Stateful paging guard devices and methods for controlling a stateful

US 20120184205A1
(19) United States
(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2012/0184205 A1
(43) Pub. Date:
Luft et al.
(54)
STATEFUL PAGING GUARD DEVICES AND
METHODS FOR CONTROLLING A
STATEFUL PAGING GUARD DEVICE
(75) Inventors:
Achim Luft, BraunschWeig (DE);
Andreas Schmidt, BraunschWeig
(DE)
(73) Assignee:
INFINEON TECHNOLOGIES
AG, Neubiberg (DE)
Jul. 19, 2012
Publication Classi?cation
(51)
Int. Cl.
H04B 17/02
(52)
US. Cl. .......................................................... .. 455/9
(57)
(2006.01)
ABSTRACT
In an embodiment, a stateful paging guard device is provided.
The stateful paging guard device may include: a state deter
miner con?gured to determine state information indicating
Whether a terminal device is in an operation state of reduced
(21) App1.No.:
13/006,552
energy consumption; a receiver con?gured to receive data
directed to the terminal device; and a relay determiner con
?gured to determine Whether the data is to be relayed to the
(22) Filed:
Jan. 14, 2011
terminal device based on the state information.
100
102
(J
> E-UTRAN
110
Patent Application Publication
Jul. 19, 2012 Sheet 1 0f 8
US 2012/0184205 A1
FIG 1
100
102
> E-UTRAN
112114
108
110
Patent Application Publication
Jul. 19, 2012 Sheet 3 of8
US 2012/0184205 A1
FIG 3
300
308
/
Stat-e
/
determlner
Receiver
\
k 304
f
302
306
Relay determiner //
FIG 4
400
410
/
State
determiner
Receiver
\
K 304
f
302
/ Relay determiner
State storage
\
K 402
f
306
Specific data
K
/
determiner
404
1
/
408
State polling
circuit
Betta dlscérdmg
'nstmcilon
transmitter
\
K 406
Patent Application Publication
Jul. 19, 2012 Sheet 4 0f 8
US 2012/0184205 A1
FIG 5
50°
/
502
Determine state information indicating whether a terminal f)
device is in an operation state of reduced energy
consumption
504
Receive data directed to the terminal device
506
Determine whether the data is to be relayed to the terminal /
'
device based on the state information
FIG 6
600
K)
FIG 7
700
(J
Instruct relaying data directed to a terminal device
to the terminal device or instruct discarding of the data,
based on whether the terminal device is in
an operation state of reduced energy consumption
702
//
Patent Application Publication
Jul. 19, 2012 Sheet 5 0f 8
US 2012/0184205 A1
FIG 8
816 304
806
Fleet
management
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in-vehicle
communication
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vehicle
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tracking
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820
Automation
monitoring & control
814
MZM
market segments
Supervision
Health
Field
equipment
Qililies
826
818
Patent Application Publication
Jul. 19, 2012 Sheet 6 0f 8
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Patent Application Publication
Jul. 19, 2012 Sheet 8 0f 8
US 2012/0184205 A1
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Jul. 19, 2012
US 2012/0184205 A1
STATEFUL PAGING GUARD DEVICES AND
METHODS FOR CONTROLLING A
STATEFUL PAGING GUARD DEVICE
TECHNICAL FIELD
[0001] Embodiments relate generally to stateful paging
guard devices and methods for controlling a stateful paging
guard device.
BACKGROUND
may transit from RRC_idle state to RRC_connect state, like
Will be described in more detail beloW, if data arrive from the
Internet for the UE. According to various embodiments,
devices and methods are provided to prevent a terminal
device from being paged or triggered by someone not autho
riZed to do so, for example someone else than the oWner of
that device, so that the terminal device stays in an operation
state of reduced energy consumption unless the authoriZed
person, for example the oWner of that terminal device,
Whishes that the terminal device is in another operation state.
[0016]
[0002] Mobile radio communication devices may enter a
mode of reduced energy consumption in case no user data is
to be transmitted from or to the mobile radio communication
The folloWing detailed description refers to the
accompanying draWings that shoW, by Way of illustration,
speci?c details and embodiments in Which the invention may
be practiced. These embodiments are described in suf?cient
detail to enable those skilled in the art to practice the inven
device. In the mode of reduced energy consumption, the
mobile radio communication device may receive and evaluate
paging data, and may enter a mode of full operability in case
the received paging data indicates that user data directed to
the mobile radio communication device is available.
tion. Other embodiments may be utiliZed and structural, lo gi
cal, and electrical changes may be made Without departing
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
can be combined With one or more other embodiments to
form neW embodiments.
[0003]
In the draWings, like reference characters generally
refer to the same parts throughout the different vieWs. The
from the scope of the invention. The various embodiments are
not necessarily mutually exclusive, as some embodiments
[0017]
The terms “coupling” or “connection” are intended
draWings are not necessarily to scale, emphasis instead gen
to include a direct “coupling” or direct “connection” as Well
as an indirect “coupling” or indirect “connection”, respec
erally being placed upon illustrating the principles of various
tively.
embodiments. In the folloWing description, various embodi
an embodiment;
[0005] FIG. 2 shoWs a state diagram according to an
[0018] The Word “exemplary” is used herein to mean “serv
ing as an example, instance, or illustration”. Any embodiment
or design described herein as “exemplary” is not necessarily
to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other
embodiments or designs.
[0019] A terminal device according to various embodi
embodiment;
ments may be any device or radio device that may use radio to
[0006] FIG. 3 shoWs a stateful paging guard device accord
ing to an embodiment;
[0007] FIG. 4 shoWs a stateful paging guard device accord
ing to an embodiment;
[0008] FIG. 5 shoWs a How diagram illustrating a method
for controlling a stateful paging guard device according to an
transmit and/or receive information. According to various
ments are described With reference to the folloWing draWings,
in Which:
[0004] FIG. 1 shoWs a communication system according to
embodiment;
[0009] FIG. 6 shoWs a stateful paging guard device accord
ing to an embodiment;
[0010] FIG. 7 shoWs a How diagram illustrating a method
for controlling a stateful paging guard device according to an
embodiment;
[0011] FIG. 8 shoWs a diagram illustrating machine to
machine market segments according to an embodiment;
[0012] FIG. 9 shoWs a netWork architecture in accordance
With an embodiment;
[0013] FIG. 10 shoWs a How diagram illustrating a paging
procedure in accordance With an embodiment; and
[0014] FIG. 11 shoWs a packet header in accordance With
an embodiment.
DESCRIPTION
[0015]
Terminal devices, for example mobile radio com
munication devices may enter a mode of reduced energy
consumption in case no user data is to be transmitted from or
to the mobile radio communication device. In the mode of
reduced energy consumption, the mobile radio communica
tion device may receive and evaluate paging data, and may
enter a mode of full operability in case the received paging
data indicates that user data directed to the mobile radio
communication device is available. For example, a terminal
device, for example a user equipment (UE), may be paged and
embodiments, a radio device may be a Wireless device.
According to various embodiments, a radio device may be a
mobile device. For example, a radio device may be a device
con?gured for Wireless communication. In various embodi
ments, a radio device may be a mobile radio communication
device, and a mobile radio communication device may be an
end-user mobile device (MD). In various embodiments, a
mobile radio communication device may be any kind of
mobile telephone, personal digital assistant, mobile com
puter, or any other mobile device con?gured for communica
tion With a mobile communication base station (in other
Words: With a base station (BS)) or an access point (AP) and
may be also referred to as a User Equipment (UE), a mobile
station (MS) or an advanced mobile station (advanced MS,
AMS), for example in accordance With IEEE 802.16m.
[0020] According to various embodiments, a stateful pag
ing guard device and/or a terminal device may be con?gured
according to at least one of the folloWing radio access tech
nologies: a Global System for Mobile Communications
(GSM) radio access technology, a General Packet Radio Ser
vice (GPRS) radio access technology, an Enhanced Data
Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) radio access technology,
and/or a Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) radio
access technology (e.g. UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecom
munications System), FOMA (Freedom of Multimedia
Access), 3GPP LTE (long term Evolution), 3GPP LTE
Advanced (long term Evolution Advanced)), CDMA2000
(Code division multiple access 2000), CDPD (Cellular Digi
tal Packet Data), Mobitex, 3G (Third Generation), CSD (Cir
cuit SWitched Data), HSCSD (High-Speed Circuit-SWitched
Data), UMTS (3G) (Universal Mobile Telecommunications
Jul. 19, 2012
US 2012/0184205 A1
System (Third Generation)), W-CDMA (UMTS) (Wideband
[0023]
Code Division Multiple Access (Universal Mobile Telecom
HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access), HSUPA
various embodiments are provided for methods. It will be
understood that basic properties of the devices also hold for
the methods and vice versa. Therefore, for sake of brevity,
(High-Speed Uplink Packet Access), HSPA+ (High Speed
duplicate description of such properties may be omitted.
Packet Access Plus), UMTS-TDD (Universal Mobile Tele
[0024] It will be understood that any property described
herein for a speci?c stateful paging guard device may also
hold for any other stateful paging guard device described
herein. It will be understood that a stateful paging guard
munications System)), HSPA (High Speed Packet Access),
communications
System-Time-Division
Duplex),
TD-CDMA (Time Division-Code Division MultipleAccess),
TD-SCDMA (Time Division-Synchronous Code Division
Multiple Access), 3GPP Rel. 8 (Pre-4G) (3rd Generation
Partnership Project Release 8 (Pre-4th Generation)), UTRA
(UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access), E-UTRA (Evolved UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Access), LTE Advanced (4G) (long term
Evolution Advanced (4th Generation)), cdmaOne (2G),
CDMA2000 (3G) (Code division multiple access 2000
(Third generation)), EV-DO (Evolution-Data Optimized or
Evolution-Data Only), AMPS (1 G) (Advanced Mobile Phone
System (1 st Generation)), TACS/ETACS (Total Access Com
munication System/Extended Total Access Communication
System), D-AMPS (2G) (Digital AMPS (2nd Generation)),
PTT (Push-to-talk), MTS (Mobile Telephone System), IMTS
(Improved Mobile Telephone System), AMTS (Advanced
Mobile Telephone System), OLT (Norwegian for Offentlig
Landmobil Telefoni, Public Land Mobile Telephony), MTD
(Swedish abbreviation for Mobiltelefonisystem D, or Mobile
telephony system D), Autotel/PALM (Public Automated
Various embodiments are provided for devices, and
device is called stateful, because it may refer to a state (for
example an operation state of a terminal device), and that a
stateful paging guard device is called paging guard device
because it may guard (or protect or shelter) in paging related
embodiments.
[0025] FIG. 1 shows a communication system 100 accord
ing to an embodiment.
[0026] The communication system 100 may be a cellular
mobile communication system including a radio access net
work (e. g. an E-UTRAN, Evolved UMTS (Universal Mobile
Communications System) Terrestrial Radio Access Network
according to LTE (Long Term Evolution)) 102 and a core
network (eg an EPC, Evolved Packet Core, according LTE)
104. The radio access network 102 may include base (trans
ceiver) stations (e.g. eNodeBs, eNBs, according to LTE) 106.
Each base station 106 may provide radio coverage for one or
more mobile radio cells 108 of the radio access network 102.
Land Mobile), ARP (Finnish for Autoradiopuhelin, “car radio
[0027]
phone”), NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephony), Hicap (High
capacity version of NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone)),
CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data), Mobitex, DataTAC,
iDEN (Integrated Digital Enhanced Network), PDC (Per
sonal Digital Cellular), PHS (Personal Handy-phone Sys
tem), WiDEN (Wideband Integrated Digital Enhanced Net
device or as UE, user equipment) 110 located in a mobile
A mobile terminal (also referred to as terminal
radio cell 108 may communicate with the core network 104
and with other mobile terminals 110 via the base station
providing coverage in (in other words operating) the mobile
radio cell.
work), iBurst, and Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA, also
[0028] Control and user data may be transmitted between a
base station 106 and a mobile terminal 110 located in the
referred to as 3GPP Generic Access Network, or GAN stan
mobile radio cell 108 operated by the base station 106 over the
dard)).
air interface 112 on the basis of a multiple access method.
[0021] A stateful paging guard device may include a
memory which may for example be used in the processing
carried out by the stateful paging guard device. A terminal
[0029] The base stations 106 may be interconnected with
each other by a ?rst interface 114, eg an X2 interface. The
base stations 106 may also be connected by a second interface
116, eg an S1 interface, to the core network, eg to an MME
device may include a memory which may for example be
used in the processing carried out by the terminal device. A
(Mobility Management Entity) 118 and/or a Serving Gate
memory used in the embodiments may be a volatile memory,
way (S-GW) 120. For example, the MME 118 may be respon
sible for controlling the mobility of mobile terminals located
for example a DRAM (Dynamic RandomAccess Memory) or
a non-volatile memory, for example a PROM (Programmable
in the coverage area of E-UTRAN, while the S-GW 120 may
Read Only Memory), an EPROM (Erasable PROM),
be responsible for handling the transmission of user data
EEPROM (Electrically Erasable PROM), or a ?ash memory,
e.g., a ?oating gate memory, a charge trapping memory, an
MRAM (Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory) or a
between mobile terminals 110 and core network 104.
PCRAM (Phase Change Random Access Memory).
For example, a base station 106 may provide a radio commu
nication connection via the air interface between itself and the
[0022]
In an embodiment, a “circuit” may be understood as
any kind of a logic implementing entity, which may be special
purpose circuitry or a processor executing software stored in
a memory, ?rmware, or any combination thereof. Thus, in an
embodiment, a “circuit” may be a hard-wired logic circuit or
a programmable logic circuit such as a programmable pro
cessor, e. g. a microprocessor (eg a Complex Instruction Set
Computer (CISC) processor or a Reduced Instruction Set
Computer (RISC) processor). A “circuit” may also be a pro
cessor executing software, e.g. any kind of computer pro
gram, eg a computer program using a virtual machine code
such as eg Java. Any other kind of implementation of the
respective functions which will be described in more detail
below may also be understood as a “circuit” in accordance
with an alternative embodiment.
[0030] In the following, it may be assumed that the base
stations 106 may support various radio access technologies.
mobile terminal 110 according to LTE, UMTS, GSM (Global
System for Mobile Communications), and EDGE (Enhanced
Data Rates for GSM Evolution) radio access. Accordingly,
the radio access network may operate as an E-UTRAN, a
UTRAN, or a GERAN (GSM EDGE Radio Access Net
work). Analogously, the core network 104 may include the
functionality of an EPC, a UMTS core network or a GSM core
network. Two base stations 106 that support communication
according to different radio access technologies may accord
ingly be coupled with different core networks 104 and belong
to different radio access networks 102. Further, the second
interface 116 may for example not be present between two
base stations 106 that support different radio access technolo
gies.
Jul. 19, 2012
US 2012/0184205 A1
[0031] The mobile terminal 110 may communicate with the
radio access network 102 through the air interface (also
referred to as radio interface) 112 via the base stations 106
while moving around. The radio interface 112 between the
E-UTRA RRC IDLE state 204 may be performed by CCO
resp. reselection, as indicated by arrow 236. A switch
between a GPRS packet transfer mode 216 and a GSM_Idle/
GPRS Packet_Idle state 218 may be performed by connection
mobile terminal 110 and the radio access network 102 may
establishment/release, as indicated by arrow 242. A switch
thus be implemented by providing the base stations 106 dis
from an E-UTRA RRC IDLE mode 204 to a GSM_Idle/
persed throughout the coverage area of the communication
GPRS Packet_Idle state 218 may be performed by reselec
system 100 (eg a PLMN, public land mobile network).
tion, as indicated by arrow 238. A switch from a GSM_Idle/
GPRS Packet_Idle state 218 to an E-UTRA RRC IDLE mode
[0032] Each base station of the communication system 100
may control communications within its geographic coverage
area, namely its mobile radio cell 108. When the mobile
terminal 110 is located within a mobile radio cell 108 and is
camped on the mobile radio cell 108 (in other words is reg
istered with the mobile radio cell 108) it may communicate
with the base station 106 controlling that mobile radio cell
108. When a call is initiated by the user of the mobile terminal
110 or a call is addressed to the mobile terminal 110, radio
channels may be set up between the mobile terminal 110 and
the base station 106 controlling the mobile radio cell 108 in
which the mobile station is located (and on which it is
camped). If the mobile terminal 110 moves away from the
original mobile radio cell 108 in which a call was set up and
the signal strength on the radio channels established in the
original mobile radio cell 108 weakens, the communication
system may initiate a transfer of the call to radio channels of
another mobile radio cell 108 into which the mobile terminal
110 moves.
[0033]
As the mobile terminal 110 continues to move
throughout the coverage area of the communication system
100, control of the call may be transferred between neighbor
ing mobile radio cells 108. The transfer of calls from mobile
204 may be performed by CCO resp. reselection, as indicated
by arrow 240.
[0036] In various embodiments, the two distinct UE states
in LTE (E-UTRA) may be RRC IDLE and RRC CON
NECTED.
[0037]
In various embodiments, in RRC IDLE, mobility
may be UE controlled.
[0038] In various embodiments, in RRC IDLE, a UE spe
ci?c discontinuous reception (DRX) may be con?gured by
upper layers.
[0039]
In various embodiments, in RRC IDLE, the UE may
acquire system information (SI).
[0040] In various embodiments, in RRC IDLE, the UE may
monitor a paging channel to detect incoming calls, system
information change, and for ETWS (Earthquake and Tsunami
Warning System) capable UEs, ETWS noti?cations.
[0041] In various embodiments, in RRC IDLE, the UE may
perform neighboring cell measurements for the cell (re-)se
lection process.
[0042] In various embodiments, a UE may be in RRC_
CONNECTED, when an RRC connection has been estab
lished.
dover (or handoff).
[0043] In various embodiments, in RRC_CONNECTED,
mobility may be controlled by the network (handover and cell
[0034] FIG. 2 shows a state diagram 200 according to an
embodiment showing an overview 200 of the two E-UTRA
RRC states E-UTRA RRC CONNECTED 202 and E-UTRA
data may be transferred to/from UE.
radio cell 108 to mobile radio cell 108 may be termed han
RRC IDLE 204, and also illustrates the inter-RAT mobility
support between E-UTRA 200 (3.9G LTE, the two states
depicted in the centre of FIG. 2), UTRA (3G UMTS, left part
of the FIG. 2) and GERAN (2G and 2.5G, right part of FIG.
2).
[0035]
As shown in FIG. 2, it may be switched between the
state of E_UTRA RRC CONNECTED 202 and the state of
E_UTRA RRC IDLE 204 by connection establishment/re
lease as indicated by arrow 230. A switch between CELL_
DCH state 206 and E-UTRA RRC CONNECTED state 202
may be performed by a handover, as indicated by arrow 222.
In UMTS, a CELL_FACH state 208 may be provided. Fur
thermore, a switch between a CELL_PCH resp. URA_PCH
state 210 and an UTRA_Idle state 212 may be performed by
connection establishment/release as indicated by arrow 226.
A switch from a CELL_PCH resp. URA_PCH state 210 to an
E-UTRA RRC IDLE state 204 may be performed by reselec
tion, as indicated by arrow 224. A switch between UTRA_
Idle state 212 and an E-UTRA RRC IDLE state 204 may be
performed by reselection, as indicated by arrow 228. A switch
between an E-UTRA RRC CONNECTED state 202 and a
GSM_Connected state 214 resp. GPRS Packet transfer mode
216 may be performed by handover, as indicated by arrow
232. A switch from an E-UTRA RRC_CONNECTED state
202 to a GSM_Idle/GPRS Packet_Idle state 218 may be
performed by CCO (Cell Change Order) with optional NACC
(Network Assisted Cell Change), as indicated by arrow 234.
A switch from a GPRS Packet transfer mode 216 to an
change order).
[0044]
[0045]
In various embodiments, in RRC_CONNECTED,
In various embodiments, in RRC_CONNECTED,
at lower layers, the UE may be con?gured with a UE speci?c
discontinuous reception (DRX).
[0046] In various embodiments, in RRC_CONNECTED,
the UE may acquire system information (SI).
[0047] In various embodiments, in RRC_CONNECTED,
the UE may monitor a paging channel and/or SIB Type 1
content to detect SI change, and for ETWS capable UEs,
ETWS noti?cations.
[0048]
In various embodiments, in RRC_CONNECTED,
the UE may monitor the control channels associated with the
shared data channel to determine if data is scheduled for it.
[0049] In various embodiments, in RRC_CONNECTED,
the UE may provide channel quality and feedback informa
tion.
[0050]
In various embodiments, in RRC_CONNECTED,
the UE may perform neighboring cell measurements and
reporting to assist the network in making handover decisions.
[0051] According to various embodiments, the two RRC
(Radio Resource Control) states RRC Idle (which may be an
example for an operation state of reduced energy consump
tion) and RRC Connected in E-UTRA may be as follows:
RRC IDLE
[0052] Mobility may be controlled by the mobile termi
nal 110 (for example a M2M (machine-to-machine)
device 110).
[0053]
The mobile terminal 110
Jul. 19, 2012
US 2012/0184205 A1
[0054] may acquire system information (SI);
and a relay determiner 306. The stateful paging guard device
[0055]
400 may furthermore include a state storage 402, like Will be
may monitor a paging channel to detect incom
ing calls and SI change noti?cations; and
[0056] may perform neighboring cell measurements
for the cell (re-)selection process.
described in more detail beloW. The stateful paging guard
device 400 may furthermore include a speci?c data deter
miner 404 (in other Words a speci?c data determining circuit),
like Will be described in more detail beloW. The stateful
RRC CONNECTED
[0057]
A mobile terminal 110 (for example an M2M device
110) may be in RRC_CONNECTED When an RRC connec
tion has been established.
[0058]
Mobility may be controlled by the radio access
netWork 102 (handover and cell change order).
[0059]
The mobile terminal 110
[0060] may acquire system information (SI);
[0061] may monitor a paging channel and/or SIB (sys
tem information block) Type 1 content to detect SI
change; and
[0062] may perform neighboring cell measurements
and measurement reporting to assist the netWork in
making handover decisions.
[0063] FIG. 3 shoWs a stateful paging guard device 300
according to an embodiment. The stateful paging guard
device 300 may include a state determiner 302 (in other Words
a state determining circuit) con?gured to determine state
information indicating Whether a terminal device (not shoWn
in FIG. 3) is in an operation state of reduced energy consump
tion; a receiver 306 con?gured to receive data directed to the
terminal device; and a relay determiner 306 (in other Words:
a state determining circuit) con?gured to determine Whether
the data is to be relayed to the terminal device based on the
state information. The state determiner 302, the receiver 304
paging guard device 400 may furthermore include a data
discarding instruction transmitter 406, like Will be described
in more detail beloW. The stateful paging guard device 400
may furthermore include a state polling circuit 408, like Will
be described in more detail beloW. The state determiner 302,
the receiver 304, the relay determiner 306, the state storage
402, the speci?c data determiner 404, the data discarding
instruction transmitter 406, and the state polling circuit 408
may be coupled With each other, e. g. via an electrical connec
tion 410 such as e. g. a cable or a computer bus or via any other
suitable electrical connection to exchange electrical signals.
[0073] According to various embodiments, the state poll
ing circuit 408 may be con?gured to transmit a request for the
state information to a netWork device (for example to an
S-GW), and to receive the requested state information from
the netWork device.
[0074] According to various embodiments, the state stor
age 402 may be con?gured to store state information indicat
ing Whether the terminal device is in an operation state of
reduced energy consumption.
[0075] According to various embodiments, the state deter
miner 302 may be con?gured to determine the state informa
tion based on the state information stored in the state storage
402.
[0076]
According to various embodiments, the state stor
computer bus or via any other suitable electrical connection to
age 402 may further be con?gured to, in case both the state
information stored in the state storage 402 is state information
indicating that the terminal device is in an operation state of
exchange electrical signals.
reduced energy consumption and it is determined by the relay
[0064] According to various embodiments, the operation
[0065] According to various embodiments, the operation
determiner 306 that the data is to be relayed to the terminal
device, store information indicating that the terminal device is
not in an operation state of reduced energy consumption as
state of reduced energy consumption may be an RRC idle
state information.
and the relay determiner 306 may be coupled With each other,
eg via an electrical connection 308 such as eg a cable or a
state of reduced energy consumption may be an idle state.
[0077]
state.
[0066]
According to various embodiments, the stateful
paging guard device 300 may be provided in a core netWork of
a mobile radio communication system, to Which the terminal
device belongs.
[0067] According to various embodiments, the stateful
paging guard device 300 may be provided in a serving gate
Way of the core netWork.
[0068] According to various embodiments, the stateful
paging guard device 300 may be provided betWeen a serving
According to various embodiments, the state stor
age 402 may be further con?gured to, in case both the state
information stored in the state storage 402 is state information
indicating that the terminal device is not in an operation state
of reduced energy consumption and the receiver 304 has not
received data to be relayed to the terminal device for a pre
determined period of time, store information indicating that
the terminal device is in an operation state of reduced energy
consumption as state information.
[0078] According to various embodiments, the speci?c
gateWay of the core netWork and a mobility management
entity of the core network.
data determiner 404 may be con?gured to determine Whether
the received data ful?ls a pre-determined criterion.
[0069] According to various embodiments, the received
data may be data for changing the operation state of the
mined criterion may be a criterion related to a sender of the
terminal device from an operation state of reduced energy
consumption to an operation state of normal operation.
[0070]
According to various embodiments, the received
[0079] According to various embodiments, the pre-deter
data. For example, only for data sent from a pre-determined
sender, it may be determined that the data ful?ls the pre
determined criterion.
data may be paging data or data that Would result in paging
[0080] According to various embodiments, the pre-deter
data to be sent to the terminal device.
mined criterion may be a criterion related to the content of the
[0071]
According to various embodiments, the terminal
device may be a machine-to-machine type terminal device.
data. For example, only for data including a pre-determined
content, it may be determined that the data ful?ls the pre
determined criterion.
[0072] FIG. 4 shoWs a stateful paging guard device 400
according to an embodiment. The stateful paging guard
device 400 may, similar to the stateful paging guard device
mined criterion may be a criterion related to an encrypted
300 of FIG. 3, include a state determiner 302, a receiver 304,
counter value in the data. For example, only for data including
[0081] According to various embodiments, the pre-deter
Jul. 19, 2012
US 2012/0184205 A1
a counter value that is higher than a previously received
counter value, and for Which the counter value is encrypted by
a pre-determined key, it may be determined that the data
ful?ls the pre-determined criterion.
[0082] According to various embodiments, the relay deter
miner 306 may further be con?gured to determine Whether
the data is to be relayed to the terminal device based on
Whether the received data ful?ls the pre-determined criterion.
mation is stored in the guarded terminal device storage, and
may not operate (or may operate to relay all data or may
operate to transmit an instruction to relay all data) for terminal
devices, for Which information is not stored in the guarded
terminal device storage.
[0090]
According to various embodiments, the stateful
paging guard device 400 may furthermore include a criterion
[0083] According to various embodiments, the relay deter
information storage (not shoWn) con?gured to store informa
tion indicating the pre-determined criterion, for example in
miner 306 may be con?gured to determine that the data is to
be relayed to the terminal device in case the state information
is indicating that the terminal device is not in an operation
state of reduced energy consumption.
correlation With information identifying the terminal device.
[0091] FIG. 5 shoWs a How diagram 500 illustrating a
method for controlling a stateful paging guard device accord
ing to an embodiment. In 502, state information indicating
[0084] According to various embodiments, the relay deter
Whether a terminal device is in an operation state of reduced
miner 306 may be con?gured to determine that the data is not
to be relayed to the terminal device in case both the state
information is indicating that the terminal device is in an
energy consumption may be determined. In 504, data directed
to the terminal device may be received. In 506, it may be
determined Whether the data is to be relayed to the terminal
operation state of reduced energy consumption and the data
does not ful?ll the pre-determined criterion.
device based on the state information.
[0085] According to various embodiments, the relay deter
state of reduced energy consumption may be an idle state.
miner 306 may be con?gured to determine that the data is to
be relayed to the terminal device in case both the state infor
mation is indicating that the terminal device is in an operation
state of reduced energy consumption and the data ful?ls the
pre-determined criterion.
[0086]
According to various embodiments, the stateful
[0092] According to various embodiments, the operation
[0093] According to various embodiments, the operation
state of reduced energy consumption may be an RRC idle
state.
[0094]
According to various embodiments, the stateful
paging guard device may be provided in a core netWork of a
mobile radio communication system, to Which the terminal
paging guard device 300 may further include a data transmit
device belongs.
ter (not shoWn) con?gured to relay (in other Words: to trans
[0095] According to various embodiments, the stateful
paging guard device may be provided in a serving gateWay of
mit) the data to the terminal device in case it is determined that
the data is to be relayed to the terminal device. According to
various embodiments, the stateful paging guard device 300
may further include an relay instruction transmitter (not
shoWn) con?gured to transmit (for example to a S-GW) a
the core netWork.
[0096] According to various embodiments, the stateful
paging guard device may be provided betWeen a serving
relay instruction instructing relaying (in other Words: trans
gateWay of the core netWork and a mobility management
entity of the core netWork.
mitting) the data to the terminal device in case it is determined
that the data is to be relayed to the terminal device. According
[0097] According to various embodiments, the received
data may be data for changing the operation state of the
to various embodiments, the stateful paging guard device 300
may relay (in other Words: transmit) the data to the terminal
device, for example in a case Where the stateful paging guard
device 300 is provided in a serving gateWay or is provided
terminal device from an operation state of reduced energy
betWeen a serving gateWay and the MME. According to an
data to be sent to the terminal device.
consumption to an operation state of normal operation.
[0098]
According to various embodiments, the received
data may be paging data or data that Would result in paging
example, the transmitter may be con?gured to transmit pag
[0099]
ing data to the terminal device in case it is both determined
that the data is to be relayed to the terminal device and that the
terminal device is in an operation state of reduced energy
device may be a machine-to-machine type terminal device.
consumption, and may then relay (in other Words: transmit)
According to various embodiments, the terminal
[0100] According to various embodiments, the state infor
mation may be polled from a netWork device (for example an
S-GW). According to various embodiments, a request for the
the data to the terminal device, for example in a case Where the
state information may be transmitted to a netWork device (for
stateful paging guard device 300 is provided in the S-GW.
[0087] According to various embodiments, the data dis
carding instruction transmitter 406 may be con?gured to
transmit a discarding instruction instructing discarding of the
example to an S-GW), and the requested state information
may be received from the netWork device.
[0101] According to various embodiments, state informa
tion indicating Whether the terminal device is in an operation
state of reduced energy consumption may be stored.
[0102] According to various embodiments, the state infor
data in case it is determined that the data is not to be relayed
to the terminal device.
[0088] According to various embodiments, the stateful
paging guard device may further include a data discarder (not
shoWn) con?gured to discard the data in case it is determined
that the data is not to be relayed to the terminal device.
[0089] According to various embodiments, the stateful
paging guard device 400 may furthermore include a guarded
terminal device storage (not shoWn) con?gured to store infor
mation indicating that the stateful paging guard device 400 is
to be applied for the terminal device. According to various
embodiments, the stateful paging guard device 400 may oper
ate like described herein for terminal devices, for Which infor
mation may be determined based on the state information
stored in the state storage.
[0103] According to various embodiments, in case both the
stored state information is state information indicating that
the terminal device is in an operation state of reduced energy
consumption and it is determined that the data is to be relayed
to the terminal device, information indicating that the termi
nal device is not in an operation state of reduced energy
consumption may be stored as state information.
[0104] According to various embodiments, in case both the
stored state information is state information indicating that
Jul. 19, 2012
US 2012/0184205 Al
the terminal device is not in an operation state of reduced
[0114] According to various embodiments, a discarding
instruction instructing discarding of the data may be trans
energy consumption and data to be relayed to the terminal
device has not been received for a pre-determined period of
time, information indicating that the terminal device is in an
operation state of reduced energy consumption may be stored
mitted in case it is determined that the data is not to be relayed
to the terminal device.
as state information.
discarded in case it is determined that the data is not to be
[0105]
relayed to the terminal device.
[0116] According to various embodiments information
indicating that the method for controlling a stateful paging
guard device is to be applied for the terminal device may be
stored. According to various embodiments, the methods for
controlling a stateful paging guard device like described
herein may be applied to terminal devices, for Which infor
mation is stored in the guarded terminal device storage, and
may not be applied to terminal devices, for Which information
is not stored in the guarded terminal device storage. Accord
ing to various embodiments, for terminal devices, for Which
information is not stored in the guarded terminal device stor
According to various embodiments, it may be deter
mined Whether the received data ful?ls a pre-determined cri
terion.
[0106] According to various embodiments, the pre-deter
mined criterion may be a criterion related to a sender of the
data. For example, only for data sent from a pre-determined
sender, it may be determined that the data ful?ls the pre
determined criterion.
[0107] According to various embodiments, the pre-deter
mined criterion may be a criterion related to the content of the
data. For example, only for data including a pre-determined
content, it may be determined that the data ful?ls the pre
determined criterion.
[0108] According to various embodiments, the pre-deter
[0115]
According to various embodiments, the data may be
age, all data may be relayed or an instruction to relay all data
may be transmitted.
a counter value that is higher than a previously received
[0117] According to various embodiments, information
indicating the pre-determined criterion may be stored, for
example in correlation With information identifying the ter
counter value, and for Which the counter value is encrypted by
a pre-determined key, it may be determined that the data
minal device.
[0118] FIG. 6 shoWs a stateful paging guard device 600
ful?ls the pre-determined criterion.
[0109] According to various embodiments, it may be deter
according to an embodiment. The stateful paging guard
device 600 may be con?gured to instruct relaying of data
mined Whether the data is to be relayed to the terminal device
based on Whether the received data ful?ls the pre-determined
criterion.
directed to a terminal device (not shoWn in FIG. 6) to the
terminal device or instruct discarding of the data, based on
Whether the terminal device is in an operation state of reduced
[0110]
energy consumption.
mined criterion may be a criterion related to an encrypted
counter value in the data. For example, only for data including
According to various embodiments, it may be deter
mined that the data is to be relayed to the terminal device in
case the state information is indicating that the terminal
device is not in an operation state of reduced energy consump
tion.
[0111]
According to various embodiments, it may be deter
mined that the data is not to be relayed to the terminal device
in case both the state information is indicating that the termi
nal device is in an operation state of reduced energy consump
tion and the data does not ful?ll the pre-determined criterion.
[0112]
According to various embodiments, it may be deter
mined that the data is to be relayed to the terminal device in
case both the state information is indicating that the terminal
device is in an operation state of reduced energy consumption
and the data ful?ls the pre-determined criterion.
[0113]
According to various embodiments, the data may be
[0119]
FIG. 7 shoWs a How diagram 700 illustrating a
method for controlling a stateful paging guard device accord
ing to an embodiment. In 702, relaying of data directed to a
terminal device to the terminal device may be instructed (for
example a S-GW may be instructed) or discarding of the data
may be instructed (for example a S-GW may be instructed),
based on Whether the terminal device is in an operation state
of reduced energy consumption.
[0120] According to various embodiments, devices and
methods may be provided for the machine-to-machine
(M2M) market, Which may be emerging. According to vari
ous embodiments, not only human beings may be connected
via cellular mobile netWorks but also machines. For example,
an M2M system may include a device or group of devices
capable of replying to request for data contained Within those
devices or capable of transmitting data contained Within those
relayed to the terminal device in case it is determined that the
data is to be relayed to the terminal device. According to
devices autonomously. According to various embodiments,
various embodiments, a relay instruction instructing relaying
an M2M system may also includes a communications link to
(in other Words: transmitting) the data to the terminal device
may be transmitted (for example to a S-GW) in case it is
determined that the data is to be relayed to the terminal
device. According to various embodiments, the data may be
another device and an arti?cially intelligent agent, softWare
agent, process, or interface by Which the data can be analyZed,
reported, and/or acted upon. According to various embodi
relayed (in other Words: transmitted) to the terminal device,
for example in a case Where the stateful paging guard device
300 is provided in a serving gateWay or is provided betWeen
a serving gateWay and the MME. According to an example,
paging data may be transmitted to the terminal device in case
it is both determined that the data is to be relayed to the
terminal device and that the terminal device is in an operation
state of reduced energy consumption, and then the data may
be relayed (in other Words: transmitted) to the terminal
device, for example in a case Where the stateful paging guard
device 300 is provided in the S-GW.
connect the device or group of devices to a computer server or
ments, M2M systems may be based on automated intelli
gence. Examples for M2M enabled devices connected to a
system are ?eet management systems over remote controlling
and/or accounting to health supervision.
[0121] FIG. 8 shoWs a diagram 800 illustrating machine to
machine market segments according to an embodiment. The
M2M market segments 802 may include telematics 804, auto
mation monitoring and control 806, and supervision 808.
Telematics 804 may include ?eet management 810, rental
vehicle tracking 812, and in-vehicle communication 814.
Automation monitoring and control 806 may include utilities
Jul. 19, 2012
US 2012/0184205 A1
816, ?eld equipment 818, and maintenance 820. Supervision
works, such as eg to a GSM EDGE Radio Access Network
808 may include traf?c 822, health 824, and facilities 826.
[0122] According to various embodiments, a vendor
machine for beverages may communicate with the owner and
may order new supplies autonomously. A rent production
via a Gb interface, and/or to a UMTS Terrestrial RadioAccess
Network (UTRAN) 912 via an Iu interface. In an embodi
machine may generate an account of usage and may report it
to the rental agency. The number of such M2M enabled
devices may be increasing in the future. Cellular networks for
mobile devices have become a main communication tech
nique because of the ?exibility and reliability. Therefore
operators of cellular networks may be under pressure to cope
with increasing M2M subscriptions. According to various
embodiments, devices and methods may be provided for
(GERAN) 908 (which may also be referred to as 2G or 2.5G)
ment, UTRAN may stand for UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
Network and may be a collective term for the NodeBs and
Radio Network Controllers (RNCs) which make up the
UMTS radio access network. This communications network,
commonly referred to as 3G, may carry many tra?ic types
from real-time Circuit Switched to IP based Packet Switched.
The UTRAN 912 may include at least one NodeB that may be
connected to at least one Radio Network Controller (RNC).
An RNC may provide control functionalities for one or more
NodeB(s). A NodeB and an RNC may be the same device,
improving the resource management to be able to offer attrac
tive M2M tariffs and meet new business models. For example,
resource management may be provided which may take times
of low network traf?c into account and may perform a load
balance in terms of time, location and network resources.
located in a central location serving multiple NodeBs. An
RNC together with its corresponding NodeBs may be called
the Radio Network Subsystem (RNS). There may be more
[0123]
than one RNS provided per UTRAN.
According to various embodiments, the M2M
devices may be in an energy ef?cient state mo st of the time in
order to safe battery lifetime. According to various embodi
ments, the user may be provided with the ability to trigger the
device in order to communicate with it.
[0124]
In 3GPP the following service requirements may be
de?ned: 3GPP TS 22.368 V10.2.0 (2010-09); Technical
Speci?cation; 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical
Speci?cation Group Services and System Aspects; Service
requirements for Machine-Type Communications (MTC);
Stage 1 (Release 10).
[0125] According to various embodiments, devices and
methods may be provided for MTC device triggering.
[0126] According to various embodiments, the network
may be able to trigger MTC devices to initiate communica
tion with an MTC server based on a trigger indication from
the MTC server.
[0127] According to various embodiments, an MTC device
may be able to receive trigger indications from the network
and may establish communication with the MTC server when
receiving the trigger indication. According to various
embodiments, possible options may include:
[0128] Receiving trigger indication when the MTC
device is o?iine;
[0129] Receiving trigger indication when the MTC
device is online, but has no data connection established;
and
[0130]
Receiving trigger indication when the MTC
device is online and has a data connection established.
[0131]
According to various embodiments, “online” may
mean that the MTC Device is attached to the network for MT
signaling or user plane data. When the MTC Device is o?iine
(for example detached, for example in an operation state of
reduced energy consumption) the MTC Device may listen to
trigger indications on eg a broadcast or paging channel.
[0132] FIG. 9 shows a network architecture 900, for
example an LTE network architecture, in accordance with an
embodiment. The network architecture 900 may be a Non
Roaming 3GPP Core Network Architecture with three differ
ent Radio Access Networks (RANs). The 3GPP Network
Architecture 900 may include an Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
and a General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Core, which may
be connected with each other by various interfaces, as will be
described in more detail below. As shown in FIG. 9, the GPRS
Core may include a Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)
904, which may be coupled to different Radio Access Net
although typical implementations may have a separate RNC
[0133] Furthermore, in an embodiment, the following enti
ties or components may be provided in the general 3GPP
Network Architecture 900:
[0134]
an evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Net
work (E-UTRAN) 916;
[0135]
a Home Subscriber Server (HSS) 922; and
[0136] a Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF)
entity 924.
[0137]
E-UTRAN may be understood as being the new
3GPP Radio Access Network for LTE (3.9G) that is currently
being worked on. The proposed E-UTRA air interface may
use OFDMA for the downlink transmission direction (tower
to handset) and Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) for the
uplink transmission direction (handset to tower). It may
employ MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) with a plu
rality of antennas, eg with up to four antennas per station.
The use of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multi
plexing) may enable E-UTRA to be much more ?exible in its
use of spectrum than the older CDMA based systems, such as
eg UTRAN. OFDM may have a link spectral ef?ciency
greater than CDMA, and when combined with modulation
formats such as 64QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modula
tion), and techniques as MIMO, E-UTRA may be more e?i
cient than W-CDMA (Wideband CDMA) with HSDPA (High
Speed Downlink Packet Access) and HSUPA (High Speed
Uplink Packet Access).
[0138]
Furthermore, as will be described in more detail
below, the EPC may include a Mobility Management Entity
(MME) 918 and a Serving Gateway (S-GW) 930 (in FIG. 9
shown as separate devices, however, the MME 918 and the
S-GW 930 may also be implemented in one combined entity),
a 3GPP Anchor entity and an SAE (System Architecture
Evolution) Anchor entity.
[0139] In an embodiment, the E-UTRAN 916 may be con
nected to the Serving Gateway 930 via an S1 -U interface 914.
In an embodiment, the E-UTRAN 916 may be connected to
the MME 918 via an S1-MME interface 910.
[0140] In an embodiment, a UE 902 may be connected to
the E-UTRAN 916 by an LTE-Uu interface 906.
[0141]
Furthermore, the trusted non-3GPP IP entity may be
connected to the SAE Anchor entity via an S2a interface. In an
embodiment, the S2a interface may be based on the Proxy
Mobile IPv6 (PMIP) and in order to support accesses that do
not support PMIP also Mobile IPv4.
Jul. 19, 2012
US 2012/0184205 A1
[0142] Furthermore, the SGSN 904 may be connected to
the MME 918 in the EPC via an S3 interface 942, which may
provide and enable a user and bearer information exchange
for inter 3GPP access network mobility in idle and/ or active
state. In an embodiment, the S3 interface 942 may be based on
the GPRS tunneling protocol (GTP) and the Gn interface as it
may be provided between SGSNs. The SGSN 904 may fur
initial attach and at time of intra-LTE handover involving
Core Network (CN) node relocation. It may be responsible
for authenticating the user (by interacting with the Home
Subscriber Server (HSS 922)). The Non-Access Stratum
(NAS) signaling may terminate at the MME 918 and it may
also be responsible for generation and allocation of tempo
ther be connected to the 3GPP Anchor entity via an S4 inter
rary identities to UEs. It may check the authoriZation of the
UE to camp on the service provider’s Public Land Mobile
face, which may provide the user plane with related control
and mobility support between the GPRS Core and the 3GPP
Network (PLMN) and may enforce UE roaming restrictions.
The MME 918 may be the termination point in the network
Anchor function of the S-GW 930 and may be based on the
for ciphering/ integrity protection for NAS signaling and may
handle the security key management. Lawful interception of
GTP protocol and the Gn reference point as provided between
SGSN 904 and GGSN (GPRS Support Node).
[0143] The MME S-GW may be connected to the 3GPP
Anchor entity via an S5a interface and the 3GPP Anchor
entity may be connected to the SAE Anchor entity via an S5b
interface.
[0144] Furthermore, the HSS 922 may be connected to the
MME 918 via an S6a interface 950, which may provide or
enable transfer of subscription and authentication data for
authenticating/ authorizing user access to the evolved system
(AAA interface) between the MME 918 and the HSS 922.
signaling may also be supported by the MME 918. The MME
918 also may provide the control plane function for mobility
between LTE and 3GPP technologies with the S3 interface
942 terminating at the MME 918 from the SGSN 904. The
MME 918 may terminate the S6a interface 950 towards the
home HSS 922 for roaming UEs.
[0153] The SGW (Serving Gateway) 930 may route and
forward user data packets, while also acting as the mobility
anchor for the user plane during inter-eNodeB handovers and
as the anchor for mobility between LTE and other 3GPP
The PCRF 924 may be connected to the EPC via an
technologies (for example terminating S4 interface 944 and
S7 interface, which may provide transfer of Quality of Ser
vice (QoS) policy and charging rules from the PCRF 924 to
the Policy and Charging Enforcement Function (PCEF) in an
relaying the tra?ic between 2G/3G systems and PGW 934).
PDN Gateway 934 of the EPC. In an embodiment, the S7
arrives for the UE. It may manage and store UE contexts, for
interface may be based on an Gx interface 938.
example parameters of the IP bearer service, network internal
routing information. It may also perform replication of the
[0145]
[0146]
IP services 954 such as eg (3G) IP Multimedia
For idle state UEs, the SGW 930 may terminate the DL
(downlink) data path and may trigger paging when DL data
Subsystem (IMS), (3G) Packet Switches Streaming (PSS),
user tra?ic in case of lawful interception.
M2M application, etc., may be provided via an SGi interface
[0154] According to various embodiments, the PGW (PDN
Gateway) 934 may provide connectivity from the UE 902 to
external packet data networks by being the point of exit and
956 to the SAE Anchor entity and/or via an Rx interface 958
to the PCRF 924. In an embodiment, the SGi interface 956
may be the interface between the PDN Gateway 934 and the
packet data network. The packet data network may be an
operator external public or private packet data network or an
intra operator packet data network, eg for provision of IP
services such as eg of IMS. The SGi interface 956 may
correspond to the Gi and Wi interfaces and support any 3GPP
or non-3GPP access. The Rx interface 958 may be the inter
face between the IP services and the PCRF 924.
[0147] In various embodiments, the MME may be con
nected to other MMEs by an S10 interface 920 for MME
relocation and MME to MME information transfer.
[0148] In various embodiments, the MME 918 may be con
nected to the Serving Gateway 930 by an S11 interface 926.
[0149]
In various embodiments, the Serving Gateway 930
may be connected to the PDN gateway 934 by an S5 interface
932. In various embodiments, the Serving Gateway 930 may
be connected to the SGSN 904 by an S4 interface 944. In
entry of tra?ic for the UE 902. A UE 902 may have simulta
neous connectivity with more than one PGW 934 for access
ing multiple PDNs. The PGW 934 may perform policy
enforcement, packet ?ltering for each user, charging support,
lawful Interception and packet screening. The PGW may
further act as the anchor for mobility between 3GPP and
non-3GPP technologies such as WiMAX and 3GPP2
(CDMA 1x and EvDO (Evolution-Data OptimiZed)).
[0155]
According to various embodiments, the M2M
devices may be in an operation state of reduced energy con
sumption, for example in an idle state, most of the time. In the
idle state, the devices may be using minimal resources just
suf?cient to listen to a paging channel. In LTE and above the
paging mechanism may be energy e?icient. According to
various embodiments, it may be very likely that paging may
ful?ll the desirements regarding triggering described above.
various embodiments, the Serving Gateway 930 may be con
According to various embodiments, the stateful paging guard
device (in other words the paging ?lter) described above with
nected to the UTRAN 912 by an S12 interface 928.
reference to the stateful paging guard device may be used also
[0150] In various embodiments, the Serving Gateway
for other devices to trigger an M2M device.
(SGW) 930 and the PDN Gateway (PGW) 934 may be one
functional entity, as indicated by dashed box 936.
[0151] According to various embodiments, the EPC may
include as its subcomponents the MME 918, the SGW 930,
and the PGW 934.
[0152] According to various embodiments, the MME (Mo
bility Management Entity) 918 may be the key control-node
for the LTE access-network. It may be responsible for idle
mode UE tracking and paging procedure. It may be involved
in the bearer activation/deactivation process and may also be
responsible for choosing the SGW 930 for a UE 902 at the
[0156]
According to various embodiments, information
sent out in broadcast mode by a base station (eNB) may be the
same for all M2M devices that are residing within coverage of
the base station. That may mean that in any given cell all
M2M devices in RRC_IDLE may receive the same pieces of
broadcast information. Unlike for M2M devices in RRC_
CONNECTED, there may be no dedicated signaling for
M2M devices in RRC_IDLE state. According to various
embodiments, in LTE, the PDSCH (Physical Downlink
Shared Channel) may be used for the paging message and the
indication may be provided via the PDCCH (Physical Down
Jul. 19, 2012
US 2012/0184205 A1
link Control Channel).According to various embodiments, in
LTE, the PDCCH signaling may be very short in duration, and
therefore the impact on UE battery life of monitoring the
PDCCH from time to time may be low. According to various
embodiments, therefore, the normal PDCCH signaling may
be used to carry a paging indicator or the equivalent of a
paging indicator, while the detailed paging information may
be carried on the PDSCH in a resource block indicated by the
PDCCH. According to various embodiments, paging indica
tors sent on the PDCCH may use a single ?xed identi?er
called the Paging RNTI (Radio Network Temporary Identi
?er; P-RNTI).
[0157] According to various embodiments, a result of the
paging procedure may be one or more of the following:
[0158] transmit paging information to an M2M device in
RRC_IDLE, and/ or
[0159]
inform the M2M device in RRC_IDLE and in
RRC_CONNECTED about a SI-change, and/ or
[0160]
inform the M2M device about PWS (Public
Warning System) noti?cations.
[0161]
According to various embodiments, when DL data
area the M2M device 1012 is registered in. All eNodeBs in the
paging area may, in 1022, send a paging message to the
speci?c M2M device 1012. The M2M device 1012 in idle
mode may listen to the paging channel, may receive the
paging message and may switch to RRC_connected mode.
For example, the M2M device 1012 in 1024 may send a
service request to the MME 1008, and user plane setup may
be established between the MME 1008 and the eNodeB 1010
in 1026, and between the MME 1008 and the S-GW 1006 in
1028. A data connection may be established and the serving
gateway 1006 may in 1030 and 1032 send the cached received
data to the M2M device 1012 via the eNodeB 1010.
[0167] This paging procedure may happen very easily by
mistake or intentionally by someone else but an authoriZed
person (for example the owner), for example when a port scan
is performed in the network. It may be simple to learn the Ipv6
address of an M2M device owned by a competitor. It may
happen that someone is waking up the device owned by a
competitor on regular basis in order to increase the energy
consumption of that device which may be considered as a
kind of Denial-of-Service attack.
intended for a UE in RRC_IDLE state arrives at the S-GW, the
[0168]
MME may initiate paging as shown below. The paging
mechanism is explained in more detail below and the network
methods are provided to prevent an M2M device from being
According to various embodiments, devices and
paged or triggered by someone not authoriZed, for example
?lter (in other words: the stateful paging guard device) may
be applied to this paging mechanism.
[0162] According to various embodiments, when paged,
by someone else than the owner of that device.
the device may switch from idle state to connected state and
may build a connection to the network in order to establish a
data communication. The idle state in LTE and above may be
in the packet data gateway or in the serving data gateway in an
LTE network. According to various embodiments, in case a
data connection is established already the communication
may be performed as usual. According to various embodi
ments, in case the connection is not established yet, the gate
way with a paging ?lter enabled may send the corresponding
message to the MME only in the following speci?ed cases.
optimiZed regarding energy e?iciency. The M2M Devices
may be triggered by the M2M application server in case the
device is supposed to establish a connection.
[0163] For example, this may be done via the circuit switch
(CS) domain. The M2M device may be called with its
[0169]
According to various embodiments, a stateful pag
ing guard device (for example a paging ?lter) may be installed
[0170]
According to various embodiments, the ?rst data
MSISDN (Mobile Subscriber ISDN (Integrated Services
packet sent from the M2M server to the M2M device may
Digital Network Number). With this method there may be a
low probability that a device is triggered by mistake or inten
tionally by someone else than the owner of the device.
[0164] With the increasing number of M2M devices, a
have to ful?ll pre-determined criteria to trigger the paging
process in the network. According to various embodiments,
the packet may be speci?c to a single device. According to
various embodiments, the knowledge of the exact packet
shortage in the E164 addressing schema (MSISDN) for
format may not be su?icient to wake-up a device. According
to various embodiments, the packet may have to contain the
Machine-Type Communications may exist. An alternative
may be a packet switched (PS) only Machine-Type Commu
nication with ?xed Ipv6 addresses for each device. In this case
there may not be the possibility to trigger an M2M device via
CS domain. The device may be paged by the network when
data speci?c to the device or a group of devices like all devices
operated by the same owner. According to various embodi
ments, these data may not be learnt easily by a third party as
the IP addresses. Therefore the stateful paging guard device
ever data are sent to the device’s network address.
(for example paging ?lter) according to various embodi
[0165] FIG. 10 shows a ?ow diagram 1000 illustrating a
paging procedure in accordance with an embodiment. In the
ments, may enable the network to prevent an M2M device
from being waked-up by anything else than a wake-up packet
?ow diagram 1000 of the paging procedure in E-UTRAN,
intentionally sent by an authoriZed person, for example by the
signal ?ow between a P-GW (Packet Data Network Gateway)
device owner.
1002, a HSS 1004, a S-GW 1006, an MME 1008, an eNodeB
[0171] According to various embodiments, instead of or in
addition to device speci?c data within the initial data packet,
1010, and terminal device 1012, for example an M2M device,
for example an UE, is shown.
[0166] According to various embodiments, in case in 1014
data arrive for a certain M2M device 1012 through the packet
data gateway 1002 in an LTE network, in 1016, the gateway
1002 may send these data to the corresponding serving gate
way 1006 and from there right through to the M2M device
1 012 in case the M2M device is in RRC_connected state. If no
connection is established yet, the serving gateway 1006 may
in 1018 send a paging message to the MME 1008 (incoming
data). MME 1008 in 1020 may send a message to all eNodeBs
(for example including the eNodeB 1010) within the paging
cryptographic methods like asymmetric encryption to digi
tally sign the initial data packet may be provided. The cryp
tographic based method may lead to more security, because
the M2M device may also be protected against an attacker
who is able to sniff the network tra?ic. According to various
embodiments, protections against replay attacks (for example
resending sniffed packets to the device again and again) may
be prevented in a cryptographically protected packet ?lter by
adding a counter.
[0172] According to various embodiments, a paging ?lter
in packet data gateway or external entity may be provided.
Jul. 19, 2012
US 2012/0184205 A1
[0173] According to various embodiments, a pre-deter
mined Wake-up packet format to trigger a connection estab
lishment may be provided.
[0174] According to various embodiments, a device spe
ci?c (or group of devices speci?c) and/ or digitally signed
Wake-up packet data may be provided to prevent unautho
instead or in addition also look into the payload of the ?rst
data packet, and only if the source address and the payload,
for example the beginning of the payload, match a listed value
for the target device, the paging message may be sent. As an
example the payload may have to look like this:
riZed Wake-up.
[0175] According to various embodiments, a company may
run several vendor machines for cigarettes. The vendor
machines may be equipped With a cellular modem card for
<Wake-up message >DEVICE: vendor265
CODE:nhxy732l 893y872 l 652g2a7 6v2y6v</Wake—up message>
administration (for example remote price adjustments), logis
tics (for example ?lling levels), and maintenance (for
[0182] According to various embodiments, only if the
example diagnostics or ?rmware update, etc.) and a solar
source address, the device name and the code in the payload
panel as poWer supply. In order to save energy and data traf?c,
of the ?rst packet match values listed in the paging ?lter, the
paging may be proceeded. According to various embodi
all machines may be in idle mode unless they are triggered by
the M2M application server operated by the company.
[0176] According to various embodiments, any data sent to
a vendor machine may be routed through the Serving Gate
Way. If the vendor machine (Which may be the target M2M
device) is in RRC_connected state, the data may be sent from
Serving GateWay to the target M2M device. In case the target
M2M device is RRC_idle state, the Serving GateWay may
cache the data and may send a message the MME in order to
page the target device.
[0177] According to various embodiments, a packet ?lter
(or a stateful paging guard device) may be provided in the
Serving GateWay (or may be provided as a separate entity
betWeen SGW and MME). According to various embodi
ments, in case the target device (for example the terminal
device) is in RRC_connected, the data may be sent to the
target device as usual, but in case the device is not in RRC_
connected state, the packet ?lter may look at the ?rst packet
sent to the target device. According to various embodiments,
this packet may have to ful?ll the de?ned criteria in order pass
the ?lter. According to various embodiments, if any of the
criteria are not ful?lled, the data may be discarded and the
ments, in any other case, the data may be discarded. To
by-pass this level paging ?lter, an attacker may have to sniff
the netWork tra?ic. The knoWledge of the M2M server’s IP
address may not be su?icient. According to this embodiment,
the paging ?lter may desire to look up the payload. Therefore
at least the ?rst Wake-up packet may not be encrypted or sent
via an IPsec tunnel Furthermore, in this embodiment, the
Wake-up packet may be static. Once an attacker knoWs hoW
the packet looks like, it may be sent to the target device at any
time and may alWays pass the paging ?lter until the code is
changed.
[0183]
According to various embodiments, a stateful pag
ing guard device (in other Words a paging ?lter) may Works
With cryptographic methods. According to various embodi
ments, the public key of the M2M server and a counter per
M2M server may be stored in addition to the other paging
?lter values of the paging ?lter described above. According to
various embodiments, the payload of the Wake-up packet may
include a counter and may digitally be signed by the M2M
server. For example, this may look like this:
target device may not be paged.
[0178] FIG. 11 shoWs a packet header 1100, for example an
IPv6 header, in accordance With an embodiment. The number
of consecutive bits in the header 1100 may be denoted by
reference sign 1102, and may not be a part of the header 1100
itself.
[0179] The header 1100 may include information indicat
ing a version 1104 including 4 bits representing the value 6 (in
other Words: the bit sequence 01 10), information indicating a
tra?ic class 1106 including 8 bits, information indicating a
How label 1108 including 20 bits, information indicating a
[0184] According to various embodiments, the paging ?lter
may check tWo additional criteria: The counter value may
have to be above the stored value and a Message Authentica
tion Code (for example including the secret key encrypted
hash value of the Wake-up massage; inclusive the counter)
payload length 1110 including 16 bits, information indicating
may have to be correct. In case an attacker Would be able to
a next header 1112 including 8 bits, information indicating a
intercept a Wake-up packet, resending this packet to the
hop limit 1114 including 8 bits, information indicating a
look up the source address ?eld in the IP Header, and only if
device With a spoofed IP address Would not pass the paging
?lter because the counter value is not above the stored.
Increasing the counter value Would lead to an invalid Message
Authentication Code Which may not be generated Without the
secret key stored in the M2M server. The paging ?lter accord
ing to this embodiment may be the most secure but also the
the source address matches the IP address of one of the for the
target device listed M2M server, the message to MME may be
by the need of a key distribution and additional communica
source address 1116 including 128 bits, and information indi
cating a destination address 1118 including 128 bits.
[0180]
According to various embodiments, the stateful
paging guard device (in other Words: the packet ?lter) may
most complex paging ?lter. The complexity may be increased
sent. According to various embodiments, in any other cases,
the data may be discarded. This may be the simplest level of
paging ?lter because an attacker only may need to knoW the IP
tion betWeen M2M server and paging ?lter in case the counter
has to be reset or synchronized.
address of a listed M2M server and may spoof this address in
M2M server may be able to communicate With one or more
order to by-pass the paging ?lter.
[0181] According to various embodiments, a stateful pag
ing guard device (in other Words: the paging ?lter) may
[0185]
According to various embodiments, before the
vendor machines a valid trigger packet may have to be sent.
According to various embodiments, setup messages betWeen
the M2M server and the paging ?lter (in other Words: the
Jul. 19, 2012
US 2012/0184205 A1
stateful paging guard device) may be de?ned (eg to set/
the state information is indicating that the terminal
change a devices code or reset a counter).
device is not in an operation state of reduced energy
[0186]
According to various embodiments, denial of ser
vice (DoS) attacks through permanent paging or triggering
may be prevented.
[0187] According to various embodiments, unintended
paging leading to an increased energy consumption and data
tra?ic may be avoided.
[0188]
According to various embodiments, the stateful
paging guard device (in other Words: the paging ?lter) may
enable the netWork to prevent an M2M device from being
Waked-up by anything else than a Wake-up packet intention
ally sent by the device oWner.
[0189] While the invention has beenparticularly shoWn and
described With reference to speci?c embodiments, it should
be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes
in form and detail may be made therein Without departing
from the spirit and scope of the invention as de?ned by the
appended claims. The scope of the invention is thus indicated
by the appended claims and all changes Which come Within
the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are there
fore intended to be embraced.
What is claimed is:
1. A stateful paging guard device comprising:
a state determiner con?gured to determine state informa
tion indicating Whether a terminal device is in an opera
tion state of reduced energy consumption;
a receiver con?gured to receive data directed to the termi
nal device; and
a relay determiner con?gured to determine Whether the
data is to be relayed to the terminal device based on the
state information.
2. The stateful paging guard device of claim 1,
Wherein the stateful paging guard device is provided in a
core netWork of a mobile radio communication system,
to Which the terminal device belongs.
3. The stateful paging guard device of claim 1,
Wherein the received data is data for changing the operation
state of the terminal device from an operation state of
reduced energy consumption to an operation state of
normal operation.
4. The stateful paging guard device of claim 1, further
comprising:
consumption.
9. The stateful paging guard device of claim 6,
Wherein the relay determiner is con?gured to determine
that the data is not to be relayed to the terminal device in
case both the state information is indicating that the
terminal device is in an operation state of reduced energy
consumption and the data does not ful?ll the pre-deter
mined criterion.
10. The stateful paging guard device of claim 6,
Wherein the relay determiner is con?gured to determine
that the data is to be relayed to the terminal device in case
both the state information is indicating that the terminal
device is in an operation state of reduced energy con
sumption and the data ful?ls the pre-determined crite
rion.
11. The stateful paging guard device of claim 1, further
comprising:
a data discarding instruction transmitter con?gured to
transmit a discarding instruction instructing discarding
of the data in case it is determined that the data is not to
be relayed to the terminal device.
12. A method for controlling a stateful paging guard
device, the method comprising:
determining state information indicating Whether a termi
nal device is in an operation state of reduced energy
consumption;
receiving data directed to the terminal device; and
determining Whether the data is to be relayed to the termi
nal device based on the state information.
13. The method of claim 12,
Wherein the stateful paging guard device is provided in a
core netWork of a mobile radio communication system,
to Which the terminal device belongs.
14. The method of claim 12,
Wherein the received data is data for changing the operation
state of the terminal device from an operation state of
reduced energy consumption to an operation state of
normal operation.
15. The method of claim 12, further comprising:
storing state information indicating Whether the terminal
device is in an operation state of reduced energy con
sumption.
a state storage con?gured to store state information indi
16. The method of claim 12, further comprising:
cating Whether the terminal device is in an operation
state of reduced energy consumption.
5. The stateful paging guard device of claim 1, further
transmitting a request for the state information to a netWork
comprising:
a state polling circuit con?gured to transmit a request for
the state information to a netWork device, and to receive
the requested state information from the netWork device.
6. The stateful paging guard device of claim 1, further
comprising:
a speci?c data determiner con?gured to determine Whether
the received data ful?ls a pre-determined criterion.
7. The stateful paging guard device of claim 6,
Wherein the relay determiner is further con?gured to deter
mine Whether the data is to be relayed to the terminal
device based on Whether the received data ful?ls the
pre-determined criterion.
8. The stateful paging guard device of claim 1,
Wherein the relay determiner is con?gured to determine
that the data is to be relayed to the terminal device in case
device and receiving the requested state information
from the netWork device.
17. The method of claim 12, further comprising:
determining Whether the received data ful?ls a pre-deter
mined criterion.
18. The method of claim 17,
Wherein it is determined Whether the data is to be relayed to
the terminal device based on Whether the received data
ful?ls the pre-determined criterion.
19. The method of claim 12,
Wherein it is determined that the data is to be relayed to the
terminal device in case the state information is indicat
ing that the terminal device is not in an operation state of
reduced energy consumption.
20. The method of claim 17,
Wherein it is determined that the data is not to be relayed to
the terminal device in case both the state information is
indicating that the terminal device is in an operation state