Cabletron Systems STS16-20R User guide

SmartStack
STS16-20D/STS16-20R
Token Ring Switches
Installation
and
User Guide
i
Notice
Cabletron Systems reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other
information contained in this document without prior notice. The reader should in all
cases consult Cabletron Systems to determine whether any such changes have been made.
The hardware, firmware, or software described in this manual is subject to change
without notice.
IN NO EVENT SHALL CABLETRON SYSTEMS BE LIABLE FOR ANY
INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOST PROFITS) ARISING
OUT OF OR RELATED TO THIS MANUAL OR THE INFORMATION CONTAINED
IN IT, EVEN IF CABLETRON SYSTEMS HAS BEEN ADVISED OF, KNOWN, OR
SHOULD HAVE KNOWN, THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
© October 1999 by:
Cabletron Systems, Inc.
35 Industrial Way
Rochester, NH 03867
All Rights Reserved.
Order Number: 9032956-01
(OC-7054 v. 1.1, 710001812)
SmartStack is a trademark of Cabletron Systems, Inc.
CompuServe is a registered trademark of CompuServe, Inc.
i960 microprocessor is a registered trademark of Intel Corp.
Ethernet is a trademark of Xerox Corporation.
Notice
ii
FCC Notice
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following
two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device
must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired
operation.
NOTE: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A
digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide
reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a
commercial environment. This equipment uses, generates, and can radiate radio
frequency energy and if not installed in accordance with the operator’s manual, may
cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a
residential area is likely to cause interference in which case the user will be required to
correct the interference at his own expense.
WARNING: Changes or modifications made to this device which are not expressly
approved by the party responsible for compliance could void the user’s authority to
operate the equipment.
VCCI Notice
This is a Class A product based on the standard of the Voluntary Control Council for
Interference by Information Technology Equipment (VCCI). If this equipment is used in
a domestic environment, radio disturbance may arise. When such trouble occurs, the user
may be required to take corrective actions.
Industry Canada Notice
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class A limits for radio noise emissions from
digital apparatus set out in the Radio Interference Regulations of the Canadian
Department of Communications.
Le présent appareil numérique n'émet pas de bruits radioélectriques dépassant les limites
applicables aux appareils numériques de la class A prescrites dans le Règlement sur le
brouillage radioélectrique édicté par le ministère des Communications du Canada.
Notice
iii
Declaration of Conformity
Addendum
Application of Council Directive(s): 89/336/EEC
73/23/EEC
Manufacturer’s Name: Cabletron Systems, Inc.
Manufacturer’s Address: 35 Industrial Way
PO Box 5005
Rochester, NH 03867
European Representative Name: Mr. J. Solari
European Representative Address: Cabletron Systems Limited
Nexus House,
Newbury Business Park
London Road, Newbury
Berkshire RG13 2PZ, England
Conformance to Directive(s)/Product Standards: EC Directive 89/336/EEC
EC Directive 73/23/EEC
EN 55022
EN 50082-1
EN 60950
Equipment Type/Environment: Networking Equipment, for use
in a Commercial or Light
Industrial Environment.
We the undersigned, hereby declare, under our sole responsibility, that the equipment
packaged with this notice conforms to the above directives.
Manufacturer
Legal Representative in Europe
Mr. Ronald Fotino
Full Name
Mr. J. Solari
Full Name
Principal Compliance Engineer
Title
Managing Director - E.M.E.A.
Title
Rochester, NH, USA
Location
Newbury, Berkshire, England
Location
Notice
iv
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
Switching Technology . . . . . . .
Switch of Switches . . . . . .
Switch of Servers . . . . . . .
Switch of Hubs . . . . . . . .
Switch of Desktops . . . . . .
Switch of Floors and Buildings
Switch of Routers . . . . . . .
Front Panel Details . . . . . . . .
The MANAGEMENT Port . . .
Token Ring Ports . . . . . . .
Reset Button . . . . . . . . .
System Request Button . . . .
Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Status and Activity LEDs . . .
Back Panel Details . . . . . . . .
Features and Specifications . . . .
Features . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifications . . . . . . . . .
1
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2. Switch Overview
Multiple Simultaneous Conversations . . . . . . . .
Low Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Address Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiple Bridging Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Source Route Switching (SRS) . . . . . . . . .
Source Route Bridging (SRB) . . . . . . . . . .
Source Route Transparent (SRT) . . . . . . . .
SRT/SRB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Congestion Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Three Switching Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cut-Through . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Store and Forward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auto (Adaptive Cut-Through) . . . . . . . . . .
Token Ring Port Operation Modes . . . . . . . . .
RI/RO-Like Connection on SmartStack STS16-20R
Transmission Priority Queues . . . . . . . . . . . .
ClearSession Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CrossLink Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Notice
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2
2
3
3
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4
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5
5
5
6
6
7
7
9
10
10
13
17
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18
19
20
21
22
22
23
23
24
24
25
25
25
25
26
27
28
28
29
v
Spanning Tree Protocol Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VLAN Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic Source Route Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SmartStack Manager for Windows . . . . . . . . . . .
Telnet Management and VT100 Management (Console)
IBM LAN Network Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RMON Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Built-in Port Counters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stackable Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Back-to-Back . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Internal Stacker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External Stacker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Optional Redundant Power Supply on
SmartStack STS16-20R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. . 40
3. Preparing for Installation
41
Safety Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety with Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preventing Electrostatic Discharge Damage . . . . . . . .
Site Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chassis Accessibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cooling and Airflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Frame Length Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ring Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample Uses of the SmartStack STS16-20RM Family Switches
Deployment Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Installation
Installation Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Package Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Materials needed for Installation . . . . . . . . .
Mounting the Chassis . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rack or Cabinet Mounting . . . . . . . . . .
Table-Mounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting Devices to the Token Ring Ports
Connecting Devices to the Token Ring Ports
Notice
30
31
32
35
35
36
36
36
37
39
39
39
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41
41
42
43
43
43
43
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46
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48
51
55
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55
56
57
58
58
59
60
60
vi
Using Building Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the Installation . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stacker Link Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SmartStack STS-LM Connectors and LEDs
Connecting the Stacker Link Cable . . . . .
Working with a Stack . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inter-box Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checking the Installation . . . . . . . . . .
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5. Accessing Switch Management
Overview . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the Console . . . .
Communication Problems .
Diagnostic Screen . . . . .
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69
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6. Switch Configuration
General Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigating within the Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuration Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switch Configuration Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stack Configuration Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Module Information Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VLAN Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VLAN Configuration Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VLAN Configuration Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VLAN Parameter Configuration for CRF Screen . . . .
VLAN Parameter Configuration for BRF Screen . . . .
VLAN Port Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IP Configuration Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BootP Requests and Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . .
SNMP Configuration Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spanning Tree Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) . . . . . .
Spanning Tree for BRF Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spanning Tree for CRF Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port Spanning Tree Parameters Screen . . . . . . . .
Current Spanning Tree Information Screen . . . . . . .
Port Configuration Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switched Port Analyzer Menu from the Configuration Menu
CrossLink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Notice
61
62
63
65
65
66
66
67
67
68
69
70
72
73
75
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76
77
78
79
80
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84
86
87
88
89
91
93
94
96
97
97
98
99
101
104
105
106
110
110
vii
CrossLink Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CrossLink Configuration Screen . . . . . . . .
Setting up a CrossLink . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Current CrossLink Information Screen . . . .
Address Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filters and Port Security Menu . . . . . . . .
Configure Filters Screen . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configure Port Security Mode Screen . . . . .
View Port Filters Screen . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protocol Filters Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protocol Class Assignment Screen . . . . . .
Port Filtering Attributes Screen . . . . . . . .
Address Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Address Aging Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port Address Table Aging Screen . . . . . . .
Master Address Table Aging Screen . . . . .
Password Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Console/Telnet Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Console Configuration Menu . . . . . . . . .
Serial Link Configuration Screen . . . . . . .
Creating a Console Session Using a Modem .
Stopping the Console Session . . . . . . . . .
Telnet Configuration Screen . . . . . . . . . .
Telnet Sessions Screen . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting the Telnet Session . . . . . . . . . .
Stopping the Telnet Session . . . . . . . . . .
Involuntary Termination of the Telnet Session
Syslog Daemon Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DSRR Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DSRR Group Configuration Screen . . . . . .
DSRR Configuration Screen . . . . . . . . . .
Download/Upload Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serial Link Download Screen . . . . . . . . .
TFTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TFTP Download/Upload Screen . . . . . . . .
Reset Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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112
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127
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137
139
141
143
144
147
148
149
150
152
7. Monitoring the Network from the Console Statistics
Menu
155
Statistics Menu . . . . . . . . .
Switch Statistics Screen . . . . .
Power Supply Information Screen
Port Status Screen . . . . . . . .
Notice
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156
157
159
160
viii
Port Statistics Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Statistics Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
802.5 Statistics Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
802.5 State Information Screen . . . . . . . . . . . .
802.5 DTR MAC Information Menu . . . . . . . . . .
TXI Information Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Station-CPort Information Screen . . . . . . . . . . .
Address Tables Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Master Address Table Screen . . . . . . . . . . . .
Master Route Descriptor Table Screen . . . . . . . .
VLAN Address Table Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VLAN Route Descriptor Table Screen . . . . . . . .
Locate MAC Address Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Current Spanning Tree Information Screen . . . . . . . .
Current Spanning Tree Information for a CRF Screen
VLAN Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VLAN Statistics Screen for CRF . . . . . . . . . . .
VLAN Statistics for BRF Screen . . . . . . . . . . .
DSRR Status Screens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DSRR Status Tables Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DSRR Neighbor Table Screen . . . . . . . . . . . .
DSRR Acting as Backup Table Screen . . . . . . . .
Diagnostic Test Results Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Message Log Information Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Display Summary Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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SNMP Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IP Configuration Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SNMP Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SNMP Configuration Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Community Strings Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trap Receivers Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Supported Traps from a STS16-20D/STS16-20R
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8. Monitoring the Network with SNMP
162
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9. Monitoring Port Traffic
201
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211
Switched Port Analyzer Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
10. Troubleshooting
Obtaining Service . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting in a Network . . . . . .
Start of Troubleshooting Process . . . .
Choosing a Troubleshooting Procedure
Notice
215
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ix
11. Getting in Touch with Technical Support
221
Problem Report Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix A. Abbreviations
225
Appendix B. Cable and Pin Information
Connecting to the Out-of-Band Management Port .
Out-of-Band Management Port and Cable Pin-Outs
Twisted-Pair Cable Pin Outs . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cabling Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cable Length and Lobe Wiring Rules
for Dedicated-Media LAN Segments . . . . . . . .
Cable Length and Lobe Wiring Rules
for Shared-Media LAN Segments . . . . . . . . . .
Notice
222
229
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x
List of Figures
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
Figure 13.
Figure 14.
Figure 15.
Figure 16.
Figure 17.
Figure 18.
Figure 19.
Figure 20.
Figure 21.
Figure 22.
Figure 23.
Figure 24.
Figure 25.
Figure 26.
Figure 27.
Figure 28.
Figure 29.
Figure 30.
Figure 31.
Notice
SmartStack STS16-20D Token Ring Switch . . . . . . . .
Location of LEDs, Switches and Connectors . . . . . . . .
The back panel of the SmartStack STS16-20D . . . . . .
The back panel of the SmartStack STS16-20R . . . . . .
Multiple Conversations Through a SmartStack
STS16-20RM Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical Configuration with SmartStack STS16-20R
Switches Using Multiple Bridging Modes . . . . . . . . . .
A SmartStack STS16-20R Switch Configured
with Two VLANs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of Dynamic Source Route Recovery, Base
Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of Dynamic Source Route Recovery,
Normal State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of Dynamic Source Route Recovery,
Switch 1 Failed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typical Network without the SmartStack
STS16-20D/STS16-20R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relieving the Overstressed Backbone . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing SRBs with a SmartStack STS16-20RM or
SmartStack STS16-20R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delivering Dedicated Bandwidth to Individual Workstations
Scenario using a Stacker Link and a Matrix Switch . . . .
Setting Up CrossLinks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exposing the Rack Mounting Bracket . . . . . . . . . . .
Mounting the Switch in a Rack or Cabinet . . . . . . . . .
Connecting Devices to Token Ring Ports . . . . . . . . .
Connecting using Building Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The back panel of the STS16-20D . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The back panel of the STS16-20R . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SmartStack STS-LM Front Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . .
View of Console Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R with four VLANs . . .
Setting Up CrossLinks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Primary and Traced DSRR Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TIA/EIA-232 Null-Modem Cable for 25-pin Connector . . .
EIA 232 Null-Modem Cable for 9-pin Connector . . . . . .
Straight-Through Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Connector-to-RJ-45 Straight-Through Cable . . . . .
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1
5
9
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18
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231
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xi
List of Tables
Table 1.
Table 2.
Table 3.
Table 4.
Table 5.
Table 6.
Table 7.
Table 8.
Table 9.
Table 10.
Table 11.
Table 12.
Table 13.
Table 14.
Table 15.
Table 16.
Table 17.
Table 18.
Table 19.
Table 20.
Table 21.
Notice
Status LEDs and their Meanings . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stack-link LEDs and Their Meanings . . . . . . . . . . .
Port LEDs and Their Meanings . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Back Panel Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Capacity Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Performance Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifications of Physical Characteristics . . . . . . . .
Supported MIBs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supported RMON Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SmartStack STS-LM Network Connector . . . . . . . . .
SmartStack STS-LM LEDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inter-box Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Console Configuration Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modem Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Symptom, LED State and Recommended Procedure . .
Connecting to the Management Port . . . . . . . . . . .
Pin-out of the Management Port . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copper Cable Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lobe Length for 150 Ohm Shielded Media . . . . . . . .
Lobe Lengths for 100 Ohm Shielded or Unshielded Cable
Lobe Lengths for 100 or 120 Ohm Shielded
or Unshielded Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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xii
Notice
1
1. Introduction
This chapter discusses switching technology and how the SmartStack STS16-20D
and/or SmartStack STS16-20R Token Ring Switch can be used to improve network
performance. This chapter also includes a list of features and specifications for the
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R.
The topics of this chapter are presented under the following titles:
•
•
“Switching Technology”, starting on page 2.
•
“Features and Specifications”, starting on page 10.
“Front Panel Details”, starting on page 5 and “Back Panel Details” starting on
page 9.
The front panels of the SmartStack STS16-20D Token Ring Switch and the
SmartStack STS16-20R Token Ring Switch are exactly the same, only the product
label differs. The following figure illustrates the front panel of a SmartStack
STS16-20D Token Ring Switch.
Figure 1. SmartStack STS16-20D Token Ring Switch
Introduction
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
2
Switching Technology
Demand for network bandwidth continues to grow, driven by the increasing
number of systems used in network-intensive applications. LAN segmentation has
been the prevalent method for addressing these demands and has been further
popularized by trends toward server centralization. However, the implementation
costs of LAN segmentation, as well as the real performance characteristics of
conventional network components, have served to limit growth of some Token
Ring networks. Alternative technologies for addressing bandwidth demands
present yet other inhibitors, usually relating to costs. Token Ring switching
provides users with an easy, cost-effective technique for addressing these demands.
Token Ring switches, such as the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R, increase
throughput between Token Ring segments by supporting simultaneous, parallel
conversations. Switched connections between Token Ring segments last only for
the duration of the packet—new connections can be made between different
segments for the next packet.
Token Ring switches solve congestion problems caused by high-bandwidth devices
and powerful applications as well as the number of users. Therefore, each of these
devices—servers, for example—can be assigned its own 16 Mbps segment.
In Token Ring networks, the major bottleneck is typically the throughput to highbandwidth devices such as servers, and between routers, bridges, and switches. An
effective solution is full-duplex communication, an option for each segment
connected to an SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R port. Normally, Token Ring
operates in half-duplex communication mode, which means stations can either
receive or transmit. With full-duplex technology, two communicating stations can
transmit and receive at the same time. When packets can flow in both directions
simultaneously, effective Token Ring bandwidth doubles from 16 Mbps to 32
Mbps.
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R can forward Token Ring frames among
multiple, shared or dedicated Token Ring LAN segments. Using a frame
forwarding technique similar to that of a multiport Token Ring transparent bridge,
the switch uses Token Ring MAC addresses to forward Token Ring frames from any
of its ports to any other.
Switch of Switches
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R can be deployed in a variety of network
configurations, all of which provide a significant increase in network performance.
The family of Cabletron Systems Token Ring products allows users to build
network systems that can transport data efficiently and scale upwards as throughput
requirements increase. The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R delivers highreliability and media flexibility. These features combine to allow the SmartStack
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
Introduction
3
STS16-20D/STS16-20R to be used as a switch of switches which provides media
flexibility in an Token Ring configuration.
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R can easily connect with other SmartStack
products to deliver a broad range of network carrying capacity. Bandwidth is easily
scaled to meet all performance requirements.
Switch of Servers
With client/server applications, many client workstations may attempt to access a
single server at the same time. This traffic pattern may create bottlenecks at the
server. To further enhance performance, the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R
can deliver dedicated bandwidth to high-speed file servers. All servers perform
better with dedicated 16 Mbps bandwidth.
Even better performance can be achieved by installing multiple adapters in the
server. By connecting these adapters to the switch, multiple 16 Mbps paths to the
server are created, a solution that is only possible when using a switch.
The switch ties together all Token Ring devices lined to a local wiring center. In
networks, where a significant portion of the traffic moves locally between client
and server, the switch can be very effective.
Switch of Hubs
When network traffic increases beyond the capability of hubs, contention results.
Applications suffer and may even fail. The net effect of such a network
configuration is that all devices share a single 16 Mbps data path, thus reducing
overall network efficiency. The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R can be very
effective when used as a switch of hubs.
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R can alleviate contention through
microsegmentation, or reducing the number of devices in each shared segment. To
provide microsegmentation, the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R divides a
single 16 Mbps segment into multiple 16 Mbps segments. As an example, a
workgroup has 16 Mbps of capacity. The 20 ports on the SmartStack STS16-20D/
STS16-20R support 10 simultaneous conversations with 20 hubs, thus providing
the workgroup with 160 Mbps bandwidth throughput, which results in a significant
gain in bandwidth. Note that on the SmartStack STS16-20D, hubs can only be
connected to the network ports 17–20.
Switch of Desktops
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R is a cost-effective means of providing
dedicated bandwidth to individual desktop workstations. In this application, the
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R replaces a hub, providing excellent, hub-like
Introduction
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
4
network management statistics. Total network capacity and throughput increase
dramatically for attached desktop workstations.
Switch of Floors and Buildings
For network managers, multistorey buildings and campuses can represent a unique
networking challenge. How can a network manager provide an efficient LAN
interconnect for users that are located on several floors of a building or in different
buildings?
Token Ring switching and the SmartStack product family can provide the best
solution. The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R provides enhanced throughput
to local wiring closets that can be connected to a switch located in the data center.
Many networks consist of users located in different buildings of a campus
environment. The switches can be used as a collapsed backbone interconnecting
multiple buildings of a campus. They can provide the connectivity solution and
enhanced throughput that such campus environments require.
Switch of Routers
Router technology has had a significant impact on the design of today’s
internetworks. Routers have become the cornerstone of most production networks.
Although well equipped to provide firewall, WAN connectivity, security, and
connection between dissimilar LANs, routers are unable to provide high throughput
between desktop devices and servers. Because of these limitations, routers and
switches perform complimentary functions in the network.
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R can be used as a front-end to routers to
increase performance in each subnet. Communication between local clients and
servers is enhanced at the workgroup level below the router.
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R can also be used to back-end routers. In
networks were many routers are interconnected over Token Ring and backbone
performance is not acceptable, the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R provides
nonblocking communication between the routers for enhanced network
performance. This provides protocol transparency with enhanced throughput in
each subnet between local servers and desktops, thus allowing network managers
to build logical networks as large as network layer protocol and broadcast traffic
allow.
The Switched Port Analyzer also gives a collapsed backbone network superior
network management and the ability to perform protocol analysis from a single
location. The Switch Port Analyzer provides the latest technology for monitoring
switch-based networks and helps to reduce the cost of managing these networks.
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
Introduction
5
Front Panel Details
The front panel details of the switches are illustrated in Figure 2. This section lists
all the connectors, controls, and LEDs of the front panel.
Figure 2. Location of LEDs, Switches and Connectors
The MANAGEMENT Port
The 9-pin, male, Out-of-Band Management (OBM) port labeled MANAGEMENT
functions as a DTE port.
This port enables attachment of a terminal, either local or remote, through a modem
connection. The terminal can be used to configure and monitor the switch.
The Out-of-Band Management port automatically detects the baud rate of the
terminal to which it is attached.
Token Ring Ports
•
Twenty shielded RJ-45 connectors for Token Ring connection.
— Support for the IBM Cabling System via 150 ohm, shielded twisted-pair
(150 ohm STP); or 100 or 120 ohm unshielded twisted-pair via Category
3, 4, or 5 cables.
— These ports allow half-duplex (HDX) or full-duplex (FDX) connections to
other switches, hubs, or end nodes.
•
Introduction
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R will automatically sense what type
of Token Ring connection is being employed on each of its ports, whether it is:
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
6
— a connection to a shared-media segment via a Token Ring concentrator,
Station mode (on SmartStack STS16-20D only via the network ports
17– 20)
— a connection to another Token Ring switch (on SmartStack STS16-20D
only via network ports 17–20)
— operating at 4 Mbps or at 16 Mbps
— a connection to a dedicated-media segment, directly to a Token Ring LAN
station operating in half-duplex or full-duplex mode (Port mode).
— Ports 19 and 20 on SmartStack STS16-20R can attach to a MAU/CAU RI/
RO port
The switch will automatically configure (requiring no operator action) each port to
operate at the highest possible level of capability. No special crossover cables are
required for Token Ring stations on dedicated-media segments or for switch-toswitch connections; the same straight-through cabling is used regardless of the type
of connection. This auto-sense/auto-configure capability of the switch can be
overridden by explicit console management.
Switched Port Analyzer
Any of the Token Ring ports can be configured as an analyzer port. An analyzer
port is used to monitor any of the other ports in the same physical switch. The
activity can then be traced by a Token-Ring network analyzer attached to the
analyzer port.
Reset Button
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R has a recessed reset button labeled RST
that is located on the front panel. Pressing the reset button resets the hardware and
software and clears all tables and memory, including the address tables. Pressing
the reset button does not clear the values stored in nonvolatile random access
memory (NVRAM).
System Request Button
This unlabeled recessed button is located on the front panel above the Reset button.
Pressing the button causes the System Request Menu to appear on the console
device attached to the MANAGEMENT port. Pressing the button for more than
five seconds will initiate a modem download of the main image.
➽
Note: The system request button should be used only at the direction of service
personnel. The button is recessed to prevent accidental activation.
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
Introduction
7
Labels
The two labels in the right side of the front panel are:
•
The MAC Address Label: The unique globally assigned base Base MACAddress of the switch.
•
The Switch Number Label: Blank label for an individual user identification of
the switch.
Status and Activity LEDs
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R features three status LEDs at the left on
the front panel that show the current status of the switch. There are also three
activity LEDs at the left that indicate the activity of the optional stacker link
module. Moreover, each Token Ring port has two LEDs.
Refer to Figure 2 on page 5 for the locations of all the LEDs.
Table 1 lists the status LEDs and their meanings.
LED
PWR
State
Meaning
Off
The switch is not connected to a power outlet, or
the power supply is faulty.
On
The switch is receiving power.
DIAG
On
The DIAG diagnostics LED is on during the
power-on self-test. During download of a new
software image, the DIAG LED blinks to indicate
the clearing (slow blink) and loading (faster
blink) of FLASH memory.
ERR
On
The ERR LED is off during normal operation. If
the LED turns on, an error has occurred. Power
the switch down and up again. The ERR LED
should not turn on again. If it does, the switch is
faulty.
Note that on SmartStack STS16-20R, the ERR
LED might turn on if the switch is powered only
by an external power supply.
Table 1. Status LEDs and their Meanings
The stack-link LEDs and port LEDs are described in the tables on the next page.
Introduction
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
8
Table 2 lists the stack-link LEDs and their meanings:
LED
State
Meaning
TX
On or
blinking
Data is being transmitted to the stack link.
RX
On or
blinking
Data is being received from the stack link.
ATTACH
On
A connection has been established to the stack.
Table 2. Stack-link LEDs and Their Meanings
Table 3 lists the port LEDs and their meanings:
LED
INS
(left LED of
port)
ACT
(right LED of
port)
State
Meaning
On
The Token Ring port is inserted into the ring.
Off
The Token Ring port is not inserted into the ring
Blinking
The Token Ring port is disabled.
On or
blinking
Data is being transmitted to or received from the
port.
Table 3. Port LEDs and Their Meanings
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
Introduction
9
Back Panel Details
The back panel of the switches are illustrated in
Figure 3. The back panel of the SmartStack STS16-20D
Figure 4. The back panel of the SmartStack STS16-20R
Table 4 lists the back panel connectors on the switch.
Name
Description
AC connection
Standard AC power connection.
Redundant power
supply
(SmartStack
STS16-20R only)
Connector for the optional redundant power supply unit.
Table 4. Back Panel Connectors
Introduction
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
10
Features and Specifications
This section lists important switch features as well as technical specifications.
Features
Performance and Advanced Features
• Three switching modes:
— Low latency cut through
— Store and corward
— Auto (Adaptive cut-through)
•
Enhanced bridging modes:
— Transparent bridging
— Source route switching
— Source route bridging (SRB)
— Source route transparent bridging (SRT)
•
•
•
Support for duplicate MAC address schemes
Automatic port sensing of operating mode and media speed
Multiple Token Ring port operation modes:
— Half-duplex concentrator and station
— Full-duplex concentrator and station (Dedicated Token Ring)
— RI/RO-like connection (SmartStack STS16-20R only)
•
Spanning tree protocol support on SmartStack STS16-20D for the designated
network ports 17–20 and on SmartStack STS16-20R for all the ports 1–20:
— IEEE 802.1D
— IBM Spanning Tree Protocol
On SmartStack STS16-20D the workstation ports 1–16 will always be in
forwarding state. They are not affected by the spanning tree protocol.
•
CrossLink high-speed inter-switch connection
— On SmartStack STS16-20D up to 128 Mbps using the network ports 17–
20. On SmartStack STS16-20D the workstation ports 1–16 do not support
CrossLinks.
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
Introduction
11
— On SmartStack STS16-20R up to 256 Mbps for all the ports 1–20, when
using 8 ports.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Advanced filtering (MAC address / Protocol)
VLAN (Virtual LAN) support
Support for transmission priorities
Congestion control
SRB Redundancy
Support for ClearSession high availability features
Management
• Extensive and sophisticated network management:
— SNMP management
— Out-of-band management via Telnet and VT100 consoles
— Graphical management application for Windows 95 and Windows NT (for
information on additional management applications for Unix, please
contact your local Cabletron Systems sales representative)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support for RMON and standard MIBs
Network statistics
LAN probe port mirroring
Fault isolation and detection
Download via TFTP or X-modem of new switch microcode
Up- and download of switch configuration via TFTP
Scalability and High Availability
• SmartStack STS16-20D:
One active LAN station can be attached to each of the workstation port 1–16.
Up to 5,500 active LAN stations for the four network ports 17–20 combined
with a maximum of 10,000 active LAN stations per SmartStack STS16-20D..
SmartStack STS16-20R:
Up to 5,500 active LAN stations per group of four ports with a maximum of
10,000 active LAN stations per SmartStack STS16-20R.
•
Introduction
Stackable architecture
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
12
•
SmartStack STS16-20R: Optional Redundant Power Supply
Six switches can receive backup power from one SmartStack STS-RPC
Redundant Power Center equipped with six SmartStack STS-PSU Redundant
Power Supply Units.
Installation
• No special crossover cable required
•
•
Rack or surface mounting
Plug and Play for transparent forwarding:
— Automatic learning of network configuration
— Transparent to high-level protocol
— Automatic sensing and configuration of ports
•
A factory-assigned MAC address (the switch can also be configured with a
locally administered MAC address)
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
Introduction
13
Specifications
The tables on the following pages list the product specifications for the SmartStack
STS16-20D/STS16-20R.
Capacity
Specification
Value
Number of Token Ring ports
SmartStack STS16-20D:
16 workstation ports (1 to 16)
4 network/workstation ports (17 to 20)
SmartStack STS16-20R:
20 network/workstation ports
Number of Token Ring
switches in stack
8 using the SmartStack STS-8SU Stacker
Unit
5 using the SmartStack STS-5SU Stacker
Unit
2 using the SmartStack STS-LM Link
Module
Global lookup table size
(stations and bridges)
10,000
Local lookup table size, total
for four network ports (on
SmartStack STS16-20D ports
17 to 20) (stations and bridges)
5,500
Maximum number of logical
rings
63
Maximum number of VLANs
63
Table 5. Capacity Specifications
Introduction
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
14
Performance
Specification
Value
Maximum frame rate per port
57,000 pps in each direction (measured with
a frame size of 19 bytes)
Maximum aggregate frame
rate per 4 ports
200,000 pps in each direction. Full media
speed for frame sizes above 28 bytes
Throughput per port
16 Mbps in each direction for all frame sizes
Aggregate switching rate
(unicast or broadcast) for
entire switch
1,500,000 pps for smallest frame sizes
Within switch latency (cutthrough)
35 µs
Table 6. Performance Specifications
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
Introduction
15
Physical Characteristics
Specification
Introduction
Value
Rack mount
19" rack mount (hardware included) 1.5 U
Dimensions
Width: 19" (48.3 cm)
Depth: 15.74" (40.0 cm)
Height 2.59" (6.6 cm)
Weight
15.9 lbs. (7.2 Kg)
Power
100 to 240 VAC autosensing
Frequency
50/60 Hz
AC current rating
1.5 A @ 100 V; 0.75 A @ 220 V
Thermal dissipation
75 W, 256 BTU/h
MTBF
SmartStack STS16-20D: 72,100 hours
SmartStack STS16-20R: 70,200 hours
Calculated using Bellcore TR-332, issue 6
Operating Temperature:
Non-operating Temperature:
10 to 40°C (50 to 104°F)
–10 to 70°C (13 to 158°F)
Humidity:
Operating
Non-operating
8 to 80% (non-condensing)
90% @ 45°C (113°F)
Electromagnetic compability
immunity
EN 50082-1
EN 61000-3-2
EN 61000-3-3
Electromagnetic emissions
certification
FCC Part 15, subpart b, Class A
EN 55022 Class A
CISPR 22 Class A
Safety
IEC 950
UL1950
CSA C22.2 No. 950
EN 60950
MANAGEMENT port
TIA/EIA-232-F, DB9 male connector
Software updates
Flash PROM, TFTP, X-modem
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
16
Specification
Value
Protocol compatibility
Transparent to higher layer protocols
Spanning Tree Protocol
support (On SmartStack
STS16-20D only for
ports 17 to 20)
IEEE 802.1D compliant
IBM Spanning Tree
MIBs supported
SNMP MIB II (RFC1213)
SR Bridge MIB (RFC1525)
Bridge MIB (RFC1493)
Evolution of the Interfaces Group of MIB-II
(RFC1573)
RMON MIB/TR extensions - selected groups
only (RFC1757/1513)
IEEE 802.5 MIB (RFC1749/1748)
IEEE 802.5r DTR MIB
IEEE 802.5r DTR MAC MIB
STS16-20RM MIB
VTP MIB
Network management
SNMP Management Platform
Console
Telnet sessions
SmartStack Manager for Windows 95 and NT
Additional management applications
available on Unix platforms:
—HP OpenView NNM for HP-UX
—Tivoli TME 10 NetView for AIX
Table 7. Specifications of Physical Characteristics
❏
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
Introduction
17
2. Switch Overview
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R is an IEEE 802.5-compliant device
designed to boost throughput on Token Ring networks. It operates as a Media
Access Control (MAC)-layer device that is protocol independent.
This chapter describes how the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R operates as a
single stand-alone unit. The switch contains the following main elements, as listed
below:
•
Switching Bus—the architecture of the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R
centers around the AXIS bus, a 520 Mbps switching fabric through which all
switched ports communicate. The AXIS bus is a partially asynchronous time
division multiplexed bus used for switching packets between heterogeneous
LAN modules.
•
Token Ring Ports—each port can attach to a classical Token Ring segment or
to a dedicated station (on SmartStack STS16-20D, ports 1–16 are workstation
ports). Now users running basic applications are able to share bandwidth, and
users running bandwidth-intensive applications can receive their own
dedicated 16 Mbps port. Each dedicated port can also be set up in full-duplex
communication mode, so that each 16 Mbps port doubles to 32 Mbps.
•
Stack Link Module—the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R switch family
includes a stack link module that can be used to connect two SmartStack
STS16-20D/STS16-20R family switches in a back-to-back configuration.
Alternatively, up to five switches can be connected together using and internal
stacker module, and up to eight switches can be connected together using the
stack link module and an additional switch stack unit. By connecting switches
together through the stack link module, the switches virtually combine to form
a single unit, providing scalability, simplified management, and enhanced
performance.
Switch Overview
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
18
Multiple Simultaneous Conversations
A limitation of Token Ring is that it supports only one packet at a time. The
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R improves data throughput by supporting
multiple, simultaneous, full-duplex conversations. By using High-Speed bus
switching technology, the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R creates multiple
data paths. These switched connections between Token Ring segments last only for
the duration of a byte transmission. New connections are made “on-the-fly”
between different ports on the switch for the next byte.
Figure 5. Multiple Conversations Through a SmartStack
STS16-20RM Switch
For example, as shown in Figure 5, while host A is transmitting a byte to host B,
the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R connects only the lines from A to B since
there is no need to send packets to all other ports. At the same time, a second
switching circuit can connect host C to host D. The result: Two packets are sent
simultaneously.
➽
Note: The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R transmits broadcast and multicast
packets on several SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R ports simultaneously.
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
Switch Overview
19
The increase in throughput is directly proportional to the number of physical tokenrings that are interconnected through the switch. A SmartStack STS16-20D/
STS16-20R with 20 ports interconnected provides up to ten concurrent paths. With
ten simultaneous conversations, the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R creates
160 Mbps throughput in half-duplex mode, or 320 Mbps throughput in full-duplex
mode.
A single segment can be dedicated to a single host or shared by several. To optimize
throughput, high-speed servers can be given dedicated SmartStack STS16-20D/
STS16-20R ports.
By transporting multiple Token Ring packets simultaneously, it boosts overall
network throughput.
Low Latency
When operating in cut-through mode, the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R
minimizes latency—the time it takes to forward a packet from one Token Ring
segment to another—by beginning switching immediately after looking at the first
six bytes of the destination address in the packet. If the packet needs to be switched
to another LAN segment, its data begins flowing through the destination port before
the entire packet has been received. The result: packets can appear at the output port
35 microseconds after entering the input port. Network devices that use store-andforward technology introduce much longer delays because they wait to receive the
entire packet before forwarding it.
By minimizing delay, the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R can move more
packets freely throughout the LAN without degrading performance.
Switch Overview
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
20
Address Management
At power up, the system address tables do not contain any information. Whenever
a SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R receives a packet with an unknown source
or destination address, it learns the new source address and stores its location in
coming port in the address table. If the destination address is unknown it sends the
packet to all ports that can receive data from the incoming port. When the response
packet comes back, the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R will learn the
responder’s location and adds it to the address table. Once the address table entries
are created, the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R uses these learned address to
switch all subsequent packets to the port where the destination address is located.
SmartStack STS16-20D Token Ring Switch
The system address table maintains up to 10,000 entries known across the networks
and stations attached to the switch.
On SmartStack STS16-20D, the local port address table for the designated network
ports 17 to 20 maintains up to 5,500 active Token Ring addresses. If more than this
maximum number of addresses appear as a source MAC address, these additional
addresses will not be learned, resulting in frames from these additional addresses
being sent to all switch ports.
The workstation ports 1 to 16 maintain one active Token Ring address per port. If
more than one address appears as a source MAC address, these additional addresses
will not be learned, and frames from these additional addresses will be not be
forwarded.
Addresses on both workstation and network ports are monitored for activity. If an
address has not been active for a configurable aging time, the address is removed
from the address tables. This ensures that the port’s address table is populated only
by the most recently used addresses.
This capability allows users to transparently connect to high-volume backbone
networks.
SmartStack STS16-20R Token Ring Switch
The system address table maintains up to 10,000 entries. On SmartStack STS1620R each port address table maintains 5,500 active Token Ring addresses (each
port address table is shared by four ports, using the following: 1-4, 5-8, 9-12, 13-,
etc.). If an address has not been active for a configurable aging time, it is removed
from the tables. This ensures that the port’s address table is populated only by the
most recently used address.
Just as on SmartStack STS16-20D, this capability allows users to transparently
connect to high-volume backbone networks.
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
Switch Overview
21
Multiple Bridging Modes
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R supports four different switching modes
to provide maximum flexibility in all installation environments. The switching
modes are source route switching (SRS), source route bridging (SRB), source
route transparent (SRT) and SRT/SRB. The switch operates on two levels (BRF
and CRF) as outlined in the following:
BRF 1
CRF 1
CRF 2
CRF 3
CRF 4
Switch
Figure 6. Typical Configuration with SmartStack STS16-20R
Switches Using Multiple Bridging Modes
The switch bridging modes are founded on the concept of logical rings (LR) or
logical segments in Ethernet. The logical ring is represented on the switch by the
DTR (IEEE 802.5r) standard’s concentrator relay function (CRF). A logical ring
may consist of interconnected CRFs on different switches.
Each port on the switch belongs to a CRF, which is a logical grouping of ports
within the switch. A CRF can consist of any number of ports within a switch or a
switch stack. The ports within a CRF do not have to be adjacent.
The logical rings and subsequently, the CRFs, are assigned a unique ring number
each when the switch performs source routing functions. The bridging is performed
through the logical entity of the bridge relay function (BRF).
Switch Overview
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
22
The CRF communicates via a logical, virtual port with the bridge relay function,
which functions as a multiport (virtual) bridge between the logical rings. The
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R can support up to 63 logical rings.
There are two levels of relay functions supported by the SmartStack STS16-20D/
STS16-20R. The first level is the CRF to which the ports are assigned. The second
level is the BRF. This is the parent relay function to which CRFs are assigned. The
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R maintains certain configuration information
and management statistics on a per BRF/CRF basis. Therefore, when you access
VLAN-specific SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R configuration or management
screens (such as the Current Spanning Tree Information screen), you will be
prompted to specify the desired BRF or CRF.
Source Route Switching (SRS)
This mode is used between ports comprising a logical ring.
SRS switching combines the normal transparent bridge function with the ability to
forward frames based on source route information to locally attached source-route
bridges. The switch does not otherwise act as a source route bridge. For non sourcerouted packets, the switch decision is based upon destination MAC Addresses. For
source-routed packets, it is based on the source-route information combined with
the destination MAC address.
The switch learns MAC addresses and source-routing route descriptors of source
route bridges attached to local switch ports.
Parallel paths are eliminated via the IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol. Note
that on SmartStack STS16-20D the spanning tree protocol is only available on the
network ports 17 to 20.
➽
Note: On SmartStack STS16-20D only the designated network ports 17 to 20 will
allow multiple MAC addresses to be learned. On SmartStack STS16-20R all ports
allow multiple MAC addresses.
Source Route Bridging (SRB)
The BRF acts as a multiport source route bridge between CRFs with the following
characteristics:
•
•
Each logical ring has a different ring number
•
Non-source-routed frames are not forwarded between logical rings
Source route frames are forwarded between the logical rings by the bridge
relay function based on the route information field
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
Switch Overview
23
•
The bridge relay function has a single bridge number and multiple ring
numbers (one per logical ring)
SRS is used between the ports of each logical ring. The bridge relay function runs
the IBM Spanning Tree Protocol to eliminate parallel paths with other source-route
bridges. The IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol is still used with each logical
ring. Duplicate MAC addresses are allowed only if they are on different logical
rings.
Source Route Transparent (SRT)
The BRF can combine transparent switching with source route bridging. Nonsource-routed packets are switched across logical rings by transparent bridging.
Source-routed frames are switched across logical rings by source route bridging
and within each logical ring by source route switching.
The bridge relay function runs the IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol. Duplicate
MAC addresses are not allowed.
SRT/SRB
This is a special mode combining SRT and the SRB switching modes. Each logical
ring will operate either in SRT mode or in SRB mode. Transparent bridging will
only take place between logical rings in SRT mode. Source route bridging will take
place between all logical rings.
The purpose of the SRT/SRB mode is to allow duplicate MAC addresses to be used
when in SRT mode. The ports on which the duplicate MAC addresses reside can be
reached only by source routing.
The bridge relay function runs the IBM Spanning Tree Protocol on the SRB logical
rings to eliminate parallel paths with all source route bridges. It runs the IEEE
802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol on the SRT logical rings to eliminate parallel paths
with other SRT bridges. The two resulting spanning trees are joined together.
The IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol is still used to eliminate parallel paths
within each logical ring whether it is SRB or SRT.
The benefit of the SRT/SRB mode is that it allows part of the network to be run in
SRT mode to accommodate applications that do not support source routing, while
still supporting duplicate MAC addresses on a number of SRB ports (for example,
for SNA gateway applications).
Switch Overview
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
24
Filtering
Filtering is important for a LAN switch. Filters can be used to reduce broadcast
traffic, block certain protocols and provide security functions.
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R provides filters for:
•
•
•
Destination or source MAC addresses
Destination service access point (DSAP)
Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP) type
Each protocol filter can be applied on a per-port basis for both input and output
traffic. This feature allows certain protocols to be blocked from certain ports. For
example, filters can be established to allow only Systems Network Architecture
(SNA) traffic to flow to ports with SNA gateways.
Source and destination MAC address filtering can be applied to all incoming
frames. The MAC address filters act in one of three ways:
•
Block destination address at a specific port—this prevents the specified port
from sending frames to a specified destination.
•
Allow destination address at specific ports—this indicates that the specified
port must send frames to the specified destinations only.
•
Force destination address to a specific port—this allows forwarding to a
unicast address that has not been learned. It can also be used to limit the
forwarding of Multicast addresses to a subset of ports. This last filter applies
to non-source-routing frames only.
Congestion Control
At regular intervals, the switch CPU inspects the queues on all output ports. If a
queue size is above a certain threshold, the port is instructed to:
•
•
Set the transmit priority for low priority frames to a specified high level
Delete old frames from the queue until it reaches a specified size
When the queue size again comes below a normal threshold size the port is
instructed to set the transmit priority back to the normal level.
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
Switch Overview
25
Three Switching Modes
This section describes the three switching modes available on the switch.
Cut-Through
In this mode the switch starts forwarding the packet to the output port as soon as
the destination address or the source route of the incoming packet has been
resolved. This technique ensures very low latency, typically in the range of 30-100
µs. However, if errors occur on the input port during the reception of a packet, the
error will still be forwarded to the output port. Note that cut-through can only be
used in transmissions between ports which operate at 16 Mbps.
Store and Forward
In this mode, the switch receives the total packet from the input port, checks it for
any errors and then starts forwarding the packet to the destination port. This
technique will ensure that no faulty packets are transmitted by output port. The
negative impact however, is higher latency, typically in the range of 40–2,000 µs
depending on the packet size. Though slower than cut-through mode, this is still
much faster that conventional bridges.
Auto (Adaptive Cut-Through)
This is a technique whereby the switch will automatically swap between store-andforward and cut-through modes based on an error threshold. If the number of
received faulty packets is low, then cut-through mode is used; if the number of
faulty packets is high, the store and forward mode is used. This provides optimized
performance but introduces variable latency.
Switch Overview
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
26
Token Ring Port Operation Modes
Each Token Ring port may operate in one of the following modes:
•
Half-duplex concentrator port
The port behaves like an active MAU port for classical Token Ring. Connects
to a single station in half-duplex mode. This is also known as Token Passing
(TKP) port mode. Compatible with older adapters.
•
Half-duplex station emulation
The port is connected to a port on a MAU. Connects to a classical Token Ring
segment with multiple stations. This is also known as Token Passing (TKP)
station mode.
•
Full-duplex concentrator port
Connects to a single station or to another switch in full-duplex mode. This is
also known as Transmit Immediate (TXI) port mode.
•
Full-duplex station emulation
Connects to another Token Ring switch. This is also known as Transmit
Immediate (TXI) station mode.
•
RI/RO-like connection
Allows connection of the RI/RO port from a MAU or CAU directly to the
switch (only on SmartStack STS16-20R, ports 19 and 20).
The mode of operation can be configured manually or sensed automatically. Note
that for SmartStack STS16-20R this is with the exception of RI/RO, when
equipment is connected to the port. The media speed (4 or 16 Mbps) can also be
manually configured or automatically sensed in all port modes.
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
Switch Overview
27
RI/RO-Like Connection on SmartStack STS16-20R
A UTP RI/RO connection is available on ports 19 and 20 on the SmartStack
STS16-20R Switch.
This feature allows the SmartStack STS16-20R to connect to CAU/LAM systems
using the RI/RO connections thus providing a RI/RO-like functionality. This
enables the switch to be easily installed in existing Token Ring networks.
A loop-back function has been implemented on these ports so that if the port is
disabled or the switch is powered off there will not be a break in the attached main
ring. This means that attaching a cable from the RI port of a MAU port to one of
the two switch ports in effect joins the primary and the backup ring in a MAU/CAU
main ring system. Connecting the other end of the RI/RO connection to the other
switch port, creates redundant paths because the two switch ports are connected to
the same segment. Therefore, the IEEE Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) must be
enabled, which will place one port in forward and the other in blocked mode. If
there is a break in the main ring, the STP will place both ports in forward mode, and
all MACs on both segments will be relearned.
If a SmartStack STS16-20R port has been configured to RI/RO mode, it will
automatically sense whether the port has been connected to RI or RO of the MAU.
Note: It is not possible to automatically verify whether a UTP/STP port has been
connected according to the configuration. Any errors, such as attaching port 19 or
20 to a normal MAU port when the SmartStack STS16-20R port has been
configured for RI/RO, will cause a complete disruption of the ring to which the port
is attached. Therefore, be careful when using the RI/RO feature.
Switch Overview
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
28
Transmission Priority Queues
To address the needs of delay-sensitive data, such as multimedia, the Token Ring
ports of the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R have two transmit queues, a highpriority queue and a low-priority queue.
The queue for a frame is determined by the value of the priority field in the frame
control (FC) byte. If FC priority is above a configurable level (default 3), the frame
is put into the high-priority queue. If an output port becomes congested, you can
dynamically configure the port to transmit all frames at high priority regardless of
the FC byte contents.
ClearSession Support
The SmartStack STS16-20RM switch family support the ClearSession high
availability and network redundancy features.
ClearSession is a framework for mission critical networks. It prevents session loss by
providing a network failure recovery time of, typically, less than three seconds.
ClearSession consists of a several product features. Some of these, ClearServer,
CrossLinks and Dynamic Source Route Recovery, are supported by the CSmartStack
STS16-20RM switch family. These features provide the following functionality:
ClearServer. Token-Ring ClearServer for LAN, allow multiple adapters to be
treated as one virtual adapter in the server, thus allowing multiple connections
between a server and the backbone switch or switches. During normal operation the
traffic is distributed on the links. The SmartStack STS16-20RM switch
familysupport ClearServer for LAN to be used on servers connected to the switch.
CrossLinks. Any Token-Ring link or dedicated Token-Ring link between
SmartStack STS16-20RM family switches may be expanded to a CrossLink. A
CrossLink is an aggregation of two to eight identical parallel links, working as one
link of the aggregate capacity, providing protection from physical link failure.
Should one of the links fail, the traffic is redistributed among the remaining
operational links.
Dynamic Source Route Recovery. DSRR is a feature that enables two or more
SmartStack STS16-20RM family switches performing source route bridging
between a shared-media access ring and a common backbone ring to function as
backup for each other. Should one of the switches fail or lose connectivity to one
of the access rings, the other switch immediately takes over and bridges sourcerouted traffic marked with the failed path. DSRR protects source-routed traffic to
and from shared access segments, such as user rings, with redundant connections
to two Token-Ring switches. Traffic to and from such rings that is non-sourcerouted relies on the spanning tree.
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
Switch Overview
29
CrossLink Connections
Two or more Token-Ring ports can be configured to comprise a CrossLink.
A CrossLink is a collection of identical parallel links between two switches or
between a switch and an end node, aggregated to appear as one single link of the
aggregate capacity. The traffic distribution mechanism attempts to balance the load
on the individual links. If one of the links in a CrossLink fails, the traffic is
automatically moved from this link and distributed among the other links, thus
providing active resilience.
The CrossLink ports on a STS16-20x switch can be used to connect to another
STS16-20x switch, or a server with multiple RapidFire adapters using ClearServer
for Token-Ring. (Please note that ClearServer for Token-Ring is supported on
selected models of RapidFire adapters only. For details, refer to the ClearServer for
LAN product information.)
The CrossLinks provide load distribution as well as resilience. In normal operation,
the traffic is distributed on the physical ports of the CrossLink according to the
frame MAC addresses. This ensures the sequence of a flow. Should a link fail or
otherwise become inoperative, the switch dynamically redistributes the traffic to
the remaining links. The CrossLink remains in operation as long as there is at least
one link in operation. If a failed link is restored, traffic is once more redistributed
to make use of the restored link.
A CrossLink is in many ways operating as one single link. For example, the
spanning tree protocol will only have one port entity covering all ports in the
CrossLink. The ports will all have the same operating state. As for VLAN and CRF
configuration, the CrossLink is also seen as one link. Configuration changes apply
to all links in the CrossLink.
On the STS16-20/RM/STS16-20FRM switch, CrossLinks can also be configured
on the High-Speed Token-Ring ports of the SSIM-R2-02/SSIM-R8-02 High Speed
Token Ring SmartStack modules or on the Fast Ethernet ports of the SSIM-H2-02
Fast Ethernet -Translational Switch SmartStack module. CrossLinks on Fast
Ethernet ports can only consist of two ports available on the same SSIM-H2-02 Fast
Ethernet -Translational Switch SmartStack module.
The CrossLink concept is designed to be compatible with the coming Link
Aggregation standard, IEEE 802.3ad.
On SmartStack STS16-20D only the network ports 17–20 will allow CrossLinks.
On this switch you can achieve up to 128 Mbps using four ports. On the SmartStack
STS16-20R up to 256 Mbps can be achieved, using eight ports.
The STS16-20/RM/STS16-20FRM switch allows up to eight CrossLinks, each
consisting of up to eight Token-Ring links.
Switch Overview
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
30
For details about CrossLink configuration, please refer to the section “CrossLink”
on page 110 in Chapter 6, “Switch Configuration”.
Spanning Tree Protocol Support
IBM initially supported only source route bridging (SRB) in its bridges, so most
networks were built to use it. The main consideration for SRB implementations in
switches is the spanning tree algorithm for spanning tree explorers (STEs). IBM
originally implemented a form of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE) spanning tree algorithm. This algorithm, commonly referred to
as the IBM spanning tree, limits the STE frames to one copy per destination ring.
Some SRB implementations have also implemented the IEEE Spanning Tree
Protocol to be compatible with source route transparent bridges. The IEEE
Spanning Tree Protocol is not compatible with the IBM Spanning Tree Protocol.
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R supports both the IEEE 802.1D Spanning
Tree Protocol and IBM Spanning Tree Protocols.
➽
Note: On SmartStack STS16-20D only the network ports 17–20 support the
spanning tree protocol at the port level.
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
Switch Overview
31
VLAN Support
The virtual LAN (VLAN) concept creates a virtual switch within a physical switch
or stack of switches. A VLAN consists of CRFs and has its own bridge relay
function attached. Frames are not forwarded across VLANs and ring numbers must
be unique within a VLAN.
•
•
•
A VLAN consists of a number of ports of a switch or stack of switches
•
•
For each VLAN, the stack can be assigned a separate IP address
No frames are forwarded between ports belonging to different VLANs
Port groups on different VLANs may be assigned the same ring number, but
ring numbers must be unique within the same VLAN
The spanning tree protocol is executed independently within each VLAN.
However, since all BRFs use the same Bridge ID for the spanning tree
algorithm, the spanning tree protocol will not function if ports from different
BRFs within one switch are connected.
A sample VLAN with SmartStack STS16-20R is shown below.
VLAN 1
VLAN 2
BRF 1
CRF 1
BRF 2
CRF 2
CRF 3
CRF 4
Switch
Figure 7. A SmartStack STS16-20R Switch Configured
with Two VLANs
Switch Overview
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
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Dynamic Source Route Recovery
Dynamic Source Route Recovery (DSRR) is a proprietary protocol that enables a
group of switches to handle a link or switch failure without session loss.
A basic redundant setup must have a minimum of two switches performing source
route bridging between a legacy Token-Ring and an emulated Token-Ring (or
another legacy ring) as illustrated in Figure 8.
BRF
Bridge No. B1
CRF
CRF
A
T
M
BRF
Bridge No. B2
CRF
CRF
A
T
M
Figure 8. Example of Dynamic Source Route Recovery, Base Configuration
This configuration already has redundant paths between the two rings, but since
moving traffic from one path to the other involves changing source route, this
would involve session loss.
When DSRR is enabled, an extra path is automatically created between the two
rings for each switch, as shown in Figure 9. During normal operation, these extra
paths do not forward any traffic.
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
Switch Overview
33
BRF
Bridge No. B1
Backup BRF
Inactive
A
T
M
A
T
M
A
T
M
A
T
M
BRF
Bridge No. B2
Backup BRF
Inactive
Figure 9. Example of Dynamic Source Route Recovery, Normal State
If one of the switches (Figure 9) or its link to any of the Token-Rings fail, (one of)
the remaining active switch(es) will after a short interval activate its backup path to
take over the traffic of the failed switch (see Figure 10) When the failing switch has
been repaired/replaced, the traffic will automatically revert to it.
Switch Overview
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switches Installation and User Guide
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BRF
Bridge No. B1
Backup BRF
Inactive
A
T
M
A
T
M
A
T
M
A
T
M
BRF
Bridge No. B2
Backup BRF
Bridge No. B1
Active
Figure 10. Example of Dynamic Source Route Recovery, Switch 1 Failed
Note that since a separate link is required for forwarding traffic with a given Route
Descriptor, one switch can only carry backup traffic for one failed switch at a time.
This means that a total of 2×n switches is required to handle simultaneous failure
of n switches.
While the above example shows redundancy for a BRF with two CRFs, it is also
possible to provide (partial) redundancy for a BRF with more than two CRFs. This
must, however, be accomplished by creating separate DSRR instances for selected
CRF pairs. Note that since at least one of the CRFs must be connected to a legacy
Token-Ring, it is not possible to provide full redundancy for a BRF with more than
one ATM CRF.
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Management
This section describes the management options for the switch.
SNMP
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R can be managed via a SNMP manager.
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R supports ten Management Information
Bases (MIBs). Six of the MIBs are standard MIBs, which are defined by RFCs and
are included with most SNMP management applications. Four of the MIBs are
proprietary and are provided on the disk that accompanies the SmartStack STS1620D/STS16-20R. SNMP management is supported via IP and MAC.
The following MIBs are supported:
Specification
MIB
RFC1213
MIB II
RFC1493
Bridge MIB
RFC1525
SR Bridge MIB
RFC1573
Evolution of the Interfaces Group of MIB-II
RFC1757/1513
RMON MIB/TR extensions - Only partial support
RFC1749/1748
IEEE 802.5 MIB
DTR MIB
IEEE 802.5r MIB
DTR MAC MIB
IEEE 802.5r MIB
STS16 MIB
1.3.6.1.4.1.52.285
STS16 MIB
1.3.6.1.4.1.9 (crosslinks)
Table 8. Supported MIBs
Most user configurable variables will be supported in either the standard MIBs or
the proprietary MIB. Configuration settings, such as port attributes, and operational
information, such as address tables, are fully accessible through SNMP. Certain
other settings, such as passwords and console settings, cannot be viewed or
modified via SNMP for security reasons.
Switch Overview
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SmartStack Manager for Windows
The SmartSwitch Manager is an application that runs under Windows. It provides
an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) that displays a view of the switch front
panel and supports configuration, performance monitoring, and troubleshooting.
This application is included with the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R.
Telnet Management and VT100 Management (Console)
The Console Management function may be accessed out-of-band via the TIA/EIA232-F (that is, RS-232) port labeled MANAGEMENT or in-band via Telnet.
IBM LAN Network Manager
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R does not support management by the
IBM LAN Network Manager, but it will allow LAN Network Manager LLC frames
to flow through the switch so that communication to existing LNM manageable
hubs and source route bridges will be maintained. The switch also implements a
mini Ring Parameter Server to supply attached NICs (such as CAUs) with the
configured ring number.
Some error reporting functions and ring map functions might be lost for the rings
attached to through the switch, because a Token Ring Switch will not (and should
not) forward MAC frames, but only LLC frames between ports.
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RMON Support
RMON is an industry-standard method for providing network statistics monitoring
using SNMP. It also collects fault, performance, and configuration statistics. It can
monitor continuously, even when communication with the management station is
not possible or efficient. RMON can then notify the management station when an
exceptional condition occurs.
In typical SNMP management, the SNMP client has to continuously poll the
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R for fault, performance, and configuration
information, waiting for the value to change. This causes increased traffic through
the network. With RMON, you can have the switch monitor a particular statistic
internally, and when the statistics reaches a threshold, the SmartStack STS16-20D/
STS16-20R will send a trap to the client. This monitoring method reduces traffic
between the SNMP client and the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R.
The switch implements a mini RMON probe for the physical ports by supporting
some of the RMON groups RFC 1757 and RFC 1513.
For full RMON an external probe must be used.
For information on supported groups, see the following table:
Name
Support Info
1. Statistics:
Supported:
— The Token-Ring MAC-Layer Statistics Group.
The Token-Ring Promiscuous Statistics Group.
2. History
Supported:
— The Token-Ring MAC-Layer History Group.
— The Token-Ring Promiscuous History Group.
3. Alarm
— Supported for all RMON variables.
— Not supported for other MIB variables.
4. Hosts
Not supported.
5. HostTopN
Not supported.
6. Matrix
Not supported.
7. Filter
Not supported.
8. Capture
Not supported.
Table 9. Supported RMON Groups
Switch Overview
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Name
Support Info
9. Event
Supported.
10. Token-Ring
Supported:
— The Token-Ring Ring Station Group.
Only supported as read. That is, only the entries
created as default can be read. The ring station
table is not supported.
— The Token-Ring Ring Station Order Group.
— The Ring Station Config Table.
Not supported:
— The Token-Ring Ring Station Config Group.
— The Token-Ring Source Routing Group.
Table 9. Supported RMON Groups
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Built-in Port Counters
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R supports a wide range of port counters,
which enables you to obtain a detailed overview of the port traffic. The counters
give a comprehensive overview in the areas of:
•
•
•
MAC Layer Counters
MAC Layer Error Counters
Frame Forwarding Counters
Stackable Architecture
All SmartStack STS16-20x switches are stackable.
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R switches can be stacked using the included
SmartStack STS-LM Link Module, the optional SmartStack STS-5SU Stacker Unit
or the optional SmartStack STS-8SU Stacker Unit for connecting up to eight
switches in a stack.
The STS-LM Stacker Link Module is a built-in feature of the SmartStack STS1620D and SmartStack STS16-20R Switches, the other two stacker units are optional.
The following sections describe how to stack the STS16-20x switches.
Back-to-Back
Two STS16-20x units can be connected together by fitting each switch with the
SmartStack STS-LM Link Module and connecting the switches together using and
appropriate stacker link cable. This simple connection doubles the number of ports
available.
Internal Stacker
The STS-5SU Internal Stacker Unit can be inserted into the stacker port of a switch.
It allows up to five switches from the SmartStack STS16-20RM switch family to
be stacked together. One of the switches in the stack must contain the STS-5SU
Internal Stacker Unit. The other switches in the stack must be equipped with a STSLM Stacker Link Module and an appropriate stacker link cable. This can result in a
stack of as many as five STS16-20x switches. The STS-5SU Internal Stacker Unit
works as a common backplane switching fabric, which provides 1.4 Gbps of
aggregate bandwidth.
External Stacker
The SmartStack STS-8SU External Stacker Unit is an external stack unit that
allows up to eight STS16-20x switches to be stacked together. Each switch in the
Switch Overview
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stack must be equipped with a STS-LM Stacker Link Module and an appropriate
stacker link cable. The SmartStack STS-8SU External Stacker Unit works as a
common backplane switching fabric, which provides 2.2 Gbps of aggregate
bandwidth.
➽
Note: The SmartStack STS16-20D and the SmartStack STS16-20R can be stacked
together with other switches from the STS16-20x family in any desired
combination. All switches in a stack must, however, run the same software version.
Optional Redundant Power Supply on
SmartStack STS16-20R
The SmartStack STS16-20R Token Ring Switch has an input for a backup power
supply (see Figure 22. in Chapter 4, “Installation”). It is compatible with the
SmartStack STS-RPC Redundant Power Center, which can supply back-up power
for up to six switches, when up to six SmartStack STS-PSU Redundant Power
Supply Unit are installed in the chassis. This gives a high degree of resilience to
power supply failures. The SmartStack STS16-20R will switch to the external
power supply if the internal supply fails. The switch monitors the power source and
informs the network management system which supply is in use.
The SmartStack STS-8SU Stacker Unit also accommodates an optional switch
matrix STS-SM, which includes a redundant power supply, ensuring the highest
degree of resilience in the stack of switches.
➽
Caution: The redundant power supply unit SmartStack STS-PSU is not
hot-swappable. Both the SmartStack STS-PSU unit and the switch must be off
before connecting or disconnecting the DC power cable.
❏
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3. Preparing for Installation
Before installing the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R, read this chapter
carefully.
Safety Recommendations
Follow these guidelines to ensure general safety during and after the installation:
•
•
•
Keep the chassis area clear and dust-free during and after installation.
Keep tools away from walk areas where you and others could trip over them.
Do not perform any action that creates a potential hazard to people or makes
the equipment unsafe.
Safety with Electricity
Follow these guidelines when working on equipment powered by electricity.
➽
Danger: Do not open the switch. Dangerous voltage inside.
➽
Danger: To avoid shock hazard, the power cord must be connected to a properly
wired and earthed receptacle. Any equipment to which the switch will be attached
must also be connected to properly wired and earthed receptacles.
➽
Warning: Before working on equipment that is connected to power lines, remove
jewelry (including rings, necklaces, bracelets and watches). Metal objects will heat
up when connected to power and ground and can cause serious burns or weld the
metal object to the terminals.
➽
Warning: Do not work on the system or connect or disconnect cables during
periods of lightning activity. Read the installation instructions before you connect
the system to its power source.
To turn off the switch, you must disconnect the power cord; there is no on/off
switch. ON/OFF switch. Note that if the switch is connected to an external
Redundant Power Supply Unit (RPSU), the power cord must be removed from both
units.
•
Locate the emergency power-off switch for the room in which you are
working. Then, if an electrical accident occurs, you can act quickly to turn off
the power.
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•
Before working on the system, unplug the power cord. To avoid the possibility
of electrical shock, unplug the power cord from the outlet before detaching the
power cord from the switch.
•
Disconnect all power before doing the following:
— Installing or removing a chassis
— Working near power supplies
— Performing a hardware upgrade
•
•
•
Do not work alone if potentially hazardous conditions exist.
•
If an electrical accident occurs, proceed as follows:
Never assume that power is disconnected from a circuit. Always check.
Look carefully for possible hazards in your work area, such as moist floors,
ungrounded power extension cables, and missing safety grounds.
— Use caution; do not become a victim yourself.
— Unplug the power cord(s).
— If possible, send another person to get medical aid. Otherwise, assess the
condition of the victim and then call for help.
— Determine if the person needs rescue breathing or external cardiac
compressions; then take appropriate action.
Preventing Electrostatic Discharge Damage
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) can damage equipment and impair electrical
circuitry. It occurs when electronic components are improperly handled and can
result in complete or intermittent failures. Always follow ESD-prevention
procedures when removing and replacing components. Ensure that the chassis is
electrically connected to earth ground using an ESD mat or a ground wire. Wear an
ESD-preventive wrist strap, ensuring that it makes good skin contact. To safely
channel unwanted ESD voltages to ground, connect the clip to an unpainted surface
of the chassis frame. To properly guard against ESD damage and shocks, the wrist
strap and cord must operate effectively. If no wrist strap is available, ground
yourself by touching the metal part of the chassis.
➽
Caution: For safety, periodically check the resistance value of the antistatic strap,
which should be between 1 and 10 MΩ.
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Site Requirements
Following are the site requirements for installation.
Environment
Choose a clean, dust-free, preferably air-conditioned location. Avoid direct
sunlight, heat sources, or areas with high levels of EMI (Electromagnetic
Interference).
Chassis Accessibility
Make sure the front and back panel of the equipment is accessible so that you can
monitor the LED indicators and access the control switches. Leaving enough
clearance at the front and back will also allow easier cabling and service.
Cooling and Airflow
Two fans, which are located at the left side of the switch, cool the interior by
drawing air through vents on the left side and forcing heated air out through holes
in the right side. If the internal temperature exceeds 50°C (112°F), a temperature
error is reported to the console.
➽
Caution: To protect the equipment from overheating, do not operate it in an area
that exceeds the maximum recommended ambient temperature of 40°C (104°F). To
prevent airflow restriction, you must allow at least 7.6 cm (3") of clearance around
chassis openings for proper airflow.
Power
The source electrical outlet should be installed near the switch, be easily accessible,
and be properly grounded.
Also, observe the following power cable considerations before you start the
installation of the SmartStack STS16-20D Token Ring Switch and/or the
SmartStack STS16-20R Token Ring Switch.
11. The socket outlet shall be installed near the equipment and shall be easily
accessible.
12. To prevent electrical shock, the power cord set used must comply with national
regulations.
a. The female receptacle of the cord must meet CEE-22 requirements.
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b. The cord must be UL listed, CSA labelled, and consist of three conductors
with a maximum of 15 feet in length. Type SVT or SJT cord sets shall be
used for units which stand on a desk or table. Type SJT cord sets shall be
used for units which stand on floor.
c. The male plug for units operating at 115 VAC shall consist of a parallel
blade, grounding type attachment plug rated 15 A, 125 VAC.
The male plug for units operating at 230 VAC shall consist of a tandem
blade, grounding type attachment plug rated 15 A, 250 VAC.
The male plug for units operating at 230 VAC (outside of the United States
and Canada) shall consist of a grounding type attachment plug rated 15 A,
250 VAC and have the appropriate safety approvals for the country in which
the equipment will be installed.
➽
Caution: Support the SmartStack STS16-20D Token Ring Switch and/or the
SmartStack STS16-20R Token Ring Switch while you are installing the unit to
avoid dropping it on the floor or any equipment beneath it in the rack. The
SmartStack STS16-20D Token Ring Switch and the SmartStack STS16-20R
Token Ring Switch unit each weighs approximately 7.2 kg (15.9 lbs).
➽
Caution: To separate the switch from the power, pull the power cord completely
out from the socket. The power socket must be easily accessible and located near
the unit.
➽
Warning: All RJ-45 connectors must only be connected to safety extra low voltage
(SELV) circuits like local area networking (LAN).
➽
Warning: This product relies on the building’s installation for short-circuit
(overcurrent) protection. Ensure that a fuse or circuit breaker no larger than
120 VAC, 15A U.S. (240 VAC, 10A international) is used on the phase conductors
(all current-carrying conductors).
➽
Warning: A voltage mismatch can cause equipment damage and may pose a fire
hazard. If the voltage indicated on the label is different from the power outlet
voltage, do not connect the chassis to that receptacle.
➽
Caution: If you are using the redundant power supply unit SmartStack STS-PSU
(only available for SmartStack STS16-20R), note that this unit is not hotswappable. You must turn off the SmartStack STS-PSU Unit and the switch before
connecting or disconnecting the DC power cable.
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Configuration Guidelines
This section will help you understand the physical configuration restrictions for the
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R. Read the guidelines in the following sections
before you start installing the switch. In brief, remember the following rules when
planning to install the switch:
•
•
18,192 byte maximum physical frame length.
•
•
Straight-through cables for all ports.
•
The spanning tree protocol will not function between different BRFs within
one switch.
For shared-media LAN segments, acceptable distances are defined by the hub
or concentrator attached to the switch port.
If you create parallel paths directly between switches, be sure that you have
enabled the spanning tree (see “Spanning Tree for BRF Screen” on page 99).
The default setting for the spanning tree protocol is disabled.
The following sections contain more detailed information.
Frame Length Limit
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R supports a maximum physical frame
length of 18,192 bytes (from the Frame Control, FC, to the Frame Check Sequence,
FCS, characters). This corresponds to a Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU) of 17,800
bytes.
The default maximum physical frame length of the switch is 4,546 bytes which
corresponds to an MTU of 4,472 bytes. The actual MTU size of a VLAN is
configured in the VLAN Parameter Configuration for BRF screen, see page 91.
The switch truncates frames larger than the configured maximum physical frame
length and adds an abort sequence at the end. Characteristically, if frames are sent
longer than the frame length limit, the abort sequences will be reported as frame
errors by other ring stations.
In a stack of switches, all stacker link modules in the stack must support 18 KB
frames for any switch in the stack to support frames sizes longer than 4,546 bytes.
Additionally, if you are using ATM uplinks in any SmartStack STS16-20RM/
STS16-20FRM, all ATM uplinks in the stack must support 18 KB frames for any
switch in the stack to support MTU sizes greater than 4,472 bytes.
To verify that your hardware supports 18 KB frames, view the Module
Information screen, described on page 84. Stacker link modules and ATM uplinks
that do not support 18 KB frames will have the text (4K) displayed immediately
after the hardware revision level.
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You can also use the NET 18K dialog box in the HP OpenView application. This
dialog can display all the hardware modules. Note that the SSIM-H2-02 Fast
Ethernet - Translational Switch SmartStack Interface Module might display 1,500
bytes, but this does not prevent the stack from running 18 KB.
For information on how to upgrade your stacker link modules or ATM uplinks that
currently do not support 18 KB frames, please contact your dealer or your local
representative.
Note: It is most important that you consider the impact of the frame length limit,
and make sure that the workstations and servers in the network have been
configured to use a maximum frame length of equal or less than the switch. If this
is not done you may experience problems after the switch has been installed in the
network.
IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree
When the IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol is active, a port within that
spanning tree domain will require several seconds to make the transition from the
blocking state to the forwarding state, from the time the port is initially activated
(for example, joins an existing ring or activates a dedicated link).
Some client or server applications may attempt to establish session activity during
this time, resulting in error messages indicating a connection failure. These
applications should be configured to wait at least thirty seconds after the LAN link
has become active, before attempting to establish session activity. Modifying the
802.1D spanning tree default parameters can reduce this delay. If STP is enabled
on a dedicated port (FDX) and a station is attached, it takes at least 30 seconds for
the port to do the transition DWN→LSN→LRN→FWD. IPX clients and server
stations may give up before the transition is done. This means that the first many
connection attempts are lost. STP should not be enabled on ports that are intended
for dedicated stations. This problem does not occur on shared media, because the
port will stay attached to the hub even though all stations have closed.
Another reason for not enabling STP for dedicated stations is, that the whole
network will go into Topology Change state each time a station opens or closes.
This will cause the whole network to use short aging timers, which means that all
address tables will be cleared. This can lead to many unknown station broadcasts
before the tables converge again. Note that a port or CRF that is manually forced to
either FWD or BLK state, is not participating in the spanning tree protocol. If a port
or CRF is changed from Auto (the default) to FWD/BLK, it is the network
administrator’s responsibility that no loops are created from this port(s) to other
parts of the network.
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Ring Numbers
Forwarding frames between CRFs in SRB mode is only possible if the CRFs know
their ring numbers. If you are running the switch in an environment without other
bridges/switches, auto-configuration of ring numbers is not possible. In this case,
you have to configure the ring numbers manually.
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Sample Uses of the SmartStack STS16-20RM Family
Switches
The Cabletron Systems SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R switches allow you to
increase the performance of the network by providing dedicated bandwidth to
individual workstations. You will typically deploy SmartStack STS16-20D/
STS16-20R as a second step of migration from a hierarchical Token Ring network
consisting of a backbone segment and workgroup segments towards a fully
switched network:
•
Step 1 of the migration involves redesign of the backbone by replacing a shared
16 Mbps Token-ring backbone with a switched backbone utilizing SmartStack
STS16-20RM or SmartStack STS16-20R. The backbone usually serves as
interconnection of the workgroup segments and the server farm segment.
•
Step 2 of the migration increases the performance of the network by providing
dedicated full-duplex 16 Mbps bandwidth to individual workstations utilizing
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R switches.
Figures 11, 12, 13 and 14 illustrate the migration steps. Figure 11 shows a typical
3-layer network design built with source-routing bridges. Figure 12 shows how the
backbone is optimized using SmartStack STS16-20RM or SmartStack STS16-20R.
Figure 13 shows the deployment of SmartStack STS16-20RM or SmartStack
STS16-20R as segment switches while Figure 14 shows the next step where a
dedicated bandwidth is delivered to individual workstations. For such network
design SmartStack STS16-20RM provides all the flexibility needed to use fiber to
extend distances, or increase the number of ports, while SmartStack STS16-20D/
STS16-20R provides the low-cost needed for dedicated bandwidth to individual
workstations.
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R switch is intended to increase the
network bandwidth. Replacing a shared Token Ring segment with a SmartStack
STS16-20D/STS16-20R delivers N times 16 Mbps bandwidth. For example,
replacing a shared ring with 10 users with a SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R
delivers 10 times 16 Mbps—a 10-fold bandwidth increase.
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Server
Server
5
SRB
SRB
Server
Server
4
6
SRB
SRB
SRB
SRB
SRB
SRB
1
2
3
7
8
9
Figure 11. Typical Network without the SmartStack
STS16-20D/STS16-20R
Figure 12. Relieving the Overstressed Backbone
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Switch
BRF
CRF 1
CRF 2
CRF 3
CRF 7
CRF 8
CRF 9
1
2
3
7
8
9
Server
CRF 5
32 Mbps
Server
Server
Server
Figure 13. Replacing SRBs with a SmartStack STS16-20RM or SmartStack
STS16-20R
Figure 14. Delivering Dedicated Bandwidth to Individual Workstations
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Deployment Scenarios
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R includes a built-in stacker link. To create a
stack of SmartStack STS16-20x switches you can use any switch in this series as
an interface point for the stack. To do this, you use either a SmartStack STS-8SU
Stacker Unit or a SmartStack STS-5SU Stacker Unit. Using the stacker link and an
appropriate stacker unit it is possible to build a large switch stack combining
several ports on one switch with ports on one or more other several SmartStack
STS16-20x switches. You can use the expansion module slots of the SmartStack
STS16-20RM/STS16-20FRM to get ATM, High-Speed Token-Ring as well as Fast
Ethernet Translational Switching connectivity for the whole stack including the
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R.
You can use all the ports in the stack as one switched ring (a single CRF), or should
your network design call for it, allocate ports on to different rings. The SmartStack
STS16-20D/STS16-20R provides all the flexibility of the SmartStack STS1620RM/STS16-20FRM with respect to defining switched rings (CRFs) and bridges
(BRFs).
Figure 15 shows a scenario using a stacker links and a switch stacker unit.
•
Several ports on SmartStack STS16-20RM are combined with ports on the
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R to create a switched ring.
•
Ports on SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R are intended for users who need
the dedicated bandwidth and for file servers while SmartStack STS16-20RM/
STS16-20FRM supports shared media Token Rings in a transition period and
extends the backbone Token Ring using fiber.
An alternative way of migrating shared rings to switched rings is to use existing
cables as connections between SmartStack STS16-20RM and SmartStack STS1620D/STS16-20R. In this way, the distance limitations of the stack solution are
bypassed and the ring is geographically extended to cover more than one wiring
closet. A network port (ports 1 to 20 on SmartStack STS16-20R and ports 17 to 20
on SmartStack STS16-20D) can be used to connect two switches from the
SmartStack STS16-20RM family together using existing cables. In order to
increase the resilience of the network you can connect the SmartStack STS16-20D/
STS16-20R to two different switches from the SmartStack STS16-20x family that
use multiple network ports.
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Figure 15. Scenario using a Stacker Link and a Matrix Switch
Figure 16 on the next page shows a network design where SmartStack STS16-20D/
STS16-20R uses network ports to connect to a remote SmartStack STS16-20RM
switch. In many Token Ring networks, the cabling layout requires such remote
extension of rings. When more than one network port at each end is used to connect
the same two switches they can be configured as a CrossLink which allows for a
data pipe with up to 32 Mbps times the number of ports in the pipe in bandwidth.
For a description of CrossLinks, see the section “CrossLink” on page 110.
As a general rule of thumb, you should combine SmartStack STS16-20D/STS1620R with SmartStack STS16-20RM because SmartStack STS16-20RM gives the
ultimate flexibility via its expansion module capability. Another good network
design rule of thumb is to reduce the number of rings in a switched network switched rings do not have the cabling limitations and the limitations on the number
of ring stations as the shared media Token Rings. The reduction of the number of
rings - ultimately leading to one single logical switched ring - may prove
advantageous if you want to reduce the number of hops across source routing
bridges, and limit the use of source routing bridging.
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Figure 16. Setting Up CrossLinks
❏
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4. Installation
This chapter contains step-by-step instructions for installing, connecting and
verifying that the SmartStack STS16-20D Token Ring Switch and/or the
SmartStack STS16-20R Token Ring Switch is operating properly.
Installation Summary
The installation sequence is listed in the following steps.
1. Plan for installation. Read Chapter 3, “Preparing for Installation”.
2. Unpack the switch.
3. Gather the materials.
4. Mount the switch.
5. Connect the switch to the network.
6. Verify the operation of the switch.
➽
Note: Complete the following step only if you will be customizing the
configuration of the switch or monitoring its activity.
7. Configure the switch.
➽
Installation
Note: For information on front panel and back panel connectors, buttons, slots, and
LEDs, please see “Front Panel Details” on page 5 and “Back Panel Details” on
page 9 in Chapter 1.
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Package Contents
Immediately after receiving the equipment, examine all shipping containers and
contents for damage. If any damage has occurred, notify the shipping carrier.
Unpack the unit by removing the packing material and lifting it from its protective
enclosures. Visually examine the equipment and check the container for related
parts and accessories. You should have the following items:
•
One SmartStack STS16-20D Token Ring Switch
OR
One SmartStack STS16-20R Token Ring Switch
•
One CD-ROM containing the Token-Ring switch software and the SmartStack
Manager for Windows, as well as user documentation in PDF format
•
•
One printed SmartStack Manager for Windows Installation and User Guide
•
•
One serial cable for the management port
One printed SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token-Ring Switches
Installation and User guide
One plastic bag containing four adhesive rubber feet and rack mounting
screws, an Allen key, nuts and washers
Report any missing parts and any damage, not related, to shipping to your customer
service representative.
➽
Note: Keep the packing materials for future use. All components returned under
warranty should be shipped in their original packing materials.
If you have received your equipment before your site is fully prepared, after
inspection, you should keep all of the components in the original shipping
containers and store them in a physically and environmentally safe place.
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Materials needed for Installation
To install the switch, you need the following items:
•
If the unit will be installed in a rack, you need:
— A rack inventory chart and a cabling chart from your network
administrator.
— The supplied set of screws, nuts and washers along with the Allen key tool.
— A properly earthed power cord.
•
If the unit will be installed on a surface (such as a tabletop), you will need:
— A cabling chart from your network administrator.
— The four supplied adhesive rubber feet.
— A properly earthed power cord.
Installation
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Mounting the Chassis
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R can be mounted in a standard 19-inch rack
or cabinet, or can be mounted on any flat surface such as a tabletop. The installation
area should be near a power source and should have enough room around the front
and back panels for cabling and access to controls. Use the following procedures for
the installation of the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R.
➽
Warning: Only trained and qualified personnel should be allowed to install or
replace this equipment.
Rack or Cabinet Mounting
If you install the equipment in a closed or multi-unit rack, observe the
environmental guidelines from the previous chapter, Chapter 3, “Preparing for
Installation”.
➽
Caution: The following rack mounting instructions need to be observed to ensure
that the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R and any other equipment are
mechanically stable.
The following steps describe how to mount the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R in
a rack or cabinet:
1. Remove the bracket covers on each side of the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS1620R to expose the rack mounting brackets. Access to the retaining screws is
obtained by opening the cap on the front of each bracket cover. Use the Allen
key supplied with the switch to remove the two 6 mm Allen screws. When you
have removed the screws, push the bracket cover towards the back of the switch
and lift the cover off. Keep the screws for later use.
Figure 17. Exposing the Rack Mounting Bracket
Before going on to the next step, be sure you have the proper hardware for
mounting the chassis with the exposed brackets to your cabinet or rack.
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2. Position the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R, with the exposed mounting
brackets, in the rack or cabinet and slide it up or down until the bracket holes
line up with the rack holes. Attach the chassis brackets to the rack using the
Allen screws you removed in the previous step and the nuts supplied with the
switch. Close the cap again to conceal the screws.
➽
Note: Only fixed brackets are supplied with these units. If you want to install a
sliding pullout mount, you will need to provide the extra mounting hardware.
Figure 18. Mounting the Switch in a Rack or Cabinet
Table-Mounting
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R operates at a low noise level, which
makes it suitable for a large enough flat surface such as a table.
Four self-adhesive pads are supplied with the switch. The pads must be mounted in
the four recesses on the bottom of the switch. When the pads are mounted, simply
place the switch on a clear, level location. Leave enough room around the switch
for ventilation and access to the controls and cable connectors.
➽
Installation
Caution: Due to weight constraints, place no more than three units (or the
equivalent weight of other equipment) directly on top of another chassis. More than
three units on top of another unit may cause damage to the lower unit.
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Cabling
➽
Note: For information on connectors, buttons, slots, and LEDs, please see “Front
Panel Details” on page 5 and “Back Panel Details” on page 9 in Chapter 1.
This section provides instructions for connecting devices (such as hubs, servers,
personal computers, and workstations) to the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R.
Remember these tips when connecting cables:
•
•
Avoid stretching or bending the cables excessively.
•
Avoid trip hazards by routing the cables away from aisles and other areas
where people walk. If such routes cannot be avoided, use floor cable covers or
similar material to secure and protect the cables.
•
Be sure that the cables connected to the switch are supported so that the cable
connectors are not excessively strained.
•
Use a Category 3 or better UTP cable or a 150 ohm, STP or STP-A cable with
an impedance-matching balun at each end.
Avoid routing the cables near potential sources of electromagnetic
interference, such as motorized devices and fluorescent lights.
See Appendix B, “Cable and Pin Information” for specific information on
supported cable types, cable lengths and connector pinouts.
Connecting Devices to the Token Ring Ports
If you will not be using building wiring (in-the-wall cables) to connect the device
to the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R, perform the following steps. If you will
be using building wiring, follow the steps beginning with step 1 on page 61.
Follow these steps to connect one or more devices to the Token Ring ports on the
switch:
1. Using the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Cabling Chart provided by your
network administrator as a guide, connect the cables between the switch and
other devices as illustrated in Figure 19. Note that the figure illustrates an RJ45 connector on each end. Depending on the cable type you use, the device end
of the cable may also have a 9-pin D-shell or 150 ohm Data Connector.
2. If the switch is rack-mounted, dress the switch end of the cables through a cable
management bracket, if one is present on your rack.
3. Label each end of the cables so that it will be easy to find the device if you have
to troubleshoot a network problem.
Suggested information to place on the label includes the room location of the
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device at the other end, a unique cable identification number, the MAC address
of the connected device, and the number of the port to which the cable is
attached.
4. To continue installing the switch, go to “Applying Power” on page 63.
Figure 19. Connecting Devices to Token Ring Ports
Connecting Devices to the Token Ring Ports
Using Building Wiring
If you will use building wiring (in-the-wall cables) to connect the device to the
switch, perform the following steps:
1. Using the Switch Cabling Chart provided by your administrator as a guide,
connect the cables between the devices and the faceplates as illustrated in
Figure 20.
2. Label the faceplate, so that it will be easier to find the device if you have to
troubleshoot a network problem.
3. In the wiring closet, connect a cable to the Token Ring connector on the patch
panel or other equipment where the building wiring terminates.
Installation
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➽
Note: Do not connect these cables to the Ring-In or Ring-Out port on a media
access unit (MAU), unless you use ports 19 and 20 on STS16-20R.
4. Connect the other end of the cable to a Token Ring port on the switch.
5. Label this cable.
6. If the switch is rack-mounted, dress the switch end of the cables through a cable
management bracket, if one is present on your rack.
7. To continue installing the switch, continue with “Applying Power”.
Figure 20. Connecting using Building Wiring
Checking the Installation
Before you apply power to the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R, inspect the
installation thoroughly. Verify that all cables are installed correctly. Check cable
routing, so a cable will not be damaged or create a safety hazard. Be sure all
equipment is mounted properly and securely.
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Applying Power
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R chassis does not have an on/off switch.
Power is on when the unit is plugged into a power source.
There are no user serviceable parts inside an SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R.
Any internal upgrades or service should be performed by qualified personnel only.
➽
Caution: If you are using the STS-PSU Redundant Power Supply Unit on STS1620R, note that this unit is not hot-swappable. You must turn off the STS-PSU
Redundant Power Supply Unit and the switch before connecting or disconnecting
the DC power cable.
➽
Warning: Unplug the power cord before you work on a system that does not have
an on/off switch.
➽
Warning: When installing the unit, the ground connection must always be made
first and disconnected last.
➽
Warning: This equipment is intended to be grounded. Ensure that the host is
connected to earth ground during normal use.
Use the following steps to power on your equipment.
1. Ensure that you are using the correct power source.
2. Using a power cable that complies with national regulations, plug the female
end of the cable into the AC power connector on the back panel of the switch
(see Figure 21 or Figure 22).
3. Plug the male end of the power cord(s) into a properly grounded electrical
outlet.
Figure 21. The back panel of the STS16-20D
Installation
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Figure 22. The back panel of the STS16-20R
4. Verify that the power LED is on. If not, make sure the outlet is working properly.
If the outlet is working, but the power LED and the fans are not on, see Chapter
10, “Troubleshooting”.
5. When the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R powers on, observe the self-test
diagnostic that the unit runs for approximately 1-2 minutes. The DIAG LED is
on for the duration of the test, turning off when the self-test is complete.
6. At the completion of the diagnostics, the front panel LEDs should be
illuminated according to the status of the unit’s configuration. See the following
sections for a description of the controls and LEDs for the SmartStack STS1620D/STS16-20R.
➽
Note: If the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R fails to power up correctly or if it
encounters any unrecoverable error, the ERR LED will be on or flashing on. If the
ERR LED is on or flashes, see Chapter 10, “Troubleshooting”.
➽
Caution: If you are using the SmartStack STS-PSU Redundant Power Supply Unit
on STS16-20R, note that this unit is not hot-swappable.
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Stacker Link Module
The SmartStack STS-LM Internal Stacker Unit which is factory installed in the
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R switch is a single port interface module that is
installed into the back slot of the Switch. When SmartStack STS16-20RM family
Switches are connected through SmartStack STS-LM Modules, the switches can be
combined to form one logical switch. The SmartStack STS-LM front panel is
shown in Figure 23.
Figure 23. SmartStack STS-LM Front Panel
Installation
Use the following steps if you need to reinstall the SmartStack STS-LM module in
the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R Token Ring Switch.
➽
Note: Stacker Link modules are not hot-swappable. Always be sure that the power
is off before installing or removing a module. If the power is on, damage to the
equipment may result. Once the module is installed in the SmartStack STS16-20D/
STS16-20R, external cables may be connected or removed without having to
remove power from the switch.
1. Disconnect power to the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R switch.
2. If a blank cover is over the stacker slot on the back panel, remove it by
unscrewing the two attachment screws.
3. To prevent possible static damage to the module, hold it by its edges only. Be
careful not to touch the top or bottom.
4. Slide the module into the slot evenly, taking care to line up the edges with the guides.
5. Seat the module by pressing the front of the module with your thumbs.
6. Secure the module to the chassis by tightening the thumb (panel) screws at the
left and right edges of the module’s front panel. Do not overtighten the screws.
7. Return power to the switch.
Installation
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SmartStack STS-LM Connectors and LEDs
The following tables describe the connectors and LEDs on the STS-LM front
panel.
Connector
Stacker Port
Description
50-pin SCSI-2 connector for proprietary
Stacker Link cable.
Table 10. SmartStack STS-LM Network Connector
LED
State
Description
TX
On
Data is being transmitted from the
attached switch.
RX
On
Data is being received by the
attached switch.
ATTACH
Off
No connection has been established.
On
A connection has been established.
Table 11. SmartStack STS-LM LEDs
Connecting the Stacker Link Cable
When connecting two or more stacker link modules together to form a stack, you
must use the proprietary 50-pin cable supplied with the module.
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R switch can be configured in three
different ways to form a stack of switches:
•
Two of the SmartStack STS16-20RM family switches back-to-back via two
SmartStack STS-LM modules
•
Up to five SmartStack STS16-20RM family Switches via one SmartStack
STS-5SU Stack Link Module and up to four SmartStack STS-LM Modules.
•
Up to eight SmartStack STS16-20RM family Switches via one SmartStack
STS-8SU Stacker Unit and up to eight SmartStack STS-LM Modules.
When inserting the cable connector, keep the connector straight to minimize the
risk of bent or damaged pins.
➽
Note: Stacked SmartStack STS16-20RM family switches must all have the same
software version.
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Working with a Stack
When the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R switch powers up, it runs through a
series of diagnostics. Immediately after the diagnostics are complete, the
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R enters the stack discovery mode. The
discovery mode is used to sense if the unit is cabled to other SmartStack STS1620D/STS16-20R units. If the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R is connected to
other units during the discovery mode, the switches automatically combine to form
a stack.
Each unit is assigned a box number, and the box with the lowest number becomes
the stackmaster. When accessing switch-specific settings from a management
console, you will be prompted for the box number. In a back-to-back configuration,
the box number is determined by software. In configurations using the SmartStack
STS-8SU or STS-5SU units, the box number is determined by the port number.
The switches in the stack combine certain configuration parameters so that the
stack as a unit uses one set of parameters. These parameters are discussed below in
“Inter-box Parameters”.
The stack can now be managed as a single entity from a management console or
management application.
Inter-box Parameters
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R switches participating in the stack must
combine configuration information so that the stack as a whole uses common
parameters. One of the participating switches becomes the provider of inter-box
parameters.
If the switches have the same configuration information, the switch that becomes
Box 1 becomes the provider. If the configuration information is different, a splitstack will be formed and a warning message will be displayed on the console
screen. You will be requested to briefly press the SysReq button on the switch that
is to be the provider of inter-box parameters. When you have selected the provider,
the other switch will replace its stack related configuration parameters with those
of the provider.
Installation
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Menu
Parameter
IP Configuration
IP Address, IP Gateway, IP Subnet, IP State
Spanning Tree
Protocol
STP Enabling/Disabling, STP Switch Priority, STP
Maximum Aging, STP Hello Time, STP Forward Delay
Virtual LAN
Name
Configuration
Changing VLAN names
Password
System password
Console
Configuration
Console Time-out
Telnet
Configuration
Number of Allowed Telnet Sessions, Disallow New Telnet
Sessions
TFTP Download
TFTP Server Address, Download Domain, Download
Filename
Switch/Stack
Information
Stack Timeout, System Name, System Contact, System
Location
SNMP
Configuration
Send Authentication Traps, changing the Trap table in any
way, changing the Community Name table in any way
Table 12. Inter-box Parameters
Checking the Installation
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R performs a diagnostic self-test during the
power on cycle. From a management console, check that the switch lists the
SmartStack STS-LM port along with the switch ports and that there are no error
messages. The SmartStack STS-LM port will be listed as port 29.
If, after installation, there is poor system performance or the SmartStack STS-LM
module does not work at all, remove the module and check for any damaged or bent
connector pins. You may need a bright light to see inside the stacker slot to check
for bent pins. Also, verify that the module is set firmly in place.
❏
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5. Accessing Switch Management
The switches can be configured in two ways:
1. Using the switch console.
You can access the switch console interface
— directly, by connecting a VT100 terminal emulator to the RS-232 port
labelled MANAGEMENT.
OR
— remotely, via Telnet.
2. Using SNMP based graphical management applications:
— The SmartStack Manager for Windows
— Other Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) based applications
Overview
This chapter only describes how to access the switch console via the
MANAGEMENT port. Refer to the section “Console/Telnet Sessions” on page 132
for information on configuring serial console and/or telnet console sessions.
Network management applications (in-band management) are beyond the scope of
this guide. However, note that to be able to manage the switch by the network
management application via SNMP, you will have to configure a few settings first
in the switch console. These are typically the IP Address, SNMP Community, and
Trap Receiver.
Accessing Switch Management
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Connecting the Console
The two following subsections explain how to connect to the switch console. You
can connect directly or via a modem. For detailed information on cabling and pins,
see Chapter B, “Cable and Pin Information”.
Connecting a Terminal Directly to the MANAGEMENT Port
1. Connect one end of a crossover TIA/EIA-232 cable (commonly known as a RS232 cable) to the MANAGEMENT port. This is a male DB-9 connector
configured as a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) device.
2. Connect the other end of the cable to a PC or another DTE device.
OR
1. Attach a null-modem adapter to the MANAGEMENT port.
2. Attach a straight-through modem cable to the null-modem adapter.
Connecting to the MANAGEMENT Port Using a Modem
1. Connect one end of a straight-through TIA/EIA-232 modem cable to the
MANAGEMENT port. This is a male DB-9 connector configured as a DTE
device.
2. Connect the other end of the cable to a modem.
See Figure 24 to view the location of the cable connection on the front panel of
the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R.
Figure 24. View of Console Connection
The next step and table describe the settings to use for configuring a console in
order to communicate with the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R.
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3. Use the values listed in the following table to set the configuration parameters
on your console for interfacing to the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R.
Specification
Value
Baud Rate
2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600
Parity
None
Data bits
8
Stop bits
1
Handshaking
None
Terminal emulation
VT100
Duplex
Full
Software flow control
(XON/XOFF)
Off (input and output)
Hardware flow
control (RTS/CTS)
Off
Autobaud upon break
On
Line wrap
On
Screen scroll
On
CR translation
CR
Backspace (BS)
translation
Destructive
Break length
(milliseconds)
350
Enquiry (ENQ)
Off
EGA/VGA true
underline
Off
Terminal width
80
ANSI 7 or 8 bit
commands
7
Table 13. Console Configuration Settings
Accessing Switch Management
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Specification
Microsoft Windows
terminal emulation
Value
Disable the “Use Function, Arrow, and Ctrl
Keys for Windows” option located in the
Terminal Preference menu
Table 13. Console Configuration Settings
4. At power on (cold boot), the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R performs a
series of self-test diagnostics verifying that hardware components are
functioning. An example of the self-test diagnostic screen is shown later in this
chapter.
Communication Problems
If the diagnostic list does not appear, or is garbled, try adjusting the baud rates
between the console and the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R by using the
Autobaud routine within the switch. To do this, press the reset button on the front
of the switch and wait for the internal diagnostics to finish (the DIAG LED turns
off). The reason for the reset is that in case the switch’s Autobaud routine is
disabled, resetting it will set it to its default mode Autobaud enabled.
Depending on the type of the console, there are several console command keys that
will potentially initiate the Autobaud routine in the SmartStack STS16-20D/
STS16-20R. Four of these keys are RETURN, the combination keys ALT-B, the
BREAK key, and ESC.
After the DIAG LED turns off, try one of the command keys at the console, and
press it repeatedly. If there is no response, wait several seconds and again, press it
repeatedly. If necessary, perform the same routine using the other command keys.
If this does not work, and there is garbled output on the screen, try pushing the
unlabeled system request button on the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R. As
soon as garbled characters appear, press the console’s ENTER (or RETURN) key
twice in rapid succession. (Again, try the other command keys as necessary).
If the problem remains, try the following steps:
1. Check all of the cable connections.
2. Check the baud rate at the console’s set up screen; if it is not set to 9600, try this
setting.
3. Try setting the console baud rate to different values up or down, and pressing
RETURN for each selection.
4. If you are using a terminal emulation program, try exiting the program and
restarting.
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5. If you still can not get the connection to work, contact a support person.
Diagnostic Screen
The diagnostic self-test displays two different screens, depending on whether you
perform a cold boot (power-o n cycle with full diagnostics), or a warm boot (a reset
without full diagnostics). The warm boot contains portions of the complete cold
boot list.
The following is an example of a diagnostic screen during a boot process. The
actual screen may vary depending on, for example, hardware, options, and software
version levels:
BootStrap Firmware v2.3, Copyright 1996-1998
- Initiating bootstrapping sequence.
- Boot image integrity check...Passed.
- Control transferred to boot process.
Boot Firmware (Phase II) v2.3
- Program memory test........Passed.
- Relocating main image to
DRAM.......................................Done.
- Main image integrity check...succeeded.
- Control transferred to main process.
- Starting Power On Self Test Diagnostics.
- Network memory test 32-bits........Passed.
- Network memory test 16-bits........Passed.
- Network memory test 8-bits........Passed.
- Port register and memory test.....................Passed.
- Single port loopback test.....................Passed.
- All ports linked loopback test.....................Passed.
- Port MAC test.....Passed.
- Completed Power On Self Test Diagnostics.
System Software Version 4.0.0, Copyright 1994-1999.
System started on Mon. June 21, 1999 14:30:03
8 Megabytes System memory
2 Megabytes Network memory
- Initialization started
- File system initialized
- System temperature is within safe operating levels
- Checking file system integrity
- Warmboot initialization started
- LAN ports detected:
- RJ-45 Token Ring: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
- StkPort
: 29
- Initializing Ports: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Accessing Switch Management
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20 29
- Initializing system address table
- System entering stand-alone mode
- Enabling port: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 22 22
23 24
Press RETURN key to activate console...
Depending upon which tests have run, verify that all diagnostics have passed and
that the ERR LED is off. If the ERR LED is on, read the screen to determine which
test failed. Also see Chapter 10, “Troubleshooting”, to help find the cause.
At the end of the boot messages, you should be prompted to press RETURN (ENTER).
The following greeting screen of the switch console manager should appear:
At the top level screen, press ENTER (RETURN) to enter the main menu. The contents
of the main menu, the submenus and screens, are described in subsequent chapters.
The information in these chapters includes configuring, monitoring, and viewing
statistics on the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R.
➽
Note: If you have forgotten the password, you can delete it by pressing the
unlabeled system request button on the front panel of the switch for one second.
Then release it and select Point 4. Clear the system password. This will clear both
the Read-Only and the Read/Write password.
❏
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6. Switch Configuration
This chapter explains how to set up the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R and to
modify the configuration using a VT100 console attached to the switch directly or
via a modem connection. The switch configuration can also be modified from a
remote VT100 console via a telnet session.
For information on how to connect the console, see Chapter 5, “Accessing Switch
Management”.
Subjects covered in this chapter:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
General guidelines (page 76)
Main menu screen (page 78)
Configuration menu (page 79)
Switch and stack configuration (page 80)
Module information (page 84)
Virtual LANs (page 86)
IP configuration (page 94)
Spanning tree protocol (STP) (page 97)
Port configuration (page 106)
CrossLink channels (page 110)
Address filtering (page 116)
Address aging (page 126)
Console password (page 130)
Console/Telnet sessions (page 132)
Syslog facility (page 139)
DSRR configuration page 141()
Download/Upload menu (page 147)
Reset menu (page 152)
Switch Configuration
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General Guidelines
To work within the console menus and screens, follow these guidelines:
•
To select an item on a screen or a menu, highlight it by using the arrow keys
and then press ENTER. If you need to specify additional information for that
item—for example, selecting Yes or No or supplying a value—a prompt
appears on the screen.
•
•
In most cases, new values are saved when you select Return.
The More item means there is more information than what is displayed on that
screen. Selecting More and pressing ENTER displays the next screen of
information.
•
•
•
Port refers to the number of a specific port on an switch.
•
•
To refresh the console screen, press CTRL-L.
•
•
•
The “VLAN” term in connection with CRF is discussed on page 31.
Index refers to the numerical order of a list.
To return to the main menu from any screen, press CTRL-P. Note that any
changes made to the screen you were in will not be saved when you do this. To
return to the greeting screen, press CTRL-B.
If you are administering switches in a stack, many of the console screens will
prompt for a box number. Enter the number of the box you want to administer.
The terms “Virtual LAN” and “domain” are interchangeable.
The console automatically returns to the greeting screen after five minutes of
inactivity. Five minutes is the default value. The time can be changed at the
Console Configuration menu as explained later in this chapter.
To open the Console Configuration menu from the main menu, select
Configuration → Console Configuration.
•
For protection against inadvertent or unauthorized access to configuration
screens, you may establish a password that users must enter at the greeting
screen. In release 4.0 (and later) two types of users can be defined:
Read-only users:
These users cannot modify any of the configuration parameters.
They can read everything (except the SNMP communities).
Read-write users:
These users have full access to all configuration parameters.
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If no password is configured, just press ENTER and the main menu is presented.
To establish a password, see the section "Password Menu" on page 130 later in
this chapter. To open the Password menu, select Configuration → Password.
For more explanation on the greeting screen, see Chapter 5, “Accessing Switch
Management”.
Navigating within the Menus
Use the arrow keys (cursor keys) to highlight an item on the screen or menu.
•
Items that end with three dots, opens another screen or menu. Pressing the
ENTER key on such an item will display the new screen or menu.
•
If the item on the screen is a command, such as Reset, pressing the ENTER key
will execute the command.
Unless specified differently, all the screens and menus are accessed in the same way.
The following section describes the items on the main menu.
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Main Menu
The main menu contains the following items, that give access to console screens
and submenus:
Configuration...
Displays the Configuration menu, which enables you to view and set the
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R configuration parameters. A detailed
explanation of the configuration submenus is given on page 79.
Statistics...
Displays the Statistics menu for the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R.
Explanations of screens in the Statistics menu are in Chapter 7, “Monitoring the
Network from the Console Statistics Menu”on page 155.
Download/Upload...
Displays the Download/Upload menu that is explained in this chapter starting from
page 147.
Reset...
Displays the Reset menu that is explained starting from page 152.
Exit Console
Highlighting this command and pressing ENTER will return the console to the
greeting screen (on a Telnet session, this will cause the session to close).
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Configuration Menu
Open this menu by selecting Configuration in the main menu. From the
Configuration menu you can view and set the switch configuration parameters.
This chapter describes all submenus and screens.
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Switch Configuration Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → Switch
Configuration.
Use the Switch Configuration screen to view system information and to view or
change the system name, location, contact, and time of day. To add or change the
system name, location, contact or time of day, use the arrow keys to highlight the
field and press the ENTER key. A prompt appears near the bottom of the screen for
entering text for that field. Pressing ENTER again enters that text.
The following explains the fields in the Switch Configuration screen.
System Description
Name and model of the switch, or, in the case of a stack, the generic stack name. In
addition to this, the firmware release is displayed. Information in this field cannot
be changed.
Build Description
Describes when the firmware running in the switch was built. Information in this
field cannot be changed.
DRAM Installed
Amount (in MB) of dynamic memory installed. Information in this field cannot be
changed.
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Flash Memory Installed
Amount (in KB) of flash memory installed. Information in this field cannot be changed.
Burned-in MAC Address
The factory-assigned base MAC address of the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS1620R. Information in this field cannot be changed.
Configured MAC Address
The MAC address that is currently in use, or, if a new MAC address has been
configured, the MAC address that will be used after the next boot. If a locally
administered address is assigned to the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R, this
field displays that address. Otherwise, the field displays “000000:000000”. To
assign a locally administered address, select this field, and enter the new address.
Note that the switch occupies this address, the base MAC address, and possibly the
next 96 addresses.
TO configure a LAA address, use the Configuration screen from a console session
or an SNMP based management tool. Note that a restart is necessary when
changing the base MAC address.
The greeting screen on the console will always show the current active Switch base
Address.
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R reserves 31 addresses for ports.
The Token Ring ports on a SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R switch will be
assigned MAC addresses using the following scheme:
•
BASE Module port 1–20
Will be assigned Switch Base Address + port
number
Or:
A Token Ring port will be assigned a MAC address, which is Switch Base Address
+ the port number displayed on the port configuration screen (or interface table for
SNMP).
This MAC address is used for the Token Ring MAC protocol, and for the spanning
tree protocol.
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R reserves 63 addresses for BRF (VLAN).
Each VLAN has an attached bridge relay function (BRF) and a Management entity
(IP-protocol stack), and consequently it needs a MAC Address. In the SmartStack
STS16-20D/STS16-20R, these two logical units use the same address, however this
address must be unique in the network. This is ensured by assigning MAC address
to BRF’s from the Switch Base Address + 32 (0x20) and upwards. The SmartStack
STS16-20D/STS16-20R is designed in such a way, that it operates with 63 active
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or preferred VLAN’s, implying that 63 MAC addresses need to be reserved for
BRF.
Summarizing each SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R reserve: Switch Base
Address + 31 Addresses for Token Ring ports + 63 MAC Addresses for BRFs = 95,
which is rounded up to 96 or hexadecimal 0x60.
The MAC address of the default BRF (trnet-default) will always be the switch base
address + 32. If the switch operates in a stack, only one of the switches will operate
the bridge relay function. Hence the MAC address of the default BRF will be based
on the address of the stackmaster. The stackmaster is determined by software, when
the stack consists of two switches back to back and by the port numbers in STS8SU/STS-5SU stack configurations.
There is no simple rule to find the default MAC address of other BRF, but it is
always in the range described in the following:
Stack Master Base Address + 32 < BRF MAC Address < Stack Master Base
Address + 95. And a BRF (VLAN) MAC address is assigned, when the VLAN
becomes preferred (that is, it has an assigned port in the actual switch or stack
of switches) by selecting the lowest available MAC address above Stack Master
Base Address + 32.
If management (SNMP or TELNET) contact with the switch is lost (because, for
example, ports are moved from one BRF to another) it is suggested, that a terminal
is connected to the OBM port of the switch stack, and the IP Configuration menu
is entered. From here, it is possible to read the MAC address of the management
entity (BRF).
In version 3.10.0 (and later) it is possible to assign an individual, locally
administrated MAC address to each VLAN.
➽
Note! A reboot of the switch is necessary after assigning the VLAN LAA. See
"VLAN Configuration" on page 86.
Address Format
Display format used for MAC addresses (canonical or non-canonical). Canonical
format is typically used in Ethernet networks and is also known as least significant
bit first. Non-canonical is typically used in Token Ring networks and is also known
as most significant bit first.
System Name
Any name you choose to assign to the switch (on a TCP/IP network, it could be the
IP hostname).
System Location
Any text string of max. 64 characters that you have assigned for the switch.
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System Contact
Any text string of max. 64 characters that you have assigned for the switch.
Time of Day
An internal clock is used to calculate total time of operation and time of day. To
adjust the time, select this item, press RETURN, then enter the month, day, hour, or
minute.
➽
Note: If you cannot set the Time of Day, the lithium battery may need replacing. If
this is the case, contact your local reseller.
Stack Configuration Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → Switch
Configuration → Stack Configuration.
The following information is displayed on this screen:
Number of Boxes
Number of switches currently participating in the stack. Display only.
Local Box Number
Number assigned to the currently selected switch. The local box is also the source
of the information displayed on this screen. Display only.
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Remote Box Number(s)
Number of switches (in addition to this one) in the stack. Display only.
Stack Time-out
If a switch goes off line, the length of time (in seconds) during which the stack tries
to reestablish communication with the switch. The default is 16 seconds.
Stack State
Whether the SmartStack Switch Stacker is operational (SmartStack STS-LM or
SmartStack STS-5SU). Information in this field cannot be changed.
Stack Connection
Whether the SmartStack STS-8SU Stacker Unit is connected. Information in this
field cannot be changed.
Module Information Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → Module
Information.
If expansion modules have been installed in the switch, this menu provides
information on them. The switch is listed as the first module.
The following information is displayed on this screen:
Module
Module number. The switch is listed as module 1. The factory installed stacker link
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is listed as module 2.
Status
Whether the module is up, down, failed, or the slot is empty.
Model
Type of module. The switch is listed for the base switch. For this module as well as
for others, this field displays the product number.
Board ID
Decimal identifier of the module.
HW Rev
Hardware revision level. If (4K) is displayed after the number, this module will
prevent the switch (or stack of switches) from operating with an MTU size above
4,472 bytes. If HW Rev is set to NA, the module does not support reading of the
hardware revision.
FW Rev
Firmware revision level.
Ports
Number of ports on the module.
Up Time
Amount of time that the module has been up (since the last reset).
You cannot change the information that appears on this screen.
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VLAN Configuration
The Virtual LAN feature can be used to partition a SmartStack STS16-20D/STS1620R or a stack of switches into several Virtual LANs, each containing its own set
of ports (the terms Virtual LAN and domain are interchangeable). Packets are
forwarded only between ports belonging to the same VLAN. The benefit of Virtual
LAN is to restrict access from one segment to another, either for security purposes
or to reduce intersegment (such as broadcast) traffic. Figure 25 illustrates a switch
with four VLANs.
Figure 25. SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R with four VLANs
To set up domains using the VLAN Configuration menu, specify the ports
belonging to the domains, then set up the IP configurations, trap configuration (trap
receivers are associated with a set of VLANs and a receiver IP address) and STP
configurations specific to the appropriate VLANs. If you have already supplied
configuration information using the main configuration menus, that information
applies to VLAN “default”. Virtual LANs affects other SmartStack STS16-20D/
STS16-20R features in the following ways:
•
Spanning tree protocol (STP). If you are using STP in a certain domain, you
must supply STP information for that domain. The STP software treats ports
on other domains as nonexistent. Domains do not affect port priorities and port
costs. You set these parameters using the STP Configuration menu that you
select from the main Configuration menu. Note that all BRFs defined in a
switch use the same STP bridge identifier. This means that BRFs from the
same switch or stack of switches cannot participate in the same spanning tree.
In other words, the spanning tree protocol will not work properly if VLANs are
connected.
•
SNMP trap tables. Each domain appears to the network management system
as a physically different Token Ring switch unit. Certain MIB II objects and
proprietary objects are domain-sensitive, while others are not. For a list of
domain-sensitive objects, see Chapter 7, “Monitoring the Network from the
Console Statistics Menu”.
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•
IP. You may give each domain an IP address, subnet mask, and gateway
address definition.
•
Address filters. Domains have no effect on address filters. For example,
suppose you create two domains: one containing ports 1–8 and the other ports
9–16. If you add an address filter to ports 7, 8, 9, and 10, the filter will work
properly even though it applies to ports in other domains.
•
CrossLink. All ports in a single CrossLink must belong to the same CRF.
Therefore, the console software prevents you from defining a CrossLink
connection that includes ports in different CRFs. It also prevents you from
assigning the ports in an existing CrossLink to different CRFs. On SmartStack
STS16-20D only ports 17 to 20 allow CrossLink configuration.
VLAN Configuration Menu
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → VLAN
Configuration. See the section “VLAN Support” on page 31 for a discussion of
VLANs.
More information on the various submenus follows.
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VLAN Configuration Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → VLAN
Configuration → VLAN Configuration.
Use the this screen to define BRFs and CRFs for the switch.
BRF/CRF
ASCII name associated with the BRF or CRF. For a CRF it is synonymous with the
ELAN name on ATM LANE ports.
ID
Numeric ID assigned to the BRF or CRF. This must be within the range of 2 to 1005.
Brdg/Rng
Bridge/Ring numbers. For BRFs this is a bridge number, for CRF this is a ring number.
Ports
This parameter is set to Yes if ports are assigned to the CRF. The value is No if no
ports are assigned. Note that if no ports are assigned to a BRF, it will not be
assigned a MAC address. Moreover, it is not possible to assign IP addresses to it.
Return
Returns to the previous menu.
More
Scrolls or refreshes the display.
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View...
Zooms in a VLAN.
Add...
Prompts for a new ID and brings up the VLAN Parameter Configuration screen.
Change...
Prompts for a numeric ID of a BRF or CRF to change and brings up the VLAN
Parameter Configuration screen.
Delete
Lets you delete a BRF or CRF. You cannot delete a BRF if there are CRFs assigned
to it, or a CRF if there are ports assigned to it.
VLAN Parameter Configuration for CRF Screen
To open this screen, do the following:
1. From the main menu, select Configuration → VLAN Configuration →
VLAN Configuration.
2. Select View..., Add..., or Change...
3. When prompted, enter the VLAN ID for the CRF.
Use this screen to add or change a CRF. Note that the trcrf-default cannot be
deleted. Also, the trcrf-default cannot be assigned to other BRFs.
The following information is displayed on this screen:
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VLAN ID
Numeric ID of the CRF. Possible values are 2 through 1005. Values 1002 through
1005 and 1 are reserved for the default CRFs and BRFs.
VLAN Name
ASCII name associated with the CRF. Up to 32 characters are allowed. The name
must be unique. Neither a BRF nor a CRF must exist with identical names.
Parent VLAN
BRF to which the CRF belongs.
State
Current state of the CRF. Possible values are Operational and Suspended. CRFs in
operational state are functional. CRFs in suspended state do not pass packets. The
default is operational.
Ring Number
Logical ring number assigned to this CRF. Possible hexadecimal values are auto
and 0x001 through 0xFFF. The default is auto, meaning that the ring number will
be learned. If the ring number has been learned, the learned ring number will be
prefixed with A-.
➽
Note: A ring number is learned from Source Route Explorer frames (ARE and
STE) and from the MAC protocol. Forwarding of frames between CRFs in SRB
mode is only possible, if the CRFs know their ring numbers. If you are running the
switch in an environment without other bridges/switches, learning of ring numbers
is not possible. Hence manual configuration of ring numbers is required.
Bridging Mode
Bridging mode for this CRF. Possible values are SRB and SRT. The default is SRB.
Max ARE Bridge Hop Count
Maximum number of hops for all-routes explorer (ARE) frames. Possible values
are 1 through 13. The default is 7.
Max STE Bridge Hop Count
Maximum number of hops for spanning tree explorer (STE) frames. Possible
values are 1 through 13. The default is 7.
TS Connection
This parameter is only relevant if the switch is part of a stack equipped with a
SSIM-H2-02 Fast Ethernet - Translational Switch SmartStack Interface Module. It
can be set to Primary (default) Secondary1, and Secondary2.
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For each CRF of translational links connected to the same logical Ethernet segment,
a connection attribute must be assigned:
•
Primary connection—for a main connection to the Ethernet Cloud (default
value for each CRF). This connection is always forwarding if active.
•
Secondary1—for a backup connection to the logical Ethernet segment. This
connection is always blocking if the primary is active.
•
Secondary2—for a second backup connection to the logical Ethernet segment.
This connection is always blocking if Primary or Secondary1 are active.
Each CRF of the translational links connected to the same logical Ethernet segment
must have a different connection attribute.
VLAN Parameter Configuration for BRF Screen
To open this screen, do the following:
1. From the main menu, select Configuration → VLAN Configuration →
VLAN Configuration.
2. Select View..., Add... or Change...
3. When prompted, enter the VLAN ID for the BRF.
Use this screen to add or change a BRF. Note that the trbrf-default cannot be
deleted.
VLAN ID
Numeric ID of the BRF. Possible values are 1 through 1005. Values 1002 through
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1005 and 1 are reserved for the default BRFs and CRFs. These values cannot be
changed.
VLAN Name
ASCII name associated with the BRF. Up to 32 characters are allowed. The name
must be unique. Neither BRFs nor CRFs can have identical names.
State
Current state of the BRF. Possible values are Operational and Suspended. BRFs in
operational state are functional. BRFs in suspended state do not pass packets. The
default is operational.
MTU
Maximum Transfer Unit of the BRF (maximum size of the information field in
transmitted packets). Possible values are 1,500, 4,472 (default), 8,144, and 17,800.
The actual value used also depends on the hardware and the value configured for
the port (the smaller value is used).
These values correspond to maximum frame size values of 1,548, 4,546 (default),
9,236, and 18,192 respectively.
The actual value used depends on the hardware and the value configured for the
ports (the smaller value is used).
Bridge Number
Source routing bridge number for this BRF. Possible hexadecimal values are 0
through F. The default is F.
802.1Q VLAN ID
This parameter configures the QTAG to be used for High-Speed Token-Ring and
Translational Switching. If Q-tagging is used for this BRF, the default is set to the
VLAN ID of the BRF. Refer to the guide shipped with the relevant module (only
relevant for the SmartStack STS16-20RM/STS16-20FRM switches).
LAA VLAN MAC Address
Used to configure a LAA MAC address used for in-band management of the
switch.
➽
Note! The switch must be rebooted before this configuration takes effect.
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VLAN Port Configuration
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → VLAN
Configuration → VLAN Port Configuration.
This screen is used to view and edit current port assignments to CRFs.
Port
The port number.
Type
Port type. Possible values are:
•
•
•
•
TR
For Token-Ring ports.
HSTR
For High-Speed Token-Ring ports.
ATM
For ATM ports.
TS
For translational switching ports.
CRF
CRF to which the port is currently assigned.
BRF
Parent BRF of the CRF to which the port is currently assigned.
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IP Configuration Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → IP
Configuration. Then select the BRF to display the screen. This screen is used to
view or change IP information associated with a BRF, such as the IP address,
subnet mask, or IP state, or to send PINGs.
Note! Ports must be assigned to a CRF that is a sibling of the selected BRF before
IP assignment.
Interface MAC Address
Displays the MAC address assigned to this BRF.
IP Address
Used to configure the IP address of the switch in the selected VLAN (BRF). To
change it, highlight the field and press ENTER.
Default: 192.0.2.1
Default Gateway
Used to configure the default gateway. When sending IP packets from this VLAN
to other IP networks, the packets are sent to the default gateway. This is why it must
be on the same IP net as the IP address.
Default: 0.0.0.0
Subnet Mask
Changes the current subnet mask. If none is specified, the net mask used is the
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default for the class of the IP address. If a subnet mask is specified, it will be used
as a net mask.
Default: 0.0.0.0
IP State
Display the following choices by highlighting IP State and pressing ENTER:
•
•
•
IP Disabled
BootP When Needed
BootP Always
Then highlight one of these choices and press ENTER. The meaning of these values
are as described in the following:
•
IP Disabled—When a VLAN is IP-disabled, it will not process any IP or ARP
packets it receives. This means that no Ping, Telnet, or ARP Packets will be
responded to when received. SNMP management is only possible over MAC.
•
BootP When Needed—In this state, the switch will send out BootP requests at
regular intervals on all ports in the VLAN until the VLAN is assigned an IP
address different from 0.0.0.0 or 192.0.2.1.
The assignment can come from NVRAM during a boot, from the console
management or via BootP.
•
➽
BootP Always—In this state, the switch will at boot time clear the IP address
assigned to this VLAN and send out BootP requests at regular intervals until it
receives a BootP answer. Then normal IP communication will resume.
Note: For the default BRF the default IP State value is BootP when Needed. For
all the other VLANs the default is IP Disabled
Send PING
Prompts you to enter an IP address to which the switch will attempt ping.
➽
Note! The configuration of the IP-address, default gateway etc. takes effect when
you close the IP Configuration screen. This means that if any parameter has been
changed you have to return to the Configuration menu and enter the IP
Configuration screen before attempting to ping. Otherwise the old values will be
used.
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BootP Requests and Parameters
When using BootP to determine its IP address, the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS1620R repeats BootP requests at regular intervals, beginning at one second each and
eventually decreasing to every five minutes over time until it receives a valid reply.
If the IP display for the VLAN is accessed from the console (or via Telnet from
another VLAN) during that time, the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R may
cease using BootP if the parameters are set (on menu exit) in such a way that BootP
would no longer be necessary - for instance, if the IP state is switched from BootP
Always to IP-Disabled or if an IP address different from 0.0.0.0 or 192.0.2.1 is
specified in any IP state.
Once the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R has stopped sending BootP requests
on a VLAN, it does not restart sending requests on that VLAN and does not
recognize BootP responses on that VLAN unless the VLAN enters a state where it
would be necessary again.
Besides the switch's IP address, several other parameters in a BootP response are
also recognized and recorded in NVRAM, when received in the same response:
•
•
•
•
Default Gateway (see the note on this page)
Subnet Mask
TFTP Main Code File Name
TFTP Server Address (only recognized if the Bootfile name is present)
One other parameter, the TFTP VLAN, is inferred whenever a TFTP Bootfile name
is present in the BootP response. That is, if the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R
receives a BootP response that specifies a TFTP Bootfile name, the SmartStack
STS16-20D/STS16-20R automatically records the VLAN on which the response
was received as the TFTP VLAN number. Therefore, the bootfile name should not
be specified on a VLAN from which the TFTP server cannot be accessed, either
directly or through the VLAN’s default gateway (if one exists). More information
on TFTP is available under the section “TFTP” on page 149 in this chapter.
➽
Note: The default gateway accepted is the first one in the list of routers whose net/
subnet address is the same as that of the IP address specified. If no routers are
specified or if none qualify, the gateway address for the VLAN will be zeroed out
and recorded as such in NVRAM when the IP screen is exited.
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SNMP Configuration Menu
The next menu item in the Configuration menu is SNMP Configuration...
This item opens a menu that is explained in Chapter 8, “Monitoring the Network
with SNMP”.
The next section describes the spanning tree protocol and the STP menus that you
access from the Configuration menu.
Spanning Tree Protocol
The spanning tree protocol (STP) is a bridge-to-bridge link management protocol
that provides path redundancy while preventing undesirable loops. To provide path
redundancy, the spanning tree protocol defines a tree that spans all switches and
bridges in the extended network. If one of the network segments in the tree becomes
inaccessible, STP reconfigures this tree to reestablish the links. To prevent loops,
STP selects just one SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R port as the designated
path to the root, assigning it the Forwarding, or active state. It assigns all other ports
the blocking, or standby, state. A port in the blocking state does not forward any
transmitted frames in any direction.
The IBM Spanning Tree Protocols will only block for spanning tree explorer
frames and will work on the BRF level in the switch.
The IEEE spanning tree can operate on two levels—BRF and CRF. It is possible to
have a spanning tree entity running on the bridge entity and a spanning tree entity
running in every CRF at the same time. Logically, there is an internal port between
the BRF and the CRFs. All BRFs in the switch uses the same bridge id, which
prevents running the spanning tree protocol between two BRFs on the same switch.
All CRFs use a unique bridge id. This means that the ports in a CRF can be
connected.
➽
Note: On SmartStack STS16-20D, only ports 17 to 20 support the spanning tree
protocol. Ports 1 to 16 are always in a forwarding state. (On SmartStack STS1620R all ports support the spanning tree protocol.)
➽
Note: In the VLAN STP configuration menu, for the selection of port priority/port
path cost, select only the ports which are part of the current VLAN. Do not
configure ports in other VLANs.
The path cost indicates the relative speed of the segment: The higher the speed of
the segment, the lower the path cost. Switches and bridges in the network attempt
to determine the path to the route with the lowest path cost. IEEE 802.1D
recommends that you assign path costs using the following formula:
Path cost = 1000 / LAN speed in Mbps
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If two ports to the root have the same path cost, the STP device selects the one with
the highest priority (lowest value), an arbitrary value that you assign. To block
traffic on a particular segment, assign it low port priority (high value)
If more ports have the same priority value assigned, the lowest port number will be
selected.
➽
Note! All bridge relay functions in the switch use the same bridge identifier. As a
consequence, you must not divide one switch into two or more VLANs by
connecting them together and using the spanning tree protocol. The tree will
collapse since the same bridge will be seen in several places in the network.
IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
When the IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol is active, a port within that domain
will require several seconds to make the transition from the blocking state to the
forwarding state, when the port is initially activated (for example, joins an existing
ring or activates a dedicated link.) Some client or server applications may attempt
to establish session activity during this time, resulting in error messages indicating
a connection failure. These applications should be configured to wait at least 30
seconds after the LAN link is active, before attempting to establish session activity.
This delay can be reduced by modifying the 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol default
parameters.
If STP is enabled on a dedicated port, and a station is attached to it, it takes at least
30 seconds for the port to start forwarding frames, when default STP parameters are
used. The client and server stations may have given up before then and the first
many packets are lost.
In general, STP should not be enabled on ports, which are intended for dedicated
stations. Shared media do not have the same problem, because the port will stay
attached to the Hub, even though all stations have closed.
Another reason for not enabling STP on dedicated ports is that the whole spanning
tree domain will go into Topology Change state each time a station opens or closes.
This will cause the whole spanning tree domain to use short aging timers, which
means that all address tables will be trashed. The result is a lot of unknown station
broadcasts, before the tables converge again.
To disable STP on a port, select the STP Mode Forwarding for this port. Refer to
the “STP Mode” parameter on page 105.
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Spanning Tree for BRF Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, do the following:
1. Select Configuration → Spanning Tree. A list containing available BRF
VLANs appears.
2. Choose a BRF from the list. The Spanning Tree for BRF screen will now
appear. From this screen you can go on to select CRFs and ports associated with
the BRF for modification (CRF & Port Spanning Tree Parameters...).
STP Participation
Whether this BRF participates in the spanning tree protocol and, if so, the protocol
to be used. Possible values are No, IEEE, IBM, and Base on Bridging Mode. The
default is No.
•
If STP Participation is set to No, the internal links between this bridge entity
and the concentrator entities having this BRF as a parent will be set to
forwarding mode. You can then override this by blocking the link at a
particular CRF.
•
If STP Participation is set to IEEE, the bridge relay function will participate
in an 802.1D Spanning Tree domain and block or forward frames over the
internal link between the bridge relay function and the CRF.
•
If STP Participation is set to IBM, the bridge relay function will participate
in the IBM Source Route Spanning Tree Protocol and block or forward
Spanning Tree Explorer frames. Other frames are forwarded by the bridge
relay function.
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➽
Note! When using multiport source route bridging, the internal link to the CRF with
the lowest ring number will be forwarding. The other links will be blocking. This
is because all the other parameters have the same value. This means that it is a good
idea to give the fastest ring the lowest ring number.
•
If STP Participation is set to Base on Bridging Mode, then the spanning tree
protocol used is based on the bridging mode of the CRF. If the bridging mode
is SRB, the IBM Spanning Tree Protocol is used. If the bridging mode is SRT,
the IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol is used.
For a particular CRF the protocols selected here can be overridden. See the STP
Mode parameter in the section “Spanning Tree for CRF Screen” on page 101.
IEEE STP Uses Bridge Functional Address
Yes:
Sets the IEEE Spanning Tree to use the Bridge Functional Address.
(80 01 43 00 00 00, actually a group address)
•
•
➽
No:
Sets the IEEE Spanning Tree to use the standard IEEE STP Address.
(C0 00 00 00 01 00, default)
Note! Nodes in the same spanning tree must use the same address
Bridge Priority
Enter a priority value for this spanning tree entity. The bridge with the lowest
priority value in an STP (domain) becomes the root.
➽
Note! All BRFs in a switch use the same MAC, which means that it is not possible
for more than one BRF to be in the same spanning tree domain.
Range: 0–65535
Default: 32768
Bridge Hello Time (in Seconds)
Enter a time between spanning tree BPDU when this BRF is the root in a spanning
tree domain. The minimum value is 1. The maximum is the lower of 10 or Switch
Maximum Message Age/2–1.
Default: 2
Bridge Maximum Message Age (in Seconds)
Enter the maximum message age advertised when this BRF is root. The minimum
value may not be less than the higher of 6 or (2 x (Switch Hello Time + 1)). The
maximum may not be more than the lower of 40 or (2 x (Switch Forward Delay –
1)). The range limits that appear reflect the values currently selected for Switch
Hello Time and Switch Forward Delay.
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Default: 20
Bridge Forward Delay (in Seconds)
Enter the time the BRF spanning tree entity waits between transitions from
listening to learning, and from learning to forwarding. The minimum may not be
less than the larger of 4 or ((Switch Maximum Message Age / 2) +1). The
maximum may not be higher than 30. The lower range limit that appears reflects
the value currently selected for Switch Maximum Age.
Default: 15
CRF & Port Spanning Tree Parameters...
If you select the CRF & Port Spanning Tree Parameters item, you will be presented
with a screen listing the CRFs that have the current BRF as parent. From this screen,
you can select a CRF and modify the CRF and/or port parameters as desired.
Spanning Tree for CRF Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, do the following:
1. Select Configuration → Spanning Tree. A list containing available BRF
VLANs appears.
2. Choose a BRF to open the Spanning Tree for BRF screen and then select CRF
& Port Spanning Tree Parameters...
3. A screen will appear displaying the CRFs that have the currently selected BRF
as parent. When you select a CRF from this list, the Spanning Tree for CRF
screen is displayed.
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STP Mode (BRF-to-CRF)
Determines the mode of the internal port from this CRF to the parent BRF. Possible
values are auto, forwarding, blocked.
If set to auto, the forwarding/blocking state of the internal link will be determined
by the spanning tree protocol of the parent BRF. If the parent BRF is participating
in the spanning tree protocol, the protocol will determine the state. If the BRF is not
participating in the spanning tree protocol, the internal link is forwarding.
If set to forwarding or blocking, the internal port will assume these states regardless
of the spanning tree state of the parent BRF.
STP Priority
Priority associated with the internal CRF to bridge port. The CRF with the lowest
priority value has the highest priority and will forward the frames. The default is
128. The possible range is 0 through 255 (decimal).
STP Cost
Cost associated with the internal CRF-to-BRF link. The spanning tree protocol uses
path costs to determine the least expensive path to the root.
STP Participation (CRF-to-Ports)
Whether the ports in this CRF participates in the spanning tree protocol and, if so,
the protocol to be used. Possible values are No, IEEE and Cisco. The default is No.
The recommended protocol is IEEE, but if the CRF contains more than one port and
the port(s) are connected to SRT bridges running the IEEE Spanning Tree Protocol
(using the IEEE group address), then the Cisco protocol should be used.
•
If STP Participation is set to No, then all ports belonging to this CRF will be
set to forwarding mode. You can then override this by blocking a particular
port.
•
If STP Participation is set to IEEE or Cisco, then the selected protocol will
be used to determine the forwarding/blocked mode of the ports that are
configured with an STP mode of auto.
Switch Priority
Priority value for this CRF spanning tree instance (0 through 65,535). The priority
is used to construct a bridge id for the CRF as Priority.MAC address (the MAC
address is the base MAC address of the switch + an internal number for the CRF).
The spanning tree entity with the lowest bridge id in a spanning tree becomes the
root. The default is 32,768. (To change individual port properties, select Port
Spanning Tree Parameters...).
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Switch Hello Time (in Seconds)
The time this CRF spanning tree instance waits before sending the next Hello
BPDU message when this entity is the root in STP. The default is 2.
The minimum value is 1. The maximum value is the lower of 10 or ((Switch
Maximum Message Age / 2) – 1).
Switch Maximum Message Age (in Seconds)
Maximum message age used when this CRF instance is the root in a spanning tree
domain. This parameter sets the time at which the configuration message used by
the spanning tree algorithm should be discarded. The default is 20. The minimum
value is the higher of 6 or ((Switch Hello Time x 2) + 1).
The maximum cannot be more than the lower of 40 or ((Switch Forward Delay x
2) – 1).
The range limits that appear when you select this parameter are calculated using the
values currently selected for Switch Hello Time and Switch Forward Delay.
Switch Forward Delay (in Seconds)
The time the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R waits between transitions from
listening to learning and from learning to forwarding. The default is 15. The
minimum is the larger of 4 or ((Switch Maximum Message Age / 2) + 1). The
maximum is 30.
The lower range limit that appears when you select this parameter reflects the value
currently selected for Switch Maximum Age.
Port Spanning Tree Parameters...
Selecting this item brings up the Port Spanning Tree Parameters screen.
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Port Spanning Tree Parameters Screen
To open this screen do the following:
1. Starting from the main menu, select Configuration → Spanning Tree. A list
containing available BRF VLANs appears.
2. Choose a BRF to open the Spanning Tree for BRF screen and then select CRF &
Port Spanning Tree Parameters...
3. A screen will appear displaying the CRFs that have the currently selected BRF
as parent. When you select a CRF from this list, the Spanning Tree for CRF screen
is displayed.
4. On the Spanning Tree for CRF screen, select Port Spanning Tree Parameters...
Use the Port Spanning Tree Parameters screen to set up STP priorities for each
port.
Port
The number of the port.
Priority
Priority associated with the port. The port with the lowest priority value has the
highest priority and will end up as forwarding. The default is 128. The possible
range is 1 through 255 (decimal). If all ports have the same priority value and path
cost, the port with the lowest number becomes forwarding and forwards the frames.
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➽
Note: For SmartStack STS16-20D n/a will be displayed for ports 1 to 16 as they
do not support spanning tree protocol.
Path Cost
Cost associated with the port. The spanning tree protocol uses port path costs to
determine which port to select as a forwarding port. Therefore, lower numbers
should be assigned to ports attached to faster media (such as FDX or CrossLink),
and higher numbers should be assigned to ports attached to slower media. The
possible range is 1 to 65,535. The default is 62. The recommended path cost is
1000 / LAN speed in Mbps.
➽
Note: For SmartStack STS16-20D, the text n/a will be displayed for ports 1 to 16
as they do not support spanning tree protocol.
STP Mode
The port’s spanning tree mode. Possible values are forwarding, blocked, and auto.
When auto is selected, the spanning tree protocol will be used to determine the
forwarding/blocking state.
When set to blocked, the port will not forward any frames.
When set to forwarding, the port will always forward frames.
On SmartStack STS16-20D ports 1 to 16 will always be in forwarding state.
If the port is used to connect to a single station, forwarding might be the preferred
mode since it might take 30 seconds or more before a port is opened until it starts
forwarding frames. If connected to a shared media or a bridge, be careful not to
create loops.
More
To view more ports in the table.
Change
To change or add values to specific ports.
Current Spanning Tree Information Screen
A summary of STP information for each port is available from the “Current
Spanning Tree Information” screen. See Chapter 7, “Monitoring the Network from
the Console Statistics Menu” on page 185 for more information.
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Port Configuration Screen
To open this screen do the following:
1. Starting from the main menu, select Configuration → Port Configuration.
2. You will be prompted for a port number. When you have entered the port
number, the Port Configuration screen for that port will be displayed.
For the base switch ports, the screen will look as in the following example screen.
For the interface module ports, refer to the interface module guide.
➽
Note: When auto is selected for fields that support the auto option, the current
operational field value shown will be prefixed with A-.
Name
This field is for assigning a name to the Token Ring port. The name can be 0–31
characters long.
BRF
This field is for informational purposes only, and shows the parent BRF of the CRF
that the port is assigned to.
CRF
This field is for informational purposes only, and shows the CRF that the port is
assigned to.
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Enabled
Shows the administrative state of this port. Possible values are Yes (enabled) or No
(disabled). The default value is Yes.
Status
This field is for informational purposes only, and shows if the port is currently
inserted into the ring.
Media Type
This field is for informational purposes only, and shows the media type of the port.
Possible value is RJ-45.
Cfg Loss Threshold
Configuration loss occurs when a port completes a connection, allows data traffic
to flow, and subsequently closes. This threshold is used to control the number of
configuration losses that can occur within the Cfg Loss Sampling Interval. When
the threshold is exceeded, the port is disabled and must be enabled via a manager.
Possible values are 1–100. The default value is 8.
Cfg Loss Sampling Interval
Specifies a sampling period in minutes. The number of configuration losses
occurring within this interval is compared to the Cfg Loss Threshold to determine
if a port should be disabled. Possible values are 1–60 minutes. The default value is
1.
Priority Threshold
The highest Token-Ring frame priority that will go to the low priority transmit
queue. Possible values are 0–7. The default value is 3.
Min Transmit Priority
The minimum Token-Ring frame priority that will be used for transmits. Possible
values are 0–6. The default value is 4.
Ring Parameter Server
Configures whether this port should respond to the MAC Frame Request
Initialization (Enabled) or not (Disabled = default). When the ring parameter server
is enabled, other network interfaces on the ring will be informed about the CRF ring
number. Only one device on the ring should act as a ring parameter server.
Early Token Release
Determines whether the port is enabled for Early Token Release (ETR). Possible
values are Yes and No. The default is Yes. If Early Token Release is set to Yes and
the media speed is 4 Mbps, the switch will force Early Token Release to No.
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Force AC Bits on SR Frames
This field specifies if AC bits will be set unconditionally when a port forwards
certain LLC frames. Possible values are Yes and No (default).
BRF MTU (actual)
Display only. The MTU the BRF uses at the moment.
Port MTU
Configures the Maximum Transmission Unit size of the information field of
packets to be sent or received. Possible values are 1,500 and 4,472, 8,144, 17,800
and USE Brf (default).
The actual value used is the lower of the configured value and the actual BRF MTU.
➽
Note! See the description on frame length limit on page 41 in Chapter 3, “Preparing
for Installation”.
Forwarding Mode
The forwarding mode that will be used by this port, when forwarding frames to
other ports in this box. Cut-through is possible only if all exit ports are running 16
Mbps. Possible values are auto, cut-through, and store & forward. The default is
auto. If the forwarding mode is set to auto, the actual mode will depend on the
number of errors that occur on this port during the sampling interval. If the error
rate is below the error low threshold, cut-through mode is used. If the error rate is
above the Error High Threshold value, store & forward is used. The store &
forward mode is always used for ports with a media speed of 4 Mbps.
Error High Threshold
This field is only valid when Forwarding Mode is set to auto. It is used to force a
port to store & forward mode when the percentage of errors detected in the Error
Sampling Interval is greater than the Error High Threshold. Possible values are
0–100 percent. The default value is 10 percent.
Error Low Threshold
This field is only valid when Forwarding Mode is set to auto. It is used to return
a port to cut-through mode when the percentage of errors detected in the Error
Sampling Interval is less than the Error Low Threshold. Possible values are
0–100 percent. The default value is 1 percent.
Error Sampling Interval
This field is only valid when Forwarding Mode is set to auto. It specifies a
sampling period in minutes. The sampling period is used when counting errors to
determine a port’s forwarding mode. Possible values are 1–60 minutes. The default
value is 10.
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Media Speed
The Token-Ring media speed. Possibilities are 4 or 16 Mbps or Auto. When a
switch port configured with Auto discovers a connection to shared media, it will
open and insert into the ring. If the open returns with an indication, that the port is
the first station to enter the ring, it will close.
This algorithm is analogue to that of auto-sensing adapters, which dictates that an
adapter, which is capable of speed adjustment, must have some other station on the
ring (typically a server), from which it can sense the network speed.
If you want to have switch ports, which are attached to shared media, it is
recommended that you change the default media speed configuration from Auto to
either 16 or 4 Mbps.
Max Explorer Rate on Input
The maximum Explorer frame forwarding rate per second. Possible values are
Disabled (default) or 0–5000.
Duplex Mode
The port operation mode. Possible values are, as follows:
•
Auto (A-HDX, A-FDX), the port determines the full-duplex or half-duplex
mode automatically.
•
•
HDX, half-duplex mode
FDX, full-duplex mode
Operation Mode
The port operation mode. Possible values are as follows:
➽
•
Auto
The port is automatically detected, station mode.
•
Port
The port will simulate a MAU/LAM and allow NICs to connect directly.
•
Station
The port will simulate a NIC and connect to an existing MAU/LAM.
•
RI/RO
For SmartStack STS16-20R only, ports 19 and 20. Allows the switch to
connect to the RI/RO connector of a MAU or CAU.
Note: If you change any configuration parameters of a connected port, the port will
close and reopen and you will lose all address information and statistics for that
port.
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Switched Port Analyzer Menu from the Configuration
Menu
The Switched Port Analyzer screen is accessed from the Configuration menu. This
screen and its submenus are presented in Chapter 9, “Monitoring Port Traffic”.
CrossLink
A CrossLink connection is used to improve interswitch bandwidth. A CrossLink is
used to connect two switches from the SmartStack STS16-20RM family with two
to eight links (on SmartStack STS16-20D the maximum is 4 ports). A CrossLink
provides bandwidth of from 32 to 128 Mbps in half-duplex mode, or from 64 to 256
Mbps in full-duplex mode.
➽
Note: On SmartStack STS16-20D only ports 17 to 20 allow CrossLinks to be
configured.
Figure 26. Setting Up CrossLinks
The CrossLink feature affects other SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R features
in the following ways:
•
Half-duplex and full-duplex. A single CrossLink can include a combination of
half-duplex and full-duplex connections—for example, a CrossLink
containing three ports can have two full-duplex and one half-duplex
connections. However, each pair of interconnected ports must both be either
half-duplex or full-duplex.
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•
Statistics reporting. Statistics for the CrossLink are displayed for individual
ports, not for the CrossLink as a whole. Station addresses are distributed
among the ports in the CrossLink. See Chapter 7, “Monitoring the Network
from the Console Statistics Menu”.
•
Address filtering. Address filters are automatically added to every port in a
CrossLink.
The port with the lowest number configured in the CrossLink is called the base port.
The active port with the lowest number is selected as the primary port. The
CrossLink software learns addresses differently than regular ports, as follows:
•
New source address. When a packet arrives at a CrossLink port with an
unknown source address, the system module creates an entry in the master
table and the port table for the CrossLink. The system module assigns the
primary port in the CrossLink as the location of the address.
For additional source addresses, the system module assigns locations
alternately to other ports in the CrossLink. When all ports in the CrossLink
have at least one address assigned, the system module starts assigning from the
primary port again.
•
New destination address. An unknown destination address packet is sent out
on the primary ports of the CrossLink, but entries are not made in ports tables
until a reply packet comes back. Entries in port tables depend upon the
destination. See the description of primary ports on page 114.
•
Broadcast and multicast packets. Broadcast and multicast packets go to the
primary port of each CrossLink.
•
Link failure. If one link in a CrossLink fails, a trap is sent, and the CrossLink
connection continues with the rest of the links. If the link that is going down is
the primary port, a new primary port will be selected instead.
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CrossLink Menu
To open this menu from the main menu, select Configuration → CrossLink.
Use the CrossLink menu to access the CrossLink Configuration and Information
screens.
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CrossLink Configuration Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → CrossLink →
CrossLink Configuration.
Use this screen to add, delete, and change CrossLinks. A description of creating a
CrossLink connection follows.
CrossLink
List of different CrossLink setups.
Ports
The ports within that specific CrossLink.
Add Entry
Prompts you for port numbers for a CrossLink. Enter at least 2-8 ports, no more
than four ports on SmartStack STS16-20D. Start with the lowest number and go to
the highest, separating the numbers by spaces. All ports must belong to the same
CRF.
Delete Entry
Asks whether you want to remove the entry; then deletes the selected CrossLink.
Change Entry
Prompts you to reenter the port numbers in the selected CrossLink, from lowest to
highest, separated by spaces.
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Clear Table
Deletes all CrossLinks.
Setting up a CrossLink
To add a CrossLink between two SmartStack STS16-20RM family switches,
determine which ports to use for the CrossLink. Use at least 2 ports, on SmartStack
STS16-20D no more than four and on SmartStack STS16-20R no more than eight.
Observe the following precautions and use the following steps to set up a
CrossLink:
•
•
Disable or disconnect the ports before creating or changing a CrossLink.
•
Cable only the ports you have added to the CrossLink menu. If you connect
additional ports between two switches, a loop results.
You must define the CrossLink for both connected switches before physically
connecting their linked ports. Do not connect the cables before configuring the
switches; if you do, you may create loops.
1. Disconnect the ports you want to add to the CrossLink, or disable them using
the Port Configuration menu.
2. For each switch, select the CrossLink Configuration menu, then choose Add
Entry from the menu bar at the bottom of the screen.
3. Enter the ports for the first CrossLink, separated by spaces.
4. Choose RETURN. (A reset is not required).
5. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for the other switches.
6. Set the Address Aging Time to the same value for all of the switches.
7. If you disconnected the ports in the CrossLink, reconnect them. If you disabled
them using the Port Configuration menu, use the menu to re-enable them.
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Current CrossLink Information Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → CrossLink →
Current CrossLink Information.
Use this screen to display the status of the CrossLink.
CrossLink
The number of the CrossLink referring to the information displayed on the present
screen.
State
Whether the specified CrossLink is active or not.
Ports
What ports are in that CrossLink.
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Address Filtering
The Address Filtering feature enables you to restrict certain users from
communicating with other users. To do this, you can specify source and destination
MAC-layer Token Ring addresses to be filtered.
The advantage of address filtering is increased access control and network
segmentation. For example, suppose one port is connected to a server containing
confidential information from the engineering workgroup. You can prevent access
to the server by setting up filters for the addresses of connections from workgroups
other than engineering. This is an example of two “types” of filters, “allowing a
source address” (engineering) or “blocking a source address(es)” (other
workgroups). Examples of different types of filters are allowing, forcing, or
blocking packets from a source address, or allowing, forcing, or blocking packets
to a destination address. For a detailed explanation of filter types, see the
“Configure Filters Screen” section within this chapter.
Observe the following guidelines when setting up address filters:
•
•
•
Use the Filters & Port Security menu to create port filters.
•
You can apply these filters to any combination of ports as long as there is a
maximum of 250 filters (not 250 ports, because more than one port can be part
of a filter). For example:
Filters are port specific and applied to a switch’s incoming traffic only.
Up to 250 “filters” can be created for each switch (the filters must be applied
to specific ports at a specified switch). A “filter” is a combination of a MAC
address and the “type” of filter it is. For example, if the MAC address 0000A3
C00021 is configured as source type at a port and also configured as a
destination type, that would count as two different filters (towards the
maximum of 250 filters).
— Filter “A” (MAC address 0000A3 C00021, source type) can be applied to
ports 1, 5, 7, 14 (or to all the ports)
— Filter “B” (MAC address 0000A3 C00021, destination type) can be
applied to the same ports, or different ports, or once again, to all the ports
— Filter “C” (MAC address 0340B7 A02026, source type) can be applied to
any combination of ports; until a maximum of 250 filters are created.
➽
Note: If you set up a filter for broadcast packets, hosts on the other side of the
switch may not see ARP broadcast packets. To prevent this, let the switch learn the
host addresses before implementing the filter. Most hosts time out their local
address entries and attempt to relearn with a broadcast ARP.
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➽
Note: To restrict access from one segment to an entire segment—not just an
address—see the “VLAN Configuration” section in this chapter.
The following address filtering menus are used to set up address filtering.
Additional information on address filtering is provided as the following filtering
menus are presented.
Filters and Port Security Menu
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → Filters & Port
Security.
Use this menu to access the filtering menus:
Configure Filters...
Displays the Configure Filters screen, where you can establish specific filtering
based on MAC addresses.
Configure Port Security Mode...
Displays the Configure Port Security mode screen, where you can establish
address security at specific ports.
View Port Filters...
Displays the View Port Filters screen, where you can view port filters for a
specific port.
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Protocol Filters...
Displays the Protocol Filters menu.
Configure Filters Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → Filters & Port
Security. Then select Configure Filters. When the Add Entry item is selected, a
list is displayed of the available filter functions with a selectable highlight. After a
choice is made, the console prompts you for the necessary parameters.
Index
The number index.
MAC Address
MAC address contained in packets to be filtered. See a detailed description of MAC
addresses on page 81.
Type
Possible types:
•
Block any packet with source address—Block Src
— That is, any packet from that specific address is blocked from entering the
specified port(s).
•
Block any packet with destination address—Block Dest
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— Any packet with the specified destination address is prevented from
entering the switch through the specified port(s).
•
Allow any packet with source address—Allow Src
— If a packet is received with a specified source address, it is allowed to enter
through the specified port(s). This feature is used in conjunction with port
security.
•
Allow any packet with destination address—Allow Dest
— If a packet is sent to a specified address, it is allowed to enter the switch
through the specified port(s). This feature is used in conjunction with port
security.
•
Force a packet with the destination address to certain port—Force Dest
— Packets with a specified address must go to the specified port.
➽
Note: Force a packet is for test in network or troubleshooting only. Must not be
combined with Port Security Filter.
Applied Ports
The input port(s) that this filter entry is applied to (for that specified MAC address).
Exit Ports
The specified port(s) where a packet is allowed to go, or forced to go (for that
specific MAC address). This applies only to the Allow lma and Force Dest filters.
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Configure Port Security Mode Screen
This function disables address learning of source and/or destination addresses at
specified ports on an SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R. Port security totally
blocks (secures) these ports. Port security mode is used in conjunction with port
filtering. Configure a port security mode on a port and then use “allow” filters to
selectively control traffic through that port.
For instance, if you only want one or some small number of addresses to be able to
send from a specific port, you can block all source addresses by secure source at
that port and then use port filtering (as explained in the previous sections) to
selectively allow specific addresses to send from that port.
There are four address security choices:
•
•
Normal—No security mode is defined for a port. This is the default.
•
Secure destination addresses—Block all destination addresses, except those
allowed by a configured filter.
•
Secure both source and destination addresses—Block all source and
destination addresses, except those allowed or forced by a configured filter.
Secure source addresses—Block all source addresses, except those allowed by
a configured filter.
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → Filters & Port
Security. Then select Configure Port Security Mode...
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View Port Filters Screen
To open this screen, do the following:
1. From the main menu, select Configuration → Filters & Port Security.
2. Select View Port Filters...
3. You will be prompted for a port number. Enter a Token-Ring port number, that
is, 1–20.
The following screen displays an example of a port using the MAC address filters
and port security.
Index
Numerical order of entries.
MAC Address
The specific MAC address the filter is applied to. See a detailed description of
MAC Addresses on page 81.
Description
List of descriptions of security modes as assigned at Configure Port Security
Mode menu:
•
•
•
This address is blocked
This address is allowed to talk to ports (as specified)
This address cannot be reached from this port
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•
Traffic to this address will be forced to ports (as specified)
Return
Return to the main menu.
More
Displays additional entries in the filter table if the table contains multiple pages.
Port (number) Security Mode
The type of security mode applied to this port.
Protocol Filters Menu
To open this menu from the main menu, select Configuration → Filters & Port
Security. Then select Protocol Filters...
To filter data based on protocol, you can define protocol classes and then assign
filtering attributes to these classes on a per port basis. The classes in protocol
filtering are based on destination service access point (DSAP) information. In
protocol filtering, each incoming frame is assigned to one of the protocol classes
based on the DSAP or Ethertype of the frame. If the DSAP is 0xAA (which
indicates the Subnetwork Access Protocol [SNAP]), the assignment is based on the
Ethertype of the SNAP header. The mapping from DSAP or Ethertype to protocol
class is common for all switch ports in a stack.
The Protocol Filters menu provides access to the Protocol Class Assignment
screen and the Port Filtering Attributes screen:
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Protocol Class Assignment...
Selecting this item will open the Protocol Class Assignment screen.
Port Filtering Attributes...
Selecting this item will open the Port Filtering Attributes screen.
Protocol Class Assignment Screen
To open this screen, do the following:
1. From the main menu, select Configuration → Filters & Port Security. Then
select Protocol Filters...
2. On the Protocols Filters screen, select Protocol Class Assignment...
The Protocol Class Assignment screen shows the 15 protocol classes that may be
defined by the user. Note that Class 0 is the default class and will contain all DSAPs
and Ethertypes not assigned to any other class.
You modify a class by highlighting the class and pressing Enter. You will then be
prompted for the field to modify: Name, Ethertype or DSAPs. When all classes
have been defined as desired, select Return to save the values and exit the screen.
Class
For the selected port, use the Class field to select a class to modify.
Ethertype
The Ethernet protocol type that you want to filter. You can specify one Ethertype
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(in its 4-digit hexadecimal format) for each of the classes 1 through 8. You cannot
specify an Ethertype for protocol classes 9 through 15.
DSAPs
List of the DSAPs that you want to filter. You can specify up to 16 DSAPs (in their
hexadecimal format) separated by spaces.
Port Filtering Attributes Screen
To open this screen, do the following:
1. From the main menu, select Configuration → Filters & Port Security. Then
select Protocol Filters...
2. On the Protocols Filters screen, select Port Filtering Attributes...
Before the Port Filtering Attributes screen appears, you will be prompted for
a port to modify.
Class
For the selected port, use the Class column to select a class to modify.
Block
The Block column may have the following values:
•
•
•
All - Block all frames in this protocol class.
SR - Block all source-routed frames in this protocol class.
NSR - Block all non-source-routed frames in this protocol class.
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•
None - Allow all frames in this protocol class (default value).
SRT
The SRT field may have the following values:
•
•
Yes - Allow transparent bridging for frames in this protocol class (default value).
No - Disallow transparent bridging for frames in this protocol class. If No is
selected, only source-routed frames can be bridged between CRFs for this
protocol class.
Ethertype
Information column showing the Ethertype defined for this class.
DSAPs
Informational column showing the DSAPs currently in this class.
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Address Aging
You can set the per-port aging value using the Address Aging menu. The following
describes the types of address aging.
There are two types of aging:
•
Port aging
— Any address in a port's address table that has not been active for a port's
configured aging time will be removed from the port’s table
— Set at the Port Address Table Aging menu
•
Master Table aging
— Addresses that are in the master address table, but not in any port address
table, will be removed from the master address table after the system aging
time
— Set at the Master Address Table Aging menu
There are two levels to set for the port and master aging tables:
Time Interval Aging is a time limit, in minutes, which will drop older addresses
after the selected time.
Automatic On-Demand Aging stores addresses until reaching maximum capacity of
the table, then deletes addresses, (in the following specific order) down to a selected
percentage level and continues to cycle in the same manner.
•
•
Random remote addresses
Sequential remote addresses
— sequentially aged from the top of the Address Aging table to the bottom of
the table
•
•
Random local addresses
Sequential local addresses
More information on address aging and the address aging screens is presented in
the following sections.
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Address Aging Menu
To open this menu from the main menu, select Configuration → Address Aging.
The screens opened from this menu are described in the following sections.
Port Address Table Aging Screen
To open this menu from the main menu, select Configuration → Address Aging.
Then select Port Address Table Aging...
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Port
The port to which you want to assign an aging time.
Aging Time (min.)
A valid port aging time associated with the port. Addresses will be discarded after
reaching the set time limit. The default setting for this parameter is 5 minutes. The
maximum time for this value is 9999 minutes. 0 indicates that address aging is
disabled.
Demand Aging Level
Sets a percentage threshold of address table capacity to ensure that the port’s
address table is populated only by the most frequently used addresses. Addresses
are stored until reaching the maximum capacity of the table, then discarded in a
specific order until the set percentage of table capacity is reached. If the table fills
again, the aging process continues to cycle in the same manner. The default value
is 90%.
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Master Address Table Aging Screen
Master Address Table Aging is the aging value of a set time, in minutes, and a set
percentage level after which unused addresses are removed from its table.
➽
Note: If a port address table does not hold enough space for all the needed
addresses, some addresses may be present in the master address table but not in any
port tables. Such addresses will be removed from the master address table after the
master aging time. The addresses will be removed, regardless of whether they have
been seen within that time period. This situation is not very likely, but the function
is a security against remaining unused addresses in the memory for an indefinite
time.
To open this menu from the main menu, select Configuration → Address Aging.
Then select Master Address Table Aging...
The Master Address Table Aging screen contains two main items:
Aging Time
Master table addresses will be discarded after reaching the set time limit. The
default setting for this parameter is 5 minutes. The maximum time for this value is
9999 minutes. A value of 0 will disable the removal of addresses based on age.
Demand Aging Level
This parameter works in the same way as port demand aging level, only using the
system address table. The default value is 90%.
Switch Configuration
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Password Menu
To open this menu from the main menu, select Configuration → Password.
There are two types of user rights, Read/Write and Read-Only. Read/Write users
have full access. Read-Only users will not be able modify the configuration of the
switch.
Use the Password menu to add, change, or delete a password. If you establish a
password, users must enter it to access the console menus. If there is no password,
just press ENTER at the password prompt.
Set Read/Write Password
Establishes or changes the password for Read/Write access.
Delete Read/Write Password
Deletes the password for Read/Write access.
Set Read-Only Password
Establishes or changes the Read-Only password.
Delete Read-Only Password
Deletes the Read-Only password.
The system prompts you to enter the present password before it allows you to
change or delete the password. If you are establishing a new password, press ENTER
at the Set Password prompt.
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The password is saved across warm boots and power cycles.
➽
Note: If you have forgotten the password, you can delete it by depressing the
unlabeled system request button on the front panel of the switch for one second,
releasing it, then selecting Point 4. Clear the system password. This will clear
both the Read-Only and the Read/Write password.
Switch Configuration
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Console/Telnet Sessions
The following section describes how to establish a console or Telnet session.
Console Configuration Menu
This menu lists items for configuring console and Telnet sessions. The Serial Link
Configuration (console) and Telnet Configuration items are selected by
highlighting and pressing ENTER.
To open this menu from the main menu, select Configuration → Console
Configuration.
Serial Link Configuration...
See page 133 for an example of this screen and an explanation of its contents.
Telnet Configuration...
See page 135 for an example of this screen and an explanation of its contents.
Console Timeout
A value that can be set to determine when the console session will timeout and
return to the greeting menu. If the value is set to zero, the console will never time
out. Default is 5 minutes.
➽
Note: You cannot select Serial Link Configuration if you are accessing the
configuration program via Telnet.
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Serial Link Configuration Screen
Use the Serial Link Configuration screen to configure a SmartStack STS16-20D/
STS16-20R when using a modem to create a console session.
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → Console
Configuration. Then select Serial Link Configuration.
Hardware Flow Control
Enables or disables RTS/CTS handshaking.
Default: Disabled
Software Flow Control
Enables the XON and XOFF characters, which are 11 and 13 hexadecimal,
respectively.
Default: Disabled
Autobaud Upon Break
Indicates whether the baud rate is reset when a Break key sequence (pressing
ENTER rapidly for five seconds) is sent or received. The default is Disabled. When
set to Enabled, a baud rate change can be accomplished by changing the baud rate
of the terminal emulator, disconnecting and reconnecting the TIA/EIA-232 cable,
and then pressing ENTER until a screen appears.
Console Baud Rate
The baud rate of the TIA/EIA-232 port. Acceptable baud rates for the console are
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1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, or Autobaud. The default value for
this parameter is 9600. Make sure that your terminal emulator baud rate matches
the console baud rate you set.
Creating a Console Session Using a Modem
Use the Serial Link Configuration menu to configure the SmartStack STS1620D/STS16-20R in order to communicate with a console via a modem.
Set your modem according to the following table:
Setting
Value
Echo
Off
Result codes
Off
Wait for connection
45 seconds
Pause between calls
6 seconds
Drop DTR between calls
Yes
Send CR between calls
Yes
Auto baud detect
On
Send init if CD high
Yes
Maximum dial attempts
999
Table 14. Modem Settings
➽
Caution: Some modems use slightly different names for the options. It is important
that your modem be configured correctly. The settings shown in italics are
particularly important. If your modem is not configured correctly, the connection
may cause the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R to reset.
Start the console by pressing ENTER. If a Telnet session is active, press ENTER at
the console to terminate the Telnet session and press ENTER again to start the
console session.
Stopping the Console Session
Pressing CTRL-P returns the console session to the main menu, and pressing CTRLB returns to the greeting menu.
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Telnet Configuration Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → Console
Configuration. Then select Telnet Configuration...
Return to Previous Menu
Returns to the Console Configuration menu.
Number of Telnet Sessions Allowed
Limits the number of Telnet sessions. Numbers allowed are from 1 to 5. Highlight
this selection, press ENTER, and enter the number. Default is 5.
Disallow New Telnet Session
Choose Yes or No to allow or disallow a new Telnet session. Press ENTER at this
selection, use arrow keys to highlight Yes or No, and then press ENTER again.
Terminate All Active Telnet Sessions
If you highlight this selection and press ENTER, all Telnet sessions are terminated.
Telnet Sessions...
This item opens the Telnet Sessions screen that displays the status of Remote and
Local Telnet sessions.
➽
Note: You cannot select Number of Telnet Sessions Allowed, Disallow New
Telnet Sessions, or Terminate All Active Telnet Sessions if you are accessing the
configuration program via Telnet.
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Telnet Sessions Screen
To open this screen, do the following:
1. From the main menu, select Configuration → Console Configuration. Then
select Telnet Configuration...
2. On the Telnet Configuration screen, select Telnet Sessions...
Index
Numerical order of entries.
Box
The box number ID of the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R in a stack.
Remote
Lists the IP address and the port number of the Remote Telnet session.
Local
Lists the IP address and the port number of the Local Telnet session.
Status
The status of the telnet session. Possible values are Open (the connection is active),
Closing (the connection is going down) and Exit (the connection is closed).
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Starting the Telnet Session
Observe the following when starting a Telnet session to the SmartStack STS1620D/STS16-20R:
•
In the IP Information screen, the IP State must not be set to IP-Disabled. Any
other value will do for the IP stack and Telnet to work.
•
•
The Telnet must be pre-configured to have a VT100/VT220 compatible setup.
•
There may be conflicts between Telnet sessions. If one Telnet session is
disrupted by the user at the console, the Telnet session’s configuration may not
have been completed. In some menus, changes take effect immediately, as in
adding filters, and in other menus, such as STP, the changes are not saved until
the menu is exited.
Only one type of session is supported at any time, either the console or Telnet
session. Starting a Telnet session before ending the console session causes the
screen to display a Console is currently in use message.
Stopping the Telnet Session
Telnet sessions can be terminated by pressing CTRL-B or any other means available
through the user’s Telnet application.
Involuntary Termination of the Telnet Session
The following can terminate a Telnet session:
•
A Telnet session can be terminated involuntarily by the console or by itself.
When the console is idle and Telnet is active, a user at the console can
terminate the Telnet session without warning. When the Telnet sessions ends,
the Telnet session screen displays the message: Your session has been
terminated due to system maintenance work.
•
•
If any changes are made in the STP configuration.
The Telnet session also ends if a user makes changes in any of the following IP
parameters:
— IP address
— Default gateway
— Subnet mask
— IP state
•
The Telnet session also times out if there has been no activity for 5 minutes.
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➽
Note: If you are in a Telnet session and change the IP parameters either in the IP
Information Session screen or Virtual LAN IP Configuration screen, and save the
changes using the Exit command from the screen, you will lose the connection to
your Telnet session, even if the IP parameters you change are in another VLAN.
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Syslog Daemon Screen
To open this menu from the main menu, select Configuration → Syslog.
The syslog facility is used to send messages to a central place in your network
where messages can be logged. Any message that is entered into the message log
of the switch is also sent to up to 20 syslog receivers using IP UDP communication.
There are two types of messages in the switch, Warnings and Info messages.
A syslog facility code can be assigned to each of them.
On this screen you can configure up to 20 receivers.
More
Displays more information.
Add Entry
Adds a new entry to the list. To add an entry, select Add Entry and type in the
Receiver’s IP address. A menu of available VLANs are then displayed. Select the
VLAN to be used for transport (note that more than one VLAN can be selected).
After this, select the syslog facility code to be used, first, for Info messages and,
second, for Warnings. After this, messages entering the message log will be send
to the chosen IP-host provided the IP stack is running in the box.
Delete Entry
Deletes an entry.
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Change Entry
Modifies an existing entry.
Zoom
Displays more information.
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DSRR Configuration
Dynamic Source Route Recovery enables a set of switches performing source route
bridging between the same legacy Token-Ring and emulated Token-Ring (or the
same pair of legacy Token-Rings) to handle link or switch failures without session
loss. During normal operation, each switch forwards frames containing a Specific
Route Descriptor. If a switch or its link to the legacy or emulated Token-Ring fails,
another switch will after, typically, less than 3 seconds start forwarding frames
containing the Route Descriptor associated with the failing switch.
The configuration of DSRR redundancy for source routing between two TokenRings is performed in two steps:
•
Configuration of a VLAN per switch, defining the normal source route bridging
function between the two rings in question. Note that the CRFs are not allowed to
have more than one port each, and that the ring number must be specified.
•
Configuration of timer values and port pairs used for back-up. The timer values
configured on each participating switch must be identical.
For an overview on DSRR, see “Dynamic Source Route Recovery” on page 32 in
Chapter 2, “Switch Overview”.
➽
Note! Making the LANE Clients that correspond to the backup Virtual ATM Ports
(VAPs) join the same Emulated LAN (ELAN) as those that correspond to the active
VAPs, may depend on properly configuring a possible LAN Emulation Client
Server (LECS) and/or the SSIM-A2-01/SSIM-A8-01 ATM 155 SmartStack
Interface Modules. The primary policy used for assigning LANE Clients to ELANs
is by ELAN name. The backup LANE Clients will attempt to join an ELAN with
the same name as the active LANE Clients. Consequently, the backup LANE
Clients will join the correct ELAN if the active LANE Clients were successfully
assigned to an ELAN based on the default “by-name” policy. In other situations (for
example, when the LECS is not employed), the following information may be of
use for LECS configuration:
•
A standby LANE Client will join with an ATM address, which only differs
from that of the corresponding active LANE Client in the selector byte.
•
A standby LANE Client will join with a source MAC address, which is
constructed as follows:
0x02<random byte><4 last bytes of switch MAC address>.
Restrictions
When configuring a DSRR group, please note the following restrictions:
•
The primary port and the backup for the primary port (see Figure 27) must be
connected to same legacy Token-Ring.
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•
The traced port and the backup for the traced port must connect to the same
legacy or emulated Token-Ring.
•
The ports belonging to a DSRR group must be connected to the same rings as
the corresponding ports of a DSRR group with the same Group ID on another
switch.
•
The CRFs containing the primary and traced ports of a DSRR group must not
contain other ports.
•
•
A backup BRF can only forward traffic for one failed BRF at a time.
If a BRF, for which a DSRR group is created, has more than two CRFs, the
primary and the traced ports must be in the same box.
BRF
Bridge No. B1
Backup BRF
Inactive
A
T
M
Backup for primary port
Primary port
A
T
M
Traced port
Backup for traced port
Figure 27. Primary and Traced DSRR Port
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DSRR Group Configuration Screen
➽
Note! Before entering the DSRR Group Configuration menu, the VLAN
configuration must be defined.
Open the menu from the main menu by selecting Configuration → DSRR Group
Configuration.
The information displayed for each group on this screen is, as follows.
IX
Index for selecting a group to be viewed, changed, or deleted.
Box, Port
Primary DSRR port. This column displays the port that is connected to the legacy
Token-Ring (on which DSRR protocol frames will be transmitted). See Figure 27
on page 142.
Group
This is a global group identification. Active DSRR groups (on different switches)
with the same Group ID and with primary ports connected to the same ring will
provide backup for each other.
Enabled
This column shows if the switch participates actively in the group.
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State
Shows the actual state of the displayed DSRR group.
View and Change
Select View or Change to view or edit a group. You will be prompted for the Index
(Ix) of the group. The DSRR Configuration screen will appear.
Add
Select Add to create a new group. You will be prompted for Box (if the switch is
stacked), Port, and Group. The DSRR Configuration screen will appear.
DSRR Configuration Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, do the following:
1. Select Configuration → DSRR Group Configuration.
Select Change or View to edit or see an existing group. Select Add to create a new
group. You will be prompted for information to identify the group. The DSRR
Configuration screen will then appear:
The items on this screen are described in the following.
Group Status
Enables or disables active participation in the DSRR Redundancy Group.
DSRR State
Actual state of the DSRR group. The state can be one of the following:
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inactive
Disabled
stop
Transient state during enable/disable
idle
Both primary and traced port down
groupPortDown
Primary port down
tracedPortDown
Traced port down
active
Operational
stopOnError
Error condition. Check the Message Log. Then disable the
group, correct the error and enable the group again.
Group Priority
Whenever more than one switch is able to take over from a failed switch, the one with
the highest priority will be chosen. Possible values are 0–255, the default is 100.
Hello Time
Interval between hello packets sent by DSRR for this group. Possible values are
100–600,000 milliseconds, the default is 500.
Hold Time
If no hello packets are received from a switch for this group within the interval
specified here, the switch will be declared failed. Possible values are 100–600,000
milliseconds, the default is 1,700.
Traced Port
Identification of the (virtual ATM) port connected to the emulated (or other legacy)
Token-Ring. When you select this item, you will be prompted for a box (stack only)
and port number. If the value(s) entered identifies an ATM Trunk Port, a list of
CRFs configured on this port are displayed. Select one. See Figure 27 on page 142.
Backup for Primary Port
Identifies a port for forwarding traffic that has been taken over from a failed switch.
This port must be connected to the same legacy Token Ring as the port that
identifies (together with Group Id) the DSRR group that is being configured. See
Figure 27. on page 142.
Backup for Traced Port
Identifies a backup port for forwarding traffic that has been taken over from a failed
switch. If the Traced Port is a Virtual ATM Port, the backup port must be able to
join the same emulated Token-Ring as the Traced Port. Otherwise it must be
connected to the same ring as the Traced Port. See Figure 27. on page 142.
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ATM Address
This is the ATM address that identifies the Lan Emulation Client implementing the
Virtual ATM Traced Port (when applicable). You cannot change the value of this
parameter.
Return
Saves the changes made on the screen and returns to the previous menu.
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Download/Upload Menu
As enhancements are made to the switch, you may need to update the software that
is contained in the switch. Or you may wish to save the configuration, that is,
upload the configuration files. The files may be needed if the switch is replaced.
The flash memory in the base switch contains three distinct different parts:
1. Bootstrap
During the startup it will display
BootStrap Firmware v2.3, Copyright 1996-1998
on an attached terminal. The image will never need to be changed.
2. Boot
During startup it will display
Boot Firmware (Phase II) v2.3, Copyright 1996-1998
on an attached terminal. The image is included on the diskette in a file called
STS_230.bt
The boot code is upgraded from the TFTP or the System Request menu.
3. Main code
During startup it will display
System Software Version 4.0.0, Copyright 1994-1999
on an attached terminal. The image is include on the diskette as Cabletron
version #.
➽
Note! Some of the switches in the SmartStack STS16-20RM family currently
support three types of uplinks that requires embedded software:
•
•
•
ATM Uplink
HSTR Uplink
FE Uplink code
If you are using any of these modules, their software should be upgraded together
with the switch to make sure that they are running at the same level.
Also note that as long as the versions are upgraded, that is, going to a later version,
for example from 3.10.0 to 3.11.0, the configuration in the switch will be
maintained. If, however, you decide to go back to a previous version, for example
Switch Configuration
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from 4.0.0 to 3.11.0, the configuration will be deleted. It is recommended that you
save the configuration before upgrading the software.
To open the Download/Upload menu, select Download/Upload in the main menu.
Serial Link Download Screen
Open this screen from the main menu by selecting Download/Upload → Serial Link
Download. This screen is for downloading via the Out-of-Band management port.
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Use the following steps to update the switch software:
1. Use a terminal emulation program, which supports the X-modem protocol.
2. Insert the upgrade disk in your terminal emulator drive.
3. If you have not already done so, start a console session.
4. Select Download/Upload on the main menu.
5. Select Serial Link Download.
6. Select Main Image Download.
7. Confirm the download. The download takes approximately 12 minutes at 9600
baud. Note, there is no validation of the image, before the flash is updated.
8. Start the X-modem upload on the terminal. (Note that you are uploading at the
terminal and downloading at the switch.).
➽
Note: Do not interrupt the download, or the image will be corrupted and needs to
be reloaded. During the download, the DIAG LED on the switch will be blinking.
9. When the download is complete, you will be prompted to reset the switch. Press
Y to confirm the reset. The procedure is now complete. If the download was
interrupted or the image was invalid, the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R
will discover this during startup, and a new serial download must be performed
prior to normal operation.
If it is necessary to upgrade the boot code, press the unlabeled system request
button above the reset button on the front panel. Select menu point 1 in the menu
and download the image as described earlier in this chapter. Note that while you do
this, the normal operation of the switch is interrupted.
TFTP
TFTP is intended for use during software upgrades and during saving/restoring
configurations.
The TFTP function in the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R is designed as an
explicitly requested operation with operator settable parameters. Note that changes
to these parameters may be altered and will be used when starting a download in
the display, however, they are not recorded until the display is exited normally.
The TFTP Download/Upload menu is accessed through the main menu. From the
main menu, select Download/Upload → TFTP Download/Upload.
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TFTP Download/Upload Screen
Open this screen from the main menu by selecting Download/Upload → TFTP
Download/Upload...
The following is an example of the TFTP Download/Upload screen. Note that this
screen may contain additional items, depending on the modules installed.
TFTP Server Address
The address of the host serving as the TFTP server.
Download VLAN
The VLAN name through which the download is attempted.
Main Image Download... Configuration Files Download...,
Configuration Files Upload...
Select the required function and input the path and filename of the file the
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R attempts to download or upload, as it is to be
received and interpreted by the TFTP server. (The security mode in use on the
TFTP server may affect this function.)
➽
Note! When uploading configuration files, many TFTP servers require that the file
exists on the server.
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➽
Note! When upgrading the boot code, append the string *boot to the filename when
entering the filename. For example, to download the 2.3 bootcode to the switch,
type the following:
main image download filename: STS_230.bt*boot
Execute <name> Download/Upload
This command is displayed on the sub-screens that are opened from the TFTP
Download/Upload screen.
The command Execute <name> Download/Upload initiates the download or
upload for a single switch only. On a locally attached console, the screen displays
the block it last received from the server (block 0 if no reply has been received) until
the last packet arrives. The switch does not attempt to load any of the image into
flash memory until it receives the final packet. Therefore, if interrupted or
cancelled for any reason before the last packet, the previous system image remains
intact in flash memory.
Once the last packet has arrived, the switch immediately begins clearing flash
memory and loads it with the new image.
The switch will continue to use its previously loaded software until its next reset by
whatever means. The newly stored image is not functional until a reset is
performed.
When downloading configuration, all configurable parameters will be replaced
with this new configuration, the message log will be cleared and the switch must be
reset immediately after.
While uploading configuration files, the switch can continue normal operation.
Note that some TFTP servers requires that the file exist before it will allow
uploading. The switch will append the box number (.#) to the filename, that is,
stand-alone boxes will append “.1”.
➽
Note: Be careful - if the process is interrupted during this time, the stored image
may be corrupted and the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R will not be able to
boot normally! If this happens, it is necessary to download the switch via its Outof-Band Management port since the system boot image does not contain software
capable of operating the network hardware of the switch or interpreting IP and
TFTP protocols. During this fairly short vulnerable period of time, the diagnostic
LED on the switch blinks to indicate the clearing (slow blink) and reloading (faster
blink) of flash memory. The screen also displays messages indicating these events.
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Reset Screen
To open this screen, select Reset... in the main menu. This screen displays the reset
options available with the switch.
Number of Resets Since Diagnostics
Number of times the switch has been reset since the switch was powered on or ran
power-on diagnostics. This is an informational heading; the data cannot be changed.
This number is not reset to 0 when nonvolatile RAM is cleared.
The following four items within the Reset screen are command functions that you
can select and initiate by moving the highlight over the item and pressing ENTER.
Reset Switch With Diagnostics
A reset function is initiated with this command. It resets the switch hardware; runs
diagnostic tests; clears all counters, including address tables; and restarts the
SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R. When the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS1620R reboots, administrative parameters from nonvolatile memory are used to
initialize the operational parameters. This takes approximately 4 to 5 minutes.
Reset Switch Without Diagnostics
This command resets the switch hardware; clears all counters, including address
tables; and starts the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R. When the SmartStack
STS16-20D/STS16-20R reboots, administrative parameters from nonvolatile
memory are used to initialize the operational parameters. This procedure takes
approximately 40 seconds.
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Reset Port Address Table
Selecting this command clears all address table entries for a specified port (user is
queried for which port to reset), sets port traffic counters to zero, and sets Time
Since Last Reset for this port to zero.
Clear Nonvolatile RAM
Selecting this command will erase all user-configured parameters and reset the
switch.
➽
Note: Clearing NVRAM (non-volatile RAM) erases all configuration parameters.
Follow these guidelines if you must clear NVRAM:
•
If you are using the CrossLink feature, be sure to disconnect the affected
ports—or disable them on the Port Configuration screen and reset the
switch—before clearing NVRAM.
•
If you are using the STP option, be aware that port costs and priorities will be
lost, which may result in loops. Use the menus to reestablish port costs and
priorities, then reset the switch to make the new parameters take effect.
•
If you are using an SNMP manager, you will need to reconfigure all IP and
SNMP parameters.
Power-On Diagnostics
This is a selectable option that determines whether diagnostics are, or are not,
initiated during a SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R power-on sequence. To
change the selection, highlight the item and press ENTER; then select Enabled or
Disabled, and press ENTER.
Default: Enabled
❏
Switch Configuration
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7. Monitoring the Network from the
Console Statistics Menu
This chapter explains how to monitor the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R
through a directly connected VT100 console or through a VT100 telnet session. To
use SNMP (in-band, through the network management), see Chapter 8,
“Monitoring the Network with SNMP”.
The information presented on the Statistic screens in this chapter is typically used
for monitoring purposes only. This information is usually the result of input data
from the configuration menus (see Chapter 6, “Switch Configuration”). The
specifications presented on the Statistic screens normally can not be modified.
Information within the statistics menus are updated (screens are refreshed) every
five seconds.
For information on how to use the console interface, see “General Guidelines” on
page 76 and “Navigating within the Menus” on page 77 in Chapter 6, “Switch
Configuration”.
➽
Note: The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R allows LAN Network Manager
LLC frames to flow through the switch. Therefore, communication between LAN
Network Manager and existing source route bridges and controlled access units is
maintained. However, some error reporting functions and ring map functions might
be lost for the rings attached to the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R.
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Statistics Menu
To open the Statistics menu, select Statistics... in the main menu. For information
on how to use the console interface, see “General Guidelines” on page 76 and
“Navigating within the Menus” on page 77 in Chapter 6, “Switch Configuration”.
The following pages contains information on the submenus and screens.
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Switch Statistics Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Statistics → Switch Statistics.
The Switch Statistics screen shows statistics and information about stations
connected to the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R.
➽
Note: References to “frames” in this menu refer to the frames that are handled by
the CPU within the switch, for example SNMP requests. The Port Statistics screen
(described in a later section) refers to frames handled by the ports on the switch.
System Up Time
Time passed since the last reset or power cycle.
Board Temperature
Indicates whether the switch is operating at normal or unacceptably high (over
50°C (122°F)) temperatures. The actual board temperature is also shown.
Frames Transmitted
Number of frames transmitted by the CPU of the switch.
Frame Transmit Errors
Number of errors recorded (by the CPU) when attempting to transmit frames.
Frames Received
Number of frames received (by the CPU).
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Error Frames Received
Number of frames received (by the CPU) that were corrupted or have CRC errors.
Frames Lost
Number of frames dropped (by the CPU) due to exceeding the capacity of the
software buffers.
Pending Send Requests
Number of software transmitted packets that are waiting for queues to hardware.
Currently Active Stations
Number of entries in the address table, representing the number of currently active
stations (MAC addresses), or nodes, on all ports of the SmartStack STS16-20D/
STS16-20R.
Largest Number of Stations
The most stations (MAC addresses) ever active on all ports at one time since the
last reset or power cycle.
Maximum Address Table Chain
Largest number of MAC addresses that have hashed to the same location in the
lookup tables. Used for technical system evaluation and troubleshooting.
Address Table Full
Number of times the hash table reached capacity. Used for technical system
evaluation and troubleshooting.
Reset
Resets the switch statistics on this screen.
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Power Supply Information Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Statistics → Power Supply
Information.
This screen displays information about any installed internal or external power supplies.
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Port Status Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Statistics → Port Status.
The Port Status screen provides a summary of the status of all Token Ring ports.
Port
The port number.
CRF
The name of the CRF to which the port is assigned.
BRF
The name of the BRF to which the port is assigned.
Enabled
Displays the current enabled status of the port. Possible values are Yes and No.
Ins
Indicates if the port is currently inserted into the ring. Possible values are Yes and
No.
Spd
The Token Ring media speed. Possible values are 4 and 16.
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Oper Mode
The port operation mode. Possible values are:
•
HDX port—Half-duplex mode in which only a dedicated connection to a
station is supported. The Tx/Rx pinouts are the same as a concentrator’s.
•
HDX station—Half-duplex mode in which the port operates like a station. The
connection may be dedicated or shared. The Tx/Rx pinouts are the same as an
adapter’s.
•
FDX port—Full-duplex mode in which only a dedicated connection to a
station is supported. The Tx/Rx pinouts are the same as a concentrator’s.
•
FDX station—Full-duplex mode in which only a dedicated connection to a
port is possible. The Tx/Rx pinouts are the same as an adapter’s.
•
•
•
•
RI—Ring In. Only for SmartStack 16-20R, ports 19 and 20.
RO—Ring Out. Only for SmartStack 16-20R, ports 19 and 20.
RI/RO—Ring-in/ring-out mode. Only for SmartStack 16-20R, ports 19 and 20.
Passive—this value will be displayed if the port is selected as a passive
monitoring port on the Switched Port Analyzer configuration screen.
Fwd Mode
The forwarding mode that will be used for transmit. Possible values are:
•
•
Cut-Thru—cut-through
Store-Fwd—store-and-forward
For ports operating at a speed of 4 Mbps, the only possible mode is Store-Fwd.
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Port Statistics Menu
To open this screen from the main menu, select Statistics → Port Status.
The Port Statistics menu provides access to statistical information for any
particular port. To enter the menu, you must first enter a port number.
The screens you can access from this menu are described on the following pages.
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General Statistics Screen
To open this screen, do the following:
1. Starting from the main menu, select Statistics → Port Statistics.
2. Enter a port number.
3. Select General Statistics...
Use this screen to view detailed information about a particular port.
Frames Forwarded
Number of frames forwarded by the port, excluding those delivered to the host CPU
system software for processing, or to a monitoring port.
NSR Frames Forwarded
Number of non-source-routed frames forwarded by the port.
SRF Frames Forwarded
Number of source-routed frames forwarded by the port.
STE Frames Forwarded
Number of Spanning Tree Explorer frames forwarded by the port.
ARE Frames Forwarded
Number of All Route Explorer frames forwarded by the port.
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MAC Frames Forwarded
Number of MAC layer frames forwarded by the port. Note that MAC frames are
not forwarded to other ports, only to the CPU.
Frames Processed
Number of frames received on this port and delivered to the host CPU system
software for processing.
Frames Unknown
Frames processed by the host CPU system software that contained an unknown
source or destination address.
Frames Transmitted
Total number of frames transmitted by this port.
Frames Received
Total number of frames received on this port.
Broadcast Frames Received
Number of broadcast frames received on this port without errors.
Multicast Frames Received
Number of multicast frames received on this port without errors.
Frames Filtered - Addr
Number of frames filtered by the MAC address filters.
Frames Filtered - DSAP
Number of frames filtered by the protocol filters.
Local Address Entries
Number of local stations in the address table of the port. That is, the number of
addresses (or route descriptors) seen as source addresses on this port.
Remote Address Entries
Number of remote stations in the address table of the port. That is, the number of
addresses that is used as destination address on this port.
Largest Number of Stations
The maximum value of the number of local stations on this port at any time since
reset of statistics.
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Address Chain Overflows
Number of address table chain overflows. An overflow will result in an address
being deleted from the address table, which means a decrease in performance.
Address Table Overflows
Number of address tables overflows. An overflow will result in an address being
deleted from the address table, which means a decrease in performance.
Frame Errors
Total number of frames received or transmitted by/from this port with an error.
Receive Buffer Overflows
Total number of frames received on this port which caused a buffer overflow.
Transmit Buffer Overflows
Total number of frames which could not be transmitted from this port because of
transmit buffer overflow.
Long Frames
Total number of frames received on this port which exceeded the maximum frame
length.
Short Frames
Total number of frames received on this port which were less that 18 bytes.
Duplicate Ring Number
Indicates the number of times a frame which contains a duplicate ring number in
the RIF field has been seen by the port.
Invalid RIF RC Field
Indicates the number of times a frame which contains an illegal routing control field
has been seen by the port. That is, a routing control with an odd length or a length
of zero.
RIF Length Exceeded
Indicates the number of times a frame which contains a RIF field which is too long
has been seen by the port.
Explorer Overflow
Indicates the number of times that an explorer frame has been dropped because of
explorer rate throttling.
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Ring Number Mismatch
Indicates the number of times that an incoming frame did not correctly include the
port’s ring number. That is, the ring number of the port must be the last, if it is an
explorer frame. Note that the switch performs a ring number test when the topology
of the network changes. At that time the port might be disabled.
Config Loss
Number of configuration loss events after the port has completed the join process
and then lost communication.
Config Loss Reason
Latest Config Loss error code. Possible values are:
•None
•Wire Fault - Wire fault.
•Lobe Test - Lobe test failure.
•HDX in FDX - HDX MAC frame received in FDX mode.
•Heart Beat - Heart beat failure.
•FDX New Sta - FDX new station.
•Auto-Disable reason.
Last Reset
Time since last reset of port statistics.
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802.5 Statistics Screen
To open this screen, do the following:
1. Starting from the main menu, select Statistics → Port Statistics.
2. Enter a port number.
Select 802.5 Statistics...
Line Errors
This counter is incremented when a frame or token is copied or repeated by a
station, the E bit is zero in the frame or token, and one of the following conditions
exists:
1. There is a non-data bit (J or K bit) between the SD and the ED of the frame or
token.
OR
2. There is an FCS error in the frame.
Burst Errors
This counter is incremented when a station detects the absence of transitions for
five half-bit timers (burst-five error).
AC Errors
Number of times a station received an Active Monitor Present (AMP) frame or a
Standby Monitor Present (SMP) frame in which both the address recognized (A) bit
and the frame copied (C) bit are set to 0, indicating that no station has recognized
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the destination address and copied the frame, and then receives another SMP frame
in which both the address recognized bit and the frame copied bit are set to 0
without first receiving an AMP frame. This condition indicates a station that cannot
set the address recognized and the frame copied bits properly.
Abort Transmit Errors
This counter is incremented when a station transmits an abort delimiter while
transmitting.
Internal Errors
This counter is incremented when a station recognizes an internal error.
Lost Frame Errors
This counter is incremented when a station is transmitting and its TRR timer
expires. This condition denotes a condition where a transmitting station in strip
mode does not receive the trailer of the frame before the TRR timer goes off.
Receive Congestion
This counter is incremented when a station recognizes a frame addressed to its
specific address, but has no available buffer space indicating that the station is
congested.
Frame Copied Errors
This counter is incremented when a station recognizes a frame addressed to its
specific address and detects that the FS field A bits are set to 1 indicating a possible
line hit or duplicate address.
Token Errors
This counter is incremented when a station acting as the active monitor recognizes
an error condition that needs a token transmitted.
Soft Errors
The number of Soft Errors the port has detected. It directly corresponds to the
number of Report Error MAC frames that this port has transmitted. Soft Errors are
recoverable by the MAC layer protocols.
Hard Errors
The number of times this port has detected an immediately recoverable fatal error.
It denotes the number of times this port is either transmitting or receiving beacon
MAC frames.
Signal Loss
The number of times this port has detected the loss of signal condition from the
ring.
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Transmit Beacons
The number of times this port has transmitted a beacon frame.
Recoveries
The number of Claim Token MAC frames received or transmitted after the port has
received a Ring Purge MAC frame. This counter signifies the number of times the
ring has been purged and is being recovered back into a normal operating state.
Lobe Wires
The number of times the port has detected an open or short circuit in the lobe data
path. The adapter will be closed and Ring State will signify this condition.
Removes
The number of times the port has received a Remove Ring Station MAC frame
request. When this frame is received the port will enter the closed state.
Singles
The number of times the port has sensed that it is the only station on the ring. This
will happen if the port is the first one up on a ring, or if there is a hardware problem.
Frequency Errors
The number of times the port has detected that the frequency of the incoming signal
differs from the expected frequency by more than that specified by the IEEE 802.5
standard.
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802.5 State Information Screen
To open this screen, do the following:
1. Starting from the main menu, select Statistics → Port Statistics.
2. Enter a port number.
Select 802.5 State Information...
Ring Status
The current port status on the ring. This could be used to diagnose fluctuating
problems that can occur on token rings, after a station has successfully been added
to the ring. This field has the general format “0x##### - text string” where #####
is a hexadecimal error code value, and ‘textstring’ can be No Status, OK, or a short
text string indicating an error. Before an open is completed, the field has the value
0x20000 - No Status. If no problems are detected, this field will display 0x00000 OK.
Error conditions are indicated by 0x##### and a text string identifying the error.
The text ‘see below’ may also be displayed. In this case the error text is displayed
further down on the screen.
Ring State
The current port state with respect to entering or leaving the ring. Possible values
are: Opened, Closed, Opening, Closing.
Ring Open Status
This field indicates the success, or the reason for failure, of the station’s most recent
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attempt to enter the ring. Possible values are: No Open, Lobe Failed, Signal Loss,
Insertion Timeout, Ring Failed, Beaconing, Duplicate MAC Address, Request
Failed, Remove Received, Open.
Ring Speed Next Open
Indicates the ring speed that will be attempted at the next open. Possible values are:
Unknown, 4 Mbps, 16 Mbps. Unknown can indicate that the port will attempt to
auto insert into the ring.
Upstream Neighbor
The MAC address of the upstream neighbor station in the ring.
Active Monitor Participate
If this field has a value of Enabled, then this port will participate in the active
monitor selection process. If the value is Disabled then it will not.
Functional Address
The bit mask of all Token Ring functional addresses for which this port will accept
frames.
Uptime When Beacon
The time the switch had been running when the last beacon was sent on this port.
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802.5 DTR MAC Information Menu
To open this screen, do the following:
1. Starting from the main menu, select Statistics → Port Statistics.
2. Enter a port number.
3. Select 802.5 DTR MAC Information...
The 802.5 DTR MAC Information menu provides access to the appropriate DTR
information screen.
TXI Information...
Displays the TXI Information screen.
Station-CPort Information...
Displays the Station-CPort Information screen.
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TXI Information Screen
To open this screen, do the following:
1. Starting from the main menu, select Statistics → Port Statistics.
2. Enter a port number.
3. Select 802.5 DTR MAC Information...
4. Select TXI Information...
This screen provides information about IEEE 802.5 DTR MAC TXI.
Authorized Function Classes
Functional classes that a node is enabled to transmit. This field displays the value
set by the Authorized Function Classes subvector X'06' of the Change Parameters
MAC frame. Valid range is from 0x0000 to 0xFFFF. Each bit that is enabled('1')
corresponds to a function class that is enabled.
Error Report Timer
Time-out value of the ring station’s soft error report timer. This field displays the
value of the timer TSER as set by the Error Timer Value subvector X'05' from the
Change Parameters or the Initialize Station MAC frame. This object indicates the
value in .01 second increments.
Physical Drop Number
Physical location of the sending ring station. This field displays the value set by the
Assign Physical Drop Number subvector X'04' of the Change Parameters or the
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Initialize Station MAC frame. Valid range is from 0x00000000 to 0xFFFFFFFF.
Join State
This field displays the present state of the Join FSM. Possible values are Not
Specified, Bypass, Registration, Lobe Test, Dup Addr Check, Dup Addr Det, Join
Complete and Await Notify.
Monitor State
This field displays the present state of the Monitor FSM. Possible values are Not
Specified, Operational, Transmit Beacon, Wire Fault Delay and Int Test Wait.
Beacon Source Address
This field displays the source address used in the last Beacon MAC frame
transmitted or received.
Beacon UNA
This field displays the value of the UNA subvector X'02' used in the last Beacon
MAC frame transmitted or received. It will indicate the individual MAC address of
the sending ring station’s nearest active upstream neighbor (NAUN). The value
could be a valid individual MAC address or Unknown.
Beacon Physical Drop Number
Physical location of the sending ring station. This field displays the value of the
Physical Drop Number subvector X'0B' used in the last Beacon MAC frame
transmitted or received. Valid range is from 0x00000000 to 0xFFFFFFFF.
Event Status
This field displays the latest event status of the TXI interface. Possible values are
Insert REQ Rec, Insert RPS Rec, Report Error, Heart Beat Lost, Signal Loss,
Beacon Received, Remove, Internal Error, Station/CPort Err, Wire Fault, Claim
Received, Purge Received, Standby Received, Invalid SA, Act Mon Recvd, Phantom
Loss, and Dup Addr Det.
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Station-CPort Information Screen
To open this screen, do the following:
1. Starting from the main menu, select Statistics → Port Statistics.
2. Enter a port number.
3. Select 802.5 DTR MAC Information...
4. Select Station-CPort Information.
Station Requested Access Protocol
Protocol requested for station access. This field displays the value of the Access
Protocol Request subvector X'0E' transmitted in the Registration Request MAC
frame. Possible values are TXI and TKP.
Station Access Protocol Response
Response to protocol request. This field displays the value of the Access Protocol
Response subvector X'0F' received from the Registration Response MAC frame.
Possible values are Access Denied and FDX+Wire Fault.
Station Individual Address Count
This field displays the number of individual addresses supported by the MAC and
used in the Individual Address Count subvector X'21'. This field will always
display the value 1.
Station Phantom Drive Support
This field displays the MAC’s support of Phantom Drive and Wire Fault detection.
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It indicates the value of the SPV(PD) variable and the value of the Phantom
subvector X'0C' used in the Registration Request MAC frame. This field will
always display Ph Drv+Wire Fault for Phantom Drive and Wire Fault support.
CPort Phantom Drive Mask
This field displays the value of the C-Port policy variable PPV(PD_MASK). It
represents the Phantom Drive and Wire Fault detection methods supported by the
C-Port. Possible values are RI-RO and Not RI-RO.
Common Access Protocol Mask
This field displays which access protocols can be supported by the PMAC. It
displays the value of the PPV(AP_MASK). Possible values for this field are TKP,
TXI and TKP+TXI.
Common Policy Flags
This field displays the station policy flags as a hexadecimal value of the form
“0x####”.
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Address Tables Menu
To open this menu from the main menu, select Statistics → Address Tables.
Use this menu to select which address table statistics you want to view.
The following pages describes the screens you access from this menu.
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Master Address Table Screen
To open this menu from the main menu, select Statistics → Address Tables →
Master Address Table.
This screen contains MAC addresses of all the ports known to the SmartStack
STS16-20D/STS16-20R. The table can contain up to 10,000 entries memory. See
a detailed description of MAC addresses on page 81.
Address
MAC address of a node.
Type
The Type column of the Master Address Table screen can contain the following
types:
•
•
Switch Base Address
—
The burned-in or configured MAC Address of the switch box.
—
Present on all ports.
<VLAN Name>
—
The MAC Address used by the IP Protocol Stack for the specified
VLAN.
—
Present on all ports of that VLAN.
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•
Known-<port type> Port <nn>
—
A known address on port nn. The port number “nn” can be followed by
SRT which means that the address is known as source of frames
that shall be switched using the SRT switching mode. If a BRF is
configured for SRT/SRB mode, a MAC address can be known both as
an SRT address and as an SRB address.
—
<port type> can be:
TR—The address is known at the specified Token-Ring port.
ATM—The address is known at the specified ATM port
HSTR—The address is known at the specified High-Speed
Token-Ring port
TS—The address is known at the specified Translational Switch.
Port—In this case “nn” will appear as <box number>/<port number>.
The address is known at a port of another switch in the stack.
If the address has occurred as a destination address in
incoming frames at other ports, it will be present in these
ports too.
•
Unknown
—
•
Multicast
—
•
•
•
The address is a unicast address and has occurred as a destination
address in incoming frames at one or more ports. The switch has,
however, not yet learned the location of the address because the station
has not sent any response frames.
The address is a group address or a functional address and has occurred
as a destination address in incoming frames at one or more ports.
STP Multicast
—
The group address used as a destination address in IEEE Spanning
Tree Protocol frames.
—
Present on all ports.
STP Multicast-Cisco
—
The group address used as a destination address in Cisco Spanning
Tree Protocol frames.
—
Present on all ports.
STP Multicast-IBM
—
The functional address used as a destination address in IBM Spanning
Tree Protocol frames.
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—
•
•
Present on all ports.
Broadcast
—
One of the token-ring broadcast addresses.
—
Present on all ports.
STP Port <nn>
—
The MAC Address of port nn
Ports
The ports whose address tables include this MAC address. Ports that have a filter
for this address are highlighted.
More
Refreshes a one-page table or displays subsequent entries on a larger table.
Search
Prompts you to enter the MAC address of a node and the ports whose address tables
you want to search, then displays the entry on the first line.
Master Route Descriptor Table Screen
To open this menu from the main menu, select Statistics → Address Tables →
Master Route Descriptor Table.
This table lists the learned route descriptors in the switch master table. These
descriptors are contained within the 10,000 entries allowed for the master address table.
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Route (hex)
The route descriptor triplet: My ring number.Bridge Number.Distant ring. This
field will always have the format ###.#.### (displayed in hexadecimal). Ring
numbers are in the range 001–FFF, bridge numbers are in the range 0–F.
Type
The Type column of the Master Route Descriptor Table can contain the
following types:
•
Known-<port type> Port <nn>:
— A known route descriptor (bridge) on Port nn.
— <port type> can be:
TR— The route descriptor is known at the specified Token-Ring port.
ATM—The route is known at the specified ATM port
HSTR—The route is known at the specified High-Speed Token-Ring port.
— The route descriptor will be present at port nn.
— Port— The route descriptor is known at a box or port.
If the route descriptor has occurred as next hop in the RIF of
incoming frames at other ports, it will be present in these
ports too.
•
Unknown:
—
The route descriptor has occurred as next hop in the Route Information
Field of incoming frames at one or more ports. The switch has however
not yet learned the location of the route descriptor (bridge) because the
target station has not sent any response frames.
Ports
Ports of the switch whose address table includes this route descriptor.
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VLAN Address Table Screen
To open this menu, do the following:
1. From the main menu, select Statistics → Address Tables.
2. Select VLAN Address Table.
3. Select a CRF, when prompted. The VLAN Address Table screen appears.
For a description of the fields and their meanings, see the section “Master Address
Table Screen” on page 178.
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VLAN Route Descriptor Table Screen
To open this menu, do the following:
1. From the main menu, select Statistics → Address Tables.
2. Select VLAN Route Descriptor Table.
3. Select a CRF, when prompted. The VLAN Route Descriptor Table appears.
For a description of the fields and their meaning, see the section “Master Route
Descriptor Table Screen” on page 180 above.
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Locate MAC Address Screen
To open this menu, do the following:
1. From the main menu, select Statistics → Address Tables.
Select Locate MAC Address. Enter a MAC address. The switch software will then
try to locate the box and port that have seen it as a source address.
Use this screen to locate a computer in the network.
MAC Address
The MAC address of the a computer on the network. Type in the address you want
to locate.
Box
The stack number of the switch on which the MAC address is recognized.
The value can be 1–8.
Port
The number of the switch port on which the MAC address is recognized.
The value can be 1–28.
Type
The port type, as described in the Master Address Table screen, see page 178.
VLAN
The first VLAN to which the MAC address is known.
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Current Spanning Tree Information Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Statistics → Current Spanning
Tree Information.
Use the Current Spanning Tree Information screens to view a summary of all
STP information for each port. Information on this screen cannot be changed.
When the STP is turned off—that is, you have selected No for the Participate in
Spanning Tree prompt (at the Configuration menus)—this menu will only display
the headers with no information below them.
When the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R is configured with CrossLink
channels, STP packets use the primary port of the CrossLink.
➽
Note: On SmartStack STS16-20D only ports 17 to 20 can support the spanning tree
protocol.
Bridge ID
Priority and MAC address of this bridge.
Root ID
Priority and MAC address of the root bridge.
Root CRF
The VLAN ID of the CRF that is closest to the root. This SmartStack STS16-20D/
STS16-20R communicates with the root through this CRF.
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Hello Time
Time (in seconds) that the root waits between sending configuration messages. This
time is advertised by the root and used by all devices and switches in the active
topology of the spanning tree network.
Max Message Age
Time at which the configuration message used by the spanning tree algorithm
should be discarded. This time is advertised by the root and used by all devices and
switches in the active topology of the spanning tree network.
Forward Delay
Time the root waits between transitions from listening to learning, and from
learning to forwarding. This time is advertised by the root and used by all devices
and switches in the active topology of the spanning tree network.
CRF
VLAN ID of a CRF belonging to this BRF.
PId
Port ID that is used to determine the role of the port in the spanning tree. The port
ID is expressed in the form port priority.port number. When using the IEEE
Spanning Tree, priority is configured from the Spanning Tree Configuration
screen and port number is the bridge number + an internal number for the CRF.
When using the IBM Spanning Tree, the port ID is constructed from ring number.
bridge number.
PCst (Port Cost)
Cost associated with each port. Lower numbers are generally assigned to ports
attached to faster media (such as FDX or CrossLinks), and higher numbers are
generally assigned to ports attached to slower media.
PSts (Port Status)
Current status of this CRF within the spanning tree. Possible values are:
•
•
•
•
•
DIS (Disabled)
BLK (Blocked)
A more effective way to the root bridge exists.
LSN (Listening)
Removing old address entries.
LRN (Learning)
Learning new address entries.
FWD (Forwarding)
This port is the most effective way to the root.
The rules that define the state of the port are as follows:
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•
•
A CRF that does not connect to other switches or bridges is always forwarding.
When the switch is booted, all CRFs are blocked initially, and then some of
them change to a different state: listening, learning, and forwarding, in that
order. All CRFs that are going to change states from blocking to forwarding
will have done so after two to three times the value of:
Switch Maximum Message Age + (2 x Switch Forward Delay)
DCst (Designated Cost)
Cost for a packet to travel from this CRF to the root in the current spanning tree
configuration. The slower the media, the higher the cost.
Dsg SwId/BrId (Designated Switch Id/Bridge Id)
Priority and ID of the device through which this port has determined it must
communicate with the root of the spanning tree. A BRF will use the base MAC
address + 0x20 for the ID. The first defined CRF will use the base MAC
address + 0x21 for the ID, etc.
Dsg PId (Designated Port Id)
Port on the designated bridge through which this SmartStack STS16-20D/STS1620R will communicate with the root of the spanning tree. This information is useful
if the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R is the designated bridge on one or more
network segments.
# Chgs
Number of topology changes, that is, the number of times the CRF has entered the
forwarding state plus the number of times the CRF has made the transition from
forwarding to blocking. The counter is reset when the switch is reset or the
spanning tree is turned on.
Last Chg
Time since the CRF last entered the forwarding state or made the transition from
forwarding to blocking.
You cannot change any information on this screen. To change the spanning tree
parameters, refer to the section “Spanning Tree for BRF Screen” on page 99.
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Current Spanning Tree Information for a CRF Screen
To open this screen, do the following:
1. From the main menu, select Statistics → Current Spanning Tree
Information.
2. Select CRF-Spanning-Tree. Select a CRF, when prompted.
This screen displays the spanning tree parameters for a CRF that belongs to the
currently selected BRF.
The following information is displayed on this screen:
Bridge ID
Priority and MAC address of this bridge.
Root ID
Priority and MAC address of the root bridge.
Root Port
Number of the port on this switch that is closest to the root. This switch
communicates with the root through this port. This field might show Internal if the
root port is between the CRF and the BRF.
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Hello Time
Time (in seconds) that the root waits between sending configuration messages. This
time is advertised by the root and used by all devices and switches in the active
topology of the spanning-tree network.
Max Message Age
Time at which the configuration message used by the spanning tree algorithm
should be discarded. This time is advertised by the root and used by all devices and
switches in the active topology of the spanning tree network.
Forward Delay
Time the root waits between transitions from listening to learning, and from
learning to forwarding. This time is advertised by the root and used by all devices
and switches in the active topology of the spanning tree network.
Port
Port number.
PId (Port ID)
Port ID that is used to determine the role of the port in the spanning tree. The port
ID is expressed in the form port priority.port number.
PCst (Port Cost)
Cost associated with each port. Lower numbers are generally assigned to ports
attached to faster media (such as FDX or CrossLink), and higher numbers are
generally assigned to ports attached to slower media (such as 2400-baud modem
links).
PSts (Port Status)
Current status of this port within the spanning tree. Possible values are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
DIS (Disabled)
BLK (Blocked)
LSN (Listening)
LRN (Learning)
FWD (Forwarding)
DWN (Down)
DCst (Designated Cost)
Cost for a packet to travel from this port to the root in the current spanning tree
configuration. Found by adding all path cost to the root when using the designated port.
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Dsg SwId/BrId (Designated Bridge ID)
A unique bridge identifier of the bridge that is assumed to be the device through which
this port has determined it must communicate with the root of the spanning tree.
Dsg PId (Designated Port Identifier)
Port on the designated bridge through which this switch will communicate with the
root of the spanning tree. This information is useful if the switch is the designated
bridge on one or more network segments.
# Chgs
Number of topology changes, that is, the number of times the port has entered the
forwarding state plus the number of times the port has made the transition from
forwarding to blocking. The counter is reset when the switch is reset or the
spanning tree is turned on.
Last Chg
Time since the port last entered the forwarding state or made the transition from
forwarding to blocking.
You cannot change any information on this screen. To change the spanning tree
parameters, refer to the section “Spanning Tree for BRF Screen” on page 99.
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VLAN Statistics
If you select VLAN Statistics, you will be prompted for a VLAN type. On selection
of the VLAN type, a screen will be displayed listing available VLANs and
prompting for a selection. Following your selection, the CRF or BRF VLAN
Statistics screen will be displayed.
VLAN Statistics Screen for CRF
To open the VLAN Statistics screen for CRF, do the following:
1. From the main menu, select Statistics → VLAN Statistics.
2. You will be prompted for a VLAN type. Select CRF.
3. Select a CRF. The VLAN Statistics screen for CRF appears.
Parent VLAN
The parent BRF.
Currently Active Stations
Number of MAC addresses currently in the master address table that are recognized
as belonging to this CRF.
Largest Number of Stations
Largest number of MAC addresses in the master address table—since the last reset
or power cycle—that are recognized as belonging to this CRF.
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Ports
List of ports that belong to this CRF.
VLAN Statistics for BRF Screen
To open the VLAN Statistics screen for BRF, do the following:
1. From the main menu, select Statistics → VLAN Statistics.
2. You will be prompted for a VLAN type. Select BRF.
3. The VLAN Statistics Screen for BRF appears.
Currently Active Stations
Number of MAC addresses currently in the master address table that are recognized
as ports belonging to this VLAN.
Largest Number of Stations
Largest number of MAC addresses in the master address table—since the last reset
or power cycle—that are recognized as belonging to this VLAN.
Display Members...
Selecting this item will open a new screen that lists all CRFs that are members of
the BRF.
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DSRR Status Screens
You access the DSRR related status screens by selecting by selecting Statistics →
DSRR Status. This section contains information on the specific screens.
DSRR Status Tables Screen
Open this menu from the main menu by selecting Statistics → DSRR Status:
Select View Neighbor or View Backup to view status tables for a group. You will
be prompted for the Index (Ix) value of the DSRR group. The table screen will then
appear.
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DSRR Neighbor Table Screen
Open this screen from the main menu by selecting Statistics → DSRR Status.
Then select View Neighbor. You will be prompted for the Index (Ix) value of the
group, then the screen will appear.
This screen contains a one-page entry for each switch currently participating in the
Redundancy Group, including the one on the console of which the values are
displayed.
Neighbor Last Seen
Displays the time in milliseconds since a Hello Message was last received from the
corresponding switch for the DSRR group in question. For the local switch, this
value is always displayed a zero.
More
Displays the next entry (sorted by MAC Address).
Return
Closes the screen and returns to the DSRR Status Tables screen.
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DSRR Acting as Backup Table Screen
Open this menu from the main menu by selecting Statistics → DSRR Status.
Then select View Backup. You will be prompted for the Index (Ix) value of the
group, then the screen will appear.
This screen contains an entry for each switch for which the local switch is presently
acting as active backup. The items on the screen are described.
Time Acting as Backup
Displays the time in milliseconds since the local switch started forwarding frames
on behalf of the switch represented by the entry.
More
Displays the next entry (sorted by MAC Address).
Return
Closes the screen and returns to the DSRR Status menu.
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Diagnostic Test Results Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Statistics → Diagnostic Test
Results. (If a prompt appears, enter the box number you want to view).
The Diagnostic Test Results screen is a list showing whether errors or a specific
diagnostic test has failed at a specified box (switch).
The data that is shown on this screen is for monitoring information only, and is
meant for network personnel experienced with this type of information. The
explanation of this information is extensive and outside the scope of this guide.
However, the instructions on how to access this information is provided so that the
user can view the data to provide information for problem solving. If this menu is
reporting errors and you can not find a cause, contact your local place of purchase.
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Message Log Information Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Statistics → Message Log
Information.
The data on this screen is useful to technical experts in solving complex problems.
The message log will be preserved through resets, but will be cleared after a
configuration download. The messages in the log can also be send to a syslog
receiver see page 139 in Chapter 6, “Switch Configuration”.
Whenever there are unread messages in the Message log a "*" will be shown in the
upper right corner of the console.
Log
Index number identifying the log file.
Type
Message type. Possible values are:
•W—Warning
•I—Informational
Message Content
The full text of the message.
More
Shows the next screen.
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Back
Shows the previous screen (if any).
Start/End
Move to the first or last page.
Clear
Clear all messages.
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Display Summary Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Statistics → Display Summary.
This screen gives access to the most important switch configuration parameters in
a summary form. The information is suitable for saving to an ASCII file by means
of a capture function in the terminal emulation program used. This file will often
be requested by the Cabletron Systems technical support personnel in case of
troubleshooting:
SPACE
Pressing the SPACE key, you will start a screen report of all entered parameters,
which runs through the display, until you stop it, or the bottom is reached. Press any
key to return to the menu.
ESC
Pressing ESC, you cancel and return to previous menu.
❏
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8. Monitoring the Network with SNMP
This chapter explains how to monitor the SmartStack STS16-20D Token Ring
Switch and the SmartStack STS16-20R Token Ring Switch from a network
management system using an application that supports Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP).
The following topics are described in this chapter:
•
•
•
SNMP setup
IP configuration
SNMP configuration
SNMP Setup
1. Attach the switch to the console and start a console session as described in
Chapter 5, “Accessing Switch Management”.
2. Make the necessary configurations in the IP Configuration screen.
3. Make the necessary configurations in the SNMP Configuration menu and the
following subscreens:
•
•
Community String screen
Trap Receiver screen
The following sections describe the SNMP setup menus.
IP Configuration Screen
The IP Configuration screen sets the IP address, gateway address, subnet mask,
and IP state.
The IP Address and Default Gateway must be in the same subnet address class—
that is, Class A, Class B, or Class C. The system prevents you from entering values
from different classes. If you do inadvertently enter an incorrect value, enter 0.0.0.0
in every field, then reenter the correct values.
Refer to Chapter 6, “Switch Configuration” for a complete description on how to
configure the IP Configuration menu.
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SNMP Configuration
Use the SNMP Configuration screen and all of its submenus to configure specific
attributes related to SNMP.
SNMP Configuration Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → SNMP
Configuration.
Send Authentication Traps
Indicates whether SNMP should issue an authentication trap to trap receivers
whenever an unauthorized request is detected, that is, a read- or write-attempt with
the wrong community name.
Default: Yes
Enable RMON Statistics
Enables the gathering of a subset of the RMON statistics from the RMON MIBs.
The default setting is No. The following groups are supported:
•
•
•
•
Token-Ring Statistics (MAC and Promiscuous)
History
Event
Alarm
See detailed description of RMON Support on page 37.
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SNMP over MAC...
Enables or disables SNMP transport over the MAC protocol. The SNMP over
MAC protocol is used by the ClearSight management application. Note that the
switch will not send SNMP traps using SNMP over MAC protocol.
Default is Enabled.
Community Strings...
A community defined as a relationship between an SNMP agent and one or more
SNMP managers. Up to five different communities of 1—16 characters each can
be stored in the switch. Entries in the table are saved across resets and power cycles.
Trap Receivers...
Displays table of managers to which traps are sent. Entries in the table are saved
across resets and power cycles.
Community Strings Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → SNMP
Configuration → Community Strings.
Use this screen to configure the community string for the SmartStack STS16-20D/
STS16-20R. The community string is a name (password) associated with the
specified privilege level.
➽
Note: Text within the community string is upper/lower case sensitive.
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Entries are displayed in the order in which they are encountered. There is a limit of
five community strings.
Community string table entries are saved when you select Return.
Index
Sequential number of entries in the table.
Community Name
Name, or password, used to identify the SNMP managers.
➽
Note: Community names are case sensitive.
Mode
The privilege level assigned to this name. Read specifies that SNMP managers can
only view SNMP information. Read/Write specifies that SNMP managers can both
view and change SNMP information.
Add Entry
Adds community string.
Delete Entry
Deletes community string.
Change Entry
Modifies community string and/or access mode.
Clear Table
Deletes all community strings.
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Trap Receivers Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → SNMP
Configuration → Trap Receivers.
Trap receiver tables tell the SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R where to send
traps. The table contains the IP address associated with an SNMP trap manager.
The Trap receiver table contains a maximum of 20 entries. It is redisplayed each
time the table changes.
Trap receiver table entries are saved when you select Return.
Index
Sequential number of entries in the table.
IP Address
The IP address associated with an SNMP trap receiver.
Community Name
The community name sent with the trap.
BRF
VLANs to which this trap is sent.
More
Used to view next page of table.
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Add Entry
Adds a new entry to the trap receiver table.
Delete Entry
Deletes an entry from the trap receiver table.
Change Entry
Modifies an entry in the trap receiver table.
Clear Table
Deletes all table entries.
Zoom
Displays the complete list of BRFs assigned to an IP address.
List of Supported Traps from a STS16-20D/STS16-20R
General traps
The coldStart Trap
A coldStart trap signifies that the sending protocol entity is (re)initializing itself.
Sending this trap indicates that the agent's configuration or the protocol entity
implementation may have been altered.
The warmStart Trap
A warmStart trap signifies that the sending protocol entity is reinitializing itself
such that neither the agent configuration nor the protocol entity implementation is
altered.
The linkDown Trap
A linkDown trap signifies that the sending protocol entity recognizes a failure in
one of the communication links represented in the agent's configuration.
The Trap-PDU of type linkDown contains as the first element of its variablebindings, the name and value of the ifIndex instance for the affected interface.
The linkUp Trap
A linkUp trap signifies that the sending protocol entity recognizes that one of the
communication links represented in the agent's configuration has come up.
The Trap-PDU of type linkUp contains as the first element of its variable-bindings,
the name and value of the ifIndex instance for the affected interface.
The authenticationFailure Trap
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An authenticationFailure trap signifies that the sending protocol entity is the
addressee of a protocol message that is not properly authenticated.
Enterprise specific traps - from STS16.MIB
STS16StackCfgChange
This trap is generated when there is a change in the stack configuration, that is,
when either a new switch is added to the stack or a switch leaves a stack.
STS16NumSwitches indicates the current number of switches which are part of the
stack. The management station should update its stack information according to the
stack table.
STS16StackStackMatrixChange
This trap is generated when the stack switches over from primary to secondary
Matrix or from secondary back to primary Matrix.
STS16StackTempChange
This trap is generated when the temperature in a switch exceeds normal or returns
to normal.
STS16PowerSupply
This trap is generated when the status of the power supply units changes.
Per Port Traps
STS16PortStrNFwdEntry
This trap is generated when a port automatically enters store and forward mode
when the error rate exceeds the threshold.
STS16PortCfgLossTrap
This trap occurs when a port is disabled because it has exceeded its Configuration
Loss Threshold within the configured Sampling Period.
STS16BeaconStart
This trap is generated when a port or a station local to a port begins to beacon. It is
sent out only when a ring status change indicates that a station is beaconing.
STS16BeaconEnd
This trap is generated when the ring status change indicates that a ring is no longer
beaconing. This trap only occurs only once when the status actually changes.
STS16DuplicateMACAddr
This trap is generated when a duplicate MAC address is detected on a port in a CRF
which already has learned that MAC address.
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STS16DuplicateBridge
This trap is generated when a duplicated bridge number is detected on a port in a
CRF.
STS16RingNumberMismatch
This trap is generated when a mismatch in ring numbers is detected on a port in a
CRF.
Traps for the Spanning Tree Protocol
STS16TrCRFNewRoot
This trap is a CRF specific version of the newRoot trap as described in RFC1493.
The newRoot trap indicates that the sending agent has become the new root of the
spanning tree; the trap is sent by a bridge soon after its election as the new root, for
example, upon expiration of the Topology Change Timer immediately subsequent to
its election.
STS16TrCRFTopologyChange
This trap is a CRF specific version of the topologyChange trap as described in
RFC1493. A topologyChange trap is sent by a bridge when any of its configured ports
transitions from the Learning state to the Forwarding state, or from the Forwarding
state to the Blocking state. The trap is not sent if a newRoot trap is sent for the same
transition.
STS16TrBRFNewRoot
This trap is a BRF specific version of the newRoot trap as described in RFC1493.
The newRoot trap indicates that the sending agent has become the new root of the
spanning tree; the trap is sent by a bridge soon after its election as the new root, for
example, upon expiration of the Topology Change Timer immediately subsequent
to its election.
STS16TrBRFTopologyChange
This trap is a BRF specific version of the topologyChange trap as described in
RFC1493. A topologyChange trap is sent by a bridge when any of its configured
ports transitions from the Learning state to the Forwarding state, or from the
Forwarding state to the Blocking state. The trap is not sent if a newRoot trap is sent
for the same transition.
➽
Note: On the SmartStack STS16-20D, only ports 17 to 20 support the spanning tree
protocol.
Traps for CrossLinks
STS16CrossLinkFailed
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This trap is sent when one of the links in an CrossLink fail. The variable
STS16CLPorts contains the ports which are operational in the CrossLink.
➽
Note: On SmartStack STS16-20D only ports 17 to 20 allow CrossLinks to be
configured.
❏
Monitoring the Network with SNMP
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9. Monitoring Port Traffic
The SmartStack STS16-20D/STS16-20R allows you to configure a Switched Port
Analyzer function for monitoring traffic on a port. An analyzer port is a port on
which an external probe can observe traffic from any other port, that is a monitored
port. The monitoring function is does not interfere in any way with the normal
traffic flow in the switch.
The external probe (for example, a protocol analyzer) is not supplied with the
switch.
You can monitor traffic going through a monitored port in two different ways, by
using either:
•
•
active monitoring or
passive monitoring.
Active Monitoring
This mode copies traffic switched to and from the monitored port to the analyzer
port. Since MAC frames never are switched between ports, they will not be seen on
the analyzer port. To prevent spurious frames, the analyzer port must be a TokenRing port on the same box as the monitored port. It is recommended that you put
the analyzer port into a separate VLAN. The monitored port can be any type of port
(Token-Ring, ATM, HSTR, and Fast Ethernet)
➽
Note! The analyzer port works as a normal port. This means it can be in FDX/HDX
mode, Station/Port 4 or 16 Mpbs. Moreover, you can use any external probe. The
frames will be buffered normally, that is, if you try to monitor a FDX 16 MB line
with a 4 MB HDX port, data loss can occur.
When the monitored port is in HDX mode, the frames sent to the analyzer port will
be the frames received on the Token-Ring of the monitored ports (that is, a true
copy apart from MAC frames). When monitoring a FDX port, it is the forwarding
port that is responsible for the copy. As a consequence, packets may be seen on the
analyzer port in a different order than on the monitored port. Moreover, since it is
the monitored port itself that expands Source Route Explorer frames, the last ring
and bridge number will be missing from explorer frames passing a BRF in the
switch.
Passive Monitoring
This mode makes a physical connection from the monitored port to the analyzer
port. Both the monitored and the analyzer port must be Token-Ring ports. You can
choose to connect either the transmit or the receive wire from the monitored port to
the analyzer port. That is, if the monitored port is in HDX mode, the analyzer port
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will receive all the traffic (including MAC frames). If the monitored port is in FDX
mode, only half the traffic will be received on the analyzer port.
➽
Note! A special probe is needed for using the passive monitoring feature. Since
MAC frames are copied from the monitored port and since the analyzer port does
not itself run the MAC protocol, the probe must be able to attach to the switch
without trying to insert by means of the MAC protocol.
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Switched Port Analyzer Screen
To open this screen from the main menu, select Configuration → Switched Port
Analyzer.
The following information is displayed on this screen:
Analyzer Port Number
The port to which the network analyzer or probe will be attached.
➽
Note: This port should be assigned to its own CRF. For information about assigning
ports to a CRF, see “VLAN Configuration” on page 86.
Monitored Port Number
The port that will be monitored. To change a setting select it and specify the new
value. To disable the Switched Port Analyzer port, select Port to Monitor and set
it to 0. To save the changes, select Return
➽
Note: The analyzer port and the monitored port must be on the same physical
switch, not on different switches in the stack.
❏
Monitoring Port Traffic
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10. Troubleshooting
This chapter contains procedures that help you troubleshoot problems with a switch
and its connections to other devices.
Obtaining Service
There are no serviceable parts inside the SmartStack STS16-20D/Sys16-20R. Do
not remove the cover for any reason. If you think your switch requires service,
please contact Cabletron Systems Technical Support. Please refer to Chapter 11,
“Getting in Touch with Technical Support” for instructions.
Troubleshooting in a Network
The switch console and SNMP management agent give you access to important
statistics and other information about the network, as seen by the switch. (See
Chapter 7, “Monitoring the Network from the Console Statistics Menu”).
The section “Port Statistics Menu” on page 162 can be helpful in isolating network
level problems.
The Switched Port Analyzer feature allows a network analyzer to be attached to a
port on the switch to monitor, in real time, switch activity of another port. See
Chapter 9, “Monitoring Port Traffic” for information on configuring Switched Port
Analyzer.
Start of Troubleshooting Process
If one or more devices (such as PCs) connected to a switch are unable to
communicate with other devices in the network, use the following steps to start the
troubleshooting process:
1. Locate the switch to which the device is connected. Use the network sketch, the
label on the cable connected to the device, or other network records to help you
locate the switch.
2. If you have set up a console session (see Chapter 5, “Accessing Switch
Management”), it can be used to determine whether diagnostics have been
completed correctly. A list of normal diagnostic messages is shown on page 73.
3. Observe the LEDs on the switch front panel. Figure 2 on page 5 illustrates the
LEDs. For explanations of the LEDs, see the section “Status and Activity
LEDs” on page 7. Review this section before proceeding with the
troubleshooting process.
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4. In Table 15, locate the symptom that best describes the communication problem
and the LED pattern you observed. Then, go to the section that contains the
recommended actions for resolving the problem and follow that procedure.
Choosing a Troubleshooting Procedure
Use Table 15 to determine which troubleshooting procedure you should use. For a
description of the status LEDs and their meanings, see “Status and Activity LEDs”
on page 7.
Symptom and LED State
Go To:
All of the LEDs are off.
Procedure A
The ERR LED or the DIAG are on.
Procedure B
None of the devices connected to the switch
can communicate, the ERR LED is off, and
the PWR LED is on.
Procedure C
A single device connected to the switch is
having trouble communicating.
Procedure D
➽
Note: Segment refers to a single cable or interconnected cables between
a switch port and the device at the other end.
Table 15. Symptom, LED State and Recommended Procedure
Procedure A
Use this procedure if all of the LEDs are off:
1. Verify that the power cord is connected at both ends and that the power outlet is
working.
2. If the power cord is connected correctly, the outlet is working, and the problem
persists, the problem is in the switch. In that case, contact technical support.
Procedure B
Use this procedure if the ERR LED is on:
1. Verify that the boot code is at least release 2.3. If not, download the boot code
using either TFTP or serial download as described in Chapter 6, “Switch
Configuration”.
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2. Reset the switch by disconnecting the power cord, waiting 10 seconds, and then
reconnecting it to the electrical outlet. If the problem goes away, resume using
the switch.
3. If you have just downloaded new microcode, clear NVRAM and reset the
switch using the instructions in “Reset Screen” on page 152.
➽
Note: Clearing NVRAM returns all configuration parameters to their default
values.
If the problem is corrected, resume using the switch.
4. One or more bad ports can cause this symptom, and the remaining ports might
continue to operate.
— Reset the switch and monitor the diagnostic messages that appear for port
failures. The section “Diagnostic Screen” on page 73 includes a sample
diagnostic screen. Try to correct any individual port problems that are
detected.
— If the problem is corrected, resume using the switch.
5. If the problem does not go away, the problem is in the switch.
Procedure C
Use this procedure if all devices connected to the switch are having communication
problems, the ERR LED is off, and the PWR LED is on:
1. Reset the switch by disconnecting power cord for 10 seconds.
— If the problem goes away, resume using the switch.
— If the status LEDs indicate a failure, go to “Procedure B”.
— If the problem persists, check all the configuration parameters.
— If the problem has still not been resolved, go to “Procedure D” and try to
get individual ports working.
Procedure D
Use this procedure if one device connected to the switch is having a communication
problem. The ERR LED and the DIAG LEDs are off, and other attached devices
can communicate through the switch:
1. Check the port LEDs.
— If the port INSRT LED is on, the problem is probably external to the
switch. Go to Step 2.
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— If the port INSRT LED is off, the port is probably disabled. Check that the
port configuration matches the attached device, and then go to Step 3.
2. If the INSRT LED on the failing port is on, and the attached device still cannot
communicate:
— If the attached device is directly connected, it might be set up incorrectly.
Go to step 4.
— In a shared environment, check the segment cabling and the media access
unit.
— If problem persists, try another identically configured port on the switch.
If the new port works there is a problem with the failed port. Obtain
service. Contact your place of purchase.
3. Do the following:
— Using the console of the SNMP manager, check to see whether the failing
port is disabled. If it is, enable it. A port will disable itself when the Config
Loss parameter is exceeded (see “Cfg Loss Threshold” on page 107). This
can be caused by poor cables, a faulty station connected to the switch, or
a bad port on the switch.
— If the port is not disabled, disconnect the port cable. Try moving the cable
to another port until service can be arranged. If the switch can be
temporarily removed from service, connect a console and reset the switch
with diagnostics to see whether the port passes diagnostics and initializes.
If it does not, the problem is in the switch, call service.
4. Restart communications program on the failed connected device.
— If the communication program appears to start without errors, observe the
INSRT LED on the switch port. If it is on, the problem may have gone
away. Check the Cfg Loss Threshold parameter in the Port Configuration
screen (page 106) for possible causes of the failure.
— If the problem persists, try another identically configured port on the
switch. If the new port works there is a problem with the failed port. Obtain
service. Contact your place of purchase.
5. If the switch is connected to a token-ring concentrator, perform the following
steps:
— Verify that the switch duplex setting matches the attached device.
— Verify that the concentrator is operating correctly.
— Verify that only one cable interconnects the two devices. In other words,
only one switch port should be connected to a port on the concentrator.
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➽
Note: If a switch port is configured to “speed auto sense” mode, and is connected
to shared-media where there are no active stations, the port will not open until
another station becomes active and sets the ring speed. If necessary, this can be
avoided by configuring the port to “fixed speed” mode.
6. For each device that is having a communication problem, connect its segment
to another token-ring port on the switch. Try each of the remaining ports to
determine whether the problem will go away.
— If the problem goes away, the problem might be in the switch. Contact
your dealer.
— If the problem persists, continue with step 7.
7. The problem does not appear to be in the switch and the cables and devices
connected to the switch. The problem might be in the network applications or
other software running on the devices. See the software documentation for
software problem determination procedures, or consult your network
administrator for assistance.
❏
Troubleshooting
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11. Getting in Touch with Technical Support
For additional support related to this device or document, contact Cabletron
Systems using one of the following methods:
World Wide Web
http://www.cabletron.com/
Phone
(603) 332-9400
Internet mail
support@cabletron.com
FTP
ftp://ftp.cabletron.com/
anonymous
your email address
Login
Password
To send comments or suggestions concerning this document, contact the
Cabletron Systems Technical Writing Department via the following
email address: TechWriting@cabletron.com
Make sure to include the document Part Number in the email message.
Before calling Cabletron Systems, have the following information ready:
•
•
•
Your Cabletron Systems service contract number
•
The serial and revision numbers of all involved Cabletron Systems products in
the network
•
•
•
A description of your network environment (layout, cable type, etc.)
•
Any previous Return Material Authorization (RMA) numbers
A description of the failure
A description of any action(s) already taken to resolve the problem (e.g.,
changing mode switches, rebooting the unit, etc.)
Network load and frame size at the time of trouble (if known)
The device history (i.e., have you returned the device before, is this a recurring
problem, etc.)
Getting in Touch with Technical Support
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Problem Report Form
Fill in both sides of this Problem Report Form, print out the relevant system
configuration files and fax or mail to Cabletron Systems Technical Support. You
can also fill in and send a Problem Report Form from Cabletron Systems’s web site
on the Internet.
Switch Information
Switch type:
Hardware revision:
Software version:
Switch Configuration
Port configuration:
Stack Configuration:
SSIM Configuration:
Adapter Information
Adapter type:
Operating system:
Network OS:
Driver name:
Driver version:
Company: ____________________________ Name: ______________________
Address: __________________________________________________________
Country: _______________________ Phone/Fax: ________________________
E-mail: _____________________
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Problem Description
Network Installation Sketch
❏
Getting in Touch with Technical Support
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Appendix A. Abbreviations
AMP
Active Monitor Present
ARE
All-Routes Explorer
ARP
Address Resolution Protocol
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
BLK
Blocked
BPDU
Bridge Protocol Data Unit
BRF
Bridge Relay Function
CAU
Controlled Access Unit
CRF
Concentrator Relay Function
DIS
Disabled
DSAP
Destination Service Access Point
DSRR
Dynamic Source Route Recovery
DTE
Data Terminal Equipment
DTR
Dedicated Token Ring
EIA
Electronic Industry Association
EPROM
Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
ESD
Electrostatic Discharge
FDX
Full-duplex
FSM
Finite State Machine
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
FWD
Forwarding
HDX
Half-duplex
Abbreviations
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IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
LAA
Local Administrated Address
LAN
Local Area Network
LAM
Lobe Attachment Module
LED
Light Emitting Diode
LLC
Logical Link Control
LRN
Learning
LSN
Listening
MAC
Media Access Control
MAU
Media Access Unit
Mbps
Megabits per second
MIB
Management Information Base
MMF
Multi-Mode Fiber
MTU
Maximum Transfer Unit
NMS
Network Management System
NNM
Network Node Manager
NSR
Non Source-Routed
OBM
Out-of-Band Management
PROM
Programmable Read Only Memory
QTP
Quad Token-Ring Port (Internal MAC controller for four ports)
RMON
Remote Monitoring
RS
Recommended Standard
SMP
Standby Monitor Present
SNA
Systems Network Architecture
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SNAP
Subnetwork Access Protocol
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol
SPAN
Switched Port Analyzer
SRB
Source Route Bridging
SRS
Source Route Switching
SRT
Source Route Transparent Bridging
SSIM
SmartStack Interface Module
STE
Spanning Tree Explorer
STP
Shielded Twisted Pair
or
Spanning Tree Protocol
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
TIA
Telecommunications Industry Association
TKP
Token Passing
TrBRF
Token Ring Bridge Relay Function
TrCRF
Token Ring Concentrator Relay Function
TXI
Transmit Immediate
UAA
Universal Administrated Address
UNA
Upstream Neighbour Address
UTP
Unshielded Twisted Pair
VLAN
Virtual LAN
WAN
Wide Area Network
❏
Abbreviations
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Appendix B. Cable and Pin Information
This appendix provides information on cables that can be used with the SmartStack
STS16-20D/STS16-20R. It also provides minimum pin-out information to be used
to verify that the cables are correctly wired.
Connecting to the Out-of-Band Management Port
Table 16 lists the type of cables that are used when connecting to the OBM port
(labeled MANAGEMENT) on the front panel of the switch.
Cable Function
Cable Type or Cable Solution
Connect a modem to the
MANAGEMENT port.
Connect one end of a straight-through,
TIA/EIA- 232 modem cable to the
MANAGEMENT port and the other end to the
modem.
Connect a PC or other DTE
device to the
MANAGEMENT port.
Connect one end of a crossover, TIA/EIA-232
cable to the MANAGEMENT port and the other
end to the PC or DTE device
or
attach a null-modem adapter to the
MANAGEMENT port. Then, attach a straightthrough modem cable to the null-modem
adapter.
Table 16. Connecting to the Management Port
Out-of-Band Management Port and Cable Pin-Outs
The switch’s Out-of-Band Management (OBM) port (labeled MANAGEMENT on
the front panel) is an TIA/EIA-232 port wired as a DTE. For this reason, you cannot
use a straight-through modem cable to directly connect a terminal to the
MANAGEMENT port.
For a terminal connection, you can use either a null-modem cable or a modem cable
with a null-modem adapter attached. For a modem connection, you can use a
standard modem cable.
This section provides pin-out information for the cables you can use to connect to
the MANAGEMENT port.
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Management Port Pin-Out
Pin
Signal Name
Shell
CHS GND
3
TXD
2
RXD
7
RTS
8
CTS
6
DSR
5
SIG GND
1
DCD
4
DTR
9
RI
Table 17. Pin-out of the Management Port
TIA/EIA-232 Modem Cable Connections
Use a standard straight-through modem cable to connect the switch’s
MANAGEMENT port to a modem.
TIA/EIA-232 Null-Modem Connections
Use a null-modem (crossover) cable shown in Figure 28 to connect the
MANAGEMENT port to a terminal (DTE) with a 25-pin connector. Alternatively,
you can use a modem cable and a null-modem adapter. DTR (pin 20) and RTS (pin
4) must be on, or high, on your terminal or in your terminal emulation program.
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Figure 28. TIA/EIA-232 Null-Modem Cable for 25-pin Connector
Use a null-modem (crossover) cable shown in Figure 29 to connect the
MANAGEMENT port to a terminal (DTE) with a 9-pin connector. Alternatively,
you can use a modem cable and a null-modem adapter. DTR (pin 4) and RTS (pin
7) must be on, or high, on your terminal or in your terminal emulation program.
Figure 29. EIA 232 Null-Modem Cable for 9-pin Connector
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Twisted-Pair Cable Pin Outs
When connecting devices to the token-ring ports on the switch, you must use a
straight-through cable. Diagrams of these cables follow.
Straight-Through 100-Ohm/120-Ohm Cable
The switch RJ-45 connector makes ground available on the shield and on pins 1, 2,
7, and 8. Shielded cables will provide continuity for ground to any shielded
connector on the other end of the cable.
Figure 30. Straight-Through Cable
150-Ohm IBM STP Data Connector-to-RJ-45 Straight-Through Cable
Figure 31. Data Connector-to-RJ-45 Straight-Through Cable
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Cabling Recommendations
The tables in this section contain the maximum supported lobe lengths. The
maximum lengths reflect the longest lengths supported by the transmission
characteristics of IEEE 802.5-compliant adapters. The recommended distances for
the various cable types are set by North American and international commercial
building wiring standards. These standards state that standards-compliant
horizontal copper cabling shall not exceed 90 m (295 ft) leaving 10 m (33 ft) total
for required patch cabling in both the office and telecommunications closet. It is
good practice to follow the cabling standards guidelines when installing building
cabling to help ensure a longer useful life for your cabling infrastructure, migration
to new technologies, and maximum flexibility for the network configuration.
Cable Type
Impedance
Types 1 and 1A
150 Ohm
Types 2 and 2A
150 Ohm
Type 8
150 Ohm
Type 9
150 Ohm
Type 3
100 Ohm
Category 3
100 and 120 Ohm
Category 4
100 and 120 Ohm
Category 5
100 and 120 Ohm
Table 18. Copper Cable Types
•
If you are installing new cabling for data applications, it is recommended that
you For lobe cabling from the telecommunications closet to the wall outlet, it
is recommended that 150-ohm STP or four-pair Category 5 cable that meets
the international cable standard (ISO/IEC 11801) or North American cabling
standard (EIA/TIA 568A).
•
For backbone cabling, it is recommended that 62.5/125-micron multimode
optical fiber cable that meets the international cable standard (ISO/IEC 11801)
or the North American cabling standard (EIA/TIA 568A).
Number Of Attaching Devices
A Token Ring network supports up to 255 attaching devices or nodes on a single
network when using 150 Ohm shielded media (type 1, 1A, 2, or 2A). When cable
segments in the network are 100 or 120 Ohm, this number is decreased to 132 (72
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if using any 4 Mbps only adapters or filters).
Cable Length and Lobe Wiring Rules
for Dedicated-Media LAN Segments
The Cabletron Systems Token Ring network dedicated-media (full-duplex)
connections support only one attached entity (workstation or switch) per
connection. In a Token Ring network, the section of cable that attaches a device to
an access unit is called a lobe.
The tables in this section specify the maximum supported lobe lengths for the types
of cables listed. An additional 10 m (33 ft) per lobe length is allowed to
accommodate patch cables, unless otherwise specified.
Ring
Speed
4 Mbps
Types
1 and 1A
Types
2 and 2A
Type 8
Type 9
750 m (2460 ft) 750 m (2460 ft) 376 m (1234 ft) 500 m (1640 ft)
16 Mbps 430 m (1410 ft) 430 m (1410 ft) 215 m (705 ft)
295 m (968 ft)
100 Mbps 90 m (295 ft)
See the Note!
Not Supported
➽
Not Supported
Not Supported
Note: An additional 10 m (33 ft) UTP 100 Ohm CAT.5 lobe length and a
maximum of two UTP/STP converters without impedance transformation
is allowed to accommodate connection to the STP cabling. The UTP/STP
converter must be specified for 100 MHz operation.
Table 19. Lobe Length for 150 Ohm Shielded Media
Ring Speed
100 Ohm Type 3
100 Ohm Category 3
4 Mbps
100 m (328 ft)
250 m (820 ft)
16 Mbps
Not Supported
100 m (328 ft)
100 Mbps
Not Supported
Not Supported
Table 20. Lobe Lengths for 100 Ohm Shielded or Unshielded Cable
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Ring Speed
100 or 120 Ohm
Category 4
100 or 120 Ohm
Category 5
4 Mbps
350 m (1148 ft)
350 m (1148 ft)
16 Mbps
200 m (656 ft)
200 m (656 ft)
100 Mbps
Not Supported
90 m (295 ft)
Table 21. Lobe Lengths for 100 or 120 Ohm Shielded
or Unshielded Cable
Cable Length and Lobe Wiring Rules
for Shared-Media LAN Segments
The types of cables that can be used in shared-media segments (half-duplex) are the
same as those described for dedicated-media segments on page 234.
➽
Note: The acceptable cable lengths are defined by the hub or concentrator attached
to the switch port, but in general the distances are half of that stated in the tables
above for dedicated-media segments.
❏
Cable and Pin Information
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index-1
Index
Numerics
802.5 17
802.5 DTR MAC Information menu 172
802.5 State Information screen 170
802.5 Statistics screen 167
A
address
unknown 20
address aging 126
Address Aging menu 127
address filtering 116
address tables 20
Address Tables menu 177
addresses
management 20
master address table 178
advanced 10
airflow recommendations 43
AMP 225
ARE 225
ARP 225
ATM 225
auto 25
B
BLK 225
BootP requests and parameters
bottlenecks 2
BPDU 225
BRF 225
broadcast packets 18
built-in port counters 39
96
C
cabinet 58
Cable Length 235
Cable Pin-Outs 229
cable pin-outs 229
cable wiring 229
Cables 232
cabling
building wiring 60, 61
guidelines 60
labeling 60, 61, 62
token-ring connections 60, 61
types 60
Index
cabling length recommendations 234
cabling recommendations 233
capacity 13
CAU 225
characteristics 15
chassis 58
chassis accessibility 43
chassis overheat caution 43
checking 62
cold boot 73
communication problems 72
Community Strings screen 203
concentrator relay functions 21
configuration 75
Configuration menu 79
Configure Filters screen 118
Configure Port Security Mode screen 120
congestion control 24
connecting
a network management console 69
connecting the console 70
connecting to end-node devices 60
connecting to hubs 60
console
connecting 69
guidelines for using 76
terminal emulation 72
Console Configuration menu 132
Console/Telnet sessions 132
conversations, multiple 18
cooling recommendations 43
CRF 21, 225
CrossLink 110
procedure for setting up 114
CrossLink Configuration screen 113
CrossLink Connections 29
CrossLink menu 112
Current CrossLink Information screen 115
Current Spanning Tree Information for a CRF
screen 188
Current Spanning Tree Information screen 185
current spanning tree information screen 105
Cut-Through 25
D
diagnostic screen 73
Diagnostic Test Results screen 196
DIS 225
Display Summary screen 199
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Download/Upload menu 147
DSAP 225
DSRR 32, 33, 34
DSRR Acting as Backup Table screen 195
DSRR configuration 141
DSRR Configuration screen 144
DSRR Group Configuration screen 143
DSRR Neighbour Table screen 194
DSRR status 193
DSRR Status Tables screen 193
DTE 225
DTR 225
Dynamic Source Route Recovery 32, 33, 34
acting as backup table 195
neighbour table screen 194
E
electrical safety guidelines 41
electrostatic discharge 42
environmental recommendations 43
EPROM 225
ESD 225
ESD (Electro-Static Discharge) prevention
ESD wrist-strap safety 42
F
FDX 225
features and specifications 10
Filtering 116
filtering 24
filters
VLAN 87
Filters and Port Security menu 117
Frame Length Limit 45
front panel 5
FSM 225
FTP 225
Full SNMP 35
full-duplex 2, 19
FWD 225
G
General Statistics screen
greeting screen 74
163
H
half-duplex 2, 19
hardware revision level
HDX 225
85
42
high availability
11
I
inspecting the package contents 56
instalation instructions, summary 55
installation 12
installation preparation 41
IP Configuration screen 94, 201
L
LAA 226
labels 7
LAN 226
latency 19
LED 226
LEDs
port 8
stack link 8
status 7
LLC 226
lobe wire rules 234
Lobe Wiring Rules 235
log information 197
logical rings 21
LRN 226
LSN 226
M
MAC 226
MAC-layer 17
main menu 74
main menu screen 78
management 11, 35
management of switch 69
MANAGEMENT port 5
connecting to 70
Master Address Table Aging screen 129
Master Address Table screen 178
Master Route Descriptor Table screen 180
MAU 226
Maximum Frame Length 45
Mbps 226
menus
802.5 DTR MAC Information 172
Address Aging 127
Address Tables 177
Configuration 79
Console Configuration 132
CrossLink 112
Download/Upload 147
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Index
index-3
Filters and Port Security 117
navigation 77
Password 130
Protocol Filters 122
Statistics 156
VLAN Configuration 87
Message Log Information screen 197
MIB 226
modem
creating a console session 134
modem cable connections 230
Module Information screen 84
monitoring port traffic 211
monitoring the network 155
mounting instructions 58
MTU 226
multicast packets 18
multiple 18, 21
multiple conversations 18
N
network management console
connecting 69
network management system 201
NMS 226
NSR 226
null-modem cable connections 230
number of attaching devices 233
O
opening the switch
not allowed 41
operation modes 26
Out-of-Band Management Port 229
out-of-band management port 229
P
packets
broadcast 18
multicast 18
Password menu 130
performance 10, 14
performance bottlenecks 2
Pin Information 229
Port Address Table Aging screen 127
Port Configuration screen 106
Port Filtering Attributes screen 124
Port Pin-Outs 229
Port Spanning Tree Parameters screen 104
Port Status screen 160
Index
port traffic
monitoring 211
ports
MANAGEMENT 5
power 43
Power Supply Information screen 159
power supply 40
problem report form 222
PROM 226
Protocol Class Assignment screen 123
Protocol Filters menu 122
protocols supported 17
R
rack 58
rack mounting instructions 58
reset button 6
Reset screen 152
RI/RO-Like Connection 27
RJ-45 ports 17
RMON 226
RMON Support 37
S
safety 41
electricity 41
ESD 42
general guidelines 41
scalability 11
screens
802.5 State Information 170
802.5 Statistics 167
Community Strings 203
Configure Filters 118
Configure Port Security Mode 120
CrossLink Configuration 113
Current CrossLink Information 115
Current Spanning Tree Information 185
Current Spanning Tree Information for a
CRF 188
Diagnostic Test Results 196
Display Summary 199
DSRR Acting as Backup Table 195
DSRR Configuration 144
DSRR Group Configuration 143
DSRR Neighbour Table Screen 194
DSRR Status Tables 193
General Statistics 163
guidelines for using 76
IP Configuration 94, 201
Master Address Table 178
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Master Address Table Aging 129
Master Route Descriptor Table 180
Message Log Information 197
Module Information 84
Port Address Table Aging 127
Port Configuration 106
Port Filtering Attributes 124
Port Spanning Tree Parameters 104
Port Status 160
Power Supply Information Screen 159
Protocol Class Assignement 123
Reset 152
Serial Link Configuration 133
Serial Link Download 148
SNMP Configuration 202
Spanning Tree for CRF 101
Stack Configuration 83
Station-Cport Information 175
Switch Configuration 80
Switch Statistics 157
Switched Port Analyzer 213
Syslog Daemon 139
Telnet Configuration 135
Telnet Sessions 136
TFTP Download/Upload 150
Trap Receivers 205
TXI Information 173
View Port Filters 121
VLAN Address Table 182
VLAN Configuration 88
VLAN Parameter Configuration for BRF
VLAN Parameter Configuration for CRF
VLAN Port Configuration 93
VLAN Route Descriptor Table 183
VLAN Statistics for BRF 192
VLAN Statistics for CRF 191
Serial Link Configuration screen 133
Serial Link Download screen 148
servers 19
Service 215
service, obtaining 215
site requirements 43
SMP 226
SNA 226
SNAP 227
SNMP 35, 227
monitoring the network with 201
SNMP configuration 97
SNMP Configuration screen 202
SNMP setup 201
SNMP trap tables 86
Source Route Bridging 22
91
89
Source Route Transparent 23
SPAN 227
spanning tree
VLAN 86
Spanning Tree for BRF screen
screens
Spanning Tree for BRF 99
Spanning Tree for CRF screen 101
spanning tree information 188
spanning tree protocol 97
Spanning Tree Protocol Support 30
specifications 13
SRB 22, 227
SRS 22, 227
SRT 23, 227
SRT/SRB 23
Stack Configuration screen 83
stack module 17
stackable architecture 39
Start of Troubleshooting Process 215
static electricity prevention 42
Station-Cport Information screen 175
statistics 155
master address table 178
VLAN address table 182
Statistics menu 156
STE 227
stopping the console session 134
store and forward 25
store-and-forward technology 19
STP 227
straight-through cable 232
summary 55
support 30
switch configuration 75
Switch Configuration screen 80
switch management
accessing 69
switch of desktops 3
switch of floors and buildings 4
switch of hubs 3
switch of routers 4
switch of servers 3
switch of switches 2
Switch Statistics screen 157
switch theory 17
Switched Port Analyzer screen 213
switching 2
switching modes 25
switching technology 2
Syslog Daemon screen 139
system request button 6
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Index
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T
table mounting 59
TCP/IP 227
Technical Support 221
Telnet Configuration screen 135
Telnet Management 36
Telnet session
starting 137
stopping 137
Telnet Sessions 132
Telnet Sessions screen 136
terminal emulation program on console
TFTP 227
TFTP Download/Upload screen 150
TKP 227
Token Passing 26
token-ring bandwidth 2
Token-Ring Port operation modes 26
Token-Ring ports 5
tools 57
Transmission Priority Queues 28
Trap Receivers screen 205
trap tables 86
TrBRF 227
TrCrf 227
troubleshooting 215
troubleshooting procedures 216
twisted-pair cable pinouts 232
TXI 227
TXI Information screen 173
VLAN Parameter Configuration for BRF
screen 91
VLAN Parameter Configuration for CRF
screen 89
VLAN Port Configuration screen 93
VLAN Route Descriptor Table screen 183
VLAN statistics 191
VLAN Statistics for BRF screen 192
VLAN Statistics for CRF screen 191
VT100 Management 36
VT100/VT220 137
72
W
WAN 227
warm boot 73
warning
electricity 41
Windows 95 36
U
UAA 227
UNA 227
unknown address 20
unpacking 45
before installation
UTP 227
56
V
View Port Filters screen 121
VLAN 227
filters 87
IP 87
SNMP trap tables 86
spanning tree 86
VLAN Address Table screen 182
VLAN configuration 86
VLAN Configuration menu 87
VLAN Configuration screen 88
Index
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