station
Indicates an FDDI node capable of transmitting,
receiving, and repeating data.
Concentrator
Indicates an FDDI node that provides attachment points
to the ring for stations that are not directly connected to
the dual ring.
Topology
Indicates the nodeÕs MAC conÞguration topology.
Upstream Neighbor
Displays the hardware address (in Canonical or MAC format, as currently
selected) of each nodeÕs upstream neighbor.
NOTE
Station List Window
Note that the information displayed in the Station List is static once the window is
opened; for updated information, click on the Refresh button. If the number of nodes
exceeds the panel size, scroll bars will appear in the list box that will allow you to scroll
through the station list to view the node of interest.
3-9
FDDI Applications
FDDI Performance Window
The FDDI Performance window, Figure 3-5, provides graphical and numeric
performance statistics for the FDDI BRIM, including transmit frames, receive
frames, frame errors, lost frames, and ring ops.
Figure 3-5. The FDDI Performance Window
The FDDI Performance window displays performance data in three formats:
¥
Count the number detected of each performance type for the selected interval.
¥
RateÑ# per second the number of each performance type per second, as
averaged over the selected interval.
¥
GraphicallyÑ0% - 50% - 100% the percentage of each performance type with
respect to the total network load processed by the FDDI BRIM during the last
interval (e.g., a transmit frames rate of 75% during a delta interval indicates
that of all frames processed by the selected interface, 75% were transmitted by
that interface).
The FDDI Performance window displays performance data in the following
Þelds:
Transmit Frames
The number of frames transmitted by the FDDI BRIMÕs MAC during the selected
interval.
Receive Frames
The number of frames received by the FDDI BRIMÕs MAC during the selected
interval.
3-10
FDDI Performance Window
FDDI Applications
Frame Errors
The number of error frames detected by the FDDI BRIMÕs MAC during the
selected interval that had not been detected previously by other stations. Error
frames may include frames with an invalid Frame Check Sequence (FCS), with
data length errors, or with internal errors that prevent the MAC from transferring
the frame to the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer.
Lost Frames
The number of frames detected by the FDDI BRIMÕs MAC during the selected
interval that have an unknown error, so their validity is in doubt. When the FDDI
BRIMÕs MAC encounters a frame of this type, it increments the Lost Frame
counter and strips the remainder of the frame from the ring, replacing it with idle
symbols.
Ring Ops
The number of times the ring has entered the ÒRing OperationalÓ state from the
ÒRing Not OperationalÓ state during the selected interval. This counter updates
when the FDDI BRIMÕs MAC informs Station Management (SMT) of a change in
Ring Operation status.
Setting the Time Interval
You can change the time interval during which the performance statistics are
collected. To do so, click to select the desired option button in the Count Display
panel (in the top right hand corner of the window):
¥
Absolute Ñstatistical counts recorded since the FDDI BRIM was last started.
¥
CumulativeÑstatistical counts recorded since the Performance window was
opened.
¥
DeltaÑstatistical counts recorded during a single polling interval that is set for
SPECTRUM Element Manager (refer to the SPECTRUM Element Manager
UserÕs Guide for more information).
FDDI Performance Window
3-11
FDDI Applications
3-12
FDDI Performance Window
Chapter 4
WAN Applications
Viewing WAN Interface Status; configuring the synchronous and T1 connection; displaying the WAN
logical settings; Viewing the Wan Port AdminStatus; enabling and disabling WAN interfaces; displaying
Synchronous port statistics
This chapter describes the options available from the WAN Status menu when a
WAN BRIM is installed in a device. This option allows you to set up and view the
connections for a WAN BRIM, and view protocol and synchronous port statistics.
The following windows are available from the WAN Status menu:
¥
The WAN Interface Status window displays the conÞguration settings of the
two available WAN ports (Synchronous and T1); see Viewing WAN Interface
Status, page 4-2, for details.
¥
The WAN Logical View window displays status information about the logical
interface(s) that comprise your physical WAN port; see Displaying the WAN
Logical View, page 4-10, for details.
¥
The Admin/Status window displays status information for your WAN port;
see Viewing the WAN Port Admin/Status, page 4-12, for more information.
Depending on the type of port that is active, the Admin/Status window for the
Synchronous port (page 4-12) or the T1 interfaces (page 4-13) will display.
¥
The Synchronous Port Statistics window displays the traffic going through
the Synchronous port on your WAN BRIM. This menu option will only be
available when the Synchronous Port is configured as the active port. See
Displaying Synchronous Port Statistics, page 4-14, for details.
Accessing the WAN Status Windows
1. Click on Device in the Chassis View menu bar to access the Device menu.
2. Click on WAN Status and then right to the appropriate selection. When you
select one of these options, the associated WAN Status window will appear.
4-1
WAN Applications
Viewing WAN Interface Status
The WAN Interface Status window displays the conÞguration of the synchronous
and/or T1 ports on a BRIM-W6 or BRIM-WT1. This window has two port
conÞguration sections Ð one for each WAN port on the device, whether it is
synchronous or T1. You can use this window to determine which WAN port is the
active port and set a port to be the primary port. You can also use the ConÞgure
button to access the T-1 Port and Synchronous Port ConÞguration windows.
To open the WAN Interface Status window:
1. Click on Device on the Chassis View menu bar to access the Device menu.
2. Click on WAN Status and then on Physical View. The WAN Interface Status
window, Figure 4-1, will appear.
Figure 4-1. WAN Interface Status Window
The WAN Interface Status window displays the following Þelds:
Type
Displays the type of WAN port: Synchronous or T1.
Current Active
Displays which WAN port is currently being used on the device. A check will
appear in the box under Port 1 or Port 2.
Current Primary
Displays which port has been conÞgured to be the Primary port.
4-2
Viewing WAN Interface Status
WAN Applications
Desired Primary
Allows you to assign a port to be your primary port by clicking on the option
button under the desired port.
NOTE
In future releases, you will be able to conÞgure redundancy for the device. At this time,
by choosing the Desired Primary, you are actually choosing the Current Active.
Configuring the Synchronous Connection
The Sync Port ConÞguration window displays the current conÞguration of your
synchronous WAN connection. The drop-down menus allow you to change the
conÞguration Ñ Type, Inspeed, and Outspeed Ñ of the synchronous port.
To access this window from the WAN Interface Status window:
1. Click on the Configure button that appears under the Port 1 - Synchronous
column. The Sync Port Configuration window, Figure 4-2, will appear.
Figure 4-2. Sync Port ConÞguration Window
Viewing WAN Interface Status
4-3
WAN Applications
The Sync Port ConÞguration window contains the following Þelds:
Type
Displays the type of connection used at the port. Click the associated button to
select RS422, RS232, V.35, and Other. You can change the type of connection
displayed in this window to match the conÞguration of your physical
synchronous port.
Inspeed
Displays the speed of input communications of the synchronous port. Click the
associated button to select 2.048 Mbps, 1.54 Mbps, 256 Kbps, 128 Kbps, 64 Kbps,
56 Kbps, 38.4 Kbps, 19.2 Kbps, 14.4 Kbps, and 9.6 Kbps. The selected inspeed
will appear in the button in bits per second (bps) format.
Outspeed
Displays the speed of output communications of the synchronous port. Click the
associated button to select: 2.048 Mbps, 1.54 Mbps, 256 Kbps, 128 Kbps, 64 Kbps,
56 Kbps, 38.4 Kbps, 19.2 Kbps, 14.4 Kbps, and 9.6 Kbps. The selected outspeed
will appear in the button in bits per second (bps) format.
NOTE
The Inspeed and Outspeed are determined by the CSU/DSU attached to the synchronous
port. If you change the Inspeed or Outspeed displayed in this window, it will not have an
effect on the actual transmit or receive speed of the connection. If the communication
speeds do change, you should change the values in this window to reßect these changes.
Clock Source
Displays the source of the portÕs bit rate clock. The clock source will always be
External on a synchronous port.
State Change
The bottom half of this window displays the trafÞc for individual signals on your
synchronous port. The trafÞc signals are: CTS (Clear to Send), DSR (Data Set
Ready), RTS (Request to Send), and DTR (Data Terminal Ready). The red and
green indicators reßect whether the indicated signal is disabled (off) or enabled
(on), respectively. The State Change text box to the right of each of these Þelds
will display the number of times the signal has changed state from enabled to
disabled, or vice versa.
To modify the synchronous port parameters:
1. Click on the Type, Inspeed, or Outspeed command buttons.
2. From the Type, Inspeed, or Outspeed drop-down menus, select the new
parameter.
4-4
Viewing WAN Interface Status
WAN Applications
Configuring T-1 Ports
The T-1 Port ConÞguration window displays the conÞguration of your WAN T1
connection. The drop-down menus in this window allow you to change the
conÞguration of the T1 connection without accessing Local Management. You can
use the FracTable button to access the WAN FracTable ConÞguration window,
which allows you to conÞgure your timeslots.
To access the T-1 Port ConÞguration window from the WAN Interface Status
window:
1. Click on the Configure button that appears under the Port 2 - T1 column. The
T-1 Port Configuration window, Figure 4-3, will appear.
Figure 4-3. T-1 Port ConÞguration Window
The T-1 Port ConÞguration window contains the following Þelds:
WAN Port Name
Displays the unique value for the T1 port on the BRIM. In this example the value
is WAN Port 2.
Line Type
Displays the type of service you are using over your T1 line. Click on the
associated button to set the Line Type per your WAN service providerÕs
instructions: ESF (Extended Super Frame DS1) or D4 (AT&T D4 format DS1).
In Figure 4-3, the Line Type Þeld is grayed out because D4 is not supported on
ETWMIM devices.
Line Coding
Displays the line coding for the Full T1 line. Click on the associated button to set
the Line Coding per your WAN service providerÕs instructions: JBZS, B8ZS,
AMI, and None. The default for this Þeld is B8ZS.
Viewing WAN Interface Status
4-5
WAN Applications
!
CAUTION
If AMI is chosen, the line code selection on the individual interfaces should not be set to
None; for more information on setting the interface line coding refer to ConÞguring the
Fractional Table, page 4-8.
Circuit ID
Allows you to enter a character string speciÞed by the circuit vendor as a circuit
identiÞer. This is used for a reference during troubleshooting processes.
Loopback Mode
Displays the loopback conÞguration of the DS1 interface. Click on the associated
button to select No Loop, Payload, or Line Loop.
Xmt Clock Source
Displays the T1 Transmit Clock Source. Click on the associated button to select
Loop Timing, Local Timing, or Through Timing. The default setting is Loop
Timing, which indicates that the recovered receive clock is used as the transmit
clock; Local Timing indicates that an internal clock source is used. Through
Timing is not supported by the WAN BRIM at this time.
Line Status
Indicates the status of the T1 circuit. Green indicates that there are no alarms
present. Red indicates that data communications have been disrupted at the
monitored device, due to a loss of frame synchronization or a loss of signal which
has occurred for more than two to three seconds. A yellow condition indicates
that the far end equipment has experienced a red alarm condition, and
subsequently reported it to the near end.
Signal Mode
Displays the type of signaling that is in use on the T1 line. The possible signal
modes are None, robbedBit, or messageOriented. None indicates that no bits are
reserved for signaling on this channel. When T1 Robbed Bit Signaling is in use,
this Þeld will display robbedBit. When Common Channel Signaling is in use on
channel 24 of a T1, this Þeld will display messageOriented.
LineBuildOut
Displays the value of the Line Buildout setting. This setting controls the amount
of attenuation of the T1 signal. You can set this value via Local Management. The
possible settings are 0 db, -7.5db, and -15 db; the default is zero. Consult you local
telephone carrier, before you change this value.
4-6
Viewing WAN Interface Status
WAN Applications
Using the T1 FracTable Configuration Window
The FracTable ConÞguration window allows you to assign your interfaces to the
24 channels on the T1 line according to the mapping provided by your WAN
carrier.
To open the T1 FracTable ConÞguration window from the T1 Port ConÞguration
window:
1. Click on the FracTable button. The T1 FracTable Configuration window,
Figure 4-4, will appear.
This figure illustrates an example configuration of a T1 connection that was
set according to the mapping provided by the wide area carrier.
Figure 4-4. WAN T1 FracTable ConÞguration Window
The T1 FracTable ConÞguration window displays the following information:
Interface LineCoding
Displays the Line Coding set for this interface. Click on the associated button per
your WAN service providerÕs instructions to select: JBZS, InvHDLC, and None.
!
CAUTION
None (the default value) should not be selected when you are using AMI line coding on
the T1 line; for more information on setting the T1 line coding refer to WAN Port Name,
page 4-5.
Interface
Displays the ifIndex interface index value for each interface, which is a unique
identiÞer for each physical and logical interface on the device. You use the ifIndex
to map the interface on the fractional table of a T1 port.
Viewing WAN Interface Status
4-7
WAN Applications
The range of interface indices for a BRIMÕs interfaces will start after the indexing
of interfaces on the host device, and end at the last interface supported by the
WAN port. For example, for an ETWMIM that has a BRIM-W6 with a single
24-channel WPIM-T1 installed in the Þrst BRIM port, the BRIM interfaces will be
indexed from 3 (since ifIndex 1 and 2 are the ETWMIM Ethernet and Token Ring
interfaces) to 26 (since the WPIMs supports 24 interfaces). If there was a WPIM-SY
Synchronous port installed in the Þrst BRIM port, the T1 port interfaces would be
indexed from 4 to 27 (since ifIndex 1 and 2 are the Ethernet and Token Ring
interfaces, and ifIndex 3 is the Synchronous port interface).
Channels
Displays the 24 channels or timeslots available for interface assignments.
Max Bandwidth
Displays the bandwidth you have assigned to the current interface. This Þeld also
contains a percentage of the total T1 line bandwidth that the interface is using.
The bandwidth will not reßect your conÞguration until it has been saved.
Configuring the Fractional Table
When you open the FracTable ConÞguration window, the current conÞguration of
the fractional table will be displayed. The channels that are currently assigned to
the selected interface will be highlighted green.
1. Click on the New button and use a “scratchpad” copy of the current
configuration to make changes on. When you use the “scratchpad” you can
switch back and forth to compare the current configuration that is being used
by the device and the configuration that you have set up on the “scratchpad”.
You switch back and forth between the New and Current templates by clicking
on the New and Current buttons at the bottom of the window.
2. Click to select the interface that you wish to assign to the channel(s). The
interface will appear highlighted in blue. In the preceding illustration,
Interfaces 5 and 6 have been assigned to the device’s channels.
We recommend that you use consecutive interfaces starting at the Þrst available interface.
NOTE
3. Click on the boxes under the numbers of the channels that your wide area
carrier has assigned. The interface number will then appear in the box, and
the box will be colored in turquoise. In the preceding illustration, the wide area
carrier assigned channels (timeslots) 1-8 and 13-24 for use.
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for any other interfaces you want to assign to channels.
4-8
Viewing WAN Interface Status
WAN Applications
5. If a channel is not being used by an interface you should disable it by
selecting Delete (0) in the interface scroll box and then clicking on the
selected channel. In the preceding window, channels 9-12 are not assigned
and are disabled.
6. When you are done making your changes click on the Save button. The
“scratchpad” will then be copied to the current fractional table being used by
the device. A confirmation window will appear asking you to confirm the
choice to write over the current configuration.
NOTE
After you have saved a conÞguration or when you Þrst open this window, the channels
that are currently assigned to the selected interface will be highlighted in green.
Restoring a Fractional Table
If you have made changes to the ÒscratchpadÓ table, but have not saved these
changes, you can revert to the current fractional table and erase the changes you
have made to the New or ÒscratchpadÓ table.
To revert to the current fractional table:
1. Click on the Restore button. The fractional table currently being used by the
device will appear, and is copied to the New or “scratchpad” table.
Changing the Interface Line Coding
You can change the line coding used by each individual interface on your device.
1. Select the interface for which you want to change the line coding.
2. Click on the Interface Line Coding button. A drop-down menu will appear.
3. Select the line coding you want to use on that interface.
!
None (the default value) should not be selected when you are using AMI line coding on
the T1 line; for details on setting the T1 line coding, see WAN Port Name, page 4-5.
CAUTION
Viewing WAN Interface Status
4-9
WAN Applications
Displaying the WAN Logical View
The WAN Logical View window displays information about the logical interfaces
that comprise your physical WAN port. Although the WAN Logical View
window has identical Þelds for the T1 and the Synchronous ports, the number of
interface entries depends on the type of port. The Synchronous port will have a
single interface entry; the T1 port will have 24 interface entries.
To open the WAN Logical View window:
1. Click on Device in the Chassis View menu bar to access the Device menu.
2. Click on WAN Status and Logical View. The WAN Logical View window,
Figure 4-5, will appear.
Figure 4-5. The WAN Logical View Window (T1)
The WAN Logical View window displays the following Þelds:
IF
Displays the interface index; a unique value for each logical interface supported
by this device.
Protocol
Displays the active Link Layer protocol: PPP (Point to Point), Frame Relay, LEX,
or None.
Compression
Display if data compression is On or Off. Data compression is not supported by
the WAN BRIM at this time; compression will always be de-activated or Off.
4-10
Displaying the WAN Logical View
WAN Applications
MTU
Displays the MTU (Maximum Transfer Unit) for this interface. The MTU is the
largest packet size that can be transmitted on the selected interface.
Line Coding
Displays the line coding set for this interface: INV-HDLC, JBZS, or None. None
(the default value) is displayed when the line coding being used on the interface
is B8ZS.
CRC Length
Displays the length of the CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Check) for this interface.
TIP
The information in this window is static; use the Refresh button to view updated
information.
Changing WAN Logical Settings
You can change the protocol setting from the WAN Logical View window.
1. In the list box, click on the interface line of interest. The selected interface line
will be highlighted blue and the WAN Logical Settings window, as shown in
Figure 4-6, will appear.
Figure 4-6. The WAN Logical Settings Window
2. Click on the Protocol button to select PPP, Frame Relay, LEX or None.
3. Click on OK to save changes and exit the window, or Cancel to exit the
window without saving changes.
After exiting the Logical Settings window, the WAN Logical View window will
update with the changes you made.
Displaying the WAN Logical View
4-11
WAN Applications
Viewing the WAN Port Admin/Status
The Admin/Status window displays status information for your WAN port.
Depending on the type of port that is active, the Admin/Status window for the
Synchronous Port (Figure 4-7) or the T1 interfaces will display (Figure 4-8).
To access the Admin/Status window:
1. Click on Device on the Chassis View menu bar to access the Device menu.
2. Click on WAN Status and Admin/Status. The AdminStatus window for the
Synchronous Port (Figure 4-7) or T1 Interfaces (Figure 4-8) will appear.
Synchronous Admin/Status
The Synchronous Admin/Status window displays the operational state of your
Synchronous connection, and allows you to enable or disable the port.
Figure 4-7. AdminStatus (Synchronous) Window
The Admin/Status Synchronous Port window displays the following Þelds:
Interface Type
Displays the interface type of the port (e.g., ethernet-csmacd).
Operational Status
Displays the operational status of the port, as indicated by a trafÞc light display:
Green indicates the interfaceÕs operational status is Up.
Red indicates that the interfaceÕs operational status is Down.
No data can be received or transmitted by the interface. Note
that an interface can be operationally down, even though it is
administratively enabled (i.e., the interface has experienced an
operational failure, regardless of its administrative state).
Yellow indicates that the port is in a test mode, or in some
transitional state between the disabled and enabled states.
4-12
Viewing the WAN Port Admin/Status
WAN Applications
Admin Status
The Admin Status toggle button lets you administratively Enable or Disable the
port. The Operational Status indicator will reßect the results of the administrative
action.
T1 Admin/Status
The T1 Admin/Status window (Figure 4-8) displays the administrative status or
operational status of your T1 interfaces, and also allows you to enable or disable
any of the 24 possible T1 interfaces.
Figure 4-8. AdminStatus T1 Interfaces Window
The AdminStatus T1 Interface window displays the following Þelds:
WAN Interfaces
Indicates whether the administrative (Admin Status) or operational (Oper Status)
state is in effect for the interface display. The corresponding command button will
be grayed-out.
Interface Display
Graphically displays the status of each of the 24 logical interfaces on your T1
connection as selected by the command buttons, either Oper or Admin. If Oper is
selected, each interface will display its actual, operational status: On (green) if it is
up, or Off (red) if it is down. If Admin is selected, each interface will display its
administrative status as set by management: On (green) if it has been
administratively enabled, or Off (red) if it has been administratively disabled.
You can also access a menu from each interface to administratively enable or
disable the interface.
Oper and Admin
The Oper and Admin buttons let you change the interface display between Oper
Status and Admin Status. The command button of the active status will be
grayed-out and inactive.
Viewing the WAN Port Admin/Status
4-13
WAN Applications
Enabling and Disabling WAN T1 Interfaces
From the Interface drop-down menus, you can administratively enable or disable
any of the 24 possible T1 interfaces.
1. From the WAN AdminStatus T1 Interfaces window, click on the desired
Interface button.
2. Click on Enable to enable the interface, or Disable to disable the interface.
Note that the interface display may take a few moments to update your
selections.
Displaying Synchronous Port Statistics
The Sync Port Statistics window displays statistics for the trafÞc going through
your synchronous WAN connection. Statistics are displayed in numeric form and
in graphic form as a pie chart. The Statistics option is only available when the
Synchronous Port is active.
To access the Sync Port Statistics window for the synchronous port:
1. Click on Device in the Chassis View menu bar to access the Device menu.
2. Click on WAN Status and Statistics. The Sync Port Statistics window, as
shown in Figure 4-9, will appear.
Figure 4-9. Sync Port Statistics
The Sync Port Statistics window displays the following Þelds:
Frame Check
The number of frames with an invalid frame check sequence input from the port.
Frame Check statistics are color-coded Green.
4-14
Displaying Synchronous Port Statistics
WAN Applications
Xmit UnderRuns
The number of frames that failed to be transmitted on the port because data was
not available to the transmitter in time. Xmit UnderRuns are color-coded Blue.
Receive OverRuns
The number of frames that failed to be received on the port because the receiver
did not accept the data in time. Receive OverRuns are color-coded Cyan.
Interrupted Frames
The number of frames that failed to be received or transmitted on the port due to
loss of modem signals since port state was ÒupÓ. Interrupted Frames are
color-coded Red.
Aborted Frames
The number of frames aborted on the port due to receiving an abort sequence.
Aborted Frames are color-coded Brown.
Total Errors
The total number of frames with errors that have passed through the port.
TIP
The Reset button will reset all the Statistics counters in this window to zero and restart
counting statistics from the time of reset.
Displaying Synchronous Port Statistics
4-15
WAN Applications
4-16
Displaying Synchronous Port Statistics
Chapter 5
ATM Configuration
Viewing connection data; configuring Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs); adding and deleting
connection entries
The ATM Connections option will be available when you have an ATM BRIM
installed and enabled in your device. The ATM interfaces provided by an ATM
BRIM provide the connectivity that allows you to merge ATM network segments
with traditional LAN technologies.
An ATM network uses two types of virtual channels, or circuits: Switched Virtual
Circuits, or SVCs, and Permanent Virtual Circuits, or PVCs. SVCs are created and
dismantled dynamically on an as-needed basis, and require no management
deÞnition. PVCs, however, must be manually conÞgured. The Current ATM
Connections window provides the means for accomplishing these conÞgurations.
Accessing the ATM Connections Window
To open the ATM Connections window:
1. Click on Device on the Chassis View menu bar to access the Device menu.
2. Click on ATM Connections. The Current ATM Connections window,
Figure 5-1, will appear.
5-1
ATM Configuration
Figure 5-1. The Current ATM Connections Window
The Current ATM Connections window provides the following information:
Connection Data
The Connection Data Þelds provide the following information about each ATM
interface available on the device:
I/F
Displays the index number assigned to each
ATM interface present on the selected BRIM
device.
Maximum Connections
Displays the maximum number of
connections allowed by current device
Þrmware.
Current ConÞgured
Displays the number of Permanent Virtual
Circuits, or PVCs, currently conÞgured.
Settings
The Settings portion of the window contains a list box which displays information
about each of the currently conÞgured PVCs, as well as the Þelds used to
conÞgure new connections:
I/F
5-2
Displays the device interface on which the
PVC was conÞgured.
Accessing the ATM Connections Window
ATM Configuration
VPI
Displays the Virtual Path IdentiÞer assigned
to the connection. Virtual Path IdentiÞers are
used to group virtual connections, allowing
for channel trunking between ATM switches.
Each VPI can be conÞgured to carry many
different channels (designated by VCIs)
between two points.
VCI
Displays the Virtual Channel IdentiÞer
assigned to the connection; allowable values
are 0 - 1023 for each VPI. Remember, it is the
combined VPI and VCI designations
assigned to a channel that creates the
grouping of virtual connections.
Encapsulation Type
Displays the method used to encapsulate
LAN packets on the selected circuit. Current
versions of ATM BRIM Þrmware use 802.3
VC-based multiplexing for bridging
protocols (designated VC MUX 802.3
Bridged); future versions will add support
for ATM Forum LAN Emulation and
CabletronÕs SecureFast Switching. You may
also see some connections assigned a type of
ÒotherÓ; these are default connections that
cannot be modiÞed or deleted.
Status
Displays the current administrative status of
the connection: Enabled or Disabled. For
current versions of Þrmware, all connections
are enabled by default, and cannot be
disabled.
UpTime
Displays the length of time the connection
has been enabled.
Configuring Connections
You can use the command buttons (Add, Delete or Refresh) at the bottom of the
Current ATM Connections window to add, modify or delete a Permanent Virtual
Circuit (PVC) or refresh the window.
Add
Adds a new connection or modiÞes an
existing one, using the parameters entered in
the Þelds below the list box. A conÞrmation
window will appear for additions and
modiÞcations.
Configuring Connections
5-3
ATM Configuration
Delete
Deletes the selected connection; a
conÞrmation window requires that you
conÞrm the deletion.
Refresh
Refreshes the connection information
displayed in the window.
Adding a New Connection
To conÞgure new Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs), enter the following
information in the text Þelds which appear just below the connections list box:
1. In the I/F menu, select the interface for which you wish to configure a
connection. All available ATM interfaces will be listed in this menu. Note that
depending on the type of your host device, you will have a fixed number of
interface selections:
•
•
•
•
•
•
EMM-E6: 5-20
ESXMIM: 7-22
ESX-1320/ESX-1380: 13-28
MicroMMAC: 2-14
NBR-420: 4-19
NBR-620: 6-21
2. In the VPI text box, enter the Virtual Path Identifier you wish to assign to this
connection. Currently, the only allowable value is 0; remember, the VPI you
assign will be used to group virtual connections, allowing for channel trunking
between ATM switches.
3. In the VCI text box, enter the Virtual Channel Identifier you wish to assign to
this connection. Allowable values are 0 to 1023 for each VPI. Again,
remember that it is the combination of VPI and VCI that will be used to direct
cells through the intermediate switches between the source and destination.
NOTE
Currently, versions of CabletronÕs ATM device Þrmware restrict the range of VPI and
VCI values that you can set. VPI values for the BRIM-A6 and BRIM-A6DP are
restricted to a value of 0; VCI values are restricted to a range of 0-1023.
4. In the Encapsulation Type menu, select the desired encapsulation type.
Current versions of ATM BRIM firmware use 802.3 VC-based multiplexing for
bridging protocols (designated VC MUX 802.3 Bridged); future versions will
add support for additional encapsulation methods.
TIP
5-4
Selecting any of the other encapsulation types listed in the ÞeldÕs menu will cause a ÒSet
FailedÓ error when you attempt to add the new connection.
Configuring Connections
ATM Configuration
5. Click the Add button to add the new permanent circuit to the ATM interface.
The circuit is automatically enabled, and will remain in place until it is
manually removed.
NOTES
Note that for the BRIM-A6DP which supports a redundant APIM, any PVCs that you
conÞgure will automatically be created on both APIMs.
Deleting a Connection
To delete an existing PVC:
1. In the connections list box, click to select the connection you wish to delete.
2. Click on the Delete button. A confirmation window will appear, listing the
parameters assigned to the connection and asking you to verify that you wish
to delete it. Click on OK to proceed with the deletion, or on Cancel to
terminate the deletion.
Configuring Connections
5-5
ATM Configuration
5-6
Configuring Connections
Index
A
Aborted Frames 4-15
Absolute 3-11
Accessing Other Management Options
Duplex Modes window 2-10
Ethernet Special Filter Database 2-10
Filtering Database window 2-10
Module Type window 2-9
Performance Graph 2-9
Spanning Tree window 2-10
Active Monitor 2-103
Active Port 2-100
Active Users 1-7
Address 2-21, 2-44
Address Mode 3-8
Address Mode button 3-8
AdminStatus 4-13
AdminStatus button 4-13
AdminStatus window 4-12
Synchronous 4-12
T1 4-13
Aging Time 2-44
Alarm ConÞguration window 2-12
All Paths Explorer (APE) packet 2-2
ATM 5-1
ATM Connections
Configuring 5-3
Auto Translate mode 2-92
B
Bit Interleaved Parity 2-84
Board Number 1-7
Bridge Address 2-9
Bridge ConÞguration window 2-6, 2-11, 2-65
Bridge Detail Breakdown window 2-18
Bridge Performance Graph window 2-15
fields 2-16
Bridge Port Detail Breakdown window 2-19
Bridge Port Level Fields 2-37
Bridge Priority 2-35
Changing 2-39
Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) 2-2
Bridge Spanning Tree window 2-34, 2-35
Changing parameters 2-39
Bridge State on Interface 2-9
Bridge Status 1-3
Bridge Status window 2-5, 2-7
Accessing Other Management Options 2-9
Information Fields 2-8
Bridge Translation
Setting 2-65
Bridge Translation window 2-91, 2-92
Bridge/Router Interface Modules (BRIMs) 1-1
BRIM
FDDI 3-6, 3-10
supported 1-1
BRIM Management Applications 1-3
BRIM-A6 1-1
BRIM-A6DP 1-1
BRIM-E100 1-2
BRIM-E6 1-1
BRIM-F6 1-2
BRIMs 1-1
BRIM-W6 1-2
Broadcast packet 2-2
Broadcast Suppression
window 2-88
Broadcast suppression 2-88
Broadcast Suppression window 2-7
C
Cancel button 1-7
Capacity 2-44
Channel trunking 5-2
Channels 4-8
Circuit ID 4-6
Claim token process 3-4
Clock Source 4-4
CMT 3-5
Coding Violations 2-84
Command buttons 1-7
Common Window Fields 1-6
Compression 4-10
Concentrator 3-9
Index-1
Index
Concentrator M Ports 3-4
Concentrator Non-M Ports 3-5
ConÞguration 3-1
ConÞguration window 2-12
ConÞgure button 4-3, 4-5
Connect A 2-71
Connection Management 3-5
Connection Policy 3-1
window 3-6
Connection rules 3-6
Connection Type window 2-11
CRC Length 4-11
CSMACD Statistics window 2-5
CSMACD Stats window 2-13
Cumulative 3-11
Current Active 4-2
Current button 4-8
Current Primary 4-2
D
Data Mask 2-50, 2-51
Data Offset 2-50, 2-51
Data Type 2-50, 2-51
Delta 3-11
Description 2-21
Description window 2-11
Designated Bridge 2-38
Designated Cost 2-38
Designated Port 2-38
Designated Root 2-38
Desired Primary 4-3
Destination Address 2-50, 2-51
Detect 3-3
Device Name 1-6
Directed 3-3
Disable bridge port 2-14
Discarded 2-22
Dot5 Error Statistics window 2-5
Dot5 Errors window 2-12
Dual Translate mode 2-92
Dual-homing 3-6
Duplex Modes 2-65
Setting 2-72
Duplex Modes window 2-6, 2-71
Dynamic entries 2-42
Index-2
E
Enable 2-49
Enable Auto Translation Mode 2-92
Encapsulation Type 5-3
Entries
Clearing All 2-47
Epim Type 2-100
Error 2-22
Errored Seconds 2-84
Errors 2-17, 2-19, 4-15
Ethernet Port Physical View 2-100
Ethernet Special Filter Database window 2-6
Explorer packet 2-2
F
far-end block error 2-83
FDDI
BRIM 3-10
FDDI ConÞguration window 3-2
FDDI connection rules 3-6
FDDI Menu 1-4, 3-2
FDDI Performance window 3-10
Statistics 3-10
FDDI protocol 3-5
FE100-Sx 2-79
File 2-49
Filter
Enabling and Disabling 2-53
Filter Address 2-46
Filter Database
New Filter Window 2-46
Filtered 2-17, 2-19
Filtering Database 2-1, 2-41
Configuring 2-45
window 2-43
Filtering Database window 2-6
Filters
Saving a Set 2-53
Filters button 2-53
FNB State 2-102
Forwarded from 2-20
Forwarded to 2-20
Forwarding Delay 2-37
Forwarding Delay Time
Changing 2-40
FracTable button 4-7
Fractional Table 4-7
Configuring 4-8
Restoring 4-9
Index
Frame Check 4-14
Frame Errors 3-11
Frame Relay 4-11
Frames Forwarded 2-17, 2-19
Full Duplex 2-71
G
Getting Help 1-8
Global Call Center 1-9
Grouping of virtual connections 5-3
H
Hello Time 2-37
Changing 2-40
Help button 1-7, 1-8
Hold Time 2-37
I
I/F ConÞguration window 2-6, 2-11
I/F Statistics window 2-12
IBM Translation Table 2-94
IF 4-10
Index 2-95, 2-96
Individual Entries
Adding or Deleting 2-46
Inspeed 4-4
Instance 2-86
Interface 2-54, 2-71, 4-7
Interface button 4-14
Interface Line Coding 4-7
Changing 4-9
Interface Line Coding button 4-9
Interface Statistics window 2-5, 2-20
Interface Type 2-9, 4-12
Interrupted Frames 4-15
IP Address 1-6
Isolated 3-3, 3-5
L
Learned Database 2-42
Learned entries 2-42
LEX 4-11
Line Coding 4-5, 4-11
Line Status 4-6
Line Type 4-5
LineBuildOut 4-6
Link State 2-100
List 2-44
Local 3-5
Location 1-6
Logical View 4-10
Loopback Mode 4-6
Loss of Frame 2-83
Loss of Pointer 2-82
Loss of Signal 2-82
Lost Frames 3-11
LSB 2-94
M
MAC Address 1-7, 3-9
MAC Path 3-5
MAC State 3-3
Master 3-5
Max Age 2-37
Max Age Time
Changing 2-40
Max Bandwidth 4-8
Mode 2-86
Mouse usage 1-4
MSB 2-94
MTU 4-11
N
N/A 2-72
Name 2-86
Network design 2-34
New button 2-46, 4-8
New Filter Window 2-46
Node Class 3-9
Non-Op 3-3
Non-Op-Dup 3-3
Non-Unicast 2-22
Not Available 3-3
Number 2-44, 3-9
Number of MACs 3-5
Number of Nodes 3-8
O
OFF 2-72
OK button 1-7
ON 2-72
Operational Status 4-12
Outspeed 4-4
Index-3
Index
P
Packets Received 2-22
Packets Transmitted 2-22
Path Cost 2-38
Changing 2-41
Performance 3-1
Performance Graph window 2-5, 2-11
Permanent entries 2-42
Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs) 5-1
Physical View 2-99, 2-101, 4-2
Physical View window 2-13
Port # 2-86
Port ConÞguration window 2-6, 2-12, 2-65
Port Filtering 2-45, 2-50
Port Filtering Action
Changing 2-46, 2-52
Clearing 2-53
Setting 2-52
Port Number 1-7
Port Priority
Changing 2-41
PPP 4-11
PPP Link Statistics window 2-5
PPP Link Status window 2-11
Primary 1 3-5
Primary 2 3-5
Priority 2-37
Protocol 2-36, 4-10
R
Receive Frames 3-10
Receive OverRuns 4-15
Receive Port 2-44, 2-47
Changing 2-46
Receive Port Icon 2-52
Receive Ports 2-50
Changing 2-52
Refresh button 3-9
Related Manuals 1-3
Remote Capabilities 2-75
Requested Target Token Rotation Time 3-4
Restore button 4-9
Ring ConÞguration 3-5
Ring Ops 3-11
Ring Speed 2-102
Ring State 2-102
Ring-Op 3-3
Ring-Op-Dup 3-3
RMON MAC Layer window 2-12
Index-4
RMON Promiscuous Stats window 2-12
Root Bridge 2-36
Root Bridge Selection process 2-34
Root Cost 2-36
Root Port 2-36
Router ConÞg 1-3
S
SAP 2-95
SDH 2-78
Secondary 1 3-5
Secondary 2 3-5
Selected Filter 2-50
Set button 1-7
Setting full duplex mode 2-72
Severely Errored Framing Second 2-84
Severely Errored Seconds 2-84
Signal Mode 4-6
Slave 3-5
SmartTrunk ConÞguration and Status
window 2-7, 2-85
SmartTrunk State 2-86
SmartTrunks 2-86
SMT 3-2
SMT Version 3-4
SNAP 2-96
SNAP Format
selecting 2-96
SNAP format table 2-96
SNAP Translation Table
configuring the table 2-96
SONET 2-77
Sonet Statistics window 2-13
SONET/SDH 2-77
Coding Violations 2-84
configuration 2-77
Errored Second 2-84
errors 2-80
Errors indicators 2-82
Loss of Frame 2-83
Loss of Pointer 2-82
Loss of Signal 2-82
optical layers 2-80
Severely Errored Framing Second 2-84
Severely Errored Second 2-84
Statistics 2-79, 2-83
Statistics window 2-81
SONET/SDH conÞguration 2-77
Sonet/SDH ConÞguration window 2-13
Index
SONET/SDH transmission hierarchy 2-78
Source 2-51
Source Address 2-50, 2-51
Source Address Table 2-6, 2-41
Source Addressing window 2-11
Source Port 2-44
Source Route ConÞguration window 2-6, 2-11
Source Route Statistics window 2-5, 2-11
Source Route Transparent mode 2-56, 2-90
Source Routing 2-2
Source Routing mode 2-56, 2-90
Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) 2-2
Spanning Tree Algorithm Protocol Type
Changing 2-39
Spanning Tree Explorer (STE) packet 2-2
Spanning Tree window 2-6
Special Filter Database
Defining and Editing Filters 2-51
window 2-48
Window Fields 2-49
State 2-95, 2-96
State Change 4-4
Static Database 2-42
Static entries 2-42
Station 3-9
Station List 3-1
Station Management 3-2
Statistics window 2-13
Subnet Mask 2-60
Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs) 5-1
Sync Port ConÞguration window 4-3, 4-4
Synchronous Port Statistics window 4-1
fields 4-14
T
T1 AdminStatus 4-13
T1 connection 4-7
T1 interfaces 4-14
T-1 Port ConÞguration window 4-5
fields 4-5
T1 Port ConÞguration window 4-7
Technical support 1-9
T-Neg. 3-4
Token Ring Bridge Mode 2-89
window 2-7, 2-90
Token Ring Bridge Mode window 2-10
Token Ring Port Physical View 2-101
Token Ring Special Filter Database
window 2-6, 2-10
Topology 2-38, 3-9
Total Bridge Detail Breakdown window
Color-code 2-19
Trace 3-3
Transmit Frames 3-10
Transmit Queue Size 2-22
Transparent mode 2-55, 2-90
T-Req. 3-4
Twisted ring 3-6
Type 2-21, 2-44, 4-4
Type of Entry
Changing 2-46
U
Unicast 2-22
Unknown 3-5
Unknown Protocol 2-22
Up Time 2-8
Upstream Neighbor 3-9
Uptime 1-7
Using the BRIM UserÕs Guide 1-2
V
VC MUX 802.3 Bridging 5-3, 5-4
Virtual Channel IdentiÞer (VCI) 5-3
Virtual Path IdentiÞer (VPI) 5-2
W
WAN Interface Status window 4-1, 4-2, 4-5
WAN Interfaces 4-13
WAN Logical Settings
Changing 4-11
WAN Logical Settings window 4-11
WAN Logical View window 4-1, 4-10, 4-11
WAN Port Name 4-5
WAN Status 1-4, 4-1, 4-10, 4-12
WAN T1 Interfaces
Enabling and Disabling 4-14
Wrapped ring 3-6
X
Xmit Clock Source 4-6
Xmit UnderRuns 4-15
Xmitted 2-17, 2-19
Index-5
Index
Index-6