ZyXEL Communications G-3000 User`s guide

G-3000H
802.11g Wireless Access Point
User’s Guide
Version 3.50
11/2005
G-3000H User’s Guide
Copyright
Copyright © 2005 by ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole, transcribed,
stored in a retrieval system, translated into any language, or transmitted in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, photocopying, manual, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Published by ZyXEL Communications Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
ZyXEL does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any products, or
software described herein. Neither does it convey any license under its patent rights nor the
patent rights of others. ZyXEL further reserves the right to make changes in any products
described herein without notice. This publication is subject to change without notice.
Trademarks
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) is a registered trademark of ZyXEL
Communications, Inc. Other trademarks mentioned in this publication are used for
identification purposes only and may be properties of their respective owners.
2
Copyright
G-3000H User’s Guide
Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) Interference
Statement
This device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions:
• This device may not cause harmful interference.
• This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operations.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital
device pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a commercial environment. This equipment
generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy, and if not installed and used in
accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio/television reception, which can be
determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the
interference by one or more of the following measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
• Increase the separation between the equipment and the receiver.
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver
is connected.
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Notice 1
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance
could void the user's authority to operate the equipment.
This Class B digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe B est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du Canada.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement
3
G-3000H User’s Guide
Certifications
Go to www.zyxel.com
1 Select your product from the drop-down list box on the ZyXEL home page to go to that
product's page.
2 Select the certification you wish to view from this page
4
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement
G-3000H User’s Guide
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
ZyXEL warrants to the original end user (purchaser) that this product is free from any defects
in materials or workmanship for a period of up to two years from the date of purchase. During
the warranty period, and upon proof of purchase, should the product have indications of failure
due to faulty workmanship and/or materials, ZyXEL will, at its discretion, repair or replace the
defective products or components without charge for either parts or labor, and to whatever
extent it shall deem necessary to restore the product or components to proper operating
condition. Any replacement will consist of a new or re-manufactured functionally equivalent
product of equal value, and will be solely at the discretion of ZyXEL. This warranty shall not
apply if the product is modified, misused, tampered with, damaged by an act of God, or
subjected to abnormal working conditions.
Note
Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of the
purchaser. This warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, express or implied, including any
implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. ZyXEL shall in
no event be held liable for indirect or consequential damages of any kind of character to the
purchaser.
To obtain the services of this warranty, contact ZyXEL's Service Center for your Return
Material Authorization number (RMA). Products must be returned Postage Prepaid. It is
recommended that the unit be insured when shipped. Any returned products without proof of
purchase or those with an out-dated warranty will be repaired or replaced (at the discretion of
ZyXEL) and the customer will be billed for parts and labor. All repaired or replaced products
will be shipped by ZyXEL to the corresponding return address, Postage Paid. This warranty
gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary from country to
country.
Safety Warnings
1 To reduce the risk of fire, use only No. 26 AWG or larger telephone wire.
2 Do not use this product near water, for example, in a wet basement or near a swimming
pool.
3 Avoid using this product during an electrical storm. There may be a remote risk of
electric shock from lightening.
This product has been designed for the WLAN 2.4 GHz network throughout the EC region and
Switzerland, with restrictions in France.
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
5
G-3000H User’s Guide
Customer Support
Please have the following information ready when you contact customer support.
•
•
•
•
Product model and serial number.
Warranty Information.
Date that you received your device.
Brief description of the problem and the steps you took to solve it.
METHOD SUPPORT E-MAIL
TELEPHONEA
WEB SITE
FAX
FTP SITE
REGULAR MAIL
LOCATION
CORPORATE
HEADQUARTERS
(WORLDWIDE)
CZECH REPUBLIC
DENMARK
FINLAND
SALES E-MAIL
support@zyxel.com.tw +886-3-578-3942
sales@zyxel.com.tw
info@cz.zyxel.com
+420-241-091-350
info@cz.zyxel.com
+420-241-091-359
support@zyxel.dk
+45-39-55-07-00
sales@zyxel.dk
+45-39-55-07-07
support@zyxel.fi
+358-9-4780-8411
sales@zyxel.fi
+358-9-4780 8448
info@zyxel.fr
+33-4-72-52-97-97
HUNGARY
KAZAKHSTAN
6
ZyXEL Communications
Czech s.r.o.
Modranská 621
143 01 Praha 4 - Modrany
Ceská Republika
www.zyxel.dk
ZyXEL Communications A/S
Columbusvej
2860 Soeborg
Denmark
www.zyxel.fi
ZyXEL Communications Oy
Malminkaari 10
00700 Helsinki
Finland
www.zyxel.fr
ZyXEL France
1 rue des Vergers
Bat. 1 / C
69760 Limonest
France
www.zyxel.de
ZyXEL Deutschland GmbH.
Adenauerstr. 20/A2 D-52146
Wuerselen
Germany
www.zyxel.hu
ZyXEL Hungary
48, Zoldlomb Str.
H-1025, Budapest
Hungary
www.zyxel.kz
ZyXEL Kazakhstan
43, Dostyk ave.,Office 414
Dostyk Business Centre
050010, Almaty
Republic of Kazakhstan
ZyXEL Communications Inc.
1130 N. Miller St.
Anaheim
CA 92806-2001
U.S.A.
support@zyxel.de
+49-2405-6909-0
sales@zyxel.de
+49-2405-6909-99
support@zyxel.hu
+36-1-3361649
info@zyxel.hu
+36-1-3259100
http://zyxel.kz/support
+7-3272-590-698
sales@zyxel.kz
+7-3272-590-689
support@zyxel.com
1-800-255-4101
+1-714-632-0882
www.us.zyxel.com
sales@zyxel.com
+1-714-632-0858
ftp.us.zyxel.com
support@zyxel.no
+47-22-80-61-80
www.zyxel.no
sales@zyxel.no
+47-22-80-61-81
NORTH AMERICA
NORWAY
www.zyxel.cz
+33-4-72-52-19-20
FRANCE
GERMANY
+886-3-578-2439
www.zyxel.com
ZyXEL Communications Corp.
www.europe.zyxel.com 6 Innovation Road II
Science Park
ftp.zyxel.com
Hsinchu 300
Taiwan
ftp.europe.zyxel.com
ZyXEL Communications A/S
Nils Hansens vei 13
0667 Oslo
Norway
Customer Support
G-3000H User’s Guide
TELEPHONEA
WEB SITE
SALES E-MAIL
FAX
FTP SITE
info@pl.zyxel.com
+48-22-5286603
www.pl.zyxel.com
ZyXEL Communications
ul.Emilli Plater 53
00-113 Warszawa
Poland
www.zyxel.ru
ZyXEL Russia
Ostrovityanova 37a Str.
Moscow, 117279
Russia
www.zyxel.es
ZyXEL Communications
Alejandro Villegas 33
1º, 28043 Madrid
Spain
www.zyxel.se
ZyXEL Communications A/S
Sjöporten 4, 41764 Göteborg
Sweden
www.ua.zyxel.com
ZyXEL Ukraine
13, Pimonenko Str.
Kiev, 04050
Ukraine
ZyXEL Communications UK
Ltd.,11 The Courtyard,
Eastern Road, Bracknell,
Berkshire, RG12 2XB,
United Kingdom (UK)
METHOD SUPPORT E-MAIL
REGULAR MAIL
LOCATION
POLAND
RUSSIA
SPAIN
SWEDEN
+48-22-5206701
http://zyxel.ru/support
+7-095-542-89-29
sales@zyxel.ru
+7-095-542-89-25
support@zyxel.es
+34-902-195-420
sales@zyxel.es
+34-913-005-345
support@zyxel.se
+46-31-744-7700
sales@zyxel.se
+46-31-744-7701
support@ua.zyxel.com +380-44-247-69-78
UKRAINE
sales@ua.zyxel.com
+380-44-494-49-32
support@zyxel.co.uk
+44-1344 303044
08707 555779 (UK only)
www.zyxel.co.uk
sales@zyxel.co.uk
+44-1344 303034
ftp.zyxel.co.uk
UNITED KINGDOM
a. “+” is the (prefix) number you enter to make an international telephone call.
Customer Support
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G-3000H User’s Guide
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Table of Contents
Copyright .................................................................................................................. 2
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement ............... 3
ZyXEL Limited Warranty.......................................................................................... 5
Customer Support.................................................................................................... 6
Table of Contents ..................................................................................................... 9
List of Figures ........................................................................................................ 17
List of Tables .......................................................................................................... 23
Preface .................................................................................................................... 27
Chapter 1
Getting to Know Your ZyAIR ................................................................................. 31
1.1 Introducing the ZyAIR .......................................................................................31
1.2 ZyAIR Features ..................................................................................................31
1.2.1 Physical Features .....................................................................................31
1.2.2 Firmware Features ....................................................................................32
1.3 Applications for the ZyAIR ..................................................................................36
1.3.1 Access Point .............................................................................................37
1.3.2 Multiple ESS .............................................................................................37
1.3.3 AP + Bridge ..............................................................................................38
1.3.4 Bridge / Repeater ......................................................................................39
Chapter 2
Introducing the Web Configurator........................................................................ 41
2.1 Accessing the ZyAIR Web Configurator .............................................................41
2.2 Resetting the ZyAIR ...........................................................................................43
2.2.1 Procedure To Use The Reset Button ........................................................43
2.2.2 Method of Restoring Factory-Defaults ......................................................43
2.3 Navigating the ZyAIR Web Configurator ............................................................43
Chapter 3
Wizard Setup .......................................................................................................... 45
3.1 Wizard Setup Overview ......................................................................................45
3.1.1 Channel ....................................................................................................45
3.1.2 ESS ID ......................................................................................................45
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G-3000H User’s Guide
3.1.3 WEP Encryption ........................................................................................45
3.2 Wizard Setup: General Setup ............................................................................46
3.3 Wizard Setup: Wireless LAN ..............................................................................46
3.4 Wizard Setup: IP Address ..................................................................................48
3.4.1 IP Address Assignment ............................................................................48
3.4.2 IP Address and Subnet Mask ...................................................................48
3.5 Basic Setup Complete ........................................................................................50
Chapter 4
System Screens ..................................................................................................... 51
4.1 System Overview ...............................................................................................51
4.2 Configuring General Setup .................................................................................51
4.3 Configuring Password ........................................................................................52
4.4 Configuring Time Setting ...................................................................................53
Chapter 5
Wireless Configuration ......................................................................................... 57
5.1 Wireless LAN Overview .....................................................................................57
5.1.1 BSS ...........................................................................................................57
5.1.2 ESS ...........................................................................................................58
5.2 Wireless LAN Basics ..........................................................................................59
5.3 WMM QoS ..........................................................................................................60
5.3.1 WMM QoS Priorities .................................................................................60
5.3.2 Type Of Service (ToS) ...............................................................................60
5.3.2.1 DiffServ ............................................................................................61
5.3.2.2 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior ..........................................................61
5.3.3 ToS (Type of Service) and WMM QoS ......................................................61
5.4 Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) ...........................................................................62
5.4.1 Rapid STP ................................................................................................62
5.4.2 STP Terminology ......................................................................................62
5.4.3 How STP Works .......................................................................................63
5.4.4 STP Port States ........................................................................................63
5.5 Wireless Screen Overview .................................................................................63
5.6 Configuring Wireless ..........................................................................................64
5.6.1 Access Point Mode ...................................................................................64
5.6.2 Bridge/Repeater Mode ..............................................................................66
5.6.3 AP+Bridge Mode ......................................................................................70
5.6.4 Multiple ESS Mode ...................................................................................71
Chapter 6
Wireless Security Configuration........................................................................... 73
6.1 Wireless Security Overview ...............................................................................73
6.1.1 Encryption .................................................................................................73
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6.1.2 Authentication ...........................................................................................73
6.1.3 Restricted Access .....................................................................................73
6.1.4 Hide ZyAIR Identity ...................................................................................74
6.1.5 WEP Encryption ........................................................................................74
6.2 Configuring WEP Encryption ..............................................................................74
6.3 802.1x Overview ................................................................................................74
6.4 EAP Authentication Overview ............................................................................74
6.5 Dynamic WEP Key Exchange ............................................................................75
6.6 Introduction to WPA ...........................................................................................75
6.6.1 User Authentication .................................................................................76
6.6.2 Encryption ................................................................................................76
6.6.3 WPA(2)-PSK Application Example ...........................................................76
6.7 WPA(2) with RADIUS Application Example .......................................................77
6.8 Security Modes ..................................................................................................78
6.9 Security Modes and Wireless Client Compatibility .............................................79
6.10 Wireless Client WPA Supplicants .....................................................................79
6.11 Wireless Security Effectiveness .......................................................................80
6.12 Configuring Security .........................................................................................80
6.12.1 Security: No Access ................................................................................81
6.12.2 Security: WEP .........................................................................................82
6.12.3 Security: 802.1x Only, 802.1x Static 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP ..............83
6.12.4 Security: 802.1x Dynamic 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP ..............................85
6.12.5 Security: WPA, WPA-MIX, WPA2, WPA2-MIX ........................................86
6.12.6 Security: WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK, WPA2-PSK-MIX ................................87
6.13 Introduction to RADIUS ....................................................................................89
6.14 Configuring RADIUS ........................................................................................89
6.15 Configuring Local User Database ....................................................................91
Chapter 7
Multiple ESS, SSID and VLAN ............................................................................... 93
7.1 Wireless LAN Infrastructures .............................................................................93
7.1.1 Multiple ESS .............................................................................................93
7.1.2 Notes on Multiple-ESS ..............................................................................93
7.1.3 Multiple ESS Example ..............................................................................94
7.1.4 Multi-ESS with VLAN Example .................................................................94
7.1.5 Configuring Multiple ESS ..........................................................................94
7.2 SSID ...................................................................................................................97
7.2.1 Configuring SSID ......................................................................................98
7.2.2 Second Rx VLAN ID ...............................................................................100
Chapter 8
Other Wireless Configurations ........................................................................... 103
8.1 Layer-2 Isolation Introduction ...........................................................................103
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G-3000H User’s Guide
8.2 Configuring Layer-2 Isolation ...........................................................................104
8.2.1 Layer-2 Isolation Examples ....................................................................105
8.2.2 Layer-2 Isolation Example 1 ...................................................................106
8.2.3 Layer-2 Isolation Example 2 ...................................................................106
8.2.4 Layer-2 Isolation Example 3 ...................................................................107
8.3 Configuring MAC Filter .....................................................................................108
8.4 Configuring Roaming .......................................................................................109
8.4.1 Requirements for Roaming ..................................................................... 111
Chapter 9
VLAN ..................................................................................................................... 113
9.1 VLAN ................................................................................................................113
9.1.1 Management VLAN ID ............................................................................113
9.1.2 VLAN Tagging .........................................................................................113
9.2 Configuring VLAN ............................................................................................113
9.2.1 Configuring Management VLAN Example ..............................................115
9.2.2 Configuring Microsoft’s IAS Server Example ..........................................117
9.2.2.1 Configuring VLAN Groups .............................................................118
9.2.2.2 Configuring Remote Access Policies ............................................119
Chapter 10
IP Screen............................................................................................................... 127
10.1 Factory Ethernet Defaults ..............................................................................127
10.2 TCP/IP Parameters ........................................................................................127
10.2.1 IP Address and Subnet Mask ...............................................................127
10.2.2 WAN IP Address Assignment ...............................................................127
10.3 Configuring IP ................................................................................................128
Chapter 11
Certificates............................................................................................................ 129
11.1 Certificates Overview .....................................................................................129
11.1.1 Advantages of Certificates ....................................................................130
11.2 Self-signed Certificates ..................................................................................130
11.3 Configuration Summary ..................................................................................130
11.4 My Certificates ................................................................................................130
11.5 Certificate File Formats ..................................................................................132
11.6 Importing a Certificate ....................................................................................133
11.7 Creating a Certificate ......................................................................................134
11.8 My Certificate Details ......................................................................................136
11.9 Trusted CAs ....................................................................................................139
11.10 Importing a Trusted CA’s Certificate .............................................................141
11.11 Trusted CA Certificate Details .......................................................................142
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Chapter 12
Remote Management Screens ............................................................................ 147
12.1 Remote Management Overview .....................................................................147
12.1.1 Remote Management Limitations .........................................................147
12.1.2 Remote Management and NAT ............................................................148
12.1.3 System Timeout ...................................................................................148
12.2 Configuring WWW ..........................................................................................148
12.3 Configuring Telnet ..........................................................................................150
12.4 Configuring TELNET ......................................................................................150
12.5 Configuring FTP .............................................................................................151
12.6 SNMP .............................................................................................................152
12.6.1 Supported MIBs ....................................................................................154
12.6.2 SNMP Traps .........................................................................................154
12.7 SNMP Traps ...................................................................................................155
12.7.1 Configuring SNMP ................................................................................155
Chapter 13
Log Screens.......................................................................................................... 157
13.1 Configuring View Log .....................................................................................157
13.2 Configuring Log Settings ................................................................................158
Chapter 14
Maintenance ......................................................................................................... 161
14.1 Maintenance Overview ...................................................................................161
14.2 System Status Screen ....................................................................................161
14.2.1 System Statistics ...................................................................................162
14.3 Association List ..............................................................................................163
14.4 Channel Usage ..............................................................................................164
14.5 F/W Upload Screen ........................................................................................166
14.6 Configuration Screen .....................................................................................168
14.6.1 Backup Configuration ...........................................................................168
14.6.2 Restore Configuration ..........................................................................169
14.6.3 Back to Factory Defaults .......................................................................170
14.7 Restart Screen ...............................................................................................170
Chapter 15
Introducing the SMT ............................................................................................ 171
15.1 Connect to your ZyAIR Using Telnet ..............................................................171
15.2 Changing the System Password ....................................................................171
15.3 ZyAIR SMT Menu Overview Example ............................................................172
15.4 Navigating the SMT Interface .........................................................................173
15.4.1 System Management Terminal Interface Summary ..............................174
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G-3000H User’s Guide
Chapter 16
General Setup ....................................................................................................... 177
16.1 General Setup ................................................................................................177
16.1.1 Procedure To Configure Menu 1 ...........................................................177
Chapter 17
LAN Setup............................................................................................................. 179
17.1 LAN Setup ......................................................................................................179
17.2 TCP/IP Ethernet Setup ...................................................................................179
17.3 Wireless LAN Setup .......................................................................................180
17.3.1 Configuring MAC Address Filter ...........................................................182
17.3.2 Configuring Roaming ............................................................................184
17.3.3 Configuring SSID Profiles .....................................................................186
17.3.4 Configuring Bridge Link ........................................................................187
17.3.5 Configuring Layer-2 Isolation ................................................................189
Chapter 18
Dial-in User Setup ................................................................................................ 193
18.1 Dial-in User Setup ..........................................................................................193
Chapter 19
VLAN Setup .......................................................................................................... 195
19.1 VLAN Setup ...................................................................................................195
Chapter 20
SNMP Configuration ............................................................................................ 197
20.1 SNMP Configuration ......................................................................................197
Chapter 21
System Security ................................................................................................... 199
21.1 System Security .............................................................................................199
21.1.1 System Password .................................................................................199
21.1.2 Configuring Security Profiles ................................................................199
Chapter 22
System Information and Diagnosis .................................................................... 201
22.1 System Status ................................................................................................201
22.2 System Information ........................................................................................203
22.2.1 System Information ...............................................................................203
22.2.2 Console Port Speed ..............................................................................204
22.3 Log and Trace ................................................................................................204
22.3.1 Viewing Error Log .................................................................................204
22.4 Diagnostic ......................................................................................................205
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Chapter 23
Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance ................................................. 207
23.1 Filename Conventions ...................................................................................207
23.2 Backup Configuration .....................................................................................208
23.2.1 Backup Configuration Using FTP .........................................................208
23.2.2 Using the FTP command from the DOS Prompt ..................................209
23.2.3 Backup Configuration Using TFTP .......................................................210
23.2.4 Example: TFTP Command ...................................................................211
23.2.5 Backup Via Console Port ......................................................................211
23.3 Restore Configuration ...................................................................................212
23.3.1 Restore Using FTP ...............................................................................213
23.4 Uploading Firmware and Configuration Files .................................................213
23.4.1 Firmware Upload ..................................................................................214
23.4.2 Configuration File Upload .....................................................................214
23.4.3 Using the FTP command from the DOS Prompt Example ...................215
23.4.4 TFTP File Upload ..................................................................................215
23.4.5 Example: TFTP Command ...................................................................216
23.4.6 Uploading Via Console Port ..................................................................216
23.4.7 Uploading Firmware File Via Console Port ...........................................216
23.4.8 Example Xmodem Firmware Upload Using HyperTerminal ..................217
23.4.9 Uploading Configuration File Via Console Port ....................................217
23.4.10 Example Xmodem Configuration Upload Using HyperTerminal .........218
Chapter 24
System Maintenance and Information ............................................................... 219
24.1 Command Interpreter Mode ...........................................................................219
24.1.1 CNM ......................................................................................................220
24.1.2 Configuring Vantage CNM ....................................................................220
24.1.3 Configuration Example .........................................................................223
24.2 Time and Date Setting ....................................................................................224
24.2.1 Resetting the Time ................................................................................226
24.3 Remote Management Setup ..........................................................................226
24.3.1 Telnet ....................................................................................................226
24.3.2 FTP .......................................................................................................226
24.3.3 Web ......................................................................................................227
24.3.4 Remote Management Setup .................................................................227
24.3.5 Remote Management Limitations .........................................................229
24.4 Remote Management and NAT ......................................................................229
24.5 System Timeout .............................................................................................229
Appendix A
Troubleshooting................................................................................................... 231
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G-3000H User’s Guide
Appendix B
Specifications...................................................................................................... 233
Appendix C
Power over Ethernet (PoE) Specifications ........................................................ 235
Appendix D
Brute-Force Password Guessing Protection..................................................... 237
Appendix E
Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address............................................................ 239
Appendix F
IP Address Assignment Conflicts ...................................................................... 251
Appendix G
Wireless LANs ...................................................................................................... 255
Appendix H
IP Subnetting ........................................................................................................ 267
Appendix I
Command Interpreter........................................................................................... 275
Appendix J
Log Descriptions.................................................................................................. 277
Appendix K
Indoor Installation Recommendations ............................................................... 281
Appendix L
Power Adaptor Specifications ............................................................................ 283
Index...................................................................................................................... 285
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List of Figures
Figure 1 PoE Installation Example ...................................................................................... 32
Figure 2 WDS Functionality Example ................................................................................. 33
Figure 3 Access Point Application ....................................................................................... 37
Figure 4 Multiple ESS Application ....................................................................................... 38
Figure 5 AP+Bridge Application ........................................................................................ 39
Figure 6 Bridge Application ................................................................................................. 40
Figure 7 Repeater Application ............................................................................................. 40
Figure 8 Change Password Screen .................................................................................... 42
Figure 9 Replace Certificate Screen ................................................................................... 42
Figure 10 The MAIN MENU Screen of the Web Configurator ............................................. 44
Figure 11 Wizard 1: General Setup ..................................................................................... 46
Figure 12 Wizard 2: Wireless LAN Setup ............................................................................ 47
Figure 13 Wizard 3: IP Address Assignment ...................................................................... 49
Figure 14 Wizard 4: Setup Complete .................................................................................. 50
Figure 15 System General Setup ........................................................................................ 51
Figure 16 Password. ........................................................................................................... 53
Figure 17 Time Setting ........................................................................................................ 54
Figure 18 Basic Service set ................................................................................................ 58
Figure 19 Extended Service Set ......................................................................................... 59
Figure 20 DiffServ: Differentiated Service Field .................................................................. 61
Figure 21 Wireless: Access Point ....................................................................................... 65
Figure 22 Bridging Example ................................................................................................ 67
Figure 23 Bridge Loop: Two Bridges Connected to Hub ..................................................... 68
Figure 24 Bridge Loop: Bridge Connected to Wired LAN ................................................... 68
Figure 25 Wireless: Bridge/Repeater .................................................................................. 69
Figure 26 Wireless: AP+Bridge ........................................................................................... 71
Figure 27 EAP Authentication ............................................................................................. 75
Figure 28 WPA(2)-PSK Authentication ............................................................................... 77
Figure 29 WPA(2) with RADIUS Application Example ........................................................ 78
Figure 30 Security ............................................................................................................... 81
Figure 31 Security: No Access or None .............................................................................. 82
Figure 32 Security: WEP ..................................................................................................... 82
Figure 33 Security: 802.1x Only, 802.1x Static 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP ........................... 84
Figure 34 Security: 802.1x Dynamic 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP .......................................... 85
Figure 35 Security: WPA, WPA-MIX, WPA2 or WPA2-MIX ................................................. 87
Figure 36 Security: WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or WPA2-PSK-MIX ......................................... 88
Figure 37 RADIUS .............................................................................................................. 90
Figure 38 Local User Database .......................................................................................... 91
List of Figures
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G-3000H User’s Guide
Figure 39 Multi-ESS with VLAN Example ........................................................................... 94
Figure 40 Wireless: Multiple ESS ........................................................................................ 95
Figure 41 SSID .................................................................................................................... 97
Figure 42 Configuring SSID ................................................................................................ 99
Figure 43 Second Rx VLAN ID Example ............................................................................ 100
Figure 44 Configuring SSID: Second Rx VLAN ID Example ............................................... 100
Figure 45 Layer-2 Isolation Application ............................................................................... 104
Figure 46 Layer-2 Isolation Configuration Screen ............................................................... 105
Figure 47 Layer-2 Isolation Example .................................................................................. 106
Figure 48 Layer-2 Isolation Example 1 ............................................................................... 106
Figure 49 Layer-2 Isolation Example 2 ............................................................................... 107
Figure 50 Layer-2 Isolation Example 3 ............................................................................... 108
Figure 51 MAC Address Filter ............................................................................................. 109
Figure 52 Roaming Example ............................................................................................... 110
Figure 53 Roaming .............................................................................................................. 111
Figure 54 VLAN ................................................................................................................... 114
Figure 55 Management VLAN Configuration Example ....................................................... 115
Figure 56 VLAN-Aware Switch - Static VLAN ..................................................................... 116
Figure 57 VLAN-Aware Switch ............................................................................................ 116
Figure 58 VLAN-Aware Switch - VLAN Status .................................................................... 116
Figure 59 VLAN Setup ........................................................................................................ 117
Figure 60 New Global Security Group ............................................................................... 118
Figure 61 Add Group Members .......................................................................................... 119
Figure 62 New Remote Access Policy for VLAN Group .................................................... 120
Figure 63 Specifying Windows-Group Condition ................................................................. 120
Figure 64 Adding VLAN Group .......................................................................................... 121
Figure 65 Granting Permissions and User Profile Screens ................................................ 121
Figure 66 Authentication Tab Settings ................................................................................ 122
Figure 67 Encryption Tab Settings ..................................................................................... 122
Figure 68 Connection Attributes Screen ............................................................................ 123
Figure 69 RADIUS Attribute Screen ................................................................................... 124
Figure 70 802 Attribute Setting for Tunnel-Medium-Type .................................................. 124
Figure 71 VLAN ID Attribute Setting for Tunnel-Pvt-Group-ID ........................................... 125
Figure 72 VLAN Attribute Setting for Tunnel-Type ............................................................. 125
Figure 73 Completed Advanced Tab .................................................................................. 126
Figure 74 IP Setup ............................................................................................................. 128
Figure 75 My Certificates .................................................................................................... 131
Figure 76 My Certificate Import ........................................................................................... 133
Figure 77 My Certificate Create .......................................................................................... 134
Figure 78 My Certificate Details .......................................................................................... 137
Figure 79 Trusted CAs ........................................................................................................ 140
Figure 80 Trusted CA Import ............................................................................................... 141
Figure 81 Trusted CA Details .............................................................................................. 143
18
List of Figures
G-3000H User’s Guide
Figure 82 Remote Management: WWW ............................................................................. 149
Figure 83 Telnet Configuration on a TCP/IP Network ......................................................... 150
Figure 84 Remote Management: Telnet .............................................................................. 151
Figure 85 Remote Management: FTP ................................................................................. 152
Figure 86 SNMP Management Model ................................................................................. 153
Figure 87 Remote Management: SNMP ............................................................................. 156
Figure 88 View Log ............................................................................................................. 157
Figure 89 Log Settings ........................................................................................................ 159
Figure 90 System Status ..................................................................................................... 161
Figure 91 System Status: Show Statistics ........................................................................... 162
Figure 92 Association List ................................................................................................... 163
Figure 93 Channel Usage ................................................................................................... 165
Figure 94 Firmware Upload ................................................................................................. 166
Figure 95 Firmware Upload In Process ............................................................................... 167
Figure 96 Network Temporarily Disconnected .................................................................... 167
Figure 97 Firmware Upload Error ........................................................................................ 168
Figure 98 Configuration ....................................................................................................... 168
Figure 99 Configuration Upload Successful ........................................................................ 169
Figure 100 Network Temporarily Disconnected .................................................................. 169
Figure 101 Configuration Upload Error ............................................................................... 170
Figure 102 Reset Warning Message ................................................................................... 170
Figure 103 Restart Screen .................................................................................................. 170
Figure 104 Login Screen ..................................................................................................... 171
Figure 105 Menu 23.1 System Security: Change Password ............................................... 172
Figure 106 G-3000H SMT Main Menu ................................................................................ 174
Figure 107 Menu 1 General Setup ...................................................................................... 177
Figure 108 Menu 3 LAN Setup ........................................................................................... 179
Figure 109 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP Setup .................................................................................... 180
Figure 110 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup .......................................................................... 181
Figure 111 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup .......................................................................... 183
Figure 112 Menu 3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address Filter ............................................................. 183
Figure 113 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup .......................................................................... 185
Figure 114 Menu 3.5.2 Roaming Configuration .................................................................. 185
Figure 115 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup .......................................................................... 186
Figure 116 Menu 3.5.6 - SSID Profile Edit .......................................................................... 187
Figure 117 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup .......................................................................... 188
Figure 118 Menu 3.5.4 Bridge Link Configuration ............................................................... 189
Figure 119 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup .......................................................................... 190
Figure 120 Menu 3.5.5 Layer-2 Isolation ............................................................................ 190
Figure 121 Menu 14- Dial-in User Setup ............................................................................. 193
Figure 122 Menu 14.1- Edit Dial-in User ............................................................................. 194
Figure 123 Menu 16 VLAN Setup ....................................................................................... 195
Figure 124 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration ......................................................................... 197
List of Figures
19
G-3000H User’s Guide
Figure 125 Menu 23 System Security ................................................................................. 199
Figure 126 Menu 23 - System Security ............................................................................... 200
Figure 127 Menu 23.5 Security Profile Edit ......................................................................... 200
Figure 128 Menu 24 System Maintenance ......................................................................... 201
Figure 129 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance: Status .......................................................... 202
Figure 130 Menu 24.2 System Information and Console Port Speed ................................. 203
Figure 131 Menu 24.2.1 System Information: Information .................................................. 203
Figure 132 Menu 24.2.2 System Maintenance: Change Console Port Speed .................... 204
Figure 133 Menu 24.3 System Maintenance: Log and Trace ............................................. 205
Figure 134 Sample Error and Information Messages ......................................................... 205
Figure 135 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance: Diagnostic .................................................... 205
Figure 136 Menu 24.5 Backup Configuration ...................................................................... 209
Figure 137 FTP Session Example ...................................................................................... 210
Figure 138 System Maintenance: Backup Configuration .................................................... 212
Figure 139 System Maintenance: Starting Xmodem Download Screen ............................. 212
Figure 140 Backup Configuration Example ......................................................................... 212
Figure 141 Successful Backup Confirmation Screen .......................................................... 212
Figure 142 Menu 24.6 Restore Configuration ..................................................................... 213
Figure 143 Menu 24.7 System Maintenance: Upload Firmware ......................................... 213
Figure 144 Menu 24.7.1 System Maintenance: Upload System Firmware ......................... 214
Figure 145 Menu 24.7.2 System Maintenance: Upload System Configuration File ............ 214
Figure 146 FTP Session Example ...................................................................................... 215
Figure 147 Menu 24.7.1 as seen using the Console Port ................................................... 217
Figure 148 Example Xmodem Upload ................................................................................ 217
Figure 149 Menu 24.7.2 as seen using the Console Port .................................................. 218
Figure 150 Example Xmodem Upload ................................................................................ 218
Figure 151 Menu 24 System Maintenance ......................................................................... 220
Figure 152 Valid CI Commands .......................................................................................... 220
Figure 153 CNM CL ............................................................................................................ 221
Figure 154 CNM Configuration Example ............................................................................ 224
Figure 155 Menu 24.10 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting ............................... 225
Figure 156 Telnet Configuration on a TCP/IP Network ....................................................... 226
Figure 157 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control ....................................................... 228
Figure 158 WIndows 95/98/Me: Network: Configuration ..................................................... 240
Figure 159 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: IP Address ......................................... 241
Figure 160 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: DNS Configuration ............................ 242
Figure 161 Windows XP: Start Menu .................................................................................. 243
Figure 162 Windows XP: Control Panel .............................................................................. 243
Figure 163 Windows XP: Control Panel: Network Connections: Properties ....................... 244
Figure 164 Windows XP: Local Area Connection Properties .............................................. 244
Figure 165 Windows XP: Advanced TCP/IP Settings ......................................................... 245
Figure 166 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties ......................................... 246
Figure 167 Macintosh OS 8/9: Apple Menu ........................................................................ 247
20
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G-3000H User’s Guide
Figure 168 Macintosh OS 8/9: TCP/IP ................................................................................ 247
Figure 169 Macintosh OS X: Apple Menu ........................................................................... 248
Figure 170 Macintosh OS X: Network ................................................................................. 249
Figure 171 IP Address Conflicts: Case A ............................................................................ 251
Figure 172 IP Address Conflicts: Case B ........................................................................... 252
Figure 173 IP Address Conflicts: Case C ............................................................................ 252
Figure 174 IP Address Conflicts: Case D ............................................................................ 253
Figure 175 Peer-to-Peer Communication in an Ad-hoc Network ........................................ 255
Figure 176 Basic Service Set .............................................................................................. 256
Figure 177 Infrastructure WLAN ......................................................................................... 257
Figure 178 RTS/CTS .......................................................................................................... 258
List of Figures
21
G-3000H User’s Guide
22
List of Figures
G-3000H User’s Guide
List of Tables
Table 1 IEEE 802.11b ......................................................................................................... 34
Table 2 IEEE 802.11g ......................................................................................................... 34
Table 3 Wizard 1: General Setup ....................................................................................... 46
Table 4 Wizard 2: Wireless LAN Setup .............................................................................. 47
Table 5 Private IP Address Ranges ................................................................................... 48
Table 6 Wizard 3: IP Address Assignment ......................................................................... 49
Table 7 System General Setup .......................................................................................... 51
Table 8 Password ............................................................................................................... 53
Table 9 Time Setting .......................................................................................................... 54
Table 10 WMM QoS Priorities ............................................................................................ 60
Table 11 ToS and IEEE 802.1d to WMM QoS Priority Level Mapping ............................... 61
Table 12 STP Path Costs ................................................................................................... 62
Table 13 STP Port States ................................................................................................... 63
Table 14 Wireless: Access Point ........................................................................................ 65
Table 15 Wireless: Bridge/Repeater ................................................................................... 69
Table 16 Security Modes .................................................................................................... 78
Table 17 Security Modes for ZyAIR and Windows XP Wireless Client .............................. 79
Table 18 ZyAIR Wireless Security Levels .......................................................................... 80
Table 19 Security ................................................................................................................ 81
Table 20 Security: No Access or None ............................................................................... 82
Table 21 Security: WEP ..................................................................................................... 82
Table 22 Security: 802.1x Only, 802.1x Static 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP ........................... 84
Table 23 Security: 802.1x Dynamic 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP ........................................... 85
Table 24 Security: WPA, WPA-MIX, WPA2 or WPA2-MIX ................................................. 87
Table 25 Security: WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or WPA2-PSK-MIX .......................................... 88
Table 26 RADIUS ............................................................................................................... 90
Table 27 Local User Database ........................................................................................... 91
Table 28 Wireless: Multiple ESS ........................................................................................ 95
Table 29 SSID .................................................................................................................... 97
Table 30 Configuring SSID ................................................................................................. 99
Table 31 Layer-2 Isolation Configuration ............................................................................ 105
Table 32 MAC Address Filter ............................................................................................. 109
Table 33 Roaming .............................................................................................................. 111
Table 34 VLAN ................................................................................................................... 114
Table 35 Standard RADIUS Attributes ............................................................................... 117
Table 36 Private IP Address Ranges ................................................................................. 127
Table 37 IP Setup ............................................................................................................... 128
Table 38 My Certificates ..................................................................................................... 131
List of Tables
23
G-3000H User’s Guide
Table 39 My Certificate Import ........................................................................................... 133
Table 40 My Certificate Create ........................................................................................... 134
Table 41 My Certificate Details ........................................................................................... 137
Table 42 Trusted CAs ......................................................................................................... 140
Table 43 Trusted CA Import ............................................................................................... 141
Table 44 Trusted CA Details ............................................................................................... 143
Table 45 Remote Management: WWW .............................................................................. 149
Table 46 Remote Management: Telnet .............................................................................. 151
Table 47 Remote Management: FTP ................................................................................. 152
Table 48 SNMP Traps ........................................................................................................ 154
Table 49 SNMP Interface Index to Physical Port Mapping ................................................. 155
Table 50 Remote Management: SNMP .............................................................................. 156
Table 51 View Log .............................................................................................................. 157
Table 52 Log Settings ......................................................................................................... 159
Table 53 System Status ...................................................................................................... 161
Table 54 System Status: Show Statistics ........................................................................... 162
Table 55 Association List .................................................................................................... 163
Table 56 Channel Usage .................................................................................................... 165
Table 57 Firmware Upload ................................................................................................. 166
Table 58 Restore Configuration .......................................................................................... 169
Table 59 SMT Menus Overview ......................................................................................... 172
Table 60 Main Menu Commands ....................................................................................... 173
Table 61 Main Menu Summary .......................................................................................... 174
Table 62 Menu 1 General Setup ........................................................................................ 177
Table 63 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP Setup ....................................................................................... 180
Table 64 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup ............................................................................ 181
Table 65 Menu 3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address Filter ............................................................... 184
Table 66 Menu 3.5.2 Roaming Configuration ..................................................................... 185
Table 67 Menu 3.5.6 - SSID Profile Edit ............................................................................. 187
Table 68 Menu 3.5.4 Bridge Link Configuration ................................................................. 189
Table 69 Menu 3.5.5 Layer-2 Isolation ............................................................................... 191
Table 70 Menu 14.1- Edit Dial-in User ............................................................................... 194
Table 71 Menu 16 VLAN Setup .......................................................................................... 195
Table 72 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration ............................................................................. 197
Table 73 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance: Status ............................................................. 202
Table 74 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance: Information .................................................. 203
Table 75 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance Menu: Diagnostic ............................................ 206
Table 76 Filename Conventions ......................................................................................... 208
Table 77 General Commands for Third Party FTP Clients ................................................. 210
Table 78 General Commands for Third Party TFTP Clients .............................................. 211
Table 79 CNM Commands ................................................................................................. 221
Table 80 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting ..................................................... 225
Table 81 Remote Management Port Control ...................................................................... 227
24
List of Tables
G-3000H User’s Guide
Table 82 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control .......................................................... 228
Table 83 Troubleshooting the Start-Up of Your ZyAIR ....................................................... 231
Table 84 Troubleshooting the Ethernet Interface ............................................................... 231
Table 85 Troubleshooting the Password ............................................................................ 232
Table 86 Troubleshooting Telnet ........................................................................................ 232
Table 87 Troubleshooting the WLAN Interface ................................................................... 232
Table 88 Hardware ............................................................................................................. 233
Table 89 Firmware .............................................................................................................. 233
Table 90 Power over Ethernet Injector Specifications ....................................................... 235
Table 91 Power over Ethernet Injector RJ-45 Port Pin Assignments ................................. 235
Table 92 Brute-Force Password Guessing Protection Commands .................................... 237
Table 93 IEEE 802.11b ....................................................................................................... 259
Table 94 Comparison of EAP Authentication Types ........................................................... 263
Table 95 Wireless Security Relational Matrix ..................................................................... 264
Table 96 Classes of IP Addresses ..................................................................................... 267
Table 97 Allowed IP Address Range By Class ................................................................... 268
Table 98 “Natural” Masks .................................................................................................. 268
Table 99 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation ....................................................................... 269
Table 100 Two Subnets Example ....................................................................................... 269
Table 101 Subnet 1 ............................................................................................................ 270
Table 102 Subnet 2 ............................................................................................................ 270
Table 103 Subnet 1 ............................................................................................................ 271
Table 104 Subnet 2 ............................................................................................................ 271
Table 105 Subnet 3 ............................................................................................................ 271
Table 106 Subnet 4 ............................................................................................................ 272
Table 107 Eight Subnets .................................................................................................... 272
Table 108 Class C Subnet Planning ................................................................................... 272
Table 109 Class B Subnet Planning ................................................................................... 273
Table 110 System Maintenance Logs ................................................................................ 277
Table 111 ICMP Notes ........................................................................................................ 277
Table 112 Sys log ............................................................................................................... 278
Table 113 Log Categories and Available Settings .............................................................. 279
Table 114 North American Plug Standards ........................................................................ 283
Table 115 European Plug Standards .................................................................................. 283
Table 116 United Kingdom Plug Standards ........................................................................ 283
Table 117 Australia and New Zealand Plug Standards ...................................................... 283
List of Tables
25
G-3000H User’s Guide
26
List of Tables
G-3000H User’s Guide
Preface
Congratulations on your purchase of the G-3000H - 802.11g Wireless Access Point/Bridge/
Repeater.
An AP acts as a bridge between the wireless and wired networks, extending your existing
wired network without any additional wiring.
The ZyAIR can function as a wireless network bridge/repeater and establish up to five
wireless links with other APs.
The ZyAIR also supports both AP and bridge connections at the same time.
Your ZyAIR is easy to install and configure.
Note: Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades and
information at www.zyxel.com for global products, or at www.us.zyxel.com for North
American products.
About This User's Guide
This User’s Guide is designed to guide you through the configuration of your ZyAIR using the
web configurator or the SMT. The web configurator parts of this guide contain background
information on features configurable by web configurator. The SMT parts of this guide
contain background information solely on features not configurable by web configurator
Note: Use the web configurator, System Management Terminal (SMT) or command
interpreter interface to configure your ZyAIR. Not all features can be configured
through all interfaces.
Related Documentation
• Supporting Disk
Refer to the included CD for support documents.
• Compact Guide
The Compact Guide is designed to help you get up and running right away. They contain
connection information and instructions on getting started.
• Web Configurator Online Help
Embedded web help for descriptions of individual screens and supplementary
information.
• ZyXEL Glossary and Web Site
Please refer to www.zyxel.com for an online glossary of networking terms and additional
support documentation.
Preface
27
G-3000H User’s Guide
User Guide Feedback
Help us help you! E-mail all User Guide-related comments, questions or suggestions for
improvement to techwriters@zyxel.com.tw or send regular mail to The Technical Writing
Team, ZyXEL Communications Corp., 6 Innovation Road II, Science-Based Industrial Park,
Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan. Thank you!
Syntax Conventions
• “Enter” means for you to type one or more characters. “Select” or “Choose” means for
you to use one predefined choices.
• The SMT menu titles and labels are in Bold Times New Roman font. Predefined field
choices are in Bold Arial font. Command and arrow keys are enclosed in square
brackets. [ENTER] means the Enter, or carriage return key; [ESC] means the Escape key
and [SPACE BAR] means the Space Bar.
• Mouse action sequences are denoted using a comma. For example, “click the Apple icon,
Control Panels and then Modem” means first click the Apple icon, then point your
mouse pointer to Control Panels and then click Modem.
• For brevity’s sake, we will use “e.g.,” as a shorthand for “for instance”, and “i.e.,” for
“that is” or “in other words” throughout this manual.
• The G-3000H may be referred to simply as the ZyAIR in the user’s guide.
28
Preface
G-3000H User’s Guide
Graphics Icons Key
ZyAIR
Computer
Notebook computer
Server
DSLAM
Firewall
Modem
Switch
Router
Wireless Signal
Preface
29
G-3000H User’s Guide
30
Preface
G-3000H User’s Guide
CHAPTER 1
Getting to Know Your ZyAIR
This chapter introduces the main features and applications of the ZyAIR.
1.1 Introducing the ZyAIR
The G-3000H extends the range of your existing wired network without any additional wiring
efforts, providing easy network access to mobile users.
The ZyAIR offers highly secured wireless connectivity to your wired network with IEEE
802.1x, Wi-Fi Protected Access, WEP data encryption and MAC address filtering.
The ZyAIR is easy to install and configure. The embedded web-based configurator enables
easy operation and configuration.
1.2 ZyAIR Features
The following sections describe the features of the ZyAIR
1.2.1 Physical Features
10/100M Auto-negotiating Ethernet/Fast Ethernet Interface
This auto-negotiating feature allows the ZyAIR to detect the speed of incoming transmissions
and adjust appropriately without manual intervention. It allows data transfer of either 10 Mbps
or 100 Mbps in either half-duplex or full-duplex mode depending on your Ethernet network.
10/100M Auto-crossover Ethernet/Fast Ethernet Interface
An auto-crossover (auto-MDI/MDI-X) port automatically works with a straight-through or
crossover Ethernet cable.
Reset Button
The ZyAIR reset button is built into the side panel. Use this button to restore the factory
default password to 1234; IP address to 192.168.1.2, subnet mask to 255.255.255.0.
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your ZyAIR
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G-3000H User’s Guide
ZyAIR LED
The blue ZyAIR LED (also known as the Breathing LED) is on when the ZyAIR is on and
blinks (or breaths) when data is being transmitted to/from its wireless stations. You may use
the web configurator to turn this LED off even when the ZyAIR is on and data is being
transmitted/received.
Bridge/Repeater LED
A Bridge/Repeater link LED turns steady on green when your ZyAIR acts as a bridge,
establishing up to six wireless links with other APs.
Power over Ethernet (PoE)
Power over Ethernet (PoE) is the ability to provide power to your ZyAIR via an 8-pin CAT 5
Ethernet cable, eliminating the need for a nearby power source. An injector or PoE device (not
included) is also needed to supply the Ethernet cable with power. This feature allows increased
flexibility in the locating of your ZyAIR. You only need to connect the external power adaptor
if you are not using PoE. If you simultaneously use both PoE and the external power adaptor,
the ZyAIR will draw power from the PoE connection only. Refer to the appendix for more
information about PoE.
Figure 1 PoE Installation Example
1.2.2 Firmware Features
Wi-Fi Protected Access
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i security specification draft.
Key differences between WPA and WEP are user authentication and improved data
encryption.
Layer-2 Isolation
Layer-2 isolation is used to prevent wireless clients associated with your ZyAIR from
communicating with other wireless clients, AP’s, computers or routers in a network.
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Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your ZyAIR
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VLAN
A VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) allows a physical network to be partitioned into
multiple logical networks. Only stations within the same group can talk to each other. Stations
on a logical network can belong to one or more groups. The ZyAIR supports 802.1Q VLAN
tagging. Tagged VLAN uses an explicit tag (VLAN ID) in the MAC header of a frame to
identify VLAN membership. The ZyAIR can identify VLAN tags for incoming Ethernet
frames and add VLAN tags to outgoing Ethernet frames.
Configure VLAN (virtual LAN) to extend the wireless logical grouping to the wired network.
A ZyAIR that you configure with the built-in wireless card uses the same Management
VLAN ID as a ZyAIR configured with a removable wireless card.
WDS Functionality
A Distribution System (DS) is a wired connection between two or more APs, while a Wireless
Distribution System (WDS) is a wireless connection. Your ZyAIR supports WDS, providing a
cost-effective solution for wireless network expansion.
Figure 2 WDS Functionality Example
802.11b Wireless LAN Standard
The ZyAIR complies with the 802.11b wireless standard.
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your ZyAIR
33
G-3000H User’s Guide
The 802.11b data rate and corresponding modulation techniques are shown in the table below.
The modulation technique defines how bits are encoded onto radio waves.
Table 1 IEEE 802.11b
DATA RATE (MBPS)
MODULATION
1
DBPSK (Differential Binary Phase Shifted Keying)
2
DQPSK (Differential Quadrature Phase Shifted Keying)
5.5 / 11
CCK (Complementary Code Keying)
802.11g Wireless LAN Standard
The ZyAIR, complies with the 802.11g wireless standard and is also fully compatible with the
802.11b standard. This means an 802.11b radio card can interface directly with an 802.11g
device (and vice versa) at 11 Mbps or lower depending on range. 802.11g has several
intermediate rate steps between the maximum and minimum data rates. The 802.11g data rate
and modulation are as follows:.
Table 2 IEEE 802.11g
DATA RATE (MBPS)
MODULATION
6/9/12/18/24/36/48/54
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)
Note: The ZyAIR may be prone to RF (Radio Frequency) interference from other 2.4
GHz devices such as microwave ovens, wireless phones, Bluetooth enabled devices,
and other wireless LANs.
STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) / RSTP (Rapid STP)
(R)STP detects and breaks network loops and provides backup links between switches,
bridges or routers. It allows a bridge to interact with other (R)STP-compliant bridges in your
network to ensure that only one path exists between any two stations on the network.
WMM QoS
WMM (Wi-Fi MultiMedia) QoS (Quality of Service) allows you to prioritize wireless traffic
according to the delivery requirements of the individual and applications.
Certificates
The ZyAIR can use certificates (also called digital IDs) to authenticate users. Certificates are
based on public-private key pairs. Certificates provide a way to exchange public keys for use
in authentication.
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Limit the number of Client Connections
You may set a maximum number of wireless stations that may connect to the ZyAIR. This
may be necessary if for example, there is interference or difficulty with channel assignment
due to a high density of APs within a coverage area.
SSL Passthrough
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) uses a public key to encrypt data that's transmitted over an SSL
connection. Both Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer support SSL, and many Web sites
use the protocol to obtain confidential user information, such as credit card numbers. By
convention, URLs that require an SSL connection start with “https” instead of “http”. The
ZyAIR allows SSL connections to take place through the ZyAIR.
Brute-Force Password Guessing Protection
The ZyAIR has a special protection mechanism to discourage brute-force password guessing
attacks on the ZyAIR's management interfaces. You can specify a wait-time that must expire
before entering a fourth password after three incorrect passwords have been entered. Please
see the appendix for details about this feature.
Wireless LAN MAC Address Filtering
Your ZyAIR checks the MAC address of the wireless station against a list of allowed or
denied MAC addresses.
WEP Encryption
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) encrypts data frames before transmitting over the wireless
network to help keep network communications private.
IEEE 802.1x Network Security
The ZyAIR supports the IEEE 802.1x standard to enhance user authentication. Use the built-in
user profile database to authenticate up to 32 users using MD5 encryption. Use an EAPcompatible RADIUS (RFC2138, 2139 - Remote Authentication Dial In User Service) server
to authenticate a limitless number of users using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol).
EAP is an authentication protocol that supports multiple types of authentication.
SNMP
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is a protocol used for exchanging
management information between network devices. SNMP is a member of the TCP/IP
protocol suite. Your ZyAIR supports SNMP agent functionality, which allows a manger
station to manage and monitor the ZyAIR through the network. The ZyAIR supports SNMP
version one (SNMPv1) and version two c (SNMPv2c).
Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your ZyAIR
35
G-3000H User’s Guide
Full Network Management
The embedded web configurator is an all-platform web-based utility that allows you to easily
access the ZyAIR’s management settings. Most functions of the ZyAIR are also software
configurable via the SMT (System Management Terminal) interface. The SMT is a menudriven interface that you can access from a terminal emulator over a telnet connection.
Logging and Tracing
• Built-in message logging and packet tracing.
• Unix syslog facility support.
Embedded FTP and TFTP Servers
The ZyAIR’s embedded FTP and TFTP servers enable fast firmware upgrades as well as
configuration file backups and restoration.
Wireless Association List
With the wireless association list, you can see the list of the wireless stations that are currently
using the ZyAIR to access your wired network.
Wireless LAN Channel Usage
The Wireless Channel Usage screen displays whether the radio channels are used by other
wireless devices within the transmission range of the ZyAIR. This allows you to select the
channel with minimum interference for your ZyAIR.
1.3 Applications for the ZyAIR
Here are some ZyAIR application examples.
The ZyAIR can be configured using the following WLAN operating modes
1 AP
2 AP+Bridge
3 Bridge/Repeater
Applications for each operating mode are shown below.
Note: A different channel should be configured for each WLAN interface to reduce the
effects of radio interference.
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Chapter 1 Getting to Know Your ZyAIR
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1.3.1 Access Point
The ZyAIR is an ideal access solution for wireless Internet connection. A typical Internet
access application for your ZyAIR is shown as follows. Stations A, B and C can access the
wired network through the ZyAIRs.
Figure 3 Access Point Application
1.3.2 Multiple ESS
The ZyAIR’s Multiple ESS function allows multiple ESSs to be configured on just one access
point (the ZyAIR). Wireless stations can use different ESSIDs to associate with the same AP.
Only wireless stations with the same ESSID can communicate with each other.
In this application example, wireless stations 1 and 2 both associate with the ZyAIR but cannot
communicate with each other as they belong to different ESSs. Stations 1, 3 and 4 can
communicate with each other. Similarly, stations 2, 5 and 6 can communicate with each other.
Station 1 relays communications via the ZyAIR within the Multi-ESS coverage area and with
AP X if it moves to the RD ESS coverage area. Similarly, Station 2 relays communications via
the ZyAIR within the Multi-ESS coverage area and with AP Y if it moves to the Sales ESS
coverage area.
You cannot configure WPA on your ZyAIR in Multiple ESS mode.
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Figure 4 Multiple ESS Application
1.3.3 AP + Bridge
In AP+Bridge mode, the ZyAIR supports both AP (A and B can connect to the wired network
through X) and bridge (X can communicate with Y) connection at the same time.
When the ZyAIR is in AP + Bridge mode, the traffic between ZyAIRs (the WDS) is not
encrypted. The security settings on the ZyAIR refer to the traffic between the wireless station
and the ZyAIR.
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Figure 5
AP+Bridge Application
1.3.4 Bridge / Repeater
The ZyAIR can act as a wireless network bridge and establish wireless links with other APs. In
bridge mode, the ZyAIR’s (A and B) are connected to independent wired networks and have a
bridge (A can communicate with B) connection at the same time. A ZyAIR in repeater mode
(C) has no Ethernet connection. When the ZyAIR is in the bridge mode, you should enable
STP to prevent bridge loops.
When the ZyAIR is in Bridge/Repeater mode, you don’t have to enter a pre-shared key, but
the traffic between devices won’t be encrypted if you don’t. The peer bridge must use the same
pre-shared key and encryption method.
The ZyAIR in AP+Bridge mode cannot connect to another ZyAIR in Bridge/Repeater mode
that uses manual WEP keys with 64-bit or 128-bit WEP encryption.
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Figure 6 Bridge Application
Figure 7 Repeater Application
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CHAPTER 2
Introducing the Web
Configurator
This chapter describes how to access the ZyAIR web configurator and provides an overview
of its screens. The default IP address of the ZyAIR is 192.168.1.2.
2.1 Accessing the ZyAIR Web Configurator
1 Make sure your ZyAIR hardware is properly connected and prepare your computer/
computer network to connect to the ZyAIR (refer to the Quick Start Guide).
2 Launch your web browser.
3 Type "192.168.1.2" as the URL.
4 Type "1234" (default) as the password and click Login. In some versions, the default
password appears automatically - if this is the case, click Login.
5 You should see a screen asking you to change your password (highly recommended) as
shown next. Type a new password (and retype it to confirm) and click Apply or click
Ignore.
Note: If you do not change the password, the following screen appears every time
you login.
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Figure 8 Change Password Screen
6 Click Apply in the Replace Certificate screen to create a certificate using your ZyAIR’s
MAC address that will be specific to this device.
Figure 9 Replace Certificate Screen
You should now see the MAIN MENU screen.
Note: The management session automatically times out when the time period set in
the Administrator Inactivity Timer field expires (default five minutes). Simply log back
into the ZyAIR if this happens to you.
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2.2 Resetting the ZyAIR
If you forget your password or cannot access the web configurator, you will need to reload the
factory-default configuration file or use the RESET button on the side panel of the ZyAIR.
Uploading this configuration file replaces the current configuration file with the factorydefault configuration file. This means that you will lose all configurations that you had
previously. The password will be reset to 1234.
2.2.1 Procedure To Use The Reset Button
Make sure the SYS LED is on (not blinking) before you begin this procedure.
1 Press the RESET button for ten seconds or until the SYS LED, LINK LED or BDG/
RPT LED turns red, and then release it. If the SYS LED begins to blink, the defaults have
been restored and the ZyAIR restarts. Otherwise, go to step 2.
2 Turn the ZyAIR off.
3 While pressing the RESET button, turn the ZyAIR on.
4 Continue to hold the RESET button. The SYS LED will begin to blink and flicker very
quickly after about 20 seconds. This indicates that the defaults have been restored and the
ZyAIR is now restarting.
5 Release the RESET button and wait for the ZyAIR to finish restarting.
2.2.2 Method of Restoring Factory-Defaults
You can erase the current configuration and restore factory defaults in three ways:
Use the RESET button on the side panel of the ZyAIR to upload the default configuration file
(hold this button in for about 10 seconds or until the SYS LED, LINK LED or BDG/RPT
LED turns red). Use this method for cases when the password or IP address of the ZyAIR is
not known.
Use the web configurator to restore defaults (refer to Chapter 14, on page 161).
Transfer the configuration file to your ZyAIR using FTP. See later in the part on SMT
configuration for more information.
2.3 Navigating the ZyAIR Web Configurator
We use the G-3000H web configurator in this guide as an example. The web configurator
screens for your model may vary slightly for different ZyAIR models.
The following summarizes how to navigate the web configurator from the MAIN MENU
screen.
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Note: Follow the instructions you see in the MAIN MENU screen or click the
icon (located in the top right corner of most screens) to view online help.
The
icon does not appear in the MAIN MENU screen.
Figure 10 The MAIN MENU Screen of the Web Configurator
Click WIZARD SETUP for initial configuration including general setup, Wireless LAN
setup and IP address assignment.
Click the links under ADVANCED to configure advanced features such as SYSTEM
(General Setup, Password and Time Zone), WIRELESS (Wireless, SSID, Security, RADIUS,
Layer-2 Isolation, MAC Filter, Roaming, Local User Database), IP, REMOTE MGNT
(Telnet, FTP, WWW and SNMP), CERTIFICATES (My Certificates, Trusted CAs), LOGS
(View reports and Log Settings) and VLAN.
Click MAINTENANCE to view information about your ZyAIR or upgrade configuration/
firmware files. Maintenance includes Status (Statistics), Association List, Channel Usage,
F/W (firmware) Upload, Configuration (Backup, Restore and Default) and Restart
Click LOGOUT at any time to exit the web configurator
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CHAPTER 3
Wizard Setup
This chapter provides information on the Wizard Setup screens in the web configurator.
3.1 Wizard Setup Overview
The web configurator’s setup wizard helps you configure your ZyAIR for wireless stations to
access your wired LAN.
3.1.1 Channel
A channel is the radio frequency(ies) used by IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.11g wireless
devices. Channels available depend on your geographical area. You may have a choice of
channels (for your region) so you should use a different channel than an adjacent AP (access
point) to reduce interference. Interference occurs when radio signals from different access
points overlap causing interference and degrading performance.
Adjacent channels partially overlap however. To avoid interference due to overlap, your AP
should be on a channel at least five channels away from a channel that an adjacent AP is using.
For example, if your region has 11 channels and an adjacent AP is using channel 1, then you
need to select a channel between 6 or 11.
The ZyAIR’s “Scan” function is especially designed to automatically scan for a channel with
the least interference.
3.1.2 ESS ID
An Extended Service Set (ESS) is a group of access points connected to a wired LAN on the
same subnet. An SS ID uniquely identifies each set. All access points and their associated
wireless stations in the same set must have the same SSID.
3.1.3 WEP Encryption
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) encrypts data frames before transmitting over the wireless
network. WEP encryption scrambles the data transmitted between the wireless stations and the
access points to keep network communications private. It encrypts unicast and multicast
communications in a network. Both the wireless stations and the access points must use the
same WEP key for data encryption and decryption.
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3.2 Wizard Setup: General Setup
General Setup contains administrative and system-related information.
Figure 11 Wizard 1: General Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 3 Wizard 1: General Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Name
It is recommended you type your computer's "Computer name".
In Windows 95/98 click Start, Settings, Control Panel, Network. Click the
Identification tab, note the entry for the Computer Name field and enter it as the
System Name.
In Windows 2000, click Start, Settings, Control Panel and then double-click
System. Click the Network Identification tab and then the Properties button.
Note the entry for the Computer name field and enter it as the System Name.
In Windows XP, click Start, My Computer, View system information and then
click the Computer Name tab. Note the entry in the Full computer name field
and enter it as the ZyAIR System Name.
This name can be up to 30 alphanumeric characters long. Spaces are not
allowed, but dashes "-" and underscores "_" are accepted.
Domain Name
This is not a required field. Leave this field blank or enter the domain name here
if you know it.
Next
Click Next to proceed to the next screen.
3.3 Wizard Setup: Wireless LAN
Use the second wizard screen to set up the wireless LAN.
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Figure 12 Wizard 2: Wireless LAN Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 4 Wizard 2: Wireless LAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless LAN Setup
Name (SSID)
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 printable 7-bit ASCII characters) for the
wireless LAN.
If you change this field on the ZyAIR, make sure all wireless stations use the
same Name (SSID) in order to access the network.
Choose Channel ID
To manually set the ZyAIR to use a channel, select a channel from the dropdown list box. Open the Channel Usage screen to make sure the channel is
not already used by another AP or independent peer-to-peer wireless network.
To have the ZyAIR automatically select a channel, click Scan instead.
Scan
Click this button to have the ZyAIR automatically scan for and select a channel
with the least interference.
WEP Encryption
Select Disable allows all wireless computers to communicate with the access
points without any data encryption.
Select 64-bit WEP or 128-bit WEP to allow data encryption.
ASCII
Select this option in order to enter ASCII characters as the WEP keys.
Hex
Select this option to enter hexadecimal characters as the WEP keys.
The preceding 0x is entered automatically.
Key 1 to Key 4
The WEP keys are used to encrypt data. Both the ZyAIR and the wireless
stations must use the same WEP key for data transmission.
If you chose 64-bit WEP, then enter any 5 ASCII characters or 10 hexadecimal
characters ("0-9", "A-F").
If you chose 128-bit WEP, then enter 13 ASCII characters or 26 hexadecimal
characters ("0-9", "A-F").
You must configure all four keys, but only one key can be activated at any one
time. The default key is key 1.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Next
Click Next to continue.
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3.4 Wizard Setup: IP Address
The third wizard screen allows you to configure IP address assignment.
3.4.1 IP Address Assignment
Every computer on the Internet must have a unique IP address. If your networks are isolated
from the Internet, for instance, only between your two branch offices, you can assign any IP
addresses to the hosts without problems. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private
networks.
Table 5 Private IP Address Ranges
10.0.0.0
-
10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0
-
172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0
-
192.168.255.255
You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP or have it assigned by a private
network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet access is through an ISP, the
ISP can provide you with the Internet addresses for your local networks. On the other hand, if
you are part of a much larger organization, you should consult your network administrator for
the appropriate IP addresses.
Note: Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address;
always follow the guidelines above. For more information on address assignment,
please refer to RFC 1597, Address Allocation for Private Internets and RFC 1466,
Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space.
3.4.2 IP Address and Subnet Mask
Similar to the way houses on a street share a common street name, so too do computers on a
LAN share one common network number.
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If the ISP or
your network administrator assigns you a block of registered IP addresses, follow their
instructions in selecting the IP addresses and the subnet mask.
If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you have a single
user account and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when the connection is
established. The Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) reserved this block of addresses
specifically for private use; please do not use any other number unless you are told otherwise.
Let's say you select 192.168.1.0 as the network number; which covers 254 individual
addresses, from 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.254 (zero and 255 are reserved). In other words, the
first three numbers specify the network number while the last number identifies an individual
computer on that network.
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Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address that is easy to remember,
for instance, 192.168.1.2, for your ZyAIR, but make sure that no other device on your network
is using that IP address.
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your ZyAIR will
compute the subnet mask automatically based on the IP address that you entered. You don't
need to change the subnet mask computed by the ZyAIR unless you are instructed to do
otherwise.
Figure 13 Wizard 3: IP Address Assignment
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 6 Wizard 3: IP Address Assignment
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Address Assignment
Get automatically from
DHCP
Select this option if your ZyAIR is using a dynamically assigned IP address
from a DHCP server each time.
Note: You must know the IP address assigned to the ZyAIR (by
the DHCP server) to access the ZyAIR again.
Use fixed IP address
Select this option if your ZyAIR is using a static IP address. When you select
this option, fill in the fields below.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your ZyAIR in dotted decimal notation.
Note: If you changed the ZyAIR's IP address, you must use the
new IP address if you want to access the web configurator
again.
IP Subnet Mask
Type the subnet mask.
Gateway IP Address
Type the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor
of your ZyAIR that will forward the packet to the destination. The gateway
must be a router on the same segment as your ZyAIR's LAN or WAN port.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
Finish
Click Finish to proceed to complete the Wizard setup.
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3.5 Basic Setup Complete
When you click Finish in the Wizard 3 IP Address Assignment screen, a warning window
display as shown. Click OK to close the window and log in to the web configurator again
using the new IP address if you change the default IP address (192.168.1.2).
You have successfully set up the ZyAIR. A screen displays prompting you to close the web
browser.
Click Yes. Otherwise, click No and the congratulations screen shows next.
Figure 14 Wizard 4: Setup Complete
Well done! You have successfully set up your ZyAIR to operate on your network and access
the Internet.
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CHAPTER 4
System Screens
4.1 System Overview
This section provides information on general system setup.
4.2 Configuring General Setup
Click the SYSTEM link under ADVANCED to open the General screen.
Figure 15 System General Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 7 System General Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General Setup
System Name
Type a descriptive name to identify the ZyAIR in the Ethernet network.
This name can be up to 30 alphanumeric characters long. Spaces are not
allowed, but dashes "-" and underscores "_" are accepted.
Domain Name
This is not a required field. Leave this field blank or enter the domain name
here if you know it.
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Table 7 System General Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Administrator
Inactivity Timer
Type how many minutes a management session (either via the web
configurator or SMT) can be left idle before the session times out.
The default is 5 minutes. After it times out you have to log in with your
password again. Very long idle timeouts may have security risks.
A value of "0" means a management session never times out, no matter how
long it has been left idle (not recommended).
System DNS Servers
First DNS Server
Second DNS Server
Third DNS Server
Select From DHCP if your DHCP server dynamically assigns DNS server
information (and the ZyAIR's Ethernet IP address). The field to the right
displays the (read-only) DNS server IP address that the DHCP assigns.
Select User-Defined if you have the IP address of a DNS server. Enter the
DNS server's IP address in the field to the right. If you chose User-Defined, but
leave the IP address set to 0.0.0.0, User-Defined changes to None after you
click Apply. If you set a second choice to User-Defined, and enter the same IP
address, the second User-Defined changes to None after you click Apply.
Select None if you do not want to configure DNS servers. If you do not
configure a DNS server, you must know the IP address of a machine in order to
access it.
The default setting is None.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
4.3 Configuring Password
To change your ZyAIR’s password (recommended), click the SYSTEM link under
ADVANCED and then the Password tab. The screen appears as shown. This screen allows
you to change the ZyAIR’s password.
If you forget your password (or the ZyAIR IP address), you will need to reset the ZyAIR. See
the Resetting the ZyAIR section for details
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Figure 16 Password.
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 8 Password
LABEL
DESCRIPTIONS
Old Password
Type in your existing system password (1234 is the default password).
New Password
Type your new system password (up to 31 characters). Note that as you type a
password, the screen displays an asterisk (*) for each character you type.
Retype to Confirm
Retype your new system password for confirmation.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
4.4 Configuring Time Setting
To change your ZyAIR’s time and date, click the SYSTEM link under ADVANCED and then
the Time Setting tab. The screen appears as shown. Use this screen to configure the ZyAIR’s
time based on your local time zone.
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Figure 17 Time Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 9 Time Setting
54
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Time Protocol
Select the time service protocol that your time server sends when you turn on
the ZyAIR. Not all time servers support all protocols, so you may have to check
with your ISP/network administrator or use trial and error to find a protocol that
works.
The main difference between them is the format.
Daytime (RFC 867) format is day/month/year/time zone of the server.
Time (RFC 868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total number of
seconds since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.
The default, NTP (RFC 1305), is similar to Time (RFC 868).
Select None to enter the time and date manually.
Time Server Address
Enter the IP address or the URL of your time server. Check with your ISP/
network administrator if you are unsure of this information.
Current Time
(hh:mm:ss)
This field displays the time of your ZyAIR.
Each time you reload this page, the ZyAIR synchronizes the time with the time
server.
New Time (hh:mm:ss)
This field displays the last updated time from the time server.
When you select None in the Time Protocol field, enter the new time in this
field and then click Apply.
Current Date (yyyy/
mm/dd)
This field displays the date of your ZyAIR.
Each time you reload this page, the ZyAIR synchronizes the date with the time
server.
New Date (yyyy/mm/
dd)
This field displays the last updated date from the time server.
When you select None in the Time Protocol field, enter the new date in this
field and then click Apply.
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Table 9 Time Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Time Zone
Choose the time zone of your location. This will set the time difference
between your time zone and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Daylight Savings
Select this option if you use daylight savings time. Daylight saving is a period
from late spring to early fall when many countries set their clocks ahead of
normal local time by one hour to give more daytime light in the evening.
Start Date (mm-dd)
Enter the month and day that your daylight-savings time starts on if you
selected Daylight Savings.
End Date (mm-dd)
Enter the month and day that your daylight-savings time ends on if you
selected Daylight Savings.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to reload the previous configuration for this screen.
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CHAPTER 5
Wireless Configuration
This chapter discusses how to configure Wireless screens on the ZyAIR.
5.1 Wireless LAN Overview
This section introduces the wireless LAN (WLAN) and some basic scenarios.
5.1.1 BSS
A Basic Service Set (BSS) exists when all communications between wireless stations or
between a wireless station and a wired network client go through one access point (AP).
Intra-BSS traffic is traffic between wireless stations in the BSS. When Intra-BSS is enabled,
wireless station A and B can access the wired network and communicate with each other.
When Intra-BSS is disabled, wireless station A and B can still access the wired network but
cannot communicate with each other.
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Figure 18 Basic Service set
5.1.2 ESS
An Extended Service Set (ESS) consists of a series of overlapping BSSs, each containing an
access point, with each access point connected together by a wired network. This wired
connection between APs is called a Distribution System (DS). An ESSID (ESS IDentification)
uniquely identifies each ESS. All access points and their associated wireless stations within
the same ESS must have the same ESSID in order to communicate.
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Figure 19 Extended Service Set
5.2 Wireless LAN Basics
Refer also to the Wizard Setup chapter for more background information on Wireless LAN
features, such as channels.
See the Wireless LANs Appendix for information on the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Wireless LAN Topologies
Channel
RTS/CTS
Fragmentation Threshold
Preamble Type
IEEE 802.1x
RADIUS
Types of Authentication
WPA
Security Parameters Summary
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5.3 WMM QoS
WMM (Wi-Fi MultiMedia) QoS (Quality of Service) ensures quality of service in wireless
networks for multimedia applications. WMM QoS prioritizes wireless traffic according to the
delivery requirements of the individual and applications. WMM QoS is a part of the IEEE
802.11e QoS enhancement to certified Wi-Fi wireless networks.
On APs without WMM QoS, all traffic streams are given the same access throughput to the
wireless network. If the introduction of another traffic stream creates a data transmission
demand that exceeds the current network capacity, then the new traffic stream reduces the
throughput of the other traffic streams.
The ZyAIR uses WMM QoS to prioritize traffic streams according to the needs of the
application. The ZyAIR automatically determines the priority to use for an individual traffic
stream. This prevents reductions in data transmission for applications that are sensitive to jitter
(variations in delay).
5.3.1 WMM QoS Priorities
The following table describes the WMM QoS priority levels that the ZyAIR uses.
Table 10 WMM QoS Priorities
PRIORITY LEVEL
DESCRIPTION
voice
Typically used for traffic that is especially sensitive to jitter. Use this priority to
reduce latency for improved voice quality.
video
Typically used for traffic which has some tolerance for jitter but needs to be
prioritized over other data traffic.
besteffort
Typically used for traffic from applications or devices that lack QoS
capabilities. Use best effort priority for traffic that is less sensitive to latency,
but is affected by long delays, such as Internet surfing.
background
This is typically used for non-critical traffic such as bulk transfers and print jobs
that are allowed but that should not affect other applications and users. Use
background priority for applications that do not have strict latency and
throughput requirements.
5.3.2 Type Of Service (ToS)
Network traffic can be classified by setting the ToS (Type Of Service) values at the data
source (for example, at the Prestige) so a server can decide the best method of delivery, that is
the least cost, fastest route and so on.
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5.3.2.1 DiffServ
DiffServ is a class of service (CoS) model that marks packets so that they receive specific perhop treatment at DiffServ-compliant network devices along the route based on the application
types and traffic flow. Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points (DSCPs) indicating the
level of service desired. This allows the intermediary DiffServ-compliant network devices to
handle the packets differently depending on the code points without the need to negotiate
paths or remember state information for every flow. In addition, applications do not have to
request a particular service or give advanced notice of where the traffic is going.
5.3.2.2 DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior
DiffServ defines a new DS (Differentiated Services) field to replace the Type of Service
(TOS) field in the IP header. The DS field contains a 2-bit unused field and a 6-bit DSCP field
which can define up to 64 service levels. The following figure illustrates the DS field.
DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so that nonDiffServ compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the DSCP mapping.
Figure 20 DiffServ: Differentiated Service Field
DSCP
(6-bit)
Unused
(2-bit)
The DSCP value determines the forwarding behavior, the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior), that each
packet gets across the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule, different kinds of traffic
can be marked for different priorities of forwarding. Resources can then be allocated
according to the DSCP values and the configured policies.
5.3.3 ToS (Type of Service) and WMM QoS
The DSCP value of outgoing packets is between 0 and 255. 0 is the default priority. WMM
QoS checks the DSCP value in the header of data packets. It gives the traffic a priority
according to this number.
In order to control which priority level is given to traffic, the device sending the traffic must
set the DSCP value in the header. If the DSCP value is not specified, then the traffic is treated
as best-effort. This means the wireless clients and the devices with which they are
communicating must both set the DSCP value in order to make the best use of WMM QoS. A
Voice over IP (VoIP) device for example may allow you to define the DSCP value.
The following table lists which WMM QoS priority level the ZyAIR uses for specific DSCP
values.
Table 11 ToS and IEEE 802.1d to WMM QoS Priority Level Mapping
DSCP VALUE
WMM QOS PRIORITY LEVEL
224, 192
voice
160, 128
video
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Table 11 ToS and IEEE 802.1d to WMM QoS Priority Level Mapping
DSCP VALUE
96, 0
WMM QOS PRIORITY LEVEL
a
besteffort
64, 32
background
a. The ZyAIR also uses best effort for any DSCP value for which another
WMM QoS priority is not specified (255, 158 or 37 for example).
5.4 Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
STP detects and breaks network loops and provides backup links between switches, bridges or
routers. It allows a bridge to interact with other STP-compliant bridges in your network to
ensure that only one route exists between any two stations on the network.
5.4.1 Rapid STP
The ZyAIR uses IEEE 802.1w RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol) that allow faster
convergence of the spanning tree (while also being backwards compatible with STP-only
aware bridges). Using RSTP topology change information does not have to propagate to the
root bridge and unwanted learned addresses are flushed from the filtering database. In RSTP,
the port states are Discarding, Learning, and Forwarding.
5.4.2 STP Terminology
The root bridge is the base of the spanning tree; it is the bridge with the lowest identifier value
(MAC address).
Path cost is the cost of transmitting a frame onto a LAN through that port. It is assigned
according to the speed of the link to which a port is attached. The slower the media, the higher
the cost - see the following table.
Table 12 STP Path Costs
62
LINK SPEED
RECOMMENDED
VALUE
RECOMMENDED
RANGE
ALLOWED
RANGE
Path Cost
4Mbps
250
100 to 1000
1 to 65535
Path Cost
10Mbps
100
50 to 600
1 to 65535
Path Cost
16Mbps
62
40 to 400
1 to 65535
Path Cost
100Mbps
19
10 to 60
1 to 65535
Path Cost
1Gbps
4
3 to 10
1 to 65535
Path Cost
10Gbps
2
1 to 5
1 to 65535
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On each bridge, the root port is the port through which this bridge communicates with the root.
It is the port on this switch with the lowest path cost to the root (the root path cost). If there is
no root port, then this bridge has been accepted as the root bridge of the spanning tree network.
For each LAN segment, a designated bridge is selected. This bridge has the lowest cost to the
root among the bridges connected to the LAN.
5.4.3 How STP Works
After a bridge determines the lowest cost-spanning tree with STP, it enables the root port and
the ports that are the designated ports for connected LANs, and disables all other ports that
participate in STP. Network packets are therefore only forwarded between enabled ports,
eliminating any possible network loops.
STP-aware bridges exchange Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) periodically. When the
bridged LAN topology changes, a new spanning tree is constructed.
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello BPDUs
(Bridge Protocol Data Units) transmitted from the root bridge. If a bridge does not get a Hello
BPDU after a predefined interval (Max Age), the bridge assumes that the link to the root
bridge is down. This bridge then initiates negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the
network to re-establish a valid network topology.
5.4.4 STP Port States
STP assigns five port states (see next table) to eliminate packet looping. A bridge port is not
allowed to go directly from blocking state to forwarding state so as to eliminate transient
loops.
Table 13 STP Port States
PORT STATES
DESCRIPTIONS
Disabled
STP is disabled (default).
Blocking
Only configuration and management BPDUs are received and processed.
Listening
All BPDUs are received and processed.
Learning
All BPDUs are received and processed. Information frames are submitted to the
learning process but not forwarded.
Forwarding
All BPDUs are received and processed. All information frames are received and
forwarded.
5.5 Wireless Screen Overview
The following is a list of the screens you can configure on the ZyAIR.
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1 Configure the ZyAIR as an AP, an AP+Bridge, a Bridge/Repeater or to use multiple ESS
in the Wireless screen. You can also select an SSID Profile in the Wireless screen.
2 Use the SSID screens to view and create SSID profiles.
3 Use the Security screen to configure wireless profiles. For each profile you can configure
a name and one of the wireless security modes.
4 Use the RADIUS screen to configure RADIUS authentication and accounting settings.
5 Use the Layer-2 Isolation screen to prevent wireless clients associated with your ZyAIR
from communicating with other wireless clients, AP’s, computers or routers in a network.
6 Use the MAC Filter screen to restrict access to your wireless network by MAC address.
7 Use the Roaming screen to configure the ZyAIR so that in a network environment with
multiple access points, wireless stations are able to switch from one access point to
another as they move between the coverage areas.
8 Configure the built-in authentication database in the Local User Database screen.
5.6 Configuring Wireless
Click the WIRELESS link under ADVANCED to display the Wireless screen. The screen
varies depending upon the operating mode you select.
5.6.1 Access Point Mode
Select Access Point as the Operating Mode to display the screen as shown next.
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Figure 21 Wireless: Access Point
The following table describes the general wireless LAN labels in this screen.
Table 14 Wireless: Access Point
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Operating Mode
Select the operating mode from the drop-down list. The options are Access Point,
Bridge/Repeater, AP+Bridge and MESSID.
Choose Channel Set the operating frequency/channel depending on your particular region.
ID
To manually set the ZyAIR to use a channel, select a channel from the drop-down
list box. Click MAINTENANCE and then the Channel Usage tab to open the
Channel Usage screen to make sure the channel is not already used by another AP
or independent peer-to-peer wireless network.
To have the ZyAIR automatically select a channel, click Scan instead.
Refer to the Wizard Setup chapter for more information on channels.
Scan
Click this button to have the ZyAIR automatically scan for and select a channel with
the least interference.
RTS/CTS
Threshold
(Request To Send) The threshold (number of bytes) for enabling RTS/CTS
handshake. Data with its frame size larger than this value will perform the RTS/CTS
handshake. Setting this attribute to be larger than the maximum MSDU (MAC
service data unit) size turns off the RTS/CTS handshake. Setting this attribute to
zero turns on the RTS/CTS handshake. Enter a value between 800 and 2432.
Fragmentation
Threshold
The threshold (number of bytes) for the fragmentation boundary for directed
messages. It is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter a value
between 800 and 2432.
SSID Profile
The SSID (Service Set IDentity) identifies the Service Set with which a wireless
station is associated. Wireless stations associating to the access point (AP) must
have the same SSID. Select an SSID Profile from the drop-down list box.
Configure SSID profiles in the SSID screen.
Note: If you are configuring the ZyAIR from a computer connected to
the wireless LAN and you change the ZyAIR’s SSID or security
settings, you will lose your wireless connection when you press
Apply to confirm. You must then change the wireless settings of your
computer to match the ZyAIR’s new settings.
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Table 14 Wireless: Access Point
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Hide Name
(SSID)
Select this check box to hide the SSID in the outgoing beacon frame so a station
cannot obtain the SSID through scanning using a site survey tool.
Enable IntraBSS Traffic
Intra-BSS traffic is traffic between wireless stations in the same BSS. Select this
check box to enable Intra-BSS traffic.
Enable
Breathing LED
Select this check box to enable the Breathing LED, also known as the ZyAIR LED.
The blue ZyAIR LED is on when the ZyAIR is on and blinks (or breaths) when data is
being transmitted to/from its wireless stations.
Clear the check box to turn this LED off even when the ZyAIR is on and data is being
transmitted/received.
Enable
Spanning Tree
Control (STP)
(R)STP detects and breaks network loops and provides backup links between
switches, bridges or routers. It allows a bridge to interact with other (R)STP compliant bridges in your network to ensure that only one path exists between any
two stations on the network. Select the check box to activate STP on the ZyAIR.
Output Power
Set the output power of the ZyAIR in this field. If there is a high density of APs within
an area, decrease the output power of the ZyAIR to reduce interference with other
APs. Select one of the following 100%(Full Power), 50%, 25% or 12.5%. These
percentages represent the following power ranges;
• 100%(Full Power) <11b>17dBm/<11g>13dBm (<11b>50mW/<11g>20mW),
• 50% <11b>15dBm/<11g>11dBm (<11b>32mW/<11g>12.6mW),
• 25% <11b>13dBm/<11g>9dBm (<11b>20mW/<11g>7.9mW),
• 12.5% <11b>11dBm/<11g>7dBm (<11b>12.6mW/<11g>5mW).
Preamble
Select a preamble type from the drop-down list menu. Choices are Long, Short and
Dynamic.
See the section on preamble for more information.
802.11 Mode
Select 802.11b Only to allow only IEEE 802.11b compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the ZyAIR.
Select 802.11g Only to allow only IEEE 802.11g compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the ZyAIR.
Select Mixed to allow either IEEE802.11b or IEEE802.11g compliant WLAN devices
to associate with the ZyAIR. The transmission rate of your ZyAIR might be reduced.
Max. Frame
Burst
Enable Maximum Frame Burst to help eliminate collisions in mixed-mode networks
(networks with both IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.11b traffic) and enhance the
performance of both pure IEEE 802.11g and mixed IEEE 802.11b/g networks.
Maximum Frame Burst sets the maximum time, in microseconds, that the ZyAIR
transmits IEEE 802.11g wireless traffic only.
Type the maximum frame burst between 0 and 1800 (650, 1000 or 1800
recommended). Enter 0 to disable this feature.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
5.6.2 Bridge/Repeater Mode
The ZyAIR can act as a wireless network bridge and establish wireless links with other APs.
You need to know the MAC address of the peer device, which also must be in bridge mode.
The ZyAIR can establish up to five wireless links with other APs.
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In the example below, when both ZyAIRs are in Bridge/Repeater mode, they form a WDS
(Wireless Distribution System) allowing the computers in LAN 1 to connect to the computers
in LAN 2.
Figure 22 Bridging Example
Be careful to avoid bridge loops when you enable bridging in the ZyAIR. Bridge loops cause
broadcast traffic to circle the network endlessly, resulting in possible throughput degradation
and disruption of communications. The following examples show two network topologies that
can lead to this problem:
If two or more ZyAIRs (in bridge mode) are connected to the same hub as shown next.
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Figure 23 Bridge Loop: Two Bridges Connected to Hub
If your ZyAIR (in bridge mode) is connected to a wired LAN while communicating with
another wireless bridge that is also connected to the same wired LAN as shown next.
Figure 24 Bridge Loop: Bridge Connected to Wired LAN
To prevent bridge loops, ensure that you enable STP in the Wireless screen or your ZyAIR is
not set to bridge mode while connected to both wired and wireless segments of the same LAN.
Click the WIRELESS link under ADVANCED. Select Bridge/Repeater as the Operating
Mode to have the ZyAIR act as a wireless bridge only.
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Figure 25 Wireless: Bridge/Repeater
The following table describes the bridge labels in this screen.
Table 15 Wireless: Bridge/Repeater
LABEL
DESCRIPTIONS
Operating Mode
Select Bridge/Repeater in this field to display the screen as shown.
Choose Channel ID
Set the operating frequency/channel depending on your particular region.
To manually set the ZyAIR to use a channel, select a channel from the dropdown list box. Click MAINTENANCE and then the Channel Usage tab to open
the Channel Usage screen to make sure the channel is not already used by
another AP or independent peer-to-peer wireless network.
To have the ZyAIR automatically select a channel, click Scan instead.
Refer to the Wizard Setup chapter for more information on channels.
Scan
Click this button to have the ZyAIR automatically scan for and select a channel
with the least interference.
RTS/CTS Threshold
(Request To Send) The threshold (number of bytes) for enabling RTS/CTS
handshake. Data with its frame size larger than this value will perform the RTS/
CTS handshake. Setting this attribute to be larger than the maximum MSDU
(MAC service data unit) size turns off the RTS/CTS handshake. Setting this
attribute to zero turns on the RTS/CTS handshake. Enter a value between 800
and 2432.
Fragmentation
Threshold
The threshold (number of bytes) for the fragmentation boundary for directed
messages. It is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter a
value between 800 and 2432.
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Table 15 Wireless: Bridge/Repeater
LABEL
DESCRIPTIONS
Enable WDS Security Select the check box to enable WDS on your ZyAIR. A Wireless Distribution
System (WDS) is a wireless connection between two or more APs.
When you select the check box, you are prompted to type a Pre-Shared Key
(PSK). The ZyAIR uses TKIP to encrypt traffic on the WDS between AP’s.
Note: Other AP’s must use the same encryption method to
enable WDS.
#
This is the index number of the bridge connection.
Active
Select the check box to enable the bridge connection. Otherwise, clear the
check box to disable it.
Remote Bridge MAC
Address
Type the MAC address of the peer device in a valid MAC address format, that
is, six hexadecimal character pairs, for example, 12:34:56:78:9a:bc.
PSK
Type a pre-shared key from 8 to 63 case-sensitive ASCII characters (including
spaces and symbols).
See Table 14 on page 65 for information on the other labels in this screen.
5.6.3 AP+Bridge Mode
Click the WIRELESS link under ADVANCED. Select AP+Bridge as the Operating Mode
to display the screen as shown next. In this screen, you can configure the ZyAIR to function as
an AP and bridge simultaneously. See the section on ZyAIR applications for more
information.
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Figure 26 Wireless: AP+Bridge
See the tables describing the fields in the Access Point and Bridge/Repeater operating modes
for descriptions of the fields in this screen.
5.6.4 Multiple ESS Mode
Select MESSID as the Operating Mode to display the screen. Refer to the chapter on
Multiple ESS and VLAN for configuration and detailed information. See the chapter on
wireless security for details on the security settings.
Note: The following screens are configurable only in Access Point and AP+Bridge
operating modes only.
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CHAPTER 6
Wireless Security Configuration
This chapter describes how to use the Security, RADIUS and Local User Database screens
to configure wireless security on your ZyAIR.
6.1 Wireless Security Overview
Wireless security is vital to your network to protect wireless communication between wireless
stations, access points and the wired network.
Wireless security methods available on the ZyAIR are data encryption, wireless client
authentication, restricting access by device MAC address and hiding the ZyAIR identity.
6.1.1 Encryption
• Use WPA(2) security if you have WPA(2)-aware wireless clients and a RADIUS server.
WPA has user authentication and improved data encryption over WEP.
• Use WPA(2)-PSK if you have WPA(2)-aware wireless clients but no RADIUS server.
• If you don’t have WPA(2)-aware wireless clients, then use WEP key encrypting. A
higher bit key offers better security at a throughput trade-off. You can use manually enter
64-bit, or 128-bit WEP keys.
6.1.2 Authentication
WPA has user authentication and you can also configure IEEE 802.1x to use the built-in
database (Local User Database) or a RADIUS server to authenticate wireless clients before
joining your network.
• Use RADIUS authentication if you have a RADIUS server. See the appendices for
information on protocols used when a client authenticates with a RADIUS server via the
ZyAIR.
• Use the Local User Database if you have less than 32 wireless clients in your network.
The ZyAIR uses MD5 encryption when a client authenticates with the Local User
Database
6.1.3 Restricted Access
The MAC Filter screen allows you to configure the AP to give exclusive access to devices
(Allow Association) or exclude them from accessing the AP (Deny Association).
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6.1.4 Hide ZyAIR Identity
If you hide the ESSID, then the ZyAIR cannot be seen when a wireless client scans for local
APs. The trade-off for the extra security of “hiding” the ZyAIR may be inconvenience for
some valid WLAN clients.
6.1.5 WEP Encryption
WEP encryption scrambles the data transmitted between the wireless stations and the access
points to keep network communications private. It encrypts unicast and multicast
communications in a network. Both the wireless stations and the access points must use the
same WEP key.
Your ZyAIR allows you to configure up to four 64-bit or 128-bit WEP keys but only one key
can be enabled at any one time.
6.2 Configuring WEP Encryption
In order to configure and enable WEP encryption; click the WIRELESS link under
ADVANCED to display the Wireless screen.
Note: The WEP Encryption, Authentication Method and the WEP key fields are not
visible when you enable Dynamic WEP Key, WPA or WPA-PSK in the Security
screen.
6.3 802.1x Overview
The IEEE 802.1x standard outlines enhanced security methods for both the authentication of
wireless stations and encryption key management. Authentication can be done using the local
user database internal to the ZyAIR (authenticate up to 32 users) or an external RADIUS
server for an unlimited number of users.
6.4 EAP Authentication Overview
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) is an authentication protocol that runs on top of the
IEEE802.1x transport mechanism in order to support multiple types of user authentication. By
using EAP to interact with an EAP-compatible RADIUS server, the access point helps a
wireless station and a RADIUS server perform authentication.
The type of authentication you use depends on the RADIUS server or the AP. The ZyAIR
supports EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS, EAP-MD5 and PEAP with RADIUS. Refer to the Types of
EAP Authentication appendix for descriptions on the common types.
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The following figure shows an overview of authentication when you specify a RADIUS server
on your access point.
Figure 27 EAP Authentication
The details below provide a general description of how IEEE 802.1x EAP authentication
works. For an example list of EAP-MD5 authentication steps, see the IEEE 802.1x appendix.
1 The wireless station sends a “start” message to the ZyAIR.
2 The ZyAIR sends a “request identity” message to the wireless station for identity
information.
3 The wireless station replies with identity information, including username and password.
4 The RADIUS server checks the user information against its user profile database and
determines whether or not to authenticate the wireless station.
6.5 Dynamic WEP Key Exchange
The AP maps a unique key that is generated with the RADIUS server. This key expires when
the wireless connection times out, disconnects or reauthentication times out. A new WEP key
is generated each time reauthentication is performed.
To use Dynamic WEP, enable and configure the RADIUS server and enable one of the
Dynamic WEP Security Modes in the Security screen. Ensure that the wireless station’s EAP
type is configured to one of the following:
• EAP-TLS
• EAP-TTLS
• PEAP
Note: EAP-MD5 cannot be used with Dynamic WEP Key Exchange.
6.6 Introduction to WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i standard. Key differences
between WPA and WEP are user authentication and improved data encryption.
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6.6.1 User Authentication
WPA applies IEEE 802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to authenticate
wireless clients using an external RADIUS database. See later in this chapter and the
appendices for more information on IEEE 802.1x, RADIUS, EAP and PEAP.
If you don’t have an external RADIUS server you should use WPA-PSK (WPA -Pre-Shared
Key) that only requires a single (identical) password entered into each access point, wireless
gateway and wireless client. As long as the passwords match, a client will be granted access to
a WLAN.
6.6.2 Encryption
WPA improves data encryption by using Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), Message
Integrity Check (MIC) and IEEE 802.1x.
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) uses 128-bit keys that are dynamically generated and
distributed by the authentication server. It includes a per-packet key mixing function, a
Message Integrity Check (MIC) named Michael, an extended initialization vector (IV) with
sequencing rules, and a re-keying mechanism.
TKIP regularly changes and rotates the encryption keys so that the same encryption key is
never used twice. The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the
AP that then sets up a key hierarchy and management system, using the pair-wise key to
dynamically generate unique data encryption keys to encrypt every data packet that is
wirelessly communicated between the AP and the wireless clients. This all happens in the
background automatically.
The Message Integrity Check (MIC) is designed to prevent an attacker from capturing data
packets, altering them and resending them. The MIC provides a strong mathematical function
in which the receiver and the transmitter each compute and then compare the MIC. If they do
not match, it is assumed that the data has been tampered with and the packet is dropped.
By generating unique data encryption keys for every data packet and by creating an integrity
checking mechanism (MIC), TKIP makes it much more difficult to decode data on a Wi-Fi
network than WEP, making it difficult for an intruder to break into the network.
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA and WPA-PSK are the same. The only difference
between the two is that WPA-PSK uses a simple common password, instead of user-specific
credentials. The common-password approach makes WPA-PSK susceptible to brute-force
password-guessing attacks but it’s still an improvement over WEP as it employs an easier-touse, consistent, single, alphanumeric password.
6.6.3 WPA(2)-PSK Application Example
A WPA(2)-PSK application looks as follows.
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1 First enter identical passwords into the AP and all wireless clients. The Pre-Shared Key
(PSK) must consist of between 8 and 63 ASCII characters (including spaces and
symbols).
2 The AP checks each wireless client's password and (only) allows it to join the network if
the password matches.
3 The AP derives and distributes keys to the wireless clients.
4 The AP and wireless clients use the TKIP or AES encryption process to encrypt data
exchanged between them.
Figure 28 WPA(2)-PSK Authentication
6.7 WPA(2) with RADIUS Application Example
You need the IP address of the RADIUS server, its port number (default is 1812), and the
RADIUS shared secret. A WPA(2) application example with an external RADIUS server
looks as follows. “A” is the RADIUS server. “DS” is the distribution system.
1 The AP passes the wireless client’s authentication request to the RADIUS server.
2 The RADIUS server then checks the user's identification against its database and grants
or denies network access accordingly.
3 The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP that then
sets up a key hierarchy and management system, using the pair-wise key to dynamically
generate unique data encryption keys to encrypt every data packet that is wirelessly
communicated between the AP and the wireless clients.
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Figure 29 WPA(2) with RADIUS Application Example
6.8 Security Modes
The following table describes the security modes you can configure.
Table 16 Security Modes
78
SECURITY MODE
DESCRIPTION
None
Select this to have no data encryption.
WEP
Select this to use WEP encryption.
802.1x-Only
Select this to use 802.1x authentication with no data encryption.
802.1x-Dynamic64
Select this to use 802.1x authentication with a dynamic 64bit WEP key.
802.1x-Dynamic128
Select this to use 802.1x authentication with a dynamic 128bit WEP key.
802.1x-Static64
Select this to use 802.1x authentication with a static 64bit WEP key and an
authentication server.
802.1x-Static128
Select this to use 802.1x authentication with a static 128bit WEP key and
an authentication server.
WPA-PSK
Select this to use WPA with a pre-shared key.
WPA2-PSK
Select this to use WPA2 with a pre-shared key.
WPA2-PSK-MIX
Select this to use either WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK depending on which
security mode the wireless client uses.
WPA
Select this to use WPA.
WPA-MIX
Select this to use either WPA or 802.1x Only depending on which security
mode the wireless client uses.
WPA2
Select this to use WPA2.
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Table 16 Security Modes
SECURITY MODE
DESCRIPTION
WPA2-MIX
Select this to use either WPA2 or WPA depending on which security mode
the wireless client uses.
No-Access
Select this to prevent wireless client access to the ZyAIR.
6.9 Security Modes and Wireless Client Compatibility
Different security modes can be configured for each SSID. However, not all security modes
are compatible with the security mode of the wireless client. The following table shows
combinations of security modes between a Windows XP wireless client and the ZyAIR.
Combinations of security modes not marked with a “O” or not listed may not be able to make
a connection using the SSID. Other wireless clients such as Funk Odyssey may connect using
a security combination not listed on the table.
Table 17 Security Modes for ZyAIR and Windows XP Wireless Client
WEP
8021X- 8021XONLY DYNAMIC
8021XSTATIC
WPA
WPAPSK
WPAMIX
WPA2
WPA2
-PSK
WPA2- WPA2MIX
PSK-MIX
NONE
NO
ACCESS
WEP
O
O
O
O
O
8021X-ONLY
O
O
O
O
O
8021X-DYNAMIC
O
O
O
O
O
8021X-STATIC
O
O
O
O
O
O
WPA
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
WPA-PSK
WPA-MIX
WPA2
O
O
O
WPA2-PSK
O
O
O
O
WPA2-MIX
O
WPA2-PSK-MIX
O
NONE
NO ACCESS
O
O
O
O
O
O
6.10 Wireless Client WPA Supplicants
A wireless client supplicant is the software that runs on an operating system instructing the
wireless client how to use WPA. At the time of writing, the most widely available supplicant is
the WPA patch for Windows XP, Funk Software's Odyssey client, and Meetinghouse Data
Communications' AEGIS client.
The Windows XP patch is a free download that adds WPA capability to Windows XP's builtin "Zero Configuration" wireless client. However, you must run Windows XP to use it.
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The Funk Software's Odyssey client is bundled free (at the time of writing) with the client
wireless adaptor(s).
6.11 Wireless Security Effectiveness
The following figure shows the relative effectiveness of these wireless security methods
available on your ZyAIR. EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) is used for authentication
and utilizes dynamic WEP key exchange. It requires interaction with a RADIUS (Remote
Authentication Dial-In User Service) server either on the WAN or your LAN to provide
authentication service for wireless stations.
Table 18 ZyAIR Wireless Security Levels
Security Level
Security Type
Least Secure
Unique SSID (Default)
Unique SSID with Hide SSID Enabled
MAC Address Filtering
WEP Encryption
IEEE802.1x EAP with RADIUS Server Authentication
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
Most Secure
WPA2
If you do not enable any wireless security on your ZyAIR, your network is accessible to any
wireless networking device that is within range.
6.12 Configuring Security
Use the Security screen to create secure profiles. A security profile is a group of configuration
settings which can be assigned to an SSID profile in the SSID configuration screen.
You can configure up to 16 security profiles.
To change your ZyAIR’s wireless security settings, click the WIRELESS link under
ADVANCED and then the Security tab.
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Figure 30 Security
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 19 Security
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the index number of the security profile address.
Profile Name
This field displays a name given to a security profile in the Security
configuration screen.
Security Mode
This field displays the security mode given to this security profile.
Edit
Select an entry from the list and click Edit to open a screen to configure a
security mode, and to name the security profile.
The next screen varies by the Security Mode you select.
6.12.1 Security: No Access
Select No Access in the Security Mode field to display the following screen.
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Figure 31 Security: No Access or None
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 20 Security: No Access or None
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Choose No Access or None in this field.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
6.12.2 Security: WEP
Select WEP in the Security Mode field to display the following screen.
Figure 32 Security: WEP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 21 Security: WEP
82
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Choose WEP in this field.
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Table 21 Security: WEP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WEP Encryption
Select Disable to allow wireless stations to communicate with the access points
without any data encryption.
Select 64-bit WEP or 128-bit WEP to enable data encryption.
Authentication
Method
Select Auto, Open System or Shared Key from the drop-down list box.
The default setting is Auto.
ASCII
Select this option to enter ASCII characters as the WEP keys.
Hex
Select this option to enter hexadecimal characters as the WEP keys.
The preceding “0x” is entered automatically.
Key 1 to
Key 4
The WEP keys are used to encrypt data. Both the ZyAIR and the wireless stations
must use the same WEP key for data transmission.
If you chose 64-bit WEP, then enter any 5 ASCII characters or 10 hexadecimal
characters ("0-9", "A-F").
If you chose 128-bit WEP, then enter 13 ASCII characters or 26 hexadecimal
characters ("0-9", "A-F").
You must configure all four keys, but only one key can be activated at any one
time. The default key is key 1.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
6.12.3 Security: 802.1x Only, 802.1x Static 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP
Select 802.1x Only, 802.1x Static 64 or 802.1x Static 128 in the Security Mode field to
display the following screen.
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Figure 33 Security: 802.1x Only, 802.1x Static 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 22 Security: 802.1x Only, 802.1x Static 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Choose 802.1x Only, 802.1x Static 64 or 802.1x Static 128 in this field.
ASCII
Select this option to enter ASCII characters as the WEP keys.
Hex
Select this option to enter hexadecimal characters as the WEP keys.The preceding
“0x” is entered automatically.
Key 1 to Key 4
If you chose 64-bit WEP in the WEP Encryption field, then enter any 5 characters
(ASCII string) or 10 hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by 0x for each
key.
If you chose 128-bit WEP in the WEP Encryption field, then enter 13 characters
(ASCII string) or 26 hexadecimal characters ("0-9", "A-F") preceded by 0x for each
key.
There are four data encryption keys to secure your data from eavesdropping by
unauthorized wireless users. The values for the keys must be set up exactly the
same on the access points as they are on the wireless stations.
The preceding “0x” is entered automatically. You must configure all four keys, but
only one key can be activated at any one time. The default key is key 1.
ReAuthentication
Timer
Specify how often wireless stations have to resend user names and passwords in
order to stay connected.
Enter a time interval between 10 and 9999 seconds. The default time interval is
1800 seconds (30 minutes).
Note: If wireless station authentication is done using a RADIUS
server, the reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has
priority.
Idle Timeout
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The ZyAIR automatically disconnects a wireless station from the wired network
after a period of inactivity. The wireless station needs to enter the user name and
password again before access to the wired network is allowed.
The default time interval is 3600 seconds (or 1 hour).
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Table 22 Security: 802.1x Only, 802.1x Static 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
Databases
The authentication database contains wireless station login information. The local
user database is the built-in database on the ZyAIR. The RADIUS is an external
server. Use this drop-down list box to select which database the ZyAIR should use
(first) to authenticate a wireless station.
Before you specify the priority, make sure you have set up the corresponding
database correctly first.
Select Local User Database Only to have the ZyAIR just check the built-in user
database on the ZyAIR for a wireless station's username and password.
Select RADIUS Only to have the ZyAIR just check the user database on the
specified RADIUS server for a wireless station's username and password.
Select Local first, then RADIUS to have the ZyAIR first check the user database
on the ZyAIR for a wireless station's username and password. If the user name is
not found, the ZyAIR then checks the user database on the specified RADIUS
server.
Select RADIUS first, then Local to have the ZyAIR first check the user database
on the specified RADIUS server for a wireless station's username and password. If
the ZyAIR cannot reach the RADIUS server, the ZyAIR then checks the local user
database on the ZyAIR. When the user name is not found or password does not
match in the RADIUS server, the ZyAIR will not check the local user database and
the authentication fails.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
6.12.4 Security: 802.1x Dynamic 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP
Select 802.1x Dynamic 64 or 802.1x Dynamic 128 in the Security Mode field to display the
following screen.
Figure 34 Security: 802.1x Dynamic 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 23 Security: 802.1x Dynamic 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Choose 802.1x Dynamic 64 or 802.1x Dynamic 128 in this field.
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Table 23 Security: 802.1x Dynamic 64-bit WEP, 128-bit WEP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ReAuthentication
Timer
Specify how often wireless stations have to resend usernames and passwords in
order to stay connected.
Enter a time interval between 10 and 9999 seconds. The default time interval is
1800 seconds (30 minutes).
Note: If wireless station authentication is done using a RADIUS
server, the reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has
priority.
Idle Timeout
The ZyAIR automatically disconnects a wireless station from the wired network
after a period of inactivity. The wireless station needs to enter the username and
password again before access to the wired network is allowed.
The default time interval is 3600 seconds (or 1 hour).
Authentication
Databases
The authentication database contains wireless station login information. The local
user database is the built-in database on the ZyAIR. The RADIUS is an external
server. Use this drop-down list box to select which database the ZyAIR should use
(first) to authenticate a wireless station.
Before you specify the priority, make sure you have set up the corresponding
database correctly first.
Select Local User Database Only to have the ZyAIR just check the built-in user
database on the ZyAIR for a wireless station's username and password.
Select RADIUS Only to have the ZyAIR just check the user database on the
specified RADIUS server for a wireless station's username and password.
Select Local first, then RADIUS to have the ZyAIR first check the user database
on the ZyAIR for a wireless station's username and password. If the user name is
not found, the ZyAIR then checks the user database on the specified RADIUS
server.
Select RADIUS first, then Local to have the ZyAIR first check the user database
on the specified RADIUS server for a wireless station's username and password. If
the ZyAIR cannot reach the RADIUS server, the ZyAIR then checks the local user
database on the ZyAIR. When the user name is not found or password does not
match in the RADIUS server, the ZyAIR will not check the local user database and
the authentication fails.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
6.12.5 Security: WPA, WPA-MIX, WPA2, WPA2-MIX
Select WPA, WPA-MIX, WPA2 or WPA2-MIX in the Security Mode field to display the
following screen.
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Figure 35 Security: WPA, WPA-MIX, WPA2 or WPA2-MIX
The following table describes the labels not previously discussed
Table 24 Security: WPA, WPA-MIX, WPA2 or WPA2-MIX
LABEL
DESCRIPTIONS
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Choose WPA, WPA-MIX, WPA2 or WPA2-MIX in this field.
ReAuthentication
Timer
Specify how often wireless stations have to resend usernames and passwords in
order to stay connected.
Enter a time interval between 10 and 9999 seconds. The default time interval is
1800 seconds (30 minutes).
Note: If wireless station authentication is done using a RADIUS
server, the reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has
priority.
Idle Timeout
The ZyAIR automatically disconnects a wireless station from the wired network
after a period of inactivity. The wireless station needs to enter the username and
password again before access to the wired network is allowed.
The default time interval is 3600 seconds (or 1 hour).
Group Key Update The Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP (if using WPA-PSK key
Timer
management) or RADIUS server (if using WPA key management) sends a new
group key out to all clients. The re-keying process is the WPA equivalent of
automatically changing the WEP key for an AP and all stations in a WLAN on a
periodic basis. Setting of the Group Key Update Timer is also supported in WPAPSK mode. The ZyAIR default is 1800 seconds (30 minutes).
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
6.12.6 Security: WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK, WPA2-PSK-MIX
Select WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or WPA2-PSK-MIX in the Security Mode field to display
the following screen.
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Figure 36 Security: WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or WPA2-PSK-MIX
The following table describes the labels not previously discussed
Table 25 Security: WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or WPA2-PSK-MIX
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this security profile.
Security Mode
Choose WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or WPA2-PSK-MIX in this field.
Pre-Shared Key
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA and WPA-PSK are the same. The only
difference between the two is that WPA-PSK uses a simple common password,
instead of user-specific credentials.
Type a pre-shared key from 8 to 63 case-sensitive ASCII characters (including
spaces and symbols).
ReAuthentication
Timer
Specify how often wireless stations have to resend usernames and passwords in
order to stay connected.
Enter a time interval between 10 and 9999 seconds. The default time interval is
1800 seconds (30 minutes).
Note: If wireless station authentication is done using a RADIUS
server, the reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has
priority.
Idle Timeout
The ZyAIR automatically disconnects a wireless station from the wired network
after a period of inactivity. The wireless station needs to enter the username and
password again before access to the wired network is allowed.
The default time interval is 3600 seconds (or 1 hour).
Group Key Update The Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP (if using WPA-PSK key
Timer
management) or RADIUS server (if using WPA key management) sends a new
group key out to all clients. The re-keying process is the WPA equivalent of
automatically changing the WEP key for an AP and all stations in a WLAN on a
periodic basis. Setting of the Group Key Update Timer is also supported in WPAPSK mode. The ZyAIR default is 1800 seconds (30 minutes).
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Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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6.13 Introduction to RADIUS
RADIUS is based on a client-sever model that supports authentication and accounting, where
access point is the client and the server is the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server handles
the following tasks among others:
• Authentication
Determines the identity of the users.
• Accounting
Keeps track of the client’s network activity.
RADIUS user is a simple package exchange in which your ZyAIR acts as a message relay
between the wireless station and the network RADIUS server.
6.14 Configuring RADIUS
Use RADIUS if you want to authenticate wireless users using an external server.
You can configure up to four RADIUS server profiles. Each profile also has one backup
authentication server and a backup accounting server. These profiles can be assigned to an
SSID profile in the SSID configuration screen
To set up your ZyAIR’s RADIUS server settings, click the WIRELESS link under
ADVANCED and then the RADIUS tab. The screen appears as shown.
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Figure 37 RADIUS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 26 RADIUS
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LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
Select the RADIUS profile you want to configure from the drop-down list box.
Profile Name
Type a name for the RADIUS profile associated with the Index number above.
Primary
Configure the fields below to have user authenticate and accounting through
external servers.
Backup
If the ZyAIR cannot authenticate a wireless station(s) using the Primary
RADIUS server or communicate with the Primary accounting server, you can
have the ZyAIR use a Backup RADIUS server. Make sure the Active check
boxes are selected if you want to use backup servers.
The ZyAIR will attempt to communicate three times before using the Backup
servers. Requests can be issued from the client interface to use the backup
server. The length of time for each authentication is decided by the wireless
client or based on the configuration of the ReAuthentication Timer field in the
in the Security screen.
Active
Select the check box to enable user authentication through an external
authentication server. Clear the check box to enable user authentication using
the local user profile on the ZyAIR.
RADIUS Server IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the external authentication server in dotted decimal
notation.
RADIUS Server Port
Enter the port number of the external authentication server. The default port
number is 1812. You need not change this value unless your network
administrator instructs you to do so with additional information.
Share Secret
Enter a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared
between the external authentication server and the ZyAIR. The key must be
the same on the external authentication server and your ZyAIR. The key is not
sent over the network.
Active
Select the check box to enable user accounting through an external
authentication server.
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Table 26 RADIUS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Accounting Server IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the external accounting server in dotted decimal
notation.
Accounting Server Port Enter the port number of the external accounting server. The default port
number is 1813. You need not change this value unless your network
administrator instructs you to do so with additional information.
Share Secret
Enter a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared
between the external authentication server and the ZyAIR. The key must be
the same on the external authentication server and your ZyAIR. The key is not
sent over the network.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
6.15 Configuring Local User Database
To change your ZyAIR’s local user database, click the WIRELESS link under ADVANCED
and then the Local User Database tab. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 38 Local User Database
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 27 Local User Database
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to activate the user profile.
User Name
Enter the username (up to 31 characters) for this user profile.
Password
Type a password (up to 31 characters) for this user profile. Note that as you
type a password, the screen displays a (*) for each character you type.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER 7
Multiple ESS, SSID and VLAN
This chapter describes how to use configure multiple ESS, SSID and VLAN on your ZyAIR.
7.1 Wireless LAN Infrastructures
See the Wizard Setup and Wireless LAN chapters for some basic WLAN scenarios and
terminology.
7.1.1 Multiple ESS
Traditionally, you needed different APs to configure different ESSs. As well as the cost of
buying extra APs, there was also the possibility of channel interference. The ZyAIR’s
Multiple ESS (Multi-ESS) function allows multiple ESSs to be configured on just one access
point (the ZyAIR).
Wireless stations can use different ESS IDs to associate with the same AP. Only wireless
stations with the same ESS ID can communicate with each other. This allows the AP to
logically group wireless stations in a manner similar to VLAN (Virtual LAN).
With Multi-ESS, the ZyAIR ignores the ToS in the header of data packets and uses a single
QoS priority level for all of an ESS’s traffic.
7.1.2 Notes on Multiple-ESS
• A maximum of eight ESSs are allowed on one AP.
• Each ESS has its own MAC filter set; see the MAC filter set section for more
information.
• When you enable Multi-ESS on the ZyAIR, you need to configure separate Unicast and
Multicast/Broadcast keys for each ESS. A Unicast transmission is from one sender to one
recipient. A broadcast transmission is from one sender to everybody on the network. A
Multicast transmission is from one sender to a group of hosts on the network.
• You must use different WEP keys for different ESSs. If two stations have different ESS
IDs (they are in different ESSs), but have the same WEP keys, they may hear each other’s
communications (but not communicate with each other).
• When you enable Multi-ESS, ESS IDs are automatically hidden (so site survey tools
cannot find other station ESS IDs).
• Multi-ESS should not replace but rather be used in conjunction with 802.1x security.
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7.1.3 Multiple ESS Example
Refer to the section on ZyAIR applications for more information.
7.1.4 Multi-ESS with VLAN Example
In this example, VLAN 2 is the management VLAN and includes the computers in ESS1 and
LAN 1. Computers in ESS2 and LAN 2 belong to VLAN 2. “Wireless group” ESS1is limited
to accessing the resources on LAN 1 and similarly “wireless group” ESS2 may only access
resources on LAN 2.
The switch adds the PVID tag to incoming frames that don’t already have tags on switch ports
where PVID is enabled.
Figure 39 Multi-ESS with VLAN Example
7.1.5 Configuring Multiple ESS
Click the WIRELESS link under ADVANCED and the Wireless tab. Select MESSID in the
Operating Mode drop-down list box to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 40 Wireless: Multiple ESS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 28 Wireless: Multiple ESS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Operating Mode
Select MESSID in this field to display the screen as shown
Choose Channel ID
Set the operating frequency/channel depending on your particular region. To
manually set the ZyAIR to use a channel, select a channel from the drop-down
list box. Click MAINTENANCE and then the Channel Usage tab to open the
Channel Usage screen to make sure the channel is not already used by
another AP or independent peer-to-peer wireless network. To have the ZyAIR
automatically select a channel, click Scan instead. Refer to the Wizard Setup
chapter for a little more information on channels.
Scan
To have the ZyAIR automatically select a channel, click Scan instead.
RTS/CTS Threshold
(Request To Send) The threshold (number of bytes) for enabling RTS/CTS
handshake. Data with its frame size larger than this value will perform the
RTS/CTS handshake. Setting this attribute to be larger than the maximum
MSDU (MAC service data unit) size turns off the RTS/CTS handshake. Setting
this attribute to zero turns on the RTS/CTS handshake. Enter a value between
800 and 2432.
Fragmentation
Threshold
The threshold (number of bytes) for the fragmentation boundary for directed
messages. It is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter a
value between 800 and 2432.
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Table 28 Wireless: Multiple ESS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Select SSID Profile
The SSID (Service Set IDentity) identifies the Service Set with which a
wireless station is associated. Wireless stations associating to the access
point (AP) must have the same SSID.
Note: If you are configuring the ZyAIR from a computer
connected to the wireless LAN and you change the ZyAIR’s
SSID or security settings, you will lose your wireless connection
when you press Apply to confirm. You must then change the
wireless settings of your computer to match the ZyAIR’s new
settings.
Index
Select the check box to activate an ESS on the ZyAIR.
Profile
Select an SSID Profile from the drop-down list box. Configure SSID profiles in
the SSID screen.
Enable Intra-BSS
Traffic
Intra-BSS traffic is traffic between wireless stations in the same BSS. Select
this check box to enable Intra-BSS traffic.
Enable Breathing LED Select this check box to enable the Breathing LED, also known as the ZyAIR
LED.
The blue ZyAIR LED is on when the ZyAIR is on and blinks (or breaths) when
data is being transmitted to/from its wireless stations.
Clear the check box to turn this LED off even when the ZyAIR is on and data is
being transmitted/received.
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Enable Spanning Tree
Control (STP)
(R)STP detects and breaks network loops and provides backup links between
switches, bridges or routers. It allows a bridge to interact with other (R)STP compliant bridges in your network to ensure that only one path exists between
any two stations on the network. Select the check box to activate STP on the
ZyAIR.
Output Power
Set the output power of the ZyAIR in this field. If there is a high density of APs
within an area, decrease the output power of the ZyAIR to reduce interference
with other APs. Select one of the following 100%(Full Power), 50%, 25% or
12.5%. These percentages represent the following power ranges;
• 100%(Full Power) <11b>17dBm/<11g>13dBm (<11b>50mW/
<11g>20mW),
• 50% <11b>15dBm/<11g>11dBm (<11b>32mW/<11g>12.6mW),
• 25% <11b>13dBm/<11g>9dBm (<11b>20mW/<11g>7.9mW),
• 12.5% <11b>11dBm/<11g>7dBm (<11b>12.6mW/<11g>5mW).
Preamble
Select a preamble type from the drop-down list menu. Choices are Long,
Short and Dynamic.
See the section on preamble for more information.
802.11 Mode
Select 802.11b Only to allow only IEEE 802.11b compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the ZyAIR.
Select 802.11g Only to allow only IEEE 802.11g compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the ZyAIR.
Select Mixed to allow either IEEE802.11b or IEEE802.11g compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the ZyAIR. The transmission rate of your ZyAIR
might be reduced.
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Table 28 Wireless: Multiple ESS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Max. Frame Burst
Enable Maximum Frame Burst to help eliminate collisions in mixed-mode
networks (networks with both IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.11b traffic) and
enhance the performance of both pure IEEE 802.11g and mixed IEEE
802.11b/g networks. Maximum Frame Burst sets the maximum time, in
microseconds, that the ZyAIR transmits IEEE 802.11g wireless traffic only.
Type the maximum frame burst between 0 and 1800 (650, 1000 or 1800
recommended). Enter 0 to disable this feature.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
7.2 SSID
Click the WIRELESS link under ADVANCED and the SSID tab to display the screen as
shown.
Figure 41 SSID
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 29 SSID
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This field displays the index number of each SSID profile.
Name
This field displays the identification name of each SSID profile on the ZyAIR.
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Table 29 SSID
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SSID
This field displays the name of the wireless profile on the network. When a
wireless client scans for an AP to associate, this is the identity that is broadcast
and viewed in the wireless client utility.
VLAN
This field displays the VLAN ID. Incoming traffic from the WAN is tagged with
this ID before it is sent to the LAN interface. Different SSID profiles can use the
same or different VLAN IDs. This allows you to split wireless stations into
groups using similar VLAN IDs.
Second Rx VLAN
This field displays the identification number of incoming Ethernet frames that
are forwarded to this ESS. This number can be the same for many ESS
groups, depending on how many you want to be members of a particular
VLAN.
Security
This field displays a security profile. See Configuring Security on page 80 for
more information.
RADIUS
This field displays a RADIUS profile, if you have a RADIUS server configured.
QoS
This field displays the Quality of Service setting for this profile.
Edit
Click the radio button next to the profile you want to configure and click Edit to
go to the SSID configuration screen.
7.2.1 Configuring SSID
Configure appropriate fields in the Wireless, Security, RADIUS, MAC Filter, Layer-2
Isolation and VLAN screens to use those settings in the following screen. These settings can
be used instead of the default settings to create SSID profiles.
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Figure 42 Configuring SSID
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 30 Configuring SSID
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to identify this SSID profile on the ZyAIR.
SSID
Type a name to identify this wireless profile on the network. When a wireless
client scans for an AP to associate, this is the identity that is broadcast and
viewed in the wireless client utility.
VLAN
Enter a number from 1 to 4094. Incoming traffic from the WAN is tagged with
this ID before it is sent to the LAN interface. Different SSID profiles can use the
same or different VLAN IDs. This allows you to split wireless stations into
groups using similar VLAN IDs.
Second Rx VLAN
Enter a number from 1 to 4094, but different to the VLAN ID entered.
Traffic received from the LAN interface is tagged with a Second Rx VLAN and
forwarded to this SSID profile on the wireless LAN interface.
Security
Select a security profile. See Configuring Security on page 80 for more
information.
RADIUS
Select a RADIUS profile from the drop-down list box, if you have a RADIUS
server configured. If you do not need to use RADIUS authentication, ignore
this field.
QoS
With Multi-ESS, the ZyAIR ignores the ToS in the packet headers and uses a
single QoS priority level for all of an ESS’s traffic.
Select the Quality of Service priority for this ESS’s traffic. See Table 10 on
page 60 for more information on the priority levels.
L2 Isolation
Select Enable from the drop down list box to activate layer-2 isolation.
Enable MAC Filtering
Select Enable from the drop down list box to activate MAC address filtering.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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7.2.2 Second Rx VLAN ID
The ZyAIR tags Ethernet frames in VLAN 1 with VLAN ID 1 and tags Ethernet frames in
VLAN 2 with VLAN ID 2. Both VLAN 1 and VLAN 2 have Internet access. VLAN 1 and
VLAN 2 have access to a server. Ethernet frames forwarded from the server back to the switch
are tagged. Ethernet frames are tagged with a second Rx VLAN ID (incoming VLAN ID).
These incoming VLAN packets are forwarded to the ZyAIR. The ZyAIR matches the Second
Rx VLAN ID with VLAN ID.
Figure 43 Second Rx VLAN ID Example
The following steps show you where to setup a Second Rx VLAN ID on the ZyAIR.
1 Click WIRELESS under ADVANCED in your web configurator and the SSID tab.
2 Click Edit in the SSID screen.
3 You can enter a Second Rx VLAN ID in the following screen. The following screen
shows VLAN 1 tagged with VLAN ID 1. Incoming packets (Second Rx VLAN ID) with
a VLAN ID 3 are matched to VLAN 1.
Figure 44 Configuring SSID: Second Rx VLAN ID Example
4 Click Apply to save these settings to the ZyAIR.
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CHAPTER 8
Other Wireless Configurations
This chapter describes how to configure the Layer-2 Isolation, MAC Filter and Roaming
screens on your ZyAIR.
8.1 Layer-2 Isolation Introduction
Layer-2 isolation is used to prevent wireless clients associated with your ZyAIR from
communicating with other wireless clients, AP’s, computers or routers in a network.
In the following figure, A represents your ZyAIR, B represents an AP, C represents a server
and 1, 2 and 3 represent wireless clients. If layer-2 isolation is enabled on the ZyAIR (A), then
wireless clients 1 and 2 cannot communicate with B, C or 3. Wireless clients 1 and 2 cannot
communicate with each other unless you enable Intra-BSS in the Wireless configuration
screen.
Note: In the Wireless configuration screen, the Enable Intra-BSS Traffic check box is
cleared when you enable layer-2 isolation.
If you want 1 and 2 to be able to communicate with C, B and/ or 3 then enter the MAC
addresses of C, B and/or 3 in the Allow devices with these MAC addresses table.
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Figure 45 Layer-2 Isolation Application
MAC addresses that are not listed in the Allow devices with these MAC addresses table are
blocked from communicating with the ZyAIR’s wireless clients except for broadcast packets.
Layer-2 isolation does not check the traffic between wireless clients that are associated with
the same AP. Intra-BSS Traffic allows wireless clients associated with the same AP to
communicate with each other.
8.2 Configuring Layer-2 Isolation
If layer-2 isolation is enabled, you need to know the MAC address of the wireless client, AP,
computer or router that you want to allow to communicate with the ZyAIR's wireless clients.
To configure layer-2 isolation, click the WIRELESS link under ADVANCED and then the
Layer-2 Isolation tab. The screen appears as shown next.
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Figure 46 Layer-2 Isolation Configuration Screen
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 31 Layer-2 Isolation Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable Layer-2
Isolation
Select the Enable Layer-2 Isolation check box to enable layer-2 isolation on the
ZyAIR.
When you select the Enable Layer-2 Isolation check box and save this
configuration screen, the Enable Intra-BSS Traffic check box in the Wireless
configuration screen is cleared. This means that wireless clients connected to the
ZyAIR cannot communicate with one another. This would be appropriate in a
hotspot application, for example, in a hotel where wireless clients can access the
Internet, but cannot communicate with other wireless clients or AP’s.
If you want wireless clients associated with the ZyAIR to be able to communicate
with each other, you must select the Enable Intra-BSS Traffic check box in the
Wireless configuration screen.
Allow devices with These are the MAC address of a wireless client, AP, computer or router. A wireless
these MAC
client associated with the ZyAIR can communicate with another wireless client,
addresses
AP, computer or router only if the MAC addresses of those devices are listed in
this table.
Set
This is the index number of the MAC address.
MAC Address
Type the MAC addresses of the wireless client, AP, computer or router that you
want to allow the ZyAIR associated wireless clients to have access to in these
address fields. Type the MAC address in a valid MAC address format, that is, six
hexadecimal character pairs, for example, 12:34:56:78:9a:bc.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
8.2.1 Layer-2 Isolation Examples
The following section shows you example layer-2 isolation configurations on the ZyAIR (A).
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Figure 47 Layer-2 Isolation Example
00:0a:c5:00:00:66
00:0a:c5:00:00:cc
8.2.2 Layer-2 Isolation Example 1
In the following example wireless clients 1 and 2 cannot communicate with C, B or 3.
• Select the Enable Layer-2 Isolation check box, but do not configure any MAC
addresses in the Allow devices with these MAC addresses table (1 and 2 cannot
communicate with each other unless you enable Intra-BSS).
Figure 48 Layer-2 Isolation Example 1
8.2.3 Layer-2 Isolation Example 2
In the following example wireless clients 1 and 2 can communicate with C, but not B or 3.
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• Select the Enable Layer-2 Isolation check box.
• Enter C’s MAC address in the Allow devices with these MAC addresses field.
Figure 49 Layer-2 Isolation Example 2
8.2.4 Layer-2 Isolation Example 3
In the following example wireless clients 1 and 2 can communicate with B and C but not 3.
• Select the Enable Layer-2 Isolation check box.
• Configure more than one MAC address. Enter the server and your ZyAIR MAC
addresses in the Allow devices with these MAC addresses fields.
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Figure 50 Layer-2 Isolation Example 3
8.3 Configuring MAC Filter
The MAC filter screen allows you to configure the ZyAIR to give exclusive access to up to 32
devices (Allow Association) or exclude up to 32 devices from accessing the ZyAIR (Deny
Association). Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The
MAC address is assigned at the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for
example, 00:A0:C5:00:00:02. You need to know the MAC address of the devices to configure
this screen.
To change your ZyAIR’s MAC filter settings, click the WIRELESS link under ADVANCED
and the MAC Filter tab. The screen appears as shown.
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Figure 51 MAC Address Filter
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 32 MAC Address Filter
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Filter Action
Define the filter action for the list of MAC addresses in the MAC address filter
table.
Select Deny Association to block access to the router, MAC addresses not
listed will be allowed to access the router.
Select Allow Association to permit access to the router, MAC addresses not
listed will be denied access to the router.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC addresses (in XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX format) of the wireless
station that are allowed or denied access to the ZyAIR in these address fields.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
Note: To activate MAC filtering on a profile, select Enable from the Enable MAC
Filtering drop-down list box in the SSID configuration screen and click Apply.
8.4 Configuring Roaming
A wireless station is a device with an IEEE 802.11b or an IEEE 802.11g compliant wireless
interface. An access point (AP) acts as a bridge between the wireless and wired networks. An
AP creates its own wireless coverage area. A wireless station can associate with a particular
access point only if it is within the access point’s coverage area.
In a network environment with multiple access points, wireless stations are able to switch from
one access point to another as they move between the coverage areas. This is roaming. As the
wireless station moves from place to place, it is responsible for choosing the most appropriate
access point depending on the signal strength, network utilization or other factors.
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The roaming feature on the access points allows the access points to relay information about
the wireless stations to each other. When a wireless station moves from a coverage area to
another, it scans and uses the channel of a new access point, which then informs the access
points on the LAN about the change. The new information is then propagated to the other
access points on the LAN. An example is shown in Figure 52.
With roaming, a wireless LAN mobile user enjoys a continuous connection to the wired
network through an access point while moving around the wireless LAN.
Enable roaming to exchange the latest bridge information of all wireless stations between APs
when a wireless station moves between coverage areas. Wireless stations can still associate
with other APs even if you disable roaming. Enabling roaming ensures correct traffic
forwarding (bridge tables are updated) and maximum AP efficiency. The AP deletes records
of wireless stations that associate with other APs (Non-ZyXEL APs may not be able to
perform this). 802.1x authentication information is not exchanged (at the time of writing).
Figure 52 Roaming Example
The steps below describe the roaming process.
1 As wireless station Y moves from the coverage area of access point AP 1 to that of access
point
2 AP 2, it scans and uses the signal of access point AP 2.
3 Access point AP 2 acknowledges the presence of wireless station Y and relays this
information to access point AP 1 through the wired LAN.
4 Access point AP 1 updates the new position of wireless station.
5 Wireless station Y sends a request to access point AP 2 for reauthentication.
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8.4.1 Requirements for Roaming
The following requirements must be met in order for wireless stations to roam between the
coverage areas.
1 All the access points must be on the same subnet and configured with the same ESSID.
2 If IEEE 802.1x user authentication is enabled and to be done locally on the access point,
the new access point must have the user profile for the wireless station.
3 The adjacent access points should use different radio channels when their coverage areas
overlap.
4 All access points must use the same port number to relay roaming information.
5 The access points must be connected to the Ethernet and be able to get IP addresses from
a DHCP server if using dynamic IP address assignment.
To enable roaming on your ZyAIR, click the WIRELESS link under ADVANCED and then
the Roaming tab. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 53 Roaming
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 33 Roaming
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select Yes from the drop-down list box to enable roaming on the ZyAIR if you
have two or more ZyAIRs on the same subnet.
Note: All APs on the same subnet and the wireless stations must
have the same SSID to allow roaming.
Port #
Enter the port number to communicate roaming information between access
points. The port number must be the same on all access points. The default is
3517. Make sure this port is not used by other services.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER 9
VLAN
This chapter discusses how to configure VLAN on the ZyAIR.
9.1 VLAN
A VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) allows a physical network to be partitioned into
multiple logical networks. Stations on a logical network can belong to one or more groups.
Only stations within the same group can talk to each other.
The ZyAIR supports 802.1q VLAN tagging. Tagged VLAN uses an explicit tag (VLAN ID) in
the MAC header of a frame to identify VLAN membership. The ZyAIR can identify VLAN
tags for incoming Ethernet frames and add VLAN tags to outgoing Ethernet frames.
9.1.1 Management VLAN ID
The Management VLAN ID identifies the “management VLAN”. A device must be a member
of this “management VLAN” in order to access and manage the ZyAIR. If a device is not a
member of this VLAN, then that device cannot manage the ZyAIR.
If no devices are in the management VLAN, then no one will be able to access the ZyAIR and
you will have to restore the default configuration file.
9.1.2 VLAN Tagging
The ZyAIR supports IEEE 802.1q VLAN tagging. Tagged VLAN uses an explicit tag (VLAN
ID) in the MAC header of a frame to identify VLAN membership. The ZyAIR can identify
VLAN tags for incoming Ethernet frames and add VLAN tags to outgoing Ethernet frames.
Note: You must connect the ZyAIR to a VLAN-aware device that is a member in the
management VLAN in order to perform management. See the Configuring
Management VLAN Example BEFORE you configure the VLAN screen.
9.2 Configuring VLAN
Click ADVANCED and then VLAN. The screen appears as shown next.
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Figure 54 VLAN
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 34 VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable VLAN Tagging
Select this check box to turn on VLAN tagging.
Management VLAN ID Enter a number from 1 to 4094 to define this VLAN group. At least one device
in your network must belong to this VLAN group in order to manage the ZyAIR.
Note: Mail and FTP servers must have the same management
VLAN ID to communicate with the ZyAIR.
See Configuring Management VLAN Example on page 115 for more
information.
VLAN Mapping Table
Use this table to map names to VLAN IDs so that the RADIUS server can
assign each user or user group a mapped VLAN ID. See the your RADIUS
server documentation for more information on configuring VLAN ID attributes.
See Configuring Microsoft’s IAS Server Example on page 117 for more
information.
Index
Select a check box to enable the VLAN mapping profile.
ID
Type a VLAN ID. Incoming traffic from the WLAN is authorized and assigned
a VLAN ID by the RADIUS server before it is sent to the LAN.
Note: This ID is NOT the same as the VLAN ID displayed in the
SSID screen.
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Table 34 VLAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Type a name to have the ZyAIR check for specific VLAN attributes on
incoming messages from the RADIUS server. Access-accept packets sent by
the RADIUS server contain VLAN related attributes. The configured Name
field is checked against these attributes. If the configured Name field matches
these attributes, the corresponding VLAN ID entry is used to access the
specific VLAN group. If the configured Name field does not match the VLAN
related attributes sent from the RADIUS server, a wireless station is assigned
the associated SSID VLAN ID. See VLAN ID in the SSID screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
9.2.1 Configuring Management VLAN Example
This section shows you how to create a VLAN on an Ethernet switch.
By default, the port on the ZyAIR is a member of the management VLAN (VID 1). The
following procedure shows you how to configure a tagged VLAN.
Note: Use the out-of-band management port or console port to configure the switch if
you misconfigure the management VLAN and lock yourself out from performing
in-band management.
On an Ethernet switch, create a VLAN that has the same management VLAN ID as the
ZyAIR. The following figure has the ZyAIR connected to port 2 of the switch and your
computer connected to port 1. The management VLAN ID is ten.
Figure 55 Management VLAN Configuration Example
Perform the following steps in the switch web configurator:
1 Click VLAN under Advanced Application.
2 Click Static VLAN.
3 Select the ACTIVE check box.
4 Type a Name for the VLAN ID.
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5 Type a VLAN Group ID. This should be the same as the management VLAN ID on the
ZyAIR.
6 Enable Tx Tagging on the port which you want to connect to the ZyAIR. Disable Tx
Tagging on the port you are using to connect to your computer.
7 Under Control, select Fixed to set the port as a member of the VLAN.
Figure 56 VLAN-Aware Switch - Static VLAN
8 Click Apply. The following screen displays.
Figure 57 VLAN-Aware Switch
9 Click VLAN Status to display the following screen.
Figure 58 VLAN-Aware Switch - VLAN Status
Follow the instructions in the Quick Start Guide to set up your ZyAIR for configuration. The
ZyAIR should be connected to the VLAN-aware switch. In the above example, the switch is
using port 1 to connect to your computer and port 2 to connect to the ZyAIR: see Figure 55.
1 In the ZyAIR web configurator click VLAN under ADVANCED to open the VLAN
setup screen.
2 Select the Enable VLAN Tagging check box and type a Management VLAN ID (10 in
this example) in the field provided.
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3 Click Apply.
Figure 59 VLAN Setup
4 The ZyAIR attempts to connect with a VLAN-aware device. You can now access and
mange the ZyAIR though the Ethernet switch.
Note: If you do not connect the ZyAIR to a correctly configured VLAN-aware device,
you will lock yourself out of the ZyAIR. If this happens, you must reset the ZyAIR to
access it again.
9.2.2 Configuring Microsoft’s IAS Server Example
Dynamic VLAN assignment can be used with the ZyAIR. Dynamic VLAN assignment allows
network administrators to assign a specific VLAN (configured on the ZyAIR) to an
individual’s Windows User Account. When a wireless station is successfully authenticated to
the network, it is automatically placed into it’s respective VLAN.
ZyXEL uses the following standard RADIUS attributes returned from Microsoft’s IAS
RADIUS service to place the wireless station into the correct VLAN:
Table 35 Standard RADIUS Attributes
ATTRIBUTE NAME
TYPE
VALUE
Tunnel-Type
064
13 (decimal) – VLAN
Tunnel-Medium-Type
065
6 (decimal) – 802
Tunnel-Private-Group-ID
081
<vlan-name> (string) – either the Name you enter in the ZyAIR
VLAN screen or the number. See Figure 71 on page 125.
The following occurs under Dynamic VLAN Assignment:
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1 When you configure your wireless credentials, the ZyAIR sends the information to the
IAS server using RADIUS protocol.
2 Authentication by the RADIUS server is successful.
3 The RADIUS server sends three attributes related to this feature.
4 The ZyAIR compares these attributes with the VLAN screen mapping table.
a
If the Name, if for example VLAN 20 is found, the mapped VLAN
ID is used. If it is not found in the mapping table
b
the string in the Tunnel-Private-Group-ID attribute is considered as
a number ID format, for example 2493. The range of the number ID
(Name:string) is between 1 and 4094.
c
If a or b are not matched, the ZyAIR uses the VLAN ID configured in
the SSID screen and the wireless station. This VLAN ID is
independent and hence different to the ID in the VLAN screen.
9.2.2.1 Configuring VLAN Groups
To configure a VLAN group you must first define the VLAN Groups on the Active Directory
server and assign the user accounts to each VLAN Group.
1 Using the Active Directory Users and Computers administrative tool, create the VLAN
Groups that will be used for each VLAN ID. One VLAN Group must be created for each
VLAN defined on the ZyAIR. The VLAN Groups must be created as Global/Security
groups.
•
•
•
•
Type a name for the VLAN Group that describes the VLAN Group’s function.
Select the Global Group scope parameter check box.
Select the Security Group type parameter check box.
Click OK.
Figure 60 New Global Security Group
2 In VLAN Group ID Properties, click the Members tab.
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• The IAS uses group memberships to determine which user accounts belong to which
VLAN groups. Click the Add button and configure the VLAN group details.
3 Repeat the previous step to add each VLAN group required.
Figure 61 Add Group Members
9.2.2.2 Configuring Remote Access Policies
Once the VLAN Groups have been created, the IAS Remote Access Policy needs to be
defined. This allows the IAS to compare the user account being authenticated against the
group memberships of each VLAN Group.
1 Using the Remote Access Policy option on the Internet Authentication Service
management interface, create a new VLAN Policy for each VLAN Group defined in the
previous section. The order of the remote access policies is important. The most specific
policies should be placed at the top of the policy list and the most general at the bottom.
For example, if the Day-And-Time Restriction policy is still present, it should be moved
to the bottom or deleted to allow the VLAN Group policies to take precedence.
• Right click Remote Access Policy and select New Remote Access Policy.
• Enter a Policy friendly name that describes the policy. Each Remote Access Policy will
be matched to one VLAN Group. An example may be, Allow - VLAN 10 Policy.
• Click Next.
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Figure 62 New Remote Access Policy for VLAN Group
2 The Conditions window displays. Select Add to add a condition for this policy to act on.
3 In the Select Attribute screen, click Windows-Groups and the Add button.
Figure 63 Specifying Windows-Group Condition
4 The Select Groups window displays. Select a remote access policy and click the Add
button. The policy is added to the field below. Only one VLAN Group should be
associated with each policy.
5 Click OK and Next in the next few screens to accept the group value.
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Figure 64 Adding VLAN Group
6 When the Permissions options screen displays, select Grant remote access permission.
• Click Next to grant access based on group membership.
• Click the Edit Profile button.
Figure 65 Granting Permissions and User Profile Screens
7 The Edit Dial-in Profile screen displays. Click the Authentication tab and select the
Extensible Authentication Protocol check box.
• Select an EAP type depending on your authentication needs from the drop-down list box.
• Clear the check boxes for all other authentication types listed below the drop-down list
box.
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Figure 66 Authentication Tab Settings
8 Click the Encryption tab. Select the Strongest encryption option. This step is not
required for EAP-MD5, but is performed as a safeguard.
Figure 67 Encryption Tab Settings
9 Click the IP tab and select the Client may request an IP address check box for DHCP
support.
10Click the Advanced tab. The current default parameters returned to the ZyAIR should be
Service-Type and Framed-Protocol.
• Click the Add button to add an additional three RADIUS VLAN attributes required for
802.1X Dynamic VLAN Assignment.
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Figure 68 Connection Attributes Screen
11The RADIUS Attribute screen displays. From the list, three RADIUS attributes will be
added:
• Tunnel-Medium-Type
• Tunnel-Pvt-Group-ID
• Tunnel-Type
• Click the Add button
• Select Tunnel-Medium-Type
• Click the Add button.
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Figure 69 RADIUS Attribute Screen
12 The Enumerable Attribute Information screen displays. Select the 802 value from the
Attribute value drop-down list box.
• Click OK.
Figure 70 802 Attribute Setting for Tunnel-Medium-Type
13Return to the RADIUS Attribute Screen shown as Figure 69 on page 124.
• Select Tunnel-Pvt-Group-ID.
• Click Add.
14The Attribute Information screen displays.
• In the Enter the attribute value in: field select String and type a number in the range 1
to 4094 or a Name for this policy. This Name should match a name in the VLAN
mapping table on the ZyAIR. Wireless stations belonging to the VLAN Group specified
in this policy will be given a VLAN ID specified in the ZyAIR VLAN table.
• Click OK.
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Figure 71 VLAN ID Attribute Setting for Tunnel-Pvt-Group-ID
15Return to the RADIUS Attribute Screen shown as Figure 69 on page 124.
• Select Tunnel-Type.
• Click Add.
16The Enumerable Attribute Information screen displays.
• Select Virtual LANs (VLAN) from the attribute value drop-down list box.
• Click OK.
Figure 72 VLAN Attribute Setting for Tunnel-Type
17Return to the RADIUS Attribute Screen shown as Figure 69 on page 124.
• Click the Close button.
• The completed Advanced tab configuration should resemble the following screen.
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Figure 73
Completed Advanced Tab
Note: Repeat the Configuring Remote Access Policies procedure for each VLAN
Group defined in the Active Directory. Remember to place the most general Remote
Access Policies at the bottom of the list and the most specific at the top of the list.
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CHAPTER 10
IP Screen
This chapter discusses how to configure IP on the ZyAIR
10.1 Factory Ethernet Defaults
The Ethernet parameters of the ZyAIR are preset in the factory with the following values:
1 IP address of 192.168.1.2
2 Subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 (24 bits)
These parameters should work for the majority of installations.
10.2 TCP/IP Parameters
10.2.1 IP Address and Subnet Mask
Refer to the IP Address and Subnet Mask section in the Wizard Setup chapter for this
information.
10.2.2 WAN IP Address Assignment
Every computer on the Internet must have a unique IP address. If your networks are isolated
from the Internet, for instance, only between your two branch offices, you can assign any IP
addresses to the hosts without problems. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private
networks.
Table 36 Private IP Address Ranges
10.0.0.0
-
10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0
-
172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0
-
192.168.255.255
You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP or have it assigned by a private
network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet access is through an ISP, the
ISP can provide you with the Internet addresses for your local networks. On the other hand, if
you are part of a much larger organization, you should consult your network administrator for
the appropriate IP addresses.
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Note: Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address;
always follow the guidelines above. For more information on address assignment,
please refer to RFC 1597, Address Allocation for Private Internets and RFC 1466,
Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space.
10.3 Configuring IP
Click ADVANCED and then IP to display the screen shown next.
Figure 74
IP Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 37 IP Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Address Assignment
Get automatically from
DHCP
Select this option if your ZyAIR is using a dynamically assigned IP address
from a DHCP server each time.
Note: You must know the IP address assigned to the ZyAIR
(by the DHCP server) to access the ZyAIR again.
Use fixed IP address
Select this option if your ZyAIR is using a static IP address. When you select
this option, fill in the fields below.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your ZyAIR in dotted decimal notation.
Note: If you change the ZyAIR's IP address, you must use the
new IP address if you want to access the web configurator
again.
128
IP Subnet Mask
Type the subnet mask.
Gateway IP Address
Type the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor
of your ZyAIR that will forward the packet to the destination. On the LAN, the
gateway must be a router on the same segment as your ZyAIR; over the
WAN, the gateway must be the IP address of one of the remote node.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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C H A P T E R 11
Certificates
This chapter gives background information about public-key certificates and explains how to
use them.
11.1 Certificates Overview
The ZyAIR can use certificates (also called digital IDs) to authenticate users. Certificates are
based on public-private key pairs. A certificate contains the certificate owner’s identity and
public key. Certificates provide a way to exchange public keys for use in authentication.
A Certification Authority (CA) issues certificates and guarantees the identity of each
certificate owner. There are commercial certification authorities like CyberTrust or VeriSign
and government certification authorities. You can use the ZyAIR to generate certification
requests that contain identifying information and public keys and then send the certification
requests to a certification authority.
In public-key encryption and decryption, each host has two keys. One key is public and can be
made openly available; the other key is private and must be kept secure. Public-key encryption
in general works as follows.
1 Tim wants to send a private message to Jenny. Tim generates a public key pair. What is
encrypted with one key can only be decrypted using the other.
2 Tim keeps the private key and makes the public key openly available.
3 Tim uses his private key to encrypt the message and sends it to Jenny.
4 Jenny receives the message and uses Tim’s public key to decrypt it.
5 Additionally, Jenny uses her own private key to encrypt a message and Tim uses Jenny’s
public key to decrypt the message.
The ZyAIR uses certificates based on public-key cryptology to authenticate users attempting
to establish a connection, not to encrypt the data that you send after establishing a connection.
The method used to secure the data that you send through an established connection depends
on the type of connection. For example, a VPN tunnel might use the triple DES encryption
algorithm.
The certification authority uses its private key to sign certificates. Anyone can then use the
certification authority’s public key to verify the certificates.
A certification path is the hierarchy of certification authority certificates that validate a
certificate. The ZyAIR does not trust a certificate if any certificate on its path has expired or
been revoked.
Certification authorities maintain directory servers with databases of valid and revoked
certificates. A directory of certificates that have been revoked before the scheduled expiration
is called a CRL (Certificate Revocation List). The ZyAIR can check a peer’s certificate against
a directory server’s list of revoked certificates. The framework of servers, software,
procedures and policies that handles keys is called PKI (public-key infrastructure).
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11.1.1 Advantages of Certificates
Certificates offer the following benefits.
• The ZyAIR only has to store the certificates of the certification authorities that you decide
to trust, no matter how many devices you need to authenticate.
• Key distribution is simple and very secure since you can freely distribute public keys and
you never need to transmit private keys.
11.2 Self-signed Certificates
Until public-key infrastructure becomes more mature, it may not be available in some areas.
You can have the ZyAIR act as a certification authority and sign its own certificates.
11.3 Configuration Summary
This section summarizes how to manage certificates on the ZyAIR.
Use the My Certificate screens to generate and export self-signed certificates or certification
requests and import the ZyAIRs’ CA-signed certificates.
Use the Trusted CA screens to save CA certificates to the ZyAIR.
11.4 My Certificates
Click CERTIFICATES, My Certificates to open the ZyAIR’s summary list of certificates
and certification requests. Certificates display in black and certification requests display in
gray. See the following figure.
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Figure 75 My Certificates
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 38 My Certificates
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PKI Storage
Space in Use
This bar displays the percentage of the ZyAIR’s PKI storage space that is currently
in use. When you are using 80% or less of the storage space, the bar is green.
When the amount of space used is over 80%, the bar is red. When the bar is red,
you should consider deleting expired or unnecessary certificates before adding
more certificates.
Replace
This button displays when the ZyAIR has the factory default certificate. The factory
default certificate is common to all ZyAIRs that use certificates. ZyXEL
recommends that you use this button to replace the factory default certificate with
one that uses your ZyAIR's MAC address.
#
This field displays the certificate index number. The certificates are listed in
alphabetical order.
Name
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate. It is recommended that
you give each certificate a unique name.
Type
This field displays what kind of certificate this is.
REQ represents a certification request and is not yet a valid certificate. Send a
certification request to a certification authority, which then issues a certificate. Use
the My Certificate Import screen to import the certificate and replace the request.
SELF represents a self-signed certificate.
*SELF represents the default self-signed certificate, which the ZyAIR uses to sign
imported trusted remote host certificates.
CERT represents a certificate issued by a certification authority.
Subject
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s owner, such as CN
(Common Name), OU (Organizational Unit or department), O (Organization or
company) and C (Country). It is recommended that each certificate have unique
subject information.
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Table 38 My Certificates (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing certification
authority, such as a common name, organizational unit or department,
organization or company and country. With self-signed certificates, this is the same
information as in the Subject field.
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text
displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not yet
become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red and
includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to expire or has
already expired.
Details
Click the details icon to open a screen with an in-depth list of information about the
certificate.
Click the delete icon to remove the certificate. A window displays asking you to
confirm that you want to delete the certificate.
You cannot delete a certificate that one or more features is configured to use.
Do the following to delete a certificate that shows *SELF in the Type field.
1. Make sure that no other features, such as HTTPS, VPN, SSH are configured to
use the *SELF certificate.
2. Click the details icon next to another self-signed certificate (see the description
on the Create button if you need to create a self-signed certificate).
3. Select the Default self-signed certificate which signs the imported remote
host certificates check box.
4. Click Apply to save the changes and return to the My Certificates screen.
5. The certificate that originally showed *SELF displays SELF and you can delete
it now.
Note that subsequent certificates move up by one when you take this action
Create
Click Create to go to the screen where you can have the ZyAIR generate a
certificate or a certification request.
Import
Click Import to open a screen where you can save the certificate that you have
enrolled from a certification authority from your computer to the ZyAIR.
Delete
Click Delete to delete an existing certificate. A window display asking you to
confirm that you want to delete the certificate. Note that subsequent certificates
move up by one when you take this action.
Refresh
Click Refresh to display the current validity status of the certificates.
11.5 Certificate File Formats
The certification authority certificate that you want to import has to be in one of these file
formats:
• Binary X.509: This is an ITU-T recommendation that defines the formats for X.509
certificates.
• PEM (Base-64) encoded X.509: This Privacy Enhanced Mail format uses 64 ASCII
characters to convert a binary X.509 certificate into a printable form.
• Binary PKCS#7: This is a standard that defines the general syntax for data (including
digital signatures) that may be encrypted. The ZyAIR currently allows the importation of
a PKS#7 file that contains a single certificate.
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• PEM (Base-64) encoded PKCS#7: This Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) format uses 64
ASCII characters to convert a binary PKCS#7 certificate into a printable form.
11.6 Importing a Certificate
Click CERTIFICATES, My Certificates and then Import to open the My Certificate
Import screen. Follow the instructions in this screen to save an existing certificate to the
ZyAIR, see the following figure.
Note: You can only import a certificate that matches a corresponding certification
request that was generated by the ZyAIR.
Note: The certificate you import replaces the corresponding request in the My
Certificates screen.
Note: You must remove any spaces from the certificate’s filename before you can
import it.
Figure 76 My Certificate Import
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 39 My Certificate Import
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse to find it.
Browse
Click Browse to find the certificate file you want to upload.
Apply
Click Apply to save the certificate on the ZyAIR.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the My Certificates screen.
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11.7 Creating a Certificate
Click CERTIFICATES, My Certificates and then Create to open the My Certificate
Create screen. Use this screen to have the ZyAIR create a self-signed certificate, enroll a
certificate with a certification authority or generate a certification request, see the following
figure.
Figure 77 My Certificate Create
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 40 My Certificate Create
134
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate Name
Type up to 31 ASCII characters (not including spaces) to identify this
certificate.
Subject Information
Use these fields to record information that identifies the owner of the
certificate. You do not have to fill in every field, although the Common Name is
mandatory. The certification authority may add fields (such as a serial number)
to the subject information when it issues a certificate. It is recommended that
each certificate have unique subject information.
Common Name
Select a radio button to identify the certificate’s owner by IP address, domain
name or e-mail address. Type the IP address (in dotted decimal notation),
domain name or e-mail address in the field provided. The domain name or email address can be up to 31 ASCII characters. The domain name or e-mail
address is for identification purposes only and can be any string.
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Table 40 My Certificate Create (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Organizational Unit
Type up to 127 characters to identify the organizational unit or department to
which the certificate owner belongs. You may use any character, including
spaces, but the ZyAIR drops trailing spaces.
Organization
Type up to 127 characters to identify the company or group to which the
certificate owner belongs. You may use any character, including spaces, but
the ZyAIR drops trailing spaces.
Country
Type up to 127 characters to identify the nation where the certificate owner is
located. You may use any character, including spaces, but the ZyAIR drops
trailing spaces.
Key Length
Select a number from the drop-down list box to determine how many bits the
key should use (512 to 2048). The longer the key, the more secure it is. A
longer key also uses more PKI storage space.
Enrollment Options
These radio buttons deal with how and when the certificate is to be generated.
Create a self-signed
certificate
Select Create a self-signed certificate to have the ZyAIR generate the
certificate and act as the Certification Authority (CA) itself. This way you do not
need to apply to a certification authority for certificates.
Create a certification
request and save it
locally for later manual
enrollment
Select Create a certification request and save it locally for later manual
enrollment to have the ZyAIR generate and store a request for a certificate.
Use the My Certificate Details screen to view the certification request and
copy it to send to the certification authority.
Copy the certification request from the My Certificate Details screen (see the
My Certificate Details section) and then send it to the certification authority.
Create a certification
request and enroll for
a certificate
immediately online
Select Create a certification request and enroll for a certificate
immediately online to have the ZyAIR generate a request for a certificate and
apply to a certification authority for a certificate.
You must have the certification authority’s certificate already imported in the
Trusted CAs screen.
When you select this option, you must select the certification authority’s
enrollment protocol and the certification authority’s certificate from the dropdown list boxes and enter the certification authority’s server address. You also
need to fill in the Reference Number and Key if the certification authority
requires them.
Enrollment Protocol
Select the certification authority’s enrollment protocol from the drop-down list
box.
Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol (SCEP) is a TCP-based enrollment
protocol that was developed by VeriSign and Cisco.
Certificate Management Protocol (CMP) is a TCP-based enrollment protocol
that was developed by the Public Key Infrastructure X.509 working group of
the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and is specified in RFC 2510.
CA Server Address
Enter the IP address (or URL) of the certification authority server.
CA Certificate
Select the certification authority’s certificate from the CA Certificate dropdown list box.
You must have the certification authority’s certificate already imported in the
Trusted CAs screen. Click Trusted CAs to go to the Trusted CAs screen
where you can view (and manage) the ZyAIR's list of certificates of trusted
certification authorities.
Request
Authentication
When you select Create a certification request and enroll for a certificate
immediately online, the certification authority may want you to include a
reference number and key to identify you when you send a certification
request. Fill in both the Reference Number and the Key fields if your
certification authority uses CMP enrollment protocol. Just fill in the Key field if
your certification authority uses the SECP enrollment protocol.
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Table 40 My Certificate Create (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Key
Type the key that the certification authority gave you.
Apply
Click Apply to begin certificate or certification request generation.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the My Certificates screen.
After you click Apply in the My Certificate Create screen, you see a screen that tells you the
ZyAIR is generating the self-signed certificate or certification request.
After the ZyAIR successfully enrolls a certificate or generates a certification request or a selfsigned certificate, you see a screen with a Return button that takes you back to the My
Certificates screen.
If you configured the My Certificate Create screen to have the ZyAIR enroll a certificate and
the certificate enrollment is not successful, you see a screen with a Return button that takes
you back to the My Certificate Create screen. Click Return and check your information in
the My Certificate Create screen. Make sure that the certification authority information is
correct and that your Internet connection is working properly if you want the ZyAIR to enroll
a certificate online.
11.8 My Certificate Details
Click CERTIFICATES, and then My Certificates to open the My Certificates screen (see
Figure 75). Click the details icon to open the My Certificate Details screen. You can use this
screen to view in-depth certificate information and change the certificate’s name. In the case
of a self-signed certificate, you can set it to be the one that the ZyAIR uses to sign the trusted
remote host certificates that you import to the ZyAIR.
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Figure 78 My Certificate Details
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 41 My Certificate Details
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
This field displays the identifying name of this certificate. If you want to change
the name, type up to 31 characters to identify this certificate. You may use any
character (not including spaces).
Property
Default self-signed
certificate which
signs the imported
remote host
certificates.
Select this check box to have the ZyAIR use this certificate to sign the trusted
remote host certificates that you import to the ZyAIR. This check box is only
available with self-signed certificates.
If this check box is already selected, you cannot clear it in this screen, you must
select this check box in another self-signed certificate’s details screen. This
automatically clears the check box in the details screen of the certificate that was
previously set to sign the imported trusted remote host certificates.
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Table 41 My Certificate Details (continued)
138
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate Path
Click the Refresh button to have this read-only text box display the hierarchy of
certification authorities that validate the certificate (and the certificate itself).
If the issuing certification authority is one that you have imported as a trusted
certification authority, it may be the only certification authority in the list (along
with the certificate itself). If the certificate is a self-signed certificate, the
certificate itself is the only one in the list. The ZyAIR does not trust the certificate
and displays “Not trusted” in this field if any certificate on the path has expired or
been revoked.
Refresh
Click Refresh to display the certification path.
Certificate
Information
These read-only fields display detailed information about the certificate.
Type
This field displays general information about the certificate. CA-signed means
that a Certification Authority signed the certificate. Self-signed means that the
certificate’s owner signed the certificate (not a certification authority). “X.509”
means that this certificate was created and signed according to the ITU-T X.509
recommendation that defines the formats for public-key certificates.
Version
This field displays the X.509 version number.
Serial Number
This field displays the certificate’s identification number given by the certification
authority or generated by the ZyAIR.
Subject
This field displays information that identifies the owner of the certificate, such as
Common Name (CN), Organizational Unit (OU), Organization (O) and Country
(C).
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing
certification authority, such as Common Name, Organizational Unit,
Organization and Country.
With self-signed certificates, this is the same as the Subject Name field.
Signature Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to sign the certificate. The
ZyAIR uses rsa-pkcs1-sha1 (RSA public-private key encryption algorithm and
the SHA1 hash algorithm). Some certification authorities may use ras-pkcs1md5 (RSA public-private key encryption algorithm and the MD5 hash algorithm).
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text
displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not
yet become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red
and includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to expire
or has already expired.
Key Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to generate the
certificate’s key pair (the ZyAIR uses RSA encryption) and the length of the key
set in bits (1024 bits for example).
Subject Alternative
Name
This field displays the certificate owner‘s IP address (IP), domain name (DNS) or
e-mail address (EMAIL).
Key Usage
This field displays for what functions the certificate’s key can be used. For
example, “DigitalSignature” means that the key can be used to sign certificates
and “KeyEncipherment” means that the key can be used to encrypt text.
Basic Constraint
This field displays general information about the certificate. For example,
Subject Type=CA means that this is a certification authority’s certificate and
“Path Length Constraint=1” means that there can only be one certification
authority in the certificate’s path.
MD5 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the ZyAIR calculated using the MD5
algorithm.
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Table 41 My Certificate Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SHA1 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the ZyAIR calculated using the
SHA1 algorithm.
Certificate in PEM
(Base-64) Encoded
Format
This read-only text box displays the certificate or certification request in Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM) format. PEM uses 64 ASCII characters to convert the
binary certificate into a printable form.
You can copy and paste a certification request into a certification authority’s web
page, an e-mail that you send to the certification authority or a text editor and
save the file on a management computer for later manual enrollment.
You can copy and paste a certificate into an e-mail to send to friends or
colleagues or you can copy and paste a certificate into a text editor and save the
file on a management computer for later distribution (via floppy disk for
example).
Export
Click this button and then Save in the File Download screen. The Save As
screen opens, browse to the location that you want to use and click Save.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR. You can only change the
name, except in the case of a self-signed certificate, which you can also set to
be the default self-signed certificate that signs the imported trusted remote host
certificates.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the My Certificates screen.
11.9 Trusted CAs
Click CERTIFICATES, Trusted CAs to open the Trusted CAs screen. This screen displays
a summary list of certificates of the certification authorities that you have set the ZyAIR to
accept as trusted. The ZyAIR accepts any valid certificate signed by a certification authority
on this list as being trustworthy; thus you do not need to import any certificate that is signed by
one of these certification authorities. See the following figure.
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Figure 79 Trusted CAs
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 42 Trusted CAs
140
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PKI Storage
Space in Use
This bar displays the percentage of the ZyAIR’s PKI storage space that is currently
in use. When you are using 80% or less of the storage space, the bar is green.
When the amount of space used is over 80%, the bar is red. When the bar is red,
you should consider deleting expired or unnecessary certificates before adding
more certificates.
#
This field displays the certificate index number. The certificates are listed in
alphabetical order.
Name
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate.
Subject
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s owner, such as CN
(Common Name), OU (Organizational Unit or department), O (Organization or
company) and C (Country). It is recommended that each certificate have unique
subject information.
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing certification
authority, such as a common name, organizational unit or department,
organization or company and country. With self-signed certificates, this is the same
information as in the Subject field.
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text
displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not yet
become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red and
includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to expire or has
already expired.
CRL Issuer
This field displays Yes if the certification authority issues Certificate Revocation
Lists for the certificates that it has issued and you have selected the Issues
certificate revocation lists (CRL) check box in the certificate’s details screen to
have the ZyAIR check the CRL before trusting any certificates issued by the
certification authority. Otherwise the field displays “No”.
Details
Click Details to view in-depth information about the certification authority’s
certificate, change the certificate’s name and set whether or not you want the
ZyAIR to check a certification authority’s list of revoked certificates before trusting
a certificate issued by the certification authority.
Import
Click Import to open a screen where you can save the certificate of a certification
authority that you trust, from your computer to the ZyAIR.
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Table 42 Trusted CAs (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Delete
Click Delete to delete an existing certificate. A window display asking you to
confirm that you want to delete the certificate. Note that subsequent certificates
move up by one when you take this action.
Refresh
Click this button to display the current validity status of the certificates.
11.10 Importing a Trusted CA’s Certificate
Click CERTIFICATES, Trusted CAs to open the Trusted CAs screen and then click
Import to open the Trusted CA Import screen. Follow the instructions in this screen to save
a trusted certification authority’s certificate to the ZyAIR, see the following figure.
Note: You must remove any spaces from the certificate’s filename before you can
import the certificate.
Figure 80 Trusted CA Import
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 43 Trusted CA Import
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse to find it.
Browse
Click Browse to find the certificate file you want to upload.
Apply
Click Apply to save the certificate on the ZyAIR.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the Trusted CAs screen.
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11.11 Trusted CA Certificate Details
Click CERTIFICATES, Trusted CAs to open the Trusted CAs screen. Click the details
icon to open the Trusted CA Details screen. Use this screen to view in-depth information
about the certification authority’s certificate, change the certificate’s name and set whether or
not you want the ZyAIR to check a certification authority’s list of revoked certificates before
trusting a certificate issued by the certification authority.
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Figure 81 Trusted CA Details
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 44 Trusted CA Details
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
This field displays the identifying name of this certificate. If you want to change
the name, type up to 31 characters to identify this key certificate. You may use
any character (not including spaces).
Property
Default self-signed
certificate which
signs the imported
remote host
certificates.
Select this check box to have the ZyAIR use this certificate to sign the trusted
remote host certificates that you import to the ZyAIR. This check box is only
available with self-signed certificates.
If this check box is already selected, you cannot clear it in this screen, you must
select this check box in another self-signed certificate’s details screen. This
automatically clears the check box in the details screen of the certificate that was
previously set to sign the imported trusted remote host certificates.
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Table 44 Trusted CA Details (continued)
144
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate Path
Click the Refresh button to have this read-only text box display the end entity’s
certificate and a list of certification authority certificates that shows the hierarchy
of certification authorities that validate the end entity’s certificate. If the issuing
certification authority is one that you have imported as a trusted certification
authority, it may be the only certification authority in the list (along with the end
entity’s own certificate). The ZyAIR does not trust the end entity’s certificate and
displays “Not trusted” in this field if any certificate on the path has expired or
been revoked.
Refresh
Click Refresh to display the certification path.
Certificate
Information
These read-only fields display detailed information about the certificate.
Type
This field displays general information about the certificate. CA-signed means
that a Certification Authority signed the certificate. Self-signed means that the
certificate’s owner signed the certificate (not a certification authority). X.509
means that this certificate was created and signed according to the ITU-T X.509
recommendation that defines the formats for public-key certificates.
Version
This field displays the X.509 version number.
Serial Number
This field displays the certificate’s identification number given by the certification
authority.
Subject
This field displays information that identifies the owner of the certificate, such as
Common Name (CN), Organizational Unit (OU), Organization (O) and Country
(C).
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing
certification authority, such as Common Name, Organizational Unit,
Organization and Country.
With self-signed certificates, this is the same information as in the Subject
Name field.
Signature Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to sign the certificate.
Some certification authorities use rsa-pkcs1-sha1 (RSA public-private key
encryption algorithm and the SHA1 hash algorithm). Other certification
authorities may use ras-pkcs1-md5 (RSA public-private key encryption algorithm
and the MD5 hash algorithm).
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text
displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not
yet become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red
and includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to expire
or has already expired.
Key Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to generate the
certificate’s key pair (the ZyAIR uses RSA encryption) and the length of the key
set in bits (1024 bits for example).
Subject Alternative
Name
This field displays the certificate’s owner‘s IP address (IP), domain name (DNS)
or e-mail address (EMAIL).
Key Usage
This field displays for what functions the certificate’s key can be used. For
example, “DigitalSignature” means that the key can be used to sign certificates
and “KeyEncipherment” means that the key can be used to encrypt text.
Basic Constraint
This field displays general information about the certificate. For example,
Subject Type=CA means that this is a certification authority’s certificate and
“Path Length Constraint=1” means that there can only be one certification
authority in the certificate’s path.
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Table 44 Trusted CA Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
CRL Distribution
Points
This field displays how many directory servers with Lists of revoked certificates
the issuing certification authority of this certificate makes available. This field
also displays the domain names or IP addresses of the servers.
MD5 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the ZyAIR calculated using the MD5
algorithm. You can use this value to verify with the certification authority (over
the phone for example) that this is actually their certificate.
SHA1 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the ZyAIR calculated using the
SHA1 algorithm. You can use this value to verify with the certification authority
(over the phone for example) that this is actually their certificate.
Certificate in PEM
(Base-64) Encoded
Format
This read-only text box displays the certificate or certification request in Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM) format. PEM uses 64 ASCII characters to convert the
binary certificate into a printable form.
You can copy and paste the certificate into an e-mail to send to friends or
colleagues or you can copy and paste the certificate into a text editor and save
the file on a management computer for later distribution (via floppy disk for
example).
Export
Click this button and then Save in the File Download screen. The Save As
screen opens, browse to the location that you want to use and click Save.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyAIR. You can only change the
name and/or set whether or not you want the ZyAIR to check the CRL that the
certification authority issues before trusting a certificate issued by the
certification authority.
Cancel
Click Cancel to quit and return to the Trusted CAs screen.
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CHAPTER 12
Remote Management Screens
This chapter provides information on the Remote Management screens.
12.1 Remote Management Overview
Remote management allows you to determine which services/protocols can access which
ZyAIR interface (if any) from which computers.
You may manage your ZyAIR from a remote location via:
•
Internet (WAN only)
•
ALL (LAN and WAN)
•
LAN only
•
Neither (Disable).
To disable remote management of a service, select Disable in the corresponding Server
Access field.
You may only have one remote management session running at a time. The ZyAIR
automatically disconnects a remote management session of lower priority when another
remote management session of higher priority starts. The priorities for the different types of
remote management sessions are as follows.
1 Telnet
2 HTTP
12.1.1 Remote Management Limitations
Remote management over LAN or WAN will not work when:
1 A filter in SMT menu 3.1 (LAN) or in menu 11.5 (WAN) is applied to block a Telnet,
FTP or Web service.
2 You have disabled that service in one of the remote management screens.
3 The IP address in the Secured Client IP field does not match the client IP address. If it
does not match, the ZyAIR will disconnect the session immediately.
4 There is already another remote management session with an equal or higher priority
running. You may only have one remote management session running at one time.
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12.1.2 Remote Management and NAT
When NAT is enabled:
• Use the ZyAIR’s WAN IP address when configuring from the WAN.
• Use the ZyAIR’s LAN IP address when configuring from the LAN.
12.1.3 System Timeout
There is a default system management idle timeout of five minutes (three hundred seconds).
The ZyAIR automatically logs you out if the management session remains idle for longer than
this timeout period. The management session does not time out when a statistics screen is
polling. You can change the timeout period in the System screen
12.2 Configuring WWW
To change your ZyAIR’s World Wide Web settings, click REMOTE MGNT to display the
WWW screen.
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Figure 82 Remote Management: WWW
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 45 Remote Management: WWW
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
HTTPS
Server Certificate
Select the Server Certificate that the ZyAIR will use to identify itself. The ZyAIR is
the SSL server and must always authenticate itself to the SSL client (the computer
which requests the HTTPS connection with the ZyAIR).
Authenticate
Select Authenticate Client Certificates (optional) to require the SSL client to
Client Certificates authenticate itself to the ZyAIR by sending the ZyAIR a certificate. To do that the
SSL client must have a CA-signed certificate from a CA that has been imported as
a trusted CA on the ZyAIR (see the appendix on importing certificates for details).
Server Port
The HTTPS proxy server listens on port 443 by default. If you change the HTTPS
proxy server port to a different number on the ZyAIR, for example 8443, then you
must notify people who need to access the ZyAIR web configurator to use "https://
ZyAIR IP Address:8443" as the URL.
Server Access
Select a ZyAIR interface from Server Access on which incoming HTTPS access is
allowed.
You can allow only secure web configurator access by setting the HTTP Server
Access field to Disable and setting the HTTPS Server Access field to an
interface(s).
Secured Client IP
Address
A secure client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the
ZyAIR using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyAIR using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the ZyAIR using this service.
WWW
Server Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you must
use the same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
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Table 45 Remote Management: WWW
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the ZyAIR using this
service.
Secured Client IP
Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the
ZyAIR using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyAIR using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the ZyAIR using this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
12.3 Configuring Telnet
You can configure your ZyAIR for remote Telnet access as shown next. The administrator
uses Telnet from a computer on a remote network to access the ZyAIR.
Figure 83 Telnet Configuration on a TCP/IP Network
12.4 Configuring TELNET
Click REMOTE MGNT and the TELNET tab to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 84 Remote Management: Telnet
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 46 Remote Management: Telnet
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you must
use the same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the ZyAIR using this
service.
Secured Client IP A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the
Address
ZyAIR using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyAIR using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the ZyAIR using this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
12.5 Configuring FTP
You can upload and download the ZyAIR’s firmware and configuration files using FTP,
please see the chapter on firmware and configuration file maintenance for details. To use this
feature, your computer must have an FTP client.
To change your ZyAIR’s FTP settings, click REMOTE MGMT, then the FTP tab. The
screen appears as shown.
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Figure 85 Remote Management: FTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 47 Remote Management: FTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you must
use the same port number in order to use that service for remote management.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the ZyAIR using this
service.
Secured Client IP
Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the
ZyAIR using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyAIR using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify to
access the ZyAIR using this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
12.6 SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a protocol used for exchanging
management information between network devices. SNMP is a member of the TCP/IP
protocol suite. Your ZyAIR supports SNMP agent functionality, which allows a manager
station to manage and monitor the ZyAIR through the network. The ZyAIR supports SNMP
version one (SNMPv1) and version two (SNMPv2c). The next figure illustrates an SNMP
management operation. SNMP is only available if TCP/IP is configured.
Note: SNMP is only available if TCP/IP is configured.
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Figure 86 SNMP Management Model
An SNMP managed network consists of two main types of component: agents and a manager.
An agent is a management software module that resides in a managed device (the ZyAIR). An
agent translates the local management information from the managed device into a form
compatible with SNMP. The manager is the console through which network administrators
perform network management functions. It executes applications that control and monitor
managed devices.
The managed devices contain object variables/managed objects that define each piece of
information to be collected about a device. Examples of variables include such as number of
packets received, node port status etc. A Management Information Base (MIB) is a collection
of managed objects. SNMP allows a manager and agents to communicate for the purpose of
accessing these objects.
SNMP itself is a simple request/response protocol based on the manager/agent model. The
manager issues a request and the agent returns responses using the following protocol
operations:
• Get - Allows the manager to retrieve an object variable from the agent.
• GetNext - Allows the manager to retrieve the next object variable from a table or list
within an agent. In SNMPv1, when a manager wants to retrieve all elements of a table
from an agent, it initiates a Get operation, followed by a series of GetNext operations.
• Set - Allows the manager to set values for object variables within an agent.
• Trap - Used by the agent to inform the manager of some events.
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12.6.1 Supported MIBs
The ZyAIR supports MIB II that is defined in RFC-1213 and RFC-1215 as well as the
proprietary ZyXEL private MIB. The purpose of the MIBs is to let administrators collect
statistical data and monitor status and performance.
12.6.2 SNMP Traps
The ZyAIR can send the following traps to the SNMP manager.
Table 48 SNMP Traps
TRAP NAME
OBJECT IDENTIFIER #
(OID)
DESCRIPTION
Generic Traps
coldStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.1
This trap is sent after booting (power on). This
trap is defined in RFC-1215.
warmStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.2
This trap is sent after booting (software
reboot). This trap is defined in RFC-1215.
linkDown
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.3
This trap is sent when the Ethernet link is
down.
linkUp
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4
This trap is sent when the Ethernet link is up.
authenticationFailure
(defined in RFC-1215)
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.5
The device sends this trap when it receives
any SNMP get or set requirements with the
wrong community (password).
Note: snmpEnableAuthenTraps, OID
1.3.6.1.2.1.11.30 (defined in RFC 1214 and
RFC 1907) must be enabled on in order for the
device to send authenticationFailure traps.
Use a MIB browser to enable or disable
snmpEnableAuthenTraps.
Traps defined in the
ZyXEL Private MIB.
whyReboot
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.5.13.0.1 This trap is sent with the reason for restarting
before the system reboots (warm start).
"System reboot by user!" is added for an
intentional reboot (for example, download new
files, CI command "sys reboot").
If the system reboots because of fatal errors, a
code for the error is listed.
pwStaAssociation
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.9.2.3.1.1 This trap is sent when a wireless client has
successfully connected to the AP. The MAC
address of the wireless client and the ESSID
are listed.
pwWlanStaDisassociation 1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.9.2.3.1.2 This trap is sent when a wireless client has
disconnected from the AP. The MAC address
of the wireless client and the ESSID are listed.
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Table 48 SNMP Traps
OBJECT IDENTIFIER #
(OID)
TRAP NAME
DESCRIPTION
pwWlanStaAuthFail
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.9.2.3.2.1 This trap is sent when a wireless client has
failed to connect to the AP. The MAC address
of the wireless client, the ESSID and the
reason are listed.
pwTFTPStatus
1.3.6.1.4.1.890.1.9.2.3.3.1 This trap is sent to indicate the status and
result of a TFTP client session that has ended.
12.7 SNMP Traps
Some traps include an SNMP interface index. The following table maps the SNMP interface
indexes to the ZyAIR’s physical ports.
Table 49 SNMP Interface Index to Physical Port Mapping
INTERFACE TYPE
PHYSICAL PORT
enet0
WLAN
enet1
Ethernet port
12.7.1 Configuring SNMP
To change your ZyAIR’s SNMP settings, click REMOTE MGMT, then the SNMP tab. The
screen appears as shown.
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Figure 87 Remote Management: SNMP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 50 Remote Management: SNMP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SNMP Configuration
Get Community
Enter the Get Community, which is the password for the incoming Get and
GetNext requests from the management station. The default is public and allows
all requests.
Set Community
Enter the Set community, which is the password for incoming Set requests
from the management station. The default is public and allows all requests.
Community
Type the trap community, which is the password sent with each trap to the
SNMP manager. The default is public and allows all requests.
Destination
Type the IP address of the station to send your SNMP traps to.
SNMP
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Service Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however you
must use the same port number in order to use that service for remote
management.
Service Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the ZyAIR using
this service.
Secured Client IP
Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the
ZyAIR using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyAIR using this service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you specify
to access the ZyAIR using this service.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Reset
Click Reset to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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CHAPTER 13
Log Screens
This chapter contains information about configuring general log settings and viewing the
ZyAIR’s logs. Refer to the appendix for example log message explanations.
13.1 Configuring View Log
The web configurator allows you to look at all of the ZyAIR’s logs in one location.
Click the LOGS links under ADVANCED to open the View Log screen. Use the View Log
screen to see the logs for the categories that you selected in the Log Settings screen (see
Figure 89). Options include logs about system maintenance, system errors and access control.
You can view logs and alert messages in this page. Once the log entries are all used, the log
will wrap around and the old logs will be deleted.
Click a column heading to sort the entries. A triangle indicates the direction of the sort order.
Figure 88 View Log
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 51 View Log
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Display
Select a log category from the drop down list box to display logs within the
selected category. To view all logs, select All Logs.
The number of categories shown in the drop down list box depends on the
selection in the Log Settings page.
Time
This field displays the time the log was recorded.
Message
This field states the reason for the log.
Source
This field lists the source IP address and the port number of the incoming
packet.
Destination
This field lists the destination IP address and the port number of the incoming
packet.
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Table 51 View Log
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Notes
This field displays additional information about the log entry.
Email Log Now
Click Email Log Now to send the log screen to the e-mail address specified in
the Log Settings page.
Refresh
Click Refresh to renew the log screen.
Clear Log
Click Clear Log to clear all the logs.
13.2 Configuring Log Settings
To change your ZyAIR’s log settings, click the LOGS links under ADVANCED and then the
Log Settings tab. The screen appears as shown.
Use the Log Settings screen to configure to where the ZyAIR is to send the logs; the schedule
for when the ZyAIR is to send the logs and which logs and/or immediate alerts the ZyAIR is to
send.
An alert is a type of log that warrants more serious attention. Some categories such as System
Errors consist of both logs and alerts. You may differentiate them by their color in the View
Log screen. Alerts are displayed in red and logs are displayed in black.
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Figure 89 Log Settings
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 52 Log Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Address Info
Mail Server
Enter the server name or the IP address of the mail server for the e-mail
addresses specified below. If this field is left blank, logs and alert messages
will not be sent via e-mail.
Mail Subject
Type a title that you want to be in the subject line of the log e-mail message
that the ZyAIR sends.
Send Log to
Logs are sent to the e-mail address specified in this field. If this field is left
blank, logs will not be sent via e-mail.
Send Alerts to
Enter the e-mail address where the alert messages will be sent. If this field is
left blank, alert messages will not be sent via e-mail.
Syslog Logging
Syslog logging sends a log to an external syslog server used to store logs.
Active
Click Active to enable syslog logging.
Syslog Server IP
Address
Enter the server name or IP address of the syslog server that will log the
selected categories of logs.
Log Facility
Select a location from the drop down list box. The log facility allows you to log
the messages to different files in the syslog server. Refer to the documentation
of your syslog program for more details.
Send Log
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Table 52 Log Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Log Schedule
This drop-down menu is used to configure the frequency of log messages
being sent as E-mail:
• Daily
• Weekly
• Hourly
• When Log is Full
• None.
If the Weekly or the Daily option is selected, specify a time of day when the Email should be sent. If the Weekly option is selected, then also specify which
day of the week the E-mail should be sent. If the When Log is Full option is
selected, an alert is sent when the log fills up. If you select None, no log
messages are sent.
Day for Sending Log
This field is only available when you select Weekly in the Log Schedule field.
Use the drop down list box to select which day of the week to send the logs.
Time for Sending Log
Enter the time of the day in 24-hour format (for example 23:00 equals 11:00
pm) to send the logs.
Clear log after sending Select the check box to clear all logs after logs and alert messages are sent
mail
via e-mail.
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Log
Select the categories of logs that you want to record.
Send Immediate Alert
Select the categories of alerts for which you want the ZyAIR to immediately
send e-mail alerts.
Apply
Click Apply to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Reset
Click Reset to reconfigure all the fields in this screen.
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CHAPTER 14
Maintenance
This chapter displays system information such as ZyNOS firmware, port IP addresses and port
traffic statistics.
14.1 Maintenance Overview
The maintenance screens can help you view system information, upload new firmware,
manage configuration and restart your ZyAIR.
14.2 System Status Screen
Click MAINTENANCE to open the System Status screen, where you can use to monitor
your ZyAIR. Note that these labels are READ-ONLY and are meant to be used for diagnostic
purposes.
Figure 90 System Status
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 53 System Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Name
This is the System Name you enter in the first Internet Access Wizard screen.
It is for identification purposes
ZyNOS Firmware
Version
This is the ZyNOS Firmware version and the date created. ZyNOS is ZyXEL's
proprietary Network Operating System design.
IP Address
This is the Ethernet port IP address.
IP Subnet Mask
This is the Ethernet port subnet mask.
DHCP
This is the Ethernet port DHCP role - Client or None.
Show Statistics
Click Show Statistics to see router performance statistics such as number of
packets sent and number of packets received for each port.
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14.2.1 System Statistics
Read-only information here includes port status, packet specific statistics and bridge link
status. Also provided are "system up time" and "poll interval(s)". The Poll Interval field is
configurable.
Figure 91 System Status: Show Statistics
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 54 System Status: Show Statistics
162
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
This is the Ethernet or wireless port.
Status
This shows the port speed and duplex setting if you are using Ethernet
encapsulation for the Ethernet port.
This shows the transmission speed only for wireless port.
TxPkts
This is the number of transmitted packets on this port.
RxPkts
This is the number of received packets on this port.
Collisions
This is the number of collisions on this port.
Tx B/s
This shows the transmission speed in bytes per second on this port.
Rx B/s
This shows the reception speed in bytes per second on this port.
Up Time
This is total amount of time the line has been up.
Bridge Link #
This is the index number of the bridge connection.
Active
This shows whether the bridge connection is activated or not.
Remote Bridge MAC
Address
This is the MAC address of the peer device in bridge mode.
Status
This shows the current status of the bridge connection, which can be Up or
Down.
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Table 54 System Status: Show Statistics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
TxPkts
This is the number of transmitted packets on the wireless bridge.
RxPkts
This is the number of received packets on the wireless bridge.
System Up Time
This is the total time the ZyAIR has been on.
Poll Interval(s)
Enter the time interval for refreshing statistics.
Set Interval
Click this button to apply the new poll interval you entered above.
Stop
Click this button to stop refreshing statistics.
14.3 Association List
View the wireless stations that are currently associated to the ZyAIR in the Association List
screen.
Click MAINTENANCE and then the Association List tab to display the screen as shown
next.
Figure 92 Association List
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 55 Association List
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Stations
#
This is the index number of an associated wireless station.
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC address of an associated wireless station.
Association Time
This field displays the time a wireless station first associated with the ZyAIR.
Name (SSID)
This field displays the SSID to which the wireless station is associated.
WDS Link
This screen displays when bridge mode is activated on the ZyAIR.
Link No
This field displays the index number of a bridge connection on the WDS.
MAC Address
This field displays a remote bridge MAC address.
Link Time
This field displays the WDS link up-time.
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Table 55 Association List
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Privacy
This field displays whether traffic on the WDS is encrypted or not.
Refresh
Click Refresh to reload the screen.
14.4 Channel Usage
The Channel Usage screen shows whether a channel is used by another wireless network or
not. If a channel is being used, you should select a channel removed from it by five channels to
completely avoid overlap.
Click MAINTENANCE and then the Channel Usage tab to display the screen shown next.
Wait a moment while the ZyAIR compiles the information.
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Figure 93 Channel Usage
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 56 Channel Usage
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SSID
This is the Service Set IDentification name of the AP in an Infrastructure
wireless network or wireless station in an Ad-Hoc wireless network. For our
purposes, we define an Infrastructure network as a wireless network that uses
an AP and an Ad-Hoc network (also known as Independent Basic Service Set
(IBSS)) as one that doesn’t. See the Wireless Configuration and Roaming
chapter for more information on basic service sets (BSS) and extended service
sets (ESS).
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC address of the AP in an Infrastructure wireless
network. It is randomly generated (so ignore it) in an Ad-Hoc wireless network.
Channel
This is the index number of the channel currently used by the associated AP in
an Infrastructure wireless network or wireless station in an Ad-Hoc wireless
network.
Signal
This field displays the strength of the AP’s signal. If you must choose a channel
that’s currently in use, choose one with low signal strength for minimum
interference.
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Table 56 Channel Usage
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Network Mode
“Network mode” in this screen refers to your wireless LAN infrastructure (refer
to the Wireless LAN chapter) and WEP setup.
Network modes are: Infrastructure (same as an extended service set ESS)),
Infrastructure with WEP (WEP encryption is enabled), Ad-Hoc (same as an
independent basic service set IBSS)), or Ad-Hoc with WEP.
Refresh
Click Refresh to reload the screen.
14.5 F/W Upload Screen
Find firmware at www.zyxel.com in a file that (usually) uses the system model name with a
"*.bin" extension, e.g., "zyair.bin". The upload process uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer
Protocol) and may take up to two minutes. After a successful upload, the system will reboot.
See the Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance chapter for upgrading firmware using
FTP/TFTP commands.
Click MAINTENANCE and then F/W Upload. Follow the instructions in this screen to
upload firmware to your ZyAIR.
Figure 94 Firmware Upload
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 57 Firmware Upload
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse ...
to find it.
Browse...
Click Browse... to find the .bin file you want to upload. Remember that you must
decompress compressed (.zip) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click Upload to begin the upload process. This process may take up to two
minutes.
Note: Do not turn off the ZyAIR while firmware upload is in progress!
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After you see the Firmware Upload in Process screen, wait two minutes before logging into
the ZyAIR again.
Figure 95 Firmware Upload In Process
The ZyAIR automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network disconnect. In
some operating systems, you may see the following icon on your desktop.
Figure 96 Network Temporarily Disconnected
After two minutes, log in again and check your new firmware version in the System Status
screen.
If the upload was not successful, the following screen will appear. Click Return to go back to
the F/W Upload screen.
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Figure 97 Firmware Upload Error
14.6 Configuration Screen
See the Firmware and Configuration File Maintenance chapter for transferring configuration
files using FTP/TFTP commands.
Click MAINTENANCE, and then the Configuration tab. Information related to factory
defaults, backup configuration, and restoring configuration appears as shown next.
Figure 98 Configuration
14.6.1 Backup Configuration
Backup configuration allows you to back up (save) the ZyAIR’s current configuration to a file
on your computer. Once your ZyAIR is configured and functioning properly, it is highly
recommended that you back up your configuration file before making configuration changes.
The backup configuration file will be useful in case you need to return to your previous
settings.
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Click Backup to save the ZyAIR’s current configuration to your computer.
14.6.2 Restore Configuration
Restore configuration allows you to upload a new or previously saved configuration file from
your computer to your ZyAIR.
Table 58 Restore Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse ...
to find it.
Browse...
Click Browse... to find the file you want to upload. Remember that you must
decompress compressed (.ZIP) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click Upload to begin the upload process.
Note: Do not turn off the ZyAIR while configuration file upload is in progress.
After you see a “restore configuration successful” screen, you must then wait one minute
before logging into the ZyAIR again.
Figure 99 Configuration Upload Successful
The ZyAIR automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network disconnect. In
some operating systems, you may see the following icon on your desktop.
Figure 100 Network Temporarily Disconnected
If you uploaded the default configuration file you may need to change the IP address of your
computer to be in the same subnet as that of the default ZyAIR IP address (192.168.1.2). See
your Quick Installation Guide for details on how to set up your computer’s IP address.
If the upload was not successful, the following screen will appear. Click Return to go back to
the Configuration screen.
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Figure 101 Configuration Upload Error
14.6.3 Back to Factory Defaults
Pressing the Reset button in this section clears all user-entered configuration information and
returns the ZyAIR to its factory defaults as shown on the screen. The following warning screen
will appear.
Figure 102 Reset Warning Message
You can also press the RESET button on the side panel to reset the factory defaults of your
ZyAIR. Refer to the section on resetting the ZyAIR for more information on the RESET
button.
14.7 Restart Screen
System restart allows you to reboot the ZyAIR without turning the power off.
Click MAINTENANCE, and then Restart. Click Restart to have the ZyAIR reboot. This
does not affect the ZyAIR's configuration.
Figure 103 Restart Screen
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CHAPTER 15
Introducing the SMT
This chapter describes how to access the SMT and provides an overview of its menus.
15.1 Connect to your ZyAIR Using Telnet
The following procedure details how to telnet into your ZyAIR.
1 In Windows, click Start (usually in the bottom left corner), Run and then type “telnet
192.168.1.2” (the default IP address) and click OK.
2 For your first login, enter the default password “1234”. As you type the password, the
screen displays an asterisk “*” for each character you type.
Figure 104 Login Screen
Password : xxxx
3 After entering the password you will see the main menu.
Please note that if there is no activity for longer than five minutes (default timeout period)
after you log in, your ZyAIR will automatically log you out. You will then have to telnet into
the ZyAIR again. You can use the web configurator or the CI commands to change the
inactivity time out period.
15.2 Changing the System Password
Change the ZyAIR default password by following the steps shown next.
1 From the main menu, enter 23 to display Menu 23 – System Security.
2 Enter 1 to display Menu 23.1 – System Security – Change Password as shown next.
3 Type your existing system password in the Old Password field, and press [ENTER].
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Figure 105 Menu 23.1 System Security: Change Password
Menu 23.1 – System Security – Change Password
Old Password= ****
New Password= ?
Retype to confirm= ?
Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
4 Type your new system password in the New Password field (up to 30 characters), and
press [ENTER].
5 Re-type your new system password in the Retype to confirm field for confirmation and
press [ENTER].
Note that as you type a password, the screen displays an asterisk “*” for each character you
type.
15.3 ZyAIR SMT Menu Overview Example
The following table gives you an overview of your ZyAIR’s various SMT menus.
Table 59 SMT Menus Overview
MENUS
SUB MENUS
1 General Setup
1.1 Configure Dynamic DNS
3 LAN Setup
3.2 TCP/IP Setup
3.5 Wireless LAN Setup
3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address Filter
3.5.2 Roaming Configuration
3.5.4 Bridge Link Configuration
3.5.6 SSID Profile Edit
14 Dial-in User Setup
16 VLAN Setup
23 System Security
23.1 System Security
23.5 Security Profile Edit
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Table 59 SMT Menus Overview (continued)
MENUS
SUB MENUS
24 System Maintenance 24.1 System Status
24.2 System Information and
Console Port Speed
24.2.1 System Information
24.3 Log and Trace
24.3.2 Syslog Logging
24.2.2 Console Port Speed
24.3.4 Call-Triggering Packet
24.4 Diagnostic
24.5 Backup Configuration
24.6 Restore Configuration
24.7 Upload Firmware
24.7.1 Upload System Firmware
24.7.2 Upload System Configuration
File
24.8 Command Interpreter Mode
24.10 Time and Date Setting
24.11 Remote Management Setup
15.4 Navigating the SMT Interface
The SMT (System Management Terminal) is the interface that you use to configure your
ZyAIR.
Several operations that you should be familiar with before you attempt to modify the
configuration are listed in the table below.
Table 60 Main Menu Commands
OPERATION
KEYSTROKE
DESCRIPTION
Move down to
another menu
[ENTER]
To move forward to a submenu, type in the number of the
desired submenu and press [ENTER].
Move up to a
previous menu
[ESC]
Press [ESC] to move back to the previous menu.
Move to a “hidden”
menu
Press [SPACE BAR] Fields beginning with “Edit” lead to hidden menus and
to change No to Yes have a default setting of No. Press [SPACE BAR] once to
then press [ENTER]. change No to Yes, then press [ENTER] to go to the
“hidden” menu.
Move the cursor
[ENTER] or [UP]/
Within a menu, press [ENTER] to move to the next field.
[DOWN] arrow keys. You can also use the [UP]/[DOWN] arrow keys to move to
the previous and the next field, respectively.
Entering information Type in or press
[SPACE BAR], then
press [ENTER].
Chapter 15 Introducing the SMT
You need to fill in two types of fields. The first requires you
to type in the appropriate information. The second allows
you to cycle through the available choices by pressing
[SPACE BAR].
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Table 60 Main Menu Commands
OPERATION
KEYSTROKE
DESCRIPTION
Required fields
<?> or ChangeMe
All fields with the symbol <?> must be filled in order to be
able to save the new configuration.
All fields with ChangeMe must not be left blank in order to
be able to save the new configuration.
N/A fields
<N/A>
Some of the fields in the SMT will show a <N/A>. This
symbol refers to an option that is Not Applicable.
Save your
configuration
[ENTER]
Save your configuration by pressing [ENTER] at the
message “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to cancel”.
Saving the data on the screen will take you, in most cases
to the previous menu.
Exit the SMT
Type 99, then press
[ENTER].
Type 99 at the main menu prompt and press [ENTER] to
exit the SMT interface.
After you enter the password, the SMT displays the main menu, as shown next.
Figure 106 G-3000H SMT Main Menu
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2005 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
ZyAIR G-3000H Main Menu
Getting Started
1. General Setup
3. LAN Setup
Advanced Management
22. SNMP Configuration
23. System Security
24. System Maintenance
Advanced Applications
14. Dial-in User Setup
16. VLAN Setup
99. Exit
Enter Menu Selection Number:
15.4.1 System Management Terminal Interface Summary
Table 61 Main Menu Summary
#
MENU TITLE
DESCRIPTION
1
General Setup
Use this menu to set up your general information.
3
LAN Setup
Use this menu to set up your LAN and WLAN connection.
14
Dial-in User Setup
Use this menu to set up local user profiles on the ZyAIR.
16
VLAN Setup
Use this menu to set up your VLAN.
22
SNMP Configuration
Use this menu to set up SNMP related parameters.
23
System Security
Use this menu to change your password and enable network user
authentication.
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Table 61 Main Menu Summary
#
MENU TITLE
DESCRIPTION
24
System Maintenance
This menu provides system status, diagnostics, software upload, etc.
99
Exit
Use this to exit from SMT and return to a blank screen.
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CHAPTER 16
General Setup
The chapter shows you the information on general setup.
16.1 General Setup
Menu 1 – General Setup contains administrative and system-related information (shown
next). The System Name field is for identification purposes. It is recommended you type your
computer's "Computer name".
The Domain Name entry is what is propagated to the DHCP clients on the LAN. While you
must enter the host name (System Name) on each individual computer, the domain name can
be assigned from the ZyAIR via DHCP.
16.1.1 Procedure To Configure Menu 1
Enter 1 in the Main Menu to open Menu 1 – General Setup as shown next.
Figure 107 Menu 1 General Setup
Menu 1 - General Setup
System Name= G-3000H
Domain Name=
First System DNS Server= From DHCP
IP Address= N/A
Second System DNS Server= None
IP Address= N/A
Third System DNS Server= None
IP Address= N/A
Fill in the required fields. Refer to the following table for more information about these fields.
Table 62 Menu 1 General Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
System Name
Choose a descriptive name for identification purposes. This name can be up to
30 alphanumeric characters long. Spaces are not allowed, but dashes “-” and
underscores "_" are accepted.
Domain Name
This is not a required field. Leave this field blank or enter the domain name
here if you know it.
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Table 62 Menu 1 General Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
First/Second/Third
System DNS Server
Press [SPACE BAR] to select From DHCP, User Defined or None and press
[ENTER].
These fields are not available on all models.
IP Address
Enter the IP addresses of the DNS servers. This field is available when you
select User-Defined in the field above.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
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CHAPTER 17
LAN Setup
This chapter shows you how to configure the LAN on your ZyAIR.
17.1 LAN Setup
This section describes how to configure the Ethernet using Menu 3 – LAN Setup. From the
main menu, enter 3 to display menu 3.
Figure 108 Menu 3 LAN Setup
Menu 3 - LAN Setup
2. TCP/IP Setup
5. Wireless LAN Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Detailed explanation about the LAN Setup menu is given in the next chapter.
17.2 TCP/IP Ethernet Setup
Use menu 3.2 to configure your ZyAIR for TCP/IP.
To edit menu 3.2, enter 3 from the main menu to display Menu 3-LAN Setup. When menu 3
appears, press 2 and press [ENTER] to display Menu 3.2-TCP/IP Setup, as shown next:
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Figure 109 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP Setup
Menu 3.2 - TCP/IP Setup
IP Address Assignment= Static
IP Address= 192.168.1.2
IP Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0
Gateway IP Address= 0.0.0.0
Follow the instructions in the following table on how to configure the fields in this menu.
Table 63 Menu 3.2 TCP/IP Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
Assignment
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Dynamic to have the ZyAIR
obtain an IP address from a DHCP server. You must know the IP address assigned
to the ZyAIR (by the DHCP server) to access the ZyAIR again.
Select Static to give the ZyAIR a fixed, unique IP address. Enter a subnet mask
appropriate to your network and the gateway IP address if applicable.
IP Address
Enter the (LAN) IP address of your ZyAIR in dotted decimal notation
IP Subnet Mask
Your ZyAIR will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the IP address
that you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet mask
computed by the ZyAIR.
Gateway IP
Address
Type the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is an immediate neighbor of your
ZyAIR that will forward the packet to the destination. On the LAN, the gateway must
be a router on the same network segment as your ZyAIR.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to Confirm…” to
save your configuration, or press [ESC] at any time to cancel.
17.3 Wireless LAN Setup
Use menu 3.5 to set up your ZyAIR as the wireless access point. To edit menu 3.5, enter 3
from the main menu to display Menu 3 – LAN Setup. When menu 3 appears, press 5 and then
press [ENTER] to display Menu 3.5 – Wireless LAN Setup as shown next.
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Figure 110 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup
Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup
Operating Mode= Bridge / Repeater
Hide Name (SSID)= N/A
Channel ID= CH06 2437MHz
RTS Threshold= 2432
Frag. Threshold= 2432
Edit MAC Address Filter= N/A
Edit Roaming Configuration= N/A
Edit SSID Profile= N/A
Select SSID Profile= N/A
Edit Bridge Link Configuration= No
Preamble= Long
802.11 Mode= Mixed
Max. Frame Burst= 650
Breathing LED= Yes
Block Intra-BSS Traffic= No
Output Power= <11b>17dBm/<11g>13dBm
Edit Layer-2 Isolation= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Press Space Bar to Toggle.
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 64 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Operating Mode
Press [SPACE BAR] and select Access Point, Bridge / Repeater, AP + Bridge or
MESSID.
This field is not available on all models.
Name (SSID)
The SSID (Service Set IDentity) identifies the AP to which the wireless stations associate.
Wireless stations associating to the AP must have the same SSID. Enter a descriptive
name of up to 32 printable 7-bit ASCII characters.
This field is only available when you select Access Point or AP + Bridge in the Operating
Mode field.
Hide Name (SSID)
Press [SPACE BAR] and select Yes to hide the SSID in the outgoing data frame so an
intruder cannot obtain the SSID through scanning.
Channel ID
Press [SPACE BAR] to select a channel. This allows you to set the operating frequency/
channel depending on your particular region.
RTS Threshold
Setting this attribute to zero turns on the RTS/CTS handshake. Enter a value between 800
and 2432.
Frag. Threshold
This is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter a value between 256 and
2432.
Edit MAC Address Filter Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to display Menu 3.5.1 - WLAN
MAC Address Filter.
Edit Bridge Link
Configuration
Use [SPACE BAR] to choose Yes and press [ENTER] to go to Menu 3.5.4 - Bridge Link
Configuration.
Edit Roaming
Configuration
Use [SPACE BAR] to choose Yes and press [ENTER] to go to Menu 3.5.2 - Roaming
Configuration. This field is not available when you select Bridge / Repeater in the
Operating Mode field.
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Table 64 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Edit SSID Profile
Use [SPACE BAR] to choose Yes and press [ENTER] to go to Menu 3.5.6 - SSID Profile
Edit. This field is only available when you select MESSID in the Operating Mode field.
Select SSID Profile
Use [SPACE BAR] to choose an SSID profile. This field is only available when you select
Access Point in the Operating Mode field.
Preamble
Use [SPACE BAR] to choose a preamble type. Choices are Long, Short and Dynamic.
The default setting is Long.
See the section on preamble for more information.
802.11 Mode
Select B Only to allow only IEEE 802.11b compliant WLAN devices to associate with the
ZyAIR.
Select G Only to allow only IEEE 802.11g compliant WLAN devices to associate with the
ZyAIR.
Select Mixed to allow either IEEE802.11b or IEEE802.11g compliant WLAN devices to
associate with the ZyAIR. The transmission rate of your ZyAIR might be reduced.
Max. Frame Burst
Enable Maximum Frame Burst to help eliminate collisions in mixed-mode networks
(networks with both IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.11b traffic) and enhance the
performance of both pure IEEE 802.11g and mixed IEEE 802.11b/g networks. Maximum
Frame Burst sets the maximum time, in microseconds, that the ZyAIR transmits IEEE
802.11g wireless traffic only.
Type the maximum frame burst between 0 and 1800 (650, 1000 or 1800 recommended).
Enter 0 to disable this feature.
Breathing LED
Select Yes to enable the Breathing LED, also known as the ZyAIR LED.
The blue ZyAIR LED is on when the ZyAIR is on and blinks (or breaths) when data is being
transmitted to/from its wireless stations. Clear the check box to turn this LED off even
when the ZyAIR is on and data is being transmitted/received.
Block Intra-BSS Traffic
Intra-BSS traffic is traffic between wireless stations in the same BSS. Select No to allow
Intra-BSS traffic, select Yes to block all Intra-BSS traffic.
Output Power
Set the output power of the ZyAIR in this field. If there is a high density of APs within an
area, decrease the output power of the ZyAIR to reduce interference with other APs.The
options are 17dBm (50mW), 15dBm (32mW), 13dBm (20mW), 11dBm (12.6mW) or 7dBm
(5mW) for IEEE802.11b mode and 13dBm (20mW), 11dBm (12.6mW), 9dBm (7.9mW),
7dBm (5mW) or 3dBm (2mW) for IEEE802.11g mode.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to cancel” to
save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
17.3.1 Configuring MAC Address Filter
Your ZyAIR checks the MAC address of the wireless station device against a list of allowed or
denied MAC addresses. However, intruders could fake allowed MAC addresses so MACbased authentication is less secure than EAP authentication.
Follow the steps below to create the MAC address table on your ZyAIR.
1 From the main menu, enter 3 to open Menu 3 – LAN Setup.
2 Enter 5 to display Menu 3.5 – Wireless LAN Setup.
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Figure 111 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup
Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup
Operating Mode= Access Point
Hide Name (SSID)= No
Channel ID= CH06 2437MHz
RTS Threshold= 2432
Frag. Threshold= 2432
Edit MAC Address Filter= Yes
Edit Roaming Configuration= No
Edit SSID Profile= N/A
Select SSID Profile= SSID01
Edit Bridge Link Configuration= N/A
Preamble= Long
802.11 Mode= Mixed
Max. Frame Burst= 650
Breathing LED= Yes
Block Intra-BSS Traffic= No
Output Power= <11b>17dBm/<11g>13dBm
Edit Layer-2 Isolation= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Press Space Bar to Toggle.
3 Press [SPACE BAR] to select Access Point or AP + Bridge in the Operating Mode
field and press [ENTER].
4 In the Edit MAC Address Filter field, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press
[ENTER]. Menu 3.5.1 – WLAN MAC Address Filter displays as shown next.
Figure 112 Menu 3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address Filter
Menu 3.5.1 - WLAN MAC Address Filter
Active= No
Filter Action= Allowed Association
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22=
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23=
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12=
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24=
00:00:00:00:00:00
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Enter here to CONFIRM or ESC to CANCEL:
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The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 65 Menu 3.5.1 WLAN MAC Address Filter
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Active
To enable MAC address filtering, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER].
Filter Action
Define the filter action for the list of MAC addresses in the MAC address filter table.
To deny access to the ZyAIR, press [SPACE BAR] to select Deny Association and press
[ENTER]. MAC addresses not listed will be allowed to access the router.
The default action, Allowed Association, permits association with the ZyAIR. MAC
addresses not listed will be denied access to the router.
MAC Address Filter
1..32
Enter the MAC addresses (in XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX format) of the client computers that are
allowed or denied access to the ZyAIR in these address fields.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC to cancel” to
save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
17.3.2 Configuring Roaming
Enable the roaming feature if you have two or more ZyAIRs on the same subnet. Follow the
steps below to allow roaming on your ZyAIR.
1 From the main menu, enter 3 to display Menu 3 – LAN Setup.
2 Enter 5 to display Menu 3.5 – Wireless LAN Setup.
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Figure 113 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup
Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup
Operating Mode= MESSID
Hide Name (SSID)= No
Channel ID= CH06 2437MHz
RTS Threshold= 2432
Frag. Threshold= 2432
Edit MAC Address Filter= No
Edit Roaming Configuration= Yes
Edit SSID Profile= No
Select SSID Profile= N/A
Edit Bridge Link Configuration= No
Preamble= Long
802.11 Mode= Mixed
Max. Frame Burst= 650
Breathing LED= Yes
Block Intra-BSS Traffic= No
Output Power= <11b>15dBm/<11g>11dBm
Edit Layer-2 Isolation= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Press Space Bar to Toggle.
3 Move the cursor to the Edit Roaming Configuration field. Press [SPACE BAR] to
select Yes and then press [ENTER]. Menu 3.5.2 – Roaming Configuration displays as
shown next.
Figure 114 Menu 3.5.2 Roaming Configuration
Menu 3.5.2 - Roaming Configuration
Active= Yes
Port #= 3517
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Press Space Bar to Toggle.
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 66 Menu 3.5.2 Roaming Configuration
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select Yes to enable roaming on the
ZyAIR if you have two or more ZyAIRs on the same subnet.
Port #
Type the port number to communicate roaming information between access
points. The port number must be the same on all access points. The default is
3517. Make sure this port is not used by other services.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC
to cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
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17.3.3 Configuring SSID Profiles
Follow the steps below to configure SSID profiles on your ZyAIR.
1 From the main menu, enter 3 to open Menu 3 – LAN Setup.
2 Enter 5 to display Menu 3.5 – Wireless LAN Setup.
Figure 115 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup
Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup
Operating Mode= MESSID
Hide Name (SSID)= No
Channel ID= CH06 2437MHz
RTS Threshold= 2432
Frag. Threshold= 2432
Edit MAC Address Filter= No
Edit Roaming Configuration= No
Edit SSID Profile= Yes
Select SSID Profile= N/A
Edit Bridge Link Configuration= No
Preamble= Long
802.11 Mode= Mixed
Max. Frame Burst= 650
Breathing LED= Yes
Block Intra-BSS Traffic= No
Output Power= <11b>15dBm/<11g>11dBm
Edit Layer-2 Isolation= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Press Space Bar to Toggle.
3 In the Operating Mode field, press [SPACE BAR] to select MESSID and press
[ENTER].
4 Move the cursor to the Edit SSID Profile field. Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and
press [ENTER]. Menu 3.5.6 - SSID Profile Edit displays as shown next.
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Figure 116 Menu 3.5.6 - SSID Profile Edit
Menu 3.5.6 - SSID Profile Edit
1 SSID03
Active= Yes
5 SSID01
Active= No
2 SSID01
Active= No
6 SSID01
Active= No
3 SSID01
Active= No
7 SSID01
Active= No
4 SSID01
Active= No
8 SSID01
Active= No
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Press Space Bar to Toggle.
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 67 Menu 3.5.6 - SSID Profile Edit
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
SSID 1~8
Press [SPACE BAR] to select an SSID from 1 to 16. The SSID (Service Set
IDentity) identifies the Service Set with which a wireless station is associated.
Wireless stations associating to the access point (AP) must have the same
SSID.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes or No and press [ENTER].
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC
to cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
17.3.4 Configuring Bridge Link
Follow the steps below to configure bridge link on your ZyAIR.
1 From the main menu, enter 3 to open Menu 3 – LAN Setup.
2 Enter 5 to display Menu 3.5 – Wireless LAN Setup.
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Figure 117 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup
Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup
Operating Mode= Bridge / Repeater
Hide Name (SSID)= N/A
Channel ID= CH06 2437MHz
RTS Threshold= 2432
Frag. Threshold= 2432
Edit MAC Address Filter= N/A
Edit Roaming Configuration= N/A
Edit SSID Profile= N/A
Select SSID Profile= N/A
Edit Bridge Link Configuration= Yes
Preamble= Long
802.11 Mode= Mixed
Max. Frame Burst= 650
Breathing LED= Yes
Block Intra-BSS Traffic= No
Output Power= <11b>15dBm/<11g>11dBm
Edit Layer-2 Isolation= N/A
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Press Space Bar to Toggle.
3 In the Operating Mode field, press [SPACE BAR] to select Bridge / Repeater or AP
+ Bridge and press [ENTER].
4 Move the cursor to the Edit Bridge Link Configuration field. Press [SPACE BAR] to
select Yes and press [ENTER]. Menu 3.5.4 – Bridge Link Configuration displays as
shown next.
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Figure 118 Menu 3.5.4 Bridge Link Configuration
Menu 3.5.4 - Bridge Link Configuration
Enable Link 1=
PSK= ********
Enable Link 2=
PSK= ********
Enable Link 3=
PSK= ********
Enable Link 4=
PSK= ********
Enable Link 5=
PSK= ********
Yes
Peer MAC Address= 0b:16:21:2c:37:45
No
Peer MAC Address= 00:0b:16:2c:37:3d
Yes
Peer MAC Address= 0b:16:21:2c:37:3e
No
Peer MAC Address= 0b:16:21:2c:37:3f
Yes
Peer MAC Address= 0b:16:21:2c:37:40
Enable WDS Security= Yes
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Press Space Bar to Toggle.
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 68 Menu 3.5.4 Bridge Link Configuration
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Enable Link 1 ~ 5
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes or No and press [ENTER].
Peer MAC Address
Type the MAC address of peer device in valid MAC address format, that is, six
hexadecimal character pairs, for example, 12:34:56:78:9a:bc.
PSK
Type a pre-shared key from 8 to 63 case-sensitive ASCII characters (including
spaces and symbols)
Enable WDS Security Select Yes to enable WDS on your ZyAIR. A Wireless Distribution System
(WDS) is a wireless connection between two or more APs.
When you select Yes, you are prompted to type a Pre-Shared Key (PSK) in the
PSK fields of each bridge link you want to configure. The ZyAIR uses TKIP to
encrypt traffic on the WDS between AP’s.
Note: Other AP’s must use the same encryption method to
enable WDS.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC
to cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
17.3.5 Configuring Layer-2 Isolation
Follow the steps below to configure layer-2 isolation on your ZyAIR.
1 From the main menu, enter 3 to open Menu 3 – LAN Setup.
2 Enter 5 to display Menu 3.5 – Wireless LAN Setup.
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Figure 119 Menu 3.5 Wireless LAN Setup
Menu 3.5 - Wireless LAN Setup
Operating Mode= MESSID
Hide Name (SSID)= No
Channel ID= CH06 2437MHz
RTS Threshold= 2432
Frag. Threshold= 2432
Edit MAC Address Filter= No
Edit Roaming Configuration= No
Edit SSID Profile= No
Select SSID Profile= N/A
Edit Bridge Link Configuration= No
Preamble= Long
802.11 Mode= Mixed
Max. Frame Burst= 650
Breathing LED= Yes
Block Intra-BSS Traffic= No
Output Power= <11b>17dBm/<11g>13dBm
Edit Layer-2 Isolation= Yes
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Press Space Bar to Toggle.
3 Move the cursor to the Edit Layer-2 Isolation field. Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes
and press [ENTER]. Menu 3.5.5 – Layer 2 Isolation displays as shown next.
Figure 120 Menu 3.5.5 Layer-2 Isolation
Menu 3.5.5 - Layer-2 Isolation
Allow devices with these MAC addresses
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00:00:00:00:00:00
30=
00:00:00:00:00:00
7=
00:00:00:00:00:00
19=
00:00:00:00:00:00
31=
00:00:00:00:00:00
8=
00:00:00:00:00:00
20=
00:00:00:00:00:00
32=
00:00:00:00:00:00
9=
00:00:00:00:00:00
21=
00:00:00:00:00:00
10=
00:00:00:00:00:00
22=
00:00:00:00:00:00
11=
00:00:00:00:00:00
23=
00:00:00:00:00:00
12=
00:00:00:00:00:00
24=
00:00:00:00:00:00
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
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The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 69 Menu 3.5.5 Layer-2 Isolation
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Allow devices with
these MAC
addresses
These are the MAC address of a wireless client, AP, computer or router. A
wireless client associated with the ZyAIR can communicate with another
wireless client, AP, computer or router only if the MAC addresses of those
devices are listed in this table.Type the MAC addresses of the wireless client,
AP, computer or router that you want to allow the ZyAIR associated wireless
clients to have access to in these address fields. Type the MAC address in a
valid MAC address format, that is, six hexadecimal character pairs, for
example, 12:34:56:78:9a:bc.F
Note: The Block Intra-BSS Traffic changes from No to Yes
when you enable layer-2 isolation.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC
to cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
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CHAPTER 18
Dial-in User Setup
This chapter shows you how to create user accounts on the ZyAIR.
18.1 Dial-in User Setup
By storing user profiles locally, your ZyAIR is able to authenticate wireless users without
interacting with a network RADIUS server.
Follow the steps below to set up user profiles on your ZyAIR.
From the main menu, enter 14 to display Menu 14 - Dial-in User Setup.
Figure 121 Menu 14- Dial-in User Setup
Menu 14 - Dial-in User Setup
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
________
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Type a number and press [ENTER] to edit the user profile.
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Figure 122 Menu 14.1- Edit Dial-in User
Menu 14.1 - Edit Dial-in User
User Name= test
Active= Yes
Password= ********
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Leave name field blank to delete profile
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 70 Menu 14.1- Edit Dial-in User
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
User Name
Enter a username up to 31 alphanumeric characters long for this user profile.
This field is case sensitive.
Active
Press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press [ENTER] to enable the user
profile.
Password
Enter a password up to 31 characters long for this user profile.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC
to cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
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CHAPTER 19
VLAN Setup
This chapter explains VLAN Setup menu 16. Refer to the Multiple-ESS and VLAN chapter
for background information on VLAN.
19.1 VLAN Setup
To setup VLAN, select option 16 from the main menu to open Menu 16 – VLAN Setup as
shown next.
Figure 123 Menu 16 VLAN Setup
Menu 16 - VLAN Setup
VLAN Tagging= Yes
Native VLAN ID= 1
----------------------------------------------------------1.Active= Yes
ID= 1
Name= zyxel
2.Active= No
ID= N/A
Name= N/A
3.Active= No
ID= N/A
Name= N/A
4.Active= No
ID= N/A
Name= N/A
5.Active= No
ID= N/A
Name= N/A
6.Active= No
ID= N/A
Name= N/A
7.Active= No
ID= N/A
Name= N/A
8.Active= No
ID= N/A
Name= N/A
9.Active= No
ID= N/A
Name= N/A
10.Active= No
ID= N/A
Name= N/A
11.Active= No
ID= N/A
Name= N/A
12.Active= No
ID= N/A
Name= N/A
13.Active= No
ID= N/A
Name= N/A
14.Active= No
ID= N/A
Name= N/A
15.Active= No
ID= N/A
Name= N/A
16.Active= No
ID= N/A
Name= N/A
----------------------------------------------------------Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 71 Menu 16 VLAN Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
VLAN Tagging
To enable VLAN tagging, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and press
[ENTER].
Native VLAN ID
Enter a number from 1 to 4094.This field is activated only when you select
Yes in the VLAN Tagging field.
Index
This displays the number of a VLAN mapping profile.
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Table 71 Menu 16 VLAN Setup
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Active
To enable a VLAN mapping profile, press [SPACE BAR] to select Yes and
press [ENTER].
ID
Press [SPACE BAR] to select a VLAN ID or enter one from 1 to 4094.
Incoming traffic from the WLAN is authorized and assigned a VLAN ID by the
RADIUS server before it is sent to the LAN interface of the wireless client.
Different SSID profiles can use the same or different VLAN IDs. This allows
you to split wireless stations into groups using similar VLAN IDs.
Name
Press [SPACE BAR] to select a name or type a name to have the ZyAIR check
for specific VLAN attributes on incoming messages from the RADIUS server.
Access-accept packets sent by the RADIUS server contain VLAN related
attributes. The configured Name field is checked against these attributes. If
the configured Name field matches these attributes, the corresponding VLAN
ID entry is used to access the specific VLAN group. If the configured Name
field does not match the VLAN related attributes sent from the RADIUS server,
a wireless station is assigned the associated SSID VLAN ID. See VLAN ID in
the SSID screen.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC
to cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
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CHAPTER 20
SNMP Configuration
This chapter explains SNMP Configuration menu 22. See the web configurator chapter on
SNMP for background information.
20.1 SNMP Configuration
To configure SNMP, select option 22 from the main menu to open Menu 22 – SNMP
Configuration as shown next. The “community” for Get, Set and Trap fields is SNMP
terminology for password.
Figure 124
Menu 22 SNMP Configuration
Menu 22 - SNMP Configuration
SNMP:
Get Community= public
Set Community= public
Trusted Host= 0.0.0.0
Trap:
Community= public
Destination= 0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the SNMP configuration parameters.
Table 72 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
SNMP:
Get Community
Type the Get Community, which is the password for the incoming Get- and
GetNext requests from the management station.
Set Community
Type the Set Community, which is the password for incoming Set requests from
the management station.
Trusted Host
If you enter a trusted host, your ZyAIR will only respond to SNMP messages from
this address. A blank (default) field means your ZyAIR will respond to all SNMP
messages it receives, regardless of source.
Trap:
Community
Type the trap community, which is the password sent with each trap to the SNMP
manager.
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Table 72 Menu 22 SNMP Configuration
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Destination
Type the IP address of the station to send your SNMP traps to.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC
to cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
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CHAPTER 21
System Security
This chapter describes how to configure the system security on the ZyAIR.
21.1 System Security
You can configure the system password, an external RADIUS server and 802.1x in this menu.
21.1.1 System Password
Figure 125 Menu 23 System Security
Menu 23 - System Security
1. Change Password
5. Security Profile Edit
Enter Menu Selection Number:
You should change the default password. If you forget your password you have to restore the
default configuration file. Refer to the section on changing the system password in the
Introducing the SMT chapter and the section on resetting the ZyAIR in the Introducing the
Web Configurator chapter.
21.1.2 Configuring Security Profiles
Enter 23 in the main menu to display Menu 23 – System Security.
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Figure 126 Menu 23 - System Security
Menu 23 - System Security
1. Change Password
5. Security Profile Edit
Enter Menu Selection Number:
From Menu 23 - System Security, enter 5 to display Menu 23.5 – Security Profile Edit as
shown next.
Figure 127 Menu 23.5 Security Profile Edit
Menu 23.5 - Security Profile Edit
Index= 1
Profile Name= security01
Mode= WEP
Authentication Databases= N/A
ReAuthentication Timer (in second)= N/A
Idle Timeout (in second)= N/A
Group Key Update Timer(in second)= N/A
PSK = N/A
WEP Encryption= 64bit
WEP code= ASCII
Default Key= 1
Key1= ********
Key2= ********
Key3= ********
Key4= ********
Authen. Method= Auto
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
Press Space Bar to Toggle.
The fields in this screen vary according to the security Mode you select. See Wireless Security
Configuration,on page 73 for a description of the fields displayed in this screen.
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CHAPTER 22
System Information and
Diagnosis
This chapter covers the information and diagnostic tools in SMT menus 24.1 to 24.4.
These tools include updates on system status, port status, log and trace capabilities and
upgrades for the system software. This chapter describes how to use these tools in detail.
Type 24 in the main menu and press [ENTER] to open Menu 24 – System Maintenance, as
shown in the following figure.
Figure 128 Menu 24 System Maintenance
Menu 24 - System Maintenance
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
System Status
System Information and Console Port Speed
Log and Trace
Diagnostic
Backup Configuration
Restore Configuration
Upload Firmware
Command Interpreter Mode
10. Time and Date Setting
11. Remote Management Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
22.1 System Status
The first selection, System Status gives you information on the status and statistics of the
ports, as shown next. System Status is a tool that can be used to monitor your ZyAIR.
Specifically, it gives you information on your Ethernet and Wireless LAN status, number of
packets sent and received.
To get to System Status, type 24 to go to Menu 24 – System Maintenance. From this menu,
type 1. System Status. There are two commands in Menu 24.1 – System Maintenance –
Status. Entering 9 resets the counters; pressing [ESC] takes you back to the previous screen.
The following table describes the fields present in Menu 24.1 – System Maintenance –
Status which are read-only and meant for diagnostic purposes.
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Figure 129 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance: Status
Port
Status
Ethernet 100M/Full
Wireless
54M
Menu 24.1 - System Maintenance - Status
01:55:5
Sat. Jan. 01, 200
TxPkts
5802
3811
Rx B/s
128
0
Port
Ethernet Address
Ethernet 00:13:49:2A:2A:F5
Wireless 00:13:49:2A:2A:F5
RxPkts
2001
74
Cols
0
0
Tx B/s
303
64
IP Address
192.168.1.2
IP Mask
255.255.255.0
Up Tim
1:54:
1:55:
DHCP
None
System up Time:
1:55:57
ZyNOS F/W Version: V3.50(AAC.1)b2 | 08/11/2005
Name: G-3000H
Press Command:
COMMANDS: 9-Reset Counters
ESC-Exit
The following table describes the fields present in this menu.
Table 73 Menu 24.1 System Maintenance: Status
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Port
This is the port type. Port types are: Ethernet, WLAN1 and WLAN 2.
Status
This shows the status of the remote node.
TxPkts
This is the number of transmitted packets to this remote node.
RxPkts
This is the number of received packets from this remote node.
Cols
This is the number of collisions on this connection.
Tx B/s
This shows the transmission rate in bytes per second.
Rx B/s
This shows the receiving rate in bytes per second.
Up Time
This is the time this channel has been connected to the current remote node.
Ethernet Address
This shows the MAC address of the port.
IP Address
This shows the IP address of the network device connected to the port.
IP Mask
This shows the subnet mask of the network device connected to the port.
DHCP
This shows the DHCP setting (None or Client) for the port.
System Up Time
This is the time the ZyAIR is up and running from the last reboot.
ZyNOS F/W Version
Refers to the ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) system firmware version. ZyNOS
is a registered trademark of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Name
This displays the device name.
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22.2 System Information
To get to the System Information:
1 Enter 24 to display Menu 24 – System Maintenance.
2 Enter 2 to display Menu 24.2 – System Information and Console Port Speed.
3 From this menu you have two choices as shown in the next figure:
Figure 130 Menu 24.2 System Information and Console Port Speed
Menu 24.2 - System Information and Console Port Speed
1. System Information
2. Console Port Speed
Please enter selection:
Note: The ZyAIR also has an internal console port for support personnel only. Do not
open the ZyAIR as it will void your warranty.
22.2.1 System Information
Enter 1 in menu 24.2 to display the screen shown next.
Figure 131 Menu 24.2.1 System Information: Information
Menu 24.2.1 - System Maintenance - Information
Name: G-3000H
Routing: BRIDGE
ZyNOS F/W Version: V3.50(AAC.0)b1 | 05/25/2005
Country Code: 255
LAN
Ethernet Address: 00:A0:C5:F5:02:02
IP Address: 192.168.1.2
IP Mask: 255.255.255.0
DHCP: None
Press ESC or RETURN to Exit:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 74 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance: Information
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Name
Displays the system name of your ZyAIR. This information can be changed in
Menu 1 – General Setup.
Routing
Refers to the routing protocol used.
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Table 74 Menu 24.2.1 System Maintenance: Information
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
ZyNOS F/W Version
Refers to the ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) system firmware
version. ZyNOS is a registered trademark of ZyXEL Communications
Corporation.
Country Code
Refers to the country code of the firmware.
LAN
Ethernet Address
Refers to the Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) of your ZyAIR.
IP Address
This is the IP address of the ZyAIR in dotted decimal notation.
IP Mask
This shows the subnet mask of the ZyAIR.
DHCP
This field shows the DHCP setting of the ZyAIR.
When you have completed this menu, press [ENTER] at the prompt “Press ENTER to confirm or ESC
to cancel” to save your configuration or press [ESC] to cancel and go back to the previous screen.
22.2.2 Console Port Speed
You can set up different port speeds for the console port through Menu 24.2.2 – System
Maintenance – Console Port Speed. Your ZyAIR supports 9600 (default), 19200, 38400,
57600 and 115200 bps console port speeds. Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to select
the desired speed in menu 24.2.2, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 132 Menu 24.2.2 System Maintenance: Change Console Port Speed
Menu 24.2.2 – System Maintenance – Change Console Port Speed
Console Port Speed: 9600
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
After you changed the console port speed on your ZyAIR, you must also make the same
change to the console port speed parameter of your communication software.
22.3 Log and Trace
Your ZyAIR provides the error logs and trace records that are stored locally.
22.3.1 Viewing Error Log
The first place you should look for clues when something goes wrong is the error log. Follow
the procedures to view the local error/trace log:
1 Type 24 in the main menu to display Menu 24 – System Maintenance.
2 From menu 24, type 3 to display Menu 24.3 – System Maintenance – Log and Trace.
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Figure 133 Menu 24.3 System Maintenance: Log and Trace
Menu 24.3 - System Maintenance - Log and Trace
1. View Error Log
Please enter selection:
3 Enter 1 from Menu 24.3 – System Maintenance – Log and Trace and press [ENTER]
twice to display the error log in the system.
After the ZyAIR finishes displaying the error log, you will have the option to clear it. Samples
of typical error and information messages are presented in the next figure.
Figure 134 Sample Error and Information Messages
55 Sat Jan 1 00:00:00 2000 PP05 ERROR Wireless LAN init fail, code=-1
56 Sat Jan 1 00:00:01 2000 PP07 INFO LAN promiscuous mode <1>
57 Sat Jan 1 00:00:01 2000 PINI INFO Last errorlog repeat 1 Times
58 Sat Jan 1 00:00:01 2000 PINI INFO main: init completed
59 Sat Jan 1 00:00:02 2000 PP05 -WARN SNMP TRAP 3: link up
60 Sat Jan 1 00:00:30 2000 PSSV -WARN SNMP TRAP 0: cold start
61 Sat Jan 1 00:01:38 2000 PINI INFO SMT Session Begin
62 Sat Jan 1 00:06:44 2000 PINI INFO SMT Session End
63 Sat Jan 1 00:11:13 2000 PINI INFO SMT Session Begin
Clear Error Log (y/n):
22.4 Diagnostic
The diagnostic facility allows you to test the different aspects of your ZyAIR to determine if it
is working properly. Menu 24.4 allows you to choose among various types of diagnostic tests
to evaluate your system, as shown in the following figure.
Figure 135 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance: Diagnostic
Menu 24.4 - System Maintenance - Diagnostic
TCP/IP
1. Ping Host
2. DHCP Release
3. DHCP Renewal
System
11. Reboot System
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Host IP Address= N/A
Follow the procedure next to get to display this menu:
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1 From the main menu, type 24 to open Menu 24 – System Maintenance.
2 From this menu, type 4. Diagnostic to open Menu 24.4 – System Maintenance –
Diagnostic.
The following table describes the diagnostic tests available in menu 24.4 for your ZyAIR and
the connections.
Table 75 Menu 24.4 System Maintenance Menu: Diagnostic
206
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Ping Host
Ping the host to see if the links and TCP/IP protocol on both systems are
working.
DHCP Release
Release the IP address assigned by the DHCP server.
DHCP Renewal
Get a new IP address from the DHCP server.
Reboot System
Reboot the ZyAIR.
Host IP Address
If you typed 1 to Ping Host, now type the address of the computer you want to
ping.
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CHAPTER 23
Firmware and Configuration File
Maintenance
This chapter tells you how to backup and restore your configuration file as well as upload new
firmware and configuration files using the SMT screens.
23.1 Filename Conventions
The configuration file (often called the romfile or rom-0) contains the factory default settings
in the menus such as password and TCP/IP Setup, etc. It arrives from ZyXEL with a rom
filename extension. Once you have customized the ZyAIR's settings, they can be saved back
to your computer under a filename of your choosing.
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System sometimes referred to as the “ras” file) is the
system firmware and has a “bin” filename extension. With many FTP and TFTP clients, the
filenames are similar to those seen next.
ftp> put firmware.bin ras
This is a sample FTP session showing the transfer of the computer file " firmware.bin" to the
ZyAIR.
ftp> get rom-0 config.cfg
This is a sample FTP session saving the current configuration to the computer file config.cfg.
If your [T]FTP client does not allow you to have a destination filename different than the
source, you will need to rename them as the ZyAIR only recognizes “rom-0” and “ras”. Be
sure you keep unaltered copies of both files for later use.
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The following table is a summary. Please note that the internal filename refers to the filename
on the ZyAIR and the external filename refers to the filename not on the ZyAIR, that is, on
your computer, local network or FTP site and so the name (but not the extension) will vary.
After uploading new firmware see the ZyNOS F/W Version field in Menu 24.2.1 – System
Maintenance – Information to confirm that you have uploaded the correct firmware version.
Table 76 Filename Conventions
FILE TYPE
INTERNAL
NAME
EXTERNAL
NAME
Configuration File
Rom-0
*.rom
This is the configuration filename on the ZyAIR.
Uploading the rom-0 file replaces the entire ROM
file system, including your ZyAIR configurations,
system-related data (including the default
password), the error log and the trace log.
Firmware
Ras
*.bin
This is the generic name for the ZyNOS firmware on
the ZyAIR.
DESCRIPTION
23.2 Backup Configuration
Option 5 from Menu 24 – System Maintenance allows you to backup the current ZyAIR
configuration to your computer. Backup is highly recommended once your ZyAIR is
functioning properly. FTP is the preferred method, although TFTP can also be used.
Please note that the terms “download” and “upload” are relative to the computer. Download
means to transfer from the ZyAIR to the computer, while upload means from your computer to
the ZyAIR.
23.2.1 Backup Configuration Using FTP
Enter 5 in Menu 24 – System Maintenance to get the following screen.
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Figure 136 Menu 24.5 Backup Configuration
Menu 24.5 – Backup Configuration
To transfer the configuration file to your workstation, follow the procedure below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your router. Then type "root" and
SMT password as requested.
3. Locate the ‘rom-0’ file.
4. Type ‘get rom-0’ to back up the current router configuration to your workstation.
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your FTP
client program. For details on backup using TFTP (note that you must remain in the menu
to back up using TFTP), please see your router manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
23.2.2 Using the FTP command from the DOS Prompt
1 Launch the FTP client on your computer.
2 Enter “open” and the IP address of your ZyAIR.
3 Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
4 Enter “root” and your SMT password as requested. The default is 1234.
5 Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
6 Use “get” to transfer files from the ZyAIR to the computer, for example, “get rom-0
config.rom” transfers the configuration file on the ZyAIR to your computer and renames
it “config.rom”. See earlier in this chapter for more information on filename conventions.
7 Enter “quit” to exit the FTP prompt.
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Figure 137 FTP Session Example
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> get rom-0 zyxel.rom
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR ras
226 File received OK
ftp: 327680 bytes sent in 1.10Seconds
297.89Kbytes/sec.
ftp> quit
The following table describes some of the commands that you may see in third party FTP
clients.
Table 77 General Commands for Third Party FTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host Address
Enter the address of the host server.
Login Type
Anonymous.
This is when a user I.D. and password is automatically supplied to the server for
anonymous access. Anonymous logins will work only if your ISP or service
administrator has enabled this option.
Normal.
The server requires a unique User ID and Password to login.
Transfer Type
Transfer files in either ASCII (plain text format) or in binary mode.
Initial Remote
Directory
Specify the default remote directory (path).
Initial Local Directory
Specify the default local directory (path).
23.2.3 Backup Configuration Using TFTP
The ZyAIR supports the up/downloading of the firmware and the configuration file using
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) over LAN. Although TFTP should work over WAN as
well, it is not recommended.
To use TFTP, your computer must have both telnet and TFTP clients. To backup the
configuration file, follow the procedure shown next:
1 Use telnet from your computer to connect to the ZyAIR and log in. Because TFTP does
not have any security checks, the ZyAIR records the IP address of the telnet client and
accepts TFTP requests only from this address.
2 Put the SMT in command interpreter (CI) mode by entering 8 in Menu 24 – System
Maintenance.
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3 Enter command “sys stdio 0” to disable the SMT timeout, so the TFTP transfer will not
be interrupted. Enter command “sys stdio 5” to restore the five-minute SMT timeout
(default) when the file transfer is complete.
4 Launch the TFTP client on your computer and connect to the ZyAIR. Set the transfer
mode to binary before starting data transfer.
5 Use the TFTP client (see the example below) to transfer files between the ZyAIR and the
computer. The file name for the configuration file is rom-0 (rom-zero, not capital o).
Note that the telnet connection must be active and the SMT in CI mode before and during the
TFTP transfer. For details on TFTP commands (see following example), please consult the
documentation of your TFTP client program. For UNIX, use “get” to transfer from the ZyAIR
to the computer and “binary” to set binary transfer mode.
23.2.4 Example: TFTP Command
The following is an example TFTP command:
TFTP [-i] host get rom-0 config.rom
where “i” specifies binary image transfer mode (use this mode when transferring binary files),
“host” is the ZyAIR IP address, “get” transfers the file source on the ZyAIR (rom-0 name of
the configuration file on the ZyAIR) to the file destination on the computer and renames it
config.rom.
The following table describes some of the fields that you may see in third party TFTP clients.
Table 78
General Commands for Third Party TFTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host
Enter the IP address of the ZyAIR. 192.168.1.2 is the ZyAIR’s default IP
address when shipped.
Send/Fetch
Use “Send” to upload the file to the ZyAIR and “Fetch” to back up the file on
your computer.
Local File
Enter the path and name of the firmware file (*.bin extension) or configuration
file (*.rom extension) on your computer.
Remote File
This is the filename on the ZyAIR. The filename for the firmware is “ras” and for
the configuration file, is “rom-0”.
Binary
Transfer the file in binary mode.
Abort
Stop transfer of the file.
23.2.5 Backup Via Console Port
Back up configuration via console port by following the HyperTerminal procedure shown
next. Procedures using other serial communications programs should be similar.
1 Display menu 24.5 and enter “y” at the following screen.
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Figure 138 System Maintenance: Backup Configuration
Ready to backup Configuration via Xmodem.
Do you want to continue (y/n):
2 The following screen indicates that the Xmodem download has started.
Figure 139 System Maintenance: Starting Xmodem Download Screen
You can enter ctrl-x to terminate operation any time.
Starting XMODEM download...
3 Run the HyperTerminal program by clicking Transfer, then Receive File as shown in the
following screen.
Figure 140 Backup Configuration Example
Type a location
for storing the
configuration file
or click Browse
to look for one.
Choose the
Xmodem protocol.
Then click Receive.
4 After a successful backup you will see the following screen. Press any key to return to the
SMT menu.
Figure 141 Successful Backup Confirmation Screen
** Backup Configuration completed. OK.
### Hit any key to continue.###
23.3 Restore Configuration
Menu 24.6 –- System Maintenance – Restore Configuration allows you to restore the
configuration via FTP or TFTP to your ZyAIR. The preferred method is FTP. Note that this
function erases the current configuration before restoring the previous backup configuration;
please do not attempt to restore unless you have a backup configuration stored on disk. To
restore configuration using FTP or TFTP is the same as uploading the configuration file,
please refer to the following sections on FTP and TFTP file transfer for more details. The
ZyAIR restarts automatically after the file transfer is complete.
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23.3.1 Restore Using FTP
For details about backup using (T)FTP please refer to earlier sections on FTP and TFTP file
upload in this chapter.
Figure 142 Menu 24.6 Restore Configuration
Menu 24.6 – Restore Configuration
To transfer the firmware and the configuration file, follow the procedure
below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your router. Then type "root" and
SMT password as requested.
3. Type “put backupfilename rom-0” where backupfilename is the name of
your backup configuration file on your workstation and rom-spt is the
Remote file name on the router. This restores the configuration to your
router.
4. The system reboots automatically after a successful file transfer.
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your FTP
client program. For details on restoring using TFTP (note that you must
remain in the menu to back up using TFTP), please see your router manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
23.4 Uploading Firmware and Configuration Files
Menu 24.7 – System Maintenance – Upload Firmware allows you to upgrade the firmware
and the configuration file.
Note: WARNING! PLEASE WAIT A FEW MINUTES FOR THE ZYAIR TO RESTART
AFTER FIRMWARE OR CONFIGURATION FILE UPLOAD. INTERRUPTING THE
UPLOAD PROCESS MAY PERMANENTLY DAMAGE YOUR ZYAIR.
Figure 143 Menu 24.7 System Maintenance: Upload Firmware
Menu 24.7 - System Maintenance - Upload Firmware
1. Upload System Firmware
2. Upload System Configuration File
Enter Menu Selection Number:
The configuration data, system-related data, the error log and the trace log are all stored in the
configuration file. Please be aware that uploading the configuration file replaces everything
contained within.
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23.4.1 Firmware Upload
FTP is the preferred method for uploading the firmware and configuration. To use this feature,
your computer must have an FTP client.
When you telnet into the ZyAIR, you will see the following screens for uploading firmware
and the configuration file using FTP.
Figure 144 Menu 24.7.1 System Maintenance: Upload System Firmware
Menu 24.7.1 - System Maintenance - Upload System Firmware
To upload the system firmware, follow the procedure below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your system. Then type "root" and
SMT password as requested.
3. Type "put firmwarefilename ras" where "firmwarefilename" is the name of your
firmware upgrade file on your workstation and "ras" is the remote file name on the
system.
4. The system reboots automatically after a successful firmware upload.
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your FTP
client program. For details on uploading system firmware using TFTP (note
that you must remain on this menu to upload system firmware using TFTP), please see
your manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
23.4.2 Configuration File Upload
You see the following screen when you telnet into menu 24.7.2.
Figure 145 Menu 24.7.2 System Maintenance: Upload System Configuration File
Menu 24.7.2 - System Maintenance - Upload System Configuration File
To upload the system configuration file, follow the procedure below:
1. Launch the FTP client on your workstation.
2. Type "open" and the IP address of your system. Then type "root" and SMT
password
as requested.
3. Type "put configurationfilename rom-0" where "configurationfilename" is the name of
your system configuration file on your workstation, which will be transferred to the
"rom-0" file on the system.
4. The system reboots automatically after the upload system configuration file process
is complete.
For details on FTP commands, please consult the documentation of your FTP client
program. For details on uploading system firmware using TFTP (note that you must
remain on this menu to upload system firmware using TFTP), please see your manual.
Press ENTER to Exit:
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To transfer the firmware and the configuration file, follow these examples:
23.4.3 Using the FTP command from the DOS Prompt Example
1 Launch the FTP client on your computer.
2 Enter “open” and the IP address of your ZyAIR.
3 Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
4 Enter “root” and your SMT password as requested. The default is 1234.
5 Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
6 Use “put” to transfer files from the computer to the ZyAIR, e.g., put firmware.bin ras
transfers the firmware on your computer (firmware.bin) to the ZyAIR and renames it
“ras”. Similarly “put config.rom rom-0” transfers the configuration file on your computer
(config.rom) to the ZyAIR and renames it “rom-0”. Likewise “get rom-0 config.rom”
transfers the configuration file on the ZyAIR to your computer and renames it
“config.rom.” See earlier in this chapter for more information on filename conventions.
7 Enter “quit” to exit the FTP prompt.
Figure 146 FTP Session Example
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> put firmware.bin ras
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR ras
226 File received OK
ftp: 327680 bytes sent in 1.10Seconds
297.89Kbytes/sec.
ftp> quit
More commands that you may find in third party FTP clients are listed earlier in this chapter.
23.4.4 TFTP File Upload
The ZyAIR also supports the up/downloading of the firmware and the configuration file using
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) over LAN. Although TFTP should work over WAN as
well, it is not recommended.
To use TFTP, your computer must have both telnet and TFTP clients. To transfer the firmware
and the configuration file, follow the procedure shown next:
1 Use telnet from your computer to connect to the ZyAIR and log in. Because TFTP does
not have any security checks, the ZyAIR records the IP address of the telnet client and
accepts TFTP requests only from this address.
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2 Put the SMT in command interpreter (CI) mode by entering 8 in Menu 24 – System
Maintenance.
3 Enter the command “sys stdio 0” to disable the SMT timeout, so the TFTP transfer will
not be interrupted. Enter command “sys stdio 5” to restore the five-minute SMT timeout
(default) when the file transfer is complete.
4 Launch the TFTP client on your computer and connect to the ZyAIR. Set the transfer
mode to binary before starting data transfer.
5 Use the TFTP client (see the example below) to transfer files between the ZyAIR and the
computer. The file name for the firmware is “ras” and the configuration file is “rom-0”
(rom-zero, not capital o).
Note that the telnet connection must be active and the SMT in CI mode before and during the
TFTP transfer. For details on TFTP commands (see following example), please consult the
documentation of your TFTP client program. For UNIX, use “get” to transfer from the ZyAIR
to the computer, “put” the other way around, and “binary” to set binary transfer mode.
23.4.5 Example: TFTP Command
The following is an example TFTP command:
TFTP [-i] host put firmware.bin ras
where “i” specifies binary image transfer mode (use this mode when transferring binary files),
“host” is the ZyAIR’s IP address, “put” transfers the file source on the computer (firmware.bin
– name of the firmware on the computer) to the file destination on the remote host (ras - name
of the firmware on the ZyAIR).
Commands that you may see in third party TFTP clients are listed earlier in this chapter.
23.4.6 Uploading Via Console Port
FTP or TFTP are the preferred methods for uploading firmware to your ZyAIR. However, in
the event of your network being down, uploading files is only possible with a direct
connection to your ZyAIR via the console port. Uploading files via the console port under
normal conditions is not recommended since FTP or TFTP is faster. Any serial
communications program should work fine; however, you must use the Xmodem protocol to
perform the download/upload.
23.4.7 Uploading Firmware File Via Console Port
Select 1 from Menu 24.7 – System Maintenance – Upload Firmware to display Menu
24.7.1 – System Maintenance – Upload System Firmware, then follow the instructions as
shown in the following screen.
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Figure 147 Menu 24.7.1 as seen using the Console Port
Menu 24.7.1 - System Maintenance - Upload System Firmware
To upload system firmware:
1. Enter "y" at the prompt below to go into debug mode.
2. Enter "atur" after "Enter Debug Mode" message.
3. Wait for "Starting XMODEM upload" message before activating
Xmodem upload on your terminal.
4. After successful firmware upload, enter "atgo" to restart the
router.
Warning: Proceeding with the upload will erase the current system
firmware.
Do You Wish To Proceed:(Y/N)
After the "Starting Xmodem upload" message appears, activate the Xmodem protocol on your
computer. Follow the procedure as shown previously for the HyperTerminal program. The
procedure for other serial communications programs should be similar.
23.4.8 Example Xmodem Firmware Upload Using HyperTerminal
Click Transfer, then Send File to display the following screen.
Figure 148 Example Xmodem Upload
Type the firmware
file’s location, or
click Browse to
look for it.
Choose the Xmodem
protocol.
Then click Send.
After the firmware upload process has completed, the ZyAIR will automatically restart.
23.4.9 Uploading Configuration File Via Console Port
1 Select 2 from Menu 24.7 – System Maintenance – Upload Firmware to display Menu
24.7.2 – System Maintenance – Upload System Configuration File. Follow the
instructions as shown in the next screen.
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Figure 149 Menu 24.7.2 as seen using the Console Port
Menu 24.7.2 - System Maintenance - Upload System Configuration File
To
1.
2.
3.
upload system configuration file:
Enter "y" at the prompt below to go into debug mode.
Enter "atlc" after "Enter Debug Mode" message.
Wait for "Starting XMODEM upload" message before activating
Xmodem upload on your terminal.
4. After successful firmware upload, enter "atgo" to restart the
system.
Warning:
1. Proceeding with the upload will erase the current
configuration file.
2. The system’s console port speed (Menu 24.2.2) may change
when it is restarted; please adjust your terminal's speed
accordingly. The password may change (menu 23), also.
3. When uploading the DEFAULT configuration file, the console
port speed will be reset to 9600 bps and the password to
"1234".
Do You Wish To Proceed:(Y/N)
2 After the "Starting Xmodem upload" message appears, activate the Xmodem protocol on
your computer. Follow the procedure as shown previously for the HyperTerminal
program. The procedure for other serial communications programs should be similar.
3 Enter “atgo” to restart the ZyAIR.
23.4.10 Example Xmodem Configuration Upload Using HyperTerminal
Click Transfer, then Send File to display the following screen.
Figure 150 Example Xmodem Upload
Type the configuration
file’s location, or
click Browse to
search for it.
Choose the Xmodem
protocol.
Then click Send.
After the configuration upload process has completed, restart the ZyAIR by entering “atgo”
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CHAPTER 24
System Maintenance and
Information
This chapter leads you through SMT menus 24.8 and 24.10.
24.1 Command Interpreter Mode
The Command Interpreter (CI) is a part of the main system firmware. The CI provides much of
the same functionality as the SMT, while adding some low-level setup and diagnostic
functions. Enter the CI from the SMT by selecting menu 24.8. See the included disk or the
zyxel.com web site for more detailed information on CI commands. Enter 8 from Menu 24 –
System Maintenance. A list of valid commands can be found by typing help or ? at the
command prompt. Type “exit” to return to the SMT main menu when finished.
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Figure 151 Menu 24 System Maintenance
Menu 24 - System Maintenance
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
System Status
System Information and Console Port Speed
Log and Trace
Diagnostic
Backup Configuration
Restore Configuration
Upload Firmware
Command Interpreter Mode
10. Time and Date Setting
11. Remote Management Setup
Enter Menu Selection Number:
Figure 152 Valid CI Commands
Copyright (c) 1994 - 2005 ZyXEL Communications Corp.
G-3000H> ?
Valid commands are:
sys
exit
ether
wlan
ip
bridge
certificates
8021x
wcfg
G-3000H>
24.1.1 CNM
Vantage CNM (Centralized Network Management) is a browser-based, global management
solution that allows an administrator to easily configure, manage, monitor and troubleshoot
ZyXEL devices located worldwide. See the Vantage CNM User’s Guide for details.
If you allow your ZyXEL device to be managed by Vantage CNM, then you should not
configure it without notifying the Vantage CNM administrator.
24.1.2 Configuring Vantage CNM
Vantage CNM is disabled on the device by default. You can configure Vantage CNM on your
ZyXEL device by using the following commands.
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Figure 153 CNM CL
G-3000H>cnm
active
reset
G-3000H>
sgid
simulate
managerIp
encrykey
debug
encrymode
The following table describes the commands in this screen. All commands begin with “cnm”
so for example, type “cnm active 1” to enable Vantage CNM on your device.
Table 79 CNM Commands
COMMAND
SUB COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
active
<0:Disable
1:Enable CNM via WAN
2:Enable CNM via WAN
or LAN>
This displays the ZyXEL device connection status with
Vantage CNM and displays the last date and time that the
ZyXEL device registered with the Vantage CNM server.
If Vantage CNM is disabled on the ZyXEL device, active
0 is displayed.
If Vantage CNM is enabled on the ZyXEL device using a
WAN connection, active 1 is displayed.
If Vantage CNM is enabled on the ZyXEL device using a
WAN or LAN connection, active 2 is displayed.
Use this command to disable Vantage CNM on your
ZyXEL device.
Use this command to enable Vantage CNM on your
ZyXEL device using a WAN connection.
Use this command to enable Vantage CNM on your
ZyXEL device using a WAN or LAN connection.
0
1
2
Last Register Time: 0-0-0
0:0:0
sgid
Chapter 24 System Maintenance and Information
For example if Last Register Time 2004-11-20 10:34:23 is
displayed then the last date the device registered with
Vantage CNM was the 20th November 2003 at 10:34 PM.
The last register time displays the last date (year-monthdate) and time (hours : minutes : seconds) that the ZyXEL
device registered with Vantage CNM. It displays all
zeroes if it has not yet registered with the Vantage CNM
server.
This command displays your ZyXEL device’s unique ID in
Vantage CNM.
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Table 79 CNM Commands
COMMAND
SUB COMMAND
managerIp
[addr]
debug
<0:Disable
1:Vantage
2:Agent tester
3:Server>
0
1
2
3
This command displays the public IP address of the
Vantage CNM server.
If the Vantage server is on the same subnet as the ZyXEL
device, enter the private or public IP address of the
Vantage CNM server.
If the Vantage CNM server is on a different subnet to the
ZyXEL device, enter the public IP address of the Vantage
CNM server.
If the Vantage CNM server is behind a NAT router, enter
the WAN Public IP address of the NAT router here and
configure the NAT router to forward UDP port 1864 traffic
to the Vantage CNM server.
If the Vantage CNM server is behind a firewall, you may
have to create a rule on the firewall to allow UDP port
1864 traffic through to the Vantage CNM server (most
(new) ZyXEL firewalls automatically allow this).
Use this command to set the IP address of the Vantage
CNM server.
This command displays the output of Vantage CNM
debug messages.
Type this command to not display Vantage CNM debug
messages.
Type this command to display Vantage CNM debug
messages on the console after the ZyXEL device
registers with the Vantage CNM server.
Type this command to display Vantage CNM debug
messages on the console after the ZyXEL device
registers with the Vantage CNM server.
Type this command to display Vantage CNM debug
messages on the console after the ZyXEL device
registers with the Vantage CNM server.
reset
Have the ZyXEL device send register request messages
to the Vantage CNM server.
encrykey
This displays the encryption key, which is used to encrypt
and decrypt messages between Vantage CNM and the
device.
Use this command to specify the encryption key.
Type eight alphanumeric characters when you choose
DES encryption algorithm.
Type 24 alphanumeric characters when you choose
3DES encryption algorithm.
The ZyXEL device must have the same encryption key as
the Vantage CNM server.
[string]
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Table 79 CNM Commands
COMMAND
SUB COMMAND
encrymode
<0:NONE
1:DES
2:3DES>
keepalive
0
[seconds]
version
DESCRIPTION
This command is used to encrypt communications
between the ZyXEL device and the Vantage CNM server.
Use this command to set the encryption mode.
Type 0 to have no encryption, type 1 to have the ZyXEL
device use DES encryption or type 2 to have the ZyXEL
device use 3DES encryption.
The ZyXEL device must use the same encryption mode
as the Vantage CNM server.
Keepalive messages are sent to the Vantage CNM server
by the ZyXEL device. They show the connection status
between the ZyXEL device and the Vantage CNM server.
This command displays the time interval in seconds
between the keepalive messages that the ZyXEL device
sends to the Vantage CNM server.
Use this command to disable keepalive message
sending.
To set a time interval type the cnm keepalive command
followed by a number from 10 to 655.
This displays the Vantage CNM version.
24.1.3 Configuration Example
This is an example allowing Vantage CNM server (on the same subnet as your ZyXEL device)
with an IP address of 10.1.1.1, to manage your device. The device and Vantage CNM
communicate using DES encryption and a password of “12345678”.
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Figure 154 CNM Configuration Example
G-3000H> cnm
active
reset
version
G-3000H>
sgid
encrykey
managerIp
encrymode
debug
keepalive
G-3000H> cnm active
cnm active 0 <0:Disable 1:Enable CNM via WAN 2:Enable CNM via
WAN or LAN>
Last Register Time: 0-0-0 0:0:0
G-3000H> cnm active 1
cnm active 1
G-3000H>
G-3000H> cnm managerIp
managerIp 0.0.0.0
G-3000H> cnm managerIp 10.1.1.1
managerIp 10.1.1.1
G-3000H>
G-3000H> cnm debug
cnm debug 0 <0:Disable 1:Vantage 2:Agent tester 3:Server>
G-3000H>
G-3000H> cnm sgid
sgId 0X0000000000000000
G-3000H> cnm sgid 0a1b2c3d4e5f6a
sgId 0X000a1b2c3d4e5f6a
G-3000H>
G-3000H> cnm encrymode
cnm encrymode 0 <0:NONE 1:DES 2:3DES>
G-3000H> cnm encrymode 1
cnm encrymode 1
G-3000H>
G-3000H> cnm encrykey 12345678
encrykey 12345678
G-3000H>
cnm keepalive 20
Send SGMP keepalive timer change event
G-3000H>
sgmpd: Change keepalive timer to 20 seconds
G-3000H>
G-3000H> cnm version
cnm version: 2.0.2-b4
G-3000H>
24.2 Time and Date Setting
The ZyAIR keeps track of the time and date. There is also a software mechanism to set the
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time manually or get the current time and date from an external server when you turn on your
ZyAIR. Menu 24.10 allows you to update the time and date settings of your ZyAIR. The real
time is then displayed in the ZyAIR error logs.
1 Select menu 24 in the main menu to open Menu 24 – System Maintenance.
2 Then enter 10 to go to Menu 24.10 – System Maintenance – Time and Date Setting to
update the time and date settings of your ZyAIR as shown in the following screen.
Figure 155 Menu 24.10 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting
Menu 24.10 - System Maintenance - Time and Date Setting
Time Protocol= NTP (RFC-1305)
Time Server Address= 128.105.39.21
Current Time:
New Time (hh:mm:ss):
Current Date:
New Date (yyyy-mm-dd):
Time Zone= GMT
Daylight Saving= No
Start Date (mm-dd):
End Date (mm-dd):
05 :
05 :
2000
2000
47 :
47 :
- 01
- 01
19
17
– 01
– 01
01 – 01
01 – 01
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 80 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
Time Protocol
Enter the time service protocol that your time server sends when you turn on
the ZyAIR. Not all time servers support all protocols, so you may have to check
with your ISP/network administrator or use trial and error to find a protocol that
works. The main differences between them are the format.
Daytime (RFC 867) format is day/month/year/time zone of the server.
Time (RFC-868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total number of
seconds since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.
NTP (RFC-1305) is similar to Time (RFC-868).
None. The default, enter the time manually.
Time Server Address
Enter the IP address or domain name of your time server. Check with your ISP/
network administrator if you are unsure of this information.
Current Time
This field displays an updated time only when you reenter this menu.
New Time
Enter the new time in hour, minute and second format.
Current Date
This field displays an updated date only when you re-enter this menu.
New Date
Enter the new date in year, month and day format.
Time Zone
Press [SPACE BAR] and then [ENTER] to set the time difference between your
time zone and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Daylight Saving
If you use daylight savings time, then choose Yes.
Start Date
If using daylight savings time, enter the month and day that it starts on.
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Table 80 System Maintenance: Time and Date Setting
FIELD
DESCRIPTION
End Date
If using daylight savings time, enter the month and day that it ends on
Once you have filled in this menu, press [ENTER] at the message “Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to
Cancel“ to save your configuration, or press [ESC] to cancel.
24.2.1 Resetting the Time
The ZyAIR resets the time in three instances:
1 On leaving menu 24.10 after making changes.
2 When the ZyAIR starts up, if there is a timeserver configured in menu 24.10.
3 24-hour intervals after starting.
24.3 Remote Management Setup
24.3.1 Telnet
You can configure your ZyAIR for remote Telnet access as shown next.
Figure 156 Telnet Configuration on a TCP/IP Network
24.3.2 FTP
You can upload and download ZyAIR firmware and configuration files using FTP. To use this
feature, your computer must have an FTP client.
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24.3.3 Web
You can use the ZyAIR’s embedded web configurator for configuration and file management.
See the online help for details.
24.3.4 Remote Management Setup
Remote management setup is for managing Telnet, FTP and Web services. You can customize
the service port, access interface and the secured client IP address to enhance security and
flexibility.
You may manage your ZyAIR from a remote location via:
the Internet (WAN only), the LAN only, All (LAN and WAN) or Disable (neither).
Table 81 Remote Management Port Control
WAN only (Internet)
ALL (LAN and WAN)
LAN only
Disable (Neither)
Note: If you enable remote management of a service, but have applied a filter to block
the service, then you will not be able to remotely manage the service.
Enter 11, from menu 24, to display Menu 24.11 - Remote Management Control (shown
next)
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Figure 157 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control
Menu 24.11 - Remote Management Control
TELNET Server:
FTP Server:
HTTPS Server:
HTTP Server:
SNMP Service:
Port = 23
Access = ALL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Port = 21
Access = ALL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Certificate = auto_generated_self_signed_cert
Authenticate Client Certificates = No
Port = 443
Access = ALL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Port = 80
Access = ALL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Port = 161
Access = ALL
Secure Client IP = 0.0.0.0
Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to Cancel:
The following table describes the fields in this menu.
Table 82 Menu 24.11 Remote Management Control
FIELD
TELNET Server:
FTP Server:
HTTPS Server:
HTTP Server:
SNMP Service:
DESCRIPTION
Each of these read-only labels denotes a server or service that you may use to
remotely manage the ZyAIR.
See “SSL Passthrough” for information on HTTPS.
Port
This field shows the port number for the remote management service. You may
change the port number for a service if needed, but you must use the same
port number to use that service for remote management.
Access
Select the access interface (if any) by pressing the [SPACE BAR]. Choices are:
LAN only, WAN only, All or Disable. The default is LAN only.
Secured Client IP
The default 0.0.0.0 allows any client to use this service to remotely manage the
ZyAIR. Enter an IP address to restrict access to a client with a matching IP
address.
Certificate
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate. The ZyAIR has an
auto_generated_self_signed_cert by factory default. The factory default
certificate is common to all ZyAIR’s that use certificates. You can replace the
certificate when you log into the ZyAIR, see the section Introducing the Web
Configurator or you can go to the Certificates configuration screen, see the
Certificates chapter.
Authenticate Client
Certificates
Select Yes by pressing the [SPACE BAR]. The internal RADIUS server uses
one of the certificates listed in the My Certificates screen to authenticate each
wireless client. The exact certificate used, depends on the certificate
information configured on the wireless client.
Once you have filled in this menu, press [ENTER] at the message "Press ENTER to Confirm or ESC to
Cancel" to save your configuration, or press [ESC] to cancel.
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24.3.5 Remote Management Limitations
Remote management over LAN or WAN will not work when:
1 A filter in menu 3.1 (LAN) or in menu 11.5 (WAN) is applied to block a Telnet, FTP or
Web service.
2 You have disabled that service in menu 24.11.
3 The IP address in the Secured Client IP field (menu 24.11) does not match the client IP
address. If it does not match, the ZyAIR will disconnect the session immediately.
4 There is already another remote management session of the same type (Telnet, FTP or
Web) running. You may only have one remote management session of the same type
running at one time.
5 There is a web remote management session running with a Telnet session. A Telnet
session will be disconnected if you begin a web session; it will not begin if there already
is a web session.
24.4 Remote Management and NAT
When NAT is enabled:
• Use the ZyAIR’s WAN IP address when configuring from the WAN.
• Use the ZyAIR’s LAN IP address when configuring from the LAN.
24.5 System Timeout
There is a system timeout of five minutes (300 seconds) for Telnet/web/FTP connections.
Your ZyAIR will automatically log you out if you do nothing in this timeout period, except
when it is continuously updating the status in menu 24.1 or when sys stdio has been
changed on the command line.
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Appendix A
Troubleshooting
This appendix covers potential problems and possible remedies. After each problem
description, some instructions are provided to help you to diagnose and to solve the problem.
Problems Starting Up the ZyAIR
Table 83 Troubleshooting the Start-Up of Your ZyAIR
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
None of the LEDs
Make sure you are using the supplied power adaptor and that it is plugged in to an
turn on when I plug in appropriate power source. Check that the power source is turned on.
the power adaptor.
If the problem persists, you may have a hardware problem. In this case, you should contact
your local vendor.
The ZyAIR reboots
automatically
sometimes.
The supplied power to the ZyAIR is too low. Check that the ZyAIR is receiving enough power.
Make sure the power source is working properly.
Problems with the Ethernet Interface
Table 84 Troubleshooting the Ethernet Interface
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Cannot access the
ZyAIR from the
LAN.
If the ETHN LED on the front panel is off, check the Ethernet cable connection
between your ZyAIR and the Ethernet device connected to the ETHERNET port.
Check for faulty Ethernet cables.
Make sure your computer’s Ethernet adapter is installed and working properly.
Check the IP address of the Ethernet device. Verify that the IP address and the subnet
mask of the ZyAIR, the Ethernet device and your computer are on the same subnet.
I cannot ping any
computer on the
LAN.
If the ETHN LED on the front panel is off, check the Ethernet cable connections
between your ZyAIR and the Ethernet device.
Check the Ethernet cable connections between the Ethernet device and the LAN
computers.
Check for faulty Ethernet cables.
Make sure the LAN computer’s Ethernet adapter is installed and working properly.
Verify that the IP address and the subnet mask of the ZyAIR, the Ethernet device and
the LAN computers are on the same subnet.
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Problems with the Password
Table 85 Troubleshooting the Password
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
I cannot access the
ZyAIR.
The Password and Username fields are case-sensitive. Make sure that you enter the correct
password and username using the proper casing.
Use the RESET button on the top panel of the ZyAIR to restore the factory default
configuration file (hold this button in for about 10 seconds or until the link LED turns red). This
will restore all of the factory defaults including the password.
Problems with Telnet
Table 86 Troubleshooting Telnet
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
I cannot access the
ZyAIR through
Telnet.
Refer to the Problems with the Ethernet Interface section for instructions on checking your
Ethernet connection.
Problems with the WLAN Interface
Table 87 Troubleshooting the WLAN Interface
PROBLEM
CORRECTIVE ACTION
Cannot access the
ZyAIR from the
WLAN.
Make sure the wireless card is properly inserted in the ZyAIR and the link LED is on.
Make sure the wireless adapter on the wireless station is working properly.
Check that both the ZyAIR and your wireless station are using the same ESSID, channel and
WEP keys (if WEP encryption is activated).
I cannot ping any
computer on the
WLAN.
Make sure the wireless card is properly inserted in the ZyAIR and the link LED is on.
Make sure the wireless adapter on the wireless station(s) is working properly.
Check that both the ZyAIR and wireless station(s) are using the same ESSID, channel and
WEP keys (if WEP encryption is activated).
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Appendix B
Specifications
Hardware
Table 88 Hardware
Power Specification
DC 12V 1200mA
Operation Temperature
5º C ~ 50º C
Storage Temperature
-20º C ~ 55º C
Operation Humidity
10% to 90% (Non-condensing)
Storage Humidity
5% to 95% (Non-condensing)
Firmware
Table 89 Firmware
Standards
IEEE 802.3 and 802.3u 10Base-T and 100Base-TX.
IEEE 802.11b specification compliance for wireless LAN.
IEEE 802.11g specification compliance for wireless LAN.
IEEE 802.1x security standard.
IEEE 802.3af standard.
Wi-Fi certificate.
Spanning Tree Protocol
IEEE 802.1d
DHCP Relay
Ability to act as a DHCP relay to pass the IP address from the DHCP server
from either WAN port or NAT router.
Security
MAC address filtering through WLAN, supporting 32 accounts.
IEEE 802.1x security; MD5, EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS and PEAP included.
64/128 bits WEP.
WPA support.
Dynamic WEP key exchange.
Mixed WEP & WPA mode supporting both 802.1x with Dynamic WEP and WPA
clients.
SSL passthrough.
VPN passthrough.
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Table 89 Firmware (continued)
234
Diagnostics Capabilities
The access point can perform self-diagnostic tests.
These tests check the integrity of the following circuits:
FLASH memory.
DRAM.
Wireless port.
Syslog.
Errorlog.
Trace log.
Packet Log.
Management
Embedded Web Configurator management.
Command-line interface.
Telnet support; Password-protected telnet access to internal configuration
manager.
FTP/TFTP/Web for firmware downloading, configuration backup and
restoration.
Telnet remote access support.
Built-in Diagnostic Tool.
SNMP Management.
RADIUS client.
Appendix B Specifications
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Appendix C
Power over Ethernet (PoE)
Specifications
You can use a power over Ethernet injector to power this device. The injector must comply to IEEE
802.3af.-7
Table 90 Power over Ethernet Injector Specifications
Power Output
15.4 Watts maximum
Power Current
400 mA maximum
Table 91 Power over Ethernet Injector RJ-45 Port Pin Assignments
12345678
PIN NO
RJ-45 SIGNAL ASSIGNMENT
1
Output Transmit Data +
2
Output Transmit Data -
3
Receive Data +
4
Power +
5
Power +
6
Receive Data -
7
Power -
8
Power -
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Appendix D
Brute-Force Password Guessing
Protection
The following describes the commands for enabling, disabling and configuring the brute-force
password guessing protection mechanism for the password. See Appendix I for information on
the command structure.
Table 92 Brute-Force Password Guessing Protection Commands
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
sys pwderrtm
This command displays the brute-force guessing password protection settings.
sys pwderrtm 0
This command turns off the password’s protection from brute-force guessing. The
brute-force password guessing protection is turned off by default.
sys pwderrtm N
This command sets the password protection to block all access attempts for N (a
number from 1 to 60) minutes after the third time an incorrect password is entered.
Example
sys pwderrtm 5
This command sets the password protection to block all access attempts for five minutes after
the third time an incorrect password is entered.
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Appendix E
Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address
All computers must have a 10M or 100M Ethernet adapter card and TCP/IP installed.
Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP, Macintosh OS 7 and later operating systems and all versions
of UNIX/LINUX include the software components you need to install and use TCP/IP on your
computer. Windows 3.1 requires the purchase of a third-party TCP/IP application package.
TCP/IP should already be installed on computers using Windows NT/2000/XP, Macintosh OS
7 and later operating systems.
After the appropriate TCP/IP components are installed, configure the TCP/IP settings in order
to "communicate" with your network.
If you manually assign IP information instead of using dynamic assignment, make sure that
your computers have IP addresses that place them in the same subnet as the ZyAIR’s LAN
port.
Windows 95/98/Me
Click Start, Settings, Control Panel and double-click the Network icon to open the Network
window
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Figure 158 WIndows 95/98/Me: Network: Configuration
Installing Components
The Network window Configuration tab displays a list of installed components. You need a
network adapter, the TCP/IP protocol and Client for Microsoft Networks.
If you need the adapter:
1 In the Network window, click Add.
2 Select Adapter and then click Add.
3 Select the manufacturer and model of your network adapter and then click OK.
If you need TCP/IP:
1 In the Network window, click Add.
2 Select Protocol and then click Add.
3 Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
4 Select TCP/IP from the list of network protocols and then click OK.
If you need Client for Microsoft Networks:
1 Click Add.
2 Select Client and then click Add.
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3 Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
4 Select Client for Microsoft Networks from the list of network clients and then click
OK.
5 Restart your computer so the changes you made take effect.
Configuring
1 In the Network window Configuration tab, select your network adapter's TCP/IP entry
and click Properties
2 Click the IP Address tab.
•
•
If your IP address is dynamic, select Obtain an IP address
automatically.
If you have a static IP address, select Specify an IP address and type
your information into the IP Address and Subnet Mask fields.
Figure 159 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: IP Address
3 Click the DNS Configuration tab.
•
•
If you do not know your DNS information, select Disable DNS.
If you know your DNS information, select Enable DNS and type the
information in the fields below (you may not need to fill them all in).
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Figure 160 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: DNS Configuration
4 Click the Gateway tab.
•
•
If you do not know your gateway’s IP address, remove previously
installed gateways.
If you have a gateway IP address, type it in the New gateway field
and click Add.
5 Click OK to save and close the TCP/IP Properties window.
6 Click OK to close the Network window. Insert the Windows CD if prompted.
7 Turn on your ZyAIR and restart your computer when prompted.
Verifying Settings
1 Click Start and then Run.
2 In the Run window, type "winipcfg" and then click OK to open the IP Configuration
window.
3 Select your network adapter. You should see your computer's IP address, subnet mask and
default gateway.
Windows 2000/NT/XP
1 For Windows XP, click start, Control Panel. In Windows 2000/NT, click Start,
Settings, Control Panel.
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Figure 161 Windows XP: Start Menu
2 For Windows XP, click Network Connections. For Windows 2000/NT, click Network
and Dial-up Connections.
Figure 162 Windows XP: Control Panel
3 Right-click Local Area Connection and then click Properties.
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Figure 163 Windows XP: Control Panel: Network Connections: Properties
4 Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (under the General tab in Win XP) and click
Properties.
Figure 164 Windows XP: Local Area Connection Properties
5 The Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window opens (the General tab in Windows
XP).
•
244
If you have a dynamic IP address click Obtain an IP address
automatically.
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•
If you have a static IP address click Use the following IP Address
and fill in the IP address, Subnet mask, and Default gateway fields.
Click Advanced.
Figure 165 Windows XP: Advanced TCP/IP Settings
6 If you do not know your gateway's IP address, remove any previously installed gateways
in the IP Settings tab and click OK.
Do one or more of the following if you want to configure additional IP addresses:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
In the IP Settings tab, in IP addresses, click Add.
In TCP/IP Address, type an IP address in IP address and a subnet
mask in Subnet mask, and then click Add.
Repeat the above two steps for each IP address you want to add.
Configure additional default gateways in the IP Settings tab by
clicking Add in Default gateways.
In TCP/IP Gateway Address, type the IP address of the default
gateway in Gateway. To manually configure a default metric (the
number of transmission hops), clear the Automatic metric check box
and type a metric in Metric.
Click Add.
Repeat the previous three steps for each default gateway you want to
add.
Click OK when finished.
7 In the Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window (the General tab in Windows XP):
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•
•
Click Obtain DNS server address automatically if you do not know
your DNS server IP address(es).
If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click Use the following
DNS server addresses, and type them in the Preferred DNS server
and Alternate DNS server fields.
If you have previously configured DNS servers, click Advanced and
then the DNS tab to order them.
Figure 166 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties
8 Click OK to close the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window.
9 Click OK to close the Local Area Connection Properties window.
10Turn on your ZyAIR and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
1 Click Start, All Programs, Accessories and then Command Prompt.
2 In the Command Prompt window, type "ipconfig" and then press [ENTER]. You can
also open Network Connections, right-click a network connection, click Status and then
click the Support tab.
Macintosh OS 8/9
1 Click the Apple menu, Control Panel and double-click TCP/IP to open the TCP/IP
Control Panel.
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Figure 167 Macintosh OS 8/9: Apple Menu
2 Select Ethernet built-in from the Connect via list.
Figure 168 Macintosh OS 8/9: TCP/IP
3 For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP Server from the Configure: list.
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4 For statically assigned settings, do the following:
•
•
•
•
From the Configure box, select Manually.
Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
Type the IP address of your ZyAIR in the Router address box.
5 Close the TCP/IP Control Panel.
6 Click Save if prompted, to save changes to your configuration.
7 Turn on your ZyAIR and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the TCP/IP Control Panel window.
Macintosh OS X
1 Click the Apple menu, and click System Preferences to open the System Preferences
window.
Figure 169 Macintosh OS X: Apple Menu
2 Click Network in the icon bar.
•
•
•
Select Automatic from the Location list.
Select Built-in Ethernet from the Show list.
Click the TCP/IP tab.
3 For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP from the Configure list.
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Figure 170 Macintosh OS X: Network
4 For statically assigned settings, do the following:
•
•
•
•
From the Configure box, select Manually.
Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
Type the IP address of your ZyAIR in the Router address box.
5 Click Apply Now and close the window.
6 Turn on your ZyAIR and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the Network window.
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Appendix F
IP Address Assignment Conflicts
This appendix describes situations where IP address conflicts may occur. Subscribers with
duplicate IP addresses will not be able to access the Internet.
Case A: The ZyAIR is using the same LAN and WAN IP
addresses
The following figure shows an example where the ZyAIR is using a WAN IP address that is
the same as the IP address of a computer on the LAN.
Figure 171 IP Address Conflicts: Case A
You must set the ZyAIR to use different LAN and WAN IP addresses on different subnets if
you enable DHCP server on the ZyAIR. For example, you set the WAN IP address to
192.59.1.1 and the LAN IP address to 10.59.1.1. Otherwise, It is recommended the ZyAIR use
a public WAN IP address.
Case B: The ZyAIR LAN IP address conflicts with the DHCP
client IP address
In the following figure, the ZyAIR is acting as a DHCP server. The ZyAIR assigns an IP
address, which is the same as its LAN port IP address, to a DHCP client attached to the LAN.
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Figure 172
IP Address Conflicts: Case B
To solve this problem, make sure the ZyAIR LAN IP address is not in the DHCP IP address
pool.
Case C: The Subscriber IP address is the same as the IP
address of a network device
The following figure depicts an example where the subscriber IP address is the same as the IP
address of a network device not attached to the ZyAIR.
Figure 173 IP Address Conflicts: Case C
You must set the ZyAIR to use different LAN and WAN IP addresses on different subnets if
you enable DHCP server on the ZyAIR. For example, you set the WAN IP address to
192.59.1.1 and the LAN IP address to 10.59.1.1. Otherwise, It is recommended the ZyAIR use
a public WAN IP address.
Case D: Two or more subscribers have the same IP address.
By converting all private IP addresses to the WAN IP address, the ZyAIR allows subscribers
with different network configurations to access the Internet. However, there are situations
where two or more subscribers are using the same private IP address. This may happen when a
subscriber is configured to use a static (or fixed) IP address that is the same as the IP address
the ZyAIR DHCP server assigns to another subscriber acting as a DHCP client.
In this case, the subscribers are not able to access the Internet.
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Figure 174 IP Address Conflicts: Case D
This problem can be solved by adding a VLAN-enabled switch or set the computers to obtain
IP addresses dynamically.
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Appendix G
Wireless LANs
Wireless LAN Topologies
This section discusses ad-hoc and infrastructure wireless LAN topologies.
Ad-hoc Wireless LAN Configuration
The simplest WLAN configuration is an independent (Ad-hoc) WLAN that connects a set of
computers with wireless stations (A, B, C). Any time two or more wireless adapters are within
range of each other, they can set up an independent network, which is commonly referred to as
an Ad-hoc network or Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS). The following diagram shows an
example of notebook computers using wireless adapters to form an Ad-hoc wireless LAN.
Figure 175 Peer-to-Peer Communication in an Ad-hoc Network
BSS
A Basic Service Set (BSS) exists when all communications between wireless stations or
between a wireless station and a wired network client go through one access point (AP).
Intra-BSS traffic is traffic between wireless stations in the BSS. When Intra-BSS is enabled,
wireless station A and B can access the wired network and communicate with each other.
When Intra-BSS is disabled, wireless station A and B can still access the wired network but
cannot communicate with each other.
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Figure 176 Basic Service Set
ESS
An Extended Service Set (ESS) consists of a series of overlapping BSSs, each containing an
access point, with each access point connected together by a wired network. This wired
connection between APs is called a Distribution System (DS).
This type of wireless LAN topology is called an Infrastructure WLAN. The Access Points not
only provide communication with the wired network but also mediate wireless network traffic
in the immediate neighborhood.
An ESSID (ESS IDentification) uniquely identifies each ESS. All access points and their
associated wireless stations within the same ESS must have the same ESSID in order to
communicate.
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Figure 177 Infrastructure WLAN
Channel
A channel is the radio frequency(ies) used by IEEE 802.11a/b/g wireless devices. Channels
available depend on your geographical area. You may have a choice of channels (for your
region) so you should use a different channel than an adjacent AP (access point) to reduce
interference. Interference occurs when radio signals from different access points overlap
causing interference and degrading performance.
Adjacent channels partially overlap however. To avoid interference due to overlap, your AP
should be on a channel at least five channels away from a channel that an adjacent AP is using.
For example, if your region has 11 channels and an adjacent AP is using channel 1, then you
need to select a channel between 6 or 11.
RTS/CTS
A hidden node occurs when two stations are within range of the same access point, but are not
within range of each other. The following figure illustrates a hidden node. Both stations (STA)
are within range of the access point (AP) or wireless gateway, but out-of-range of each other,
so they cannot "hear" each other, that is they do not know if the channel is currently being
used. Therefore, they are considered hidden from each other.
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Figure 178
RTS/CTS
When station A sends data to the AP, it might not know that the station B is already using the
channel. If these two stations send data at the same time, collisions may occur when both sets
of data arrive at the AP at the same time, resulting in a loss of messages for both stations.
RTS/CTS is designed to prevent collisions due to hidden nodes. An RTS/CTS defines the
biggest size data frame you can send before an RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send)
handshake is invoked.
When a data frame exceeds the RTS/CTS value you set (between 0 to 2432 bytes), the station
that wants to transmit this frame must first send an RTS (Request To Send) message to the AP
for permission to send it. The AP then responds with a CTS (Clear to Send) message to all
other stations within its range to notify them to defer their transmission. It also reserves and
confirms with the requesting station the time frame for the requested transmission.
Stations can send frames smaller than the specified RTS/CTS directly to the AP without the
RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
You should only configure RTS/CTS if the possibility of hidden nodes exists on your network
and the "cost" of resending large frames is more than the extra network overhead involved in
the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
If the RTS/CTS value is greater than the Fragmentation Threshold value (see next), then the
RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never occur as data frames will
be fragmented before they reach RTS/CTS size.
Note: Enabling the RTS Threshold causes redundant network overhead that could
negatively affect the throughput performance instead of providing a remedy.
Fragmentation Threshold
A Fragmentation Threshold is the maximum data fragment size (between 256 and 2432
bytes) that can be sent in the wireless network before the AP will fragment the packet into
smaller data frames.
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A large Fragmentation Threshold is recommended for networks not prone to interference
while you should set a smaller threshold for busy networks or networks that are prone to
interference.
If the Fragmentation Threshold value is smaller than the RTS/CTS value (see previously)
you set then the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never occur as
data frames will be fragmented before they reach RTS/CTS size.
Preamble Type
A preamble is used to synchronize the transmission timing in your wireless network. There are
two preamble modes: Long and Short.
Short preamble takes less time to process and minimizes overhead, so it should be used in a
good wireless network environment when all wireless stations support it.
Select Long if you have a ‘noisy’ network or are unsure of what preamble mode your wireless
stations support as all IEEE 802.11b compliant wireless adapters must support long preamble.
However, not all wireless adapters support short preamble. Use long preamble if you are
unsure what preamble mode the wireless adapters support, to ensure interpretability between
the AP and the wireless stations and to provide more reliable communication in ‘noisy’
networks.
Select Dynamic to have the AP automatically use short preamble when all wireless stations
support it, otherwise the AP uses long preamble.
Note: The AP and the wireless stations MUST use the same preamble mode in order
to communicate.
IEEE 802.11b Wireless LAN
The 802.11b data rate and corresponding modulation techniques are shown in the table below.
The modulation technique defines how bits are encoded onto radio waves.
Table 93 IEEE 802.11b
DATA RATE (MBPS)
MODULATION
1
DBPSK (Differential Binary Phase Shifted Keying)
2
DQPSK (Differential Quadrature Phase Shifted Keying)
5.5 / 11
CCK (Complementary Code Keying)
Note: The ZyAIR may be prone to RF (Radio Frequency) interference from other 2.4
GHz devices such as microwave ovens, wireless phones, Bluetooth enabled devices,
and other wireless LANs.
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IEEE 802.1x
In June 2001, the IEEE 802.1x standard was designed to extend the features of IEEE 802.11 to
support extended authentication as well as providing additional accounting and control
features. It is supported by Windows XP and a number of network devices. Some advantages
of IEEE 802.1x are:
• User based identification that allows for roaming.
• Support for RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service, RFC 2138, 2139) for
centralized user profile and accounting management on a network RADIUS server.
• Support for EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol, RFC 2486) that allows additional
authentication methods to be deployed with no changes to the access point or the wireless
stations.
RADIUS
RADIUS is based on a client-server model that supports authentication, authorization and
accounting. The access point is the client and the server is the RADIUS server. The RADIUS
server handles the following tasks:
• Authentication
Determines the identity of the users.
• Authorization
Determines the network services available to authenticated users once they are connected
to the network.
• Accounting
Keeps track of the client’s network activity.
RADIUS is a simple package exchange in which your AP acts as a message relay between the
wireless station and the network RADIUS server.
Types of RADIUS Messages
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point and the
RADIUS server for user authentication:
• Access-Request
Sent by an access point requesting authentication.
• Access-Reject
Sent by a RADIUS server rejecting access.
• Access-Accept
Sent by a RADIUS server allowing access.
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• Access-Challenge
Sent by a RADIUS server requesting more information in order to allow access. The
access point sends a proper response from the user and then sends another AccessRequest message.
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point and the
RADIUS server for user accounting:
• Accounting-Request
Sent by the access point requesting accounting.
• Accounting-Response
Sent by the RADIUS server to indicate that it has started or stopped accounting.
In order to ensure network security, the access point and the RADIUS server use a shared
secret key, which is a password, they both know. The key is not sent over the network. In
addition to the shared key, password information exchanged is also encrypted to protect the
network from unauthorized access.
Types of Authentication
This appendix discusses some popular authentication types: EAP-MD5, EAP-TLS, EAPTTLS, PEAP and LEAP.
The type of authentication you use depends on the RADIUS server or the AP. Consult your
network administrator for more information.
EAP-MD5 (Message-Digest Algorithm 5)
MD5 authentication is the simplest one-way authentication method. The authentication server
sends a challenge to the wireless station. The wireless station ‘proves’ that it knows the
password by encrypting the password with the challenge and sends back the information.
Password is not sent in plain text.
However, MD5 authentication has some weaknesses. Since the authentication server needs to
get the plaintext passwords, the passwords must be stored. Thus someone other than the
authentication server may access the password file. In addition, it is possible to impersonate an
authentication server as MD5 authentication method does not perform mutual authentication.
Finally, MD5 authentication method does not support data encryption with dynamic session
key. You must configure WEP encryption keys for data encryption.
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EAP-TLS (Transport Layer Security)
With EAP-TLS, digital certifications are needed by both the server and the wireless stations
for mutual authentication. The server presents a certificate to the client. After validating the
identity of the server, the client sends a different certificate to the server. The exchange of
certificates is done in the open before a secured tunnel is created. This makes user identity
vulnerable to passive attacks. A digital certificate is an electronic ID card that authenticates the
sender’s identity. However, to implement EAP-TLS, you need a Certificate Authority (CA) to
handle certificates, which imposes a management overhead.
EAP-TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Service)
EAP-TTLS is an extension of the EAP-TLS authentication that uses certificates for only the
server-side authentications to establish a secure connection. Client authentication is then done
by sending username and password through the secure connection, thus client identity is
protected. For client authentication, EAP-TTLS supports EAP methods and legacy
authentication methods such as PAP, CHAP, MS-CHAP and MS-CHAP v2.
PEAP (Protected EAP)
Like EAP-TTLS, server-side certificate authentication is used to establish a secure connection,
then use simple username and password methods through the secured connection to
authenticate the clients, thus hiding client identity. However, PEAP only supports EAP
methods, such as EAP-MD5, EAP-MSCHAPv2 and EAP-GTC (EAP-Generic Token Card),
for client authentication. EAP-GTC is implemented only by Cisco.
LEAP
LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a Cisco implementation of IEEE
802.1x.
Dynamic WEP Key Exchange
The AP maps a unique key that is generated with the RADIUS server. This key expires when
the wireless connection times out, disconnects or reauthentication times out. A new WEP key
is generated each time reauthentication is performed.
If this feature is enabled, it is not necessary to configure a default encryption key in the
Wireless screen. You may still configure and store keys here, but they will not be used while
Dynamic WEP is enabled.
Note: EAP-MD5 cannot be used with Dynamic WEP Key Exchange
For added security, certificate-based authentications (EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS and PEAP) use
dynamic keys for data encryption. They are often deployed in corporate environments, but for
public deployment, a simple user name and password pair is more practical.
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The following table is a comparison of the features of authentication types.
Table 94 Comparison of EAP Authentication Types
EAP-MD5
EAP-TLS
EAP-TTLS
PEAP
LEAP
Mutual Authentication
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Certificate – Client
No
Yes
Optional
Optional
No
Certificate – Server
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Dynamic Key Exchange
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Credential Integrity
None
Strong
Strong
Strong
Moderate
Deployment Difficulty
Easy
Hard
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Client Identity Protection
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
WPA(2)
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i standard. WPA 2 (IEEE
802.11i) is a wireless security standard that defines stronger encryption, authentication and
key management than WPA.
Key differences between WPA(2) and WEP are improved data encryption and user
authentication.
Encryption
Both WPA and WPA2 improve data encryption by using Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
(TKIP), Message Integrity Check (MIC) and IEEE 802.1x. In addition to TKIP, WPA2 also
uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in the Counter mode with Cipher block chaining
Message authentication code Protocol (CCMP) to offer stronger encryption.
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) uses 128-bit keys that are dynamically generated and
distributed by the authentication server. It includes a per-packet key mixing function, a
Message Integrity Check (MIC) named Michael, an extended initialization vector (IV) with
sequencing rules, and a re-keying mechanism.
TKIP regularly changes and rotates the encryption keys so that the same encryption key is
never used twice. The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP
that then sets up a key hierarchy and management system, using the pair-wise key to
dynamically generate unique data encryption keys to encrypt every data packet that is
wirelessly communicated between the AP and the wireless clients. This all happens in the
background automatically.
WPA2 AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is a block cipher that uses a 256-bit
mathematical algorithm called Rijndael.
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The Message Integrity Check (MIC) is designed to prevent an attacker from capturing data
packets, altering them and resending them. The MIC provides a strong mathematical function
in which the receiver and the transmitter each compute and then compare the MIC. If they do
not match, it is assumed that the data has been tampered with and the packet is dropped.
By generating unique data encryption keys for every data packet and by creating an integrity
checking mechanism (MIC), TKIP makes it much more difficult to decode data on a Wi-Fi
network than WEP, making it difficult for an intruder to break into the network.
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA and WPA-PSK are the same. The only difference
between the two is that WPA-PSK uses a simple common password, instead of user-specific
credentials. The common-password approach makes WPA-PSK susceptible to brute-force
password-guessing attacks but it's still an improvement over WEP as it employs an easier-touse, consistent, single, alphanumeric password.
User Authentication
WPA or WPA2 applies IEEE 802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to
authenticate wireless clients using an external RADIUS database.
If both an AP and the wireless clients support WPA2 and you have an external RADIUS
server, use WPA2 for stronger data encryption. If you don't have an external RADIUS server,
you should use WPA2 -PSK (WPA2 -Pre-Shared Key) that only requires a single (identical)
password entered into each access point, wireless gateway and wireless client. As long as the
passwords match, a wireless client will be granted access to a WLAN.
If the AP or the wireless clients do not support WPA2, just use WPA or WPA-PSK depending
on whether you have an external RADIUS server or not.
Select WEP only when the AP and/or wireless clients do not support WPA or WPA2. WEP is
less secure than WPA or WPA2.
Security Parameters Summary
Refer to this table to see what other security parameters you should configure for each
Authentication Method/ key management protocol type. MAC address filters are not
dependent on how you configure these security features.
Table 95 Wireless Security Relational Matrix
264
AUTHENTICATION
ENCRYPTION ENTER
METHOD/ KEY
METHOD
MANUAL KEY
MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL
ENABLE IEEE 802.1X
Open
None
No
No
Open
WEP
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Disable
Appendix G Wireless LANs
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Table 95 Wireless Security Relational Matrix (continued)
AUTHENTICATION
ENCRYPTION ENTER
METHOD/ KEY
METHOD
MANUAL KEY
MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL
ENABLE IEEE 802.1X
Shared
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Disable
WEP
WPA
WEP
No
Yes
WPA
TKIP
No
Yes
WPA-PSK
WEP
Yes
Yes
WPA-PSK
TKIP
Yes
Yes
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Appendix H
IP Subnetting
IP Addressing
Routers “route” based on the network number. The router that delivers the data packet to the
correct destination host uses the host ID.
IP Classes
An IP address is made up of four octets (eight bits), written in dotted decimal notation, for
example, 192.168.1.1. IP addresses are categorized into different classes. The class of an
address depends on the value of its first octet.
• Class “A” addresses have a 0 in the left most bit. In a class “A” address the first octet is
the network number and the remaining three octets make up the host ID.
• Class “B” addresses have a 1 in the left most bit and a 0 in the next left most bit. In a class
“B” address the first two octets make up the network number and the two remaining
octets make up the host ID.
• Class “C” addresses begin (starting from the left) with 1 1 0. In a class “C” address the
first three octets make up the network number and the last octet is the host ID.
• Class “D” addresses begin with 1 1 1 0. Class “D” addresses are used for multicasting.
(There is also a class “E” address. It is reserved for future use.)
Table 96 Classes of IP Addresses
IP ADDRESS:
OCTET 1
OCTET 2
OCTET 3
OCTET 4
Class A
0
Network number
Host ID
Host ID
Host ID
Class B
10
Network number
Network number
Host ID
Host ID
Class C
110
Network number
Network number
Network number
Host ID
Note: Host IDs of all zeros or all ones are not allowed.
Therefore:
A class “C” network (8 host bits) can have 28 –2 or 254 hosts.
A class “B” address (16 host bits) can have 216 –2 or 65534 hosts.
A class “A” address (24 host bits) can have 224 –2 hosts (approximately 16 million hosts).
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Since the first octet of a class “A” IP address must contain a “0”, the first octet of a class “A”
address can have a value of 0 to 127.
Similarly the first octet of a class “B” must begin with “10”, therefore the first octet of a class
“B” address has a valid range of 128 to 191. The first octet of a class “C” address begins with
“110”, and therefore has a range of 192 to 223.
Table 97 Allowed IP Address Range By Class
CLASS
ALLOWED RANGE OF FIRST OCTET
(BINARY)
ALLOWED RANGE OF FIRST OCTET
(DECIMAL)
Class A
00000000 to 01111111
0 to 127
Class B
10000000 to 10111111
128 to 191
Class C
11000000 to 11011111
192 to 223
Class D
11100000 to 11101111
224 to 239
Subnet Masks
A subnet mask is used to determine which bits are part of the network number, and which bits
are part of the host ID (using a logical AND operation). A subnet mask has 32 is a “1” then
the corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the network number. If a bit in the subnet
mask is “0” then the corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the host ID.
Subnet masks are expressed in dotted decimal notation just as IP addresses are. The “natural”
masks for class A, B and C IP addresses are as follows.
Table 98
“Natural” Masks
CLASS
NATURAL MASK
A
255.0.0.0
B
255.255.0.0
C
255.255.255.0
Subnetting
With subnetting, the class arrangement of an IP address is ignored. For example, a class C
address no longer has to have 24 bits of network number and 8 bits of host ID. With
subnetting, some of the host ID bits are converted into network number bits. By convention,
subnet masks always consist of a continuous sequence of ones beginning from the left most bit
of the mask, followed by a continuous sequence of zeros, for a total number of 32 bits.
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Since the mask is always a continuous number of ones beginning from the left, followed by a
continuous number of zeros for the remainder of the 32 bit mask, you can simply specify the
number of ones instead of writing the value of each octet. This is usually specified by writing
a “/” followed by the number of bits in the mask after the address.
For example, 192.1.1.0 /25 is equivalent to saying 192.1.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128.
The following table shows all possible subnet masks for a class “C” address using both
notations.
Table 99 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation
SUBNET MASK IP ADDRESS
SUBNET MASK “1” BITS
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
255.255.255.0
/24
0000 0000
255.255.255.128
/25
1000 0000
255.255.255.192
/26
1100 0000
255.255.255.224
/27
1110 0000
255.255.255.240
/28
1111 0000
255.255.255.248
/29
1111 1000
255.255.255.252
/30
1111 1100
The first mask shown is the class “C” natural mask. Normally if no mask is specified it is
understood that the natural mask is being used.
Example: Two Subnets
As an example, you have a class “C” address 192.168.1.0 with subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.
Table 100 Two Subnets Example
NETWORK NUMBER
HOST ID
IP Address
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.
0
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
00000000
The first three octets of the address make up the network number (class “C”). You want to
have two separate networks.
Divide the network 192.168.1.0 into two separate subnets by converting one of the host ID bits
of the IP address to a network number bit. The “borrowed” host ID bit can be either “0” or “1”
thus giving two subnets; 192.168.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128 and 192.168.1.128 with
mask 255.255.255.128
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Note: In the following charts, shaded/bolded last octet bit values indicate host ID bits
“borrowed” to form network ID bits. The number of “borrowed” host ID bits determines
the number of subnets you can have. The remaining number of host ID bits (after
“borrowing”) determines the number of hosts you can have on each subnet.
Table 101 Subnet 1
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.
128
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
10000000
Subnet Address: 192.168.1.0
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.1
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.127
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.126
Table 102 Subnet 2
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
128
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
10000000
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.
128
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
10000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.128
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.129
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.255
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.254
The remaining 7 bits determine the number of hosts each subnet can have. Host IDs of all
zeros represent the subnet itself and host IDs of all ones are the broadcast address for that
subnet, so the actual number of hosts available on each subnet in the example above is 27 – 2
or 126 hosts for each subnet.
192.168.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128 is the subnet itself, and 192.168.1.127 with mask
255.255.255.128 is the directed broadcast address for the first subnet. Therefore, the lowest IP
address that can be assigned to an actual host for the first subnet is 192.168.1.1 and the highest
is 192.168.1.126. Similarly the host ID range for the second subnet is 192.168.1.129 to
192.168.1.254.
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Example: Four Subnets
The above example illustrated using a 25-bit subnet mask to divide a class “C” address space
into two subnets. Similarly to divide a class “C” address into four subnets, you need to
“borrow” two host ID bits to give four possible combinations of 00, 01, 10 and 11. The subnet
mask is 26 bits (11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000) or 255.255.255.192. Each subnet
contains 6 host ID bits, giving 26-2 or 62 hosts for each subnet (all 0’s is the subnet itself, all
1’s is the broadcast address on the subnet).
Table 103 Subnet 1
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address: 192.168.1.0
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.1
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.63
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.62
Table 104 Subnet 2
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
64
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
01000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address: 192.168.1.64
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.65
Broadcast Address: 192.168.1.127
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.126
Table 105 Subnet 3
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
128
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
10000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.128
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.129
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.191
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.190
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Table 106 Subnet 4
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
192
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
11000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.192
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.193
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.255
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.254
Example Eight Subnets
Similarly use a 27-bit mask to create 8 subnets (001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110).
The following table shows class C IP address last octet values for each subnet.
Table 107 Eight Subnets
SUBNET
SUBNET ADDRESS FIRST ADDRESS
LAST ADDRESS
BROADCAST
ADDRESS
1
0
1
30
31
2
32
33
62
63
3
64
65
94
95
4
96
97
126
127
5
128
129
158
159
6
160
161
190
191
7
192
193
222
223
8
224
225
254
255
The following table is a summary for class “C” subnet planning.
Table 108 Class C Subnet Planning
272
NO. “BORROWED” HOST
BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.255.128 (/25)
2
126
2
255.255.255.192 (/26)
4
62
3
255.255.255.224 (/27)
8
30
4
255.255.255.240 (/28)
16
14
5
255.255.255.248 (/29)
32
6
6
255.255.255.252 (/30)
64
2
7
255.255.255.254 (/31)
128
1
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Subnetting With Class A and Class B Networks.
For class “A” and class “B” addresses the subnet mask also determines which bits are part of
the network number and which are part of the host ID.
A class “B” address has two host ID octets available for subnetting and a class “A” address has
three host ID octets (see Table 96) available for subnetting.
The following table is a summary for class “B” subnet planning.
Table 109 Class B Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED” HOST
BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.128.0 (/17)
2
32766
2
255.255.192.0 (/18)
4
16382
3
255.255.224.0 (/19)
8
8190
4
255.255.240.0 (/20)
16
4094
5
255.255.248.0 (/21)
32
2046
6
255.255.252.0 (/22)
64
1022
7
255.255.254.0 (/23)
128
510
8
255.255.255.0 (/24)
256
254
9
255.255.255.128 (/25)
512
126
10
255.255.255.192 (/26)
1024
62
11
255.255.255.224 (/27)
2048
30
12
255.255.255.240 (/28)
4096
14
13
255.255.255.248 (/29)
8192
6
14
255.255.255.252 (/30)
16384
2
15
255.255.255.254 (/31)
32768
1
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Appendix I
Command Interpreter
The following describes how to use the command interpreter. Enter 24 in the main menu to
bring up the system maintenance menu. Enter 8 to go to Menu 24.8 - Command Interpreter
Mode. See the included disk or zyxel.com for more detailed information on these commands.
Note: Use of undocumented commands or misconfiguration can damage the unit and
possibly render it unusable.
Command Syntax
•
•
•
•
•
The command keywords are in courier new font.
Enter the command keywords exactly as shown, do not abbreviate.
The required fields in a command are enclosed in angle brackets <>.
The optional fields in a command are enclosed in square brackets [].
The |symbol means or.
For example,
sys filter netbios config <type> <on|off>
means that you must specify the type of netbios filter and whether to turn it on or off.
Command Usage
A list of valid commands can be found by typing help or ? at the command prompt. Always
type the full command. Type exit to return to the SMT main menu when finished.
Appendix I Command Interpreter
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Appendix J
Log Descriptions
This appendix provides descriptions of example log messages.
Table 110 System Maintenance Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Time calibration is
successful
The router has adjusted its time based on information from the time
server.
Time calibration failed
The router failed to get information from the time server.
DHCP client gets %s
A DHCP client got a new IP address from the DHCP server.
DHCP client IP expired
A DHCP client's IP address has expired.
DHCP server assigns %s
The DHCP server assigned an IP address to a client.
SMT Login Successfully
Someone has logged on to the router's SMT interface.
SMT Login Fail
Someone has failed to log on to the router's SMT interface.
WEB Login Successfully
Someone has logged on to the router's web configurator interface.
WEB Login Fail
Someone has failed to log on to the router's web configurator
interface.
TELNET Login Successfully Someone has logged on to the router via telnet.
TELNET Login Fail
Someone has failed to log on to the router via telnet.
FTP Login Successfully
Someone has logged on to the router via FTP.
FTP Login Fail
Someone has failed to log on to the router via FTP.
Table 111 ICMP Notes
TYPE
CODE
DESCRIPTION
Echo Reply
0
0
Echo reply message
Destination Unreachable
3
0
Net unreachable
1
Host unreachable
2
Protocol unreachable
3
Port unreachable
4
A packet that needed fragmentation was dropped because it was set to Don't
Fragment (DF)
5
Source route failed
Source Quench
4
0
5
Appendix J Log Descriptions
A gateway may discard internet datagrams if it does not have the buffer space
needed to queue the datagrams for output to the next network on the route to the
destination network.
Redirect
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Table 111 ICMP Notes (continued)
TYPE
CODE
DESCRIPTION
0
Redirect datagrams for the Network
1
Redirect datagrams for the Host
2
Redirect datagrams for the Type of Service and Network
3
Redirect datagrams for the Type of Service and Host
Echo
8
0
Echo message
Time Exceeded
11
0
Time to live exceeded in transit
1
Fragment reassembly time exceeded
Parameter Problem
12
0
Pointer indicates the error
Timestamp
13
0
Timestamp request message
Timestamp Reply
14
0
Timestamp reply message
Information Request
15
0
Information request message
Information Reply
16
0
Information reply message
Table 112 Sys log
LOG MESSAGE
Mon dd hr:mm:ss hostname
src="<srcIP:srcPort>"
dst="<dstIP:dstPort>"
msg="<msg>" note="<note>"
DESCRIPTION
This message is sent by the "RAS" when this syslog is
generated. The messages and notes are defined in this
appendix’s other charts.
Log Commands
Go to the command interpreter interface (the Command Interpreter appendix explains how to access and
use the commands).
Configuring What You Want the ZyAIR to Log
Use the sys logs load command to load the log setting buffer that allows you to configure which logs
the ZyAIR is to record.
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Use sys logs category followed by a log category and a parameter to decide what to record
Table 113 Log Categories and Available Settings
LOG CATEGORIES
AVAILABLE PARAMETERS
error
0, 1, 2, 3
mten
0, 1
Use 0 to not record logs for that category, 1 to record only logs for that category, 2 to record only
alerts for that category, and 3 to record both logs and alerts for that category.
Use the sys logs save command to store the settings in the ZyAIR (you must do this in order to
record logs).
Displaying Logs
Use the sys
Use the sys
Use the sys
category.
Use the sys
logs display command to show all of the logs in the ZyAIR’s log.
logs category display command to show the log settings for all of the log categories.
logs display [log category] command to show the logs in an individual ZyAIR log
logs clear command to erase all of the ZyAIR’s logs.
Log Command Example
This example shows how to set the ZyAIR to record the error logs and alerts and then view the results.
ras>
ras>
ras>
ras>
sys
sys
sys
sys
logs
logs
logs
logs
load
category error 3
save
display access
#.
time
source
0 | 11/11/2002 15:10:12 | 172.22.3.80:137
Appendix J Log Descriptions
|
destination
172.22.255.255:137
|
notes
ACCESS
message
BLOCK
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Appendix K
Indoor Installation Recommendations
An antenna couples RF signals onto air. A transmitter within a wireless device sends an RF
signal to the antenna, which propagates the signal through the air. The antenna also operates in
reverse by capturing RF signals from the air.
Positioning the antennas properly increases the range and coverage area of a wireless LAN.
Antenna Characteristics
Frequency
An antenna in the frequency of 2.4GHz (IEEE 802.11b) or 5GHz(IEEE 802.11a) is needed to
communicate efficiently in a wireless LAN.
Radiation Pattern
A radiation pattern is a diagram that allows you to visualize the shape of the antenna’s
coverage area.
Antenna Gain
Antenna gain, measured in dB (decibel), is the increase in coverage within the RF beam width.
Higher antenna gain improves the range of the signal for better communications.
For an indoor site, each 1 dB increase in antenna gain results in a range increase of
approximately 2.5%. For an unobstructed outdoor site, each 1dB increase in gain results in a
range increase of approximately 5%. Actual results may vary depending on the network
environment.
Antenna gain is sometimes specified in dBi, which is how much the antenna increases the
signal power compared to using an isotropic antenna. An isotropic antenna is a theoretical
perfect antenna that sends out radio signals equally well in all directions. dBi represents the
true gain that the antenna provides.
Types of Antennas For WLAN
There are two types of antennas used for wireless LAN applications.
Appendix K Indoor Installation Recommendations
281
G-3000H User’s Guide
• Omni-directional antennas send the RF signal out in all directions on a horizontal plane.
The coverage area is torus-shaped (like a donut) which makes these antennas ideal for a
room environment. With a wide coverage area, it is possible to make circular overlapping
coverage areas with multiple access points.
• Directional antennas concentrate the RF signal in a beam, like a flashlight does with the
light from its bulb. The angle of the beam determines the width of the coverage pattern.
Angles typically range from 20 degrees (very directional) to 120 degrees (less
directional). Directional antennas are ideal for hallways and outdoor point-to-point
applications.
Positioning Antennas
In general, antennas should be mounted as high as practically possible and free of
obstructions. In point-to–point application, position both antennas at the same height and in a
direct line of sight to each other to attain the best performance.
For omni-directional antennas mounted on a table, desk, and so on, point the antenna up. For
omni-directional antennas mounted on a wall or ceiling, point the antenna down. For a single
AP application, place omni-directional antennas as close to the center of the coverage area as
possible.
For directional antennas, point the antenna in the direction of the desired coverage area.
282
Appendix K Indoor Installation Recommendations
G-3000H User’s Guide
Appendix L
Power Adaptor Specifications
Table 114 North American Plug Standards
AC Power Adaptor Model
ADS6818-1812-W 1215
Input Power
100~240 Volts AC, 50~60 Hz, 0.5 A
Output Power
12 Volts DC, 1.5A, 18W
Power Consumption
6 W Max
Safety Standards
UL, CUL (UL60950 Third Edition, CSA C22.2 No.
60950)
Table 115 European Plug Standards
AC Power Adaptor Model
ADS6818-1812-B 1215
Input Power
100~240 Volts AC, 50~60 Hz, 0.5 A
Output Power
12 Volts DC, 1.5 A, 18 W
Power Consumption
6 W Max
Safety Standards
TUV-GS, CE (EN 60950)
Table 116 United Kingdom Plug Standards
AC Power Adaptor Model
ADS6818-1812-D 1215
Input Power
100~240 Volts AC, 50~60 Hz,0.5 A
Output Power
12 Volts DC, 1.5 A, 18 W
Power Consumption
6 W Max
Safety Standards
TUV-GS (BS EN 60950)
Table 117 Australia and New Zealand Plug Standards
AC Power Adaptor Model
ADS6818-1812-A 1215
Input Power
100~240 Volts AC, 50~60 Hz, 0.5 A
Output Power
12 Volts DC, 1.5 A, 18 W
Power Consumption
6 W Max
Safety Standards
DOFT (AS/NZS 60950, AS/NZSB 3112:1-2)
Appendix L Power Adaptor Specifications
283
G-3000H User’s Guide
284
Appendix L Power Adaptor Specifications
G-3000H User’s Guide
Index
A
Address Assignment 48, 127
Alternative Subnet Mask Notation 269
Antenna
Directional 282
Omni-directional 282
Antenna gain 281
AP (access point) 257
Applications 36
Authentication databases 85, 86
Auto-crossover Ethernet/Fast Ethernet Interface 31
Auto-negotiating Ethernet/Fast Ethernet Interface 31
auto-negotiation 31
B
Backup 168
backup 208
Basic Service Set 57
Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) 63
Bridge/Repeater 32
Brute-Force Password Guessing Protection 35
BSS 57, 255
C
CA 262
Certificate Authority 262
Channel 45, 257
Interference 257
Channel ID 181
Class of Service 61
Class of Service (CoS) 61
CLI Command
Configure tagged VLAN example 115
Collision 202
Command Interpreter 219
Community 197
Contact Information 6
Contacting Customer Support 6
Index
CoS 61
CPU Load 202
CTS (Clear to Send) 258
Customer Support 6
D
Data encryption 45
Default 170
Denmark, Contact Information 6
DHCP 204
Diagnostic 205
Diagnostic Tools 201
Differentiated Services 61
DiffServ 61
DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) 61
DiffServ Code Points 61
DiffServ marking rule 61
Distribution System 58
DS Field 61
DS field 61
DSCPs 61
Dynamic WEP Key Exchange 75, 262
E
EAP 35, 73, 74
EAP Authentication 261
EAP-MD5 261
EAP-TLS 262
EAP-TTLS 262
Encryption 76, 263
Error Log 204
Error/Information Messages
Sample 205
ESS 58, 256
ESS ID 45
ESS IDentification 58
Extended Service Set 58, 256
Extended Service Set IDentification 65, 96, 187
285
G-3000H User’s Guide
F
L
Filename Conventions 207
Finland, Contact Information 6
Firmware File
Maintenance 166
Fragment Threshold 181
Fragmentation Threshold 258
Fragmentation threshold 258
France, Contact Information 6
FTP 147, 151, 229
Restrictions 229
FTP File Transfer 214
FTP Restrictions 147
LAN 162
LEAP 262
Link type 202
Log and Trace 205
Log Descriptions 277
Logs 157
G
General Setup 46, 51, 177
General Specifications 235
Germany, Contact Information 6
H
Hidden Menus 173
Hidden node 257
Host 53
Host IDs 267
How STP Works 63
HyperTerminal program 211
M
MAC address 108
MAC Address Filter Action 109, 184
MAC Address Filtering 182
MAC Filter 108
MAC filter 73
MAC Filtering 35
MAC service data unit 65, 69, 95
Main Menu 174
Management Information Base (MIB) 153
Management VLAN 115
Max Age 63
Max. Frame Burst 66, 97
MSDU 65, 69, 95
N
Network Management 36
North America Contact Information 6
Norway, Contact Information 6
I
IBSS 255
IEEE 802.1x 35, 260
In-band Management 115
Independent Basic Service Set 165, 255
Internet access 179
Internet Security Gateway 31
IP Address 48, 127, 128, 180, 204, 206
IP Addressing 267
IP Classes 267
IPSec VPN Capability 34
286
O
Out-of-band Management 115
P
Packets 202
Password 52, 171, 197
Path cost 62
PEAP 262
Per-Hop Behavior 61
Index
G-3000H User’s Guide
PHB (Per-Hop Behavior) 61
Ping 206
PoE 32, 235
Power over Ethernet 32
Power Specification 235
Preamble Mode 259
Priorities 60
Private IP Address 48, 127
Product Model 6
Product Serial Number 6
Q
Quick Start Guide 41
R
RADIUS 35, 260
Shared Secret Key 261
RADIUS Message Types 260
RADIUS Messages 260
Rapid STP 62
RAS 204
Rate
Receiving 202
Transmission 202
ReAuthentication Time 84, 86, 87, 88
Regular Mail 6
Related Documentation 27
Remote Authentication Dial In User Service 35
Remote Management and NAT 148
Remote Management Limitations 147, 229
Remote Management Setup 227
Remote Node 202
Required fields 174
Reset Button 31
Restore 169
Restore Configuration 212
Roaming 109
Requirements 111
Root bridge 62
RTS (Request To Send) 258
RTS Threshold 181, 257, 258
RTS/CTS handshake 65, 69, 95
Index
S
Security Parameters 264
Serial Number 6
Service Set 65, 96, 187
SMT Menu Overview 172
SNMP 35, 152
Community 197
Configuration 197
Manager 153
MIBs 154
Traps 155
Trusted Host 197
Spain, Contact Information 7
Spanning Tree Protocol 62
SSL Passthrough 35
STP 62
STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) 34
STP Path Costs 62
STP Port States 63
STP Terminology 62
Subnet Mask 48, 127, 180, 204
Subnet Masks 268
Subnetting 268
Support E-mail 6
Sweden, Contact Information 7
Syntax Conventions 28
System
Console Port Speed 204
Diagnostic 205
Log and Trace 204
System Information 203
System Status 201
Time and Date 224
System Information 203
System Information & Diagnosis 201
System Maintenance 201, 203, 208, 210, 212, 213, 216,
217, 219, 225
System Name 51
System Timeout 148, 229
T
TCP/IP 206, 226
Telephone 6
Telnet 150, 226
Telnet Configuration 226
Telnet Under NAT 226
TFTP
Restrictions 229
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G-3000H User’s Guide
TFTP File Transfer 215
TFTP Restrictions 147
Time and Date Setting 225
Time Setting 53
Time Zone 226
ToS 60
Trace Records 204
Troubleshooting
Accessing ZyAIR 232
Ethernet Port 231
Start-Up 231
Type Of Service 60
U
WLAN
Interference 257
Security parameters 264
Worldwide Contact Information 6
WPA 32, 75
WPA with RADIUS Application 77
WPA, WPA2 263
Z
ZyAIR LED 32
ZyNOS 208
ZyNOS F/W Version 208
Upload Firmware 213
Use Authentication 264
User Authentication 76
User Profiles 193
V
Valid CI Commands 220
Virtual Local Area Network 113
VLAN 33, 113
W
Warranty Information 6
WDS 33, 67
Web 148
Web Configurator 41, 43
Web Site 6
WEP 45
WEP Encryption 35, 83
WEP encryption 74
Wi-Fi Multimedia QoS 60
Wi-Fi Protected Access 32
Wireless Client WPA Supplicants 79
Wireless Distribution System 33
Wireless LAN 180
Wireless LAN Setup 180
Wireless LAN Topologies 255
Wireless security 73
Wizard Setup 45, 46, 48
288
Index