FCC COMPLIANCE STATEMENT
FOR AMERICAN USERS
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a class B digital
device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide
reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This
equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed
and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio and
television reception. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a
particular installation. If this equipment does cause interference to radio and television
reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is
encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
Cl Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna
0 Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver
Cl Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the
receiver is connected
Cl Consult an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
WARNING
The connection of a non-shielded equipment interface cable to this equipment will
invalidate the FCC Certification of this device and may cause interference levels that
exceed the limits established by the FCC for this equipment. It is the responsibility of the
user to obtain and use a shielded equipment interface cable with this device. If this
equipment has more than one interface connector, do not leave cables connected to unused
interfaces.
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the manufacturer could void the
user’s authority to operate the equipment.
FOR CANADIAN USERS
This digital apparatus does not exceed the Class B limits for radio noise emissions from
digital apparatus as set out in the radio interference regulations of the Canadian
Department of Communications.
Le present appareil numCrique n’kmet pas de bruits radioClectriques depassant les limites
applicables aux appareils numkiques de Classe B prescrites dans le reglement sur Ie
brouillage radioelectrique edict6 par Ie Ministke des Communications du Canada.
EPSON
®
User’s Guide
@ This manual is printed on recycled paper and is 100% recyclable.
IMPORTANT NOTICE
DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY
Epson America makes no representations or warranties, either express or implied, by or
with respect to anything in this manual, and shall not be liable for any implied warranties
of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose or for any indirect, special, or
consequential damages. Some states do not allow the exclusion of incidental or
consequential damages, so this exclusion may not apply to you.
COPYRIGHT NOTICE
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Epson
America, Inc. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of information
contained herein. Nor is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the
information contained herein. Further, this publication and features described herein are
subject to change without notice.
TRADEMARKS
Epson is a registered trademark of Seiko Epson Corporation.
VirtualCache is a trademark of Epson Portland, Inc.
General notice: Other product names used herein are for identification purposes only and
may be trademarks of their respective companies.
Copyright 0 1993 by Epson America, Inc.
Torrance, California
ii
Important Safety Instructions
1.
Read all of these instructions and save them for later reference.
2.
Follow all warnings and instructions marked on the computer.
3.
Unplug the computer from the wall outlet before cleaning. Use a
damp cloth for cleaning; do not use liquid or aerosol cleaners.
4.
Do not spill liquid of any kind on the computer.
5.
Do not place the computer on an unstable cart, stand, or table.
6.
Slots and openings in the cabinet and the back or bottom are
provided for ventilation; do not block or cover these openings.
Do not place the computer near or over a radiator or heat
register.
7.
Operate the computer using the type of power source indicated
on its label.
8.
If you plan to operate the computer in Germany, observe the
following safety precaution:
To provide adequate short-circuit protection and over-current
protection for this computer, the building installation must be
protected by a 16 Amp circuit breaker.
Beim AnschluB des Computers an die Netzversorgung muf3
sichergestellt werden, dal3 die Gebaudeinstallation mit einem
16 A ijberstromschutzschalter abgesichert ist.
9.
Connect all equipment to properly grounded (earthed) power
outlets. If you are unable to insert the plug into an outlet,
contact your electrician to replace your outlet. Avoid using
outlets on the same circuit as photocopiers or air control
systems that regularly switch on and off.
iii
10. Do not allow the computer’s power cord to become damaged or
frayed.
11. If you use an extension cord with the computer, make sure the
total of the ampere ratings of the devices plugged into the
extension cord does not exceed the ampere rating for the
extension cord. Also, make sure the total of all products
plugged into the wall outlet does not exceed 15 amperes.
12. Do not insert objects of any kind into this product through the
cabinet slots.
13. Except as specifically explained in this User’s Guide, do not
attempt to service the computer yourself. Refer all servicing to
qualified service personnel.
14. Unplug the computer from the wall outlet and refer servicing to
qualified service personnel under the following conditions:
A. When the power cord or plug is damaged.
B. If liquid has entered the computer.
C. If the computer does not operate normally when the
operating instructions are followed. Adjust only those
controls that are covered by the operating instructions.
Improper adjustment of other controls may result in
damage and often requires extensive work by a qualified
technician to restore the computer to normal operation.
D. If the computer has been dropped or the cabinet has been
damaged.
E. If the computer exhibits a distinct change in performance.
iv
Instructions Importantes de Skuritk
1. Lire completement les instructions qui suivant et les conserver
pour references futures.
2.
Bien suivre tous les avertissements et les instructions indiques sur
l’ordinateur.
3.
Debrancher l’ordinateur de toute sortie murale avant le nettoyage.
Utiliser un chiffon humide; ne jamais utiliser un nettoyeur
liquide ou une bonbonne aerosol.
4.
Ne jamais renverser un liquide d’aucune sorte sur l’ordinateur.
5.
Ne pas placer l’ordinateur sur un chariot, un support, ou une table
instable.
6.
Les events dans le meubles, a l’arriere et en dessous sont concus
pour l’aeration; on ne doit jamais les bloquer. Ne pas placer
l’ordinateur pres d’une source de chaleur directe.
7.
Le fonctionnement de l’ordinateur doit s’effectuer conformement
au type de source d’alimentation indiquee sur l’etiquette.
8.
Lorsqu’on desire utiliser l’ordinateur en Allemagne, on doit
observer les normes securitaires qui suivent:
Afin d’assurer une protection adequate a l’ordinateur contre les
court-circuits et le survoltage, l’installation de l’edifice doit
comprendre un disjoncteur de 16 amp.
9.
On doit brancher tout l’equipement dans une sortie reliee a la
masse. Lorsqu’il est impossible d’inserer la fiche dans la prise, on
doit retenir les services d’un electricien ou remplacer la prise. Ne
jamais utiliser une prise sur le meme circuit qu’un appareil a
photocopie ou un systeme de controle d’aeration avec
commutation marche-arret.
V
10. S’assurer que le cordon d’alimentation de l’ordinateur n’est pas
effrite.
11. Dans le cas ob on utilise un cordon de rallonge avec l’ordinateur,
on doit s/assurer que la valeur totale d’amperes branches dans le
cordon n’excede en aucun temps les amperes du cordon de
rallonge. La quantite totale des appareils branches dans la prise
murale ne doit jamais exceder 15 amperes.
12. Ne jamais inserer un objet de quelque sorte que ce soit dans les
cavites de cet appareil.
13. Sauf tel que specific dans la notice d’utilisation, on ne doit jamais
tenter d’effectuer une reparation de l’ordinateur. On doit referer
le service de cet appareil a un technicien qualifie.
14. Debrancher l’ordinateur de la prise murale et confier le service au
personnel de service qualifie selon les conditions qui suivent:
A. Lorsque le cordon d’alimentation ou la prise sont
endommages.
B. Lorsqu’un liquide s’est infiltre dans l’ordinateur.
C. Lorsque l’ordinateur refuse de fonctionner normalement
meme en suivant les instructions. N’ajuster que les
commandes qui sont enumerees dans les instructions de
fonctionnement. Tout ajustement inadequat de tout autre
controle peut provoquer un dommage et souvent necessiter
des reparations elaborees par un technicien qualifie afin de
remettre l’appareil en service.
D. Lorsqu’on a echappe l’ordinateur ou que l’on a endommage le
boitier.
E. Lorsque l’ordinateur demontre un changement note au niveau
de sa performance.
vi
Contents
Introduction
VGA Utilities . . . . . . . . .
OptionalEquipment . . . . .
Memory . . . . . . . . .
Drives . . . . . . . . . .
OverDrive Processor . .
Alternate VGA Interface
How to Use This Manual . .
Chapter 1
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2
3
3
3
3
3
4
Using Your Computer
Turning On the Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning Off the Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Disks and Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Disks Store Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Diskette Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Caring for Diskettes and Diskette Drives . . . . . . . . . .
Write-protecting Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting and Removing Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Single Diskette Drive System . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting Diskettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making Backup Copies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Hard Disk Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Keys on the Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stopping a Command or Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resetting the Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing a Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting a Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-2
1-5
1-5
1-6
1-7
1-10
1-12
1-14
1-16
1-17
1-17
1-18
1-20
1-21
1-22
1-23
1-24
1-25
vii
Using Your Computer as a Network Server . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Password in Network Server Mode . . . . . . . .
Changing the Processor Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Keyboard Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the ESPEED Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing the Hard Disk for Moving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using AUTOEXEC.BAT and Other Batch Files . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 2
lnstalling and Removing Options
How to Use This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Locating the Internal Components . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing the Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Jumper Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Jumpers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Modules (SIMMs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting SIMMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing SIMMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing an Option Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing an Option Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing the Option Card Connector Board . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing the Option Card Connector Board . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a New Processor Chip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Alternate VGA Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replacing the Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post-installation Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 3
...
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-6
2-8
2-9
2-11
2-13
2-14
2-18
2-19
2-20
2-21
2-22
2-24
2-25
Installing and Removing Drives
How to Use This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Hard Disk Drive Jumpers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Where to Go Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a Hard Disk in the Vertical Bay . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing the Mounting Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing the Hard Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27222
1-26
1-27
1-28
1-30
1-31
1-33
1-34
3-3
3-4
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-8
3-12
Removing a Hard Disk From the Vertical Bay . . . . . . . . . .
Installing a Drive in a Horizontal Bay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attaching Mounting Frames to a Hard Disk . . . . . . . .
Installing the Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing a Drive From a Horizontal Bay . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting the Hard Disk Drive Ribbon Cable to the System
Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post-installation Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 4
3-33
3-36
Running System Diagnostics
Starting the Program .
Deleting Tests . . .
Adding Tests . . .
Running Tests . . . . .
Resuming From an
System Diagnostic Tests
Error Messages . . . . .
Chapter 5
3-15
3-17
3-19
3-20
3-24
3-29
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Error . . . . . . . . .
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4-2
. 4-3
. 4-4
. 4-5
. 4-6
. 4-7
. 4-8
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Formatting a Hard Disk
Starting the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Formatting a New Disk . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reformatting a Used Disk . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting an Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting a Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option 1, Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying the Defective Track Table . . . .
Formatting the Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option 2, Destructive Surface Analysis . . . . . .
Option 3, Non-destructive Surface Analysis . . .
Exiting the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-2
. . . 5-3
. . . 5-3
. . . 5-3
. . . 5-4
. . . 5-4
. . . 5-6
. . . 5-8
. . . 5-9
. . . 5-10
. . . 5-11
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ix
Chapter 6
Troubleshooting
Identifying Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Computer Won’t Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Computer Does Not Respond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring the Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Password Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accessing Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Monitor Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diskette Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diskette Drive Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard Disk Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing the Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing the Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accessing Data on the Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Software Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printer Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Option Card Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mouse Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Memory Module Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-1
6-2
6-5
6-6
6-8
6-9
6-10
6-11
6-12
6-13
6-15
6-16
6-17
6-18
6-18
6-19
6-20
6-22
6-23
6-23
Appendix A Specifications
CPU and Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mass Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . .
Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environmental Requirements . . . . . . .
Power Source Requirements . . . . . . . .
System Memory Map . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extended VGA Modes . . . . . . . . . . .
Wingine Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
x
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A-1
A-2
A-3
A-4
A-4
A-5
A-5
A-6
A-7
A-8
A-9
A-10
Glossary
Index
xi
lntroduction
Your new Epson® computer is a fast, high-performance system
offering flexibility and expandability in a compact design. It
provides the following features:
Ll 486SX/33, 486DX2/50, or 486DX2/66 microprocessor
Ll 4MB of internal memory, expandable to 128MB
U
System and video BIOS shadow RAM
U
8KB of internal processor cache
LI VirtualCache’“-the Epson proprietary memory
architecture which allows the system to use all its system
memory as a virtual cache pool
Ll
Integrated VGA (video graphics array) controller with
Wingine™ video technology developed by Chips and
Technologies® for Microsoft® Windows® users
Ll Math coprocessor built into the 486DX2/50 and 486DX2/66
microprocessor chips
LI Built-in VGA port
tl
Two built-in serial ports and one built-in parallel port
Ll
Built-in IBM® PS/2™ compatible keyboard and mouse ports
Ll
Four 16-bit (or 8-bit) ISA option slots
Ct
Support for up to three mass storage drives
U Password security.
lntroduction 1
Your computer’s video and memory features work together for
enhanced performance. Incorporating Wingine technology, the
advanced system architecture allows the CPU to communicate
directly with the video memory, providing direct throughput
from the system memory to the display. Combined with the
speed and graphics capabilities of the Wingine VGA controller,
this technology produces screen refresh rates that are ten times
faster than standard super VGA systems and up to five times
faster than systems that employ “local bus” technology.
Additionally, your computer can use all of its memory as a
virtual cache pool. Unlike most systems that provide only a
64KB or 128KB cache buffer-which typically fills up with the
first or second memory access command-your computer uses
all the RAM as a “virtual” cache buffer. You’ll notice the
improved performance especially when running
memory-consuming graphics programs such as Windows
applications or CAD programs.
Using the built-in interfaces, you can connect your peripheral
devices directly to the computer so you don’t have to install
option cards. You can use the option slots to enhance your
system with extra functions such as a modem card, network
card, or additional interface ports.
VGA Utilities
Your computer comes with special MS-DOS® VGA device
drivers and utilities for use with the integrated VGA interface.
With these utilities, you can take advantage of extended VGA
features such as high resolutions and 132-column text mode
when you run popular application programs. The Wingine
controller works with the display drivers to provide sharp,
clear resolutions of up to 1024 x 768 for the Windows
environment. See the VGA Utilities Guide for installation
instructions.
2 Introduction
Optional Equipment
You can easily upgrade your computer by installing additional
memory and a wide variety of options, as described below.
(Installation instructions are provided in Chapters 2 and 3 of
this manual.)
Memory
By adding 1MB, 4MB, 16MB, or 64MB SIMMs (single inline
memory modules) to the main system board, you can expand
the computer’s memory up to 128MB.
Drives
Your system can support up to three internal mass storage
devices, including hard disk drives, diskette drives, a tape
drive, or a CD-ROM drive. As your storage needs expand, you
can install additional drives.
OverDrive Processor
If you have the 486SX/33 model, you can enhance your system
by installing an Intel® OverDrive™ processor. This processor
doubles the internal clock speed so your system runs much
faster.
Alternate VGA Interface
If you want to install a high-resolution graphics adapter card
for additional graphics capabilities (such as 1280 x 1024
resolutions), you can connect it to the computer’s alternate
VGA interface. This allows you to use the special graphics
features on the adapter card while accessing the standard VGA
signals provided by your main system board.
Introduction 3
How to Use This Manual
This manual contains the information you need to get the best
results from your computer. You don’t have to read everything
in this book; check the following summary.
Chapter 1 covers general operating procedures, such as turning
the computer on and off, using disks and disk drives, entering a
password, and changing the processor speed.
Chapter 2 describes how to remove and replace the computer’s
cover, change jumper settings, and install optional equipment
such as option cards and memory modules.
Chapter 3 explains how to install and remove disk drives,
Chapter 4 provides instructions for running system diagnostics.
Chapter 5 gives the procedure for formatting a hard disk.
Chapter 6 contains troubleshooting tips.
Appendix A lists the specifications of your computer.
At the end of this manual, you’ll find a Glossary and an Index.
Note
Please see the Setup Guide for instructions on setting up your
system and running the SETUP program.
4 Introduction
Using Your Computer
This chapter briefly describes the following operations:
Turning the computer on and off
Using disks and disk drives
Using special keys on the keyboard
Stopping a command or program
Resetting the computer
Using a password
Changing the processor speed
Preparing a hard disk for moving
Using AUTOEXEC.BAT and other batch files.
Using Your Computer
l-l
If you want basic information on turning the computer on and
off, using your disk drives and keyboard, stopping commands,
or resetting the computer, read the first five sections in this
chapter.
If you are familiar with these aspects of operating a computer,
you can skip to page 1-23 to learn about system operations
specific to your computer, such as using a password and
changing the processor speed.
Turning On the Computer
Before turning on your computer, check the following safety
rules to avoid accidentally damaging your computer or injuring
yourself:
Do not connect or disconnect any peripheral device cables
(including the mouse or keyboard) or power cables when
the computer’s power is on.
Never turn on the computer with a protective card in a
5.25-inch diskette drive.
Never turn off or reset your computer while a disk drive
light is on. This can destroy data stored on the disk.
Always wait at least 20 seconds after you turn off the
power before you turn it on again. This prevents possible
damage to the computer’s electrical circuitry.
Do not leave a beverage near your system. Spilled liquid
can damage the circuitry of your equipment.
Follow these steps to turn on your system:
1.
1-2
Turn on the monitor, printer, and any other peripheral
devices connected to the computer.
Using Your Computer
2.
If you do not have a hard disk, insert your main operating
system diskette in drive A.
Note
If you do not have a hard disk, you need to insert the
operating system diskette each time you turn on your
system so the computer can copy the operating system
to its memory. See your operating system manual for
more information.
3.
To turn on the computer, press the power button located on
the right side of the front panel, as shown below.
power indicator
power
button
The power indicator lights up. After a few seconds, the
computer displays a count of its system memory, and then
performs its power-on diagnostics. This is a series of checks the
computer runs each time you turn it on to make sure
everything is working correctly. (If necessary, use the controls
on your monitor to adjust the screen display.)
Using Your Computer
1-3
Note
If you or your dealer has made a major change to your
system, such as adding a disk drive, the computer may take
a few minutes to complete power-on diagnostics the first
time you turn it on.
When the system has successfully completed its diagnostics,
you see the following prompt:
Press <DEL> to start SETUP
Note
If your computer’s configuration does not match the
information stored in the computer’s CMOS RAM (defined
through the SETUP program), you see an error message and
a prompt to press the m key. Press [ to continue.
Then run the SETUP program to correct the information.
(See Chapter 2 of the Setup Guide for instructions.)
If you do not want to run SETUP, ignore the prompt. After a
few seconds, the computer either loads the operating system
from the hard disk or the diskette in drive A or prompts you
for the password (if you have set one). When you enter the
correct password, the computer loads the operating system.
What happens next depends on how your computer is set up.
If it is configured to automatically load a program (such as
Microsoft Windows or a word processing program), you see
the first menu or screen display of that program. If not, you
may see the operating system prompt, such as C : \> or A>. See
your application program manuals for further instructions.
1-4
Using Your Computer
Turning Off the Computer
Whenever you turn off your system, follow these steps:
1. Save your data and exit any application program you are
using.
2.
Check the hard disk drive light and the diskette drive light(s)
to make sure they are not on. Do not turn off the computer
if a drive light is on, because you can damage the drive or
lose data.
3.
Remove any diskette(s) from the diskette drive(s).
4.
Press the power button to turn off the computer and then
turn off any peripheral devices (monitor, printer, etc.).
Using Disks and Disk Drives
The disk drives in your computer allow you to store data on
disk, and then retrieve and use your stored data. This section
explains how disks work and tells you how to:
Use different types of diskettes and diskette drives
Care for your diskettes and diskette drives
Write-protect diskettes
Insert and remove diskettes
Use a single diskette drive system
Format diskettes
Make backup copies
Use a hard disk drive.
Using Your Computer
1-5
How Disks Store Data
Diskettes are made of flexible plastic coated with magnetic
material. This plastic is enclosed in a square jacket that is either
slightly flexible (5.25-inch diskette) or hard (3.5-inch diskette).
Unlike a diskette, a hard disk is rigid and fixed in place. It is
sealed in a protective case to keep it free of dust and dirt. A
hard disk stores data the same way that a diskette does, but it
works much faster and has a much larger storage capacity.
All disks are divided into data storage compartments by sides,
tracks, and sectors. Double-sided diskettes store data on both
sides. On each side are concentric rings, called tracks, on which
a disk can store data.
A disk is further divided by sectors, which can be visualized as
pie slices. The illustration below provides a simple
representation of tracks and sectors.
1-6
Using Your Computer
Double-sided, double-density diskettes have either 40 or 80
tracks on each side, and double-sided, high-density diskettes
have 80 tracks on each side. Diskettes can have 8,9,15, or 18
sectors per track.
A hard disk consists of two or more platters stacked on top of
one another and thus has four or more sides. In addition, a hard
disk has many more tracks per side than a diskette, but the
number of tracks depends on the capacity of the hard disk. The
number of sectors depends on the type of hard disk.
Your computer uses the read/write heads in a disk drive to
store and retrieve data on a disk. To write to a disk, the
computer spins it to the position under the read/write head
where the data is to be written. A diskette has an exposed area
where the read/write head can access it.
Because data is stored magnetically, you can retrieve it, record
over it, and erase it just as you play, record, and erase music on
a cassette tape.
Types of Diskette Drives
The following list describes the four types of diskette drives
you can use in your computer and which diskettes to use with
them:
LI
1.44MB drive-Use 3.5-inch, double-sided, high-density,
135 TPI (tracks per inch), 1.44MB diskettes. These diskettes
contain 80 tracks per side, 18 sectors per track, and hold up
to 1.44MB of information (approximately 600 pages of text).
Note
MB stands for megabyte, which equals 1024KB (or
1,048,576 bytes). KB stands for kilobyte, which equals
1024 bytes. Each byte represents a single character, such
as A, $, or 3.
Using Your Computer
1-7
Q
1.2MB drive-Use 5.25-inch, double-sided, high-density,
96 TPI, 1.2MB diskettes. These diskettes contain 80 tracks
per side, 15 sectors per track, and hold up to 1.2MB of
information (approximately 500 pages of text).
tl
720KB drive-Use 3.5-inch, double-sided, double-density,
135 TPI, 720KB diskettes. These diskettes contain 80 tracks
per side, 9 sectors per track, and hold up to 720KB of
information (approximately 300 pages of text).
LI
360KB drive-Use 5.25-inch, double-sided, double-density,
48 TPI, 360KB diskettes. (You can also use single-sided,
160KB or 180KB diskettes.) These diskettes contain 40
tracks per side and 8 or 9 sectors per track. With 8 sectors
per track, a diskette holds up to 320KB. With 9 sectors per
track, a diskette holds up to 360KB of information
(approximately 150 pages of text).
Note
You must format a new diskette before you can store data on
it. See “Formatting Diskettes,” later in this section.
Drive and diskette incompatibilities
If your computer has more than one type of diskette drive, or if
you use different types of diskettes, you need to be aware of
certain incompatibilities between the drives and diskettes.
Because of the type and size differences, you cannot use a
3.5-inch diskette in a 5.25-inch drive or vice versa. There are
also limitations on using diskettes that are the same size as the
drive but have different capacities. The following tables
summarize the possibilities and limitations.
1-8
Using Your Computer
3.5 inch drive/diskette compatibility
Drive type
Diskette types it can read from and write to
720KB
720KB
1.44MB
1.44MB. 720KB
5.25-inch drive/diskette compatibility
l
Drive type
Diskette types it can read from and write to
360KB
360KB. 320KB. 180KB. 160KB
1.2MB
1.2MB, 360KB.
l
320KB,
l
180KB,
l
160KB’
If you write to this diskette in a 1.2MB drive, you may not be able to read it
or write to it in a 360KB drive later.
Because of possible incompatibilities, always indicate the
diskette type and density when you label your diskettes.
(Usually this information appears on the manufacturer’s label.)
Note
If you want to format a 720KB diskette in a 1.44MB drive or
format a 360KB diskette in a 1.2MB drive, make sure you
include the correct parameter in your format command. See
your operating system manual for instructions.
If you have any combination of the above drives (1.44MB,
1.2MB, 720KB, or 360KB) and you are using MS-DOS, you can
copy files from one drive to another-using COPY or
XCOPY-as long as the correct diskette type is in each drive.
You can also use these commands to copy files between a hard
disk and any type of diskette. However, you cannot use the
MS-DOS DISKCOPY command to copy from one diskette drive
to another if the two drives are not the same type. For more
about copying files and diskettes, see your MS-DOS or other
operating system manuals.
Using Your Computer
1-9
Caring for Diskettes and Diskette Drives
Follow these basic precautions to protect your diskettes and
avoid losing data:
Cl
Remove all diskettes before you turn off the computer.
If you have a diskette that contains data you
don’t want to accidentally write over or erase,
be sure you write-protect it. This is especially
important for your operating system and
application program diskettes. See “Writeprotecting Diskettes,” below, for more details.
Cl
Do not remove a diskette from the diskette drive or reset or
turn off the computer while the drive light is on. This light
indicates that the computer is copying data to or from a
diskette. If you interrupt this process, you can destroy data.
Keep diskettes in a moderate environment.
Don’t leave them sitting in the sun or in
extreme cold or heat because this can destroy
.
the data.
0
Keep diskettes away from dust and dirt. Small particles of
dust or dirt can scratch the magnetic surface, destroy data,
and ruin the read/write heads in a diskette drive.
Keep diskettes away from magnetic fields,
such as those generated by electrical
appliances, telephones, and loudspeakers.
(Diskettes store information magnetically.)
1-10
Using Your Computer
LI
Do not place diskettes on top of your monitor or near an
external hard disk drive.
Always hold a 5.25-inch diskette by its
protective jacket and never touch the magnetic
surface (exposed by the read/write slot). The
oils on your fingertips can damage it.
Ll Never wipe, brush, or try to clean diskettes in any way.
Write on a diskette label before you attach it to
the diskette. If you need to write on a label that
is already on the diskette, use only a soft-tip
pen-not a ballpoint pen or a pencil.
D
Carefully label your diskettes and indicate the type and
density. Do not stick several labels on top of one another;
this can make it difficult to insert and remove the diskette
in the drive.
Store diskettes in their protective envelopes and
in a proper location, such as a diskette container.
Do not store diskettes flat or stack them on top
of each other.
Ll Do not place anything on top of your diskettes, and be sure
they do not get bent.
Using Your Computer
1-11
Write-protecting Diskettes
You can write-protect a diskette to prevent its data from being
altered. When a diskette is write-protected, you can read it and
copy data from it, but you cannot store new data on it or delete
any files it contains.
On a 3.5-inch diskette, the write-protect device is a small switch
on the back of the diskette in the lower right corner, shown
below. To write-protect a 3.5-inch diskette, slide the switch
toward the edge of the diskette until it clicks into position,
exposing a hole in the corner.
switch
To remove the write protection, slide the switch toward the
center of the diskette until it clicks into position and the hole is
covered.
Note
A high-density 3.5-inch diskette has an additional hole on
the opposite side. This hole does not affect the writeprotection.
1-12
Using Your Computer
To write-protect a 5.25-inch diskette, cover the small,
rectangular notch (shown below) with an adhesive
write-protect tab. Write-protect tabs usually are included in a
new package of blank 5.25-inch diskettes.
00
,
/
,
n
o
t
c
h
To remove the write protection, peel off the write-protect tab.
Note
Some program diskettes have no switch or notch so they are
permanently write-protected. This protects them from being
accidentally erased or altered.
Using Your Computer
1-13
Inserting and Removing Diskettes
To insert a diskette into a 3.5-inch drive, hold the diskette with
the label facing up and the metal shutter leading into the drive,
as shown in the following illustration. Slide the diskette into the
drive until it clicks into place.
release button
metal shutter
When you want to remove the diskette, make sure the drive
light is off; then press the release button. When the diskette
pops out, remove it and store it properly.
1-14
Using Your Computer
To insert a diskette into a 5.25-inch drive, hold it with the label
facing up and the read/write slot leading into the drive.
latch
read/write
slot
Slide the diskette all the way into the slot. Then turn the latch
down to lock it in place. This enables the read/write heads to
access the diskette. (Some 5.25-inch diskette drives have a
release button instead of a latch.)
When you want to remove a diskette, first make sure the disk
drive light is off. Then flip up the latch and carefully pull out
the diskette. Place it in its protective envelope and store it in a
proper location, such as a diskette container.
Using Your Computer
1-15
Using a Sing/e Diskette Drive System
Most operating systems expect the computer to have at least
two diskette drives and display prompts and messages
accordingly. MS-DOS, for example, recognizes the first diskette
drive (the top drive) as drive A and a second diskette drive as
drive B. If you have only one diskette drive, MS-DOS can treat
it as both A and B when you need to perform operations that
normally would use two diskette drives.
For example, if you enter a command to copy data from A to B,
MS-DOS copies the data from the first diskette you place in the
drive (which would be drive A) to the computer’s memory.
Then MS-DOS prompts you to insert another diskette (for
drive B) and copies the data from memory to the new diskette.
When copying is complete, you see a prompt to insert the
original diskette (A).
Because you may often swap diskettes this way, it is important
to remember which diskette is which. It is also a good idea to
write-protect your original diskette. (See “Write-protecting
Diskettes,” above.)
If you have a hard disk and one diskette drive, you can load the
operating system and application programs from the hard disk,
create and store your data there, and use the diskette drive just
for copying data to or from diskettes.
However, if you have only one diskette drive and no hard disk,
you need to use that drive to load the operating system as well
as any application program you are using. First, insert the
operating system diskette (the MS-DOS Startup diskette, for
example) in drive A and load the operating system; this copies
it to the computer’s memory (RAM) so you do not need to
leave the system diskette in the drive. Then remove the system
diskette and insert your application program diskette to load
that data into memory, too. See your application program
manual for detailed instructions.
1-16
Using Your Computer
Formatting Diskettes
Before you can store data on a new diskette, you must format it.
Formatting prepares the diskette so that the operating system
can write data on it. You need to do this only once, before you
use the diskette for the first time.
You can also reformat previously used diskettes to store new
data. This process erases all the data on the diskette, so be sure
you do not want to save any of the files on a used diskette
before you format it. See your operating system manual for
instructions on formatting diskettes.
Making Backup Copies
It is important to make copies of all your data and system
diskettes. Make backup (or working) copies of all diskettes that
contain programs, such as your operating system, Reference,
and Utility diskettes; then use only the copies. Store the original
diskettes away from your working diskettes. Also, copy your
data diskettes regularly, whenever you revise them, and store
them away from your originals.
If you have a hard disk, you’ll probably use it to store the
programs and data files you use regularly. Keep backup copies
of all your files on diskettes or tapes (if you have a tape backup
drive).
Using Your Computer
1-17
Using a Hard Disk Drive
Using a hard disk is similar to using a diskette. However, the
hard disk provides several advantages:
tl
A 120MB hard disk can store as much data as
approximately one hundred 1.2MB diskettes or eighty-three
1.44MB diskettes, and a 240MB hard disk can store twice
that amount.
CI
Your computer can perform all disk-related operations
faster.
D
You can store frequently used programs and data files on
the hard disk, eliminating the inconvenience of swapping
diskettes to access different files.
The added storage capacity makes it easy to move back and
forth between different programs and data files. However,
because it is so easy to add programs and files to your hard
disk, you may find yourself trying to organize hundreds of files.
Most operating systems let you keep related files together in
directories and subdirectories so they are easy to find and use.
See your operating system manual for instructions on
managing your files and directories.
Note
A hard disk must be partitioned and formatted before you
can use it. Be sure you have performed the procedures
described in your operating system manual to prepare your
hard disk for use.
1-18
Using Your Computer
Bucking up the hard disk
While the hard disk is very reliable, it is essential to back up
your hard disk files to diskettes or tapes in case you lose some
data accidentally. Make copies of all your system and
application program diskettes before copying the programs to
the hard disk. After you create data files on the hard disk, be
sure to copy them whenever you revise them to keep your
backup diskettes or tapes up-to-date.
Curing for your hard disk
Follow these precautions to protect your hard disk drive from
damage and to avoid losing data:
CI
Never turn off or reset the computer when the hard disk
access light is on. This light indicates that the computer is
copying data to or from the hard disk. If you interrupt this
process, you can lose data.
Cl Never attempt to open the hard disk drive. The disk itself is
enclosed in a sealed container to protect it from dust.
U
If you need to move your computer, you may need to run
the HDSIT program to prepare the hard disk for moving, as
described on page l-33.
Using Your Computer
1-19
Special Keys on the Keyboard
Certain keys on your keyboard serve special functions when
your computer is running your operating system or application
programs, as described in the table below.
Special key functions
Purpose
Moves the cursor one tab to the right in normal
mode and one tab to the left in Shift mode.
Changes the letter keys from lower- to uppercase:
changes back to lowercase when pressed again.
The numeric/symbol keys on the top row of the
keyboard and the symbol keys in the main part of
the keyboard are not affected,
t
Produces uppercase characters or the top
symbols on the keys when used with the main
character keys. Produces lowercase characters
when the Caps Lock function is on.
L
4
Works with other keys to perform special (control)
functions.
I
Works with other keys to enter alternate character
codes or functions.
Moves the cursor back one space, deleting the
character to the left of the cursor,
Ends a line of keyboard input or executes a
command.
Turns the Insert function on and off,
c
Deletes the character marked by the cursor.
Control cursor location.
!
Cancels the current command line or operation,
Changes the function of the numeric/cursor keys
from entering numbers to positioning the cursor.
L
1-20
Using Your Computer
--I
Special key functions (continued)
Key
Purpose
[-l-[F121
Perform special functions within application
programs.
1
IPrinl
@iid
(PrtSc)
(Req)
1 Prints the screen display on a printer
Generates the System Request function in some
application programs (used with mAltI).
Controls scrolling in some applications.
Suspends the current operation.
l[Breakl
1 Stops the current operation (used with mctrll).
The [Lock], [Lock], and I=] keys work as toggles; press
the key once to turn on a function and again to turn it off. When
the function is enabled, the corresponding light in the upper
right corner of the keyboard is on.
Stopping a Command or Program
You may sometimes need to stop a command or program while
it is running. If you have entered an MS-DOS or application
program command that you want to stop, try one of the
following:
U
Hold down the m key and press [cl
tl
Hold down the m key and press [Break.
If these methods do not work, you may need to reset the
computer as described below. Do not turn off the computer to
exit a program or stop a command unless you have to, because
the computer erases any data you did not save.
Using Your Computer
1-21
Resetting the Computer
Occasionally, you may want to clear the computer’s current
settings or its memory without turning it off. You can do this
by resetting the computer.
For example, if an error occurs and the computer does not
respond to your keyboard entries, you can reset it to reload
your operating system and try again. However, resetting erases
any data in memory that you have not saved; so reset only if
necessary.
Caution
Do not reset the computer to exit a program. Some programs
classify and store new data when you exit them in the
normal manner. If you reset the computer without properly
exiting a program, you may lose data.
To reset the computer, the operating system must be either on
the hard disk or on a diskette in drive A; so if you do not have a
hard disk, insert the system diskette in drive A. If you are using
MS-DOS, hold down [ and [ and press B. The
screen goes blank for a moment and then the computer should
reload your operating system.
If resetting the computer does not correct the problem, you
probably need to turn it off and reboot it. Remove any
diskette(s) from the diskette drive(s). Turn off the computer
and wait 20 seconds. If you do not have a hard disk, insert the
system diskette in drive A. Then turn on the computer.
1-22
Using Your Computer
Using a Password
If you set a password when you ran the SETUP program, you
must enter it every time you turn on or reset the computer.
Follow these steps to use your password:
1.
If you do not have a hard disk, insert your system diskette
in drive A.
2.
Turn on or reset the computer. You see a number and the
key prompt:
3.
Type your password. The key turns when you type a
character, but the screen does not display the characters
you type. Then press IEnter
You have three chances to enter the correct password. The
number that appears before the key prompt indicates how
many tries you have left. After the third incorrect try, the screen
displays a zero, the keyboard locks up, and you cannot use the
computer. Restart your computer and try to enter the correct
password.
Note
If you do not know the correct password, see “Password
Problems” in Chapter 6.
After you type the password correctly and press (Enter, a
happy face character appears. Then the computer loads the
operating system and displays the command prompt.
Using Your Computer
1-23
I
Note
If you turned on network server mode when you ran the
SETUP program, you need to use a different procedure to
enter your password. See “Using Your Computer as a
Network Server” on page 1-26.
Changing a Password
To change your password, follow these steps:
1. If you do not have a hard disk, insert your system diskette
in drive A.
2.
Turn on or reset the computer. At the key prompt, enter
your current password followed by a forward slash (/) and
the new one you want to use. For example, if your current
password is 123 and you want to change it to ABC, type:
123/AX
The screen does not display what you type.
Do not use characters requiring the m key, such as %, @,
or #, in your new password. The computer does not
distinguish between characters that are produced with the
m key and those that are not.
Be sure to remember the new password you enter, or
you will not be able to access your computer the next
3.
1-24
Press m. A happy face character appears and then the
computer loads the operating system.
Using Your Computer
Note
You can also change your password using the SETUP
program. See Chapter 2 of the Setup Guide for instructions.
Deleting a Password
To delete your password, follow these steps:
1.
If you do not have a hard disk, insert your system diskette
in drive A.
2.
Turn on or reset the computer. At the key prompt, enter
your current password followed by a forward slash. For
example, if your password is 123, type:
123/
3.
Press IEnter A happy face character appears and then the
computer loads the operating system.
The next time you turn on or reset the computer, it does not
request a password and loads the operating system
immediately.
Note
You can also delete your password using the SETUP
program. See Chapter 2 of the Setup Guide for instructions. If
you do not know the password, see “Password Problems” in
Chapter 6.
Using Your Computer
1-25
Using Your Computer as a Network Server
A network server is the master computer in a network and
provides storage space for the other computers connected to it.
It can also write files to and read files from the other
computers, making it the most powerful computer in the
network.
Even if no one is typing commands at the network server
keyboard, the server can process commands sent to it from
other computers. If you use your computer as the network
server, you may want to prevent unauthorized users from
entering commands at the keyboard. To provide this security,
you can enable a password in network server mode using the
SETUP program.
If you set a password but did not turn on network server mode,
you enter the password before the computer loads the operating
system or the network software. Once you load it, anyone can
access your system by typing commands on the keyboard.
However, if you set a password and turn on network server
mode, you can load your operating system or network software
before you enter the password. This allows other computers in
the network to access the system, but prevents unauthorized
users from entering commands at your keyboard and using any
network server access privileges.
When you boot the computer in network server mode, you do
not see the key prompt (h), as you would if network server
mode was turned off. The password prompt is hidden to
prevent unauthorized users from knowing that a password is
required.
1-26
Using Your Computer
You do not have to set a password in network server mode to
use your computer as a network server, but it is helpful. See
“Setting the Password Options” in Chapter 2 of the
Setup Guide for instructions on setting the password and
enabling network server mode. Then read the next section to
use your network password.
Using a Password in Network Server Mode
When you turn on or reset the computer, it loads your
operating system or network software from your hard disk
and you see either the command prompt or the first screen
displayed by your network software.
Note
If you boot your computer from a diskette in drive A,
however, you see the password key prompt before the
computer loads your operating system or network software.
Follow the instructions in “Using a Password” on page 1-23
to enter your password in this situation.
Follow these steps to enter your password:
1. Turn on or reset your computer. You do not see the key
prompt (-1 even though the computer is now waiting for
you to enter the correct password.
2.
Type your password and press IEnter The screen does not
display what you type.
Now you should be able to use your computer. Press a key
such as m to see if the keyboard accepts your command.
If you entered an incorrect password, the computer does not
respond. Type the correct password, press B, and try using
the computer again.
Using Your Computer
1-27
Note
You cannot change or delete your network server mode
password as you enter it to access your computer. You must
run SETUP to change or delete it. See Chapter 2 of the
Setup Guide for instructions.
Changing the Processor Speed
Your computer’s processor can operate at two speeds: high
or low. High speed is the highest speed at which your
microprocessor is capable of running, such as 33 or 50 MHz.
Low speed simulates an 8 MHz processor to provide
compatibility with older application programs.
You can also set the computer to automatic speed, which
switches your computer’s processor from high to low speed
when it accesses a diskette drive.
*”
.
.’
When your computer is operating at high speed, the SPEED
light on the front panel 1s green. When the computer is
operating at low speed, the light is amber.
You should use high speed for almost everything you do
because your programs will work faster. However, certain
application programs have specific timing requirements and
can run only at the slower speed. See your software manual to
determine if this is the case.
1-28
Using Your Computer
Some copy-protected programs require the computer to run at
low speed while accessing the program on a diskette. These
programs also usually require you to leave a key disk-the
diskette that contains the copy protection-in the diskette
drive. If you use a copy-protected program often, you may
want to set your processor speed to change automatically to
low speed when accessing the diskette and return to high speed
when it is finished.
Depending on the type of copy-protected program you have,
you may or may not want to set the processor to automatic
speed. Follow these guidelines:
LI
If you are using a copy-protected program that can run
only on a diskette or that requires a key disk, try to load the
program at high speed. If this works, you do not need to set
the speed to change automatically. If you can’t load the
program on high, set the speed to change automatically.
LI
If you are using a copy-protected program that does not
require a key disk but requires a special procedure to install
it on a hard disk, set the speed to low while you are
installing the program. Then set the speed to high while
you load and run the program.
If this does not work, try installing and loading the
program at low speed and then change to high speed to run
it. Do not set the speed to change automatically.
There are three ways to change the processor speed:
LI
Run the SETUP program
Ll
Enter a keyboard command
LI
Run the ESPEED program.
Using Your Computer
1-29
If you frequently use programs that require low or automatic
speed, use SETUP to change the processor speed. Your new
setting remains in effect until you change it again using SETUP.
See Chapter 2 of the Setup Guide for instructions.
If you use these programs only occasionally, you should use
the keyboard commands or the ESPEED program (described
below) to change the processor speed. These methods
temporarily override the SETUP processor speed setting.
Entering Keyboard Commands
You can change the processor speed temporarily by entering a
command from your keyboard. You can use these commands
only if you have enabled the Software speed change option in
the SETUP program. (Enabled is the default setting.) If this
option is disabled, you cannot use the keyboard commands.
The keyboard speed setting commands are listed in the table
below.
Speed setting commands
Numeric keypad commands
/ [Ctrl)[Alt][+l
Speed setting
I
High
Automatic (high speed: low speed
only during diskette access)
( [Ctrl](Alt](-)
Low (simulated 8 MHz)
To enter these commands, hold down the m key and the
m key simultaneously and then press the r;-], m, or m
key on the numeric keypad.
1-30
Using Your Computer
I
Note
You can use the commands listed above while you are
running a program. However, if the program uses one of
these commands for another function, you cannot use it to
change the processor speed. For example, if you are running
a program that uses the [F] [F] [T] command to move
the cursor, you cannot enter [r] (71 [TJ to change the
processor speed to low. Another alternative is to use the
ESPEED program, described below.
The speed setting remains in effect until you do the following:
0
Press [Ctrl] [Alt) (Delete_]
Ll
Turn off the computer
tl
Change it using the SETUP program
Ll
Change it with another keyboard command
LI
Change it using ESPEED.
Using the ESPEED Program
ESPEED provides an easy way to change the processor speed if
your application program does not recognize the m key
commands or if you want to include the program command in
a batch file.
The ESPEED program is on the Reference diskette. If you
have a hard disk drive, copy the file ESPEED.EXE from your
Reference diskette onto your hard disk (preferably in the root
directory) and run the program from there. If you do not have a
hard disk, insert your Reference diskette in drive A and log
onto drive A before you enter the command to start the
program.
Using Your Computer
1-31
To run ESPEED, type the following at the MS-DOS command
prompt and press (Enter:
ESPEED
You see the following messages:
Usage: ESPEED[/H][/L][/A]
/High
set High speed (no Auto)
set Low speed (no Auto)
/Low
set Auto speed
/Auto
These messages tell you the switches you should use to set the
speed to high, low, or automatic. At the MS-DOS prompt, type
the ESPEED command again and include the appropriate
switch, such as the following:
ESPEED /A
(This command sets the processor speed to change to low speed
automatically when the computer accesses a diskette.)
If you include the switch when you type the initial ESPEED
command, the program changes the speed without displaying
the command options.
The processor speed you set remains in effect until you change
it again or until you turn off the computer or reset it with
[F) [Alt) (Delete].
1-32
Using Your Computer
Entering the ESPEED command in a batch file
You may want to run the ESPEED program by including the
command in a batch file. For example, let’s say you have a
program called SLOWDOWN which requires a slower
processor speed. You could include the following commands in
a batch file to start the SLOWDOWN program:
ESPEED /A
SLOWDOWN
You could name the batch file SLOW.BAT. Whenever you need
to run the SLOWDOWN program, type SLOW and press IEnter
The computer changes the processor speed to automatic and
starts the program.
Preparing the Hard Disk for Moving
If you need to move your computer to a new location, you may
want to run the HDSIT program provided on your Reference
diskette to protect the hard disk during the move.
HDSIT moves (or parks) the disk drive’s read/write heads to a
region on the disk surface that does not contain data, and locks
them securely in position. This protects the hard disk from
being damaged if the computer is bumped accidentally.
Many hard disk drives, including all Epson drives,
automatically park their heads when you turn off the computer.
If your hard disk drive does not do this, or if you are not sure
that it does, be sure to run HDSIT.
If you have not already done so, copy the HDSIT.COM and
HDSIT.VER files from the Reference diskette to the root
directory on your hard disk. Then, when you want to run
HDSIT, type HDSIT and press I.
Using Your Computer
1-33
You see a message on the screen that tells you the disk drive’s
read/write heads will remain locked until you reset the
computer or turn the power off and on again. The computer
then locks the heads and disables the keyboard. Remove any
diskettes and turn off the computer. Now you can move it to
the new location.
Caution
Whether you use HDSIT or not, always turn off your
computer and wait at least 20 seconds before you move it.
This allows your hard disk drive’s read/write heads to move
away from the disk to a safe location. If you move your
computer before this happens, you could damage your hard
disk drive.
Using AUTOEXEC. BAT and Other Batch Files
If you are using MS-DOS to access your application programs,
you may find that there are commands you need to run
frequently. You can automate the execution of these commands
by listing them in a special file called a batch file. When you
type the name of the batch file and press [, MS-DOS
executes the commands in the file just as if you had typed each
command from the keyboard.
If you have a word processing program that can save a file as a
text-only file (sometimes called an ASCII file), you can use it to
create a batch file. You can also use the MS-DOS COPY, EDIT,
or EDLIN command, or a text editor, to create the file.
One batch file that you may find particularly useful is called
AUTOEXEC.BAT. Every time you turn on your computer,
MS-DOS looks for the AUTOEXEC.BAT file and automatically
executes each of the commands in the file.
1-34
Using Your Computer
When you install MS-DOS, it creates an AUTOEXEC.BAT file
for you, which you can modify or replace as described above.
Be sure to name the file AUTOEXEC.BAT and store it in the
root directory of the hard disk or diskette from which you load
MS-DOS. (You may want to rename your original file to
AUTOEXEC.OLD, in case you need to use it again later.)
See your MS-DOS documentation for more information about
creating and using batch files.
Using Your Computer
1-35
Chapter 2
Installing and Removing Options
You can enhance the performance of your computer by adding
optional equipment such as memory modules, option cards, or
an Intel OverDrive processor.
Memory modules-also called SIMMs (single inline memory
modules)-allow you to increase the amount of memory in
your computer.
An option card is a circuit board you install in your computer
to add a particular function, such as a modem or a network
interface.
An OverDrive processor is a CPU chip which doubles the
internal processing speed of the microprocessor and includes a
built-in math coprocessor. If you have the 486SX/33 model, you
can replace the CPU chip on your system board with an
OverDrive processor to provide this increased performance.
(Alternatively, you can replace the 486SX/33 CPU chip with a
487SX/33 chip, to provide math coprocessor support.)
Installing and Removing Options
2-1
How to Use This Chapter
This chapter explains how to do the following:
Remove the computer’s cover
Change jumper settings on the main system board
Install (and remove) memory modules (SIMMs)
Install an option card
Remove an option card
Remove the option card connector board (to access the
main system board)
Replace the option card connector board
Install a new processor chip (CPU)
Use the alternate VGA interface (feature connector)
Replace the cover.
Follow the steps in the first section to remove the cover, and
then go to the appropriate section for the steps you need. When
you finish, see the instructions at the end of the chapter to
replace the computer’s cover.
2-2
Installing and Removing Options
Locating the Internal Components
As you follow the instructions in this chapter, refer to the
following illustration to locate the different components inside
your computer.
main system
board
J15-J9
option card
I,, ,
I
SIMM 2
\
SIMM 1
microprocessor
diskette
drive
T
“\
drive bavs
Installing and Removing Options
2-3
Removing the Cover
You need to remove the computer’s cover to install any of the
options described in this chapter or to install or remove a disk
drive (as described in Chapter 3). Follow these steps:
2-4
1.
Turn off the computer and then any peripheral devices
(including the monitor and printer).
2.
Disconnect the computer’s power cable from the electrical
outlet and from the back panel. Also disconnect any cables
that are connected to the computer, including the keyboard
and mouse cables.
3.
If the monitor is on top of the computer, lift it off and set it to
one side.
4.
Turn the computer around so the back panel is facing you.
5.
Remove the three screws securing the back panel, as shown
below.
Installing and Removing Options
6.
Turn the computer around again so that the front panel is
facing you.
7.
Grasp the sides of the cover and pull it straight toward you
until it stops, just before it reaches the front of the
computer. Then lift it off at an angle as shown below.
8.
Set the cover aside.
9.
Ground yourself to the computer by touching the metal
surface of the back panel.
WARNING
Be sure to ground yourself by touching the back panel of the
computer every time you remove the cover. If you are not
properly grounded, you could generate an electric shock
when you touch a component.
Installing and Removing Options
2-5
Changing the Jumper Settings
A jumper is a small electrical connector that controls one of the
computer’s functions. The jumper settings in your computer
are preset at the factory; however, you can alter the following
functions by changing the standard settings:
Ll Change the microprocessor type
tl
Enable or disable the built-in VGA display adapter
Ll Enable or disable the built-in mouse port
LI
Enable or disable a mouse or other pointing device on an
option card
Cl
Set the computer to use a color or monochrome adapter
LI
Enable or disable the password function.
If you need to change any jumper settings, or if you want to
check the current settings, follow the instructions in this section.
The following tables list the jumper settings and their functions.
CPU type jumper settings
CPU type
J5
J6
J7
J8
486$X/33
B
B
B
B
ODP486-33 or 487SX/33
A
A
A
A
You do not need to change jumpers J5 through J8 unless you
had to remove the existing microprocessor chip to install the
new one. See “Installing a New Processor Chip” on page 2-21
for more information.
2-6
Installing and Removing Options
Other jumper settings
Jumper
number
J9”’
JlO
Jll
J12”’
Jumper
setting
A’
Enables the built-in mouse connector
B
Disables the built-in mouse connector so you can
use a mouse connected to a port on an option
card in your computer
A
Enables the built-in VGA display adapter
B
Disables the built-in VGAdisplay adapter so you
can use a display adapter on an option card in
your computer as your primary adapter
A”
A color monitor is installed
B
A monochrome monitor is installed
A
Enables an external mouse or other pointing device
on an option card
B’
J13
A’
B
J15
l
l
I
Disables the external mouse or pointing device
Disables the password
A
B”
J14
Function
c
Enables the password
Reserved
Reserved
Factory setting
* If you want to use a mouse connected to the port on an option card, you
need to disable J9 and enable J12. If you are using another type of
pointing device on the option card port, such as a joy stick, you can
enable both jumpers.
Installing and Removing Options
2-7
Setting the Jumpers
If you need to change any jumper settings, follow these steps:
1. Refer to the illustration on page 2-3 to locate the jumpers on
the main system board.
2.
If there are any option cards installed in your computer, you
need to remove them to access the jumpers. See page 2-18
for instructions.
3.
If the option card connector board is in your way, you can
remove it. See page 2-19 for instructions.
4.
A jumper’s setting is determined by where the jumper is
placed on the pins. It connects either pin A and the middle
pin (position A) or pin B and the middle pin (position B), as
shown below.
JJz!jbB Jg$A Jlcj%
A
A
A
To move a jumper from one position to the other, use
needle-nose pliers or tweezers to pull it off its pins and
gently move it to the desired position.
Caution
Be careful not to bend the jumper pins or damage any
surrounding components on the main system board.
2-8
Installing and Removing Options
5.
If you removed the option card connector board, replace it
now. See page 2-20 for instructions.
6.
Replace any option cards you removed. See page 2-14 for
instructions.
Memory Modules (SIMMs)
Your computer comes with 4MB of memory soldered onto the
main system board. By installing memory modules-also called
SIMMs (single inline memory modules)-you can increase the
amount of memory in your computer up to 128MB.
There are two SIMM sockets on the main system board, and
each can contain one memory module. You can install SIMMs
with a capacity of 1MB, 4MB, 16MB, or 64MB. Check the
following guidelines to ensure you choose SIMMs that will
work properly:
Ll
Use only 36-bit, fast-page mode SIMMs that operate at an
access speed of 70ns (nanoseconds) or faster. Be sure all the
SIMMs operate at the same speed.
Cl
Use the correct SIMM configuration to add the amount of
memory you want. See the table on the next page.
Ll
Although your computer can use any SIMM that complies
with industry standards, it is best to use Epson SIMM
option kits to ensure reliability and compatibility.
The following table shows the possible SIMM configurations;
do not install memory in any other configuration. Remember
that there is 4MB of memory soldered onto the system board.
Installing and Removing Options
2-9
SIMM configurations
Standard soldered memory
* When SIMM is available
t With this memory configuration, the 4MB of soldered memory is disabled
l
l
2-10
Installing and Removing Options
Inserting SIMMs
Follow these steps to install SIMMs:
1.
Refer to the illustration on page 2-3 to locate the SIMM
sockets near the front of the computer.
2.
Remove any long option cards that may be blocking your
access to the SIMM sockets. See page 2-18 for instructions.
3.
Install your first SIMM in the socket labelled SIMM 1. Position
it at an angle so the components on the SIMM face the
inside of the computer), as shown below.
Installing and Removing Options
2-11
4.
Push the SIMM into the socket until it is seated firmly in the
slot. Then tilt it upright, as shown below, guiding the holes
at each end of the SIMM over the retaining posts at each
end of the SIMM socket.
If it does not go in smoothly, do not force it; pull it all the way
out and try again.
5.
Repeat steps 3 and 4 for the second SIMM.
6.
Replace any option cards you removed. See page 2-14 for
instructions.
7. The next time you turn on your computer, run the SETUP
program so your computer can update its configuration
information with the new memory. See Chapter 2 of the
Setup Guide for instructions.
2-22
Installing and Removing Options
Removing SIMMS
If you need to remove SIMMs from your computer (to install
different ones, for example), follow the steps below.
1. Remove any long option cards that may be blocking your
access to the SIMM sockets. See page 2-18 for instructions.
2.
If you are removing two SIMMs, remove the one from socket
SIMM 2 first. Use your fingers or two small screwdrivers to
pull away the metal tabs that secure the SIMM at each end.
As you pull away the tabs, the SIMM falls to the side.
Carefully remove it from the socket.
3.
If necessary, follow the same procedure to remove the other
SIMM.
Installing and Removing Options
2-13
4.
Replace any option cards you removed. See page 2-14 for
instructions.
5.
The next time you turn on your computer, run the SETUP
program so your computer can update its memory
configuration.
Installing an Option Card
This section explains how to install an option card in your
computer. Your computer has four option slots to
accommodate up to four 8-bit or 16-bit option cards.
Usually it does not matter which slot an option card occupies as
long as the card fits in the slot. For example, you can place
some 8-bit cards in a 16-bit slot. However, follow these
guidelines when deciding which slot to use:
2-14
Cl
If you have an 8-bit card that has an additional tab along
the bottom, it will not fit in any of the option slots in your
computer.
Ll
If you install a disk drive controller card, place the card in
one of the slots closest to the main system board, so the
drive cable will not be in the way when you replace the
computer’s cover.
Ll
If you are installing a high-resolution graphics adapter
card, follow the instructions below to install the adapter
card; then see “Using the Alternate VGA Interface” on page
2-24 to connect the card to the VGA feature connector in
your computer.
Installing and Removing Options
Note
Before you install an option card, see if you need to change
any jumper settings on the system board. For example, if
you install a mouse interface card, you need to change the
setting of jumpers J9 and J12. If you install a video card, you
may need to change jumpers J10 or J11. See page 2-6.
Follow these steps to install an option card:
1.
If this is the first time you are installing a card in the option
slot, you need to remove the metal cover for that slot on the
inside back panel. Remove the retaining screw securing the
option slot cover to the computer. (Keep the screw to secure
the option card to the computer.)
option slot
cover
Installing and Removing Options
2-15
2-16
2.
Slide out the slot cover and set it aside. (Store the slot cover in
a safe place in case you remove the option card later.)
3.
Unpack the option card and adjust any switches or jumpers
on it, if necessary. (Check the option card instructions.)
When you handle the card, be careful not to touch any of
the components on the circuit board or the gold-edged
connectors. If you need to set it down before you install it,
place it gently on top of its original packing material with
the component side facing up. Keep the packing materials
in case you remove the card later.
4.
Hold the card along the top corners and guide it into the
connector, as shown below. If you’re installing a full-length
card, insert the front edge of the card into the
corresponding guide inside the computer’s front panel.
Installing and Removing Options
Once the connectors reach the slot, push the card in firmly
(but carefully) to insert it fully. You should feel the card fit
into place. If it does not go in smoothly, do not force it; pull
the card all the way out and try again.
5.
Secure the end of the card to the computer with the retaining
screw.
Note
If you installed a high-resolution graphics adapter card, see
“Using the Alternate VGA Interface,” on page 2-22, for
further instructions.
Installing and Removing Options
2-17
Removing an Option Card
You may need to remove an option card installed in your
computer to access components on the main system board-to
change a jumper setting, for example. You may also want to
remove a card if you no longer need it. Follow these steps:
1.
Remove the retaining screw securing the option card to the
computer. Then pull the card straight out of the slot.
2.
Set the card aside with the component side facing up.
When you are ready to re-install the option card, see page 2-14
for instructions.
2-18
Installing and Removing Options
Removing the Option Card Connector Board
You may want to remove the option card connector board to
access certain components on the main system board, such as
jumpers or the disk drive controllers. Follow these steps:
1. Remove any option cards. (See the instructions above.)
2.
Remove the retaining screw securing the bracket on the
option card connector board to the power supply.
SUPPlY
3.
Pull the board straight up and out of its socket and set it aside.
Installing and Removing Options
2-19
Replacing the Option Card Connector Board
If you removed the option card connector board to access any
system components, follow these steps to replace it:
1.
Position the board above its slot as shown below, and then
firmly push it straight in.
2.
Secure the board to the power supply with its retaining screw.
Now you can re-install any option cards you removed. See
page 2-14 for instructions.
2-20
Installing and Removing Options
Installing a New Processor Chip
If you have the 486SX/33 system, you can enhance your
system’s performance by installing an Intel OverDrive
processor (ODP486DX-33) or a 487SX/33 microprocessor with
built-in math coprocessor.
Complete instructions for installing the processor are provided
in the manual that comes with it. Please follow those
instructions carefully, along with the following guidelines:
Ll
Although the OverDrive processor User’s Guide instructs
you to remove the main system board from the computer,
this is not necessary. You can install the OverDrive
processor while the board remains inside the computer
case; just remove the computer’s cover.
Ll
Refer to the illustration on page 2-3 to locate the
microprocessor socket on the main system board. If this
socket is empty, you can install the new processor directly
in the socket. If this socket contains the CPU chip, however,
you need to remove it before you install the new processor.
Ll
If you need to remove the existing microprocessor, lift the
lever at the base of the socket to release the chip and then
remove it. (This eliminates the need to use the chip puller
tool to remove the chip.) When you install the new
processor, push the lever down to secure the new chip in
the socket.
Cl
If you remove the CPU chip to install an OverDrive
processor or 487SX/33 chip, you need to change the
settings of jumpers J5 through J8. See page 2-6.
Ll
After you install the processor and replace the computer’s
cover, run the SETUP program so your computer can
update its configuration. See Chapter 2 of the Setup Guide
for instructions. (You need only run the program and save
the configuration; you do not need to change any settings.)
Installing and Removing Options
2-21
Using the Alternate VGA Interface
Your computer includes an alternate VGA interface (feature
connector) on the main system board. This connector allows
you to install a high-resolution graphics adapter card in one of
the computer’s option slots and still access the standard VGA
signals provided by your system circuitry.
Typically, high-resolution graphics adapter cards increase the
graphics processing performance of your VGA monitor and
provide resolutions of 1280 x 1024 or greater. They are useful
for high-end graphics applications such as AutoCAD® or
Windows.
To connect the graphics adapter card interface to the alternate
VGA interface on your main system board, you must have a
VGA feature cable. Follow these steps:
1.
2-22
If you have not already done so, follow the instructions on
page 2-14 (“Installing an Option Card”) to install the
graphics adapter card in your computer.
Installing and Removing Options
2.
Attach one end of the cable to the alternate VGA interface on
the main system board near the back panel, as shown
below. Align the cable so the red wire along one edge is
closest to pin 1 in the socket.
3.
Connect the other end of the cable to the appropriate
interface on the adapter card. (Check your graphics card
manual for instructions.)
Installing and Removing Options
2-23
Replacing the Cover
When you are ready to replace the computer’s cover, follow
these steps:
2-24
1.
Facing the front of the computer, position the cover so the lip
on its bottom edge slides under the guiderails along both
sides of the computer case, as shown below.
2.
Lower the cover and slide it straight back over the computer
until it cannot go any farther.
Installing and Removing Options
3.
Replace the three cover retaining screws, as shown below.
4.
Reconnect the computer to the monitor, printer, keyboard,
and any other peripheral devices you have. Then reconnect
the power cable to the back of the computer and to an
electrical outlet.
Post-installation Procedures
After you install or remove options such as memory modules,
a new processor, or an option card, you must run SETUP to
update the computer’s configuration. See Chapter 2 of the
Setup Guide for instructions.
Additionally, you may need to add some commands to your
configuration files. See your operating system manual and the
manual that came with your optional equipment for
instructions.
You may also want to test a newly-installed option. Some
options come with their own diagnostic programs, and you can
use the diagnostic program on your Reference diskette to test
the system memory, serial and parallel ports, disk drives,
monitor, and display adapter. See Chapter 4 for instructions.
Installing and Removing Options
2-25
Chapter 3
lnstalling and Removing Drives
The instructions in this chapter describe how to install and
remove optional Epson drives in your computer. You can use
these instructions to install a variety of devices, including
diskette drives, hard disk drives, a CD-ROM drive, or a tape
drive. Although your drive may look different from the ones
illustrated here, you should be able to install it the same way.
If you are installing or removing a non-Epson drive, some of
the steps in this chapter may not apply; see the documentation
that came with your drive for more information.
Installing and Removing Drives
3-1
Your computer can hold up to three drives. There are two
horizontal drive bays and one vertical drive bay.
back
II-
r-j
I
vertical
. drive bay
horizontal drive bays
The upper horizontal bay contains the diskette drive that came
with your system. If your system came with only one diskette
drive, you can install an additional device of one of the
following types in the lower horizontal drive bay:
3-2
U
5Winch-wide diskette drive, tape drive, CD-ROM drive, or
other storage device
Ll
3M-inch-wide hard disk drive with mounting frames
attached to it.
Installing and Removing Drives
Your computer may have a hard disk drive already installed in
the vertical drive bay. If not, you can install one hard disk drive
in this bay.
It is best to install your computer’s first hard disk drive in the
vertical drive bay. If you add a second hard disk drive or
diskette drive, use the lower horizontal drive bay.
How to Use This Chapter
To install or remove a drive, first remove the computer’s cover
as described on page 2-4. Then see the table below for a guide
to the instructions you should follow next in this chapter.
To . . .
see ...
Install a hard disk drive
“Setting the Hard Disk Drive Jumpers”
on page 3-4
Install a diskette drive or other
device in a horizontal drive bay
Page 3-l 7
Remove a diskette drive or
other device from a horizontal
drive bay
Page 3-29
Remove a hard disk drive from
the vertical bay
Page 3-15
After you install or remove your drive(s), replace the
computer’s cover as described on page 2-24. Then see
“Post-installation Procedures” on page 3-36 for additional steps
you may need to perform.
Installing and Removing Drives
3-3
Setting the Hard Disk Drive Jumpers
Most hard disk drives have jumpers that must be set for the
drive to work properly with the computer. The jumpers tell the
computer whether you are using one hard disk drive or two. If
you purchased your computer with a hard disk drive already
installed, these jumpers have been set correctly for your system.
If you install a hard disk drive in your computer, be sure to
check the drive’s jumper settings before you install it. See the
documentation that came with your drive for the proper
settings, then follow the instructions below.
If you install a second hard disk drive, you must set the
jumpers on both drives to indicate which drive is the master
(primary) drive and which is the slave (secondary) drive. A
master drive is the drive on which you’ll install the operating
system that the computer loads into its memory each time you
turn it on. You can run application programs and store data on
both the master and slave drive, but the operating system must
be on the master drive.
Where to Go Next
To install a hard disk drive in the vertical drive bay, see the
next section. To install a hard disk drive in the lower horizontal
drive bay, see “Installing a Drive in a Horizontal Bay” on
page 3-17.
3-4
Installing and Removing Drives
Installing a Hard Disk in the Vertical Bay
It is best to install your computer’s first hard disk drive in the
vertical drive bay, as described in this section. Here you’ll find
steps for the following procedures:
tl
Removing the mounting frames from the hard disk drive (if
necessary)
Ll Installing the hard disk drive in the vertical drive bay
Ll
Connecting the cables.
Note
Before you install a hard disk drive, be sure to check the
jumpers on the drive. For instructions, see page 3-4.
Installing and Removing Drives
3-5
Removing the Mounting Frames
Your hard disk drive may have mounting frames attached to it,
as shown below. You need to remove these frames before you
can install the drive in the vertical bay.
mounting frames
3-6
Installing and Removing Drives
Follow these steps to remove the mounting frames:
1.
On your hard disk drive, there may be a plastic guiderail and
metal grounding plate attached to one of the mounting
frames. If so, remove the screws securing them to the
mounting frame, as shown below, and remove the guiderail
and grounding plate.
metal grounding plate
2.
Then remove the two screws securing each mounting frame
to the drive and remove the frames, as shown below.
Installing and Removing Drives
3-7
Installing the Hard Disk
To install the hard disk drive, you first need to attach it to the
mounting plate in the vertical drive bay. Follow these steps:
1.
Remove the screw securing the mounting plate to the
horizontal drive bays and set it aside. Then slide the
mounting plate in the direction of the arrow, and lift it out.
horizontal drive bays
/
/
mounting plate
3-8
Installing and Removing Drives
2.
Turn the hard disk drive so the components face up and the
connectors face left. Then place the mounting plate on the
hard disk drive and align the four holes in the plate with
the four holes in the drive, as shown below.
bracket
es holes
connectors
-
The bracket on the mounting plate should be on the opposite
side of the connector end of the drive.
3.
Use the four screws that came with the hard disk drive (or
with your computer) to secure the mounting plate to the
drive.
Installing and Removing Drives
3-9
4.
Hold the drive so the mounting plate faces the horizontal
drive bays (with the bracket over the top) and the
connectors face the back of the computer, as shown below.
bracket
connectors
The two tabs at the bottom of the mounting plate should be just
above the two slots in the computer case.
3-10
Installing and Removing Drives
5.
Lower the tabs into the corresponding slots in the computer
case. Slide the drive in the direction of the arrow, until the
hole in the bracket is aligned with the hole on top of the
horizontal drive bays.
bracket
6.
Secure the mounting plate with the screw, as shown above.
Installing and Removing Drives
3-11
Connecting the Cables
To connect the hard disk drive to the computer, you need to
connect two cables: the hard disk drive ribbon cable and a
power supply cable. Follow the steps below.
1.
If you are installing your computer’s first hard disk drive,
you need to connect the hard disk drive ribbon cable to the
system board now. Follow the instructions on page 3-33
and then return here.
2.
The hard disk drive ribbon cable should be connected to the
main system board. Locate the free connector on the end of
this cable. (If there is a hard disk drive in the lower
horizontal bay, the middle connector is attached to that
drive.)
3.
Notice the small tab in the middle of the cable connector;
align this tab with the notch in the hard disk drive
connector, as shown in the following illustration.
When the hard disk drive ribbon cable is positioned
3-12
Installing and Removing Drives
_ power supply
4.
Make sure the holes in the cable connector fit over all the
pins in the hard disk drive connector; then push in the
connector.
Installing and Removing Drives
3-13
5.
Locate one of the power supply cables that lead from the
power supply (behind the horizontal drive bays). The
power supply cables may be secured in a plastic band on
the side of the power supply. If so, unfasten the band to free
the cables.
The cables are labelled PA, PB, PC, and PD; you can use any one
that is free. (If your drive requires a small power supply
cable connector, use PD.)
6.
Position the power supply cable connector so that its notched
corners line up with the notched corners of the power
supply connector on the hard disk drive. Make sure the
holes fit over all the pins and then push in the connector.
Caution
If you do not align the cable connector correctly, you could
severely damage your hard disk drive when you push it in.
3-14
Installing and Removing Drives
Removing a Hard Disk From the Vertical Bay
Follow these steps to remove a hard disk drive from the vertical
drive bay:
1.
Disconnect the hard disk drive ribbon cable and power
supply cable from the back of the drive, as shown below.
Grasp the cable connectors and pull them straight out from
the connectors on the hard disk drive so you do not bend
the pins; do not pull on the cables.
Installing and Removing Drives
3-15
2. Remove the retaining screw securing the hard disk drive and
mounting plate to the horizontal drive bays. Then slide the
hard disk drive and mounting plate in the direction of the
arrow, shown below, and lift them out of the computer.
3. Remove the four screws securing the mounting plate to the
hard disk drive. You can store the mounting plate and its
screw or replace it in the computer and secure it with the
screw.
4.
Wrap the hard disk drive in its original packing materials
and store it along with the four screws.
5. If you removed your computer’s only hard disk drive,
disconnect the hard disk drive ribbon cable from the main
system board and store it as well.
3-16
Installing and Removing Drives
If you removed one hard disk drive and are leaving another
one in the computer, you need to set the jumpers on the
remaining drive to indicate that you now have only one hard
disk drive. For the correct settings, see the documentation that
came with the drive.
Installing a Drive in a Horizontal Bay
This section describes how to install a drive in a horizontal
drive bay. Although the illustrations show a diskette or hard
disk drive in the lower bay, you can use these same instructions
to install a diskette drive in the upper bay.
Here you’ll find steps for the following procedures:
Et
Attaching the mounting frames to a hard disk (if necessary)
Ll Installing the drive
Cl
Connecting the cables.
If you are installing your computer’s first hard disk drive,
it is best to install it in the vertical drive bay as described on
page 3-5.
Note
Before you install a hard disk drive, be sure to check the
jumpers on the drive. For instructions, see page 3-4.
Insfalling and Removing Drives
3-17
Depending on the type of drive you are installing, you may
need to attach mounting frames to it before you install it in a
horizontal bay. Follow these guidelines:
3-18
cl
If you are installing a diskette drive, skip to “Installing the
Drive” on page 3-20.
cl
If you are installing a hard disk drive that has a 3M-inch
form factor, it must have mounting frames attached to it so
it fits properly in the horizontal drive bay. Follow the steps
in the next section.
cl
If you are installing a hard disk drive that already has
mounting frames on it, see if it also has a plastic guiderail
and metal grounding plate attached to it. If so, follow step 1
on page 3-7 to remove the guiderail and grounding plate.
Then go to “Installing the Drive” on page 3-20.
Installing and Removing Drives
Attaching Mounting Frames to a Hard Disk
To attach mounting frames to a hard disk drive, follow these
steps:
1.
Locate the two mounting frames and four screws that came
with the drive.
2.
As shown below, place a mounting frame on top of one side
of the drive and align it so that the holes in the drive are
approximately in the middle of the oval holes in the frame.
Then secure the mounting frame to the drive with the two
screws.
mounting frame
3.
Repeat step 2 to attach a mounting frame to the other side of
the drive.
Installing and Removing Drives
3-19
Installing the Drive
Follow these steps to install the drive in a horizontal drive bay:
1.
Locate the two metal guiderails and six screws that came with
the computer.
2.
Using the appropriate screw holes, attach one guiderail to
each side of the drive (or each mounting frame, if attached),
as shown below. The bracket on the guiderail should be on
the opposite side of the connector end of the drive.
mounting frames
3-20
Installing and Removing Drives
3.
If you are installing a drive in the lower bay, remove the two
retaining screws securing the metal drive bay cover to the
front of the computer and remove the cover. Store it in a
safe place and save the screws to use later in these steps.
4.
If you are installing a 5.25-inch diskette drive, hold it so that
the diskette release latch is above the diskette slot. If you
are installing a 3.5-inch diskette drive, hold it so that the
diskette release button is on the right and the drive light is
on the left.
If you are installing a hard disk drive, hold it so that the
component side faces down, and skip to step 7.
Installing and Removing Drives
3-21
5.
To insert a diskette drive, align the guiderails on each side of
the drive with the notches on each side of the drive bay and
slide the drive into the bay as far as it will go, as shown
below. Secure the guiderails to the computer case with the
two retaining screws.
notch
guiderail
3-22
Installing and Removing Drives
6.
If you are installing a diskette drive in the lower bay, you
need to remove the faceplate on the computer’s front panel
because it covers this bay. Remove the screws securing the
faceplate to the inside of the computer’s cover and remove
the faceplate, as shown below.
.
Store the faceplate and screws in a safe place; you may want
to install it again later. Then go to “Connecting the Cables”
on page 3-24.
Installing and Removing Drives
3-23
7.
To insert a hard disk drive, align the guiderails on each side
of the drive with the notches on each side of the drive bay
and slide the drive all the way into the bay, as shown
below. Secure the guiderails to the computer case with the
two retaining screws.
notch
guiderail
Connecting the Cables
To connect the drive to the computer, you need to connect two
cables: a drive ribbon cable and a power supply cable. The
steps below describe how to connect these cables to the drive.
If you are installing a diskette drive, follow step 1 and then skip
to step 3. If you are installing a hard disk drive, start with step 2.
3-24
Installing and Removing Drives
1. Locate the diskette drive ribbon cable. One end of the cable is
connected to the system board. If you are installing a
second diskette drive in the lower horizontal drive bay, the
other end of the cable is connected to the top diskette drive;
use the middle connector. If you are installing a diskette
drive in the upper bay, use the free end connector.
The diskette drive connector that extends from the back of the
drive has gold contacts on both sides. Grasp the cable
connector and align it with the drive connector so that the
key-way (the plastic divider) in the cable connector lines up
with the gap in the drive connector, as shown below.
key-way
Make sure the cable connector fits properly onto the drive
connector and push it into place. Then go to step 3.
Caution
If you do not align the connector correctly, you could
severely damage your drive when you push it in.
Installing and Removing Drives
3-25
2.
Locate the hard disk drive ribbon cable. If you are installing a
second hard disk drive, one end of the cable is connected to
the system board and the other end is connected to the first
hard disk drive in the vertical drive bay; use the free middle
cable connector to connect the second hard disk drive as
described below.
If you are installing your computer’s first hard disk drive,
you need to connect the hard disk drive ribbon cable to the
system board now. Follow the instructions on page 3-33
and then use the middle cable connector to connect the hard
disk drive as described below.
Notice the small tab in the middle of the cable connector;
align this tab with the notch in the hard disk drive
connector, as shown below.
notch
power supply
red
wire
tab
3-26
Installing and Removing Drives
I
1
Note
.
.
When the hard disk drive ribbon cable is positioned
correctly, the red wire on the cable is next to the power
supply connector on the hard disk drive, as shown above.
Make sure the holes in the cable connector fit over all the
pins in the hard disk drive connector; then push in the cable
connector.
3.
Locate one of the power supply cables that lead from the
power supply (behind the horizontal drive bays). The
power supply cables may be secured in a plastic band on
the side of the power supply. If so, unfasten the band to
loosen the cables.
The cables are labelled PA, PB, PC, and PD; you can use any
one that is free. (If your drive requires a small power
supply connector, use PD.)
Installing and Removing Drives
3-27
4.
Position the power supply cable connector so that its notched
corners line up with the notched corners of the drive’s
power supply connector, as shown below. Make sure the
holes fit over all the pins and then push in the connector.
diskette drive
notched corners
hard disk drive
notched corners
Caution
If you do not align the cable connector correctly, you could
severely damage your drive when you push it in.
3-28
Installing and Removing Drives
Removing a Drive From a Horizontal Bay
This section describes how to remove a drive from a horizontal
drive bay. Although the illustrations show a diskette or hard
disk drive in the lower bay, you can use these same instructions
to remove a diskette drive from the upper bay.
Follow these steps to remove a drive from a horizontal bay:
1.
Disconnect the drive ribbon cable and power supply cable
from the back of the drive, as shown below. Grasp the cable
connectors and pull them straight out from the connectors
on the drive so you do not bend the pins; do not pull on the
cables.
diskette drive
Installing and Removing Drives
3-29
hard disk drive
2.
3-30
Remove the two retaining screws securing the drive to the
drive bay. Then grasp the front of the drive and pull it
completely out of the bay.
Installing and Removing Drives
3.
If you are leaving the drive bay empty, replace the metal
drive bay cover and two retaining screws, as shown below.
4.
If you are replacing the drive you removed with another
drive, remove the guiderails and screws from the drive and
use them to install the other drive as described in
“Installing a Drive in a Horizontal Bay” on page 3-17.
5.
Wrap the drive in its original packing materials and store it
in a safe place.
6.
If you removed your computer’s only hard disk drive,
disconnect the hard disk drive ribbon cable from the system
board and store it as well.
If you removed one hard disk drive and are leaving another
one in the computer, you need to set the jumpers on the
remaining drive to indicate that you now have only one
hard disk drive. See the documentation that came with the
drive for the correct jumper settings.
Installing and Removing Drives
3-31
7.
3-32
If you removed a diskette drive from the lower bay and you
are leaving this bay empty or installing a hard disk drive in
it, you need to replace the front panel faceplate to cover the
bay. Secure the faceplate to the inside of the computer’s
cover with the two screws, as shown below.
Installing and Removing Drives
Connecting the Hard Disk Drive Ribbon Cable to
the System Board
Follow these steps to connect the hard disk drive ribbon cable
to the system board:
1.
Locate the hard disk drive connector on the system board.
As shown below, it is next to the diskette drive connector,
between the option card connector board and the power
supply. (The diskette drive ribbon cable is removed from
the illustration for clarity.)
option card connector board
power
SUPPlY
/
diskette drive connector
hard disk drive connector
Installing and Removing Drives
3-33
2.
Locate the hard disk drive ribbon cable that came with the
computer. It is a flat cable with three connectors: one on
each end and one in the middle, as shown below.
connector
3.
3-34
connector
Select the connector on the end of the longest part of the cable.
Notice the small tab in the middle of the cable connector;
align this tab with the notch in the system board connector,
as shown below. (The option card connector board and
diskette drive ribbon cable are removed from the
illustration for clarity.)
Installing and Removing Drives
I
Note
You may find it easier to plug in the cable connector if
you first remove the option card connector board and
diskette drive ribbon cable. To remove the option card
connector board, see page 2-19. To disconnect the
diskette drive ribbon cable, grasp the cable connector
and pull it straight out from the system board connector
so you do not bend the pins; do not pull on the cable.
4.
Make sure the holes in the cable connector fit over all the
pins in the system board connector; then push in the cable
connector.
5.
If you removed the option card connector board and diskette
drive ribbon cable, replace them now. To connect the
diskette drive ribbon cable, align the tab on the cable
connector with the notch in the system board connector.
Make sure the holes in the cable connector fit over all the
pins in the system board connector and push in the cable
connector. Then replace the option card connector board as
described on page 2-20.
Installing and Removing Drives
3-35
Post-installation Procedures
After you install or remove your drive(s) and replace the
computer’s cover, follow the necessary steps below to make
sure your new configuration works properly:
3-36
1.
Run the SETUP program to configure your computer for
your new set of drives. See Chapter 2 of the Setup Guide for
instructions.
2.
If you installed a non-IDE hard disk drive (which requires a
separate controller card to control it), you need to run
SETUP to disable the built-in IDE hard disk drive
controller. You may also need to format the drive before
you can use it. (All Epson drives are sold already
formatted.) Check the manual that came with the drive to
see if it is already formatted. If not, see Chapter 5 for
instructions.
3.
If you want to be able to load your operating system from a
new hard disk drive, you need to install it on the drive. See
the documentation that came with your operating system
for instructions.
4.
You may also want to test a newly-installed drive. See
Chapter 4 for instructions on using the system diagnostic
program on your Reference diskette to test your drives.
Installing and Removing Drives
Chapter 4
Running System Diagnostics
You can test the following devices using System diagnostics:
D System board
CI Numeric coprocessor
tl System memory
Et Diskette drive(s)
tl Hard disk drive(s)
Cl Serial port(s)
il Parallel port(s)
tl Video adapter
U Keyboard
Cl Dot matrix printer(s).
See the table on page 4-7 for a list of the tests available for each
device.
Note
The Write, read checks for the hard disk drive(s) and
diskette drive(s) destroy data on the disk. Be sure to back up
any data on your hard disk or insert a blank, formatted
diskette before you run this test. Also be sure to do this if
youselect Run all above checks.
Running System Diagnostics
4-1
Starting the Program
Follow these steps to start the System diagnostics program:
1.
Insert the Reference diskette in drive A and turn on or reset
the computer.
Note
Always boot the computer from the Reference diskette to
start System diagnostics. This clears any terminate-andstay-resident (TSR) programs or other utilities from
memory and frees it for use by the diagnostics program.
2.
At the A: prompt, type DIAG and press IEnter
3.
You see a menu bar at the top of the screen with Items
Detected highlighted. Press IEnter
4.
You see a list of all the testable devices the computer detects
in your system. Check to be sure the list is correct.
5.
If the list is not correct, press I-) to select Quit and press
I. Run the SETUP program to make sure any missing
devices are configured properly. (See Chapter 2 of the
Setup Guide for instructions.) Then run System diagnostics
again beginning at step 1.
When the list is correct, you can run diagnostic tests on each
device. If you do not want to test a device, you can remove
it from the list. You can also add a device to the list.
4-2
Running System Diagnostics
Deleting Tests
To remove devices from the Items Detected list so the System
diagnostics program cannot test them, follow these steps:
1.
Press m to select Delete Tests. You see the Delete
menu, such as the following:
System Board
Numeric Coprocessor
System Memory
Diskette Drive A
Hard Disk Drive #l
Serial Port COMl
Printer Port LPTl
Video Adapter Test
Keyboard Test
2.
Press m or Ir] to highlight the device you want to
delete and press m. The device is removed from the
Delete menu. You can delete as many devices as you want.
3.
When you are finished deleting devices, press It] to select
Execute and see “Running Tests”on page 4-5.
Running System Diagnostics
4-3
Adding Tests
If you want to add devices to the Items Detected list, follow
these steps:
1. Press mar CtoselectAdd Tests. Youseethe Add
menu, such as the following:
Numeric Coprocessor
Diskette Drive B
Hard Disk Drive #2
Serial Port COM2
Serial Port COM3
Serial Port CO&l4
Printer Port LPTP
Printer Port LPT3
LPTl Printer Test
LPT2 Printer Test
The Add menu lists the testable devices that the computer has
not detected as Enabled in your system. You also see any
devices that you deleted from the Delete menu in case you
want to be able to test them.
2.
Press m or Ir) to highlight the device you want to add
and press IEnter The device is removed from the Add
menu and added to the Execute list. You can add as many
devices as you want.
3. When you are finished adding devices, press [t) to select
Execute and see the next section.
4-4
Running System Diagnostics
Running Tests
Follow these steps to run a test from the Execute menu:
1.
Press m or a to select Execute. You see the Execute
menu, such as the following:
System Board
Numeric Coprocessor
System Memory
Diskette Drive A
Hard Disk Drive #l
Serial Port COMl
Printer Port LPTl
Video Adapter Test
Keyboard Test
2.
Press (Tl or m to highlight the device you want to test
and press IEnter You see the Repeat prompt:
How often to repeat test? 1
3.
If you want to run the test once, press (Enter. To run the test
more than once, type the number of times and press IEnter
4.
If there is only one test for a device, the program begins
testing immediately. If there is more than one test for the
device, you see a submenu, such as the following:
HARD DISK DRIVE(S) AND CONTROLLER CHECK MENU
1
2
3
4
-
Seek check
Write, read check
Read, verify check
Run all above checks
0 - Exit
Running System Diagnostics
4-5
Use m or m or type the number of the desired option
to highlight a test and then press m to run it.
Note
If you selected to run the tests more than once, you do
not see a submenu. The program immediately begins
executing all tests that do not destroy data.
5. When the test is completed, you see the Execute menu or the
test submenu again. You can select another test or exit the
menu.
To exit System diagnostics, press a to select Quit and
press [Enter. You return to the operating system command
prompt.
Resuming From an Error
If an error prevents a test from running, you see a Runtime
Error information box. Follow the instructions on the screen to
solve the problem.
If an error occurs during a test, the test stops and an error
message appears. Follow the instructions on the screen to print
the message or to continue without printing it.
For a complete list of the error messages the program may
display, see the table at the end of this chapter.
4-6
Running System Diagnostics
System Diagnostic Tests
The table below lists all the System diagnostic tests you can run
on your system.
System diagnostic tests
L
L
Device
1
Description
Tests available
System Board j
Checks the system board
components
Numeric
Coprocessor
Tests the operation of any
built-in math coprocessor
System
Memory
Checks all memory and displays
a memory count
Diskette
Drive(s)
Aor B
Hard Disk
Drive(s)
#l or #2
Serial Port(s)
COMl,
COM2,
COM3, or
COM4
Sequential seek
check
Random seek check
Write, read check *
Disk change check
Run all above checks
Seek check
Write, read check
Read, verify check
Run all above checks
l
Tests the operation of the
selected diskette drive; requires
a formatted diskette for some
tests
~
I
i Tests the operation of the
selected hard disk drive
j
/ Tests the selected serial port;
requires a loop-back connector
Printer Port(s)
LPTl, LPT2, or
LPT3
Tests the selected printer port;
requires a loop-back connector
LPTl or LPT2
Printer Test(s)
Tests the operation of the
selected dot matrix printer and
prints a test pattern
Running System Diagnostics
4-7
System diagnostic tests (continued)
Device
Tests available
Description
Video
Adapter
Adapter check
Attribute check
Character set check
Graphics mode check
Screen paging check
Sync check
Run all above checks
Tests the operation of the
built-in VGA display adapter
Tests the operation of your
keyboard by displaying an
asterisk on a keyboard diagram
for each key you have pressed
The Write, read check destroys data on the disk. Be sure to back up data
on a hard disk or insert a blank, formatted diskette before running this test.
Error Messages
The following table lists all the error messages that may appear
during System diagnostic testing.
System diagnostic error messages
Error code
Message
System board
0101
0102
0103
0104
0105
0105
0106
0107
0108
0108
0108
0109
0110
0111
4-8
CPU error
ROM checksum error
Timer counter register error
Timer counter error
Refresh error
DMA controller register error
DMA page register error
Refresh error
Keyboard controller timeout error
Keyboard controller self diagnostic error
Keyboard controller write command error
CMOS checksum error
CMOS shutdown byte error
CPU instruction error
Running System Diagnostics
System diagnostic error messages (continued)
Error code
Message
System board
0112
0113
0114
0115
CMOS battery error
Interrupt controller error
Protect mode error 1
Protect mode error 2
Memory
Memory error
Parity error
0201
0201
Diskette drive(s)
Diskette drive controller error
Sequential seek error
Random seek error
Write error
Read error
Remove error
Insert error
0601
0602
0603
0604
0605
0606
0607
Coprocessor
0701
0702
0703
0704
0705
0706
0707
0708
0709
0710
Parallel
Coprocessor not installed
Coprocessor initialize error
Coprocessor invalid operation mask error
Coprocessor st field error
Coprocessor comparison error
Coprocessor zero divide mask error
Coprocessor addition error
Coprocessor subtraction error
Coprocessor multiplication error
Coprocessor precision error
port(s)
0901
Error pin p
Serial port(s)
1101
1101
1102
1103
control signal always low
control signal always high
Timeout error
Verify error
Hard disk drive(s)
1701
1702
1703
Seek error
Write error
Read error
Running System Diagnostics
4-9
Chapter 5
Formatting a Hard Disk
This chapter describes how to low-level (or physically) format
a hard disk. This procedure should not be confused with the
logical format performed by your operating system. The
physical formatting of a hard disk is a separate step that is
usually done at the factory by the disk manufacturer.
If your computer came with a factory-installed hard disk, or if
you installed an optional Epson IDE hard disk, it has already
been physically formatted. (All IDE drives come formatted.)
You may need to use the procedure in this chapter to physically
format a hard disk if you installed a non-Epson hard disk in
your computer that has never received the low-level format
and did not come with its own format utility. If you installed a
hard disk that came with its own format utility, use that
program to physically format the disk.
Caution
Physically formatting a hard disk erases any data it contains.
Be sure to back up any data on your hard disk before you
format it. If you are unsure whether formatting is necessary,
contact your Epson Servicer or call the Epson Connection
(800-922-8911) for assistance.
In addition to destroying all the data on the hard disk,
formatting removes any partitions and logical formatting
defined on the disk by your operating system. After you
physically format a new or used hard disk, you need to
logically format the disk again using your operating system.
Formatting a Hard Disk
5-1
Starting the Program
Follow these steps to start the hard disk formatting program:
1.
Insert the Reference diskette in drive A and log onto drive A.
2.
Type HDFMTALL and press [Enter. You see the Hard Disk
Format Menu:
1 - Format
2 - Destructive surface analysis
3 - Non-destructive surface analysis
0 - Exit
The option you choose depends on whether you are
formatting a new disk or reformatting a used disk. The
options work as follows:
Lt
Format first scans the disk for defective (bad) tracks (if
it has no defective track table) and lets you decide
which tracks to mark as bad. Then it formats the disk
and marks the bad tracks so they are never used to
store data.
0 Destructive surface analysis tests the entire
disk for read/write errors or unflagged bad tracks and
updates the defective track table. Because this option
writes and reads data on the disk, it destroys all data on
any track that produces an error. You cannot run this test
on a disk that has never been formatted.
Lt Non-destructive surface analysis checks the
disk for unflagged bad tracks without destroying data.
You cannot run this test on a disk that has never been
formatted.
5-2
Formatting a Hard Disk
Formatting a New Disk
To format a new hard disk that has never been formatted, select
the Format option. You may need to modify the defective track
table to add bad tracks when you format the disk. Many hard
disk drives come with a printed list of bad tracks, but the bad
tracks are not flagged on the disk. Other hard disks (such as
Epson disks) come with the bad tracks already flagged.
Reformatting a Used Disk
To reformat a disk you have been using, follow these steps:
1.
Use the Non-destructive surface analysis option to check for
unflagged bad tracks.
2.
If errors occur during the Non-destructive surface analysis,
back up your hard disk to diskettes.
3.
Run the Destructive surface analysis option to update the
defective track table.
4.
Run the Format option to format the disk.
Selecting an Option
When you use this program, you often need to select an option
from a menu. There are two ways to do this:
Ll Use the arrow keys ( (71, CT], [t], [y] ) to
highlight the option and press m
Ll
Type the number of the option and press IEnter
You can select almost any option that appears on the screen
using either method.
Formatting a Hard Disk
5-3
Selecting a Drive
If you have more than one hard disk drive, you see this prompt:
Enter drive number ? (l/2)
Select 1 for the first hard disk or 2 for the second hard disk.
Then see the instructions below for the Hard Disk Format
Menu option you want to use.
Option 1, Format
If you select Format from the Hard Disk Format Menu, you
see the following (for a disk with no defective track table):
Format Hard Disk < Drive R: >
Scan hard disk to get defective track
information? (Y/N)
(If the disk already has a defective track table, you do not see
this because you do not need to scan for bad tracks.)
1. Select Y to scan the disk or N to skip the scanning process. If
you select Y, the program scans the disk and displays these
messages during the process:
Scanning for flagged bad tracks...
Head : nnn Cylinder : nnnnn
After scanning the disk, the program displays the results, such
as the following:
Scanning
Count of
Count of
Count of
5-4
finished.
=
tracks flagged bad
1
tracks with other errors =
0
good tracks
= 4884
Formatting a Hard Disk
2.
Next you see the following prompt:
Accept recommended skewed sectors in
format : 1 ? (Y/N)
For an Epson hard disk drive, it is best to accept the
recommended skewed sector (also called the interleave
factor) of 1, since this setting allows your drive to perform
more efficiently. For other hard disk drives, you may need
to change this value if the documentation that came with
the disk recommends a different number.
To accept the default, select Y. Then go to step 3.
To enter a new value, select N. You see the following prompt:
Enter new skewed sectors in
format (l-16):
Enter the recommended number, which equals the maximum
sector number for the drive minus 1. Then press IEnter
3.
Next you see this prompt:
Accept recommended skewed sectors per
head in format : 0 ? (Y/N)
For an Epson hard disk drive, accept the recommended value
of 0. For another type of drive, use the value recommended
in the documentation for the drive.
To accept the default, select Y. Then go to step 4.
Formatting a Hard Disk
5-5
To enter a new value, select N. You see the following prompt:
Enter new skewed sectors per
in format (O-16):
head
Enter the recommended number, which equals the maximum
sector number for the drive minus 1. The maximum sector
number depends on the drive type. Then press [Enter.
4.
The program now allows you to edit the defective track table.
At the bottom of the table is this prompt:
Modify defective track table ? (Y/N)
Select N if you want to leave the table as it is. Then skip the
next section and go to “Formatting the Disk” on page 5-8.
To add bad tracks to the defective track table, see the next
section.
Modifying the Defective Truck Table
If you select Y to modify the table, you see the following
options at the bottom of the table:
Defective Track Table : Move box cursor to
desired track with cursor key
A = Add track, C = Change track,
D = Delete track, F = Finish editing
Enter command :
5-6
Formatting a Hard Disk
To add a bad track, follow these steps:
1.
Press m. You see this prompt:
Enter cylinder number (1 - nnnn):
2. Type the number of the cylinder containing the bad track and
press IEnter You see this prompt:
Enter head number (0 - nn):
3.
Type the head number for the bad track and press CEnter). (To
cancel the operation, press m without typing a value.)
When you complete a valid entry, it appears in the table and
you can add the next bad track, if necessary.
If you make a mistake, move the cursor block to the incorrect
track and press [cl to change the track data or [DJ to delete the
track from the table. Change the track data in the same way as
you add a track.
The maximum valid cylinder number and head number (nnnn
and nn) vary according to the capacity of the hard disk. If you
enter an invalid cylinder or head number, a reminder of the
range of values appears and the program asks you to enter the
value again.
When you finish adding all the bad tracks, press C without
typing a value. Then check the entries in the defective track
table. When you are sure the table is correct, press IF]. The
program displays a warning about the consequences of
proceeding with formatting, as described in the next section.
Formatting a Hard Disk
5-7
Formatting the Disk
When you are ready to start formatting the disk, you see the
following warning:
WARNING! ALL DATA WILL BE DESTROYED IN ALL
PARTITIONS OF HARD DISK, NOT JUST IN MS-DOS
PARTITION!
Do you want to start formatting ? (Y/N)
If you are not sure you want to format the hard disk, select N. If
you are sure, select Y; the program gives you one more chance
to cancel:
DOUBLE CHECK THAT YOU HAVE BACKUP DISKETTE
COPIES OF ALL YOUR FILES.
Do you want to exit and check your file
copies ? (Y/N)
Select Y to cancel formatting or N to continue. If you continue
with formatting, you see:
Format started.
Head : nnn
Cylinder : nnnnn
You see the head and cylinder numbers decrease as the
program progresses.
When formatting is complete, the program flags any bad tracks
and you see a series of messages like these:
Format finished.
Flagging bad tracks...
Cylinder is nnnn, head is nn
Format completed.
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
Press m to return to the Hard Disk Format Menu.
5-8
Formatting a Hard Disk
Option 2, Destructive Surface Analysis
You can perform a Destructive surface analysis of your hard
disk to accurately locate any bad tracks and flag them, if they
are not flagged. The test writes, reads, and verifies information
on every track, except those that are already flagged as bad.
Caution
If any errors occur during this check, all data on the track
that caused the error is destroyed. If you think that an
unflagged bad track is causing trouble, first run the
Non-destructive surface analysis to check the disk surface.
To start this test, select Destructive surface analysis
from the Hard Disk Format Menu. You see these messages:
Analyze
Hard Disk <Drive n:>
Read/Save/Write/Read/Restore/Read
check for all tracks...
C u r r e n t c y l i n d e r i s nnnn
As the program checks each track, it decreases the cylinder
numbers to zero. When the test is complete, you see a report on
the disk status, including a table of unflagged tracks that
produced write, read errors-such as the following:
Analysis
finished.
Count of tracks flagged bad
=
n
Count of tracks with write, read errors =
n
Count of good tracks
= nnnn
No write, read error was detected.
No data was destroyed.
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
Formatting a Hard Disk
5-9
If the program finds an unflagged bad track, the report is
followed by a table like this:
Write, Read Error Tracks
Cylinder Head Cylinder Head Cylinder Head Cylinder Head
237
2
Confirm to register the tracks in the Write, Read Error
Track Table as bad tracks.
Do you want to register the error tracks as bad tracks?
(Y/N)
To flag these tracks as bad, select Y. You see a list of the tracks
as they are flagged. When the process is complete, press (Enter]
to return to the Hard Disk Format Menu.
Option 3, Non-destructive Surface Analysis
The Non-destructive surface analysis does not destroy any
data, and you can use it to safely check the condition of your
hard disk drive. However, this test does not flag any bad tracks
it detects.
To start the test, select Non-destructive s u r f a c e
analysis from the Hard Disk Format Menu. You see these
messages:
Analyze Hard Disk <Drive n:>
Read/Verify check for all tracks...
Current cylinder is nnnn
5-10
Formatting a Hard Disk
As the program checks each track, it decreases the cylinder
numbers to zero. When the test is complete, the program
displays a report on the status of the disk, such as the following:
Analysis
finished.
=
n
Count of tracks flagged bad
n
Count of tracks with read, verify errors =
= nnnn
Count of good tracks
No read, verify error was detected.
If the program finds errors, the screen displays a table of the
tracks that produced the errors. Then you see this message:
Press ENTER to return to the menu.
Check the information displayed. Then press m to return to
the Hard Disk Format Menu.
Exiting the Program
To leave the Hard Disk Format Menu, select Exit. You see the
operating system command prompt.
If you formatted the hard disk or ran the Destructive surface
analysis option, you must now prepare your hard disk for use
with your operating system. See your operating system manual
for instructions.
Formatting a Hard Disk
5-11
Chapter 6
Troubleshooting
You should not encounter any difficulties as you set up and use
your computer, but if anything out of the ordinary happens,
refer to this chapter. You can correct most problems by
adjusting a cable connection, repeating a software procedure,
or resetting the computer.
Besides trying the suggestions in this chapter, you can run
diagnostic checks on the various components of your system.
See Chapter 4 for instructions. If the suggestions here or in
Chapter 4 do not solve the problem, contact your Authorized
Epson Servicer or call the Epson Connection at (800) 922-8911.
Identifying Your System
When you request technical assistance, be ready to provide
the serial number of your computer, its ROM BIOS version
number, its configuration (including the type of disk drives,
monitor, and option cards), and the names and version
numbers of any software programs you are using.
You may have recorded this information on the Read This First
card that came with your system. If not, you can find the
computer’s serial number on its back panel. If you are able to
use your computer, follow the steps below to obtain
information about your configuration, as well as your ROM
BIOS and MS-DOS (or other operating system) version number.
1.
Turn on your computer.
Troubleshooting 6-1
2.
When the computer performs its power-on memory test,
the version numbers of your VGA BIOS and system BIOS
appear at the top of the screen. Quickly write down the
version numbers. If you do not have enough time to do this,
press [Ctrl] [Tl c-1 and try again.
3. When you see Press <F2> to run SETUP,press I.
Write down the necessary configuration information shown
on the SETUP screens; then exit SETUP without changing
your configuration. (See Chapter 2 of the Setup Guide for
instructions.)
4.
If you are using MS-DOS, at the command prompt type VER
and pressd
Enter . The screen displays the MS-DOS version
number. Write it down. (If you are using another operating
system, see the manuals that came with it for instructions
on obtaining the version number.)
Error Messages
Your computer’s built-in memory (ROM) contains a series of
diagnostics programs, called power-on diagnostics, which your
computer runs automatically every time you turn it on. These
programs check internal devices such as ROM, RAM, the timer,
the keyboard controller, and the hard disk drive.
The RAM test program displays the total amount of memory
currently installed in your system. If the computer finds an
error, it displays an error message on the screen.
If the error is not serious, you see this prompt:
Resume = <Fl> key
Write down the error message and press [ to continue.
6-2
Troubleshooting
If the error is serious, the computer cancels further checking
and halts system initialization. The error message remains on
the screen and the computer locks up. If this happens, contact
your Authorized Epson Servicer as soon as possible. Report
any error messages when you request technical assistance.
The following table lists all the error messages that may appear
during power-on diagnostics. If you receive an error message,
look it up in the table below; it directs you to the proper
troubleshooting section in this chapter or offers a solution. If
you do not see an error message, read the section that covers
your problem.
Power-on diagnostics error messages
Message
Action
101
Primary/secondary interrupt
controller failure
Contact
Authorized Epson
Servicer
102
Timer 0 failure
Error code
t
System board
I
103
Timer 0 interrupt failure
105
Keyboard input buffer full
106
I/O port word access error
107
NMI failure
108
Timer 2 failure
1
Real-time clock
161
System options not set
162
System options not set
163
Time and date not set
164
Memory size error
Run SETUP; see
Chapter 2 of the
Setup Guide
Troubleshooting 6-3
Power-on diagnostics error messages (continued
I
Error code
Shadow RAM and
Cache
171
173
Memory
201
202
c
203
Keyboard
301
Monitor
401
501
Diskette drive(s)
and controller
601
Parallel port
901
Serial port
1101
i
6-4
Troubleshooting
1
I
1
t
!
IL
Message
BIOS shadow RAM error
Cache options error
z
,
Memory error
Action
Contact Servicer
Run SETUP: see
Chapter 2 of the
SetuD Guide
Contact Servicer
RAM memory error
Memory address error
Keyboard error
See “Keyboard
Problems”
I
Keyboard or system uniter ror 1
Keyboard or system uniter ror 1
i
Monochrome CRT error
See “Monitor
Problems”
Color CRT error
Diskette error
See “Diskette
Problems” or
“Diskette Drive
Problems”
Parallel port error
See “Printer
Problems”
Serial port error
See “Printer
Problems”
1
Power-on diagnostics error messages (continued)
Message
Action
1760
Disk 0 parameter failure
See “Hard Disk
Drive Problems”
1761
Disk 1 parameter failure
Error code
Hard disk drive(s)
and controller
1770
Disk 0 parameter error
1771
Disk 1 parameter error
1780
Disk 0 failure
1781
Disk 1 failure
1782
Disk controller failure
1790
Disk 0 error
1791
Disk 1 error
. . device(s)
tI Auxhary
( 8601
Auxiliary device failure
8602
Auxiliary device reset failure
8603
Auxiliary device interrupt
failure
See ‘Mouse
Problems”
The Computer Won’t Start
If your computer does not start when you turn on the power,
check the following:
1.
Is the power light on? If not, remove any diskettes and turn
off the power. Make sure the power cord is securely
connected to both the AC inlet on the back panel and an
electrical outlet. Replace your main operating system
diskette or Reference diskette, if necessary, and turn on the
computer again.
Troubleshooting 6-5
c
If you turn off the computer, always wait at least 20
seconds before turning it back on. This prevents damage
to the computer’s electrical circuitry.
2.
If the power light still does not come on, check the electrical
outlet for power. Turn off your computer, unplug the
power cord, and plug a lamp into the outlet. Turn it on to
see if the outlet supplies power.
3.
If you installed or removed any of your system components,
such as a disk drive, check to make sure you have
reconnected all the internal and external cables correctly.
See Chapters 2 and 3 for instructions.
4.
If the electrical outlet is working and all the connections are
secure but your computer still won’t start, contact your
Epson Servicer.
Note
If the computer starts but you can’t see anything on the
screen, see “Monitor Problems” on page 6-12.
The Computer Does Not Respond
If your computer locks up and does not respond when you
type on the keyboard, follow these steps:
1. Wait a few moments; some operations take longer than others
to complete. For example, the computer takes longer to sort
a database than to display the time. If your computer still
does not respond after a reasonable length of time, proceed
to the next step.
6-6
Troubleshooting
2.
If you have just made a change in your system configuration,
your computer may take a few minutes to complete its
power-on diagnostics. The first time you turn on your
computer after making such a change, it can take several
minutes to finish its self test, depending on what you
changed. If the computer does not display the operating
system prompt after five minutes, turn off the computer,
wait 20 seconds, and try again. If that doesn’t work, turn off
the computer, insert your main operating system diskette
or Reference diskette in drive A and turn on the computer.
If it still does not boot, contact your Epson Servicer.
3.
Did you enter the correct password? See “Password
Problems” below.
4.
Could your software be causing the problem? If you are
running an application program, see “Software Problems”
later in this chapter.
5.
The problem could be caused by your keyboard. See
“Keyboard Problems” later in this chapter.
6.
If you want to stop whatever the computer is doing and
return to the MS-DOS command prompt, hold down the
m key and press m (or press Ic]). See Chapter 1 for
more information on stopping a command or program.
7.
If your computer still does not respond, you can reset it
using the [xl [F] (-1 command. See “Resetting
YourComputer” in Chapter 1 for more information. -
8.
If resetting the computer does not work, turn off the
computer and wait at least 20 seconds. If you do not have a
hard disk drive, insert your main operating system diskette
in drive A; then turn on the computer. It should load the
operating system.
I
I
,
Troubleshooting 6-7
9.
If you installed a display adapter card (and did not connect it
to the feature connector on the main system board), you
must set jumper J10 to disable the built-in VGA adapter.
Otherwise, you will not see any display on the screen. You
may also need to change the setting of jumper J11. See
“Changing the Jumper Settings” in Chapter 2.
10. If your computer suddenly stops operating, its power
supply thermal detection circuits may have detected
excessive operating temperatures and automatically shut
down the power. This protects your system from damage.
When these circuits detect a high temperature, they shut off
all the DC outputs in the power supply and cause it to go
into latch-offstate. This does not damage the power supply,
but you must correct the temperature problem before you
can use your computer again. See “Restoring the Power
Supply” below.
Restoring the Power Supply
To restore normal power supply operation, follow these steps:
1. Turn off the computer and leave it off for at least
30 seconds to reset the power supply logic.
2.
6-8
To determine the cause of the high temperature and correct
the condition, check for the following:
LI
Room temperature above 95°F (35°C). If this is the case,
relocate the computer to a cooler area.
Cl
A blocked power supply fan. Make sure there is space
around the power supply fan vents in the back and
sides of the computer case. Remove the computer’s
cover and check both inside and outside the computer
for blockage. Make sure there is ample room around
your system for air circulation.
Troubleshooting
Ll
An overload of the power supply limitations. Check the
table in Appendix A to see if you have exceeded the
option slot power limits. See your option card
manual(s) for the power requirements for your option
card(s).
3.
After you correct the problem causing the overheating,
allow the computer to cool down for at least five minutes at
room temperature (about 78 “F or 25°C). This resets the
thermal detection circuits.
4.
If you removed the computer’s cover, replace it now. (See
Chapter 2 for instructions.) Then turn on the computer.
If the power supply shuts off again, contact your Authorized
Epson Servicer.
Password Problems
If you have any trouble using your password, try the following:
1.
If you think you know the correct password, reset the
computer and try again. See Chapter 1 for instructions.
2.
If you enabled network server mode when you set a
password, you may not see the key prompt. For more
information, see “Using Your Computer as a Network
Server” in Chapter 1.
3.
If you know the current password but you want to change
or delete it, see Chapter 1 for instructions.
4.
If you do not know the current password and you cannot
access your computer, see the next section.
Troubleshooting 6-9
Accessing Your System
If you have forgotten your current password, follow these steps
to access your system:
1. Turn off the computer.
2.
Follow the instructions under “Changing the Jumper
Settings” in Chapter 2 to disable the password function by
setting jumper J13 to position A.
3.
Turn on the computer.
4. When you see Press <F2> to run SETUP, press [.
You see the SETUP screen. If you do not want to set a new
password, go to step 6. If you want to set a new password,
go to step 5.
6-10
5.
To set a new password, highlight Password and press IEnter
Then press c. Type a new password at the prompt and
press IEnter You must enter the new password twice. (See
Chapter 2 of the Setup Guide for more information about
setting a password.) Now go to step 7.
6.
To disable password checking, highlight Password
security and press IEnter Then press &I or a to
change the setting to Not installed. (See Chapter 2 of
the Setup Guide for more information.)
7.
Save your settings as you exit SETUP. (See Chapter 2 of the
Setup Guide for instructions.)
8.
Turn off the computer.
9.
Follow the instructions under “Changing the Jumper
Settings” in Chapter 2 to enable the password function by
setting jumper J13 to position B.
Troubleshooting
10. If you do not have a hard disk, insert your main operating
system diskette in drive A. Turn on the computer.
If you disabled password security, you do not see the key
prompt and can access your computer immediately.
If you set a new password, you see the key prompt (M).
(If you enabled network server mode, you may not see this
prompt.) Enter your password as described in Chapter 1.
Keyboard Problems
If you have trouble with the keyboard, check the following:
1.
If the screen displays a keyboard error message when you
turn on or reset the computer, make sure the keyboard is
securely connected to the correct port. See “Connecting the
Keyboard” in Chapter 1 of the Setup Guide for instructions.
2.
If nothing happens when you type on the keyboard, see
“The Computer Does Not Respond,” above.
3.
If the cursor keys do not work properly, the num lock
function may be on. When num lock is on, the keys on the
numeric keypad work only as numbers. If the Num Lock light
in the upper right corner of the keyboard is lit, press
[-Lock to turn off the function.
If you want to change the initial setting of the num lock
function, see “Setting the Keyboard Options” in Chapter 2
of the Setup Guide.
4.
If you still have trouble with the keyboard, run the Keyboard
diagnostic test described in Chapter 4. If the diagnostics
indicate an error, contact your Authorized Epson Servicer.
Troubleshooting
6-11
Monitor Problems
For monitor problems, check the following:
6-22
1.
If there is no display on the screen, check that the monitor’s
power switch is on and that its power light is lit. If the
power light is on but you still do not see anything on the
screen, check the brightness and contrast controls.
2.
If the power switch is on but the power light is not, turn off
the monitor’s power, wait five seconds, and turn it back on.
Wait to see if the screen displays any text.
3.
If you still do not see anything on the screen, make sure you
connected your monitor to the computer securely.
See “Connecting a Monitor” in Chapter 1 of the
Setup Guide or your monitor manual for instructions.
4.
If the monitor’s power light still does not come on, check
the electrical outlet for power. Turn off your monitor and
unplug it from the outlet. Then plug a lamp into the wall
outlet and turn it on to see if the outlet supplies power.
5.
If you installed a display adapter card, make sure your
monitor and display adapter match. Also check to see if
the cards switches or jumpers are set properly. See
“Connecting a Monitor” in Chapter 1 of the Setup Guide and
your monitor and display adapter card manuals for
instructions.
6.
If you are running an application program, see if you need
to set up the program for the type of monitor and display
adapter you have. Also make sure you are using the
appropriate monitor and display adapter for your software.
Troubleshooting
Note
If your application program requires a monitor that
supports graphics but you have a monochrome monitor,
the results will be unpredictable.
7.
If you installed a display adapter card (and did not connect it
to the feature connector on the main system board), you
must set jumper J10 to disable the built-in VGA adapter or
you will not see anything on the screen. You may also need
to change the setting of jumper J11. See “Changing the
Jumper Settings” in Chapter 2 for instructions.
8.
If you still have difficulty with your monitor, run the Video
adapter diagnostic tests described in Chapter 4. If the
diagnostics program indicates an error, contact the
representative who sold you the monitor.
Diskette Problems
If you see an error message or have trouble accessing data on a
diskette, try the following steps:
1. You may have inserted the diskette upside-down or it may
not be inserted all the way. Remove the diskette from the
drive and reinsert it. If the diskette drive has a latch, be sure
to turn it down to secure the diskette in the drive. See
Chapter 1 for detailed instructions on inserting and
removing diskettes.
2.
If reinserting the diskette does not solve the problem and
you have access to another diskette drive of the same type,
place the diskette in the other drive and repeat the
operation. If you can read the diskette, the trouble may be
in your diskette drive. See “Diskette Drive Problems”
below.
Troubleshooting
6-13
3.
Check to see if you have inserted the right type of diskette.
For example, are you trying to read a 1.44MB diskette in a
720KB diskette drive? See “Types of Diskette Drives” in
Chapter 1 for more information.
4.
If your diskette is the right type for your drive, see if it is
write-protected. On a 3.5-inch diskette, the write-protect
switch may be set to the write-protect position or there may
be no switch. On a 5.25-inch diskette, there may be a
write-protect tab over the notch on its side or there may be
no notch. You cannot alter data on a write-protected
diskette. (Some application programs do not function
properly if the diskette is write-protected. Check the
program manual.) See Chapter 1 for more information.
5.
Is the diskette formatted? A new diskette must be formatted
before you can store data on it. See your operating system
documentation for instructions on formatting diskettes.
6.
Did you receive one of the following MS-DOS error
messages?
Disk Drive Error: Abort, Ignore, Retry?
Disk error reading drive d:
Disk error writing drive d:
If you see one of these messages, make sure the diskette is
properly inserted in the drive. If the problem persists, try
removing the diskette and reinserting it.
If the error message still occurs, you may have a defective
diskette. Try copying the files from the bad diskette to a
new diskette.
6-14
Troubleshooting
7.
If you see no error messages but there is something wrong
with the data in a file, the operating system or an
application program may have updated the storage
information on the diskette incorrectly. This is probably the
case if you have one of these problems:
Ll
Part of a file is missing
Cl
A file includes parts of other files
CI
An expected output file is missing.
If you are using MS-DOS use CHKDSK to make the necessary
repairs; see your MS-DOS documentation for instructions.
You may also have some special diagnostic software you
can use to check your diskettes.
Diskette Drive Problems
If you see a diskette error message or have difficulty with a
diskette drive, follow these steps:
1.
If you have problems with a new diskette drive that someone
else installed for you, consult that person about the
problem.
2.
If you installed the drive yourself, did you carefully follow
all the steps in Chapter 3? Review the instructions and
check all the cable connections to make sure you have
installed the drive correctly.
3.
Did you run the SETUP program to automatically configure
the correct type of diskette drive as part of your system?
(See Chapter 2 of the Setup Guide for instructions.)
4.
Try running the Diskette drive diagnostic tests described in
Chapter 4. If the diagnostics program indicates an error,
contact your Epson Servicer.
Troubleshooting
6-15
5.
If the diskette drive is making loud or unusual noises, do not
attempt any further examination of it. Contact your
Authorized Epson Servicer.
Hard Disk Problems
If you have a problem with a hard disk, it could be the result of
improper installation, incomplete disk preparation, or
corrupted data. Consult one of the following sections,
depending on the problem you are having:
Cl Installing the drive
LI
Preparing the drive for use
tl
Accessing data on the drive.
For example, if you could use the data on your disk in the past
but suddenly cannot, see “Accessing Data on the Drive.”
Caution
If your hard disk has data on it, always be sure to back up
your data before reformatting or repartitioning the drive.
6-16 Troubleshooting
Installing the Drive
If you have problems with a newly-installed drive, check the
following:
1. If someone else installed the drive, consult that person about
the problem.
2.
If you installed the hard disk in your computer, did you
carefully follow all the instructions in Chapter 3? Review
the instructions, check all the cable connections, and check
the jumper settings on your drive.
3.
If you installed an IDE hard disk drive, be sure you ran
SETUP to update your configuration. Check to make sure
you selected the correct drive type and that you enabled the
built-in IDE hard disk drive controller. (If you connected
the IDE drive to a controller on an option card, be sure you
set the built-in controller to Disabled.) See Chapter 2 of
the Setup Guide for instructions.
4.
If you installed a non-IDE hard disk drive, was it
physically formatted by the manufacturer? A blank, new
hard disk must be physically formatted (or initialized)
before you can partition it and install an operating system
on it. This type of format is usually done by the
manufacturer; if yours was not, you must do it yourself.
If the drive came with its own format utility, use that
program; if not, follow the instructions in Chapter 5.
Note that a physical format is different from the softwarebased type of formatting commands (such as the MS-DOS
SELECT or FORMAT commands). See “Preparing the
Drive,” below, for more information.
Troubleshooting
6-17
Preparing the Drive
Before you can store data on a new hard disk (which has
already been physically formatted), you must do the following
to prepare it for use:
1.
Run the SETUP program to define your hard disk as part
of the computer’s configuration. (See Chapter 2 of the
Setup Guide for instructions.)
2.
Partition and format the drive for your operating system. If
you are using MS-DOS, instructions for performing these
procedures are provided in your MS-DOS manuals. If you
are using another operating system, follow the instructions
that came with it.
If you do not prepare the drive correctly, you cannot store data
on the disk. For example, if you partition the drive and format
it for MS-DOS (or for another operating system) but you do not
copy the operating system to the drive, you will not be able to
load the operating system from the hard disk.
If you are sure the hard disk was installed properly and you
prepared it for use as described above but you cannot access
the drive, review the instructions in your operating system
manuals. Make sure you performed each step in the installation
process correctly for your configuration.
Accessing Data on the Drive
If you have been using your hard disk drive successfully for
some time and notice a reduction in performance, the data on
the disk may have become fragmented. You may want to back
up all your data and then use a disk compaction utility to
reorganize the files on your disk.
6-18 Troubleshooting
If you still have trouble with your hard disk, you can back up
your data and physically reformat the disk. Then you’ll need to
reinstall the operating system and copy your files back onto the
disk. See Chapter 5 and your operating system manual for
instructions.
If you cannot access data on your hard disk or you are
receiving read/write errors, the disk may have a physical
problem. You can try running the Hard disk drive diagnostic
test described in Chapter 4. If the diagnostic program indicates
an error, contact your Authorized Epson Servicer.
Software Problems
If you have trouble with an application program, try the
following:
1.
If the application program does not start, check that you are
following the correct procedure for starting the program,
and that it is installed correctly. If you have a hard disk and
the program is stored in a directory on that drive, make
sure you are logged onto or specifying the correct directory.
If you don’t have a hard disk, make sure you inserted the
correct diskette in drive A.
2.
Your computer can run at high, low, or automatic speed.
While almost all programs work properly at the faster
speed, some must run at the slower speed. Check your
software manual to see if this is the case, and change the
processor speed if necessary. See “Changing the Processor
Speed” in Chapter 1 for instructions and information on
using copy-protected programs.
Troubleshooting
6-19
3.
If you entered an MS-DOS command that you want to stop,
there are special key combinations you can use to cancel the
command. These methods may also work in your
application programs:
Ll
Hold down (ctll and press [cl
Ll Hold down m and press [Break].
4.
An application program can occasionally lock the computer,
making it unresponsive to keyboard commands. If your
computer does not respond when you type on the
keyboard, you can reset it. Follow the instructions in
Chapter 1.
5.
If resetting the computer does not help, remove any
diskettes, turn off your system, wait 20 seconds, and turn it
back on. Then restart your application program.
If none of these solutions solve your software problem, contact
the software manufacturer for technical support.
Printer Problems
Below are some general steps to follow if you have difficulty
with your printer. If the problem persists and you need more
detailed information, check your printer manual.
You see a port error message if you are having trouble with the
port to which your printer is connected. If your printer uses the
parallel port, you may see error 901; if your printer uses the
serial port, you may see error 1101.
6-20
Troubleshooting
1.
If your printer does not work at all, check that the printer
has power and is properly connected to the computer.
(Also, make sure your printer has paper in it.) See
Chapter 1 of the Setup Guide or your printer manual for
instructions.
2.
Check the printer manual for the printer’s correct DIP switch
or control panel settings. These settings help a printer
communicate properly with the computer.
3.
If you are using more than one parallel port or more than
one serial port, the computer must know which port is
the primary port and which is the secondary port. See
Chapter 2 of the Setup Guide for instructions on how to set
the parallel and serial ports using the SETUP program.
4.
If your printer is properly set up but is still not functioning,
test it from the MS-DOS level. When the screen displays the
MS-DOS command prompt (such as C> or A>), hold down
m and press c-1. This should print the contents of
the screen on your printer.
If it does not, you may need to change the internal setting
of the computer’s parallel port for a parallel printer (or
serial port for a serial printer). To do this, use the MS-DOS
MODE or SETMODE command. See your printer manual
and MS-DOS documentation for more details.
5.
Many application programs (such as word processors)
must be set up properly before they can use a printer.
Check your program manual to see what customizing may
be required.
6.
If you are using an application program that requires a
printer driver, make sure the correct driver is installed. See
your application program manual for instructions. Also see
your printer manual for additional instructions on using
your printer with application programs.
Troubleshooting
6-21
7.
Try running the Parallel port diagnostic test if you have a
parallel printer, or the Serial port test if you have a serial
printer. You can also test a dot-matrix printer, if you have
one. Chapter 4 describes these tests.
Option Card Problems
If you install an option card and it does not function properly,
check the following:
1.
Is the option card installed correctly? Make sure it is
well-seated in its slot. Check the installation procedure
described in Chapter 2 and also see the instructions that
came with the card.
2.
Did you set the necessary DIP switches or jumpers on the
option card? See the cards manual for instructions.
3.
Did you set the necessary jumpers on the main system
board? See Chapter 2 for more information.
4.
Did you run the SETUP program to update your computer’s
configuration after installing the card? See Chapter 2 of the
Setup Guide.
6-22
5.
If you used the option card to add an external device to
your computer, did you use the proper cable to connect the
device to the card?
6.
Did you perform the correct setup procedures for the
software you are using with the option card? See your
option card or software manual for instructions.
Troubleshooting
Mouse Problems
If you have trouble with your mouse or you see an auxiliary
device error message, check the following:
1. Make sure the mouse cable is securely connected to the
mouse port and not the keyboard port. See Chapter 1 of the
Setup Guide for instructions.
2.
If you installed a mouse on an option card, be sure to set
jumper J9 to disable the built-in mouse and set jumper J12
to enable the mouse on the card. See Chapter 2 for
instructions.
3.
Did you install the mouse driver correctly, if necessary? See
your software manual and the documentation that came
with your mouse for instructions. (If you are using
Windows, it has already installed a mouse driver
automatically.)
Memory Module Problems
If you added extra memory to your system by installing SIMMs
and that memory is not operating properly, check the following:
1.
If the memory count displayed by the power-on diagnostics
program is incorrect, you may not have installed the
SIMMs correctly. They may be the wrong type of SIMM or
they may not be inserted all the way.
See “Memory Modules (SIMMs)” in Chapter 2 and make
sure you followed all the instructions.
Troubleshooting
6-23
2.
Be sure to run the SETUP program after you install or
remove memory modules to automatically update your
memory configuration. See Chapter 2 of the Setup Guide for
instructions.
3. If you still have trouble with your SIMMs, write down any
error messages that appear and contact your Authorized
Epson Servicer.
6-24 Troubleshooting
Appendix A
Specifications
CPU and Memory
32-bit CPU
4SX/33: Intel i486SX, 33 MHz
microprocessor; can be replaced with
optional 487SX/33 or ODP486-33
OverDrive processor
4DX2/50: Intel i486DX, 50 MHz
microprocessor
4DX2/66: Intel i486DX2,66 MHz
microprocessor
System speed
High, low, and automatic speeds available;
high speed is CPU-dependent (33, 50, or
66 MHz), low speed is simulated 8 MHz
speed, automatic speed switches from
high to low only for diskette drive access;
speed selection through SETUP, keyboard
command, or ESPEED program; 0 wait
state memory access at high speed
Memory
4MB RAM standard soldered on main
system board; expandable using 1MB,
4MB, 16MB, or 64MB SIMMs to 128MB
(maximum); SIMMs must be 36-bit,
fast-page mode type with 70 ns (or faster)
access speed
ROM
128KB ROM containing system BIOS and
video BIOS; 64KB ROM containing SETUP
code
Specifications A-l
Video RAM
1MB VRAM on main system board
Shadow RAM
Automatic shadowing of system and VGA
BIOS ROM into RAM; shadow RAM
address control selectable through SETUP
Cache
8KB of internal cache (built into the
microprocessor); cache testing and address
control selectable through SETUP
Virtual cache
Epson proprietary VirtualCache feature
automatically creates a “virtual cache”
buffer the size of maximum system
memory
Math
coprocessor
On 4DX2/50 and 4DX2/66 systems, math
coprocessor built into the microprocessor
Clock/
calendar
Real-time clock, calendar, and CMOS
RAM on main system board; separate
battery backup
Controllers
A-2
Video
Chips and Technologies Wingine VGA
controller on main system board; provides
resolutions up to 1024 x 768
Diskette
Controller on main system board supports
up to two diskette drives or one diskette
drive and one tape drive
Hard disk
Interface on main system board supports
up to two IDE hard disk drives with
built-in controllers
Specifications
Interfaces
Monitor
VGA interface built into system board for
analog or multifrequency VGA monitor;
15-pin, D-shell connector
Parallel
One standard 8-bit parallel, mono- or bidirectional interface built into main system
board; port assignment and I/O address
selectable through SETUP; 25-pin, D-shell
connector
Serial
Two RS-232C, programmable,
asynchronous interfaces built into main
system board; port assignments and I/O
addresses selectable through SETUP;
9-pin, D-shell connector
Keyboard
PS/2 compatible keyboard interface built
into main system board; keyboard speed,
delay, and num lock settings selectable
through SETUP; 6-pin, mini DIN connector
Mouse
PS/2 compatible mouse interface built into
main system board; 6-pin, mini DIN
connector
Option slots
Four standard 16-bit (or 8-bit) I/O
expansion slots; ISA compatible; 8 MHz
bus speed
Speaker
Internal; operation controllable through
SETUP and volume selectable by software
Alternate VGA
IBM compatible VGA pass-through
interface built into main system board;
26-pin connector
Specifications A-3
Mass Storage
Diskette drives
Three drives maximum (one vertical
mount and two horizontal mounts)
configurable using the following:
5.25-inch diskette drive, 1.2MB
(high-density) storage capacity
3.5-inch diskette drive, 1.44MB
(high-density) storage capacity
5.25-inch diskette drive, 360KB
(double-density) storage capacity
3.5-inch diskette drive, 720KB
(double-density) storage capacity
Hard disk
drives
3M-inch form factor hard disk drive(s), up
to half-height size; the first mounted
vertically, second mounted horizontally
Other devices
Half-height tape drive, CD-ROM, or other
storage device; 5Sinch or 3%inch with
mounting frames
Keyboard
A-4
Specifications
Detachable; two-position height; 101 or 102
sculpted keys; country-dependent main
typewriter keyboard; numeric/cursor
control keypad; four-key cursor control
keypad; 12 function keys
Physical Characteristics
Width
14.8 inches (370 mm)
Depth
16.5 inches (412 mm)
Height
4.8 inches (120 mm)
Weight
16.7 lb (7.6 kg), without keyboard
Power Supply
Type
145 Watt, fan-cooled, switch selectable
voltage
Input ranges
90 to 132 VAC and 180 to 264 VAC
Maximum
outputs
+5 VDC at 18 Amps, +12 VDC at 4.0
Amps, -5 VDC at 0.3 Amps, -12 VDC at
0.3 Amps
Frequency
47 to 63 Hz
Option slot
power limits
Maximum current
I
+5 Volts
+ 12 Volts
For each slot
’ 7Amps
1.5Amps
For all four slots
16 Amps
; 3Amps
I
-5 Volts and -12 Volts
I
0.3 Amps
0.3 Amps
Specifications A-5
Environmental Requirements
c
A-6
Condition
Operating range
Non-operating
range
Storage range
Temperature
41’to 95’ F
(!Y to 3PC)
-4’ to 140” F
C-20’ to 6O’C)
-4’ to 140’ F
(-20° to 60’0
Humidity
(noncondensing)
20% to 80%
10% to 90%
10% to 95%
Altitude
-300 to 9,900 ft
(-100 to 3,000 m)
-300 to 11,880 ft
C-100 to 3,600 m)
-300 to 39,600 ft
(-100 to 12,000 r(
Maximum
wet bulb
68’ F
(20°C)
104°F
(40°C)
134OF
57X)
Acoustical
noise
37.4 dB(A)
N/A
N/A
Specifications
Power Source Requirements
120 Volt power source requirements
Plug tvw
Reference
standards
Power cord
North America
125V. 10A
ANSI C73.11,
NEMA 5-15-P.
IEC 83
UL/CSA Listed,
Type SIT,
no. 18/3AWG,
or
no. 16/3AWG,
or CHAR>
3ooV, 1OAor 131
Plug We
Reference
standards
Power cordI
Europe
24OV, 1 OA to
16A
CEE 717
IEC 83
IEC 127
HD21
CHAR>
1 .OO mm’
3oOV. 1 OA
UK
24OV. 1 OA
BS 1362
BS 1363A
IEC 83
IEC 127
HD 21
EN 60 320- 1
ASTA mark
CHAR>
1 .OO mm’
3OOV, 10A
Australia
24OV, 1 OA
ASCl12
IEC 127
HD 21
<HAR>
1 .OO mm2
300V. 10A
North America
24OV. 15A
ANSI
C73.20,
NEMA
6- 15-P.
IEC 83
UL 198.6
UL/CSA Lists ?d
Type SJT
no. 18/3AW ‘G,
3OOV. 1 OA
240 Volt power source requirements
AC plug
Specifications A-7
System Memory Map
FFFFFFFFh
Power up boot ROM
FFFFOOOOh
Not available
201 OOOOOh or
202000COh
Wingine video RAM: 1 MB
20000OOOh
Not available
128MB
(maximum)
080CDOOOh
Extended memory
1MB
001 OOOOOh
System BIOS ROM shadow RAM: 64KB
OOOFOOOOh
Available for shadowing
OOOE8000h
VGA BIOS ROM shadow RAM: 32KB
OOOEOOOOh
Available for shadowing
OOOC8000h
VGA BIOS ROM shadow RAM:32KB’
OOOCOOOOh
VGA color text
OOOB8000h
l
--I
4
VGA monochrome text
OOOBOOOOh
VGA graphics: 64KB
640KB
OOOAOOOOh
Conventional system memory: 640KB
COOOOOOOh
*
I
Only one of these address blocks is used to shadow the VGA BIOS ROM.
The default starting address is 000C0000h; address OOOEOOOOh is selectable
using SETUP.
A-8 Specifications
Extended VGA Modes
Mode*
Refresh rate
Mode type
60
132x25
16
68 Hz
NI
61
’ 132x50
16
68 Hz
NI
132x43
16
68 Hz
NI
80 x 43
16
70 Hz
NI
80 x 50
16
70 Hz
NI
800 x 600
16
56 Hz
60 Hz
72 Hz
NI
72
1024 x 768
16
60
70
72
75
79
640 x 480
256
7c
800 x 600
256
62
64
65
6A/70
*
1 Size
c
+
+
Hz
Hz
Hz
Hz
60 Hz
, 73 Hz
NI
NI
These modes require 512KB of video memory (mapped into VGA memory).
NI = Non-interlaced
I = Interlaced
Specifications A-9
Wingine Modes
r
Mode*
Size
30
640 x 480
32
Refresh rate
Mode type
256
60 Hz
73 Hz
NI
800 x 600
256
56 Hz
60 Hz
72 Hz
NI
34
1024 x 768
256
60 Hz
70Hz
72 Hz
75 Hz
NI
36
t
c
1024 x 768
256
87 Hz
I
40
640 x 480
/ 32K
60 Hz
73 Hz
NI
41
640 x 480
64K
60 Hz
73 Hz
NI
42
800 x 600
32K
56 Hz
60 Hz
NI
43
800 x 600
64K
56 Hz
60 Hz
NI
NI = Non-interlaced
I = Interlaced
A-10
Color
Specifications
GIossary
Access speed
The length of time it takes for an information storage device,
such as memory or a disk drive, to return a piece of data
requested by another device. For example, your computer’s
SIMMs return data requested by the microprocessor at an
access speed of 70 ns (nanoseconds).
Address
A number or name that identifies the location where
information is stored in a computer’s memory.
Analog monitor
A monitor that generates, responds to, or acts upon analog
data, such as a VGA monitor. Analog data is transmitted by
varying the voltage levels in a continuous current and can
produce an infinite number of colors or gray shades.
Application program
A software program designed to perform a specific task, such
as word processing or creating spreadsheets. Note that an
application program is different than an operating system,
which controls all the computer’s hardware and software.
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A
standardized numeric coding system for representing
characters, such as numbers, letters, and graphic symbols. Each
of the 256 ASCII codes occupies one byte of storage. All
computers, printers, and programs can use files transmitted in
standard ASCII code. Extended ASCII codes can be used only
by hardware and software designed to interpret them.
Glossary 1
Asynchronous
A method of data transmission in which one machine sends
data, one character at a time, to another machine at variable
intervals that do not need to be synchronized to a timing
device, such as a system clock.
AUTOEXEC.BAT file
The batch file your computer runs automatically whenever you
load MS-DOS. It configures the installed system devices and
sets various user preferences. See also Batch file.
Automatic speed
The processor speed setting that allows the computer to switch
automatically from high speed to low speed when it accesses a
diskette drive. See also Copy-protected program and Key disk.
Backup
An extra copy of a program, data file, or disk, that is created in
case your working copy is damaged or lost.
Base memory
See Conventional memo y.
Batch file
A type of file that executes a series of commands automatically.
Batch files are text files with the filename extension .BAT. When
you type the filename, your operating system executes all the
commands in that file sequentially.
2 Glossary
BIOS
Basic Input/Output System. Routines in ROM (Read Only
Memory) that handle the transfer of information among
various hardware components, and between the hardware and
your operating system and other software.
Bit
A binary digit (0 or 1). The smallest unit of information a
computer can process and store. The value of a bit represents a
single electrical pulse through a circuit, or a small spot on a
disk, that contains either a 0 or a 1.
Boot
The process a computer performs to start itself up, check its
components, and then load the operating system into its
memory.
Bus
A wire or group of wires that sends information from
component to component in the computer. The speed of a bus
increases by the number and width of the channels the bus uses
to move data.
A sequence of eight bits of data that represent one character.
See also Bit and Character.
Cache
A high-speed type of memory buffer that stores frequently
used data where your microprocessor can access it faster.
Your computer includes 8KB of internal cache as well as
VirtualCache. See also VirtualCache.
Glossary 3
CGA
Color Graphics Adapter. A type of display adapter card that
can generate up to 25 lines of text with 80 characters on each
line, two-color graphics at 640 x 200 resolution, or four-color
graphics at 320 x 200 resolution.
Character
Anything that can be printed in a single space on the page or
the screen; includes numbers, letters, punctuation marks,
spaces, formatting codes, and graphic symbols that are
represented to the computer by one byte of data. See also Byte.
Chip
A piece of silicon containing many miniature transistors and
resistors wrapped in insulating material. Chips process
electrical signals sent to them and then transmit the processed
signals to the computer system. Also called an integrated
circuit. See also CPU
CMOS
Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor. A type of
low-power silicon chip used for RAM and switching
applications that is backed up by a battery.
Code
A system of symbols for representing data or instructions; also
any software program or part of a program.
Command
An instruction you enter or select to direct a computer program
to perform a specific function.
4 Glossary
Command prompt
The symbol or message that displays on the screen to tell you
that the operating system is loaded and ready to receive
instructions. The default MSDOS command prompt displays
the current drive and directory. If you are logged onto drive C,
the command prompt may look like this: C : \ >.
Configuration
The particular setup of your computer’s internal and external
components. A typical configuration consists of a computer
with a certain amount of memory, one diskette drive, and one
hard disk drive connected to a monitor, printer, and keyboard.
Control code
A command (generated when you hold down m and press
another key on the keyboard) that instructs the computer to
perform a specific function.
Conventional memory
The memory in the computer below 1MB that is available to
MS-DOS and application programs-usually 640KB. Also
called base memory or main memory.
Coprocessor
See Math coprocessor.
Copy-protected program
A program containing a software “lock” that prevents it from
being copied. Some of these programs require you to leave the
program diskette in the drive while you use it. See also
Automatic speed and Key disk.
Glossary 5
CPU
Central Processing Unit. The primary computer device that
interprets instructions, performs the tasks you indicate, keeps
track of stored data, and controls all input and output
operations. See also Microprocessor.
The highlighted marker or pointer that shows the screen
position at which keystrokes will appear when typed or where
the next mouse command will be executed.
Cylinders
The vertical alignment of tracks in a hard disk that can be lined
up under one read/write head. The number of tracks on a disk
is equal to the number of cylinders times the number of heads.
See also Trucks.
Data
Information, such as text or graphics, stored or processed by a
computer.
Data diskette
A formatted diskette on which you store data files (as opposed
to program files).
Default
Any value or setting choice that the computer or a program
makes when the user does not specify an alternative. A default
value stays in effect unless you override it temporarily by
changing the value or you reset the default value itself.
6 Glossary
Device
A piece of equipment that is part of a computer system and
performs a specific task, such as a disk drive, a monitor, or a
printer.
Device driver
A file containing instructions that allow your computer to
recognize and communicate with a device. The device may be a
printer, monitor, or other type of device.
Diagnostics
See System diagnostics and Power-on diagnostics.
DIP switch
Dual Inline Package switch. A small rocker- or sliding-type
switch on a device that controls a particular function.
Directory
A group of files stored in a particular area on a disk. A
directory listing shows the name, location, and size of the files
in the directory. A directory can contain both files and
subdirectories.
Disk
The collective term for diskettes and hard disks, the devices on
which the computer stores data magnetically.
Disk drive
The electromechanical device that reads data from and writes
data to a disk, tape, or other storage media. A diskette drive
accepts removable diskettes in its disk slot while a hard disk is
sealed inside a protective casing.
Glossary 7
Diskette
A flat piece of flexible plastic coated with magnetic material
used to store the data written to it by the diskette drive. A
diskette can be transferred from one computer to another.
Display adapter curd
A circuit board that can be installed in one of the computer’s
option slots to control the way a monitor displays text and
graphics. A VGA display adapter is built into your computer’s
main system board. Also called video card.
DOS
Disk Operating System. The generic term for the operating
system software that controls a computer and directs its input
and output functions. See also MS-DOS and Operating system.
Double-density
A type of diskette format that allows you to store twice as
much data as the standard-density format. A 5.25-inch,
double-density diskette can store 360KB of data. A 3.5-inch,
double-density diskette can store 720KB of data.
Drive designator
The letter name of a disk drive, followed by a colon-for
example, C : .
EGA
Enhanced Graphics Adapter. A type of display adapter card
that allows you to display high-resolution graphics on an EGA
monitor. It can display up to 43 lines of text with 80 characters
on each line, or it can display monochrome or 16-color graphics
at resolutions up to 640 x 350.
8 Glossay
Expanded memory
Memory that specially-written MS-DOS programs can use
when an expanded memory manager program maps that
memory into an accessible area. See also LIM EMS 4.0.
Extended memory
Memory above 1MB that is accessed by 386 or 486
microprocessors when they are operating in protected or
virtual mode. This memory is available to OS/2 programs, but
is available to MS-DOS only if an extended memory manager
program is installed. See also Expanded memory and OS/2.
Extension
A suffix of up to three characters which you can add to a
filename to identify its contents or purpose. Some programs
automatically create an extension for a filename when you
create a file using the program.
File
A collection of information called records, or entries, stored
together on a disk under a single name. Text files consist of
words and sentences. Program files consist of codes and are
used by computers to interpret and execute commands. See
also Filename.
Filename
A name assigned to a file that distinguishes it from other files in
a particular directory on a disk. MS-DOS filenames can be up to
eight characters long and consist of letters, numbers, and
certain punctuation marks.
Fixed disk
See Hard disk.
Glossary 9
Format
To prepare a new disk (or an old one you want to reuse) so that
the data you store on it can be used by your operating system.
Formatting divides a disk into tracks and sectors and creates
addressable locations where your operating system can find
your data.
Graphics
Screen or file data such as lines, angles, and curves. A graphics
program creates images by joining individual pixels on the
screen to represent virtually any shape desired.
Hard disk
An encased storage device containing one or more disk platters
used to store large amounts of data. Unlike a diskette, a hard
disk is fixed in place. It can process data more rapidly and store
many more files than a diskette. Also called fixed disk.
Hardware
Any physical component of a computer system, such as a
.
monitor, printer, keyboard, main system board, disk drive, or
CPU.
Hexadecimal
A base-16 numbering system frequently used by programmers
to represent the binary numbers used by the computer. Any
decimal number between 0 and 255 can be expressed by a
two-digit hexadecimal number consisting of the numbers 0
through 9 and the letters A through F. Hexadecimal numbers
are usually followed by the letter H (or h) to differentiate them
from decimal numbers.
20
Glossary
High-density
A type of diskette format that allows you to store more data
than on single- or double-density diskettes. A 5.25-inch,
high-density diskette can store 1.2MB of data. A 3.5-inch,
high-density diskette can store 1.44MB of data.
IDE
Integrated Drive Electronics. A type of hard disk drive interface
in which the controller is located on the drive, instead of on a
controller card. Your computer includes an interface on the
main system board for up to two IDE hard disk drives.
Input/output (I/O) port
See Port.
lnterface
A physical or software connection used to transmit data
between equipment or programs so they can work with each
other.
Jumper
A small moveable plug that connects two pins on a device’s
circuit board. Jumpers can be used to alter the operation of a
particular function.
Key disk
A diskette containing a copy-protected program that must
remain in a diskette drive while you use the program. See also
Copy-protected program.
Glossary 11
Kilobyte (K6)
A unit used to measure storage space in a computer’s memory
or on a disk. One kilobyte equals 1024 bytes. See also Byte.
LIM EMS 4.0
Version 4.0 of the Lotus/Intel/Microsoft Expanded Memory
Specification-a description of a capability your computer has
for supporting programs that use expanded memory. See also
Expanded memory.
Main system board
The circuit board inside your computer containing the circuitry
and components your computer needs to operate.
Math coprocessor
A device that enables the computer to process mathematical
calculations faster by using floating point numbers instead of
whole numbers. This speeds up certain math and graphics
operations performed by programs that use this type of
calculation.
MCGA
Multi-color Graphics Array. A type of display adapter that
emulates a color graphics adapter (CGA). MCGA provides two
additional modes: 640 x 480 in two colors and 320 x 200 in 256
colors. See also CGA.
MDA
Monochrome Display Adapter. A type of display adapter that
displays in 80-column by 25-line text mode in only one color,
such as green or amber.
12
Glossary
Megabyte (MB)
A unit used to measure storage space in a computer’s memory
or on a disk. One megabyte equals 1024KB (kilobytes). See also
Byte.
Megahertz
(MHz)
A unit used to measure oscillation frequency, such as that of a
computer’s internal clock. A megahertz is one million cycles
per second.
Memory
The circuitry in your computer that stores data for possible
retrieval. Memory contents are stored permanently (in ROM) or
temporarily (in RAM).
Memory module
A small circuit board that contains surface-mounted memory
chips. You can add memory modules to the main system board
to expand your computer’s memory. Commonly called a SIMM
(single inline memory module).
MGA
Multi-mode Graphics Adapter. A type of display adapter card
that can display monochrome text and color graphics on the
screen.
Microprocessor
A small CPU contained on one semiconductor chip. See also
CPU.
Glossary 13
Modem
MOdulator/DEModulator. A device that allows a computer to
transfer data to and from another computer by transmitting
signals over telephone lines.
Monitor
The hardware device that contains the video screen and
displays images produced by your computer’s display adapter.
Monochrome monitor
A monitor that displays in only one color (such as green, white,
or amber), as opposed to a color monitor which can display in
many different colors.
Mouse
A hand-held pointing device with one or more buttons. When
you slide the mouse over a surface in a certain direction, the
cursor moves in the same direction on the screen. Pressing (or
clicking) a mouse button selects the item on the screen at the
cursor position.
MS-DOS
Microsoft Disk Operating System. The operating system most
commonly used with your computer. MS-DOS is a commandbased, single-user, single-tasking operating system. See also
DOS, OS/2, and Operating system.
Multifrequency monitor
A monitor that accepts input at different frequencies and can
display in a variety of resolutions.
14 Glossary
Multitasking
The ability of a computer and an operating system to work on
more than one command or task at a time. The tasks are
actually not performed at the same time, but they are assigned
priorities and rapidly processed by the computer in sequential
order. See also OS/2 and UNIX.
Network server
The main computer in a network which controls access to the
rest of the network computers (called workstations). The server
also provides mass storage, programs, and other resources to
the workstations.
Network server mode
An optional password mode that provides special security if
you are using your computer as a network server. See also
Password.
Numeric keypad
The number and cursor control keys grouped together on the
right side of the keyboard. The operation of the dual-use keys
on the numeric keypad is controlled by the [ZLoek key.
Operating speed
The speed at which the computer’s processor can execute
commands, usually expressed in megahertz (MHz), such as
33 MHz. See also Megahertz.
Glossary 15
Operating system
A collection of programs that manage a computer’s operations,
such as interpreting input, managing files, and reading and
writing data to disk. The operating system (such as MS-DOS,
OS/2, or UNIX) provides the foundation for the other
programs you use and controls the usage of the hardware
resources.
Option card
A circuit board you can install inside the computer to provide
additional capabilities, such as a modem or an additional I/O
port. Option cards plug directly into the special option slots so
you do not have to alter a computer’s circuitry to enhance your
system. See also Bus.
OS/2
Operating System/2. The enhanced operating system
developed jointly by Microsoft and IBM that provides
protected mode processing and multitasking capabilities. See
also DOS, MS-DOS, and Operating system.
Parallel
The type of interface that transmits all the bits in a byte of data
simultaneously over separate wires in a cable. See also Interface
and Serial.
Parameter
A qualifier added to a command that tells your operating
system what data to process, where it should locate or store a
file, or how it should operate. See also Switch.
16
Glossary
Parity
A method used to verify the accuracy of data transmissions by
making the total of the number of l’s in a group of bits odd
(odd parity), even (even parity), or none (no parity).
(1) The area an operating system defines on a hard disk so you
can use that area as though it were a physically separate device;
(2) to divide a hard disk into separate logical areas. You can
create a primary partition and one or more extended partitions
on a hard disk.
Password
The unique sequence of characters you type after you turn on
or reset the computer in order to access and use your system. In
a computer network, a password may also set certain access
privileges to restrict the operations you can perform.
Pathname
The directory name(s) you specify to locate a file. For example,
the pathname for the file SALES, stored in the subdirectory
BUSINESS, is \BUSINESS\SALES.
Peripheral device
An external device (such as a printer or a modem) connected to
a computer that depends on the computer for its operation.
Port
A physical input/output socket on a computer to which you
can connect a peripheral device.
Glossay 17
Power-on diagnostics
Tests stored in a computer’s ROM that the computer runs to
check its internal circuitry, peripheral device configuration, and
operating status each time you turn it on or reset it.
Processor speed
See Operating speed.
Program
A file containing coded instructions that tell the computer what
to do and how to do it. See also File.
Prompt
A message displayed by the operating system or a program to
request information from you or tell you what action to
perform next. See also Command prompt.
RAM
Random Access Memory. The portion of the computer’s
memory used to run programs and store data while you work.
All data stored in RAM is erased when you turn off or reset the
computer; so you must store any data you want to keep on
disk.
Read
To gather data from one source (such as a disk) and transfer it
to a device (such as a screen or a printer). For example, when
you open a file stored on disk, the computer reads the data
from the disk and displays it on the screen. See also Write.
18
Glossary
Read/write head
The physical device inside a disk or tape drive that reads data
from and writes data to the magnetic surface of the disk or tape.
Real-time clock
A clock inside the computer that keeps track of the time and
date, even when the computer is turned off, by using power
from a backup battery.
Refresh rate
The frequency with which a monitor can redraw a screen
image. The faster the refresh rate, the less the screen will flicker.
The Wingine video controller in your computer provides
extremely fast refresh rates, up to 72 Hz.
Reset
To restart a computer without turning it off. You can reset your
computer by pressing [ctr(] (F] [El. Resetting erases all
data stored in RAM and reloads your operating system.
ROM
Read Only Memory. A portion of memory that can only be read
and cannot be modified. ROM retains its contents even when
you turn off the computer by using power from a backup
battery.
Root directory
The highest or main directory in a hierarchical disk directory
structure. All other directories are subdirectories of the root
directory. MS-DOS designates the root directory with a \
(backslash).
Glossary 19
RS-232C
A widely used, standard type of serial communication. You can
connect an RS-232C device to either of the computer’s built-in
RS-232C serial ports.
Sector
A small section of a disk track (typically 512 bytes long) that
provides an address at which the computer can store and
retrieve data. See also Truck.
Self test
See Power-on diagnostics.
Serial
The type of communication that transmits data from a serial
interface to a serial device, one bit at a time, over a single wire.
See also Interface and Parallel
Shadow RAM
The feature in your computer that automatically copies the
contents of the system, video, and any external BIOS ROMs
into the RAM area of memory to speed up processing.
SIMM
See Memory module.
Software
The collection of instructions (or programs) that tell your
computer hardware to perform the tasks and functions you
specify. See also Hardware and Program.
20 Glossary
Subdirectory
In a hierarchical disk directory structure, a group of files in a
directory that is contained within another directory or the root
directory.
Switch
An optional specifier added to an MS-DOS command that
modifies the way the command works. Switches are typically
preceded by a / (forward slash). See also Command and
Parameter.
System diagnostics
A series of tests you can perform on the computer’s
components and some peripheral devices to make sure they are
functioning correctly.
System diskette
A diskette that contains the operating system and that can be
used to boot the computer.
Tape drive
The physical device that allows you to insert large-capacity
magnetic tape cartridges for compact data storage and backup.
Tracks
Addressable, concentric circles on a disk, resembling the
grooves on a record, which divide the disk into separate
accessible areas. On a tape cassette, the tracks run parallel to
the edge.of the tape. See also Sector.
Glossary 21
UNIX
A powerful operating system that supports multitasking and
is especially suited to multi-user environments. UNIX is
compatible with a range of computers, from personal
computers to mainframes. See also Operating system.
VGA
Video Graphics Array. A type of high-resolution display
adapter that provides a variety of video modes. Your
computer’s built-m VGA controller supports resolutions up to
1024 x 768 on a compatible monitor.
Video card
See Display adapter curd.
VirtualCache
The Epson proprietary feature that automatically creates a
“virtual cache” buffer the size of your installed system memory
to speed up data access. See also Cache.
Write
To transfer data to a storage device (such as a disk) or an
output device (such as a monitor or printer). Data written to a
disk is stored for later retrieval; data written to a monitor is not
stored. See also Read.
Write-protect
To protect the data on a diskette from being changed by placing
a write-protect tab over the notch on a 5.25-inch diskette or by
setting the write-protect switch on a 3.5-inch diskette. You can
also write-protect a file on a disk by using software to designate
the file read-only. When a diskette or file is write-protected,
you cannot erase, change, or record over its contents.
22 Glossary
lndex
A
C
AC inlet, 6-5
AC plug, A-7
Adapter cards, see Video cards
Adapter test, video, 4-1, 4-8, 6-13
Addresses,
I/O, A-3
memory, A-8
shadow RAM, A-2
Alternate VGA interface, Intro-3,
2-3, 2-14, 2-17, 2-22-23, 6-8, 6-13,
A-3
Altitude, A-6
Application programs, Intro-2,
6-19-20
AUTOEXEC.BAT, 1-34-35
Automatic speed, 1-28-30, 1-32,
6-19
Auxiliary device, 6-5, 6-23
Cable(s),
diskette drive, 3-24-25, 3-29, 3-33,
3-35
hard disk drive, 3-12-13, 3-15-16,
3-24, 3-26-27, 3-29-31, 3-33-35
power supply, 3-12, 3-14-15, 3-24,
3-26-30
Cache, Intro-1-2, 6-4, A-2
Cards,
display adapter, see Video cards
option, see Option cards
video, see Video cards
CD-ROM drive, Intro-3, 3-1-2, A-4
CHKDSK, 6-15
Clock/calendar, A-2
Clock, real-time, 6-3, A-2
Clock speed, Intro-3
CMOS RAM, 1-4, A-2
Color monitor, 2-6-7
Command, stopping, 1-21, 6-7,6-20
Configuration, computer, 2-25,
3-36, 6-7, 6-18
Configuration files, 2-25
Connection, Epson, 5-1
Connector,
board, option card, see Option card
connector board
diskette drive, 3-25, 3-29, 3-33, 3-35
hard disk drive, 3-10, 3-12-15,
3-26-27, 3-29, 3-33-35
power supply, 3-14-15, 3-26-29
system board, 3-33-35
B
Backing up data,
from diskettes, 1-9, 1-17, 1-19
on hard disk, 1-19
with DISKCOPY, 1-9
Batch files, 1-33-35
Bay, see Drive bay
BIOS,
ROM, 6-1-2, A-1-2, A-8
system, Intro-1, 6-2, A-1-2, A-8
VGA, A-2, A-8
video, Intro-1
Break command, 1-21, 6-7, 6-20
Buffer, cache, Intro-2, 6-4, A-2
Bus speed, A-3
Index
1
Control codes,
CTRL ALT *, 1-30
CTRL ALT +, 1-30
CTRL ALT -, 1-30-31
CTRL ALT DEL, 1-22, 1-31-32, 6-7
CTRL BREAK, 1-21, 6-7, 6-20
CTRL C, 1-21, 6-7, 6-20
SHIFT PRINTSCREEN, 6-21
Controller,
diskette drive, 2-14, 2-19, 4-9, A-2
hard disk drive, 2-14, 2-19, 3-36,
A-2
VGA, Intro-1-2, A-2
Coprocessor, see Math coprocessor
COPY command, 1-9, 1-34
Copying,
diskettes, 1-9, 1-17, 1-19
files, 1-9, 1-17, 1-19
Copy-protected program, 1-29
Cover,
computer, removing, 2-2, 2-4-6, 3-3
computer, replacing, 2-2, 2-24-25,
3-3
drive bay, metal, 3-21, 3-31
option slot, 2-15-16
CPU, Intro-2, A-1-2
CPU chip, see Processor
CPU jumper settings, 2-6, 2-21
CPU socket, 2-21
CPU speed, see Processor speed
CTRL ALT *, 1-30
CTRL ALT +, 1-30
CTRL ALT -, 1-30-31
CTRL ALT DEL, 1-22, 1-31-32, 6-7
CTRL BREAK, 1-21, 6-7, 6-20
CTRL C, 1-21, 6-7, 6-20
D
Defective track table, 5-24, 5-6-7
Depth, A-5
Destructive surface analysis, 5-2-3,
5-9-11
2
Index
Diagnostics,
power-on, 1-3, 6-2-5, 6-7, 6-20, 6-23
system, 2-25, 3-36, 4-1-9, 6-11, 6-15,
6-19, 6-22
DIP switches, 6-21-22
DISKCOPY, 1-9
Diskette drive,
cable, 3-24-25, 3-29, 3-33, 3-35
caring for, 1-10-11
compatibility, 1-7-9
configuration, 3-2-3, 3-36
connector, 3-25, 3-29, 3-33, 3-35
controller, 2-14, 2-19, 4-9, A-2
diagnostics, 4-1, 4-7, 4-9, 6-4, 6-15
error messages, 4-9, 6-4, 6-15
faceplate, 3-23, 3-32
guiderail, metal, 3-20, 3-22, 3-31
guiderail, plastic, 3-18
horizontal drive bay, 3-2-3,
3-17-32
incompatibility, 1-7-9
inserting diskettes in, 1-14-15,
6-13
installing, Intro-3, 3-2-3, 3-17-28
latch, 1-15, 3-21
location, 2-3, 3-2
post-installation, 3-3, 3-36
power supply cable, 3-24, 3-27-29
precautions, 1-10-11
problems, 1-8-11, 6-4, 6-15-16
read/write heads, 1-7
release button, 1-14, 3-21
removing diskettes from, 1-14-15
removing from computer, 2-4,
3-3, 3-29-32
single, 1-16
specifications, 1-7-9, A-4
tests, 4-1, 4-7, 4-9, 6-4, 6-15
types, 1-7-9, 6-14
using, 1-5-17
Diskette(s),
backup copies, 1-9, 1-17, 1-19
caring for, 1-10-11
choosing, 1-7-9
compatibility, 1-7-9
copying, 1-9, 1-17, 1-19
double-density, 1-7-9
double-sided, 1-6-9
drive(s), see Diskette drive
error messages, 6-4, 6-13-15
formatting, 1-17, 4-1, 4-7-8, 6-14
high-density, 1-7-9
how they work, 1-6-9
inserting, 1-14-15, 6-13
labelling, 1-11
precautions, 1-10-11
problems, 1-8-11, 6-4, 6-13-15
read/write slot, 1-11
removing, 1-14-15
storage capacity, 1-7-8
storing, 1-11
swapping, 1-16
types, 1-6-9, 1-11, 6-14
write-protecting, 1-10, 1-12-13,
6-14
Display adapter cards, see Video
cards
Dot matrix printer test, 4-1, 4-7,
6-22
Double-density diskettes, 1-7-9
Double-sided diskettes, 1-6-9
Drive bay,
cover, 3-21, 3-31
horizontal, 3-2-3, 3-8, 3-17-32,
3-34
locating, 3-2-3, 3-8
vertical, 3-2-17, 3-34
Drives, see Diskette drive or Hard
disk drive
E
EDIT, 1-34
EDLIN, 1-34
Environmental requirements, A-6
EPROM, A-1
Epson Connection, 5-1
Error messages,
MSDOS, 6-14
power-on diagnostics, 6-2-5, 6-20,
6-23
system diagnostics, 4-6, 4-8-9
ESPEED program, 1-31-33, A-1
Extended memory, A-8
Extended VGA modes, A-9
External mouse, 2-7
F
Faceplate, front panel,
removing, 3-23
replacing, 3-32
Factory jumper settings, 2-6-7
Fast-page mode, 2-9, A-l
Feature cable, VGA, 2-22-23
Feature connector, VGA, Intro-3,
2-3, 2-14, 2-17, 2-22-23, 6-8, 6-13,
A-3
Files,
AUTOEXEC.BAT, 1-34-35
backing up, 1-9, 1-17, 1-19
batch, 1-33-35
copying, 1-9, 1-17, 1-19
ESPEED, 1-31-33, A-l
HDSIT, 1-19, 1-33-34
FLASH memory, A-1
Floppy disk drive, see Diskette
drive
Floppy disks, see Diskette(s)
FORMAT, 6-17
Format option, hard disk, 5-2-6
Formatting,
diskettes, 1-17, 4-1, 4-7-8, 6-14
hard disk, 1-18, 3-36, 5-1-11,
6-16-19
Index 3
G
Graphics, Intro-1-3, 2-22-23, 6-13
Graphics cards, see Video cards
Grounding plate, metal, 3-7, 3-18
Grounding yourself, 2-5
Guiderail, metal, 3-20, 3-22, 3-24,
3-31
Guiderail, plastic, 3-7, 3-18
H
Half-height drive, A-4
Hard disk drive,
accessing data on, 6-18-19
backing up, 1-19
cable, 3-12-13, 3-15-16, 3-24,
3-26-27, 3-29-31, 3-33-35
caring for, 1-19
configuration, 3-2-3, 3-36
connector, 3-10, 3-12-15, 3-26-27,
3-29, 3-33-35
controller, 2-14, 2-19, 3-36, A-2
defective track table, 5-24, 5-6-7
destructive surface analysis, 5-2-3,
5-9-11
diagnostics, 4-1, 4-7, 4-9, 6-5, 6-19
error messages, 4-9, 6-5
formatting, by operating system,
1-18, 6-16, 6-18
formatting, physical, 3-36, 5-1-11,
6-17, 6-19
guiderail, metal, 3-20, 3-24, 3-31
guiderail, plastic, 3-7, 3-18
HDSIT, 1-19, 1-33-34
horizontal drive bay, 3-2-3,
3-17-32, 3-34
how they work, 1-6-7, 1-18-19
installing, Intro-3, 3-2-14, 3-17-28,
6-16-17
jumpers, 3-3-5, 3-17, 3-31, 6-17
location, 3-2-3
master drive, 3-4
4
Index
Hard disk drive,
mounting frames, 3-5-7, 3-17-20
mounting plate, 3-8-11, 3-16
moving, 1-19, 1-33-34
non-destructive surface analysis,
5-2-3, 5-10-11
parking the heads, 1-33-34
partitioning, 1-18, 6-16, 6-18
physical formatting, 3-36, 5-1-11,
6-17, 6-19
post-installation, 3-3, 3-36
power supply cable, 3-12, 3-14-15,
3-24, 3-26-30
precautions, 1-19
preparing for use, 1-18, 3-36, 6-18
primary, 3-4
problems, 6-16-19
read/write heads, 1-7, 1-33-34
reformatting, 5-3
removing from computer, 2-4, 3-3,
3-15-17, 3-29-31
secondary, 3-4
slave drive, 3-4
specifications, A-4
storage capacity, 1-18
tests, 4-1, 4-7, 4-9, 6-5, 6-19
using, 1-18-19
vertical drive bay, 3-2-17, 3-34
HDSIT, 1-19, 1-33-34
Heads, read/write, 1-7, 1-33-34
Height, A-5
High-density diskette, 1-7-9
High-resolution graphics adapter
card, see Video card
High speed, 1-28-33, 6-19, A-1
Horizontal drive bay,
hard disk drive ribbon cable,
3-26-27, 3-34
installing drive in, 3-2-3, 3-17-28
location, 3-2-3, 3-8
removing drive from, 3-29-32
Humidity, A-6
I
K
IDE drive, 5-1, 6-17, A-2
Identifying your system, 6-1-2
Inserting diskettes, 1-14-15, 6-13
Installing drives, 3-1-36
Installing options, 2-1-25
Interfaces, Intro-1-2, A-3
Interlaced, A-9-10
Internal cache, Intro-1, A-2
Internal clock speed, Intro-3
Internal components, locating, 2-3
ISA, Intro-1, A-3
Items detected list, 4-24
Keyboard,
commands, 1-30-31, A-1
controller check, 6-2
delay, A-3
diagnostics, 4-1, 4-8, 6-4, 6-11
error messages, 4-8, 6-4, 6-11
interface, Intro-1, A-3
num lock, 1-20-21, 6-11, A-3
port, Intro-1, A-3
problems, 6-7, 6-11
special keys, 1-20-21
specifications, A-34
speed commands, 1-30-31, A-1,
A-3
tests, 4-1, 4-8, 6-4, 6-11
Key disk, 1-29
Key prompt, 1-23-27
Key-way, diskette drive connector,
3-25
J
Joy stick, 2-7
Jumpers,
accessing, 2-19
changing settings, 2-6-9
color monitor, 2-6-7
CPU type, 2-6, 2-21
factory settings, 2-6-7
functions, 2-6-7
hard disk drive, 3-3-5, 3-17, 3-31,
6-17
location, 2-3
main system board, 2-6-9
monochrome monitor, 2-6-7
mouse connector, built-in, 2-7
mouse, external, 2-7
option card, 2-15-16, 6-22
OverDrive processor, 2-6, 2-21
password, 2-7, 6-10
pointing device, 2-6-7
processor chip, 2-6, 2-21
settings, 2-6-9, 2-15, 2-18, 3-3-5,
6-8, 6-10, 6-12-13, 6-17, 6-22-23
VGA display adapter, built-in,
2-6-7, 6-8, 6-13
L
Latch-off state, 6-8
Local bus, Intro-2
Locating internal components, 2-3
Low-level format, 3-36, 5-1-11,
6-17, 6-19
Low speed, 1-28-33, 6-19, A-1
M
Main system board,
alternate VGA interface, 2-22-23
drive ribbon cables, 3-12, 3-16,
3-25-26, 3-33-35
jumpers, 2-6-9
map, 2-3
memory, Intro-3, 2-9
option card, 2-14, 2-18
Index
5
Main system board,
option card connector board, 2-3,
2-19
OverDrive processor, 2-1, 2-21
specifications, A-1-3
tests, 4-1, 4-7-9, 6-3
Map,
drive locations, 3-2
jumper locations, 2-3
main system board, 2-3
system memory, A-8
Mass storage, Intro-1, Intro-3, A-4
Master drive, 3-4
Math coprocessor, Intro-1, 2-1,
2-21, 4-1, 4-7, 4-9, A-2
Memory,
adding, Intro-3, 2-1, 2-9-14
configuration, Intro-3, 2-9-10,
A-1-2
diagnostics, 4-1, 4-7, 4-9, 6-4
error messages, 4-9, 6-4
extended, A-8
FLASH, A-1
map, A-8
modules, see SIMMs
problems, 6-23-24
SETUP, 2-12, 2-14, 2-25, 6-24, A-8
shadow RAM, Intro-1, A-2, A-8
SIMMs, see SIMMs
specifications, A-1-2, A-8
tests, 4-1, 4-7, 4-9, 6-4
video, Intro-2, A-1, A-9-10
Microprocessor, Intro-1, 2-1, 2-3,
2-6, 2-21, A-1-2
Microprocessor socket, 2-21
MODE, 6-21
Modem, Intro-2, 2-1
Modes, video, A-9-10
Module(s), memory, see SIMMs
6
Index
Monitor,
color, 2-6-7
diagnostics, 6-4
error messages, 6-4
interface, A-3
jumper settings, 2-6-7, 2-15, 6-8,
6-12-13, 6-22
monochrome, 2-6-7
port, A-3
problems, 6-6, 6-12-13
tests, 6-4
Monochrome monitor, 2-6-7
Mounting frames,
attaching, 3-17-20
removing, 3-5-7
Mounting plate, hard disk, 3-8-11,
3-16
Mouse,
connector, built-in, 2-7
driver, 6-23
error messages, 6-5, 6-23
external, 2-7
interface, Intro-1, 2-6-7, A-3
jumper settings, 2-6-7, 6-23
option card, 2-6-7, 2-15
port, Intro-1, 2-6-7, A-3
problems, 6-23
MS-DOS,
batch files, 1-33-35
copying files, 1-9
error messages, 6-14
hard disk drive, 6-17-18
printer commands, 6-21
single diskette drive system,
1-16
stopping commands, 1-21,6-7,
6-20
version number, 6-1
N
P
Network card, Intro-2, 2-1
Network server mode, 1-24,
1-26-28, 6-9, 6-11
Non-destructive surface analysis,
5-2-3, 5-10-11
Non-IDE hard disk drive, 3-36, 6-17
Non-interlaced, A-9-10
Numeric coprocessor, see Math
coprocessor
Num lock mode, 1-20-21, 6-11, A-3
Parallel,
error messages, 4-9, 6-4, 6-20
interface, Intro-1, 6-20-22, A-3
port, Intro-1, 6-20-22, A-3
port diagnostics, 4-1, 4-7, 4-9, 6-4,
6-22
port tests, 4-1, 4-7, 4-9, 6-4, 6-22
primary port, 6-21
secondary port, 6-21
Partitioning hard disk, 1-18, 6-16,
6-18
Password,
changing, 1-24-25, 1-28, 2-6-7,
6-9
deleting, 1-25, 1-28, 6-9
disabling, 2-6-7, 6-10-11
entering, 1-23-24,1-26-27,6-7,
6-9-11
jumper, 2-6-7, 6-10
key prompt, 1-23-27
network server mode, 1-24,
1-26-28, 6-9, 6-11
problems, 6-9-11
using, Intro-1, 1-23-28
Physical characteristics, A-5
Physical formatting, 3-36, 5-1-11,
6-17, 6-19
Plug, AC, A-7
Pointing device, 2-6-7
Ports, Intro-1-2, A-3
Post-installation, 2-25, 3-3, 3-36
Power cord, computer, 2-4, 2-25,
6-5-6, A-7
Power indicator, 1-3, 6-5-6
Power light, see Power indicator
Power limits, option slot, 6-9, A-5
Power-on diagnostics, 1-3, 6-2-5,
6-7, 6-20, 6-23
Power-on password, see Password
Power source requirements, A-5,
A-7
0
Operating speed, see Processor
speed
Operating system, 1-3-4, 1-16-18,
1-22, 1-25-27, 2-25, 3-4, 3-36, 5-1,
6-1, 6-17-18
Optional equipment, Intro-3,
2-1-25
Option card connector board,
locating, 2-3, 3-33
removing, 2-19, 3-33
replacing, 2-20, 3-35
Option cards,
configuration, 2-25, 6-22
installing, 2-1, 2-14-17, 2-25
jumpers, 2-15-16, 6-22
problems, 6-9, 6-12-13, 6-17,
6-22-23
removing, 2-18
SETUP, 2-25, 6-22
video, see Video cards
Options, Intro-3 ,2-1-25
Option slot cover, 2-15-16
Option slot power limits, 6-9, A-5
Option slots, Intro-1-2 2-14-18,
2-22, A-3
Option, testing, 2-25
OverDrive processor,
installing, Intro-3, 2-1-2, 2-21,
2-25
jumpers, 2-6, 2-21
Index
7
Power supply, 2-3, 2-19-20, 3-14,
3-27, 3-33, 6-5-6, 6-8-9, A-5
Power supply cables, 3-12,
3-14-15, 3-24, 3-26-30
Power supply connectors, 3-14-15,
3-26-30
Power supply specifications, A-5
Primary drive, 3-4
Primary port, 6-21
Printer,
diagnostics, 4-1, 4-7, 4-9, 6-4, 6-22
error messages, 4-9, 6-4, 6-20
parallel interface, Intro-1, 6-20-22,
A-3
problems, 6-20-22
serial interface, Intro-1, 6-20-22,
A-3
tests, 4-1, 4-7, 4-9, 6-4, 6-22
Processor,
installing, Intro-3, 2-1-2, 2-21, 2-25,
A-1
jumpers, 2-6, 2-21
Processor speed,
application programs, 1-28-30
automatic, 1-28-33, 6-19, A-1
changing, 1-28-33, 6-19
ESPEED, 1-31-33, A-1
high, 1-28-33, 6-19, A-1
keyboard commands, 1-30-31, A-1
key disk, 1-29
low, 1-28-33, 6-19, A-1
microprocessor, 2-1, 2-21
SETUP, 1-29-31, A-1
specifications, A-1
R
RAM, Intro-2, 1-4, 1-16, 6-2, A-1-2,
A-8
RAM, shadow, Intro-1, 6-4, A-2,
A-8
RAM test, 6-2
8
hdex
Random access memory (RAM),
Intro-2, 1-4,1-16,6-2, A-1-2, A-8
Read only memory (ROM), 6-1-2,
A-1-2, A-8
Read/write heads, 1-7, 1-33-34
Real-time clock, 6-3, A-2
Reference diskette, 1-17, 4-2, 5-2
Reformatting hard disk, 5-3
Removing cover, 2-2, 2-4-6, 3-3
Removing diskettes, 1-14-15
Removing drives, 3-1, 3-3, 3-15-17,
3-29-32
Removing option cards, 2-18, 2-25
Removing options, 2-1-25
Replacing cover of computer, 2-2,
2-24-25, 3-3
Resetting computer, 1-22, 6-7
Resolution, video, Intro-2-3, 2-14,
2-17, 2-22, A-2
ROM, 6-1-2, A-1-2, A-8
ROM BIOS, version, 6-1-2
Runtime errors, 4-6
S
Safety precautions, 1-2
Screen, see Monitor
Secondary drive, 3-4
Secondary port, 6-21
Sector, 1-6-8
SELECT, 6-17
Serial,
error messages, 4-9, 6-4, 6-20
interface, Intro-1, 6-20-22, A-3
port, Intro-1, 6-2-22, A-3
port diagnostics, 4-1, 4-7, 4-9, 6-4,
6-22
port tests, 4-1, 4-7, 4-9, 6-4, 6-22
primary port, 6-21
secondary port, 6-21
SETMODE, 6-21
Setting jumpers, see Jumpers
SETUP program,
cache, 6-4
clock, real-time, 6-3
configuration information, 2-21,
2-25, 3-36, 6-2
CPU chip, 2-21, 2-25
disk drives, 3-36, 6-15, 6-17-18
interfaces, A-3
memory, 2-12, 2-14, 2-25, 6-24,
A-8
option cards, 2-25, 6-22
OverDrive processor, 2-21, 2-25
parallel port, 6-21
password, 1-23-28, 6-10
printer, 6-21
processor chip, 2-21, 2-25
processor speed, 1-29-31, A-1
running program, 1-4, 6-2, 6-10
serial port, 6-21
SIMMs, 2-12, 2-14, 2-25, 6-24
Shadow RAM, Intro-1, 6-4, A-2,
A-8
SHIFT PRINTSCREEN, 6-21
SIMMs,
configuration, 2-9-10, 2-25
fast-page mode, 2-9, A-1
installing, Intro-3, 2-1, 2-9-12, A-1
locating, 2-3
problems, 6-23-24
removing, 2-13-14
SETUP, 2-12, 2-14, 2-25, 6-24
sockets, 2-3, 2-9, 2-11-14
specifications, 2-9-10, A-1
speed, 2-9
Slave drive, 3-4
Slot cover, option, 2-15-16
Software problems, 6-19-20
Speaker, A-3
Special keys, 1-20-21
Specifications, A-1-10
Speed, see Processor speed
SPEED light, 1-28
Starting computer, 1-24, 6-5-9
Starting hard disk formatting
program, 5-2
Starting system diagnostics
program, 4-2
Stopping a command or program,
1-21, 6-7, 6-20
System,
BIOS, Intro-1, 6-2, A-1-2, A-8
board, see Main system board
board tests, 4-1, 4-7-9, 6-3
diagnostics, 2-25, 3-36, 4-1-9, 6-11,
6-15, 6-19, 6-22
memory, see Memory
speed, see Processor speed
T
Tape drive, Intro-3, 1-17, 3-1-2, A-4
Temperature, 6-8, A-6
Tests, see Diagnostics
Timer check, 6-2
Tracks, 1-6-8
Troubleshooting, 6-1-24
Turning off computer, 1-5, 2-4
Turning on computer, 1-24
U
Upgrading computer, Intro-3
Utilities, VGA, Intro-2
Utility diskette, 1-17
V
VER, 6-2
Version number, identifying, 6-1-2
Vertical drive bay,
hard disk drive ribbon cable,
3-12-13, 3-34
installing hard disk in, 3-4-14,
3-17
location, 3-2-3
removing hard disk from, 3-15-17
Index
9
VGA,
alternate interface, Intro-3, 2-3,
2-14, 2-17, 2-22-23, 6-8, 6-13,
A-3
BIOS, 6-2, A-2, A-8
built-in port, Intro-1-2, A-3
card, see Video cards
controller, Intro-1-2, A-2
device drivers, Intro-2
display adapter, Intro-3, 2-6-7,
2-22-23, 4-8, 6-8, 6-13
feature cable, 2-22-23
feature connector, Intro-3, 2-3,
2-14, 2-17, 2-22-23, 6-8, 6-13,
A-3
jumpers, 2-6-7, 6-8, 6-13
modes, A-9
port, Intro-1-2, A-3
specifications, A-3
utilities, Intro-2
Video adapter test, 4-1, 4-8, 6-13
Video BIOS, Intro-1, A-2, A-8
Video cards,
alternate interface, Intro-3, 2-3,
2-14, 2-17, 2-22-23, 6-8, 6-13,
A-3
configuring, 2-25, 6-12-13, 6-22
diagnostics, see Video adapter test
display adapter, VGA, see VGA
display adapter
high-resolution graphics, Intro-3,
2-14, 2-17, 2-22
installing, 2-6-7, 2-14-17, 2-22-23,
2-25
jumpers, 2-6-7, 2-15, 6-8, 6-12-13,
6-22
problems, 6-12-13, 6-22
removing, 2-6-7, 2-18
test, see Video adapter test
10 Index
Video controller, Intro-1-2, A-2
Video diagnostics, 6-4
Video modes, A-9-10
Video monitor, see Monitor
Video RAM, A-2
Video resolution, Intro-2-3, 2-14,
2-17,2-22, A-2
Video test, 6-4
VirtualCache, Intro-1-2, A-2
Volume, speaker, A-3
VRAM, A-2
W
Weight, A-5
Width, A-5
Windows, Intro-1-2, 2-22
Wingine, Intro-1-2, A-2, A-8
Wingine modes, A-10
Write-protecting diskettes, 1-10,
1-12-13, 6-14
Write-protect notch, 1-13, 6-14
Write-protect switch, 1-12, 6-14
Write-protect tab, 1-13, 6-14
X
XCOPY, 1-9
Epson Overseas Marketing Locutions
Epson Deutschland GmbH
Zulpicher StraDe 6,
4000 Dusseldorf 11
Germany
Phone: 211-56030
Telex: 41-8584786
Epson France S.A.
B.P. 320,68 Bis Rue Majolin
92305 Levallois-Perret Cedex
France
Phone: 33-l-4737-3333
Telex: 42-610657
Epson Iberica, S.A.
Avda. de Roma 18-26
08290 Cerdanyola de1 valles
08036 Barcelona, Spain
Phone: 3-582-15-00
Fax: 3-582-15-55
Telex: 50129
Epson Italia s.p.a.
Vie Flli Casiraghi, 427
20099 Sesto S. Giovanni
Milano, Italy
Phone: 2-262331
Fax: 2-2440641 or 2-2440750
Telex: 315132
Epson Hong Kong Ltd.
25/F., Harbour Centre,
25 Harbour Road
Wanchai, Hong Kong
Phone: 83 l-4600
Fax: 572-5792
Telex: 65542 EPSCO HX
Epson Australia Pty. Ltd.
17 Rodborough Road
Frenchs Forest, N.S.W. 2086
Australia
Phone: 2-452-0666
Fax: 2451-0251
Telex: 71-75052
Epson Electronics Trading Ltd.
Taiwan Branch
lOF, No. 287, Nanking E. Road,
Sec. 3, Taipei, Taiwan R.O.C.
Phone: 886-2-717-7360
Free phone: 886-080-211172
Fax: 886-2-712-9164
Telex: 785-24444
Epson Singapore Pte. Ltd.
No. 1 Raffles Place #26-00,
Oub Centre, Singapore 0104
Phone: 533-0477
Telex: 87-39536
Epson (U.K.) Ltd.
Business Management Dept. (PC)
Campus 100, Maylands Avenue
Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire,
HP2 7EZ, UK
Phone: 0442 61144
Free phone: linkline 0800 289622
Fax: 0422 227227
Telex: 51-824767
400195900