McDATA Sphereon 4300 Specifications

McDATA®
Products in a SAN
Environment
Planning Manual
P/N 620-000124-510
REV A
Record of Revisions and Updates
Revision
Date
Description
620-000124-000
5/2002
Initial release of the manual.
620-000124-100
9/2002
Revision of the manual to describe the Intrepid 6140 Director, Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch, and Release
6.3 of the Enterprise Fabric Connectivity Manager application.
620-000124-200
2/2003
Revision of the manual to include additional information and describe Release 7.1 of the Enterprise Fabric
Connectivity Manager application.
620-000124-300
8/2003
Revision of the manual to describe the Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch and Release 7.2 of the Enterprise
Fabric Connectivity Manager application.
620-000124-400
12/2003
Revision of the manual to describe Release 8.1 of the Enterprise Fabric Connectivity Manager application.
620-000124-500
2/2005
Revision of the manual to describe the Eclipse 1620 SAN Router, Eclipse 2640 SAN Router, Intrepid 10000
Director, Release 4.6 of the SANvergence Manager application, and Release 8.6 of the Enterprise Fabric
Connectivity Manager application.
620-000124-510
7/2005
Revision of the manual to describe the Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch, Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch,
Release 8.0 of the Enterprise Operating System, and Release 8.7 of the Enterprise Fabric Connectivity
Manager application
Copyright © 2002 - 2005 McDATA Corporation. All rights reserved.
Printed July 2005
Seventh Edition
No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a
database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McDATA Corporation.
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. McDATA Corporation
assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear.
All computer software programs, including but not limited to microcode, described in this document are
furnished under a license, and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license.
McDATA either owns or has the right to license the computer software programs described in this document.
McDATA Corporation retains all rights, title and interest in the computer software programs.
McDATA Corporation makes no warranties, expressed or implied, by operation of law or otherwise, relating
to this document, the products or the computer software programs described herein. McDATA
CORPORATION DISCLAIMS ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTIBILITY AND FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. In no event shall McDATA Corporation be liable for (a) incidental, indirect,
special, or consequential damages or (b) any damages whatsoever resulting from the loss of use, data or
profits, arising out of this document, even if advised of the possibility of such damages.
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McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Contents
Preface .......................................................................................................................... xiii
Chapter 1
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
Product Overview.............................................................................1-2
Multi-Protocol Hardware .........................................................1-2
SAN Management Applications..............................................1-5
Directors .............................................................................................1-6
Director Performance ................................................................1-7
Intrepid 6064 Director ...............................................................1-8
Intrepid 6140 Director .............................................................1-10
Intrepid 10000 Director ...........................................................1-12
Fabric Switches................................................................................1-14
Fabric Switch Performance.....................................................1-15
Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch..................................................1-15
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch..................................................1-16
Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch..................................................1-18
Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch..................................................1-19
Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch..................................................1-21
SAN Routers ....................................................................................1-22
SAN Router Performance .......................................................1-23
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router ........................................................1-24
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router ........................................................1-26
Product Features .............................................................................1-28
Connectivity Features .............................................................1-28
Security Features......................................................................1-31
Serviceability Features ............................................................1-32
Contents
iii
Contents
Chapter 2
Product Management
Product Management.......................................................................2-2
Out-of-Band Management .......................................................2-2
Inband Management .................................................................2-5
Management Interface Summary............................................2-6
Management Server Support ..........................................................2-7
Management Server Specifications .........................................2-8
Ethernet Hub ............................................................................2-10
Remote User Workstations.....................................................2-10
Product Firmware........................................................................... 2-11
Firmware Services ...................................................................2-12
Backup and Restore Features ........................................................2-13
SAN Management Applications...................................................2-15
SANavigator and EFCM Applications .................................2-15
SANvergence Manager Application.....................................2-18
EFCM Basic Edition Interface .......................................................2-20
Command Line Interface ...............................................................2-21
Chapter 3
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
Fibre Channel Topologies ................................................................3-1
Characteristics of Arbitrated Loop Operation..............................3-2
Shared Mode Versus Switched Mode.....................................3-3
Public Versus Private Devices..................................................3-6
Public Versus Private Loops.....................................................3-8
FL_Port Connectivity ..............................................................3-10
Planning for Private Arbitrated Loop Connectivity..................3-10
Planning for Fabric-Attached Loop Connectivity...................... 3-11
Connecting FC-AL Devices to a Switched Fabric ............... 3-11
Server Consolidation...............................................................3-12
Tape Device Consolidation ....................................................3-13
Fabric Topologies ............................................................................3-14
Mesh Fabric ..............................................................................3-14
Core-to-Edge Fabric ................................................................3-16
SAN Islands..............................................................................3-18
Planning for Multiswitch Fabric Support ...................................3-18
Fabric Topology Limits ...........................................................3-19
Factors to Consider When Implementing a
Fabric Topology .......................................................................3-20
General Fabric Design Considerations ........................................3-29
Fabric Initialization .................................................................3-29
Fabric Performance .................................................................3-30
Fabric Availability ...................................................................3-37
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McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Contents
Fabric Scalability ..................................................................... 3-39
Obtaining Professional Services............................................ 3-40
Mixed Fabric Design Considerations .......................................... 3-40
FCP and FICON in a Single Fabric ....................................... 3-41
Multiple Data Transmission Speeds in a Single Fabric ..... 3-51
FICON Cascading .......................................................................... 3-52
High-Integrity Fabrics ............................................................ 3-53
Minimum Requirements ........................................................ 3-53
FICON Cascading Best Practices .......................................... 3-54
Chapter 4
Implementing SAN Internetworking Solutions
SAN Island Consolidation .............................................................. 4-2
Flexible Partitioning Technology ............................................ 4-4
SAN Routing.............................................................................. 4-8
Implementing BC/DR Solutions ................................................. 4-36
Extended-Distance Operational Modes............................... 4-37
SAN Extension Transport Technologies .............................. 4-39
Distance Extension Through BB_Credit .............................. 4-49
Intelligent Port Speed ............................................................. 4-51
Distance Extension Best Practices......................................... 4-55
Consolidating and Integrating iSCSI Servers and Storage ...... 4-58
iSCSI Protocol .......................................................................... 4-59
iSCSI Server Consolidation.................................................... 4-60
iSCSI Storage Consolidation.................................................. 4-61
Chapter 5
Physical Planning Considerations
Port Connectivity and Fiber-Optic Cabling.................................. 5-1
Port Requirements .................................................................... 5-2
SFP Optical Transceivers.......................................................... 5-4
Extended-Distance Ports.......................................................... 5-6
High-Availability Considerations........................................... 5-6
Fibre Channel Cables and Connectors................................... 5-7
Routing Fiber-Optic Cables ..................................................... 5-8
Management Server, LAN, and Remote Access Support........... 5-9
Management Server................................................................ 5-10
Remote User Workstations .................................................... 5-11
SNMP Management Workstations ....................................... 5-13
EFCM Basic Edition Interface................................................ 5-14
Security Provisions......................................................................... 5-15
Password Protection ............................................................... 5-15
SANtegrity Authentication.................................................... 5-16
Contents
v
Contents
SANtegrity Binding.................................................................5-19
PDCM Arrays...........................................................................5-20
Preferred Path ..........................................................................5-23
Zoning .......................................................................................5-25
Server and Storage-Level Access Control ............................5-29
Security Best Practices ............................................................5-30
Optional Feature Keys ...................................................................5-33
Inband Management Access ..................................................5-35
Flexport Technology................................................................5-36
SANtegrity Authentication ....................................................5-36
SANtegrity Binding.................................................................5-36
OpenTrunking..........................................................................5-37
Full Volatility............................................................................5-38
Full Fabric .................................................................................5-38
Remote Fabric ..........................................................................5-39
N_Port ID Virtualization ........................................................5-39
Element Manager Application...............................................5-39
Chapter 6
Configuration Planning Tasks
Task 1: Prepare a Site Plan ...............................................................6-2
Task 2: Plan Fibre Channel Cable Routing....................................6-3
Task 3: Consider Interoperability with Fabric Elements
and End Devices ...............................................................................6-4
Task 4: Plan Console Management Support .................................6-5
Task 5: Plan Ethernet Access ...........................................................6-7
Task 6: Plan Network Addresses ....................................................6-7
Task 7: Plan SNMP Support (Optional).......................................6-10
Task 8: Plan E-Mail Notification (Optional)................................ 6-11
Task 9: Establish Product and Server Security Measures.......... 6-11
Task 10: Plan Phone Connections .................................................6-12
Task 11: Diagram the Planned Configuration.............................6-12
Task 12: Assign Port Names and Nicknames .............................6-13
Rules for Port Names ..............................................................6-13
Rules for Nicknames ...............................................................6-14
Task 13: Complete the Planning Worksheet................................6-14
Task 14: Plan AC Power.................................................................6-28
Task 15: Plan a Multiswitch Fabric (Optional)............................6-29
Task 16: Plan Zone Sets for Multiple Products (Optional)........6-30
Task 17: Plan SAN Routing (Optional) ........................................6-31
Task 18: Complete Planning Checklists.......................................6-34
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McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Contents
Appendix A
Product Specifications
Director, Fabric Switch, and SAN Router Specifications .......... A-1
Dimensions ............................................................................... A-1
Power Requirements ............................................................... A-3
Heat Dissipation....................................................................... A-5
Clearances ................................................................................. A-5
Acoustical Noise and Physical Tolerances ........................... A-6
Storage and Shipping Environment ...................................... A-6
Operating Environment .......................................................... A-7
FC-512 Fabricenter Cabinet Specifications ................................. A-7
Dimensions ............................................................................... A-8
Power Requirements ............................................................... A-8
Clearances ................................................................................. A-8
Cabinet Footprint ..................................................................... A-8
Appendix B
Firmware Summary
System-Related Differences ...........................................................B-1
Fibre Channel Protocol-Related Differences ...............................B-3
Management-Related Differences .................................................B-5
Index ................................................................................................................................ I-1
Contents
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Contents
viii
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Tables
2-1
Out-of-Band and Inband Product Support Summary ............................ 2-6
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
mSAN Routing Domain ............................................................................
mSAN Supported Limits ...........................................................................
mFCP Versus iFCP .....................................................................................
Transport Technology Comparison .........................................................
5-1
5-2
Cable Type and Transmission Rate versus Distance and Link Budget 5-5
Types of User Rights .................................................................................. 5-15
6-1
6-2
6-3
Configuration Planning Tasks .................................................................... 6-1
Physical Planning and Hardware Installation Tasks ............................ 6-35
Operational Setup Tasks ........................................................................... 6-36
B-1
B-2
E/OSc versus E/OSn and E/OSi - System-Related Differences ............ B-1
E/OSc versus E/OSn and E/OSi - Fibre Channel ProtocolRelated Differences ........................................................................................ B-3
E/OSc versus E/OSn and E/OSi - Management-Related Differences . B-5
B-3
4-18
4-21
4-28
4-48
Tables
ix
Tables
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McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Figures
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-6
1-7
1-8
1-9
1-10
1-11
Cabinet-Mount McDATA Products ........................................................... 1-4
Intrepid 6064 Director .................................................................................. 1-9
Intrepid 6140 Director ................................................................................ 1-11
Intrepid 10000 Director .............................................................................. 1-12
Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch .................................................................... 1-15
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch .................................................................... 1-16
Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch .................................................................... 1-18
Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch .................................................................... 1-19
Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch .................................................................... 1-21
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router ........................................................................... 1-25
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router ........................................................................... 1-26
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
Out-of-Band Product Management ........................................................... 2-4
Inband Product Management ..................................................................... 2-6
Management Server ..................................................................................... 2-7
24-Port Ethernet Hub ................................................................................. 2-10
Hardware View .......................................................................................... 2-17
Main Window (SANvergence Manager) ................................................ 2-18
Device Window (Element Manager) ....................................................... 2-19
Hardware View (EFCM Basic Edition Interface) ................................... 2-20
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-8
Shared Mode Operation and Logical Equivalent .................................... 3-3
Switched Mode Operation and Logical Equivalent ................................ 3-4
Public Device Connectivity ......................................................................... 3-6
Private Device Connectivity ....................................................................... 3-7
Public Loop Connectivity ............................................................................ 3-9
Private Loop Connectivity .......................................................................... 3-9
Server Consolidation .................................................................................. 3-13
Tape Drive Consolidation ......................................................................... 3-14
Figures
xi
Figures
xii
3-9
3-10
3-11
3-12
3-13
3-14
3-15
3-16
3-17
3-18
Full Mesh Fabric ..........................................................................................
2-by-14 Core-to-Edge Fabric ......................................................................
Example Multiswitch Fabric ......................................................................
ISL Oversubscription ..................................................................................
Device Locality ............................................................................................
Device Fan-Out Ratio .................................................................................
Fabric Performance Tuning .......................................................................
Redundant Fabrics ......................................................................................
Intrepid 6140 Port Numbers and Logical Port Addresses (Front) .......
Intrepid 6140 Port Numbers and Logical Port Addresses (Rear) ........
4-1
4-2
4-3
4-4
4-5
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-14
4-15
4-16
Intrepid 10000 Director FlexPar Functionality .......................................... 4-5
SAN Routing Hierarchy ............................................................................... 4-9
SAN Routing Concepts .............................................................................. 4-10
SAN Routing - Physical Connectivity ...................................................... 4-11
SAN Routing - Logical Connectivity ........................................................ 4-13
iFCP WAN Extension ................................................................................. 4-24
Inter-FlexPar Routing ................................................................................. 4-29
Dark Fiber Extended-Distance Connectivity .......................................... 4-40
WDM Extended-Distance Connectivity .................................................. 4-41
SONET Extended-Distance Connectivity ................................................ 4-43
SoIP Extended-Distance Connectivity ..................................................... 4-46
SAN Extension Technology Comparison ................................................ 4-47
WAN Link Performance (No Rate Limiting) .......................................... 4-51
WAN Link Performance (Rate Limiting Enabled) ................................. 4-52
iSCSI Server Consolidation ........................................................................ 4-60
iSCSI Storage Consolidation ...................................................................... 4-61
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
SFP Transceiver and LC Duplex Connector .............................................. 5-8
Typical Network Configuration (One Ethernet Connection) ............... 5-12
Typical Network Configuration (Two Ethernet Connections) ............. 5-13
Configure Allow/Prohibit Matrix - Active Dialog Box ......................... 5-21
PDCM Array - Example Problem ............................................................. 5-22
Preferred Path Configuration .................................................................... 5-23
Director Zoning ........................................................................................... 5-25
OpenTrunking ............................................................................................. 5-37
A-1
Fabricenter Cabinet Footprint .................................................................... A-9
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
3-15
3-17
3-19
3-32
3-34
3-35
3-36
3-39
3-43
3-44
Preface
This publication is part of a documentation suite that supports
McDATA® multi-protocol switching and routing products, including
the:
•
Intrepid® 6064 Director.
•
Intrepid 6140 Director.
•
Intrepid 10000 Director.
•
Sphereon™ 3232 Fabric Switch.
•
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch.
•
Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch.
•
Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch.
•
Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch.
•
Eclipse™ 1620 SAN Router.
•
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router.
Who Should Use This
Manual
Use this publication if you are planning to acquire and install one or
more fabric switching or routing products. The publication describes
product features, hardware, software, planning considerations, and
planning tasks. The information provided is intended for use by
configuration and installation planners; however information is also
provided for system administrators, customer engineers, and project
managers.
Organization of This
Manual
This publication includes six chapters and two appendices organized
as follows:
Preface
xiii
Preface
Chapter 1, Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products This chapter provides an overview of McDATA multi-protocol
products, and describes product performance and connectivity,
security, and serviceability features.
Chapter 2, Product Management - This chapter describes
out-of-band and inband product management; the management
server; product firmware; backup and restore features; and
software. Overviews of the graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and
command line interface (CLI) are included.
Chapter 3, Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies This chapter describes Fibre Channel topologies (including
arbitrated loop and fabric); multiswitch fabric topologies and
storage area networks (SANs); multiswitch fabric support;
general, large, and mixed fabric design considerations; and fibre
connection (FICON) cascading.
Chapter 4, Implementing SAN Internetworking Solutions - This
chapter describes SAN island consolidation; implementing
business continuance and disaster recovery (BC/DR) solutions;
and consolidating and integrating Internet small computer
systems interface (iSCSI) servers and storage.
Chapter 5, Physical Planning Considerations - This chapter describes
physical factors to consider when planning a Fibre Channel SAN
configuration. Factors include port connectivity and fiber-optic
cabling; management server support; local area network (LAN)
and remote access support; inband management access; and
security and zoning support.
Chapter 6, Configuration Planning Tasks - This chapter describes
planning tasks to be performed prior to installing a director,
fabric switch, or SAN router. Tasks include physical site planning,
connectivity and management access, and facility support. A
worksheet that lists product port connections is included.
Checklists that summarize planning and installation activities are
also included.
Appendix A, Product Specifications - This appendix lists
specifications for directors, fabric switches, and SAN routers.
Appendix B, Firmware Summary - This appendix summarizes
differences and similarities between firmware versions that
support directors, fabric switches, and SAN routers.
An Index is also provided.
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McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Preface
Related Publications
Other publications that provide additional information about
McDATA products include:
•
Intrepid 6064 and 6140 Directors:
— McDATA Intrepid 6064 and 6140 Directors Element Manager
User Manual (620-000172).
— McDATA Intrepid 6064 Director Installation and Service
Manual (620-000108).
— McDATA Intrepid 6140 Director Installation and Service
Manual (620-000157).
•
Intrepid 10000 Director:
— McDATA Intrepid 10000 Director Element Manager User
Manual (620-000227).
— McDATA Intrepid 10000 Director Installation and Service
Manual (620-000225).
•
Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch:
— McDATA Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch Element Manager User
Manual (620-000173).
— McDATA Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch Installation and Service
Manual (620-000155).
•
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch:
— McDATA Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch Installation and Service
Manual (620-000171).
•
Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch:
— McDATA Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch Element Manager User
Manual (620-000241).
— McDATA Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch Installation and Service
Manual (620-000238).
•
Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch:
— McDATA Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch Element Manager User
Manual (620-000175).
— McDATA Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch Installation and Service
Manual (620-000159).
Preface
xv
Preface
•
Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch:
— McDATA Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch Element Manager User
Manual (620-000242).
— McDATA Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch Installation and Service
Manual (620-000239).
•
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router:
— McDATA Eclipse 1620 SAN Router Administration and
Configuration Manual (620-000206).
— McDATA Eclipse 1620 SAN Router Installation and Service
Manual (620-000205).
•
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router:
— McDATA Eclipse 2640 SAN Router Administration and
Configuration Manual (620-000203).
— McDATA Eclipse 2640 SAN Router Installation and Service
Manual (620-000202).
•
General Support Publications:
— SANavigator Software Release 4.2 User Manual (621-000013).
— EFC Manager Software Release 8.7 User Manual (620-000170).
— McDATA SANvergence Manager User Manual (620-000189).
— McDATA EFCM Basic Edition User Manual (620-000240).
— McDATA E/OSc SNMP Agent User Manual (620-000168).
— McDATA E/OSn SNMP Support Manual (620-000226).
— McDATA E/OSi SNMP Support Manual (620-000228).
— McDATA E/OSc Command Line Interface User
Manual (620-000134).
— McDATA E/OSn Command Line Interface User
Manual (620-000211).
— McDATA E/OSi Command Line Interface User
Manual (620-000207).
— McDATA SDK C-FCSWAPI User Manual (620-000149).
xvi
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Preface
— McDATA EFCM Lite Installation Instructions (958-000171).
— McDATA FC-512 Fabricenter Equipment Cabinet Installation and
Service Manual (620-000100).
Ordering Printed
Manuals
Where to Get Help
To order a printed copy of this publication, submit a purchase order
as described in Ordering McDATA Documentation Instructions at
http://www.mcdata.com. To obtain documentation CD-ROMs,
contact your McDATA sales representative.
For technical support, contact the McDATA Solution Center. The
center provides a single point of contact for assistance and is staffed
24 hours a day, seven days a week, including holidays. Contact the
center at the phone number, fax number, or e-mail address listed
below. Please have the product serial number (printed on the service
label) available.
Phone: (800) 752-4572 or (720) 558-3910
Fax: (720) 558-3851
E-mail: support@mcdata.com
Trademarks
The following terms, indicated by a registered trademark symbol
(®) or trademark symbol (™) on first use in this publication, are
trademarks of McDATA Corporation or SANavigator, Inc. in the
United States or other countries or both:
Registered Trademarks
Trademarks
Fabricenter®
Eclipse™
HotCAT®
EON™
Intrepid®
FlexPar™
McDATA®
nScale™
Multi-Capable Storage
Network Solutions®
OPENconnectors™
Networking the World’s
Business Data®
Sphereon™
OPENready®
SANavigator®
SANtegrity®
SANvergence®
Preface
xvii
Preface
All other trademarked terms, indicated by a registered trademark
symbol (®) or trademark symbol (™) on first use in this publication,
are trademarks of their respective owners in the United States or
other countries or both.
xviii
Forwarding
Publication
Comments
Please send comments to the McDATA Solution Center by telephone,
fax, or e-mail. The numbers and e-mail address are listed above.
Please identify the page numbers and details.
Laser Compliance
Statement
Product laser transceivers are tested and certified in the United States
to conform to Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR),
Subchapter J, Parts 1040.10 and 1040.11 for Class 1 laser products.
Transceivers are tested and certified to be compliant with
International Electrotechnical Commission IEC825-1 and European
Norm EN60825-1 and EN60825-2 regulations for Class 1 laser
products. Class 1 laser products are not considered hazardous. The
transceivers are designed to prevent human access to laser radiation
above a Class 1 level during normal operation or prescribed
maintenance conditions.
Federal
Communications
Commission (FCC)
Statement
Products generate, use, and can radiate radio frequency energy, and if
not installed and used in accordance with instructions provided, may
cause interference to radio communications. Products are tested and
found to comply with the limits for Class A and Class B computing
devices pursuant to Subpart B of Part 15 of the FCC Rules, which are
designed to provide reasonable protection against such interference
in a residential environment. Any modification or change made to a
product without explicit approval from McDATA, by means of a
written endorsement or through published literature, invalidates the
service contract and voids the warranty agreement with McDATA.
Canadian EMC
Statements
The statements below indicate product compliance with Interference
Causing Equipment Standard (ICES) and Norme sur le Matériel
Brouiller (NMB) electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements
as set forth in ICES/NMB-003, Issue 4.
•
This Class A or Class B digital apparatus complies with
Canadian ICES-003.
•
Cet appareil numérique de la classe A et classe B est conforme à la
norme NMB-003 du Canada.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Preface
United States and
Canada UL
Certification
International Safety
Conformity
Declaration (CB
Scheme)
The C-UL-US mark on a product indicates compliance with
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and Standards
Council of Canada (SCC) safety requirements as tested, evaluated,
and certified by Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) and
Underwriters Laboratories of Canada (ULC).
A certification bodies (CB) test report supporting a product indicates
safety compliance with the International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC) system for conformity testing and certification of
electrical equipment (IECEE) CB scheme.
The CB scheme is a multilateral agreement among participating
countries and certification organizations that accepts test reports
certifying the safety of electrical and electronic products.
European Union
Conformity
Declarations and
Directives (CE Mark)
The CE mark on a product indicates compliance with the following
regulatory requirements as set forth by European Norms (ENs) and
relevant international standards for commercial and light industrial
information technology equipment (ITE):
•
EN55022: 1998 - ITE-generic radio frequency interference (RFI)
emission standard for domestic, commercial, and light industrial
environments, including electrical business equipment.
•
EN55024-1: 1998 - ITE-generic electromagnetic immunity
standard for domestic, commercial, and light industrial
environments, including electrical business equipment.
•
EN60950/A11:1997 - ITE-generic electrical and fire safety
standard for domestic, commercial, and light industrial
environments, including electrical business equipment.
•
EN61000-3-2:1995 - ITE-generic harmonic current emissions
standard for domestic, commercial, and light industrial
environments (equipment with rated current less than or
equal to 16 amperes per phase).
•
EN61000-3-3:1995 - ITE-generic voltage fluctuation and flicker
standard (low-voltage power supply systems) for domestic,
commercial, and light industrial environments (equipment with
rated current less than or equal to 16 amperes per phase).
Preface
xix
Preface
In addition, the European Union (EU) Council has implemented a
series of directives that define product safety standards for member
countries. The following directives apply:
•
Products conform with all protection requirements of EU
directive 89/336/EEC (Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive)
in accordance with the laws of the member countries relating to
EMC emissions and immunity.
•
Products conform with all protection requirements of EU
directive 73/23/EEC (Low-Voltage Directive) in accordance with
the laws of the member countries relating to electrical safety.
•
Products conform with all protection requirements of EU
directive 93/68/EEC (Machinery Directive) in accordance with
the laws of the member countries relating to safe electrical and
mechanical operation of the equipment.
McDATA does not accept responsibility for any failure to satisfy the
protection requirements of any of these directives resulting from a
non-recommended or non-authorized modification to a product.
xx
European Union EMC
and Safety
Declaration (N-Mark)
The N-mark on a product indicates compliance with European Union
EMC and safety requirements as tested, evaluated, and certified by
the Norwegian Board for Testing and Approval of Electrical
Equipment (Norges Elektriske Materiellkontroll or NEMKO)
laboratory or a NEMKO-authorized laboratory.
Argentina IRAM
Certification
The Instituto Argentino de Normalización (IRAM) S-mark on a
product indicates compliance with Direccion Nacional de Comercio
Interior (DNCI) Resolution Number 92/98, Phase III (for
information technology equipment safety). In conjunction with the
S-mark is the AR-UL mark, certified by UL de Argentina, S.R.L., and
accredited by the Argentine Accreditation Organization (OAA).
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Preface
Australia and New
Zealand C-Tick Mark
The Australia and New Zealand regulatory compliance mark
(C-tick mark) on a product indicates compliance with regulatory
requirements for safety and EMC (for information technology
equipment) as set forth by the Australian Communications Authority
(ACA) and the Radio Spectrum Management Group (RSM) of New
Zealand.
People’s Republic of
China CCC Mark
The China Compulsory Certification mark (CCC mark) on a product
indicates compliance with People’s Republic of China regulatory
requirements for safety and EMC (for information technology
equipment) as set forth by the National Regulatory Commission for
Certification and Accreditation.
Chinese National
Standards Statement
The Chinese National Standards (CNS) statement below indicates
product compliance with Taiwanese Bureau of Standards, Metrology,
and Inspection (BSMI) regulatory requirements. The statement
indicates a product is a Class A or Class B product, and in a domestic
environment may cause radio interference, in which case the user is
required to take corrective actions.
German TÜV GS Mark
The German regulatory compliance mark (TÜV GS Mark) on a
product indicates compliance with the German Safety of Equipment
Act as tested by the Technical Inspection Association (Technischer
Überwachungsverein or TÜV), and accredited by the Central Office
of Safety of the German Länder (Zentralstelle der Länder für
Sicherheit or ZLS).
Preface
xxi
Preface
Japanese VCCI
Statement
Korean MIC Mark
Mexican NOM Mark
NOM
Russian GOST
Certification
xxii
The Voluntary Control Council for Interference (VCCI) statement
below applies to information technology equipment, and indicates
product compliance with Japanese regulatory requirements. The
statement indicates a product is a Class A or Class B product, and in a
domestic environment may cause radio interference, in which case
the user is required to take corrective actions.
The Korean Ministry of Information and Communications mark
(MIC mark) on a product indicates compliance with regulatory
requirements for safety and EMC (for information technology
equipment) as authorized and certified by the Korean Radio
Research Institute (RRI).
The Official Mexican Standard (Normas Oficiales Mexicanas or
NOM) mark on a product indicates compliance with regulatory
requirements for safety (for information technology equipment) as
authorized and accredited by the National System of Accreditation of
Testing Laboratories (Sistema Nacional de Acreditamieno de
Laboratorios de Pruebas or SINALP).
The Russian Gosudarstvennyi Standart (GOST) mark on a product
indicates compliance with regulatory requirements for safety and
EMC (for information technology equipment) as authorized and
accredited by the State Committee for Standardization, Metrology
and Certification.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Preface
Danger and Attention
Statements
The following DANGER statement appears in this publication and
describes safety practices that must be observed while installing or
servicing a product. A DANGER statement provides essential
information or instructions for which disregard or noncompliance
may result in death or severe personal injury. The statement appears
in English, followed by translations to:
•
Chinese (simplified - People’s Republic of China).
•
Chinese (traditional - Taiwan).
•
French (European).
•
German.
•
Hebrew.
•
Italian.
•
Portuguese.
•
Spanish (European).
•
Spanish (Latin American).
DANGER
Use the supplied power cords. Ensure the facility power receptacle
is the correct type, supplies the required voltage, and is properly
grounded.
Preface
xxiii
Preface
DANGER
Utiliser les câbles d’alimentation fournis. S’assurer que la prise de
courant du local est du type correct, délivre la tension requise et est
correctement raccordée à la terre.
GEFAHR
Die mitgelieferten Netzkabel verwenden. Sicherstellen, dass die
verwendete Netzsteckdose dem vorgeschriebenen Typ entspricht,
die erforderliche Spannung liefert und einwandfrei geerdet ist.
PERICOLO
Usare il cavo di alimentazione in dotazione. Assicurarsi che la presa
di corrente a disposizione sia del tipo corretto, eroghi la tensione
richiesta e sia dotata di messa a terra idonea.
PERIGO
Use os cordões elétricos fornecidos. Certifique-se de que o tipo de
receptor de energia da facilidade é apropriado, fornece a voltagem
necessária, e está corretamente aterrado.
xxiv
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Preface
PELIGRO
Utilice los cables de alimentación proporcionados. Asegúrese que el
receptáculo tomacorriente para la instalación sea el tipo correcto,
suministre el voltaje necesario, y que esté apropiadamente puesto
a tierra.
PELIGRO
Utilice los cables de alimentación proporcionados. Asegúrese que el
receptáculo tomacorriente para la instalación sea del tipo correcto,
suministre el voltaje necesario, y que esté apropiadamente conectado
a tierra.
The following ATTENTION statements appear in this publication
and describe practices that must be observed while installing or
servicing a product. An ATTENTION statement provides essential
information or instructions for which disregard or noncompliance
may result in equipment damage or loss of data.
ATTENTION ! Activating a preferred path can result in receipt of out-oforder frames if the preferred path differs from the current path, if input and
output (I/O) is active from the source port, and if congestion is present on the
current path.
ATTENTION ! When configuring a PDCM array that prohibits E_Port
connectivity, mistakes can render ISLs unusable and cause complex routing
problems. These problems can be difficult to fault isolate and sometimes
manifest incorrectly as end-device issues.
ATTENTION ! If zoning is implemented by WWN, removal and replacement
of a device HBA or Fibre Channel interface (thereby changing the device
WWN) disrupts zone operation and may incorrectly exclude a device from
a zone.
ATTENTION ! If zoning is implemented by port number, a change to the
director or switch fiber-optic cable configuration disrupts zone operation and
may incorrectly include or exclude a device from a zone.
Preface
xxv
Preface
xxvi
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
1
Introduction to McDATA
Multi-Protocol Products
The enterprise-level storage area network (SAN) of today is typically
complex and managed at the device layer. These problems result in
SANs that use storage assets inefficiently, and are complex, error
prone, expensive, and time-consuming to manage.
This chapter describes McDATA® products and SAN management
applications that provide Multi-Capable Storage Network Solutions®
to enable enterprises to efficiently allocate storage devices to servers
on demand, while lowering the cost of storage asset ownership. These
solutions:
•
Consolidate information technology (IT) resources, integrate
servers, interconnect remote data centers and branch offices
(SAN islands), expand existing Fibre Channel SANs, and
implement business continuity and disaster recovery (BC/DR)
methods.
•
Create a robust, reliable, scalable, and cost-effective SAN that
provides enterprise-class connectivity and supports Fibre
Channel Protocol (FCP) and fibre connection (FICON®)
environments.
•
Simplify and automate SAN management by creating an
application-oriented, on-demand data network.
These solutions, coupled with McDATA’s technical vision, result in
greater application availability and SAN performance, thus enabling
enterprises to meet their business objectives. Refer to Chapter 4,
Implementing SAN Internetworking Solutions for detailed information.
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
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Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1
Product Overview
McDATA provides storage network solutions that are integrated
across a variety of platforms, original equipment manufacturers
(OEMs), and locations. Solutions are modular and support multiple
technologies (current and future), protocols, and data transmission
speeds. These solutions include:
Multi-Protocol
Hardware
•
Multi-protocol hardware.
•
SAN management applications.
McDATA provides three classes of multi-protocol hardware:
•
Intrepid®-series directors - A director is a high port count,
high-bandwidth Fibre Channel switch designed with fullyredundant, hot-swappable field replaceable units (FRUs).
Directors provide superior scalability, high data security, and an
availability of 99.999% (about five minutes of average down time
per year). Director-class products are typically deployed at the
core of large fabrics (greater than 500 ports) and are the optimum
choice to support mission-critical business requirements.
McDATA offers the:
— 64-port Intrepid 6064 Director.
— 140-port Intrepid 6140 Director.
— 256-port Intrepid 10000 Director.
Refer to Directors for detailed information about each product.
•
1-2
Sphereon™-series fabric switches - A fabric switch is a low to
medium port count, high-bandwidth Fibre Channel switch
designed with redundant power supplies and cooling fans. Fabric
switches implement the same high-performance technology as
directors, but with less redundancy, availability, and expense.
Switches are cost-effective, support non-disruptive scalability and
connectivity on demand, and provide an availability of 99.9%
(about 8.8 hours of average down time per year). Switch-class
products are typically deployed at the edge of large fabrics or
provide the foundation for small (less than 200 ports) or medium
fabrics (between 200 and 500 ports). McDATA offers the:
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1
— 32-port Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch.
— 12-port Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch. The switch provides
both switched fabric and Fibre Channel arbitrated loop
(FC-AL) connectivity.
— 16-port Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch. The switch provides
both switched fabric and FC-AL connectivity.
— 24-port Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch. The switch provides
both switched fabric and FC-AL connectivity.
— 32-port Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch. The switch provides
both switched fabric and FC-AL connectivity.
Refer to Fabric Switches for detailed information about each
product.
•
Eclipse™-series SAN routers - A SAN router is a low port count,
high-bandwidth product that unifies storage and networking
architectures and provides metropolitan area network (MAN) or
wide area network (WAN) extended distance access and multiprotocol access to traditional Fibre Channel SANs. McDATA
offers the:
— Four-port Eclipse 1620 SAN Router.
— 16-port Eclipse 2640 SAN Router.
Refer to SAN Routers for detailed information about each product.
McDATA products (except the Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch) are
managed and controlled through a rack-mount management server
with a SAN management application installed. Multiple products
and the management server communicate on a local area network
(LAN) through one or more 10/100 Base-T Ethernet hubs. Each hub
provides 24 Ethernet connections. Hubs are daisy-chained as
required to provide additional Ethernet connections as more directors
and switches are installed on a customer network.
Per customer request, directors and switches are delivered separately
or installed in a McDATA FC-512 Fabricenter® equipment cabinet.
The rack-mount management server is mounted at the cabinet center,
and one Ethernet hub is mounted at the cabinet top. Figure 1-1
illustrates two Fabricenter equipment cabinets populated with the
following:
1. Ethernet hub.
2. Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch.
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1-3
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1
3. Intrepid 6064 Director.
4. Rack-mount management server.
5. Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch.
6. Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch.
7. Intrepid 6140 Director.
8. Eclipse 1620 SAN Router.
9. Eclipse 2640 SAN Router.
10. Intrepid 10000 Director.
Figure 1-1
1-4
Cabinet-Mount McDATA Products
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Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1
SAN Management
Applications
McDATA offers the following SAN management applications
installed on the rack-mount management server:
•
SANavigator® application - The SANavigator application
(Version 4.2 or later) is an integrated software package that
provides management of an enterprise-wide, heterogeneous SAN
(with multiple vendor applications) from a single console.
Element Manager applications installed on the management
server are launched from the SANavigator application. These
applications provide configuration, management, and status
monitoring of Intrepid-series directors and Sphereon-series fabric
switches. The SANavigator application also manages and
monitors an entire complex fabric, including servers and storage
devices from multiple OEMs that use multiple applications,
protocols, and technologies. In addition, an instance of the
SANvergence® Manager application can be launched from the
SANavigator application.
•
Enterprise Fabric Connectivity Manager (EFCM) application The EFCM application (Version 8.7 or later) is an integrated
software package that provides management of McDATA
directors and switches from a single console.
Element Manager applications installed on the management
server are launched from the EFCM application. These
applications provide configuration, management, and status
monitoring of Intrepid-series directors and Sphereon-series fabric
switches. In addition, an instance of the SANvergence Manager
application can be launched from the EFCM application.
•
SANvergence® Manager application - The SANvergence
Manager application (Version 4.6 or later) provides management
of Eclipse-series switches and advanced configuration and
monitoring of servers and storage devices in a mixed-protocol
(Fibre Channel and iSCSI) SAN.
Element Manager applications installed on each Eclipse-series
switch are launched from the SANvergence Manager application.
These applications provide switch configuration, management,
and status monitoring. The SANvergence Manager application
also provides a user interface with a storage name server (SNS)
database that enables auto-discovery and status monitoring of
Fibre Channel and Internet protocol (IP) SAN devices.
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
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Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1
Refer to Chapter 2, Product Management for information about SAN
management applications and the management server. Chapter 2 also
describes switch management through:
•
The Internet using a product’s EFCM Basic Edition interface.
•
Inband (Fibre Channel) application clients.
•
Simple network management protocol (SNMP) workstations.
•
A command line interface (CLI) or PC-attached Telnet session.
Directors
Directors provide high-performance, dynamic connections between
end devices such as servers, mass storage devices, and peripherals in
a Fibre Channel switched network. Directors also support mainframe
and open-systems interconnection (OSI) computing environments,
and provide data transmission and flow control between device node
ports (N_Ports) as dictated by the Fibre Channel Physical and Signaling
Interface (FC-PH).
Because of high port count, non-blocking architecture, and FRU
redundancy, directors offer high availability and high-performance
bandwidth. Directors should be installed for:
•
Backbone implementation for a large-scale enterprise SAN that
requires centralized storage management, centralized backup and
restore, data protection, and disaster tolerance. Refer to General
Fabric Design Considerations for information.
•
Mission-critical applications and switched data paths with no
downtime tolerance.
•
Performance-intense applications that require any-to-any port
connectivity at a high bandwidth.
Directors also provide connectivity between servers and devices
manufactured by multiple OEMs. To determine if an OEM product
can communicate through connections provided by a director or if
communication restrictions apply, refer to the product publications or
contact McDATA.
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1
Director
Performance
Directors provide the following general performance features:
•
High bandwidth - Ports on Intrepid-series directors provide
full-duplex serial data transfer at a rate of 1.0625, 2.1250, or
10.2000 gigabits per second (Gbps).
•
Low communication overhead - Fibre Channel protocol provides
efficient use of transmission bandwidth, reduces interlocked
handshakes across the communication interface, and efficiently
implements low-level error recovery mechanisms. This results in
little communication overhead in the protocol and a director bit
error rate (BER) less than one bit error per trillion (1012) bits.
•
High-availability - To ensure an availability of 99.999%, director
design provides a redundant configuration of critical components
with automatic failure detection and notification. Multiple FRUs
(logic cards, power supplies, and cooling fans) provide
redundancy in case of failure. If an active FRU fails, the backup
FRU takes over operation automatically (failover) to maintain
director and Fibre Channel link operation. High availability is
also provided through concurrent firmware upgrades and spare
or unused Fibre Channel ports.
•
Low latency - For 1.0625 Gbps frame traffic, the latency is less
than 2.5 microseconds between transmission of a frame at a
source port to receipt of the frame at the corresponding
destination port (with no port contention). For 2.1250 and 10.2000
Gbps frame traffic, the latency is less than 2.0 microseconds.
•
Local control - Actions taking place at a device N_Port seldom
affect operation of other ports, therefore servers need to maintain
little or no information about other connected devices in a SAN.
•
Multiple topology support - Directors support both point-topoint and multiswitch fabric topologies and indirectly support
arbitrated loop topology.
— Point-to-point topology provides a single direct connection
between two device N_Ports. This topology supports
bidirectional transmission between source and destination
ports. Through dynamic switching, directors configure
different point-to-point transmission paths. In all cases,
connected N_Ports use 100% of the available bandwidth.
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
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Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1
— A multiswitch fabric topology provides the ability to connect
directors (and other McDATA switch elements) through
expansion ports (E_Ports) and interswitch links (ISLs) to form
a Fibre Channel fabric. Director elements receive data from a
device and, based on the destination N_Port address, route
the data through the fabric (and possibly through multiple
switch elements) to the destination device.
— An arbitrated loop topology connects multiple device node
loop (NL_Ports) in a loop (or hub) configuration without
benefit of a multiswitch fabric. Although directors do not
support direct connection of arbitrated loop devices, such
devices can communicate with directors through Sphereonseries fabric switches.
•
Multiple service class support - The Fibre Channel signaling
protocol provides several classes of transmission service that
support framing protocol and flow control between ports.
Directors support:
— Class 2 transmission service that provides connectionless
multiplexed frame delivery service with acknowledgment.
Class 2 service is best suited for mainstream computing
applications.
— Class 3 transmission service that provides connectionless,
best-effort multiplexed datagram frame delivery with no
acknowledgment. Class 3 service is best suited for mass
storage or video applications.
— Class F transmission service that is used by multiple directors
(or fabric elements) to communicate across ISLs to configure,
control, and coordinate the behavior of a multiswitch fabric.
Intrepid 6064
Director
1-8
The Intrepid 6064 Director is a second-generation, enterprise-class
product that provides switched fabric connectivity for up to 64 Fibre
Channel devices. The product provides high-performance scalable
bandwidth, highly-available operation, redundant switched data
paths, long transmission distances (up to 20 km), and high device
population. Figure 1-2 illustrates the director.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1
Figure 1-2
Intrepid 6064 Director
The director supports McDATA’s non-blocking extendable open
network (EON™) architecture and concurrent firmware downloads
through hot code activation (HotCAT®) technology. The director
also provides a modular design that enables quick removal and
replacement of FRUs, including:
•
Cable management assembly and front bezel with power (green)
and system error (amber) light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
•
Power module assembly (with AC power switch), redundant fan
modules, and redundant power supplies.
•
Redundant CTP (1.0625 Gbps operation) or CTP2 (2.1250 or
10.2000 Gbps operation) logic cards.
•
Redundant serial crossbar (SBAR) assembly logic cards.
•
Backplane.
•
A minimum of eight to a maximum of 16 Fibre Channel port
cards as follows:
— Fiber port module (FPM) cards. Each FPM card provides four
1.0625 Gbps Fibre Channel port connections through duplex
small form factor pluggable (SFP) fiber-optic transceivers.
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
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Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1
— Universal port module (UPM) cards. Each UPM card provides
four 2.1250 Gbps Fibre Channel port connections through
duplex SFP fiber-optic transceivers.
— Ten-gigabit port module (XPM) cards. Each XPM card
provides one 10.2000 Gbps Fibre Channel port connection
through a duplex ten-gigabit small form factor pluggable
(XFP) fiber-optic transceiver.
For FPM, UPM, and XPM cards, shortwave laser transceivers are
available for transferring data over multimode fiber-optic cable.
Longwave laser transceivers are available for transferring data
over singlemode fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic cables attach to
director port transceivers with duplex LC® connectors.
The power module assembly at the rear of the director also provides a
9-pin, type-D subminiature (DSUB) maintenance port for connection
to a local terminal or remote terminal. Although the port is typically
used by authorized maintenance personnel, operations personnel can
use the port to configure director network addresses.
Intrepid 6140
Director
The Intrepid 6140 Director is a third-generation, enterprise-class
product that provides switched fabric connectivity for up to 140 Fibre
Channel devices. The product provides high-performance scalable
bandwidth, highly-available operation, redundant switched data
paths, long transmission distances (up to 20 km), and high device
population. Figure 1-3 illustrates the director.
The director supports McDATA’s non-blocking EON architecture and
concurrent firmware downloads through HotCAT technology. The
director also provides a modular design that enables quick removal
and replacement of FRUs, including:
1-10
•
Front bezel with power (green) and system error (amber) LEDs.
•
Redundant CTP (2.1250 and 10.2000 Gbps operation) logic cards.
•
Redundant SBAR assembly logic cards.
•
Redundant cooling fans.
•
Redundant power supply and AC modules.
•
Backplane.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1
Figure 1-3
Intrepid 6140 Director
•
A minimum of 16 to a maximum of 35 Fibre Channel port cards as
follows:
— UPM cards. Each UPM card provides four 2.1250 Gbps Fibre
Channel port connections through duplex SFP fiber-optic
transceivers.
— XPM cards. Each XPM card provides one 10.2000 Gbps Fibre
Channel port connection through a duplex XFP fiber-optic
transceiver.
For UPM and XPM cards, shortwave laser transceivers are
available for transferring data over multimode fiber-optic cable.
Longwave laser transceivers are available for transferring data
over singlemode fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic cables attach to
director port transceivers with duplex LC connectors.
The rear of the director provides a 9-pin, DSUB maintenance port for
connection to a local terminal or remote terminal. Although the port
is typically used by authorized maintenance personnel, operations
personnel can use the port to configure director network addresses.
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
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Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1
Intrepid 10000
Director
Figure 1-4
The Intrepid 10000 Director is a fourth-generation, enterprise-class
product that provides switched fabric connectivity for up to 256 Fibre
Channel devices operating at 1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps, or up to 64
devices operating at 10.2000 Gbps. The product provides highperformance scalable bandwidth, highly-available operation,
redundant switched data paths, long transmission distances (up to
2,200 km using a pool of programmable buffer-to-buffer credits), and
high device population. Figure 1-4 illustrates the director.
Intrepid 10000 Director
The director supports McDATA’s non-blocking nScale™ architecture
that allows the product to be flexibly partitioned into multiple
(up to four) separate directors (FlexPar™ feature), each with its own
management and Fibre Channel services subsystems. In addition, the
director supports concurrent firmware downloads through HotCAT
technology. FlexPar-specific software can also be independently and
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1
concurrently upgraded. The combination of high port count and the
FlexPar feature enables an enterprise to use the director at the core of
both small and large SAN fabrics. For example:
•
Large fabrics built around the director require fewer fabric
elements (directors and switches) and ISLs. Large fabrics benefit
from deterministic non-blocking performance, less ISL
congestion, and better cable management. This performance is
not possible from a fabric constructed with smaller port-count
switches interconnected with multiple ISLs. Refer to General
Fabric Design Considerations for information.
•
Smaller fabrics or SAN islands built around the director (but
separated through FlexPars) benefit from better resource
utilization because port configurations are flexible to
accommodate change and the hardware does not require
over-provisioning for growth. The FlexPar feature enables
additional fabric ports to be added to a partition on demand,
without interrupting fabric traffic. Refer to Inter-FlexPar Routing
for information.
The director provides a modular design that enables quick removal
and replacement of FRUs, including:
•
Front bezel with green power (SYSTEM ON) and amber error
(SYSTEM FAULT) LEDs.
•
Redundant CTP (1.0625, 2.1250, and 10.2000 Gbps operation)
logic cards.
•
Redundant and shared switching module (SWM) logic cards.
The director provides a variable, full-duplex, packet-switching
bandwidth that scales up to 640 Gbps (four SWMs at 160 Gbps
per module).
•
Redundant cooling fan trays (upper and lower, front and rear).
•
Power tray with redundant, load-sharing power supplies and AC
power switches.
•
Upper and lower cable trays.
•
A minimum of one to a maximum of eight Fibre Channel line
modules (LIMs). Each LIM provides the interface to attach up to
four optical paddles as follows:
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1-13
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1
— Optical paddles that operate at 1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps provide
eight Fibre Channel port connections through duplex SFP
fiber-optic transceivers. A fully-populated director supports
up to 256 port connections at 1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps data rates.
— Optical paddles that operate at 10.2000 Gbps provide two
Fibre Channel port connections through duplex XFP
fiber-optic transceivers. A fully-populated director supports
up to 64 port connections at the 10.2000 Gbps data rate.
Shortwave laser transceivers are available for transferring data
over multimode fiber-optic cable. Longwave laser transceivers
are available for transferring data over singlemode fiber-optic
cable. Fiber-optic cables attach to director port transceivers with
duplex LC connectors.
Fabric Switches
In similar fashion to directors, fabric switches also provide highperformance, dynamic connections between end devices in a Fibre
Channel switched network. Fabric switches also support mainframe
and OSI computing environments.
Through non-blocking architecture and limited FRU redundancy,
fabric switches also offer high availability and high-performance
bandwidth. Although switches do not offer the redundancy,
availability, or port count of an enterprise-class director, they offer a
much lower-cost connectivity option. Fabric switches should be
installed for:
•
Implementation as the principal building block of a small-scale
SAN or as a consolidation point for enterprise-class SANs.
•
Departmental and workgroup connectivity.
•
Applications where distributed storage predominates.
Fabric switches also provide connectivity between servers and
devices manufactured by multiple OEMs. To determine if an OEM
product can communicate through switch connections or if
communication restrictions apply, refer to the product publications or
contact McDATA.
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Fabric Switch
Performance
Fabric switches provide an availability of 99.9% through a redundant
configuration of power supplies and cooling fans. When an active
FRU (power supply or fan) fails, the backup takes over operation
automatically to maintain switch and Fibre Channel link operation.
Availability is also provided through concurrent firmware upgrades
and spare or unused Fibre Channel ports.
Excluding an availability of 99.999%, fabric switches offer the same
general performance features as directors, including high bandwidth,
low latency, local control, low communication overhead, multiple
topology support, and multiple service class support.
Sphereon 3232
Fabric Switch
Figure 1-5
The Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch operates at 2.1250 Gbps, provides
fabric connectivity for to up to 32 Fibre Channel devices, and
supports FICON, EON architecture, and HotCAT technology.
Figure 1-5 illustrates the switch.
Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch
The switch provides a modular design that enables quick removal
and replacement of FRUs, including:
•
Redundant power supplies and cooling fans. The switch provides
two power supplies, each with an AC power receptacle and
power switch. The switch also provides four cooling fans.
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Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
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•
Up to 32 duplex SFP fiber-optic port transceivers. Shortwave laser
transceivers are available for transferring data over multimode
fiber-optic cable. Longwave laser transceivers are available for
transferring data over singlemode fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic
cables attach to switch port transceivers with duplex LC
connectors.
NOTE: The Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch can be purchased at a discount price
with the Flexport Technology feature. The switch is delivered with only 16
ports enabled. When additional port capacity is required, the remaining ports
are enabled (in eight-port increments) through purchase of a PFE key.
The switch front panel provides an initial machine load (IML) button,
Ethernet LAN connector, port status LEDs, green power (PWR) LED,
and amber system error (ERR) LED.
The switch rear panel provides a 9-pin DSUB maintenance port for
connection to a local terminal or remote terminal. Although the port
is typically used by authorized maintenance personnel, operations
personnel can use the port to configure switch network addresses.
Sphereon 4300
Fabric Switch
Figure 1-6
1-16
The Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch operates at 1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps,
provides connectivity through 12 Fibre Channel ports, and supports
EON architecture and HotCAT technology. Figure 1-6 illustrates the
switch.
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch
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Switch ports can be configured as:
•
Fabric ports (F_Ports) to provide direct connectivity for switched
fabric devices.
•
Fabric loop ports (FL_Ports) to provide switched arbitrated loop
connectivity and fabric attachment for FC-AL devices. The switch
supports:
— Connectivity of public loop devices and private loop devices.
Refer to Public Versus Private Devices for information.
— Configuration of public arbitrated loops and private
arbitrated loops. Refer to Public Versus Private Loops for
information.
•
E_Ports to provide ISL connectivity to fabric directors and
switches. E_Port connectivity is not standard and must be
configured through the optional full fabric product feature
enablement (PFE) key. Refer to Full Fabric for information.
The switch provides a modular design that enables quick removal
and replacement of FRUs, including up to 12 duplex SFP fiber-optic
port transceivers. Shortwave laser transceivers are available for
transferring data over multimode fiber-optic cable. Longwave laser
transceivers are available for transferring data over singlemode
fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic cables attach to switch port transceivers
with duplex LC connectors.
NOTE: The Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch can be purchased at a discount price
with the Flexport Technology feature. The switch is delivered with only four
ports enabled. When additional port capacity is required, the remaining ports
are enabled (in four-port increments) through purchase of a PFE key.
The switch front panel provides a combined initial machine load and
reset (IML/RESET) button, Ethernet LAN connector, port status
LEDs, port speed LEDs (green for 1.0625 Gbps operation and blue for
2.1250 Gbps operation), green power (PWR) LED, and amber system
error (ERR) LED.
The switch rear panel provides a 9-pin DSUB maintenance port for
connection to a local terminal or remote terminal. Although the port
is typically used by authorized maintenance personnel, operations
personnel can use the port to configure switch network addresses.
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Sphereon 4400
Fabric Switch
Figure 1-7
The Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch operates at 1.0625, 2.1250, or 4.2500
Gbps, provides connectivity through 16 Fibre Channel generic mixed
ports (GX_Ports), and supports EON architecture and HotCAT
technology. Figure 1-7 illustrates the switch.
Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch
Switch ports can be configured as:
•
F_Ports to provide direct connectivity for switched fabric devices.
•
FL_Ports to provide switched arbitrated loop connectivity and
fabric attachment for FC-AL devices. The switch supports:
— Connectivity of public loop devices and private loop devices.
Refer to Public Versus Private Devices for information.
— Configuration of public arbitrated loops and private
arbitrated loops. Refer to Public Versus Private Loops for
information.
•
E_Ports to proved ISL connectivity to fabric directors and
switches.
The switch provides a modular design that enables quick removal
and replacement of FRUs, including:
•
1-18
Redundant power supplies and cooling fans. The switch is
delivered with one external power supply assembly, and a second
power supply can be installed as an option. When a second
power supply is detected, the switch automatically enables high
availability (HA) mode. Three internal cooling fans provide
airflow.
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•
Up to 16 duplex SFP fiber-optic port transceivers. Tri-rate
shortwave laser (1.0625, 2.1250, or 4.2500 Gbps) transceivers are
available for transferring data over multimode fiber-optic cable.
Tri-rate longwave laser transceivers are available for transferring
data over singlemode fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic cables attach
to switch port transceivers with duplex LC connectors.
NOTE: The Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch can be purchased at a discount price
with the Flexport Technology feature. The switch is delivered with only eight
ports enabled. When additional port capacity is required, the remaining ports
are enabled (in four-port increments) through purchase of a PFE key.
The switch front panel provides a combined initial machine load and
reset (RESET) button, Ethernet LAN connector, port status LEDs,
green power (PWR) LED, and amber system error (ERR) LED.
The switch rear panel provides a 9-pin DSUB maintenance port for
connection to a local terminal or remote terminal. Although the port
is typically used by authorized maintenance personnel, operations
personnel can use the port to configure switch network addresses.
Sphereon 4500
Fabric Switch
Figure 1-8
The Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch operates at 1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps,
provides connectivity through 24 Fibre Channel generic mixed ports
(GX_Ports), and supports EON architecture and HotCAT technology.
Figure 1-8 illustrates the switch.
Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch
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Switch ports can be configured as:
•
F_Ports to provide direct connectivity for switched fabric devices.
•
FL_Ports to provide switched arbitrated loop connectivity and
fabric attachment for FC-AL devices. The switch supports:
— Connectivity of public loop devices and private loop devices.
Refer to Public Versus Private Devices for information.
— Configuration of public arbitrated loops and private
arbitrated loops. Refer to Public Versus Private Loops for
information.
•
E_Ports to proved ISL connectivity to fabric directors and
switches.
The switch provides a modular design that enables quick removal
and replacement of FRUs, including:
•
Redundant power supplies and cooling fans. The switch provides
two power supplies, each with an AC power receptacle and three
cooling fans (six fans total).
•
Up to 24 duplex SFP fiber-optic port transceivers. Shortwave laser
transceivers are available for transferring data over multimode
fiber-optic cable. Longwave laser transceivers are available for
transferring data over singlemode fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic
cables attach to switch port transceivers with duplex LC
connectors.
NOTE: The Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch can be purchased at a discount price
with the Flexport Technology feature. The switch is delivered with only eight
ports enabled. When additional port capacity is required, the remaining ports
are enabled (in eight-port increments) through purchase of a PFE key.
The switch front panel provides a combined initial machine load and
reset (IML/RESET) button, Ethernet LAN connector, port status
LEDs, port speed LEDs (green for 1.0625 Gbps operation and blue for
2.1250 Gbps operation), green power (PWR) LED, and amber system
error (ERR) LED.
The switch rear panel provides a 9-pin DSUB maintenance port for
connection to a local terminal or remote terminal. Although the port
is typically used by authorized maintenance personnel, operations
personnel can use the port to configure switch network addresses.
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Sphereon 4700
Fabric Switch
Figure 1-9
The Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch operates at 1.0625, 2.1250, or 4.2500
Gbps, provides connectivity through 32 Fibre Channel generic mixed
ports (GX_Ports), and supports FICON, EON architecture, and
HotCAT technology. Figure 1-9 illustrates the switch.
Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch
Switch ports can be configured as:
•
F_Ports to provide direct connectivity for switched fabric devices.
•
FL_Ports to provide switched arbitrated loop connectivity and
fabric attachment for FC-AL devices. The switch supports:
— Connectivity of public loop devices and private loop devices.
Refer to Public Versus Private Devices for information.
— Configuration of public arbitrated loops and private
arbitrated loops. Refer to Public Versus Private Loops for
information.
•
E_Ports to proved ISL connectivity to fabric directors and
switches.
The switch provides a modular design that enables quick removal
and replacement of FRUs, including:
•
Redundant power supplies and cooling fans. The switch provides
two power supplies, each with an AC power receptacle and three
cooling fans (six fans total).
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•
Up to 32 duplex SFP fiber-optic port transceivers. Tri-rate
shortwave laser (1.0625, 2.1250, or 4.2500 Gbps) transceivers are
available for transferring data over multimode fiber-optic cable.
Tri-rate longwave laser transceivers are available for transferring
data over singlemode fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic cables attach
to switch port transceivers with duplex LC connectors.
NOTE: The Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch can be purchased at a discount price
with the Flexport Technology feature. The switch is delivered with only 16
ports enabled. When additional port capacity is required, the remaining ports
are enabled (in eight-port increments) through purchase of a PFE key.
The switch front panel provides a combined initial machine load and
reset (RESET) button, Ethernet LAN connector, port status LEDs,
green power (PWR) LED, and amber system error (ERR) LED.
The switch rear panel provides a 9-pin DSUB maintenance port for
connection to a local terminal or remote terminal. Although the port
is typically used by authorized maintenance personnel, operations
personnel can use the port to configure switch network addresses.
SAN Routers
The Fibre Channel protocol was designed for high-performance
channel and storage applications within the limited confines of a data
center. However, the protocol is not suited for long-distance
applications between multiple, geographically-dispersed SANs or
data centers. Conversely, transmission control protocol/Internet
protocol (TCP/IP) is well suited to provide dynamic routing for
complex, geographically-dispersed networks.
SAN routers provide multi-protocol solutions to this problem by
unifying storage (FCP) and networking (TCP/IP) architectures. These
protocols include metropolitan Fibre Channel protocol (mFCP),
Internet Fibre Channel protocol (iFCP), and Internet small computer
systems interface (iSCSI), provided at up to Gigabit Ethernet (GbE)
bandwidth. SAN routers are low port count, high-bandwidth
products that provide extended distance and multi-protocol access to
Fibre Channel SANs, and should be installed to:
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SAN Router
Performance
•
Perform SAN routing functions - SAN routers provide FCPprotocol, router port (R_Port) connectivity between local Fibre
Channel fabrics (SAN routing). A SAN routing solution provides
interoperable FCP connectivity and consolidates IT resources but
ensures a disruption in one fabric remains isolated and does not
propagate to other fabrics. Refer to SAN Routing for detailed
information.
•
Perform mSAN routing functions - Multiple SAN routers
interconnect with GbE bandwidth links that employ the user
datagram protocol (UDP)-based mFCP protocol. These routers
connect local Fibre Channel fabrics into a metropolitan storage
area network (mSAN) and perform mSAN routing functions. An
mSAN routing solution provides a low-latency, high-bandwidth
alternative to traditional FCP connectivity. Refer to mSAN Routing
for detailed information.
•
Implement iSAN routing and BC/DR solutions - SAN routers
provide TCP/IP-based (iFCP protocol) distance extension
solutions that connect geographically-dispersed SANs into an
internetworked storage area network (iSAN), perform iSAN
routing, and run business continuance and disaster recovery
applications over existing MAN or WAN infrastructures. Refer to
iSAN Routing and Implementing BC/DR Solutions for detailed
information.
•
Provide connectivity for iSCSI integration - SAN routers
provide cost-effective solutions (based on the iSCSI-protocol) to
consolidate servers and storage that run a wide range of
Windows-based applications. Refer to Consolidating and
Integrating iSCSI Servers and Storage for detailed information.
SAN routers provide the following general performance features:
•
High bandwidth - Fibre Channel ports on the Eclipse 1620 SAN
router provide full-duplex serial data transfer at a rate of 1.0625
Gbps. Fibre Channel ports on the Eclipse 2640 SAN router
provide full-duplex serial data transfer at a rate of 2.1250 Gbps.
Intelligent ports provide Fibre Channel data transmission or,
alternately, high-speed networking (IP) bandwidth through the
following:
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— Data compression - SAN router software identifies repetitive
information in an output data stream and applies a
compression algorithm to ensure the data is more compact
and efficiently transmitted.
— FastWrite technology - FastWrite software improves write
performance over WANs by responding to initiator write
commands with local transfer ready (XFR_RDY) commands,
and buffering output data at the SAN router closest to the
corresponding target device. This eliminates XFR_RDY
command transmissions and minimizes bursty data transfer
over the WAN, thus reducing round-trip delays that are
characteristic of extended-distance links.
— Jumbo frames - Two Ethernet frames are typically required to
transmit one Fibre Channel frame consisting of 2,112 bytes.
The jumbo frame feature maps one Ethernet frame to one
Fibre Channel frame, thus providing more efficient data
transmission.
•
High-availability - To ensure an availability of 99.9%, multiprotocol SAN router design provides a redundant configuration
of power supplies and cooling fans. High availability is also
provided through concurrent firmware upgrades and spare or
unused multi-protocol ports.
•
Multi-protocol support - SAN routers support the following
protocols:
— FCP, including first, second, and third editions of the Fibre
Channel Physical and Signaling Interface (FC-PH, PC-PH-2, and
FC-PH-3), arbitrated loop (FC-AL), and R_Port. Refer to
R_Port Operation for a discussion about R_Port operation.
— IP networking protocols, including mFCP, iFCP, iSCSI, and
Internet storage name service (iSNS). The iSNS protocol
provides intelligent storage device discovery and
management services comparable to those found in Fibre
Channel SANs. Network protocols operate at up to fullduplex GbE bandwidth at 1,000 megabits per second (Mbps).
Eclipse 1620 SAN
Router
1-24
The Eclipse 1620 SAN Router is a first-generation product that
provides extended-distance, multi-protocol fabric connectivity. The
primary function of the Eclipse 1620 SAN Router is to implement
iFCP-based BC/DR solutions. Figure 1-10 illustrates the SAN router.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
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Figure 1-10
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router
SAN router ports operate as follows:
•
Two user-configured FCP (FIBRE CHANNEL 1 and 2) ports
provide 1.0625 Gbps Fibre Channel storage connectivity using
SFP port connectors. FCP ports can be configured for:
— Auto negotiation (FC-Auto) operation. This is the default
selection.
— Fabric loop port (FL_Port) for public loop device connectivity,
fabric port (F_Port) for fabric device connectivity, loop port
(L_Port) for private loop device connectivity, or router port
(R_Port) for SAN routing operation.
•
Two user-configured intelligent (ETHERNET 3 and 4) ports
provide both FCP and IP network connectivity. Each intelligent
port provides two connectors (SFP or RJ-45). Connectivity
through the connector pair is mutually exclusive; only one
connector can be used. Intelligent ports can be configured for:
— FCP storage connectivity at 1.0625 Gbps, using only the SFP
port connector. The ports support FC-Auto, FL_Port, F_Port,
L_Port, and R_Port operation.
— IP network connectivity (iFCP or iSCSI protocol) at up to
full-duplex 100 Base-T Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps) port
transmission speed, using only the RJ-45 port connector.
Refer to Intelligent Port Speed for detailed information.
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— IP network connectivity (iFCP or iSCSI protocol) at up to
full-duplex GbE (1,000 Mbps) port transmission speed, using
only the SFP port connector. Refer to Intelligent Port Speed for
detailed information.
For SFP port connectors, shortwave laser transceivers are available
for transferring data over multimode fiber-optic cable. Longwave
laser transceivers are available for transferring data over singlemode
fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic cables attach to port transceivers with
duplex LC connectors.
SFP port transceivers are the only SAN router FRUs. The SAN router
has two power supplies and eight cooling fans that are not FRUs.
The SAN router front panel provides two AC power receptacles, an
Ethernet LAN connector (MGMT), port status LEDs, green power
supply status (PS 1 and PS 2) LEDs, and a green system status
(SYS) LED. The panel also provides a 9-pin DSUB maintenance port
(MGMT) for connection to a local terminal or remote terminal.
Although the port is typically used by authorized maintenance
personnel, operations personnel can use the port to configure SAN
router network addresses.
Eclipse 2640 SAN
Router
Figure 1-11
1-26
The Eclipse 2640 SAN Router is a second-generation product that
provides metropolitan or extended-distance, multi-protocol fabric
connectivity. The primary function of the Eclipse 2640 SAN Router is
to implement mSAN and iSAN routing solutions. Figure 1-11
illustrates the SAN router.
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router
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SAN router ports operate as follows:
•
Twelve user-configured FCP ports (1 through 12) provide 1.0625
or 2.1250 Gbps FCP storage connectivity and UDP-based network
connectivity using SFP port connectors. FCP ports can be
configured for:
— UDP-based network connectivity (mFCP protocol) at
full-duplex GbE (1,000 Mbps) port transmission speed.
— Fibre Channel auto negotiation (FC-Auto) operation. This is
the default selection.
— Fibre channel fabric loop port (FL_Port) for public loop
device connectivity, fabric port (F_Port) for fabric device
connectivity, loop port (L_Port) for private loop device
connectivity, or router port (R_Port) for SAN routing
operation.
•
Four user-configurable intelligent ports (13 through 16) provide
IP network connectivity using SFP port connectors. Intelligent
ports can be configured for IP network connectivity (iFCP or
iSCSI protocol) at up to full-duplex GbE (1,000 Mbps) port
transmission speed. Refer to Intelligent Port Speed for detailed
information.
The SAN router provides a modular design that enables quick
removal and replacement of FRUs, including:
•
Redundant power supplies and cooling fans. The SAN router
provides two power supplies each with an AC power receptacle,
power switch, and two cooling fans (four fans total).
•
Up to 16 duplex SFP fiber-optic port transceivers. Shortwave laser
transceivers are available for transferring data over multimode
fiber-optic cable. Longwave laser transceivers are available for
transferring data over singlemode fiber-optic cable. Fiber-optic
cables attach to SAN router port transceivers with duplex LC
connectors.
The SAN router front panel provides an Ethernet LAN connector
(10/100), port status LEDs, and a green system status (SYS) LED. The
panel also provides a 9-pin DSUB maintenance port (CONSOLE) for
connection to a local terminal or remote terminal. Although the port
is typically used by authorized maintenance personnel, operations
personnel can use the port to configure SAN router network
addresses.
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Product Features
In addition to the characteristics and performance features described
in this chapter, McDATA managed products also provide a variety of:
Connectivity
Features
•
Connectivity features.
•
Security features.
•
Serviceability features.
McDATA directors, fabric switches, SAN routers, and their associated
Element Manager applications support the following connectivity
features. Products or product classes that do not support a
connectivity feature are noted.
•
Any-to-any connectivity - Subject to user-defined restrictions
such as zoning, directors, fabric switches, and FCP ports on SAN
routers define the destination port with which a source port is
allowed to communicate and provide any-to-any port
connectivity. In addition, most directors and fabric switches
provide connectivity for both FCP and FICON devices.
NOTE: SAN routers do not support FICON connectivity.
•
Port blocking - System administrators can block or unblock any
director or fabric switch port through the associated Element
Manager application. Blocking a port prevents an attached device
from logging in to the director or switch or communicating with
any attached device. A blocked port continuously transmits a
Fibre Channel offline sequence (OLS).
NOTE: SAN routers do not support port blocking.
•
1-28
Zoning - System administrators can partition attached devices
into restricted-access groups called zones. Devices in the same
zone can recognize and communicate with each other through
port-to-port connections. Devices in separate zones cannot
recognize and communicate with each other. Directors, fabric
switches, and SAN routers support port number and world-wide
name (WWN) zoning.
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•
State change notification - Directors and the Sphereon 3232
Fabric Switch support a state change notification function that
allows attached N_Ports to request notification when other
N_Ports change operational state.
Sphereon 4000-series fabric switches and FCP ports on SAN
routers support a state change notification function that allows
attached N_Ports and NL_Ports to request notification when
fabric or loop-attached devices change operational state.
Intelligent ports on SAN routers support a state change
notification function using the iSNS protocol.
•
Extended distance support - Fibre Channel ports are configured
for extended distance operation (using repeaters) by changing the
port buffer-to-buffer credit (BB_Credit) setting to a higher value.
Refer to Distance Extension Through BB_Credit for detailed
information. BB_Credits are configured as follows:
— Intrepid 6000-series Directors - Ports configured at 1.0625
Gbps transmit data (1,800 bytes frames) up to 120 km by
setting the BB_Credit value to 60. Ports configured at 2.1250
Gbps ports transmit data (1,800 bytes frames) up to 60 km by
setting the BB_Credit value to 60. Ports configured at 10.2000
Gbps ports transmit data (2,100 bytes frames) up to 100 km by
setting the BB_Credit value to 400.
— Intrepid 10000 Director - Each director LIM contains two
scalable packet processors, each supporting two optical
paddles (a maximum of 16 1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps ports or four
10.2000 Gbps ports).
After assigning BB_Credit values of 16 to short-link ports and
setting the maximum BB_Credit to 1133 for a long-link port
(with the remote fabric PFE key enabled), a 1.0625 Gbps port
can transmit data up to 2,200 km, and a 2.1250 Gbps port can
transmit data up to 1,100 km. After assigning BB_Credit
values of 96 to short-link ports and setting the maximum
BB_Credit to 1085 for a long-link port (with the remote fabric
PFE key enabled), a 10.2000 Gbps port can transmit data up to
180 km. Refer to Distance Extension Through BB_Credit for
configuration parameters and other detailed information.
— Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch - All 2.1250 Gbps ports transmit
data (1,800 bytes frames) up to 60 km by setting the port
BB_Credit value to 60.
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— Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch - All switch ports are preset to a
BB_Credit value of 5. By enabling the full fabric PFE key, the
switch provides a port buffer pool of 144 receive BB_Credits
and the per-port value is increased to 12, providing a data
transmission distance of up to 24 km at 1.0625 Gbps and 12
km at 2.1250 Gbps. Refer to Full Fabric for information.
— Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch - All switch ports are preset to a
BB_Credit value of 6 and the switch provides a port buffer
pool of 150 receive BB_Credits. Each port can be assigned
between two and 120 credits, provided the total credits
allocated to all ports does not exceed 150. This provides a data
transmission distance of up to 240 km at 1.0625 Gbps, 120 km
at 2.1250 Gbps, and 60 km at 4.2500 Gbps.
— Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch - The first four ports (numbered
0 through 3) are preset to a BB_Credit value of 12, and the
remaining ports are preset to a value of 5. Each port can be
assigned between two and 120 credits, provided the total
credits allocated to all ports does not exceed 150. This
provides a data transmission distance of up to 240 km at
1.0625 Gbps and 120 km at 2.1250 Gbps.
— Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch - All switch ports are preset to a
BB_Credit value of 12. The switch provides two port buffer
pools of 235 receive BB_Credits each (470 credits total). Ports 0
through 3, 8 through 11, 16 through 19, and 24 through 27
share buffer pool zero. Ports 4 through 7, 12 through 15, 20
through 23, and 28 through 31 share buffer pool one. Each
port can be assigned between two and 120 credits, provided
the total credits allocated to all ports in a pool does not exceed
235. This provides a data transmission distance of up to 240
km at 1.0625 Gbps, 120 km at 2.1250 Gbps, and 60 km at
4.2500 Gbps.
— Eclipse-series SAN routers - Intelligent ports that support IP
network connectivity are not assigned BB_Credits. However,
the ports provide approximately 96 megabytes (MB) of
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) packet buffering per
transmission direction. TCP output buffering absorbs fabric
data to ensure Fibre Channel BB_Credits are not exhausted.
Up to eight MB of buffering can be allocated to any single
iFCP or iSCSI session.
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•
Port binding - Directors and fabric switches support an optional
feature that binds an attached Fibre Channel device to a specified
product port through the device’s WWN.
NOTE: SAN routers support port binding only for R_Ports.
Security Features
SAN management and Element Manager applications offer the
following security features for McDATA switching products.
Products or product classes that do not support a security feature
are noted.
•
Password protection - Users must provide a user name and
password to log in to the management server and access all
managed products. Administrators can configure user names
and passwords for up to 16 users, and can authorize or prohibit
specific management permissions for each user.
•
Remote user restrictions - Remote user access to all managed
products is either disabled or restricted to configured IP
addresses.
•
SNMP workstation restrictions - Remote users on SNMP
workstations can only access management information base
(MIB) variables managed by the product SNMP agent. SNMP
workstations must belong to SNMP communities configured
through the Element Manager application. If configured, the
agent can send authorization failure traps when unauthorized
SNMP workstations attempt to access a managed product.
•
Port blocking - System administrators can restrict device access
by blocking or unblocking any director or fabric switch port
through the associated Element Manager application.
NOTE: SAN routers do not support port blocking.
•
Audit log tracking - Configuration changes to a director or fabric
switch are recorded in an audit log stored on the management
server. Users can display the audit log through the Element
Manager application. Log entries include the date and time of the
configuration change, a description of the change, and the source
of the change.
NOTE: SAN routers do not support audit log tracking.
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•
Zoning - System administrators can create zones that provide
product access control to increase network security, differentiate
between operating systems, and prevent data loss or corruption.
Zoning can be implemented in conjunction with server-level
access control and storage device access control.
•
SANtegrity ® Authentication - This feature enhances SAN
security by providing password safety; challenge handshake
authentication protocol (CHAP) verification for fabric elements,
management servers, and devices; a product control point (PCP)
user database; common transport (CT) authentication for the
open-system management server (OSMS) interface; remote
authentication dial-in user service (RADIUS) server support (to
store and authenticate passwords and CHAP secrets); inband and
out-of-band access controls lists; encrypted secure shell (SSH)
protocol; and security logging.
•
SANtegrity Binding - This feature enhances data security
(in addition to SANtegrity Authentication) in large and complex
SANs that are comprised of numerous fabrics and devices
provided by multiple OEMs. The feature allows or prohibits
director or fabric switch attachment to fabrics (fabric binding) and
allows Fibre Channel device attachment to directors or fabric
switches (switch binding).
NOTE: SAN routers do not support the SANtegrity Binding feature.
SAN routers support port binding only for R_Ports.
Serviceability
Features
McDATA directors, fabric switches, SAN routers, and the SAN
management and Element Manager applications offer the following
general serviceability features. Products or product classes that do
not support a serviceability feature are noted.
•
LEDs provide visual indicators of hardware status or
malfunctions. LEDs are provided on FRUs, operator panels,
front panels, and bezels.
•
System alerts, event logs, audit logs, link incident logs, and
hardware logs display the following director and fabric switch
information at the management server or remote workstations:
— Director status.
— Fabric switch status.
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McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1
— Ethernet link status.
— Fibre Channel link status.
In addition, threshold alerts and a threshold alert log notify users
when the transmit (Tx) or receive (Rx) throughput reaches a
specified value for configured ports.
•
System alerts, system logs, message logs, SAN reports, and
product reports display the following SAN router information at
the management server or remote workstations:
— SAN router status.
— Port connectivity status.
In addition, port statistics, traffic, and compression dialog boxes
provide Tx or Rx status for configured ports.
•
Product diagnostic software that performs power-on self-tests
(POSTs), and director and fabric switch software that performs
port diagnostics (internal and external loopback tests).
NOTE: SAN routers do not support loopback testing.
•
Directors and fabric switches (except the Sphereon 4300, 4400,
and Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switches), can perform a diagnostic
Fibre Channel (FC) wrap test. The FC wrap test applies only
when a product is operated using FICON management style.
NOTE: Sphereon 4300, 4400 and 4500 Fabric Switches do not support
operation using the FICON management style.
— Automatic notification of significant system events (to
support personnel or administrators) through e-mail
messages or the call-home feature.
NOTE: SAN routers do not support the e-mail message feature. The
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch and SAN routers do not support the
call-home feature. In addition, the call-home feature may not be available
if the EFC Management applications (EFCM Lite) are installed on a
customer- supplied platform.
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1-33
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1
•
Directors and fabric switches provide an internal modem for use
by support personnel to dial in to the management server for
event notification and to perform remote diagnostics.
NOTE: SAN routers do not provide modem support.
1-34
•
An RS-232 maintenance port on the director, fabric switch, or
SAN router (port access is password protected) that enables
installation or service personnel to change the product’s IP
address, subnet mask, and gateway address; or to run diagnostics
and isolate system problems through a local or remote terminal.
•
Redundant FRUs that are removed or replaced without
disrupting product or link operation, and a modular design that
enables quick removal and replacement of FRUs without the use
of special tools or equipment.
•
Concurrent port maintenance. FPM, UPM, and XPM cards and
SFP optical transceivers are removed, added, or replaced without
interrupting other ports or product operation. In addition, fiberoptic cables are attached to ports without interrupting other ports
or product operation.
•
Beaconing to assist service personnel in locating a specific port or
product in a SAN environment. When port beaconing is enabled,
the amber LED associated with the port flashes. When FRU
beaconing is enabled, the amber (service required) LED on the
FRU flashes. When unit beaconing is enabled, the system error
LED on the product flashes. Beaconing does not affect port, FRU,
or product operation.
•
Status monitoring of redundant FRUs and alternate data paths to
ensure continued product availability in case of failover. The SAN
management application queries the status of each backup FRU
daily. A backup FRU failure is indicated by an illuminated amber
LED.
•
Data collection through the product’s Element Manager
application, EFCM Basic Edition interface, or SANvergence
Manager application (for SAN routers) to help isolate system
problems. The data includes a memory dump file and audit,
hardware, and engineering logs.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1
•
SNMP management for directors and fabric switches using the
following MIBs as defined by Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF) working documents, request for comment (RFC)
memorandums, and McDATA:
— Fibre Channel Management Framework Integration MIB
(FC-MGMT-MIB) - This MIB (also called the Fibre Alliance
MIB) defines an integrated management environment for
Fibre Channel-attached devices. The MIB runs on the
management server. Up to 12 authorized management
workstations can be configured through the SAN
management application to receive unsolicited SNMP trap
messages that indicate product operational state changes and
failure conditions.
— RFC 1213 - Management Information Base (MIB-II) for
Network Management of TCP/IP-Based Internets - This MIB
defines managed objects for the Internet community and runs
on each director or switch. Up to six authorized management
workstations can be configured through the Element Manager
application to receive unsolicited SNMP trap messages.
— Product-specific private enterprise MIB - Product-specific
proprietary MIBs run on each director or switch. Up to six
authorized management workstations can be configured
through the Element Manager application to receive
unsolicited SNMP trap messages.
•
SNMP management for SAN routers using the following MIBs as
defined by IETF working documents, RFC memorandums, and
McDATA. All listed MIBs run on each SAN router. Up to eight
authorized management workstations can be configured through
the Element Manager application to send SNMP trap messages
that indicate product operational state changes and failure
conditions. Up to four workstations can be configured to receive
unsolicited SNMP trap messages.
— FC-MGMT-MIB - This MIB (Fibre Alliance MIB) defines an
integrated management environment for Fibre Channelattached devices.
— Bridge MIB Extension Module (P-BRIDGE-MIB) - This MIB
defines objects to manage traffic-class and multicast filtering
enhancements defined by IEEE 802.1D-1998.
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1-35
Introduction to McDATA Multi-Protocol Products
1
— VLAN Bridge MIB Module (Q-BRIDGE-MIB) - This MIB
defines objects to manage virtual local area network (VLAN)
bridging enhancements defined by IEEE 802.1Q-1998.
— RFC 1213 - MIB-II - This MIB defines managed objects for the
Internet community.
— RFC 1354 - IP Forwarding Table - This MIB defines objects
that manage IP-based Internet routing.
— RFC 1493 - Definitions of Managed Objects for Bridges This MIB defines objects that manage media access control
(MAC) bridges between standard LAN segments.
— RFC 1757 - Remote Network Monitoring MIB - This MIB
defines objects that manage remote network monitoring
devices.
— RFC 2851 - Textual Conventions for Internet Network
Addresses - This MIB defines text conventions that represent
commonly used Internet network layer address information.
— Product-specific private enterprise MIB - A variety of
product-specific proprietary MIBs run on each router and
contain management objects to support multi-protocol router
functions.
•
Advanced fabric diagnostic features that include:
— ISL port fencing - Any ISL that bounces (repeatedly attempts
to establish a connection) causes disruptive fabric rebuilds.
ISL fencing establishes a user-defined bounce threshold that
when reached, automatically blocks the disruptive E_Port.
— Digital SFP diagnostic support - This feature provides access
to predictive optics monitoring (POM) diagnostic data
generated by newer SFP optical transceivers. The data
includes temperature, transmit and receive power, and
supply voltage.
— Embedded port log - This log records all Fibre Channel traffic
sourced from or delivered to a switch’s embedded port. Log
contents assist in fault diagnosis of SAN traffic problems.
— Embedded fabric log - This log records events associated
with the fabric controller, path selection, login server, and
name server. Log contents assist in fault diagnosis of fabric
problems.
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McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
2
Product Management
This chapter describes the management of McDATA multi-protocol
products, including Intrepid-series directors, Sphereon-series fabric
switches, and Eclipse-series SAN routers. The chapter specifically
describes:
•
Product management, including out-of-band (non-Fibre Channel)
methods, inband (fibre connection (FICON) or Fibre Channel)
methods, and a management interface summary.
•
Management server support, including a description of the
rack-mount management server (with specifications), associated
Ethernet hub, and optional remote workstation support.
•
Product firmware, including Enterprise Operating System, classic
(E/OSc); Enterprise Operating System, nScale (E/OSn); and
Enterprise Operating System, internetworking (E/OSi).
•
Backup and restore features.
•
Storage area network (SAN) management applications
and associated Element Manager application graphical user
interfaces (GUIs).
•
The Enterprise Fabric Connectivity Manager (EFCM) Basic
Edition interface.
•
The command line interface (CLI).
Product Management
2-1
Product Management
2
Product Management
Out-of-band (non-Fibre Channel) management server access to all
McDATA products is provided through an Ethernet local area
network (LAN) connection on a director control processor (CTP)
card, fabric switch front panel, or SAN router front panel. As an
optional feature, inband (Fibre Channel or FICON) management
access to selected McDATA products is provided through a Fibre
Channel port connection.
Out-of-Band
Management
The following out-of-band management access methods are provided
through the management server:
•
Management of directors and fabric switches through a SAN
management application (SANavigator 4.2 or Enterprise Fabric
Connectivity Manager (EFCM) 8.7) and associated Element
Manager application. These applications are Java-based GUIs that
reside on the management server under control of a Microsoft ®
Windows® operating system and can also be installed on remote
user workstations. Refer to SAN Management Applications for
additional information.
Operators at remote workstations can connect to the management
server through the SAN management and Element Manager
applications to manage and monitor products. A maximum of 25
concurrent users can log in to the SAN management application.
Refer to Remote User Workstations for information.
NOTE: Product management through a SAN management and Element
Manager application is not supported for the Sphereon 4300 Fabric
Switch.
•
2-2
Management of SAN routers through a SAN management
application (SANvergence Manager 4.6) and associated Element
Manager application. The SANvergence Manager application is a
Java-based GUI that resides on the management server under
control of a Microsoft Windows operating system. Element
Manager applications installed on each router are launched from
the SANvergence Manager application. Refer to SAN Management
Applications for additional information.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Product Management
2
•
Management using simple network management protocol
(SNMP). An SNMP agent is implemented through the Element
Manager application that allows administrators on SNMP
management workstations to access product management
information using any standard network management tool.
Administrators can assign Internet protocol (IP) addresses and
corresponding community names as follows:
— For directors and fabric switches, up to six workstations can
be configured as SNMP trap message recipients.
— For SAN routers, up to eight workstations can be configured
as SNMP trap message originators and four workstations can
be configured as SNMP trap message recipients.
Refer to SNMP Management Workstations for information.
•
With E/OSc, management of directors and fabric switches
through the Internet using the EFCM Basic Edition interface
installed on the product. This interface supports configuration,
statistics monitoring, and basic operation of the product, but does
not offer all the capabilities of a corresponding Element Manager
application. Administrators launch the EFCM Basic Edition
interface from a remote PC by entering the product’s IP address
as the Internet uniform resource locator (URL), then entering a
user name and password at a login screen. The PC browser then
becomes a management console.
NOTE: The Intrepid 10000 Director and SAN routers do not support
product management through the EFCM Basic Edition interface.
•
Management of all products through a PC-based Telnet session
using the CLI. Any platform that supports Telnet client software
can be used.
•
Management of directors and fabric switches through the EFC
Management applications (EFCM Lite) shipped on a CD and
installed on a customer-supplied server that meets minimum
hardware requirements and uses the Microsoft Windows
operating system. Contact your McDATA representative for the
requirements when ordering this option.
Product Management
2-3
Product Management
2
In contrast to the applications installed on the management
server, EFCM Lite does not include support for the:
— Call-home feature.
— Ability to download remote clients from the server. Install
clients on remote workstations from the software distribution
disk provided with this management option.
NOTE: The Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch and SAN routers do not
support product management through the EFCM Lite application.
Figure 2-1 illustrates out-of-band product management. In the figure,
the managed product is an Intrepid 6064 Director. For a tabular
summary of McDATA switch products and associated out-of-band
management methods, refer to Management Interface Summary.
Figure 2-1
2-4
Out-of-Band Product Management
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Product Management
2
Inband
Management
The following inband management access methods are provided for
directors and fabric switches as options:
•
Management through the product’s open-system management
server (OSMS) that communicates with an application client. The
application resides on an open-systems interconnection (OSI)
device attached to a director or switch port, and communicates
using Fibre Channel common transport (FC-CT) protocol.
Product operation, port connectivity, zoning, and fabric control
are managed through a device-attached console. Refer to OSMS
for information.
NOTE: The Intrepid 10000 Director and SAN routers do not support
out-of-band management through the OSMS.
•
Management through the product’s fibre connection (FICON)
management server (FMS) that communicates with either the:
— IBM® System Automation for OS/390™ (SA OS/390™)
operating system resident on a System/390® (S/390) Parallel
Enterprise Server™ - Generation 5 or Generation 6.
— IBM z/OS® operating system resident on an eServer™
zSeries® 800 (z800), zSeries 900 (z900), or zSeries 990 (z990)
processor.
The server is attached to a director or switch port, and
communicates through a FICON channel. Control of connectivity
and statistical product monitoring are provided through a
host-attached console. Refer to FMS for information.
NOTE: Sphereon 4300, 4400, and 4500 Fabric Switches and SAN routers
do not support out-of-band management through FMS.
Figure 2-2 illustrates inband product management. In the figure, the
managed product is an Intrepid 6064 Director. For a tabular summary
of McDATA switch products and associated inband management
methods, refer to Management Interface Summary.
Product Management
2-5
Product Management
2
S/390 or zSeries 900
Parallel Enterprise Server
Host-Attached
Console
FICON
Channel
OSI Server
TM
Fibre Channel
Connection
Intrepid 6064
Director
Figure 2-2
Management
Interface Summary
Table 2-1
2-6
Inband Product Management
Table 2-1 summarizes McDATA products and the out-of-band or
inband management interfaces available to support the products. For
each table cell, a green YES indicates the management interface
supports the product, and a red NO indicates the management
interface does not support the product.
Out-of-Band and Inband Product Support Summary
Product
SANavigator
EFCM
SANvergence
Manager
SNMP
CLI
EFCM
Basic
Edition
EFCM
Lite
OSMS
FMS
6064 Director
YES
YES
NO
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
6140 Director
YES
YES
NO
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
10000 Director
YES
YES
NO
YES
YES
NO
YES
NO
YES
3232 Fabric Switch
YES
YES
NO
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Product Management
2
Table 2-1
Out-of-Band and Inband Product Support Summary (continued)
Product
SANavigator
EFCM
SANvergence
Manager
SNMP
CLI
EFCM
Basic
Edition
EFCM
Lite
OSMS
FMS
4300 Fabric Switch
NO
NO
NO
YES
YES
YES
NO
YES
NO
4500 Fabric Switch
YES
YES
NO
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
NO
1620 SAN Router
NO
NO
YES
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
2640 SAN Router
NO
NO
YES
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
Management Server Support
The management server is a one rack unit (1U) high, LAN-accessed,
rack-mount unit that provides a central point of control for up to 48
connected directors, fabric switches, or SAN routers. The server
desktop is accessed through a LAN-attached PC and standard web
browser. Figure 2-3 illustrates the server with attached liquid crystal
display (LCD) panel.
Figure 2-3
Management Server
The server is rack mounted in the McDATA-supplied FC-512
Fabricenter equipment cabinet. An EFCM Basic Edition interface or
management server is required to install, configure, and manage a
product. Although a configured product operates normally without
server intervention, an attached management server should operate
at all times to monitor product operation, log events and
configuration changes, and report failures.
Product Management
2-7
Product Management
2
The server is dedicated to operation of the SAN management and
associated Element Manager applications. These applications
provide a GUI and implement web and other server functions. Refer
to SAN Management Applications for additional information.
NOTE: The server and SAN management application provide a GUI to
monitor and manage products and are a dedicated hardware and software
solution that should not be used for other tasks. McDATA tests the SAN
management application installed on the server but does not compatibility
test third-party software. Modifications to server hardware or installation of
additional software (including patches or service packs) may interfere with
normal operation.
United States English is the only language supported by the SAN
management and Element Manager applications.
The server provides two auto-detecting 10/100 Mbps Ethernet LAN
connectors (RJ-45 adapters). The first adapter (LAN 1) attaches
(optionally) to a public customer intranet to allow access from remote
user workstations. The second adapter (LAN 2) attaches to a private
LAN segment containing switches or managed McDATA products.
Management
Server
Specifications
Minimum
Specifications
2-8
This section summarizes minimum and recommended hardware
specifications for the rack-mount management server. Servers may
ship with more enhanced hardware, such as a faster processor,
additional random-access memory (RAM), or a higher-capacity hard
drive.
Minimum server specifications are:
•
1U rack-mount server running the Intel® Pentium® 4 processor
with a 2 gigahertz (GHz) or greater clock speed, using the
Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional (with service pack 4),
Windows XP Professional (with service pack 2), or Windows
Server 2003 operating system (Enterprise Edition with service
pack 1) operating system.
•
TightVNC™ Viewer Version 1.2.7 client-server software control
package that provides remote network access (through a web
browser) to the management server desktop.
•
1,024 megabyte (MB) RAM.
•
40 gigabyte (GB) internal hard drive.
•
1.44 MB 3.5-inch slim-type disk drive.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Product Management
2
Recommended
Specifications
•
24X read speed slim-type compact disk-rewritable (CD-RW)
and 8X read speed digital video disk (DVD) combination drive,
data only.
•
56K peripheral component interconnect (PCI) internal data and
fax modem, using the V .92 dial-up specification.
•
16 MB graphics card.
•
Network interface card (NIC) with two 10/100 Mbps Ethernet
adapters using RJ-45 connectors.
Recommended server specifications are:
•
1U rack-mount server running the Intel Pentium 4 processor with
a 3 GHz or greater clock speed, using an 800 megahertz (MHz)
front side bus, using the Microsoft Windows Server 2003
operating system (Enterprise Edition with service pack 1).
•
TightVNC™ Viewer Version 1.2.7 client-server software control
package that provides remote network access (through a web
browser) to the management server desktop.
•
2,048 MB (or greater) double data-rate synchronous dynamic
random access memory (SDRAM).
•
40 GB (or greater) internal hard drive, with advanced technology
attachment (ATA-100) integrated drive electronics interface
operating at 7,200 rpm.
•
1.44 MB 3.5-inch slim-type disk drive.
•
48X read speed slim-type CD-RW and 32X read speed DVD
combination drive, data only.
•
56K PCI internal data and fax modem, using the V .92 dial-up
specification.
•
Video graphics array (VGA) capable 32 MB graphics card.
•
NIC with two 10/100 Mbps Ethernet adapters using RJ-45
connectors.
Product Management
2-9
Product Management
2
Ethernet Hub
The management server and managed directors, fabric switches,
and SAN routers connect through a 10/100 Base-T Ethernet hub.
Figure 2-4 illustrates the 24-port hub.
.
1
4 5
13
8
9
16 17
12
20 21
MID
24
MDIX
1
13
2
3
14
4
Port
5
Status
6
15
7
Green 16 17
8
9 10
- 100
18
Collisio
M, Yello 19
11
n
w - 10M 20 21
12 100
M
22
, Flas
h - Acti 23
24 10M
vity
Baselin
e 10/
100
Hub
Pow
er
3C1
SuperS 6411
tack ®
3
Figure 2-4
3com
®
24-Port Ethernet Hub
Hubs can be daisy-chained to provide connections as additional
McDATA managed products are installed on a network. Multiple
hubs are daisy-chained by attaching RJ-45 Ethernet patch cables to
the appropriate hub ports and configuring each hub through a
medium-dependent interface (MDI) switch.
Remote User
Workstations
Operators at remote workstations with client SAN management and
Element Manager applications installed can connect to the
management server to manage and monitor all products controlled
by the server. A maximum of 25 concurrent users can log in to the
SAN management application.
NOTE: The SANvergence Manager application does not support remote
workstation (client) operation.
Client SAN management and Element Manager applications
download and install to remote workstations (from the management
server) using a standard web browser. The applications operate on
platforms that meet the following minimum system requirements:
•
2-10
Desktop or notebook PC with color monitor, keyboard, and
mouse, using an Intel Pentium III processor with 700 MHz or
greater clock speed, and using the Microsoft Windows 2000 (with
service pack 4), Windows NT 4.0 (with service pack 6a), or
Windows 2003 operating system.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Product Management
2
•
Unix workstation with color monitor, keyboard, and mouse,
using a:
— Linux-based system using an Intel Pentium III processor with
one GHz or greater clock speed, using the Red Hat® 7.3 or
higher operating system.
— Hewlett-Packard® PA-RISC® processor with 400 MHz or
greater clock speed, using the HP-UX® 11 or higher operating
system.
— Sun® Microsystems UltraSPARC™ IIi or later processor, using
Solaris™ Version 7.0 or higher operating system.
— IBM POWER3-II™ microprocessor with 333 MHz or greater
clock speed, using the AIX Version 4.3.3 or higher operating
system.
•
At least 150 MB (Windows-based) or 350 MB (Unix-based)
available on the internal hard drive.
•
512 MB or greater RAM.
•
Video card supporting 256 colors at 800 x 600 pixel resolution.
•
Ethernet network adapter.
•
Java-enabled Internet browser, such as Microsoft Internet
Explorer (Version 4.0 or later) or Netscape® Navigator
(Version 4.6 or later).
Product Firmware
McDATA provides three product-embedded operating systems
(firmware) that support underlying director, fabric switch, and SAN
router platforms. These include:
•
E/OSc - The Enterprise Operating System (classic) performs
system configuration, management, and Fibre Channel switching
functions for Intrepid 6000-series directors and Sphereon-series
fabric switches.
•
E/OSn - The Enterprise Operating System (nScale) performs
system configuration, management, and Fibre Channel switching
functions for the Intrepid 10000 Director.
Product Management
2-11
Product Management
2
•
Firmware Services
2-12
E/OSi - The Enterprise Operating System (internetworking)
performs system configuration, management, and Fibre Channel
and IP-based routing functions for Eclipse-series SAN routers.
Director and fabric switch firmware (E/OSc and E/OSn) provides
services that manage and maintain Fibre Channel connections
between ports. Although product hardware transmits Fibre Channel
frames between source and destination ports, the firmware maintains
routing tables required by hardware to perform switching functions.
SAN router firmware (E/OSi) provides services that manage and
maintain both Fibre Channel and IP-based port connectivity. Product
firmware also provides:
•
System management services - This function configures,
controls, and monitors product operation.
•
Application services - This function supports all software
subsystems for system initialization, logging, tracing, debugging,
and communicating with RS-232 maintenance ports.
•
Operating system services - This function includes boot and
loader software, a command line monitor for engineering fault
isolation, a serial maintenance port driver, and other support for
the product operating system.
•
Network services - This function provides both transmission
control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) and user datagram
protocol/Internet protocol (UDP/IP) transport layers to access
management service subsystems from attached management
clients. These clients may include (depending on the product) the
out-of-band management server, EFCM Basic Edition interface,
CLI, or SNMP management workstation.
•
Fibre Channel protocol services - This function provides the
Fibre Channel transport logic that allows upper layer protocols
used by fabric services to communicate with devices attached to
fiber-optic ports.
•
Fibre port services - This function provides a physical driver for
hardware components.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Product Management
2
•
Fabric services - This function supports the fabric controller
(login server) and name server. For redundant directors, fabric
services also implement a replication manager that synchronizes
node port (N_Port) registration databases between redundant
CTP cards and allows CTP failover.
•
Loop services - This function supports FL_Port initialization for
Sphereon 4000-Series Switches and implements arbitrated loop
functions, such as transmission of loop initialization primitives
(LIPs).
•
Port hardware services (fabric switches only) - This function
supports the application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC)
embedded on the CTP card, provides frame handling for fabric
switch ports, and provides the application programming
interface for light-emitting diodes (LEDs), cooling fans, and
power supplies.
Refer to Appendix B, Firmware Summary for detailed information
about the differences and similarities between the operating systems.
The appendix includes three tables that summarize system-related,
Fibre Channel protocol-related, and management-related differences.
Backup and Restore Features
The management server provides two backup and restore features.
One feature backs up (to the management server or any LANconnected trivial file transfer protocol (TFTP) server) or restores the
configuration file stored in nonvolatile random-access memory
(NV-RAM) on a director CTP card, fabric switch, or SAN router. The
other feature backs up (to the CD-RW drive) or restores the entire
SAN management data directory. The backup and restore features
operate as follows:
•
NV-RAM configuration (director or fabric switch) - The
NV-RAM configuration for any managed director or fabric switch
is backed up or restored through the associated Element Manager
application. Configuration data (stored in NV-RAM on each
director or switch) backed up to the management server includes:
— Identification data, such as the product name, description,
and location.
— Port configuration data, such as port names, port states,
extended distance settings, and link incident (LIN) alerts.
Product Management
2-13
Product Management
2
— Operating parameters, such as buffer-to-buffer credit
(BB_credit), error detect timeout value (E_D_TOV), resource
allocation timeout value (R_A_TOV), switch priority, switch
speed (1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps), and preferred Domain_ID.
— Active zoning configuration.
— SNMP configuration parameters, such as trap recipients,
community names, and write authorizations.
•
NV-RAM configuration (SAN router) - The NV-RAM
configuration for any managed SAN router is backed up or
restored through customer-supplied TFTP software and the
associated Element Manager application.
Configuration data (stored in NV-RAM on each SAN router)
backed up to the management server is similar to configuration
data backed up for directors and fabric switches. However, the
management server (or any LAN-connected server on which
backup is stored) requires installation of TFTP software. TFTP is a
simple protocol for transferring small files, uses UDP as the
transport protocol, and provides no authentication or encryption
mechanisms.
•
SAN management data directory (all products) - Critical
information (for all managed products) stored in this directory is
automatically backed up to a removable CD-RW when the server
is rebooted or when directory contents change. The SAN
management data directory includes:
— All log files (SAN management logs and individual director
or switch Element Manager logs).
— All configuration data (product definitions, user names,
passwords, user rights, nicknames, session options, SNMP
trap recipients, e-mail recipients, and Ethernet event
notifications).
— Zoning library (all zone sets and zone definitions).
— Firmware library.
— Call-home settings (phone numbers and dialing options).
— Configuration data for each managed product (stored on the
management server and in NV-RAM on each product).
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2
SAN Management Applications
This section describes SAN management applications that provide a
GUI to monitor, manage, and control directors, fabric switches, and
SAN routers. SAN management applications include SANavigator ,
EFCM, and SANvergence Manager. An associated Element Manager
application is provided for each managed product.
NOTE: The Element Manager application for a director or fabric switch
resides on the associated management server. The Element Manager
application for a SAN router is a Java applet that resides on the router.
SANavigator and
EFCM Applications
Application GUI
The management server implements a SAN management application
along with director or switch-specific Element Manager applications
to provide the interface for operators to control and monitor directors
and fabric switches (but not SAN routers). These applications can
also operate on workstations attached to the customer intranet that
function as remote clients.
The SAN management applications provide lifecycle planning,
discovery, configuration, and monitoring for an entire heterogeneous
SAN. Each SAN management application is an intuitive GUI that
communicates with multiple, vendor-specific applications, and
provides a common tool to access the following features:
•
SAN planning - The application provides a planning tool to
develop and evaluate a SAN topology for feasibility and
performance. Virtual devices and links are assembled to build a
virtual SAN topology or an extension to an existing topology. The
planned topology or extension is then activated to evaluate the
design and identify and correct performance problems.
•
Discovery and visualization - Through TCP/IP (out-of-band) or
Fibre Channel (inband) connections, the SAN management
application automatically discovers every device attached to a
SAN and produces an intuitive and dynamic map of the devices
and all interconnections. This map depicts device port usage,
virtual and logical data paths, and allows identification of
problem devices and data traffic bottlenecks.
Product Management
2-15
Product Management
2
•
Centralized configuration - Vendor-specific device management
applications can be launched from the SAN management
application, including McDATA Element Manager applications.
The application also provides management of director and switch
zoning across multiple vendors and product models.
•
Monitoring and notification - The application provides realtime monitoring and event notification for devices in the SAN.
Informational, warning, and fatal events are recorded. The
application also monitors port throughput and link performance
for the entire SAN, allowing administrators to identify and solve
congestion and latency issues.
The SAN management application opens automatically when the
management server desktop is accessed, and the SANavigator or
EFCM main window opens by default.
McDATA products, original equipment manufacturer (OEM)
products, and other devices display as icons in the SANavigator main
window. Only McDATA products (managed or unmanaged) display
as icons in the EFCM main window. A label below each icon
identifies the managed product.
For additional information about SAN management applications,
refer to the SANavigator Software Release 4.2 User Manual (621-000013)
or the EFC Manager Software Release 8.7 User Manual (620-000170).
Element Manager
Application
An Element Manager application is provided for each managed
product. The Element Manager application works in conjunction
with the SAN management application and is a Java-based GUI for
managing and monitoring a director or switch. The application
operates locally on the management server or through a network
connection from a remote PC or workstation.
NOTE: An Element Manager application is not supported for the
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch.
To open an Element Manager application, right-click the product icon
at the SAN management application’s physical map, then select the
Element Manager option from the pop-up menu. When the Element
Manager application opens, the last view (tab) accessed by a user
opens by default. As an example, the Hardware View (Figure 2-5) for
the Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch is shown.
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Figure 2-5
Hardware View
A status table appears at the top of the window, and a graphical
representation of the hardware (front and rear) appears in the center
of the window. The graphical representation of the product emulates
the hardware configuration and operational status of the
corresponding real product. For example, if a director or switch is
fully redundant and fully populated, this configuration is reflected in
the Hardware View. Colored symbols appear on the graphical
field-replaceable units (FRUs) to represent failed or degraded status.
The light-emitting diodes (LEDs) also highlight to emulate real LED
operation.
A menu bar at the top of the Hardware View provides Product,
Configure, Logs, Maintenance, and Help options (with associated
pop-up menus) that allow users to perform Element Manager tasks.
Product Management
2-17
Product Management
2
A status bar at the bottom left corner of the view window displays
colored icons (green circle, yellow triangle, red and yellow diamond,
or grey square) that indicate the status of the selected managed
product. Messages display as required to the right of the icons.
SANvergence
Manager
Application
Application GUI
Figure 2-6
2-18
This section describes the SANvergence Manager and Element
Manager applications that provide a GUI to monitor and manage
SAN routers, attached Fibre Channel elements, and metropolitan
storage area network (mSAN) connectivity. An Element Manager
application is provided for Eclipse 1620 and 2640 SAN Routers.
The SANvergence Manager application is an intuitive GUI that
communicates with an attached metropolitan simple name server
(mSNS). Through the mSNS, the application auto-discovers all SAN
Routers, directors, and fabric switches in the mSAN; monitors
product operational status, and reports problems in an event log. The
application is opened from the management server desktop. When
the application starts, the main window opens (Figure 2-6).
Main Window (SANvergence Manager)
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2
For additional information about the application, refer to the
McDATA SANvergence Manager User Manual (620-000189).
Element Manager
Application
An Element Manager application is provided for each managed SAN
router. The application works in conjunction with the SANvergence
Manager application and is a router-resident, Java-based applet for
managing and monitoring the product.
To open an Element Manager application, select (highlight) the
product at the mSANs panel and click the Element Manager button on
the toolbar. When the Element manager application opens, the device
window opens (Figure 2-7). An Eclipse 2640 SAN Router is shown.
Figure 2-7
Device Window (Element Manager)
The graphical representation of the product emulates the hardware
configuration and operational status of the corresponding real
product. For example, if all router ports are connected and functional,
this configuration is reflected in the device window. Mouse selections
(right or left click) open dialog boxes or menus that display FRU
properties or allow users to perform operations and maintenance
tasks.
Colored symbols appear on the graphical FRUs to represent failed or
degraded status. The LEDs also highlight to emulate real LED
operation.
Product Management
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Product Management
2
A menu bar at the top of the device window provides File,
Configuration, Statistics/Info, Window, Options, and Help selections
(with associated pop-up menus) that allow users to perform Element
Manager tasks.
EFCM Basic Edition Interface
With E/OSc firmware installed, administrators or operators with a
browser-capable PC and Internet connection can monitor and
manage a product through the EFCM Basic Edition interface.
The interface is opened from a standard web browser running
Netscape Navigator 4.6 or higher or Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.0 or
higher. At the browser, enter the IP address of the product as the
Internet uniform resource locator (URL). When prompted at a login
screen, enter a user name and password. When the interface opens,
the default display is the Hardware View (Figure 2-8). The Hardware
View for the Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch is shown as an example.
Figure 2-8
2-20
Hardware View (EFCM Basic Edition Interface)
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
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2
The interface provides a GUI similar to the Element Manager
application and supports product configuration, statistics
monitoring, and basic operation. The EFCM Basic Edition interface
manages only a single product (but has hyperlink access to other
switches in a fabric). For additional information about the
application, refer to the McDATA EFCM Basic Edition User Manual
(620-000240).
Command Line Interface
The CLI provides a director, fabric switch, and SAN router
management alternative to traditional SAN management GUIs. The
interface allows users to access application functions by entering
commands through a PC-attached Telnet session. Any platform that
supports Telnet client software can be used.
The primary purpose of the CLI is to automate management of
several directors or switches using scripts. Although the CLI is
designed for use in a host-based scripting environment, basic
commands can be entered directly at a disk operating system (DOS)
window command prompt. The CLI is not an interactive interface; no
checking is done for pre-existing conditions, and a user prompt does
not display to guide users through tasks.
For additional information, refer to the following publications:
•
McDATA E/OSc Command Line Interface User Manual (620-000134).
This publication describes CLI support for Intrepid 6000-series
directors and Sphereon 4000-series fabric switches.
•
McDATA E/OSn Command Line Interface User Manual (620-000211).
This publication describes CLI support for the Intrepid 10000
Director.
•
McDATA E/OSi Command Line Interface User Manual (620-000207).
This publication describes CLI support for Eclipse-series SAN
routers.
Product Management
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Product Management
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3
Planning Considerations
for Fibre Channel
Topologies
A storage area network (SAN) is typically defined as a network of
shared storage resources that can be allocated throughout a
heterogeneous environment. This chapter describes planning
considerations for incorporating McDATA products into Fibre
Channel SAN topologies. The chapter specifically describes:
•
Fibre Channel topologies (arbitrated loop and multiswitch fabric).
•
Characteristics of arbitrated loop operation.
•
Planning for private arbitrated loop connectivity.
•
Planning for fabric-attached arbitrated loop connectivity.
•
Fabric topologies (mesh, core-to-edge, and SAN islands).
•
Planning for multiswitch fabric support.
•
General fabric design considerations.
•
Large fabric design considerations.
•
Mixed fabric design considerations.
•
Fibre connection (FICON) cascading.
Fibre Channel Topologies
Intrepid-series directors and Sphereon-series fabric switches support
device connectivity through multiswitch fabric topologies. Sphereon
4000-series fabric switches also support connectivity through an
arbitrated loop topology. A combination of these topologies (hybrid
topology) is also supported. Topologies are described as follows:
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-1
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
•
Arbitrated loop - This topology uses a Sphereon 4000-series
fabric switch to connect multiple device node loop ports
(NL_Ports) in a Fibre Channel arbitrated loop (FC-AL) or hub
configuration without benefit of a multiswitch fabric. Both
switches support a switched mode topology that provides a
single, logical connection between two device NL_Ports. The
switches dynamically configure different logical transmission
paths, and in all cases, connected NL_Ports have access to 100%
of the available bandwidth.
Loop devices communicate with switches through a fabric loop
port (FL_Port). If peripheral loop devices are expected to
communicate with fabric-attached devices, consider installation
of a Sphereon 4000-series fabric switch to form a fabric-loop
hybrid topology. For information, refer to Planning Considerations
for Fibre Channel Topologies, Planning for Private Arbitrated Loop
Connectivity, and Planning for Fabric-Attached Loop Connectivity.
•
Multiswitch fabric - This topology provides the ability to connect
directors and fabric switches through expansion ports (E_Ports)
and interswitch links (ISLs) to form a Fibre Channel fabric.
Director or fabric switch elements receive data from a device and,
based on the destination N_Port address, route the data through
the fabric (and possibly through multiple switch elements) to the
destination device. For additional information, refer to Planning
for Multiswitch Fabric Support and General Fabric Design
Considerations.
Characteristics of Arbitrated Loop Operation
When implementing Fibre Channel arbitrated loop topology,
consideration must be given to switch operating mode, device
connectivity, and loop configuration. This section describes the
characteristics of arbitrated loop operation, including:
3-2
•
Switch operation in shared mode or switched mode.
•
Connectivity of public loop devices and private loop devices.
•
Configuration of public arbitrated loops and private arbitrated
loops.
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Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
This section focuses on loop operation for Sphereon 4000-series fabric
switches that operate at 1.0625, 2.1250, or 4.2500 gigabits per second
(Gbps) and support FC-AL operation using FL_Ports and public and
private device connectivity.
Shared Mode Versus
Switched Mode
Legacy arbitrated loop switches (such as the McDATA ES-1000
Switch) are configured to operate in user-selectable shared or
switched mode.
NOTE: Sphereon 4000-series fabric switches do not support shared
mode operation.
Shared Mode Operation
When set to shared mode, a switch acts as a hub implementing
standard Fibre Channel arbitrated loop topology (although the loop
has the physical appearance of a star configuration) and distributes
the frame routing function through each loop port. When a loop
circuit is initialized and established, arbitration protocol ensures only
one device attached to a hub port (H_Port) owns the loop at a time.
The port establishes communication with another device attached to
an H_Port and allows the devices to transmit or receive frames.
During frame transmission between these devices, the full
bandwidth of the switch is used and no other H_Ports or devices are
available for connection. When frame transmission completes, the
loop circuit closes and other devices are able to contend for operation
(using standard loop arbitration). Shared mode operation and its
simplified logical equivalent are illustrated in Figure 3-1.
A
Logical Equivalent
B
ES-1000 Switch
H_Ports
D1
D2
S1
D1
Figure 3-1
D2
S1
Shared Mode Operation and Logical Equivalent
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-3
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
Part (A) of Figure 3-1 shows device D1 connected to server S1 through
a pair of H_Ports. Although the remaining switch H_Ports (six ports)
and device D2 are unavailable for connection, frame traffic between
device D1 and server S1 travels through a loop that consists of all
eight H_Ports, device D1, device D2, and server S1. Each H_Port not
participating in the communication pair and the NL_Port on device
D2 provide a repeater function that allows frames to pass around the
loop at the full switch bandwidth.
Part (B) of Figure 3-1 shows the logical equivalent of this arbitrated
loop. When frame transmission between device D1 and server S1
completes, the loop circuit closes and other ports attached to
initiating devices arbitrate for loop access. When operating in shared
mode, the switch is a serially reusable resource that provides service
access to all ports on the loop. Access is granted by successful
arbitration. When arbitration is won by a device, the loop is busy and
other arbitrating devices must wait for loop access.
Switched Mode Operation
When set to switched mode, a switch bypasses full loop arbitration
and enables frame transmission through multiple point-to-point
connected pairs. Switched mode operation and its simplified logical
equivalent are illustrated for a Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch in
Figure 3-2.
Figure 3-2
3-4
Switched Mode Operation and Logical Equivalent
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Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
Part (A) of Figure 3-2 shows server S1 connected to device D1 through
a switched pair of FL_Ports communicating at 1.0625 Gbps. Server S2
is connected to device D2 through a second switched pair of ports,
also communicating at 1.0625 Gbps. Because of opportunistic
bandwidth sharing, the two switched pairs effectively increase the
switch bandwidth to 2.1250 Gbps. The remaining ports are available
for switched connection to each other but cannot communicate with
servers S1 and S2 or devices D1 and D2. Part (B) of Figure 3-2 shows
the logical equivalent of this arbitrated loop.
Switched mode operation provides the ability to design a complex
and high-performance SAN for the department or workgroup.
Consider the following when planning such a SAN:
•
Connect loop switch ports to multiple unmanaged hubs to
provide additional FC-AL device connectivity in the form of
looplets. Cascade the unmanaged hubs if more hubs are
necessary for the configuration.
•
Attach devices that frequently communicate with each other to
the same looplet to take advantage of opportunistic bandwidth
sharing (communication predominately stays within the loop).
Switched connections allow connectivity as necessary to devices
attached to other looplets.
•
Each looplet acts as a normal FC-AL loop. Spread multiple
servers and high bandwidth storage devices across several
looplets to avoid performance problems associated with a single
looplet.
•
Consider data traffic capacity of the department or workgroup
(normal and peak load) as part of the switch planning and
installation process. Capacity planning:
— Ensures loop traffic is distributed and balanced across servers
and storage devices.
— Identifies traffic bottlenecks and provides for alternate
connectivity solutions if required.
— Assists in calculating scalability to satisfy nondisruptive
growth requirements or eventual connection to a Fibre
Channel switched fabric.
Capacity planning is a dynamic activity that must be performed
when new devices, applications, or users are added to the
department or workgroup loop configuration.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-5
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
Public Versus Private
Devices
Sphereon 4000-series fabric switches support connection of public
and private arbitrated loop devices as follows:
•
Public device - A loop device that can transmit a fabric login
(FLOGI) command to the switch, receive acknowledgement from
the switch’s login server, register with the switch’s name server,
and communicate with fabric-attached devices is a public device.
The switches provide loop connectivity up to the Fibre Channel
architectural limit of 127 devices per Fibre Channel port when
configured as an FL_Port. Each FL_Port is assigned one arbitrated
loop physical address (AL_PA), leaving 126 AL_PAs per port
available for device connections. Up to 32 public devices can be
connected to each of the FL_Ports. As shown in Figure 3-3, server
S2 is a public loop device connected to a Sphereon 4500 Fabric
Switch and can communicate with fabric-attached device D1.
Figure 3-3
Public Device Connectivity
Public devices support normal fabric operational requirements,
such as fabric busy and reject conditions, frame multiplexing, and
frame delivery order.
3-6
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Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
•
Private device - A loop device that cannot transmit an FLOGI
command to the switch nor communicate with fabric-attached
devices is a private device. As shown in Figure 3-4, device D2 is a
private loop device connected to a Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch
and cannot communicate with any fabric-attached device.
However, device D2 can communicate with switch-attached
server S2 (using private addressing mode).
Public and private devices are partitioned into two separate
address spaces defined in the Fibre Channel address. Private
address spaces are isolated from a switched fabric. The switch
does not support any other form of Fibre Channel address
conversion (spoofing) that would allow private device-to-fabric
device communication.
NOTE: A private device can connect to the switch (loop) while a public
device is connected and using an E_Port to communicate with a switched
fabric.
Figure 3-4
Private Device Connectivity
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-7
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
Private devices only communicate with other devices on the same
arbitrated loop, and interconnected public and private devices
can communicate with each other. Such intermixed devices
establish operating parameters and loop topology configuration
through a port login (PLOGI) command exchange, rather than
through the switch’s name server.
Be aware that public device-to-private device communication
may cause problems. For example, it is often critical to separate
servers and storage devices with different operating systems
because accidental transfer of information from one to another
can delete or corrupt data. Plan to implement security provisions
for the switch, such as partitioning attached devices into
restricted-access groups (zoning), providing server-level access
control (persistent binding), or providing storage-level access
control. Refer to Security Provisions for additional information.
Public Versus Private
Loops
Sphereon 4000-series fabric switches support operation of public and
private loops as follows:
•
Public loop - A public loop is connected to a switched fabric
through any active FL_Port. All devices attached to the loop can
communicate with each other, and public devices attached to the
loop can communicate with fabric-attached devices connected:
— Directly to another switch port configured as a fabric port
(F_Port).
— Another fabric director or switch connected to the fabric
switch through any active E_Port.
Public loop connectivity for a Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch is
illustrated in Figure 3-5.
3-8
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Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
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Figure 3-5
Public Loop Connectivity
•
Figure 3-6
Private loop - A private loop is not connected to a switched fabric
and the switch’s embedded FL_Port is inactive. All devices
attached to the loop can only communicate with each other.
Private loop connectivity for a Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch is
illustrated in Figure 3-6.
Private Loop Connectivity
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-9
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
FL_Port Connectivity
Sphereon 4000-series fabric switches provide loop connectivity
through GX ports that are active as FL_Ports. The ports provide port
addressing, physical connectivity, and Fibre Channel frame routing.
Each FL_Port (and the embedded FL_Port) has a 24-bit address
identifier. The address identifier is expressed in hexadecimal format
as DD AA PP, where:
•
DD is the domain identifier. This identifier is assigned one of 31
values (60 through 7F).
•
AA is the area identifier. Each physical FL_Port (12 or 24 ports) is
assigned one of up to 24 values (04 through 1B).
•
PP is the port identifier. Each device (node) attached to an
FL_Port is assigned one of 126 AL_PA values (01 through EF). The
embedded FL_Port is assigned an AL_PA of 00.
Planning for Private Arbitrated Loop Connectivity
Private arbitrated loop topology supports the clustering of isolated
servers and storage subsystems into workgroup or departmental
SANs. This topology is well-suited to small and mid-sized
configurations where modest connectivity levels and high data
transmission speeds are required. The topology also supports
low-cost switching and connectivity in environments where the
per-port cost of a switched fabric director is prohibitive. Private
arbitrated loop topology:
3-10
•
Supports the connection of up to 126 NL devices per loop plus the
switch’s embedded FL_Port (127 connections).
•
Reduces connection costs by distributing the routing function
through each loop port (loop functionality is a small addition to
normal Fibre Channel port functionality).
•
Provides a fully-blocking architecture that allows a single
connection between any pair of loop ports. Connections between
a third loop port and busy ports are blocked until communication
between the first connection pair ends.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
Planning for Fabric-Attached Loop Connectivity
Public arbitrated loop topology supports the connection of
workgroup or departmental FC-AL devices to a switched fabric
through any Sphereon 4000-series fabric switch port active as an
E_Port. This topology is well-suited to:
•
Providing connectivity between a workgroup or departmental
SAN and a switched fabric, thus implementing connectivity of
FC-AL devices to fabric devices at the core of the enterprise.
•
Consolidating low-cost Windows NT or Unix server connections
and providing access to fabric-attached storage devices.
•
Consolidating FC-AL tape device connections and providing
access to fabric-attached servers.
NOTE: For the Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch, E_Port connectivity is not
standard and must be configured through an optional product feature
enablement (PFE) key
Connecting FC-AL
Devices to a
Switched Fabric
Sphereon 4000-series fabric switches provide dynamic connectivity
between FC-AL devices and directors or switches participating in a
switched fabric. This function allows multiple low-cost or lowbandwidth departmental or workgroup devices to communicate with
fabric-attached devices through a high-bandwidth link and provides
connectivity as required to an enterprise SAN environment. This
approach provides:
•
Cost-effective FC-AL device connectivity to a switched fabric. A
loop switch provides fabric connectivity without incurring true
switched fabric costs.
•
Improved access and sharing of data and computing resources
throughout an organization by connecting isolated departmental
or workgroup devices to the core data center. Fabric-to-loop
connectivity ensures edge servers have access to enterprise
storage, and edge peripherals have access to enterprise
computing resources.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-11
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
•
Improved resource manageability. Distributed resources are
consolidated and managed through Fibre Channel connectivity
instead of physical relocation. One management server manages
the operation and connectivity of multiple fabric directors, fabricattached devices, arbitrated loop switches, and FC-AL devices.
•
Improved security of business applications and data. Fabric
directors and a loop switch allow fabric-attached and FC-AL
devices to be partitioned into restricted-access zones to limit
unauthorized access. Refer to Zoning for information.
When using a fabric switch to provide loop-to-switched fabric
connectivity and incorporate FC-AL devices into the enterprise SAN
environment, attach the device to any switch port. The port senses
the FC-AL device and initializes itself as an FL_Port. The loop device
can communicate with fabric devices attached directly to the switch
(connected through F_Ports), or with fabric devices connected to
another switch and communicating through an E_Port (ISL).
Server
Consolidation
Providing fabric connectivity for multiple low-bandwidth servers
(Windows NT or Unix-based) by attaching them individually to an
expensive Fibre Channel director is not a cost-effective solution. A
practical solution is to consolidate servers on an inexpensive loop
switch, then connect the switch to a director E_Port. Figure 3-7
illustrates the consolidation of ten servers on a Sphereon 4500 Fabric
Switch (using two unmanaged hubs) through one E_Port connection
to a fabric director.
Each server has a ten MBps bandwidth, therefore the sum of the
bandwidths of all consolidated servers equals the E_Port bandwidth
of 1.0625 Gbps. Connecting another server to the switch would
exceed the E_Port capability and adversely impact director-to-switch
link performance. Other devices (such as tape drives) should not be
connected to a switch used for server consolidation.
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3
Figure 3-7
Tape Device
Consolidation
Server Consolidation
Providing fabric connectivity for multiple FC-AL tape drives by
attaching them individually to a Fibre Channel director is likewise
not a cost-effective solution. A practical solution is to consolidate the
tape drives on an inexpensive loop switch, then connect the switch to
a director E_Port.
Figure 3-8 illustrates the consolidation of three tape drives through
one E_Port connection to a fabric director. Each tape drive has a 30
MBps bandwidth, therefore the sum of the bandwidths of all
consolidated servers is slightly less (90 MBps) than the E_Port
bandwidth of 1.0625 Gbps. Connecting another FC-AL tape drive to
the switch would exceed the E_Port capability and adversely impact
director-to-switch link performance. Other devices (such as servers)
should not be connected to a switch used for tape drive
consolidation.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-13
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
Figure 3-8
Tape Drive Consolidation
Fabric Topologies
Several topologies exist from which to build a Fibre Channel fabric
infrastructure. This section describes the most effective fabric
topologies and provides guidance on when to deploy each topology.
The topologies are effective for a wide variety of applications, are
extensively tested by McDATA, and are deployed in several customer
environments. Fabric topologies described in this section include:
Mesh Fabric
3-14
•
Mesh.
•
Core-to-edge.
•
Fabric (SAN) islands.
There are two types of mesh fabrics: full mesh and modified (or
partial) mesh. In a full-mesh topology, every director or switch is
directly connected to all directors and switches in the fabric. The
maximum hop count between fabric-attached devices is one hop.
Figure 3-9 illustrates the topology.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
TM
TM
TM
TM
Interswitch Link
Fabric Connection
Figure 3-9
Full Mesh Fabric
Full-mesh fabrics provide increased resiliency over cascaded or ring
fabrics and are well suited for applications that require any-to-any
connectivity. If a single ISL fails, traffic is automatically routed
through an alternate path.
Mesh fabrics also form effective backbones to which other SAN
islands can be connected. Traffic patterns through the fabric should
be evenly distributed and overall bandwidth consumption low.
When using low port-count fabric elements, mesh fabrics are best
used when the fabric is not expected to grow beyond four or five
switches. The cost of ISLs becomes prohibitive for larger mesh
fabrics. In addition, full-mesh fabrics do not scale easily because the
addition of a switch requires that at least one additional ISL be added
from every existing switch in the fabric. If less than four fabric
elements are used in a full-mesh fabric:
•
A two-switch full mesh fabric is identical to a two-switch
cascaded fabric.
•
A three-switch full mesh fabric is identical to a three-switch ring
fabric.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-15
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
A modified or partial-mesh fabric is similar to a full-mesh fabric, but
each switch does not have to be directly connected to every other
switch in the fabric. The fabric is still resilient to failure but does not
carry a cost premium for unused or redundant ISLs. In addition,
partial-mesh fabrics scale easier than full-mesh fabrics. Partial-mesh
fabrics are useful when designing a SAN backbone for which traffic
patterns between SAN islands connected to the backbone are well
known. If heavy traffic is expected between a pair of switches, the
switches are connected through at least one ISL; if minimal traffic is
expected, the switches are not connected.
In general, mesh fabrics can be difficult to scale without downtime.
The addition of switches or directors usually involves disconnecting
fabric devices and may involve disconnecting in-place ISLs. As a
result, full or partial-mesh fabrics are recommended for networks
that change infrequently or have well-established traffic patterns.
Core-to-Edge
Fabric
A core-to-edge fabric consists of one or more directors or switches
acting as core elements that are dedicated to connecting other
directors and switches (edge elements) in the fabric. Core directors
act as high-bandwidth routers with connectivity to edge fabric
elements. Figure 3-10 illustrates the topology with two core directors
and fourteen edge directors and switches (2-by-14 topology).
Subject to large fabric design constraints, core-to-edge fabrics are easy
to scale through the addition of core elements. The topology offers
any-to-any device connectivity and evenly distributes traffic
bandwidth throughout the fabric. The topology provides the most
flexible architecture to address fabric performance, traffic locality,
data integrity, connectivity, and scalability requirements.
The simplest core-to edge fabric has two or more core switching
elements that may or may not be connected (simple or complex). In a
simple core topology as shown in Figure 3-10, core switches are not
connected. In a complex core topology, core switches are connected.
The figure also illustrates a topology where the core is a full-mesh
fabric.
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McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
Tier 2 Devices
TM
TM
TM
Edge
Switches
10/100
RST
10/100
RST
31
29
27
25
10/100
23
TM
30
PWR
ERR
Tier 1
Device
Core
Director
28
26
24
22
31
29
27
25
23
TM
21
RST
20
TM
21
10/100
19
18
17
16
RST
15
14
13
12
30
TM
11
10
9
8
7
5
3
28
26
24
1
PWR
ERR
6
4
2
22
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
5
3
1
PWR
ERR
6
4
2
0
PWR
0
ERR
Tier 1
Device
Core
Director
TM
TM
TM
TM
TM
10/100
RST
10/100
31
29
RST
27
10/100
25
23
RST
30
28
26
24
PWR
ERR
22
31
29
27
TM
21
19
17
TM
20
18
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
30
9
8
7
5
3
1
PWR
ERR
6
4
2
0
28
26
10/100
25
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23
22
RST
TM
21
20
19
18
TM
17
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11
10
9
8
7
5
3
1
PWR
ERR
6
4
PWR
ERR
2
0
Edge
Switches
Tier 2 Devices
Interswitch Link
Fabric Connection
Figure 3-10
2-by-14 Core-to-Edge Fabric
Each edge switch connects (through at least one ISL) to each core
switch but not to other edge switches. There are typically more device
connections to an edge switch than ISL connections; therefore edge
switches act as consolidation points for servers and storage devices.
The ratio of ISLs to device connections for each switch is a function of
device performance. For additional information, refer to ISL
Oversubscription.
Fibre channel devices (servers and storage devices) connect to core or
edge fabric elements in tiers. These tiers are defined as follows:
•
Tier 1 - A Tier 1 device connects directly to a core director or
switch. Tier 1 devices are typically high-use or high-I/O devices
that consume substantial bandwidth and should not be connected
through an ISL. In addition, fibre connection (FICON) devices
cannot communicate through E_Ports (ISLs) and must use Tier 1
connectivity. For additional information, refer to FCP and FICON
in a Single Fabric.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-17
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
SAN Islands
•
Tier 2 - A Tier 2 device connects to an edge switch and Fibre
Channel traffic from the device must traverse only one ISL (hop)
to reach a device attached to a core director or switch.
•
Tier 3 - A Tier 3 device connects to an edge switch and Fibre
Channel traffic from the device can traverse two ISLs (hops) to
reach a device attached to a core director or switch.
A SAN island is an isolated or geographically diverse Fibre Channel
fabric. These fabrics may also comprise different topologies (mesh or
core-to-edge), but may require connectivity for shared data access,
resource consolidation, data backup, remote mirroring, or disaster
recovery.
When connecting multiple fabrics, data traffic patterns and fabric
performance requirements must be well known. Fabric island
connectivity must adhere to topology limits, including maximum
number of fabric elements and ISL hop count. It is also essential to
maintain data locality within fabric islands as much as possible and
to closely monitor bandwidth usage between the fabric islands. Refer
to SAN Island Consolidation for additional information.
Planning for Multiswitch Fabric Support
A Fibre Channel topology that consists of one or more interconnected
director or switch elements is called a fabric. The product operational
software provides the ability to interconnect directors and switches
(through E_Port connections) to form a multiswitch fabric. Support of
multiswitch fabric operation is a major feature of a director or fabric
switch. Consider installation of multiple directors or switches to form
a high-availability fabric topology that supports multiple, fullbandwidth data transmission paths between servers and devices.
Figure 3-11 illustrates a simple multiswitch fabric. In the figure, the
three fabric elements are Intrepid 6064 Directors.
Fabric elements cooperate to receive data from the N_Port of an
attached device, route the data through the proper director or switch
fabric ports (F_Ports), and deliver the data to the N_Port of a
destination device. The data transmission path through the fabric is
typically determined by the fabric elements and is transparent to the
user. Subject to zoning restrictions, devices attached to any of the
interconnected directors or switches can communicate with each
other through the fabric.
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McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
N
N
N
N
N
F
F
F
F
F
F
N
D8
F
N
D9
F
N
D10
ISLS
D2
N
N
D1
F
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
E
TM
TM
F
Di2
S1
E
E
S2
ISL
ISL
TM
E
E
F
F
N
D12
Figure 3-11
S3
Multiswitch
Fabric
N
D11
D = Device
ISL = Interswitch Link
S = Fabric Switch (Director)
Example Multiswitch Fabric
A multiswitch fabric is typically complex and provides the facilities
to maintain routing to all device N_Ports attached to the fabric,
handle flow control, and satisfy the requirements of the classes of
Fibre Channel service that are supported.
Fabric Topology
Limits
Operation of multiple directors or switches in a fabric topology is
subject to the following topology limits. Consider the impact of these
limits when planning the fabric.
•
Fabric Elements - Each fabric element is defined by a unique
domain identification (Domain_ID) that ranges between 1 and 31.
A Domain_ID of 0 is invalid. Therefore, the theoretical limit of
interconnected directors or switches supported in a single fabric
is 31. For additional information, refer to General Fabric Design
Considerations.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-19
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
•
Heterogeneous fabric - Vendor interoperability in the fabric
environment is supported; therefore, fabric elements can include
directors, fabric switches, and open-fabric compliant products
supplied by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). To
determine if interoperability is supported for a product or if
communication restrictions apply, refer to the supporting
publications for the product or contact McDATA.
•
Number of ISLs - The Intrepid 6064 Director supports 48 ISLs.
The Intrepid 6140 Director supports 140 ISLs. The Intrepid 10000
Director supports seven ISLs per optical paddle pair. Sphereonclass switches support a maximum ISL count equal to half the
number of Fibre Channel ports available on the product. For
redundancy, at least two ISLs should connect any pair of
director-class fabric elements.
•
Hop count - The Fibre Channel theoretical limit of ISL
connections traversed (hop count) in a single path through the
fabric is seven. The tested and verified hop count limit is three.
NOTE: The hop count is equal to the number of ISL connections
traversed in a single path, not the total number of ISL connections
between devices. As shown in Figure 3-11, the number of ISL connections
between switch S1 and S2 is four, while the number of hops is one.
Factors to Consider
When Implementing
a Fabric Topology
Director and switch-based fabrics offer scalable, high-performance,
and high-availability connectivity solutions for the enterprise. To
enable a multiswitch fabric, all fabric elements must be defined to the
SAN management application and must be physically cabled to form
the requisite ISL connections. In addition, it is recommended that
each director or switch in the fabric be assigned a unique preferred
Domain_ID. When planning to implement a fabric topology, consider
the following connectivity and cabling best practices:
•
3-20
Physical characteristics and performance objectives - Most
enterprises have unique configurations determined by the
characteristics of end devices, fabric elements, cost, and the
installation’s performance objectives (such as high data transfer
rate or high availability). These factors, along with nondisruptive
growth and service requirements, must be evaluated when
planning an initial fabric. For additional information, refer to
General Fabric Design Considerations.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
•
Distance requirements - The distance between elements in a
fabric affects the type of optical port transceiver and cabling
required. In addition, variables such as the number of
connections, grade of fiber-optic cable, device restrictions,
application restrictions, buffer-to-buffer credit limits, and
performance requirements can affect distance requirements.
Consider the following:
— If the distance between two fabric elements is less than 300
meters (at 1.0625 Gbps), 150 meters (at 2.1250 Gbps), 75 meters
(at 4.2500 Gbps), or 33 meters (at 10.2000 Gbps) any port
transceiver (shortwave or longwave laser) and any fiber-optic
cable type (50-micron multimode, 62.5-micron multimode, or
9-micron singlemode) can be used to create an ISL. Cost or
port availability may be the determining factor.
— If the distance between two fabric elements is between 300 and
500 meters (at 1.0625 Gbps), 150 and 300 meters (at 2.1250
Gbps), 75 and 150 meters (at 4.2500 Gbps), or 33 and 82 meters
(at 10.2000 Gbps) any port transceiver (shortwave or
longwave laser) and 50-micron multimode or 9-micron
singlemode fiber-optic cable can be used to create an ISL.
— If the distance between two fabric elements exceeds 500
meters (at 1.0625 Gbps), 300 meters (at 2.1250 Gbps), 150
meters (at 4.2500 Gbps), or 82 meters (at 10.2000 Gbps) only
longwave laser port transceivers and 9-micron singlemode
fiber-optic cable can be used to create an ISL.
— Distance limitations can be increased by using multiple fabric
elements. Each director or switch retransmits received signals,
thus performing a repeater and multiplexer function.
However, be aware that each connection introduces a nominal
signal loss of at least one dB through the ISL. If dB losses
introduced through multiple connections exceed the link
budget of the entire ISL, link errors occur. Refer to Data
Transmission Distance for additional information about link
budgets and distance limitations.
Distance limitations can also be increased by using a variety of
local area network (LAN), metropolitan area network (MAN)
or wide area network (WAN) extension technologies. For
additional information, refer to SAN Extension Transport
Technologies.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-21
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
•
Bandwidth - ISL connections can be used to increase the total
bandwidth available for data transfer between two directors or
switches in a fabric. Increasing the number of ISLs between
elements increases the corresponding total ISL bandwidth but
decreases the number of port connections available to devices.
•
Load balancing - Planning consideration must be given to the
amount of data traffic expected through the fabric or through a
fabric element. Because the fabric automatically determines and
uses the least cost (shortest) data transfer path between source
and destination ports, some ISL connections may provide
insufficient bandwidth while the bandwidth of other connections
is unused.
To optimize bandwidth use and automatically provide dynamic
load balancing across multiple ISLs, consider purchasing and
enabling the OpenTrunking feature key. For information about
the feature and managing multiple ISLs, refer to OpenTrunking
and General Fabric Design Considerations.
•
Preferred path - Preferred path is an option that allows a user to
configure an ISL data path between multiple fabric elements
(directors and fabric switches) by configuring the source and exit
ports of the origination fabric element and the Domain_ID of the
destination fabric element. Each participating director or switch
must be configured as part of a desired path. For information
about the feature, refer to Preferred Path.
ATTENTION ! Activating a preferred path can result in receipt of out-oforder frames if the preferred path differs from the current path, if input and
output (I/O) is active from the source port, and if congestion is present on the
current path.
In general, Fibre Channel frames are routed through fabric paths
that implement the minimum possible hop count. For example, in
Figure 3-11, all traffic between devices connected to director S1
and director S2 communicate directly through ISLs that connect
the directors (one hop). No traffic is routed through director S3
(two hops). If heavy traffic between the devices is expected,
multiple ISL connections should be configured to create multiple
minimum-hop paths. With multiple paths, the directors balance
the load by assigning traffic from different ports to different
minimum-hop paths (ISLs).
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Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
When balancing a load across multiple ISLs, a director or switch
attempts to avoid assigning multiple ports attached to a device to
the same ISL. This minimizes the probability that failure of a
single ISL will affect all paths to the device. However, because
port assignments are made incrementally as devices log into the
fabric and ISLs become available, optimal results are not
guaranteed.
Special consideration must also be given to applications with
high data transfer rates or devices that participate in frequent or
critical data transfer operations. For example, in Figure 3-11,
suppose device D7 is a server and device D9 is a storage unit and
both devices participate in a critical nightly backup operation. It
is recommended that such a connection be routed directly
through director S2 (rather than the entire fabric) through zoned
port connections, WWN-bound port connections, or a preferred
path. For additional information, refer to Device Locality.
•
Zoning - For multiswitch fabrics, zoning is configured on a
fabric-wide basis. Changes to the zoning configuration apply to
all directors and switches in the fabric. To ensure the zoning
configuration is maintained, certain rules are enforced when two
or more elements are connected through ISLs to form a fabric or
when two or more fabrics are joined. For additional information,
refer to Configuring Zones.
After directors and fabric switches are defined and cabled, they
automatically join to form a single fabric through a user-transparent
process. However, the user should be aware of the following fabric
concepts, configuration characteristics, and operational
characteristics:
•
Principal switch selection - Setting this value determines the
principal switch for the multiswitch fabric. Select either Principal
(highest priority), Default, or Never Principal (lowest priority) from
the Switch Priority drop-down list.
If all fabric elements are set to Principal or Default, the director or
fabric switch with the highest priority and the lowest WWN
becomes the principal switch. Following are some examples of
principal switch selection when fabric elements have these
settings.
— If you have three fabric elements and set all to Default, the
director or switch with the lowest WWN becomes the
principal switch.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-23
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
— If you have three fabric elements and set two to Principal and
one to Default, the element with the Principal setting that has
the lowest WWN becomes the principal switch.
— If you have three fabric elements and set two to Default and
one to Never Principal, the element with the Default setting and
the lowest WWN becomes the principal switch.
Note that at least one director or switch in a multiswitch fabric
needs to be set as Principal or Default. If all the fabric elements are
set to Never Principal, all ISLs will segment. If all but one element
is set to Never Principal and the element that was Principal goes
offline, then all of the other ISLs will segment.
NOTE: It is recommended to configure the switch priority as Default.
In the audit log, note the Principal setting maps to a number code
of 1, Default maps to a number code of 254, and Never Principal
maps to a number code of 255. Number codes 2 through 253 are
not used.
•
Fabric WWN assignment - The Fabric Manager application
identifies fabrics using a fabric WWN. The fabric WWN is the
same as the WWN of the fabric’s principal switch. If a new
principal switch is selected because of a change to the fabric
topology, the fabric WWN changes to the WWN of the newly
selected principal switch.
•
Domain_ID assignment - Each director or switch in a
multiswitch fabric is identified by a unique Domain_ID that
ranges between 1 and 31. A Domain_ID of 0 is invalid. Numerical
Domain_IDs specified by a user are converted to hexadecimal
format and used in 24-bit Fibre Channel addresses that uniquely
identify source and destination ports in a fabric.
Each fabric element is configured through the Element Manager
application with a preferred Domain_ID. When a director or
switch powers on and comes online, it requests a Domain_ID
from the fabric’s principal switch (indicating its preferred value
as part of the request). If the requested Domain_ID is not
allocated to the fabric, the Domain_ID is assigned to the
requesting director or switch. If the requested Domain_ID is
already allocated, an unused Domain_ID is assigned.
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Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
If two operational fabrics join, they determine if any Domain_ID
conflicts exist between the fabrics. If one or more conflicts exist,
the interconnecting ISL E_Ports segment to prevent the fabrics
from joining. To prevent this problem, it is recommended that all
directors and switches be assigned a unique preferred
Domain_ID. This is important if zoning is implemented through
port number (and by default Domain_ID) rather that WWN.
When assigning preferred Domain_IDs in an open fabric with
directors and switches supplied by multiple OEMs, be aware of
the following:
— For Intrepid 6000-series directors and Sphereon-series fabric
switches, the firmware adds a base offset of 96 (hexadecimal
60) to the numerically-assigned preferred Domain_ID.
Therefore, if a user assigns a director or switch a numerical
preferred Domain_ID of 1, the firmware assigns a hexadecimal
Domain_ID of 61.
— For the Intrepid 10000 Director and Eclipse-series SAN
routers, the firmware does not add a base offset to the
numerically-assigned preferred Domain_ID.
— For non-McDATA directors and switches, the product
firmware may not add a base offset to the numerical preferred
Domain_ID or may add a different hexadecimal base offset
(not 60).
As a consequence of this variable base offset and hexadecimal
conversion, Domain_ID conflicts may exist in an open fabric,
even if each participating director and switch is assigned a unique
numerical Domain_ID. To determine the method of preferred
Domain_ID assignment for a product, refer to the supporting
OEM publications for the product or contact McDATA.
NOTE: Do not assign Domain_ID 30 or Domain_ID 31 to a fabric
element. In a routed SAN, these proxy Domain_IDs are assigned to
routing domains.
•
Path selection - Directors and fabric switches are not manually
configured with data transmission paths to each other.
Participating fabric elements automatically exchange information
to determine the fabric topology and resulting minimum-hop
data transfer paths through the fabric. These paths route Fibre
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-25
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
Channel frames between devices attached to the fabric and enable
operation of the fabric services firmware on each director or
switch.
Paths are determined when the fabric topology is determined and
remain static as long as the fabric does not change. If the fabric
topology changes (elements are added or removed or ISLs are
added or removed), directors and switches detect the change and
define new data transfer paths as required. The algorithm that
determines data transfer paths is distributive and does not rely on
the principal switch to operate. Each director or switch calculates
its own optimal paths in relation to other fabric elements.
Only minimum-hop data transfer paths route frames between
devices. If an ISL in a minimum-hop path fails, directors and
switches calculate a new least-cost path (which may include more
hops) and route Fibre Channel frames over that new path.
Conversely, if the failed ISL is restored, directors and switches
detect the original minimum-hop path and route Fibre Channel
frames over that path.
When multiple minimum-hop paths (ISLs) between fabric
elements are detected, firmware balances the data transfer load
and assigns ISL as follows:
— The director or switch assigns an equal number of device
entry ports (F_Ports) to each E_Port connected to an ISL. For
example, if a fabric element has two ISLs and six attached
devices, the load from three devices is transferred through
each ISL.
— If a single device has multiple F_Port connections to a director
or switch, the switch assigns the data transfer load across
multiple ISLs to maximize device availability.
•
3-26
Frame delivery order - When directors or fabric switches
calculate a new least-cost data transfer path through a fabric,
routing tables immediately implement that path. This may result
in Fibre Channel frames being delivered to a destination device
out of order, because frames transmitted over the new (shorter)
path may arrive ahead of previously-transmitted frames that
traverse the old (longer) path. This causes problems because
many Fibre Channel devices cannot receive frames in the
incorrect order.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
ATTENTION ! Activating a preferred path can result in receipt of out-oforder frames if the preferred path differs from the current path, if input and
output (I/O) is active from the source port, and if congestion is present on the
current path.
A rerouting delay parameter can be enabled at the Element
Manager application to ensure a director or switch provides
correct frame order delivery. The delay period is equal to the error
detect time out value (E_D_TOV) specified in the Element
Manager application. Class 2 frames transmitted into the fabric
during this delay period are rejected; Class 3 frames are discarded
without notification. By default, the rerouting delay parameter is
disabled.
NOTE: To prevent E_Port segmentation, the same E_D_TOV and
resource allocation time out value (R_A_TOV) must be specified for each
fabric element.
•
E_Port segmentation - When an ISL activates, the two fabric
elements exchange operating parameters to determine if they are
compatible and can join to form a single fabric. If the elements are
incompatible, the connecting E_Port at each director or switch
segments to prevent the creation of a single fabric. A segmented
link transmits only Class F traffic; the link does not transmit Class
2 or Class 3 traffic. The following conditions cause E_Ports to
segment:
— Incompatible operating parameters - Either the R_A_TOV or
E_D_TOV is inconsistent between the two fabric elements.
— Duplicate Domain_IDs - One or more Domain_ID conflicts
are detected.
— Incompatible zoning configurations - Zoning configurations
for the two fabric elements are not compatible. For an
explanation, refer to Configuring Zones.
— Build fabric protocol error - A protocol error is detected
during the process of forming the fabric.
— No principal switch - No director or switch in the fabric is
capable of becoming the principal switch.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-27
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
— No response from attached switch - After a fabric is created,
each element in the fabric periodically verifies operation of all
attached switches and directors. An ISL segments if a switch
or director does not respond to a verification request.
— ELP retransmission failure timeout - A director or switch that
exhibits a hardware failure or connectivity problem cannot
transmit or receive Class F frames. The director or switch did
not receive a response to multiple exchange link parameters
(ELP) frames, did not receive a fabric login (FLOGI) frame,
and cannot join an operational fabric.
•
Fabric services and state change notifications - In a multiswitch
fabric, director-provided services such as name service, registered
state change notifications (RSCNs), and zoning are provided on a
fabric-wide basis. For example, if a fabric-attached device queries
a director or switch name server to locate all devices that support
a specified protocol, the reply includes all fabric devices that
support the protocol that are in the same zone as the requesting
device, not just devices attached to the director or switch.
RSCNs are transmitted to all registered device N_Ports attached
to the fabric if either of the following occur:
— A fabric-wide event occurs, such as a director logging in to the
fabric, a director logging out of the fabric, or a reconfiguration
because of a director or ISL failure.
— A zoning configuration change.
•
Zoning configurations for joined fabrics - In a multiswitch
fabric, zoning is configured on a fabric-wide basis, and any
change to the active zone set is applied to all directors and
switches. To ensure zoning is consistent across a fabric, the
following rules are enforced when two fabrics (zoned or
unzoned) join through an ISL.
— Fabric A unzoned and Fabric B unzoned - The fabrics join
successfully, and the resulting fabric remains unzoned.
— Fabric A zoned and Fabric B unzoned - The fabrics join
successfully, and fabric B automatically inherits the zoning
configuration from fabric A.
— Fabric A unzoned and Fabric B zoned - The fabrics join
successfully, and fabric A automatically inherits the zoning
configuration from fabric B.
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Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
— Fabric A zoned and Fabric B zoned - The fabrics join
successfully only if the zone sets can be merged. If the fabrics
cannot join, the connecting E_Ports segment and the fabrics
remain independent.
Zone sets for two directors or switches are compatible (the fabrics
can join) only if the zone names for each fabric element are
unique. The zone names for two fabric elements can be the same
only if the zone member WWNs are identical for each duplicated
zone name.
General Fabric Design Considerations
To be effective, the fabric topology design must:
Fabric Initialization
•
Solve the customer’s business problem and provide the required
level of performance.
•
Meet the customer’s requirements for high availability.
•
Be scalable to meet future requirements.
When multiple directors or switches are connected, E_Port (ISL)
communication must be established between fabric elements and the
fabric must be initialized. During fabric initialization, the fabric
elements:
•
Establish the operating mode for connected E_Port pairs and
exchange link parameters (E_Port names, timeout values, classspecific information, and flow control parameters).
•
Exchange fabric parameters, select a principal switch, and assign
Domain_IDs to all switches.
•
Employ a routing protocol to establish the shortest path through
the fabric and program route tables for each fabric element.
•
Exchange the active zone set to ensure uniform zoning is enforced
between all fabric elements.
Fabric initialization is not a serial process. The process executes
concurrently across all ISLs in the fabric, causing a massive flood of
Class F traffic that must processed to the embedded port of each
fabric element within a specified (fabric-wide) E_D_TOV.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-29
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
If the fabric consists of a large number of elements (and therefore
ISLs), Class F traffic may not be processed within the E_D_TOV,
resulting in error recovery operations, timeouts, segmented links, or
fabric failure.
Because of these problems, a fabric with a high ISL count is more
difficult to build. Problems associated with a large fabric are not
directly related to the large number of fabric elements but to the large
number of ISLs associated with the elements.
Installing high-port count directors (such as the Intrepid 10000
Director) as SAN building blocks provides a larger number of
non-blocking Fibre Channel ports. Large fabrics built around these
directors require fewer additional fabric elements (smaller directors
and fabric switches) and ISLs. The Intrepid 10000 Director also
supports high-bandwidth (10.2000 Gbps) ISLs that reduce the fabric’s
total ISL count. In addition, fabrics and sub-fabrics can be merged or
maintained as separate entities through flexible partitioning
provided by the Intrepid 10000 Director.
Large fabrics benefit from deterministic non-blocking performance,
less ISL congestion, and better cable management - performance that
is not possible from a fabric constructed with smaller port-count
switches interconnected with multiple ISLs.
Fabric Performance
3-30
During the design phase of a Fibre Channel fabric, performance
requirements of the fabric and of component directors, fabric
switches, and devices must be identified and incorporated. An
effective fabric design can accommodate changes to performance
requirements and incorporate additional directors, switches, devices,
ISLs, and higher speed links with minimal impact to fabric operation.
Performance factors that affect fabric design include:
•
Application input/output (I/O) requirements, both in Gbps and
I/Os per second (IOPS).
•
Storage port fan-out.
•
Hardware limits, including the maximum directors and switches
per fabric, maximum number of ISLs per director or switch, and
maximum hops between devices. For additional information,
refer to Fabric Topology Limits.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
•
I/O Requirements
Software limits, including the maximum number of fabric
elements managed by the SAN management application and the
maximum number of zones and zone members. For additional
information, refer to SAN Management Applications and
Configuring Zones.
McDATA directors and fabric switches are designed with nonblocking architecture; therefore any two switch ports can
communicate at the full Fibre Channel bandwidth of 1.0625, 2.1250,
4.2500, or 10.2000 Gbps without impact to other switch ports. Because
most SAN-attached devices are not capable of generating I/O traffic
at the full bandwidth, there is little potential for congestion between
two devices attached through a single director or switch.
However, when multiple directors or switches are connected through
a fabric ISL that multiplexes traffic from several devices, significant
potential for congestion arises. To minimize congestion, factors such
as application I/O profiles, ISL oversubscription, and device locality
must be included in the fabric design.
Application I/O Profiles
Understanding application I/O characteristics is essential to SAN,
fabric, and ISL design. Factors that may affect application I/O
include:
•
Read/write mixture - Although application I/O is typically a
mixture of read and write operations, some applications are very
biased. For example, video server applications are almost 100%
read intensive, while real-time video editing applications are
mostly write intensive. Read operations typically take less time
than write operations, therefore storage devices for a
read-intensive application usually wait for data transfer. As a
consequence, read-intensive applications typically require high
bandwidth to the device.
•
Type of data access - When an application requires data, access to
that data is random or sequential. For example, e-mail server
activity is random access, while seismic data processing for the oil
and gas industry is sequential access. Sequential data access
typically takes less time than random data access, therefore
sequential-access applications usually wait for data transfer. As a
consequence, sequential-access applications typically require
high bandwidth to the device.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-31
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
•
I/O block size - The third characteristic of application I/O is data
block size, which typically ranges from two kilobytes (KB) to over
one megabyte (MB). Applications that generate large blocks of
data require high bandwidth to the device.
Prior to fabric design, application I/O profiles should be estimated or
established that classify the application bandwidth requirements.
Bandwidth consumption is classified as light, medium, or heavy.
These classifications must be considered when planning ISL and
device connectivity. For information about application I/O (in Gbps)
and fabric performance problems due to ISL connectivity, refer to ISL
Oversubscription. For information about application I/O (in IOPS) and
fabric performance problems due to port contention, refer to Device
Fan-Out Ratio.
ISL Oversubscription
ISL oversubscription (or congestion) occurs when multiplexed traffic
from several devices is transmitted across a single ISL. When an ISL is
oversubscribed, fabric elements use fairness algorithms to interleave
data frames from multiple devices, thus giving fractional bandwidth
to the affected devices. Although all devices are serviced, ISL and
fabric performance is reduced. Figure 3-12 illustrates ISL
oversubscription.
Storage
1 Gbps ISL
NT Server 1
TM
NT Server 2
Bandwidth (MBps)
1 Gbps ISL
TM
200
150
100
50
0
1
NT Server 1
(100 MBps Max)
Figure 3-12
3-32
NT Server 2
(100 MBps Max)
ISL Oversubscription
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
5
10
15
Time (Sec)
20
25
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
Two NT servers, each with maximum I/O of 100 MBps, are
contending for the bandwidth of a single ISL operating at 1.0625
Gbps. In addition to data, the ISL must also transmit Class F traffic
internal to the fabric. When operating at peak load, each NT server
receives less than half the available ISL bandwidth.
Depending on fabric performance requirements and cost, there are
several options (best practices) to solve ISL oversubscription
problems, including:
•
Employ device locality - NT Server 1 and its associated storage
device can be connected through one director. NT Server 2 and its
associated storage device can be connected through the other
director. As a result, minimal traffic flows across the ISL between
directors and the congestion problem is mitigated. For additional
information, refer to Device Locality.
•
Install an additional ISL - A second ISL can be installed to
balance the traffic load between fabric elements. Two ISLs are
sufficient to support the bandwidth of both NT servers operating
at peak load.
•
Upgrade the existing ISL - Software, firmware, and hardware can
be upgraded to support a 2.1250, 4.2500, or 10.2000 Gbps
bandwidth traffic load between fabric elements. A 2.1250, 4.2500,
or 10.2000 Gbps ISL is sufficient to support the bandwidth of both
NT servers operating at peak load.
•
Deliberately employ ISL oversubscription - SANs are expected
to function well, even with oversubscribed ISLs. Device I/O is
typically bursty, few devices operate at peak load for a significant
length of time, and device loads seldom peak simultaneously. As
a result, ISL bandwidth is usually not fully allocated, even for an
oversubscribed link. An enterprise can realize significant cost
savings by deliberately designing a SAN with oversubscribed
ISLs that provide connectivity for noncritical applications.
Device Locality
Devices that communicate with each other through the same director
or switch have high locality. Devices that must communicate with
each other through one or more ISLs have low locality. Part (A) of
Figure 3-13 illustrates high device locality with little ISL traffic. Part
(B) of Figure 3-13 illustrates low device locality.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-33
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
High Device Locality
A
Low Device Locality
High Traffic
Low Traffic
TM
TM
TM
ISL
Figure 3-13
B
TM
ISL
Device Locality
Although it is possible to design a SAN that delivers sufficient ISL
bandwidth in a zero-locality environment, it is preferable to design
local, one-to-one connectivity for heavy-bandwidth applications such
as video server, seismic data processing, or medical 3D imaging.
When designing a core-to-edge fabric, servers and storage devices
that support such bandwidth-intensive applications should be
attached to core directors as Tier 1 devices. As a best practices policy
(assuming 1.0625 Gbps ISLs), devices that generate a sustained
output of 35 MBps or higher are candidates for Tier 1 connectivity.
FICON devices also must use Tier 1 connectivity. For additional
information, refer to FCP and FICON in a Single Fabric.
Device Fan-Out Ratio
The output of most host devices is bursty in nature, most devices do
not sustain full-bandwidth output, and it is uncommon for the output
of multiple devices to peak simultaneously. These variations are why
multiple hosts can be serviced by a single storage port. This device
sharing leads to the concept of fan-out ratio.
Device fan-out ratio is defined as the storage or array port IOPS
divided by the attached host IOPS, rounded down to the nearest
whole number. A more simplistic definition for device fan out is the
ratio of host ports to a single storage port. Fan-out ratios are typically
device dependent. In general, the maximum device fan-out ratio
supported is 12 to 1. Figure 3-14 illustrates a fan-out ratio of 10 to 1.
3-34
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
Device Fan-Out Ratio: 10 to 1
1,000 IOPS
1,000 IOPS
1,000 IOPS
1,000 IOPS
10,000 IOPS
TM
TM
1,000 IOPS
1,000 IOPS
1,000 IOPS
1,000 IOPS
Interswitch Link
Fabric Connection
Figure 3-14
Performance Tuning
1,000 IOPS
1,000 IOPS
Device Fan-Out Ratio
When designing or tuning a fabric for performance, it is critical to
understand application I/O characteristics so that:
•
Device output in Gbps does not oversubscribe ISLs, leading to
fabric congestion.
•
Device output in IOPS does not result in a connectivity scheme
that exceeds fan-out ratios, leading to port congestion.
Figure 3-15 illustrates performance tuning for a simple fabric using
appropriate ISL connectivity, device locality, and fan-out regions for
device connectivity. The fabric is comprised of one core director and
six edge switches. Tier 2 servers connect to three switches at the
bottom of the figure, and Tier 2 storage devices connect to three
switches at the top of the figure.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-35
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
Tier 2 Storage
11 to 1 Fan-Out Region
6 to 1 Fan-Out Region
3 to 1 Fan-Out Region
11,000 IOPS
9,000 IOPS
6,000 IOPS
10/100
RST
10/100
RST
10/100
RST
TM
TM
TM
PWR
ERR
PWR
PWR
ERR
ERR
Local Tier 1 Devices
2,000 IOPS
TM
6,000 IOPS
40 MBps
2,000 IOPS
10/100
RST
31
30
29
28
27
26
10/100
25
24
23
22
RST
TM
21
20
19
18
10/100
TM
17
16
15
14
RST
13
12
11
10
TM
9
8
7
5
3
1
PWR
ERR
6
4
PWR
ERR
2
0
PWR
ERR
6 Total
Servers
11 Total
Servers
10 MBps
1,000 IOPS
3 Total
Servers
20 MBps
1,500 IOPS
30 MBps
2,000 IOPS
Tier 2 Servers
Interswitch Link
Fabric Connection
Figure 3-15
Fabric Performance Tuning
The fabric is divided into four performance regions as follows:
•
3-36
Local Tier 1 devices - A video server application with I/O
capabilities of 40 MBps and 2,000 IOPS must be connected to the
fabric. Because the application is critical and high bandwidth (in
excess of 35 MBps), the server and associated storage are directly
attached to the core director as Tier 1 devices. No ISLs are used
for server-to-storage connectivity.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
Fabric Availability
•
11 to 1 fan-out region - Eleven NT servers with I/O capabilities of
10 MBps and 1,000 IOPS are fabric-attached through a 32-port
edge switch. The primary applications are e-mail and online
transaction processing (OLTP). Because bandwidth use is light
and noncritical, the servers are connected to the core director with
a single ISL that is intentionally oversubscribed (1.1 Gbps plus
Class F traffic). The servers are connected to storage devices with
I/O capabilities of 11,000 IOPS.
•
6 to 1 fan-out region - Six servers with I/O capabilities of 20
MBps and 1,500 IOPS are fabric-attached through a 16-port edge
switch. Bandwidth use is light to medium but critical, so the
servers are connected to the core director with two ISLs (0.6 Gbps
each plus Class F traffic). The servers are connected to storage
devices with I/O capabilities of 9,000 IOPS.
•
3 to 1 fan-out region - Three servers with I/O capabilities of 30
MBps and 2,000 IOPS are fabric-attached through a 16-port edge
switch. Bandwidth use is medium but non critical, so the servers
are connected to the core director with one ISL (0.9 Gbps plus
Class F traffic). The servers are connected to storage devices with
I/O capabilities of 6,000 IOPS.
Many fabric-attached devices require highly-available connectivity to
support applications such as disk mirroring, server clustering, or
business continuance operations. High availability is accomplished
by deploying a resilient fabric topology or redundant fabrics.
A fabric topology that provides at least two internal routes between
fabric elements is considered resilient. A single director, switch, or
ISL failure does not affect the remaining elements and the overall
fabric remains operational. However, unforeseen events such as
human error, software failure, or disaster can cause the failure of a
single resilient fabric. Using redundant fabrics (with resiliency)
mitigates these effects and significantly increases fabric availability.
Fibre Channel fabrics are classified by four levels of resiliency and
redundancy. From least available to most available, the classification
levels are:
•
Nonresilient single fabric - Directors and switches are connected
to form a single fabric that contains at least one single point of
failure (fabric element or ISL). Such a failure causes the fabric to
fail and segment into two or more smaller fabrics.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-37
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
•
Resilient single fabric - Directors and switches are connected to
form a single fabric, but no single point of failure can cause the
fabric to fail and segment into two or more smaller fabrics.
•
Nonresilient dual fabric - Half of the directors and switches are
connected to form one fabric, and the remaining half are
connected to form an identical but separate fabric. Servers and
storage devices are connected to both fabrics. Each fabric contains
at least one single point of failure (fabric element or ISL). All
applications remain available, even if an entire fabric fails.
•
Resilient dual fabric - Half of the directors and switches are
connected to form one fabric, and the remaining half are
connected to form an identical but separate fabric. Servers and
storage devices are connected to both fabrics. No single point of
failure can cause either fabric to fail and segment. All applications
remain available, even if an entire fabric fails and elements in the
second fabric fail.
A dual-fabric resilient topology is generally the best design to
meet high-availability requirements. Another benefit of the
design is the ability to proactively take one fabric offline for
maintenance or upgrade without disrupting SAN operations.
Redundant Fabrics
If high availability is important enough to require dual-connected
servers and storage, a dual-fabric solution is generally preferable to a
dual-connected single fabric. Dual fabrics maintain simplicity and
reduce (by 50%) the size of fabric routing tables, name server tables,
updates, and Class F management traffic. In addition, smaller fabrics
are easier to analyze for performance, fault isolate, and maintain.
Figure 3-16 illustrates simple redundant fabrics. Fabric “A” and
fabric “B” are symmetrical, each containing one core director and
four edge switches. All servers and storage devices are connected to
both fabrics.
Some dual-attached devices support active-active paths, while others
support only active-passive paths. Active-active devices use either
output path equally, and thus use both fabrics and double the device
bandwidth. Active-passive devices use the passive path only when
the active path fails.
3-38
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
10/100
10/100
RST
10/100
RST
10/100
RST
TM
RST
TM
TM
TM
PWR
PWR
PWR
PWR
ERR
ERR
ERR
ERR
Fabric
“A”
Fabric
“B”
TM
TM
10/100
10/100
RST
10/100
RST
RST
10/100
RST
TM
TM
TM
TM
PWR
ERR
PWR
ERR
PWR
PWR
ERR
ERR
Interswitch Link
Fabric Connection
Figure 3-16
Redundant Fabrics
When deploying redundant fabrics, it is not required that the fabrics
be symmetrical. As an example, single-attached devices, such as tape
drives and noncritical servers and storage, can be logically grouped
and attached to one of the fabrics.
Fabric Scalability
Businesses are experiencing an unprecedented growth of information
and the requirement to maintain that information online. To meet
these requirements, Fibre Channel SANs provide the theoretical
infrastructure to connect thousands of servers to hundreds of storage
devices. To provide enterprise-class performance, scalable fabric
designs are required. Refer to Chapter 4, Implementing SAN
Internetworking Solutions for detailed information.
A scalable fabric allows for nondisruptive addition of fabric elements
(directors, fabric switches, and SAN routers) or ISLs to increase the
size or performance of the fabric or SAN. Large, scalable fabrics and
SANs are constructed by incorporating:
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-39
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
•
High-port count directors - Installing high-port count directors as
SAN building blocks provides a larger number of non-blocking
Fibre Channel ports per fabric element and reduces the need for
ISLs. Newer products support high-bandwidth (10.2000 Gbps)
ISLs that also reduce the fabric ISL count. In addition, fabrics and
sub-fabrics can be merged or maintained as separate entities
through dynamic partitioning. Refer to General Fabric Design
Considerations and Inter-FlexPar Routing for information.
•
SAN routers - Installing SAN routers provides interoperable
E_Port connectivity between local SAN fabrics. However, SAN
routers terminate the E_Port connection at each SAN edge. This
allows devices in each SAN to communicate through the router,
but preserves the autonomy of each local SAN. Refer to R_Port
Operation and Inter-FlexPar Routing for information.
Scalability also relates to investment protection. If a core fabric switch
is replaced with a newer or higher port count switch (such as the
Intrepid 10000 Director), it is often valuable to use the existing switch
elsewhere in the fabric (at the edge).
Obtaining
Professional
Services
Planning and implementing a multiswitch fabric topology can be a
complex and difficult task. Obtain planning assistance from
McDATA’s professional services organization before implementing a
fabric topology.
Mixed Fabric Design Considerations
This section discusses mixed fabric design considerations, including:
3-40
•
Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) and FICON environments in a
single fabric.
•
Multiple data transmission speeds (1.0625, 2.1250, 4.2500, and
10.2000 Gbps) in a single fabric.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
FCP and FICON in a
Single Fabric
Fibre Channel Layer 4 (FC-4) describes the interface between Fibre
Channel and various upper-level protocols. FCP and FICON are the
major FC-4 protocols. FCP is the Fibre Channel protocol that supports
the small computer system interface (SCSI) upper-level transport
protocol. FICON is the successor to the enterprise systems connection
(ESCON) protocol and adds increased reliability and integrity to that
provided by the FCP protocol.
Because FCP and FICON are both FC-4 protocols, routing of Fibre
Channel frames is not affected when the protocols are mixed in a
single fabric environment. However, management differences in the
protocols arise when a user changes director or fabric switch
parameters through zoning or connectivity control. In particular:
•
FCP communication parameters are port number and namecentric, discovery oriented, assigned by the fabric, and use the
Fibre Channel name server to control device communication.
•
FICON communication parameters are logical port addresscentric, definition oriented, assigned by the attached host, and
use host assignment to control device communication.
Considerations that need to be evaluated when intermixing FCP and
FICON protocols are:
Director or Switch
Management
•
Director or switch management.
•
Port numbering versus port addressing.
•
Management limitations.
•
Features that impact protocol intermixing.
•
Best practices.
When intermixing FCP and FICON protocols, it must be determined
if the director or fabric switch is to be operated using the open
systems or FICON management style. This setting only affects the
operating mode used to manage the director or switch; it does not
affect F_Port operation. FCP devices can communicate with each
other when the attached fabric element is set to FICON management
style, and FICON devices can communicate with each other when the
attached fabric element is set to open systems management style.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-41
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
•
When a director or fabric switch is set to open systems
management style, FCP connectivity is defined within a Fibre
Channel fabric using WWNs of devices that are allowed to form
connections. When connecting to the fabric, an FCP device
queries the name server for a list of devices to which connectivity
is allowed. This connectivity is hardware-enforced through a
name server zoning feature that partitions attached devices into
restricted-access zones.
•
When a director or fabric switch is set to FICON management
style, host-to-storage FICON connectivity and channel paths are
defined by a host-based hardware configuration definition (HCD)
program and a director or switch-resident management server
called the control unit port (CUP). A user-configured (director or
switch-resident) prohibit dynamic connectivity mask (PDCM)
array associates logical port addresses. FICON devices do not
query the name server for accessible devices because connectivity
is defined at the host, and additionally at the director or switch.
This connectivity is hardware-enforced in the routing tables of
each port.
NOTE: The Intrepid 10000 Director and Sphereon 4300, 4400, and 4500
Fabric Switches do not support operation using FICON management
style nor transmission of FICON frames.
PDCM connectivity control is configured and managed at the
director or switch level using the Configure Allow/Prohibit Matrix Active dialog box (Figure 5-4). For additional information, refer to
PDCM Arrays.
ATTENTION ! When configuring a PDCM array that prohibits E_Port
connectivity, mistakes can render ISLs unusable and cause complex routing
problems. These problems can be difficult to fault isolate and sometimes
manifest incorrectly as end-device issues.
Port Numbering Versus
Port Addressing
Consideration must be given to the implications of port numbering
for the FCP protocol versus logical port addressing for the FICON
protocol. FCP configuration attributes are implemented through
zoning. Zones are configured through the associated Element
Manager application by:
•
3-42
The eight-byte (64-digit) WWN assigned to the host bus adapter
(HBA) or Fibre Channel interface installed in a device connected
to the director or switch.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
•
The Domain_ID and physical port number of the director or
fabric switch port to which a device is attached.
FICON configuration attributes are implemented through logical
port addressing. This concept is consistent with the address-centric
nature of FICON and allows ports to be swapped for maintenance
operations without regenerating a host configuration. For McDATA
products, logical port addresses are derived by converting the port
number from numerical to hexadecimal format and adding a
hexadecimal four to the result. Figure 3-17 illustrates port numbering
and logical port addressing for Intrepid 6140 Director ports accessed
from the front.
UPM Cards
UPM Cards
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
127
7F
123
7B
119
77
115
73
111
6F
107
6B
103
67
99
63
95
5F
91
5B
87
57
83
53
79
4F
75
4B
71
47
67
43
83 7F 7B 77 73 6F 6B 67
126
7E
122
7A
118
76
114
72
110
6E
106
6A
102
66
63 5F 5B 57 53 4F 4B 47
98
62
94
5E
82 7E 7A 76 72 6E 6A 66
117
75
113
71
109
6D
105
69
101
65
97
61
124
7C
120
78
116
74
112
70
108
6C
104
68
100
64
96
60
80 7C 78 74 70 6C 68 64
60
3C
56
38
52
34
48
30
44
2C
40
28
36
24
32
20
40 3C 38 34 30 2C 28 24
61
3D
57
39
53
35
49
31
45
2D
41
29
37
25
33
21
41 3D 39 35 31 2D 29 25
62
3E
58
3A
54
36
50
32
46
2E
42
2A
38
26
34
22
42 3E 3A 36 32 2E 2A 26
63
3F
59
3B
55
37
51
33
47
2F
43
2B
39
27
35
23
43 3F 3B 37 33 2F 2B 27
15
Figure 3-17
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
CTP - 0 Card
121
79
CTP - 1 Card
125
7D
81 7D 79 75 71 6D 69 65
90
5A
86
56
82
52
78
4E
74
4A
70
46
66
42
62 5E 5A 56 52 4E 4A 46
93
5D
89
59
85
55
81
51
77
4D
73
49
69
45
65
41
61 5D 59 55 51 4D 49 45
92
5C
88
58
84
54
80
50
76
4C
72
48
68
44
64
40
60 5C 58 54 50 4C 48 44
28
1C
24
18
20
14
16
10
12
0C
08
08
04
04
00
00
20 1C 18 14 10 0C 08 04
29
1D
25
19
21
15
17
11
13
0D
09
09
05
05
01
01
21 1D 19 15 11 0D 09 05
30
1E
26
1A
22
16
18
12
14
0E
10
0A
06
06
02
02
22 1E 1A 16 12 0E 0A 06
31
1F
27
1B
23
17
19
13
15
0F
11
0B
07
07
03
03
23 1F 1B 17 13 0F 0B 07
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Intrepid 6140 Port Numbers and Logical Port Addresses (Front)
The figure shows:
•
CTP card positions (0 and 1).
•
Universal port module (UPM) card numbers at the top and
bottom (numerical 0 through 31).
•
Numerical physical port numbers in blue (00 through 127).
•
Hexadecimal physical port numbers in red (00 through 7F).
•
Logical port addresses in bold (hexadecimal 04 through 83).
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3-43
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
Figure 3-18 illustrates port numbering and logical port addressing for
Intrepid 6140 Director ports accessed from the rear.
UPM Cards
UPM Cards
34
33
143
8F
142
8E
141
8D
140
8C
136
88
137
89
138
8A
139
8B
93
92
91
90
8C
8D
8E
8F
135
87
134
86
133
85
132
84
8B
8A
89
88
32
SBAR - 1 Module
SBAR - 0 Module
Figure 3-18
Intrepid 6140 Port Numbers and Logical Port Addresses (Rear)
The figure shows:
•
SBAR positions (0 and 1).
•
UPM card numbers (numerical 32, 33, and 34).
•
Numerical physical port numbers in blue (132 through 143). Port
numbers 128 through 131 are embedded and not addressable.
•
Hexadecimal physical port numbers in red (84 through 8F).
Port numbers 80 through 83 are embedded and not addressable.
•
Logical port addresses in bold (hexadecimal 88 through 93).
Port addresses 84 through 87 are not addressable.
Although Figure 3-17 and Figure 3-18 depict UPM card maps only for
the Intrepid 6140 Director, physical port numbers and logical port
addresses can be extrapolated for the Intrepid 6064 Director
(64 ports), Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch (32 ports), Sphereon 4300
Fabric Switch (12 ports), Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch (16 ports),
Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch (24 ports), and Sphereon 4700 Fabric
Switch (32 ports).
Management
Limitations
3-44
The following considerations must be given to the limitations and
interactions of director or fabric switch management when using
open systems (FCP) or FICON management style:
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3
•
FICON port-to-port connectivity is hardware enforced, while
FCP port-to-port connectivity is software or hardware enforced
(depending on the director or switch firmware release level).
— FICON architecture controls connectivity through a
host-based HCD program, the CUP, and a director or
switch-resident PDCM array. The CUP and PDCM array
support hardware enforcement of connectivity control to all
port connections; therefore when a director or switch is set to
FICON management style, zoning information is restricted by
the hardware instead of by the name server.
— When a director or switch is set to open systems management
style, CUP support and the PDCM array are disabled. For
FICON devices attached to the director or switch, the user
must manage connectivity to match logical port addressing
established through the host-based HCD program. For
example if a FICON hosts expects connectivity through logical
port address 1C, the user must ensure the host is connected to
physical port number 24. Refer to Figure 3-17 and Figure 3-18
for physical port number and logical port address maps.
•
The FCP protocol supports multiple domains (multiswitch
fabrics). The FICON protocol may or may not be limited to a
single domain (single-switch fabric), depending on the director or
switch firmware release level as follows:
— For earlier versions of director or switch firmware (prior to
Enterprise Operating System, classic (E/OSc) Version 4.0), the
FICON protocol is limited to a single domain (single-switch
fabric) due to single-byte Fibre Channel link address
limitations inherited from ESCON. Consequently, when a
director or switch is set to FICON management style (FICON
compliant), E_Port connections (ISLs) are not allowed with
another fabric switch. The director or switch reports an
attempted E_Port connection as invalid and prevents the port
from coming online.
— For later versions of director or switch firmware (E/OSc
Version 4.0 and later), the domain field of the destination ID is
added to the Fibre Channel link address, thus specifying the
link address on source and target fabric elements and enabling
E_Port (ISL) connectivity. This connectivity is called FICON
cascading. For additional information, refer to FICON
Cascading.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
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3
•
When employing inband (Fibre Channel) director or switch
management, the open-systems management server (OSMS) is
associated with the FCP protocol, and the FICON management
server (FMS) is associated with the FICON protocol. Management
server differences tend to complicate security and control issues.
NOTE: The Intrepid 10000 Director and Sphereon 4300, 4400, and 4500
Fabric Switches do not support out-of-band management through FMS.
Each server provides facilities to change zoning information
(FCP protocol) or the logical port address-based connectivity
configuration (FICON protocol), but neither provides sufficient
functionality for both protocols.
Features that Impact
Protocol Intermixing
McDATA supports the following features that impact how a director
or switch behaves when deployed in an intermixed environment:
•
Hardware-enforced zoning.
•
SANtegrity Binding (including fabric and switch binding).
•
FICON cascading.
Hardware-Enforced Zoning
Hardware-enforced zoning (hard zoning) allows a user to program
director or switch route tables that enable hardware logic to route
Fibre Channel frames. This process prevents traffic between source
and destination devices not in the same zone. Hard zoning provides
the open-systems environment with the same protection that PDCM
arrays provide in the FICON environment.
In environments that include discovery-oriented devices (FCP) and
definition-oriented devices (FICON), system administrators must
keep device definitions and zoning definitions synchronized. Hard
zoning enforces zoning information at the director or switch level
and ensures the information takes precedence over access definitions
configured at the device level. This provides a security element that is
useful for mixed environments using both definition and discovery.
For additional information, refer to Zoning.
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SANtegrity Binding
McDATA offers a SANtegrity Binding feature (including both fabric
binding and switch binding) that allows the creation of reliable SAN
configurations and provides a mechanism for attached devices to
query the user-configured security level employed in a SAN. The
feature significantly reduces the impacts of accidental or operatorinduced errors.
Fabric binding defines the directors and switches allowed to
participate in a fabric, thus preventing accidental fabric merges.
Switch binding defines the devices allowed to connect to directors
and switches in a fabric, thus providing additional security in SAN
environments that must manage a large number of devices. For
additional information, refer to SANtegrity Binding.
FICON Cascading
FICON is most often deployed in SANs that have high data integrity
and reliability standards. However, the initial FICON architecture
was limited to one domain (i.e. a single-switch fabric), which creates
severe distance and connectivity limitations. These data standards
and the requirement for FICON fabrics in SANs led to protocol
changes that support FICON cascading.
FICON cascading allows an IBM eServer zSeries processor to
communicate with other zSeries processors or peripheral devices
(such as disks, tape libraries, or printers) through a fabric consisting
of two or more FICON directors or switches. Cascaded FICON fabrics
also provide high end-to-end data integrity to ensure changes to a
data stream are always detected and rectified and that data is always
delivered to the correct fabric end point. For additional information,
refer to FICON Cascading.
A related feature to consider is the announcement of FCP support for
IBM eServer zSeries processors. This development accelerates the
requirement for intermix protocol fabrics, since primary processors
now support both FICON and FCP.
Protocol Intermixing
Best Practices
The Element Manager graphical user interface (GUI) provides an
open systems or FICON management style. Users can toggle between
management styles with the director or switch online.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
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Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
However, the firmware and SAN management applications do not
prevent FCP and FICON device configurations that may interfere
with each other. A successful intermix environment requires a set of
best practice conventions as follows:
1. Upgrade fabric element firmware to a common version - Ensure
fabric elements are operating at a common firmware level. This
reduces errors due to director or switch incompatibility. E/OSc
Version 4.0 or higher is required to support FICON cascading.
E/OSc Version 6.0 or higher is recommended.
2. Upgrade fabric element software to a common version - Ensure
fabric elements are operating at a common software level. This
simplifies fabric fault isolation and reduces errors due to
director or switch incompatibility. SANavigator 4.0 or EFCM 8.0
(or higher) is required to support a unified management style and
is recommended.
— When a director or switch is set to open systems management
style, a traditional Fibre Channel fabric is supported. Inband
management through the FMS or OSMS is also supported. The
key concern is to avoid disrupting installed FCP devices when
connecting FICON devices to a fabric element and modifying
configurations to facilitate FICON communication. The
Element Manager application does not use logical port
addressing or display the Configure Allow/Prohibit Matrix Active dialog box. A PDCM array is not supported, and the
HCD defined by an attached host describes FICON
connectivity requirements.
— When a director or switch is set to FICON management style,
either multiple domains (fabric elements) are supported, or
only a single domain (fabric element) is supported, depending
on the firmware release level. Inband management through
the FMS or OSMS is also supported. The Element Manager
application provides a PDCM array configured at the
Configure Allow/ Prohibit Matrix - Active dialog box. The array
activates all or a subset of the connectivity paths established
by a host-based HCD.
When using firmware prior to E/OSc Version 4.0 and the
FICON management style, ports are set to F_Port operation,
thus eliminating E_Port capability (ISL and fabric capability).
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— When using inband director or switch management, either (or
both) of the FMS or OSMS features can be enabled. When
either (or both) features are enabled, the director or switch can
be set to open systems or FICON management style.
3. Upgrade fabric elements to a common feature set - Ensure a
common set of PFE-keyed optional features (refer to Optional
Feature Keys) is installed on each fabric element. This reduces
errors due to director or switch incompatibility. In addition, the
SANtegrity Binding feature (with Enterprise Fabric Mode enabled)
is required to support FICON cascading.
4. Logically assign ports - To organize devices into manageable
groups for zoning, director or switch ports should be logically
assigned to FCP port groups and FICON port groups. Although
FICON devices can be zoned by device WWN, they must also be
assigned logical port addresses that correspond to the port
addresses configured by the attached host HCD. FICON devices
must be attached to these assigned ports. In addition, PDCM
arrays affect port connections at the hardware level, so a range of
port addresses must be established for FCP device use, and a
separate range of port addresses must be established for FICON
device use. FCP ports should always be configured to allow
communication with each other but disallow communication
with FICON ports, and vice versa.
5. Configure FICON cascading - Configure and enable FICON
cascading for all fabric elements. Refer to FICON Cascading Best
Practices for instructions. As part of this step, ensure the
SANtegrity Binding feature key is installed and Enterprise Fabric
Mode enabled for all directors and switches.
— In conjunction with the SANtegrity Binding feature (fabric
and switch binding), consider enabling port binding from a
director or switch’s Element Manager application. Port
binding explicitly defines (by WWN or nickname) the device
allowed to attach to a Fibre Channel port and provides
additional security when logically allocating ports to FCP and
FICON groups. Although this process creates additional
configuration overhead, port binding is useful for
implementations that require protection from accidental
misconfigurations.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
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Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
6. Configure PDCM arrays - For each director or switch managed
by the FICON management style, define the allow and prohibit
settings for FICON device connectivity. Use the Element Manager
application’s Configure Allow/Prohibit Matrix - Active dialog box.
Port connectivity assignment (step 4) should be reflected in
PDCM arrays for FICON connectivity management. The baseline
configuration for each fabric element must prohibit
communication between FICON and FCP devices.
— Because PDCM arrays affect port connections at the hardware
level, it is imperative to establish a range of port addresses for
FCP use and another range for FICON use. FCP-assigned
ports should be configured to allow communication with each
other and prohibit communication with FICON-assigned
ports, and vice versa.
— At the Configure Allow/Prohibit Matrix - Active dialog box,
assigning port names to logical port addresses is another
practice that should be followed. For example, the port name
for all FCP devices could begin with FCP or OS to indicate the
associated port addresses attach to open-systems devices. This
information emphasizes which ports are FCP ports and which
are FICON ports and gives a user the ability to better manage
the connectivity matrix.
— Caution should be exercised when using a PDCM array to
prohibit E_Port connectivity. For additional information, refer
to PDCM Arrays.
7. Configure zoning - Well-behaved intermix environments require
the creation of separate zones for FCP and FICON devices. Group
all FICON devices into one zone, then group FCP devices into
multiple zones in traditional fashion to facilitate typical opensystems communication.
— Be aware that FICON devices do not use the Fibre Channel
name server, therefore name server-based zoning does not
affect FICON connectivity. However, the name server does
affect distribution of registered state change notification
(RSCN) service requests to FICON devices. If a FICON device
is not in the same zone as other devices, state changes are not
properly communicated.
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— All FICON devices must be included in the same zone to
facilitate proper state change notification. This is achieved by
creating a unique FICON zone or using the default zone.
Disable the default zone and explicitly create a unique zone
for all FICON devices. Regardless of the director or switch
operating mode, FCP devices must be zoned in the traditional
fashion, and FICON devices must be zoned to provide
isolation from the FCP devices. All FICON devices must be
included in the same zone to facilitate proper state change
communication.
— When establishing a zoning configuration, FICON devices
must be assigned to director or switch port addresses that
correspond to port HCD-assigned address definitions
configured by the attached host. Associated FICON devices
must be connected to the ports as configured.
— Note the reciprocal nature of zoning configurations and
PDCM arrays. When configuring zoning, all FICON devices
are placed in one zone and FCP devices are zoned normally.
When configuring definitions in a PDCM array, all FCP
devices are configured to allow communication only with
each other and FICON devices are configured normally.
— FICON port addressing provides the ability to swap ports
for maintenance. In general, swapping ports in intermix
environments does not affect the practices described.
However, if a user implements zoning using a Domain_ID
and port numbers, zoning information must be updated
contiguous with the port swap operation.
Multiple Data
Transmission Speeds
in a Single Fabric
The Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch, Intrepid 6000-series Directors, and
Sphereon 4000-series Fabric Switches support auto-sensing of 1.0625,
2.1250, and 4.2500 Gbps device connections. The Intrepid 10000
Director supports 1.0625, 2.1250, and 10.2000 Gbps connections. The
introduction of a higher data transmission speed to the SAN design
provides several benefits and alternatives:
•
High-speed device connectivity - As Fibre Channel devices and
HBAs evolve and become 10.2000 Gbps-capable, higher-speed
switches are required to provide basic fabric connectivity.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
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Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
•
Better fabric performance - As a connection between fabric
switches, a 10.2000 Gbps ISL delivers significantly greater
bandwidth. Fibre Channel devices that are not 10.2000 Gbpscapable benefit from a higher-speed ISL, because slower traffic is
multiplexed and transmitted through the 10.2000 Gbps ISL.
•
Additional port count - If additional ISL bandwidth is not
required for fabric performance, 10.2000 Gbps connectivity allows
the number of ISL connections to be reduced, thus yielding
additional director or switch ports for device connectivity.
When installing 10.2000 Gbps-capable fabric elements in a core-toedge topology, deploy the directors at the fabric core to provide
end-to-end high-speed ISL capability. If 10.2000 Gbps device
connectivity is required, attach the devices to the core director as Tier
1 devices. If possible, employ device locality by connecting 10.2000
Gbps devices to the same director.
FICON Cascading
The initial FICON architecture did not permit connection of multiple
directors or switches because the protocol specified a single byte for
the link (port) address definition in the input-output configuration
program (IOCP). The link address only defined the Port_ID for a
unique domain (director or switch).
The current FICON architecture provides two-byte addressing that
allows the IOCP to specify link (port) addresses for any number of
domains by including the domain address with the Port_ID. FICON
fabrics can now be configured using multiple directors and switches
(FICON cascading). In a cascaded FICON environment, at least three
Fibre Channel links are involved:
•
The first link is between the FICON channel card (N_Port) of an
IBM eServer zSeries processor and a director or switch F_Port.
•
The second link is an ISL between two director or switch E_Ports.
•
The final link is from a director or switch F_Port to a FICON
adapter card (control unit N_Port) in a storage device, tape
device, or other peripheral.
These Fibre Channel links connect FICON fabric elements and
provide a physical transmission path between a channel and control
unit. Users may configure multiple ISLs between cascaded FICON
directors or switches to ensure redundancy and adequate bandwidth.
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High-Integrity
Fabrics
Cascaded FICON directors and switches must support high-integrity
fabrics. McDATA fabric elements must have the SANtegrity Binding
feature installed and operational with Enterprise Fabric Mode enabled.
High-integrity fabric architecture support includes:
•
Fabric binding - Only directors or switches with fabric binding
installed are allowed to attach to specified fabrics in a SAN.
Specifically:
— Fabric elements without a SANtegrity Binding feature key are
prohibited from connecting to fabric elements with an active
SANtegrity Binding feature key.
— Inherent to directors and switches with an active SANtegrity
Binding feature key is a fabric membership list (comprised of
acceptable WWNs and Domain_IDs) of the elements logged
into the fabric. This membership list is exchanged between
fabric elements, and an element with an incompatible list is
isolated from the fabric. Membership list data eliminates
duplicate Domain_IDs and other address conflicts and
ensures a consistent, unified behavior across the fabric.
•
Switch binding - Switch binding allows only specified devices
and fabric elements to connect to specified director or switch
ports.
•
Insistent Domain_ID - When enabled through the Enterprise
Fabric Mode dialog box, this parameter ensures duplicate
Domain_IDs are not used within a fabric. It also ensures a fabric
element cannot automatically change its Domain_ID when a
director or switch with a duplicate Domain_ID attempts to join
the fabric. The invalid (duplicate Domain_ID) fabric element is
rejected, and intentional user intervention is required to change
the Domain_ID to a valid number.
For additional information about the SANtegrity Binding feature,
refer to SANtegrity Binding.
Minimum
Requirements
The following are minimum hardware, firmware, and software
requirements to configure and enable a FICON-cascaded SAN:
•
A single-vendor switching environment with two or more of
the following McDATA directors or switches:
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
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Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
— Intrepid 6064 or 6140 Director.
— Sphereon 3232 or 4500 Fabric Switch.
•
E/OSc Version 4.0 (or later) must be installed on all directors or
switches. E/OS firmware Version 6.0c (or later) is recommended.
All fabric elements must be at the same firmware version level.
•
The SANtegrity Binding feature key must be installed and
enabled on all directors and switches. Enterprise Fabric Mode
must also be enabled on all fabric elements.
•
Enterprise Fabric Connectivity manager (EFCM) Version 6.0 or
later must be installed on the product management server.
•
One or more of the following IBM servers with FICON or FICON
Express™ channel adapter cards:
— eServer zSeries 800 (z800) processor.
— eServer zSeries 900 (z900) processor.
— eServer zSeries 990 (z990) processor.
NOTE: FICON cascading is not supported for IBM S/390 Parallel
Enterprise Servers (Generation 5 or Generation 6).
FICON Cascading
Best Practices
•
The z/OS Version 1.3 or Version 1.4 operating system
(with service as defined in PSP Buckets for device type 2032,
2042, 2064, or 2066) must be installed on the IBM server.
•
Licensed Internal Code (LIC) driver 3G at microcode level (MCL)
J11206 or later must be installed on the IBM server.
A successful FICON-cascaded SAN environment requires a set of
best practice conventions as follows:
1. Connect fabric elements - Establish one or more ISLs between
cascaded directors of fabric switches as follows:
a. Ensure fabric elements are defined to the SAN management
application. If the elements must be defined, refer to the
appropriate switch or director installation manual for
instructions.
b. Ensure the preferred Domain_ID for each director or switch is
unique and does not conflict with the ID of another fabric
element.
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c. Ensure the R_A_TOV and E_D_TOV values for fabric
elements are identical.
d. Route multimode or singlemode fiber-optic cables
(depending on the type of transceiver installed) between
customer-specified E_Ports at each fabric element.
2. Verify operation of local FICON applications - Ensure the ISL
connection(s) do not disrupt fabric element operation nor
disrupt local FICON (non-cascaded) traffic. Perform this step
at each director or switch.
a. At the SAN management application’s physical map,
right-click the director or switch product icon, then select
Element Manager from the pop-up menu. The Element
Manager application opens.
b. If required, click the Hardware tab. The Hardware View
(Figure 2-5) displays. Verify the status bar at the bottom left
corner of the window displays a green circle, indicating
director or switch status is operational. If a problem is
indicated, go to MAP 0000: Start MAP in the product-specific
Installation and Service Manual.
c. Have the customer verify operation of non-cascaded FICON
applications at each director or switch.
3. Verify ISL operation - Ensure ISL connectivity between fabric
elements. Perform this step at each director or switch.
a. At the Element Manager application’s Hardware View, doubleclick the graphical E_Port connector used for the ISL. The Port
Properties dialog box displays.
b. Ensure the Link Incident field displays None and the Reason
field is blank. If an ISL segmentation or other problem is
indicated, go to MAP 0000: Start MAP in the product-specific
Installation and Service Manual.
c. Click Close to close the dialog box and return to the Hardware
View.
4. Install SANtegrity Binding on fabric elements - Configure and
enable the SANtegrity Binding feature at each director or switch
as follows:
a. At the Element Manager application, install the SANtegrity
Binding PFE key. Refer to installation instructions in the
product-specific Installation and Service Manual.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
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Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
3
b. At the SAN management application, configure fabric
binding. Refer to installation instructions in the SANavigator
Software Release 4.2 User Manual (621-000013) or the EFC
Manager Software Release 8.7 User Manual (620-000170).
c. At the Element Manager application, configure switch
binding. Refer to installation instructions in the
product-specific Installation and Service Manual.
5. Ensure FICON devices are logged in - Verify FICON devices are
logged in to each director or switch as follows:
a. At the Element Manager application’s Hardware View, click the
Node List tab. The Node List View displays.
b. Inspect the node descriptors and verify the correct FICON
devices (channels and control units) are logged in to each
director or switch.
6. Enable Enterprise Fabric Mode - Enable Enterprise Fabric Mode as
follows:
a. Minimize the Element Manager application to display the
SAN management application, then select Enterprise Fabric
Mode from the Configure menu. The Enterprise Fabric Mode
dialog box displays.
b. Select the fabric to be configured from the Fabric Name
drop-down list. The selected fabric’s status displays in the
Enterprise Fabric Mode field.
c. Click Activate to close the dialog box and enable Enterprise
Fabric Mode for the selected fabric.
7. Verify FICON devices are still logged in - Maximize the Element
Manager application. Inspect the Node List View and verify
FICON devices (channels and control units inspected in step 5)
are still logged in to each director or switch.
8. Change switch binding enforcement if required - If the SAN
environment is volatile (characterized by a high volume of optical
cable connects, disconnects, and movement), change switch
binding enforcement to restrict E_Ports only.
a. At the Element Manager application, click the Hardware tab.
At the Hardware View, select Switch Binding, then Change State
from the Configure menu. The Switch Binding - State Change
dialog box displays.
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b. Ensure the Enable Switch Binding check box is checked
(enabled).
c. Select (click) the Restrict E_Ports radio button to restrict
connections from specific fabric elements to E_Ports. WWNs
can be added to the membership list to allow fabric element
connection and removed from the list to prohibit fabric
element connection. Devices are allowed to connect to any
F_Port or FL_Port without restriction.
d. Click Activate to close the dialog box and enforce the
connection policy.
9. Update channel path and control unit definitions - A cascaded
FICON environment requires channel entry switch and link
address updates to the input/output configuration program
(IOCP) as follows:
a. In the IOCP, define an entry switch ID in the SWITCH
keyword of the channel path identifier (CHPID) definition.
NOTE: An entry switch is a fabric director or switch connected to the
FICON channel of a zSeries processor and a second fabric director or
switch.
b. In the IOCP, define a 2-byte link address (consisting of a
switch (or domain) address and port address) for the cascaded
switch in the LINK keyword of the control unit (CNTLUNIT)
definition.
NOTE: An cascaded switch is a fabric director or switch connected to
a destination control unit and an entry switch.
c. Run the IOCP to create an input/output configuration data
set (IOCDS). The switch ID (CHPID macroinstructions) and
2-byte link address (control unit macroinstructions) are
updated in the IOCDS.
Refer to the IBM FICON Native Implementation and Reference Guide
(SG24-6266) for additional information.
10. Verify FICON devices log back in - Inspect the Node List View
and verify FICON devices (channels and control units inspected
in step 5) log back in to the fabric as expected.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
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11. Verify cascaded FICON operation - Have the customer verify
operation of established logical FICON paths between channels
and control units, and verify that cascaded FICON traffic is
transmitted through the fabric as expected.
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Implementing SAN
Internetworking Solutions
Enterprise-level information technology (IT) departments often
deploy storage configurations that include direct-attached storage,
network-attached storage (NAS), and small, isolated storage area
networks (SANs). These configurations often result in:
•
Isolated and inefficiently-used applications, data storage, and
computing resources.
•
Costly, decentralized, and complex asset management.
•
Slow transactions and data access.
•
Inability to comply with government regulations that dictate data
retention and security policies.
The solution for these problems is to implement a internetworking
strategy that consolidates IT resources and deploys an enterprisewide fabric. This chapter describes planning considerations for
implementing SAN internetworking solutions using McDATA switch
products. The chapter specifically describes:
•
SAN island consolidation.
•
Implementing business continuance and disaster recovery
(BC/DR) solutions.
•
Consolidating and integrating Internet small computer systems
interface (iSCSI) servers and storage.
Planning Considerations for Fibre Channel Topologies
4-1
Implementing SAN Internetworking Solutions
4
SAN Island Consolidation
SAN islands tend to be constructed along application (such as
product test, finance, or engineering), operating system (OS),
protocol, or geographical (site-based) boundaries. Because of
application and OS segmentation, large data centers at single sites
often consist of SAN islands constructed with relatively small Fibre
Channel switches.
SAN Island Benefits
SAN Island Problems
4-2
A SAN island deployment strategy provides many benefits and may
be sufficient to meet an enterprise’s needs because:
•
SAN islands serve a purpose. The enterprise buys a switch, builds
a simple fabric, and implements a SAN around a particular
application.
•
Data, applications, and operating systems are isolated to their
specific environment.
•
Failures do not cross SAN island boundaries. Fault isolation is
limited to each SAN.
•
Firmware revisions are specific to each deployed SAN and do not
have to be consistent enterprise-wide.
•
Specific functions (such as mission critical applications or test
environments) are isolated and do not interact with or corrupt
other functions.
Implementation and management of isolated SAN islands has several
problems, including:
•
A large number of fabric elements, storage devices, and servers to
administer from several workstations, possibly using multiple
SAN management applications.
•
No economy of scale to mitigate the costs of advanced fabric
features. Sophisticated management applications must be
purchased to administer each SAN. If high availability and
non-blocking performance are required, director-class switches
must be purchased for each SAN.
•
Complex interdependencies and data congestion because fabric
switches are connected with multiple interswitch links (ISLs). A
single low-cost edge switch can limit the scalability and
performance of an entire fabric.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
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4
Large Fabric Problems
•
Inability to consistently schedule maintenance downtime for each
SAN.
•
Stranded resources. Unused ports in one SAN cannot be used by
applications in another (port limited) SAN, and expensive
resources (such as tape backup elements) cannot be easily shared
across SAN boundaries.
Fibre Channel fabrics configure and manage themselves, and require
operator intervention only upon failure. When a Fibre Channel
device connects to a director or fabric switch, the device receives a
unique 24-bit (three-byte) network address composed of domain,
area, and port bytes. This address is used for routing data through the
fabric. Domain identifiers (Domain_IDs) are typically reserved for
fabric elements (directors and switches), and range between 1 and 31
for McDATA products. A fabric element with a unique Domain_ID
then allocates the remaining two bytes (area and port) to provide
network addresses for devices.
The principal switch selection process ensures each fabric element
has a unique Domain_ID. This process determines which director or
fabric switch acts as the master in a newly-configured SAN and
allocates unique Domain_IDs to the remaining elements. Without this
process, two elements could have the same Domain_ID, resulting in
duplicate addresses and misrouting of data.
Principal switch selection is initiated by transmitting exchange fabric
parameter (EFP) frames to expansion ports (E_Ports) of all connected
switches until a user-defined fabric stability timeout value (F_S_TOV)
is reached. The F_S_TOV is proportional to the number of fabric
elements. If the fabric is large, the F_S_TOV is set higher and the
selection process takes longer.
During principal switch selection, a disruptive or non-disruptive
build fabric event occurs. A non-disruptive event preserves fabric
element Domain_IDs and does not require reassignment of network
address blocks. However, a disruptive event may cause elements to
acquire a different Domain_ID, which means each attached device
must re-login to the fabric to acquire a new network address.
Ironically, the self-configuring functionality provided by the Fibre
Channel architecture makes it more problematic to build large fabrics
or to extend fabrics over large distances. Fibre Channel fabrics tend to
become unstable long before reaching the maximum theoretical
switch count (239) because of ISL congestion, disruptive build fabric
events, or sporadic disruptions.
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Another persistent problem associated with large Fibre Channel
fabrics is multi-vendor incompatibility. Due to lack of common
communications standards and fabric shortest path first (FSPF)
protocol, switch vendors may have to support multiple (standardscompliant and proprietary) interoperability modes. In addition,
protocol enhancements may force vendors to support multiple
firmware versions for the same product. These issues make it difficult
to connect directors or fabric switches from different original
equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to build a large SAN.
Consolidation
Solutions
Flexible Partitioning
Technology
Director FlexPars
4-4
McDATA offers the following solutions for SAN island consolidation:
•
FlexPar technology - By enabling flexible partitioning (FlexPar)
technology, assets can be physically consolidated while
maintaining the benefits of application-based or role-based SAN
islands. Refer to Flexible Partitioning Technology for additional
information.
•
SAN routing - By installing an Eclipse 2640 SAN Router, a
collection of individual Fibre Channel fabrics is connected and
then functions as a single large network (routed SAN) providing
any-to-any connectivity, while maintaining the autonomous
nature of individual Fibre Channel fabrics. Refer to SAN Routing
for additional information.
FlexPar technology enables the partitioning of fabric-attached devices
to enable SAN island consolidation, decrease fabric congestion, or
decrease the possibility of downtime. The technology enables
partitioning through:
•
Director FlexPars - available only for the Intrepid 10000 Director.
•
Zone FlexPars - available for Intrepid-series directors and
Sphereon-series fabric switches.
•
Role-based FlexPars - available for Intrepid-series directors and
Sphereon-series fabric switches by mid-2005.
By installing an Intrepid 10000 Director with the director FlexPar
product feature enablement (PFE) key, assets can be physically
consolidated while maintaining the benefits of application-based
SAN islands. The feature divides the director into multiple (up to
four) sub-directors, each operating with independent management
and services.
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This feature reduces unused ports and resources and consolidates the
enterprise into a single infrastructure, while maintaining multiple
independent application and fault isolation domains.
Up to four partitions can be enabled for each director (0 though 3),
where a partition consists of one or more line modules (LIMs). User
access and Fibre Channel traffic (Class 2, Class 3, and Class F) are
isolated within each partition. However, the director ships with only
a master FlexPar (0) enabled, allowing management and
administration from a single point of control. Figure 4-1 illustrates
director FlexPar functionality.
Figure 4-1
Intrepid 10000 Director FlexPar Functionality
A SAN management application or command line interface (CLI)
user with read-write administrator privileges can perform the
following from master Flexpar 0:
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•
Create up to three additional FlexPars and assign resources to
those FlexPars.
•
Perform director firmware upgrades to all Flexpars.
•
Enable or disable the protocol subsystem for any Flexpar.
•
Enable or disable switch modules and control processor (CTP)
cards.
•
Perform director shutdowns, restarts, and field-replaceable unit
(FRU) switchovers.
•
Set the director Internet protocol (IP) address, gateway address,
and subnet mask.
•
Set the director date and time.
NOTE: An Intrepid 10000 Director set to fibre connection (FICON)
management style can have only one Flexpar (0) enabled.
Flexpar functionality aggregates small (32 port or less) and medium
(up to 256 port) SAN islands to a single point of control. Director
FlexPars are not intended to enable creation of larger fabrics.
Regardless of the number of Flexpars enabled, the maximum total
fabric size (summing all Flexpars) is limited to the maximum
configuration supported by the Director. Similarly, limits for other
fabric scalability elements (such as number of zones per zoneset) may
not exceed the maximum supported by a single fabric.
Zone FlexPars
Because zoning is managed on a fabric wide basis, all directors and
fabric switches in a zone must maintain consistent zoning
information. To ensure consistency, registered state change
notifications (RSCNs) are transmitted to all attached devices when a
zoning change occurs, when a device is set offline or online, or when
a local switch is connected to or disconnected from the fabric.
When a device becomes available or unavailable, an RSCN is
transmitted only to devices in the same zone. However, a zoning
change causes an RSCN to be transmitted to all the devices in the
fabric. As fabrics grow larger, numerous RSCNs from zoning changes
can create congestion and disrupt devices, causing a pause in normal
activity to determine status of the other devices. In fact, many legacy
host bus adapters (HBAs) cease operation as they query the fabric
name server upon receipt of an RSCN.
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Zone FlexPars implement an RSCN zone isolation feature that
prevents fabric-format RSCNs from propagating to devices in zones
not impacted by the RSCN. With zone FlexPars enabled, zoning
change RSCNs are handled like device availability change RSCNs.
Because the feature is device centric, zone FlexPars work in loop
environments and with node port ID virtualization (NPIV) enabled.
In addition, the feature operates when the director or switch Interop
Mode is set to McDATA Fabric 1.0 or Open Fabric 1.0.
Zone FlexPars are enabled or disabled on a per-switch basis through
the CLI by setting the zoneFlexParstate parameter to fabric (enabled)
or none (disabled). When installing a new director or switch with
E/OSc 7.0 (or upgrading an existing fabric element to E/OSc 7.0 or
E/OSn 6.0), the feature is enabled by default and operates on a
fabric-wide basis.
Role-Based Flexpars
As Fibre Channel fabrics grow in size and complexity, the potential
for fabric configuration problems caused by human error increases
significantly. Implementation of role-based access control (RBAC)
through role-based FlexPars (available for McDATA products by
mid-2005) can control and mitigate these problems.
Through a SAN management application, users are grouped into
roles, and roles are assigned a set of responsibility-based privileges.
These privileges include access to specific devices and commands. In
addition, roles can own subsets of a fabric. This concept is useful
when a fabric includes several applications, each managed by a
different administrator.
If a user is assigned administrator (role) duties for a set of switches
and devices, other administrators cannot configure the user’s switch
and device subset. Role-based FlexPars ensure accountability for each
application, fabric, or network; prevent errors from propagating
across applications; and prevent unauthorized users from damaging
or shutting down a fabric.
Role-based FlexPars can be configured to warn users in addition to
preventing actions. Thus if one person administers an entire fabric,
roles ensure the administrator is reminded of the cross-application
adverse impact that a configuration action may cause.
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SAN Routing
Connecting isolated, department-level, and application-specific Fibre
Channel SANs is a requirement for most enterprises. Consolidating
SAN islands:
•
Provides campus storage connectivity and interoperability
between formerly-incompatible Fibre Channel fabrics (from the
same or different vendors).
•
Allows construction of large Fibre Channel fabrics (up to or
exceeding 239 directors or fabric switches), while reducing fabric
rebuild disruptions and retaining secure partitioning of network
resources through autonomous management domains.
•
Provides a stable, long-distance connection over a wide area
network that allows content sharing over regional distances,
consolidates remote tape backup, and implements BC/DR
solutions.
•
Allows the enterprise to implement newer technologies and
protocols (such as iSCSI) while preserving investment in a Fibre
Channel infrastructure.
However, connecting Fibre Channel fabrics is not a simple process of
cabling ports together. Fibre Channel architecture provides several
fabric services that require attention to ensure device interoperability
and stability of the consolidated SAN. A robust approach to solve this
connectivity problem is secure, multi-protocol SAN routing.
A routed SAN consists of multiple Fibre Channel fabrics functioning
as a single network, providing any-to-any device connectivity, but
maintaining desired autonomous characteristics of individual fabrics.
Storage networking devices that connect fabric elements in such a
manner are called SAN Routers. Routed SANs typically include
directors and fabric switches from different vendors, operating in
mixed modes, using different protocols (such as Fibre Channel and
iSCSI), and using several firmware versions.
Multi-protocol SAN routing provides larger-scale SAN connectivity
without compromising the ease of administration, high device
availability, and security inherent to SAN islands. Figure 4-2
illustrates a three-tier model that defines SAN routing hierarchy:
•
4-8
Tier 1 - The first tier consists of isolated Fibre Channel fabrics
(SAN islands). Within each fabric, data is transmitted between
directors and fabric switches through E_Port ISLs.
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Figure 4-2
•
Tier 2 - To connect SAN islands without physically merging the
fabrics, the second tier consists of metropolitan storage area
networks (mSANs). SAN routers connect fabrics within a data
center or campus to form an mSAN and transmit data between
fabrics through router ports (R_Ports). Refer to mSAN Routing for
additional information.
•
Tier 3 - To connect geographically remote fabrics or mSANs, the
third tier consists of internetworked storage area networks
(iSANs). SAN routers transmit data between mSANs through
intelligent ports, using Internet Fibre Channel protocol (iFCP).
Refer to iSAN Routing for additional information.
SAN Routing Hierarchy
R_Port technology enables inter-fabric SAN routing within a data
center or limited geographic area to create mSANs, while iFCP
inter-router links (IRLs) connect distributed, extended-distance Fibre
Channel fabrics to create an iSAN. In addition, high-availability SAN
routers are connected with IRLs using metropolitan Fibre Channel
protocol (mFCP). Figure 4-3 illustrates these concepts.
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Figure 4-3
SAN Routing Concepts
The following sections discuss SAN routing concepts, including:
4-10
•
R_Port operation.
•
Routed SAN zoning.
•
mSAN routing.
•
iFCP operation.
•
iSAN routing.
•
Inter-FlexPar routing.
•
Best practices.
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R_Port Operation
To avoid building a large Fibre Channel fabric with its inherent
reconfiguration issues, SAN Routing provides any-to-any
connectivity (to maximize use of common assets across SAN islands),
while retaining the fault isolation characteristics of smaller SANs.
SAN routers also support multiple R_Port compatibility modes,
making it possible to route OEM versions of a vendor switch, directmarketed versions of a vendor switch, and switches produced by
different OEMs.
An Eclipse 2640 SAN Router is used to connect multiple Fibre
Channel fabrics within a data center, building, or campus. Figure 4-4
shows the example physical connectivity of Fabric 1 (one switch) and
Fabric 2 (one director and one switch) through the router.
Figure 4-4
SAN Routing - Physical Connectivity
Unlike a conventional Fibre Channel E_Port, a SAN router R_Port
behaves as a virtual one-port edge switch (with a unique Domain_ID)
and terminates Class F traffic at the boundary of the connected fabric.
Class F traffic provides control, coordination, and configuration of
fabrics. Directors and fabric switches use Class F services to transmit
FSPF protocol structures and related link state database information
across ISLs. By terminating Class F traffic at an R_Port, switch-toswitch protocols are not passed through the router, and disruptive
build fabric events are restricted to each fabric.
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Instead of Class F frame transmission, routing communication is
provided by Fibre Channel network address translation (FC_NAT)
technology. This is similar to the technology used by IP networks to
convert private addresses to public addresses.
The principal switch in each router-connected fabric assigns the
Domain_ID to the associated R_Port acting as an edge switch. The
switch priority for an R_Port is set to a hexadecimal value of FF and
cannot be changed, therefore an R_Port cannot become the principal
switch in the fabric.
The implication of a virtual edge switch is that each director or switch
connected to a SAN router has no knowledge of other directors or
switches (unless they are physically connected through E_Port ISLs).
This means:
•
If two Fibre Channel fabrics are connected to a SAN router, the
result is not one large fabric but the two fabrics interconnected by
the router. Each fabric maintains its autonomous nature.
•
If multiple fabrics are routed as part of an mSAN, connecting a
new fabric to the router is a nondisruptive event to the existing
fabrics.
•
Only authorized (zoned) connections between devices can
transmit Class 2 and Class 3 Fibre Channel traffic (data frames)
across routed SANs.
•
Switch registered state change notifications (SW_RSCN) frames
transmitted through an R_Port to the router are retransmitted to
authorized (zoned) devices in another router-attached fabric.
•
Each fabric has access to a full Domain_ID space, independent of
other router-attached fabrics.
SAN routing provides the benefits of shared data and device access,
while eliminating interoperability and fabric rebuilding issues. This
enables development of complex, scalable, network storage solutions
that outperform traditional Fibre Channel fabrics.
Logical Connectivity
While each R_Port is assigned a Domain_ID by the principal switch
of the attached fabric, the router reserves and manages two internal
routing domains with proxy Domain_IDs 30 (hexadecimal 7E) and 31
(hexadecimal 7F).
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NOTE: Proxy Domain_IDs 30 and 31 are reserved for routing domains and
cannot be assigned to directors or switches in any router-attached fabric.
The routing domain with proxy Domain_ID 30 represents Fibre
Channel devices that are part of a router-attached fabric (part of a
local mSAN). The routing domain with proxy Domain_ID 31
represents devices that are directly attached to the router’s Fibre
Channel ports or connected through an iFCP link. Figure 4-5
illustrates routing domains and shows the logical connectivity of
Fabric 1 (one switch) and Fabric 2 (one director and one switch)
through an Eclipse 2640 SAN Router.
Figure 4-5
SAN Routing - Logical Connectivity
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For attached fabrics in which participating element’s Interop Mode is
set to McDATA Fabric 1.0, Domain_IDs of 30 and 31 are recognized
by SAN management applications and all attached devices. For
attached fabrics in which participating element’s Interop Mode is set to
Open Fabric 1.0, Domain_IDs of 30 and 31 are recognized by SAN
management applications. Domain_IDs of 7E and 7F are recognized
by all attached devices.
As shown in Figure 4-5 from a logical connectivity perspective,
fabric 1 appears as follows:
•
One Fibre Channel switch (Domain_ID 6) with direct-attached
devices D1 and D2.
•
One edge switch (Domain_ID 1) that represents an R_Port.
•
One virtual switch (Domain_ID 30) that represents a routing
domain with devices D3, D4, D5, and D6 logically attached. These
devices are physically connected to Fabric 2.
•
One virtual switch (Domain_ID 31) that represents a routing
domain with device D7 logically attached. This device is
physically connected to the router.
As shown in Figure 4-5 from a logical connectivity perspective,
fabric 2 appears as follows:
•
One Fibre Channel director (Domain_ID 7) with direct-attached
devices D3 and D4.
•
One Fibre Channel switch (Domain_ID 8) with direct-attached
devices D5 and D6.
•
One edge switch (Domain_ID 2) that represents an R_Port.
•
One virtual switch (Domain_ID 30) that represents a routing
domain with devices D1 and D2 logically attached. These devices
are physically connected to Fabric 1.
•
One virtual switch (Domain_ID 31) that represents a routing
domain with device D7 logically attached. This device is
physically connected to the router.
Routing domains represent devices from remote fabrics and are a key
part of SAN routing. The routing domain with Domain_ID 30 enables
routing between multiple fabrics (mSAN routing). The routing
domain with Domain_ID 31 enables routing between multiple
mSANs (iSAN routing). Refer to mSAN Routing or iSAN Routing for
additional information.
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R_Port Domain_ID Assignment
The default preferred Domain_ID for each SAN router R_Port is 1.
However, each port should be assigned a preferred Domain_ID (set at
the R_Ports tab of the Fabric Configuration dialog box) that is unique
within the attached fabric. The principal switch in the attached fabric
then attempts to allocate this requested (preferred) Domain_ID to the
R_Port. If the requested value is in use, the principal switch assigns
the first available Domain_ID.
NOTE: If more than one R_Port (from the same router or multiple routers) is
attached to a fabric, each port requires a unique Domain_ID.
The Insistent Domain_ID option (enabled at the R_Ports tab of the
Fabric Configuration dialog box) ensures an R_Port gets a predictable
(assigned) address. However, if the Insistent Domain_ID check box is
enabled for an R_Port and the port does not get the preferred address,
the R_Port segments and does not connect to the fabric. In addition,
R_Ports segment if:
•
Two R_Ports physically connect to a single fabric and the
connections are configured (at the SANvergence Manager
application) for attachment to a pair of fabrics.
•
Two R_Ports physically connect to two fabrics and the
connections are configured (at the SANvergence Manager
application) for attachment to a single fabric.
It is recommended that insistent (unique) Domain_IDs be assigned to
directors, fabric switches, and R_Ports in routed fabrics. Assigning
Domain_IDs results in known network addresses, predictable device
behavior, and ease of locating and identifying equipment.
Router Fabric Manager
A fabric-attached R_Port acts as a router fabric manager that manages
fabric discovery, device registration, zoning, and other fabric-related
activities between the router and attached fabric. The router fabric
manager provides communication between the fabric’s simple name
server (SNS) and the router’s metropolitan simple name server
(mSNS) or Internet simple name server (iSNS). When a SAN router
connects to a Fibre Channel fabric, device information is mutually
exchanged. The router and the fabric’s principal switch register any
new device information with their respective name servers.
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There is only one router fabric manager per fabric. If more than one
R_Port (from the same or multiple routers) connects to a fabric, then
the port with the lowest worldwide name (WWN) is elected router
fabric manager for that fabric. Other R_Ports become subordinate
ports. All R_Ports (router fabric manager or not) participate in FSPF
routing protocol and traffic forwarding.
Routed SAN Zoning
SAN Routing provides flexibility with respect to zoning behavior and
interactions between a router and attached fabrics. The zone policy
(set at the Fabrics tab of the Fabric Configuration dialog box) specifies
how zoning information is synchronized between the router and
fabrics. It is not a requirement that all router-attached fabrics use the
same zone policy. The zone policy options are:
•
No Zone Synchronization - Device zoning is controlled at the
fabric level through a Fibre Channel SAN management
application. Zone configurations propagated from a SAN router
to a fabric are negated through a SAN management application.
•
Append IPS Zones - Device zoning control is shared between a
SAN router (SANvergence Manager application) and a Fibre
Channel SAN management application. Existing zones
configured at the fabric level are synchronized through the
SANvergence Manager application.
No Zone Synchronization
When the zone policy is set to No Zone Synchronization, zone set
information between a SAN router and the associated fabrics is not
synchronized. In an environment with configured Fibre Channel
fabrics (prior to enabling SAN routing), it may be preferable to use
the existing SAN management application to enforce zoning. This
practice is applicable if all devices are fabric-attached and no devices
are directly attached to SAN router ports. A typical application for
this zone policy is remote data replication (RDR), where a small
number of devices must communicate across fabric boundaries.
Using a SAN management application, matching zones are created in
each fabric for all devices that require cross-fabric communication.
This implies that two devices that need to communicate are
configured in a common zone in both fabrics. At the SANvergence
Manager application, one zone is created that contains all devices that
are shared across the fabrics. Shared devices are visible to both fabrics
through standard SW_RSCNs.
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A No Zone Synchronization policy is typically not suitable for larger
SAN routing environments where many devices must be visible to
numerous fabrics.
Append IPS Zones
When the zone policy is set to Append IPS Zones, Internet protocol
storage (IPS) zone set information from the router is appended to the
active zone set for every router-attached fabric in the mSAN. In
addition, all devices in the IPS zone set are added to the SNS of each
fabric, even if the fabric does not have an active zone set. This policy
is the default setting when an R_Port is configured.
The Append IPS Zones policy is recommended and provides a
balance between ease of use and retention of primary zoning control
by Fibre Channel SAN management applications. Cross-fabric
devices are zoned together (IPS zone set) through the SANvergence
Manager application, and the zone is appended to the active zone set
for each fabric (zoned through a SAN management application). Any
subsequent changes made to the IPS zone set are propagated to the
fabrics.
NOTE: When using a SAN router with E/OSi Version 4.5 (or earlier), an
active zone set must exist for each fabric prior to performing an Append IPS
Zones operation. When using E/OSi Version 4.6 (or later), active zone sets
are created automatically when the router zone is appended.
The Append IPS Zones policy automatically creates common router
zones in each attached fabric. In large environments where many
devices must be visible to numerous fabrics, this policy is much
easier than creating router zones manually (using the No Zone
Synchronization policy).
The IPS zone set appended to the active zone set of the fabric must
not be modified using a Fibre Channel SAN management
application. Changes made to the appended IPS zone set are
immediately overwritten with the information previously configured
at the SANvergence Manager application.
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mSAN Routing
An mSAN consists of one or two SAN routers that interconnect up to
six Fibre Channel fabrics. These fabrics are typically dispersed within
a data center or metropolitan campus. If two SAN routers are used,
they are connected with multiple (one to four) Gigabit Ethernet (GbE)
bandwidth IRLs. These GbE connections (using mFCP as the
transport protocol) are characterized by low latency, high bandwidth,
and negligible packet loss.
mSAN Routing Domain
A SAN router reserves a routing domain with proxy Domain_ID 30
(hexadecimal 7E) to enable routing between mSAN fabrics. This
routing domain is visible to all directors and switches in each routerattached fabric and appears as a virtual switch (with Domain_ID 30)
to SAN management applications. Table 4-1 summarizes the mSAN
routing domain.
NOTE: A reserved routing domain with proxy Domain_ID 31
(hexadecimal 7F) enables iSAN routing.
Table 4-1
mSAN Routing Domain
Domain_ID
4-18
Area_ID
Fabric_ID
1-4
1
5-8
2
9 - 12
3
13 - 16
4
17 - 20
5
30
21 - 24
6
(Hexadecimal 7E)
25 - 28
7
29 - 32
8
33 - 36
9
37 - 40
10
41 - 44
11
45 - 48
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During SAN router configuration, each R_Port is assigned (through
the SANvergence manager application) a unique Fabric_ID between
1 and 12. Although the theoretical limit is 12 Fabric_IDs per mSAN,
the supported limit is six. As shown in Table 4-1, four Area_IDs are
available to each Fabric_ID. Therefore, the combination of domain,
area, and fabric IDs creates a theoretical limit of 1,024 devices per
fabric (although the supported number is far less).
When a fabric element encounters a device with a Fibre Channel
network address starting with Domain_ID 30 or 7E, the associated
device is physically connected to a different fabric. In addition,
routing communication between the fabric element and device is
provided through FC_NAT technology. Fibre Channel network
addresses are not unique to each routed fabric (and require router
translation for cross-fabric communication) because the Domain_ID
space is reused across fabrics. Although device network addresses are
router translated, device WWNs are not translated and remain
consistent across the entire routed fabric.
Router Name Servers
Each SAN router in an mSAN (up to two) maintains an mSNS
database. With one SAN router installed, the router maintains a
primary simple name server (pSNS) database with information about
all fabric-attached or router-attached devices in the mSAN (and
across iSANs). The pSNS, using the router fabric manager R_Port
as a conduit, interfaces with the fabric SNS to form a complete name
server database.
With two SAN routers installed, one router maintains a pSNS
database and the second router maintains a secondary simple name
server (sSNS) database. Each mSAN always has one pSNS. The
sSNS contains information only about devices directly attached to the
second router and is a client to the pSNS. The pSNS router is userselected or assigned during the build fabric process on the basis of the
lowest WWN.
The secondary router sSNS transmits connectivity information to the
primary router pSNS as required. Because SNS databases use unicast
and subnet broadcasts to communicate, the pSNS and sSNS routers
must be configured on the same subnet. If the mFCP IRL between the
routers segments, different information exists in the SNS databases.
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Router Connectivity through mFCP
mFCP provides connectivity (through a GbE-bandwidth IRL)
between two Eclipse 2640 SAN Routers. mFCP is similar to Fibre
Channel protocol (FCP) but implements user datagram protocol
(UDP) for open systems interconnection (OSI) Layer 4 transport.
mFCP links are used for path failover in high-availability mSANs.
NOTE: The Eclipse 1620 SAN Router does not support mFCP and
must be deployed in mSANs as a single-router configuration.
The UDP transport protocol is fast and easy to implement, but unlike
transmission control protocol (TCP), UDP is connectionless,
best-effort, and does not guarantee order or delivery of packets. UDP
does not offer services such as packet reordering, retransmission of
lost packets, or detection of duplicate packets. Therefore, only direct,
high-reliability fiber-optic cable connections between SAN routers
are supported.
An mFCP link typically connects routers over short distances in a
data center or campus. However, mFCP links can connect routers in a
metropolitan area using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM)
equipment or dark (unused) fiber. WDM and dark fiber are
considered direct connections.
SAN routers and the UDP over GbE connection support the Institute
of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.3x Ethernet flow
control standard. Flow control prevents buffers from overflowing
and dropping packets.
A UDP over GbE connection eliminates protocol overhead (eight
bytes for UDP versus 20 bytes for TCP) and potential performance
problems. The header is smaller and does not have windowing
mechanisms that require resources to manage, and there is no
buffering of segments until notification of receipt. The connection
also uses 8B/10B bit-level encoding derived from Fibre Channel
specifications, resulting in a low bit-error rate. Flow control, low
overhead, and a low bit-error rate allow the mFCP connection to
approach the reliability of a Fibre Channel connection.
While a SAN router IRL is limited to GbE speed, multiple IRLs can be
combined using IEEE 802.3AD link aggregation standard. Up to four
links can be aggregated between two SAN routers.
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If a direct Fibre Channel connection exists between routed fabrics,
storage traffic traverses the Fibre Channel ISL and not the routerto-router mFCP link. Only SNS traffic traverses the mFCP link.
However, if a router-to-router mFCP link is the only path between
two Fibre Channel devices, the link is traversed by storage traffic.
Because a SAN router is the edge switch for every routed fabric and
advertises Domain_ID 30 or 7E as a direct-attach virtual switch,
mFCP links do not participate in FSPF protocol in the mSAN.
mSAN Supported Limits
Table 4-2 summarizes the supported hardware and connectivity
limits for a routed mSAN. Limits to the scale of an mSAN are due to
inherent limits to Fibre Channel fabric SNS and SAN router pSNS
databases.
Table 4-2
mSAN Supported Limits
Feature
Supported Limit
SAN routers per mSAN
An mSAN can contain up to two (2) Eclipse 2640 SAN Routers.
mFCP IRLs between
SAN routers
Maximum number of mFCP connections between two SAN Routers is
four (4).
Fabrics per mSAN
Maximum number of fabrics per mSAN is six (6). Twelve fabrics can be configured at the
SANvergence Manager application, but only six are supported.
R_Port connections per fabric
from all SAN routers
Maximum number of ISLs connected to a fabric from all SAN Routers (in one mSAN) is four (4).
This provides eight Gbps bandwidth between the fabric and routers. The number of SAN routers
(one or two) does not affect this limit.
Fibre Channel switches
per fabric
Maximum number of directors or fabric switches per fabric is 12. The number of SAN routers
(one or two) does not affect this limit.
Fibre Channel switches
per mSAN
Maximum number of directors or fabric switches per mSAN is 48. The number of fabric elements
per fabric may vary, but the total must not exceed 48. The number of SAN routers (one or two)
does not affect this limit.
Devices per fabric
Maximum number of devices per fabric is 1024. This value is also the SNS database limit for
each fabric.
Devices imported single fabric
Maximum number of devices that can be imported from one fabric is 504.
Devices imported all fabrics
Maximum number of devices that can be imported to the SAN router mSNS database is 512. All
zoned devices (imported from a fabric or router-attached) are registered in the SNS databases of
all connected fabrics, thus the import limit equals the fabric SNS or router mSNS database limit.
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iFCP Operation
There are three protocols competing to transmit storage-related I/O
traffic over long-distance transmission control protocol/Internet
protocol (TCP/IP) links:
•
iSCSI is a TCP/IP-based protocol for establishing and managing
connections between IP-based storage devices, hosts, and clients.
iSCSI operates on top of TCP, moving block data (iSCSI packets)
over an IP Ethernet network. Refer to iSCSI Protocol for additional
information.
•
iFCP is a gateway-to-gateway protocol that connects distributed
Fibre Channel SAN islands (or mSANs) through a TCP/IP
infrastructure. With iFCP, each connected fabric is maintained
separately from the others, while the IP network provides
connectivity, congestion control, error detection, and error
recovery.
•
FCIP - Fibre Channel over IP (FCIP) is a TCP/IP-based protocol
for connecting geographically distributed Fibre Channel SANs.
FCIP requires installation of an edge device between a Fibre
Channel SAN and the IP network, and encapsulates Fibre
Channel frames into IP packets and fabric domains to IP
addresses. This process of encapsulating one information packet
inside another is called protocol tunneling. With FCIP, a single
SAN fabric is created by connecting multiple SAN islands
through IP network tunnels.
Typical SAN extension technologies build a single Fibre Channel
fabric between two remote locations. The resulting long-distance
(stretched E_Port) connection may be a direct, native Fibre Channel
link (through WDM equipment or dark fiber) or an FCIP link. Using
WDM equipment or repeaters, native Fibre Channel extension
supports metropolitan distances up to 75 miles (120 km). FCIP
supports greater distances by providing a tunneling protocol that
encapsulates Fibre Channel data and forwards it over a TCP/IP
network.
When two or more Fibre Channel fabrics are connected (through
direct connection, WDM, or FCIP), standard fabric building and
principal switch selection occurs. Whether two fabric switches are
separated by a few feet or by hundreds of miles, establishing
connectivity between E_Ports may trigger a disruptive or nondisruptive build fabric event. In fact, a stretched E_Port is vulnerable
to disruptions caused by events at each site and to disruptions caused
by problems with the extended-distance TCP/IP link.
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From the standpoint of fabric build events, the only difference
between a local and stretched E_Port connection is the latency
introduced by the TCP/IP link and associated WDM or FCIP
hardware.
A disruptive build fabric event at one local site propagates to the
connected site. Likewise, a disruption in the TCP/IP link may cause
the extended SAN to segment into separate SAN islands. For
mission-critical storage over distance (such as disaster recovery
applications) an extended SAN may inadvertently create instabilities
that defeat the intent of highly-reliable data access.
iFCP operates at a higher level and addresses problems that direct
connectivity and FCIP do not. iFCP is similar to FCP but uses IP for
OSI Layer 3 (network layer) and TCP for OSI Layer 4 (transport
layer). In contrast, mFCP uses IP for OSI Layer 3 and UDP for OSI
Layer 4. Connectivity is provided through an iSNS database with a
WWN-to-IP address look-up table in each fabric.
When a Fibre Channel frame is transmitted to a device in a different
fabric, the frame is encapsulated and sent over the TCP/IP link to the
destination fabric. The encapsulating wrapper is stripped off by iFCP
and the Fibre Channel frame delivered to the destination device. iFCP
can accommodate up to 64 TCP sessions per port. A TCP session
opens for each pair of port WWNs that initiate a process login.
SAN routers have both FCP and IP interfaces. The Eclipse 1620 SAN
router has two ports that provide IP network connectivity at up to
full-duplex 100 Base-T Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps) transmission speed.
The Eclipse 2640 SAN router has four ports that provide IP network
connectivity at up to full-duplex GbE (1,000 Mbps) transmission
speed. Figure 4-6 shows the physical connectivity of two mSANs
(to form an iSAN) through Eclipse 2640 SAN Routers and an IP wide
area network (WAN).
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Figure 4-6
iSAN Routing
iFCP WAN Extension
An internetworked SAN (iSAN) is a network composed of multiple
Fibre Channel fabrics or mSANs, connected by one or more SAN
routers, where at least one fabric is remotely located and connected
through a WAN. The WAN connection is an iFCP IRL, characterized
by high latency and ranging in bandwidth from Digital Service 1
(DS1) at 1.544 Mbps to GbE at 1000 Mbps. iFCP is optimized for
TCP/IP-based Internet service provider (ISP) networks.
Unlike conventional SAN extension, iSAN Routing terminates the
stretched E_Port connection at each fabric edge. Fabric building and
reconfiguration issues are isolated and restricted to each fabric
because Fibre Channel Class F traffic is not transmitted across the
TCP/IP network. Only authorized (zoned) connections between
storage devices and servers are allowed across the network.
By preserving the autonomy of each local fabric or mSAN, an iFCP
SAN routing connection ensures disruptions at one site are isolated
and not allowed to propagate to other locations. This configuration
provides stability for distance-connected mSANs and promotes high
availability for disaster recovery, consolidated tape backup, or other
complex, multi-site storage applications.
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SAN Routing also streamlines SAN connectivity by eliminating
network address issues associated with duplicate Domain_IDs.
Because fabric elements and devices at either end of an iFCP
connection remain in separate mSANs, address conflicts between the
mSANs do not occur. SAN Routing provides address translation
(through FC_NAT) for zoned devices with authorization to
communicate across the network.
iSAN Routing Domain
The routing domain with proxy Domain_ID 31 (hexadecimal 7F)
represents devices that are directly attached to SAN router Fibre
Channel ports or connected through an iFCP link. The router reserves
this domain to enable routing between iSANs. This routing domain is
visible to all directors and switches in each router-attached mSAN
and appears as a virtual switch (with Domain_ID 31) to SAN
management applications.
NOTE: A reserved routing domain with proxy Domain_ID 30
(hexadecimal 7E) enables mSAN routing.
When communicating with directors and switches in a specific fabric,
SAN routers advertise devices associated with routing domains 30
and 31 as being directly attached to the domain, even though the
devices are physically attached to a separate fabric or mSAN. Proxy
Domain_ID 31 (remote mSAN over iSAN) is an internal router
domain connected behind proxy Domain_ID 30 (fabric over mSAN).
Therefore, if a problem occurs and there is no connectivity to routing
domain 30 (hexadecimal 7E), then there is also no connectivity to
routing domain 31 (hexadecimal 7F).
IRL Optimization
TCP is a resilient protocol that retransmits lost packets, reorders
out-of-order packets, detects duplicate packets, and provides flow
control mechanisms. The protocol is therefore appropriate for iFCP
connectivity over extended-distance links. However, additional
optimization is usually required to transport storage traffic effectively
across iFCP links. These optimization methods include:
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•
Rate limiting - If ingress traffic enters the SAN router faster than
egress traffic leaves, port buffers fill and cause dropped data
packets. Dropped packets cause TCP to resort to internal (and
inefficient) flow control, causing dramatic link throughput
decrease. Rate limiting prevents this problem. Refer to Intelligent
Port Speed for detailed information about rate limiting.
•
Data compression - SAN router software identifies repetitive
information in an output data stream and applies a compression
algorithm to ensure the data is more compact and efficiently
transmitted. The compression algorithm is set at the Element
Manager application using the Compression Method drop-down
list at the Advanced TCP Configuration dialog box. The list
provides four algorithm selections:
— LZO - The Lempel-Ziv-Oberhumer (LZO) compression
algorithm searches for strings of characters duplicated within
a block of data being compressed. Duplicated strings are
removed from the data stream and replaced by an encoded
string. Non-duplicate characters (literals) are output with
special encoding to distinguish them from duplicate string
encoding. LZO generates a self-contained compressed data
block. All information needed to decompress the data is in the
compressed data, and there is no history maintained by sender
(for compression) or the receiver (for decompression). The
algorithm is recommended when up to 64 TCP sessions are
used and the available bandwidth is up to 155 Mbps (OC-3
transport level).
— Fast LZO with history - This algorithm uses the LZO
algorithm with a history cache. A history cache is maintained
and used to more effectively compress and decompress data.
The algorithm has an average compression ratio increase of
approximately 20% over LZO. The algorithm is recommended
when up to 8 TCP sessions are used and the available
bandwidth is up to 155 Mbps (OC-3 transport level).
— LZO with history - This algorithm incorporates the LZO
algorithm with a history cache and Huffman encoding.
Huffman encoding is an algorithm for lossless compression
based on the statistical frequency of occurrence of a symbol in
the file being compressed. As the probability of occurrence of
a symbol increases, the compressed bit-size representation
decreases. The algorithm uses additional computing resources
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and results in a lower compression bandwidth. The algorithm
has an average compression ratio increase of approximately
30% over LZO. The algorithm is recommended when up to 8
TCP sessions are used and the available bandwidth is between
10 Mbps (thin Ethernet) and 45 Mbps (DS3 transport level).
— Deflate - This algorithm incorporates a history cache with
Huffman encoding. In addition, a hash table (saved in the
compressed data) is used to perform string searches. Deflate is
a processor-intensive algorithm with the highest compression
ratio. The algorithm is restricted to use for 10 Mbps (thin
Ethernet) links.
Note that a data compression ratio cannot be definitively stated,
because it changes instantaneously with every data byte
transmitted. A consistent byte pattern can be compressed more
than a random byte pattern. For example, a defined, constant
pattern can often be compressed 15:1. Already-compressed data
(such as many graphic formats and some tape formats) cannot be
compressed further (1:1). Most data streams are compressible
from between 2:1 and 15:1, depending on the density of consistent
patterns. The only way to accurately determine a compression
ratio is to compress the data and measure the result.
•
FastWrite technology - SCSI is a simplex protocol that sends a
portion of a write command, then waits for a response. Multiple
commands can coexist, resulting in an inefficient process on
high-latency links. FastWrite is an algorithm that reduces the
number of round trips required to complete a SCSI write
command to one round trip. The software improves performance
over WANs by mitigating the effects of latency and using the
entire link bandwidth (because all data is transmitted
simultaneously).
The FastWrite algorithm responds to initiator write commands
with local transfer ready (XFR_RDY) commands that cause the
initiator to transmit an entire data set, then buffers the output
data at the SAN router closest to the corresponding target device.
This eliminates multiple XFR_RDY command transmissions and
minimizes bursty data transfer over the WAN, thus reducing
round-trip delays that are characteristic of extended-distance
links.
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mFCP to iFCP
Comparison
Table 4-3 compares mFCP to iFCP and summarizes the features of
each protocol.
mFCP Versus iFCP
Table 4-3
Feature
mFCP
iFCP
Purpose
LAN protocol to support short-distance SAN
router connectivity
WAN Protocol to support extended-distance
SAN router connectivity
OSI Layer 4 protocol
User datagram protocol
Transmission control protocol
Link latency
Low
High
Link bandwidth
High
Low
Intelligent port operation
No
Yes
FastWrite support
No
Yes
Rate limiting support
No
Yes
Data compression support
No
Yes
Provides IEEE 802.3x flow control
Yes
Yes
Provides IEEE 802.3AD link
aggregation
Yes
No
SAN routers must be configured on
same subnet
Yes
No
Inter-FlexPar Routing
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When the FlexPar feature is enabled for an Intrepid 10000 Director,
the director is divided into multiple sub-directors, each operating
with independent management and services. This consolidates
application-based SAN islands, but does not enable device sharing
between the SAN islands (sub-directors). Inter-FlexPar routing
connects a SAN router to the Intrepid 10000 Director to enable
authorized (zoned) communication between FlexPars. This is a
unique application of SAN routing that enables communication
between sub-directors in the same physical chassis, as opposed to
routing between physically separate fabric elements.
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Figure 4-7 illustrates inter-FlexPar routing. Flexpar B (tape backup
fabric) is isolated from Flexpar C (product development fabric) as
normally desired. However, development personnel occasionally
perform tape backups that require access to Flexpar B devices. An
E_Port from each FlexPar is physically connected to a SAN router
R_Port, and Flexpar C servers are zoned to communicate with
Flexpar B tape devices.
Figure 4-7
SAN Routing Best
Practices
Inter-FlexPar Routing
To reduce management complexity and implement a successful SAN
routing environment, follow a set of best practice conventions as
follows:
1. Plan the configuration - Map and design the routed SAN
configuration on paper, prior to installing and configuring real
equipment. This includes documenting all R_Port connections,
Domain_IDs, Zone_IDs, mSAN names, mSAN_IDs, iFCP port
pairs, and mFCP port pairs. The connection of multiple fabrics or
mSANs must be properly documented and tracked.
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2. Domain_ID assignment - Manually assign unique Domain_IDs
to all Fibre Channel directors, fabric switches, and SAN router
R_Ports. Ensure the Insistent Domain_ID option is enabled at the
SAN management or SANvergence Manager application. Do not
assign Domain_ID 30 or 31 to any fabric elements. These proxy
Domain_IDs are reserved for routing domains within the SAN
router.
3. Allocate Zone_IDs to mSANs - Allocate an exclusive range of
Zone_IDs for use in each mSAN. For example, each mSAN could
be allocated the range 101 to 512 for local use only. These
Zone_IDs are not assigned to zones shared across mSANs.
At the Zone Preferences dialog box (SANvergence Manager
application), leave the Zone_ID range at the default values
(1 to 512) and track the ranges manually. If Zone_ID ranges are
set, a Zone_ID outside the specified range cannot be created.
4. Allocate Zone_IDs to shared zones - Allocate an exclusive range
of Zone_IDs for shared zones. For example, zones shared across
mSANs could be allocated the range 1 to 100. For exported zones
to merge across iFCP connections, the Zone_IDs must match.
In environments where all zones are shared zones, the local and
shared Zone_ID scheme should be altered to provide different
Zone_ID ranges for different mSANs. Develop a scheme where a
point-to-multipoint scenario (connecting one mSAN to multiple
other mSANs) carves out a range of Zone_IDs shared with each
remote site. For example:
From data center to remote site A: Zone_ID Range 1 to 20.
From data center to remote site B: Zone_ID Range 21 to 40.
From data center to remote site C: Zone_ID Range 41 to 60.
5. Assign common zone names - Even though zone names need not
be identical for zones to merge (only Zone_IDs must be identical),
for simplified tracking it is good practice to assign a common
name to zones that are intended to merge.
6. Encode the Zone_ID in the zone name - If a zone intended for
database replication is assigned a Zone_ID of 7, it is good practice
to include the Zone_ID in the zone name (for example
DB_Replication_7). When sharing zones, this practice avoids
repeatedly searching for the assigned Zone_ID.
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7. Use redundant mFCP connections - For high availability (not
increased bandwidth), use multiple mFCP connections between
SAN routers to ensure the mSAN does not partition and
connectivity to routing domains 30 and 31 remains intact.
8. Assign common-numbered mFCP port pairs - Although any
FCP port can be paired with any FCP port on another SAN router,
for simplified tracking it is good practice (where possible) to
assign identical port numbers to both connections of a
high-availability mFCP link. For example, connect port 5 of SAN
router A to port 5 of SAN router B.
9. Assign common-numbered iFCP port pairs - Although any local
intelligent port can be paired with any remote intelligent port, for
simplified tracking it is good practice (where possible) to assign
identical port numbers to both connections of an iFCP link. For
example, connect port 14 of SAN router A to port 14 of SAN
router B.
10. Track iFCP sessions - Every initiator-to-target device pair in a
merged zone is assigned an iFCP session. Be aware of the number
of active iFCP sessions. If approaching the per-port limit (64
sessions) un-export zones without active storage traffic to free up
sessions.
11. Document zones and iFCP links for each mSAN - Use the
following pair of example forms to track zone and iFCP link
information. For an initial configuration, transfer values from the
forms to the routed network using the SANvergence Manager
Element Manager applications. For sustaining maintenance, copy
information from the SAN management applications (through
printable HTML reports) to the forms for consistency checks and
archival.
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Local mSAN Name: Boston
Local mSAN_ID: 20
Date: 1/12/05
Exported Zone_ID Range: 1 to 100
Local Zone_ID Range: 101 to 512
Local mSAN Zone Summary
Exported
(Y/N)
mSAN ID
Y
2
DB_Replication_2
Remote site for disaster recovery.
Y
3
Tape_Library_3
Remote site for data center tape library access.
N
101
Nightly_Backup
Local initiator for nightly tape backups.
N
501
Test_Fabric
Test fabric for the local mSAN.
mSAN Name
Description
iFCP Remote Connection Summary
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Local Mgmt
IP Address
Local
Port
Number
Exported
Zones
List
To Port
External IP
Address
To Port
Number
Remote
Mgmt IP
Address
10.1.1.1
7
2
23.10.2.7
7
23.1.1.1
To Chicago.
10.1.1.1
8
3
15.2.3.7
8
15.1.1.1
To New York.
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Local mSAN Name: Chicago
Local mSAN_ID: 30
Date: 1/12/05
Exported Zone_ID Range: 1 to 100
Local Zone_ID Range: 101 to 512
Local mSAN Zone Summary
Exported
(Y/N)
mSAN ID
Y
2
N
N
mSAN Name
Description
DB_Replication_2
Replication site for disaster recovery.
101
Web_Server
Local web server and associated hardware.
501
Local_Test
Local test fabric.
iFCP Remote Connection Summary
Local Mgmt
IP Address
Local
Port
Number
Exported
Zones
List
To Port
External IP
Address
To Port
Number
Remote
Mgmt IP
Address
23.1.1.1
7
2
10.1.1.7
7
10.1.1.1
Description
To Boston.
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12. Configure R_Ports - For all configured SAN router R_Ports in the
same fabric:
a. The R_Port interconnect modes (McDATA Fabric 1.0 or
Open Fabric 1.0) must be identical. This parameter is set at the
SANvergence Manager application. The corresponding E_Port
interoperability mode must also be identical. This parameter is
set at the director or fabric switch Element Manager
application.
b. The zone policies (No Zone Synchronization or Append IPS
Zones) must be identical. This parameter is set at the
SANvergence Manager application.
c. The error detect time-out values (ED_TOVs) must be identical.
This parameter is set at the director or fabric switch Element
Manager application.
d. The resource allocation time-out values (RA_TOVs) must be
identical. This parameter is set at the director or fabric switch
Element Manager application.
e. The port Domain_IDs must be different. This parameter is set
at the SANvergence Manager application.
13. Multi-vendor guidelines - SAN routers support existing multivendor fabrics. However, when building a new fabric, it is good
practice not to mix director and fabric switch vendors within the
same fabric. A homogeneous fabric simplifies operation and fault
isolation.
14. Port zoning - Comply with the following rules and best practices
when using port zoning in a SAN routing environment:
a. When a Fibre Channel fabric connects to a SAN router, port
zoning is implemented per FC-SW2 standard. When
communication between devices in a fabric stays within the
fabric, port zoning works normally.
b. When a router zone policy is set to No Zone Synchronization,
remote devices are not port zoned in a local fabric. This is
because remote entries in the local mSNS are node (device)
WWNs, not port WWNs. For example, when a port-zoned
device in Fabric A is zoned with a device in Fabric B, the
device from Fabric A is WWN zoned. Although router ports
can be port zoned, devices connected to a router port are
propagated to remote fabrics using node (device) WWNs.
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c. Port zoning can be confusing in a multi-vendor environment
because OEMs implement zoning in different ways. When
zoning with vendor-specific SAN management applications,
zone through port WWNs, not node (device) WWNs.
d. Ensure devices are physically connected before importing
their node (device) WWNs to a router. If a fabric port is
port-zoned with nothing connected to the port, the zone
member is invisible to the router until a device is connected to
the port and explicitly imported to the router. If a device is
disconnected or reconnected to a port-zoned fabric port, a
zone update is not generated at a remote fabric (to remove the
associated WWN-zoned device).
e. If router-attached directors and fabric switches have zoning
licences and the zone policy is set to Append IPS Zones at the
SANvergence Manager application, all zone licences must be
enabled.
f. If router-attached directors and fabric switches have zoning
licences and the zone policy is set to No Zone
Synchronization at the SANvergence Manager application,
some fabric elements may be able to operate with the zone
licences disabled. Operation is vendor-specific.
g. When a device is zoned through the router CLI or
SANvergence Manager application, the device is visible to all
router-attached fabrics. When a device is zoned through a
Fibre Channel SAN management application, the device is
invisible to remote fabrics.
h. Some vendor-specific SAN management applications cannot
display devices outside the local fabric. In such a case, the
zone policy must be set to Append IPS Zones at the
SANvergence Manager application.
15. Feature conflicts - SAN routers cannot attach to McDATA fabrics
with the SANtegrity Binding feature (including both fabric
binding and switch binding), OpenTrunking feature, or Enterprise
Fabric Mode enabled. These features must be disabled before
connecting the router. In addition, SAN routers do not support
FICON cascading or FICON routing.
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Implementing BC/DR Solutions
The post-9/11 business environment requires corporations to protect
critical data by implementing cost-effective business continuity and
disaster recovery (BC/DR) solutions. These BC/DR solutions drive
the requirement to extend local data center SANs to geographically
distant locations.
The business case for SAN distance extension is the high cost of
downtime, a period during which a corporation cannot generate
revenue due to temporary (or permanent) loss of critical applications
or data. By connecting SAN islands through an extended-distance
optical network, the corporation:
•
Preserves valuable information assets and protects against
business disruptions caused by facility outages, IT or
communication problems, natural disasters, or terrorism.
•
Provides real-time disaster recovery of business data and the IT
infrastructure in the event of an unplanned outage.
•
Consolidates storage resources, increases the availability of
critical information, and reduces backup and restore times.
•
Complies with regulatory, data protection, and data retention
requirements imposed by the government and business insurers.
BC/DR solutions impose distance extension requirements to connect
SAN islands. Extended-distance data transmission imposes different
communication and protocol requirements. Differences between
storage traffic through a local SAN and network traffic through an
extended-distance WAN include:
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•
Protocol stack - Software protocol stacks quickly overload servers
and inhibit SAN performance. Therefore, SANs are usually based
on FCP optimized for storage environments, offering high-speed
and low-overhead communication. Data networks rely on a
protocol stack to provide communication and are often
implemented using TCP/IP over GbE. TCP/IP provides a high
level of protocol processing and is appropriate for data networks.
•
Latency - Local storage traffic requires minimal delay and latency.
Distance transmission associated with WANs introduces variable
delays and high latency.
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•
Reliability - Local storage traffic requires high-reliability
communication and is intolerant of data loss, out-of-order packet
receipt, or data retransmission. WANs typically provide besteffort communication service and rely on upper-level protocols
for end-to-end transport.
Because of these differences, a protocol conversion approach is
usually required to integrate Fibre Channel SAN traffic over a
geographically-dispersed network. Refer to SAN Extension Transport
Technologies for detailed information about native FCP distance
extension or protocol conversion.
Other BC/DR requirements vary, depending on budget, data type,
data volume, business situation, and SAN applications. Analyze and
understand these business requirements prior to selecting an
operational mode (described in Extended-Distance Operational Modes)
and transport technology (described in SAN Extension Transport
Technologies) that best support the SAN distance-extension strategy. In
particular, consider:
Extended-Distance
Operational Modes
•
Data priority - Not all data is critical to immediate business
resumption. Prioritize and categorize data as mission-critical,
secondary, or only to be retained for legal purposes.
•
Recovery time objective (RTO) - The RTO is the time required to
restore the data and applications following an outage or disaster.
The loss of revenue from suspended business operations drives
this objective.
•
Recovery point objective (RPO) - The RPO is the time between
backup points and defines how far out of date a backup copy can
be after a failure. The data rate of change and cost of destroyed
data (between the last backup and a disaster) drive this objective.
•
Distance - The distance between a data center and replication site
is proportional to RTO and RPO times. As distance between sites
increases, time required to perform backup and restore operations
also increases.
A primary component of business continuance and disaster recovery
is remote data replication to an alternative safe location. Extendeddistance operational modes are:
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•
Synchronous remote data replication (RDR/S) - This operational
mode ensures a remote data copy (identical to the primary copy)
is created at the time the primary data is created. An update
operation does not complete until confirmed at both the primary
and mirrored sites. An incomplete operation rolls back at both
locations, ensuring the remote copy is a mirror image of the
primary copy. RDR/S is synonymous with disk mirroring.
The advantage to using RDR/S is quick data recovery. Operation
at a remote, mirrored site begins immediately if operation at the
primary site is disrupted. The problem with RDR/S is distance
limitation. Although propagation of laser light pulses can
theoretically extend to infinity, latency is an issue because
propagation delays lengthen with increased link distance. These
delays adversely impact performance by forcing an application to
wait for confirmation of I/O operation at local and remote sites.
This means RDR/S operation is distance-limited, depending on
application response time tolerance and other factors.
RDR/S is ideal for shorter metropolitan distances and real-time
disk mirroring and is an appropriate BC/DR solution for
enterprises requiring fast data recovery, minimal data loss, and
protection against database integrity problems.
•
Asynchronous remote data replication (RDR/A) - This
operational mode does not require a response indicating
completion of a remote transaction before local I/O operations
resume. Replication software on the remote storage array
controller ensures data is successfully written to the remote site.
Standard disk backup and tape vaulting are RDR/A operations.
RDR/A may lose data transactions during an unplanned failover
to a remote site. However, after post-outage transaction logs are
applied to the remote data image, operations can usually resume.
Catastrophic events can occur anywhere. However, it is unlikely
an event will span a large geographical area or two exclusive
events will simultaneously occur in two locations. Therefore, to
protect critical data (required for business continuance), it is
prudent to replicate the data at a remote site thousands of miles
from the primary site. Because there is no propagation delay
involved in confirming remote transactions, RDR/A can span
virtually any geographical distance and is ideal for long-distance
BC/DR applications.
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SAN Extension
Transport
Technologies
Dark Fiber
There are several extension transport technologies available to
connect geographically-dispersed SAN islands, all of which differ in
performance, latency, and implementation cost. The primary
technologies include:
•
Dark fiber (repeated or unrepeated).
•
Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM).
•
Synchronous optical network (SONET) and synchronous digital
hierarchy (SDH).
•
Internet protocol (IP).
Dark fiber refers to an installed fiber-optic infrastructure (including
cabling and possibly including repeaters) that is not in use. Dark fiber
strands (usually deployed in transmit and receive pairs) provide
point-to-point, unprotected connectivity between two locations.
Many corporations install excess fiber-optic cabling with the
expectation of leasing the infrastructure at a future date. When a
telecommunication company installs cable, they often lay additional
(unused) cables to avoid retrenching costs. Utility companies often
install unused cables coincident with pipelines or electrical power
lines. The dark fiber is then leased to companies (dark fiber service)
that require dedicated optical connectivity between separate
locations. Cable operation and connectivity are not controlled by the
service provider. The service lessee is responsible for laser
transceivers and other equipment that make the cabling functional.
Figure 4-8 illustrates extended-distance connectivity through a dark
fiber (dedicated FCP or FICON) interface. The technology:
•
Is well suited as an extension technology for RDR/S applications
over metropolitan distances up to 22 miles (35 km) without
repeaters and up to 75 miles (120 km) with repeaters. The
supported bandwidth is dependent on fiber-optic quality and the
choice of multiplexing scheme.
•
Requires sufficient buffer-to-buffer credits (BB_Credits) assigned
to the link (such as credits available through the Intrepid 10000
Director buffer pool). Refer to Distance Extension Through
BB_Credit for information about requirements.
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•
Figure 4-8
Creates one logical Fibre Channel fabric through a stretched
E_Port connection. The connection is vulnerable to disruptions
caused by events at each site or to disruptions caused by
problems with the extended-distance dark fiber link.
Dark Fiber Extended-Distance Connectivity
Due to the high cost of burying cables, dark fiber has limited physical
availability relative to other WAN link options. Because dark fiber is
usually buried, it is often susceptible to damage from excavating
equipment. For these reasons, dark fiber is used on a limited basis for
metropolitan-distance RDR/S applications. Dark fiber is not practical
for RDR/A applications that span large distances.
WDM
Optical networks consist of fibers transmitting laser-generated
flashes of light, and more information is transmitted by increasing the
number of flashes per second (increasing the bit-rate). Using multiple
lasers to simultaneously transmit different colors (wavelengths) of
light also increases the capacity of optical fibers. Assigning laser light
to designated frequencies, multiplexing (combining) the result to one
signal, and transmitting the signal one fiber is called wavelength
division multiplexing. At the receiving end, combined wavelengths
are separated (demultiplexed). Each wavelength requires a discrete
detector to convert light pulses to useful information.
The number of wavelengths used is a power of two (2, 4, 16, 32, 64, or
eventually more). Technology that provides 64 wavelengths or more
per fiber is called dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM).
Technology that provides 32 or fewer wavelengths per fiber is called
coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM). CWDM is less
complex and expensive to deploy.
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Light wavelengths used are typically around 1,550 nanometers (nm).
Optical fiber performs well in this wavelength region, with very little
attenuation. For CWDM, differing wavelengths are separated by
multiples of 20.0 nm. For DWDM, differing wavelengths are
separated by multiples of 0.8 nm. The lower wavelength numbers
provided by CWDM are due to lower accuracy (and price) of lasers.
DWDM wavelengths are spaced closer together and require more
precise lasers to reduce interference between wavelengths.
CWDM and DWDM are metropolitan extension technologies that
transmit data parallel-by-bit or serial-by-character over a fiber-optic
network. The signal is never terminated in the optical layer and is
therefore bit-rate and format independent. As a result, WDM
provides high bandwidth, low latency, and transparency to SAN
protocols and allows transmission of e-mail, voice, video,
multimedia, and digital data over native FCP or FICON links.
Figure 4-9 illustrates extended-distance connectivity through a WDM
interface.
Figure 4-9
WDM Extended-Distance Connectivity
When combined with a dedicated FCP or FICON link, the
technology:
•
Is well suited as an extension technology for RDR/S applications
over metropolitan distances up to 75 miles (120 km). Note that
WDM technology does not increase the transmission distance
provided by repeated dark fiber. However, WDM significantly
increases the bandwidth.
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•
Requires sufficient BB_Credits assigned to the link (such as
credits available through the Intrepid 10000 Director buffer pool).
Because WDM is a method to transmit multiple signals over the
same fiber-optic cable, there is no BB_Credit limitation difference
between WDM and dark fiber. Refer to Distance Extension Through
BB_Credit for information about requirements.
•
Creates one logical Fibre Channel fabric through a stretched
E_Port connection. The connection is vulnerable to disruptions
caused by events at each site or to disruptions caused by
problems with the extended-distance WDM link.
Several network service providers provide metropolitan and longdistance (intercity) WDM transport services. WDM service can be
purchased on a monthly basis in accordance with a negotiated service
level agreement (SLA). A typical SLA specifies the availability,
minimum dedicated bandwidth (usually scalable), latency, security
level, monitoring level, packet loss, and mean time to repair (MTTR).
Like dark fiber, WDM is not practical for long-distance RDR/A
applications. In addition, WDM technology is still evolving and
equipment is relatively expensive.
SONET and SDH
The telecommunications industry developed SONET and SDH
standards for transport of time division multiplexed (TDM) data over
fiber-optic cable. SONET is used in North America (United States and
Canada) and Japan. SDH is used elsewhere, primarily in Europe.
SONET and SDH are closely related standards that specify interface
parameters, rates, framing formats, multiplexing methods, and
management for synchronous TDM data transport.
The physical-layer protocol multiplexes n incoming bit streams,
optically modulates the result, and transmits the signal at a rate equal
to the incoming bit rate times n. As an example, four data streams
arriving at a SONET multiplexer at 2.5 Gbps are transmitted as one
stream at 10 Gbps (four times 2.5 Gbps). Low bit-rate streams of
information are multiplexed into higher bit-rate streams and
transmitted at the rate of the SONET or SDH network. TDM ensures
a constant stream of data through a network and takes advantage of
the available bandwidth.
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SONET and SDH are globally standardized technologies, more
widely deployed than dark fiber or WDM, and provide a protected
connection between two locations. SONET and SDH rings are also
self-healing. This means a link is usually restored within 50 ms of
break detection without user intervention. This makes SONET and
SDH highly-available services.
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) is a protocol-independent SONET
and SDH standard that defines a mapping scheme for storage
protocols such as native FCP, FICON, and iFCP. The standard
includes a forward error-correction scheme that enables low bit-error
rates critical for storage connectivity. Additionally, the protocol
mapping to SONET or SDH requires little overhead and has minimal
impact on latency and throughput. GFP is deployed with virtual
concatenation (VCAT), a standard that increases bandwidth
efficiency by flexibly extending bandwidth allocation in 50-Mbps
increments. This extends the bandwidth range from 50 Mbps to full
Fibre Channel rates. To support storage extension over long
distances, GFP provides buffering and flow control to ensure high
throughput without the need for Fibre Channel BB_Credit buffering.
Figure 4-10 illustrates multiple extended-distance connections
through a SONET interface.
Figure 4-10
SONET Extended-Distance Connectivity
The technology:
•
Is widely deployed and highly-available, and is well suited as an
extension technology for RDR/A applications over thousands of
kilometers.
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•
Does not require Fibre Channel BB_Credits assigned to the link
because buffering is built in to the GFP function to enable
long-distance transmission of storage traffic.
•
Creates a routed iSAN or one logical Fibre Channel fabric through
a stretched E_Port connection, depending upon the protocol and
if one or more SAN routers are deployed in the link.
— Native FCP or FICON (unrouted) - The top data path in
Figure 4-10 illustrates native FCP or FICON extended-distance
connectivity through an unrouted SONET interface. GFP
interfaces provide required link buffering and flow control.
The stretched E_Port connection is vulnerable to disruptions
caused by events at each site or to disruptions caused by
problems with the extended-distance SONET link.
— Native FCP (routed) - The middle data path in Figure 4-10
illustrates native FCP extended-distance connectivity through
a routed SONET interface. GFP interfaces provide required
link buffering and flow control. A single Eclipse 2640 SAN
router at one end of the link provides R_Port connectivity and
SAN isolation (not intelligent port connectivity or protocol
conversion). The routed SAN connection ensures disruptions
at one site are isolated and not allowed to propagate to other
locations. This connection does not support FICON operation.
— iFCP (routed) - The bottom data path in Figure 4-10 illustrates
iFCP extended-distance connectivity through a routed SONET
interface. GFP interfaces provide SONET connectivity but are
not required for link buffering and flow control. Eclipse 1620
SAN routers at each end of the link provide intelligent port
connectivity and iFCP protocol conversion. The routed iSAN
connection ensures disruptions at one site are isolated and not
allowed to propagate to other locations. This connection does
not support native FCP or FICON operation.
Several network service providers provide metropolitan and intercity
SONET and SDH transport services. Long-distance SONET and SDH
circuits are common and the technology does not suffer the cost and
availability restrictions inherent to dark fiber and WDM. The
technology provides low overhead, high bandwidth, point-to-point
transport of storage traffic, and is a cost-effective choice for remote
data replication.
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SONET or SDH service can be purchased on a monthly basis in
accordance with a negotiated SLA. However, the transport links may
require sufficient BB _Credits to use the purchased bandwidth.
Because of BB_Credit limitations, GFP equipment must provide
buffering and flow control for native FCP or FICON storage data.
Without GFP equipment, iFCP must be used to transmit the data.
Internet Protocol
As demonstrated by the Internet, an infrastructure based on IP and
Ethernet delivers an unrestricted topology that scales to large
geographical distances. IP and Ethernet have well-developed
cross-vendor capabilities, routing, and security, and there is no
inherent distance limitation. This means storage over IP (SoIP) is
well-suited to provide the low to medium bandwidth (over longer
distances) required for RDR/A. Block-based SoIP protocols include:
•
iFCP - This protocol uses FCP to provide SCSI command set
encapsulation, enabling Fibre Channel device communication
across an IP network.
•
iSCSI - This protocol encapsulates the SCSI command set directly
to the IP transport network without relying on Fibre Channel
conventions. Refer to iSCSI Protocol for additional information.
iFCP is an application-layer gateway protocol (FCP-to-iFCP-to-FCP)
solution that connects remote storage devices or SANs across
extended distances that Fibre Channel cannot support. iFCP
effectively replaces a Fibre Channel SAN with an IP network but
continues storage application support.
The protocol can be used over the Internet or a dedicated GbE
network (with IP traffic engineering). Each connected Fibre Channel
fabric (or SAN) is maintained separately, while the IP or GbE network
provides connectivity, congestion control, error detection, and error
recovery. Figure 4-11 illustrates SoIP extended-distance connectivity.
The technology:
•
Is widely deployed and highly-available, and is well suited as an
extension technology for RDR/A applications over thousands of
kilometers.
•
Does not require Fibre Channel BB_Credits assigned to the link.
IP and GbE transmit data frames without use of BB_Credits and
enable long-distance transmission of storage traffic.
•
Creates a routed iSAN through an extended-distance iFCP
interface. Eclipse 1620 SAN routers at each end of the link provide
intelligent port connectivity and iFCP protocol conversion. The
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routed SAN connection ensures disruptions at one site are
isolated and not allowed to propagate to other locations. This
connection does not support native FCP or FICON operation.
Figure 4-11
SoIP Extended-Distance Connectivity
Several network service providers provide long-distance IP or GbE
network transport services. Long-distance circuits are common. The
technology provides low overhead, low to medium bandwidth,
point-to-point transport of storage traffic, and is a cost-effective
choice for remote data replication.
Technology
Comparison
Figure 4-12 illustrates the complex relationship between RTO, RPO,
and extended-distance transport technology options. Extendeddistance operational modes (RDR/S and RDR/A) are directly
associated with the transport technology choice. Note there is
substantial overlap in the functionality provided by transport
technologies and no single transport technology satisfies all BC/DR
requirements. Comparison factors to consider are:
•
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Repeated or unrepeated dark fiber - This technology supports
medium-bandwidth, low-latency applications with short RTO
and RPO requirements. Applications include real-time disk
mirroring (RDR/S or RDR/A) over short to medium
metropolitan distances. Unless one or more SAN routers are
included in the extended-distance link (native FCP only), the
technology is vulnerable to disruptions caused by fabric or link
problems.
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Figure 4-12
SAN Extension Technology Comparison
•
WDM - This technology supports high-bandwidth, low-latency
applications with short RTO and RPO requirements. Applications
include peer-to-peer computer clustering (grid computing) and
real-time disk mirroring (RDR/S or RDR/A operational mode)
over short to medium metropolitan distances. WDM scales to
higher bandwidths at a lower relative cost than SONET or SDH.
Unless one or more SAN routers are included in the
extended-distance link (native FCP only), the technology is
vulnerable to disruptions caused by fabric or link problems.
•
SONET and SDH - These technologies support mediumbandwidth, medium-latency applications with short-to-long RTO
and RPO requirements. Applications include asynchronous disk
backup or tape vaulting over metropolitan to extended (intercity)
distances. Unless one or more SAN routers are included in the
extended-distance link (native FCP or iFCP), the technology is
vulnerable to disruptions caused by fabric or link problems.
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•
IP - This technology supports low-bandwidth, high-latency
applications with long RTO and RPO requirements. Applications
include asynchronous disk backup or tape vaulting over
metropolitan to extended (intercity) distances. SAN routers are
included in the extended-distance link (iFCP only), so the
technology isolates the connected SANS and prevents disruptions
caused by fabric or link problems.
Table 4-4 compares and contrasts the transport technologies.
Table 4-4
Transport Technology Comparison
Requirement
Dark Fiber
WDM
SONET/SDH
IP
Medium
High
Medium
Low
Extended-link latency
Low
Low
Medium
High
Network scalability
Fair
Good
Fair
Good
Average
Average
Good
Good
No
No
Yes
Yes
Good
Good
Good
Good
No
No
No
Yes
Bandwidth (native storage)
Performance monitoring
Extended distance (greater that 120 Km)
Security
Routed SAN benefits
Additional factors to consider are:
•
Availability of a physical infrastructure - If fiber-optic cable is
available, WDM is a good choice because of high bandwidth, low
cost, and ease of use. SONET and SDH connectivity is generally
available within metropolitan and intercity regions. IP provides
the highest level of long-distance connectivity but supports only
low-bandwidth, high-latency applications.
•
Bytes of data requiring backup - The volume of data associated
with the SAN is a consideration in selecting the transport
bandwidth. As an example, the approximate time required to
perform a 60-terabyte backup is:
— 50 days over a single OC-3 connection.
— One week over a single GbE connection.
— Three hours over a 2 Gbps, 32-channel WDM connection.
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•
Distance Extension
Through BB_Credit
SAN routing requirements - If a single logical Fibre Channel
fabric (created through a stretched E_Port connection) is
unacceptable because of the potential for disruptive fabric
rebuilds, include one or more SAN routers in the extendeddistance link.
Token-based buffer-to-buffer flow control governs transmission of
data and link control frames in a Fibre Channel switched fabric. To
manage flow control, Fiber channel fabric ports (F_Ports) or node
ports (N_Ports) for the Intrepid 10000 Director are assigned a variable
number of BB_Credits. The credits are typically user-defined or set to
a default value. A frame cannot be transmitted through a fabric
unless accounted for by a buffer credit.
During fabric port login, two communicating Fibre Channel ports
exchange available BB_Credit information. When a data or link
control frame is transmitted, the BB_Credit count for the port is
decremented. When the transmitting port receives a corresponding
receive-ready (R_RDY) link control frame, the BB_Credit count for
the port is incremented.
Longwave laser transceivers and a sufficient allocation of BB_Credits
are required to support long-distance transmission of Fibre Channel
data frames (up to 35 km). Installation of repeaters or DWDM
equipment is required to support data transmission in excess of
35 km. In either case (repeated or unrepeated) sufficient BB_Credits
are required.
BB_Credits required to support a specific transmission distance are
also a function of data rate. The faster the data rate, the shorter the
distance supported. Approximate relationships between data rate,
BB_Credits, and transmission distance are:
•
At 1.0625 gigabits per second (Gbps), one BB_Credit supports a
two km transmission distance (1:2 ratio).
•
At 2.1250 Gbps, one BB_Credit supports a one km transmission
distance (1:1 ratio).
•
At 10.2000 Gbps, six BB_Credits support a one km transmission
distance (6:1 ratio).
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To support greater Fibre Channel transmission rates (long-link ports),
the Intrepid 10000 Director provides a buffer pool that allocates
user-defined BB_Credits to each port. This buffer pool is increased if
the remote fabric PFE key is enabled (refer to Remote Fabric for
information). Each director line module (LIM) contains two scalable
packet processors, each supporting two optical paddles. A paddle
pair provides 16 ports (1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps operation), four ports
(10.2000 Gbps operation), or ten ports (mixed data rate operation).
The buffer pool is allocated among all ports in a paddle pair subject to
the following constraints:
•
Each paddle pair is allocated a maximum of 1,373 BB_Credits.
•
Each short-link 1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps port must be assigned a
minimum of 16 BB_Credits (default value).
•
Each short-link 10.2000 Gbps port must be assigned a minimum
of 96 BB_Credits (default value).
Users assign BB_Credits to ports at the Element Manager application,
using entries in the RX BB Credit column of the Configure Ports dialog
box. Assuming four port paddle-pair combinations, the following
examples explain BB_Credit allocation to configure one port in a
paddle pair for extended distance (long-link) operation:
4-50
•
1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps long link - A paddle pair with 1.0625 or
2.1250 Gbps ports provides 16 connections. 16 BB_Credits are
assigned to 15 short-link ports (240 BB_Credits total). The
remaining 1133 BB_Credits are assigned to the long-link port,
supporting a repeated transmission distance of 2,200 km (1.0625
Gbps) or 1,100 km (2.1250 Gbps).
•
10.2000 Gbps long link - A paddle pair with 10.2000 Gbps ports
provides four connections. 96 BB_Credits are assigned to three
short-link ports (288 BB_Credits total). The remaining 1085
BB_Credits are assigned to the long-link port, supporting a
repeated transmission distance of 180 km.
•
1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps long link (mixed paddles) - A paddle pair
with one 1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps paddle and one 10.2000 Gbps
paddle provides ten connections. 16 BB_Credits are assigned to
the slowest seven short-link ports, and 96 BB_Credits are
assigned to both 10.2000 Gbps short-link ports (304 BB_Credits
total). The remaining 1069 BB_Credits are assigned to the
long-link port, supporting a repeated transmission distance of
2,000 km (1.0625 Gbps) or 1,000 km (2.1250 Gbps).
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•
Intelligent Port
Speed
Figure 4-13
10.2000 Gbps long link (mixed paddles) - A paddle pair with one
1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps paddle and one 10.2000 Gbps paddle
provides ten connections. 16 BB_Credits are assigned to the
slowest eight short-link ports, and 96 BB_Credits are assigned to
one 10.2000 Gbps short-link port (224 BB_Credits total). The
remaining 1149 BB_Credits are assigned to the long-link port,
supporting a repeated transmission distance of 190 km.
When data ingress exceeds data egress for a network device, the
device buffers fill, overflow, and drop data packets. Dropped packets
are retransmitted. However, TCP flow control interprets these
dropped packets as congestion and closes the TCP segment window.
Cyclically closing and re-opening segment windows is inefficient and
results in dramatically reduced link throughput. Figure 4-13
illustrates this phenomenon (data ingress exceeds egress).
WAN Link Performance (No Rate Limiting)
To prevent this problem, enable rate limiting to ensure the ingress
data rate does not exceed the egress rate of the slowest link in the IP
WAN path. Rate limiting reduces the probability a device buffer will
overflow, cause packet retransmits, and invoke TCP flow control.
This sustains and maximizes WAN link throughput. Figure 4-14
illustrates rate limiting.
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Figure 4-14
WAN Link Performance (Rate Limiting Enabled)
When configuring a SAN router for extended-distance operation over
an IP WAN link, the peak available bandwidth must be determined
or obtained from the network service provider, and storage traffic
over the link must be rate-limited accordingly.
If the IP WAN link is dedicated, the peak available bandwidth equals
the total link bandwidth. This implies that no other application data
or traffic is routed across the link. If the IP WAN link is shared or
channelized, the peak available bandwidth equals that portion of the
total link bandwidth allotted for storage traffic at peak use time.
The speed of SAN router traffic (iFCP or iSCSI protocol) must be rate
limited to the peak available bandwidth to prevent buffer overflow
and dropped packets at intervening IP link networking equipment.
Rate limiting is configured for SAN router ports as follows:
•
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router - Two user-configured intelligent ports
(ETHERNET 3 and 4) can be configured for IP network
connectivity.
•
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router - Four user-configurable intelligent
ports (13 through 16) can be configured for IP network
connectivity.
Rate limiting is set at the Element Manager application using the Port
Speed drop-down list of the FC/Ethernet Port Configuration dialog box.
The Port Speed drop-down list provides eight speed selections:
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•
Digital Signal 1 (DS1) - A framing and formatting specification
that transmits 24 digital data channels on a T1 synchronous line.
Each channel transmits at 64 Kbps (full-duplex), providing an
aggregate bandwidth of 1.544 Mbps. Typical T1 lines are
long-distance, point-to-point connections used for private
networks and corporate Internet communication. The iFCP
protocol overhead for a clear-channel (private) T1 link is 4.4%,
which provides a bandwidth of 1.48 Mbps (0.18 MBps) for
storage traffic.
•
Thin Ethernet - A transmission medium specified by IEEE 802.3
that carries information at 10 Mbps (full-duplex) in baseband
form using low-cost (50-ohm type RG58) coaxial cable. The
specification was developed to enable communication of
LAN-connected computers. Thin Ethernet is also called 10 Base-T.
The iFCP protocol overhead for a thin Ethernet link is 6.3%,
which provides a bandwidth of 9.37 Mbps (1.17 MBps) for
storage traffic.
•
Digital Signal 3 (DS3) - A framing and formatting specification
that transmits 672 digital data channels on a T3 synchronous line.
Each channel transmits at 64 Kbps (full-duplex), providing an
aggregate bandwidth of 44.736 Mbps. Typical T3 lines are
long-distance, point-to-point connections used by ISPs
connecting to the Internet backbone and for the backbone itself.
— The iFCP protocol overhead for a clear-channel (private)
T3 link is 5.1%, which provides a bandwidth of 42.48 Mbps
(5.31 MBps) for storage traffic.
— The iFCP protocol overhead for an asynchronous transfer
mode (ATM) DS3 link is 22.7%, which provides a bandwidth
of 34.59 Mbps (4.32 MBps) for storage traffic.
•
Optical Container 1 (OC-1) - A specification that defines the
transport level for SONET traffic transmitted at 51.84 Mbps
(full-duplex) using fiber-optic cable.
— The iFCP protocol overhead for a packet over SONET (PoS)
OC-1 link is 8.9%, which provides a bandwidth of 47.22 Mbps
(5.90 MBps) for storage traffic.
— The iFCP protocol overhead for an ATM OC-1 link is 17.9%,
which provides a bandwidth of 42.58 Mbps (5.32 MBps) for
storage traffic.
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•
Fast Ethernet - A transmission medium specified by IEEE 802.3
that carries information at 100 Mbps (full-duplex) in baseband
form using Category-5 copper cable or fiber-optic cable. The
specification was developed to enable faster communication of
LAN-connected computers. Fast Ethernet is also called 100
Base-T. The iFCP protocol overhead for a fast Ethernet link is
6.3%, which provides a bandwidth of 93.70 Mbps (11.71 MBps)
for storage traffic.
•
Optical Container 3 (OC-3) - A specification that defines the
transport level for SONET traffic transmitted at 155.52 Mbps
(full-duplex) using fiber-optic cable.
— The iFCP protocol overhead for a PoS OC-3 link is 8.9%,
which provides a bandwidth of 141.65 Mbps (17.71 MBps) for
storage traffic.
— The iFCP protocol overhead for an ATM OC-3 link is 17.9%,
which provides a bandwidth of 127.74 Mbps (15.97 MBps) for
storage traffic.
•
Optical Container 12 (OC-12) - A specification that defines the
transport level for SONET traffic transmitted at 622.08 Mbps
(full-duplex) using fiber-optic cable.
— The iFCP protocol overhead for a PoS OC-12 link is 8.9%,
which provides a bandwidth of 566.59 Mbps (70.82 MBps) for
storage traffic.
— The iFCP protocol overhead for an ATM OC-12 link is 17.9%,
which provides a bandwidth of 510.98 Mbps (63.87 MBps) for
storage traffic.
•
Gigabit Ethernet - A transmission medium specified by IEEE
802.3 that carries information at 1,000 Mbps (full-duplex) in
baseband form using Category-5 copper or fiber-optic cable. The
iFCP protocol overhead for a GbE link is 6.3%, which provides a
bandwidth of 937.00 Mbps (117.12 MBps) for storage traffic.
As a practical example, suppose the changes to a one-terabyte
database must be backed up daily on a real-time basis. The changes
constitute 10% of the database per eight-hour working day. Imposing
a 2:1 data compression ratio and performing the computations yields
a backup requirement of 1.74 MBps. An DS3 link (ATM) with a
bandwidth of 4.32 MBps is the appropriate choice. This link provides
nearly 2.5 times the required bandwidth to account for current
storage traffic, unexpected burstiness, and capacity planning.
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Distance Extension
Best Practices
To implement a successful extended-distance BC/DR solution, follow
a set of best practice conventions as follows:
1. Use dedicated bandwidth and rate limiting - If possible,
negotiate dedicated bandwidth as part of the SLA with the
network service provider. Enable intelligent port rate limiting to
ensure the ingress data rate does not exceed the negotiated
bandwidth.
— RDR/S applications - Provision the bandwidth for peak traffic
demand, unexpected bursts, and growth.
— RDR/A applications - Provision the bandwidth for average
traffic demand and growth.
If dedicated bandwidth is not available, quality of service (QoS)
processing applied to shared bandwidth may be acceptable.
Ensure other applications using the shared bandwidth are
characterized and understood. Best-effort shared bandwidth is
not recommended.
2. Optimize IP WAN use - In addition to rate limiting, employ
additional techniques to optimize the IP WAN. These include:
— Buffering - To regulate data flow and smooth the inherent
burstiness of storage traffic, enable a large (256 megabyte)
transmit buffer for each long-link port.
— Flow control - In conjunction with buffering, TCP and GbE
provide flow control mechanisms.
TCP provides sliding-window, end-to-end flow control at the
transport layer (IP does not provide network layer flow
control). However, the TCP flow control mechanism is
inefficient and requires retransmits.
If the IEEE 802.3x Ethernet flow control standard is enabled
by GbE switches in an extended-distance link, SAN routers
negotiate the use of flow control with these switches.
Whenever possible, the best practice is to use IEEE 802.3x
flow control to relieve input buffer congestion.
— Data compression - Enable a compression algorithm to ensure
data is compact and efficiently transmitted. The data
compression ratio is a function of the data itself. Most data
streams are compressible from between 2:1 and 15:1.
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— Jumbo frames - To prevent fragmentation of Fibre Channel
frames into multiple IP datagrams, enable jumbo frames to
increase the data packet size from 1,500 bytes to
approximately 9,000 bytes. Ensure the technology is
supported by all IP network equipment in the data link.
— FastWrite technology - Enable FastWrite technology to reduce
protocol overhead for extended-distance write transactions.
The technology is very efficient over long distances with large
write transactions (such as RDR/S applications).
— Bandwidth management - Enable QoS processing to
guarantee bandwidth over a shared link. QoS subdivides port
buffers into multiple queues, each with one or more associated
drop thresholds. Multiple queues and drop thresholds allow
the switch to prioritize output when faced with congestion.
3. Minimize fabric hop count - The maximum supported hop count
in a fabric is three. Because the E_Port-to-R_Port ISL between a
fabric element and SAN router counts as a hop, SAN routing
connectivity is limited to two-hop fabrics. A remotely connected
fabric does not add to the hop count of a local fabric; remote
devices appear connected to the SAN router using proxy
Domain_IDs 30 and 31. The best practice is to directly connect a
SAN router to server and storage ports. However, SAN router
connectivity through a fabric element is practical if the topology
is required for scalability.
4. Configure dual storage array controllers - Storage device OEMs
provide at least two controllers per storage array. Although
RDR/S and RDR/A applications work with a single controller,
use at least two controllers to provide high availability. Each
controller has multiple Fibre Channel N_Ports that can be
assigned to the RDR/S or RDR/A application. Most remote data
replication software can load balance and initiate failover across
the controllers.
5. Implement parallel-path architecture - It is recommended to
configure redundant, parallel extended-distance links. It is also
important to keep the links as homogeneous as possible. Some
remote data replication applications are sensitive to path
differences and decrease performance to the lowest common
denominator. The best practice is to configure a dual-link
architecture with similar paths (bandwidth and latency), through
which RDR/S or RDR/A software performs load balancing and
failover.
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6. Do not implement IP network failover - Implement extendeddistance link failover through the remote data replication
software, not the IP network. Many RDR/S and RDR/A software
OEMs do not support IP network link failover.
7. Zone controller port pairs - When implementing load sharing,
create a separate zone for each pair of communicating ports (one
initiator and one target per zone). Assign the zones to different
intelligent (iFCP) ports on the SAN router. If the IP network
correctly distributes the load across two paths, then load sharing
is implemented. If the RDR/S or RDR/A application performs
load balancing across two controllers, then load balancing is
implemented. Perform zoning by node WWN. Port zoning is not
supported between mSANs (through iFCP).
8. Do not use default zoning - Do not implement default zoning
through the SANvergence Manager application. When
performing an installation, the application displays a single zone
named zone1 (with corresponding ID:1). This zone is for default
zoning and should not be used.
9. Dedicate storage ports to remote data replication - Storage array
ports should be dedicated to RDR/S or RDR/A traffic. Do not
share replication and local traffic applications on the same port.
10. Set GbE switches to auto-negotiate - SAN router GbE ports
operate only at GbE speed, therefore GbE Ethernet switches
should be set to auto-negotiate with SAN routers to provide
connectivity. The setting can be disabled only if both devices are
set to not auto-negotiate.
11. Set data compression level to Auto - Two problems associated
with data compression are incorrect algorithm selection or
compression which is ineffectual because the extended-link
bandwidth exceeds the SAN router bandwidth. Set the
compression level to Auto at the Advanced TCP Configuration
dialog box (for any selected compression algorithm). Using this
compression level mode, the SAN router automatically detects if
compression can be used.
12. Configure the iFCP timeout setting to 10 seconds - At the iFCP
Setup dialog box, set the default remote timeout setting (iFCP
timeout) to 10 seconds for all RDR/A applications.
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13. Configure out-of-band product management - SAN routers can
be managed through inband or out-of-band connectivity. Inband
management is provided through the same GbE connections used
for iFCP storage traffic. Out-of-band management is provided
through a data center LAN that connects servers, workstations,
and other network-related equipment. Out-of-band product
management is recommended.
14. Explicitly assign unique mSAN_IDs - When iSAN routing is
implemented, each Eclipse 1620 SAN router comprises an mSAN
(not the case with an Eclipse 2640 SAN router). Each mSAN must
be assigned a unique mSAN_ID. The ID ranges from 0 to 255, and
is typically the last octet of the management port IP address
(although not a requirement). Do not install a SAN router without
changing the default mSAN_ID. Configure a unique ID for both
SAN routers in an extended-distance link.
15. Back up critical data - Always back up SAN router access
passwords, configurations, and zones. This avoids the possibility
of having to reconfigure a SAN router as if it were a new
installation.
Consolidating and Integrating iSCSI Servers and Storage
The iSCSI protocol defines rules and processes for transporting
block-level small computer systems interface (SCSI) data over a
TCP/IP network. iSCSI is designed as a protocol for an initiator to
send SCSI commands to a target over IP.
iSCSI initiators (servers) include host bus adapters (HBAs) with iSCSI
capability implemented in the hardware adapter card and software
initiators running over standard network interface cards (NICs).
iSCSI targets (storage) include disk storage systems, tape storage
systems, and iSCSI gateways (such as Eclipse-series SAN routers).
Server HBAs and storage array NICs connect iSCSI resources over an
IP network. Core transport layers are managed with existing network
applications and high-level management activities of the iSCSI
protocol (such as permissions, device information, and configuration)
are layered over these applications.
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The following sections describe:
iSCSI Protocol
•
iSCSI protocol.
•
iSCSI server consolidation.
•
SCSI storage consolidation.
iSCSI is based on SCSI protocol that enables hosts to perform block
data I/O operations with a variety of target peripherals. Targets
include disk drives, tape devices, optical storage devices, printers,
and scanners. A standard host-to-peripheral SCSI connection is based
on a parallel transport mechanism with inherent distance and device
support limitations. For storage applications, these limitations have
caused development of high-speed serial transport technologies
based on networking architectures such as Fibre Channel and GbE. IP
storage networks based on serial gigabit transport layers overcome
the distance, performance, scalability, and availability restrictions of
parallel SCSI implementations.
By using SCSI protocols over network infrastructures, storage
networking enables flexible, high-speed block data transfers for
applications like tape backup, server clustering, storage
consolidation, and disaster recovery.
iSCSI protocol defines a means to enable block storage applications
over TCP/IP networks. An iSCSI initiator is typically a host (such as a
file server) that issues requests to read or write data. The target is a
passive resource (such as a disk array) that responds to initiator
requests. When a server application sends a request, the operating
system generates a packet with SCSI commands and a data request.
The packet is encapsulated and encrypted (if required). A packet
header is added and the resulting IP packet is transmitted over the
TCP/IP network. The target storage device decrypts and
disassembles the packet, then separates the SCSI commands and
request. SCSI commands are transmitted to the SCSI controller, then
to the SCSI storage device. Because iSCSI is bidirectional, the protocol
returns data in response to the original request.
Compared to the standard SCSI protocol, Fibre Channel provides
flexibility in terms of distance extension and switching capabilities.
Fibre Channel also preserves the common SCSI controller application
programming interface (API). Fibre Channel and iSCSI both preserve
the SCSI command set. These common features allow deployment of
storage solutions that rely on a combination of parallel SCSI and
serial Fibre Channel technologies.
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iSCSI Server
Consolidation
Many enterprise-level IT departments have deployed decentralized
computing configurations that include low-end, iSCSI-enabled
servers directly attached to storage. While server acquisition costs are
typically low, licensing and maintenance costs are often very high in
terms of dollars and personnel time. The decentralized infrastructure
also causes availability and reliability problems. For example:
•
Many servers quickly run out of peripheral component
interconnect (PCI) slots for adding direct-attached disk adapters.
In addition, there is no room internal to the server to add hard
drives. Therefore, more servers must be purchased.
•
There is no ability to connect a server with ample disk space to
another server with insufficient disk space. Efficient disk
utilization is not possible.
•
The failure rate of inexpensive external disks is high. In addition,
server downtime must be planned to perform disk
administration.
•
Administrators work long hours (nights and weekends) to
perform server maintenance, system updates, and other critical
tasks. This leads to personnel dissatisfaction.
Server consolidation addresses cost, time, and availability issues by
providing iSCSI-based server connectivity to a Fibre Channel storage
fabric. Figure 4-15 illustrates iSCSI server consolidation.
Figure 4-15
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As shown in the figure, server consolidation is enabled by installing
an Eclipse 2640 SAN Router that provides iSCSI-to-native FCP
connectivity.
Stranded servers subject to consolidation do not require installation
at one physical location. Servers may be located in a data center or
remotely; however, consolidation provides logical connectivity and
access as though the servers were co-located. Servers can now access
robust, scalable, and easily managed SAN storage that provides
better data availability.
iSCSI Storage
Consolidation
In general, the largest expense associated with an IT infrastructure
storage is the purchase of storage (disk and tape drives). However,
conventional architectures create multiple storage islands that make
efficient disk utilization nearly impossible. Many environments have
disk utilization rates below 50%.
Storage consolidation pools disk resources (no matter the location)
and provides disk management as a single entity shared between
servers. Consolidation addresses cost and utilization issues by
providing iSCSI-based storage connectivity to Fibre Channel servers.
Figure 4-16 illustrates iSCSI storage consolidation.
Figure 4-16
iSCSI Storage Consolidation
As shown in the figure, storage consolidation is enabled by installing
an Eclipse 2640 SAN Router that provides iSCSI-to-native FCP
connectivity.
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Physical Planning
Considerations
This chapter describes physical planning considerations for
incorporating McDATA directors and switches into storage area
networks (SANs) and Fibre Channel fabric topologies. The chapter
provides planning considerations and recommendations for:
•
Port connectivity and fiber-optic cabling.
•
Rack-mount management server, Ethernet local area network
(LAN), and remote access support.
•
Security provisions for access to directors, switches, or the
management server (password protection), and for customer data
paths through directors, fabric switches, and SAN routers.
•
Optional feature keys.
Port Connectivity and Fiber-Optic Cabling
This section provides planning recommendations for:
•
Port requirements (number, type, and speed of ports).
•
Small form factor pluggable (SFP) optical transceivers.
•
Extended-distance ports.
•
High-availability considerations.
•
Cabling and connectors.
•
Routing fiber-optic cables.
Physical Planning Considerations
5-1
Physical Planning Considerations
5
Port Requirements
Plan for sufficient shortwave laser, longwave laser, and 1.0625, 2.1250,
4.2500, and 10.2000 gigabit per second (Gbps) Fibre Channel ports to
meet the needs of the SAN configuration. The number of ports
required is equal to the number of device connections (including
redundant connections), plus the number of interswitch links (ISLs)
between fabric elements, plus the total number of spare port
connections.
The number of Fibre Channel ports and port operation for McDATA
directors and switches are described as follows:
•
Intrepid 6064 Director - The director is configured from a
minimum of eight fiber port module (FPM), universal port
module (UPM), or ten-gigabit port module (XPM) cards
(32 ports total) to a maximum of 16 cards (64 ports total).
— FPM cards provide four 1.0625 Gbps port connections and can
be configured with a combination of shortwave or longwave
transceivers.
— UPM cards provide four 2.1250 Gbps port connections and can
be configured with a combination of shortwave or longwave
transceivers.
— XPM cards provide one 10.2000 Gbps port connection and can
be configured with shortwave or longwave transceivers.
•
Intrepid 6140 Director - The director is configured from a
minimum of 16 UPM or XPM cards (64 ports total) to a maximum
of 35 cards (140 ports total).
— UPM cards provide four 2.1250 Gbps port connections and can
be configured with a combination of shortwave or longwave
transceivers.
— XPM cards provide one 10.2000 Gbps port connection and can
be configured with shortwave or longwave transceivers.
•
Intrepid 10000 Director - The director is configured from a
minimum of one to a maximum of eight line modules (LIMs).
Each LIM provides the interface to attach up to four optical
paddles as follows:
— Optical paddles that operate at 1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps provide
eight Fibre Channel port connections. A fully-populated
director supports up to 256 connections and can be configured
with a combination of shortwave or longwave transceivers.
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5
— Optical paddles that operate at 10.2000 Gbps provide two
Fibre Channel port connections. A fully-populated director
supports up to 64 connections and can be configured with a
combination of shortwave or longwave transceivers.
•
Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch - The switch provides up to 32
duplex SFP fiber-optic port transceivers (1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps
operation). Shortwave laser and longwave laser transceivers are
available.
•
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch - The switch provides up to 12
duplex SFP fiber-optic port transceivers (1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps
operation). Shortwave laser and longwave laser transceivers are
available.
•
Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch - The switch provides up to 16
duplex SFP fiber-optic port transceivers (1.0625, 2.1250, or 4.2500
Gbps operation). Shortwave laser and longwave laser
transceivers are available.
•
Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch - The switch provides up to 24
duplex SFP fiber-optic port transceivers (1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps
operation). Shortwave laser and longwave laser transceivers are
available.
•
Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch - The switch provides up to 32
duplex SFP fiber-optic port transceivers (1.0625, 2.1250, or 4.2500
Gbps operation). Shortwave laser and longwave laser
transceivers are available.
•
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router -Two user-configured Fibre Channel
ports provide 1.0625 Gbps connectivity using SFP port connectors
and two user-configured intelligent ports provide Fibre Channel
and Internet protocol (IP) network connectivity. Each intelligent
port provides two connectors (SFP or RJ-45).
•
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router - Twelve user-configured ports provide
1.0625 or 2.1250 Gbps Fibre Channel or user datagram protocol
(UDP) connectivity using SFP port connectors. Four userconfigurable intelligent ports provide Internet Fibre Channel
protocol (iFCP) or Internet small computer systems interface
(iSCSI) network connectivity using SFP port connectors.
Physical Planning Considerations
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Physical Planning Considerations
5
SFP Optical
Transceivers
Shortwave laser SFP optical transceivers (1.0625, 2.1250, 4.2500, or
10.2000 Gbps) provide a connection for multimode cable with a core
diameter of 50 microns and a cladding diameter of 125 microns
(50/125 micron), or multimode cable with a core diameter of 62.50
microns and a cladding diameter of 125 microns (62.5/125 micron).
Longwave laser SFP optical transceivers (1.0625, 2.1250, 4.2500, or
10.2000 Gbps) provide a connection for singlemode cable with a core
diameter of 9 microns and a cladding diameter of 125 microns
(9/125 micron).
Consider the following when determining the number and type of
transceivers to use:
Data Transmission
Distance
•
Distance between a director or fabric switch and the attached
Fibre Channel device or between fabric elements communicating
through an ISL.
•
Cost effectiveness.
•
Device restrictions or requirements with respect to existing
fiber-optic (multimode or singlemode) or copper cable.
Data transmission distance is a factor governing the choice of
transceiver type, fiber-optic cable type, and transmission rate. When
using multimode cable, if the core diameter or data transmission rate
increases, the data transmission distance decreases.
Link budget is another governing factor. A link budget is the
attenuation (in dB) a connection between devices can sustain before
significant link errors or loss of signal occur. When using multimode
cable, if the core diameter or data transmission rate increases, the link
budget decreases.
Cable-conversion, repeater, patch-panel, or other connections within
a link also decrease the link budget. Each connection introduces a
nominal signal loss of at least one dB through the link. Patch panel
connections (with one connection at each side of the panel) typically
introduce a two dB signal loss through a link.
Other variables such as the grade of fiber-optic cable, device
restrictions, application restrictions, buffer-to-buffer credit limits, and
performance requirements can also affect data transmission distance
and link budget.
Table 5-1 lists unrepeated data transmission distance and link budget
as a function of fiber-optic cable type and data transmission rate.
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When using multimode cable, note the decrease in performance as
the cable core diameter or data transmission rate increases. When
using singlemode cable, performance is a function of transceiver
type. Data transmission distance and link budget are not affected by
data transmission rate.
Table 5-1
Cable Type and Transmission Rate versus Distance and Link Budget
Cable Type and Data Transmission Rate
Unrepeated Distance
Link Budget
62.5/125 micron multimode at 1.0625 Gbps
300 meters (984 feet)
3.0 dB
62.5/125 micron multimode at 2.1250 Gbps
150 meters (492 feet)
2.2 dB
62.5/125 micron multimode at 4.2500 Gbps
75 meters (246 feet)
2.3 dB
62.5/125 micron multimode at 10.2000 Gbps
33 meters (108 feet)
2.4 dB
50/125 micron multimode at 1.0625 Gbps
500 meters (1,640 feet)
3.9 dB
50/125 micron multimode at 2.1250 Gbps
300 meters (984 feet)
2.8 dB
50/125 micron multimode at 4.2500 Gbps
150 meters (492 feet)
2.5 dB
50/125 micron multimode at 10.2000 Gbps
82 meters (269 feet)
2.2 dB
9/125 micron singlemode at 1.0625, 2.1250, 4.2500, or
10.2000 Gbps (10-kilometer SFP optical transceiver)
10.0 kilometers (6.2 miles)
7.8 dB
9/125 micron singlemode at 1.0625, 2.1250, 4.2500, or
10.2000 Gbps (20-kilometer SFP optical transceiver)
20.0 kilometers (12.4 miles)
7.8 dB
9/125 micron singlemode at 1.0625, 2.1250, 4.2500, or
10.2000 Gbps (35-kilometer SFP optical transceiver)
35.0 kilometers (21.7 miles)
7.8 dB
Cost Effectiveness
Device or Cable
Restrictions
Cost is another factor governing the choice of transceiver type and
optical fiber. Shortwave laser transceivers and multimode cable offer
a less expensive solution if data transmission distance is not critical.
The choice of transceiver and cable type may be restricted or
dictated by:
•
Device restrictions - Some devices may be restricted to use of
only one type of transceiver (shortwave or longwave). Refer to
the device’s supporting documentation for information.
Physical Planning Considerations
5-5
Physical Planning Considerations
5
•
Extended-Distance
Ports
Existing cable restrictions - The enterprise may contain only one
type of fiber-optic cable (multimode or singlemode), and the
customer may be required to use the existing cables. Customers
may also be required to use existing copper cables for some
arbitrated loop devices.
Through longwave laser transceivers and repeaters or wavelength
division multiplexing (WDM) equipment, directors and fabric
switches support Fibre Channel data transmission distances of over
100 km. The extended distance feature is enabled on a port-by-port
basis by using entries in the RX BB Credit column for a specified port
at the Element Manager application’s Configure Ports dialog box. This
feature provides extended distance support using Fibre Channel
protocol. Refer to Distance Extension Through BB_Credit for additional
information.
When a director or fabric switch port is configured to support
extended link distances, the attached device (or attached fabric
element) must also support extended distance operation and be
configured to use a higher BB_Credit value to maintain link
efficiency. If the extended distance feature is enabled for a port that is
not installed or does not support extended distance operation, the
configuration for the feature is ignored.
High-Availability
Considerations
To provide high device availability, critical servers, storage devices,
or applications should be connected to more than one fabric element
(director or switch) or to more than one fabric. To determine if
dual-connection capability exists for a device, refer to the associated
device documentation. To provide high fabric availability, consider
the use of multiple fabric elements (directors and switches), multiple
ISLs, or redundant fabrics. Refer to Fabric Availability for information.
Plan to maintain unused (spare) director and switch ports if port
connections must be quickly moved and re-established after a failure.
If an individual port or an entire port card fails, optical transceivers
or port cards can be removed and replaced, spare port connections
identified (through the Element Manager application), and fiber-optic
cables rerouted and reconnected while the director or switch is
operational.
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Fibre Channel
Cables and
Connectors
Cables
LC Connectors
This section provides Fibre Channel cable and connector planning
information as follows:
•
Cables for directors, fabric switches, and SAN routers.
•
Intrepid-series director, Sphereon-series fabric switch, and
Eclipse-series SAN router optical connectors.
Fiber-optic jumper cables are required to connect directors, fabric
switches, and SAN routers ports to servers, devices, distribution
panels, or other elements in a multiswitch fabric or routed SAN.
Depending on the attached device and fabric element port, use one of
the following types of cable:
•
Graded-index 62.5/125 micron multimode cable provides a
transmission distance of up to 300 meters (1.0625 Gbps), 150
meters (2.1250 Gbps), 75 meters (4.2500 Gbps), or 33 meters
(10.2000 Gbps) and connects to shortwave ports that transmit
light at an 850 nanometer (nm) wavelength. The cable typically
has an orange jacket.
•
Graded-index 50/125 micron multimode cable provides a
transmission distance of up to 500 meters (1.0625 Gbps), 300
meters (2.1250 Gbps), 150 meters (4.2500 Gbps), or 82 meters
(10.2000 Gbps) and connects to shortwave ports that transmit
light at an 850 nm wavelength. The cable typically has an orange
jacket.
•
Depending on transceiver type, dispersion-unshifted (step-index)
9/125 micron singlemode cable provides a transmission distance
of up to 10, 20, or 35 kilometers and connects to longwave ports
that transmit light at a 1300 nm wavelength. The cable typically
has a yellow jacket.
Multimode or singlemode cables attach to Intrepid-series director,
Sphereon-series fabric switch, and Eclipse-series SAN router ports
with SFP optical transceivers and LC duplex connectors. Figure 5-1
illustrates an SFP transceiver and LC duplex connector.
Physical Planning Considerations
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Physical Planning Considerations
5
Figure 5-1
Routing Fiber-Optic
Cables
SFP Transceiver and LC Duplex Connector
Follow a logical plan for routing fiber-optic cables to avoid confusing
connections during installation and operation. Route cables from the
access holes at the bottom of the Fabricenter equipment cabinet to
fabric element ports. When routing cables to ports be aware:
•
In a Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) environment, ports are
numbered by physical port number.
•
In a fibre connection (FICON) environment, ports are numbered
by logical port address. The translation between physical port
number and logical port address varies by equipment type and
original equipment manufacturer (OEM).
Figure 3-17 and Figure 3-18 illustrate port numbering and logical port
addressing for the Intrepid 6140 Director. Although the figures depict
a UPM card map only for the Intrepid 6140 Director, physical port
numbers and logical port addresses can be extrapolated for other
switch products.
Leave enough slack in the cables to allow cable movement for FPM
card, UPM card, XPM card, LIM, or SFP optical transceiver removal
and replacement or possible rerouting of the cable to another port.
After cables are routed and connected, secure the cables to the sides
of the cabinet using cable ties provided. When routing fiber-optic
cables and estimating cable lengths, consider:
•
5-8
Cable routing inside the equipment cabinet to different port
locations, and installation position of the director or switch (top
or bottom of the cabinet). Plan for 1.0 meter (39.37 inches) of extra
cable for routing through restraint mechanisms and rerouting
cables to other ports.
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Physical Planning Considerations
5
•
Cable routing outside the equipment cabinet. Plan for 1.5 meters
(5 feet) of cable outside the cabinet to provide slack for service
clearance, limited cabinet movement, and inadvertent cable pulls.
•
Cabling distance to servers, storage devices, and directors (for
multiswitch fabric support).
The need for additional fiber-optic cabling could grow rapidly. More
cables may be required for connections to additional servers or
storage devices, or for connections to additional fabric elements as a
multiswitch fabric is developed. The director or switch may need to
be moved for more efficient connection to other units but still
maintain its original connections. To account for these possibilities,
consider installing excess fiber-optic cables.
Management Server, LAN, and Remote Access Support
Out-of-band (non-Fibre Channel) console access to directors, fabric
switches, and SAN routers is provided to perform a variety of
operations and management functions. These functions are
performed from one or more of the following consoles:
•
Through a personal computer (PC) or workstation connected to
the management server through a customer LAN segment. The
server is LAN-attached to the Ethernet port on a director control
processor (CTP) card, fabric switch front panel, or SAN router
front panel.
•
Through a simple network management protocol (SNMP)
management workstation connected through the director, fabric
switch, or SAN router LAN segment; or the customer intranet.
•
Through a PC with a web browser and Internet connection to the
Enterprise Fabric Connectivity Manager (EFCM) Basic Edition
interface on the director or fabric switch.
•
Through a PC with a direct serial connection to the director, fabric
switch, or SAN router maintenance port. The maintenance port is
used by installation personnel to configure product network
addresses.
•
Through a PC with a modem connection to the management
server. The modem is for use by support center personnel only.
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5
Management
Server
The management server is rack-mounted in a Fabricenter equipment
cabinet. The server supports up to 48 McDATA directors, fabric
switches, or SAN routers (managed products). The server is used to
configure the product and associated SAN management and Element
Manager applications, monitor product operation, change
configurations, download firmware updates, and initiate diagnostics.
NOTE: The Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch is not supported by the
management server.
A server failure does not affect port connections or functions of an
operational fabric element. The only operating effect of a server
failure is loss of remote access, configuration, management, and
monitoring functions.
Management Server
Connectivity
The management server provides an auto-detecting 10/100 Base-T
Ethernet interface that connects to the 24-port hub mounted at the top
of the Fabricenter equipment cabinet. Each director CTP card, fabric
switch front panel, or SAN router front panel also provides an
auto-detecting 10/100 Base-T Ethernet interface that connects to the
hub. Factory-installed cables connect the management server, hub,
and managed products.
Although directors provide two Ethernet connections to the hub, only
one connection is active at a time. The interface on the backup CTP
card remains passive until a failure on the active CTP card occurs, at
which point the redundant CTP card becomes active using the same
media access control (MAC) address as the original interface.
If an optional customer intranet is used for LAN connections, the
management server provides a second auto-detecting 10/100 Base-T
Ethernet connection. This interface is used for remote workstation
access.
The management server has an internal modem for service and
support of managed products. The modem provides a dial-in
capability that allows authorized service personnel to communicate
with the management server and operate the SAN management and
Element Manager applications remotely. The modem is also used to
automatically dial out to an authorized support center (to report the
occurrence of significant system events) using a call-home feature.
The call-home feature is enabled in the Element Manager application
and configured through the dial-up networking feature of Windows.
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Connectivity Planning
Considerations
Remote User
Workstations
Directors, fabric switches, SAN routers, and the management server
are delivered in a cabinet-mount configuration in accordance with
customer specifications. Because Ethernet cables that connect the
managed products, hub, and management server are factoryinstalled, connectivity planning is not required for a stand-alone
cabinet installation. However, consider the following Ethernet
connectivity issues when:
•
Installing additional cabinet-mount products - When installing
an additional fabric element, the length of Ethernet cable required
to provide hub connectivity is a function of cabinet position (top,
bottom, or adjacent to the management server). Ensure cable
lengths provide sufficient cable inside the cabinet to route to
product Ethernet ports and to allow service clearance.
•
Interconnecting Fabricenter cabinets - To increase the products
managed by one management server, Ethernet hubs in one or
more equipment cabinets must be connected. Plan for an Ethernet
cable length that meets the distance requirement between
cabinets. In addition, plan for an additional 1.5 meters (5 feet) of
cable outside the cabinet to provide slack for service clearance,
limited cabinet movement, or inadvertent cable pulls. Store extra
Ethernet cable in the cabinet or under the computer room raised
floor.
•
Consolidating management server operation - For control and
efficiency, all directors, fabric switches, and SAN routers in a
multiswitch fabric or routed SAN should be managed by one
management server. When products in two or more cabinets are
joined to form a fabric, the PC environment should be
consolidated to one server and one or more clients. Plan for
Ethernet cabling to interconnect cabinets and ensure all fabric
elements and PC platforms participating in the fabric have
unique IP addresses.
Customer system administrators determine whether to allow access
to directors and switches from remote workstations. If administrators
allow remote sessions, they may restrict access to selected
workstations by configuring the IP addresses of those workstations
through the SAN management application. When a remote session is
allowed, the remote user has the same rights and permissions as if the
session were on the local management server. Up to 25 sessions can
be simultaneously active.
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5
NOTE: Remote workstation access to Eclipse-series SAN routers is not
supported.
Remote workstations must have access to the LAN segment on which
the management server is installed. Product administrative functions
are accessed through the LAN and management server. The LAN
interface can be:
•
Figure 5-2
Typical Network Configuration (One Ethernet Connection)
•
5-12
Part of the dedicated 10/100 megabit per second (Mbps) LAN
segment that provides access to managed products. This Ethernet
connection is part of the equipment cabinet installation and is
required. Connection of remote workstations through the hub is
optional. This type of network configuration using one Ethernet
connection through the management server is shown in
Figure 5-2. Intrepid 6064 Directors are used as an example.
Part of a second management server interface that connects to a
customer intranet and allows operation of the Element Manager
application from remote user PCs or workstations. The customer
intranet can be a ten or 100 Mbps LAN segment.
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5
Connection to this LAN segment is optional and depends on
customer requirements. This type of network configuration using
both Ethernet connections is shown in Figure 5-3. Intrepid 6064
Directors are used as an example.
Figure 5-3
Typical Network Configuration (Two Ethernet Connections)
If only one management server connection is used and this
connection is provided through the customer intranet, all functions
provided by the server are available to users throughout the
enterprise. The purpose for dual LAN connections is to provide a
dedicated LAN segment that isolates the server and managed
products from other users in the enterprise.
NOTE: Both Ethernet adapters in the management server provide autodetecting 10/100 Mbps connections. The dedicated LAN segment that
connects the server to managed products and the optional customer
intranet operate at either ten or 100 Mbps.
SNMP Management
Workstations
An SNMP agent that runs on the management server can be
configured through the SAN management application. This agent
implements Version 3.1 of the Fibre Alliance management
information base (MIB) as follows:
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5
•
Up to 12 authorized management workstations can be configured
through the director or fabric switch SAN management
application to receive unsolicited SNMP trap messages that
indicate product operational state changes and failure conditions.
•
Up to eight authorized management workstations can be
configured through a SAN router Element Manager application
to send SNMP trap messages that indicate product operational
state changes and failure conditions.
In addition, there is a separate SNMP agent that runs on each
director, fabric switch, or SAN router (configured through the
associated Element Manager application). The director or switch
SNMP agent can be configured to send unsolicited SNMP trap
messages to up to six recipients. The SAN router SNMP agent can be
configured to send unsolicited SNMP trap messages to up to four
recipients.
SNMP management is only intended for product monitoring;
therefore, the default state of all MIB variables is read-only. If
installed on a dedicated LAN, SNMP management workstations
communicate directly with all managed products. If installed on a
customer intranet, workstations communicate with managed
products through the management server.
EFCM Basic Edition
Interface
The EFCM Basic Edition interface provides a graphical user interface
(GUI) accessed through the Internet (locally or remotely) to manage a
single director or switch. If the EFCM Basic Edition interface is to be
implemented:
•
Plan for an Internet connection to the LAN segment on which
the product is installed. The LAN connection is provided through
the optional McDATA-supplied Ethernet hub or the corporate
intranet.
•
Ensure adequate security measures are implemented to preclude
unauthorized access to managed products. Ensure IP addresses
(uniform resource locators (URLs) for Internet access) of managed
products, usernames, and passwords are tightly controlled.
NOTE: EFCM Basic Edition interface access to the Intrepid 10000 Director
and SAN routers is not supported.
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5
Security Provisions
Security provisions are available to restrict unauthorized access to
a director, switch, or attached Fibre Channel devices. Access to the
director or switch (through the SAN management application,
Element Manager application, or EFCM Basic Edition interface) is
restricted by implementing password protection. Access to attached
computing resources (including applications and data) is restricted
by implementing one or more of the following security provisions:
— SANtegrity Authentication.
— SANtegrity Binding.
— Prohibit dynamic connectivity mask (PDCM) arrays.
— Preferred path.
— Zoning.
— Server and storage-level access control.
Password Protection
Table 5-2
Access to the SAN management and Element Manager applications
requires configuration of a user name and password. Up to 16 user
names and associated passwords can be configured. Each user is
assigned rights that allow access to specific sets of product
management operations. Table 5-2 explains the types of user rights
available. A user may have more than one set of user rights granted.
Types of User Rights
User Right
Operator Access Allowed
View Only
The user may view product configurations and status but may not make changes. These rights are the default
if no other user rights are assigned.
Operator
The operator may view status and configuration information through the Element Manager application and
perform operational control changes such as blocking ports and placing the product online or offline.
Product
Administrator
The product administrator can make control and configuration changes through the Element Manager
application.
System
Administrator
The system administrator can make control and configuration changes, define users and passwords, and add
or remove products through the SAN management application.
Maintenance
The maintenance operator can perform product control and configuration changes through the Element
Manager application and perform diagnostics, maintenance functions, firmware loads, and data collection.
Physical Planning Considerations
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5
System administrators can use the SAN management application to
assign remote workstation access to directors and switches. Remote
sessions are allowed for anyone on a customer intranet, disallowed
completely, or restricted to specific workstations. Remote users must
log into the SAN management application with a user name and
password, just as when logging in to the local management server.
Passwords are encrypted when sent across the network. By entering
workstation IP addresses at the SAN management application,
administrators can allow access from all user workstations or from
only specific workstations.
For access through the EFCM Basic Edition interface, the system
administrator provides IP addresses of products to authorized users,
assigns access usernames, and controls associated passwords.
SANtegrity
Authentication
SANtegrity Authentication enhances SAN security by providing a set
of user-configurable, software-enforced features that restrict access to
Fibre Channel fabric elements. Features protect against accidental or
intentional attacks to fabric elements by not allowing connection of
devices or management interfaces that cannot be identified. Security
features are independent from one another and may be individually
enabled or disabled by an administrator. SANtegrity Authentication
features include:
•
Password safety - When accessing a director or fabric switch for
the first time through the command line interface (CLI) or EFCM
Basic Edition interface, the password must be changed. When
accessing a director or switch for the first time through the
maintenance port (enhanced serial authentication enabled), the
password must be changed.
Upon user login, the password is checked against the original
default password. If the password and default password match,
the user must change the password. This functionality addresses
a common security defect where the default password is never
changed.
•
5-16
Management server CHAP authentication - Enhanced login
security between a fabric element (director, fabric switch, or SAN
router) and the management server is provided through
challenge handshake authentication protocol (CHAP). A fabric
element uses CHAP to authenticate any management server that
attempts a connection.
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5
The fabric element transmits a random value (used only once), an
ID value (incremented at each login), and a shared CHAP secret
(16-byte random value) to the server. The server concatenates the
random value, ID value, and CHAP secret, and calculates a oneway message digest (also called a hash value). The hash value is
transmitted to the authenticator (fabric element). The fabric
element then builds the same concatenated string and compares
the result with the value received from the server. If the values
match, the connection is authenticated.
•
Port DHCHAP authentication - Enhanced security for device
connections and ISLs is provided through Diffie-Hellman
challenge handshake authentication protocol (DHCHAP). A
fabric element uses DHCHAP to authenticate any device (node)
that attempts a node port (N_Port) connection and any director or
switch that attempts an expansion port (E_Port) connection. This
ensures only authorized devices can be added to the fabric.
DHCHAP is an authentication protocol based on transmission of
a one-way hash value (comprised of a sequentially-incremented
ID value and CHAP secret). Because the hash cannot be reversed
to discover the CHAP secret, the protocol provides protection
from discovery through the network.
•
CT authentication - Common transport (CT) authentication
authorizes management server access to fabric elements through
the open-system management server (OSMS) interface. The
feature is software-enforced and allows an attached fabric to
authenticate the OSMS management application. A single shared
secret is configured for each fabric-attached director or switch
(because OSMS is a fabric service that assumes all attached fabric
elements are authenticated). The same secret is used by the
management application.
•
PCP user database - All authentication users are configured in a
product control point (PCP) user database. The database includes
usernames, passwords, and authorized interfaces for
management server and device access. The database controls
password authentication for EFCM, SANavigator, CLI, and
EFCM Basic Edition management interfaces. The database also
controls CHAP and CT authentication for Fibre Channel ports.
Physical Planning Considerations
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5
•
RADIUS server support - Remote authentication dial-in user
service (RADIUS) is a client-server, UDP-based protocol that
supports storage and authentication of passwords and CHAP
secrets. Directors, fabric switches, and SAN routers support a
RADIUS client (LAN-connected to a primary or secondary
RADIUS server) that authenticates CHAP responses and login
passwords. The RADIUS server stores:
— Management server-to-fabric element (director or fabric
switch) CHAP secrets.
— E_Port and N_Port DHCHAP secrets.
— Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) user passwords for the
EFCM Basic Edition interface.
— Telnet user passwords for the CLI.
— RADIUS server interface encryption keys.
5-18
•
Inband access control list - The management server interface
supports an access control list (ACL) that provides attached port
worldwide names (WWNs) or switch node names for which
director or fabric switch communication is allowed. The CLI and
EFCM Basic Edition interface do not support configuration of an
inband access control list.
•
Out-of-band access control list - Directors and fabric switches
support an IP-based ACL that defines the node IP addresses that
are permitted to log in to the fabric element through an
out-of-band management interface. Each director or fabric switch
is individually configured with a list of IP address ranges.
•
Encrypted SSH protocol - Secure shell (SSH) protocol is a
software-enforced security encryption feature that controls CLI
access to a director or fabric switch. The SSH protocol suite
supports secure shell communication, remote file copy, file
transfer, and port forwarding through a telnet interface.
•
Security log - The security log records security-related events
(including but not limited to SANtegrity features). The log is a
default feature of the Enterprise Operating System, classic
(E/OSc) firmware and does not require enablement through a
product feature enablement (PFE) key. Log entries record the
following events:
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Physical Planning Considerations
5
— Authorization errors.
— Authentication errors.
— Management application user connections.
Use of the SANtegrity Authentication feature in conjunction with
other security provisions must be carefully planned and coordinated.
For additional information, refer to Security Best Practices. Obtain
planning assistance from McDATA’s professional services
organization before implementing the feature.
SANtegrity Binding
Enterprise Fabric
Mode
SANtegrity Binding is a feature that enhances data security in large
and complex SANs comprised of numerous fabrics and devices
provided by multiple OEMs, SANs that intermix FCP and FICON
protocols, and FICON-cascaded high-integrity SANs. The feature
allows or prohibits director or switch attachment to fabrics (fabric
binding) and Fibre Channel device attachment to directors or
switches (switch binding). The SANtegrity Binding feature includes:
•
Fabric binding - Using fabric binding, administrators allow only
specified directors or fabric switches to attach to specified fabrics
in a SAN. This provides security from accidental fabric merges or
disruption, particularly in environments that use patch panels for
centralizing fibers and physical connections. This feature is
enabled through the SAN management application.
•
Switch binding - Using switch binding, administrators allow
only specified devices and fabric elements to connect to specified
director or fabric switch ports. This provides security in
environments that include a large number of devices by ensuring
only the intended set of devices attach to a director or switch. This
feature is enabled through the Element Manager application.
Although Enterprise Fabric Mode is not a keyed feature, it is integral to
SANtegrity Binding operation. Enterprise Fabric Mode must be
enabled through the SAN management application before fabric
binding and switch binding can operate. Enterprise Fabric Mode also
enables the following parameters:
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5
SANtegrity Binding
Planning
Considerations
•
Rerouting delay - If a fabric topology changes, directors and
fabric switches calculate a new least-cost data transfer path
through a fabric, and routing tables immediately implement that
path. This may result in Fibre Channel frames being delivered to
a destination device out of order, because frames transmitted over
the new (shorter) path may arrive ahead of previouslytransmitted frames that traverse the old (longer) path. When
enabled, the rerouting delay parameter ensures frames are
delivered through a fabric in the correct order.
•
Domain RSCNs - Domain registered state change notifications
(RSCNs) provide connectivity information to all host bus
adapters (HBAs) and storage devices attached to a fabric. RSCNs
are transmitted to all registered device N_Ports attached to a
fabric if either a fabric-wide event or zoning configuration change
occurs.
•
Insistent Domain_ID - When this parameter is enabled, the
domain identification (Domain_ID) configured as the preferred
Domain_ID for a fabric element becomes the active Domain_ID
when the fabric initializes. A static and unique active domain
identification is required by the fabric binding feature because the
feature's fabric membership list identifies fabric elements by
WWN and Domain_ID. If a duplicate preferred Domain_ID is
used, then insisted upon, a warning occurs and the affected
director or fabric switch cannot be added to the membership list.
Fabric and switch binding enhance data security by controlling and
monitoring director, fabric switch, and device connectivity. In fact,
installation of the SANtegrity Binding feature is a prerequisite for
configuring a high-integrity, FICON-cascaded SAN.
Use of the SANtegrity Binding feature in conjunction with other
security provisions must be carefully planned and coordinated. For
additional information, refer to Security Best Practices. Obtain
planning assistance from McDATA’s professional services
organization before implementing the feature.
PDCM Arrays
5-20
PDCM connectivity control is configured and managed at the
director or fabric switch level using the Configure Allow/Prohibit
Matrix - Active dialog box (Figure 5-4), where the user specifies an
array in which logical port addresses are allowed or prohibited from
connecting with each other (including E_Port connectivity).
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Physical Planning Considerations
5
Figure 5-4
Configure Allow/Prohibit Matrix - Active Dialog Box
To access the dialog box, ensure the FICON management style is
enabled for the director or switch, then select the Allow/Prohibit and
Active options from the Element Manager application’s Configure
menu.
Figure 5-4 shows that port 1 (logical port address 05) is prohibited
from communicating with port 6 (logical port address 0A), port 7
(logical port address 0B), and port 8 (logical port address 0C).
When implementing an array that prohibits E_Port connectivity, be
aware that ISLs can be configured as unavailable to attached devices,
causing complex routing problems that can be difficult to fault isolate
and be incorrectly diagnosed as issues associated with the devices.
As an example of such a problem, refer to the simple two-director
fabric illustrated in Figure 5-5. As shown in the figure, ISL 1 connects
Director A and Director B through logical port addresses 09 and 1A.
ISL 2 connects the directors through logical port addresses 0A
and 1B. A source server attaches to Director A through logical port
address 05. Two destination devices attach to Director B through
logical port addresses 2C and 2D.
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5
Figure 5-5
PDCM Array - Example Problem
A PDCM array configured for Director A prohibits logical port
address 05 from communicating with logical port addresses 0A, 0B,
and 0C. No PDCM array is configured for Director B. The PDCM
array configured for Director A prohibits the source server from
transmitting or receiving data across ISL 2. However, internal route
tables at both directors indicate a valid server-to-destination device
path across ISL 1.
A problem arises when the source server transmits Class 3 Fibre
Channel data to devices across ISL 1, consuming the ISL bandwidth.
Destination devices are unaware of the PDCM array configured at
Director A and transmit frames back to the server across ISL 2.
Because the server is prohibited from communicating across this ISL,
Class 3 Fibre Channel frames are discarded without generating a
busy (BSY) frame, reject (RJT) frame, or otherwise notifying the
destination devices. The server receives no response from destination
devices and times out. Thus, a server or device failure is indicated,
when in fact the problem is a user-defined prohibited connection.
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Preferred Path
The preferred path option allows a user to specify and configure one
or more ISL data paths between multiple directors or fabric switches
in a fabric. At each fabric element, a preferred path consists of a
source port on the director or switch being configured, an exit port on
the director or switch, and the Domain_ID of the destination director
or switch. Each participating director or switch must be configured as
part of a desired path. The following rules apply when configuring a
preferred path:
•
The switch Domain_ID must be set to Insistent.
•
Domain_IDs range between 1 through 31.
•
Source and exit port numbers are limited to the range
of ports available on the director or switch.
•
For each source port, only one path is defined to each
destination Domain_ID.
Refer to the three-director preferred path illustrated in Figure 5-6.
Figure 5-6
Preferred Path Configuration
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5
A preferred path is configured between a source server and
destination device (A or B), traversing Director 1, Director 2, and
Director 3. To configure the preferred path through the first director:
1. Select the Preferred Path option from the Element Manager
application’s Configure menu. The Configure Preferred Paths dialog
box displays.
2. Click Add. The Add Preferred Path dialog box displays
(bottom of Figure 5-6).
3. For the director entry port, type 14 in the Source Port field. For the
director exit port, type 45 in the Exit Port field. For the destination
device (Director 3), type 22 in the Destination Domain_ID field.
4. Click OK to save the path configuration and close the dialog box.
This procedure only specifies that data enters and exits Director 1
through specific ports on the path to Director 3. The procedure must
be repeated at the second director as follows:
1. Select the Preferred Path option from the Element Manager
application’s Configure menu. The Configure Preferred Paths dialog
box displays.
2. Click Add. The Add Preferred Path dialog box displays
(top of Figure 5-6).
3. For the director entry port, type 11 in the Source Port field. For the
director exit port, type 21 in the Exit Port field. For the destination
device (Director 3), type 22 in the Destination Domain_ID field.
4. Click OK to save the path configuration and close the dialog box.
Activating a preferred path can result in receipt of out-of-order
frames (especially in FICON environments) if the path differs from
the current path, if input and output (I/O) is active from the source
port, and if congestion is present on the path.
To avoid problems in FICON environments, vary associated channel
path identifiers (CHPIDs) temporarily offline, configure the preferred
path, and vary the CHPIDs back online.
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Zoning
Directors and fabric switches support a user configuration that
partitions attached devices into restricted-access groups called zones.
Devices in the same zone can recognize and communicate with each
other through switched port-to-port connections. Devices in separate
zones cannot recognize name server or route table information and
therefore cannot communicate with each other. Figure 5-7 illustrates
an Intrepid 6064 Director with three zones (four devices per zone).
ZONE 1
ZONE 2
ZONE 3
Intrepid 6064
Director
Figure 5-7
Director Zoning
Zoning is enabled and enforced by one of the following processes:
•
Software-enforced zoning - For earlier versions of director or
fabric switch firmware (prior to E/OSc Version 6.0), device
configuration at a fabric element enforces zoning by limiting
access to name server information in response to a device query.
Only devices in the same zone as the requesting device are
returned in the query response. This type of zoning is also called
name server zoning or soft zoning.
•
Hardware-enforced zoning - For later versions of director or
fabric switch firmware (E/OSc Version 6.0 and later), device
configuration at a fabric element enforces zoning by
programming route tables that strictly prevent Fibre Channel
traffic between devices that are not in the same zone. This type of
zoning is also called hard zoning.
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Zones are configured through the SAN management application by
authorizing or restricting access to name server or route table
information (depending on the firmware release level) associated
with device N_Ports that attach to director or switch fabric ports
(F_Ports).
Benefits of Zoning
Configuring Zones
System administrators create zones to increase network security
measures, differentiate between operating systems, and prevent data
loss or corruption by controlling access between devices (such as
servers and data storage units), or between separate user groups
(such as engineering or human resources). Zoning allows an
administrator to establish:
•
Logical subsets of closed user groups. Administrators can
authorize access rights to specific zones for specific user groups,
thereby protecting confidential data from unauthorized access.
•
Barriers between devices that use different operating systems. For
example, it is often critical to separate servers and storage devices
with different operating systems because accidental transfer of
information from one to another can delete or corrupt data.
Zoning prevents this by grouping devices that use the same
operating systems into zones.
•
Groups of devices that are separate from devices in the rest of a
fabric. Zoning allows certain processes (such as maintenance or
testing) to be performed on devices in one group without
interrupting devices in other groups.
•
Temporary access between devices for specific purposes.
Administrators can remove zoning restrictions temporarily (for
example, to perform nightly data backup), then restore zoning
restrictions to perform normal processes.
Zoning is configured through the SAN management application
by authorizing or restricting access to name server or route table
information associated with device N_Ports that attach to director or
switch F_Ports or fabric loop ports (FL_Ports). A device N_Port or
node loop port (NL_Port) can belong to multiple zones. Zoning is
configured by:
•
5-26
The eight-byte (64-digit) WWN assigned to the HBA or Fibre
Channel interface installed in the device connected to the director
or fabric switch.
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ATTENTION ! If zoning is implemented by WWN, removal and replacement
of a device HBA or Fibre Channel interface (thereby changing the device
WWN) disrupts zone operation and may incorrectly exclude a device from
a zone.
•
The domain identification (Domain_ID) and physical port
number of the director or fabric switch port to which the device is
attached.
ATTENTION ! If zoning is implemented by port number, a change to the
director or fabric switch fiber-optic cable configuration disrupts zone
operation and may incorrectly include or exclude a device from a zone.
A zone contains a set of attached devices that can access each other.
Zones are grouped into zone sets. A zone set is a group of zones that
is enabled (activated) or disabled across all directors and switches in
a multiswitch fabric. Only one zone set can be enabled at one time.
Zone members are defined and zones or zone sets are created using
the SAN management application. McDATA products support the
following zoning features:
•
Zone members - the maximum number of members configurable
for a zone is 4,096.
•
Number of zones - the maximum number of configurable
zones in a zone set is 1,023 (1,024 including the default zone).
•
Number of zone sets - the maximum number of configurable
zones sets in the zoning library is 64.
•
Active zone set - the zone set that is active across all directors and
switches in a multiswitch fabric. For the active zone set:
— When a specific zone set is activated, that zone set replaces the
active zone set.
— If the active zone set is disabled, all devices attached to the
fabric become members of the default zone.
— All devices not included as members of the active zone set are
included in the default zone.
•
Default zone - the default zone consists of all devices not
configured as members of a zone in the active zone set. If there is
no active zone set, then all devices attached to the fabric are in the
default zone. For the default zone:
Physical Planning Considerations
5-27
Physical Planning Considerations
5
— The default zone is enabled or disabled separately from the
active zone set.
— If the default zone is enabled, then all devices not in a
specified zone are included in the default zone and can
communicate with each other.
— If the default zone is disabled and there is no active zone
set, then the zoning feature is completely disabled for the
fabric and no devices can communicate with each other.
— All devices are considered to be in the default zone if there is
no active zone set.
Joining Zoned Fabrics
•
RSCN service requests - registered state change notification
(RSCN) service requests are transmitted to all N_Ports or
NL_Ports attached to the director or switch when the zoning
configuration is changed.
•
Broadcast frames - Class 3 broadcast frames are transmitted to all
N_Ports attached to the director or switch, regardless of zone
membership.
Directors and fabric switches are linked through ISLs to form
multiswitch fabrics. In a multiswitch fabric, the active zoning
configuration applies to the entire fabric. Any change to the
configuration applies to all directors and switches in the fabric.
When fabrics attempt to join, participating fabric elements exchange
active zone configurations and determine if their configurations are
compatible. If the configurations are compatible, the fabrics join. The
resulting configuration is a single zone set containing zone
definitions from each fabric. If the configurations cannot merge,
E_Ports that form the ISL for each fabric element become segmented.
The ports cannot transmit data frames between attached switches
(class 2 or 3 traffic) but can transmit control frames (class F traffic).
Zoning configurations are compatible if there are no duplicate
Domain_IDs, the active zone set name is the same for each fabric (or
switch in the fabric), and zones with the same names in each fabric
have identical members.
Factors to Consider
When Implementing
Zoning
5-28
Consider the following factors when planning to implement zoning
for one or more directors or switches in the enterprise. In particular,
consider the implications of zoning within a multiswitch fabric.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Physical Planning Considerations
5
•
Reasons for zone implementation - Determine if zoning is to be
implemented for the enterprise. If so, evaluate if the purpose of
zoning is to differentiate between operating systems, data sets,
user groups, devices, processes, or some combination thereof.
Plan the use of zone members, zones, and zone sets accordingly.
•
Zone members specified by port number or WWN - Determine
if zoning is to be implemented by port number or WWN. Because
changes to port connections or fiber-optic cable configurations
disrupt zone operation and may incorrectly include or exclude a
device from a zone, zoning by WWN is recommended. However,
if zoning is implemented by WWN, removal and replacement of a
device HBA or Fibre Channel interface disrupts zone operation
and will exclude a new device from a zone unless the device is
added to the zone set.
•
Zoning implications for a multiswitch fabric - For a multiswitch
fabric, zoning is configured on a fabric-wide basis, and any
change to the zoning configuration is applied to all switches in
the fabric. To ensure zoning is consistent across a fabric, there can
be no duplicate Domain_IDs, the active zone set name must be
consistent, and zones with the same name must have identical
elements. Ensure these rules are enforced when planning zones
and zone sets, and carefully coordinate the zoning and
multiswitch fabric tasks.
Obtaining Professional
Services
Planning and implementing the zoning feature is a complex and
difficult task, especially for multiswitch fabrics. Obtain planning
assistance from McDATA’s professional services organization before
implementing the director or switch zoning feature.
Server and
Storage-Level
Access Control
To enhance the access barriers and network security provided by
zoning through the director or fabric switch, security measures for
SANs can also be implemented at servers and storage devices.
Server-level access control is called persistent binding. Persistent
binding uses configuration information stored on the server and is
implemented through the server’s HBA driver. The process binds a
server device name to a specific Fibre Channel storage volume or
logical unit number (LUN), through a specific HBA and storage port
WWN. For persistent binding:
Physical Planning Considerations
5-29
Physical Planning Considerations
5
•
Each server HBA is explicitly bound to a storage volume or LUN,
and access is explicitly authorized (access is blocked by default).
•
The process is compatible with OSI standards. The following are
transparently supported:
— Different operating systems and applications.
— Different storage volume managers and file systems.
— Different fabric devices, including disk drives, tape drives,
and tape libraries.
•
If the server is rebooted, the server-to-storage connection is
automatically re-established.
•
The connection is bound to a storage port WWN. If the fiber-optic
cable is disconnected from the storage port, the server-to-storage
connection is automatically re-established when the port cable is
reconnected. The connection is automatically re-established if the
storage port is cabled through a different director or switch port.
Access control can also be implemented at the storage device as an
addition or enhancement to redundant array of independent disks
(RAID) controller software. Data access is controlled within the
storage device, and server HBA access to each LUN is explicitly
limited (access is blocked by default). Storage-level access control:
Security Best
Practices
•
Provides control at the storage port and LUN level and does not
require configuration at the server.
•
Supports a heterogeneous server environment and multiple
server paths to the storage device.
•
Is typically proprietary and protects only a specific vendor’s
storage devices. Storage-level access control may not be available
for many legacy devices.
When implementing a enterprise data security policy, establish a set
of best practice conventions using methods described in this section
in the following order of precedence (most restrictive listed first):
1. SANtegrity Authentication - The SANtegrity Authentication
feature is recommended for high-security SANs to provide
user-configurable, software-enforced password protection and
encrypted authentication for the management server, directors,
and fabric switches. These features significantly restrict access to
Fibre Channel fabric elements.
5-30
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Physical Planning Considerations
5
2. SANtegrity Binding - The SANtegrity Binding feature is
recommended for large and complex SANs with fabrics and
devices provided by multiple OEMs or that intermix FCP and
FICON protocols. The feature is required for FICON-cascaded
high-integrity SANs. SANtegrity Binding includes:
— Fabric binding (configured and enabled through the SAN
management application) that allows only user-specified
directors or switches to attach to specified fabrics in a SAN.
— Switch binding (configured and enabled through the Element
Manager application) that allows only user-specified devices
and fabric elements to connect to specified director or fabric
switch ports.
SANtegrity Binding explicitly prohibits connections that are not
user configured (unauthorized ISLs or device connections do not
initialize and devices do not log in), and takes precedence over
allowed connectivity in PDCM arrays, allowed connectivity
through hard or soft zoning, preferred path configurations, or
device-level access control.
3. PDCM arrays - In FICON environments, connectivity control is
configured and managed at the director or fabric switch level
using a PDCM array, where a user specifies which logical port
addresses are allowed or prohibited from connecting with each
other, including E_Port connectivity.
Port-to-port connectivity is hardware enforced at each fabric
element, and explicitly prohibited connections take precedence
over allowed connectivity through hard or soft zoning, preferred
path configurations, or device-level access control. However, a
connection allowed through a PDCM array may be prohibited
through SANtegrity Binding.
4. Hardware-enforced zoning - The function of hard zoning is to
ensure route tables are programmed at each fabric element that
explicitly allow devices to communicate only if the devices are in
the same zone. Zoning configurations are hardware-enforced at
each fabric element source port. Hard zoning impacts devices
only and does not prohibit E_Port (ISL) connectivity.
Devices in common zones can be prohibited from communicating
through SANtegrity Binding or PDCM arrays, but hard zoning
takes precedence over preferred path configurations, allowed
connectivity through soft zoning, or device-level access control.
Physical Planning Considerations
5-31
Physical Planning Considerations
5
5. Preferred path - A preferred path provides soft control of fabric
routing decisions on a switch-by-switch or port-by-port basis. The
path instructs a fabric to use a preferred exit port out of a director
or fabric switch for a specified receive port and target domain.
If a preferred path is prohibited by SANtegrity Binding, PDCM
arrays, or hard zoning, the path is not programmed. In addition,
if a preferred path is not a shortest path as calculated by Dijkstra’s
fibre shortest path first (FSPF) algorithm, the preferred path is not
programmed. However, preferred paths do take precedence over
dynamic load balancing enabled through the OpenTrunking
feature, soft zoning, or device-level access control.
In general, preferred paths should be configured to influence
predictable or well-known Fibre Channel traffic patterns for load
balancing or distance extension applications.
6. Software-enforced zoning - When a device queries the name
server of a fabric element for a list of other attached devices, soft
zoning ensures only a list of devices in the same zone as the
requesting device is returned. Soft zoning only informs a device
about authorized zoning configurations; it does not explicitly
prohibit an unauthorized connection. Connectivity configured
through SANtegrity Binding, PDCM arrays, hardware-enforced
zoning, and preferred paths takes precedence over soft zoning.
7. Device-level access control - Persistent binding and storage
access control can be implemented at the device level as an
addition or enhancement to other security features (SANtegrity
Binding, PDCM arrays, zoning, and preferred paths) that are
more explicitly enforced.
Security methods described in this section work in parallel with each
other and are allowed to be simultaneously enabled and activated.
Users are responsible for security configuration and operation within
the constraints and interactions imposed by their fabric design and
the methods described here.
Because incompatible security configurations can cause unintended
connectivity problems or shut down Fibre Channel traffic in a fabric,
it is imperative that users study and understand the interactions
between SANtegrity Authentication and Binding, PDCM arrays,
zoning, preferred paths, and device-level access control.
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Physical Planning Considerations
5
Follow best practices listed here in order of precedence. Logically
work in sequence from the most restrictive method to the least
restrictive method, ensuring the most restrictive connectivity or
routing paths override all other paths.
Optional Feature Keys
McDATA offers several operating features that are available for the
switch as customer-specified options. Available PFE keys include:
•
OSMS or FMS - Inband director or fabric switch management is
provided through purchase of the OSMS or FICON management
server (FMS) feature.
NOTE: Sphereon 4300, 4400, and 4500 Fabric Switches and SAN routers
do not support out-of-band management through FMS.
•
Flexport Technology - A Flexport Technology switch is delivered
at a discount without all the ports enabled. When additional port
capacity is required, the remaining ports are enabled (in four or
eight-port increments) through purchase of this feature.
NOTE: Directors and SAN routers do not support Flexport Technology.
•
SANtegrity Authentication - Enablement of this feature
enhances security in SANs by restricting unregulated access to
Fibre Channel directors and fabric switches.
NOTE: SAN routers do not support SANtegrity Authentication.
•
SANtegrity Binding - Enablement of this feature enhances
security in SANs that contain a large and mixed group of fabrics
and attached devices.
NOTE: SAN routers do not support SANtegrity Binding.
•
OpenTrunking - Enablement of this feature provides dynamic
load balancing of Fibre Channel traffic across multiple ISLs.
NOTE: SAN routers do not support OpenTrunking.
Physical Planning Considerations
5-33
Physical Planning Considerations
5
•
Full volatility - Enablement of this feature ensures that no Fibre
Channel frames are stored after a director or Fabric switch is
powered off or fails, and a memory dump file (that possibly
includes classified frames) is not included as part of the data
collection procedure.
NOTE: The Intrepid 10000 Director and SAN routers do not
support full volatility.
•
Full fabric - This feature is provided only for the Sphereon 4300
Fabric Switch. Enablement of the feature provides E_Port
functionality and additional port BB_Credits.
•
Remote fabric - This feature is provided only for the Intrepid
10000 Director. Enablement of the feature provides an increased
BB_Credit buffer pool and additional port credits.
•
N_Port ID virtualization - Enablement of the N_Port ID
virtualization (NPIV) feature allows up to 256 Fibre Channel
addresses to be assigned to an N_Port.
NOTE: The Intrepid 10000 Director and SAN routers do
not support NPIV.
•
Element Manager application - This feature enables director or
switch management through the Element Manager user interface.
Directors and switches are delivered with the application enabled
for a 31-day grace period. Before grace period expiration, the
application must be reactivated through a PFE key.
NOTE: The Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch does not support an Element
Manager application.
An Element Manager application is included with a SAN router. A PFE
key is not required to enable the application.
After purchasing a feature, obtain the required PFE key through your
McDATA marketing representative. A PFE key is encoded to work
with the serial number of a unique director or fabric switch and is an
alphanumeric string consisting of both uppercase and lowercase
characters. The total number of characters may vary. The PFE key is
case sensitive and must be entered exactly, including dashes.
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Physical Planning Considerations
5
Inband
Management
Access
Inband management console access (through a Fibre Channel port) is
provided by enabling user-specified features that allow OSMS or
FICON (FMS) host control of a director or fabric switch. The features
can be simultaneously installed and enabled.
OSMS
When the OSMS feature key is enabled at the Element Manager
application, host control and management of the director or switch is
provided through an open-systems interconnection (OSI) device
attached to a product port. When implementing inband product
management through an OSI connection, plan for the following
minimum host requirements:
•
Connectivity to an OSI server with a product-compatible host bus
adapter (HBA) that communicates through the Fibre Channel
common transport (FC-CT) protocol.
•
Installation of a storage network management application on the
OSI server. Management applications include Veritas®
SANPoint™ Control (Version 1.0 or later), or Tivoli® NetView®
(Version 6.0 or later).
For information about product-compatible HBAs, third-party SAN
management applications, and minimum OSI server specifications,
refer to the McDATA website at www.mcdata.com.
FMS
When the FMS feature key is enabled at the Element Manager
application, host control and management of the director or switch is
provided through a server attached to a product port. The server
communicates with the product through a FICON channel. When
implementing inband product management through a FICON
channel, plan for the following minimum host requirements:
•
Connectivity to an IBM S/390 Parallel Enterprise Server
(Generation 5 or Generation 6), with one or more FICON channel
adapter cards installed, using System Automation for Operating
System/390 (SA OS/390) for native FICON, Version 1.3 or later,
plus service listed in the appropriate preventive service planning
(PSP) bucket. The PSP bucket upgrade is HKYSA30.
The minimum OS/390 level for a director or switch without the
control unit port (CUP) feature is Version 2.6, plus service listed in
PSP bucket upgrade 2032, device subset 2032OS390G5+. The
minimum OS/390 level for a director or switch with the CUP
feature is Version 2.1, plus service listed in the preceding PSP
bucket for that function.
Physical Planning Considerations
5-35
Physical Planning Considerations
5
Flexport Technology
•
Connectivity to an IBM eServer zSeries 800 (z800), zSeries 900
(z900), or zSeries 990 (z990) processor, with one or more FICON
or FICON Express channel adapter cards installed, using the
z/OS operating system, Version 1.1 or later.
•
A host-attached Hardware Management Console. The console
runs the Hardware Management Console application (HWMCA)
and is the operations and management PC platform for S/390 or
zSeries servers.
Sphereon 3232, 4300, and 4500 Fabric Switches can be purchased at a
discount without all Fibre Channel ports enabled. The Flexport
Technology feature is a hardware port expansion kit that allows
customers to upgrade switch capacity on demand in eight-port
increments. Flexport Technology kits are available to upgrade the:
•
Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch from 16 to 24 ports or
from 24 to 32 ports.
•
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch from four to eight ports or
from eight to 12 ports.
•
Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch from eight to 16 ports or
from 16 to 24 ports.
Each port expansion kit includes four or eight SFP optical
transceivers, upgrade instructions, and a feature key that enables the
added port capacity through the Element Manager application.
SANtegrity
Authentication
SANtegrity Authentication is a feature that significantly enhances
and extends SAN data security by providing password safety; CHAP
or DHCHAP verification for fabric elements, management servers,
and devices; a PCP user database; CT authentication for the OSMS
interface; RADIUS server support; inband and out-of-band access
controls lists; encrypted SSH protocol; and security logging. For
additional information about the feature, refer to SANtegrity
Authentication.
SANtegrity Binding
SANtegrity Binding is a feature that significantly enhances SAN data
security. The feature includes:
•
5-36
Fabric binding - This portion of the feature allows only specified
directors or fabric switches to attach to specified fabrics in a SAN.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Physical Planning Considerations
5
•
Switch binding - This portion of the feature allows only specified
devices and fabric elements to connect to specified director or
fabric switch ports.
•
Enterprise Fabric Mode - Although Enterprise Fabric Mode is not a
keyed feature, it is required for SANtegrity Binding operation.
Enterprise Fabric Mode also enables the following parameters:
— Rerouting delay.
— Domain RSCNs.
— Insistent Domain_ID.
For additional information about the feature, refer to SANtegrity
Binding.
OpenTrunking
OpenTrunking is a feature that optimizes ISL bandwidth use in a
fabric environment. The feature monitors Fibre Channel data rates
(congestion and BB_Credit starvation) through multiple ISLs,
dynamically applies a Dijkstra FSPF networking algorithm to
calculate the optimum path between fabric elements, and load
balances Fibre Channel traffic (from congested links to uncongested
links) accordingly. OpenTrunking is shown in Figure 5-8.
Server 1
Storage 1
Trunk
TM
Server 2
Director A
ISL 1
ISL 1
ISL 2
ISL 2
TM
Director B
Storage 2
Server 3
Figure 5-8
OpenTrunking
Physical Planning Considerations
5-37
Physical Planning Considerations
5
The figure illustrates two Intrepid 6064 Directors connected by two
ISLs. Three servers use the ISLs to communicate with two storage
devices. Without trunking, servers 1 through 3 route Fibre Channel
traffic from to director B without regard to any data rates. A possible
scenario is that servers 1 and 2 route high data rate traffic through
ISL 1 to storage device 1 (ISL oversubscription) and server 3
routes low data rate traffic through ISL 2 to storage device 2
(ISL undersubscription).
Preferred path configurations are more restrictive than, and take
precedence over, OpenTrunking. Even if OpenTrunking is enabled,
no attempt is made to reroute traffic away from a preferred path,
even if the path is congested or BB_Credit starved.
Full Volatility
Full volatility is a feature (available on directors and fabric switches
with E/OSc Version 6.0 and later) that supports military, classified, or
other high-security environments that require Fibre Channel data not
be retained by the director or fabric switch after power off or failure.
When a director or fabric switch (without the full volatility feature
installed) powers off or fails, a dump file is written to non-volatile
random-access memory (NV-RAM). This dump file retains the last 30
Fibre Channel frames transmitted from the embedded port and the
last four frames transmitted to the embedded port.
These Fibre Channel frames are then written to diskette and included
as part of the data collection procedure. This process constitutes a
security breach if the frame data includes classified information.
With the full volatility feature installed and enabled, no frame data is
stored and the NV-RAM dump does not occur when the director or
switch powers off or fails. Although this feature limits the diagnostic
information available for fault isolation and resolution, the majority
of failures are resolved without the dump file.
Full Fabric
5-38
The Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch is delivered without E_Port (ISL)
functionality and with all ports set to a BB_Credit value of 5. With the
full fabric feature installed and enabled, switch E_Port functionality
is provided and all port BB_Credit values are increased to 12. This
feature is provided only for the Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Physical Planning Considerations
5
Remote Fabric
Intrepid 10000 Director LIMs contain two scalable packet processors,
each supporting an optical paddle pair. Each paddle pair provides 16
ports (1.0625 or 2.12500 Gbps operation), four ports (10.2000 Gbps
operation), or ten ports (mixed data rate operation). A minimal
BB_Credit buffer pool is allocated among all paddle-pair ports that
allows a 1.0625 or 2.12500 Gbps port to be set to 60 BB_Credits and a
10.2000 Gbps port to be set to 360 BB_Credits.
With the remote fabric feature installed and enabled, the buffer pool
is increased and each paddle pair is allocated a maximum of 1,373
BB_Credits. Feature enablement allows a long-link 1.0625 or 2.12500
Gbps port to be set to 1133 BB_Credits and a long-link 10.2000 Gbps
port to be set to 1085 BB_Credits. This feature is provided only for the
Intrepid 10000 Director.
N_Port ID
Virtualization
NPIV is a feature that allows a single physical port to support up to
256 virtual Fibre Channel addresses. A virtual node port (NV_Port)
retains full N_Port capabilities and can register for full fabric services.
However, simultaneous loop device operation (NL_Port) and NPIV
operation (NV_Port) is not allowed on the same physical port. This
feature is beneficial in mainframe environments where multiple
partitions share the same physical channel and port connection.
Element Manager
Application
The Element Manager feature allows director or fabric switch
management through an Element Manager application GUI. A
director or switch is delivered with the application enabled for a
31-day grace period. Before grace period expiration, the application
must be reactivated and enabled through a PFE key.
During the grace period, a No Feature Key dialog box appears when
the Element Manager application is accessed. Click OK to close the
dialog box and open the application.
In addition, the message Element Manager license key has not been
installed - Please follow up instructions to update permanent key
appears splashed across views, indicating the Element Manager PFE
key must be installed.
Physical Planning Considerations
5-39
Physical Planning Considerations
5
5-40
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
6
Configuration Planning
Tasks
This chapter describes configuration planning best-practices tasks to
be performed before installing one or more McDATA Fibre Channel
switching products in a storage area network (SAN) configuration.
Table 6-1 summarizes planning tasks described in the chapter.
Table 6-1
Configuration Planning Tasks
Task
Page
Task 1: Prepare a Site Plan
6-2
Task 2: Plan Fibre Channel Cable Routing
6-3
Task 3: Consider Interoperability with Fabric Elements and End Devices
6-4
Task 4: Plan Console Management Support
6-5
Task 5: Plan Ethernet Access
6-7
Task 6: Plan Network Addresses
6-7
Task 7: Plan SNMP Support (Optional)
6-10
Task 8: Plan E-Mail Notification (Optional)
6-11
Task 9: Establish Product and Server Security Measures
6-11
Task 10: Plan Phone Connections
6-12
Task 11: Diagram the Planned Configuration
6-12
Task 12: Assign Port Names and Nicknames
6-13
Configuration Planning Tasks
6-1
Configuration Planning Tasks
6
Table 6-1
Configuration Planning Tasks (continued)
Task
Page
Task 13: Complete the Planning Worksheet
6-14
Task 14: Plan AC Power
6-28
Task 15: Plan a Multiswitch Fabric (Optional)
6-29
Task 16: Plan Zone Sets for Multiple Products (Optional)
6-30
Task 17: Plan SAN Routing (Optional)
6-31
Task 18: Complete Planning Checklists
6-34
Task 1: Prepare a Site Plan
For each director, fabric switch, SAN router, or FC-512 Fabricenter
equipment cabinet installed, design a site plan that provides efficient
work flow, operator convenience and safety, and adequate service
clearances for the equipment cabinet. A customer manager should
review the site plan with a service representative and consider:
6-2
•
Location and relationship of the physical facilities such as walls,
doors, windows, partitions, furniture, and telephones.
•
Proximity of the director, fabric switch, or SAN router to servers
and storage peripherals, and if a multiswitch fabric is to be
enabled, proximity of participating fabric elements to each other.
•
Location of at least one analog phone line (capable of providing
long-distance service) for the management server to support the
call-home feature or provide remote dial-in support. In addition,
consider accessibility to a second phone to aid in installation and
serviceability.
•
Availability of Ethernet local area network (LAN) connections
and cabling to support remote user workstation and simple
network management protocol (SNMP) management station
access. Remote user and SNMP workstations are optional.
•
Equipment cabinet locations, Ethernet cabling, and the Internet
protocol (IP) addressing scheme to support optional cabinet
interconnection and management server consolidation.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Configuration Planning Tasks
6
•
Power requirements, including an optional uninterruptable
power supply (UPS).
•
Lengths of power cables and location of electrical outlets
(for directors, switches, and the management server) having
the proper phase, voltage, amperage, and ground connection.
DANGER
Use the supplied power cords. Ensure the facility power receptacle
is the correct type, supplies the required voltage, and is properly
grounded.
•
Security necessary to protect the installation’s physical integrity,
while maintaining accessibility to the director or switch.
•
Facility access and security clearances for installation personnel.
•
Equipment cabinet front and rear service clearances, operator
clearances, and maintenance access clearances.
•
Weight of a Fabricenter equipment cabinet. Either multiple
persons or a lift must be available during installation to remove
the cabinet from the packing crate.
•
Heat dissipation, temperature, and humidity requirements.
For specific actions required to satisfy this planning task, refer
to Table 6-2 (Physical Planning and Hardware Installation Tasks), and
Table 6-3 (Operational Setup Tasks).
Task 2: Plan Fibre Channel Cable Routing
Plan for sufficient singlemode fiber-optic, multimode fiber-optic, and
Ethernet cabling to meet the connectivity requirements for all fabric
elements (directors, fabric switches, and SAN routers), Fibre Channel
servers, and devices. Plan for sufficient fiber-optic cabling to meet
interswitch link (ISL) connectivity requirements and SAN routing
requirements.
Plan for at least one meter (39.37 inches) of fiber-optic cable inside the
Fabricenter equipment cabinet for routing to product Fibre Channel
ports as required. Plan for an additional 1.5 meters (5 feet) of cable
outside the cabinet to provide slack for service clearance, limited
cabinet movement, and inadvertent cable pulls.
Configuration Planning Tasks
6-3
Configuration Planning Tasks
6
In addition, consider the following when planning cable routing:
•
The need for additional fiber-optic cables could grow rapidly.
Consider installing cable with extra fibers, especially in hard to
reach places like underground trenches. Consider locating the
equipment cabinet near a fiber-optic patch panel.
•
Follow proper procedures when moving an installed equipment
cabinet to prevent cable or connector damage.
Task 3: Consider Interoperability with Fabric Elements and End
Devices
McDATA conducts a substantial level of testing to ensure director,
fabric switch, and SAN router interoperability with fabric elements
and end devices provided by multiple original equipment
manufacturers (OEMs). New devices are tested and qualified on a
continual basis. Contact your McDATA representative for the latest
information about fabric element, server, host bus adapter (HBA),
and device interoperability.
Consider whether to set the director or fabric switch to open systems
or fibre connection (FICON) management style. This setting only
affects the operating style used to manage the product; it does not
affect port operation. Open-systems interconnection (OSI) devices
can communicate with each other if the product is set to FICON
management style, and FICON devices can communicate with each
other if the product is set to open systems management style. Be
aware that:
6-4
•
When a director or switch is set to open systems management
style, a traditional Fibre Channel fabric consisting of multiple
domains (fabric elements) is supported. Inband management
through the open-systems management server (OSMS) is also
supported.
•
When a director or switch is set to FICON management style,
only a single domain (fabric element) is supported. Inband
management through the FICON management server (FMS) is
also supported. When operating using FICON management style,
ports are set to F_Port operation, thus eliminating E_Port, ISL,
and multiswitch fabric capabilities.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Configuration Planning Tasks
6
NOTE: If the FICON management server feature is enabled, the default
operating style is FICON. The open systems management style cannot be
enabled.
Consider purchasing and enabling the SANtegrity Authentication
and SANtegrity Binding features to provide additional data security
in a complex and multi-OEM environment. Contact your McDATA
representative for information about the features.
Task 4: Plan Console Management Support
Plan to implement one or more of the following to provide console
management and support for directors, switches, and SAN routers:
•
Management Server - The 1U rack-mount management server is
used for product installation, initial software configuration,
changing the configuration, and monitoring product operation.
— When SAN management and Element Manager applications
(directors and fabric switches) or the SANvergence Manager
application (SAN routers) are installed on the management
server, the server is used as a local user workstation.
— The management server can support up to 48 managed
McDATA products.
— Managed products can be powered off and on without the
management server.
— A management server failure does not cause an operating
director, switch, or SAN router to fail.
— The management server is fully operational, even if there is no
user logged in to the Windows 2000 Professional operating
system. The server allows remote users to log in and continues
to monitor products in the background.
NOTE: The Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch is not supported by the
management server.
— Ensure SAN router-specific requirements for management
server support are evaluated. Refer to Task 17: Plan SAN
Routing (Optional) for information.
Configuration Planning Tasks
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Configuration Planning Tasks
6
•
Remote user workstations - If remote access to the management
server is required, plan to install user workstations with the SAN
management and Element Manager applications configured.
Administrators can use these remote workstations to configure
and monitor directors and fabric switches. Up to 25 sessions can
be simultaneously active. Sessions from remote user workstations
are disabled if the management server is powered off.
NOTE: Remote management server access to SAN routers is
not supported.
•
Inband management support - If inband console management of
a director or fabric switch is required, plan for a Fibre Channel
port connection that communicates with the attached server.
If director or fabric switch management through an OSI server is
planned, ensure the OSMS feature key is ordered with the
Element Manager application. This feature enables host control of
the product from an OSI server attached to a Fibre Channel port.
Ensure the server meets minimum specifications and a productcompatible HBA and appropriate operating system or SAN
management application is available.
If director or switch management through an IBM host is
planned, ensure the FMS feature key is ordered with the Element
Manager application. This feature key enables host control of the
product from an IBM System/390 Parallel Enterprise Server or
eServer zSeries processor attached to a Fibre Channel port.
•
EFCM Basic Edition interface - If a web browser-capable PC and
Internet access to a product EFCM Basic Edition interface are
required, plan accordingly and ensure access to an analog phone
line. Access to the EFCM Basic Edition interface is not provided
by the management server.
NOTE: EFCM Basic Edition interface access to the Intrepid 10000
Director and SAN routers is not supported.
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Task 5: Plan Ethernet Access
The management server and one or more products are configured on
a dedicated Ethernet LAN segment and delivered in the Fabricenter
equipment cabinet. No Ethernet access planning is required for a
stand-alone cabinet. This task is required to:
•
Connect equipment cabinets - Ethernet hubs in multiple
equipment cabinets can be connected to provide management
server access to up to 48 managed McDATA products. Cabinets
can be placed at any distance up to the limit of the 10/100
megabit per second (Mbps) LAN segment.
•
Consolidate management server operation - If management
server operation is to be consolidated to one primary server and
one or more backup servers, plan for Ethernet cabling to
interconnect equipment cabinets and ensure all directors,
switches, and server platforms have unique IP addresses.
•
Install equipment cabinets on a public LAN - If a public LAN
segment is to be used, determine from the customer’s network
administrator how to integrate the products and management
server. Ensure all access, security, and IP addressing issues are
resolved.
NOTE: It is recommended that directors, fabric switches, SAN routers,
and the management server be installed on a dedicated Ethernet hub and
LAN segment to avoid security, traffic, and fault isolation problems
associated with a public LAN.
•
Install remote user workstations - Plan for access to the LAN
segment (dedicated or public) containing the management server
if remote user workstations are required.
Task 6: Plan Network Addresses
Depending on the configuration of the LAN on which directors,
switches, SAN routers, and the management server are installed, plan
network addressing as follows:
Configuration Planning Tasks
6-7
Configuration Planning Tasks
6
•
If installing products and the management server on a dedicated
(private) LAN segment, there is no requirement to change any
default network addresses. However, if multiple equipment
cabinets are connected, ensure all managed products and servers
have unique IP addresses. If new IP addresses are required,
consult with the customer’s network administrator.
•
If installing products and the management server on a public
LAN containing other devices, default network addresses may
require change to avoid address conflicts with existing devices.
For Intrepid-series directors, Sphereon-series fabric switches, and
Eclipse-series SAN routers, the IP address, gateway address, and
subnet mask are changed through a remote terminal connected to
the product’s maintenance port.
For the management server, these addresses are changed through
the liquid crystal display (LCD) front panel. In addition, assign
and record a unique domain name system (DNS) name for the
management server and each director or switch.
•
Gateway addresses may need to be configured for managed
products and the management server if these devices connect to
the LAN through a router or other gateway device.
The Ethernet connections for the 1U management server, directors,
fabric switches, and SAN routers have the following default network
addresses:
•
1U Management server:
— Media access control (MAC) address is unique for each server
and managed product. The address is in xx.xx.xx.xx.xx.xx
format, where each xx is a hexadecimal pair.
— IP address of the private LAN connection (LAN 2)
is 10.1.1.1.
— IP address of the public LAN connection (LAN 1)
is 192.168.0.1.
— Subnet mask is 255.0.0.0.
— Gateway address is blank.
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•
Intrepid-series directors and Sphereon-series fabric switches:
— MAC address is unique for each product.
— Default IP address is 10.1.1.10.
— Subnet mask is 255.0.0.0.
— Gateway address is 0.0.0.0.
•
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router:
— System addresses:
• MAC address is unique for each product.
• Default IP address is 192.168.111.100.
• Subnet mask is 255.255.255.0.
• Gateway address is 0.0.0.0.
— 10/100 Base-T Ethernet management port addresses:
• Default IP address is 192.168.100.100.
• Subnet mask is 255.255.255.0.
• Gateway address is 0.0.0.0.
— Intelligent port (3) addresses:
• Default IP address is 0.0.0.0.
• Subnet mask is 0.0.0.0.
• External IP address is 0.0.0.0.
• Internal IP address is 192.168.111.103.
— Intelligent port (4) addresses:
• Default IP address is 0.0.0.0.
• Subnet mask is 0.0.0.0.
• External IP address is 0.0.0.0.
• Internal IP address is 192.168.111.104.
•
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router:
— System addresses:
• MAC address is unique for each product.
• Default IP address is 0.0.0.0.
Configuration Planning Tasks
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Configuration Planning Tasks
6
• Subnet mask is 0.0.0.0.
• Gateway address is 0.0.0.0.
— 10/100 Base-T Ethernet management port addresses:
• Default IP address is 192.168.100.100.
• Subnet mask is 255.255.255.0.
• Gateway address is 0.0.0.0.
— Intelligent port (13 through 16) addresses:
• Default IP address is 0.0.0.0.
• Subnet mask is 0.0.0.0.
• External IP address is 0.0.0.0.
• Internal IP address is 0.0.0.0.
Task 7: Plan SNMP Support (Optional)
As an option, network administrators can use the SAN management
application to configure an SNMP agent that runs on the
management server. This agent is used to:
•
Configure up to 12 authorized management workstations to
receive unsolicited SNMP trap messages (directors and fabric
switches).
•
Configure up to eight authorized management workstations to
send SNMP trap messages (SAN routers).
Administrators can also use the Element Manager application to
configure an SNMP agent that runs on each director, fabric switch, or
SAN router. This agent can be configured to send generic SNMP trap
messages. Trap recipients can also access SNMP management
information and may be granted permission to modify SNMP
variables as follows:
6-10
•
Assign and record product names, contact persons, descriptions,
and locations to configure the products for SNMP management
station access.
•
Plan access to the managed product LAN segment. This segment
must connect to the LAN on which SNMP management
workstations are installed.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Configuration Planning Tasks
6
•
Obtain IP addresses and SNMP community names for
management workstations that have access to products.
•
Determine which (if any) management workstations can have
write permission for SNMP variables.
•
Obtain product-specific trap information from McDATA to load
onto SNMP management workstations.
Task 8: Plan E-Mail Notification (Optional)
As an option, network administrators can configure director and
fabric switch e-mail support. The following support considerations
are required if the e-mail notification feature is used:
•
Determine if e-mail notification is to be configured and used for
significant system events.
•
Determine which persons (up to five) require e-mail notification
of significant director or switch events and record their e-mail
addresses.
•
Identify an attached e-mail server that supports the simple mail
transfer protocol (SMTP) standard as defined in RFC 821.
NOTE: E-mail notification for SAN routers is not supported.
Task 9: Establish Product and Server Security Measures
Effective network security measures are recommended for directors,
fabric switches, SAN routers, and the management server. Physical
access to the network should be limited and monitored, and
password control should be strictly enforced. When planning
security measures, consider the following:
•
Managed products and the management server are installed on a
LAN segment and can be accessed by attached devices (including
devices connected through a remote LAN). Access from remote
devices is limited by installing the management server and
managed products on an isolated, dedicated LAN segment.
This approach is recommended. Installing and enabling the
SANtegrity Authentication and SANtegrity Binding features is
also recommended.
Configuration Planning Tasks
6-11
Configuration Planning Tasks
6
•
Remote access to products is possible through the maintenance
port or an internal modem connection to the management server.
These connections are for use by authorized service personnel
only and should be carefully monitored.
•
The number of remote workstations with access to the
management server and managed products can and should be
restricted. Obtain IP addresses for workstations that should have
exclusive access. Ensure adequate security measures are
established for the configured workstations.
•
Carefully manage users (up to 16) who have access to the SAN
management, SANvergence Manager, and Element Manager
applications, and assign user names, passwords, and user rights.
•
Ensure adequate security controls are established for remote
access software, including the EFCM Basic Edition interface.
Task 10: Plan Phone Connections
Analog telephone connections are used by service personnel and for
access to the management server’s internal modem. Plan for one or
more telephone connections near the server because of the following:
•
If a field-replaceable unit (FRU) in a managed product fails, the
management server provides a call-home feature that transmits a
message through the server’s internal modem connection to a
designated support center.
•
While performing a diagnostic or repair action, a service
representative or network administrator at the management
server may require voice technical support through a telephone
connection.
•
A service representative may need to connect to the management
server through the internal modem to access maintenance and
utility functions, check status, and perform other tasks.
Task 11: Diagram the Planned Configuration
Determine peripheral devices that will connect to each director,
switch, or SAN router and where connectivity should be limited
(zoning). These devices may include servers, storage control devices,
and other fabric elements in a multiswitch fabric.
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Part of this task may have been performed when the configuration
was determined. It might be helpful to draw the configuration
diagram. Indicate distances in the diagram if necessary. Transfer
information from the configuration diagram to the product planning
worksheet provided as part of Task 13: Complete the Planning
Worksheet.
Task 12: Assign Port Names and Nicknames
Consider assigning names to director, switch, or SAN router ports
based upon devices connected to the ports. Though not required, port
naming provides convenience and ease of use. Port naming also
documents devices that connect through individual ports and
identifies what is attached to each port. When it is necessary to
change port connectivity, port names make it easier to identify the
ports and attached end devices.
Also consider assigning nicknames to device and fabric worldwide
names (WWNs). Though not required, nicknaming provides a useful
substitute for the cryptic eight-byte WWN. Once a nickname is
assigned, it is referenced throughout the SAN management
application.
Transfer port names and nicknames to the product planning
worksheet provided as part of Task 13: Complete the Planning
Worksheet.
Rules for Port Names
Port names can be up to 24 alphanumeric characters in length.
Spaces, hyphens, and underscores are allowed within the name. Each
port name must be unique for a product. However, the same port
name can be used on separate products. It is recommended that
unique port names be used, particularly within a complex
multiswitch fabric. Example port names include:
Lab server.
Test system-2.
Printer_001.
Configuration Planning Tasks
6-13
Configuration Planning Tasks
6
Rules for Nicknames
Nicknames can be up to 32 alphanumeric characters in length.
Spaces, hyphens, and underscores are allowed within the nickname.
Each nickname must be unique (corresponding to a unique WWN).
Example nicknames include:
Fabric-1.
Host system-1.
DASD_001.
Task 13: Complete the Planning Worksheet
The planning worksheet included in this task is an eight-page form
that depicts port assignments for a director, switch, or SAN router.
The worksheet lists 256 ports, equal to the capability of the highest
port-count product described in this publication. The worksheet
provides fields to identify devices that connect to the ports.
Transfer information from the configuration diagram (completed
while performing Task 11: Diagram the Planned Configuration) to the
worksheet, and transfer port names and nicknames (assigned while
performing Task 12: Assign Port Names and Nicknames). In addition,
indicate all unused ports. Retain the planning worksheet as part of a
permanent record.
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Product Planning Worksheet (Page 1 of 13)
Attached Devices
Switch Name:____________________________
IP Address:____________________________
Unit Name:__________________________
Port
Port Name
Location
Type
Model
IP Address
Zone
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
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Configuration Planning Tasks
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Product Planning Worksheet (Page 2 of 13)
Attached Devices
Switch Name:____________________________
IP Address:____________________________
Unit Name:__________________________
Port
Port Name
Location
Type
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
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Zone
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Product Planning Worksheet (Page 3 of 13)
Attached Devices
Switch Name:____________________________
IP Address:____________________________
Unit Name:__________________________
Port
Port Name
Location
Type
Model
IP Address
Zone
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
Configuration Planning Tasks
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Configuration Planning Tasks
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Product Planning Worksheet (Page 4 of 13)
Attached Devices
Switch Name:____________________________
IP Address:____________________________
Unit Name:__________________________
Port
Port Name
Location
Type
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
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Product Planning Worksheet (Page 5 of 13)
Attached Devices
Switch Name:____________________________
IP Address:____________________________
Unit Name:__________________________
Port
Port Name
Location
Type
Model
IP Address
Zone
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
Configuration Planning Tasks
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Configuration Planning Tasks
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Product Planning Worksheet (Page 6 of 13)
Attached Devices
Switch Name:____________________________
IP Address:____________________________
Unit Name:__________________________
Port
Port Name
Location
Type
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
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Product Planning Worksheet (Page 7 of 13)
Attached Devices
Switch Name:____________________________
IP Address:____________________________
Unit Name:__________________________
Port
Port Name
Location
Type
Model
IP Address
Zone
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
Configuration Planning Tasks
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Configuration Planning Tasks
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Product Planning Worksheet (Page 8 of 13)
Attached Devices
Switch Name:____________________________
IP Address:____________________________
Unit Name:__________________________
Port
Port Name
Location
Type
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
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Product Planning Worksheet (Page 9 of 13)
Attached Devices
Switch Name:____________________________
IP Address:____________________________
Unit Name:__________________________
Port
Port Name
Location
Type
Model
IP Address
Zone
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
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Configuration Planning Tasks
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Product Planning Worksheet (Page 10 of 13)
Attached Devices
Switch Name:____________________________
IP Address:____________________________
Unit Name:__________________________
Port
Port Name
Location
Type
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
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Zone
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Product Planning Worksheet (Page 11 of 13)
Attached Devices
Switch Name:____________________________
IP Address:____________________________
Unit Name:__________________________
Port
Port Name
Location
Type
Model
IP Address
Zone
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
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Product Planning Worksheet (Page 12 of 13)
Attached Devices
Switch Name:____________________________
IP Address:____________________________
Unit Name:__________________________
Port
Port Name
Location
Type
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
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Product Planning Worksheet (Page 13 of 13)
Attached Devices
Switch Name:____________________________
IP Address:____________________________
Unit Name:__________________________
Port
Port Name
Location
Type
Model
IP Address
Zone
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
Configuration Planning Tasks
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Task 14: Plan AC Power
Plan for facility power sources for each Fabricenter equipment
cabinet, director, fabric switch, or SAN router as follows:
•
The Fabricenter equipment cabinet operates at 47 to 63 Hertz
(Hz), 200 to 240 volts alternating current (VAC), and requires a
minimum dedicated 30-ampere service.
•
The Intrepid 6140 Director operates at 47 to 63 Hz, 200 to 240
VAC, and requires a minimum dedicated 15-ampere service.
•
The Intrepid 10000 Director operates at 47 to 63 Hz, 200 to 240
VAC, and requires a minimum dedicated 20-ampere service.
•
Other directors, fabric switches, and SAN routers in the cabinet
operate at 47 to 63 Hz, 100 to 240 VAC, and require a minimum
dedicated 5-ampere service.
If two power sources are supplied (optional but recommended for
high availability), the equipment cabinet contains two customerspecified external power cords. Each cord should be connected to a
separate power circuit, or both should be connected to a UPS. Several
types of power cables and plugs are available to meet local electrical
requirements.
DANGER
Use the supplied power cords. Ensure the facility power receptacle
is the correct type, supplies the required voltage, and is properly
grounded.
Keep all power cables out of high-traffic areas for safety and to avoid
power interruption caused by accidentally unplugging the product or
Fabricenter equipment cabinet.
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Task 15: Plan a Multiswitch Fabric (Optional)
If a multiswitch fabric topology is to be implemented, carefully plan
the physical characteristics and performance objectives of the
topology, including the proposed number of fabric elements,
characteristics of attached devices, cost, nondisruptive growth
requirements, and service requirements. Refer to Fabric Topologies,
Planning for Multiswitch Fabric Support, and General Fabric Design
Considerations for detailed information.
When two or more fabric elements are connected through ISLs to
form a fabric, the elements must have compatible operating
parameters, compatible name server zoning configurations, and
unique domain identifications (IDs). Planning for a fabric must be
carefully coordinated with planning for zoned configurations. The
following factors should be considered when planning for a
multiswitch fabric:
•
Fabric topology limits - Consider the practical number of fabric
elements (theoretical maximum of 31, practical limit of 24),
number of ISLs per element, hop count (maximum of three), and
distance limitations (limited by port type and cable availability).
•
Multiple ISLs for bandwidth and load balancing - Consider
using multiple ISLs to increase the total bandwidth available
between two fabric elements. If heavy traffic between devices is
expected, also consider multiple ISLs to create multiple
minimum-hop paths for load balancing.
If multiple ISL connections are planned, ensure the
OpenTrunking feature key is ordered with the Element Manager
application. This feature automatically provides dynamic load
balancing across multiple ISLs in a fabric environment.
•
Principal switch selection - If required, plan which fabric
element is to be assigned principal switch duties for the fabric.
•
Critical operations - Consider routing paths that transfer data for
critical operations directly through one director or fabric switch
and not through the fabric.
Planning and implementing a multiswitch fabric is a complex and
difficult task. Obtain planning assistance from McDATA’s
professional services organization before implementing a fabric
topology.
Configuration Planning Tasks
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Configuration Planning Tasks
6
Task 16: Plan Zone Sets for Multiple Products (Optional)
If name server zoning is to be implemented, carefully plan the
characteristics and security objectives (separation of operating
systems, data sets user groups, devices, or processes) of zone
members, zones and zone sets.
If a fabric topology or routed SAN is implemented, zoning is
configured on a fabric-wide or SAN-wide basis. Planning for zoned
configurations must be carefully coordinated with planning the
topology. The following factors should be considered when planning
to implement name server zoning:
•
Zone members specified by port number or WWN - Consider if
zoning is to be implemented by port number or WWN. Because
changes to a port connections or fiber-optic cable configurations
may disrupt zone operation, zoning by WWN is recommended.
NOTE: SAN routers do not support port number zoning.
•
Zoning implications for a multiswitch fabric - To ensure zoning
is consistent across a multiswitch fabric, directors and fabric
switches must have compatible operating parameters and unique
domain IDs, the active zone set name must be consistent, and
zones with the same name must have identical elements.
•
Zoning implications for a routed SAN - A zone policy must be
established that specifies how zone information is synchronized
between a SAN router and attached fabrics. Zone policy options
are No Zone Synchronization (device zoning is controlled at the
fabric level) or Append IPS Zones (device zoning control is
shared between a SAN router and the fabric).
•
Server and storage device access control - In addition to zoning,
consider implementing server-level access control (persistent
binding) and storage-level access control.
Consider purchasing and enabling the SANtegrity Authentication
and SANtegrity Binding features to work in conjunction with name
server zoning to provide additional data security in a complex and
multi-OEM environment. Planning and implementing zones and
zone sets is a complex and difficult task, especially for multiswitch
fabrics. Obtain planning assistance from McDATA’s professional
services organization before implementing a zoning feature.
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Task 17: Plan SAN Routing (Optional)
If a routed SAN is to be implemented, carefully plan metropolitan
area network (MAN) or wide area network (WAN) connectivity and
the integration of SAN routers with standard fibre channel fabric
elements.
Ensure basic requirements for physical SAN routers are incorporated
in the site plan(s) developed while performing Task 1: Prepare a Site
Plan. Plan equipment cabinet locations; availability and location of
Ethernet LAN connections and cabling; and power requirements. The
following router-specific factors should also be considered:
•
Management server support - At each location that requires
server support for one or more SAN routers, consider the
following:
— The 10/100 Base-T Ethernet management port on each SAN
router provides out-of-band connectivity to the management
server. Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) intelligent ports on each SAN
router provide inband IP network connectivity to transmit
storage traffic. The management port and intelligent ports
require network address configuration, including an IP
address and subnet mask. It is recommended the management
port be configured on a separate subnet from intelligent ports.
— The SANvergence Manager application (management server
resident) and Element Manager application (router resident)
use SNMP and hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) to
communicate. To ensure communication, Java runtime
environment j2re-1_4_2_01-windows-i586-iftw.exe (or later)
must be installed on the management server. The software is
downloaded from http://java.sun.com.
— The management server port communicating with a SAN
router must be set to Auto Negotiate to ensure viable
server-to-router communication.
•
Fibre Channel network connections - At each location,
fiber-optic cables with appropriate connectors must be routed
between Fibre Channel elements (storage devices, servers,
directors, and fabric switches) and the SAN router. Eclipse-series
SAN routers support small form factor pluggable (SFP) optical
transceivers with LC duplex connectors.
Configuration Planning Tasks
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Configuration Planning Tasks
6
•
IP network connections - At each location, cables with
appropriate connectors must be routed between the IP transport
network and the SAN router. The Eclipse 1620 SAN Router
supports Ethernet RJ-45 connectors or SFP optical transceivers
with LC duplex connectors. The Eclipse 2640 SAN Router
supports SFP optical transceivers with LC duplex connectors.
•
Establish operational mode and transport technology - Establish
if the operational mode is expected to support synchronous
remote data replication (RDR/S) or asynchronous remote data
replication (RDR/A). Based on operational mode requirement,
establish the IP WAN transport technology as follows:
— Repeated or unrepeated dark fiber.
— Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM).
— Synchronous optical network (SONET) and synchronous
digital hierarchy (SDH).
— Internet protocol.
Refer to Extended-Distance Operational Modes and SAN Extension
Transport Technologies for detailed information.
•
Determine peak available bandwidth - The peak available
bandwidth for data transport (exclusive of protocol overhead)
must be determined or obtained from the network service
provider. If the IP WAN link is dedicated, the peak available
bandwidth equals the total link bandwidth. This implies that no
other application data or traffic is routed across the link. If the IP
WAN link is shared, the peak available bandwidth equals that
portion of the total link bandwidth allotted for storage traffic at
peak use time.
Data ingress must not exceed peak available bandwidth or
downstream network device buffers fill, overflow, and drop data
packets. Dropped packets cause congestion and result in reduced
link throughput. To prevent this problem, enable rate limiting to
ensure the ingress data rate does not exceed the egress rate of the
slowest link in the IP WAN path.
Refer to IRL Optimization and Intelligent Port Speed for detailed
information.
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McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Configuration Planning Tasks
6
•
Negotiate SLA - Network service providers provide IP WAN
transport services in accordance with a negotiated service level
agreement (SLA). Ensure the SLA specifies the link availability,
peak available bandwidth, latency, security level, monitoring
level, packet loss, and mean time to repair (MTTR).
•
Intelligent port addresses - Each intelligent port that supports
Internet Fibre Channel protocol (iFCP) requires an IP address and
subnet mask. Depending on the gateway (next hop router), the
port may require an internal IP address and external IP address.
If there is a layer 2 connection between SAN routers (such as
WDM, SONET, or SDH), no gateway addressing is required
because there are no intervening layer 3 devices and iFCP ports
are on the same subnet. If there is a layer 3 connection between
SAN routers, gateway addressing must be specified because iFCP
ports are on different subnets.
•
Configure and test transport network - The IP WAN transport
network between SAN routers must be configured, operational,
tested, and able to support bidirectional storage traffic.
Specifically:
— SAN routers must be correctly configured and able to route
traffic between end subnets.
— Devices that are part of the IP WAN infrastructure should be
set to the appropriate operational mode, symmetrical flow
control should be enabled, and ports should be correctly
designated to support storage traffic or management traffic.
— As part of a test plan, ping the IP WAN to ensure subnet
connectivity.
•
Establish zone policy - SAN Routing provides flexibility with
respect to zoning behavior and interactions between a router and
attached fabrics. The zone policy specifies how zoning
information is synchronized between a SAN router and attached
fabrics. It is not a requirement that all router-attached fabrics use
the same zone policy. Refer to Routed SAN Zoning for detailed
information.
•
Provide accurate documentation - Accurate and up-to-date
documentation that records all facility locations, contact
personnel, device names, network addresses, port numbers, link
types, cable types, protocols, and equipment makes and models is
required.
Configuration Planning Tasks
6-33
Configuration Planning Tasks
6
Task 18: Complete Planning Checklists
As a guide for planning tasks, complete the planning checklists under
this task. Checklists provide detailed planning activities and provide
space for a planned completion date for each activity. The customer’s
management information system (MIS) project manager should
examine the checklists and determine the personnel and resources
required for completing planning and installation tasks. Customer
personnel might be used from the following functional areas:
•
Systems programming personnel to update input/output (I/O)
definitions to identify directors, fabric switches, and SAN routers.
•
Ethernet management personnel to obtain IP addresses, gateway
addresses, and subnet masks for directors, fabric switches, SAN
routers, and the management server; and a DNS host name for
the server.
•
Facilities planning personnel to outline the facility floor plan and
to arrange for electrical wiring, receptacles and telephone lines.
•
Installation planning personnel to determine fiber-optic and
Ethernet cabling requirements, routing requirements, and to plan
connectivity between directors, fabric switches, SAN routers, and
attached devices.
•
Trainers to determine training and education needs for
operations, administration, and maintenance personnel.
•
Administrators to determine director port names and WWN
nicknames, identify attached devices, and assign password levels
and user names for director, fabric switch, and SAN router access.
Table 6-2 lists physical planning and hardware installation tasks and
includes the task owner, due date, and comments. Table 6-3 lists
operational setup tasks and includes the task owner, due date, and
comments.
6-34
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Configuration Planning Tasks
6
Table 6-2
Physical Planning and Hardware Installation Tasks
Activity
Task Owner
Due Date
Comments
Locate the physical facilities.
Connect the facility alternating current
(AC) power circuits.
If more than one managed product, consider
separate power circuits for availability.
Obtain an uninterruptable power supply
(optional).
Recommended.
Obtain two outside-access phone lines.
One for the modem and the second for a telephone.
Order and deliver Ethernet and fiber-optic
cables with appropriate connectors.
Cables must support Fibre Channel
network, management network, and IP
WAN network (if SAN routing is supported)
connectivity.
Cables are purchased by the customer separately.
Plan to have cables installed before equipment
cabinet delivery.
Order the Fabricenter cabinet with one or
more McDATA managed products.
Order Fibre Channel devices and
peripherals.
Determine proximity of the equipment
cabinet (with directors, fabric switches,
and SAN routers) to attached devices
(multimode shortwave laser or singlemode
longwave laser).
500 meters (1.0625 Gbps), 300 meters (2.1250
Gbps), 150 meters (4.2500 Gbps), or 82 meters
(10.2000 Gbps) for 50/125 mm multimode cable.
300 meters (1.0625 Gbps), 150 meters (2.1250
Gbps), 75 meters (4.2500 Gbps), or 33 meters
(10.2000 Gbps) for 62.5/125 mm multimode cable.
10, 20, or 35 kilometers for 9/125 mm singlemode
cable, depending on the optic purchased.
Install Fibre Channel devices and
peripherals.
Set up server peripheral for inband director
or switch management (optional).
Order OSMS or FMS product feature enablement
(PFE) key.
Route fiber-optic jumper cables.
Set up local area network (LAN)
connections for directors, fabric switches,
SAN routers, and the management server.
If SAN routing is supported, provide additional
management server configuration tasks.
Configuration Planning Tasks
6-35
Configuration Planning Tasks
6
Table 6-2
Physical Planning and Hardware Installation Tasks (continued)
Activity
Task Owner
Due Date
Comments
Set up LAN connections to corporate
intranet for remote workstation access
(optional).
Remote workstation access is supported for
directors and fabric switches only.
Determine peak available bandwidth of the
available IP WAN network (optional).
If SAN routing is supported, rate limiting must be
configured and enabled based on peak available
bandwidth.
Negotiate SLA (optional).
If SAN routing is supported, an SLA must be
negotiated with a network service provider to
ensure reliable IP WAN transport service.
Table 6-3
Operational Setup Tasks
Activity
Obtain or assign IP addresses, subnet
masks, and gateway addresses for
products.
Task Owner
Due Date
Comments
Management server (if installing on a LAN with
non-McDATA devices).
Directors, fabric switches, and SAN routers (if
installing on a LAN with non-McDATA devices).
Remote user workstation (optional).
Simple network management protocol (SNMP)
management stations (optional).
Obtain or assign intelligent port network
addresses (optional).
SAN router intelligent ports require network
addressing to support iFCP connectivity.
Obtain gateway addresses for router or
other gateway devices on company LAN.
To configure management server and products
(if installing on a LAN with non-McDATA devices).
Assign host names.
Management server and products (optional).
Add host name to domain name service
(DNS) database.
Management server and products.
Determine what level of SAN
management application user rights are
to be used for up to 16 users.
6-36
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Configuration Planning Tasks
6
Table 6-3
Operational Setup Tasks (continued)
Activity
Determine if inband management of the
director or switch is to be used, and if so,
the type (FICON or open-systems).
Task Owner
Due Date
Comments
Management server and Fibre-Channel-attached
server peripheral (optional).
Determine if the call-home feature is to be
used.
Determine call-home telephone numbers
to be used.
Determine if the e-mail notification feature
is to be used.
Obtain e-mail addresses for event notification and
identify e-mail server.
Determine SNMP access to directors and
switches.
Obtain SNMP trap recipient IP addresses.
Determine SNMP information required (generic and
product-specific).
Determine if write permission is required for modifying
SNMP variables.
Determine if a multiswitch fabric is to be
implemented.
Define the fabric topology (mesh, core-to-edge, or
fabric (SAN) island).
Determine if SAN routing is to be
implemented.
Define the distance extension operational mode and
transport technology.
Determine if the zone management
feature is to be used.
Determine SAN routing zone policy
(optional).
To support SAN routing, determine how zoning
information is synchronized between a SAN router
and attached fabrics.
Introduce staff to SAN management,
SANvergence Manager, and Element
Manager applications.
Introduce staff to remote session
parameters.
Introduce staff to product recovery
concepts and messages.
Assign port names.
Configuration Planning Tasks
6-37
Configuration Planning Tasks
6
Table 6-3
Operational Setup Tasks (continued)
Activity
Configure extended distance ports.
Task Owner
Due Date
Comments
If SAN routing is supported, configure extended
distance ports in accordance with IP WAN
requirements.
Enable and configure optional feature
keys.
Configure link incident alerts.
Configure Ethernet events.
6-38
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
A
Product Specifications
This appendix lists specifications for McDATA directors, fabric
switches, storage area network (SAN) Routers, and the FC-512
Fabricenter equipment cabinet.
Director, Fabric Switch, and SAN Router Specifications
This section lists specifications (dimensions, weight, power
requirements, heat dissipation requirements, cooling airflow
clearances, acoustical noise generated, physical tolerances, storage
and shipping environment requirements, and operating environment
requirements) for directors, fabric switches, and SAN routers.
Dimensions
McDATA products have the following physical dimensions:
Intrepid 6064 Director:
Height: 39.7 centimeters (15.6 inches) or 9 rack units.
Width: 44.5 centimeters (17.5 inches).
Depth: 54.6 centimeters. (21.5 inches).
Weight: 53.1 kilograms (117.0 pounds).
Intrepid 6140 Director:
Height: 52.9 centimeters (20.8 inches) or 12 rack units.
Width: 44.5 centimeters (17.5 inches).
Depth: 61.3 centimeters. (24.1 inches).
Weight: 75.9 kilograms (167.0 pounds).
Product Specifications
A-1
Product Specifications
Intrepid 10000 Director:
Height: 62.2 centimeters (24.5 inches) or 14 rack units.
Width: 44.3 centimeters (17.5 inches).
Depth: 86.4 centimeters. (34.0 inches).
Weight: 152.0 kilograms (335.0 pounds).
Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch:
Height: 6.5 centimeters (2.6 inches) or 1.5 rack units.
Width: 44.5 centimeters (17.5 inches).
Depth: 64.1 centimeters (25.2 inches).
Weight: 16.8 kilograms (37.0 pounds).
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch:
Height: 4.1 centimeters (1.6 inches) or 1 rack unit.
Width: 43.7 centimeters (17.2 inches).
Depth: 47.3 centimeters (18.6 inches).
Weight: 6.8 kilograms (15.0 pounds).
Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch:
Height: 4.1 centimeters (1.6 inches) or 1 rack unit
Width: 19.9 centimeters (7.8 inches)
Depth: 33.3 centimeters (13.1 inches), plus 6.1 centimeters
(2.4 inches) for external power supplies
Weight: 4.0 kilograms (8.8 pounds)
Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch:
Height: 4.1 centimeters (1.6 inches) or 1 rack unit.
Width: 43.7 centimeters (17.2 inches).
Depth: 47.3 centimeters (18.6 inches).
Weight: 8.6 kilograms (19.0 pounds).
Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch:
Height: 4.1 centimeters (1.6 inches) or 1 rack unit
Width: 43.7 centimeters (17.2 inches)
Depth: 39.4 centimeters (15.5 inches)
Weight: 6.8 kilograms (15.0 pounds)
A-2
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Product Specifications
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router:
Height: 4.1 centimeters (1.6 inches) or 1 rack unit.
Width: 43.7 centimeters (17.2 inches).
Depth: 45.7 centimeters (18.0 inches).
Weight: 5.9 kilograms (13.0 pounds).
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router:
Height: 4.1 centimeters (1.6 inches) or 1 rack unit.
Width: 43.7 centimeters (17.2 inches).
Depth: 68.6.7 centimeters (27.0 inches).
Weight: 10.9 kilograms (24.0 pounds).
Power Requirements
McDATA products have the following nominal power requirements:
Intrepid 6064 Director:
Input voltage: 100 to 240 VAC.
Input current: 2.0 amps at 208 VAC.
Input frequency: 47 to 63 Hz.
Intrepid 6140 Director:
Input voltage: 200 to 240 VAC.
Input current: 4.2 amps at 208 VAC.
Input frequency: 47 to 63 Hz.
Intrepid 10000 Director:
Input voltage: 180 to 270 VAC.
Input current: 12.0 amps at 208 VAC.
Input frequency: 47 to 63 Hz.
NOTE: The Intrepid 10000 Director must be connected directly to facility
power outlets. The director draws a current of 32 amperes at power-on,
and must not be connected to power strips in the FC-512 Fabricenter
equipment cabinet.
Product Specifications
A-3
Product Specifications
Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch:
Input voltage: 100 to 240 VAC.
Input current: 1.3 amps at 208 VAC.
Input frequency: 47 to 63 Hz.
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch:
Input voltage: 100 to 240 VAC.
Input current: 0.4 amps at 208 VAC.
Input frequency: 47 to 63 Hz.
Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch:
Input voltage: 90 to 264 VAC
Input current: 0.18 amps at 208 VAC
Input frequency: 47 to 63 Hz
Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch:
Input voltage: 100 to 240 VAC.
Input current: 0.5 amps at 208 VAC.
Input frequency: 47 to 63 Hz.
Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch:
Input voltage: 90 to 264 VAC
Input current: 0.35 amps at 208 VAC
Input frequency: 47 to 63 Hz
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router:
Input voltage: 100 to 240 VAC.
Input current: 0.35 amps at 208 VAC.
Input frequency: 47 to 63 Hz.
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router:
Input voltage: 100 to 240 VAC.
Input current: 0.95 amps at 208 VAC.
Input frequency: 47 to 63 Hz.
A-4
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Product Specifications
Heat Dissipation
McDATA products have the following maximum heat dissipation
characteristics:
Intrepid 6064 Director: 490 watts (1,672 BTU/hr).
Intrepid 6140 Director: 841 watts (2,873 BTU/hr).
Intrepid 10000 Director: 2,496 watts (8,517 BTU/hr).
Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch: 245 watts (836 BTU/hr).
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch: 37 watts (127 BTU/hr).
Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch: 36 watts (123 BTU/hr).
Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch: 49 watts (167 BTU/hr).
Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch: 71 watts (242 BTU/hr).
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router: 73 watts (249 BTU/hr).
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router: 198 watts (676 BTU/hr).
Clearances
McDATA products have the following cooling airflow clearances. In
addition, the Intrepid 10000 Director may require removal from an
equipment cabinet (left-side service clearance required) for FRU
removal and replacement.
Intrepid 6064 and 10000 Directors:
Right and left side: 5.1 centimeters (2.0 inches).
Front and rear: 7.6 centimeters (3.0 inches).
Top and bottom: No clearance required.
NOTE: If the Intrepid 10000 Director is installed in a non-McDATA
equipment cabinet with a door that does not provide direct airflow
over the full height of the unit, 17.8 centimeters (7.0 inches) of front
clearance is required.
Intrepid 6140 Director:
Right and left side: 2.5 centimeters (1.0 inches).
Front and rear: 7.6 centimeters (3.0 inches).
Top and bottom: No clearance required.
Product Specifications
A-5
Product Specifications
Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch:
Right and left side: No clearance required.
Front and rear: 7.6 centimeters (3.0 inches).
Top and bottom: No clearance required.
Sphereon 4000-Series Switches:
Right and left side: 1.3 centimeters (0.5 inches).
Front and rear: 7.6 centimeters (3.0 inches).
Top and bottom: No clearance required.
Eclipse 1620 and 2640 SAN Routers:
Right and left side: No clearance required.
Front and rear: 7.6 centimeters (3.0 inches).
Top and bottom: No clearance required.
Acoustical Noise
and Physical
Tolerances
This section lists acoustical noise generated, shock and vibration
tolerances, and inclination tolerances for McDATA directors, fabric
switches, and SAN routers.
Acoustical noise generated:
Intrepid 6064 Director: 55 dB “A” scale.
Sphereon 4300 and 4500 Fabric Switches: 64 dB “A” scale.
Intrepid 10000 Director: 75 dB “A” scale.
All other products: 70 dB “A” scale.
Shock and vibration tolerance:
All products: 60 Gs for 10 milliseconds without
nonrecoverable errors.
Inclination tolerance:
All products: 100 maximum.
Storage and
Shipping
Environment
A-6
This section specifies environmental requirements for storing and
shipping McDATA products. Protective packaging must be provided
for all domestic and international shipping methods.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Product Specifications
Shipping temperature:
-400 F to 1400 F (-400 C to 600 C).
Storage temperature:
340 F to 1400 F (10 C to 600 C).
Shipping relative humidity:
5% to 100%.
Storage relative humidity:
5% to 80%.
Maximum wet-bulb temperature:
840 F (290 C).
Altitude:
40,000 feet (12,192 meters).
Operating
Environment
This section specifies environmental requirements for operating
McDATA products.
Temperature:
400 F to 1040 F (40 C to 400 C).
Relative humidity:
8% to 80%.
Maximum wet-bulb temperature:
810 F (270 C).
Altitude:
10,000 feet (3,048 meters).
FC-512 Fabricenter Cabinet Specifications
This section lists specifications (dimensions, weight, power
requirements, cooling airflow clearances, and service clearances) for
the FC-512 Fabricenter equipment cabinet. An illustration of the
cabinet footprint is also provided (Figure A-1).
Product Specifications
A-7
Product Specifications
Dimensions
The Fabricenter cabinet has the following physical dimensions:
Height: 186.1 centimeters (73.2 inches).
A total of 39 rack units (39 U) are available internal to the cabinet
for product installation.
Width: 61.0 centimeters (24.0 inches).
Depth: 105.4 centimeters (41.5 inches).
Weight (no installed products): 153.2 kilograms (337.0 pounds).
Weight (shipping container): 50.9 kilograms (112.0 pounds).
Power Requirements
The Fabricenter cabinet has the following power requirements:
Input voltage: 200 to 240 VAC.
Input current: 30.0 amps at 208 VAC.
Input frequency: 47 to 63 Hz.
Clearances
The Fabricenter cabinet has the following cooling airflow and service
clearances.
Cooling airflow clearances:
Right and left side: No clearance required.
Front and rear: 15.2 centimeters (6.0 inches).
Service clearances:
Right and left side: No clearance required.
Front and rear: 91.4 centimeters (36.0 inches).
Cabinet Footprint
Figure A-1 illustrates the Fabricenter cabinet footprint. The bottom
denotes the front of the cabinet. The illustration includes:
1. Cabinet-leveling screws (four total).
2. Cooling airflow cutouts (eight total).
3. Fibre Channel cable cutouts (two total).
4. Caster wheel attachments (four total).
5. Power cable cutout (one).
A-8
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Product Specifications
Figure A-1
Fabricenter Cabinet Footprint
Product Specifications
A-9
Product Specifications
A-10
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
B
Firmware Summary
This appendix summarizes differences and similarities between the
Enterprise Operating System, classic (E/OSc) for Intrepid 6000-series
directors and Sphereon-series fabric switches; Enterprise Operating
System, nScale (E/OSn) for the Intrepid 10000 Director; and
Enterprise Operating System, internetworking (E/OSi) for
Eclipse-series SAN routers. The appendix includes tables that list:
•
System-related differences.
•
Fibre Channel protocol-related differences.
•
Management-related differences.
System-Related Differences
Table B-1 summarizes system-related differences between the E/OSc
8.0, E/OSn 6.0, and E/OSi 4.6 firmware versions.
Table B-1
E/OSc versus E/OSn and E/OSi - System-Related Differences
Feature
E/OSc 8.0
E/OSn 6.0
E/OSi 4.6
Operating system
E/OSc with VxWorks® and
McDATA-proprietary kernels.
E/OSn with MontaVista™ Linux
(CTP cards) and ThreadX® line
module (LIM) kernels.
E/OSi with VxWorks® with
McDATA-proprietary
modifications.
Initial program load
(IPL) requirements
IPL required to activate a
product feature enablement
(PFE) key or reset software.
IPL functionality not available.
PFE key activation does not
require code restart.
IPL functionality not available.
PFE key activation not
applicable.
Firmware Summary
B-1
Firmware Summary
Table B-1
B-2
E/OSc versus E/OSn and E/OSi - System-Related Differences (Continued)
Feature
E/OSc 8.0
E/OSn 6.0
Nondisruptive hot code
activation (HotCAT)
Upgrade nondisruptive to Fibre
Channel traffic for single and
dual CTP card directors and for
fabric switches. Upgrade does
not require director CTP card
switchover. E/OSc allows
upgrade or downgrade by
greater than one functional
release.
Director must be set offline to
upgrade a single CTP card.
Upgrade nondisruptive to Fibre
Channel traffic for dual CTP card
but requires card switchover.
New firmware image provided
for all CTP cards and eight LIMs.
E/OSn allows upgrade or
downgrade by only one
functional release.
Nondisruptive hot code
activation not applicable.
Initial microcode load
(IML) functionality
IML functionality is supported.
IML functionality not available.
IML functionality not available.
Non-redundant CTP
card upgrade (directors
only)
Concurrent CTP card upgrade
supported.
CTP card upgrade disruptive to CTP card upgrade not
applicable.
Fibre Channel traffic and
requires director to be set offline.
Switching logic card
function (directors)
One active serial crossbar
assembly (SBAR) and one
standby SBAR supported.
Four load-sharing active
switching module (SWM) cards
supported, eliminating the need
for standby modules.
Switching logic card function not
applicable.
Optical paddles
(directors)
Optical paddles not applicable.
Port cards provide equivalent
functionality.
Concurrently replaceable optical
paddles are supported, but Fibre
Channel traffic is disrupted to all
ports on the paddle.
Optical paddles not applicable.
Power supplies
Two power modules (or power
supplies) with two power cords.
The Sphereon 4300 Fabric
Switch has one power supply
and one power cord.
Four power modules with two
power cords.
Two power supplies with two
power cords. Power cords
connect to the front panel of the
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router and to
the back of the Eclipse 2640
SAN Router.
Power-on diagnostic
step (P-step) codes
Numeric format.
Text-based format.
Text-based format.
Power-on-hour (POH)
updates
POH vital product data (VPD)
updated to field-replaceable unit
(FRU) read-only memory (ROM)
every hour.
POH VPD updated to CTP card
memory every hour then
downloaded to FRU ROM upon
FRU failure.
Power-on-hour updates not
applicable.
10.2000 Gbps port
transmission speed
support
10.2000 Gbps port operation not
available.
10.2000 Gbps port operation
supported.
10.2000 Gbps port operation not
available.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
E/OSi 4.6
Firmware Summary
Table B-1
E/OSc versus E/OSn and E/OSi - System-Related Differences (Continued)
Feature
E/OSc 8.0
E/OSn 6.0
E/OSi 4.6
Misaligned word
generation
Misaligned words not generated. Misaligned word is generated
when the port state machine
(PSM) transitions from inactive
to active state or from active to
inactive state. This anomaly has
no effect on Fibre Channel
device behavior.
Misaligned words not generated.
Flexible partition
(FlexPar) feature
support
Flexpar feature not supported.
Up to four FlexPars supported
for each Intrepid 10000 Director
chassis.
Flexpar feature not supported.
Maintenance port
access
For directors, one 9-pin, RS-232
serial port shared between two
CTP cards. Port-attached device
communicates only with the
active card. For fabric switches,
one 9-pin, RS-232 serial port per
switch.
Each CTP card has an
independent 9-pin, RS-232 serial
port that provides access to
engineering-level interfaces.
Maintenance mode and
command line interface (CLI)
available through the active CTP
card port.
One 9-pin, RS-232 serial port
per SAN router.
Fibre Channel Protocol-Related Differences
Table B-2 summarizes Fibre Channel protocol-related differences
between the E/OSc 8.0, E/OSn 6.0, and E/OSi 4.6 firmware versions.
Table B-2
E/OSc versus E/OSn and E/OSi - Fibre Channel Protocol-Related Differences
Feature
E/OSc 8.0
E/OSn 6.0
E/OSi 4.6
Node port (N_Port) ID
assignment
N_Port ID assigned based on
port number plus offset of four.
Device attached to port nn
obtains N_Port ID of
dd(nn+4)xx, where dd is the
switch domain ID and xx is
hexadecimal 13.
N_Port ID assigned based on
port number. Device attached to
Port nn obtains N_Port ID of
ddnnxx, where dd is the switch
domain ID and xx is
hexadecimal 13.
N_Port ID assigned based on
port number. Device attached to
Port nn obtains N_Port ID of
ddnnxx, where dd is the switch
domain ID (always 01) and
xx is hexadecimal 13.
Exchange switch
support (ESS)
sequence transmission
ESS not transmitted until fabric
shortest path first (FSPF)
algorithm obtains best hop to
target domain.
ESS transmitted at the moment
adjacency to the target domain is
detected (link at FSPF FULL
state). Therefore, ESS always
transmitted sooner for an
Intrepid 10000 Director.
ESS transmitted only in
response to an ESS received
from another fabric element.
Firmware Summary
B-3
Firmware Summary
Table B-2
E/OSc versus E/OSn and E/OSi - Fibre Channel Protocol-Related Differences
Feature
B-4
E/OSc 8.0
E/OSn 6.0
E/OSi 4.6
Expansion port (E_Port)
staging
E_Port staging not supported.
The Intrepid 10000 Director
supports E_Port staging. The
director allows only one E_Port
connection to a neighbor switch
to take part in a fabric build
process. Upon process
completion, subsequent E_Ports
to neighbor switches are brought
up (staged). In addition, staged
E_Ports are brought up in
groups to minimize Class F
traffic and avoid overloading.
E_Port staging not supported.
ESS payload
processing and domain
port number zoning
E/OSc Version 6.0 (or earlier)
handshakes the ESS sequence
but does not apply content of
ESS payload to calculate port
numbering (PN) to logical port
address (PA) mapping. Legacy
directors and switches are
assumed to use an offset of four
for PN to PA mapping.
The Intrepid 10000 Director
sends and accepts payloads
specifying minimum and
maximum logical port addresses
and processes payload content
to calculate PN to PA mapping.
A correct mapping scheme
interprets domain port number
zoning enforcement across the
fabric and allows the director to
participate in a legacy fabric with
domain port number zoning.
E/OSi handshakes the ESS
sequence. However, domain port
number zoning not supported.
Registered state
change notification
(RSCN) coalescing
Only fabric login (FLOGI) and
Name Server events are
coalesced.
The Intrepid 10000 Director
coalesces all events that trigger
and transmit RSCNs to N_Ports.
This minimizes the number of
RSCNs generated.
SAN routers coalesce all RSCN
events.
Generating fabric
format RSCNs after
CTP failover (directors)
Does not replicate RSCN event
triggers, therefore transmits a
fabric format RSCN to all
attached devices after CTP card
failover.
Replicates events that trigger
RSCNs to the backup CTP,
therefore does not generate a
fabric format RSCN after CTP
failover.
RSCNs after CTP failover not
supported.
Hop count restriction
Hop count of up to three is
supported. Devices more than
three hops away cannot be
reached.
No hop count restriction is
applied.
No hop count restriction is
applied.
Exchange switch
capabilities (ESC)
support
SW_ILS ESC sequence not
supported.
The Intrepid 10000 Director
processes SW_ILS ESC
sequences to identify
neighboring director ports.
SW_ILS ESC sequence not
supported.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Firmware Summary
Table B-2
E/OSc versus E/OSn and E/OSi - Fibre Channel Protocol-Related Differences
Feature
E/OSc 8.0
E/OSn 6.0
E/OSi 4.6
Reroute delay behavior
With reroute delay enabled, the
destination route point is cleared
and a delay equal to the error
detect time-out value (ED_TOV)
is applied before a new route is
programmed. During the delay,
Class 3 frames are dropped.
With reroute delay enabled, the
Intrepid 10000 Director first
pauses incoming port traffic and
applies a delay to allow frames
internal to the director to be
transmitted. This delay during
route reprogramming prevents
frames being sent out of order.
Reroute delay not supported.
Switch internal link
services (SW_ILS)
during fabric build
SW_ILS sequences transmitted
on up to eight interswitch links
(ISLs) per neighbor switch.
SW_ILS sequences transmitted
only on the primary ISL to a
neighbor switch. However, if the
domain identifier assigned (DIA)
link service is enabled, the
Intrepid 10000 Director floods all
ISLs. This reduces Class F traffic
in a large fabric.
SW_ILS sequences not
supported.
Management-Related Differences
Table B-3 summarizes management-related differences between the
E/OSc 8.0, E/OSn 6.0, and E/OSi 4.6 firmware versions.
Table B-3
E/OSc versus E/OSn and E/OSi - Management-Related Differences
Feature
E/OSc 8.0
E/OSn 6.0
E/OSi 4.6
Command line interface
(CLI) scope and syntax
CLI supports a
configuration-related subset of
product features.
Exhaustive CLI command set
supported, including all
configurable features of the
Intrepid 10000 Director. Different
in syntax and semantics from
E/OSc and E/OSi CLIs.
Exhaustive CLI command set
supported, including all
configurable features of SAN
routers. Different in syntax and
semantics from E/OSc and
E/OSn CLIs.
EFCM Basic Edition
interface
HTML-based EFCM Basic
Edition interface supported.
EFCM Basic Edition interface not
supported.
EFCM Basic Edition interface not
supported. Embedded Element
Manager application is a Java
applet, not HTML-based.
Proprietary MIB interface
exhaustive and supports all
configurable features of the
Intrepid 10000 Director.
Proprietary MIB interface
exhaustive and supports all
configurable features of SAN
routers.
Proprietary MIB support Proprietary MIB interface
supports a configuration-related
subset of product features.
Firmware Summary
B-5
Firmware Summary
Table B-3
E/OSc versus E/OSn and E/OSi - Management-Related Differences (Continued)
Feature
B-6
E/OSc 8.0
E/OSn 6.0
E/OSi 4.6
General SNMP support
SNMP interface supports
Version 1, Version 2c, and a
configuration-related subset of
product features.
SNMP interface supports
Version 1, Version 2c, and
Version 3. Read-only use
recommended with Versions 1
and 2c. Read-write use
recommended with secure
Version 3.
SNMP interface supports
Version 1 and a
configuration-related subset of
product features.
Fibre Alliance
management
information base (MIB)
support
Supports Fibre Channel
Management Framework
Integration MIB (FC-MGMT-MIB)
Versions 3.0 and 3.1. MIB
version user defined.
Supports FC-MGMT-MIB
Version 4.0. MIB version not
user defined.
Supports FC-MGMT-MIB
Version 3.0. MIB version not
user defined.
SNMP traps
Subset of event notifications
sent as SNMP traps. All
transmissions use proprietary
not most recently used (NMRU)
protocol.
All significant events
asynchronously distributed as
SNMP traps.
Subset of event notifications
asynchronously distributed as
SNMP traps.
Throughput threshold
alert (TTA) support
Port TTAs supported through the
EFCM and CLI interfaces.
Switch performance threshold
alerts (SPTAs) not supported.
Port TTAs supported through the
Intrepid 10000 Director CLI and
EFCM interfaces. Paddle-pair
SPTAs only supported through
the director CLI interface.
Port TTAs and SPTAs not
supported.
Counter threshold alert
(CTA) support
Port counter CTAs supported
through the CLI interface only.
Port counter CTAs not
supported.
Port counter CTAs not
supported.
Product feature
enablement (PFE) key
support
PFE keys supported: Element
Manager, OpenTrunking,
SANtegrity binding and
authentication, OSMS, FMS,
FlexPorts, FICON CUP zoning,
full volatility, full fabric, and NPIV.
PFE keys supported: Element
Manager, SANtegrity binding,
FMS, remote fabric, and
FlexPars (last two are Intrepid
10000 Director features). Full
volatility is supported but does
not require a PFE key.
PFE keys are not supported
through the SANvergence
Manager or Element Manager
applications.
Port address FE and
FF prohibit dynamic
connectivity mask
(PDCM) array entries
Port addresses FE and FF are
implemented internally and only
when FMS is PFE-key enabled.
Port addresses FE and FF do
not exist in the PDCM array and
cannot be used. FICON devices
cannot attach to physical ports
associated with these
addresses. When FMS is
enabled, the ports become spare
(transmit only an OLS) but can
be port swapped.
FICON management style (with
associated PDCM array) not
supported.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Firmware Summary
Table B-3
E/OSc versus E/OSn and E/OSi - Management-Related Differences (Continued)
Feature
E/OSc 8.0
E/OSn 6.0
E/OSi 4.6
FICON Management
Server (FMS) PFE key
install and enable
behavior
FMS is auto-enabled upon PFE
installation. Management style
automatically changes to
FICON.
When PFE is installed, the user
must explicitly enable FMS.
Management style does not
automatically change to FICON.
FMS PFE key not supported.
Saving a user-defined
PDCM array through
EFCM
Saving a user-defined PDCM
array through EFCM supported.
Cannot save a user-defined
PDCM array through EFCM.
FICON management style (with
associated PDCM array) not
supported.
Saving a PDCM array
after reset (single CTP
card)
No limitation. When a
single-CTP card director is reset,
the PDCM array is saved.
When Active = Saved is not set
and a single-CTP card Intrepid
10000 Director is reset, the
PDCM array is not saved. This
does not apply to a redundant
CTP card configuration.
FICON management style (with
associated PDCM array) not
supported.
Full volatility support
Full volatility supported through
PFE key.
Full volatility always supported
because the Intrepid 10000
Director does not persistently
store data frame contents on any
FRU.
Full volatility not supported.
Port configuration
behavior as a function
of port module type
(directors)
Configuration set based on last
inserted port card type (FPM,
UPM, or XPM). If a new port card
is different in type from the last
inserted card, then all port-level
parameters for the new card are
reset to default. Parameters
include port type, transmission
speed, BB_Credit, block or
unblock, preferred path, allow or
prohibit, and port swap settings.
Configuration set independent of
port card type, except
transmission speed and
BB_Credit are configured and
stored independently for 2.1250
and 10.2000 Gbps ports (user
specifies port number and type).
Port-level parameters are not
reset to default when a new port
card is inserted.
Port configuration behavior as a
function of port module type not
applicable.
Display of Fibre
Channel link speed
Fibre Channel link speed always
displayed, regardless of switch
state.
Fibre Channel link speed not
displayed when Intrepid 10000
Director is disabled.
Configured link speed displayed
at Element Manager application
main window and actual link
speed displayed at Port
Configuration dialog box,
regardless of switch state.
Port speed
configuration
Ports are automatically set
offline or offline and not required
to be blocked to set transmission
speed.
Ports required to be blocked
(offline) to set transmission
speed.
Ports are not required to be set
offline to set transmission speed.
Firmware Summary
B-7
Firmware Summary
Table B-3
E/OSc versus E/OSn and E/OSi - Management-Related Differences (Continued)
Feature
B-8
E/OSc 8.0
E/OSn 6.0
Port group online
diagnostics (directors)
Diagnostic errors for any single
port in a group (port card) cause
a group failure indication.
Diagnostic errors for any single
port in a group (LIM) are
indicated individually and do not
cause a group failure indication.
Port grouping (port cards or
LIMs) not supported.
Online state behavior
Product online or offline state not
persistent. An IML or IPL sets
the product online.
Intrepid 10000 Director online or
offline state is persistent.
Online or offline state set at the
port level and is persistent only if
setting is saved to FLASH
memory.
Port reset while blocked
Port is reset independent of port
blocking state.
Port is reset only if port is not
blocked.
Port reset supported for Eclipse
2640 intelligent ports (13 to 16),
independent of port blocking
state.
Requirements to set
product offline
Product can be online to set
domain RSCN state and zone
change RSCN control state.
Intrepid 10000 Director must be
offline to set domain RSCN state
and zone change RSCN control
state.
Online or offline status to set
domain RSCN state or zone
change RSCN control state not
applicable.
Ability to disable
management interfaces
Can selectively disable SNMP
Cannot selectively disable
and CLI management interfaces. SNMP and CLI management
interfaces.
Port technology
information
Port technology (optical
transceiver) information
available when the product is
online or offline.
Port technology (optical
transceiver) information
available only when the Intrepid
10000 Director is online.
Port technology (optical
transceiver) information not
available.
Port type and speed
reporting (port offline or
blocked)
Offline or blocked ports report
the configured port type and
speed, not the actual port type
and speed.
Offline or blocked ports report
G_Port and Not Established for
the actual port type and speed.
When the Intrepid 10000
Director is set offline, port state
changes are not reflected at the
user interface.
Online and offline ports report
configured port type and speed
at Element Manager application
main window and actual port
type and speed at Port
Configuration dialog box. No
difference between configured
and actual port type.
Port type displayed in
the Port List View.
If no established connection or
cable attached to port
transceiver, Type field entry
defaults to configured port type.
If no established connection or
cable attached to port
transceiver, Type field entry
defaults to Unknown.
Port List View not supported by
the SANvergence Manager
application. However, port type
is always displayed as
configured, even when port is
offline.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
E/OSi 4.6
Cannot selectively disable
SNMP and CLI management
interfaces.
Firmware Summary
Table B-3
E/OSc versus E/OSn and E/OSi - Management-Related Differences (Continued)
Feature
E/OSc 8.0
E/OSn 6.0
E/OSi 4.6
Special port states and
reason codes
Port state Inactive with special
reason codes Reserved and
InvalidOTPConfig not
supported.
Logical port addresses FE and
FF forced offline and placed in
special state Inactive with
reason code Reserved if FICON
CUP is enabled. FICON states
are Internal Port (address FE)
and Unimplemented (address
FF).
If the top or bottom optical
paddle pairs in a line module are
both 10.2000 Gbps paddles,
then ports in one paddle are set
offline and placed in the Inactive
state with special reason code
InvalidOTPConfig. If the
director powers up with two
10.2000 Gbps paddles in a pair,
the upper paddle is set offline. If
a second 10.2000 Gbps paddle
is added to an operating director,
the newly-inserted paddle is set
offline.
At the CLI, port state Testing
indicates a Fibre Channel port is
enabled without a device
attached.
At the CLI and Element Manager
application, port state Needs
Reboot indicates SAN Router
requires a reboot because a
Fibre Channel port is configured
as a GbE port (or vice versa).
Inactive zone set
support
Only the active zone set is
stored.
Up to 32 inactive zone sets
saved and supported through
the CLI interface.
Only the active zone set is
automatically stored. Selected
inactive zone sets saved and
supported through the
SANvergence Manager
application.
Maintenance mode
command set
Maintenance mode commands
supported through the product
serial maintenance port
(protected access), but
command set differs from the
Intrepid 10000 Director.
Maintenance mode commands
supported through the product
serial maintenance port
(protected access). Maintenance
mode entered as a special user
through the CLI interface. All CLI
commands available in
maintenance mode.
Maintenance mode commands
supported through the product
serial maintenance port
(protected access) or Telnet
connection.
Diagnostics
(port granularity)
Diagnostics supported for one
port or all ports on FPM, UPM, or
XPM cards.
Diagnostics supported for one
port or all ports on an optical
paddle pair. User provides a data
pattern and duration through the
CLI interface.
Diagnostics supported for one
port or all ports when the SAN
router is offline.
Firmware Summary
B-9
Firmware Summary
Table B-3
E/OSc versus E/OSn and E/OSi - Management-Related Differences (Continued)
Feature
B-10
E/OSc 8.0
E/OSn 6.0
E/OSi 4.6
Diagnostics
(port failure state)
Port set to Failed state upon
failing a user- invoked port
diagnostic test.
If external port diagnostics are
performed without a loopback
plug the diagnostic test fails, but
port is not set to Failed.
If external port diagnostics or
management port diagnostics
are performed without a
loopback plug, the diagnostic
test fails, but port is not set to
Failed.
Buffer-to-buffer credit
(BB_Credit) support
BB_Credit subject to a per-port
maximum value
and a product-wide (pool)
maximum value. Refer to
Distance Extension Through
BB_Credit for information.
BB_Credit subject to a per-port
maximum value and a
paddle-pair wide (pool)
maximum value. BB_Credit also
subject to remote fabric PFE
being enabled or disabled. Refer
to Distance Extension Through
BB_Credit for information.
Fibre Channel ports set to a
BB_Credit value of 16. Intelligent
ports support IP network
connectivity and not assigned
BB_Credits. Ports provide 96
MB of TCP packet buffering per
transmission direction.
Audit log entries related
to flexible partitioning
Flexpar feature not supported.
When a user downloads
firmware, performs a CTP card
switchover, configures
partitioning, or clears the system
error light (or performs an
operation with system-wide
impact), the corresponding Audit
log entry is recorded only for the
ADMIN partition (0). Log entries
are processed differently for the
ADMIN partition (0) versus other
partitions (1 through 3).
Flexpar feature not supported.
Other log entries
related to flexible
partitioning
Flexpar feature not supported.
Log entries (non Audit log) are
processed differently for the
ADMIN partition (0) versus other
partitions (1 through 3).
Flexpar feature not supported.
Audit log entries
(EFCM)
Log contains EFCM user name
and IP address of EFCM client.
Log contains only the IP address
of the EFCM server. Log does
not contain EFCM user name
and IP address of EFCM client.
Remote workstations (clients)
not supported through the
SANvergence Manager
application. The application
supports an APP log that is
functionally equivalent to the
EFCM Audit log. In addition, the
Element Manager application
has an Audit log independent of
SANvergence Manager.
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Firmware Summary
Table B-3
E/OSc versus E/OSn and E/OSi - Management-Related Differences (Continued)
Feature
E/OSc 8.0
E/OSn 6.0
E/OSi 4.6
FICON management
style support
User-selectable option on a per
product basis. Setting is stored
on the product.
User-selectable option on a per
user (different for each login ID)
or per product basis. Setting is
stored on the management
server, not the product. Setting is
backed up by the server backup
process.
FICON management style not
supported through the
SANvergence Manager
application.
LED status indicators
For director CTP and SBAR card
LEDs: Green LED indicates
active or standby. Amber LED
indicates failed or beaconing.
For director FPM, UPM, or XPM
card LEDs: Amber LED indicates
failed or beaconing.
For switches: Green PWR LED
indicates operational. Amber
ERR LED indicates failed or
beaconing.
For CTP, SWM, or LIM card
State LED (bicolor LED): Green
indicates online. Amber indicates
failed, degraded, or beaconing.
For CTP card Role LED (bicolor
LED): Green indicates active or
standby. Amber indicates failed.
Green SYS LED indicates SAN
router operational.
For Eclipse 1620 SAN Router,
green PS1 and PS2 LEDs
indicate power supplies
operational.
Access to simple name
server (SNS) database
User can only view local SNS
database through the EFCM
application and CLI interface.
User can view local SNS
database through the EFCM
application and CLI interface.
User can view global SNS
databases only through the CLI
interface.
User can view local and global
SNS databases through the
SANvergence Manager
application. User can view only
local SNS database through the
Element Manager application.
CLI interface only shows SNS
database for direct-attached
devices.
Date and time
synchronization
Periodic and user-initiated Sync
Now date
and time synchronization
between EFCM application and
product supported.
Periodic date and time
synchronization between EFCM
application and product not
supported. Application supports
user-initiated Sync Now function
for the Intrepid 10000 Director.
Periodic date and time
synchronization between
SANvergence Manager
application and product not
supported.
Hard zoning restriction
(fabric size and port
type)
No zoning restriction based on
fabric size and port type.
When a paddle pair exceeds
seven E_Port connections and
the fabric node count exceeds
800 devices, hard zoning is
disabled for that paddle pair.
No zoning restriction based on
fabric size and port type.
Firmware Summary
B-11
Firmware Summary
B-12
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Index
A
access control list
inband 5-18
out-of-band 5-18
role-based access 4-7
any-to-any connectivity 1-28
application I/O profiles 3-31
arbitrated loop switch
connectivity features 1-28
default network address 6-9
security features 1-31
serviceability features 1-32
arbitrated loop topology
description 3-2
fabric-attached planning considerations 3-11
FL_Port connectivity 3-10
operating characteristics 3-2
private device connectivity 3-7
private loop 3-9
private loop planning considerations 3-10
public device connectivity 3-6
public loop 3-8
shared mode operation 3-3
switched mode operation 3-4
architecture
E/OSc description 2-11
E/OSi description 2-12
E/OSn description 2-11
EON 1-9, 1-10
firmware differences B-1
firmware similarities B-1
nScale 1-12
asynchronous remote data replication
description 4-38
IP transport 4-48
long-distance requirement 4-38
SONET/SDH transport 4-47
B
backup features
CD-RW drive 2-13
director and fabric switch NV-RAM
configuration 2-13
SAN management data directory 2-14
SAN router NV-RAM configuration 2-14
bandwidth
dark fiber transport 4-46
dedicated (SAN routing) 4-55
director ports 1-7
fabric switch ports 1-15
IP transport 4-48
IRL 4-25
ISL 3-22
rate limiting (SAN routing) 4-51
SAN router ports 1-23
SONET/SDH transport 4-47
WDM transport 4-47
BB_Credit
configure at Element Manager 1-30, 4-50
description 1-30, 4-49
extended distance support 1-29
full fabric feature 5-38
Intrepid 10000 Director 4-50
remote fabric feature 5-39
Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch 1-29
Index
I-1
Index
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch 1-30
Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch 1-30
Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch 1-30
Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch 1-30
best practices
cabling 3-20
configuration planning 6-1
connectivity 3-20
distance extension 4-55
FCP and FICON intermix 3-47
FICON cascading 3-54
multiswitch fabric topology 3-20
preventing ISL oversubscription 3-33
SAN routing 4-29
security 5-30
binding
fabric 5-19
persistent 5-29
SANtegrity 5-19
switch 5-19
business continuance
IP versus storage traffic 4-36
operational mode
asynchronous remote
data replication 4-38
synchronous remote
data replication 4-38
requirements
data priority 4-37
distance 4-37
recovery point objective 4-37
recovery time objective 4-37
transport technology
dark fiber 4-39
IP 4-45
SONET/SDH 4-42
WDM 4-40
transport technology comparison 4-48
C
cable routing
Ethernet requirements 5-11
fiber-optic requirements 5-8
planning considerations 6-3
I-2
cabling
50/125 multimode 5-7
62.5/125 multimode 5-7
9/125 singlemode 5-7
best practices 3-20
Ethernet cable routing 5-11
fiber-optic cable routing 5-8
planning considerations 6-3
port requirements 5-2
call-home support
description 1-33
telephone connection 6-12
CD-RW drive 2-13
checklist
operational setup tasks 6-36
planning and hardware
installation tasks 6-35
class of service
Class 2 1-8
Class 3 1-8
Class F 1-8
clearances
directors A-5
fabric switches A-5
Fabricenter cabinet A-8
SAN routers A-5
command line interface 2-21
configuration diagram 6-12
connectivity
best practices 3-20
features 1-28
SAN router (logical) 4-12
SAN router (physical) 4-11
connector, LC duplex 5-7
consolidating
iSCSI servers 4-60
iSCSI storage 4-61
SAN islands
FlexPar technology 4-4
SAN routing 4-8
servers 3-12
tape devices 3-13
core-to-edge fabric
description 3-16
illustration, 2-by-14 3-17
suitability 3-16
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Index
Tier 1 connections 3-17
Tier 2 connections 3-18
Tier 3 connections 3-18
CT authentication 5-17
D
dark fiber distance extension
bandwidth 4-46
description 4-39
illustration 4-40
latency 4-46
recovery point objective 4-46
recovery time objective 4-46
data compression
algorithm selections 4-26
description 1-24
optimizing WAN use 4-55
set compression level 4-57
data transmission distance
cable type 5-4
multiswitch fabric requirements 3-21
transceiver type 5-4
default network addresses
director or fabric switch 6-9
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router 6-9
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router 6-9
management server 6-8
device
connectivity
Tier 1 3-17
Tier 2 3-18
Tier 3 3-18
fan-out ratio 3-34
locality 3-33
device window
description 2-19
illustration 2-19
dimensions
directors A-1
fabric switches A-1
Fabricenter cabinet A-8
SAN routers A-1
director
connectivity features 1-28
default network address 6-9
description 1-6
FlexPars 4-4
performance features 1-7
product overview 1-2
security features 1-31
serviceability features 1-32
specifications A-1
disaster recovery
IP versus storage traffic 4-36
operational mode
asynchronous remote
data replication 4-38
synchronous remote
data replication 4-38
requirements
data priority 4-37
distance 4-37
recovery point objective 4-37
recovery time objective 4-37
transport technology
dark fiber 4-39
IP 4-45
SONET/SDH 4-42
WDM 4-40
transport technology comparison 4-48
distance extension
assigning BB_Credits 4-50, 5-6
best practices 4-55
full fabric feature 5-38
operational mode
asynchronous remote
data replication 4-38
synchronous remote
data replication 4-38
port configuration 5-6
remote fabric feature 5-39
support 1-29
transport technology
dark fiber 4-39
IP 4-45
SONET/SDH 4-42
WDM 4-40
transport technology comparison 4-48
Domain_ID assignment
director 3-24
fabric switch 3-24
Index
I-3
Index
proxy Domain_ID 30 4-13, 4-18
proxy Domain_ID 31 4-13, 4-25
R_Port 4-15
SAN router 4-15
E
E/OSc
description 2-11
management-related properties B-5
operating system differences B-1
operating system similarities B-1
protocol-related properties B-3
system-related properties B-1
E/OSi
description 2-12
management-related properties B-5
operating system differences B-1
operating system similarities B-1
protocol-related properties B-3
system-related properties B-1
E/OSn
description 2-11
management-related properties B-5
operating system differences B-1
operating system similarities B-1
protocol-related properties B-3
system-related properties B-1
E_Port
DHCHAP authentication 5-17
full fabric feature 1-17
port fencing 1-36
segmentation 3-27
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router
default network address 6-9
description 1-24
FRUs 1-26
iFCP protocol 4-23
illustration 1-25
intelligent ports 1-25
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router
default network address 6-9
description 1-26
FRUs 1-27
iFCP protocol 4-23, 4-61
I-4
illustration 1-26
intelligent ports 1-27
mFCP protocol 4-20
EFCM application
description 2-15
GUI description 2-15
product overview 1-5
EFCM Basic Edition interface
description 2-20
plan console support 6-6
server connectivity 5-14
EFCM Lite application
description 2-3
unsupported features 2-4
Element Manager application
description (director and fabric switch) 2-16
description (SAN router) 2-19
feature key description 5-39
Hardware view 2-16
e-mail notification
description 1-33
support planning 6-11
Enterprise Fabric mode 5-19
environment
operating A-7
shipping A-6
storage A-6
EON architecture 1-9, 1-10
Ethernet cabling
access planning 6-7
management server 5-10
remote workstations 5-11
routing 5-11
Ethernet hub
description 2-10
illustration 2-10
extended distance
assigning BB_Credits 4-50, 5-6
best practices 4-55
full fabric feature 5-38
operational mode
asynchronous remote
data replication 4-38
synchronous remote
data replication 4-38
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Index
port configuration 5-6
remote fabric feature 5-39
support 1-29
transport technology
dark fiber 4-39
IP 4-45
SONET/SDH 4-42
WDM 4-40
transport technology comparison 4-48
F
fabric availability
nonresilient dual fabric 3-38
nonresilient single fabric 3-37
redundant fabrics 3-38
resilient dual fabric 3-38
resilient single fabric 3-38
fabric binding 5-19
fabric element
FCP and FICON intermix environment 3-41
limitations in a fabric 3-19
fabric performance
device fan-out ratio 3-34
fabric initialization 3-29
fabric scalability 3-39
I/O requirements 3-31
performance tuning 3-35
fabric switch
connectivity features 1-28
default network address 6-9
description 1-14
performance features 1-15
product overview 1-2
security features 1-31
serviceability features 1-32
specifications A-1
Fabricenter cabinet
footprint A-8
illustration 1-4
product overview 1-3
specifications A-7
fan-out ratio 3-34
FastWrite technology
description 1-24
IRL optimization 4-27
optimizing WAN use 4-56
FC-AL devices
connecting to a multiswitch fabric 3-11
server consolidation 3-12
tape device consolidation 3-13
FCP and FICON intermix
best practices 3-47
fabric element management 3-41
impacting features 3-46
management limitations 3-44
port numbering and logical port addressing
3-42
feature key
description 5-33
Element Manager application 5-39
Flexport Technology 5-36
FMS 5-35
format 5-34
full fabric 5-38
full volatility 5-38
N_Port ID virtualization 5-39
OpenTrunking 5-37
OSMS 5-35
remote fabric 5-39
SANtegrity Authentication 5-36
SANtegrity Binding 5-36
fiber-optic cabling
50/125 multimode 5-7
62.5/125 multimode 5-7
9/125 singlemode 5-7
overview 5-1
planning considerations 6-3
routing 5-8
Fibre Channel topology
arbitrated loop topology 3-2
core-to-edge fabric 3-16
mesh fabric 3-14
multiswitch fabric topology 3-2
SAN island 3-18
FICON cascading
best practices 3-54
definition 3-47
general description 3-52
high-integrity fabrics 3-53
minimum requirements 3-53
Index
I-5
Index
FICON management server
description 5-35
introduction 2-5
plan console support 6-6
firmware
application services 2-12
E/OSc description 2-11
E/OSi description 2-12
E/OSn description 2-11
fabric services 2-13
Fibre Channel protocol services 2-12
loop services 2-13
network services 2-12
operating system differences B-1
operating system services 2-12
operating system similarities B-1
port services 2-12, 2-13
system management services 2-12
FL_Port connectivity 3-10
FlexPar technology
description 4-4
director FlexPars 4-4
inter-FlexPar routing 4-28
Intrepid 10000 Director 1-12, 4-4
master FlexPar 4-5
role-based FlexPars 4-7
SAN island consolidation 4-4
zone FlexPars 4-6
Flexport Technology feature
description 5-36
Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch 1-16
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch 1-17
Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch 1-19
Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch 1-20
Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch 1-22
FMS feature
description 5-35
introduction 2-5
plan console support 6-6
footprint, Fabricenter cabinet A-8
frame delivery order 3-26
FRUs
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router 1-26
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router 1-27
Intrepid 10000 Director 1-13
Intrepid 6064 Director 1-9
Intrepid 6140 Director 1-10
I-6
Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch
Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch
Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch
Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch
full fabric feature
description 5-38
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch
full volatility feature 5-38
1-15
1-17
1-18
1-20
1-21
1-17
G
gateway address
director or fabric switch 6-9
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router 6-9
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router 6-10
management server 6-8
graphical user interface
device window 2-19
EFCM application 2-15
EFCM Basic Edition 2-20
Hardware view 2-17
main window (SAN router) 2-18
SANavigator application 2-15
SANvergence Manager application 2-18
H
Hardware view
description 2-16
illustration 2-17
heat dissipation
directors A-5
fabric switches A-5
SAN routers A-5
high-availability
directors 1-7
fabric switches 1-15
planning considerations 5-6
SAN routers 1-24
high-integrity fabrics 3-53
hop count
limitations 3-20
minimizing (SAN routing) 4-56
path selection 3-25
HotCAT technology 1-9, 1-10, 1-12
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Index
I
I/O requirements
application I/O profiles 3-31
device locality 3-33
ISL oversubscription 3-32
iFCP protocol
build fabric events 4-23
comparison to mFCP 4-28
description 4-22
inband product management
feature keys 5-35
FMS feature 2-5
OSMS feature 2-5
plan console support 6-6
intelligent port
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router 1-25
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router 1-27
implement rate limiting 4-51
set port speed 4-52
inter-FlexPar routing 4-28
interoperability
planning 6-4
vendor limitations 3-20
Intrepid 10000 Director
default network address 6-9
description 1-12
extended distance support 1-29
FlexPar technology 1-12, 4-4
FRUs 1-13
illustration 1-12
large fabric support 3-30
LIMs 5-2
Intrepid 6064 Director
default network address 6-9
description 1-8
FRUs 1-9
illustration 1-9
port cards 5-2
Intrepid 6140 Director
default network address 6-9
description 1-10
FRUs 1-10
illustration 1-11
port cards 5-2
IP address
director or fabric switch 6-9
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router 6-9
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router 6-9
management server 6-8
IP distance extension
bandwidth 4-48
description 4-45
illustration 4-46
latency 4-48
recovery point objective 4-48
recovery time objective 4-48
IRL
description 4-9
optimization
data compression 4-26
FastWrite technology 4-27
rate limiting 4-26
iSAN routing
assign mSAN_IDs 4-58
description 4-24
fabric autonomy 4-24
iFCP protocol 4-22
proxy Domain_ID 31 4-25
routing domain 4-25
iSCSI protocol
description 4-59
initiators 4-59
server consolidation 4-60
storage consolidation 4-61
targets 4-59
ISL
bandwidth 3-22
large fabric support 3-30
limitations 3-20
oversubscription 3-32
path selection 3-25
port fencing 1-36
preventing oversubscription 3-33
J
jumbo frames
description 1-24
optimizing WAN use 4-56
Index
I-7
Index
L
large fabric
fabric initialization 3-29
fabric scalability 3-39
high-bandwidth ISLs 3-30
high-port count directors 3-30
problems 4-3
laser transceiver
description 5-4
restrictions 5-5
SFP transceiver 5-8
transmission distance 5-4
latency
dark fiber transport 4-46
directors 1-7
IP transport 4-48
SONET/SDH transport 4-47
WDM transport 4-47
LC duplex connector 5-7
LIM
assigning BB_Credits 4-50
Intrepid 10000 Director 5-2
load balancing 3-22
local area network
comparison to WAN 4-36
latency 4-36
protocol stack 4-36
reliability 4-37
logical port addressing 3-42
M
MAC address
director or fabric switch 6-9
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router 6-9
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router 6-9
management server 6-8
management server
CHAP authentication 5-16
default network address 6-8
description 2-7
Ethernet connectivity 5-10
illustration 2-7
installation planning 6-5
minimum specifications 2-8
I-8
plan security measures 6-11
product overview 1-3
recommended specifications 2-9
map, port card 3-43
mesh fabric
description 3-14
illustration 3-15
suitability 3-16
mFCP protocol
comparison to iFCP 4-28
connecting SAN routers 4-20
description 4-20
mSAN routing
allocating Zone_IDs 4-30
description 4-18
mFCP protocol 4-20
proxy Domain_ID 30 4-18
routing domain 4-18
supported limits 4-21
multimode cabling
50/125 5-7
62.5/125 5-7
multiswitch fabric topology
best practices 3-20
connecting FC-AL devices 3-11
description 3-2
domain ID assignment 3-24
E_Port segmentation 3-27
fabric initialization 3-29
fabric performance 3-30
fabric WWN assignment 3-24
FCP and FICON intermix 3-41
frame delivery order 3-26
illustration 3-19
ISL bandwidth 3-22
load balancing 3-22
multiple data transmission speeds 3-51
performance objectives 3-20
planning considerations 6-29
preferred path 3-22
principal switch selection 3-23
topology limits
fabric elements 3-19
hop count 3-20
ISLs 3-20
vendor interoperability 3-20
zoning configurations 3-28
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Index
N
N_Port DHCHAP authentication 5-17
N_Port ID virtualization feature 5-39
name conventions, ports 6-13
name server zoning
introduction 1-28
planning requirements 6-30
network addresses
default settings 6-8
planning 6-7
nickname conventions, ports 6-14
nonresilient fabric
dual 3-38
single 3-37
nScale architecture 1-12
O
open-system management server
description 5-35
introduction 2-5
plan console support 6-6
OpenTrunking feature
description 5-37
planning considerations 3-22
support planning 6-29
operating environment A-7
optional feature key
description 5-33
Element Manager application 5-39
Flexport Technology 5-36
FMS 5-35
format 5-34
full fabric 5-38
full volatility 5-38
N_Port ID virtualization 5-39
OpenTrunking 5-37
OSMS 5-35
remote fabric 5-39
SANtegrity Authentication 5-36
SANtegrity Binding 5-36
OSMS feature
description 5-35
introduction 2-5
plan console support 6-6
out-of-band product management
command line interface 2-3
EFCM 2-2
EFCM Basic Edition interface 2-3
EFCM Lite application 2-3
Element Manager application 2-2
SAN management application 2-2
SANavigator 2-2
SANvergence Manager 2-2
SNMP 2-3
oversubscription, ISL 3-32
P
password
authentication 5-16
protection 1-31, 5-15
PCP user database 5-17
PDCM arrays
description 5-20
planning considerations 5-20
performance features
directors 1-7
fabric switches 1-15
SAN routers 1-23
performance tuning a fabric 3-35
persistent binding 5-29
planning checklist
operational setup tasks 6-36
planning and hardware installation tasks
6-35
planning tasks
assign port names and nicknames 6-13
complete planning checklists 6-34
complete planning worksheet 6-14
consider interoperability with
end devices 6-4
diagram planned configuration 6-12
establish security measures 6-11
plan AC power 6-28
plan console management support 6-5
plan e-mail notification 6-11
plan Ethernet access 6-7
plan Fibre Channel cable routing 6-3
plan multiswitch fabric 6-29
plan network addresses 6-7
plan phone connections 6-12
Index
I-9
Index
plan SAN routing 6-31
plan SNMP support 6-10
plan zone sets 6-30
prepare a site plan 6-2
planning worksheet 6-14
port
binding 1-31
blocking 1-28
fiber-optic cabling 5-1
logical port addressing 3-42
name conventions 6-13
nickname conventions 6-14
numbering 3-42
port card
Intrepid 6064 Director 5-2
Intrepid 6140 Director 5-2
map 3-43
port connections
any-to-any connectivity 1-28
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router 1-25
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router 1-27
Intrepid 10000 Director 1-13
Intrepid 6064 Director 1-9
Intrepid 6140 Director 1-11
port blocking 1-28
Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch 1-16
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch 1-17
Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch 1-19
Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch 1-20
Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch 1-22
zoning 1-28
port fencing (E_Port or ISL) 1-36
power requirements
directors A-3
fabric switches A-3
Fabricenter cabinet A-8
planning considerations 6-28
SAN routers A-3
preferred path
description 5-23
planning considerations 3-22
principal switch selection 3-23
private
arbitrated loop 3-9
loop device connectivity 3-7
I-10
product management
command line interface 2-3
EFCM 2-2
EFCM Basic Edition interface 2-3
EFCM Lite application 2-3
Element Manager application 2-2
FMS feature 2-5
inband methods 2-5
management interface summary 2-6
OSMS feature 2-5
out-of-band methods 2-2
SAN management application 2-2
SANavigator 2-2
SANvergence Manager 2-2
SNMP 2-3
product overview
connectivity features 1-28
directors 1-2
EFCM application 1-5
fabric switches 1-2
Fabricenter cabinet 1-3
management server 1-3
SAN routers 1-3
SANavigator application 1-5
SANvergence Manager application 1-5
security features 1-31
serviceability features 1-32
protocol intermix
best practices 3-47
fabric element management 3-41
impacting features 3-46
management limitations 3-44
port numbering and logical port addressing
3-42
protocols
Fibre Channel 3-41
FICON 3-41
iFCP 4-22
iSCSI 4-59
mFCP 4-20
proxy routing domains
Domain_ID 30 4-13, 4-18
Domain_ID 31 4-13, 4-25
iSAN routing 4-14
logical device connectivity 4-14
mSAN routing 4-14
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Index
public
arbitrated loop 3-8
loop device connectivity 3-6
R
R_Port
configuring 4-34
Domain_ID assignment 4-15
operation 4-11
RADIUS server support 5-18
rate limiting
description 4-26
implementation 4-51
intelligent port speed selections 4-52
recovery point objective
dark fiber transport 4-46
description 4-37
IP transport 4-48
SONET/SDH transport 4-47
WDM transport 4-47
recovery time objective
dark fiber transport 4-46
description 4-37
IP transport 4-48
SONET/SDH transport 4-47
WDM transport 4-47
redundant fabrics 3-38
remote data replication
asynchronous mode 4-38
dark fiber transport 4-46
IP transport 4-48
SONET/SDH transport 4-47
synchronous mode 4-38
WDM transport 4-47
remote fabric feature
assigning BB_Credits 4-50
description 5-39
Intrepid 10000 Director 1-29
remote workstations
description 2-10
Ethernet connectivity 5-11
installation planning 6-6
minimum specifications 2-10
resilient fabric
dual 3-38
single 3-38
restore features
CD-RW drive 2-13
director and fabric switch NV-RAM
configuration 2-13
SAN management data directory 2-14
SAN router NV-RAM configuration 2-14
role-based FlexPars 4-7
S
SAN island
benefits 4-2
characteristics 3-18
consolidation
FlexPar technology 4-4
SAN routing 4-8
description 3-18
problems 4-2
SAN management application
EFCM application 1-5
main window (SAN router) 2-18
product overview 1-5
SANavigator application 1-5
SANvergence Manager application 1-5
SAN router
description 1-22
IRL optimization 4-25
logical connectivity 4-12
performance features 1-23
physical connectivity 4-11
product overview 1-3
proxy Domain_ID 30 4-13, 4-18
proxy Domain_ID 31 4-13, 4-25
router fabric manager 4-15
router name server 4-19
serviceability features 1-32
specifications A-1
zoning
append IPS zones 4-17
no zone synchronization 4-16
SAN routing
best practices 4-29
description 4-8
iFCP protocol 4-22
inter-FlexPar routing 4-28
iSAN routing 4-24
mFCP protocol 4-20
Index
I-11
Index
mSAN routing 4-18
planning requirements 6-31
R_Port operation 4-11
routing domain (iSAN) 4-25
routing domain (mSAN) 4-18
SAN island consolidation 4-8
Tier 1 (fabrics) 4-8
Tier 2 (mSANs) 4-9
Tier 3 (iSANs) 4-9
zone policy 4-16
SANavigator application
description 2-15
GUI description 2-15
product overview 1-5
SANtegrity Authentication feature
CHAP authentication 5-16
CT authentication 5-17
description 5-16
DHCHAP authentication 5-17
feature key description 5-36
inband access control list 5-18
out-of-band access control list 5-18
password safety 5-16
PCP user database 5-17
RADIUS server support 5-18
security log 5-18
SSH protocol 5-18
support planning 6-30
SANtegrity Binding feature
description 5-19
Enterprise Fabric mode 5-19
fabric binding 5-19
feature key description 5-36
planning considerations 5-20
support planning 6-30
switch binding 5-19
SANvergence Manager application
description 2-18
GUI description 2-18
main window 2-18
product overview 1-5
security provisions
best practices 5-30
general description 5-15
password protection 5-15
PDCM arrays 5-20
persistent binding 5-29
I-12
preferred path 5-23
SANtegrity Authentication 5-16
SANtegrity Binding 5-19
security feature description 1-31
security log description 5-18
server-level access control 5-29
storage-level access control 5-30
zoning 5-25
server
consolidation 3-12
EFCM Basic Edition interface
connectivity 5-14
iSCSI server consolidation 4-60
server-level access control 5-29
SNMP connectivity 5-13
serviceability features 1-32
SFP optical transceiver
description 5-4
illustration 5-8
longwave laser 5-4
restrictions 5-5
shortwave laser 5-4
transmission distance 5-4
shared mode operation
description 3-3
illustration 3-3
shipping environment A-6
singlemode cabling, 9/125 5-7
site plan preparation 6-2
SNMP
management workstations 5-13
MIBs 5-13
product management 2-3
support planning 6-10
software
command line interface 2-21
EFCM application 2-15
EFCM Basic Edition interface 2-20
Element Manager application
(director and fabric switch) 2-16
Element Manager application
(SAN router) 2-19
SANavigator application 2-15
SANvergence Manager application 2-18
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual
Index
SONET/SDH distance extension
bandwidth 4-47
description 4-42
illustration 4-43
latency 4-47
recovery point objective 4-47
recovery time objective 4-47
specifications
director clearances A-5
director dimensions A-1
director heat dissipation A-5
fabric switch clearances A-5
fabric switch dimensions A-1
fabric switch heat dissipation A-5
fabric switch power requirements A-3
Fabricenter cabinet clearances A-8
Fabricenter cabinet dimensions A-8
Fabricenter cabinet footprint A-8
Fabricenter cabinet power requirements A-8
SAN router clearances A-5
SAN router dimensions A-1
SAN router heat dissipation A-5
Sphereon 3232 Fabric Switch
default network address 6-9
description 1-15
FRUs 1-15
illustration 1-15
Sphereon 4300 Fabric Switch
default network address 6-9
description 1-16
FL_Port connectivity 3-10
FRUs 1-17
illustration 1-16
Sphereon 4400 Fabric Switch
description 1-18
FL_Port connectivity 3-10
FRUs 1-18
illustration 1-18
Sphereon 4500 Fabric Switch
default network address 6-9
description 1-19
FL_Port connectivity 3-10
FRUs 1-20
illustration 1-19
Sphereon 4700 Fabric Switch
description 1-21
FL_Port connectivity 3-10
FRUs 1-21
illustration 1-21
SSH protocol description 5-18
state change notification 1-29, 3-28
storage environment A-6
storage-level access control 5-30
subnet mask
director or fabric switch 6-9
Eclipse 1620 SAN Router 6-9
Eclipse 2640 SAN Router 6-10
management server 6-8
switch binding 5-19
switched mode operation
description 3-4
illustration 3-4
synchronous remote data replication
dark fiber transport 4-46
description 4-38
latency limitations 4-38
WDM transport 4-47
T
tape device consolidation 3-13
telephone connection
call-home support 6-12
service support 6-12
Tier 1 fabric connections 3-17
Tier 2 fabric connections 3-18
Tier 3 fabric connections 3-18
topology
arbitrated loop topology 3-2
core-to-edge fabric 3-16
fabric topology limits
fabric elements 3-19
hop count 3-20
ISLs 3-20
vendor interoperability 3-20
mesh fabric 3-14
multiswitch fabric topology 3-2
Index
I-13
Index
V
vendor interoperability limitations 3-20
W
WDM distance extension
bandwidth 4-47
description 4-40
illustration 4-41
latency 4-47
recovery point objective 4-47
recovery time objective 4-47
weight
directors A-1
fabric switches A-1
Fabricenter cabinet A-8
SAN routers A-1
wide area network
comparison to LAN 4-36
dedicated bandwidth 4-55
latency 4-36
optimize use
buffering 4-55
data compression 4-55
FastWrite technology 4-56
flow control 4-55
jumbo frames 4-56
protocol stack 4-36
rate limiting 4-51
reliability 4-37
worksheet, planning 6-14
WWN assignment, fabric 3-24
zoning
benefits 5-26
configuring zones 5-26
description 5-25
introduction 1-28
joining zoned fabrics 5-28
planning considerations 5-28
planning requirements 6-30
SAN router
append IPS zones 4-17
no zone synchronization 4-16
SAN routing environment 4-34
zone policy (SAN routers) 4-16
zone sets 5-27
zoning policy (SAN routers)
append IPS zones 4-17
implementing 4-34
no zone synchronization 4-16
Z
zone FlexPars 4-6
zoned fabrics
configuration rules 3-28
joining 5-28
SAN router
append IPS zones 4-17
no zone synchronization 4-16
SAN routing environment 4-34
zone policy (SAN routers) 4-16
I-14
McDATA Products in a SAN Environment - Planning Manual