Reliant FVIR GAS WATER HEATER Technical information

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RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction
Page
Residential Electric Water Heaters
Terms……………………………………...1
Tools……………………………………….2
Installation………………………………26
Standard Illustrations………………….27
Guidelines………………………………28
Elements………………………………..29
Thermostat….…………………….…...30
C-2 Circuit……………………………...31
C-2 Sequence of Operation………….32
A-6 Circuit……………………………...33
A-6 Sequence of Operation…….…...34
A-7 Circuit……………………………..35
A-7 Sequence of Operation…….……36
A-7 – wiring – Post 1995………...…...37
A-7 - Sequence of Operation ………..38
Certification and Approvals….……….39
Unbalanced 3 phase……………….…40
C-2 Ohms Check……………………...41
C-2 Ohms Check…………….………..42
C2 No Hot Water……………….……..43
C-2 Grounded Element Check………44
A-6 Ohms Check – No Hot Water…..45
A-6 No Hot Water Voltage Check…...46
A-6 Lack of Hot Water Voltage Ck…..47
A-6 Grounded Element Test………....48
A-7 Service…………………………….49
A-7 Ohms Test………………………..50
A-7 Voltage Checks…………………..51
A-7 Lack of Hot ……………………….52
A-7 Grounded Element Test……..53-54
Miscellaneous and Ohms Table.……55
Residential Gas Water Heaters
General Information………………………3
Installation…………………………………5
Operations and Servicing
Control……………………………………..6
Burner……………………………………...7
Normal Operations……………………….7
Temperature………………………………8
Gas………………………………………...8
Water Flow………………………………...9
Service……………………………………10
Procedures and Conditions…………….11
Multiple Heater Piping…………………..14
Exhaust Venting Notes………………….15
Flammable Vapor Ignition Design……….15
Lint, Dust & Oil Screen………………….16
Flame Arrestor……………………………17
Thermal Cut Off Switch………………….18
Pilot Burner Assembly…………………...19
Sealed Combustion Chamber…………..20
Piezo Igniter……………………………….21
Miscellaneous……………………………..22
` FVIR Service Tip………………………23-25
Technical Bulletins …………….. 56-73
RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER TROUBLESHOOTING and
SERVICE HANDBOOK INTRODUCTION
This service handbook is designed to aid in servicing and troubleshooting RELIANCE
Residential Gas and Electric water heaters in the field. No duplication or reproduction of this book
may be made without the express written authorization of the RELIANCE Water Heater Company.
The following text and illustrations will provide you with a step-by-step procedure to verify
proper installation, operation, and troubleshooting procedures. Additional quick reference data is
included to assist you in servicing this product.
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The information contained in this handbook is designed to answer commonly faced
situations encountered in the operation of the Residential Gas and Electric product line and is not
meant to be all-inclusive. If you are experiencing a problem not covered in this handbook, please
contact the RELIANCE Technical Information Center at 1-800-365-4054 or your local RELIANCE
Water Heater Company representative for further assistance. Additional information is also
available on the web site www.reliancewaterheaters.com. This handbook is intended for use by
licensed plumbing professionals and reference should be made to the instructional manual
accompanying the product. This handbook contains supplemental information to the Residential
Gas and Electric instructional manual.
Qualifications
Tools Required:
For servicing gas models:
Cross top screw driver
3/8, 7/16, 3/4 inch open end wrenches
3/16 inch Allen wrench
11/16 inch – 6 point – socket – for anode removal
set of marked drill bits
electrical multimeter
gas pressure gauge or monometer
water pressure gauge
thermometer
tubing cutter if pilot tube is to be replaced
hose – to drain tank
container – to measure gallons per minute flow
For servicing electric models:
1 1/16 inch – 6 point – socket (for anode removal)
1 1/2 inch deep socket – to remove an element
electrical multimeter
water pressure gauge
thermometer
hose – to drain tank
container – to measure gallons per minute flow
Rev 1 adds Technical Bulletins
Rev 2 corrects illustration errors
Rev 3 adds FVIR (C3) Technology product information
2005 printing – revised cover
Rev 4 Added FVIR cleaning instructions
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GENERAL SECTION
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
Draw efficiency (draw down) is the quantity of hot water available to the consumer before the
outlet water temperature decreases 25 degrees F. A 40 gallon water heater will typically provide
70% (28 gallons) of this “usable” hot water. The burner or elements are allowed to operate during
this test. Incoming, cold water mixes the remaining stored water below this 25 degree limitation.
Energy Factor is an indicator of the combined thermal efficiency and standby efficiency of a
water heater. The higher the energy factor, the more efficient the water heater will be.
Recovery rate is the amount of water that is heated to a set temperature, per hour. An example
might be that a water heater has a recovery rate of 30 gallons of water per hour at 80 degree F.
(Fahrenheit) temperature rise.
“R” Value is a measure of the resistance of a substance to heat flow.
Thermal efficiency is approximately the amount of generated BTU (British Thermal Units),
which enters the water. A percentage of the total BTU passes out through the vent piping.
Temperature rise is the increase in the temperature from its coldest “inlet” water temperature to
the desired hot (outlet) setting. Typically this is assumed to be 40 degrees entering water, 120
degrees desired stored water or 80 degrees “temperature rise.”
Standby efficiency – the water heater’s ability to contain heat in the tank. A minimum of tank
water heat loss per hour is desired.
Sample: temperature change = Btu/h loss/ square foot of tank surface
“R” value
Water cannot (for all practical purposes) be compressed.
Water expands when it is heated.
Water Hammer – is a concussion of moving water against the sides of a containing pipe or vessel
on a sudden stoppage of flow.
EX: 1/2 “copper pipe, 5GPM flow (7.2ft/sec.) – stop. Pressure rise of approximately 412 PSI.
3/4” copper pipe, 5GPM flow (3.3ft/sec) – stop. Pressure rise of approximately 188 PSI
Minerals and gases will separate from water as temperature increases.
Formulas:
BTU (British Thermal Unit) is the heat required to raise 1 pound of water 1 F
BTU divided by 3,413 = Kilowatts
To convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius: (° F – 32) times 5/9, or .556, equals degrees C.
One gallon of 120 F (49 C), water weighs approximately 8.25 pounds.
Pounds X .45359 = Kilogram
Gallons X 3.7854 = Liters
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% of Hot Water required to achieve a mixed water temperature
= (Mixed Temp. – Cold Temp.) divided by (Hot Temp. – Cold Temp.)
General Section – continued
% Thermal Efficiency = (GPH X 8.25 X Temp. Rise X 1.0) divided by BTU/H Input
BTU Output = GPH X 8.25 X Temp. Rise X 1.0
GPH= Gallons Per Hour Recovery
GPH = (BTU/H Input X % Eff.) divided by (Temp. Rise X 8.25)
One cubic foot of Natural Gas contains about 1000 BTU of heat.
One “therm” is equal to 100,000 BTU
One cubic foot of Propane Gas contains about 2500 BTU of heat.
One gallon of Propane gas contains about 91,250 BTU of heat.
One pound of Propane gas contains about 21,600 BTU of heat.
One pound of gas pressure is equal to 27.7 inches water column pressure
Inches of Water Column X .036091 = PSI
Inches of Water Column X .073483 = Inches of Mercury (Hg.)
Centimeters = Inches X 2.54
MM (millimeters) =Inches X 25.4
Meters = Inches X .0254
Doubling the diameter of a pipe will increase its flow capacity (approximately) 5.3 times.
CONSTRUCTION:
Tank is constructed of steel.
The inside of the tank is constructed of a glass lining bonded to the steel. This prevents water
to metal contact and rusting of the tank.
An anode rod will be installed within the tank. The hex-head plug end of the anode is visible on
the top of the water heater. This metal rod offers secondary protection of the tank against
corrosion where the application of glass is not possible (threaded tank openings). These areas
will have small areas of water to metal contact.
All water heaters will contain at least one thermostat (to operate the heater) and one high
limit (to prevent water temperatures approaching the “steam” level).
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INSTALLATION OF RESIDENTIAL GAS WATER HEATER
Exhaust Vent to
Outside of Building
Water
Shut Off
Valve
Union
Union
Expansion Tank
Pressurize to Equal
Supply Water
Pressure
See Manual and
Labels For Installation
Clearances
Temperature And
Pressure Relief
Valve – Do Not
Reuse Old Valve.
Typical Model
and Rating
Plate Location
Temperature and
pressure relief valve
tube piped to within 6”
of drain.
Maximum Gas Supply
13.8” w.c. or ½ PSI
Thermostat –
Recommending
setting of 125 F.
Minimum
4.5” w.c. –Natural Gas
11.0” w.c. Propane Gas
Safety Pan – Piped to
Drain
Drain
Air Is Drawn In For
Combustion. Keep
Area Clean And Free
From Flammables And
Flammable Vapors
Inner and
Outer Doors –
Reinstall After
Lighting Pilot.
Installation Must Follow Local Codes and Instruction Manual Guidelines
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RESIDENTAL GAS WATER HEATER SERVICE
This portion of this manual applies to the Operations and Servicing of Residential Gas, Tank
Type, Water Heaters, which are vented atmospherically and use a thermocouple as their electrical
source.
Construction: See also “General” section of this
manual.
Control: There is one control on this style of water heater. The control has a main gas regulator,
pilot gas regulator, on-off-pilot knob, controls water temperature, has a temperature adjustment
knob, and a high water temperature limit safety.
(delta)
Note: The word “Hot”
may or may not be
present on the control
knob
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Residential Gas – continued
Burner: The burner assembly consists of the main burner, main burner orifice, main burner gas
supply tube, pilot burner, pilot burner orifice, pilot burner gas supply tube and thermocouple.
The pilot burner remains on once it is manually lit. When incoming cold water activates the
thermostat, gas flows to the main burner. The pilot flame ignites this gas. The main flame burns
until the tank reaches set temperature then the thermostat interrupts this main gas flow.
AFTER HAVING CONFIRMED THAT THE WATER HEATER HAS BEEN INSTALLED
PER THE INSTALLATION MANUAL INSTRUCTIONS:
Normal Operation
Electrical: The Pilot Flame heats the end of a thermocouple. As the thermocouple gets hotter, it
generates a small (cannot be detected without an electrical meter) electrical current to the bottom
of the control valve. This current powers the electromagnet and holds open the safety valve as
long as the pilot flame is heating the thermocouple. DANGER! If the pilot is extinguished, it can
take up to 180 seconds for the thermocouple to cool sufficiently to close the safety valve.
See also C3 technology product information beginning on page.
Residential Gas – continued
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Temperature: Two metal probes mounted
onto the back of the control are immersed
inside the tank water. One probe (the
shorter) acts as a temperature high limit. If
water gets excessively hot, a sensor within
the probe opens, interrupts the small
electrical current to the gas valve, and gas
flow through the control is interrupted. If this
safety sensor opens, the entire control must
be replaced.
The longer probe contains a metal rod that
expands and contracts as water temperature
around the probe cools and heats. As the
rod expands, it pushes against a lever
actuated gas valve. If the regulator is
pushed sufficiently, gas flow is interrupted to
the main burner. Adjusting the temperature
dial changes the distance the rod must
expand or contract to open or close the gas
valve.
Gas: When you prepare to light the pilot,
you are instructed to turn the top
knob to the pilot position and depress
the knob. When the knob is
depressed gas will flow to the pilot
burner only. You then have to
(manually) ignite this pilot gas. When
the pilot is lit, the flame must heat the
thermocouple until it generates
sufficient electricity to the gas valve
to allow you to release the knob while
gas continues to flow to the pilot.
When the top knob is turned to the
“ON” position, gas is also available to
the main burner if the thermostat calls
for heat.
Residential Gas - continued
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Water Flow: When a hot water faucet is opened, water pressure from the well tank or street
main forces cold water into the water heater. This pushes hot water out of the tank.
Operation: A residential water heater is not a precise operating appliance. Because the water
heater relies on the expansion and contraction of a metal rod, when the thermostat dial is set at
an indicated setting (“▲” is recommended as a starting setting. This is approximately (120 F.)
The heater may shut off at 110 to 130 F. The heater will consistently shut off at this same
temperature. For this same reason, water temperature may drop 15 - 25 F, around the
temperature probe, before the main burner is activated. Keep in mind that hot water in the upper
part of the tank will probably be very near the “shut off” temperature of the control while incoming
cold water drops the water temperature around the thermostat probe. Also, short repeating
heating cycles caused by small hot water uses can cause temperatures at the point of use to
exceed the thermostat setting by up to 30° F.
Setting Approximate Temperature (°F) Time To Cause Injury
Hot (▲)
A
B
C
Very Hot
120° ± 10°
130° ± 10°
140° ± 10°
150° ± 10°
160° ± 10°
5 Minutes
30 Seconds
5 Seconds
1.5 Seconds
Under 1 Second
Residential Gas - continued
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Service:
Air: A gas burning appliance requires the oxygen contained in 12.5 cubic feet of air (at sea level)
for every 1000 BTU of heat that is generated. If your water heater has a BTU per hour input of
40,000 BTU then a minimum of 500 (40 times 12.5) cubic feet of clean air must be available. This
oxygen will mix with the gas for a clean, blue flame in the burner chamber and provide dilution air
for flue products.
(Enters
Here)
1,000
BTU
Fuel
+
12.5
Cubic
Feet of
Air
=
(Enters Here)
Do not forget that your gas (or oil) furnace and gas clothes dryer also require a like amount of air.
When calculating air supply provisions, also consider the presence of whole house exhaust fans
or other exhaust fans competing for the same air supply.
Air must be allowed to enter the heater chamber from the base of the heater and also enter the
flue vent from below the draft hood. Do not block these areas with insulation blankets or
obstructions lying around the base of the heater.
Lack of Oxygen: If a sufficient supply of oxygen (air) is not available for combustion and
dilution, the result will be:
Pilot outage
Yellow burner flame
Sooting water heater
Possible carbon monoxide
Smell of burnt gas in the room
Residential Gas – continued
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The instruction manual gives guidelines under “Air Requirements” and “Unconfined “ or “Confined
Space” sections. If you want to test for a lack of air:
1. Turn on every appliance and fan that exhausts air from the utility room and/or house.
Make sure all windows and doors are closed, as well as chimney dampers.
2. Open a hot water faucet so that the main burner will ignite
3. Remove the outer door of the water heater – not the inner door
4. Monitor the flame characteristics for several minutes
If the flame begins to “yellow” open a door or window, to the outdoors, to see if additional air
corrects this back to blue. If it does, the room needs more air supply. Perform draft test at draft
hood of water heater with match or smoke source to verify.
Manifold
Gas Pressure
Test
Testing with
Gas
Pressure
Gauge
Pilot Gas
Pressure
Test
Gas pressure checks are done with flowing gas.
Supply gas pressure checks are taken ahead of the gas control and as close to the heater as
possible.
Pilot gas pressure checks are taken by using fitting adapters to tap into the pilot gas tubing.
Manifold (main burner) gas pressure is measured using the Allen wrench tap on the bottom
of the control valve.
Desired gas pressures will be noted on the gas valve label.
If …
… then
supply gas pressure is under desired pressure
setting
increase supply gas pressure regulator
setting and,
increase supply gas piping size.
add gas pressure regulator.
reduce setting on existing regulator.
replace the control valve.
supply gas pressure is over desired pressure
pilot gas pressure is more than +/- .3 inch
W.C. from desired
manifold gas pressure is more than +/- .3 inch replace the control valve.
W.C. from desired
Additional considerations when pilot or main burner flames are too large or too small:
Incorrect orifice
Dirt in orifice or gas supply tubing
Residential Gas - continued
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Sooting causes:
If …
… then
the burner is clean but the chamber and/or flue
are sooted
the main burner, chamber and flue are sooted
check for lack of supply air.
check the following:
incorrect orifice
excessive gas pressure
loose main burner
cross threaded orifice
gas control valve gas seepage
loose gas connection in burner assembly.
Electrical Testing
This type of water heater has its own electrical
generating system.
When two dissimilar metals are joined together
and this joint is heated, a small, electrical current
will be produced. A thermocouple uses this
science.
TO GROUND
Thermocouple output test
Procedures/Conditions:
Meter set for DC millivolt testing
Test from lower ECO (emergency cut off or energy cut off) solder joint to ground.
Note: If pilot will not stay lit, manually hold the top knob down in the pilot position. This allows
gas to flow to the pilot. Light the pilot and continue to hold this knob down while conducting the
test.
If …
… then
reading test of at least 13 MV is not present
check that flame contacts end of
thermocouple
replace thermocouple.
continue to next test.
reading test of at least 13 MV is present
Residential Gas - continued
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Electrical Testing– continued
Millivolt dropout test through copper magnet winding and ECO (Emergency Cut Off)
Procedure: Move meter probe to upper ECO solder joint and ground
If …
… then
reading of at least 10 MV is not present
reading of more than 10 MV is present but,
gas to the pilot shuts off each time knob is
released
replace the control valve.
replace the control valve.
Safety drop out test – the safety gas shutoff
should interrupt gas through
the valve when MV current
drops to 1-3 MV.
Procedures:
Meter still connected to upper ECO solder joint and
ground.
Turn Top Knob to “off” position
Millivolt output will decrease as thermocouple cools
TO GROUND
If…
… then
internal safety does not activate between 1
replace the control valve.
and 3 MV (you will hear a “click” inside the
valve)
*internal safety does activate between 1 and valve is within tolerance and will interrupt gas
3 MV
flow if pilot looses heat or ECO opens.
*Note: A “click” sound should be heard from the valve as the main gas interrupter snaps up to the
“closed” position.
Condensation
Flue gas products contain moisture. If these flue gas products are cooled to their “dew point”,
they become visible moisture – condensation.
Flue gas may become cooled by:
Cold supply air temperatures
Cool surfaces – generally, if tank water temperatures drop below 110 F, the flue pipe surface
and/or bottom tank head will be cool enough to cause condensation.
Increased combustion efficiency – higher thermal efficiency means that an increased amount
of heat is transferring from the flue gas into the water. If you transfer (approximately) 87.5%,
or more, the moisture in the flue gas will condense.
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Residential Gas – continued
Condensation is a mild acid – it will corrode steel
Condensation is usually noted when:
water dripping is heard (only) while the main burner is on,
there is “water” around the heater just after the heater has been operating,
there are small, black or red granules on the main burner or top of the heater or
corroded jacket or vent piping is noted.
If …
… then
any of the above conditions exist
raise the supply air temperature or
increase stored water temperature or
increase the size of the tank
You would not wish to lower combustion
efficiency – this would waste gas. Use
materials (stainless steel, PVC etc.) that
will not be affected by the condensation
Suggested Multiple Heater Water Piping Required For
Proper Operation of Top Connect Models
Install in accordance with local codes.
TEMPERATURE/PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES
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Residential Gas – continued
Exhaust Venting Notes
Follow current National Fuel Gas Code requirements for proper installation.
“D” – Typically, same or larger diameter as Draft Hood
outlet
“L” – Horizontal piping slopes upward ¼” per foot from
heater to chimney or vertical vent
Length of horizontal not more than 75% of “H”
“H” – Not less than 5 feet
Maximize vertical distance to first elbow
Refer to the Technical Bulletin titled “Venting
Techniques that Eliminate Pilot Outage” or page 70 of
this handbook.
FLAMMABLE VAPOR IGNITION RESISTANT DESIGN
This section will address the changes brought about by the introduction of FVIR compliant products. Other
than items mentioned here, the construction, installation, and service will remain the same as discussed in
the primary handbook.
The FVIR acronym stands for "Flammable Vapor Ignition Resistant." The RELIANCE products are based on
"Corderite Combustion Containment" known as “C3 Technology™” . The C3 Technology design features a
sealed (from non designated air intake openings) combustion chamber and a "flame arrestor" component.
This class of residential gas water heaters meet the new ANSI standards and testing protocols (ANSI
Z21.10.1) established to deal with the accidental or unintended ignition of flammable vapors, such as those
emitted by gasoline. Virtually all gas-fired, atmospherically vented, residential water heaters manufactured
in the United States with BTU ratings of 75,000 or less are required to meet this new ANSI standard
effective July 1,2003. The current implementation schedule for C3 TECHNOLOGY compliant residential
gas-fired products is shown in the following table. These dates are subject to change.
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IMPLEMENTATION ANTICIPATED CLASS OF PRODUCTS
CATEGORY
INTRODUCTION INCLUDED IN THIS CATEGORY
Phase I
July 1, 2003
30, 40, and 50 gallon atmospheric vented. (Manufactured housing
models are excluded.)
Phase II
January 1, 2005
30, 40, and 50 gallon power-vented models. (Manufactured housing
models are excluded.)
Phase III
July 1, 2005
All other gas-fired models with inputs of 75,000 BTU or less.
This supplement addresses the July1, 2003 compliant products.
In addition to the standard water heater design discussed in the main service handbook, the C3 Technology
design also includes:
A LDO (Lint Dust and Oil) screen over the combustion air intake
A Flame Arrestor
A combustion chamber Thermal Cut Off (TCO) limit
An additional tool for these products might be a vacuum cleaner with both blowing and vacuuming
capabilities. Also include the long, narrow crevasse accessory.
LDO SCREEN (LINT, DUST, OIL) SCREEN(S)
An easy to clean screen designed to minimize lint, dust and oil based contaminants from being drawn into
the “Flame Arrestor” along with make up – combustion - air. There may be one or two of these screens. The
LDO screen must be installed with the arrows on the right and left side facing up to function properly. (The
arrows are located on two mounting tabs on each side of the screen).
Service:
Inspect the LDO screen(s) regularly. Clean or wash as necessary.
Pulling the tab located in the middle of the screen will remove the screen. Reinstall the clean screen by
inserting the end tabs into the jack with the arrows pointing up.
Possible Service issues associated with a blocked screen:
Poor combustion – yellow flame, possible sooting
Pilot outage resulting from a lack of oxygen
Pilot outage resulting from to increased combustion chamber temperature below the main burner.
This may open the automatic reset, thermal cut off switch (TCO).
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FLAME ARRESTOR
Made from Corderite, a fireproof ceramic material, the flame arrestor is built into the base of the water
heater. Combustion air is drawn in through the LDO screen (s). After entering the bottom area of the
water heater, this air passes up through the small ports of the flame arrestor and into the combustion
chamber.
In the event flammable vapors are introduced accidentally into the combustion chamber, the flame
arrestor is designed so any flames burn off the top surface of the arrestor and cannot escape down
through the arrestor. The arrestor works somewhat like a check valve.
Service:
Inspect the bottom ports of the flame arrestor by removing the LDO screen (s) and using a mirror
and flashlight. Clean the ports if necessary by vacuuming the bottom of the arrestor.
Inspect the top of the flame arrestor by removing the inner door and burner assembly. Lift the heat
shield located on the bottom of the chamber. Inspect with the mirror and flashlight. Vacuum or blow
down any blocking material. If you blow down through the ports, be certain to also vacuum below
the arrestor.
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If there has been a flammable vapor ignition, a qualified service agent needs to inspect the arrestor
for cracks. The arrestor is not a replaceable part – the heater would need to be replaced.
Possible service issues associated with the flame arrestor.
Poor combustion – yellow flame, sooting, possible carbon monoxide production.
Pilot outage due to lack of oxygen. Continued pilot outage or finding that the LDO screen(s) is
heavily blocked would warrant inspection of the flame arrestor.
Pilot outage due to increased combustion chamber temperatures below the main burner. This may
open the automatic reset, thermal cut off switch (TCO).
The flame arrestor having contained a flammable vapor ignition. The TCO will open and the
chamber and arrestor should be inspected by a qualified service agent.
COMBUSTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE SENSOR
The C3 Technology water heaters will come equipped with a thermal cutoff (TCO) device that is
integral with the thermocouple. Temperature cutoff points range from 160°C to 200°C depending on
model. The TCO is an automatic reset thermal switch. When activated it will open the
thermocouple circuit and shut off the main and pilot burner gas flow. The pilot would have to be relit
after the TCO has had sufficient time to cool down (sensor is below 120 degrees F).
The TCO performs two primary functions:
In the event of flammable vapor ignition inside the combustion chamber, it senses the
corresponding increase in temperature and shuts off gas flow to the main and pilot burners.
If excessive temperatures inside the combustion chamber indicate poor combustion due to
a clogged LDO screen or inadequate air for combustion, the TCO will shut off gas flow to
the main and pilot burners.
SERVICE:
There is no routine service associated with the TCO. The standard thermocouple millivolt output checks
described in this service handbook still apply. Millivolt readings indicate that the TCO is closed. An open
TCO (within a cool chamber) would indicate that the assembly must be replaced.
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The TCO is an integral part of the thermocouple and not replaceable as a separate item. A pilot burner
assembly must be reinstalled. On repeated calls of no hot water or pilot outage, a clogged/dirty LDO screen
might be the cause and should be checked. Keep in mind this TCO will shut off the pilot and main burner
when activated.
With the different cutoff temperature set-points of TCO devices for different model water heaters, it is
important that the correct part is used when replacement of the pilot burner assembly is necessary.
Possible service issues associated with the Thermal Cut Off switch being opened:
Pilot outage due to increased combustion chamber temperatures below the main burner. This may
open the automatic reset, thermal cut off switch (TCO).
The flame arrestor having contained a flammable vapor ignition. The TCO will open and the chamber
and arrestor should be inspected by a qualified service agent.
ONE PIECE PILOT BURNER ASSEMBLY
C3 Technology models feature a "one piece" pilot burner assembly. This assembly will be covered
under a minimum 6 year parts warranty on all C3 Technology models, 10 years on premium models.
There are five main components that make up this pilot assembly:
1. Thermocouple with integral Thermal Cut Off switch (TCO).
2. Pilot burner w/orifice and tubing
3. Piezo igniter cable
4. Pilot assembly seal/grommet (orange).
5. An inner door gasket (white) will also be included.
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To replace a pilot assembly:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Turn off the gas supply
Disconnect the piezo cable from the piezo button (connection near gas control valve).
Disconnect the pilot tubing, thermocouple and main burner tube from the bottom of the gas
control valve.
Remove (2) 3/8 inch nuts securing the inner door.
Remove the entire burner assembly.
Remove screw securing pilot burner assemble to pilot mounting bracket.
Remove pilot assemble - with orange gasket – from the back side of the inner door.
Reinsert new pilot assembly into back side of inner door. Wetting the orange gasket may help
in securing the gasket into place.
Reattach the new pilot assembly to the pilot mounting bracket.
Inspect/replace the white, inner door gasket before making the connections to the bottom of the
gas control valve.
Reattach the piezo cable to the piezo button.
Remount the inner door.
Follow the pilot lighting instructions including gas and gasket leak checks.
Install the outer door.
SEALED COMBUSTION CHAMBER
The combustion chamber is factory sealed around the flame arrestor and the upper and lower perimeter of
the chamber. Access for service is provided through an inner door as with current product. However, this
inner door is now sealed with; a door gasket, a pilot assembly grommet type seal, and a main burner tube
boot/sleeve type seal.
The three seals on the inner door should be checked every time any service is performed. The sight glass
should be checked to insure it is not damaged or missing. The pilot tube and thermocouple routing should
be straight (not bent at an angle close to the surface of the seal) as it passes through the pilot assembly
seal.
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A "five point inner door seal inspection" is outlined below:
Five point inner door seal inspection:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Inner door gasket condition and fit.
Main burner tube seal condition and fit.
Pilot assembly seal condition and fit.
Sight glass, condition; present, not broken or cracked.
Straight routing of the thermocouple and pilot burner tube through the pilot assembly seal.
These are all critical to maintaining the C3 TECHNOLOGY integrity of the combustion chamber.
PIEZO IGNITER
C3 TECHNOLOGY models will feature a Piezo igniter to light the pilot burner.
The push button switch will be located on the top of the gas control valve. There will be a plug connector
between the push button and the igniter wire which is part of the pilot burner assembly.
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FLAMMABLE VAPOR IGNITION RESISTANT
WATER HEATER SERVICE TIP:
TO KEEP YOUR WATER HEATER IN PEAK PERFORMANCE
Like other appliances, your water heater will need occasional servicing to maintain peak performance.
Sufficient air flow is crucial to the proper operation of your water heater. This publication addresses one
possible cause of restricted air flow, and the procedure for its prevention and correction. Signs of restricted
air flow are yellow flames, pilot outage, sooting, or unstable flame. Before starting, consult the sections of
your owner’s manual dealing with condensation, air requirements, gas supply, venting, and cleaning the air
intake screen. Also, make sure that your water heater is properly sized for your home. An undersized water
heater may result in condensation which can drip onto the flame causing a pilot outage.
Your water heater is built to the current industry safety standard and meets all FVIR (flammable vapor
ignition resistant) requirements. This assures that any flammable vapors drawn into the combustion
chamber and ignited can not ignite remaining flammable vapors on the exterior of the water heater causing
a fire or explosion. This design includes a flame arrestor and one or two air intake screen(s). These
screen(s) prevent larger particles of dust or lint from entering the water heater, thus restricting air flow and
causing improper combustion. The owner’s manual asks you to visually check and clean the screen(s) as
necessary.
Smaller particles may pass through these screens and lodge in the flame arrestor.
The following paragraphs address the cleaning of the flame arrestor and the combustion chamber. This
procedure should be done in two phases: 1) under the water heater and 2) the combustion chamber.
Required tools are commonly found in most homes, and additionally are available in most home stores or
super centers.
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Tools:
• Vacuum cleaner with crevice and curtain attachments.
• Twisted wire brush (household cleaning brush)
• Flashlight
• Small mirror 2” X 3”
• 3/8”, 7/16”, and 3/4” inch open end wrenches
• 3/8 inch nut driver
• Small container of soapy water and an applicator.
Procedure
Turn the water heater top knob to “off” and allow the burner area to cool. Then, remove the plastic air intake
screen(s) and use a small mirror and flashlight to view the bottom of the flame arrestor. Using the crevice
tool, vacuum all dust and other particles from beneath the water heater. To clean the bottom of the flame
arrestor, use a common household cleaning brush that will pass through the air intake opening at the base
of the water heater and extend into the water heater 2/3 the distance to the back. Use a gentle back and
forth motion. Vacuum any remaining debris that may have fallen out of the flame arrestor. Re-insert the air
intake screen when finished. At this point, relight the pilot, and check water heater for operation. Allow an
entire heating cycle to complete to assure proper operation.
The following procedure requires abilities equivalent to that of a licensed Tradesman. Contact a
qualified service agent for assistance.
If the yellow flame or pilot outage problem persists, perform the following procedure. Turn the water heater
top knob to “off” and allow the burner area to cool completely, approximately 15 minutes. Turn off the supply
gas at the supply gas line if applicable. Disconnect the three connections from the bottom of the gas valve,
being careful to note their location.
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WARNING
Do not bend the gas valve connections too far; doing so may result in damage.
Remove the outer door from around the burner tubing at the base of the water heater. Remove the Piezo
igniter (with the orange wire) from the gas valve by sliding it back toward the tank (leave the orange wire in
the inner door assembly).
Remove the 3/8” nuts, holding the inner door and white gasket in place. Place some protection such as
newspaper to protect the floor from debris. Carefully remove the burner from the combustion chamber.
There may be soot or other materials collected on the top of the main burner; try not to dump any debris off
of the burner until it and the inner door have been removed from the water heater.
TAKE CARE NOT TO DAMAGE THE WHITE GASKET ON THE INSIDE OF THE INNER DOOR.
Inspect the radiation shield (thin circular metal sheet under the burner and above the flame arrestor). If any
of the sides of the radiation shield are touching the base (disrupting air flow), small feet can be obtained
free of charge by contacting our call center at 800-365-4054 and requesting them.
Vacuum the main assembly and pilot burner assembly. Vacuum the top of the radiation shield located
inside the burner chamber. Use the vacuum drapery brush attachment to clean the inside of the combustion
chamber and the exposed area of the flame arrestor. Use the crevice tool to vacuum under the radiation
shield as much as possible without bending the shield upward more than one inch or so.
Re-insert the burner taking care that the main burner tube is seated in the burner positioning bracket.
Carefully reposition the inner door w/gasket over the bolts on the combustion chamber. Do not tighten the
nuts down until the main burner, pilot burner, and thermocouple are attached and tightened. Make sure that
the white fibrous door gasket is not folded over and protrudes out from the inner door in all directions. Then
tighten the 3/8” nuts to hold the inner door in place.
Check the gas connections for proper fitting and then light the pilot, following the directions on the side of
the water heater. Once the pilot is lit, turn the valve to the “ON” position and ignite the main flame. Brush
soapy water on the gas connections and look for bubbling. This is an indication of a gas leak. If bubbles
appear, shut off gas supply and check fittings. Re-light the pilot and check for leaks again, repeating the
soapy water solution method.
Important Service Reminder
Any time service is performed on C3 TECHNOLOGY product the Five Point Inner Door Seal Inspection
outlined in the Sealed Combustion Chamber section should be performed and the LDO Screen (s) should
be inspected for proper installation (arrows up) and cleaned before leaving.
Other features
All C3 TECHNOLOGY models will feature Green Choice by having a low NOx (nitrous oxide) burner which
meets SCAQMD rule 1121. All C3 TECHNOLOGY models will have a brass drain valve standard.
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See the “Technical Bulletins Section” of this manual for explanations of:
Water Hammer
Mineral Buildup
Aluminum Hydroxide
Condensation
Discolored Water
Smelly Water
Chlorination Process
Lack of hot water
Thermal Expansion
Temperature and Pressure Relief Valve Operation
Parts Replacement – The parts on these models may change due to improvements/changes in
the products. To order the current, correct replacement part for your model gas water heater, you
must know the model number and (complete) serial number of your water heater. This
information will be located on a black and white label, on the front of your water heater – this label
will also display a star within a circle (the CSA symbol). A sample might be:
Model “12 40 YART” “Ser No. MB03-(numbers)”.
To order parts, contact your local RELIANCE Distributor, phone RELIANCE parts at
800-433-2545 or contact RELIANCE on the Web:
“www.reliancewaterheaters.com”
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STANDARD RESIDENTIAL ELECTRIC WATER HEATERS
INSTALLATION
SOME MODELS MAY HAVE SIDE OR REAR CONNECTIONS
TEMPERATURE AND
PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
OPENING MAY BE ON SIDE
OR TOP OF HEATER. DO
NOT REUSE OLD VALVE
TO †FUSED
ELECTRICAL
SUPPLY
(BREAKER BOX)
COLD WATER
INLET LINE
SHUTOFF
VALVE
UNION
†FUSE SHOULD BE RATED
AT AMPERAGE INDICATED
ON RATING PLATE TIMES
125%
UNION
HOT WATER
TO FIXTURES
ELECTRICAL
JUNCTION BOX
ADJACENT
CONDUIT
ENTRANCE
INSTALL THERMAL
EXPANSION TANK AFTER
SHUT OFF VALVE. PREPRESSURIZED TO EQUAL
SUPPLY WATER
PRESSURE
RATING PLATE
WITH MODEL
AND SERIAL
NUMBER
DRAIN LINE
ACCESS PANELS – WATER
TEMPERATURE ADJUSTMENT
IS BEHIND THESE PANELS.
RECOMMENDED SETTING IS
125
6” AIR GAP
SEE MANUAL
AND LABELS
FOR
INSTALLATION
CLEARANCES
FLOOR
DRAIN
DRAIN VALVE
INSTALL DRAIN PAN TO PREVENT
FUTURE WATER DAMAGE
DRAIN
INSTALLATION MUST FOLLOW LOCAL CODES AND INSTRUCTION MANUAL GUIDELINES.
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STANDARD RESIDENTIAL ELECTRIC WATER HEATERS
This portion of this manual applies to the Operation and Servicing of Residential Electric,
Tank Type, Water Heaters. The illustrations are for two element models but the
information also applies to single element models.
Multiple Heater Water Piping
Required for Proper Operation
of Top Connect Models
TEMPERATURE/PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES
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STANDARD RESIDENTIAL ELECTRIC WATER HEATER SERVICE GUIDELINES
Construction
See “General Section” for features common to both gas and electric models.
Miscellaneous:
Amperage (Amps) (1 phase) = Watts divided by Volts
Amperage (3 phase) = (Watts X .577) divided by Volts
KW Required = (GPH X 8.25 X Temp. Rise X 1.0) divided by (3413)
Ohms = Volts divided by Amperes
One kilowatt is equal to 1000 watts
One kilowatt is equal to 3,413 BTU
Recovery Rate = (KW X 3413) divided by (Temp. Rise X 8.25)
Rise (F ) = (KW X 3413) divided by (GPH X 8.25)
Supply electrical fusing or breakers should be sized at least 125% of expected heater
amperage.
Water weighs 8.25 pounds per gallon at 120 F (49 C).
% of Hot water = (Mixed temp. – Cold) divided by (Hot temp. – Cold)
Heating element(s)
This style water heater will have
one or two electric, heating
elements immersed in the tank.
One element will always be
located low in the tank; a second
element is commonly located
down about 1/3 of the tank height from the top of the tank. These elements will seldom
be wired to operate at the same time. (If they operate at the same time, amperage draw
doubles, wire gauge size increases, fuse size increases and little is gained in heat
recovery.)
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Residential Electric – continued
Since the element (s) are - very nearly - totally immersed in the tank, thermal efficiency is
assumed to be 100%. – all of the Btu (Watts) generated, enter the water.
B.
A.
C.
Watt Density = the density of the wattage output of the element compared to the surface
area of the element (i.e. “High Watt Density Element” will have the most wattage per square
inch of element surface. If the above elements generated 4,500 w. each, “B” might be
considered a “high” watt density element, “A” a medium and “C” a low.)
Voltage Notes:
120 volt AC circuit
240 volt AC circuit
(Hot)
L1
L1
L2
(Hot)
L1 to Ground = 120 Volts
L2 to Ground = 0 Volts
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Residential Electric – continued
Surface Mounted Thermostat (s) and High Limit (s)
The thermostats and high limits are held against the side of the tank. As the tank surface heats or
cools, a metal disc inside of the control expands or contracts to open or close electrical contacts
in the controls.
They will satisfy within 10 F of setting. The tank surface has to cool 8 - 15 F to reactivate these
controls.
Newer
Temperature
1
Models
Range °F
Model
Circuit
Older Models
Location
2
A-6, A-7
X A-6
Upper Tank
110-170
59T-Style 4100
2
A-6, A-7,
X
X
Lower Tank
110-170
59T-Style 4000
C-2
3
A-6
X
Upper Tank
90-150
89T33
3
C-2, A-7
X
Lower Tank
90-150
89T13
2
A-6
X
Lower Tank
90-150
59T-Style 4000
2
A-7
X
X
Upper Tank
110-170
AW-Style 7135
4
66T-Style 4400
3
89T
A-6, A-7,
C-2
A-6, A-7,
C-2
X
X
X
Lower Tank
190°
170°
1
”Older” = series 916 or older.
“Newer” = series 917 or more current – (Began approximately January, 1996)
2
Older 59T controls had a maximum setting of 170°F. Replacement 59T controls will stop at
150°F.
3
89T controls are combination High Limit/Thermostat, one piece controls.
4
66T limits may be mounted onto 59T thermostats.
66T4400
59T4100
Thermostat
59T4100
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89T33
89T13
Combination High Limit &
Thermostat
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Residential Electric – continued
C-2 Circuit
Prior to 1996
After having confirmed that the water heater
has been installed per the installation
manual instructions:
Power Enters High
Limit 1 and 3
C-2 Circuit
Single element
Single thermostat
Single High Limit
Through High Limit
1, 2 and 3, 4
Through High Limit (2) Jumper
to Thermostat (1) Terminal
And High Limit (4) to Element
Thermostat 1, 2 is Closed
Element is “On”
Tank Water is Heated
Thermostat 1, 2 Opens
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Residential Electric – continued
Normal Sequence of Operation
C-2 Circuit – Standard on most single element
water heaters.
Single Element
Single Thermostat
Single High Limit
Operation from a cold tank of water.
WIRING DIAGRAM
Note: If used on a normally two element heater,
controls will be located behind the upper service
cover and the element behind the lower service
cover.
C-2 CIRCUIT
Post 1995
Power Enters
High Limit – L1 and L3
Through High Limit
L1 to T2 and L3 to L4
Thermostat
T2 Contacts
Open
T2 Contacts Closed
Power To Element
Element Heats Water
Thermostat Satisfies
T2 Contacts Open
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Residential Electric – continued
A-6 Circuit
2 Elements
2 Thermostats
1 High Limit
Operation: From cold tank of water
A-6 CIRCUIT
Power Enters High-Limit
Through High Limit
Upper Thermostat
1, 4 Contacts Open
1, 2 Contacts Closed
Power to Upper Element
Lower Thermostat
Contacts Closed
Power to Lower
Element
Element Heats Water
Upper Thermostat Satisfied
Power Interrupted to
Upper Element
Upper Thermostat, 1,
2 Open
Switch Power to Lower
Thermostat – Upper
Thermostat, 1, 4 Closed
Lower Thermostat
Contacts Open
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Element Heats
Water
Lower
Thermostat
Satisfied
Lower 1, 2 open
Power Interrupted
to Lower Element
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Residential Electric – continued
WIRING DIAGRAM
A-6 Circuit
2 Elements
2 Thermostats
1 High Limit
A-6 Circuit - Standard on dual
element water heaters non-simultaneous/interlocked operation.
A-6 Circuit - Post 1995
Operation: From cold tank of water
Power Enters High-Limit
Lower Thermostat
Contacts Closed
Through High Limit
Upper Thermostat
Power to Lower Element
L1/T4 Contacts Open
L1/T2 Contacts Closed
Element Heats Water
Power to Upper /Element
Element Heats Water
Lower Thermostat
Satisfied
Upper Thermostat Satisfied
Power Interrupted to Upper Element
L1/T2 Open
Switch Power to Lower Thermostat
L1/T4 Closed
Power Interrupted to
Lower Element
Lower 1, 2 Open
Lower Thermostat Contacts Open
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Residential Electric – continued
A-7 Circuit
2 Elements
2 Thermostats
2 High Limits
4 wire
*Some electrical utilities give discounts if electricity is used during “Off Peak” times of the day. This circuit
allows use of an “Off Peak” meter, which interrupts power to the lower element during the time of day when
electricity is more expensive. This customer relies on additional hot water storage to meet their needs while
this element is off.
Prior to 1996
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Residential Electric – continued
Cold tank of water
Single Electrical Service
Single Phase
A-7 Circuit
Prior to 1996
Fused Disconnect
Power Enters
Terminal 1 Of Upper
High Limit And Terminal
3 Of Upper Thermostat
Terminal 3 Of Upper
High Limit And Term 3
Of Lower High Limit
Upper High Limit 1, 2 Is Closed
Upper Thermostat 3, 4 Is Open
No Power
To Lower
High Limit
Term 1
Upper Thermostat 1, 2 Is Closed
Upper Element Is On
Upper High Limit 3, 4
Is Closed
Lower High Limit 3, 4
Is Closed
Top 1/3 Of Tank Is Heated
Upper Thermostat 1, 2 Opens,
3, 4 Closes
Power From Upper Thermostat 1
To Lower High Limit 1.
Lower High Limit
1, 2 Is Closed
Lower Thermostat 1, 2 Is Closed
Lower Element Heats Bottom 2/3 Of Tank
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Residential Electric – continued
A-7 Circuit
2 Elements
2 Thermostats
2 High Limits
4 Wire
WIRING DIAGRAM
A-7 – Post 1995
Four wire circuit for non-simultaneous element operation.
This circuit permits off-peak meter usage and connection to 3 phase supply circuit.
*Interrupts power to lower element
during “peak” charges time of day.
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Residential Electric – continued
Cold tank of water
Single Electrical Service
Single Phase
A-7 Circuit
Post 1995
Fused Disconnect
Power to Upper High Limit 1,
and Upper Thermostat 3
Power to Upper High Limit 3
and Lower High Limit L3
Upper High Limit 1, 2 is Closed.
Upper Thermostat 3, 4 is Open
No Power
to Lower
High Limit
Terminal 1
Upper High Limit 3, 4 is Closed
Lower High Limit L3, L4 is Closed
Upper Thermostat 1, 2 is Closed
Upper Element is On
Top 1/3 of Tank is Heated
Upper Thermostat 1, 2 Opens
Upper Thermostat 3, 4 Closes
Power Flows Between
Upper Thermostat 4 and
Lower High Limit L1
Lower High Limit L1 and
Lower Thermostat T2 is Closed
Lower Element Heats Bottom 2/3 of Tank
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Residential Electric – continued
CERTIFICATION AND APPROVALS
UL – UL-174 applies to Residential Electric Water Heaters
The following paragraph describes the relationship between ASHRAE, NAECA and the
Department of Energy’s ENERGY FACTOR as it relates to the residential electric product lime.
All of the RELIANCE residential electric water heaters meet this code.
The American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineer (ASHRAE)
guidelines follow the National Appliance Energy Conservationist Act (NAECA). NAECA follows
the Department of Energy (DOE) test procedures of the 1990 code of federal regulation, title 10,
part 430 (64) which establishes minimum Energy Factors (EF) for water heaters of 12 kilowatts
or less and a storage capacity of at least 20, but not more than 120 gallons.
Formula (as of January 2004) -The minimum EF allowed = .97 - .00132 x V (volume of storage)
Example (EES-52; 50 gal. x .00132 = .066 Then .97 - .066 = .904 minimum allowable energy
factor).
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Residential Electric – continued
Three Phase – Unbalanced Circuit
3 Supply Wires
6 Element Wires
3 Supply Wires
4 Element Wires
(See A-7 Circuit)
SIMULTANEOUS DUAL ELEMENTS
(both elements ‘on’ when entire tank is cold)
Element
Full Load Current in Amperes
Wattage
Connected to Three Phase Power
Upper/Lower
(Terminal L2/ Terminals L1 & L3
208V
240V
480V
3000/3000
25.0/14.4
21.7/12.5
10.8/6.3
4000/4000
33.3/19.2
28.9/16.7
14.4/8.3
4500/4500
37.5/21.6
32.5/18.8
16.2/9.4
5000/5000
N/A
36.1/20.8
18.0/10.4
6000/6000
N/A
N/A
21.7/12.5
Note: Residential heaters may or may not offer the ability to wire elements for simultaneous
operation. If they are wired for non-simultaneous operation, amperage will be as if wired single
phase.
RELIANCE Water Heater Company
©2006
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Technical Training Department
Ashland City, TN
RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
Residential Electric – continued
SERVICE
Testing C-2 type – single element, single controls type circuit
Element Test
OHMS Resistance Check**
Test Conditions:
This test uses the multimeter's battery as the electrical supply.
Procedures:
Power to the water heater is "OFF".
Multimeter set to OHMS scale testing.
Black lead "Common" port.
Red lead in "Ω" or " OHMS" port.
Dial indicator set to scale above expected indication.
Note: Volts divided by amps = OHMS
Disconnect wires from the element terminals.
Element
Test probe on each terminal of an element
See OHMS Resistance Table – Page 45
If …
… then
proper resistance (+7.5%) is present
continue testing.
meter reads "0"
check OHM scale setting.
replace element
replace element.
meter reads "1" or off scale
** The above test can also be conducted with the element removed from the tank.
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©2006
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Technical Training Department
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RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
Residential Electric – continued
C-2 – service continued
Complaint:
No Hot Water
Conditions:
Tank water cold
Power on
Procedure:
Multimeter set for
AC voltage check
Voltage Checks
Test voltage between 1 and 3 or L1 and L3 of high limit.
If …
… then
rated voltage is not present
rated voltage is present
check circuit breaker (fused disconnect)
check wire connections in heater junction
box
check position of heater ON/OFF switch-if
applicable.
continue to next step.
Test voltage between 2 and 4 or L1 and L4 of high limit
… then
If …
rated voltage is not present
rated voltage is present
press high limit reset button
replace high limit (after conducting
thermostat check)
continue to next step.
Test voltage between 4 and 2 or T2 and L4
… then
If …
rated voltage is not present
rated voltage is present
RELIANCE Water Heater Company
©2006
check jumper between high limit 2 and
thermostat 1or
on T2, L4 test-replace control.
continue to next step.
42
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Residential Electric – continued
C-2 service “No Hot Water” – continued
Test between the two element terminals
If …
… then
rated voltage is not present
rated voltage is present
check wiring from control.
repeat Ohms resistance test of element
check for water leaks in piping or fixtures.
Complaint: Water Too Hot
Conditions:
Tank water above thermostat setting +10 F
Power on
Voltage Check
Test between 4 and 2 or L4 and T2
If …
… then
rated voltage is present
lower than rated voltage is present
no voltage is present
replace thermostat control.
test for grounded element.
test complete.
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Technical Training Department
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RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
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Residential Electric – continued
C-2 – service “Water Too Hot” – continued
Grounded Element Check – Amperage Method
Grounded Element Test – using “clamp type” Amperage Meter. Many multimeters
could be used to conduct this test but be certain that possible amperage will not exceed
the multimeter’s limit.
Complaint:
A grounded element is suspected whenever the water temperature
becomes excessively hot and/or the end user must push the high limit reset to reactivate
the heater.
Amperage measures the flow of current through a wire.
Watts divided by volts = Amps
Conditions:
Power on
Thermostat is satisfied
59T4000
89T13
Test around red wire then black wire to element.
If …
… then
amperage is noted (indicating flowing power)
amperage is not noted
replace the element.
the element is not grounded.
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Technical Training Department
Ashland City, TN
RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
Residential Electric – continued
A-6 Circuit Servicing
Testing A-6 - two element, two thermostat, one high limit, two wire circuit type water
heaters.
Wired non-simultaneously – When the upper element satisfies, power switches to the
lower thermostat and element.
Element Test
OHMS Resistance Check**
Test Conditions:
This test uses the multimeter's battery as the electrical
supply.
Power to the water heater is "OFF".
Multimeter set to OHMS scale testing.
Black lead "Common" port.
Red lead in "Ω" or " OHMS" port.
Dial indicator set to scale above expected indication.
Note: Volts divided by amps = OHMS
Element
Disconnect wires from the element terminals.
Test probe on each terminal of an element
See OHMS Resistance Table – Page 45
If …
… then
proper resistance (+7.5%) is
present
continue testing.
meter reads "0"
meter reads "1" or off scale
check OHM scale setting.
replace element.
replace element.
** The above test can also be conducted with the element removed from the tank.
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©2006
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Technical Training Department
Ashland City, TN
RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
Residential Electric – continued
A-6 service – continued
Testing with the Multimeter
Probes installed to test for "voltage - (black test lead is “common".)
Dial set to AC - Voltage scale - set dial to highest voltage scale or scale above the
expected voltage. Do not set the meter to a scale below the voltage expected.
Complaint:
Test Conditions:
No hot water
Tank is full of cold water.
Power is "on" to the heater
Voltage Check
Test between 1 and 3 or L1 and L3
If …
correct supply voltage is present
correct supply voltage is NOT present
… then
continue.
check disconnect breaker.
check wiring to the heater.
Test between 2 and 4 or L1 and L4
If …
… then
correct supply voltage is present
continue
correct supply voltage is NOT present,
push Manual Reset - if power is now supplied,
conduct thermostat and element checks.
still no power
replace High Limit (High Limit/Thermostat on
89T)
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Technical Training Department
Ashland City, TN
RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
Residential Electric – continued
A-6 service Voltage Check “No Hot Water” – continued
Test between Thermostat 2 and High Limit 4 or T2 and L4
If …
… then
supply voltage is present:
supply voltage is not present
continue.
check jumper between high limit 2 and
thermostat 1.
replace thermostat – (tank must be 15 F
cooler than setting to activate thermostat.
Complaint: Lack of Hot Water
Conditions:
Upper thermostat satisfied
Lower portion of tank still calling for heat
Test between high limit 4 and thermostat 4 and L4 and T4
If …
… then
correct supply voltage is present
correct supply voltage is not present
continue.
check that tank water temp has satisfied
the upper thermostat.
replace the upper thermostat.
Test between high limit 4 and lower thermostat 1 or L4 and 1
If …
… then
correct supply voltage is present
correct supply voltage is not present
continue.
check wiring connections.
Test between high limit 4 and lower thermostat 2 or L4 and 2
If …
… then
correct supply voltage is present
correct supply voltage is not present
RELIANCE Water Heater Company
©2006
continue.
replace lower thermostat.
47
Technical Training Department
Ashland City, TN
RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
Residential Electric – continued
A-6 service – continued
Grounded Element Test – Amperage Method - using “clamp type” Amperage
Meter. Many multimeters could be used to conduct this test but be certain that the amperage
limits of the multimeter will not be exceeded.
Complaint: A grounded element is suspected whenever the water temperature becomes
excessively hot and/or the end user must push the high limit reset to reactivate the
heater.
Amperage measures the flow of current through a wire.
Watts divided by volts = Amps
Test Conditions
Wires on the water heater are all connected to their proper terminals.
Power to the heater is "on".
Both thermostats are satisfied.
Clamp the jaws of the Amp Meter around each wire connected to the elements –
one wire at a time.
If …
… then
meter reads the proper amperage (+5, 10%)
the thermostat is calling for heat.
meter reads approximately 1/2 of the
proper amperage
replace the element.
meter reads NO amperage
thermostat and element are not grounded.
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Technical Training Department
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RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
Residential Electric – continued
Testing The A-7 Wiring Circuit
A-7 Circuit:
Two elements
Two thermostats
Two high limits
Four wires
Non-simultaneous operation or simultaneous
Prior To 1996
Post 1995
Supply wiring may be a: (See Pages 34 and 37)
1. three wire, 3 phase circuit:
2. two wire, single phase circuit or
3. connection to an off peak meter or time clock.
This third, wiring system interrupts power to the lower thermostat during the designated
time period but does not interrupt power to the upper thermostat.
If the consumer uses enough of the stored hot water to drop tank temperature at the top
of the tank to call for upper element activation, then the upper element will reheat the
upper third of the tank
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Technical Training Department
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RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
Residential Electric – continued
A-7 Service – continued
Element Test
OHMS Resistance Check**
Test Conditions:
Element(s) not heating or water becoming excessively hot.
This test uses the multimeter's battery as the electrical
supply.
Procedure:
Power to the water heater is "OFF".
Multimeter set to OHMS scale testing.
Black lead "Common" port.
Red lead in "Ω" or " OHMS" port.
Dial indicator set to scale above expected indication.
Note: Volts divided by amps = OHMS
Element
Disconnect wires from the element terminals.
See OHMS Resistance Table – Page 52
Test probe on each terminal of an element
If …
… then
proper resistance (+7.5%) is present
meter reads “0”
continue testing.
check OHM scale setting
replace element.
meter reads “1” or off scale
replace element.
** The above test can also be conducted with the element removed from the tank.
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©2006
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Technical Training Department
Ashland City, TN
RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
Residential Electric – continued
A-7 Voltage Check
Voltage Checks
These tests are conducted on the heater, below the junction box.
Complaint:
No Hot Water
Test Conditions:
Tank is full of cold water (or at least 15 F below the upper thermostat setting).
Power on
Upper thermostat calling for heat
Multimeter set to the proper AC voltage scale
Test between upper high limit terminals 1 and 3
If …
… then
the proper voltage is not present
(disconnect)
the proper voltage is present
check power from the breaker (fused
disconnect).
check wiring in heater junction box
continue to next step.
Test between upper high limit terminals 2 and 4
If …
… then
the proper voltage is not present
pushing the reset does not restore voltage
the proper voltage is present
push the reset button – if this establishes
proper voltage, conduct thermostat and
element checks before changing the high
limit.
replace the high limit.
continue to the next step.
Test between upper high limit 4 and upper thermostat 2
If …
… then
the proper voltage is not present high limit
and upper thermostats 2
the proper voltage is present
RELIANCE Water Heater Company
©2006
check the jumper between
thermostat 1 and high limit 2.
replace the upper thermostat
conduct upper element checks.
top 1/3 of tank should be hot.
51
upper
Technical Training Department
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RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
Residential Electric – continued
A-7 Voltage Check - continued
Complaint:
Lack of Hot Water
Test Conditions:
Upper thermostat satisfied
Test between upper high limit 4 and upper thermostat 4
If …
… then
proper voltage is not present
proper voltage is present
replace upper thermostat.
continue to next step.
Test between lower high limit terminal 1 and 3 or L1 and L3
If …
… then
proper voltage is not present
proper voltage is present
check wiring to upper thermostat and
heater junction box.
check that off peak meter is not
“Open”.
continue to next step.
Test between lower high limit 2 and 4 or L1 and L4
If …
… then
proper voltage is not present
pushing reset restored voltage
push lower high limit reset.
conduct lower thermostat check
conduct lower element checks
replace lower high limit
continue to next step
pushing reset did not restore voltage
proper voltage is present
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Technical Training Department
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RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
Residential Electric – continued
A-7 service – Voltage Checks “Lack of Hot Water” – continued
Test Condition
Lower tank water is at least 15 F below lower thermostat setting
Test between lower high limit 4 and lower thermostat 2 or lower high limit L4 and
lower thermostat T2
If …
… then
proper voltage is not present:
proper voltage is present:
check jumper between lower high limit
2 and lower thermostat 1.
replace lower thermostat.
continue to next step.
Test between the terminals of the lower element
If …
… then
proper voltage is not present:
proper voltage is present:
RELIANCE Water Heater Company
©2006
check wire connections to lower controls.
conduct grounded element checks.
53
Technical Training Department
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RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
Residential Electric – continued
A-7 – continued
Grounded Element Test – Amperage Method – Using “clamp type” Amperage
Meter. Many multimeters could be used to conduct this test but be certain that the
thermostat is satisfied or the amperage limits of the multimeter may be exceeded.
Complaint: A grounded element is suspected whenever the water temperature
becomes excessively hot and/or the end user must push the high limit reset to
reactivate the heater.
Amperage measures the flow of current through a wire.
Watts divided by volts = Amps
Conditions
Power on
Thermostats are satisfied
Clamp the jaws of the Amp Meter around each wire connected to an element –
one wire at a time.
If …
… then
meter reads the proper amperage
(+5, -10%)
meter reads approximately ½ of the
proper amperage
meter reads NO amperage
the thermostat is calling for heat
replace the element
thermostat and element are not grounded
Note: Amperage will only be indicated while electricity flows through a wire.
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Technical Training Department
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RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
Miscellaneous Residential Electric Water Heater Service Items:
Watts divided by Volts = Amps
Supply wire gauge and fuse (breaker) protection must be at least 125% of the expected
Amperage draw of the water heater.
Volts times Amps = Watts
Replace elements with elements rated at the same wattage and voltage indicated on the
heater model and rating plate. Installing an element with a higher voltage rating or wattage
output may create a safety hazard by overloading the heater wiring or supply wiring or
fusing. Installing an element with a lower wattage or voltage rating will reduce performance.
Normally, a residential electric water heater with two elements will have only one element
operate at a time. If the upper element or thermostat fails, the customer will be out of hot
water. If the lower element or thermostat fails, the customer should still have 1/3 of the
tank with hot water.
With two element heaters, the lower element and thermostat will cycle more frequently
than the upper element and thermostat. For this reason, the lower element will normally
accumulate lime faster and fail more often than the upper element. Lower thermostats will
fail more often than upper thermostats.
Replacement elements:
Replace elements with an element having the most surface area (low watt density)
available for your water heater. By spreading the heat of the element over a greater area,
lime (calcium) buildup rate should be reduced.
Elements constructed of Incoloy are much more durable than elements made of copper
with zinc coating.
Many electric utilities offer discounts if you do not use electricity during certain times of the
day. Contact them – by purchasing a larger storage water heater, with special wiring (see
A-7 wiring circuit) for time clocks or “off peak meters”, you may save on monthly operating
costs.
Rated
Voltage
120
208
240
277
Rated
Voltage
120
208
240
277
480
600
23.2
72.1
92.8
128
3000
4.64
14.4
18.6
25.6
76.8
Element with Links
Resistance of Element in Ohms (± 7.5%)
Rated Wattage
750
1000
1250
1500
18.6
13.9
11.1
9.28
57.7
43.3
34.6
28.8
74.3
55.7
44.6
37.1
102
76.7
61.4
51.2
Rated Wattage
3500
4000
4500
5000
2000
6.96
21.6
27.8
38.4
2500
5.57
17.3
22.3
30.7
5500
6000
12.4
15.9
21.9
65.7
7.85*
10.1*
14.0
41.8
7.2
9.28
12.8
38.4
RELIANCE Water Heater Company
©2006
10.8
13.9
19.2
57.5
9.61
12.4
17.1
51.1
55
8.65
11.1
15.3
45.7
Technical Training Department
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RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
RELIANCE TECHNICAL BULLETINS
The following are bulletins designed to help service the standard, residential gas and
electric model water heaters. These bulletins and more are available on the RELIANCE
website www.reliancewaterheaters.com.
This information is intended to supplement service and maintenance information found
in the heater installation and operation manual.
“Why water heaters leak” information ……………………………..54-55
Index of Technical Bulletins:
Water Hammer .................................................................................. 56
Mineral Buildup ................................................................................. 57
Aluminum Hydroxide ......................................................................... 58
Discolored Water............................................................................... 59
Smelly Water..................................................................................... 60
Chlorination Procedure...................................................................... 61
Not Enough Hot Water - Gas ............................................................ 62
Not Enough Hot Water – Electric ...................................................... 63
Thermal Expansion…………………………………………………....64-65
Leaking Temperature and Pressure Relief Valve.............................. 66
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WHY WATER HEATER TANKS LEAK
WHAT
Water
Pressure
WHY
PREVENTION
Water expands when it is heated
(Thermal Expansion). Water
cannot be compressed.
Excessive Pressure in the tank
causes failure of joints, welds or
gaskets.
Condensation
(Gas Water
Heaters)
Products of combustion contain
moisture. As the combustion
products cool the moisture
becomes liquid – carbonic acid.
The acid attacks the metal.
Higher efficiency water heaters
have cooler gases.
Recommended water storage
temperatures create cooler
surfaces.
Contaminated Bleaches, floor waxes,
Air
detergents, salt and many other
household products contain
chemicals which, when drawn into
contact with a flame (a gas water
heater uses 12 cubic feet of air for
each 1000 BTU of heat
generated). When these
chemical vapors or dusts come
into contact with a flame or
electrical contact, various acids
form. These acids attack the
metal.
Soft Water
Soft water minimizes mineral
buildup within the tank. Minimal
minerals maintain the water
heater at high efficiency but may
also expose interior surfaces to
corrosion. Mineral buildup in
some heaters prevents them
leaking while greatly reducing
efficiency.
RELIANCE Water Heater Company
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A Temperature and Pressure Relief
Valve limits pressure to a
maximum.
Adding a Thermal Expansion Tank
limits pressure to near supply water
pressure.
Install a water heater with capacity
to minimize significant stored water
temperature drop during usage.
Store water at a higher temperature
– install a mixing valve to reduce
danger of scalding.
Supply the heater with clean air.
“Direct Vent” water heaters use air
from outside of the building for
combustion.
A metal “Anode” rod within the tank
helps to prevent internal corrosion.
Maintain the self sacrificing “anode”
rod by inspecting the rod annually
and replacing when large “gouges”
appear in its surface.
Technical Training Department
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RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
WHY WATER HEATER TANKS LEAK -
Continued
WATER CONDITIONS
WHAT
“Hard” Water
(Gas Water
Heaters)
WHY
PREVENTION
“Flush” the sand from the tank every 6
“Hard” water contains minerals.
months.
As water is heated the minerals
Delime the tank interior yearly.
separate from the water and
Install a water softener in hard water
attach to hot surfaces within the
areas. These should be adjusted
tank. In gas water heaters, these
according to manufacturer’s
minerals “insulate” the heat
recommendations, typically for 5 grains
transfer surfaces conducting heat
hardness.
from the burner through to the
water. These surfaces become
hotter than if they were clean.
Hotter surfaces mean more
expansion and contraction of the
metal as the burner cycles on and
off. The metal or weld joints
crack.
Inspect and clean elements as
“Hard” Water
See above explanation.
necessary.
(Electric Water Lime (calcium) forms on the
Add a water softener.
Heaters)
electric elements.
Elements become excessively hot Install elements resistant to failure due to
Lime (mineral) build up.
and may split.
Split elements often leak to the
outside of the heater.
Water
Begin with a water heater setting of
Water stored at 160 F (72 C)
Temperature
120 F (49 C) and increase only as
may be twice as corrosive as
necessary.
water stored at 140 F (60 C)
Purchasing a proper sized tank will
Usage
Each time the burner or elements
minimize burner or element operation
cycle on and off, a small amount
when only small quantities of hot water
of metal expansion and
are used.
contraction take place. As
bending a piece of wire back and
forth will break the wire, this
expansion and contraction will
eventually crack tank joints or
welds.
For more detailed explanation on this information as well as additional service information, see
the RELIANCE Web site www.reliancewaterheaters.com under “Technical Bulletins”.
0801 form TC-063
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Technical Training Department
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RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
WATER HAMMER
GENERAL
Water hammer is the destructive forces, pounding noises and vibration in a piping
system when water flowing through a pipeline is stopped abruptly. When water
hammer occurs, a high intensity pressure wave travels back through the piping
system until it reaches a point of some relief. The shock wave will then surge back
and forth between the point of relief and the point of stoppage until the destructive
energy is dissipated in the piping system. The violent action accounts for “banging”,
“thumping”, and/or intense vibration in the pipe line. Although noise is generally
associated with the occurrence of water hammer, it can occur without audible sound
or noise. Quick closure always causes some degree of shock with or without noise.
The common cause of water hammer is single lever faucets (sinks/lavatories) or
automatic solenoid valves (dishwashers, washing machines, etc.). The speed of the
valve closure time is directly related to the intensity of the surge pressure.
EFFECTS
The damage from water hammer can manifest itself in a number of ways. The most
common are:
Expanded Tank Shell - This can be demonstrated by measuring the circumference at
various locations along the shell. Pressures in excess of the maximum design working
pressure can cause permanent deformation of the shell.
Collapsed Flue Tube - This will choke off the ability to vent the products of combustion
causing the flame and/or combustion to spill out from the combustion chamber. Often
this will occur where thinning of the flue tube walls has occurred due to contamination
of the combustion air or because of excessive condensation.
Inverted or Deformed Tank Heads - Often this accompanies collapsed flues, but one
or both heads can be deformed.
THE FIX
The only effective means of control is to install water hammer arrestors. These
devices have diaphragms, which separate an air chamber from the water in the piping
system. As the shock wave reaches this device, the air chamber absorbs the shock.
Arrestors should be located as close as possible to the source of the shock wave.
NOTES
Since water hammer exposes the equipment to pressures in excess of its design
limits, failures caused by water hammer are not eligible for warranty consideration.
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TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
MINERAL BUILD-UP
SYMPTOMS
CAUSE
Rumbling
Crackling
Popping
With the advent of high input and larger storage tanks in both commercial and
residential heaters, deliming has become a necessity of modern maintenance.
Lime (CaCO3), is the most notable factor when discussing water hardness.
Lime is present in every water system to some degree across the entire
United States. Since lime is inversely soluble [the more you heat, the more
lime comes out], higher usage, excessive hardness, and increased heating
surface can lead to a high incidence of “limed-up” heaters.
Symptoms often include a popping of water trapped under lime deposits or
the sizzling of water trapped next to elements, boiling it to steam.
THE FIX
Treatment of a “limed-up“ heater is relatively simple. Since CaCO3 is a base,
the easiest way to dissolve it so it can be flushed from the heater is with an
acid. The most commonly used is phosphoric acid at a food-grade level.
Any well-stocked plumbing supply house should have a deliming solution
available.
The directions on the product should be followed explicitly.
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ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE
SYMPTOMS
“Crackling”, “gurgling”, or “popping” noises from new water heaters (installed less than
six months).
CAUSE
In a few isolated parts of the United States where the water supply has a relatively high pH (8+),
water conditions will react with the aluminum anode to form excessive amounts of aluminum
hydroxide on the anode and in the bottom of the tank. Aluminum hydroxide looks like “jelly
beads” or a green, blue or gray gel like substance in the heater drain or at faucet aerators.
THE FIX
This procedure should only be performed by someone with abilities equal to a licensed
tradesman. Aluminum hydroxide can be removed by using one of the methods outlined.
If tank is new with no lime build-up to any degree:
1
2
3
4
Turn off the heater.
Remove the anode.
Flush the tank thoroughly with water.
Replace the aluminum anode (identifiable by smooth surface on plug) with magnesium
anode (identifiable by weld bead on plug).
If the tank is new with lime build-up to any degree:
1
2
3
4
Turn off the heater.
Drain the heater.
Remove the anode.
Add UN-LIME to the tank.
20-40 gallon models (use 3 gallons of UN-LIME)
41-65 gallon models (use 5 gallons of UN-LIME)
66-100 gallon models (use 7 gallons of UN-LIME)
5
(On electric models, be certain the lower element is immersed in solution.)
Heat the UN-LIME to a temperature between 140 F to 160 F.
GAS - Heat for 7 to 10 minutes.
ELECTRIC - Power off and remove the yellow wire from terminal 2 on the upper thermostat.
Move the red wire from terminal 4 of the upper thermostat to terminal 2 of the upper
thermostat. This allows operation of the lower element only. Restore power to the heater.
Be certain that only the lower element is operating. Heat for 7 to 10 minutes.
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
NOTE
Shut off the water heater.
Allow the heated UN-LIME to stand for up to 12 minutes.
Drain and flush the tank. Caution: UN-LIME will still be hot.
Replace the original aluminum anode with a magnesium anode.
Fill the system with water.
On electric models, return the wiring to its original configuration.
Turn heater fuel “ON”.
Since aluminum hydroxide is a product of a chemical reaction dependent on the water condition,
any treatment is not considered warranty related.
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TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
DISCOLORED WATER
SYMPTOMS
Rusty, brown, black, or yellow water appearing in the hot water.
CAUSE
Complaints of discolored water are commonly blamed on water heaters and
storage tanks, but in fact, it is a rare occurrence for today’s high quality glass
lined tanks to have a lining failure significant enough to allow water to contact
enough bare metal to discolor the contents of even a small tank.
The most common cause of “rusty” water is a non-toxic iron reducing bacteria,
scientifically termed Crenothrix, Leptothrix, and Gallionella. Iron bacteria is
commonly found in soil, water wells, water treatment plants and water
distribution piping systems where soluble iron exceeds 0.2 ppm, higher levels
make conditions even more favorable. Soluble iron in the water provides food
for the bacteria. Rusty discolored water is the end result of the bacteria feeding
process. Water heaters and storage tanks usually require new anode rods as
presence of iron bacteria contributes to premature anode failure.
The requirements for the bacteria to thrive are:
Elevated level of iron and manganese in the water
Water with little or no dissolved oxygen
Temperatures below 138 F
Items that can increase the potential for this bacteria are:
Water softeners
Well water
Long periods of no water movement
TREATMENT
The simplest treatment available is shock-chlorination of the system. This is a
surface treatment, and often requires repeated trials in heavily infected
systems. The chlorination of a system requires that you follow each step
explicitly to avoid an un-treated portion of the piping system from reinfecting
another part. See Bulletin 23 for the chlorination procedure.
NOTE
Since rusty water is caused by a bacteria presence and is not caused by the
water heater, any treatment would not be considered warranty related.
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RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
SMELLY WATER
CAUSE
The most common cause of “smelly water” is a non-toxic sulfate reducing
bacteria, scientifically termed Divibrio Sulfurcans. This bacteria often enters
the water system through construction or a break in ground piping. The
bacteria creates the energy it needs to survive by converting sulfate (SO4) to
hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas you smell in the water.
Hydrogen sulfide gas is distinctive because of its rotten egg-like stench. Its
presence can severely affect the taste as well as the odor of the water.
Occasionally this bacteria can be accompanied by black deposits, the result
of pipe and fitting corrosion. In extremely high concentrations, hydrogen
sulfide gas can be toxic though the gas is detectable long before harmful
levels are reached.
The requirements for the bacteria to thrive are: a) an elevated level of sulfur in
the water, b) activated hydrogen from cathodic reactions within the tank, c)
water with little or no dissolved oxygen, d) and temperatures below 138 F.
Items that can increase the potential for this bacteria are: a) water softeners,
b) well water, c) and long periods of no water movement.
Other factors that may contribute to smelly water:
Chlorides of Magnesium and Calcium leave a bitter taste.
Chloride of Sodium produces a salty taste.
Sulfates (50 ppm) give a medicinal taste.
Carbon Dioxide in a low pH water gives fizzy water.
Iron and tannic waters also give a bad taste and odor.
TREATMENT
The simplest treatment available is the shock-chlorination of the system. This
is a surface treatment, and often requires repeated trials in heavily infected
systems. The chlorination of a system requires that you follow each step
explicitly to avoid an un-treated portion of the piping system from reinfecting
another part. See Bulletin 23 for the chlorination procedure. Longer lasting
solutions include chlorination or aeration of the water supply.
NOTE
Since smelly water is caused by a bacteria presence and is not caused by the
water heater, any treatment would not be considered warranty related.
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TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
CHLORINATION PROCEDURE
CAUSE
The chlorination procedure is used to eliminate various bacteria that
accumulate and grow in water heaters. These bacteria often cause odorous
or discolored water conditions.
PROCEDURE
Please read the steps of the chlorination procedure prior to beginning. If you
feel uncomfortable performing any of these steps, contact a service person to
perform this procedure for you.
STEP 1
STEP 2
STEP 3
STEP 4
STEP 5
STEP 6
Turn off the gas or electric supply to the tank.
Turn off the cold water supply valve to the tank.
Open a nearby hot water faucet to relieve the vacuum.
Drain all the water from the tank (a water-hose may be needed).
Remove the anode rod(s), and close the drain valve.
Using a funnel in the anode opening add one gallon of household chlorine
bleach (e.g. Clorox or Purex) for every 25 gallons of tank capacity.
Reinstall anode rod(s) after inspecting and replacing as needed.
Open cold water supply valve and refill the system. Then draw the water to
every hot water fixture, until the smell of chlorine is detected. Operate dish
and clothes washers until a noticeable amount of the chlorine is detected as
well. All hot water lines must receive treatment.
Leave the chlorine solution undisturbed for one hour or more.
After the contact time has elapsed, drain the tank according to steps #2, #3, &
#4.
Close the drain valve and refill the tank. Allow the tank to sit for 15 minutes.
Repeat steps #2, #3, and #4. Continue to flush the tank if the water is
discolored or contains a chlorine odor.
Close the drain valve and refill the tank. Flush all chlorine from the piping by
opening every hot water outlet/ appliance.
Return hot water heating system to service by following the recommended
start-up procedure posted on the unit or in the manual.
STEP 7
STEP 8
STEP 9
STEP 10
STEP 11
STEP 12
STEP 13
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TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
NOT ENOUGH HOT WATER - GAS
CAUSE
Not enough hot water complaints are becoming more frequent in the water heater
industry. This increase was triggered when changes required by our regulatory
agencies were implemented. For example, heaters are now factory preset at a
lower temperature and inlet tubes have been shortened. While lower temperatures
settings reduce the burn rate, and shorter dip tubes guard against stacking, both
affect the amount of hot water a water heater can supply. The following test will
help determine if a water heater is supplying the intended amount of hot water and
will help pinpoint any problems that exist.
TEST
Please read all the steps of the test prior to beginning. If you feel uncomfortable
performing any of these steps, contact a service person to conduct this test for you.
STEP 1
At the faucet nearest to the water heater, time (in seconds) how long it takes to fill a
1 gallon bucket (flow rate).
STEP 2
STEP 3
STEP 4
STEP 5
STEP 6
STEP 7
STEP 8
STEP 9
THE FIX
Gallon per minute (gpm) = 60 seconds / seconds to fill a 1 gallon bucket
If the bucket fills in: 10 sec = 6 gpm
12 sec = 5 gpm
15 sec = 4 gpm
20 sec = 3 gpm
24 sec = 2.5 gpm
Turn thermostat dial on the water heater so the arrow points to “A” position.
Run about 15 gallons of hot water from the nearest faucet. Shut water off.
Water heater should complete heating 15 gallons in approximately 20-35 minutes.
At a nearby faucet using a candy thermometer, measure the hot water temperature.
The temperature should fall between 120 F to 140 F.
Continue running the hot water until 60% of the tank capacity is depleted:
CAPACITY
DEPLETE
30 gallons
18 gallons
40 gallons
24 gallons
50 gallons
30 gallons
75 gallons
45 gallons
100 gallons
60 gallons
At the same faucet using a candy thermometer, measure the water temperature.
The temperature should be about 30 F below the temperature in step 6.
Step 6 - if the temperature was not within range, check the thermostat.
Step 9 - if more than 30 F was lost, check the dip tube.
RELIANCE Water Heater Company
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RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
NOT ENOUGH HOT WATER - ELECTRIC
CAUSE
Not enough hot water complaints are becoming more frequent in the water heater
industry. This increase was triggered when changes required by our regulatory
agencies were implemented. For example, heaters are now factory preset at a
lower temperature and inlet tubes have been shortened. While lower temperatures
settings reduce the burn rate, and shorter dip tubes guard against stacking, both
affect the amount of hot water a water heater can supply. The following test will
help determine if a water heater is supplying the intended amount of hot water and
will help pinpoint any problems that exist.
TEST
Please read all the steps of the test prior to beginning. If you feel uncomfortable
performing any of these steps, contact a service person to conduct this test for you.
STEP 1
At the faucet nearest to the water heater, time (in seconds) how long it takes to fill a
1 gallon bucket (flow rate).
STEP 2
STEP 3
STEP 4
STEP 5
STEP 6
STEP 7
STEP 8
STEP 9
THE FIX
Gallon per minute (gpm) = 60 seconds / seconds to fill a 1 gallon bucket
If the bucket fills in: 10 sec = 6 gpm
12 sec = 5 gpm
15 sec = 4 gpm
20 sec = 3 gpm
24 sec = 2.5 gpm
Turn both upper and lower thermostat dials on the water heater to 130° F.
Run about 15 gallons of hot water from the nearest faucet. Shut water off.
Water heater should complete heating 15 gallons in approximately 45 minutes
At a nearby faucet using a candy thermometer, measure the hot water temperature.
The temperature should fall between 120 F to 140 F.
Continue running the hot water until 60% of the tank capacity is depleted:
CAPACITY
DEPLETE
30 gallons
18 gallons
40 gallons
24 gallons
50 gallons
30 gallons
66 gallons
39 gallons
80 gallons
48 gallons
120 gallons
72 gallons
At the same faucet using a candy thermometer, measure the water temperature.
The temperature should be about 30 F below the temperature in step 6.
Step 6 - if the temperature was not within range, check the thermostats.
Step 9 - if more than 30 F was lost, check the lower element for continuity and the
dip tube.
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TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
THERMAL EXPANSION
SYMPTOMS
Effects are only noticeable after hot water use followed by periods of no water use.
Relief valve drips during any recovery cycle when no hot or cold water is used.
Hot water pipes creak while heater is recovering and all valves are closed.
Tanks or other components of the water supply system fail prematurely.
A metallic creaking noise might actually be heard in the location of the heater as the
pressure is relieved and the stretched tank returns to a natural shape.
Faucets drips during any recovery cycle when no hot or cold water is used.
Water surges when a valve is first open and then pressure drops.
CAUSE
The water in a water heating system expands when it is heated and has a greater
volume. Since water will not compress (like air), system designers must include
provisions for thermal expansion. (Water in a closed tank at 50 psi, when heated just
10 degrees, will reach a pressure of 250 psi).
Many water supply systems have check valves at the water meter to prevent any
possible contamination of the public water supply by the accidental back-flow of
contaminated water into the supply mains. These check valves are often required by
code, and some cities are even installing the check valves. They serve a useful
purpose. Do not remove them!
The use of pressure reducing valves (PRV) is another cause. PRVs are designed to
conserve water and prolong fixture life. Many PRVs also act as very effective check
valves. Again, do not remove them!
Water softeners in the system may also act as back-flow preventers.
Follow these easy steps to diagnose thermal expansion:
TEST
Turn the heater thermostat all the way down, and install a water pressure gauge with dead
hand (AOS part #4798) on the drain valve. Open the drain valve, so the gauge reads system
pressure.
Open a hot water tap and allow 15% to 20% of the tanks volume to run out. Shut off the
drain valve and make sure that no other fixture in the system, hot or cold, is open. Make sure
that outside fixtures, if they are on the same system, are turned off too. Any water leaks or
use will make the test meaningless.
Check the water pressure gauge, and turn the pointer so it lines up with the pressure
indicating needle. Turn the thermostat back up to its normal position, so the heater cycles
on. Watch the pressure gauge.
If the system is closed, the pressure will start to climb steadily and rapidly. A small amount of
thermal expansion control may be built into the system because of trapped air pockets or a
water hammer arrestor. In that case the pressure will increase slightly, hold steady for a
short time and then rapidly increase. The temperature and pressure relief valve (T&P) or
PRV should open and release water once the pressure reaches the maximum setting on the
valve. The valve will close once the pressure falls below the pressure setting of the valve.
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THE FIX
The ideal fix involves the use of a pressure reducing valve if supply pressures are
above 60 to 70 psi, and a properly sized expansion tank. The PRV reduces supply
pressures to 40 to 60 psi allowing an economically priced and sized expansion tank to
be used. The PRV also offers the benefit of saving water and prolonging the life of
water flow valves. The PRV is not required if the system already has one or if high
supply pressures are desired.
The PRV is installed between the check valve and the water heating system. The
expansion tank is installed between the PRV and the water heating system. Follow the
manufacturers instructions for installing the expansion tank.
Run the thermal expansion check again. The pressure should increase only slightly
then hold steady throughout the recovery cycle. The expanded water is flowing back
from the heater and into the pressurized storage bladder of the expansion tank. Air
pressure will force this water out of the expansion tank into the supply once usage
resumes.
DO NOT DEPEND ON THE T&P VALVE TO HANDLE THERMAL EXPANSION! The
T&P valve, according to the makers of those valves, was designed as an emergency
relief device only. The T&P could be subject to reduced effectiveness or failure.
FIGURE
WARNING
Thermal expansion of water, if not compensated for in system design, will lead to the
early failure of components. These failures are not covered by the manufacturer’s
warranty, so it is extremely important that everyone be aware of the causes, symptoms
and solutions to thermal expansion in a closed water heating system.
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LEAKING TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE
SYMPTOMS
GENERAL
Water seeping around the relief valve tank connection
Leakage at the threaded portion of the relief valve connection
Intermittent weeping and/or dribbling from the relief valve
Large volume of hot water sporadically discharged from the relief valve
The temperature and pressure relief valve (T & P) is a safety device limiting temperature and
pressure levels in a water heater. Each T & P has both a temperature and pressure rating.
Normally, the temperature and pressure relief valve will have a temperature rating for 210 F. A
probe (part of the relief valve) extends into the tank measuring the stored water temperature.
This probe must be within the top six inches of the water heater. However, if the water heater’s
thermostat malfunctions, higher than normal water temperatures could be produced. Once the
probe senses a temperature exceeding its temperature rating, the relief valve will open to full
capacity releasing “very hot” water until the temperature is below its reset temperature.
The pressure rating on the relief valve should be the same or less than the certified working
pressure of the tank (generally 150 psi) and be below the lowest pressure rating of any system
components. It is not acceptable to install a relief valve that exceeds the maximum working
pressure of the water heater. Once the pressure in the tank reaches the valve’s pressure rating,
it will slightly open relieving the pressure. Relieving of pressure can be noted as “dribbling” or
“weeping” water from the relief valve.
If an incorrectly sized temperature and pressure relief valve is installed, the warranty will be
void.
THE FIX
Seeping at the spud of the water heater - Spuds are welded to the tank and are not
repairable. The heater should be replaced.
Leakage at the threaded relief valve connection - Remove relief valve and reseal
connection.
Intermittent weeping and/or dribbling at the relief valve - The relief valve relieves water
slowly when actuating on pressure. A closed system can cause pressure to increase in the
system. This condition is called thermal expansion. For additional information regarding
thermal expansion please see Bulletin 45.
Large volume of hot water sporadically discharged from the relief valve - The relief valve
relieves water quickly when actuating on temperature. The only cause of this problem is a
malfunctioning thermostat.
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Technical Training Department
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RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
Subject: Venting Techniques that Eliminate Pilot Outage
A clean heater, and heater environment, is the first thing that should be considered when troubleshooting
a water heater. Higher efficiency water heaters and new government regulations for flammable vapor
ignition resistance have changed the design of water heaters. Dirty environments can take there toll on a
water heater. Take time to make sure that the area around, and under the heater is clean and obstruction
free. Make sure that the air intake screen (LDO screen) located on the base ring of the heater is clean
and properly installed; this is where all of the combustion air enters the heater. Cleaning the screen and
under the heater can improve the performance of the heater and save a costly service call. Please visit
www.reliancewaterheaters.com for cleaning instructions and other service related material.
Venting systems are very important to the safe operation of the water heater. For example, a 90 elbow
on the top of the heater’s draft hood can reduce the vent efficiency by up to 50%. There should be a rise
of ten vent diameters off of the top of the heater before the first elbow. On a heater that has a three inch
vent that would be 30 inches before an elbow. A poorly designed vent can render the heater useless and
could lead to serious injury or death. A good vent is a vent that rises straight up from the heater to the
termination on the roof and continues outside for at least another two feet straight up. However,
horizontal vent runs are acceptable as long as a few rules are followed.
¾ The horizontal vent run (any angle less than 45° from horizontal) should not exceed 75% of
the vent height. (The distance from the top of the heater straight up to the altitude of the vent
termination).
¾ The vent must have a minimum of ¼” inch per foot rise on the horizontal run meaning
that every four foot continuous run of a horizontal pipe must rise at least one inch.
¾ Must not be vented with a power vented (fan assisted) appliance per the National Fuel Gas
Code. 10 vent diameters off of the top of the heater before the first elbow.
¾ The vent must be sized to handle the total BTU input of all the appliances connected.
If there is more than one appliance connected to the vent system and you suspect a problem, call a local
plumber or venting specialist. Rust forming on the heater jacket and burnt gas are signs that the vent is
not working properly. An improper vent may spill flue products out of the top of the heater which could
cause the heater and vent pipe to rust.
As the water heater in most new homes has been banished to the garage, basement, closet or attic,
simple needs of water heaters have been forgotten or overlooked. The most common is the availability of
needed combustion air. Gas burning appliances must have air (Oxygen) to sustain a flame, and water
heaters in garages and attic or utility closets have plenty of air around them; right? As we will explain that
is not always the case. There are three major reasons for pilot outage; Capping, High ambient
temperature and decompression. Though the outcome is the same, the causes of “Pilot Snuff” are quite
different. “Pilot Snuff” is the lack of buoyancy in the gases causing them to lie in the bottom of the heater
until the flame runs out of oxygen and goes out. Let’s look at the cause and effect of these three different
types of pilot outage. Let start with “Capping.”
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"Capping" takes place when a downward force equal to or
greater than the pilot draft is present in the vent. Because
of a poorly designed vent, wind outside the structure, will
push down the vent and cause the flue to stall. This is
most evident in high wind situations but can happen in
much calmer atmospheric conditions, or in combination
with one of the other two pilot outage reasons. When the
flue stalls, the draft from the pilot flame stops rising up the
flue, all the oxygen is used up and the pilot flame goes out.
It takes less than 1/500th of an inch water column
pressure to stall the flue. This can be caused by an
improperly designed or installed vent termination, a vent
termination that does not extend two feet above anything
within a ten foot radius horizontally on the roof, a vent with
no termination on it, or a vent that is too big for the heater.
(See figure to right).
The second reason that contributes to pilot outage is high
ambient temperatures. This effects heaters that are installed in
attics, garages, unconditioned spaces or heaters that draw
makeup air from an attic spaces. Soaring temps in the attic can
peak at 160°F or higher in the summer months. If the tank
temperature is set at 135° F, and the air in the attic is a
sweltering 160° F, the heat generated by the pilot is not enough
to heat the surrounding air adequately enough to start a draft
(upward air movement) and the pilot will burn up all the
available oxygen and extinguish. Atmospheric water heaters
depend on heated flue gas to carry the products of combustion
up and out due to the buoyancy of the flue gasses. Ventilation
of the attic becomes a big issue. The hotter the air is the more
it wants to rise. If the heater is getting combustion air from the
attic, the hot air in the attic does not come down the makeup air
vents to feed the burner and the pilot goes out from lack of
oxygen. (See figure 2)
Decompression is the third reason that the pilot flame will fail.
Decompression happens when the air pressure inside the
structure where the water heater is located, drops below the outside air pressure. If air can not enter the
structure as fast as it is being used then the building will go “negative.” If the room pressure is negative,
then the air pressure outside will push down the vent to equalize the pressure. The effect is much like
“capping”, the combustion products from the pilot stall in the heater flue pipe, and the pilot runs out of
oxygen because there is no draft (upward air movement) to replace the oxygen. Reasons for a room or
building to go negative are a closed room (no make up air vents) without much, or no foot traffic, a room
that is too small to support the needs of the heater, an attic or kitchen fan that exhaust air out of the
structure without bringing in its own makeup air, or combustion air shared by two or more gas burning
appliances.
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If it is a garage installation then try this as a test. Place a small 2”x 4” block of wood under each end of
the garage door (or if the heater is in a utility closet, try opening a window). This will leave a gap for more
air, equalizing the pressure and the outage problems may go away. Then simple vents can be placed in
the garage door or exterior wall to help with ventilation. Most homes have no air conditioning ducts in the
garage (to meet energy ratings) supplying air in the garage; which would normally be a source of
combustion air.
Attic installations can be exceedingly hostile. The Constant high temperatures and little to no traffic along
with poor ventilation take there toll. Attic design and materials are very important to proper combustion.
Soffits and roof ventilation devices are very important to good attic ventilation necessities heater
operation. Soffit vents are usually blocked during the construction of the home when the insulation is
blown into the attic. The insulation should not cover the soffits. If the soffits are covered, then a leaf
blower can be used from the outside to blow into the vent. This comes with a warning that all gas
appliances must be turned off and any valuables need to be covered prior to clearing the vents. The
insulation dust can take several hours to settle. Vents, and vent placement, are very important as well.
Ridge vents work the best and can cool the attic by up to 35ºF in the summer by cooling the underside of
the roof deck as it is heated by the sun. There are also fewer pockets of dead air with the roof vents.
Attics with no venting devices have no air flow in them except the heated air escaping from the soffits due
to expansion, which leads to insufficient air. One way to determine if there is enough available air in the
attic is to stand in the attic with the door closed and shut off the attic light during daytime hours (10am to
4pm).
If no light can be seen from the soffit areas, then chances are that the heater will never have the required
air to support combustion. (See Figure 3)
Figure 3
A lack of combustion air will cause the main burner to have an unstable yellow flame pattern in the
combustion chamber. As the Flame “looks” for oxygen, it will change its color and flame pattern and
flatten out in an effort to find an oxygen supply. This will increase the temperature in the bottom of the
combustion chamber and cause the heater to shutdown.
Good Combustion Bad Combustion
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Available air for combustion is essential to a heater. Properly vented heaters and installation conditions
play a huge part in the operation of the heater because without enough air, the heater cannot operate
properly and will shut down. The drafting characteristics of the heater depend upon the heat of the pilot,
main flame and tank temperature to generate draft. WARNING, hotter water temperatures can lead to
scalding. Safety always comes first. Keeping this in mind, an increase of tank temperature 10° F may help
or even solve the problem. A simple mixing valve installed in the hot water outlet of the heater, will allow
much hotter tank temperatures while providing a worry free solution to scalding.
In conclusion, remember that a heater that is not properly installed will not operate properly. Proper
maintenance and cleaning of the heater and the surrounding area can play a major role as well. For
more information on the operation of you heater you can call 800-365-4054 for technical assistance or
visit the technical bulletin section under the technical literature section of our web site at
www.reliancewaterheaters.com. There you will find information on everything from water conditions to
®
noises encountered in your water heater. With proper installation your RELIANCE water heater will give
you many years of worry free hot water.
Decompression is the third reason that the pilot flame will fail. Decompression happens when the air
pressure inside the structure where the water heater is located, drops below the outside air pressure. If
air can not enter the structure as fast as it is being used then the building will go “negative.” If the room
pressure is negative, then the air pressure outside will push down the vent to equalize the pressure. The
effect is much like “capping”, the combustion products from the pilot stall in the heater flue pipe, and the
pilot runs out of oxygen because there is no draft (upward air movement) to replace the oxygen.
Reasons for a room or building to go negative are a closed room (no makeup air vents) without much, or
no foot traffic, a room that is too small to support the needs of the heater, an attic or kitchen fan that
exhaust air out of the structure without bringing in its own makeup air, or combustion air shared by two or
more gas burning appliances.
If it is a garage installation then try this as a test. Place a small 2” x 4” block of wood under each end of
the garage door (or if the heater is in a utility closet, try opening a window). This will leave a gap for air,
equalizing the pressure and the outage problems may go away. Then simple vents can be placed in the
garage door or exterior wall to help with ventilation. Most homes have no air conditioning ducts in the
garage (to meet energy ratings) supplying air in the garage; which would normally be a source of
combustion air.
Attic installations can be exceedingly hostile. The Constant high temperatures and little to no traffic along
with poor ventilation take there toll. Attic design and materials are very important to good attic ventilation
necessities heater operation. Soffit vents are usually blocked during the construction of the home when
the insulation is blown into the attic. The insulation should not cover the soffits. If the soffits are covered,
then a leaf blower can be used from the outside to blow into the vent. This comes with a warning that all
gas appliances must be turned off and any valuables need to be covered prior to clearing the vents. The
insulation dust can take several hours to settle. Vents, and vent placement, are very important as well.
Ridge vents work the best and can cool the attic by up to 35 degrees F in the summer by cooling the
underside of the roof deck as it is heated by the sun. There are also fewer pockets of dead air with the
roof vents. Attics with no venting devices have no air flow in them except the heated air escaping from
the soffits due to expansion, which leads to insufficient air. One way to determine if there is enough
available air in the attic is to stand in the attic with the door closed and shut off the attic light during
daytime hours (10 a.m. to 4 p.m.)
If no light can be seen from the soffit areas, then chances are that the heater will never have the required
air to support combustion. (See Figure 3)
A lack of combustion air will cause the main burner to have an unstable yellow flame pattern in the
combustion chamber. As the flame “looks” for oxygen, it will change its color and flame pattern and
flatten out in an effort to find an oxygen supply. This will increase the temperature in the bottom of the
combustion chamber and cause the heater to shutdown.
RELIANCE Water Heater Company
©2006
73
Technical Training Department
Ashland City, TN
RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
Available air for combustion is essential to a heater. Properly vented heaters and installation conditions
play a huge part in the operation of the heater because without enough air, the heater cannot operate
properly and will shut down. The drafting characteristics of the heater depend upon the heat of the pilot,
main flame and tank scalding. Safety always comes first. Keeping this in mind, an increase of tank
temperature 10 degrees F may help or even solve the problem. A simple mixing valve installed in the hot
water outlet of the heater, will allow much hotter tank temperatures while providing a worry free solution to
scalding.
In conclusion, remember that a heater that is not properly installed will not operate properly. Proper
maintenance and cleaning of the heater and the surrounding area can play a major role as well. For
more information on the operation of your heater you can call 800-365-4054 for technical assistance or
visit the technical bulletin section under the technical literature section of our web site at
www.reliancewaterheaters.com. There you will find information on everything from water conditions to
noises encountered in your water heater. With proper installation your RELIANCE® water heater will give
you many years of worry free hot water.
RELIANCE Water Heater Company
©2006
74
Technical Training Department
Ashland City, TN
RESIDENTIAL GAS AND ELECTRIC WATER HEATER
TROUBLESHOOTING and SERVICE HANDBOOK
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SERVICE HANDBOOK AT LEAST 6 MONTHS.
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RELIANCE Water Heater Company
©2006
75
Technical Training Department
Ashland City, TN