ADIC FCR 250 Technical data

AMASS Overview
AMASS Version 5.3
August 2002
6-00026-01 Rev A
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NOTES
Contents
Preface
Purpose of This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Who Should Read This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How This Book is Organized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Online Archiving with AMASS
P-3
P-3
P-3
P-4
1
Using AMASS to Archive Your Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3
Archive versus Backup and Restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4
Files Viewed as Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4
Documentation Set Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-5
Benefits of Using AMASS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-6
Database Improves Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-6
Faster Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-7
Less Media Contention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-7
Automated Backups via Cron Job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-8
Design Prevents Thrashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-9
Cache Optimizes Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-9
Configurable Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-10
Virtually Unlimited File System Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-10
Volume Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-11
Uniform Media in Numerical and Cleaning Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-13
Disparate Media in the Space Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-13
6-00025-01 Rev A
Contents
v
Accessing Storage Devices
Design Maintains Data Integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-13
File Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-14
Database Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-14
Library Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-14
Volume Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-14
Increased Throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-15
Scattered Writes Improves Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-15
Compression and Block Size Improves Throughput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-16
Tape Streaming Improves Write Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-17
Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-18
Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-18
Scripts and Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-18
Automatic Drive Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-18
Exceptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-18
Flexible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-20
Third-party Backup Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-20
Mixed Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-20
Optional Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-22
Offline Media Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-22
Text Import and Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-22
From the Source AMASS System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-22
At the Target AMASS System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-23
Volume Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-25
CD Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-26
DataMgr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-26
Infinite File Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-27
vi
Contents
6-00025-01 Rev A
Accessing Storage Devices
Accessing the Storage Network
2
Local and Network Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3
Local Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3
Network Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3
Network File System (NFS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-4
Remote File Copy (RCP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5
Telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5
Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5
Supported Libraries and Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6
Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-6
Fibre Channel Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-8
Technical Support
3
Phone Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-3
Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-3
Solutions Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-3
Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-4
Contact Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-4
Related Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-5
Secured Web Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-6
Year 2000 Compliant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-6
Glossary
6-00025-01 Rev A
Contents
vii
Accessing Storage Devices
Index
viii
Contents
6-00025-01 Rev A
P
Preface
AMASS Overview
NOTES
P-2
Preface
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
Purpose of
This Book
This book provides an introduction or high-level summary of
AMASS, ADIC’s Archival Management and Storage System
software application.
Who Should
Read This
Book
This book is written for prospective customers as well as for the
system administrator who will be using and maintaining
AMASS.
How This
Book is
Organized
This book contains the following chapters:
Chapter 1: Online Archiving with AMASS — The benefits
of using AMASS to archive your data
Chapter 2: Accessing the Storage Network — Supported:
access protocols, system security, storage devices, connectivity,
and Fibre Channel
Chapter 3: Technical Support — Technical support available
to you
Glossary — Defines terms
6-00026-01 Rev A
Preface
P-3
AMASS Overview
Conventions
The conventions used throughout the AMASS technical books
are listed below:
Convention
Example
The word “library” usually includes “jukebox”
and “standalone drive” and is a generic way to
reference a storage device.
If using HP SunSpot jukeboxes, install patch
1234.
Screen text, file names, program names, and
commands are in Courier font.
Request to add a new volume:
Volume group will be “20”
Volume position will be “A123”
The root prompt is shown as a number
symbol.
# su root
What you should type in is shown in Courier
bold font.
bulkinlet 1,2-10,21,23
Site-specific variables are in a Times italics
font.
tar -xvf tapedevicename
A backward slash ( \ ) denotes the input is
continued onto the next line because the
printed page is not wide enough to
accommodate the line.
# rsh nodename -n dd \
if=/cdrompath/amass/load.tar\
bs=20b | tar xvBfb - 20
(Type the entire command without the
backward slash.)
Pressing <Return> after each command is
assumed.
A menu name with an arrow refers to a
sequence of menus.
P-4
Preface
Edit Policy —> Add Library
6-00026-01 Rev A
1
Online
Archiving
with AMASS
AMASS Overview
NOTES
1-2
Online Archiving with AMASS
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
Using AMASS
to Archive
Your Data
The Archival Management and Storage System (AMASS) is a
management tool for your storage solution.
Files are archived to media stored in robotic libraries,
jukeboxes, and standalone drives. The archived file system
managed by AMASS is supervised by a system administrator
who oversees the following components:
•
•
File System
-
Directory information
-
IO activity
Libraries, Jukeboxes, Standalone Drives
Status of elements
•
•
6-00026-01 Rev A
Drives
-
Dedicate drives for write-only or read/write
-
Toggle online and offline status of drives
-
Clean dirty drives
Media
-
Load, unload, and move media
-
Read offline media
-
Assign volume groups
-
Assign media to a home storage slot
-
Make media read-only or read/write
-
Delete files on media
Online Archiving with AMASS
1-3
AMASS Overview
Archive versus
Backup and
Restore
Backup and restore applications are usually an automatically
scheduled operation aimed at protecting original data against
any kind of loss or damage.
The goal of archiving is usually to conserve online storage
space. It is more cost effective to store infrequently accessed
data on lower cost media.
Files Viewed as
Online
When applications need to read from or write to archived files,
the files appear as a single, mounted file system on the UNIX
server.
Applications can read from the files or write to the files the
same way they would read or write to a hard disk. Therefore,
the extensive storage capabilities provided by storage hardware
appear as one large file system.
Although applications view their files as being located on the
UNIX server, in reality they are stored on multiple storage
system—or even on offline storage.
Enterprise Data
UNIX
Application
Server
IO Request
Her files
are online.
AMASS
His files are
in offline storage.
1-4
Online Archiving with AMASS
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
Documentation Set
Overview
The figure below provides an overview of an AMASS-managed
storage solution and a reference to other books in the AMASS
documentation set.
For library-specific information, refer to
Accessing Storage Devices.
Library
Offline Media
For system requirements and
installation steps, refer to
Installing AMASS.
SCSI-a
To use offline media,
refer to Managing the
AMASS File System.
ttached
/(root)
AMASS
cache
SCSIattach
Standalone Drive
ed
UNIX
Server
UNIX
Server
ne
For system administrative
tasks, refer to Managing the
AMASS File System.
two
rk
- at
t ac
he
d
To use standalone
drives, refer to
Accessing Storage
Devices.
Library
To configure AMASS
as a client of library
interface software,
refer to Accessing
Storage Devices.
To perform library sharing tasks, refer to
Installing AMASS.
6-00026-01 Rev A
Online Archiving with AMASS
1-5
AMASS Overview
Benefits of
Using AMASS
The management tool for your storage system should provide:
•
Performance
•
Data integrity
•
Ease-of-use
•
Flexibility
The benefits of using AMASS are described in the following
table:
Topic
Database
Improves
Performance
1-6
Page
Database Improves Performance
1-6
Design Prevents Thrashing
1-9
Cache Optimizes Requests
1-9
Virtually Unlimited File System Size
1-10
Design Maintains Data Integrity
1-13
Increased Throughput
1-15
Tools
1-18
Flexible
1-20
AMASS keeps a File System Database, resident on the UNIX
server’s hard disk, of attributes (commonly referred to as
metadata) describing the stored data. Attributes consist of
access time, user ID, block size, file size, and so forth. This
Database grows as files and directories are added to the file
system.
Online Archiving with AMASS
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
The following figure illustrates the concept of how the File
System Database maps the file system data to the volumes in
the library.
Volumes contain “real” data.
The File System Database contains metadata,
which includes the directory structure, file attributes,
media information, and storage information.
AMASS
File
System
Database
Inodes
Inodes
Inodes map the metadata to “real”
data found on the media.
UNIX Server
Faster Performance
Because the File System Database is resident on the server’s
hard disk, utilities and system calls operate quickly because
they access the Database instead of the actual files on the
library.
Basic commands such as directory listings (ls), changing the
working directory (cd), and even searching through part or all
of the file system for files of given attributes (find), operate on
the File System Database—not the volumes in the library.
Less Media
Contention
6-00026-01 Rev A
A secondary benefit of the disk-resident File System Database
is less media contention in the library when multiple users are
accessing the AMASS file system. Because only the actual read
and write system calls need to access the library, more
operations can be completed without waiting for media
changes.
Online Archiving with AMASS
1-7
AMASS Overview
Automated Backups
via Cron Job
Because the File System Database is extremely important, this
information must be protected. Consequently, the
amassbackup command, run from a cron job, regularly backs
up both the Database and the Journal. The Journal is a
transaction log of daily activity. This cron job is created when
AMASS is installed. The cron job backs up the Database and
Journal to a Backup Volume at 3 a.m. using the following
schedule:
•
First day of the month—Full Backup
•
All other days—Partial Backup
After the backup completes, AMASS truncates the Journal
file.
If the above schedule is not suitable for your site, modify the
schedule by editing the crontab and changing the
amassbackup entries. For detailed information on making a
Backup Volume and editing the cron job, refer to Managing the
AMASS File System.
Caution
Make sure these backups are successful. Look in the system log
every day for a “Backup was successful” message.
The full backup (backs up the Database and Journal) and the
partial backups (backs up just the Journal) will allow you to
successfully restore your File System Database (and, therefore,
allow you to know where data is located on what piece of
media) if your current File System Database gets corrupted or
the hard disk crashes.
1-8
Online Archiving with AMASS
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
Design
Prevents
Thrashing
In a storage environment, there are many volumes but only a
few drives. If several requests come in for many different
volumes, the potential exists for AMASS to spend most of its
time moving media in and out of drives and little of its time
actually processing requests.
The following items help AMASS handle many simultaneous
requests, thus preventing thrashing as well as optimizing
requests:
Cache
Optimizes
Requests
•
Request queue sorting
•
Read-ahead
•
Write-behind
•
Prioritizing algorithm
The AMASS cache resides on a hard disk attached to the UNIX
server where AMASS is installed. The cache implementation
follows all UNIX file system conventions for synchronous IO,
sync, and fsync functions.
Data caching provides the following benefits:
•
Faster system performance
•
Protection against thrashing
In addition, a large cache allows large files to be queued faster
before being moved to a library thus increasing throughput.
After files are in the cache, multiple writes to the same volumes
are grouped into single operation that minimizes volume
movement and maximizes throughput. Therefore, a high
aggregate throughput is achieved through the following items:
•
6-00026-01 Rev A
Grouping write operations in the cache
Online Archiving with AMASS
1-9
AMASS Overview
•
Prioritizing reads-from-volumes over writes-to-volumes
UNIX Server where
AMASS is installed.
WRITES are written to cache.
UNIX Server
READS are cached the same way.
Configurable Cache
Cache is on the hard disk.
From cache, WRITES
are written to volumes
in the storage device.
The cache size can be configured to take advantage of both the
application being used and the system environment where
AMASS is installed.
Applications running database tables in the library, may need a
larger cache configuration to optimize the number of cache hits
and allow updates to table headers to be predominantly cache
IO.
The cache parameters are configured during installation. For
information on sizing the cache, refer to Installing AMASS.
Virtually
Unlimited File
System Size
Although every attempt is made to keep files under a specific
directory on one volume, files can span media. Consequently, a
directory can reside on more than one volume.
Regardless of the physical size, all the volumes appear as a
single logical device, of admittedly large capacity. AMASS
supports a maximum of 65,000 volumes.
1-10
Online Archiving with AMASS
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
When a volume is full, AMASS automatically selects the next
available volume to continue its operations. The volumes that
make up AMASS can be subdivided, if desired, into multiple
groups called volume groups.
Volume Groups
Archiving files by projects can be achieved with volume groups
by assigning volumes to numerical volume groups to serve a
particular subdirectory tree.
Because these volume groups can be assigned to contain
specific directories, the system administrator can assign
volumes for specific purposes within AMASS without losing
the benefits of a single file system and a single mount point that
spans media. This concept is illustrated by the following figure:
Library
AMASS
/archive
Volume Group 2
/sales
~
/pubs
~
AMASS archives /pubs
files to Volume Group 2
Types of volume groups are listed below:
6-00026-01 Rev A
•
A numeric group, 1 through 2047
•
A space pool (SP)
•
A cleaning group (CL)
•
Media verification group (MV) for the optional Infinite File
Life feature
For more information about IFL, refer to the appendix in
Installing AMASS and in Managing the AMASS File System.
Online Archiving with AMASS
1-11
AMASS Overview
The following figure illustrates these volume groups:
Numeric Volume Group
Space Pool
Cleaning Group
Media Verification
Volumes can be assigned to a numeric volume
group. The group can be a number from 1 through
2047.
Volumes can be assigned to the space pool (SP).
These are formatted volumes with specific
attributes. When a numeric volume group runs out
of space, and it has been enabled to use the space
pool, AMASS automatically takes a volume with the
same attributes from the space pool and assigns it
to the numeric group that ran out of space. Thus,
AMASS can continue to write data to the numeric
volume group.
Cleaning cartridges are assigned to the cleaning
group (CL). When a drive needs cleaning, AMASS
selects the appropriate cleaning volume from this
group.
Media verification group. A volume assigned to the
media verification (MV) volume group consists of
media verified as “good” for the AMASS Infinite File
Life (IFL) feature.
After a volume has been assigned to a numerical volume group,
all writes to the volume group directory and its subdirectories
go to the specified volumes. No other data is placed on these
volumes. Therefore, when all the volumes are filled up,
subsequent writes fail because the volume group is full.
However, when a volume group is full, you can do one of the
following:
•
1-12
Add volumes to the volume group.
Online Archiving with AMASS
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
•
Allow AMASS to automatically assign a volume from the
space pool to the out-of-space volume group. Do this by
using the AMASS vgpool command to enable space pool
for the specified volume group.
For more information on volume groups, refer to Managing the
AMASS File System.
Uniform Media in
Numerical and
Cleaning Groups
Except for the space pool, a volume group must contain a
homogeneous type of media; therefore, in multifunction
libraries containing both WORM and erasable optical platters, a
numerical volume group can contain WORM or it can contain
erasable media, but it cannot contain both.
Uniform, drive-specific attributes must be in the cleaning group.
Disparate Media in
the Space Pool
If a numeric volume group enabled for space pool runs out of
space, AMASS automatically reassigns a formatted volume
with specific attributes from the space pool to the out-of-space
volume group. Thus, AMASS can continue to write data to the
numeric volume group.
Volumes in the space pool can contain a mixture of tape,
optical, WORM, and erasable media.
Design
Maintains Data
Integrity
6-00026-01 Rev A
The AMASS file system is designed to conform to the standard
UNIX data integrity functions and conventions. Data integrity
elements are described on Page 1-14.
Online Archiving with AMASS
1-13
AMASS Overview
File Recovery
Because write operations go to the cache first (including sync,
fsync, and synchronous IO), in the event of a system crash,
AMASS recovers all write operations that were in the cache and
processes the writes to media after the system is rebooted. This
paradigm provides a level of data integrity consistent with
standard UNIX file systems.
Database Recovery
Most UNIX file systems require fsck, a file system integrity
check, of all file systems mounted at the time of a system crash.
This checking can be very time-consuming. However, the
online File System Database, eliminates the need for this
checking. After you reboot the system, AMASS corrects its
Database based upon the /filesysdb/journal file (a
transaction log) and starts AMASS.
Library Recovery
Media can be left in a drive if a system crash occurs. AMASS
uses either external bar codes (network-attached libraries) or
internal headers (SCSI-attached libraries) to identify a volume
and automatically returns the “stranded” volume to its home
position.
Because these recovery functions are automated and can be run
from the startup script after a system reboot, the AMASS
recovery, startup, and file system mount can all be performed as
part of other UNIX file system operations.
Volume Verification
1-14
Volume verification is extremely important. Storage devices are
subject to operator error and automated systems can suffer from
hardware malfunctions leading to incorrect volumes being
loaded into the drives.
Online Archiving with AMASS
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
As an aid in volume verification, the system administrator
enters either a bar code or a user-defined label when introducing
a volume to the File System Database. At the same time,
AMASS assigns the volume a unique numerical ID. From then
on, AMASS tracks the volume by this unique identifier and
verifies the volume by using either bar codes or headers.
Increased
Throughput
Scattered Writes
Improves
Performance
6-00026-01 Rev A
The way AMASS handles the operations listed below has
increased throughput thereby improving performance:
•
Tape rewind and eject operations run asynchronously. Tapes
are returned to their home storage slots depending on which
drive first becomes available.
•
Operating systems that support asynchronous
operations only: IO requests are asynchronously queued
when you enable this parameter during AMASS
installation.
When AMASS receives more than one request to write to the
same volume group, AMASS uses a single drive, by default, to
write to one volume at a time. However, you can improve
performance by enabling scattered writes.
Online Archiving with AMASS
1-15
AMASS Overview
Scattered writes allows AMASS to use more than one drive to
write to volumes in a volume group. For configuration
parameters, refer to Installing AMASS.
Library
Drive1 writes file_A to media.
Drive1
Volume Group 6
Drive2
Drive2 writes file_B to media.
Enabling scattered writes allows AMASS to
use more than one drive to write data to the
same volume group. Consequently,
performance is improved.
Compression and
Block Size Improves
Throughput
Configuring compression and block size typically improves
throughput for tape drives. Both features are configured with
the AMASS volformat command. For more information on
this command, refer to Managing the AMASS File System.
Refer to the AMASS Release Notes for a list of drives that
support compression and configurable block size.
1-16
Online Archiving with AMASS
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
Tape Streaming
Improves Write
Performance
Streaming tape IO provides a constant flow of data output to a
drive, which lessens start and stop operations. This feature
typically improves write performance but depends on file size,
number of files, and drive type.
During processing, a cache block has the following three states
described:
•
Queued = Cache block of data waiting for IO to start
•
Pending = Cache block of data in the drives’s buffer
•
Done = Cache blocks that have been verified as written to
media
The following figure illustrates these three states:
QUEUED
PENDING
DONE
Drive
D
A
T
A
I
N
C
A C H E
2. ... one block in the
drive’s buffer is freed-up
so data continues to be
written to the drive.
1. As one block of
data is written to
media ...
Tape streaming is configured globally with the config_prod
-o script after you install AMASS. For more information about
this script, refer to the Optional Parameters appendix in
Installing AMASS.
Refer to the AMASS Release Notes for a list of valid drives for
I/O tape streaming.
6-00026-01 Rev A
Online Archiving with AMASS
1-17
AMASS Overview
Tools
The following tools assist with file system tasks and
troubleshooting:
Commands
The AMASS commands are a set of UNIX-style, command-line
interfaces. These commands, as well as standard UNIX
commands, help you manage archiving a file system onto media
in storage devices. For a description of the AMASS commands
and how to use then, refer to Managing the AMASS File
System.
Scripts and Utilities
The AMASS scripts and utilities assist you in identifying and
resolving problems among the File System Database, the files
archived on media, and your hardware. For a description of the
scripts and utilities and how to use them, refer to Managing the
AMASS File System.
Automatic Drive
Cleaning
AMASS supports automatic drive cleaning.
Refer to the AMASS Release Notes for a list of drives that
support automatic drive cleaning.
For more information on drive cleaning, refer to Managing the
AMASS File System.
Exceptions
Drive cleaning exceptions are noted below:
ADIC AML with DAS
Before using the AMASS driveclean command, comment out
all cleaning-related configuration data in the \das\etc\config
file on the OS/2 server.
1-18
Online Archiving with AMASS
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
ADIC Scalar 1000
AMASS does not support automatic drive cleaning on the
ADIC Scalar 1000 with firmware earlier than level 2.10.
Consequently, the Cleaning Mode must be disabled as follows:
Step 1.
Enter the Main menu by pressing the Escape
button on the operator panel.
Step 2.
Scroll the Main menu using the navigation buttons
or
Enter
. Select the Setup menu by pressing
.
Step 3.
Scroll the Setup menu using the navigation buttons,
and select the Cleaning menu by pressing Enter.
Step 4.
Scroll the Cleaning menu using the navigation
buttons, and select the Drives dialog box by pressing
Enter.
Step 5.
See if the first line in the box shows that automatic
drive cleaning is disabled, “Auto Clean: N”, if so
then no further action is required. Press the Escape
button until you reach the Status Display menu (the
initial screen).
However, if the first line shows that automatic drive
cleaning is enabled, “Auto Clean: Y”, change the Y
to an N with the navigation buttons.
6-00026-01 Rev A
Step 6.
Move to the “ACCEPT:N” part of the screen by
pressing Enter, and change the N to a Y with the
navigation buttons.
Step 7.
Save the changed cleaning state by pressing Enter.
Online Archiving with AMASS
1-19
AMASS Overview
Step 8.
Press Escape until you reach the Status Display
menu (the initial screen).
Flexible
AMASS is both drive and library independent thus allowing
you to choose the hardware that meets the specific needs of
your company. For detailed information, refer to Accessing
Storage Devices.
Third-party Backup
Applications
AMASS supports third-party backup and restore applications
that access files using standard file system semantics.
Consequently, applications that currently run on standard UNIX
file systems can use AMASS without modification.
Mixed Media
AMASS supports mixed media in the following libraries:
•
A network-attached AML using Distributed AML Server
(DAS) as the library management software on the AMU.
DAS is an ADIC-GRAU software product with both client
and server components. The server component is installed
on the AMU OS/2 server and the client component is
embedded in AMASS.
UNIX Server
DAS
AMASS
Mixed media in AML
AMU library interface
installed on OS/2 PC
Clients
1-20
Online Archiving with AMASS
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
•
A network-attached Storage Technology storage device
using Automatic Cartridge System Library Software
(ACSLS).
UNIX Server
ACSLS
AMASS
Mixed media in
StorageTek
ACSLS library interface
Clients
During the AMASS installation, configure the unique media
types with separate authorization strings. For example, if the
AML contains both DLT and 3590 media, define AMASS with
an authorization string for DLT JUKEBOX 1 and an
authorization string for 3590 JUKEBOX 2.
For configuration instructions, refer to Installing AMASS and
Accessing Storage Devices. For DAS installation and operation
on the AMU, refer to the DAS Installation and System
Administration Guide.
6-00026-01 Rev A
Online Archiving with AMASS
1-21
AMASS Overview
Optional
Features
To enable the following optional features, obtain a unique
authorization string from your AMASS sales representative.
Enter this alphanumeric string during the installation process.
Optional Feature
Page
Offline Media Manager
1-22
Text Import and Export
1-22
Volume Copy
1-25
CD Import
1-26
DataMgr
1-26
Infinite File Life
1-27
Offline Media
Manager
If media has been removed from a library, juke, or standalone
drive, you must use the Offline Media Manger to access the
offline media. When a file is accessed on offline media, a
prompt asks the operator to load the correct volume into a drive
so the request can be satisfied. For more information, refer to
the "Operational Tasks" chapter in Managing the AMASS File
System.
Text Import and
Export
The vgexport and vgimport commands allow customers to
move volume groups between two different AMASS systems.
From the Source
AMASS System
The vgexport command exports the metadata (found on the
source File System Database) for the specified volume group to
standard out (stdout).
1-22
Online Archiving with AMASS
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
The metadata contains the directory structure and media
attributes (such as media type, ownership, and timestamp) for a
specified volume group. The metadata is located in
/usr/amass/filesysdb and is exported as standard ASCII
text. Send this file to the target AMASS site using FTP (File
Transfer Protocol) or a similar tool.
The following figure illustrates these steps:
1. Export metadata that describes
specified volume group.
AMASS
Metadata
File
Colorado
2. Unload volumes assigned
to specified volume group.
At the Target
AMASS System
Introduce the media, where the specified volume group resides,
to the target File System Database.
Use the vgimport command to import the metadata—that was
sent by FTP—into the target File System Database.
AMASS compares the metadata with the volume number in the
library and expects it to be the same. If there is a discrepancy,
AMASS returns an error.
6-00026-01 Rev A
Online Archiving with AMASS
1-23
AMASS Overview
The following figure illustrates these steps:
Metadata
File
AMASS
1. Import metadata that
describes specified volumes.
Texas
2. Load specified volumes.
For more information, refer to the Command Reference chapter
in Managing the AMASS File System.
1-24
Online Archiving with AMASS
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
Volume Copy
The volcopy command copies data from a source volume to a
destination volume. If the original volume is lost, destroyed, or
damaged, you can use the duplicate volume exactly like you
would the original. AMASS supports volcopy on the
following media:
•
WORM
•
Rewritable optical
•
Tape
This command copies the Backup Volume as well as all other
volumes “known” to the File System Database. A volume is
known to AMASS when an entry is created in the File System
Database and AMASS assigns it a unique volume number.
Requirements are illustrated by the following figure:
Write Drive
Read Drive
Source Media
•
Media is known to File System Database.
•
Block size and capacity is same as destination
volume.
•
Inlet and outlet the volumes with either the
volinlet and voloutlet commands or the bulkinlet
and bulkoutlet commands, depending on the
library connection.
•
To prevent changes to the source volume, it is
marked Read-Only after the volcopy process
begins. The exception is the Backup Volume.
AMASS recognizes the Backup Volume and
leaves its’ status as read-write.
Destination Media
• Media is unknown to File System
Database—it does not have a volume
number.
•
Block size and capacity is same as source
volume.
•
Load and unload the volumes with the
mediamove utility.
•
During process, destination volume is flagged
as IU (Inactive, Unformatted) and assigned to
SP (space pool) volume group when
displayed with the sysperf, sysop, and vollist
commands.
For more information, refer to the Command Reference chapter
in Managing the AMASS File System.
6-00026-01 Rev A
Online Archiving with AMASS
1-25
AMASS Overview
CD Import
Import data from CDs formatted by the standards prescribed by
the following:
•
High Sierra
•
ISO 9660
•
Rockridge (an ISO 9660 format with extensions)
Note
AMASS does not support writable CDs.
For more information, refer to the Command Reference chapter
in Managing the AMASS File System.
DataMgr
1-26
DataMgr is an ADIC Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM)
software package. DataMgr, in conjunction with AMASS,
provides an automated method for moving client files—based
on policies—from fast, expensive media to slower, more
economical media. A file can be migrated by DataMgr either
automatically or initiated manually by a client. For more
information, refer to the DataMgr Overview book.
Online Archiving with AMASS
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
Infinite File Life
The Infinite File Life (IFL) optional feature automatically
manages volatile media over an extended period. IFL performs
the following functions:
•
Tracks magnetic media, which degenerates over time
•
Determines the amount of deterioration on each volume
•
Replaces the media before it becomes unreadable
Refer to the AMASS Release Notes for a list of drives that
support Infinite File Life (IFL.)
For more information about IFL, refer to the Infinite File Life
document.
6-00026-01 Rev A
Online Archiving with AMASS
1-27
AMASS Overview
NOTES
1-28
Online Archiving with AMASS
6-00026-01 Rev A
2
Accessing
the Storage
Network
AMASS Overview
NOTES
2-2
Accessing the Storage Network
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
Local and
Network
Access
Because AMASS is implemented at the virtual file system
(VFS) layer of the server’s operating system, it is transparent to
other software programs on the server. Consequently, AMASS
as well as the file system mounted under AMASS can be
accessed both locally and through a network. Both paths are
discussed below.
Local Access
AMASS appears as a local, single, logical device with a single
file system encompassing the entire capacity of the library or
volume set. Because AMASS is totally transparent to local
application level software, clients can access the file system
using the same system calls that they use for standard UNIX file
systems.
Network Access
The system call transparency provided by AMASS’ VFS
implementation allows the UNIX server running AMASS to be
a server to an entire network of homogeneous or heterogeneous
systems. The networking software runs without modification on
top of AMASS so the server can run whatever networking
communication protocols and their utilities are available,
including TCP/IP-based protocols (FTP, RCP, and NFS), RFS,
DECnet, or HYPERchannel.
Typical protocols are discussed below.
Network File
System (NFS)
6-00026-01 Rev A
NFS is a facility for sharing files, resident on other machines, in
a heterogeneous environment of machines, operating systems,
and networks. NFS has become the de facto standard for
distributed file systems and is available on a broad range of
operating systems including UNIX, VMS, and MVS.
Accessing the Storage Network
2-3
AMASS Overview
AMASS supports NFS by making its file system appear as a
mounted local file system to the NFS server. This allows the
AMASS file system to be exported in the same manner as the
standard local file system is exported. Thus, the AMASS file
system or its subdirectories can be mounted, across the network
to the client file system, making the AMASS resident files,
directories, and storage capacity available as though the
AMASS software and its storage devices were running on the
client.
The NFS interface to AMASS is both user- and
application-transparent; and, under normal traffic patterns, the
NFS and AMASS systems work well together. But, because of
the inherent nature of a removable media device and the
stateless design of the NFS facility, you must fine-tune the NFS
configuration parameters to obtain the best possible
performance for a given environment.
Delays, inherent in accessing files from a removable media
library, can cause the NFS system to retry operations that are
waiting for resources. While this will not cause the operations
to fail, it may temporarily prevent other NFS operations from
executing by using up the available NFS tasks or by causing
excessive network traffic during the retry cycles.
For specific information on providing NFS clients access to the
file system, refer to Installing AMASS.
File Transfer
Protocol (FTP)
2-4
FTP allows users to transfer files easily from one machine to
another over the network. To learn what functions can be
invoked from your server processor FTP utility, refer to your
server’s reference manual.
Accessing the Storage Network
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
Remote File Copy
(RCP)
RCP allows the user to do file transfers to and from the AMASS
without manually logging onto the remote system. The login
function is performed automatically by the RCP utility. In
addition, RCP can do recursive copies, which can copy an entire
directory structure to or from the target. For the login function
to work, the user’s user name must exist on the target system;
therefore, coordination of user names must be enforced
across the network servers.
Telnet
Available Telnet functions depend on the processes started by a
user’s login name and password. Using Telnet in conjunction
with a shell login process allows users to access utilities, such
as find and chmod, which perform functions not available
with FTP.
Security
Local: In local access mode, system security is primarily a
function of setting the directory permissions in the AMASS file
system. Because these permissions follow standard UNIX file
system conventions, the specific settings are not documented
here.
Network: For systems running in a network environment,
AMASS security, as with other UNIX file systems, is primarily
a function of the network systems or protocols used.
Use permissions appropriate for your users’ environment.
Caution
With system administration tools, a user can bypass system
security and modify AMASS configuration parameters that may
deteriorate system performance. Therefore, ADIC suggests you
restrict access to the scripts, utilities, and commands.
6-00026-01 Rev A
Accessing the Storage Network
2-5
AMASS Overview
Supported
Libraries and
Drives
AMASS supports a maximum of:
•
8 libraries
•
256 drives per library
•
65,000 volumes
AMASS supports the following types of storage devices:
•
Multiple libraries of the same model in a daisy-chained
configuration
•
Heterogeneous libraries, for example, optical and tape, in a
daisy-chained configuration
•
A library with different drive types so you can mix media;
for example, 3590 and DTF media in the same library
•
Standalone drives
For a list of supported libraries and drives as well as any other
information unique to the support of storage hardware, refer to
Accessing Storage Devices.
Connectivity
Libraries and standalone drives can be connected to the
AMASS server in the following ways:
•
SCSI-attached drives and libraries
•
RS-232-attached libraries
•
Network-attached libraries
Tip
For best performance, ADIC recommends that each tape drive
be on its own SCSI host adapter board.
2-6
Accessing the Storage Network
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
The following figure illustrates these connections:
Library
Jukebox
UNIX Application
Server
RS-232
Jukebox
AMASS
Standalone Drive
Network
SCSI
Client
The following figure illustrates library and drive addresses:
The library has its own
SCSI or IP address.
Each drive has its
own SCSI address.
6-00026-01 Rev A
Library
Drive
Accessing the Storage Network
2-7
AMASS Overview
Fibre Channel
Support
This release of AMASS has been successfully tested on the
following Fibre Channel configurations
Fibre
Channel
SCSI
HP Fibre Channel
Multiplexer A3511A
HP9000 V Series S-class
running HP-UX 11.0
with Fibre Channel PCI
SCSI card, using SCTL
driver
IBM 3590B1A
Tape
ADIC FCR Model 200
and Model 250
StorageTek 9840
Tape
HP C1113 J optical
Fibre
Channel
Sun Ultra running
Solaris 7 with a
QLogic Fibre Channel
Host Adapter Board
SCSI
ADIC FCR Model 200
Quantum DLT 7000
drives in
ADIC Scalar 100
The StorageTek 9840 is not
supported as a
network-attached device, only
as a SCSI-attached device.
2-8
Accessing the Storage Network
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
AMASS Installed on
Platform
Multiplexer/Router
HP 9000 V series S-class
running HP-UX 11.0 with a
Fibre Channel PCI SCSI card
using an SCTL driver
HP Fibre Channel Multiplexer
A3511A (SCSI bridge)
ADIC Fibre Channel Router
(FCR) Model 200 and Model
250.
Sun Ultra running Solaris 7
with a QLogic Fibre Channel
Host Adapter Board driver
Drive
ADIC Fibre Channel Router
(FCR) Model 200
IBM 3590B1A tape
Storage Technology 9840
tape
HP C1113 J optical
Quantum DLT 7000 in an
ADIC Scalar 100
For more information about Fibre Channel support, refer to the
appendix in Installing AMASS.
6-00026-01 Rev A
Accessing the Storage Network
2-9
AMASS Overview
NOTES
2-10
Accessing the Storage Network
6-00026-01 Rev A
3
Technical
Support
AMASS Overview
NOTES
3-2
Technical Support
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
Phone
Support
Depending on how you purchased technical support, telephone
support is provided either through your reseller or directly
through ADIC.
The ADIC Technical Assistance Center (ATAC) in Denver,
Colorado provides world-wide service and support. Methods of
contacting ATAC are listed below:
Training
•
In the USA and Canada, call 1-800-827-3822.
•
Outside the USA and Canada, call toll-free
00800-9999-3822.
•
Send e-mail to: support@adic.com
The training organization in Denver provides hands-on
instruction for ADIC products.
For a list of classes, call 720-249-5810 between 8 a.m. and 5
p.m. Mountain time.
Solutions
Group
The ADIC Integrated Storage Solutions group can provide
solutions and services customized for your site’s requirements.
These solution include:
•
Analyzing requirements
•
Designing, configuring, and tuning your system
•
Customizing hardware and software solutions
For more information, call 303-792-9700 between 8 a.m. and 5
p.m. Mountain time.
6-00026-01 Rev A
Technical Support
3-3
AMASS Overview
Books
The CD contains the AMASS books as PDF files. The books
described below are part of the technical documentation set:
AMASS Overview
An introduction to AMASS (Archival
Management and Storage System).
Contains a glossary.
Managing the AMASS File System
Perform system administrative tasks with
AMASS commands and troubleshoot
problems with AMASS utilities and
scripts.
Accessing Storage Devices
Alphabetically lists supported libraries and
drives and provides AMASS-specific
operating information. Describes how to use
AMASS with standalone drives.
Errors and Corrective Action
Provides corrective action for system log
errors.
Installing AMASS
Describes: server requirements, installation
and troubleshooting procedures, and
configuration parameters.
Contact
Publications
3-4
Technical Support
Quick Reference Guide
Summarizes commands and utilities.
To make corrections or to comment on AMASS publications,
please contact Technical Publications at techdocs@adic.com.
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
Related
Publications
The publications described in the following table are created
and distributed on an as-needed basis:
Related Publications
Release Notes
Description
For each version of AMASS, the Release
Notes contain:
• Summary of enhancements
• Describes:
- Fixed problems
- Known problems
6-00026-01 Rev A
Product Alerts
Informs customers of technical problems
and solutions
Product Bulletins
Conveys technical information — not
problems — to customers
Technical Support
3-5
AMASS Overview
Secured Web
Site
To receive access to the secured site on ADIC’s home page
containing technical product information (Release Notes,
Product Alerts, Product Bulletins, FAQs), visit
http://partners.adic.com/ and follow the password request
procedure. In return, ADIC will send instructions and a
password.
Year 2000
Compliant
When AMASS is running on Year 2000-compliant operating
systems, including systems with Y2k-compliant patches,
AMASS is Year 2000 Option 1-compliant. This means that a
year is designated as a four-digit number, for example, 1999.
AMASS has been year 2000 compliant since Version 4.9.1
3-6
Technical Support
6-00026-01 Rev A
Glossary
Note
The terms in this Glossary are used
throughout the ADIC UNIX software
documentation. Product-specific terms are
noted.
manipulate AMASS file system
metadata (such as, namespace) and
media. Using the API is a way for a
program to ask AMASS to perform a
service unique to your site.
appended files
A
Files that span media. The files are on
more than one piece of media, possibly,
on more than one library.
AMASS®
archive
The Archival Management and Storage
System (AMASS) is storage
management software. AMASS archives
files onto media stored in robotic
libraries, jukeboxes, and standalone
drives. When applications need to read or
write to archived files, the files appear as
a single, mounted file system on the
server. The file system under AMASS is
supervised by a system administrator
who manages the libraries, drives, and
media on UNIX and Windows NT
platforms.
Generally used to denote a file that is
stored on lower cost media than a hard
disk. The goal for implementing data
archiving is to conserve online storage
space. Contrast with backup.
API
Application Programming Interface. The
API consists of functions, iterators,
symbolic names, type definitions, and
data structures. Using the API provides a
programmer with the ability to directly
6-00026-01 Rev A
B
backup
A file that has been backed up means that
a copy of the file exists in another
location. If the original file is lost, the
backup file is used. Having a backup file
protects you against loss or damage of
the original data. Contrast with archive.
Glossary
GL-1
AMASS Overview
bar code
An array of spaces and vertical bars in
varying widths in a machine-readable
pattern. Media is identified by barcode
rather than a physical home storage slot.
C
cache
Bitfile Server component of DataMgr.
The BFS maintains storage policies,
assigns bitfile IDs, and manages the
licensing of clients.
All data flows into a central cache
located on the UNIX server before being
read from or written to media. By using
the cache, AMASS allows applications to
read and write at hard disk speeds, and to
access the library only when the
requested data is not in the cache. See
also striping.
bitfile
cleaning group
Bitfile identifies the contents of a
migrated file on DataMgr. Bitfiles are
never modified. If the original file is
subsequently modified, a new bitfile (as
well as a new bitfile ID) is created when
the file is remigrated.
A special volume group that contains
drive cleaning cartridges. AMASS
automatically uses a cleaning cartridge
from this group when it receives the
appropriate SCSI request sense data from
specific drives.
bitfile ID
client
DataMgr assigns each migrated file a
unique bitfile ID. The bitfile ID is never
changed and is never reused.
Program running on a workstation
requests the services provided by a
network server. Part of a client/server
architecture.
BFS
GL-2
Glossary
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
D
DAS™
Distributed AML Server. An ADIC
software product with both client and
server components. The server
component is installed on an OS/2 PC
and the client component is installed on
the same UNIX workstation where
AMASS is installed. With DAS,
AMASS supports different media types
in the same library.
DataClass group
Migration directories with the same
associated data class parameters are in
the same DataClass grouping. A
FileServ-specific term.
DataMgr™
An optional ADIC HSM software
product. DataMgr in conjunction with
AMASS for UNIX provides a method for
migrating client files — based on
frequency of access — from fast,
expensive media to slower, more
economical media. DataMgr migrates
(and reloads) files either manually or
automatically. See also HSM.
DLT™
Digital Linear Tape.
DMFS
DataMgr File System component of
DataMgr. The DMFS provides file
migration capability for each machine it
is installed on. It is installed on all client
machines that have a file system
migrated by DataMgr.
drive pool
A logical grouping of drives that provide
drive sharing capability between clients.
A FileServ-specific term.
drives
A physical device used to read and write
data on media. AMASS manages the
drives to perform the following tasks:
• Service data movement requests
•
Handle library services
•
Schedule read and write requests
dead space
Random space that remains on a volume
after files have been deleted.
6-00026-01 Rev A
Glossary
GL-3
AMASS Overview
E
file import
Ethernet
A networking system designed to
connect computers that are releatively
close together (physically in the same
department). The specification has been
defined by IEEE Standard 802.3. Other
software, such as TCP/IP, runs on top of
Ethernet to provide high-level
networking services to applications.
A DataMgr feature that imports data
from a “foreign” archival file system into
DataMgr to be archived by AMASS.
file replication
A storage policy that migrates files from
a client machine through DataMgr and
AMASS to a primary storage library. The
data is then replicated (copied) to a
maximum of three other storage devices.
FileServ™
F
File Control Block. A kernel file system
memory resident data structure
containing information about a file
including metadata.
FileServ acts as an online storage node
for specific libraries by managing online
user data and providing quick response to
client requests for data. When data is not
required for active processing, FileServ
migrates it to magnetic tape to maintain
free disk space.
FDDI
file system
Fiber Distributed Data Interface A
high-speed fiber-optic local area network
that is based on the token ring standard.
An organized set of files that appear as a
part of a directory structure, when used
under UNIX. All files managed by
AMASS are under a mount point whose
default name is /archive. The AMASS
file system is accessed as if it were
located on a local hard drive, instead of
actually residing in media either in a
storage device or even in offline storage.
FCB
file
A collection of related data, such as:
• Text
•
Tables
•
Digitized audio and visual records
GL-4
Glossary
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
File System Database
The File System Database contains tables
of attributes—or metadata—representing
the directory structure and media
mounted under the AMASS file system.
The metadata includes: media ID, media
type, media location, ownership, and
timestamp. The File System Database
tells AMASS where data is located on the
media archived in your library. The
default location in UNIX is in
/usr/filesysdb. See also inode and
metadata.
G
GUI
Graphical User Interface. The human
juncture between an end user and a
software product. It contains a series of
pictorial menus that lead a user in a task
accomplished usually with a mouse,
instead of a keyboard.
example, the least frequently accessed
files are first migrated onto fast magnetic
tape which are later stored on slower
optical platters. The goal for
implementing an HSM strategy is to
provide clients with increased space on
existing disk drives. See also DataMgr™
and FileServ™.
I
inode
A programming structure that maps
metadata to the “real” data found on
media. See also DataMgr™ and
metadata.
IP address
Central to TCP/IP communication is the
IP address that allows devices to talk to
each other. The IP address is a device’s
logical network address consisting of a
four-byte number separated by full stops,
such as 128.8.14.92.
H
HSM
Hierarchical Storage Management. A
data management strategy where data is
migrated to storage in either a layered or
serial method based on a set of policies.
A paradigm that often controls this
migration is frequency of access. For
6-00026-01 Rev A
Glossary
GL-5
AMASS Overview
L
IPI
Intelligent Peripheral Interface. A
high-performance, general-purpose
parallel peripheral interface. The intent
of the IPI is to isolate the host, both
hardware and software, from changes in
peripherals by providing a “function
generic” command set to allow the
connection of multiple types of
peripherals (disks, printers, and tapes.)
label
A tag affixed to media used for
identification. For example, a bar code
label is used by a robotic device to insure
the robot is moving the proper media. A
shelf label with human-readable
information has the same purpose.
library
A storage device for data containing one
or more drives. Usually, media is loaded
by a robotic (automated) picker. See also
jukebox and standalone drives.
J
Journal
The Journal tells AMASS what
transactions—what entries—have acted
upon a file stored on a volume in a
library. It is a daily diary of logged
events. The Journal’s default location in
UNIX is /usr/filesysdb/journal.
Typically, this is a symbolic link pointing
to a separate physical disk to keep the
Journal on a different disk from the File
System Database.
jukebox
A storage device for data containing one
or more drives. Usually, media is loaded
manually. In the AMASS books, the
word library is a generic word that
denotes a jukebox or standalone drive.
See also library and standalone drives.
GL-6
Glossary
M
mailbox
An opening on the front of a library
where media is loaded into the library
and unloaded to the outside world,
without opening the actual library. This
protects the inside of the library from
dust and dirt. Also known as a mailslot.
media
A storage object that, when mounted in a
drive, is used for read and write
operations. See also volume. Media types
include:
• Tape
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
•
Optical
•
CD
metadata
Represents the directory structure and
attributes about media. Attributes
include:
• Media ID
•
Media type
•
Media location
•
Ownership
•
Timestamp
The metadata for the AMASS file system
resides in the AMASS database. See also
File System Database and inode.
migration
The planned movement of data from one
library — and possibly from one type of
media — to another.
multi-tier migration
A storage policy that migrates files from
a client machine through DataMgr and
AMASS to a primary storage library. The
file is then migrated to a second and third
storage device after a specific time limit.
6-00026-01 Rev A
N
NFS
Network File System. Originally
developed by Sun Microsystems, it has
become the de facto standard for file
sharing between UNIX systems. NFS
was designed to be a distributed file
service that is operating
system-independent and machine-typeindependent. Consequently, any
computer system can supply files to
many different computer types. NFS uses
the Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
mechanism to perform tasks, read results,
and access remote files.
NIS
Network Information Service. Created
by Sun to make NFS easier to use. NIS
centralizes user and group name
databases for an entire domain. (A
domain consists of a master server, slave
servers, and clients.) NIS allows the
domain to be administered as if it were a
single system. NIS centralizes many of
the local network configuration
functions. NIS used to be called Yellow
Pages (YP).
Glossary
GL-7
AMASS Overview
nonresident file
•
A nonresident file is a file whose
contents have been migrated to a storage
device. The file is nonresident on the
client’s machine but DataMgr leaves
behind a stub file.
Offline Media Manager
O
optical
Types of optical platters are described
below:
• MO (Magneto Optical) is rewritable
optical. It uses both magnets and lasers
to write and read data on a plastic disc
having a magnetic layer. Data is
written when the laser beam heats bits
on the disc’s magnetic layer that are
then magnetically polarized by the
drive’s magnet.
•
•
LIMDOW (Light Intensity Modulation
Direct OverWrite) speeds up the
process of writing to MO discs.
LIMDOW discs have one memory
layer instead of two and consequently
require only one pass to write instead
of two.
If media has been removed from a
library, Offline Media Manager, an
optional feature on AMASS that allows
you to access the offline media. When a
file is accessed on offline media, a
prompt asks the operator to load the
correct volume into a drive so the request
can be satisfied.
R
RAID
Ablative™ is an IBM term for the
technology used to make WORM
media. Lasers burn the write into the
media thus ensuring that the media is
Write-Once Ready-Many (WORM).
Redundant Array of Independent Disks.
Technique for using a group of disk
drives to improve performance, data
availability, or both.
CCW (Continuous Composite Writes)
use the erasable (MO) method to write
files onto a disc but then locks the files
to the media with software.
All files before they are migrated by
DataMgr are resident files.
resident file
RPC
Remote Procedure Call. Process that
supplies a program a set of procedures
that can be called remotely.
GL-8
Glossary
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
S
SMP
scattered writes
Symmetric Multiprocessing. Making
efficient use of multiple processors
within a computer.
If multiple writes occur to a single
volume group, AMASS uses more than
one drive to simultaneously write to the
volume group. This increases
throughput.
SCSI Fast/Wide
Small Computer System Interface. An
intelligent bus-level device interface.
Refers to a combination of Fast transfer
rate (10 MB per second) with a two-byte
wide (68 pins) connector, which results
in 20 MB/sec data transfer rate.
server
Programs running on a network server
provide computing or data services to a
client. Part of a client/server architecture.
SLD
Service Locator Daemon component of
DataMgr. The SLD maps the name of a
DataMgr service (BFS, SSD) to the
archiving service (AMASS).
slot
Referred to as a bin in some libraries. The
physical home storage slot where a single
piece of media resides. In standalone
drives, the slot is the same as the drive,
but in all other libraries that is not true.
6-00026-01 Rev A
space pool
A special volume group that contains
formatted volumes. The volumes in the
space pool are used by numeric volume
groups that have run out of space. When
a volume group runs out of space,
AMASS automatically takes a volume
from the space pool and reassigns it to the
out-of-space volume group.
SSD
Storage Server Daemon component of
DataMgr. The SSD provides an RPC
interface from DataMgr clients to
AMASS.
standalone drives
A storage device for data containing a
single drive. Usually, media is loaded
manually in a standalone drive. See also
jukebox and library.
Storage Area Network
A storage area network (SAN) is a
dedicated high-speed Fibre channel
topology. The application servers are
attached to the storage devices for
specific tasks.
Glossary
GL-9
AMASS Overview
storage policy
DataMgr migrates files using storage
policies, including Single Copy,
Multi-tier Migration, and File
Replication.
striping
The UNIX operating system allows
AMASS to cache data across multiple
magnetic disks on the server or across
partitions on a single magnetic disk on
the server. This feature improves
AMASS throughput. AMASS divides
the data into segments (stripes) and
writes each segment either to multiple
disks or to partitions on a disk. These raw
disks or raw partitions are defined as
cache space names with the AMASS
installation script. See also cache.
stub file
DataMgr leaves a stub file on a file
system after the original file has been
migrated to AMASS. The original file is
truncated (stubbed) to the smallest
allocatable disk block on the file system
and its contents is replaced with all the
information necessary to access the
migrated file.
GL-10
Glossary
T
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol. Runs on top of Ethernet to
provide high-level networking services
to applications. See also IP address.
thrashing
Unnecessary movement of the library’s
robotics. For example, retrieving disc 1,
then disc 6, then 1, then 6. Thrashing
causes access delays and premature
hardware failure.
truncate
Remove the file data blocks from disk,
leaving the inodes on disk. Only files that
remain unchanged since the last storage
to media can have their data blocks
truncated from disk. A FileServ-specific
term.
U
UNIX™
A computer operating system that runs
on workstations, servers, mainframes,
and supercomputers.
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
V
•
VBS
The Virtual Block Server is an AMASS
component that emulates a hard disk
drive that maps an infinitely large block
of space on to physical libraries, drives,
and media. Use the GUI to monitor the
Virtual Block Server.
volume
Equivalent to media. See also media.
• offline = Media that does not reside in
a library. Although AMASS assigned
this media a unique volume number
and there is an entry for it in the
AMASS database, the media may be
stored in a vault or on a shelf.
•
online = Media residing in a library.
AMASS assigned this media a unique
volume number and there is an entry
for it in the AMASS database.
•
inactive = AMASS cannot read or
write to this volume.
Cleaning group
volume number
A unique number assigned by AMASS
(UNIX) to each piece of media when an
entry is created in the File System
Database for the media.
VolServ™
Manages media and volumes contained
within both automated and manual
libraries.
W
Windows NT™
An operating system with two
versions—one for workstations and one
for servers. Windows NT is designed to
run on a network. Each application runs
in its own on-screen window. Windows
NT replaces the command line interface
with pictures.
volume group
Media assigned to a group with AMASS
for a specific purpose, such as projects or
departments. Volume groups include:
• Numerical group
•
Space pool
6-00026-01 Rev A
Glossary
GL-11
AMASS Overview
X
XDI
eXtensible Device Interface. An AMASS
software module that provides a
communication interface between
AMASS and network-attached storage
devices. Communication includes:
• Operations (mount and dismount,
import and export, query volume and
query drives)
•
Audits
•
Hardware information
•
Errors
GL-12
Glossary
6-00026-01 Rev A
Index
A
C
Access
local . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
AMASS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-1
benefits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
using. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
amassbackup Command . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
AML
mixed media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20
API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-1
Appended Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-1
Archive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-1
Archive Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3, 1-4
Audience for Book. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-3
Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9, GL-2
configure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
CD Import. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-26
Cleaning Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
Cleaning Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-2
Cleaning Volume Group. . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-2
Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
amassbackup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
driveclean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
vgexport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
vgimport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
vgpool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
volcopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
volformat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
Compliant Y2k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
config_prod Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Conventions in Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-4
Cron
backup job. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
B
Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4, GL-1
third party. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20
via cron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Barcode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-2
Benefits of AMASS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
BFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-2
Bin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-9
Bitfile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-2
Bitfile ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-2
Block Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
Books
all titles in set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
illustration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
6-00026-01 Rev A
D
DAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-3
mixed media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20
Data Integrity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6, GL-5
backup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
DataClass Group
Index
INX-i
AMASS Overview
definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-3
DataMgr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-26, GL-3
Dead Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-3
DLT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-3
DMFS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-3
Documentation Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3, 2-6, GL-3
cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
maximum number supported . . . . 2-6
Drive Pool
definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-3
driveclean Command . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3, GL-4
unlimited size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
File System Database . . . . . . . . . . . GL-5
File Transfer Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
FTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
E
I
Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-4
Export
text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
Import
CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-26
file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-4
text. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
Infinite File Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27
Inode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7, GL-5
Intelligent Peripheral Interface
definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-6
IP Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-5
F
FCB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-4
FDDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-4
Features
optional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
Fiber Distributed Data Interface
definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-4
Fibre Channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-4
appended . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-1
import. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-4
nonresident. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-8
recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
resident. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-8
stub. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-10
File Control Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-4
File Replication Storage Policy . . . . GL-4
INX-ii
Index
G
GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-5
H
HSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-26, GL-5
J
Journal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-6
Jukebox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-6
L
Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-6
Library. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3, 2-6, GL-6
maximum number supported. . . . . 2-6
recovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Local Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
6-00026-01 Rev A
AMASS Overview
M
P
Mailbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-6
Mailslot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-9
Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3, GL-6, GL-11
less contention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
mixed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20
optical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-8
tape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
Metadata. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7, GL-7
Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-7
Multi-tier Storage Policy . . . . . . . . . GL-7
Product Alerts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Product Bulletins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Publications Dept
email address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
R
Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Network File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
NFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3, GL-7
NIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-7
Nonresident File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-8
Numerical Volume Group . . . . . . . . 1-13
RAID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-8
Recover
database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Release Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Remote File Copy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Resident File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-8
Restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Rewritable Optical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
RFC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
RPC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-8
RS-232 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
O
S
Offline Media Manager . . . . . 1-22, GL-8
Online Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Optical
media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-8
rewritable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
WORM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
Optional Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
CD import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-26
DataMgr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-26
import and export. . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
infinite file life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-27
Offline Media Manager . . . . . . . 1-22
volume copy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
SAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-9
Scattered Writes . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15, GL-9
Script. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
config_prod. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
SCSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6, GL-9
Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-9
SLD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-9
Slot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-9
SMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-9
Solutions Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Space Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-9
Space Pool Volume Group . . . . . . . . 1-13
N
6-00026-01 Rev A
Index
INX-iii
AMASS Overview
SSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-9
Standalone Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-9
Storage Area Network . . . . . . . . . . . GL-9
Storage Devices
supported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Storage Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-10
file replication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-4
multi-tier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-7
Streaming Tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
Striping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-10
Stub File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-10
Support
technical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
T
Tape Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
Tape Streaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17
TCP/IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-10
Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
email address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Telnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Text Import and Export . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
Thrashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9, GL-10
Throughput. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Truncate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-10
vgpool Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Virtual Block Server . . . . . . . . . . . GL-11
volcopy Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
volformat Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
VolServ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-11
Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-11
number. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-11
verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Volume Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
Volume Group. . . . . . . . . . . 1-11, GL-11
cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13, GL-2
numerical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
space pool . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13, GL-9
Volumes
maximum number supported. . . . . 2-6
W
Web
secured site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Windows NT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-11
WORM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
Writes
scattered. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
X
XDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-12
U
Y
UNIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-10
Utilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
Y2k Compliant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
V
VBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GL-11
vgexport Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
vgimport Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22
INX-iv
Index
6-00026-01 Rev A