G.DUO
Dual 11g Access Point
User’s Manual
Copyright and Disclaimer
Copyright & Disclaimer
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, whether
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or recording without the written consent of OvisLink
Corp.
OvisLink Corp. has made the best effort to ensure the accuracy of the information in this
user’s guide. However, we are not liable for the inaccuracies or errors in this guide.
Please use with caution. All information is subject to change without notice
All Trademarks are properties of their respective holders.
This product contains some codes from GPL. In compliance with GPL agreement, AirLive will
publish the GPL codes on our website. Please go to www.airlive.com and go to the
"Support → GPL" menu to download source code.
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
1. Introduction ................................................................................................1
1.1 Overview ..............................................................................................1
1.2 Firmware Upgrade and Tech Support ..................................................1
1.3 Features...............................................................................................2
1.4 Wireless Operation Modes...................................................................2
1.4.1 WISP + AP Mode....................................................................................................... 2
1.4.2 Client + AP mode....................................................................................................... 3
1.4.3 Dual AP Mode............................................................................................................ 3
1.4.4 Gateway + AP ............................................................................................................ 3
1.4.5 WDS + AP.................................................................................................................. 4
2. Installing the G.DUO ..................................................................................5
2.1 Before You Start ...................................................................................5
2.2 Package Content .................................................................................5
2.3 Knowing your G.DUO...........................................................................6
2.4 Hardware Installation ...........................................................................7
2.4.1 Passive PoE Installation............................................................................................. 8
2.4.2 Wall Mount Installation ............................................................................................. 9
2.5 LED Table ..........................................................................................10
2.6 Restore Settings to Default ................................................................10
3. Configuring the G.DUO ...........................................................................11
3.1 Important Information.........................................................................11
3.2 Prepare your PC ................................................................................12
3.3 Management Interface .......................................................................12
Web Management (HTTP):............................................................................................... 12
Secured Web Management (HTTPS):............................................................................... 13
Command Line Interface (Telnet):.................................................................................... 13
Secure Shell (SSH, SSH2) ................................................................................................ 13
3.4 Introduction to Web Management......................................................15
3.4.1 Getting into Web Management ................................................................................ 15
3.4.2 Web Menu Structure ................................................................................................ 17
3.5 Initial Configurations ..........................................................................18
3.5.1 Choose the wireless Operation Modes..................................................................... 18
3.5.2 Change the Device’s IP Address .............................................................................. 19
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3.5.3 Enable Password Protection..................................................................................... 20
3.5.4 Enable Telnet or SSH............................................................................................... 20
4. WISP + AP Mode ......................................................................................22
4.1 Application for WISP+AP Mode .........................................................22
4.2 Step-by-Step Example .......................................................................23
4.2.1 Environment............................................................................................................. 23
4.2.2 Configuration Steps ................................................................................................. 24
4.3 Radio1: WISP Router Mode Settings.................................................26
4.3.1 Basic Wireless Settings ............................................................................................ 26
4.3.2 Security Settings ...................................................................................................... 27
4.3.3 Advance (Wireless Settings) .................................................................................... 28
4.3.4 Site Survey ............................................................................................................... 30
4.3.5 Signal Survey ........................................................................................................... 31
4.3.6 WAN Port................................................................................................................. 31
4.3.7 Virtual Server Settings ............................................................................................. 32
4.3.8 DMZ......................................................................................................................... 32
4.3.9 DDNS....................................................................................................................... 33
4.3.10 DoS (Denial of Service)......................................................................................... 33
4.3.11 URL Filter .............................................................................................................. 34
4.3.12 MAC Filter............................................................................................................. 34
4.3.13 IP Filter .................................................................................................................. 35
4.3.14 Port Filter ............................................................................................................... 35
4.3.15 Router (Static Route) ............................................................................................. 35
4.3.16 RIP (Routing Information Protocol........................................................................ 36
4.4 Radio2: AP Mode Settings .................................................................37
4.4.1 Basic Wireless Settings ............................................................................................ 37
4.4.2 Security Settings ...................................................................................................... 37
4.4.3 Advance (Wireless Settings) .................................................................................... 40
4.4.4 Access Control ......................................................................................................... 41
4.4.5 Associated Clients.................................................................................................... 42
5. Dual AP Mode...........................................................................................43
5.1 Application for Dual AP Mode ............................................................43
5.2 Radio1 and 2: AP Mode Settings .......................................................44
5.2.1 Basic Wireless Settings ............................................................................................ 44
5.2.2 Security Settings ...................................................................................................... 45
5.2.3 Advance (Wireless Settings) .................................................................................... 47
5.2.4 Access Control ......................................................................................................... 49
5.2.5 Associated Clients.................................................................................................... 49
6. Client + AP Mode......................................................................................51
6.1 Application for Client + AP Mode........................................................51
6.2 Radio1: Client Mode Settings ............................................................52
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6.2.1 Basic Wireless Settings ............................................................................................ 52
6.2.2 Security Settings ...................................................................................................... 53
6.2.3 Advance (Wireless Settings) .................................................................................... 55
6.2.4 Site Survey ............................................................................................................... 56
6.2.5 Signal Survey ........................................................................................................... 57
6.2.6 Enable MAC Clone (Single Ethernet Client)........................................................... 57
6.3 Radio2: AP Mode Settings .................................................................58
6.3.1 Basic Wireless Settings ............................................................................................ 58
6.3.2 Security Settings ...................................................................................................... 58
6.3.3 Advance (Wireless Settings) .................................................................................... 61
6.3.4 Access Control ......................................................................................................... 62
6.3.5 Associated Clients.................................................................................................... 63
7. Gateway + AP Mode.................................................................................64
7.1 Application for Gateway +AP Mode ...................................................64
7.2 Radio1: WISP Router Mode Settings.................................................65
7.2.1 Basic Wireless Settings ............................................................................................ 66
7.2.2 Security Settings ...................................................................................................... 66
7.2.3 Advance (Wireless Settings) .................................................................................... 68
7.2.4 Access Control ......................................................................................................... 70
7.2.5 Associated Clients.................................................................................................... 70
7.2.6 Signal Survey ........................................................................................................... 71
7.2.7 WAN Port................................................................................................................. 71
7.2.8 Virtual Server Settings ............................................................................................. 72
7.2.9 DMZ......................................................................................................................... 73
7.2.10 DDNS..................................................................................................................... 73
7.2.11 DoS (Denial of Service)......................................................................................... 74
7.2.12 URL Filter .............................................................................................................. 74
7.2.13 MAC Filter............................................................................................................. 75
7.2.14 IP Filter .................................................................................................................. 75
7.2.15 Port Filter ............................................................................................................... 75
7.2.16 Router (Static Route) ............................................................................................. 76
7.2.17 RIP (Routing Information Protocol........................................................................ 76
7.3 Radio2: AP Mode Settings .................................................................77
7.3.1 Basic Wireless Settings ............................................................................................ 78
7.3.2 Security Settings ...................................................................................................... 78
7.3.3 Advance (Wireless Settings) .................................................................................... 80
7.3.4 Access Control ......................................................................................................... 82
7.3.5 Associated Clients.................................................................................................... 82
8. WDS + AP Mode .......................................................................................84
8.1 Application for WDS + AP Mode ........................................................84
8.2 Radio1: WDS Bridge Settings............................................................85
8.2.1 Basic Wireless Settings ............................................................................................ 85
8.2.2 WDS Security .......................................................................................................... 86
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8.2.3 Advance (Wireless Settings) .................................................................................... 88
8.2.4 Site Survey ............................................................................................................... 89
8.2.5 Signal Survey ........................................................................................................... 90
8.2.6 WDS Settings........................................................................................................... 90
8.3 Radio2: AP Mode Settings .................................................................91
8.3.1 Basic Wireless Settings ............................................................................................ 91
8.3.2 Security Settings ...................................................................................................... 91
8.3.3 Advance (Wireless Settings) .................................................................................... 94
8.3.4 Access Control ......................................................................................................... 95
8.3.5 Associated Clients.................................................................................................... 96
9. System Configuration Menu ...................................................................97
9.1 Menu Structure ..................................................................................97
9.2 LAN Interface Setup ..........................................................................97
9.2.1 DHCP Settings ......................................................................................................... 98
9.2.2 802.1d Spanning Tree .............................................................................................. 98
9.2.3 Clone MAC Address ................................................................................................ 98
9.2.4 Disable PING ........................................................................................................... 98
9.2.5 Add DHCP Static Lease Client ................................................................................ 99
9.3 Time Settings .....................................................................................99
9.4 Password Settings ...........................................................................100
9.5 System Management .......................................................................100
9.6 SNMP Settings.................................................................................101
9.7 Watchdog.........................................................................................102
9.7.1 Firmware Upgrade ................................................................................................. 102
9.7.2 Configuration Save and Restore ............................................................................ 103
9.8 Factory Default ................................................................................104
10. Device Status Menu .............................................................................105
10.1 Menu Structure ..............................................................................105
10.2 Device Information .........................................................................105
10.3 Statistic ..........................................................................................106
10.4 Client Table (ARP Table) ................................................................107
10.5 Log.................................................................................................107
11. Emergency Firmware Recovery .........................................................108
12. Frequent Asked Questions .................................................................110
13. Specifications.......................................................................................113
13.1 Hardware Features ........................................................................113
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13.1.1 General Hardware Feature ................................................................................... 113
13.2.1 Power Supply ....................................................................................................... 113
13.2.2 Dimension and Weight......................................................................................... 113
13.2 Radio Specifications ......................................................................114
13.2.1 Frequency Band ................................................................................................... 114
13.2.3 Rate and Modulation............................................................................................ 114
13.2.4 TX Output Power ................................................................................................. 114
13.2.5 Receiver Sensitivity ............................................................................................. 114
13.2.6 Supported WLAN Mode...................................................................................... 115
13.3 Software Features..........................................................................115
14. Wireless Network Glossary.................................................................117
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1. Introduction
1
1. Introduction
1.1 Overview
The G.DUO is a dual radio wireless multi-function device based on IEEE 802.11g/b 2.4GHz
radio technologies. It features 2 WiFi radios for WISP and other applications that can not
be achieved using single radio. In addition, it features passive PoE port for installations in
places that have no nearby access to electricity (DC Injector is not included). Finally, it
also comes with a WAN port and Gateway+AP mode that can turn G.DUO into a wireless
router with 2 radios.
If you encounter any technical issues, we strongly recommend you read through Chapter 12:
Frequent Asked Questions. The answers you need are very likely to be there.
1.2 Firmware Upgrade and Tech Support
If you encounter a technical issue that can not be resolved by information on this guide, we
recommend that you visit our comprehensive website support at www.airlive.com. The
tech support FAQ are frequently updated with latest information.
In addition, you might find new firmwares that either increase software functions or provide
bug fixes for G.DUO. You can reach our on-line support center at the following link:
http://www.airlive.com/support/support_2.jsp
Since 2009, AirLive has added the “Newsletter Instant Support System” on our website.
AirLive Newsletter subscribers receives instant email notifications when there are new
download or tech support FAQ updates for their subscribed airlive models. To become an
AirLive newsletter member, please visit: http://www.airlive.com/member/member_3.jsp
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AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
1. Introduction
1.3 Features
„ Dual 11g CPU with 2 x 11g/b Radios
„ 4MB Flash and 32MB SDRAM
„ 5 wireless multi-function modes: WISP+AP, Dual AP, Client + AP, WDS+AP,
Gateway+AP
„ 2 x R-SMA connectors for external antenna.
„ Passive PoE Port for 12V Passive POE System. Passive DC Injector not included
„ 1 x WAN port for xDSL and Cable Modem.
„ Wall Mount holes included
„ Bandwidth Control
„ Site Survey and Signal Strength indicator for antenna alignment
„ Emergency firmware recovery mode
„ Web, HTTPS, SSH/SSH2, Telnet, and SNMP managements
1.4 Wireless Operation Modes
The G.DUO can perform as a multi-function wireless device. Through the AirLogic web
interface, users can easily select which wireless mode they wish the G.DUO to perform.
The G.DUO can be configured to operate in the following wireless operation modes:
1.4.1 WISP + AP Mode
This mode is designed as 2-way wireless router for WISP subscriber. Radio1 acts as a
client router to connect with outdoor AP; Radio1 works as a wireless AP for home. This
combination allows WISP subscriber to share their Internet connection wirelessly.
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1. Introduction
1.4.2 Client + AP mode
In this mode, Radio1 is working as a wireless client to connect with remote AP. Radio2 is
working as an Access Point to redistribute the signal from Radio1. This combination
creates a wireless repeater with 2 radios. It can be used to amplify the signal from remote
AP.
1.4.3 Dual AP Mode
In this mode, the G.DUO works as 2 Access Points. You can have both radios with
directional antennas to create a larger coverage. Please remember to set the channels of
the radios as far apart as possible.
1.4.4 Gateway + AP
In this mode, both Radios are acting as wireless router. The WAN port is the LAN1 port.
The application for this is to extend the wireless router’s coverage. You can use 2
directional antennas to provide longer distance and wider coverage over large area, such
as in the shopping center. When using this mode, it is recommended to use directional
antennas for both radios to avoid mutual interference.
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AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
1. Introduction
1.4.5 WDS + AP
In this mode, the Radio1 is working in WDS Bridge mode while Radio2 works as an Access
Point. This mode is design to build a wireless backbone network while providing hotspot
access through Radio2’s AP network. It is ideal for Hotel Installation. When using this
mode, please make sure that the channels are set apart between Radio1 and Radio2.
Radio1 should install with directional antenna.
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2. Install the G.DUO
2
2. Installing
the G.DUO
This section describes the hardware features and the hardware installation procedure for
the G.DUO. For software configuration, please go to chapter 3 for more details.
2.1 Before You Start
It is important to read through this section before you install the G.DUO
„
It is recommended that you set the channels of the 2 radios as apart as possible
to avoid mutual interference. For example, Radio1 at channel 1 and Radio2 at
Channel 11
„
It is recommended that you adjust the antenna angles to get the best
performance. You can try to move the antenna outward as indicated on the
diagram below if you encounter poor performance problem.
„
The LAN1 port also work as the passive POE port and the WAN port(Gateway
mode only)
„
The passive PoE DC Injector is optional, it is not included with the package.
Please use a 12V passive POE system with G.DUO’s passive POE port. Do not
use 802.3af 48V system or PoE switch with the device.
2.2 Package Content
The G.DUO package contains the following items:
„
One G.DUO main unit
„
One 12V 1A DC power adapter
„
2 x Antennas (subject to change without notice)
„
User’s Guide CD
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AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
2. Install the G.DUO
„
Quick Start Guide
2.3 Knowing your G.DUO
Below are descriptions and diagrams of the product:
5
1
3
6
2
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
Radio 1 Antenna Connector
Radio 2 Antenna Connector
Power Adapter Connector
LAN Ports
WAN + Passive PoE Port
Reset Button
7 LED Indicators
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2. Install the G.DUO
2.4 Hardware Installation
.1. Please install the antennas by turning clock wise into the RF1 and RF2 antenna connectors
2. Now connect the power adapter to the G.DUO
3. Connect the Ethernet cable to one of the LAN port and the other end to your PC.
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AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
2. Install the G.DUO
4. If you are using G.DUO in Gateway mode to share your xDSL or Cable modem connection,
please connect the Internet cable to “WAN port”.
2.4.1 Passive PoE Installation
If you want to supply the power by using Passive PoE, please follow the installation
diagram below. Please note that that the passive DC Injector is not included with G.DUO,
it need to be purchased separately. G.DUO uses 12V passive PoE system.
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2. Install the G.DUO
2.4.2 Wall Mount Installation
1. The holes for the wall mount screw are on the underside of the case. Please measure the
distance between the holes. Then install 2 screws in the desire location with the measured
distance apart from each other. Please do not screw all the way in, leave some space for
mounting with the G.DUO
2. Now please hang the G.DUO on those 2 screws.
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2. Install the G.DUO
2.5 LED Table
This section describes the LED behavior of G.DUO. You can find the LED on the top side
of the G.DUO.
Power
Steady Blue – Normal Operation
OFF – No Power
RF1, RF2
Slow Flashing :
Radio is active
Fast Flashing:
Transmitting Data
OFF: Radio Disabled
LAN1 ~4, WAN
Steady Blue :
Fast Flashing:
OFF: No Link
Link established
Transmitting Data
2.6 Restore Settings to Default
If you have forgotten your G.DUO’s IP address or password, you can restore your G.DUO
to the default settings by pressing on the “reset button” for more than 5 seconds. You
might need a pen or pencil for this operation. The reset button is inside the bottom case.
Please see diagram below for details.
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3. Configuring the G.DUO
3
3. Configuring
the G.DUO
The G.DUO offers many different types of management interface. You can configure
through standard web browser (http), secured web (https), command line (telnet), secured
command shell (SSH), and SNMP management. In this chapter, we will explain G.DUO’s
available management interfaces and how to get into them.
3.1 Important Information
The following information will help you to get start quickly. However, we recommend you
to read through the entire manual before you start. Please note the password and SSID
are case sensitive.
‰
The default IP address is:
192.168.1.254
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
‰
There is no password protection by default. To enable password protection,
please go to “System Configuration -> Password Settings”.
‰
The default SSID for Radio1 is “airlive1”
‰
The default SSID for Radio2 is “airlive2”
‰
The default wireless mode is : WISP + AP mode
‰
Please remember to “Apply Change” for settings to be saved and take effect.
‰
Please remember to “Reboot” the device after all settings are changed.
‰
Please keep the TX output power as low as possible for best performance.
‰
By default, the Telnet and SSH functions are turned off.
To enable them, please
go to “System Configuration” -> “System Management” menu.
‰
The Emergency Firmware Recovery only works when you connect to LAN2, LAN3,
or LAN4 port. It will not work on LAN1
‰
By Default, the DHCP server is turned on in WISP+AP and Gateway+AP mode.
The other modes’ DHCP server are turned off.
‰
When you change the mode to WISP+AP or Gateway+AP mode, the GDUO’s IP
address might change to 192.168.1.254.
.
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3. Configuring the G.DUO
3.2 Prepare your PC
The G.DUO can be managed remotely by a PC through either the wired or wireless network.
The default IP address of the G.DUO is 192.168.1.254 with a subnet mask of
255.255.255.0. This means the IP address of the PC should be in the range of
192.168.1.1` to 192.168.1.253.
To prepare your PC for management with the G.DUO, please do the following:
1.
Connect your PC directly to the LAN port on the DC Injector of G.DUO
2.
Set your PC’s IP address to “Obtain an IP address Automatically”. The G.DUO should
provide your PC an valid IP address.
3.
If you want to set your PC’s IP address manually, please set to 192.168.1.50 (or other
address in the same subnet)
50
You are ready now to configure the G.DUO using your PC.
3.3 Management Interface
The G.DUO can be configured using one the management interfaces below:
Web Management (HTTP): You can manage G.DUO by simply typing its IP address
in the web browser. Most functions of G.DUO can be accessed by web management
interface. We recommend using this interface for initial configurations. To begin,
simply enter G.DUO’s IP address (default is 192.168.1.254) on the web browser..
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3. Configuring the G.DUO
Secured Web Management (HTTPS): HTTPS is also using web browser for
configuration. But all the data transactions are securely encrypted using SSL
encryption. Therefore, it is a safe and easy way to manage your G.DUO. We highly
recommend WISP and service provider to use HTTPS for management.
To begin, simply enter https://192.168.1.254 on your web browser. A security alert
screen from your browser might pop up. Please grant all permission and get
certificate to G.DUO.
Command Line Interface (Telnet): G.DUO can be managed through the
command line interface (CLI). Telnet does not encrypt its message. Therefore, it
is not secure. The default Telnet management port is TCP port 23.
By default, the G.DUO’s Telnet interface is turned off. To enable it, please go to
“System Configuration -> System Management” menu and enable “Telnet”.
To use the CLI, please open the command line window.
192.168.1.254” to start.
Then type “telnet
Telnet 192.168.1.254
To get a list of available command and their usage, please type “help” on the
command prompt.
Secure Shell (SSH, SSH2): SSH is an encrypted Command Line Interface that
allow user to send text commands through SSL encryption. Therefore, it provides
the added advantage of security comparing to Telnet. The default management
port for SSH/SSH2 is TCP/UDP port 22.
To enable it, please go to
“System Configuration -> System Management” menu and enable “SSH”.
By default, the G.DUO’s SSH/SSH2 interface is turned off.
To manage via the SSH/SSH2 protocol, you would need a SSH client. Free SSH
clients are widely available on the Internet. You can find where to download them
by using Internet search engine such as Google. In this guide, we will use a
popular SSH/Telnet utility call Putty.
Once you have download and install Putty. Please follow the figure below to make
a connection with G.DUO:
1. Choose “SSH” as indicated in the diagram
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3. Configuring the G.DUO
2. Enter the IP address of G.DUO
3. Click on “Open” to start the SSH session.
2
1
When the following screen appear, click on “Yes” to continue
If you have set up password, please enter your login and password. If not, you will
enter the command prompt directly. Now you are ready to enter commands
To get a list of available command and their usage, please type “help” on the
command prompt.
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3. Configuring the G.DUO
3.4 Introduction to Web Management
The G.DUO offers both normal (http) and secured (https) Web Management interfaces.
Their share the same interface and functions, and they can both be accessed through web
browsers. The only difference is HTTPS data are encrypted for extra security. Therefore,
we will discuss them together as “Web Management” on this guide.
If you are placing the G.DUO behind router or firewall, you might need to open virtual server
ports to G.DUO on your firewall/router
„ HTTP:
„ HTTPS:
TCP Port 80
TCP/UDP Port 443
This procedure is not necessary in most cases unless there is a router/firewall between
your PC and G.DUO.
3.4.1 Getting into Web Management
Normal Web Management (HTTP)
To get into the Normal Web Management, simply type in the G.DUO’s IP address (default IP
is 192.168.1.254) into the web browser’s address field.
Secured Web Management (HTTPS)
To get into the Secured Web Management, just type “https://192.168.1.254 ” into the web
browser’s address field. The “192.168.1.254” is G.DUO’s default IP address. If the IP
address is changed, the address entered in the browser should change also.
A security warning screen from your browser will then pop-up depending on the browser
you use. Please follow step below to clear the security screen.
‰
Internet Explorer: Select “Yes” to proceed
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AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
3. Configuring the G.DUO
‰
Firefox:
1.
Select “or you can add an exception”
1
2.
Click on “Add Exception”
2
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3. Configuring the G.DUO
3.
Click on “Get Certificate”. Then, please enter G.DUO’s IP address. Finally,
please click on “Confirm Security Exception.”
3
4
3.4.2 Web Menu Structure
After you enter the Web configuration, the following screen will appear:
Wireless Settings
„
Language Selection
Wireless Settings: The G.DUO’s wireless settings are different between wireless
modes. Only functions that are applicable to the wireless mode will show to
simplify configuration. For this reason, the first step to configure the G.DUO is to
select the wireless mode. The router mode specific functions are also in this
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AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
3. Configuring the G.DUO
menu category.
Chapter 1.
For explanation of different wireless modes, please refer to
„
System Configuration: All non-wireless and router mode settings are in this
category. The system configurations including changing password, upload
firmware, backup configuration, settings PING watchdog, and setting management
interface. We recommend you should enable password protection during the first
time login.
„
Device Status: This section for monitoring the status of G.DUO. It provides
information on device status, Ethernet status, wireless status, wireless client table,
and system log.
„
Language Selection:
here.
You can change the language for the Web interface from
3.5 Initial Configurations
We recommend users to browse through G.DUO’s web management interface to get an
overall picture of the functions and interface. Below are the recommended initial
configurations for first time login:
3.5.1 Choose the wireless Operation Modes
The wireless settings of G.DUO are dependant on the wireless operation mode you choose.
Therefore, the first step is to choose the operation mode. For explanation on when to use
what operation mode, please refer to Chapter 1
Mode Diagram
Current Mode
Click to configure wireless settings
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3. Configuring the G.DUO
Mode Diagram: this shows you the operation flow between Radio1, Radio2, and the
LAN/WAN ports. It helps you to understand how the mode works.
Current Mode: The active setup button indicates the current operation mode.
you press the “Setup Button”, it will bring you to the wireless setting page.
When
Changing Mode:
Follow the example below to change to “Gateway+AP” mode
1.
Select “Gateway + AP” mode.
2.
Click on “Setup Button” button
3.
The AP might ask you to confirm the mode change. Once confirm, the AP will
reboot to its new mode.
2
1
3.5.2 Change the Device’s IP Address
The default IP address is at 192.168.1.254. You should change it to the same subnet as
your network. Also, if you want to manage G.DUO remotely, you have to set the Gateway
and DNS server information.
To setup the IP settings for G.DUO, please select “System Configuration” -> LAN Interface
Setup”. After entering the IP information, click on “Apply” to finish.
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3. Configuring the G.DUO
1
2
3
3.5.3 Enable Password Protection
The G.DUO’s password protection is turned off by default. You should enable it and set
your own password. To enable password protection, please go to “System Configuration”
-> “Password Settings” menu. Then enter your username and password, and click on
“Apply Change” button. You can also come to this menu to change your password in the
future.
3.5.4 Enable Telnet or SSH
The Telnet and SSH management interface are turned off by default. If you wish to use
them, please go to the “System Configuration -> System Management” menu. Check
“Telnet” or “SSH”, then click on “Apply Change” button.
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20
3. Configuring the G.DUO
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4. WISP + AP Mode
4
4. WISP
+ AP Mode
In this chapter, we will explain about the wireless settings for WISP+AP Mode. Please be
sure to read through Chapter 1.4 and Chapter 3’s “Introduction to Web Management” and
“Initial Configurations” first.
4.1 Application for WISP+AP Mode
This mode is designed for WISP subscriber to have both Internet connection to WISP AP
and wireless network for home. Radio1 acts as a client router to connect with outdoor AP;
Radio1 works as a wireless AP for home. This combination allows WISP subscriber to
share their Internet connection wirelessly. In this mode, the WAN on the Radio1 side.
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4. WISP + AP Mode
4.2 Step-by-Step Example
In this example, we will use a G.DUO to establish a connection service to the WISP outdoor
AP
SSID: OutdoorAP
Encryption: WPA-PSK
4.2.1 Environment
In this example, the G.DUO will be connecting to the Outdoor AP using Radio1. Radio1
will be running in WISP mode which is also known as “Client Router”. Radio 2 will be
running in AP mode to share the WISP connection wirelessly to the notebook PC.
The configuration procedure should be as followed:
1.
Configure Radio1 first.
2.
Use “Site Survey” function to find the Outdoor AP and adjust antenna alignment
using “Signal Survey” function
3.
Use “Site Survey” to establish connection and enter encryption key with Outdoor
AP
4.
Configure the WAN type for the Radio1 to the Outdoor AP
5.
Enable the “Remote Management” so WISP operator can manage the AP from
remote
6.
Configure Radio2 now
7.
You should be able to keep default settings for most of the Radio2’s function
8.
But you need to change the channel of Radio2 so it is as far apart from Radio1 as
possible.
9.
Set Encryption for Radio2.
10. You should be able to link the Notebook PC to “airlive2” SSID and enter the
correct encryption key.
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4. WISP + AP Mode
4.2.2 Configuration Steps
Radio1
Step1: Click on the wireless settings on WISP+AP mode. It should bring you to the
“Wireless Setting” Page.
Step2: Click on “Site Survey” Setup button. The following screen should appear with results
of available APs in the area.
Step2: Now select “Outdoor AP” on the list, then press “Signal Survey”. Adjust your
antenna until the signal level is at the highest.
Step3: Now close the window and go back to the “Site Survey” page. Select the “Outdoor
AP” and press the “Connect” button. The G.DUO will inform you “encryption type
mismatch!” and ask if you want to configure the encryption setting. Select “Yes” to
proceed.
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4. WISP + AP Mode
Step4: Choose “WPA”->”Personal(Pre Shared Key)” -> “TKIP”. Then enter the correct
encryption key. The wireless connection should establish after this.
Step5: Go to the wireless setting page and select “WAN Port”. Enter the WAN information
(in this example is “Static IP”) and check the “Enable Web Access on WAN” for remote
management.
Radio2
Step1: Go to the wireless setting and change the interface to “Radio2”
Step2: Now we know the “Outdoor AP” is using Channel 11. Please set Radio2’s channel
to as far as possible. In this case, it will be “Channel 1”.
.
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4. WISP + AP Mode
Step3: Go to the “Security” setup and set your encryption as “WPA”->”Pre-Shared
Key”->”TKIP”. Enter your encryption key. .
4.3 Radio1: WISP Router Mode Settings
The Radio1 is working in Client Mode with NAT routing function, it is also known as “Client
Router”. The WAN is on the wireless side.
When you select “Radio1” as the interface, the following screen will appear.
4.3.1 Basic Wireless Settings
„
Band: You can choose between “802.11g/b”, “802.11g”, or “802.11b”.
recommend to leave the setting at “802.11g/b”.
„
SSID: The SSID setting of the remote AP. If you are not sure, you can click on
“Site Survey” button to scan for AP.
„
Channel: Wireless Channel used. For EU, it is channel 1~13. For U.S.A., it is
channel 1~11. For Client and WISP mode, this field is applicable only in Adhoc
mode.
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26
We
4. WISP + AP Mode
4.3.2 Security Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Security Settings
Security settings allow you to use encryption to secure your data from eavesdropping.
You can select different security policy to provide association authentication and/or data
encryption. The G.DUO features various security policies including WEP, 802.1x, WPA,
WPA Personal, WPA2, WPA2 Personal , WPA Mixed.
WEP
WEP Encryption is the oldest and most available encryption method.
the least secure.
„
However, it is also
Select one of the WEP key for wireless network: There are total of 4 possible keys
for WEP encryption. You need to choose which key will be used for encryption. All
wireless devices on the same network have to use the same settings. We
recommend using WEP Key 1 as in default setting.
„
Authentication: 2 types of Authentication are offered. Open system and
Shared key. If you are not sure which one to use, please select “Auto”.
„
Key Length: The G.DUO offers 64bit and 128 bit for WEP key length. The
longer the Key Length, the more secure the encryption is.
„
Key Type: 2 types are available: ASCII and HEX. ASCII is a string of ASCII
code including alphabetical characters, space, signs and numbers (i.e.
“airlivepass12”). HEX is a string of 16-bit hexadecimal digits (0..9, a, b, c, d, e, f).
All wireless devices on the network must match the exact key length and Key type.
Some Wireless clients only allow HEX type for WEP.
„
ASCII-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 5
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4. WISP + AP Mode
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “passw”
„
HEX-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 10
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example, “12345abcdef”
„
ASCII-128: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 13
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “airlivewepkey”
„
HEX-128: This is a key with 128-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 26
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example,
“1234567890abcdef1234567890”
WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK, WPA-AUTO
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) introduces the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)
that provides added security. WPA2 adds full support for 802.11i standard and the
CCMP (AES Encryption). The WPA Mixed tries to authenticate wireless clients using
both WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK.
„
Encryption Type: There are two encryption types TKIP and CCMP (AES). While
CCMP provides better security than TKIP, some wireless client stations may not be
equipped with the hardware to support it. You can select Mixed to allow TKIP clients
and CCMP clients to connect to the Access Point at the same time.
„
Pre-Shared Key Format: You can select between Passphrase(ASCII) or HEX
format. Please select Passphrase if you are not sure what to use.
„
Pre-Shared Key:
Enter the password key here..
4.3.3 Advance (Wireless Settings)
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Advance
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4. WISP + AP Mode
„
Fragmentation: When the size of a unicast frame exceeds the fragmentation
threshold, it will be fragmented before the transmission. It should have a value of
256-2346 bytes, with a default of 2346. If you experience a high packet error rate,
you should slightly decrease the Fragmentation Threshold.
„
RTS Threshold: RTS/CTS frames are used to gain control of the medium for
transmission. Any unicast (data or control) frames larger than specified RTS threshold
must be transmitted following the RTS/CTS handshake exchange mechanism. The
RTS threshold should have a value between 256-2347 bytes, with a default of 2347. It
is recommended that this value does not deviate from the default too much.
„
Beacon Interval: The device broadcasts beacon frames regularly to announce its
existence. The beacon Interval specifies how often beacon frames are transmitted in
time unit of milliseconds. The default value is 100, and a valid value should be between
1 and 65,535.
„
AckTimeOut: When a packet is sent out from one wireless station to the other, it will
waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The station will only
wait for a certain amount of time, this time is called the ACK timeout. In most
conditions, please put ACKtimeout value at zero(default value). The AP will calculate
the ACKtimeout automatically when the value is zero. However, you can also enter
the ACKtimeout manually.
„
Preamble Type: A preamble is a signal used in wireless environment to synchronize
the transmitting timing including Synchronization and Start frame delimiter. In a "noisy"
network environment, the Preamble Type should be set to Long Preamble. The Short
Preamble is intended for applications where minimum overhead and maximum
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4. WISP + AP Mode
performance is desired. If in a "noisy" network environment, the performance will be
decreased.
„
IAPP: IAPP (Inter Access Point Protocol) is designed for the enforcement of unique
association throughout a ESS (Extended Service Set) and a secure exchange of
station’s security context between current access point (AP) and new AP during
handoff period.
„
BG Protection: The 802.11g standard includes a protection mechanism to ensure mixed 802.11b
and 802.11g operation. If there is no such kind of mechanism exists, the two kinds of standards may
mutually interfere and decrease network’s performance..
„
Hide SSID: Enable Hide SSID will make the AP network’s SSID invisible. A device
can link with the AP only if correct SSID name is entered.
„
TX Power Level: You can set your TX Output power level here. Please note the
maximum allowable TX output power in EU is 20dBm. Please do not exceed your
country’s legal limit.
4.3.4 Site Survey
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Site Survey
You can scan for wireless networks around your location using the Site Survey function.
From the site survey function, you can also perform antenna alignment and establish
wireless connection
When you click on Site Survey, the following screen will appear. It might take awhile
depending on number of available APs in the area.
Click here to select
d
SSID for Association
or Signal Survey
To connect with the
selected SSID. This
function is available only
in Client Infrastructure or
Bridge Infrastructure
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
For antenna
alignment. It will
display and update
the Signal Strength
conitnously
30
4. WISP + AP Mode
4.3.5 Signal Survey
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Site Survey -> Signal Survey
The Signal Survey will continuously display the SIGNAL STRENGTH value of the selected
SSID for antenna alignment purpose. To use Signal Survey function, please enter the
“Site Survey” function first; please refer to the instruction in the above section. Once you
select the ESSID and click on the “Signal Survey” button, the following screen will appear.
„
BSSID: This is the remote AP’s MAC address.
„
Channel:
„
Signal Strength: This is signal strength number in percentage in 0 to 100 scale.
The higher the number, the better signal.
The current scanned channel
4.3.6 WAN Port
Operation Mode -> Setup -> WAN Port
The G.DUO support different authentication and IP assignment standards for the WAN port.
It includes fixed IP, DHCP, PPPoE, PPTP, L2TP, and Big Pond protocols. Please consult
with your ISP about what authentication type is used for the WAN port connection.
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4. WISP + AP Mode
„
„
„
Clone MAC Address: In this place, you can assign a MAC address for the WAN
port. In case of WISP mode, it is Radio1’s MAC address. For Gatway mode, it
is the WAN/LAN1 MAC address.
Enable UPnP: Check this field will enable Universal Plug n Play protocol
Enable Web Server Access on WAN: Check this field will enable remote
management from WAN side.
4.3.7 Virtual Server Settings
Virtual server allows you to specify one or more applications running on server computers
on the LAN that may be accessed by any Internet user. Internet data destined for the
specified public port will be directed to the specified private port number on the LAN client
with the specified private IP address.
If you want to allow your web server, ftp server, or email server to be accessible from
Internet, you would need to open specific port on the virtual server to your local IP address.
For a list of most frequent used TCP and UDP ports. Please visit
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_TCP_and_UDP_port_numbers
4.3.8 DMZ
Advanced Settings >> Multiple DMZ
DMZ opens all TCP/UDP ports to particular IP address on the LAN side. It allows setting
up servers behind the G.DUO.
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4. WISP + AP Mode
4.3.9 DDNS
Dynamic Domain Name System. An algorithm that allows the use of dynamic IP address
for hosting Internet Server. A DDNS service provides each user account with a domain
name. The G.DUO support “Dyndns” and “TZO” service.
4.3.10 DoS (Denial of Service)
Denial of Service is a type of network attack that floods the network with useless traffic.
Many DoS attacks, such as the Ping of Death and Teardrop attacks, exploit limitations in
the TCP/IP protocols.
The G.DUO provides a list of Firewall grade DoS control that protect your network from
hacker attack.
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4. WISP + AP Mode
4.3.11 URL Filter
The G.DUO provide URL filter function to stop access to certain website.
useful for parents to stop children from accessing some websites.
It is especially
4.3.12 MAC Filter
MAC filter can filter out traffic from certain MAC addresses. It can prevent access to
internet from certain station in the local LAN.
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4. WISP + AP Mode
4.3.13 IP Filter
IP filtering allows you to block certain IP addresses from accessing the network.
4.3.14 Port Filter
Port filtering allows you to block certain applications from accessing the network.
4.3.15 Router (Static Route)
This allows you to manually configure static network routes. Static routes will override
routes learned by standard routing protocol discover methods.
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4. WISP + AP Mode
4.3.16 RIP (Routing Information Protocol
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Access Control
The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a dynamic routing protocol used in local and wide
area networks
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4. WISP + AP Mode
4.4 Radio2: AP Mode Settings
The Radio2 is working in Access Point Mode. The default SSID is “AirLive2”.
When you select “Radio2” as the interface, the following screen will appear:
4.4.1 Basic Wireless Settings
„
Band: You can choose between “802.11g/b”, “802.11g”, or “802.11b”.
recommend leaving the setting at “802.11g/b”.
„
SSID: The SSID setting of the remote AP. If you are not sure, you can click on
“Site Survey” button to scan for AP.
„
Channel: Wireless Channel used. For EU, it is channel 1~13. For U.S.A., it is
channel 1~11.
We
4.4.2 Security Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Security Settings
Security settings allow you to use encryption to secure your data from eavesdropping.
You can select different security policy to provide association authentication and/or data
encryption. The G.DUO features various security policies including WEP, 802.1x, WPA,
WPA Personal, WPA2, WPA2 Personal , WPA Mixed.
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4. WISP + AP Mode
WEP
WEP Encryption is the oldest and most available encryption method.
the least secure.
„
However, it is also
Select one of the WEP key for wireless network: There are total of 4 possible keys
for WEP encryption. You need to choose which key will be used for encryption. All
wireless devices on the same network have to use the same settings. We
recommend using WEP Key 1 as in default setting.
„
Authentication: 2 types of Authentication are offered. Open system and
Shared key. If you are not sure which one to use, please select “Auto”.
„
Key Length: The G.DUO offers 64bit and 128 bit for WEP key length. The
longer the Key Length, the more secure the encryption is.
„
Key Type: 2 types are available: ASCII and HEX. ASCII is a string of ASCII
code including alphabetical characters, space, signs and numbers (i.e.
“airlivepass12”). HEX is a string of 16-bit hexadecimal digits (0..9, a, b, c, d, e, f).
All wireless devices on the network must match the exact key length and Key type.
Some Wireless clients only allow HEX type for WEP.
„
ASCII-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 5
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “passw”
„
HEX-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 10
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example, “12345abcdef”
„
ASCII-128: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 13
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “airlivewepkey”
„
HEX-128: This is a key with 128-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 26
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example,
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38
4. WISP + AP Mode
“1234567890abcdef1234567890”
WPA-Personal, WPA2-Personal, WPA-Mixed (Pre-Shared Key)
The WPA Personal is also known as “WPA-PSK” encryption. Wi-Fi Protected Access
(WPA) introduces the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) that provides added
security. WPA2 adds full support for 802.11i standard and the CCMP (AES Encryption).
The WPA-Mixed tries to authenticate wireless clients using both WPA-PSK or
WPA2-PSK.
„
Encryption Type: There are two encryption types TKIP and CCMP (AES). While
CCMP provides better security than TKIP, some wireless client stations may not be
equipped with the hardware to support it. You can select Mixed to allow TKIP clients
and CCMP clients to connect to the Access Point at the same time.
„
Pre-Shared Key Format: You can select between Passphrase(ASCII) or HEX
format. Please select Passphrase if you are not sure what to use.
„
Pre-Shared Key:
Enter the password key here..
WPA-Enterprise, WPA2-Enterprise, WPA-Mixed Enterprise (Radius)
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) Enterprise uses Radius Server as the authenticator.
WPA2 adds full support for 802.11i standard and the CCMP (AES Encryption). The
WPA-Mixed tries to authenticate wireless clients using both WPA or WPA2.
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4. WISP + AP Mode
4.4.3 Advance (Wireless Settings)
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Advance
„
Fragmentation: When the size of a unicast frame exceeds the fragmentation
threshold, it will be fragmented before the transmission. It should have a value of
256-2346 bytes, with a default of 2346. If you experience a high packet error rate,
you should slightly decrease the Fragmentation Threshold.
„
RTS Threshold: RTS/CTS frames are used to gain control of the medium for
transmission. Any unicast (data or control) frames larger than specified RTS threshold
must be transmitted following the RTS/CTS handshake exchange mechanism. The
RTS threshold should have a value between 256-2347 bytes, with a default of 2347. It
is recommended that this value does not deviate from the default too much.
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
40
4. WISP + AP Mode
„
Beacon Interval: The device broadcasts beacon frames regularly to announce its
existence. The beacon Interval specifies how often beacon frames are transmitted in
time unit of milliseconds. The default value is 100, and a valid value should be between
1 and 65,535.
„
AckTimeOut: When a packet is sent out from one wireless station to the other, it will
waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The station will only
wait for a certain amount of time, this time is called the ACK timeout. In most
conditions, please put ACKtimeout value at zero(default value). The AP will calculate
the ACKtimeout automatically when the value is zero. However, you can also enter
the ACKtimeout manually.
„
Preamble Type: A preamble is a signal used in wireless environment to synchronize
the transmitting timing including Synchronization and Start frame delimiter. In a "noisy"
network environment, the Preamble Type should be set to Long Preamble. The Short
Preamble is intended for applications where minimum overhead and maximum
performance is desired. If in a "noisy" network environment, the performance will be
decreased.
„
IAPP: IAPP (Inter Access Point Protocol) is designed for the enforcement of unique
association throughout a ESS (Extended Service Set) and a secure exchange of
station’s security context between current access point (AP) and new AP during
handoff period.
„
BG Protection: The 802.11g standard includes a protection mechanism to ensure mixed 802.11b
and 802.11g operation. If there is no such kind of mechanism exists, the two kinds of standards may
mutually interfere and decrease network’s performance..
„
Hide SSID: Enable Hide SSID will make the AP network’s SSID invisible. A device
can link with the AP only if correct SSID name is entered.
„
Isolation: Enable Isolation will prevent wireless clients to see each other on the
network.
„
TX Power Level: You can set your TX Output power level here. Please note the
maximum allowable TX output power in EU is 20dBm. Please do not exceed your
country’s legal limit.
4.4.4 Access Control
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Access Control
The G.DUO allows you to define a list of MAC addresses that are allowed or denied to
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4. WISP + AP Mode
access the wireless network.
modes.
„
This function is available only for Access Point and Gateway
Access Control List
„
Disable: When selected, no MAC address filtering will be performed.
„
Allow list: When selected, data traffic from only the specified devices in the
table will be allowed in the network.
„
Deny list: When selected, data traffic from the devices specified in the table
will be denied/discarded by the network.
4.4.5 Associated Clients
Click on this to show the current wireless clients associated to the AP. It will display MAC
adderss, Trasmit packet, Tx rate, power saving, expire time, and signal strength.
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42
5. Dual AP Mode
5
5. Dual
AP Mode
In this chapter, we will explain about the wireless settings for Dual Mode. Please be sure
to read through Chapter 1.4 and Chapter 3’s “Introduction to Web Management” and “Initial
Configurations” first.
It is highly recommended that you use 2 directional antennas in this mode to achieve larger
coverage and avoid mutual interference. If you need to use the supplied 2dBi omni
antennas, please adjust them according to the diagram below:
5.1 Application for Dual AP Mode
The Dual AP mode is designed to extend the wireless coverage of the Hotspot network.
Therefore, you should use directional antennas (like a 10dBi panel antenna) to let each
radio cover separate areas.
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5. Dual AP Mode
5.2 Radio1 and 2: AP Mode Settings
Since both Radio1 and Radio2 are Access Point mode. The configuration menu are the
same. We will explain them together here. Radio1’s default SSID is “airlive1”, Radio2’s
default SSID is “airlive2”.
5.2.1 Basic Wireless Settings
„
Band: You can choose between “802.11g/b”, “802.11g”, or “802.11b”.
recommend leaving the setting at “802.11g/b”.
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44
We
5. Dual AP Mode
„
SSID: The SSID setting of the remote AP. If you are not sure, you can click on
“Site Survey” button to scan for AP.
„
Channel: Wireless Channel used. For EU, it is channel 1~13. For U.S.A., it is
channel 1~11.
5.2.2 Security Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Security Settings
Security settings allow you to use encryption to secure your data from eavesdropping.
You can select different security policy to provide association authentication and/or data
encryption. The G.DUO features various security policies including WEP, 802.1x, WPA,
WPA Personal, WPA2, WPA2 Personal, WPA Mixed.
WEP
WEP Encryption is the oldest and most available encryption method.
the least secure.
„
However, it is also
Select one of the WEP key for wireless network: There are total of 4 possible keys
for WEP encryption. You need to choose which key will be used for encryption. All
wireless devices on the same network have to use the same settings. We
recommend using WEP Key 1 as in default setting.
„
Authentication: 2 types of Authentication are offered. Open system and
Shared key. If you are not sure which one to use, please select “Auto”.
„
Key Length:
The G.DUO offers 64bit and 128 bit for WEP key length. The
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5. Dual AP Mode
longer the Key Length, the more secure the encryption is.
„
Key Type: 2 types are available: ASCII and HEX. ASCII is a string of ASCII
code including alphabetical characters, space, signs and numbers (i.e.
“airlivepass12”). HEX is a string of 16-bit hexadecimal digits (0..9, a, b, c, d, e, f).
All wireless devices on the network must match the exact key length and Key type.
Some Wireless clients only allow HEX type for WEP.
„
ASCII-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 5
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “passw”
„
HEX-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 10
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example, “12345abcdef”
„
ASCII-128: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 13
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “airlivewepkey”
„
HEX-128: This is a key with 128-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 26
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example,
“1234567890abcdef1234567890”
WPA-Personal, WPA2-Personal, WPA-Mixed (Pre-Shared Key)
The WPA Personal is also known as “WPA-PSK” encryption. Wi-Fi Protected Access
(WPA) introduces the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) that provides added
security. WPA2 adds full support for 802.11i standard and the CCMP (AES Encryption).
The WPA-Mixed tries to authenticate wireless clients using both WPA-PSK or
WPA2-PSK.
„
Encryption Type: There are two encryption types TKIP and CCMP (AES). While
CCMP provides better security than TKIP, some wireless client stations may not be
equipped with the hardware to support it. You can select Mixed to allow TKIP clients
and CCMP clients to connect to the Access Point at the same time.
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5. Dual AP Mode
„
Pre-Shared Key Format: You can select between Passphrase(ASCII) or HEX
format. Please select Passphrase if you are not sure what to use.
„
Pre-Shared Key:
Enter the password key here..
WPA-Enterprise, WPA2-Enterprise, WPA-Mixed Enterprise (Radius)
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) Enterprise uses Radius Server as the authenticator.
WPA2 adds full support for 802.11i standard and the CCMP (AES Encryption). The
WPA-Mixed tries to authenticate wireless clients using both WPA or WPA2.
5.2.3 Advance (Wireless Settings)
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Advance
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5. Dual AP Mode
„
Fragmentation: When the size of a unicast frame exceeds the fragmentation
threshold, it will be fragmented before the transmission. It should have a value of
256-2346 bytes, with a default of 2346. If you experience a high packet error rate,
you should slightly decrease the Fragmentation Threshold.
„
RTS Threshold: RTS/CTS frames are used to gain control of the medium for
transmission. Any unicast (data or control) frames larger than specified RTS threshold
must be transmitted following the RTS/CTS handshake exchange mechanism. The
RTS threshold should have a value between 256-2347 bytes, with a default of 2347. It
is recommended that this value does not deviate from the default too much.
„
Beacon Interval: The device broadcasts beacon frames regularly to announce its
existence. The beacon Interval specifies how often beacon frames are transmitted in
time unit of milliseconds. The default value is 100, and a valid value should be between
1 and 65,535.
„
AckTimeOut: When a packet is sent out from one wireless station to the other, it will
waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The station will only
wait for a certain amount of time, this time is called the ACK timeout. In most
conditions, please put ACKtimeout value at zero(default value). The AP will calculate
the ACKtimeout automatically when the value is zero. However, you can also enter
the ACKtimeout manually.
„
Preamble Type: A preamble is a signal used in wireless environment to synchronize
the transmitting timing including Synchronization and Start frame delimiter. In a "noisy"
network environment, the Preamble Type should be set to Long Preamble. The Short
Preamble is intended for applications where minimum overhead and maximum
performance is desired. If in a "noisy" network environment, the performance will be
decreased.
„
IAPP: IAPP (Inter Access Point Protocol) is designed for the enforcement of unique
association throughout a ESS (Extended Service Set) and a secure exchange of
station’s security context between current access point (AP) and new AP during
handoff period.
„
BG Protection: The 802.11g standard includes a protection mechanism to ensure mixed 802.11b
and 802.11g operation. If there is no such kind of mechanism exists, the two kinds of standards may
mutually interfere and decrease network’s performance..
„
Hide SSID: Enable Hide SSID will make the AP network’s SSID invisible. A device
can link with the AP only if correct SSID name is entered.
„
Isolation: Enable Isolation will prevent wireless clients to see each other on the
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
48
5. Dual AP Mode
network.
„
TX Power Level: You can set your TX Output power level here. Please note the
maximum allowable TX output power in EU is 20dBm. Please do not exceed your
country’s legal limit.
5.2.4 Access Control
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Access Control
The G.DUO allows you to define a list of MAC addresses that are allowed or denied to
access the wireless network. This function is available only for Access Point and Gateway
modes.
„
Access Control List
„
Disable: When selected, no MAC address filtering will be performed.
„
Allow list: When selected, data traffic from only the specified devices in the
table will be allowed in the network.
„
Deny list: When selected, data traffic from the devices specified in the table
will be denied/discarded by the network.
5.2.5 Associated Clients
Click on this to show the current wireless clients associated to the AP. It will display MAC
adderss, Trasmit packet, Tx rate, power saving, expire time, and signal strength.
49
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5. Dual AP Mode
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
50
6.
6
6. Client
Client + AP Mode
+ AP Mode
In this chapter, we will explain about the wireless settings for Client + AP Mode. Please be
sure to read through Chapter 1.4 and Chapter 3’s “Introduction to Web Management” and
“Initial Configurations” first.
It is highly recommended that you use directional antenna for Radio1 in this mode to
achieve larger coverage and avoid mutual interference. If you need to use the supplied
2dBi omni antennas, please adjust them according to the diagram below:
6.1 Application for Client + AP Mode
In this mode, the Radio1 is acting as wireless client to remote AP. Radio2 is performing as
an Access Point. This mode is best used as a wireless repeater to extend the signal from
remote Wireless Router.
51
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
6.
Client + AP Mode
6.2 Radio1: Client Mode Settings
The Radio1 is working as wireless Client to Remote AP.
When you select “Radio1” as the interface, the following screen will appear.
6.2.1 Basic Wireless Settings
„
Band: You can choose between “802.11g/b”, “802.11g”, or “802.11b”.
recommend to leave the setting at “802.11g/b”.
„
SSID: The SSID setting of the remote AP. If you are not sure, you can click on
“Site Survey” button to scan for AP.
„
Channel: Wireless Channel used. For EU, it is channel 1~13. For U.S.A., it is
channel 1~11. For Client and WISP mode, this field is applicable only in Adhoc
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
52
We
6.
Client + AP Mode
mode.
6.2.2 Security Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Security Settings
Security settings allow you to use encryption to secure your data from eavesdropping.
You can select different security policy to provide association authentication and/or data
encryption. The G.DUO features various security policies including WEP, 802.1x, WPA,
WPA Personal, WPA2, WPA2 Personal , WPA Mixed.
WEP
WEP Encryption is the oldest and most available encryption method.
the least secure.
„
However, it is also
Select one of the WEP key for wireless network: There are total of 4 possible keys
for WEP encryption. You need to choose which key will be used for encryption. All
wireless devices on the same network have to use the same settings. We
recommend using WEP Key 1 as in default setting.
„
Authentication: 2 types of Authentication are offered. Open system and
Shared key. If you are not sure which one to use, please select “Auto”.
„
Key Length: The G.DUO offers 64bit and 128 bit for WEP key length. The
longer the Key Length, the more secure the encryption is.
„
Key Type: 2 types are available: ASCII and HEX. ASCII is a string of ASCII
code including alphabetical characters, space, signs and numbers (i.e.
“airlivepass12”). HEX is a string of 16-bit hexadecimal digits (0..9, a, b, c, d, e, f).
53
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
6.
Client + AP Mode
All wireless devices on the network must match the exact key length and Key type.
Some Wireless clients only allow HEX type for WEP.
„
ASCII-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 5
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “passw”
„
HEX-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 10
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example, “12345abcdef”
„
ASCII-128: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 13
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “airlivewepkey”
„
HEX-128: This is a key with 128-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 26
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example,
“1234567890abcdef1234567890”
WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK, WPA-AUTO
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) introduces the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)
that provides added security. WPA2 adds full support for 802.11i standard and the
CCMP (AES Encryption). The WPA Mixed tries to authenticate wireless clients using
both WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK.
„
Encryption Type: There are two encryption types TKIP and CCMP (AES). While
CCMP provides better security than TKIP, some wireless client stations may not be
equipped with the hardware to support it. You can select Mixed to allow TKIP clients
and CCMP clients to connect to the Access Point at the same time.
„
Pre-Shared Key Format: You can select between Passphrase(ASCII) or HEX
format. Please select Passphrase if you are not sure what to use.
„
Pre-Shared Key:
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
Enter the password key here..
54
6.
Client + AP Mode
6.2.3 Advance (Wireless Settings)
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Advance
„
Fragmentation: When the size of a unicast frame exceeds the fragmentation
threshold, it will be fragmented before the transmission. It should have a value of
256-2346 bytes, with a default of 2346. If you experience a high packet error rate,
you should slightly decrease the Fragmentation Threshold.
„
RTS Threshold: RTS/CTS frames are used to gain control of the medium for
transmission. Any unicast (data or control) frames larger than specified RTS threshold
must be transmitted following the RTS/CTS handshake exchange mechanism. The
RTS threshold should have a value between 256-2347 bytes, with a default of 2347. It
is recommended that this value does not deviate from the default too much.
„
Beacon Interval: The device broadcasts beacon frames regularly to announce its
existence. The beacon Interval specifies how often beacon frames are transmitted in
time unit of milliseconds. The default value is 100, and a valid value should be between
1 and 65,535.
„
AckTimeOut: When a packet is sent out from one wireless station to the other, it will
waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The station will only
wait for a certain amount of time, this time is called the ACK timeout. In most
conditions, please put ACKtimeout value at zero(default value). The AP will calculate
the ACKtimeout automatically when the value is zero. However, you can also enter
the ACKtimeout manually.
„
Preamble Type: A preamble is a signal used in wireless environment to synchronize
the transmitting timing including Synchronization and Start frame delimiter. In a "noisy"
network environment, the Preamble Type should be set to Long Preamble. The Short
55
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
6.
Client + AP Mode
Preamble is intended for applications where minimum overhead and maximum
performance is desired. If in a "noisy" network environment, the performance will be
decreased.
„
IAPP: IAPP (Inter Access Point Protocol) is designed for the enforcement of unique
association throughout a ESS (Extended Service Set) and a secure exchange of
station’s security context between current access point (AP) and new AP during
handoff period.
„
BG Protection: The 802.11g standard includes a protection mechanism to ensure mixed 802.11b
and 802.11g operation. If there is no such kind of mechanism exists, the two kinds of standards may
mutually interfere and decrease network’s performance..
„
Hide SSID: Enable Hide SSID will make the AP network’s SSID invisible. A device
can link with the AP only if correct SSID name is entered.
„
TX Power Level: You can set your TX Output power level here. Please note the
maximum allowable TX output power in EU is 20dBm. Please do not exceed your
country’s legal limit.
6.2.4 Site Survey
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Site Survey
You can scan for wireless networks around your location using the Site Survey function.
From the site survey function, you can also perform antenna alignment and establish
wireless connection
When you click on Site Survey, the following screen will appear. It might take awhile
depending on number of available APs in the area.
To connect with the
selected SSID. This
function is available only
in Client Infrastructure or
Bridge Infrastructure
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
For antenna
alignment. It will
display and update
the Signal Strength
conitnously
56
Click here to select
d
SSID for Association
or Signal Survey
6.
Client + AP Mode
6.2.5 Signal Survey
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Site Survey -> Signal Survey
The Signal Survey will continuously display the SIGNAL STRENGTH value of the selected
SSID for antenna alignment purpose. To use Signal Survey function, please enter the
“Site Survey” function first; please refer to the instruction in the above section. Once you
select the ESSID and click on the “Signal Survey” button, the following screen will appear.
„
BSSID: This is the remote AP’s MAC address.
„
Channel:
„
Signal Strength: This is signal strength number in percentage in 0 to 100 scale.
The higher the number, the better signal.
The current scanned channel
6.2.6 Enable MAC Clone (Single Ethernet Client)
When this function is enabled, G.DUO will replace the MAC address of Radio1 with the
first PC’s MAC address caught from the LAN port. It will allow one single Ethernet
client only. Please use this function only if you want to limit the Ethernet client to only
one.
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AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
6.
Client + AP Mode
6.3 Radio2: AP Mode Settings
The Radio2 is working in Access Point Mode. The default SSID is “AirLive2”.
When you select “Radio2” as the interface, the following screen will appear:
6.3.1 Basic Wireless Settings
„
Band: You can choose between “802.11g/b”, “802.11g”, or “802.11b”.
recommend leaving the setting at “802.11g/b”.
„
SSID: The SSID setting of the remote AP. If you are not sure, you can click on
“Site Survey” button to scan for AP.
„
Channel: Wireless Channel used. For EU, it is channel 1~13. For U.S.A., it is
channel 1~11.
We
6.3.2 Security Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Security Settings
Security settings allow you to use encryption to secure your data from eavesdropping.
You can select different security policy to provide association authentication and/or data
encryption. The G.DUO features various security policies including WEP, 802.1x, WPA,
WPA Personal, WPA2, WPA2 Personal , WPA Mixed.
WEP
WEP Encryption is the oldest and most available encryption method.
the least secure.
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
58
However, it is also
6.
„
Client + AP Mode
Select one of the WEP key for wireless network: There are total of 4 possible keys
for WEP encryption. You need to choose which key will be used for encryption. All
wireless devices on the same network have to use the same settings. We
recommend using WEP Key 1 as in default setting.
„
Authentication: 2 types of Authentication are offered. Open system and
Shared key. If you are not sure which one to use, please select “Auto”.
„
Key Length: The G.DUO offers 64bit and 128 bit for WEP key length. The
longer the Key Length, the more secure the encryption is.
„
Key Type: 2 types are available: ASCII and HEX. ASCII is a string of ASCII
code including alphabetical characters, space, signs and numbers (i.e.
“airlivepass12”). HEX is a string of 16-bit hexadecimal digits (0..9, a, b, c, d, e, f).
All wireless devices on the network must match the exact key length and Key type.
Some Wireless clients only allow HEX type for WEP.
„
ASCII-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 5
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “passw”
„
HEX-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 10
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example, “12345abcdef”
„
ASCII-128: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 13
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “airlivewepkey”
„
HEX-128: This is a key with 128-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 26
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example,
“1234567890abcdef1234567890”
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AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
6.
Client + AP Mode
WPA-Personal, WPA2-Personal, WPA-Mixed (Pre-Shared Key)
The WPA Personal is also known as “WPA-PSK” encryption. Wi-Fi Protected Access
(WPA) introduces the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) that provides added
security. WPA2 adds full support for 802.11i standard and the CCMP (AES Encryption).
The WPA-Mixed tries to authenticate wireless clients using both WPA-PSK or
WPA2-PSK.
„
Encryption Type: There are two encryption types TKIP and CCMP (AES). While
CCMP provides better security than TKIP, some wireless client stations may not be
equipped with the hardware to support it. You can select Mixed to allow TKIP clients
and CCMP clients to connect to the Access Point at the same time.
„
Pre-Shared Key Format: You can select between Passphrase(ASCII) or HEX
format. Please select Passphrase if you are not sure what to use.
„
Pre-Shared Key:
Enter the password key here..
WPA-Enterprise, WPA2-Enterprise, WPA-Mixed Enterprise (Radius)
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) Enterprise uses Radius Server as the authenticator.
WPA2 adds full support for 802.11i standard and the CCMP (AES Encryption). The
WPA-Mixed tries to authenticate wireless clients using both WPA or WPA2.
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
60
6.
Client + AP Mode
6.3.3 Advance (Wireless Settings)
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Advance
„
Fragmentation: When the size of a unicast frame exceeds the fragmentation
threshold, it will be fragmented before the transmission. It should have a value of
256-2346 bytes, with a default of 2346. If you experience a high packet error rate,
you should slightly decrease the Fragmentation Threshold.
„
RTS Threshold: RTS/CTS frames are used to gain control of the medium for
transmission. Any unicast (data or control) frames larger than specified RTS threshold
must be transmitted following the RTS/CTS handshake exchange mechanism. The
RTS threshold should have a value between 256-2347 bytes, with a default of 2347. It
is recommended that this value does not deviate from the default too much.
„
Beacon Interval: The device broadcasts beacon frames regularly to announce its
existence. The beacon Interval specifies how often beacon frames are transmitted in
time unit of milliseconds. The default value is 100, and a valid value should be between
1 and 65,535.
„
AckTimeOut: When a packet is sent out from one wireless station to the other, it will
waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The station will only
wait for a certain amount of time, this time is called the ACK timeout. In most
conditions, please put ACKtimeout value at zero(default value). The AP will calculate
the ACKtimeout automatically when the value is zero. However, you can also enter
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AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
6.
Client + AP Mode
the ACKtimeout manually.
„
Preamble Type: A preamble is a signal used in wireless environment to synchronize
the transmitting timing including Synchronization and Start frame delimiter. In a "noisy"
network environment, the Preamble Type should be set to Long Preamble. The Short
Preamble is intended for applications where minimum overhead and maximum
performance is desired. If in a "noisy" network environment, the performance will be
decreased.
„
IAPP: IAPP (Inter Access Point Protocol) is designed for the enforcement of unique
association throughout a ESS (Extended Service Set) and a secure exchange of
station’s security context between current access point (AP) and new AP during
handoff period.
„
BG Protection: The 802.11g standard includes a protection mechanism to ensure mixed 802.11b
and 802.11g operation. If there is no such kind of mechanism exists, the two kinds of standards may
mutually interfere and decrease network’s performance..
„
Hide SSID: Enable Hide SSID will make the AP network’s SSID invisible. A device
can link with the AP only if correct SSID name is entered.
„
Isolation: Enable Isolation will prevent wireless clients to see each other on the
network.
„
TX Power Level: You can set your TX Output power level here. Please note the
maximum allowable TX output power in EU is 20dBm. Please do not exceed your
country’s legal limit.
6.3.4 Access Control
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Access Control
The G.DUO allows you to define a list of MAC addresses that are allowed or denied to
access the wireless network. This function is available only for Access Point and Gateway
modes.
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
62
6.
„
Client + AP Mode
Access Control List
„
Disable: When selected, no MAC address filtering will be performed.
„
Allow list: When selected, data traffic from only the specified devices in the
table will be allowed in the network.
„
Deny list: When selected, data traffic from the devices specified in the table
will be denied/discarded by the network.
6.3.5 Associated Clients
Click on this to show the current wireless clients associated to the AP. It will display MAC
adderss, Trasmit packet, Tx rate, power saving, expire time, and signal strength.
63
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
7. Gateway + AP Mode
7
7. Gateway
+ AP Mode
In this chapter, we will explain about the wireless settings for Gateway+AP Mode. Please
be sure to read through Chapter 1.4 and Chapter 3’s “Introduction to Web Management”
and “Initial Configurations” first.
It is highly recommended that you use 2 directional antennas in this mode to achieve larger
coverage and avoid mutual interference. If you need to use the supplied 2dBi Omni
antennas, please adjust them according to the diagram below:
7.1 Application for Gateway +AP Mode
In this mode, both Radio1 and Radio2 are performing as AP Router. This is perfect for
shopping mall or office where they can extend the coverage of the wireless IP sharing.
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
64
7. Gateway + AP Mode
In this mode, the WAN port is in the LAN1.
radios.
It can be seen as a wireless router with 2
7.2 Radio1: WISP Router Mode Settings
Although both Radio1 and Radio2 are working as wireless router, the WAN configuration is
on the Radio1 side..
When you select “Radio1” as the interface, the following screen will appear.
65
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
7. Gateway + AP Mode
7.2.1 Basic Wireless Settings
„
Band: You can choose between “802.11g/b”, “802.11g”, or “802.11b”.
recommend to leave the setting at “802.11g/b”.
„
SSID: The SSID setting of the remote AP. If you are not sure, you can click on
“Site Survey” button to scan for AP.
„
Channel: Wireless Channel used. For EU, it is channel 1~13. For U.S.A., it is
channel 1~11.
We
7.2.2 Security Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Security Settings
Security settings allow you to use encryption to secure your data from eavesdropping.
You can select different security policy to provide association authentication and/or data
encryption. The G.DUO features various security policies including WEP, 802.1x, WPA,
WPA Personal, WPA2, WPA2 Personal , WPA Mixed.
WEP
WEP Encryption is the oldest and most available encryption method.
the least secure.
„
However, it is also
Select one of the WEP key for wireless network: There are total of 4 possible keys
for WEP encryption. You need to choose which key will be used for encryption. All
wireless devices on the same network have to use the same settings. We
recommend using WEP Key 1 as in default setting.
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
66
7. Gateway + AP Mode
„
Authentication: 2 types of Authentication are offered. Open system and
Shared key. If you are not sure which one to use, please select “Auto”.
„
Key Length: The G.DUO offers 64bit and 128 bit for WEP key length. The
longer the Key Length, the more secure the encryption is.
„
Key Type: 2 types are available: ASCII and HEX. ASCII is a string of ASCII
code including alphabetical characters, space, signs and numbers (i.e.
“airlivepass12”). HEX is a string of 16-bit hexadecimal digits (0..9, a, b, c, d, e, f).
All wireless devices on the network must match the exact key length and Key type.
Some Wireless clients only allow HEX type for WEP.
„
ASCII-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 5
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “passw”
„
HEX-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 10
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example, “12345abcdef”
„
ASCII-128: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 13
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “airlivewepkey”
„
HEX-128: This is a key with 128-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 26
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example,
“1234567890abcdef1234567890”
WPA-Personal, WPA2-Personal, WPA-Mixed (Pre-Shared Key)
The WPA Personal is also known as “WPA-PSK” encryption. Wi-Fi Protected Access
(WPA) introduces the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) that provides added
security. WPA2 adds full support for 802.11i standard and the CCMP (AES Encryption).
The WPA-Mixed tries to authenticate wireless clients using both WPA-PSK or
WPA2-PSK.
„
Encryption Type: There are two encryption types TKIP and CCMP (AES). While
67
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
7. Gateway + AP Mode
CCMP provides better security than TKIP, some wireless client stations may not be
equipped with the hardware to support it. You can select Mixed to allow TKIP clients
and CCMP clients to connect to the Access Point at the same time.
„
Pre-Shared Key Format: You can select between Passphrase(ASCII) or HEX
format. Please select Passphrase if you are not sure what to use.
„
Pre-Shared Key:
Enter the password key here..
WPA-Enterprise, WPA2-Enterprise, WPA-Mixed Enterprise (Radius)
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) Enterprise uses Radius Server as the authenticator.
WPA2 adds full support for 802.11i standard and the CCMP (AES Encryption). The
WPA-Mixed tries to authenticate wireless clients using both WPA or WPA2.
7.2.3 Advance (Wireless Settings)
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
68
7. Gateway + AP Mode
„
Fragmentation: When the size of a unicast frame exceeds the fragmentation
threshold, it will be fragmented before the transmission. It should have a value of
256-2346 bytes, with a default of 2346. If you experience a high packet error rate,
you should slightly decrease the Fragmentation Threshold.
„
RTS Threshold: RTS/CTS frames are used to gain control of the medium for
transmission. Any unicast (data or control) frames larger than specified RTS threshold
must be transmitted following the RTS/CTS handshake exchange mechanism. The
RTS threshold should have a value between 256-2347 bytes, with a default of 2347. It
is recommended that this value does not deviate from the default too much.
„
Beacon Interval: The device broadcasts beacon frames regularly to announce its
existence. The beacon Interval specifies how often beacon frames are transmitted in
time unit of milliseconds. The default value is 100, and a valid value should be between
1 and 65,535.
„
AckTimeOut: When a packet is sent out from one wireless station to the other, it will
waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The station will only
wait for a certain amount of time, this time is called the ACK timeout. In most
conditions, please put ACKtimeout value at zero(default value). The AP will calculate
the ACKtimeout automatically when the value is zero. However, you can also enter
the ACKtimeout manually.
„
Preamble Type: A preamble is a signal used in wireless environment to synchronize
the transmitting timing including Synchronization and Start frame delimiter. In a "noisy"
network environment, the Preamble Type should be set to Long Preamble. The Short
Preamble is intended for applications where minimum overhead and maximum
performance is desired. If in a "noisy" network environment, the performance will be
decreased.
„
IAPP: IAPP (Inter Access Point Protocol) is designed for the enforcement of unique
association throughout a ESS (Extended Service Set) and a secure exchange of
station’s security context between current access point (AP) and new AP during
handoff period.
„
BG Protection: The 802.11g standard includes a protection mechanism to ensure mixed 802.11b
and 802.11g operation. If there is no such kind of mechanism exists, the two kinds of standards may
mutually interfere and decrease network’s performance..
„
Hide SSID: Enable Hide SSID will make the AP network’s SSID invisible. A device
can link with the AP only if correct SSID name is entered.
„
Isolation: Enable Isolation will prevent wireless clients to see each other on the
network.
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AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
7. Gateway + AP Mode
„
TX Power Level: You can set your TX Output power level here. Please note the
maximum allowable TX output power in EU is 20dBm. Please do not exceed your
country’s legal limit.
7.2.4 Access Control
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Access Control
The G.DUO allows you to define a list of MAC addresses that are allowed or denied to
access the wireless network. This function is available only for Access Point and Gateway
modes.
„
Access Control List
„
Disable: When selected, no MAC address filtering will be performed.
„
Allow list: When selected, data traffic from only the specified devices in the
table will be allowed in the network.
„
Deny list: When selected, data traffic from the devices specified in the table
will be denied/discarded by the network.
7.2.5 Associated Clients
Click on this to show the current wireless clients associated to the AP. It will display MAC
adderss, Trasmit packet, Tx rate, power saving, expire time, and signal strength.
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
70
7. Gateway + AP Mode
7.2.6 Signal Survey
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Site Survey -> Signal Survey
The Signal Survey will continuously display the SIGNAL STRENGTH value of the selected
SSID for antenna alignment purpose. To use Signal Survey function, please enter the
“Site Survey” function first; please refer to the instruction in the above section. Once you
select the ESSID and click on the “Signal Survey” button, the following screen will appear.
„
BSSID: This is the remote AP’s MAC address.
„
Channel:
„
Signal Strength: This is signal strength number in percentage in 0 to 100 scale.
The higher the number, the better signal.
The current scanned channel
7.2.7 WAN Port
Operation Mode -> Setup -> WAN Port
The G.DUO support different authentication and IP assignment standards for the WAN port.
It includes fixed IP, DHCP, PPPoE, PPTP, L2TP, and Big Pond protocols. Please consult
with your ISP about what authentication type is used for the WAN port connection.
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„
„
„
Clone MAC Address: In this place, you can assign a MAC address for the WAN
port. In case of WISP mode, it is Radio1’s MAC address. For Gatway mode, it
is the WAN/LAN1 MAC address.
Enable UPnP: Check this field will enable Universal Plug n Play protocol
Enable Web Server Access on WAN: Check this field will enable remote
management from WAN side.
7.2.8 Virtual Server Settings
Virtual server allows you to specify one or more applications running on server computers
on the LAN that may be accessed by any Internet user. Internet data destined for the
specified public port will be directed to the specified private port number on the LAN client
with the specified private IP address.
If you want to allow your web server, ftp server, or email server to be accessible from
Internet, you would need to open specific port on the virtual server to your local IP address.
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For a list of most frequent used TCP and UDP ports. Please visit
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_TCP_and_UDP_port_numbers
7.2.9 DMZ
Advanced Settings >> Multiple DMZ
DMZ opens all TCP/UDP ports to particular IP address on the LAN side. It allows setting
up servers behind the G.DUO.
7.2.10 DDNS
Dynamic Domain Name System. An algorithm that allows the use of dynamic IP address
for hosting Internet Server. A DDNS service provides each user account with a domain
name. The G.DUO support “Dyndns” and “TZO” service.
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7.2.11 DoS (Denial of Service)
Denial of Service is a type of network attack that floods the network with useless traffic.
Many DoS attacks, such as the Ping of Death and Teardrop attacks, exploit limitations in
the TCP/IP protocols.
The G.DUO provides a list of Firewall grade DoS control that protect your network from
hacker attack.
7.2.12 URL Filter
The G.DUO provide URL filter function to stop access to certain website.
useful for parents to stop children from accessing some websites.
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It is especially
7. Gateway + AP Mode
7.2.13 MAC Filter
MAC filter can filter out traffic from certain MAC addresses. It can prevent access to
internet from certain station in the local LAN.
7.2.14 IP Filter
IP filtering allows you to block certain IP addresses from accessing the network.
7.2.15 Port Filter
Port filtering allows you to block certain applications from accessing the network.
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7.2.16 Router (Static Route)
This allows you to manually configure static network routes. Static routes will override
routes learned by standard routing protocol discover methods.
7.2.17 RIP (Routing Information Protocol
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Access Control
The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a dynamic routing protocol used in local and wide
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area networks
7.3 Radio2: AP Mode Settings
The Radio2 is working in Access Point Mode. The default SSID is “AirLive2”.
When you select “Radio2” as the interface, the following screen will appear:
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7.3.1 Basic Wireless Settings
„
Band: You can choose between “802.11g/b”, “802.11g”, or “802.11b”.
recommend leaving the setting at “802.11g/b”.
„
SSID: The SSID setting of the remote AP. If you are not sure, you can click on
“Site Survey” button to scan for AP.
„
Channel: Wireless Channel used. For EU, it is channel 1~13. For U.S.A., it is
channel 1~11.
We
7.3.2 Security Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Security Settings
Security settings allow you to use encryption to secure your data from eavesdropping.
You can select different security policy to provide association authentication and/or data
encryption. The G.DUO features various security policies including WEP, 802.1x, WPA,
WPA Personal, WPA2, WPA2 Personal , WPA Mixed.
WEP
WEP Encryption is the oldest and most available encryption method.
the least secure.
„
However, it is also
Select one of the WEP key for wireless network: There are total of 4 possible keys
for WEP encryption. You need to choose which key will be used for encryption. All
wireless devices on the same network have to use the same settings. We
recommend using WEP Key 1 as in default setting.
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7. Gateway + AP Mode
„
Authentication: 2 types of Authentication are offered. Open system and
Shared key. If you are not sure which one to use, please select “Auto”.
„
Key Length: The G.DUO offers 64bit and 128 bit for WEP key length. The
longer the Key Length, the more secure the encryption is.
„
Key Type: 2 types are available: ASCII and HEX. ASCII is a string of ASCII
code including alphabetical characters, space, signs and numbers (i.e.
“airlivepass12”). HEX is a string of 16-bit hexadecimal digits (0..9, a, b, c, d, e, f).
All wireless devices on the network must match the exact key length and Key type.
Some Wireless clients only allow HEX type for WEP.
„
ASCII-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 5
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “passw”
„
HEX-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 10
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example, “12345abcdef”
„
ASCII-128: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 13
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “airlivewepkey”
„
HEX-128: This is a key with 128-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 26
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example,
“1234567890abcdef1234567890”
WPA-Personal, WPA2-Personal, WPA-Mixed (Pre-Shared Key)
The WPA Personal is also known as “WPA-PSK” encryption. Wi-Fi Protected Access
(WPA) introduces the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) that provides added
security. WPA2 adds full support for 802.11i standard and the CCMP (AES Encryption).
The WPA-Mixed tries to authenticate wireless clients using both WPA-PSK or
WPA2-PSK.
„
Encryption Type: There are two encryption types TKIP and CCMP (AES). While
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CCMP provides better security than TKIP, some wireless client stations may not be
equipped with the hardware to support it. You can select Mixed to allow TKIP clients
and CCMP clients to connect to the Access Point at the same time.
„
Pre-Shared Key Format: You can select between Passphrase(ASCII) or HEX
format. Please select Passphrase if you are not sure what to use.
„
Pre-Shared Key:
Enter the password key here..
WPA-Enterprise, WPA2-Enterprise, WPA-Mixed Enterprise (Radius)
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) Enterprise uses Radius Server as the authenticator.
WPA2 adds full support for 802.11i standard and the CCMP (AES Encryption). The
WPA-Mixed tries to authenticate wireless clients using both WPA or WPA2.
7.3.3 Advance (Wireless Settings)
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„
Fragmentation: When the size of a unicast frame exceeds the fragmentation
threshold, it will be fragmented before the transmission. It should have a value of
256-2346 bytes, with a default of 2346. If you experience a high packet error rate,
you should slightly decrease the Fragmentation Threshold.
„
RTS Threshold: RTS/CTS frames are used to gain control of the medium for
transmission. Any unicast (data or control) frames larger than specified RTS threshold
must be transmitted following the RTS/CTS handshake exchange mechanism. The
RTS threshold should have a value between 256-2347 bytes, with a default of 2347. It
is recommended that this value does not deviate from the default too much.
„
Beacon Interval: The device broadcasts beacon frames regularly to announce its
existence. The beacon Interval specifies how often beacon frames are transmitted in
time unit of milliseconds. The default value is 100, and a valid value should be between
1 and 65,535.
„
AckTimeOut: When a packet is sent out from one wireless station to the other, it will
waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The station will only
wait for a certain amount of time, this time is called the ACK timeout. In most
conditions, please put ACKtimeout value at zero(default value). The AP will calculate
the ACKtimeout automatically when the value is zero. However, you can also enter
the ACKtimeout manually.
„
Preamble Type: A preamble is a signal used in wireless environment to synchronize
the transmitting timing including Synchronization and Start frame delimiter. In a "noisy"
network environment, the Preamble Type should be set to Long Preamble. The Short
Preamble is intended for applications where minimum overhead and maximum
performance is desired. If in a "noisy" network environment, the performance will be
decreased.
„
IAPP: IAPP (Inter Access Point Protocol) is designed for the enforcement of unique
association throughout a ESS (Extended Service Set) and a secure exchange of
station’s security context between current access point (AP) and new AP during
handoff period.
„
BG Protection: The 802.11g standard includes a protection mechanism to ensure mixed 802.11b
and 802.11g operation. If there is no such kind of mechanism exists, the two kinds of standards may
mutually interfere and decrease network’s performance..
„
Hide SSID: Enable Hide SSID will make the AP network’s SSID invisible. A device
can link with the AP only if correct SSID name is entered.
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„
Isolation: Enable Isolation will prevent wireless clients to see each other on the
network.
„
TX Power Level: You can set your TX Output power level here. Please note the
maximum allowable TX output power in EU is 20dBm. Please do not exceed your
country’s legal limit.
7.3.4 Access Control
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Access Control
The G.DUO allows you to define a list of MAC addresses that are allowed or denied to
access the wireless network. This function is available only for Access Point and Gateway
modes.
„
Access Control List
„
Disable: When selected, no MAC address filtering will be performed.
„
Allow list: When selected, data traffic from only the specified devices in the
table will be allowed in the network.
„
Deny list: When selected, data traffic from the devices specified in the table
will be denied/discarded by the network.
7.3.5 Associated Clients
Click on this to show the current wireless clients associated to the AP. It will display MAC
adderss, Trasmit packet, Tx rate, power saving, expire time, and signal strength.
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8. WDS + AP Mode
8
8. WDS
+ AP Mode
In this chapter, we will explain about the wireless settings for Client + AP Mode. Please be
sure to read through Chapter 1.4 and Chapter 3’s “Introduction to Web Management” and
“Initial Configurations” first.
It is highly recommended that you use directional antenna for Radio1 in this mode to
achieve larger coverage and avoid mutual interference. If you need to use the supplied
2dBi omni antennas, please adjust them according to the diagram below:
8.1 Application for WDS + AP Mode
In this mode, the Radio1 is working in Bridge mode to connect with another Remote Bridge.
Radio2 is performing as an Access Point. The Radio1 can be used to build backbone
connection in a hotel hotspot network. Radio2 can be used to provide hotspot service.
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8. WDS + AP Mode
8.2 Radio1: WDS Bridge Settings
The Radio1 is working in WDS Bridge for connection to remote Bridge network.
When you select “Radio1” as the interface, the following screen will appear.
8.2.1 Basic Wireless Settings
„
„
Band: You can choose between “802.11g/b”, “802.11g”, or “802.11b”.
recommend to leave the setting at “802.11g/b”.
We
Channel: Wireless Channel used. For EU, it is channel 1~13. For U.S.A., it is
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channel 1~11.
802.11d Spanning Tree: Enable this option to prevent network loop from forming.
It is highly recommended to turn on this option if you have more than 2 entries in the
WDS network. You can find this function in the “System Configuration”->”LAN
Interface Setup” page.
8.2.2 WDS Security
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Security Settings
Security settings allow you to use encryption to secure your data from eavesdropping.
You can select different security policy to provide association authentication and/or data
encryption. The G.DUO features various security policies including WEP, 802.1x, WPA,
WPA Personal, WPA2, WPA2 Personal , WPA Mixed.
WEP
WEP Encryption is the oldest and most available encryption method.
the least secure.
„
However, it is also
Select one of the WEP key for wireless network: There are total of 4 possible keys
for WEP encryption. You need to choose which key will be used for encryption. All
wireless devices on the same network have to use the same settings. We
recommend using WEP Key 1 as in default setting.
„
Authentication:
AirLive G.DUO User’s Manual
2 types of Authentication are offered. Open system and
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Shared key.
If you are not sure which one to use, please select “Auto”.
„
Key Length: The G.DUO offers 64bit and 128 bit for WEP key length. The
longer the Key Length, the more secure the encryption is.
„
Key Type: 2 types are available: ASCII and HEX. ASCII is a string of ASCII
code including alphabetical characters, space, signs and numbers (i.e.
“airlivepass12”). HEX is a string of 16-bit hexadecimal digits (0..9, a, b, c, d, e, f).
All wireless devices on the network must match the exact key length and Key type.
Some Wireless clients only allow HEX type for WEP.
„
ASCII-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 5
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “passw”
„
HEX-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 10
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example, “12345abcdef”
„
ASCII-128: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 13
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “airlivewepkey”
„
HEX-128: This is a key with 128-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 26
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example,
“1234567890abcdef1234567890”
WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) introduces the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)
that provides added security. WPA2 adds full support for 802.11i standard and the
CCMP (AES Encryption). The WPA Mixed tries to authenticate wireless clients using
both WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK.
„
Encryption Type: There are two encryption types TKIP and CCMP (AES). While
CCMP provides better security than TKIP, some wireless client stations may not be
equipped with the hardware to support it. You can select Mixed to allow TKIP clients
and CCMP clients to connect to the Access Point at the same time.
„
Pre-Shared Key Format: You can select between Passphrase(ASCII) or HEX
format. Please select Passphrase if you are not sure what to use.
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8. WDS + AP Mode
„
Pre-Shared Key:
Enter the password key here..
8.2.3 Advance (Wireless Settings)
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Advance
„
Fragmentation: When the size of a unicast frame exceeds the fragmentation
threshold, it will be fragmented before the transmission. It should have a value of
256-2346 bytes, with a default of 2346. If you experience a high packet error rate,
you should slightly decrease the Fragmentation Threshold.
„
RTS Threshold: RTS/CTS frames are used to gain control of the medium for
transmission. Any unicast (data or control) frames larger than specified RTS threshold
must be transmitted following the RTS/CTS handshake exchange mechanism. The
RTS threshold should have a value between 256-2347 bytes, with a default of 2347. It
is recommended that this value does not deviate from the default too much.
„
Beacon Interval: The device broadcasts beacon frames regularly to announce its
existence. The beacon Interval specifies how often beacon frames are transmitted in
time unit of milliseconds. The default value is 100, and a valid value should be between
1 and 65,535.
„
AckTimeOut: When a packet is sent out from one wireless station to the other, it will
waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The station will only
wait for a certain amount of time, this time is called the ACK timeout. In most
conditions, please put ACKtimeout value at zero(default value). The AP will calculate
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8. WDS + AP Mode
the ACKtimeout automatically when the value is zero. However, you can also enter
the ACKtimeout manually.
„
Preamble Type: A preamble is a signal used in wireless environment to synchronize
the transmitting timing including Synchronization and Start frame delimiter. In a "noisy"
network environment, the Preamble Type should be set to Long Preamble. The Short
Preamble is intended for applications where minimum overhead and maximum
performance is desired. If in a "noisy" network environment, the performance will be
decreased.
„
BG Protection: The 802.11g standard includes a protection mechanism to ensure mixed 802.11b
and 802.11g operation. If there is no such kind of mechanism exists, the two kinds of standards may
mutually interfere and decrease network’s performance..
„
TX Power Level: You can set your TX Output power level here. Please note the
maximum allowable TX output power in EU is 20dBm. Please do not exceed your
country’s legal limit.
8.2.4 Site Survey
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Site Survey
WDS requires you to enter the MAC addresses of other remote bridges in the network.
You can scan for wireless networks around your location using the Site Survey function.
Then copy the MAC address of the remote Bridge into WDS table.
When you click on Site Survey, the following screen will appear. It might take awhile
depending on number of available Bridges in the area.
MAC Addresses
d
For antenna
alignment. It will
display and update
the Signal Strength
conitnously
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8.2.5 Signal Survey
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Site Survey -> Signal Survey
The Signal Survey will continuously display the Signal Strength of the selected SSID for
antenna alignment purpose. To use Signal Survey function, please enter the “Site
Survey” function first; please refer to the instruction in the above section. Once you select
the ESSID and click on the “Signal Survey” button, the following screen will appear.
„
BSSID: This is the remote AP’s MAC address.
„
Channel:
„
Signal: This is signal strength number in percentage in 0 to 100 scale. The
higher the number, the better signal.
The current scanned channel
8.2.6 WDS Settings
For Bridge network, it is required to enter the Wireless MAC address of all remote
bridges that is connect directly to your G.DUO. The wireless MAC address is also
known as BSSID that is display on your site survey result.
„
MAC Address: Please enter the Wireless MAC address or BSSID of the remote
Bridge. You can usually find it at remote Bridge’s device label.
„
Comment:
Bridge it is.
If you input anything that will help remind you about which remote
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8. WDS + AP Mode
8.3 Radio2: AP Mode Settings
The Radio2 is working in Access Point Mode. The default SSID is “AirLive2”.
When you select “Radio2” as the interface, the following screen will appear:
8.3.1 Basic Wireless Settings
„
Band: You can choose between “802.11g/b”, “802.11g”, or “802.11b”.
recommend leaving the setting at “802.11g/b”.
„
SSID: The SSID setting of the remote AP. If you are not sure, you can click on
“Site Survey” button to scan for AP.
„
Channel: Wireless Channel used. For EU, it is channel 1~13. For U.S.A., it is
channel 1~11.
We
8.3.2 Security Settings
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Security Settings
Security settings allow you to use encryption to secure your data from eavesdropping.
You can select different security policy to provide association authentication and/or data
encryption. The G.DUO features various security policies including WEP, 802.1x, WPA,
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WPA Personal, WPA2, WPA2 Personal , WPA Mixed.
WEP
WEP Encryption is the oldest and most available encryption method.
the least secure.
„
However, it is also
Select one of the WEP key for wireless network: There are total of 4 possible keys
for WEP encryption. You need to choose which key will be used for encryption. All
wireless devices on the same network have to use the same settings. We
recommend using WEP Key 1 as in default setting.
„
Authentication: 2 types of Authentication are offered. Open system and
Shared key. If you are not sure which one to use, please select “Auto”.
„
Key Length: The G.DUO offers 64bit and 128 bit for WEP key length. The
longer the Key Length, the more secure the encryption is.
„
Key Type: 2 types are available: ASCII and HEX. ASCII is a string of ASCII
code including alphabetical characters, space, signs and numbers (i.e.
“airlivepass12”). HEX is a string of 16-bit hexadecimal digits (0..9, a, b, c, d, e, f).
All wireless devices on the network must match the exact key length and Key type.
Some Wireless clients only allow HEX type for WEP.
„
ASCII-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 5
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “passw”
„
HEX-64: This is a key with 64-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 10
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example, “12345abcdef”
„
ASCII-128: This is a key with 64-bit key length of ASCII type. Please enter 13
ASCII Characters if you choose this option. For example, “airlivewepkey”
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„
HEX-128: This is a key with 128-bit key length of HEX type. Please enter 26
Hexadecimal digits if you choose this option. For example,
“1234567890abcdef1234567890”
WPA-Personal, WPA2-Personal, WPA-Mixed (Pre-Shared Key)
The WPA Personal is also known as “WPA-PSK” encryption. Wi-Fi Protected Access
(WPA) introduces the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) that provides added
security. WPA2 adds full support for 802.11i standard and the CCMP (AES Encryption).
The WPA-Mixed tries to authenticate wireless clients using both WPA-PSK or
WPA2-PSK.
„
Encryption Type: There are two encryption types TKIP and CCMP (AES). While
CCMP provides better security than TKIP, some wireless client stations may not be
equipped with the hardware to support it. You can select Mixed to allow TKIP clients
and CCMP clients to connect to the Access Point at the same time.
„
Pre-Shared Key Format: You can select between Passphrase(ASCII) or HEX
format. Please select Passphrase if you are not sure what to use.
„
Pre-Shared Key:
Enter the password key here..
WPA-Enterprise, WPA2-Enterprise, WPA-Mixed Enterprise (Radius)
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) Enterprise uses Radius Server as the authenticator.
WPA2 adds full support for 802.11i standard and the CCMP (AES Encryption). The
WPA-Mixed tries to authenticate wireless clients using both WPA or WPA2.
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8.3.3 Advance (Wireless Settings)
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Advance
„
Fragmentation: When the size of a unicast frame exceeds the fragmentation
threshold, it will be fragmented before the transmission. It should have a value of
256-2346 bytes, with a default of 2346. If you experience a high packet error rate,
you should slightly decrease the Fragmentation Threshold.
„
RTS Threshold: RTS/CTS frames are used to gain control of the medium for
transmission. Any unicast (data or control) frames larger than specified RTS threshold
must be transmitted following the RTS/CTS handshake exchange mechanism. The
RTS threshold should have a value between 256-2347 bytes, with a default of 2347. It
is recommended that this value does not deviate from the default too much.
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8. WDS + AP Mode
„
Beacon Interval: The device broadcasts beacon frames regularly to announce its
existence. The beacon Interval specifies how often beacon frames are transmitted in
time unit of milliseconds. The default value is 100, and a valid value should be between
1 and 65,535.
„
AckTimeOut: When a packet is sent out from one wireless station to the other, it will
waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The station will only
wait for a certain amount of time, this time is called the ACK timeout. In most
conditions, please put ACKtimeout value at zero(default value). The AP will calculate
the ACKtimeout automatically when the value is zero. However, you can also enter
the ACKtimeout manually.
„
Preamble Type: A preamble is a signal used in wireless environment to synchronize
the transmitting timing including Synchronization and Start frame delimiter. In a "noisy"
network environment, the Preamble Type should be set to Long Preamble. The Short
Preamble is intended for applications where minimum overhead and maximum
performance is desired. If in a "noisy" network environment, the performance will be
decreased.
„
IAPP: IAPP (Inter Access Point Protocol) is designed for the enforcement of unique
association throughout a ESS (Extended Service Set) and a secure exchange of
station’s security context between current access point (AP) and new AP during
handoff period.
„
BG Protection: The 802.11g standard includes a protection mechanism to ensure mixed 802.11b
and 802.11g operation. If there is no such kind of mechanism exists, the two kinds of standards may
mutually interfere and decrease network’s performance..
„
Hide SSID: Enable Hide SSID will make the AP network’s SSID invisible. A device
can link with the AP only if correct SSID name is entered.
„
Isolation: Enable Isolation will prevent wireless clients to see each other on the
network.
„
TX Power Level: You can set your TX Output power level here. Please note the
maximum allowable TX output power in EU is 20dBm. Please do not exceed your
country’s legal limit.
8.3.4 Access Control
Operation Mode -> Setup -> Access Control
The G.DUO allows you to define a list of MAC addresses that are allowed or denied to
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access the wireless network.
modes.
„
This function is available only for Access Point and Gateway
Access Control List
„
Disable: When selected, no MAC address filtering will be performed.
„
Allow list: When selected, data traffic from only the specified devices in the
table will be allowed in the network.
„
Deny list: When selected, data traffic from the devices specified in the table
will be denied/discarded by the network.
8.3.5 Associated Clients
Click on this to show the current wireless clients associated to the AP. It will display MAC
adderss, Trasmit packet, Tx rate, power saving, expire time, and signal strength.
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9. System Configuration Menu
9
9. System
Configuration
Menu
In this chapter, we will explain about System Configurations in web management interface.
Please be sure to read through Chapter 3’s “Introduction to Web Management” and “Initial
Configurations” first. .
9.1 Menu Structure
When you click on the “System Configuration” menu on the top menu bar, the following
screen will appear. The system configuration includes all non-wireless settings. We will
explain their functions here.
9.2 LAN Interface Setup
System Configurations>> LAN Interface Setup
This menu is where you can configuration all the aspect about LAN interface including IP
address, DHCP server settings..etc.
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9. System Configuration Menu
Device IP
Settings
DHCP
Settings
9.2.1 DHCP Settings
„
DHCP Service:
z
z
z
You can enable or disable DHCP server here.
Disable: Disable DHCP server
Client: The LAN interface will get IP address from DHCP server
Server(default); The G.DUO will act as DHCP server to provide IP
addresses to the clients on the LAN/Wireless interface. By default, the
DHCP server is on.
„
DHCP Client Range: You can define the IP pool from which the DHCP clients can
get IP address.. Click on “Show Clients” to see the current DHCP client table.
„
DHCP Release Time: You can define how long the G.DUO will reserve IP
address for a particular PC or Device here.
9.2.2 802.1d Spanning Tree
Enable this will prevent forming of network loop.
9.2.3 Clone MAC Address
You can change the MAC address of your LAN port to other value here.
9.2.4 Disable PING
If you do not wish the G.DUO to respond to remote PING command, please disable it
here.
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9. System Configuration Menu
9.2.5 Add DHCP Static Lease Client
If you want to lock IP address to a MAC address, you should add DHCP clients to the
“Static Lease Client”. Up to 40 entries can be entered. Below is the procedure for adding
an entry:
1.
Enter the MAC address of the device
2.
Enter the IP address of the device
3.
Click on the “Add” button
9.3 Time Settings
System Configuration ->Time Settings
You can set the NTP Time Server for your G.DUO’s internal clock here. You can use NTP
server function so your G.DUO will check with NTP to set time automatically upon each
startup. Thus, it prevents the clock losing track of time during reboot or power outage.
Below is the procedure to set your NTP server
1. Check the “Enable NTP Client Update”
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9. System Configuration Menu
2.
3.
4.
Select your time Zone
Select your NTP server
Click on “Apply Change”
9.4 Password Settings
System Configuration -> Password Settings
The G.DUO’s password protection is turned off by default. To enable password protection
or change password, just enter your username and password, and click on “Apply Change”
button.
9.5 System Management
System Configuration -> System Management
In this page, administrator can change the management parameters and disable/enable
management interface.
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9. System Configuration Menu
CLI (Command Line Interface):
You can enable or disable Telnet and SSH management interface from here.
Public Key Upload: You can upload your public for the SSH authentication here.
System Timeout Value: This is the time the AP will wait when there is no configuration
activity, then it will log out the user. We strongly recommend to leave the value at zero.
9.6 SNMP Settings
System Configuration -> SNMP Settings
The G.DUO’s SNMP management is OFF by default. You should come to this page to
enable the SNMP management. The G.DUO supports RFC-1213MIB and SNMPv2 MIB.
„
System Name: A name that you assign to your G.DUO. It is an alphanumeric string of
up to 30 characters.
„
Read Community: If you intend the router to be managed from a remote SNMP
management station, you need to configure a read-only “community string” for
read-only operation. The community string is an alphanumeric string of up to 15
characters.
„
Read/Write Community: For read-write operation, you need to configure a write
“community string”.
„
Trap Server:
A trap server is a remote SNMP management station where special SNMP trap
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9. System Configuration Menu
messages are generated (by the router) and sent to in the network.
up to 3 trap servers in the system.
You can define
9.7 Watchdog
System Configuration -> Watchdog
The Ping Watchdog will ping remote IP addresses to make sure the wireless connection is
active, if not, it can either reconnect or reboot.
To prevent the AP from power recycling,
the PING watchdog will start 10 minutes after power up to prevent power recycle problem.
„
Watch Interval: means: "How often the CPE will PING". For example, it will PING
once every "1" minute.
„
Watch Host: This is the IP address for which the Watchdog will ping.
„
Watchdog Actions: if the Watch Host fail to respond to PING. Then one of the
action below will be taken.
„ Reconnect: the G.DUO will attempt to re-establish the connection.
„ Reboot: the G.DUO will do a power recycle.
9.7.1 Firmware Upgrade
System Configuration -> Firmware Upgrade
You can upgrade the firmware of your G.DUO (the software that controls your G.DUO’s
operation). Normally, this is done when a new version of firmware offers new features that
you want, or solves problems that you have encountered with the current version.
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9. System Configuration Menu
„
Upgrade Firmware:
To update the G.DUO firmware, first download the firmware from AirLive web site to
your local disk. Please do not use the firmware for Emergency Upgrade, it might
damage your AP!. Then from the above screen enter the path and filename of the
firmware file (or click Browse to locate the firmware file). Next, Click the Upgrade
button to start.
The new firmware will be loaded to your G.DUO. After a message appears telling you
that the operation is completed, you need to reset the system to have the new firmware
take effect.
Do not power off the device while upgrading the firmware.
It is recommended that you do not upgrade your G.DUO unless the
new firmware has new features you need or if it has a fix to a problem
that you’ve encountered.
9.7.2 Configuration Save and Restore
System Configuration -> Configuration Save and Restore
The G.DUO can save and restore the settings to a file. In addition, it has the unique
capability to restore only the network or wireless settings. This makes changes of wireless
settings across the entire network of AP much easier.
You can save system configuration settings to a file, and later download it back to the
G.DUO by following the steps.
Step 1
Select Configuration Save and Restore from the System Configurations menu.
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9. System Configuration Menu
Step 2
Click on “Save to” and Enter the path of the configuration file to save-to.
Restore Setting:
Step 1: Choose the Recovery Options
‹ All: Restore all settings
‹ Networks: Only restore the network parameters, not including wireless
‹ Wireless: Only restore the wireless settings.
Step 2:
Enter the file name in the “Load Settings from File” field.
button to location the location of the file.
Step3:
Click on “Upload” button to restore settings.
Or click on “Browse”
9.8 Factory Default
System Configuration -> Factory Default
You can reset the configuration of your G.DUO to the factory default settings.
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10. Device Status Menu
10
10. Device
Status Menu
In this chapter, we will explain the “Device Status” menu in the web management interface.
Before you read this chapter, please make sure to read through chapter 3 on “Introduction
to Web Management Interface.
10.1 Menu Structure
When you click on the “Device Status” on the top menu bar, the sub menu for device status
will appear.
10.2 Device Information
This page shows the general information about G.DUO such as Uptime, Firmware version,
Wireless Interface…etc. Below are some additional explanations on some status
information of this page:
„
Uptime This displays the time since system last boot up. This is a good indication
for how long the system has been alive.
„
Firmware version: The first G.DUO firmware release is 1.00e10. In general,
AirLive will refer to its firmware as exx (such as e10) version on the release note
„
Wireless Interface 1: This page displays the current settings and status of the Radio 1.
It include the BSSID and connection status. The BSSID is also the wireless MAC
address that is needed for the WDS entry.
„
Wireless Interface 1: This page displays the current settings and status of the Radio 2.
It include the BSSID and connection status. It also indicates the number of wireless
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10. Device Status Menu
clients in AP
„
WAN Configuration: WAN configuration tells you the current status of WAN port
such as IP address and connection status.
10.3 Statistic
This page shows the sent and received packet information for Radio1, Radio2, LAN, and
WAN interface.
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10. Device Status Menu
10.4 Client Table (ARP Table)
This table is also known as ARP table. It will show all wireless and wired device
connected to the G.DUO. If you want to look at the wireless clients only, you can go to the
“Wireless Settings” page in AP or Gateway mode for “Show Client” button.
10.5 Log
The log function is where you can check for error messages for diagnostic purpose.
„
„
Enable Log: Check this box to enable log function.
„
All: register all logs
„
Wireless: register wireless log only
„
DoS: register DoS attack log only
Enable Remote Log: This will enable the Syslog function. All logs will be sent to the
Syslog server
„
Log Server IP address:
Enter the Syslog server IP address.
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11. Emergency Firmware Recovery
11
11. Emergency
Firmware
Recovery
The G.DUO features emergency firmware upgrade function that can restore your AP from a
firmware crashed. If you can’t access your AP anymore, please first try to restore the
setting to default by holding the RESET button (in the back) for more than 7 seconds. You
should be able to find the AP at 192.168.1.254. If you can’t find it, then please perform the
emergency upgrade. The Emergency Upgrade requires special G.DUO firmware,
please visit www.airlive.com->support->download and type “G.DUO” to the download page.
How Emergency Upgrade Works?
G.DUO’s flash memory is divided into “firmware” and “bootloader” area. The bootloader
area is protected from writing and has a built-in emergency web server. Therefore, the AP
can be recovered from emergency web server after a firmware crash. The emergency
web server is enabled when AP is forced into emergency upgrade mode, it’s IP will be
changed to 192.168.1.6.
Firmware Area
Flash Memory
Bootloader Area
Emergency
Web Server
Procedure to Restore the AP using Emergency Upgrade
1. Please connect your PC directly to the LAN 2, LAN3, or LAN4 port of the AP. Do not
connect to LAN1.
2. set your PC’s IP address to 192.168.1.50
3. Before connecting the power, please press and holding the “Reset” button(in the back of
the AP). Then plug in the power. Keep press and hold the Reset button until the
“Power” LED goes off(about10 seconds)
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11. Emergency Firmware Recovery
Fig 1-2 : Press and hold the reset button while plugging in the power.
6.
Open a browser; type “192.168.1.6” for the website address. The following screen
should show up
7.
Click the “Browse” button, select and open the correct firmware file. This firmware file
is different from the Web upgradeable firmware. Please go to www.airlive.com to
G.DUO’s support page and download the special firmware for emergency upgrade.
8.
Click on “UPGRADE” button.
completed.
9.
Wait for AP to finish reboot. Open the web browser, and type “192.168.1.254”.
should be able to login into the normal Web UI.
Do not touch the AP or PC until the upgrade is
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12. Frequent Asked Questions
12
12. Frequent
Asked
Questions
In this chapter, we will address some frequent asked questions about G.DUO
Question:
Why is there no password protection for G.DUO?
Answer:
By default, the password protection is turned off for G.DUO. Please go to
“System Configuration -> Password Settings”, then enter a new set of
username and password to turn it on.
===================================================================
Question:
I forgot my password or the IP address of G.DUO.
Answer:
Please restore your settings to default by press the reset button for more than
7 seconds. You should be able to find your G.DUO at 192.168.1.254 with
password “airlive”.
====================================================================
Question:
Why am I not getting good performance when I am running 2 radios at the
same time?
Answer:
G.DUO’s 2 radios system require special attention in regards to mutual
interference. It is recommended that you take the following steps to ensure
best performance for a 2-radio system
1. Please make sure the 2 radios’ channels are set as far apart as possible.
For example, one at channel 1 and one at channel 11
2. Please adjust the angle of the antenna or the orientation of the AP to get
the best performance. The best performance is about 30 degree from
horizontal as indicated in the graph below.
3.
Do not increase the TX output power unless one or both radio are using
directional antenna.
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12. Frequent Asked Questions
====================================================================
Question:
When I wan to use “Site Survey” tool to connect with a AP that has no
encryption, why does the G.DUO report “encryption type mismatch!” and ask
me to configure the wireless security settings?
Answer:
When you press “Connect” from site survey, the G.DUO will first check if the
current wireless encryption setting is correct. If not, it will ask you to modify
the setting. Therefore, if your current wireless settings has encryption and
the new AP you want to associate does not use encryption, then the G.DUO
will report the mismatch. In this case, simple select “Disable” in the
encryption field and press “Apply Change”.
====================================================================
Question:
When I change my wireless operation mode, why can’t I find my AP anymore?
Answer:
This situation can have 2 possibilities..
1.
By Default, the DHCP server is turned on in WISP+AP and Gateway+AP
mode. In other modes, the DHCP server is turned off. If you get your
IP address automatically, then when you change to Dual AP, Client+AP,
or WDS+AP modes. Your PC will not be able to get IP address from
DHCP server anymore, therefore, you should set the IP address
manually.
2.
When you change the mode to WISP+AP or Gateway+AP mode, the
GDUO’s IP address might change to 192.168.1.254. Therefore; if you
can’t find the device’s IP in these modes, please set your PC’s IP
address to automatically get from DHCP server, then you should find the
G.DUO at 192.168.1.254.
====================================================================
Question:
Why can’t I get Telnet or SSH access?
Answer:
The Telnet or SSH interface are turned off by default. Please go to “System
Configuration-> System Management” menu to enable them.
====================================================================
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12. Frequent Asked Questions
Question:
Why can’t I get SNMP access?
Answer:
The SNMP management interface is turned off by default. Please go to
“System Configuration-> SNMP Management” menu to enable it.
====================================================================
Question:
Where is the POE port for G.DUO?
Answer:
The PoE system used for G.DUO is 12V Passive PoE. LAN1 is also used as
the passive PoE port.
====================================================================
Question:
Where is the signal survey function that displays the signal strength
continuously for antenna alignment?
Answer:
The “Signal Survey” function is inside the Site Survey function. After the site
survey, please select a SSID and press the “Signal Survey” button. The
signal strength is indicated by percentage, not by SIGNAL STRENGTH.
The higher the number, the stronger the signal.
====================================================================
Question:
Why can’t I perform emergency upgrade correctly?
Answer:
1. Please make sure you are connecting your PC to LAN2, LAN3, or LAN4.
Do not connect to LAN 1.
2. You need special firmware for emergency upgrade. Please visit
www.airlive.com to download the file.
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13. Specifications
13
13. Specifications
The specification of G.DUO is subject to change without notice.
information with caution.
Please use the
13.1 Hardware Features
13.1.1 General Hardware Feature
„
Realtek Dual 11g/b Chipset
„
4MB Flash, 32MB SDRAM
„
RoHS compliant
„
4 10/100 Mbps Ethernet Port with Auto MDI/MDI-X support
„
12V Passive PoE Port (LAN1)
„
WAN Port (LAN1)
„
Radio1: 26dBm(South America) or 20dBm(EU) TX output power
„
Radio2: 24dBm(South America) or 20dBm(EU) TX output power
„
7 LED indicators
„
Wall Mount Screw Holes
„
Switching DC12V Power adapter
„
Reset Button
„
2 x R-SMA antenna conectors
13.2.1 Power Supply
„
Power Adapter Voltage : input 100~240Vac/50~60Hz , output 12V/1A
„
Advance Passive PoE (Accept 12 to 24 volts)
13.2.2 Dimension and Weight
„
Dimension: 154 x 130 x 316 mm
„
AP Unit Weight(Approximate): 280g
„
Package Weight(Approximate): 686g
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13. Specifications
13.2 Radio Specifications
13.2.1 Frequency Band
„
USA (FCC) 11 Channels: 2.412GHz~2.462GHz
„
Europe (ETSI) 13 Channels : 2.412GHz~2.472GHz d
13.2.3 Rate and Modulation
„
Data Rate: 54, 48, 36, 24, 18,11, 5.5, 2, 1 Mbps
„
Modulation
„
11g Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (64QAM, 16QAM, QPSK,
BPSK)
„
11b Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (CCK, DQPSK, DBPSK)
13.2.4 TX Output Power
Radio1:
„
South America: 26dBm (11b)
„
South America: 20dBm (11g)
„
EU: 20dBm(11b)
„
EU: 20dBm(11g)
Radio2:
„
South America: 24dBm (11b)
„
South America: 20dBm (11g)
„
EU: 20dBm(11b)
„
EU: 20dBm(11g)
13.2.5 Receiver Sensitivity
„
RF1
Data Rate
1 Mbps
2 Mbps
5.5 Mbps
6 Mbps
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SIGNAL
STRENGTH (dB)
-92
-91
-88
-86
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13. Specifications
9 Mbps
11 Mbps
12 Mbps
18 Mbps
24 Mbps
36 Mbps
48 Mbps
54 Mbps
„
-86
-85
-85
-84
-80
-78
-73
-72
RF2
Data Rate
1 Mbps
2 Mbps
5.5 Mbps
6 Mbps
9 Mbps
11 Mbps
12 Mbps
18 Mbps
24 Mbps
36 Mbps
48 Mbps
54 Mbps
SIGNAL
STRENGTH (dB)
-90
-88.5
-88
-83
-83
-84
-83
-82
-81
-77
-74
-71
13.2.6 Supported WLAN Mode
„
WISP + AP Mode
„
Dual AP Mode
„
Client + AP Mode
„
Gateway + AP Mode
„
WDS + AP Mode
13.3 Software Features
Operation Modes
„
WISP + AP Mode
„
Dual AP Mode
„
Client + AP Mode
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13. Specifications
„
Gateway + AP Mode
„
WDS + AP Mode
Management Interface
„
Web HTTP
„
Secured Web (HTTPS)
„
Telnet (CLI)
„
SSH/SSH2 (Secured Shell)
„
SNMP v1/v2 Support
„
„
„
„
SNMP Read/Write Community String
SNMP Trap support
RFC-1213 MIB Support
SNMPv2 MIB
Advance Functions
„
Site Survey with Signal Strength Indicator
„
Bandwidth Control / Traffic Shaping
„
Wi-Fi, WPA compatible interoperability
„
WPA with PSK/TKIP/AES support ,WPA2 support
„
Privacy Separator support
„
Hide SSID Support
„
Support adjustable output power
„
ACK Timeout Adjustment
„
Bootloader Protection and Emergency Firmware Upload Code
„
Radius Supported
„
Up to 40 Static DHCP entries
„
Firmware upgrade and configuration backup via Web
„
Partial Configuration Backup and Restore
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14. Wireless Network Glossary
14
14. Wireless
Network
Glossary
The wireless network glossary contains explanation or information about common terms
used in wireless networking products. Some of information in this glossary might be
outdated, please use with caution.
802.3ad
802.3ad is an IEEE standard for bonding or aggregating multiple Ethernet ports into one
virtual port (also known as trunking) to increase the bandwidth.
802.3af
This is the PoE (Power over Ethernet) standard by IEEE committee. 803.af uses 48V
POE standard that can deliver up to 100 meter distance over Ethernet cable.
802.11b
International standard for wireless networking that operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency band
(2.4 GHz to 2.4835 GHz) and provides a throughput up to 11 Mbps.
802.1d STP
Spanning Tree Protocol. It is an algorithm to prevent network from forming. The STP
protocol allows net work to provide a redundant link in the event of a link failure. It is
advise to turn on this option for multi-link bridge network.
802.11d
Also known as “Global Roaming”. 802.11d is a standard for use in countries where
systems using other standards in the 802.11 family are not allowed to operate.
802.11e
The IEEE QoS standard for prioritizing traffic of the VoIP and multimedia applications.
The WMM is based on a subset of the 802.11e.
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14. Wireless Network Glossary
802.11g
A standard provides a throughput up to 54 Mbps using OFDM technology. It also
operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency band as 802.11b. 802.11g devices are backward
compatible with 802.11b devices.
802.11i
The IEEE standard for wireless security. 802.11i standard includes TKIP, CCMP, and
AES encryption to improve wireless security. It is also know as WPA2.
802.1x
802.1x is a security standard for wired and wireless LANs. In the 802.1x parlance, there are
usually supplicants (client), authenticator (switch or AP), and authentication server (radius
server) in the network. When a supplicants request a service, the authenticator will pass
the request and wait for the authentication server to grant access and register accounting.
The 802.1x is the most widely used method of authentication by WISP.
Adhoc
A Peer-to-Peer wireless network. An Adhoc wireless network do not use wireless AP or
router as the central hub of the network. Instead, wireless client are connected directly to
each other. The disadvantage of Adhoc network is the lack of wired interface to Internet
connections. It is not recommended for network more than 2 nodes.
Access Point (AP)
The central hub of a wireless LAN network. Access Points have one or more Ethernet
ports that can connect devices (such as Internet connection) for sharing. Multi-function
Access Point can also function as an Ethernet client, wireless bridge, or repeat signals from
other AP. Access Points typically have more wireless functions comparing to wireless
routers.
ACK Timeout
Acknowledgement Timeout Windows. When a packet is sent out from one wireless station
to the other, it will waits for an Acknowledgement frame from the remote station. The
station will only wait for a certain amount of time, this time is called the ACK timeout. If the
ACK is NOT received within that timeout period then the packet will be re-transmitted
resulting in reduced throughput. If the ACK setting is too high then throughput will be lost
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14. Wireless Network Glossary
due to waiting for the Ack Window to timeout on lost packets. If the ACK setting is too low
then the ACK window will have expired and the returning packet will be dropped, greatly
lowering throughput. By having the ability to adjust the ACK setting we can effectively
optimize the throughput over long distance links. This is especially true for 802.11a and
802.11g networks. Setting the correct ACK timeout value need to consider 3 factors:
distance, AP response time, and interference. The G.DUO provide ACK adjustment
capability in form of either distance or direct input. When you enter the distance
parameter, the G.DUO will automatically calculate the correct ACK timeout value.
Bandwidth Management (Traffic Control)
Bandwidth Management controls the transmission speed of a port, user, IP address, and
application. Router can use bandwidth control to limit the Internet connection speed of
individual IP or Application. It can also guarantee the speed of certain special application
or privileged IP address - a crucial feature of QoS (Quality of Service) function.
Bootloader
Bootloader is the under layering program that will start at the power-up before the device
loads firmware. It is similar to BIOS on a personal computer. When a firmware crashed,
you might be able to recover your device from bootloader.
Bridge
A product that connects 2 different networks that uses the same protocol. Wireless
bridges are commonly used to link network across remote buildings. For wireless
application, there are 2 types of Bridges. WDS Bridge can be used in Point-to-Point or
Point-to-Multipoint topology. Bridge Infrastructure works with AP mode to form a star
topology.
Cable and Connector Loss: During wireless design and deployment, it is important to
factor in the cable and connector loss. Cable and connector loss will reduce the output
power and receiver sensitivity of the radio at connector end. The longer the cable length is,
the more the cable loss. Cable loss should be subtracted from the total output power
during distance calculation. For example, if the cable and connector loss is 3dBm and the
output power is 20dBm; the output power at the cable end is only 17dBm.
Client
Client means a network device or utility that receives service from host or server. A client
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14. Wireless Network Glossary
device means end user device such as wireless cards or wireless CPE.
CPE Devices
CPE stands for Customer Premises Equipment. A CPE is a device installed on the end
user's side to receive network services. For example, on an ADSL network, the ADSL
modem/router on the subscriber's home is the CPE device. Wireless CPE means a
complete Wireless (usually an AP with built-in Antenna) that receive wireless broadband
access from the WISP. The opposite of CPE is CO.
CTS
Clear To Send. A signal sent by a device to indicate that it is ready to receive data.
DDNS
Dynamic Domain Name System. An algorithm that allows the use of dynamic IP address
for hosting Internet Server. A DDNS service provides each user account with a domain
name. A router with DDNS capability has a built-in DDNS client that updates the IP
address information to DDNS service provider whenever there is a change. Therefore,
users can build website or other Internet servers even if they don't have fixed IP
connection.
DHCP
Dynamic Hosting Configuration Protocol. A protocol that enables a server to dynamically
assign IP addresses. When DHCP is used, whenever a computer logs onto the network, it
automatically gets an IP address assigned to it by DHCP server. A DHCP server can
either be a designated PC on the network or another network device, such as a router.
DMZ
Demilitarized Zone. When a router opens a DMZ port to an internal network device, it opens
all the TCP/UDP service ports to this particular device. The feature is used commonly for
setting up H.323 VoIP or Multi-Media servers.
DNS
A program that translates URLs to IP addresses by accessing a database maintained on a
collection of Internet servers.
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14. Wireless Network Glossary
Domain Name
The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Domain Names always have 2 or more
parts, separated by dots. In www.airlive.com, the "airlive.com" is the doman name.
DoS Attack
Denial of Service. A type of network attack that floods the network with useless traffic.
Many DoS attacks, such as the Ping of Death and Teardrop attacks, exploit limitations in
the TCP/IP protocols.
Encryption
Encoding data to prevent it from being read by unauthorized people. The common
wireless encryption schemes are WEP, WPA, and WPA2.
ESSID (SSID)
The identification name of an 802.11 wireless network. Since wireless network has no
physical boundary liked wired Ethernet network, wireless LAN needs an identifier to
distinguish one network from the other. Wireless clients must know the SSID in order to
associate with a WLAN network. Hide SSID feature disable SSID broadcast,
so users must know the correct SSID in order to join a wireless network.
Firewall
A system that secures a network and prevents access by unauthorized users. Firewalls can
be software, router, or gateway. Firewalls can prevent unrestricted access into a network,
as well as restricting data from flowing out of a network.
Firmware
The program that runs inside embedded device such as router or AP. Many network
devices are firmware upgradeable through web interface or utility program.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol. A standard protocol for sending files between computers over a
TCP/IP network and the Internet.
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Fragment Threshold
Frame Size larger than this will be divided into smaller fragment. If there are interferences
in your area, lower this value can improve the performance. If there are not, keep this
parameter at higher value. The default size is 2346. You can try 1500, 1000, or 500
when there are interference around your network.
Gateway
In the global Internet network, the gateways are core routers that connect networks in
different IP subnet together. In a LAN environment with an IP sharing router, the gateway
is the router. In an office environment, gateway typically is a multi-function device that
integrates NAT, firewall, bandwidth management, and other security functions.
Hotspot
A place where you can access Wi-Fi service. The term hotspot has two meanings in
wireless deployment. One is the wireless infrastructure deployment, the other is the
Internet access billing system. In a hotspot system, a service provider typically need an
authentication and account system for billing purposes, and a wireless AP network to
provide access for customers.
IGMP Snooping
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is a Layer 3 protocol to report IP multicast
memberships to neighboring multicast switches and routers. IGMP snooping is a feature
that allows an Ethernet switch to "listen in" on the IGMP conversation between hosts and
routers. A switch support IGMP snooping has the possibility to avoid multicast traffic being
treated as broadcast traffic; therefore, reducing the overall traffic on the network.
Infrastructure Mode
A wireless network that is built around one or more access points to provide wireless clients
access to wired LAN / Internet service. The opposite of Infrastructure mode is Adhoc
mode.
IP address
IP (Internet Protocol) is a layer-3 network protocol that is the basis of all Internet
communication. An IP address is 32-bit number that identifies each sender or receiver of
information that is sent across the Internet. An IP address has two parts: an identifier of a
particular network on the Internet and an identifier of the particular device (which can be a
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server or a workstation) within that network. The new IPv6 specification supports 128-bit
IP address format.
IPsec
IP Security. A set of protocols developed by the IETF to support secure exchange of
packets at the IP layer. IPsec has been deployed widely to implement Virtual Private
Networks (VPNs). IPsec supports two encryption modes: Transport and Tunnel.
Transport mode encrypts only the data of each packet, but leaves the header untouched.
The more secure Tunnel mode encrypts both the header and the payload. On the receiving
side, an IPSec-compliant device decrypts each packet.
LACP (802.3ad) Trunking
The 802.3ad Link Aggregation standard defines how to combine the several Ethernet ports
into one high-bandwidth port to increase the transmission speed. It is also known as port
trunking. Both device must set the trunking feature to work.
MAC
Media Access Control. MAC address provides layer-2 identification for Networking Devices.
Each Ethernet device has its own unique address. The first 6 digits are unique for each
manufacturer. When a network device have MAC access control feature, only the devices
with the approved MAC address can connect with the network.
Mbps
Megabits Per Second. One million bits per second; a unit of measurement for data
transmission
MESH
Mesh is an outdoor wireless technology that uses Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and
Wireless Distribution system to achieve self-forming, self-healing, and self-configuring
outdoor network. MESH network are able to take the shortest path to a destination that
does not have to be in the line of site.
MIMO
Multi In Multi Out. A Smart Antenna technology designed to increase the coverage and
performance of a WLAN network. In a MIMO device, 2 or more antennas are used to
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increase the receiver sensitivity and to focus available power at intended Rx.
NAT
Network Address Translation. A network algorithm used by Routers to enables several
PCs to share single IP address provided by the ISP.
The IP that a router gets from the
ISP side is called Real IP, the IP assigned to PC under the NAT environment is called
Private IP.
Node
A network connection end point, typically a computer.
Packet
A unit of data sent over a network.
Passphrase
Used much like a password, a passphrase simplifies the WEP encryption process by
automatically generating the WEP encryption keys for the company products.
POE
Power over Ethernet. A standard to deliver both power and data through one single
Ethernet cable (UTP/STP). It allows network device to be installed far away from power
ource. A POE system typically compose of 2 main component: DC Injector (Base Unit)
and Splitter(Terminal Unit). The DC injector combines the power and data, and the splitter
separates the data and power back. A PoE Access Point or CPE has the splitter built-in to
the device. The IEEE 802.3af is a POE spec that uses 48 volt to deliver power up to 100
meter distance.
Port
This word has 2 different meaning for networking.
z The hardware connection point on a computer or networking device used for plugging
in a cable or an adapter.
z The virtual connection point through which a computer uses a specific application on a
server.
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PPPoE
Point-to- Point Protocol over Ethernet. PPPoE relies on two widely accepted standards:
PPP and Ethernet. PPPoE is a specification for connecting the users on an Ethernet to the
Internet through a common broadband medium, such as a single DSL line, wireless device
or cable modem.
PPTP
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol: A VPN protocol developed by PPTP Forum. With
PPTP, users can dial in to their corporate network via the Internet. If users require data
encryption when using the Windows PPTP client, the remote VPN server must support
MPPE (Microsoft Point-To-Point Encryption Protocol) encryption. PPTP is also used by
some ISP for user authentication, particularly when pairing with legacy Alcatel / Thomson
ADSL modem.
Preamble Type
Preamble are sent with each wireless packet transmit for transmission status. Use the
long preamble type for better compatibility. Use the short preamble type for better
performance
Rate Control
Ethernet switches' function to control the upstream and downstream speed of an individual
port. Rate Control management uses "Flow Control" to limit the speed of a port.
Therefore, the Ethernet adapter must also have the flow control enabled. One way to
force the adapter's flow control on is to set a port to half-duplex mode.
RADIUS
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service. An authentication and accounting system
used by many Internet Service Providers (ISPs). When you dial in to the ISP, you must
enter your username and password. This information is passed to a RADIUS server, which
checks that the information is correct, and then authorizes access to the ISP system.
Radius typically uses port 1812 and port 1813 for authentication and accounting port.
Though not an official standard, the RADIUS specification is maintained by a working group
of the IETF.
Receiver Sensitivity
Receiver sensitivity means how sensitive is the radio for receiving signal.
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slower the transmission speed, the more sensitive the radio is. The unit for Receiver
Sensitivity is in dB; the lower the absolute value is, the higher the signal strength. For
example, -50dB is higher than -80dB.
RJ-45
Standard connectors for Twisted Pair copper cable used in Ethernet networks. Although
they look similar to standard RJ-11 telephone connectors, RJ-45 connectors can have up to
eight wires, whereas telephone connectors have only four.
Router
An IP sharing router is a device that allows multiple PCs to share one single broadband
connection using NAT technology. A wireless router is a device that combines the
functions of wireless Access Point and the IP sharing router.
SIGNAL STRENGTH
Receiver Sensitivity Index. SIGNAL STRENGTH is a value to show the Receiver
Sensitivity of the remote wireless device. In general, remote APs with stronger signal will
display higher SIGNAL STRENGTH values. For SIGNAL STRENGTH value, the smaller
the absolute value is, the stronger the signal. For example, “-50db” has stronger signal
than “-80dB”. For outdoor connection, signal stronger than -60dB is considered as a
good connection.
RTS
Request To Send. A packet sent when a computer has data to transmit. The computer will
wait for a CTS (Clear To Send) message before sending data.
RTS Threshold
RTS (Request to Send).
The RTS/CTS(clear to send) packet will be send before a frame
if the packet frame is larger than this value. Lower this value can improve the
performance if there are many clients in your network. You can try 1500, 1000 or 500
when there are many clients in your AP’s network.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol. A set of protocols for managing complex
networks. The SNMP network contains 3 key elements: managed devices, agents, and
network-management systems (NMSs). Managed devices are network devices that
content SNMP agents. SNMP agents are programs that reside SNMP capable device's
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firmware to provide SNMP configuration service. The NMS typically is a PC based
software such as HP Openview that can view and manage SNMP network device remotely.
SSH
Developed by SSH Communications Security Ltd., Secure Shell is a program to log into
another computer over a network, to execute commands in a remote machine, and to move
files from one machine to another. It provides strong authentication and secure
communications over insecure channels. It is a replacement for rlogin, rsh, rcp, and rdist.
SSL
Secure Sockets Layer. It is a popular encryption scheme used by many online retail and
banking sites to protect the financial integrity of transactions. When an SSL session
begins, the server sends its public key to the browser. The browser then sends a randomly
generated secret key back to the server in order to have a secret key exchange for that
session. SSL VPN is also known as Web VPN. The HTTPS and SSH management
interface use SSL for data encryption.
Subnet Mask
An address code mask that determines the size of the network. An IP subnet are
determined by performing a BIT-wise AND operation between the IP address and the
subnet mask. By changing the subnet mask, you can change the scope and size of a
network.
Subnetwork or Subnet
Found in larger networks, these smaller networks are used to simplify addressing between
numerous computers. Subnets connect to the central network through a router, hub or
gateway. Each individual wireless LAN will probably use the same subnet for all the local
computers it talks to.
TCP
A layer-4 protocol used along with the IP to send data between computers over the Internet.
While IP takes care of handling the actual delivery of the data, TCP takes care of keeping
track of the packets that a message is divided into for efficient routing through
the Internet.
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TX Output Power
Transmit Output Power. The TX output power means the transmission output power of
the radio. Normally, the TX output power level limit for 2.4GHz 11g/b is 20dBm at the
antenna end. The output power limit for 5GHz 802.11a is 30dBm at the antenna end..
UDP
User Datagram Protocol. A layer-4 network protocol for transmitting data that does not
require acknowledgement from the recipient of the data.
Upgrade
To replace existing software or firmware with a newer version.
Upload
To send a file to the Internet or network device.
URL
Uniform Resource Locator.
The address of a file located on the Internet.
VPN
Virtual Private Network. A type of technology designed to increase the security of
information transferred over the Internet. VPN creates a private encrypted tunnel from the
end user's computer, through the local wireless network, through the Internet, all the way to
the corporate network.
WAN
Wide Area Network. A communication system of connecting PCs and other computing
devices across a large local, regional, national or international geographic area. A WAN
port on the network device means the port (or wireless connection) that is connected to the
Internet side of the network topology.
WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy. A wireless encryption protocol. WEP is available in 40-bit (64-bit),
108-bit (128-bit) or 152-bit (Atheros proprietary) encryption modes.
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Wi-Fi
Wireless Fidelity. An interoperability certification for wireless local area network (LAN)
products based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. The governing body for Wi-Fi is called
Wi-Fi Alliance (also known as WECA).
WiMAX
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. A Wireless Metropolitan Network
technology that complies with IEEE 802.16 and ETSI Hiperman standards. The orginal
802.16 standard call for operating frequency of 10 to 66Ghz spectrum. The 802.16a
amendment extends the original standard into spectrum between 2 and 11 Ghz. 802.16d
increase data rates to between 40 and 70 Mbps/s and add support for MIMO antennas,
QoS, and multiple polling technologies. 802.16e adds mobility features, narrower
bandwidth (a max of 5 mhz), slower speed and smaller antennas. Mobility is allowed up to
40 mph.
WDS
Wireless Distribution System. WDS defines how multiple wireless Access Point or
Wireless Router can connect together to form one single wireless network without using
wired uplinks. WDS associate each other by MAC address, each device
WLAN
Wireless Local Area Network. A type of local-area network that uses high-frequency radio
waves rather than wires to communicate between nodes. The most popular standard for
WLAN is the 802.11 standards.
WMM
Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) is a standard to prioritize traffic for multimedia applications. The
WMM prioritize traffic\ on Voice-over-IP (VoIP), audio, video, and streaming media as well
as traditional IP data over the AP.
WMS
Wireless Management System. An utility program to manage multiple wireless
AP/Bridges.
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WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access. It is an encryption standard proposed by WiFi for advance
protection by utilizing a password key (TKIP) or certificate. It is more secure than WEP
encryption. The WPA-PSK utilizes pre-share key for encryption/authentication.
WPA2
Wi-Fi Protected Access 2. WPA2 is also known as 802.11i. It improves on the WPA
security with CCMP and AES encryption. The WPA2 is backward compatible with WPA.
WPA2-PSK utilizes pre-share key for encryption/authentication.
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