Agilent Technologies Agilent 8166A User`s guide

Agilent 81560A, 81561A Variable Optical Attenuator
Modules and Agilent 81566A, 81567A Variable Optical
Attenuator Modules with Power Control
User’s Guide
S1
Notices
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Copyright 2001 by:
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guide, contact your Agilent Technologies representative.
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Certification
Agilent Technologies Inc. certifies that this product met
its published specifications at the time of shipment from
the factory.
Agilent Technologies further certifies that its calibration
measurements are traceable to the United States
National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST
(formerly the United States National Bureau of
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other International Standards Organization members.
ISO 9001 Certification
Produced to ISO 9001 international quality system
standard as part of our objective of continually
increasing customer satisfaction through improved
process control.
First Edition
81560-90A11
First Edition:
81560-90A11: November 2001
Control Serial Number: First Edition applies directly to
all instruments.
Warranty
This Agilent Technologies instrument product is
warranted against defects in material and workmanship
for a period of one year from date of shipment. During
the warranty period, Agilent will, at its option, either
repair or replace products that prove to be defective.
For warranty service or repair, this product must be
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designated by Agilent for use with an instrument will
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Limitation of Warranty
The foregoing warranty shall not apply to defects
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Technologies specifically disclaims the implied
warranties of Merchantability and Fitness for a
Particular Purpose.
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Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Safety Summary
Safety Summary
The following general safety precautions must be observed during all
phases of operation, service, and repair of this instrument. Failure to
comply with these precautions or with specific warnings elsewhere in
this manual violates safety standards of design, manufacture, and
intended use of the instrument. Agilent Technologies Inc. assumes no
liability for the customer’s failure to comply with these requirements.
Before operation, review the instrument and manual, including the
red safety page, for safety markings and instructions. You must follow
these to ensure safe operation and to maintain the instrument in safe
condition.
WARNING
The WARNING sign denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure,
practice or the like, which, if not correctly performed or adhered to,
could result in injury or loss of life. Do not proceed beyond a
WARNING sign until the indicated conditions are fully understood and
met.
Safety Symbols
The apparatus will be marked with this symbol when it is necessary
for the user to refer to the instruction manual in order to protect the
apparatus against damage.
Hazardous laser radiation.
Initial Inspection
Inspect the shipping container for damage. If there is damage to the
container or cushioning, keep them until you have checked the
contents of the shipment for completeness and verified the instrument
both mechanically and electrically.
The Performance Tests give procedures for checking the operation of
the instrument. If the contents are incomplete, mechanical damage or
defect is apparent, or if an instrument does not pass the operator’s
checks, notify the nearest Agilent Technologies Sales/Service Office.
WARNING
To avoid hazardous electrical shock, do not perform electrical tests
when there are signs of shipping damage to any portion of the outer
enclosure (covers, panels, etc.).
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
3
Safety Summary
WARNING
You MUST return instruments with malfunctioning laser modules to
an Agilent Technologies Sales/Service Center for repair and
calibration.
Line Power Requirements
The Agilent 81560A, 81561A Variable Optical Attenuator modules and
Agilent 81566A, 81567A Variable Optical Attenuator modules with
Power Control operate when installed in the Agilent 8163A and B
Lightwave Multimeters, the Agilent 8164A and B Lightwave
Measurement Systems, or the Agilent 8166A and B Lightwave
Multichannel Systems.
Within this User’s Guide, these instruments are collectively referred to
as ‘mainframes’.
Operating Environment
The safety information in your mainframe’s User’s Guide summarizes
the operating ranges for the Agilent 81560A, 81561A Variable Optical
Attenuator modules and Agilent 81566A, 81567A Variable Optical
Attenuator modules with Power Control. In order for these modules to
meet specifications, the operating environment must be within the
limits specified for your mainframe.
Storage and Shipment
Agilent 81560A, 81561A Variable Optical Attenuator modules and
Agilent 81566A, 81567A Variable Optical Attenuator modules with
Power Control can be stored or shipped at temperatures between
−40°C and +70°C.
Protect the module from temperature extremes that may cause
condensation within it.
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Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Firmware Prerequisites
Firmware Prerequisites
For Agilent 8156x modules with a particular firmware revision to
operate correctly, your Agilent 8163A/B, 8164A/B, or 8166A/B
mainframe must have a V3.5, or later, firmware revision installed.
Firmware files are provided on the OCT Support CD-ROM supplied
with the instrument, and the latest firmware revisions can also be
downloaded via www.Agilent.com/comms/comp-test
The firmware for A and B versions of our mainframes is not binary
compatible. Make sure you select the appropriate firmware for your
instrument.
NOTE
• Updating mainframe firmware does not require you to update the
firmware in every hosted module. New revisions of mainframe
firmware are backwards compatible with older module firmware.
• You may find it advantageous to update module firmware. To help
you determine which module firmware to update, a readme file is
provided with the firmware file detailing its revision history.
• If the serial number of your HP 8164A Lightwave Measurement
System is DExxxxx339 or below, problems with writing files to the
floppy disk drive may occur in rare cases. If this is the case, please
contact your nearest Agilent Technologies Sales / Service Office.
Checking your Current Firmware Revision
8163A/B Lightwave Multimeter, 8164A/B Lightwave
Measurement System, or 8166A/B Lightwave
Multichannel System
To check your 8163A/B Lightwave Multimeter, 8164A/B Lightwave
Measurement System, or 8166A/B Lightwave Multichannel System's
firmware revision:
1 Press the Config hardkey.
2 Move to the <About Mainframe> menu option and press Enter.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
5
Firmware Prerequisites
3 The manufacturer, part number, instrument number, and firmware
revision are listed. If the firmware revision number is less than
V3.5, follow the Update Procedure described in the readme.txt on
the root directory of this compact disk to install the newest
firmware revision for your mainframe.
8156x Series Modules
To check an 8156x series module's firmware revision:
1 Press the Config hardkey.
2 Move to the <About Modules> menu option and press Enter. You see
a box displaying the slots that have a module installed.
3 Move to the appropriate slot using the cursor key and press Enter.
4 The part number, module number, and firmware revision of the
chosen module are displayed. If the firmware revision number is
less than V3.5, follow the Update Procedure described in readme.txt
on the root directory of this compact disk to install the newest
firmware revision.
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Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
The Structure of this Manual
The Structure of this Manual
This manual is divided into two parts:
• Getting Started
This section gives an introduction to the attenuator modules and
aims to make these modules familiar to you:
– “Getting Started with Attenuator Modules” on page 15.
• Additional Information
This is supporting information of a non-operational nature,
concerning accessories, specifications, and performance tests:
– “Accessories” on page 23,
– “Specifications” on page 29, and
– “Performance Tests” on page 39.
Conventions used in this manual
• Hardkeys are indicated by italics, for example, Config, or Channel.
• Softkeys are indicated by normal text enclosed in square brackets,
for example, [Zoom] or [Cancel].
• Parameters are indicated by italics enclosed by square brackets, for
example, [Range Mode], or [MinMax Mode].
• Menu items are indicated by italics enclosed in brackets, for
example, <MinMax>, or <Continuous>.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
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The Structure of this Manual
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Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Safety Summary
Safety Symbols
Initial Inspection
Line Power Requirements
Operating Environment
Storage and Shipment
Firmware Prerequisites
3
3
3
4
4
4
5
Checking your Current Firmware Revision
5
8163A/B Lightwave Multimeter, 8164A/B Lightwave Measurement
System, or 8166A/B Lightwave Multichannel System
5
8156x Series Modules
6
The Structure of this Manual
Conventions used in this manual
Getting Started with Attenuator Modules
What is an Attenuator?
Installation
Variable Optical Attenuator Front Panels
Front Panel Controls and Indicators
Variable Optical Attenuator Front Panels
Front Panel Controls and Indicators
Typical Use Models
Optical Output
Angled and Straight Contact Connectors
Accessories
7
7
15
17
17
18
18
19
19
20
22
22
23
Modules and Options
Modules
User’s Guides
Connector Interfaces and Other Accessories
81560A and 81566A Variable Optical Attenuator Modules
81561A and 81567 Variable Optical Attenuator Modules
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
25
25
26
27
27
28
9
Table of Contents
Specifications
29
Definition of Terms
Accuracy (Uncertainty)
Attenuation
Attenuation Setting (where applicable)
Attenuation Range
Correction (of Attenuation)
Insertion Loss
Maximum Input Power
Operating Temperature
Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL)
Power setting (where applicable)
Reference Connector
Relative Power Meter Uncertainty (where applicable)
Repeatability
Resolution
Return Loss
Settling Time
Shutter Isolation
Total Loss
Wavelength Range
Specifications
Performance Tests
31
31
32
32
32
33
33
33
33
33
33
34
35
35
35
35
36
36
36
37
39
Required Test Equipment
41
Test Record
Test Failure
Instrument Specification
42
Performance Test Instructions
43
Insertion Loss Test
Accuracy Test
Repeatability Test
Power Setting Repeatability Test
Return Loss Test
Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) Test - Scanning method
Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) Test - Mueller Method
Relative Power Meter Uncertainty Test
Test Record
10
31
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
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54
57
Table of Contents
Test Equipment Used
Insertion Loss Test
Attenuation Accuracy Test
Attenuation Repeatability Test
Power Setting Repeatability Test
Return Loss Test
Polarization Dependent Loss Test - Scanning Method (11896A)
Polarization Dependent Loss Test - Mueller Method (8169A)
Relative Power Meter Uncertainty Test
Cleaning Information
58
59
59
60
60
61
62
62
64
65
Safety Precautions
Why is it important to clean optical devices?
What do I need for proper cleaning?
Standard Cleaning Equipment
Dust and shutter caps
Isopropyl alcohol
Cotton swabs
Soft tissues
Pipe cleaner
Compressed air
Additional Cleaning Equipment
Microscope with a magnification range about 50X up to 300X
Ultrasonic bath
Warm water and liquid soap
Premoistened cleaning wipes
Polymer film
Infrared Sensor Card
Preserving Connectors
Cleaning Instrument Housings
Which Cleaning Procedure should I use ?
How to clean connectors
How to clean connector adapters
How to clean connector interfaces
How to clean bare fiber adapters
How to clean lenses
How to clean instruments with a fixed connector
interface
How to clean instruments with an optical glass plate
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
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11
Table of Contents
How to clean instruments with a physical contact
interface
79
How to clean instruments with a recessed lens interface 80
How to clean optical devices which are sensitive to
81
mechanical stress and pressure
How to clean metal filters or attenuator gratings
82
Additional Cleaning Information
83
How to clean bare fiber ends
How to clean large area lenses and mirrors
Other Cleaning Hints
12
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
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List of Figures
List of Figures
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14
Figure 15
Figure 16
Figure 17
Agilent 81566A/81567A Optical Attenuators with Power Control . .
Agilent 81560A Attenuator with Straight Connector . . . . .
Agilent 81561A Attenuator with Angled Connector . . . . .
Agilent 81566A Attenuator with Power Control and Straight Connector
Agilent 81567A Attentuator with Power Control and Angled Connector
Angled and Straight Contact Connector Symbols . . . . . .
Mainframes, Variable Optical Attenuator Modules, and Options . .
Straight Contact Connectors . . . . . . . . . . .
Angled Contact Connectors . . . . . . . . . . .
Insertion Loss Reference Setup . . . . . . . . . .
Insertion Loss Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . .
Return Loss Reference Setup . . . . . . . . . .
Return Loss Test Setup . . . . . . . . . . . .
PDL Test Setup - Scanning Method . . . . . . . . .
PDL Reference Setup . . . . . . . . . . . .
PDL Test Setup - Mueller Method . . . . . . . . .
Relative Power Meter Uncertainty Setup . . . . . . . .
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
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List of Figures
14
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Getting Started with Attenuator Modules
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
15
Getting Started with Attenuator Modules
This chapter describes the Agilent Variable Optical Attenuator
modules and Agilent Variable Optical Attenuator modules with Power
Control.
16
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
What is an Attenuator?
Getting Started with Attenuator Modules
What is an Attenuator?
Agilent 8156xA Variable Optical Attenuators attenuate and control the
optical power of light in single-mode optical fibers. They allow you to
set the attenuation factor and/or power level manually, or via the host
instrument’s GPIB interface.
Agilent 81566A and 81567A attenuators include power control
functionality that allows you to set the output power level of the
attenuator. When power control mode is enabled, the module
automatically corrects for power changes at the input so that the
output power level set by the user is maintained. See Figure 1 on
page 17.
Installation
Agilent 8156xA Variable Optical Attenuators are front-loadable
modules for the Agilent 8163A/B Lightwave Multimeter, 8164A/B
Lightwave Measurement System, and 8166A/B Lightwave
Multichannel System, collectively referred to as ‘mainframes’.
An Agilent 81560A or 81561A module occupies one slot, while an
Agilent 81566A or 81567A module occupies two slots.
For a description of how to install your module, refer to “How to Fit
and Remove Modules” in the Installation and Maintenance chapter of
your mainframe’s User’s Guide.
81566A/81567A
coupler
input
output
attenuator
control
loop
Figure 1
power
meter
Agilent 81566A/81567A Optical Attenuators with Power Control
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
17
Getting Started with Attenuator Modules
What is an Attenuator?
Variable Optical Attenuator Front Panels
Agilent 81560A
Figure 2
Agilent 81560A Attenuator with Straight Connector
Agilent 81561A
Figure 3
Agilent 81561A Attenuator with Angled Connector
Front Panel Controls and Indicators
The front panel contains a push button to switch the shutter
open/closed, and a LED that indicates the state of the shutter. If the
shutter is “open”, the LED shows “enable”, and light can pass through
the instrument.
18
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
What is an Attenuator?
Getting Started with Attenuator Modules
Variable Optical Attenuator Front Panels
Agilent 81566A
Figure 4
Agilent 81566A Attenuator with Power Control and Straight Connector
Agilent 81567A
Figure 5
Agilent 81567A Attentuator with Power Control and Angled Connector
Front Panel Controls and Indicators
The front panel contains a push button to switch the shutter
open/closed, and a LED that indicates the state of the shutter. If the
shutter is “open”, the LED shows “enable”, and light can pass through
the instrument.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
19
Getting Started with Attenuator Modules
What is an Attenuator?
Typical Use Models
20
Brief description
Agilent's 8156xA Variable Optical Attenuators are instruments that
attenuate and control the optical power level of light in single mode
optical fibers. As plug-in modules for Agilent's Lightwave Multichannel
platform (8163A/B, 8164A/B, 8166A/B) they allow you to set the
attenuation factor and/or power level manually, or remotely via a
common computer interface. Their high accuracy combined with their
flexibility make them ideal as test and measurement equipment for the
modern telecommunication industry.
Modular Design for Multichannel
Platform
Agilent's 8156xA variable optical attenuators are a family of plug-in
modules for Agilent's Lightwave Multichannel Platform 8163A/B,
8164A/B and 8166A/B. The attenuator modules 81560A and 81561A
occupy one slot, while modules 81566A and 81567A occupy two slots.
The Agilent 8166A/B Lightwave Multichannel System with its 17 slots
can host up to 17 single slot modules (such as the 81560A and 81561A
attenuators) or up to 8 dual slot modules, (such as the 81566A and
81567A attenuators).
Variable Optical Attenuators
Agilent's 81560A and 81561A are small and cost effective attenuator
modules with high resolution and low insertion loss. Various
calibration features allow you to set a reference power so that both the
attenuation and the power level, relative to the reference power, can
be set and displayed in the user interface. An integrated shutter can be
used for protection purposes or to simulate channel drops.
Attenuators with Power Control
Agilent's 81566A and 81567A attenuators feature power control
functionality that allows you to set the output power level of the
attenuator. The attenuator module firmware uses the feedback signal
from a photo diode after a monitor coupler, both integrated in the
module, to set the desired power level at the output of the module.
When the power control mode is enabled, the module automatically
corrects power changes at the input to maintain the output level set by
the user. After an initial calibration for the uncertainties at connector
interfaces, absolute power levels can be set with high accuracy. The
absolute accuracy of these power levels depends on the accuracy of
the reference powermeter used for calibration.
Calibration Processes
Comprehensive offset functionality in the firmware enhances the
calibration of the optical path in various test set-ups. There is an offset
for the attenuation factor, and an independent offset for the output
power level, to calibrate for losses due to the patch cords and
connectors. Additionally, wavelength and offset value pairs can be
stored in a table to compensate for wavelength dependent effects in
the optical path of the set-up. This allows you to set the optical power
level at your Device Under Test.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
What is an Attenuator?
Getting Started with Attenuator Modules
Calibration is even easier and more convenient if the reference
powermeter and the attenuator are hosted by the same mainframe: All
power related offsets can be determined by a firmware function that
reads a value from the reference powermeter. The difference between
the power value read by the reference powermeter and the actual
value of the attenuator is automatically stored as the offset.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
21
Getting Started with Attenuator Modules
Optical Output
Optical Output
Angled and Straight Contact Connectors
Angled contact connectors are available for Agilent Variable Optical
Attenuator modules and Agilent Variable Optical Attenuator modules
with Power Control. The inclusion of an angled contact connector is
not optionable, and depends on the module part number.
Angled contact connectors help you to control return loss, since
reflected light tends to reflect into the cladding, reducing the amount
of light that reflects back to the source.
C A U TI O N
If the contact connector on your instrument is angled, you can only
use cables with angled connectors with the instrument.
Angled Contact
Connector Symbol
Figure 6
Straight Contact
Connector Symbol
Angled and Straight Contact Connector Symbols
Figure 6 shows the symbols that tell you whether the contact
connector of your attenuator module is angled or straight. The angled
contact connector symbol is colored green.
You should connect straight contact fiber end connectors with neutral
sleeves to straight contact connectors and connect angled contact fiber
end connectors with green sleeves to angled contact connectors.
N O TE
You cannot connect angled non-contact fiber end connectors with
orange sleeves directly to the instrument.
See “Accessories” on page 23 for further details on connector
interfaces and accessories.
22
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Accessories
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
23
Accessories
The Agilent 81560A, 81561A Variable Optical Attenuator modules and
Agilent 81566A, 81567A Variable Optical Attenuator modules with
Power Control are available in various configurations for the best
possible match to the most common applications.
This chapter provides information on the available options and
accessories.
24
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Modules and Options
Accessories
Modules and Options
Figure 7 shows all the options that are available for Agilent 81560A,
81561A Variable Optical Attenuator modules and Agilent 81566A,
81567A Variable Optical Attenuator modules with Power Control, and
the instruments that support these modules.
Agilent 8166A or B
Lightwave Multichannel System
Agilent 8164A or B
Lightwave Measurement System
Agilent 8163A or B
Lightwave Multimeter
Agilent 81560A
Variable Optical
Attenuator
Figure 7
Agilent 81561A
Variable Optical
Attenuator
Agilent 81566A
Variable Optical
Attenuator with
Power Control
Agilent 81567A
Variable Optical
Attenuator with
Power Control
Mainframes, Variable Optical Attenuator Modules, and Options
Modules
Agilent 81560A, 81561A Variable Optical Attenuator modules and
Agilent 81566A, 81567A Variable Optical Attenuator modules with
Power Control can be hosted by:
• Agilent 8163A and Agilent 8163B Lightwave Multimeters,
• Agilent 8164A and Agilent 8164B Lightwave Measurement Systems,
• Agilent 8166A and Agilent 8166B Lightwave Multichannel Systems.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
25
Accessories
Modules
Variable Optical Attenuator Modules
Model No.
Description
Agilent 81560A
Variable Optical Attenuator with Straight Contact Connector
Agilent 81561A
Variable Optical Attenuator with Angled Contact Connector
Agilent 81566A
Variable Optical Attenuator with Power Control and Straight Contact Connector
Agilent 81567A
Variable Optical Attenuator with Power Control and Angled Contact Connector
User’s Guides
User’s Guides
26
Description
Part No.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A Variable Optical Attenuator modules and
Agilent 81566A, 81567A Variable Optical Attenuator modules with
Power Control User’s Guide (English)
81560-90A11
Agilent 81560A, 81561A Variable Optical Attenuator modules and
Agilent 81566A, 81567A Variable Optical Attenuator modules with
Power Control User’s Guide (Traditional Chinese - Taiwan)
81560-97A11
Agilent 81560A, 81561A Variable Optical Attenuator modules and
Agilent 81566A, 81567A Variable Optical Attenuator modules with
Power Control User’s Guide (Korean)
81560-98A11
Agilent 81560A, 81561A Variable Optical Attenuator modules and
Agilent 81566A, 81567A Variable Optical Attenuator modules with
Power Control User’s Guide (Simplified Chinese - China)
81560-96A11
Agilent 81560A, 81561A Variable Optical Attenuator modules and
Agilent 81566A, 81567A Variable Optical Attenuator modules with
Power Control User’s Guide (French)
81560-92A11
Agilent 81560A, 81561A Variable Optical Attenuator modules and
Agilent 81566A, 81567A Variable Optical Attenuator modules with
Power Control User’s Guide (Japanese)
81560-95A11
Agilent 8163A/B Lightwave Multimeter, Agilent 8164A/B Lightwave Measurement System, & Agilent 8166A/B Lightwave Multichannel System User’s Guide
08164-90B13
Agilent 8163A/B Lightwave Multimeter, Agilent 8164A/B Lightwave Measurement System, & Agilent 8166A/B Lightwave Multichannel System Programming Guide
08164-90B62
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Connector Interfaces and Other Accessories
Accessories
Connector Interfaces and Other
Accessories
81560A and 81566A Variable Optical
Attenuator Modules
If you want to use straight connectors (such as FC/PC, Diamond HMS10, DIN, Biconic, SC, ST or D4) to connect to the instrument, you must
do the following:
1 Attach your connector interface to the interface adapter.
See Table 1 for a list of the available connector interfaces.
2 Connect your cable (see Figure 8).
Agilent
81000AI
Connector
Interface
Diamond
HMS-10
Agilent
81000FI
Connector
Interface
FC/PC/SPC
Agilent
81000GI
Connector
Interface
D4
Agilent
81000HI
Connector
Interface
Diamond
E-2000
Figure 8
Straight Contact Connectors
Table 1
Straight Contact Connectors
Agilent
81000KI
Connector
Interface
SC/PC/SPC
Description
Model No.
D4
Agilent 81000 GI
Diamond HMS-10
Agilent 81000 AI
DIN 47256/4106
Agilent 81000 SI
FC / PC / SPC
Agilent 81000 FI
SC / PC / SPC
Agilent 81000 KI
ST
Agilent 81000 VI
Diamond E-2000
Agilent 81000 HI
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Agilent
81000SI
Connector
Interface
DIN 47256
Agilent
81000VI
Connector
Interface
ST
27
Accessories
Connector Interfaces and Other Accessories
81561A and 81567 Variable Optical
Attenuator Modules
If you want to use angled connectors (such as FC/APC, Diamond HRL10, or SC/APC) to connect to the instrument, you must do the
following:
1 Attach your connector interface to the interface adapter.
See Table 2 for a list of the available connector interfaces.
2 Connect your cable (see Figure 9).
Agilent 81000NI
Connector
Interface
FC/APC
28
Agilent 81000KI Agilent 81000HI
Connector
Connector
Interface
Interface
SC/APC
Diamond
E-2108.6
Figure 9
Angled Contact Connectors
Table 2
Angled Contact Connectors
Agilent 81000SI
Connector
Interface DIN
4108.6
Description
Model No.
DIN 4108.6/47256/4108
Agilent 81000 SI
FC / APC
Agilent 81000 NI
SC / APC
Agilent 81000 KI
Diamond E-2108.6
Agilent 81000 HI
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Specifications
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
29
Specifications
The Agilent 81560A, 81561A Variable Optical Attenuator modules and
Agilent 81566A, 81567A Variable Optical Attenuator modules with
Power Control are produced to the ISO 9001 international quality
system standard as part of Agilent Technologies’ commitment to
continually increasing customer satisfaction through improved quality
control.
Specifications describe the modules’ warranted performance.
Supplementary performance characteristics describe the modules
non-warranted typical performance.
Because of the modular nature of the instrument, these performance
specifications apply to these modules rather than the mainframe unit.
30
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Definition of Terms
Specifications
Definition of Terms
This section defines terms that are used both in this chapter and
“Performance Tests” on page 39.
Generally, all specifications apply for the given environmental
conditions and after warmup time.
Measurement principles are indicated. Alternative measurement
principles of equal value are also acceptable.
Accuracy (Uncertainty)
difference between
att. setting. and act. att.
The maximum possible difference (in dB) between attenuation setting
and actual attenuation. This specification is equivalent to the linearity
of attenuation
max. difference (positive)
max. difference (negative)
attenuation
uncertainty
0
0
attenuation
setting [dB]
Conditions: Attenuator set to the wavelength of the source, constant
polarization state, constant temperature, excluding wavelengths of
water absorption lines. Other conditions as specified.
Measurement: With Fabry-Pérot type laser source of applicable
wavelength and optical power meter.
Attenuation
Difference (in dB) between total loss and total loss at 0 dB setting
(insertion loss).
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
31
Specifications
Definition of Terms
total loss [dB]
total loss
attenuation
insertion
loss
attenuation
setting [dB]
0
0
N O TE
For a displayed attenuation of 0 dB the actual attenuation is 0 dB per
definition.
Attenuation Setting (where applicable)
When changing the displayed attenuation, this module behaves like a
pure attenuator.
N O TE
Alternatively, the attenuator can be operated in power setting.
Attenuation Range
Range of displayed attenuation for which the specifications apply.
Correction (of Attenuation)
∆Att = Attnom inal - Attdisplayed[dB]
The filter has a power-dependent attenuation, because of warmeffects. The displayed attenuation is valid up to a specified power P0.
For higher power levels, the nominal attenuation should be calculated
with the given formula. In this case the specified accuracy is
applicable within the entire specified power range.
i ft
pe
Slo lte r dr
i
to f Power dependent
due
Attenuat ion
Standard
Attenuati on
0
In put Power [mW]
0
P0
32
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Definition of Terms
Specifications
Measurement: with EDFA to apply the necessary input power, TLS
and Optical Power Meter to test the wavelength dependence
Insertion Loss
Total loss at an attenuation setting of 0 dB.
Conditions: as specified, with reference connectors
Measurement: with Fabry-Pérot Laser Source.
Maximum Input Power
The maximum input power level that can be applied to the attenuator
without permanent change of its characteristics.
Operating Temperature
The range of ambient temperatures of the mainframe hosting the
attenuator module for which the temperatures apply.
Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL)
The dependence of the total loss on the input polarization state,
expressed as the difference (in dB) between the highest and the lowest
total loss (peak to peak).
Conditions: Fabry-Pérot type laser source with variable polarization
state and polarization-independent power, generation of all
polarization states (covering the entire Poincaré sphere), jumper
cables with reference connectors and applicable wavelength.
Measurement: either with fiber-loop type polarization scrambler using
polarization scanning method or waveplate-type polarization
controller using Mueller method.
Power setting (where applicable)
When changing the displayed power, the attenuation will be controlled
by the integrated power meter to set the output power to the displayed
power.
Reference Connector
Diamond® HMS-10 connector with perfect optical and mechanical
quality. Depending on the case, straight or angled.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
33
Specifications
Definition of Terms
Relative Power Meter Uncertainty (where
applicable)
When changing the output power of attenuator, the relative power
meter uncertainty is the maximum error of the displayed output
power ratio to the actual output power ratio. This uncertainty is
caused by the internal power meter's nonlinearity and noise and by
errors in the sensing hardware, expressed as ± half the span of all
possible errors with an offset due to the noise level of the power
meter. Symbol RU.
Conditions: at constant polarization state, with random reference
power level taken at an arbitrary displayed attenuation, input power
and output power limitations as specified. This doesn't include the
accuracy of attenuator (nonlinearity).
Measurement: The nonlinearity is calculated using the displayed
power ratio D2 / D1 and the corresponding actual power ratio P2/P1:
N dB (1,2)
æ D2
/ D1 ö
÷
÷
è P2 / P1 ø
= 10 ⋅ logçç
The relative power meter uncertainty is then calculated using:
RU dB = ±
max N dB (1,2)
2
RU is then expressed in dB and the offset is expressed in pW.
N O TE
34
Absolute power meter accuracy attainable with the help of an external
power meter.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Definition of Terms
Specifications
Repeatability
total loss [dB]
The uncertainty in reproducing the total loss after randomly changing
and re-setting the attenuation. The repeatability is ± half the span
between the maximum and the minimum total loss, expressed in dB.
full span
repeatability
repetition
Conditions: Uninterrupted line voltage, constant temperature,
constant humidity, constant wavelength, constant input power level,
and constant polarization state.
Measurement: with Fabry-Pérot type laser source (center wavelength
as specified ± 15nm) and optical power meter.
Resolution
The minimum addressable and displayable attenuation steps over the
whole attenuation range.
Return Loss
Minimum ratio between incident power and reflected power,
expressed in dB. Applicable to both attenuator ports, with the
respective second port terminated (zero reflectance).
Conditions: jumper cables with reference connectors on both
attenuator ports.
Measurement: with return loss meter using Fabry-Pérot type laser
source of applicable wavelength.
NOTE
Measurement result includes attenuator-internal reflections,
reflections from both attenuator ports and reflection from shutter (in
case of closed shutter).
Settling Time
Maximum time needed to change the attenuation by a specified step,
from the beginning till the end of the change.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
35
Specifications
Definition of Terms
Measurement: With optical oscilloscope or transcient recorder.
N O TE
Settling time excludes the time needed for the interpretation of the
command and for the internal communication between the mainframe
and the attenuator module.
Shutter Isolation
Ratio between transmitted powers with open and with closed shutter,
at an attenuator setting of 0 dB, expressed in dB.
Total Loss
Change of power level after inserting the attenuator between two
connectorized patchcords, at an arbitrary attenuation setting,
expressed in dB. It can be calculated from:
ATL [dB ] =
10 log
Pa
Pb
=
Pa [dBm] − Pb [dBm]
where:
Pa=power measured at the end of the two patchcords.
Pb=power measured after the insertion of the attenuator.
Laser
source
Laser
source
Pa
Attenuator
Power
meter
Pb
Power
meter
Conditions: Jumper cables with reference connectors on both
attenuator ports.
Measurement: With laser source or LED and optical power meter.
N O TE
Total loss includes the loss from one additional connection.
Wavelength Range
Usable wavelength range.
36
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Specifications
Specifications
Specifications
Variable Optical Attenuator Modules
Agilent 81560A
Agilent 81561A
Connectivity1
straight connector
angled connector
Fiber type
9/125 µm SMF28
9/125 µm SMF28
Wavelength range
1200-1700 nm
1200-1700 nm
Attentuation range
0-60 dB
0-60 dB
Resolution
0.001 dB
0.001 dB
±0.01 dB
±0.01 dB
±0.1 dB4
±0.1 dB 4
typ. <100 ms
typ. <100 ms
typ. 1.7 dB
typ. 1.7 dB
< 0.05 dBpp
< 0.05 dBpp
typ. > 45 dB
typ. > 60 dB
+ 23 dBm
+ 23 dBm
typ. > 100 dB
typ. > 100 dB
Repeatability
2
Accuracy (uncertainty)3
Settling time5
Insertion loss6
Polarization dependent loss
6,7
Return loss6
8
Maximum input power
Shutter isolation
Dimensions (H x W x D)
75 mm x 32 mm x 335 mm (2.8" x 1.3" x 13.2")
Weight
0.9 kg
Recommended recalibration period
2 years
Operating temperature
Humidity
10 °C - 45 °C
Non-condensing
Warm-up time
30 Min.
1
For Agilent's versatile optical connector interfaces
2
At constant wavelength, temperature, SOP
3
SOP constant; temperature constant and within 23 °C ± 5 °C; for input power ≤ +10 dBm attenuationnominal = attenuationdisplay
for input power > 10 mW and 1500 nm < λ < 1600 nm apply correction: attenuationnominal = attenuationdisplay(1+0.0002 · (P[mW] - 10) ·
(λ[µm] - 1.5))
4
For λ= 1550 nm ± 15 nm and for input power ≤ +10 dBm; typically ± 0.1 dB for 1250 nm < λ < 1650 nm
5
For stepsize < 1 dB; for full range typically < 6 s
6
For λ = 1550 nm ± 15 nm with reference connectors
7
Temperature constant and within 23 °C ± 5 °C
8
Exposure time < 2h
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
37
Specifications
Specifications
Variable Optical Attenuator Modules with Power Control
Agilent 81566A
Agilent 81567A
Connectivity1
straight connector
angled connector
Fiber type
9/125 µm SMF28
9/125 µm SMF28
Wavelength range
1250-1650 nm
1250-1650 nm
Attentuation range
0-60 dB
0-60 dB
Resolution
0.001 dB
0.001 dB
Attenuation Setting
Power Setting
Attenuation Setting
Power Setting
Repeatability2
±0.01 dB
±0.01 dB3
±0.01 dB
±0.01 dB3
Accuracy (uncertainty)4
±0.1 dB5
Settling time6
±0.1 dB5
typ. < 100 ms
Relative power meter uncertainty7
typ. < 300 ms
typ. <100 ms
typ. <300 ms
± 0.03 dB ± 20 pW
± 0.03 dB ± 20 pW
typ. 2.2 dB
typ. 2.2 dB
Polarization dependent loss
< 0.08 dBpp
< 0.08 dBpp
Return loss8
typ. > 45 dB
typ. > 60 dB
+ 23 dBm
+ 23 dBm
typ. > 100 dB
typ. > 100 dB
8
Insertion loss
8,9
10
Maximum input power
Shutter isolation
Dimensions (H x W x D)
75 mm x 64 mm x 335 mm (2.8" x 2.6" x 13.2")
Weight
1.3 kg
Recommended recalibration period
2 years
Operating temperature
10 °C - 45 °C
Humidity
Non-condensing
Warm-up time
30 min.
1
For Agilent's versatile optical connector interfaces
2
At constant wavelength, temperature, SOP
3
Output power > - 50 dBm, input power ≤ +17 dBm, for input power > +17 dBm add typically ±0.01 dB
4
SOP constant; temperature constant and within 23 °C ± 5 °C; for input power ≤ +10 dBm attenuationnominal = attenuationdisplay
for input power > 10 mW and 1500 nm < λ < 1600 nm apply correction: attenuationnominal = attenuationdisplay(1+0.0002 · (P[mW] - 10) ·
(λ[µm] - 1.5))
5
For λ = 1550 nm ± 15 nm and for input power ≤ +10 dBm; typically ± 0.1 dB for 1250 nm < λ < 1650 nm
6
For stepsize < 1 dB; for full range typically < 6 s
7
Wavelength constant; SOP constant; temperature constant and within 23 °C ± 5 °C, output power >-60 dBm, input power ≤ +17 dBm,
for input power > +17 dBm add ±0.02 dB
8
For λ = 1550 nm ± 15 nm with reference connectors
9
Temperature constant and within 23 °C ± 5 °C
10
Exposure time < 2h
38
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Performance Tests
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
39
Performance Tests
The procedures in this section test the optical performance of the
Agilent 8156xA Variable Optical Attenuator modules. The complete
specifications to which the instrument is tested are given in
“Specifications” on page 29.
All tests can be performed without access to the interior of the
instrument. The performance tests refer specifically to test using an
Agilent reference connector.
40
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Required Test Equipment
Performance Tests
Required Test Equipment
The equipment required for the Performance Test is listed in Table 3.
Any equipment that satisfies the critical specifications of the
equipment given in Table 3 may be substituted for the recommended
models.
Instrument/ Accessory
Model
81560A
81561A
Lightwave Multimeter
Agilent 8163A/B
x
x
Laser Source Module
Agilent 81654A
x
x
Power Sensor Module
Agilent 81634B
x
Interface Module
Agilent 81618A
Optical Head
Depolarizing Filter
81567A
Equipment Required
81566A
Table 3
Characteristics
Alternative
Models
x
x
2x (4 slots)
8164A/B
x
x
1550nm
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Agilent 81624B
x
x
x
x
Agilent 81000DF
x
x
x
x
HMS-10 Optical Head Adapter Agilent 81000AA
x
-
x
-
FC/PC Optical Head Adapter
Agilent 81000FA
-
x
-
x
Optical Attenuator
Agilent 81561A
-
-
x
x
Return Loss Module
Agilent 81612A
x
x
x
x
Reference Cable
Agilent 81610CC
x
x
x
x
Polarization Controller
Agilent 11896A #010
x
x
x
x
Single Mode Fiber
Agilent 81101PC
x
-
x
-
Single Mode Fiber
Agilent 81113PC
x
x
x
x
Single Mode Fiber
Agilent 81113SC
-
x
-
x
Connector Interface HMS-10
Agilent 81000AI
x
-
x
-
Connector Interface FC/PC
Agilent 81000FI
-
x
-
x
Connector Interface DIN
Agilent 81000SI
x
x
x
x
DIN Feedthrough Adapter
1005-0255
-
x
-
x
FC/PC Feedthrough Adapter
1005-0256
x
-
x
-
Required
low PDL
8156A #201
8169A #022
Legend:
x necessary
- not applicable
o optional
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
41
Performance Tests
Required Test Equipment
Test Record
Results of the performance test may be tabulated in the Test Record
provided at the end of the test procedures. It is recommended that you
fill out the Test Record and refer to it while doing the test. Since the
test limits and setup information are printed on the Test Record for
easy reference, the record can also be used as an abbreviated test
procedure (if you are already familiar with the test procedures). The
Test Record can also be used as a permanent record and may be
reproduced without written permission from Agilent Technologies.
Test Failure
If the Agilent 81560/61A/66A/67A Attenuator module fails any
performance test, return the instrument to the nearest Agilent
Technologies Sales/ Service Office for repair.
Instrument Specification
Specifications are the performance characteristics of the instrument
that is certified. These specifications, listed in “Specifications” on
page 29 are the performance standards or limits against which the
Agilent 81560A/61A/66A/67A can be tested.
Any changes in the specifications due to manufacturing changes,
design, or traceability to the National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST), will be covered in a manual change supplement, or
revised manual. Such specifications supersede any that were
previously published.
42
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Performance Test Instructions
Performance Tests
Performance Test Instructions
The performance tests given in this section includes the Attenuation
Repeatability Test. Perform each step in the order given, using the
corresponding test equipment.
Operate an Agilent 81566A and 81567A Attenuator module as an
attenuator and switch the power control loop off if not otherwise
mentioned.
N O TE :
Make sure that all optical connections of the test setup given in the
procedure are dry and clean. DO NOT USE INDEX MATCHING OIL.
Make sure that all optical connectors are undamaged.
For cleaning, use the cleaning instructions given in “Cleaning
Information” on page 65.
Make sure that all optical cables of the test setup are fixed to the table
so that they won't move during measurements.
Movement of the fibers during the test procedures and the quality of
optical connectors affect the result of power measurements.
The environmental conditions (temperature and relative humidity)
must remain constant during the test.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
43
Performance Tests
Performance Test Instructions
Insertion Loss Test
Carry out the following Insertion Loss Test at 1550 nm with single mode
fibers using the equipment listed in Table 3, “Equipment Required,” on
page 41. To adapt for the straight or angled contact versions of the
attenuator use the patchcords with appropriate connectors and the
adequate connector interfaces.
1 Turn the instruments on and allow the devices to warm up
(20..30min).
2 Make sure that all your connectors are clean and undamaged.
3 Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 10.
Mainframe 8163A w/ 81634B + 81654A
8163A
Mainframe 8163A w/ 8156xA Attenuator
8163A
81560A/66A: 81113PC
Instrument Connector Interfaces
DIN connector (angled): 81000SI
81561A/67A: 81113SC
Figure 10
FC/PC connector (straight): 81000FI
Insertion Loss Reference Setup
4 Set the attenuator and the power meter to the actual wavelength of
the laser source.
5 Disable the laser source, zero the power meter and select
Autorange. Display [dB].
6 Set the power meter averaging time to 500ms.
7 Enable the laser source and set Display to Reference on the power
meter.
8 Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 11.
44
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Performance Test Instructions
Performance Tests
Mainframe 8163A w/ 81634B + 81654A
8163A
81560A/66A: 81113PC
81561A/67A: 81113SC
Mainframe 8163A w/ 8156xA Attenuator
8163A
81560A/66A: 81113PC
81561A/67A: 81113SC
Instrument Connector Interfaces
DIN connector (angled): 81000SI
FC/PC connector (straight): 81000FI
Figure 11
Insertion Loss Test Setup
9 Set attenuation [α] to 0dB and open the shutter.
10 Record the power meter reading (in dB) in the Test record.
Accuracy Test
Use the same equipment and test setup as used in Figure 11.
N O TE:
With a laser source with output power < +10dBm it is not necessary to
recalculate the real attenuation.
1 Turn the instruments on and allow the devices to warm up
(20..30min).
2 Make sure that all your connectors are clean and undamaged.
3 Set the attenuator and the power meter to the actual wavelength of
the laser source.
4 Disable the laser source, zero the power meter and select
Autorange. Display [dB].
5 Enable the laser source, open the shutter and set attenuation [α] to
0 dB.
6 Set Display to Reference on the power meter.
7 Set the attenuation [α] to the different values listed below and note
the power meter reading in the Test Record.
1 db
2 dB
3 dB
4 dB
5 dB
6 dB
7 dB
8 dB
9 dB
10 dB
11 dB
12 dB
13 dB
14 dB
15 dB
25 dB
35 dB
45 dB
55 dB
60 dB
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
45
Performance Tests
Performance Test Instructions
Repeatability Test
Use the same equipment and test setup as used in Figure 11.
The performance test can be performed at other wavelengths than
1550 nm.
1 Turn the instruments on and allow the devices to warm up
(20..30min).
2 Make sure that all your connectors are clean and undamaged.
3 Set the attenuator and the power meter to the actual wavelength of
the laser source.
4 Disable the laser source, zero the power meter and select
Autorange. Display [dB].
5 Enable the laser source and open the shutter.
6 Set attenuation [α] to 1 dB, wait until it settles and set Display to
Reference on the power meter.
7 Set the attenuation [α] to any other value (e.g. 21 dB) and wait until
it settles at this value.
8 Change the attenuation [α] back to the previous value and note the
deviation in the Test Record.
9 Repeat the steps 6 to 8 for the following attenuation settings:
7 dB
15 dB
24 dB
32 dB
40 dB
48 dB
54 dB
60 dB
Power Setting Repeatability Test
Use the same equipment and test setup as used in Figure 11 without
the Agilent 81634B power meter. The performance test can be
performed at wavelengths other than 1550 nm.
This test applies only to the Agilent 81566A and 81567A Attenuators
with power control.
1 Turn the instruments on and allow the devices to warm up
(20..30min).
2 Make sure that all your connectors are clean and undamaged.
3 Set the attenuator to the actual wavelength of the laser source and
set the averaging time to 1s.
4 Zero the attenuator power meter, disable the power control and
display [dBm].
5 Enable the laser source and open the shutter.
46
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Performance Test Instructions
Performance Tests
6 Set [PSET ] to 0 dBm and wait for stabilizing. Note the reading of
[PACT] in the Test Record.
7 Set [PSET ] to any other value and wait until settling.
8 Change [PSET] back to the previous value and note the deviation of
[PACT] in the Test Record.
9 Repeat the steps 6 to 8 for [PSET] = - 25 dBm and [PSET] = - 50 dBm.
Return Loss Test
Carry out the following Return Loss Test at 1550 nm with single mode
fibers using the equipment listed in Table 3, “Equipment Required,” on
page 41. To adapt for the straight or angled contact versions of the
attenuator use the patchcords with appropriate connectors and the
adequate connector interfaces.
1 Turn the instruments on and allow the devices to warm up
(20..30min).
2 Make sure that all your connectors are clean and undamaged.
3 Connect the equipment as shown below in Figure 12.
Mainframe 8163A w/ 81612A
Mainframe 8163A w/ 8156xA Attenuator
8163A
8163A
Instrument Connector Interfaces
81610CC
DIN connector (angled): 81000SI
FC/PC connector (straight): 81000FI
Figure 12
Return Loss Reference Setup
4 Set the attenuator and the power meter to the actual wavelength of
internal laser source of the return loss meter.
5 Disable the internal laser source, cover the end of the reference
cable and zero the return loss meter.
6 Uncover and clean the end of the reference cable and enable the
laser source.
7 Set the reflection reference R to 14.7 dB, the default value for the
return loss of the reference reflector cable 81610CC, and then select
the [REF CAL] parameter.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
47
Performance Tests
Performance Test Instructions
8 The value read should now be 14.7 dB, the same as the value
entered for reflection reference R.
9 Terminate the reference cable by wrapping the fiber several times
around a pencil or the shaft of a screwdriver, and then select the
[TERM CAL] softkey.
10 Remove the reference cable and connect the equipment as shown in
Figure 13.
Mainframe 8163A w/ 81612A
Mainframe 8163A w/ 8156xA Attenuator
8163A
8163A
81560A/66A: 81113PC
81561A/67A: 81113SC
81113PC
Figure 13
Instrument Connector Interfaces
81113PC
DIN connector (angled): 81000SI
FC/PC connector (straight): 81000FI
Return Loss Test Setup
11 Terminate the patchcord on the attenuator output by wrapping the
fiber several times around a pencil or the shaft of a screwdriver. Do
the same for the monitor output if applicable.
12 Set the attenuation [α] to 0 dB and note the input return loss in the
Test Record.
13 Open the shutter and record the return loss in the Test Record.
14 Connect the return loss meter to the attenuator output port and
terminate the input port as described in step 12.
15 You may measure the output return loss for open and closed shutter
or for other arbitrary attenuation settings as described in steps 13
and 14.
48
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Performance Test Instructions
Performance Tests
Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) Test - Scanning
method
Carry out the following PDL Test at 1550 nm with single mode fibers
using the equipment listed in Table 3, “Equipment Required,” on
page 41. To adapt for the straight or angled contact versions of the
attenuator use the patchcords with appropriate connectors and the
adequate connector interfaces.
N O TE:
This test method is recommended if the fiber-loop type 11869A
Polarization Controller is used. If the plate-type 8169A Polarization
Controller is used, refer to “Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) Test Mueller Method” on page 50.
1 Turn the instruments on and allow the devices to warm up (20..30
min).
2 Make sure that all your connectors are clean and undamaged.
3 Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 14
Mainframe 8163A w/ 81618A + 81654A
8163A
Mainframe 8163A w/ 8156xA Attenuator
81560A/66A: 81101PC
81561A/67A: 81113SC
Polarization Ctrl 11896A
81113PC
8163A
81560A/66A: 81101PC
81561A/67A: 81113PC
11896A
81000DF
81624B
Figure 14
NOTE
PDL Test Setup - Scanning Method
The patchcords from and to the polarization controller and the
attenuator must not move during and between all measurements. Use
tape to fix the fibers on the table.
4 Set the attenuator to the wavelength of the laser source.
5 Enable the laser source and open the shutter of the attenuator.
6 Display [dB] at the power meter and set Display to Reference.
7 Choose the power meter Stability Application and set parameters:
• Total Time = 25 seconds
• Averaging Time = 50ms
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
49
Performance Tests
Performance Test Instructions
• Wavelength = Source Wavelength
• Range Mode = auto
8 Set the 11896A Polarization Controller scan rate = 4 and press
[AutoScan] to start Polarization Scrambling.
9 Press Measure at the power meter to start PDL Scanning.
10 After the measurement press [Analysis] and [More] to get the power
readings.
11 Note the results in the Test Record.
Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) Test - Mueller
Method
Carry out the following PDL Test at 1550 nm with single mode fibers
using the equipment listed in Table 3, “Equipment Required,” on
page 41. To adapt for the straight or angled contact versions of the
attenuator use the patchcords with appropriate connectors and the
adequate connector interfaces. Use the operation mode "Attenuation
Set".
N O TE
Perform this test with the plate-type 8169A Polarization Controller.
1 Turn the instruments on and allow the devices to warm up (20..30
min).
2 Make sure that all your connectors are clean and undamaged.
3 Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 15.
Mainframe 8163A w/ 81618A + 81654A
Polarization Controller 8169A #022
8163A
8169A
In
Out
81113SC
Instrument Connector Interfaces
81000DF
81624B
81560A/66A: 81101PC
81561A/67A: 81113PC
81560A/66A: 81113PC
81561A/67A: 81113SC
DIN connector (angled): 81000SI
FC/PC connector (straight): 81000FI
Optical Head Adapter
HMS-10 connector: 81000AA
FC/PC connector: 81000FA
Figure 15
50
PDL Reference Setup
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Performance Test Instructions
Performance Tests
NOTE
The patchcords from and to the polarization controller and the
attenuator must not move during and between all measurements. Use
tape to fix the fibers on the table.
4 Zero the power meter. Display [W].
5 Set the attenuator and the power meter to the actual wavelength of
the source.
6 Enable the laser source and allow 5 minutes for the laser to settle.
7 Reset the polarization controller.
8 Set the polarization filter of the 8169A to maximize the signal.
9 Note the diplayed angle of the polarization filter as "Linear
Horizontal Setting".
Set plates for Horizontal polarization. For the following steps the
polarizer is kept constant.
10 Set the l/4 Retarder Plate to the same angle as the polarization
filter.
11 Note the angle as "l/4, Linear Horizontal Polarization".
12 Set the l/2 Retarder Plate to the same angle as the polarization
filter.
13 Note the angle as "l/2, Linear Horizontal Polarization".
Determine settings for Linear Vertical, Linear Diagonal and Right
Hand Circular Polarization.
NOTE
In order to get the required polarization, the l/2 and l/4 retarder plates
need to be set to the appropriate values. The corrected positions of the
polarizer plates depend on the actual wavelength and have to be taken
from Table 4, “Retarder Settings,” on page 53. In the case of Linear
Horizontal polarized light no correction is to be done. The table lists
corrections for every 20 nm step. For wavelengths between listed
values, a linear approximation should be used.
14 Get the values (possible by approximation) for the wavelength
dependent offset positions for each type of polarization from
Table 4, “Retarder Settings,” on page 53.
15 Add these values to those for Linear Horizontal polarized light.
16 Note the calculeted corrected wavelength dependent position values
in the Test Record for the l/4 Plate setting and the l/2 Plate setting
for Linear Vertical, Linear Diagonal and Right Hand Circular
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
51
Performance Tests
Performance Test Instructions
Polarization.
Measure the Reference Power.
17 Keep the settings from the polarizer and the l/4 and l/2 Retarder
Plates from steps 8, 10 and 12 for Linear Horizontal polarized light.
18 Note the power reading as Reference Power P1 in the Test Record.
19 Set the l/4 and l/2 Retarder Plates to the corrected wavelength
dependent positions for Linear Vertical polarized light.
20 Read the power on the power meter and note is as Reference Power
P2 in the Test Record.
21 Set the l/4 and l/2 Retarder Plates to the corrected wavelength
dependent positions for Linear Diagonal polarized light.
22 Note the power reading as Reference Power P3 in the Test Record.
23 Set the l/4 and l/2 Retarder Plates to the corrected wavelength
dependent positions for Right Hand Circular polarized light.
24 Note the power reading as Reference Power P4 in the Test Record.
25 Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 16.
Mainframe 8163A w/ 81618A + 81654A
8163A
Polarization Controller 8169A #022
8169A
In
Out
81113SC
81624B
81000DF
81560A/66A: 81113PC
81561A/67A: 81113SC
Mainframe 8163A w/ 8156xA Attenuator
8163A
81560A/66A: 81101PC
81561A/67A: 81113PC
Figure 16
N O TE
52
Instrument Connector Interfaces
DIN connector (angled): 81000SI
FC/PC connector (straight): 81000FI
Optical Head Adapter
HMS-10 connector: 81000AA
FC/PC connector: 81000FA
PDL Test Setup - Mueller Method
The patchcords from and to the polarization controller and the
attenuator must not move during and between all measurements. Use
tape to fix the fibers on the table.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Performance Test Instructions
Performance Tests
Measure the optical power after the Attenuator Module.
26 Open the shutter of the attenuator.
27 Set the l/4 and l/2 Retarder Plates for Linear Horizontal polarized
light.
28 Note the power reading as DUT Power P1 in the Test Record.
29 Set the l/4 and l/2 Retarder Plates to the corrected wavelength
dependent positions for Linear Vertical polarized light.
30 Note the power that is displayed on the power meter as DUT Power
P2 in the Test Record.
31 Set the l/4 and l/2 Retarder Plates to the corrected wavelength
dependent positions for Linear Diagonal polarized light.
32 Note the power reading as DUT Power P3 in the Test Record.
33 Set the l/4 and l/2 Retarder Plates to the corrected wavelength
dependent positions for Right Hand Circular polarized light.
34 Note the power reading as DUT Power P4 in the Test Record.
35 Calculate the Mueller coefficients, the Minimum and Maximum
transmission and finally the Polarization dependent Loss (PDL) as
described in the Test Record.
Table 4
λ/nm
Retarder Settings
Linear Vertical
Linear Diagonal
Right Hand Circular
λ/4 Plate
λ/2-Plate
λ/4-Plate
λ/2-Plate
λ/4-Plate
λ/2-Plate
1580
2.5°
46.2°
1.7°
23.3°
42.9°
-17.1°
1560
1.2°
45.6°
0.8°
22.9°
44.0°
-16.5°
1540
0°
45.0°
0°
22.5°
45.0°
-15.1°
1520
-1.4°
44.3°
-1.0°
22.0°
46.2°
-13.8°
1500
-2.7°
43.6°
-2.0°
21.4°
47.4°
-12.4°
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
53
Performance Tests
Performance Test Instructions
Relative Power Meter Uncertainty Test
Carry out the following Power Meter Uncertainty Test at 1550 nm or
another specified wavelength with single mode fibers using the
equipment listed in Table 2: Equipment required. To adapt for the
straight or angled contact versions of the attenuator use the
patchcords with appropriate connectors and the adequate connector
interfaces.
This test applies only to the Agilent 81566A and 815667A Attenuators
with integrated power meter.
N O TE
Do not turn the laser off during the measurement. Clean all connectors
carefully before you start with the measurement !
1 Turn the instruments on and allow the devices to warm up (20..30
min).
2 Make sure that you perform this test in a temperature-controlled
environment with temperature fluctuations less than ±1°C.
3 Make sure that all your connectors are clean and undamaged.
4 Connect the equipment as shown below in Figure 17
Mainframe 8163A w/ 81654A + 81634B
REF
Power
8163A
Mainframe 8163A w/ 81561A Attenuator
8163A
81566A: 81113PC
81567A: 81113SC
Mainframe 8163A w/ 8156xA Attenuator
81113SC
8163A
81566A: 81113PC
81567A: 81113SC
Figure 17
Instrument Connector Interfaces
DIN connector (angled): 81000SI
FC/PC connector (straight): 81000FI
Relative Power Meter Uncertainty Setup
5 Set both attenuators to the wavelength of the source and disable
them.
6 Set the attenuation [α] of 81561A reference attenuator to 55dB.
7 Set the attenuation [α] of the DUT attenuator to 0dB.
8 Set the averaging time of the DUT attenuator power meter to 1s.
9 Zero the reference and the attenuator power meter.
54
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Performance Test Instructions
Performance Tests
10 Enable the laser source and wait for stabilizing (>30 seconds).
11 Enable the attenuators.
12 Set the reference power meter to the wavelength of the source, set
the averaging time to 1s and display [dB]. Press [Display to
Reference].
13 Set the range mode of the reference power meter to [manual].
14 On the DUT attenuator edit [P Offset] until the parameter [PSET]
equals 0 dBm.
15 Lower [PSET] and the attenuation of the reference attenuator by
5dB.
16 Note the reference power meter reading in the Test Record.
17 Repeat steps 14 and 15 until the reference attenuator shows an
attenuation of 0dB.
18 Perform steps 14 and 15 upward until the reference attenuator
shows 55dB.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
55
Performance Tests
56
Performance Test Instructions
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Test Record
Performance Tests
Test Record
Agilent Optical Attenuator Module Performance Test
Page 1 of 8
Test Facility:
________________________________ Report No. _________________
________________________________ Date
_________________
________________________________ Customer _________________
________________________________ Tested By _________________
Model
Agilent Optical Attenuator Module Performance Test
Serial No.
____________________
Ambient temperature ________°C
Options
____________________
Relative humidity
________ %
Line frequency
________ Hz
Firmware Rev. ____________________
Special Notes:
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Agilent Optical Attenuator Module Performance Test
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
57
Performance Tests
Test Record
Page 2 of 8
Agilent Optical Attentuator Module
Report No. ________ Date_______
Test Equipment Used
Description
Model No.
Trace No.
Cal. Due Date
1. Mainframe
___________ _________
__/___/__
2. Power Meter
___________ _________
__/___/__
3. Laser Source
___________ _________
__/___/__
4. Return Loss Module
___________ _________
__/___/__
5. Connector Interface
___________ _________
__/___/__
6. Single Mode Fiber
___________ _________
__/___/__
7. __________________________
___________ _________
__/___/__
8. __________________________
___________ _________
__/___/__
9. __________________________
___________ _________
__/___/__
10. __________________________ ___________ _________
__/___/__
11. __________________________ ___________ _________
__/___/__
12. __________________________ ___________ _________
__/___/__
13. __________________________ ___________ _________
__/___/__
14. __________________________ ___________ _________
__/___/__
Agilent Optical Attenuator Module Performance Test
Page 3 of 8
58
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Test Record
Performance Tests
Agilent Optical Attentuator Module
Report No. ________ Date_______
Insertion Loss Test
Product
81560A + 81561A
81566A + 81567A
1.7 dB
2.2 dB
> 2.2 dB
> 2.7 dB
Measurement
Supplementary Characteristic
Rejection Limit
Attenuation Accuracy Test
Setting /dB
Reading /dB
Deviation /dB
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
25
35
45
55
60
Maximum peak-to-peak Deviation
Specification
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
0.2 dBpp
59
Performance Tests
Test Record
Agilent Optical Attenuator Module Performance Test
Page 4 of 8
Agilent Optical Attentuator Module
Report No. ________ Date_______
Attenuation Repeatability Test
Setting /dB
Deviation /dB
1
7
15
24
32
40
48
54
60
Maximum peak-to-peak Deviation
Specification
0.02 dBpp
Power Setting Repeatability Test
Power Setting /dB
Deviation /dB
0 dBm
-25 dBm
-50 dBm
Maximum peak-to-peak Deviation
Specification
60
0.02 dBpp
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Test Record
Performance Tests
Return Loss Test
Product
81560A + 81566A
81561A + 81567A
Open
Open
Closed
Closed
Supplementary Characteristic
> 45 dB
> 60 dB
Rejection Limit
< 42 dB
< 57 dB
Attenuation Setting
Shutter State
Measurement Input Port
Measurement Output Port
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
61
Performance Tests
Test Record
Agilent Optical Attenuator Module Performance Test
Page 6 of 8
Agilent Optical Attentuator Module
Report No. ________ Date_______
Polarization Dependent Loss Test - Scanning Method
(11896A)
Product
81560A +81561A
81566A +81567A
< 0.05 dBpp
< 0.08 dBpp
Attentuation Setting
Maximum peak-to-peak Deviation
Specification
Polarization Dependent Loss Test - Mueller Method
(8169A)
Polarization
Linear Horizontal
Linear Vertical
Linear Diagonal
Right Hand Circular
Polarizer Setting
deg
n/a
n/a
n/a
λ/4 Plate Setting
deg
n/a
n/a
n/a
λ/2 Plate Setting
deg
n/a
n/a
n/a
Corrected Wavelength Dependent Positions
Linear Horizontal
62
Linear Vertical
Linear Diagonal
Right Hand Circular
Polarizer Setting
n/a
deg
deg
deg
λ/4 Plate Setting
n/a
deg
deg
deg
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Test Record
Performance Tests
λ/2 Plate Setting
n/a
Measurement
P1
deg
P2
deg
P3
deg
P4
Reference Power
µW
µW
µW
µW
DUT Power
µW
µW
µW
µW
Mueller Coefficients
m11
=
(PDUT1 / PREF1 + PDUT2 / PREF2)/2
=
m12
=
(PDUT1 / PREF1 - PDUT2 / PREF2)/2
=
m13
=
(PDUT3 / PREF3) - m11
=
m14
=
(PDUT4 / PREF4) - m11
=
Minimum and Maximum Transmission
=
Tmax
=
m11 + m122 + m132 + m142
Tmax
=
=
m11 − m122 + m132 + m142
Product
81560A + 81561A
81566A + 81567A
< 0.05 dBpp
< 0.08 dBpp
Polarization Dependent Loss
PDL = 10 lg ( Tmax / Tmin ) dBpp
Specification
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
63
Performance Tests
Test Record
Agilent Optical Attenuator Module Performance Test
Page 8 of 8
Agilent Optical Attentuator Module
Report No. ________ Date_______
Relative Power Meter Uncertainty Test
8156xA [PSET] /dBm
Reference Attenuation /dB
Reference Reading 1 /dB
0
55
0
-5
50
-10
45
-15
40
-20
35
-25
30
-30
25
-35
20
-40
15
-45
10
-50
5
-55
0
Reference Reading 2 /dB
Maximum peak-to-peak deviation
Specification
64
0.06 dBpp
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Cleaning Information
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
65
Cleaning Information
The following Cleaning Information contains some general safety
precautions, which must be observed during all phases of cleaning.
Consult your specific optical device manuals or guides for full
information on safety matters.
Please try, whenever possible, to use physically contacting connectors,
and dry connections. Clean the connectors, interfaces, and bushings
carefully after use.
If you are unsure of the correct cleaning procedure for your optical
device, we recommend that you first try cleaning a dummy or test
device.
Agilent Technologies assume no liability for the customer’s failure to
comply with these requirements.
Cleaning Instructions for this Instrument
This Cleaning Information applies to a number of different types of
Optical Equipment.
“How to clean instruments with a physical contact interface” on
page 79 is particularly relevant to this module.
66
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Safety Precautions
Cleaning Information
Safety Precautions
Please follow the following safety rules:
• Do not remove instrument covers when operating.
• Ensure that the instrument is switched off throughout the cleaning
procedures.
• Use of controls or adjustments or performance of procedures other
than those specified may result in hazardous radiation exposure.
• Make sure that you disable all sources when you are cleaning any
optical interfaces.
• Under no circumstances look into the end of an optical device
attached to optical outputs when the device is operational. The
laser radiation is not visible to the human eye, but it can seriously
damage your eyesight.
• To prevent electrical shock, disconnect the instrument from the
mains before cleaning. Use a dry cloth, or one slightly dampened
with water, to clean the external case parts. Do not attempt to clean
internally.
• Do not install parts or perform any unauthorized modification to
optical devices.
• Refer servicing only to qualified and authorized personnel.
Why is it important to clean
optical devices?
In transmission links optical fiber cores are about 9 µm (0.00035") in
diameter. Dust and other particles, however, can range from tenths to
hundredths of microns in diameter. Their comparative size means that
they can cover a part of the end of a fiber core, and as a result will
reduce the performance of your system.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
67
Cleaning Information
What do I need for proper cleaning?
Furthermore, the power density may burn dust into the fiber and
cause additional damage (for example, 0 dBm optical power in a single
mode fiber causes a power density of approximately 16 million W/m2).
If this happens, measurements become inaccurate and non-repeatable.
Cleaning is, therefore, an essential yet difficult task. Unfortunately,
when comparing most published cleaning recommendations, you will
discover that they contain several inconsistencies. In this section, we
want to suggest ways to help you clean your various optical devices,
and thus significantly improve the accuracy and repeatability of your
lightwave measurements.
What do I need for proper
cleaning?
Some Standard Cleaning Equipment is necessary for cleaning your
instrument. For certain cleaning procedures, you may also require
certain Additional Cleaning Equipment.
Standard Cleaning Equipment
Before you can start your cleaning procedure you need the following
standard equipment:
• Dust and shutter caps
• Isopropyl alcohol
• Cotton swabs
• Soft tissues
• Pipe cleaner
• Compressed air
Dust and shutter caps
All of Agilent Technologies’ lightwave instruments are delivered with
either laser shutter caps or dust caps on the lightwave adapter. Any
cables come with covers to protect the cable ends from damage or
contamination.
68
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
What do I need for proper cleaning?
Cleaning Information
We suggest these protective coverings should be kept on the
equipment at all times, except when your optical device is in use. Be
careful when replacing dust caps after use. Do not press the bottom of
the cap onto the fiber too hard, as any dust in the cap can scratch or
pollute your fiber surface.
If you need further dust caps, please contact your nearest Agilent
Technologies sales office.
Isopropyl alcohol
This solvent is usually available from any local pharmaceutical
supplier or chemist's shop.
If you use isopropyl alcohol to clean your optical device, do not
immediately dry the surface with compressed air (except when you
are cleaning very sensitive optical devices). This is because the dust
and the dirt is solved and will leave behind filmy deposits after the
alcohol is evaporated. You should therefore first remove the alcohol
and the dust with a soft tissue, and then use compressed air to blow
away any remaining filaments.
If possible avoid using denatured alcohol containing additives.
Instead, apply alcohol used for medical purposes.
Never drink this alcohol, as it may seriously damage to your health.
Do not use any other solvents, as some may damage plastic materials
and claddings. Acetone, for example, will dissolve the epoxy used with
fiber optic connectors. To avoid damage, only use isopropyl alcohol.
Cotton swabs
We recommend that you use swabs such as Q-tips or other cotton
swabs normally available from local distributors of medical and
hygiene products (for example, a supermarket or a chemist's shop).
You may be able to obtain various sizes of swab. If this is the case,
select the smallest size for your smallest devices.
Ensure that you use natural cotton swabs. Foam swabs will often leave
behind filmy deposits after cleaning.
Use care when cleaning, and avoid pressing too hard onto your optical
device with the swab. Too much pressure may scratch the surface, and
could cause your device to become misaligned. It is advisable to rub
gently over the surface using only a small circular movement.
Swabs should be used straight out of the packet, and never used twice.
This is because dust and dirt in the atmosphere, or from a first
cleaning, may collect on your swab and scratch the surface of your
optical device.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
69
Cleaning Information
What do I need for proper cleaning?
Soft tissues
These are available from most stores and distributors of medical and
hygiene products such as supermarkets or chemists' shops.
We recommend that you do not use normal cotton tissues, but multilayered soft tissues made from non-recycled cellulose. Cellulose
tissues are very absorbent and softer. Consequently, they will not
scratch the surface of your device over time.
Use care when cleaning, and avoid pressing on your optical device
with the tissue. Pressing too hard may lead to scratches on the surface
or misalignment of your device. Just rub gently over the surface using
a small circular movement.
Use only clean, fresh soft tissues and never apply them twice. Any dust
and dirt from the air which collects on your tissue, or which has
gathered after initial cleaning, may scratch and pollute your optical
device.
Pipe cleaner
Pipe cleaners can be purchased from tobacconists, and come in
various shapes and sizes.The most suitable one to select for cleaning
purposes has soft bristles, which will not produces scratches.
There are many different kinds of pipe cleaner available from tobacco
nists.
The best way to use a pipe cleaner is to push it in and out of the device
opening (for example, when cleaning an interface). While you are
cleaning, you should slowly rotate the pipe cleaner.
Only use pipe cleaners on connector interfaces or on feed through
adapters. Do not use them on optical head adapters, as the center of a
pipe cleaner is hard metal and can damage the bottom of the adapter.
Your pipe cleaner should be new when you use it. If it has collected
any dust or dirt, this can scratch or contaminate your device.
The tip and center of the pipe cleaner are made of metal. Avoid
accidentally pressing these metal parts against the inside of the device,
as this can cause scratches.
Compressed air
Compressed air can be purchased from any laboratory supplier.
It is essential that your compressed air is free of dust, water and oil.
Only use clean, dry air. If not, this can lead to filmy deposits or
scratches on the surface of your connector. This will reduce the
performance of your transmission system.
70
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
What do I need for proper cleaning?
Cleaning Information
When spraying compressed air, hold the can upright. If the can is held
at a slant, propellant could escape and dirty your optical device. First
spray into the air, as the initial stream of compressed air could contain
some condensation or propellant. Such condensation leaves behind a
filmy deposit.
Please be friendly to your environment and use a CFC-free aerosol.
Additional Cleaning Equipment
Some Cleaning Procedures need the following equipment, which is not
required to clean each instrument:
• Microscope with a magnification range about 50X up to 300X
• Ultrasonic bath
• Warm water and liquid soap
• Premoistened cleaning wipes
• Polymer film
• Infrared Sensor Card
Microscope with a magnification range about 50X up to
300X
A microscope can be found in most photography stores, or can be
obtained through or specialist mail order companies. Special fiberscopes are available from suppliers of splicing equipment.
Ideally, the light source on your microscope should be very flexible.
This will allow you to examine your device closely and from different
angles.
A microscope helps you to estimate the type and degree of dirt on your
device. You can use a microscope to choose an appropriate cleaning
method, and then to examine the results. You can also use your
microscope to judge whether your optical device (such as a connector)
is severely scratched and is, therefore, causing inaccurate
measurements.
Ultrasonic bath
Ultrasonic baths are also available from photography or laboratory
suppliers or specialist mail order companies.
An ultrasonic bath will gently remove fat and other stubborn dirt from
your optical devices. This helps increase the life span of the optical
devices.
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Cleaning Information
What do I need for proper cleaning?
Only use isopropyl alcohol in your ultrasonic bath, as other solvents
may cause damage.
Warm water and liquid soap
Only use water if you are sure that there is no other way of cleaning
your optical device without causing corrosion or damage. Do not use
hot water, as this may cause mechanical stress, which can damage
your optical device.
Ensure that your liquid soap has no abrasive properties or perfume in
it. You should also avoid normal washing up liquid, as it can cover
your device in an iridescent film after it has been air dried.
Some lenses and mirrors also have a special coating, which may be
sensitive to mechanical stress, or to fat and liquids. For this reason we
recommend you do not touch them.
If you are not sure how sensitive your device is to cleaning, please
contact the manufacturer or your sales distributor.
Premoistened cleaning wipes
Use pre-moistened cleaning wipes as described in each individual
cleaning procedure. Cleaning wipes may be used in every instance
where a moistened soft tissue or cotton swab is applied.
Polymer film
Polymer film is available from laboratory suppliers or specialist mail
order companies.
Using polymer film is a gentle method of cleaning extremely sensitive
devices, such as reference reflectors and mirrors.
Infrared Sensor Card
Infrared sensor cards are available from laboratory suppliers or
specialist mail order companies.
With this card you are able to control the shape of laser light emitted.
The invisible laser beam is projected onto the sensor card, then
becomes visible to the normal eye as a round spot.
Take care never to look into the end of a fiber or any other optical
component, when they are in use. This is because the laser can
seriously damage your eyes.
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Preserving Connectors
Cleaning Information
Preserving Connectors
Listed below are some hints on how best to keep your connectors in
the best possible condition.
Making Connections
Before you make any connection you must ensure that all cables and
connectors are clean. If they are dirty, use the appropriate cleaning
procedure.
When inserting the ferrule of a patchcord into a connector or an
adapter, make sure that the fiber end does not touch the outside of the
mating connector or adapter. Otherwise you will rub the fiber end
against an unsuitable surface, producing scratches and dirt deposits
on the surface of your fiber.
Dust Caps and Shutter Caps
Be careful when replacing dust caps after use. Do not press the bottom
of the cap onto the fiber as any dust in the cap can scratch or dirty
your fiber surface.
When you have finished cleaning, put the dust cap back on, or close
the shutter cap if the equipment is not going to be used immediately.
Always keep the caps on the equipment when it is not in use.
All of Agilent Technologies’ lightwave instruments and accessories are
shipped with either laser shutter caps or dust caps. If you need
additional or replacement dust caps, contact your nearest Agilent
Technologies Sales/Service Office.
Immersion Oil and Other Index
Matching Compounds
Wherever possible, do not use immersion oil or other index matching
compounds with your device. They are liable to impair and dirty the
surface of the device. In addition, the characteristics of your device
can be changed and your measurement results affected.
Cleaning Instrument Housings
Use a dry and very soft cotton tissue to clean the instrument housing
and the keypad. Do not open the instruments as there is a danger of
electric shock, or electrostatic discharge. Opening the instrument can
cause damage to sensitive components, and in addition your warranty
will be voided.
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Cleaning Information
Which Cleaning Procedure should I use ?
Which Cleaning Procedure
should I use ?
Light dirt
If you just want to clean away light dirt, observe the following
procedure for all devices:
• Use compressed air to blow away large particles.
• Clean the device with a dry cotton swab.
• Use compressed air to blow away any remaining filament left by the
swab.
Heavy dirt
If the above procedure is not enough to clean your instrument, follow
one of the procedures below. Please consult “Cleaning Instructions
for this Instrument” on page 66 for the procedure relevant for this
instrument.
If you are unsure of how sensitive your device is to cleaning, please
contact the manufacturer or your sales distributor
How to clean connectors
Cleaning connectors is difficult as the core diameter of a single-mode
fiber is only about 9 µm. This generally means you cannot see streaks
or scratches on the surface. To be certain of the condition of the
surface of your connector and to check it after cleaning, you need a
microscope.
In the case of scratches, or of dust that has been burnt onto the surface
of the connector, you may have no option but to polish the connector.
This depends on the degree of dirtiness, or the depth of the scratches.
This is a difficult procedure and should only be performed by a skilled
person, and as a last resort as it wears out your connector.
WARNING
74
Never look into the end of an optical cable that is connected to an
active source.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
How to clean connector adapters
Cleaning Information
To assess the projection of the emitted light beam you can use an
infrared sensor card. Hold the card approximately 5 cm from the
output of the connector. The invisible emitted light is projected onto
the card and becomes visible as a small circular spot.
Preferred Procedure
Use the following procedure on most occasions.
1 Clean the connector by rubbing a new, dry cotton swab over the
surface using a small circular movement.
2 Blow away any remaining lint with compressed air.
Procedure for Stubborn Dirt
Use this procedure when there is greasy dirt on the connector:
1 Moisten a new cotton swab with isopropyl alcohol.
2 Clean the connector by rubbing the cotton swab over the surface
using a small circular movement.
3 Take a new, dry soft tissue and remove the alcohol, dissolved
sediment and dust, by rubbing gently over the surface using a small
circular movement.
4 Blow away any remaining lint with compressed air.
An Alternative Procedure
A better, more gentle, but more expensive cleaning procedure is to use
an ultrasonic bath with isopropyl alcohol.
1 Hold the tip of the connector in the bath for at least three minutes.
2 Take a new, dry soft tissue and remove the alcohol, dissolved
sediment and dust, by rubbing gently over the surface using a small
circular movement.
3 Blow away any remaining lint with compressed air.
How to clean connector adapters
CA U TI O N
Some adapters have an anti-reflection coating on the back to reduce
back reflection. This coating is extremely sensitive to solvents and
mechanical abrasion. Extra care is needed when cleaning these
adapters.
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Cleaning Information
Preferred Procedure
How to clean connector interfaces
Use the following procedure on most occasions.
1 Clean the adapter by rubbing a new, dry cotton swab over the
surface using a small circular movement.
2 Blow away any remaining lint with compressed air.
Procedure for Stubborn Dirt
Use this procedure when there is greasy dirt on the adapter:
1 Moisten a new cotton swab with isopropyl alcohol.
2 Clean the adapter by rubbing the cotton swab over the surface using
a small circular movement.
3 Take a new, dry soft tissue and remove the alcohol, dissolved
sediment and dust, by rubbing gently over the surface using a small
circular movement.
4 Blow away any remaining lint with compressed air.
How to clean connector
interfaces
C A U TI O N
Be careful when using pipe cleaners, as the core and the bristles of the
pipe cleaner are hard and can damage the interface.
Do not use pipe cleaners on optical head adapters, as the hard core of
normal pipe cleaners can damage the bottom of an adapter.
Preferred Procedure
Use the following procedure on most occasions.
1 Clean the interface by pushing and pulling a new, dry pipe cleaner
into the opening. Rotate the pipe cleaner slowly as you do this.
2 Then clean the interface by rubbing a new, dry cotton swab over the
surface using a small circular movement.
3 Blow away any remaining lint with compressed air.
Procedure for Stubborn Dirt
Use this procedure when there is greasy dirt on the interface:
1 Moisten a new pipe cleaner with isopropyl alcohol.
2 Clean the interface by pushing and pulling the pipe cleaner into the
opening. Rotate the pipe cleaner slowly as you do this.
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How to clean bare fiber adapters
Cleaning Information
3 Moisten a new cotton swab with isopropyl alcohol.
4 Clean the interface by rubbing the cotton swab over the surface
using a small circular movement.
5 Using a new, dry pipe cleaner, and a new, dry cotton swab remove
the alcohol, any dissolved sediment and dust.
6 Blow away any remaining lint with compressed air.
How to clean bare fiber adapters
Bare fiber adapters are difficult to clean. Protect from dust unless they
are in use.
CA U TI O N
Never use any kind of solvent when cleaning a bare fiber adapter as
solvents can:
• Damage the foam inside some adapters.
• Deposit dissolved dirt in the groove, which can then dirty the
surface of an inserted fiber.
Preferred Procedure
Use the following procedure on most occasions.
1 Blow away any dust or dirt with compressed air.
Procedure for Stubborn Dirt
Use this procedure when there is greasy dirt on the adapter:
1 Clean the adapter by pushing and pulling a new, dry pipe cleaner
into the opening. Rotate the pipe cleaner slowly as you do this.
CA U TI O N
Be careful when using pipe cleaners, as the core and the bristles of
the pipe cleaner are hard and can damage the adapter.
2 Clean the adapter by rubbing a new, dry cotton swab over the
surface using a small circular movement.
3 Blow away any remaining lint with compressed air.
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Cleaning Information
How to clean lenses
How to clean lenses
Some lenses have special coatings that are sensitive to solvents,
grease, liquid and mechanical abrasion. Take extra care when cleaning
lenses with these coatings.
Lens assemblies consisting of several lenses are not normally sealed.
Therefore, use as little alcohol as possible, as it can get between the
lenses and in doing so can change the properties of projection.
Preferred Procedure
Use the following procedure on most occasions.
1 Clean the lens by rubbing a new, dry cotton swab over the surface
using a small circular movement.
2 Blow away any remaining lint with compressed air.
Procedure for Stubborn Dirt
Use this procedure when there is greasy dirt on the lens:
1 Moisten a new cotton swab with isopropyl alcohol.
2 Clean the lens by rubbing the cotton swab over the surface using a
small circular movement.
3 Using a new, dry cotton swab remove the alcohol, any dissolved
sediment and dust.
4 Blow away any remaining lint with compressed air.
How to clean instruments with a
fixed connector interface
You should only clean instruments with a fixed connector interface
when it is absolutely necessary. This is because it is difficult to remove
any used alcohol or filaments from the input of the optical block.
It is important, therefore, to keep dust caps on the equipment at all
times, except when your optical device is in use.
If you do discover filaments or particles, the only way to clean a fixed
connector interface and the input of the optical block is to use
compressed air.
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How to clean instruments with an optical glass plate
Cleaning Information
If there are fluids or fat in the connector, please refer the instrument
to the skilled personnel of Agilent’s service team.
CA U TI O N
Only use clean, dry compressed air. Make sure that the air is free of
dust, water, and oil. If the air that you use is not clean and dry, this
can lead to filmy deposits or scratches on the surface of your
connector interface. This will degrade the performance of your
transmission system.
Never try to open the instrument and clean the optical block by
yourself, because it is easy to scratch optical components, and cause
them to become misaligned.
How to clean instruments with
an optical glass plate
Some instruments, for example, the optical heads from Agilent
Technologies have an optical glass plate to protect the sensor. Clean
this glass plate in the same way as optical lenses (see “How to clean
lenses” on page 78).
How to clean instruments with a
physical contact interface
Remove any connector interfaces from the optical output of the
instrument before you begin the cleaning procedure.
Cleaning interfaces is difficult as the core diameter of a single-mode
fiber is only about 9 µm. This generally means you cannot see streaks
or scratches on the surface. To be certain of the degree of pollution on
the surface of your interface and to check whether it has been
removed after cleaning, you need a microscope.
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79
Cleaning Information
WARNING
How to clean instruments with a recessed lens interface
Never look into an optical output, because this can seriously damage
your eyesight.
To assess the projection of the emitted light beam you can use an
infrared sensor card. Hold the card approximately 5 cm from the
interface. The invisible emitted light is projected onto the card and
becomes visible as a small circular spot.
Preferred Procedure
Use the following procedure on most occasions.
1 Clean the interface by rubbing a new, dry cotton swab over the
surface using a small circular movement.
2 Blow away any remaining lint with compressed air.
Procedure for Stubborn Dirt
Use this procedure when there is greasy dirt on the interface:
1 Moisten a new cotton swab with isopropyl alcohol.
2 Clean the interface by rubbing the cotton swab over the surface
using a small circular movement.
3 Take a new, dry soft tissue and remove the alcohol, dissolved
sediment and dust, by rubbing gently over the surface using a small
circular movement.
4 Blow away any remaining lint with compressed air.
How to clean instruments with a
recessed lens interface
WARNING
For instruments with a deeply recessed lens interface (for example the
Agilent 81633A and 81634A Power Sensors) do NOT follow this
procedure. Alcohol and compressed air could damage your lens even
further.
Keep your dust and shutter caps on when your instrument is not in
use. This should prevent it from getting too dirty. If you must clean
such instruments, please refer the instrument to the skilled personnel
of Agilent’s service team.
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How to clean optical devices which are sensitive to mechanical stress and pressure
Preferred Procedure
Cleaning Information
Use the following procedure on most occasions.
1 Blow away any dust or dirt with compressed air.
If this is not sufficient, then
2 Clean the interface by rubbing a new, dry cotton swab over the
surface using a small circular movement.
3 Blow away any remaining lint with compressed air.
Procedure for Stubborn Dirt
Use this procedure when there is greasy dirt on the interface, and
using the preferred procedure is not sufficient. Using isopropyl
alcohol should be your last choice for recessed lens interfaces because
of the difficulty of cleaning out any dirt that is washed to the edge of
the interface:
1 Moisten a new cotton swab with isopropyl alcohol.
2 Clean the interface by rubbing the cotton swab over the surface
using a small circular movement.
3 Take a new, dry soft tissue and remove the alcohol, dissolved
sediment and dust, by rubbing gently over the surface using a small
circular movement.
4 Blow away any remaining lint with compressed air.
How to clean optical devices
which are sensitive to
mechanical stress and pressure
Some optical devices, such as the Agilent 81000BR Reference
Reflector, which has a gold plated surface, are very sensitive to
mechanical stress or pressure. Do not use cotton swabs, soft tissues or
other mechanical cleaning tools, as these can scratch or destroy the
surface.
Preferred Procedure
Use the following procedure on most occasions.
1 Blow away any dust or dirt with compressed air.
Procedure for Stubborn Dirt
To clean devices that are extremely sensitive to mechanical stress or
pressure you can also use an optical clean polymer film. This
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
81
Cleaning Information
How to clean metal filters or attenuator gratings
procedure is time-consuming, but you avoid scratching or destroying
the surface.
1 Put the film on the surface and wait at least 30 minutes to make
sure that the film has had enough time to dry.
2 Remove the film and any dirt with special adhesive tapes.
Alternative Procedure
For these types of optical devices you can often use an ultrasonic bath
with isopropyl alcohol. Only use the ultrasonic bath if you are sure
that it won't cause any damage any part of the device.
1 Put the device into the bath for at least three minutes.
2 Blow away any remaining liquid with compressed air.
If there are any streaks or drying stains on the surface, repeat the
cleaning procedure.
How to clean metal filters or
attenuator gratings
This kind of device is extremely fragile. A misalignment of the grating
leads to inaccurate measurements. Never touch the surface of the
metal filter or attenuator grating. Be very careful when using or
cleaning these devices. Do not use cotton swabs or soft tissues, as
there is the danger that you cannot remove the lint and that the device
will be destroyed by becoming mechanically distorted.
Preferred Procedure
Use the following procedure on most occasions.
1 Use compressed air at a distance and with low pressure to remove
any dust or lint.
Procedure for Stubborn Dirt
Do not use an ultrasonic bath as this can damage your device.
Use this procedure when there is greasy dirt on the device:
1 Put the optical device into a bath of isopropyl alcohol, and wait at
least 10 minutes.
2 Remove the fluid using compressed air at some distance and with
low pressure. If there are any streaks or drying stains on the
surface, repeat the whole cleaning procedure.
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Additional Cleaning Information
Cleaning Information
Additional Cleaning Information
The following cleaning procedures may be used with other optical
equipment:
• How to clean bare fiber ends
• How to clean large area lenses and mirrors
How to clean bare fiber ends
Bare fiber ends are often used for splices or, together with other
optical components, to create a parallel beam. The end of a fiber can
often be scratched. You make a new cleave. To do this:
1 Strip off the cladding.
2 Take a new soft tissue and moisten it with isopropyl alcohol.
3 Carefully clean the bare fiber with this tissue.
4 Make your cleave and immediately insert the fiber into your bare
fiber adapter in order to protect the surface from dirt.
How to clean large area lenses and mirrors
Some mirrors, as those from a monochromator, are very soft and
sensitive. Therefore, never touch them and do not use cleaning tools
such as compressed air or polymer film.
Some lenses have special coatings that are sensitive to solvents,
grease, liquid and mechanical abrasion. Take extra care when cleaning
lenses with these coatings.
Lens assemblies consisting of several lenses are not normally sealed.
Therefore, use as little liquid as possible, as it can get between the
lenses and in doing so can change the properties of projection.
Preferred Procedure
Use the following procedure on most occasions.
1 Blow away any dust or dirt with compressed air.
Procedure for Stubborn Dirt
CA U TI O N
Use this procedure when there is greasy dirt on the lens:
Only use water if you are sure that there is no other way of cleaning
your optical device without causing corrosion or damage.
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
83
Cleaning Information
Additional Cleaning Information
Only use water if you are sure that there is no other way of cleaning
your optical device without causing corrosion or damage. Do not use
hot water, as this may cause mechanical stress, which can damage
your optical device.
Ensure that your liquid soap has no abrasive properties or perfume in
it. You should also avoid normal washing up liquid, as it can cover
your device in an iridescent film after it has been air dried.
Some lenses and mirrors also have a special coating, which may be
sensitive to mechanical stress, or to fat and liquids. For this reason we
recommend you do not touch them.
If you are not sure how sensitive your device is to cleaning, please
contact the manufacturer or your sales distributor.
1 Moisten the lens or the mirror with water.
2 Put a little liquid soap on the surface and gently spread the liquid
over the whole area.
3 Wash off the emulsion with water, being careful to remove it all, as
any remaining streaks can impair measurement accuracy.
4 Take a new, dry soft tissue and remove the water, by rubbing gently
over the surface using a small circular movement.
5 Blow away remaining lint with compressed air.
Alternative Procedure A
To clean lenses that are extremely sensitive to mechanical stress or
pressure you can also use an optical clean polymer film. This
procedure is time-consuming, but you avoid scratching or destroying
the surface.
1 Put the film on the surface and wait at least 30 minutes to make
sure that the film has had enough time to dry.
2 Remove the film and any dirt with special adhesive tapes.
Alternative Procedure B
If your lens is sensitive to water then:
1 Moisten the lens or the mirror with isopropyl alcohol.
2 Take a new, dry soft tissue and remove the alcohol, dissolved
sediment and dust, by rubbing gently over the surface using a small
circular movement.
3 Blow away remaining lint with compressed air.
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Other Cleaning Hints
Cleaning Information
Other Cleaning Hints
Selecting the correct cleaning method is an important element in
maintaining your equipment and saving you time and money. This
Appendix highlights the main cleaning methods, but cannot address
every individual circumstance.
This section contain some additional hints which we hope will help
you further. For further information, please contact your local Agilent
Technologies representative.
Making the connection
Before you make any connection you must ensure that all lightwave
cables and connectors are clean. If not, then use the appropriate
cleaning methods.
When you insert the ferrule of a patchcord into a connector or an
adapter, ensure that the fiber end does not touch the outside of the
mating connector or adapter. Otherwise, the fiber end will rub up
against something which could scratch it and leave deposits.
Lens cleaning papers
Some special lens cleaning papers are not suitable for cleaning optical
devices like connectors, interfaces, lenses, mirrors and so on. To be
absolutely certain that a cleaning paper is applicable, please ask the
salesperson or the manufacturer.
Immersion oil and other index
matching compounds
Do not use immersion oil or other index matching compounds with
optical sensors equipped with recessed lenses. They are liable to dirty
the detector and impair its performance. They may also alter the
property of depiction of your optical device, thus rendering your
measurements inaccurate.
Cleaning the housing and the
mainframe
When cleaning either the mainframe or the housing of your
instrument, only use a dry and very soft cotton tissue on the surfaces
and the numeric pad.
Never open the instruments as they can be damaged. Opening the
instruments puts you in danger of receiving an electrical shock from
your device, and renders your warranty void.
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Cleaning Information
86
Other Cleaning Hints
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
Index
Index
A
Attenuator 17
C
Cleaning 65
Connectors
angled contact 22, 28
straight contact 22
Conventions 7
D
Definition of Terms 31
Absolute Wavelength Accuracy 32
F
Front Panel
Agilent 81689A 18, 19
Agilent 81689B 18, 19
Controls and Indicators 18, 19
G
Getting Started 15
I
Inspection 3
L
Line Power 4
O
Optical Output 22
Optional features 25
P
Performance Tests 40
Instructions 43
Polarization Maintaining Fiber 22
S
Safety
symbols 3
U
Use Models 20
User’s Guides 26
Agilent 81560A, 81561A, 81566A, & 81567A Optical Attenuator Modules, First Edition
87
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www.agilent.com
 Agilent Technologies GmbH 2001
Printed in Germany November 30, 2001
81560-90A11