1400 CSL
POWER
OFF
Model: 1400 CSL
®
This model may be exported under the name Amcron.®
© 1999 by Crown International, Inc., P.O. Box 1000, Elkhart, IN 46515-1000 U.S.A. Telephone: 219-2948000. Fax: 219-294-8329. The 1400 CSL amplifier is produced by the Professional Audio Division of Crown
International, Inc. Trademark Notice: Amcron,® Crown,® CSL®, and ODEP ® are registered trademarks of
Crown International, Inc. Other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Approved for
THX® Theatre
Systems
128195-1
9/99
3
YEAR
THREE YEAR
FULL WARRANTY
3
YEAR
WORLDWIDE
NORTH AMERICA
SUMMARY OF WARRANTY
The Crown Audio Division of Crown International, Inc., 1718 West
Mishawaka Road, Elkhart, Indiana 46517-4095 U.S.A. warrants to you,
the ORIGINAL PURCHASER and ANY SUBSEQUENT OWNER of each
NEW Crown1 product, for a period of three (3) years from the date of
purchase by the original purchaser (the “warranty period”) that the new
Crown product is free of defects in materials and workmanship, and we
further warrant the new Crown product regardless of the reason for failure,
except as excluded in this Crown Warranty.
SUMMARY OF WARRANTY
The Crown Audio Division of Crown International, Inc., 1718 West Mishawaka
Road, Elkhart, Indiana 46517-4095 U.S.A. warrants to you, the ORIGINAL
PURCHASER and ANY SUBSEQUENT OWNER of each NEW Crown product, for a period of three (3) years from the date of purchase by the original
purchaser (the “warranty period”) that the new Crown product is free of defects
in materials and workmanship. We further warrant the new Crown product
regardless of the reason for failure, except as excluded in this Warranty.
1
Note: If your unit bears the name “Amcron,” please substitute it for the
name “Crown” in this warranty.
ITEMS EXCLUDED FROM THIS CROWN WARRANTY
This Crown Warranty is in effect only for failure of a new Crown product
which occurred within the Warranty Period. It does not cover any product
which has been damaged because of any intentional misuse, accident,
negligence, or loss which is covered under any of your insurance
contracts. This Crown Warranty also does not extend to the new Crown
product if the serial number has been defaced, altered, or removed.
ITEMS EXCLUDED FROM THIS CROWN WARRANTY
This Crown Warranty is in effect only for failure of a new Crown product which
occurred within the Warranty Period. It does not cover any product which has
been damaged because of any intentional misuse, accident, negligence, or loss
which is covered under any of your insurance contracts. This Crown Warranty
also does not extend to the new Crown product if the serial number has been
defaced, altered, or removed.
WHAT THE WARRANTOR WILL DO
We will remedy any defect, regardless of the reason for failure (except as
excluded), by repair, replacement, or refund. We may not elect refund
unless you agree, or unless we are unable to provide replacement, and
repair is not practical or cannot be timely made. If a refund is elected, then
you must make the defective or malfunctioning product available to us free
and clear of all liens or other encumbrances. The refund will be equal to
the actual purchase price, not including interest, insurance, closing costs,
and other finance charges less a reasonable depreciation on the product
from the date of original purchase. Warranty work can only be performed
at our authorized service centers. We will remedy the defect and ship the
product from the service center within a reasonable time after receipt of the
defective product at our authorized service center.
WHAT THE WARRANTOR WILL DO
We will remedy any defect, regardless of the reason for failure (except as
excluded), by repair, replacement, or refund. We may not elect refund unless
you agree, or unless we are unable to provide replacement, and repair is not
practical or cannot be timely made. If a refund is elected, then you must make
the defective or malfunctioning product available to us free and clear of all liens
or other encumbrances. The refund will be equal to the actual purchase price,
not including interest, insurance, closing costs, and other finance charges less
a reasonable depreciation on the product from the date of original purchase.
Warranty work can only be performed at our authorized service centers or at the
factory. We will remedy the defect and ship the product from the service center
or our factory within a reasonable time after receipt of the defective product at
our authorized service center or our factory. All expenses in remedying the
defect, including surface shipping costs in the United States, will be borne by us.
(You must bear the expense of shipping the product between any foreign
country and the port of entry in the United States and all taxes, duties, and other
customs fees for such foreign shipments.)
HOW TO OBTAIN WARRANTY SERVICE
You must notify us of your need for warranty service not later than ninety
(90) days after expiration of the warranty period. All components must be
shipped in a factory pack. Corrective action will be taken within a
reasonable time of the date of receipt of the defective product by our
authorized service center. If the repairs made by our authorized service
center are not satisfactory, notify our authorized service center
immediately.
HOW TO OBTAIN WARRANTY SERVICE
You must notify us of your need for warranty service not later than ninety (90)
days after expiration of the warranty period. All components must be shipped
in a factory pack, which, if needed, may be obtained from us free of charge.
Corrective action will be taken within a reasonable time of the date of receipt of
the defective product by us or our authorized service center. If the repairs made
by us or our authorized service center are not satisfactory, notify us or our
authorized service center immediately.
DISCLAIMER OF CONSEQUENTIAL AND INCIDENTAL DAMAGES
YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO RECOVER FROM US ANY INCIDENTAL
DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ANY DEFECT IN THE NEW CROWN
PRODUCT. THIS INCLUDES ANY DAMAGE TO ANOTHER PRODUCT
OR PRODUCTS RESULTING FROM SUCH A DEFECT.
DISCLAIMER OF CONSEQUENTIAL AND INCIDENTAL DAMAGES
YOU ARE NOT ENTITLED TO RECOVER FROM US ANY INCIDENTAL
DAMAGES RESULTING FROM ANY DEFECT IN THE NEW CROWN
PRODUCT. THIS INCLUDES ANY DAMAGE TO ANOTHER PRODUCT OR
PRODUCTS RESULTING FROM SUCH A DEFECT. SOME STATES DO
NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATIONS OF INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE ABOVE LIMITATION OR
EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
WARRANTY ALTERATIONS
No person has the authority to enlarge, amend, or modify this Crown
Warranty. This Crown Warranty is not extended by the length of time which
you are deprived of the use of the new Crown product. Repairs and
replacement parts provided under the terms of this Crown Warranty shall
carry only the unexpired portion of this Crown Warranty.
DESIGN CHANGES
We reserve the right to change the design of any product from time to time
without notice and with no obligation to make corresponding changes in
products previously manufactured.
LEGAL REMEDIES OF PURCHASER
No action to enforce this Crown Warranty shall be commenced later than
ninety (90) days after expiration of the warranty period.
THIS STATEMENT OF WARRANTY SUPERSEDES ANY OTHERS
CONTAINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR CROWN PRODUCTS.
9/90
WARRANTY ALTERATIONS
No person has the authority to enlarge, amend, or modify this Crown Warranty.
This Crown Warranty is not extended by the length of time which you are
deprived of the use of the new Crown product. Repairs and replacement parts
provided under the terms of this Crown Warranty shall carry only the unexpired
portion of this Crown Warranty.
DESIGN CHANGES
We reserve the right to change the design of any product from time to time
without notice and with no obligation to make corresponding changes in
products previously manufactured.
LEGAL REMEDIES OF PURCHASER
THIS CROWN WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS, YOU
MAY ALSO HAVE OTHER RIGHTS WHICH VARY FROM STATE TO STATE.
No action to enforce this Crown Warranty shall be commenced later than ninety
(90) days after expiration of the warranty period.
THIS STATEMENT OF WARRANTY SUPERSEDES ANY OTHERS
CONTAINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR CROWN PRODUCTS.
Telephone: 219-294-8200. Facsimile: 219-294-8301
Telephone: 219-294-8200. Facsimile: 219-294-8301
9/90
1400 CSL Power Amplifier
Important Safety Instructions
1) Read these instructions.
2) Keep these instructions.
3) Heed all warnings.
4) Follow all instructions.
5) Do not use this apparatus near water.
6) Clean only with a dry cloth.
7) Do not block any ventilation openings. Install in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
8) Do not install near any heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other apparatus that
produce heat.
9) Do not defeat the safety purpose of the polarized or
grounding-type plug. A polarized plug has two
blades with one wider than the other. A groundingtype plug has two blades and a third grounding
prong. The wide blade or the third prong is provided
for your safety. If the provided plug does not fit into
your outlet, consult an electrician for replacement of
the obsolete outlet.
10) Protect the power cord from being walked on or
pinched, particularly at plugs, convenience receptacles, and the point where they exit from the apparatus.
11) Only use attachments/accessories specified by the
manufacturer.
12) Use only with a cart, stand, bracket, or table specified by the manufacturer, or sold with the apparatus.
When a cart is used, use caution when moving the
cart/apparatus combination to avoid injury from tipover.
13) Unplug this apparatus during lightning storms or
when unused for long periods of time.
14) Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel.
Servicing is required when the apparatus has been
damaged in any way, such as power-supply cord or
plug is damaged, liquid has been spilled or objects
have fallen into the apparatus, the apparatus has
been exposed to rain or moisture, does not operate
normally, or has been dropped.
Page 4
Reference Manual
1400 CSL Power Amplifier
The information furnished in this manual does not include all of the details of design, production, or variations of
the equipment. Nor does it cover every possible situation which may arise during installation, operation or maintenance. If your unit bears the name “Amcron,” please substitute it for the name “Crown” in this manual. If you need
special assistance beyond the scope of this manual, please contact our Technical Support Group.
Crown Audio Division Technical Support Group
Plant 2 SW, 1718 W. Mishawaka Rd., Elkhart, Indiana 46517 U.S.A.
Phone: 800-342-6939 (North America, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands) or 219-294-8200
Fax: 219-294-8301 Fax Back (North America only): 800-294-4094 or 219-293-9200
Fax Back (International): 219-294-8100 Internet: http://www.crownaudio.com
CAUTION
AVIS
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
RISQUE DE CHOC ÉLECTRIQUE
N’OUVREZ PAS
TO PREVENT ELECTRIC SHOCK DO
NOT REMOVE TOP OR BOTTOM
COVERS. NO USER SERVICEABLE
PARTS INSIDE. REFER SERVICING
TO QUALIFIED SERVICE PERSONNEL. DISCONNECT POWER CORD
BEFORE REMOVING BACK PANEL
COVER TO ACCESS GAIN SWITCH.
À PRÉVENIR LE CHOC ÉLECTRIQUE
N’ENLEVEZ PAS LES COUVERCLES. IL
N’Y A PAS DES PARTIES SERVICEABLE
À L’INTÉRIEUR. TOUS REPARATIONS
DOIT ETRE FAIRE PAR PERSONNEL
QUALIFIÉ SEULMENT. DÉBRANCHER
LA BORNE AVANT D’ENLEVER LA
COVERTURE EN ARRIÈRE.
Magnetic Field
WARNING
TO REDUCE THE RISK OF ELECTRIC
SHOCK, DO NOT EXPOSE THIS
EQUIPMENT TO RAIN OR MOISTURE!
The lightning bolt
triangle is used to
alert the user to the
risk of electric shock.
Reference Manual
CAUTION! Do not locate sensitive high-gain equipment such as preamplifiers or tape decks directly
above or below the unit. Because this amplifier has
a high power density, it has a strong magnetic field
which can induce hum into unshielded devices that
are located nearby. The field is strongest just above
and below the unit.
If an equipment rack is used, we recommend locating
the amplifier(s) in the bottom of the rack and the
preamplifier or other sensitive equipment at the top.
The exclamation point
triangle is used to alert the
user to important operating
or maintenance instructions.
Printed on
recycled paper.
Page 5
1400 CSL Power Amplifier
CONTENTS
1 Welcome ....................................................................... 7
1.1 Unpacking ............................................................. 7
1.2 Features ................................................................. 7
2 Installation .................................................................... 8
2.1 Stereo .................................................................... 8
2.2 Mono ...................................................................... 8
2.3 Input Sensitivity Adjustment ................................. 10
2.4 Additional Load Protection ................................... 10
3 Operation ..................................................................... 11
3.1 Precautions .......................................................... 11
3.2 Indicators ............................................................. 11
3.3 Protection Systems .............................................. 11
3.3.1 ODEP ........................................................ 11
3.3.2 Ultrasonic and RF Protection ..................... 11
3.3.3 Drive Protection ......................................... 11
3.3.4 Transformer Thermal Protection ................ 11
3.3.5 Fuses and Circuit Breakers ....................... 12
3.4 Controls ............................................................... 12
3.5 Filter Cleaning ...................................................... 12
4 Specifications ............................................................. 13
5 Accessories ................................................................ 17
5.1 MT-XLR ................................................................ 17
5.2 MT-BB .................................................................. 17
6 Service ........................................................................
6.1 Worldwide Service ...............................................
6.2 North American Service .......................................
6.2.1 Service at a N. American Service Center ..
6.2.2 Factory Service .........................................
Page 6
18
18
18
18
18
Reference Manual
1400 CSL Power Amplifier
POWER
OFF
Removable Grille
and Dust Filter
Enable Enable
Indicator Switch
Fig. 1.1 1400 CSL Front and Back Panels
1 Welcome
Congratulations on your purchase of a Crown® 1400
CSL® amplifier. The 1400 CSL amplifier is a compact,
professional stereo power amplifier engineered to meet
the most demanding sound reinforcement needs. It
compares very favorably to more expensive amplifiers,
providing uncolored sound and a signal-to-noise ratio
more commonly associated with recording studios.
This manual will help you successfully install and use
your amplifier—we strongly recommend you read all
instructions, warnings and cautions. If you plan to operate in one of the two mono modes, be sure to read
the Mono section. Also for your protection, please save
your bill of sale as it is your official proof of purchase.
1.1 Unpacking
Please unpack and inspect your new amplifier for any
damage that may have occurred during transit. If damage is found, notify the transportation company immediately. Only you may initiate a claim with the carrier for
damage resulting during shipment. Even if the unit arrived in perfect condition, as most do, save all packing
materials so you will have them if you ever need to
transport the unit. NEVER SHIP THE UNIT WITHOUT
THE FACTORY PACK.
Reference Manual
1.2 Features
❏ Rugged, professional power amplifier mounts in a standard 19-inch (48.3-cm) equipment rack.
❏ Front panel power switch with turn-on delay for loudspeaker protection.
❏ Full, uncolored power with any reasonable load.
❏ Patented Output Device Emulation Protection (ODEP ® )
keeps the amplifier working when others would fail.
❏ High damping factor provides superior control over lowfrequency drivers for a clean, accurate low end.
❏ Safe with any load. Bridge-Mono and Parallel-Mono
modes offer optimal load-matching performance.
❏ Complete protection against shorted outputs, mismatched loads, overheating, DC, input/output and highfrequency overload; full internal fault protection.
❏ Balanced phone jack inputs with internal three-position sensitivity switch. Optional XLR or barrier block input connectors are available with the MT-XLR and MTBB accessories.
❏ Ground lift switch helps prevent “ground loops” by isolating the chassis from the phone input grounds.
❏ Efficient heat sinks and self-contained forced air cooling system dissipate heat quickly and evenly for extra
amplifier protection and greater power output.
❏ Three year “No-Fault” full warranty and guaranteed
specifications protect your investment.
Page 7
1400 CSL Power Amplifier
2 Installation
2.1 Stereo
Always remove power from the unit and turn the level
controls off when making connections. This reduces
the chance of loudspeaker damage from loud blasts.
Follow the guidelines listed next as well as the steps
required for the specific mode of operation:
1. Install the amplifier in a standard 19-inch (48.3-cm) rack
or place it on a stable surface. The mounting dimensions
are 19 inches (48.3 cm) wide, 3.5 inches (8.9 cm) tall
and 16 inches (40.6 cm) deep behind the mounting surface. IMPORTANT! Allow for adequate ventilation.
1. Turn the level controls down (fully counterclockwise) and
turn off the amplifier.
2. Set the back panel stereo/mono switch to Stereo.
3. If present, remove the Parallel-Mono jumper.
4. Connect the input and output cables as shown in the first
example in Figure 2.3.
5. Turn on the amplifier and adjust the level for each channel with the back panel level controls.
CAUTION: In Stereo mode, never parallel the two
outputs by directly tying them together, and never
parallel them with the output of another amplifier.
17 in
43.2 cm
2.2 Mono
IMPORTANT: Be sure the back of
the amplifier is supported.
AIR
FLOW
The monaural operating modes provide twice the
power to one channel as the Stereo mode. In BridgeMono mode, the outputs are wired in series for twice
the output voltage. In Parallel-Mono mode, the outputs
are paralleled for twice the current capacity.
AIR
FLOW
16 in
40.6 cm
AMPLIFIER
(TOP VIEW)
Bridge-Mono mode is provided for loads with an impedance greater than 4 ohms. Parallel-Mono mode
should be used with loads of 4 ohms or less.
2 in
MIN.
RACK
CABINET
BRIDGE-MONO
1. Turn the level controls down (fully counterclockwise) and
turn off the amplifier.
AIR FLOW
Fig. 2.1 Do NOT Block Air Flow
2. Set the back panel stereo/mono switch to Bridge-Mono.
3. If present, remove the Parallel-Mono jumper.
2. Use high-quality loudspeaker cables to connect the
load to the amplifier’s output jacks. Do not use shielded
cable. Banana plugs are recommended for this connection.
3. Use shielded cables to connect audio sources to the
amplifier inputs. Either balanced or unbalanced wiring
can be used as shown below. (XLR connectors are
available with the MT-XLR accessory. See Section 5.)
BALANCED
GND
1
1
–
+
3
2
+
SHIELD
3
2
FROM
PREAMPLIFIER
INPUT
UNBALANCED
FROM
PREAMPLIFIER
+
–
SHIELD
5. Make sure the load is balanced (neither side shorted to
ground) and do not use the black (–) banana jacks.
6. Turn on the amplifier and adjust the level. Use the Ch.1
level control only.
PARALLEL-MONO
1. Turn down the level controls (fully counterclockwise) and
turn off the amplifier.
2. Set the back panel stereo/mono switch to Parallel-Mono.
+
INPUT
4. Connect the input and output cables as shown in the
second example in Figure 2.3. Use the Ch.1 input only.
SHIELD
3. Install a solid jumper (at least 14 gauge) across the output between the two red (+) banana jacks.
4. Connect the input and output cables as shown in the
third example in Figure 2.3. Use the Ch.1 input only.
5. Turn on the amplifier and adjust the level. Use the Ch.1
level control only.
Fig. 2.2 CSL Input Wiring
4. An appropriate AC cord and plug are provided. Use an
isolated wall outlet with the correct voltage and adequate current. Voltages more than 10% over the
amplifier’s rated voltage may damage the ±15-volt regulator, filter capacitors and output transistors.
Page 8
CAUTION: When wired for Parallel-Mono mode, do
not attempt to operate the amplifier in Stereo or
Bridge-Mono mode until the output jumper is removed. Failure to do so will result in inefficient operation, distortion and excessive heating.
Reference Manual
1400 CSL Power Amplifier
Fig. 2.3 Three System Connection Methods
Reference Manual
Page 9
1400 CSL Power Amplifier
2.3 Input Sensitivity Adjustment
The input sensitivity switch inside the amplifier is set to
0.775 volts at the factory. It can be changed to 1.4 volts
or a voltage gain of 26 dB as follows:
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
20
3000
15
2000
2.5
10
3. Locate the labeled access hole for the sensitivity switch.
8
3
4. Set the switch to the desired position.
5. Replace the access cover plate.
1500
1000
800
6
600
5
4
400
4
When set to 26 dB gain, the 1400 CSL requires a 3.2volt input to deliver full output into an 8-ohm load.
5
300
3
200
6
150
2
7
Example: (A) Choose the peak music power for the loudspeaker
(such as 75 watts). (B) Find the loudspeaker impedance (8
ohms). (C) Draw a line between points A and B. The line intersects the middle scale at the correct fuse value (1.5 amps).
9
Answer: Fuse = 1.5 A
80
60
1
40
.8
10
30
.6
12
20
.5
15
14
.4
10
.3
20
25
.2
SPEAKER RATING
16
FUSE
(amps)
Because the CSL amplifier can generate enormous
power, it may be desirable to protect loudspeakers from
damage due to excessive power. A common way to do
this is to put a fuse in series with the load. This may be
accomplished with a single fuse to protect the entire
system, or by fusing each driver separately. Use Figure 2.4 to find the correct fuse.
100
1.5
8
SPEAKER Z
(ohms)
2.4 Additional Load Protection
Example: Z = 8 ohms.
Peak Power = 75 W
(Typically 4 times the continuous average power)
2. Remove the access cover on the back panel.
2
8
6
4
3
.15
PEAK MUSIC POWER
(watts)
1. Turn off and unplug the amplifier from the AC source.
2
30
.1
.08
1.5
1
40
Fig. 2.4 Loudspeaker Fuse Nomograph
Page 10
Reference Manual
1400 CSL Power Amplifier
3 Operation
3.1 Precautions
Although your amplifier is protected from external faults,
the following safety precautions are recommended:
1. There are important differences among the Stereo,
Bridge-Mono and Parallel-Mono operating modes.
Refer to Sections 2.1 and 2.2.
2. WARNING: Do not change the stereo/mono
switch unless the amplifier is first turned off.
3. CAUTION: In Parallel-Mono mode, a jumper is installed between the red output posts. Be sure to
remove this jumper for Bridge-Mono or Stereo
mode, otherwise inefficient operation, high distortion and excessive heating will occur. Also,
check the stereo/mono switch for proper position.
4. Use care when making connections, selecting signal sources and controlling the output level.
5. Do not short the ground lead of an output cable to
the input signal ground. This may form a ground loop
and cause oscillations.
6. Operate the amplifier from AC mains of not more
than 10% variation above or below the selected line
voltage and only at the specified line frequency.
7. Never connect the output to a power supply output,
battery or power main.
8. Circuit tampering by unqualified personnel, or making unauthorized circuit changes voids the warranty.
Remember: Crown is not liable for any damage that
results from overdriving other system components.
3.2 Indicators
When lit, the amber LED shows that the unit is turned
on, and the low-voltage power supply is working. It
does not show the status of the high-voltage supplies.
3.3 Protection Systems
The CSL amplifier has extensive protection systems,
including ODEP, ultrasonic/RF protection, drive protection, transformer thermal protection fuses, and circuit
breakers that protect the power supplies.
3.3.1 ODEP
Crown invented ODEP to prevent amplifier shutdown
during demanding operation and to increase the efficiency of the output circuitry. To do this, Crown established a rigorous program to measure the safe
Reference Manual
operating area (SOA) of each output transistor. Then,
Crown designed intelligent circuitry to simulate instantaneous transistor conditions. Its name describes what
it does: Output Device Emulation Protection, or ODEP.
In essence, ODEP compares transistor conditions to
their known SOA. If more power will be asked of them
than they can deliver with the present conditions, ODEP
limits the drive until conditions fall within the SOA. Limiting is proportional and kept to an absolute minimum—
only what is required to prevent output transistor
damage. Under normal conditions, no limiting is required and ODEP is transparent to the audio signal.
ODEP makes possible a quantum leap in output efficiency and reliability—with ODEP, the show goes on.
3.3.2 Ultrasonic and Radio Frequency (RF) Protection
Your CSL amplifier has a controlled slew rate. This
means that its design limits the frequencies that they
can reproduce. The limiting occurs far above audible
frequencies (20 Hz to 20 kHz), but it protects sensitive
loads like tweeters from ultrasonic and radio frequencies. An amplifier’s slew rate only needs to be large
enough to deliver the maximum voltage at the highest
required frequency—higher slew rates actually allow
undesirable frequencies to be reproduced.
3.3.3 Drive Protection
The drive protection system temporarily removes output drive to protect the amplifier and its loads. Drive
protection can be activated in two situations. First, if
dangerous subsonic frequencies or direct current (DC)
is detected in the amplifier’s output, the unit will activate its DC/low-frequency protection circuitry which
also activates drive protection mode. This protects the
loads and prevents oscillations. The unit resumes normal operation as soon as dangerous output is no longer
detected. Although it is extremely unlikely that you will
ever activate the DC/low-frequency protection system,
improper source materials like subsonic square waves
or input overloads that excessively clip the input signal
can activate this system.
The amplifier’s fault protection system will activate drive
protection mode in rare situations where the output devices see heavy common-mode current. The output
devices should never see heavy common-mode current unless the circuitry is damaged. Activating drive
protection helps prevent further damage.
3.3.4 Transformer Thermal Protection
Your CSL amplifier has transformer thermal protection.
Page 11
1400 CSL Power Amplifier
This protection circuitry is activated in unusual situations where the unit’s transformer temperature rises to
unsafe levels. Under these abnormal conditions, the
unit removes power to the high-voltage transformer (the
fan will also run in 120 VAC, 60 Hz units). The amplifier
will return to normal after it cools to a safe temperature.
It is very unlikely that you will ever see a CSL amplifier
activate transformer thermal protection as long as it is
operated within rated conditions. The amplifier is designed to keep working under conditions where other
amplifiers would fail. But even when the limits of a CSL
are exceeded, it still protects itself—and your investment—from damage.
3.3.5 Fuses and Circuit Breakers
The power supplies for the 1400 CSL are protected by
a circuit breaker. With rated loads and output levels,
the circuit breaker should only shut down the amplifier
in the incredibly rare instance of a catastrophic amplifier failure. Other protection systems such as ODEP
keep the amplifier operational under most other severe
conditions. The breaker can also shut down the amplifier in situations where extremely low-impedance loads
and high output levels result in current draw that exceeds its rating. Again, this should only be possible
when operating outside rated conditions, such as driving a 1-ohm load or overloading the input and creating
a severely clipped signal.
In addition to the breaker, your unit has a separate fuse
for the low-voltage power supply and cooling fan.
A amplifier will not blow its fuse (or breaker) unless
something is wrong. In the rare event that an internal
fuse blows, please refer the unit to a qualified technician. If the breaker in your amplifier trips, try to identify
and correct the problem before resetting the breaker
with the back panel reset switch. If the problem persists, refer the unit to a qualified technician.
any setup or wiring changes, don’t forget to turn off the
amplifier, turn down the level controls and disconnect
the power cord. The back panel stereo/mono switch
is used to select Stereo, Bridge-Mono or Parallel-Mono
operating modes (see Sections 2.1 and 2.2). The level
controls are also located on the back panel. Be sure
to leave channel 2 turned down when using BridgeMono mode. The back panel ground lift switch isolates the phone jack input grounds from the chassis
ground to help prevent ground loops. It does not affect
any installed input accessories. The input sensitivity
switch is located inside the back cover plate. It is used
to set the amplifier’s input sensitivity (see Section 2.3).
The 1400 CSL has a back panel reset switch that is
used to reset the breaker that protects the amplifier’s
power supplies (see Section 3.3.5).
CHANNEL 2
LEVEL CONTROL
CHANNEL 1
LEVEL CONTROL
CH-2
5
6
CH-1
7
4
5
9
3
2
10
2
1
INPUT GROUND LIFT
11
0
12
GAIN
6
7
4
8
3
LIFT
INPUT
(AFFECTS PHONE INPUTS ONLY.)
8
9
10
1
INPUT
(MONO)
11
0
12
GAIN
Fig. 3.1 Back Panel Level Controls
3.5 Filter Cleaning
A dust filter is provided on the unit’s air intake. If it becomes clogged, the unit will cool less efficiently and
may produce lower output levels. To clean, remove the
three phillips screws that secure the front grille. Use
mild dishwashing detergent and warm water for best
results. New filters may be ordered from the factory.
Dust filters are not 100% efficient—depending on the
local environment, the internal heat sinks of the amplifier will benefit from periodic cleaning by a qualified
technician. Internal cleaning information is available
from our Technical Support Group.
3.4 Controls
The enable switch is located on the front panel so you
can easily turn the amplifier on and off. When making
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Reference Manual
1400 CSL Power Amplifier
4 Specifications
The following applies to units in Stereo mode with 8-ohm loads and
an input sensitivity of 26 dB unless otherwise specified.
Standard 1 kHz Power: refers to maximum average power in watts
at 1 kHz with 0.1% THD.
Full Bandwidth Power: refers to maximum average power in watts
from 20 Hz to 20 kHz with 0.1% THD.
120 VAC, 60 Hz Units: refers to amplifiers with dedicated transformers for 120 VAC, 60 Hz power mains.
International Units: refers to amplifiers with special multi-tap transformers that make them configurable for several AC mains voltages
and line frequencies.
Performance
Frequency Response: ±0.1 dB from 20 Hz to 20 kHz
at 1 watt.
Phase Response: ±10 degrees from 10 Hz to 20 kHz
at 1 watt.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio: A-weighted, better than 105 dB
below full bandwidth power. No weighting, better than
100 dB below full bandwidth power.
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD): Less than 0.05% at
full bandwidth power from 20 Hz to 1 kHz increasing
linearly to 0.1% at 20 kHz.
Intermodulation Distortion (IMD): (60 Hz and 7 kHz)
Less than 0.05% from less than 158 milliwatts to full
bandwidth power.
Damping Factor: Greater than 1,000 from 10 Hz to
400 Hz.
Crosstalk: Greater than 90 dB below full bandwidth power
from 50 Hz to 4 kHz, rising linearly to greater than 70 dB at
20 kHz.
1,075 watts into 16 ohms.
Parallel-Mono mode:
1,515 watts into 2 ohms.
1,050 watts into 4 ohms.
Load Impedance: Safe with all types of loads. Rated
for 4 to 8 ohms in Stereo, 8 to 16 ohms in Bridge-Mono
and 2 to 4 ohms in Parallel-Mono mode.
Required AC Mains: 50 to 60 Hz; 100, 120, 220, 230
and 240 VAC (±10%) units are available. All draw
90 watts or less at idle. Current, frequency and voltage
requirements are provided on each unit’s back panel.
100 and 120 VAC units draw up to 15 amps of current;
220 and 240 VAC units draw up to 7 amps.
Sufficient AC power must be provided to the amplifier.
Amplifiers cannot create energy—they require proper
voltage and current to deliver the power you expect.
Low-Voltage Power Supply: A ±24 VDC fanformer
supply (fan motor winding) regulated to ±15 VDC.
AC Connector: An appropriate AC line cord and plug
are provided. North American units have a standard
3-wire, 15 amp grounded connector (NEMA 5-15P).
Controls
Enable: A front panel rocker switch used to turn the
amplifier on and off.
Level: A back panel rotary potentiometer for each channel used to control the output level.
Stereo/Mono: A three-position back panel switch used
to select Stereo, Bridge-Mono or Parallel-Mono mode.
Voltage Gain: 20:1 ±3% or 26 dB ±0.25 dB at the maximum level setting; 83:1 ±12% or 38.4 dB ±1 dB at 0.775
Sensitivity: A three-position switch inside the back
cover plate used to select the input sensitivity for both
channels: 0.775 volts or 1.4 volts for standard 1-kHz
power, or 26-dB voltage gain (see Section 2.3).
volt sensitivity; 46:1 ±12% or 33.3 dB ±1 dB at 1.4 volt
sensitivity.
Ground Lift: A two-position back panel switch used to
isolate the phone jack input ground from the AC ground.
Power
Reset: A back panel push button used to reset the circuit
breaker that protects the power supplies.
Slew Rate: Greater than 13 volts per microsecond.
Output Power: The following specifications are guaranteed minimums for standard 1 kHz power from 120
VAC, 60 Hz North American units. For additional information and power specifications for international units,
see the power matrices on the pages that follow.
Stereo mode (both channels driven):
700 watts into 4 ohms.
500 watts into 8 ohms.
Bridge-Mono mode:
1,500 watts into 8 ohms.
Reference Manual
Indicators
Enable: This amber indicator shows the on/off status
of the low-voltage power supply.
Input/Output
Input Connector: Two balanced ¼-inch phone jacks.
See Section 5 for XLR and barrier block accessories.
Input Impedance: Nominally 20 k ohms, balanced; 10 k
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1400 CSL Power Amplifier
ohms, unbalanced.
Output Connector: Two sets of color-coded 5-way binding posts (for banana plugs, spade lugs or bare wire).
Output Impedance: Less than 10 milliohms in series
with less than 2 microhenries.
DC Output Offset: Less than 10 millivolts.
Output Signal
Stereo: Unbalanced, two-channel.
evated temperature. A thermal switch imbedded in the
transformer protects the power supplies from overload.
In the rare event that a transformer overheats, the thermal switch removes power, waits until the unit has
cooled to a safe temperature and resets itself. Controlled slew rate voltage amplifiers protect the unit from
RF burnouts, and current-limiting resistance protects
the input circuitry from overload. (Refer to Section 3.3.)
Turn On: No dangerous transients. The four second
(approximate) turn-on delay can be changed. Contact
Crown’s Technical Support Group for details.
Bridge-Mono: Balanced, single-channel. Channel 1
controls are active; Channel 2 should not be used.
Construction
Parallel-Mono: Unbalanced, single-channel. Channel
1 controls are active; Channel 2 should not be used.
Durable black finish on steel chassis with special “flowthrough” ventilation from front to side panels.
Protection
Cooling: Internal heat sinks with forced air cooling for
rapid, uniform heat dissipation.
The 1400 CSL amplifier is protected against shorted,
open or mismatched loads; overloaded power supplies; excessive temperature, chain destruction phenomena, input overload damage and high-frequency
blowups. It also protects loudspeakers from input and
output DC, as well as providing protection from turnon/turn-off transients.
If operating conditions are unreasonable, the patented
ODEP circuitry proportionally limits the drive level to
protect output transistors, particularly in the case of el-
Page 14
Dimensions: Standard 19-inch (48.3-cm) rack mount
width (EIA RS-310-B), 3.5-inch (8.9-cm) height and 16inch (40.6-cm) depth behind the mounting surface.
Approximate Weight: Center of gravity is 6 inches
(15.2 cm) behind front mounting surface.
120 VAC, 60 Hz Units: 36 pounds, 2 ounces (16.4 kg)
net; 40 pounds (18.2 kg) shipping weight.
International Units: 37 pounds, 3 ounces (16.9 kg)
net; 40 pounds, 15 ounces (18.6 kg) shipping weight.
Reference Manual
1400 CSL Power Amplifier
Crown specifications are guaranteed for three years.
In an effort to provide you with as much information as possible about the high power-producing capabilities of your amplifier, we have
created the following power matrices.
Minimum Power Specifications
Crown’s minimum power specifications represent the absolute smallest amount of output power you can expect from your amplifier
when it is driven to full output under the given conditions. Some spaces in each matrix may be left blank because the same guarantee
is not provided for those conditions—however, your amplifier will perform well under all conditions listed in each matrix.
When measuring power, 0.1% appears to be the industry standard for distortion. Two of the maximum average power ratings in each
minimum power matrix are measured at 0.1% THD so you can easily compare Crown specifications to those of other manufacturers. But
this high level of distortion actually allows for some clipping which is undesirable. Because of this, a maximum average power
specification at 0.05% THD is included in each minimum power matrix to represent non-clipped conditions. Although most
manufacturers do not give you power specifications at 0.05% THD, we encourage them to provide these specifications so you will have
a more realistic representation of the way amplifiers should be used in the real world—without a clipped output signal.
Many manufacturers publish power specs with a tolerance of ±1 dB or worse. This means their amplifier can deviate more than 20% in
output! A 100-watt amplifier would meet their specification if it only produced 79.4 watts. Other manufacturers qualify their specs by
saying they are “typical,” “subject to manufacturing tolerances,” “single channel driven” or that they are specified with “fuses bypassed.”
Each of these statements effectively removes any performance guarantee. In fact, some manufacturers use these tactics to generate
large power numbers, and they don’t even print a disclaimer. We take a different approach at Crown—our amplifiers are guaranteed to
meet or exceed their specifications for three years. Further, because our published specs are set below our “in-house” measurements,
you can expect every Crown amplifier to exceed its published minimum power specs. We believe you should get what you pay for.
Minimum Power Notes:
All minimum power specifications are based on 0.5% regulated AC mains with THD of less than 1.0% and an ambient room temperature of 70° F (21° C).
International units with multi-tap transformers are specified for the worst-case transformer tap (normally 100 VAC, 50 Hz). The standard EIA power
measurement (RS-490) is not identified here because it is identical to the FTC Continuous Average Power specification.
1. A 1 kHz sine wave is presented to the amplifier and the output monitored for nonlinear distortion. The level is increased until THD reaches 0.1%. At this
level the average power per channel is reported.
2. A sine wave is presented to the amplifier over the range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz and the output monitored for nonlinear distortion. The level at each
frequency is increased until THD reaches 0.1%. At this level the average power per channel is reported.
3. A 1 kHz sine wave is presented to the amplifier and the output monitored for nonlinear distortion. The level is increased until THD reaches 0.05%. At
this level the average power per channel is reported.
4. Continuous power in the context of Federal Trade Commission testing is understood to be a minimum of five minutes of operation. THD is measured as
the RMS sum total and given as a percentage of the fundamental output voltage. This applies for all wattages greater than 0.25 watts.
Maximum Power Specifications
International Units
Maximum Average
FTC Continuous Average
Load (Ohms)
120 VAC, 60 Hz Units
AC Mains
1400 CSL – Minimum Guaranteed Power (Watts)
0.1% THD
(See note 1)
Stereo
4
700
700
700
(both channels
driven)
8
500
500
500
Bridge-Mono
Stereo/Mono
Mode
0.1% THD
(See note 2)
0.05% THD
(See note 3)
1 kHz
20Hz-20kHz
1 kHz
0.1% THD
(See note 4)
1 kHz
20Hz-20kHz
500
480
1,040
970
8
1,500
1,415
1,500
(balanced output) 16
1,075
1,030
1,060
2
1,515
1,505
4
1,050
1,050
1,050
Parallel-Mono
Stereo
4
665
615
645
540
470
(both channels
driven)
8
500
480
500
500
455
Bridge-Mono
8
1,320
1,225
1,300
1,100
1,070
(balanced output) 16
1,010
965
1,000
1,010
915
2
1,350
1,325
1,100
4
1,000
1,000
1,015
Parallel-Mono
Fig. 4.1 1400 CSL Minimum Power Matrix
Reference Manual
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1400 CSL Power Amplifier
Crown’s maximum power specifications represent the largest amount of output power you can expect from your amplifier when it is
driven to full output under the given conditions. These specifications can be used to prevent loudspeaker and hearing damage.
The maximum power matrices include specifications for single cycle and 40 millisecond burst sine waves. Burst signals act like large
transient peaks that are present in common source signals. Loudspeakers can respond to a single cycle burst, so the single cycle burst
specifications should be used to help you protect your loudspeakers. In contrast, a 40 millisecond burst represents the typical response
time of the human ear. Your ear will not respond to the entire dynamic change of a burst that lasts less than 40 milliseconds.
The burst power specifications are provided at 0.05% THD which is a practical low distortion condition. Operating the amplifier at levels
higher than 0.05% THD can result in output power levels that are higher than those listed in the maximum power matrices.
Maximum Power Notes:
All maximum power specifications are based on 0.5% regulated AC mains with THD of less than 1.0% and an ambient room temperature of 70° F (21° C).
International units with multi-tap transformers are specified for the best-case transformer tap (normally 240 VAC, 60 Hz). Although it is an unusual
condition, your amplifier can function well with AC mains voltages up to 10% over the specified line voltage. With overvoltage conditions, your amplifier
may be capable of delivering instantaneous power levels up to 20% greater than the specifications in the matrix.
1. A single cycle sine wave is presented to the amplifier and monitored for nonlinear distortion. The average power during the burst is reported. Loudspeakers must be able to withstand this level if they are to be safely used with this amplifier.
2. A 40 millisecond sine wave burst (10 percent duty cycle) is presented to the amplifier and monitored for nonlinear distortion. The average power
during the burst is reported. This power level is a measurement of the amplifier’s maximum transient power that can be perceived by the human ear.
International Units
120 VAC, 6 0 Hz Units
Stereo/Mono
Mode
Stereo
Load (Ohms)
AC Mains
1400 CSL – Maximum Power (Watts)
4
Single Cycle Tone Burst
40 Millisecond Tone Burst
0.05% Distortion
(See note 1)
0.05% Distortion
(See note 2)
50 Hz
1 kHz
7 kHz
50 Hz
1 kHz
7 kHz
1,090
1,575
1,525
910
815
855
(both channels
driven)
8
715
870
835
610
570
595
Bridge-Mono
8
2,155
3,140
3,040
1,780
1,615
1,690
(balanced output) 16
1,415
1,740
1,675
1,250
1,135
1,180
2
2,140
3,135
3,015
1,790
1,605
1,680
4
1,420
1,735
1,665
1,225
1,135
1,170
Parallel-Mono
Stereo
4
1,190
1,750
1,695
970
870
920
(both channels
driven)
8
785
960
920
675
625
645
Bridge-Mono
8
2,355
3,490
3,380
1,945
1,725
1,805
(balanced output) 16
1,540
1,915
1,840
1,360
1,235
1,285
2
2,330
3,485
3,345
1,940
1,720
1,800
4
1,570
1,895
1,825
1,360
1,235
1,270
Parallel-Mono
Fig. 4.2 1400 CSL Maximum Power Matrix
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Reference Manual
1400 CSL Power Amplifier
5 Accessories
There are two accessories available at the time of this
printing: the MT-XLR and the MT-BB. Important: The MTXLR and MT-BB must be installed at a Crown Factory
Service Center or the Crown factory.
other. Because the MT-XLR connectors are in parallel
with the amplifier’s built in phone connectors, an input
signal fed to either input can be fed to another amplifier
from the unused connector for that channel.
5.1 MT-XLR
The MT-XLR is an accessory panel that provides two
standard 3-pin female XLR input connectors. The
MT-XLR accessory makes it easy to quickly change
connections in a system that uses standard XLR connectors. It can also be used in systems that need to
daisy chain an input signal from one amplifier to anCH-2 INPUT
PUSH
Fig. 5.1 The MT-XLR
Reference Manual
CH-2 INPUT
CH-1 INPUT
–
–
+
+
3
GND
THESE XLR INPUTS ARE CONNECTED IN PARALLEL WITH THE PHONE JACK INPUTS.
The MT-BB is an accessory panel that provides barrier
strip input connectors. An MT-BB accessory might be
desirable in applications requiring bare wire connections. It can also be used to daisy chain an input signal
from one amplifier to another just like the MT-XLR.
MT-BB
CH-1 INPUT
PUSH
MT-XLR
5.2 MT-BB
1
2
Fig. 5.2 The MT-BB
Page 17
1400 CSL Power Amplifier
6 Service
This unit has very sophisticated circuitry which should
only be serviced by a fully trained technician. This is
one reason why each unit bears the following label:
Your repaired unit will be will returned via UPS ground.
Please contact us if other arrangements are required.
Factory Service Shipping Instructions:
CAUTION: To prevent electric shock, do not remove
covers. No user serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to a qualified technician.
Always use the
original factory pack
to transport the unit.
6.1 Worldwide Service
Service may be obtained from an authorized service
center. (Contact your local Crown/Amcron representative or our office for a list of authorized service centers.)
To obtain service, simply present the bill of sale as proof
of purchase along with the defective unit to an authorized service center. They will handle the necessary
paperwork and repair.
Remember to transport your unit in the original factory
pack.
6.2 North American Service
Service may be obtained in one of two ways: from an
authorized service center or from the factory. You may
choose either. It is important that you have your copy of
the bill of sale as your proof of purchase.
6.2.1 Service at a North American Service Center
This method usually saves the most time and effort.
Simply present your bill of sale along with the defective
unit to an authorized service center to obtain service.
They will handle the necessary paperwork and repair.
Remember to transport the unit in the original factory
pack. A list of authorized service centers in your area
can be obtained from our Technical Support Group.
6.2.2 Factory Service
To obtain factory service, fill out the service information page found in the back of this manual and send it
along with your proof of purchase and the defective
unit to the Crown factory.
1. When sending a Crown product to the factory
for service, be sure to fill out the service information form that follows and enclose it inside your
unit’s shipping pack. Do not send the service information form separately.
2. To ensure the safe transportation of your unit to
the factory, ship it in an original factory packing
container. If you don’t have one, call or write
Crown’s Parts Department. With the exception
of polyurethane or wooden crates, any other
packing material will not be sufficient to withstand the stress of shipping. Do not use loose,
small size packing materials.
3. Do not ship the unit in any kind of cabinet (wood
or metal). Ignoring this warning may result in extensive damage to the unit and the cabinet. Accessories are not needed—do not send the
instruction manual, cables and other hardware.
If you have any questions, please call or write the
Crown Technical Support Group.
Crown Audio Division
Technical Support / Factory Service
Plant 2 SW, 1718 W. Mishawaka Rd., Elkhart,
Indiana 46517 U.S.A.
Telephone: 219-294-8200
800-342-6939 (North America,
Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands only)
For warranty service, we will pay for ground shipping
both ways in the United States. Contact Crown Factory
Service or Technical Support to obtain prepaid shipping labels prior to sending the unit. Or, if you prefer,
you may prepay the cost of shipping, and Crown will
reimburse you. Send copies of the shipping receipts to
Crown to receive reimbursement.
Page 18
Facsimile: 219-294-8301 (Technical Support)
219-294-8124 (Factory Service)
Fax Back:
219-293-9200 (North America only)
800-294-4094 (North America only)
219-294-8100 (International)
Internet:
http://www.crownaudio.com
Reference Manual
1400 CSL Power Amplifier
Crown Factory Service Information
Shipping Address: Crown Factory Service, Plant 2 SW, 1718 W. Mishawaka Rd., Elkhart, IN 46517
Phone: 1-800-342-6939 or 1-219-294-8200 Fax: 1-219-294-8124
Owner’s Name: _________________________________________________________________________
Shipping Address: ______________________________________________________________________
Phone Number: _____________________________
Fax Number: _____________________________
Model: ________________________ Serial Number: ______________ Purchase Date: ___________
NATURE OF PROBLEM
(Be sure to describe the conditions that existed when the problem occurred and what attempts were made to correct it.)
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Detach and send with unit.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Other equipment in your system: __________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
If warranty has expired, payment will be: ❑ Cash/Check
Card Number:___________________________
Signature:_____________________________
Reference Manual
❑ VISA
❑ MasterCard
❑ C.O.D.
Exp. Date:_______
ENCLOSE THIS PORTION WITH THE UNIT. DO NOT MAIL SEPARATELY.
Page 19