PVI FIREPOWER GAS BURNER
TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION
Figure 9-1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Burner housing
Air intake
Oil pump opening plug
Mounting flange
Mounting flange gasket
Blast tube screw
Blast tube
Nozzle assembly
Nozzle mount bolt
Air inlet cone
Air screen
Fan wheel
Motor, 3450 rpm CWSE rotation
Air nipple
PV500-9 04-2000
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Air switch
Door assembly *
Flame sensing electrode
Ignition electrode
Ignition transformer
On-off switch *
1/4” NPT pressure port plug
Motor mounting plate *
Motor relay or starter *
Pressure plate
Primary gas ports
Secondary gas ports (gas spider)
Gas regulator
Gas valve
(1)
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
Orifice location *
Electrode retaining bracket
Burner cover
Burner sight glass
Air shutter
Union
Flame safeguard control
Flame cone
Manual gas valve
Lifting eye bolt
Power connector
Manifold test port
* On some models
Section 9
POWER GAS BURNER START-UP
(Refer to Figure 9-1 to identify burner parts)
1.
Remove the enclosure panel cover on the water heater
or boiler to expose the control circuit. Located on the
back side of this cover is a wiring diagram of the unit.
This diagram will show the controls used in our
circuitry.
2.
Visually check to be sure all components are intact and
no damage has occurred during transit.
3.
Check all connections within the control cabinet. A
loose connection on a component could cause
intermittent shutdowns.
4.
Some burners will use direct spark ignition. They may
use a single gas pressure regulator and gas valve or
multiple valves and regulators. On a call for heat, the
motor starts, the gas primary control is energized, and
after a short delay (pre-purge), the gas valve(s) opens
and ignition should occur. Some burners have longer
pre-purge periods. On a call for heat, the control is
energized which starts the motor and begins a purge
sequence. On completion of the purge cycle, the gas
valve(s) opens and ignition occurs.
5.
Remove flame safeguard control from its base. Check
connections in the control mounting base. Again, loose
connections can cause nuisance shutdowns. Also
check the time card or programmer, when applicable,
for good connection.
NOTE: Always secure gas lines and tag “Out of
Service” before servicing burner nozzle or electrodes.
6.
Pull the nozzle assembly to check the flame and
ignition electrodes. This is done by first removing the
burner cover, exposing the nozzle assembly.
7.
The L-Series burner must be removed from the heater
and the blast tube removed to access the electrodes.
The electrodes may be accessible by removing the
nozzle assembly on larger burners. Free the nozzle
assembly from the gas train by breaking the unions on
the gas lines. Some models will use an orifice that is
installed in these unions. Retain for re-use.
8.
9.
Next, remove the four bolts that hold the nozzle
assembly to the burner housing. Once the nozzle
assembly is free, pull it back slightly and remove the
wires going to the flame and ignition rod. The easiest
method of removing the nozzle assembly is to rotate it
90° upward and tilt slightly forward while working it
towards you (see Figure 9-2). Be careful not to damage
the electrodes.
With the electrodes exposed, check them for the
proper settings as called for in Figure 9-3. Also check
for any hairline cracks in the insulators. Should
replacement of burner electrodes be required, certain
procedures must be followed. In all cases, removal of
the electrodes is accomplished by loosening the
electrode mounting bracket retaining screw. Draw the
electrodes out of the nozzle assembly through the
holes in the pressure plate.
PV500-9 04-2000
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10. Inspect the electrodes for cracked ceramics or loose
retaining studs that hold the wire within the ceramic.
Using supplied metric Allen wrench, loosen one or two
pressure plate retaining screws so that the plate rotates
freely on nozzle hub. Push plate towards the nozzle
assembly gas spider to ensure it remains fully back and
level. Do not re-tighten retaining screws at this time.
Select the proper pressure plate hole in which to place
each electrode and insert the electrode through the
hole, retaining stud end first. Place electrodes in the
electrode mounting bracket between the mount and the
retaining bracket.
11. Tighten electrode mounting bracket screw slightly until
electrode ceramics are seated firmly and completely in
mounting bracket without gaps between ceramics and
mounting bracket at the bearing faces.
NOTE: Electrodes may have a high temperature,
electrically insulating tape around them. The tape is
designed to cushion the ceramic insulators in the
mounting bracket, but is not absolutely necessary, and
may be removed if it interferes with the positioning of
the electrodes.
12. Ensure electrodes are loose enough to be rotated and
that they will slide back and forth in the mounting
bracket with firm finger pressure.
13. While ensuring the pressure plate is in the previously
described position, measure and set electrodes
according to Figure 9-3. After the gaps and settings are
complete, fully tighten the electrode mounting bracket
retaining screw. Do not overtighten or the insulation
may crack.
CAUTION: Electrodes may shift while tightening the
screw due to rotation of the upper electrode mounting
bracket. Holding down on this bracket while tightening
the screw will stop this from happening.
NOTE: The pressure plate may rotate on the nozzle hub
as the electrodes seek their position during the
tightening of the electrode mounting bracket retaining
screw. This is desirable to prevent the electrodes from
binding and not seating properly in the mounting
bracket. The electrode ceramics will crack, causing
ground faults in the circuit if this condition exists.
14. After complete mounting and positioning of the
electrodes is accomplished, rotate the pressure plate
so that no portion of the plate touches the electrode
ceramics at the holes the electrodes pass through in
the plate (ream holes slightly larger if needed to obtain
Section 9
POWER GAS BURNER START-UP (Con’t)
flame safeguard reset button. The burner should prepurge for not longer than thirty seconds. The TFM
series control will have either an MT30-4, MT30-10
or MT12-5 time card. The “30 indicated a 30-second
purge time and the “4”, “5” or “10” indicated a 4second, 5-second, or 10-second trial for ignition
period, commonly called TFI.
clearance). Ensure plate is seated firmly against the
gas spider and tighten the plate retaining screws.
Recheck electrode setting as to gap and position.
15. Replace nozzle assembly; be sure to connect the flame
and spark rod wires before installing nozzle assembly
fully into blast tube. Check to be sure connectors on
the ends of the flame and spark rod wires have a good
contact. Look for properly stripped wire ends. Be sure
connectors are firmly attached to the flame and ignition
rod ends. Insulating boots can give a false feeling of
proper seating. BE CAREFUL NOT TO MOVE
ELECTRODES. Be careful not to bump electrodes
Check fan wheel for free rotation.
When the blower motor starts, the air switch which
proves air flow should close and terminal 6 will be
powered. This starts the pre-purge timing sequence.
After purging is complete, terminal 3 or 4 on the
TFM control are energized. Terminal 3 energizes
the pilot valve and terminal 4 energizes the ignition
transformer. At this time, the pilot is established.
The VDC reading on thermometer should read a
steady 14-17 VDC for a TFM control. Each different
control will have the required flame response signal
stamped on it. This is the minimum for it to properly
operate. If the pilot fails to light during the initial
ignition period, it is probably due to air in the line.
The control will lock out. Wait one minute and push
the flame safeguard reset button to restart burner
and begin the purge cycle again.
16. Reinstall orifices in unions (if required). Reinstall burner
cover.
17. Connect a test meter to the control for reading the
flame response signal.
NOTE: Some controls read the flame signal in micro
amps and some in volts DC. The TFM series control has
two terminals marked for reading volts DC. The S89
control uses a micro amp signal for measuring flame
strength. For this control, a meter must be hooked in
series with the flame rod wire. Disconnect the leadwire
at the S89 sensor terminal. Connect the positive lead of
the meter to the quick-connect sensor terminal on the
S89 and the negative lead to the free end of the sensor
leadwire.
18. Be sure the tank is filled with water. Once the burner is
reassembled, two devices to read pressure, preferable
U-tube manometers, will be needed to read gas
pressures. Connect one to read the inlet pressure of
the burner. This is the pressure measured before all
components in the gas train. The manometer must stay
connected throughout the testing, as the inlet pressure
must be monitored during the firing of the burner.
Record static pressure. It must not exceed 14” W.C. for
burners with inputs through 3,200,000 Btu/h. For inputs
above 3,200,000 Btu/h, refer to the appliance date
plate for the correct maximum inlet pressure Pressures
above this could cause damage to the diaphragm in the
gas valve or pressure regulator.
19. Burners with pilot:
A.
B.
Connect the manometer to the manifold test port at
the shutoff valve closest to the burner. Turn the main
gas shutoff valve off. Set the air shutter as shown on
the tag attached to the gas train, (see Figure 9-4 and
9-5). This may not be the exact setting you end with,
but it is a good starting point. Turn the unit on using
the rocker switch on the side of the control enclosure
assembly and the toggle switch on the burner. If the
operating control switches are closed, the burner
should come on and pre-purge begin.
Now, set the pilot pressure (measured downstream
of gas valve) at the pressure shown on the tag
attached to the gas train. Next, open the main gas
valve slowly. Set manifold pressure at the pressure
shown on the tag attached to the gas train. Do not
screw the adjusting nut of the regulator in past the
point where no further increase in manifold pressure
is noted. Check the incoming pressure with the
burner running. This is recorded as inlet flow
pressure.
Our standard flow pressure requirements are:
a.
b.
c.
C.
5” W.C. with 8” W.C. flow on burners with inputs
through 1,600,000 Btu/h.
8” W.C. with 11” W.C. flow on burners with inputs
from 2,000,000 Btu/h through 3,200,000 But/h.
For inputs above 3,200,000 Btu/h, refer to the tag
attached to the gas train for the correct inlet
pressures.
If the required manifold cannot be reached, check
the inlet pressure. It should be a minimum of that
shown above with the burner running on full input. It
is important that the incoming pressure does not fall
below these minimums or nuisance control lockouts
could occur.
NOTE: Where low gas pressure is a problem, special
arrangements may have been made to fire the burner
with reduced pressure. The appliance data decal will
reflect this information.
If nothing happens, check the control to be sure it is
not in the tripped position and reset it by pushing
PV500-9 04-2000
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Section 9
POWER GAS BURNER START-UP (Con’t)
20. Direct Spark Ignition – (DSI) Burners – No pilot:
1.
Connect a manometer to the manifold test port. Set
the air shutter as shown on the tag attached to the
gas train. This may not be the exact setting you end
up with, but it is a good starting point. Turn the unit
on using the rocker switch on the side of the control
enclosure assembly. The burner should come on
and ignition occur. If the burner fails to ignite, there
may have been air in the line. To reset the control,
turn the switch off for 60 seconds (S89 controls only)
and it should automatically reset or push the reset
button on the control. Once the burner fires, set the
manifold pressure at the valve shown on the tag
attached to the gas train. There will a tap on the
downstream side of the valve to measure pressure.
The manifold pressure must be taken downstream of
the gas valve. Check the incoming pressure with the
burner running. This is recorded as flow pressure
and must be a minimum of 8” W.C.
21. Make final settings of the air shutter by checking the
flue gas analyzer.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
The readings need to be taken from a hole in the
vent several inches above the heater vent
connection, but before draft regulator.
Insert draft gauge into the 1/4” test opening in the
stack. Draft in stack should read -.02 to -.06 W.C.
Adjust draft regulator, if installed.
When water in the tank is above 120°F°, insert CO2
tester in 1/4” test opening and take CO2 reading in
percentage. CO2 reading at this time will probably be
below optimum.
Gradually close the air shutter, taking CO2 reading at
each adjustment of air shutter until optimum CO2
percentage (8-10%) is reached. If CO2 percentage
decreases, open air shutter to last reading where the
greatest reading was achieved.
Insert CO tester in 1/4” test opening and take CO
reading. CO should not exceed .03%. A reading
greater then .03% indicates lack of air. Open air
shutter slightly and take readings until CO is within
proper range. Optimum reading is no CO.
If air shutter has been changed during CO test, take
a final CO2 reading.
Insert stack temperature gauge in 1/4” test opening
and read gross stack temperature. Temperature
should be as shown in Table 9-1. If an excessively
high gross stack temperature is recorded, check the
flue tubes for baffles. All tubes should have at least
one baffle for TURBOPOWER modules. Record the
length of the baffles on TURBOPOWER models for
future use.
Make sure the air shutter is locked securely in place.
PV500-9 04-2000
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SERIES
STACK TEMPERATURES
MAX. GROSS
*MIN. NET
STACK
STACK
PG
(Vertical Tube)
TP
TPO
TPGO
550°F
300°F
375°F
300°F
TABLE 9-1
* Net temperature is the total stack temperature, less room temperature.
22. On burners with pilots, recheck pilot to make sure its
operation has not deteriorated if adjustments are made
to the air shutter. To do this, shut off the main valve,
check the flame response signal by cycling the burner
through several lightoffs.
23. Check each operating and limit control to be sure they
function properly by lowering and raising the
temperature setting on each control, causing the burner
to cycle on and off.
NOTE: During the initial firing of the burner, smoke that
is not related to the burner will be emitted from the
heater. This is normal during “burn in” and could
possibly continue for several days.
24. Record the following information for future use:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Air shutter position__________________________
Manifold gas pressure____________________"W.C.
Stack draft_____________________________"W.C.
CO2 reading______________________% (8%-10%)
CO reading__________________% (less than .03%)
Stack temperature:
Gross_____________________________°F
Less ambient_______________________°F
Net_______________________________°F
G. Thermal efficiency_________________________%
Section 9
REMOVAL OF THE NOZZLE ASSEMBLY
(EXCEPT “L” SERIES BURNERS)
Figure 9-2
ELECTRODE POSITIONS
“L,P,Q,R,S,T” SERIES BURNER
Figure 9-3
PV500-9 04-2000
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Section 9
AIR ADJUSTMENT
FIXED AIR BURNERS
Loosen the locking screw and move the arm (B) along
the scale (C) to the position wanted and tighten the
screw. Check the air adjustment by making a flue gas
analysis.
Figure 9-4
AIR ADJUSTMENT
VARIABLE AIR BURNERS
Adjust first air shutter by loosening locking screw
and move arm (B) along scale (C) to give best
flame signal strength and most consistent light-off
with pilot pressures set. Set second shutter linkage
by installing linkage rod into ball joints of
modulating motor and air damper shaft arm. With
damper closed and modulating motor in full down
position, set ball joints secured. Observe
combustion reading through full range of
modulation. Adjust as needed to obtain proper
combustion efficiencies with carbon monoxide-free
combustion. Make all adjustments with linkage in
the low fire position. CAUTION: Do not allow the
modulating motor to push the air damper past
the full open or full closed position while
making adjustments. Damage will occur. Record
damper positions from indicator dials and hold
linkage rod in ball joint with fingers as motor
actuates to eliminate this risk. After correct damper
movement is determined, tighten ball joint screws.
Figure 9-5
BURNER MOTORS
No routine service is necessary on the blower system other than cleaning the blower wheel or oiling the motor when
necessary. Blowers using three-phase motors will run in either direction depending on the connection of the power supply.
On new installations, motor replacement or power supply disturbance, the rotation must be checked. Corrections can be
made by interchanging any 2 wires of the three-phase power supply.
NOMOGRAPH FOR DETERMINING FLUE LOSSES FROM CO2 AND FLUE TEMPERATURE FOR NATURAL GAS
(STEADY STATE EFFICIENCY CAN BE DETERMINED FROM THE FLUE LOSS)
PV500-9 04-2000
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Section 9
Figure 9-6
NOTE: Nomograph is limited for use with Natural Gases with the following characteristics:
Heating Value (gross) Btu/SCF - 970-1100; Specific Gravity - 0.57-0.70; Ultimate CO2 - 11.7-12.2.
PV500-9 04-2000
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Section 9
NOMOGRAPH FOR DETERMINING FLUE LOSSES FROM CO2 AND FLUE TEMPERATURE FOR L.P. GAS
(STEADY STATE EFFICIENCY CAN BE DETERMINED FROM THE FLUE LOSS)
Figure 9-7
NOTE: Nomograph is limited for use with L.P. Gas with the following characteristics:
Heating Value (gross) Btu/SCF – 2466-2542; Specific Gravity – 1.522-1.574; Ultimate CO2 – 13.73-13.82.
PV500-9 04-2000
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Section 9
TROUBLESHOOTING SUGGESTIONS
GAS BURNER
1. BURNERS FAILS TO START
A. Defective On/Off or fuel transfer switch. Replace switch.
B. Control circuit has an open control contact. Check limits, low water cutoff, proof of closure switch and
others as applicable.
C. Bad fuse or switch open on incoming power source. Correct as required.
D. Motor overloads tripped. Reset and correct cause for trip out.
E. Flame safeguard control safety switch tripped out. Reset and determine cause for apparent flame
failure.
F. Loose connections or faulty wiring. Tighten all terminal screws and consult wiring diagram furnished
with the burner.
G. Flame safeguard control starting circuit blocked due to flame relay being energized. Possible defective
scanner or flame rod – replace. Possible defective amplifier – replace. Scanner actually sighting flame
due to leaking fuel valve – correct unwanted flame cause. Defective flame safeguard control – replace.
H. Defective blower motor. Repair or replace.
2. OCCASIONAL LOCKOUTS FOR NO APPARENT REASON
A. Gas pilot ignition failure. Check to see that ignition is instant and that flame signal readings are stable
and above minimum values. Use a manometer or 0 to 10" W.C. gas pressure gauge to make certain that
pressure is as recommended.
B. Loose or broken wires. Check all wire nut connections and tighten all terminal screw connections in
panel and elsewhere as appropriate.
C. With flame safeguard controls that incorporate the air flow switch in the non-recycling circuit, ensure
that when main flame lights, the air flow switch is not so critically set as to allow occasional momentary
opening of the air switch contacts.
D. Occasional low voltage supply. Have local utility correct. Make certain that the burner control circuit
transformer (if supplied) is correct for the voltage and power (VAC) being supplied.
E. Occasional low gas supply pressure. Have local utility correct.
3. BURNER MOTOR RUNS, BUT PILOT DOES NOT LIGHT
A. Gas supply to burner shut off – make sure all manual gas supply valves are open. Automatic high
pressure valve at meter such as "Sentry" type tripped shut due to high gas pressure – reset valve and
correct cause for trip out.
B. Pilot solenoid valve not opening – listen and feel for valve actuation. Solenoid valve not being powered
– check electrical circuitry. Replace coil or entire valve if coil is burned out.
C. Defective gas pilot regulator – replace.
D. Gas pressure too high or too low at pilot orifice (if supplied). Check orifice size in gas pilot assembly.
Replace if incorrect. Readjust pressure as required.
E. Defective ignition transformer – replace. Incorrect ignition electrode settings – readjust as required.
F. Defective flame safeguard control or plug in purge timing card. Replace as required.
G. Air flow switch not making circuit – check out electrically. Defective air flow switch – replace. Air switch
negative pressure sensing tube out of position – reposition if necessary.
4. BURNER MOTOR RUNS & PILOT LIGHTS, BUT MAIN GAS FLAME IS NOT ESTABLISHED
A. Main shut off or test cock closed. Check to make certain fully open.
B. Pilot flame signal reading too low to pull in flame safeguard relay. Readjust as required.
C. Defective automatic main or auxiliary gas shut off valves. Check electrical circuitry to valves. Replace
valves or correct circuitry as required.
D. Main diaphragm shut off valve opening too slowly. Adjust bleed on valve.
E. Defective flame safeguard control or plug in amplifier. Check and replace as required.
F. Butterfly valve set incorrectly on modulating burner. Readjust as required.
G. Main gas pressure regulator atmospheric vent line obstructed. Correct.
H. Defective main gas pressure regulator – replace. Misadjusted main gas pressure regulator – readjust to
meet required operational values.
PV500-9 04-2000
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Section 9
TROUBLESHOOTING SUGGESTIONS
GAS BURNER (Con't)
5. CARBON MONOXIDE READINGS ON GAS FIRING
A. Flame impingement on "cold" heat transfer surfaces caused by excessive firing rate. Reduce firing rate
to correct input volume.
B. Incorrect gas/air ratios. Readjust burner to correct CO2/O2 levels, eliminating all CO formation.
6. GAS HIGH FIRE INPUT CANNOT BE ACHIEVED
A. Gas company pressure regulator or meter operating incorrectly, not allowing required gas pressure at
burner train inlet. Have gas company correct.
B. Gas cock upstream of train inlet not fully open. Check and correct.
C. Gas line obstructed. Check and correct.
D. Gas train main and/or leak test cocks not fully open. Check and correct.
E. Gas supply line between gas company regulator and burner inlet too small. Check supply pressure at
meter, determine pressure drop and increase line size as required, or raise supply pressure to
compensate for small line. Do not raise pressure so high that under static (no flow) condition the
pressure exceeds the maximum allowable pressure to the gas train components on the burner.
F. Burner gas train components sized too small for supply pressure. Increase component size as
appropriate or consult factory.
G. Automatic gas valve not opening fully due to defective operation. Replace gas valve.
H. Orifice (if supplied) too small. Replace with correct size.
I.
On modulating burner, butterfly valve not fully opened. Readjust.
J. Defective main gas pressure regulator. Replace.
K. Incorrect spring in main gas pressure regulator. Replace as required.
L. Main gas pressure regulator vent line obstructed. Check and correct.
M. Normally open vent valve (if supplied) not closing when automatic gas valves open. Check to see if
valve is fully closed when automatic valves are open. Replace vent valve, if not closing fully.
Additional troubleshooting information can be found in the Flame Safeguard Control bulletin supplied with the burner.
PV500-9 04-2000
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Section 9