Edge-Core ES3528MV2-DC System information

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24/48 10/100 Ports + 2GE
Intelligent Layer 2
Fast Ethernet Switch
Management Guide
www.edge-core.com
Management Guide
Fast Ethernet Switch
Layer 2 Standalone Switch
with 24/48 10/100BASE-TX (RJ-45) Ports,
and 2 Combination Gigabit Ports (RJ-45/SFP)
ES3526XA
ES3552XA
F2.2.6.3 E122006-CS-R02
149100005500H
Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
Key Features
Description of Software Features
System Defaults
1-1
1-1
1-2
1-5
Chapter 2: Initial Configuration
Connecting to the Switch
Configuration Options
Required Connections
Remote Connections
Basic Configuration
Console Connection
Setting Passwords
Setting an IP Address
Manual Configuration
Dynamic Configuration
Enabling SNMP Management Access
Community Strings (for SNMP version 1 and 2c clients)
Trap Receivers
Configuring Access for SNMP Version 3 Clients
Saving Configuration Settings
Managing System Files
2-1
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2-2
2-3
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2-5
2-6
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2-9
Chapter 3: Configuring the Switch
Using the Web Interface
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
Home Page
Configuration Options
Panel Display
Main Menu
Basic Configuration
Displaying System Information
Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
Setting the Switch’s IP Address
Manual Configuration
Using DHCP/BOOTP
DHCP Relay and Option 82 Information
Managing Firmware
Downloading System Software from a Server
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-2
3-3
3-3
3-4
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3-20
i
Contents
Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings
Downloading Configuration Settings from a Server
Console Port Settings
Telnet Settings
Configuring Event Logging
System Log Configuration
Remote Log Configuration
Displaying Log Messages
Sending Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Alerts
Resetting the System
Setting the System Clock
Configuring SNTP
Configuring NTP
Setting the Time Zone
Simple Network Management Protocol
Enabling the SNMP Agent
Setting Community Access Strings
Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
Setting a Local Engine ID
Specifying a Remote Engine ID
Configuring SNMPv3 Users
Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
Configuring SNMPv3 Groups
Setting SNMPv3 Views
User Authentication
Configuring User Accounts
Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication
Configuring HTTPS
Replacing the Default Secure-site Certificate
Configuring the Secure Shell
Generating the Host Key Pair
Configuring the SSH Server
Configuring Port Security
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
Displaying 802.1X Global Settings
Configuring 802.1X Global Settings
Configuring Port Settings for 802.1X
Displaying 802.1X Statistics
MAC Address Authentication
Configuring the MAC Authentication Reauthentication Time
Configuring MAC Authentication for Ports
Displaying Secure MAC Address Information
Configuring MAC Address Filters
Filtering Addresses for Management Access
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Contents
Access Control Lists
Configuring Access Control Lists
Setting the ACL Name and Type
Configuring a Standard IP ACL
Configuring an Extended IP ACL
Configuring a MAC ACL
Binding a Port to an Access Control List
Port Configuration
Displaying Connection Status
Configuring Interface Connections
Creating Trunk Groups
Statically Configuring a Trunk
Enabling LACP on Selected Ports
Configuring LACP Parameters
Displaying LACP Port Counters
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Local Side
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Remote Side
Setting Broadcast Storm Thresholds
Configuring Port Mirroring
Configuring Rate Limits
Rate Limit Granularity
Rate Limit Configuration
Showing Port Statistics
Address Table Settings
Setting Static Addresses
Displaying the Address Table
Changing the Aging Time
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
Displaying Global Settings
Configuring Global Settings
Displaying Interface Settings
Configuring Interface Settings
Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees
Displaying Interface Settings for MSTP
Configuring Interface Settings for MSTP
VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
Enabling or Disabling GVRP (Global Setting)
Displaying Basic VLAN Information
Displaying Current VLANs
Creating VLANs
Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)
Adding Static Members to VLANs (Port Index)
Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces
Private VLANs
3-82
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iii
Contents
Displaying Current Private VLANs
Configuring Private VLANs
Associating VLANs
Displaying Private VLAN Interface Information
Configuring Private VLAN Interfaces
Class of Service Configuration
Layer 2 Queue Settings
Setting the Default Priority for Interfaces
Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
Selecting the Queue Mode
Setting the Service Weight for Traffic Classes
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
Mapping Layer 3/4 Priorities to CoS Values
Selecting IP Precedence/DSCP Priority
Mapping IP Precedence
Mapping DSCP Priority
Mapping IP Port Priority
Mapping CoS Values to ACLs
Multicast Filtering
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters
Enabling IGMP Immediate Leave
Displaying Interfaces Attached to a Multicast Router
Specifying Static Interfaces for a Multicast Router
Displaying Port Members of Multicast Services
Assigning Ports to Multicast Services
IGMP Filtering and Throttling
Enabling IGMP Filtering and Throttling
Configuring IGMP Filter Profiles
Configuring IGMP Filtering and Throttling for Interfaces
Multicast VLAN Registration
Configuring Global MVR Settings
Displaying MVR Interface Status
Displaying Port Members of Multicast Groups
Configuring MVR Interface Status
Assigning Static Multicast Groups to Interfaces
Configuring Domain Name Service
Configuring General DNS Service Parameters
Configuring Static DNS Host to Address Entries
Displaying the DNS Cache
Switch Clustering
Cluster Configuration
Cluster Member Configuration
Cluster Member Information
Cluster Candidate Information
iv
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3-197
Contents
Chapter 4: Command Line Interface
Using the Command Line Interface
Accessing the CLI
Console Connection
Telnet Connection
Entering Commands
Keywords and Arguments
Minimum Abbreviation
Command Completion
Getting Help on Commands
Showing Commands
Partial Keyword Lookup
Negating the Effect of Commands
Using Command History
Understanding Command Modes
Exec Commands
Configuration Commands
Command Line Processing
Command Groups
Line Commands
line
login
password
timeout login response
exec-timeout
password-thresh
silent-time
databits
parity
speed
stopbits
disconnect
show line
General Commands
enable
disable
configure
show history
reload
end
exit
quit
System Management Commands
Device Designation Commands
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-1
4-3
4-3
4-3
4-3
4-3
4-4
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4-25
4-25
v
Contents
prompt
hostname
User Access Commands
username
enable password
IP Filter Commands
management
show management
Web Server Commands
ip http port
ip http server
ip http secure-server
ip http secure-port
Telnet Server Commands
ip telnet port
ip telnet server
Secure Shell Commands
ip ssh server
ip ssh timeout
ip ssh authentication-retries
ip ssh server-key size
delete public-key
ip ssh crypto host-key generate
ip ssh crypto zeroize
ip ssh save host-key
show ip ssh
show ssh
show public-key
Event Logging Commands
logging on
logging history
logging host
logging facility
logging trap
clear logging
show logging
show log
SMTP Alert Commands
logging sendmail host
logging sendmail level
logging sendmail source-email
logging sendmail destination-email
logging sendmail
show logging sendmail
Time Commands
vi
4-25
4-26
4-26
4-27
4-28
4-29
4-29
4-30
4-31
4-31
4-31
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4-47
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4-54
Contents
sntp client
sntp server
sntp poll
show sntp
ntp client
ntp server
ntp poll
ntp authenticate
ntp authentication-key
show ntp
clock timezone
calendar set
show calendar
System Status Commands
show startup-config
show running-config
show system
show users
show version
Frame Size Commands
jumbo frame
Flash/File Commands
copy
delete
dir
whichboot
boot system
Authentication Commands
Authentication Sequence
authentication login
authentication enable
RADIUS Client
radius-server host
radius-server port
radius-server key
radius-server retransmit
radius-server timeout
show radius-server
TACACS+ Client
tacacs-server host
tacacs-server port
tacacs-server key
show tacacs-server
Port Security Commands
port security
4-54
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vii
Contents
802.1X Port Authentication
dot1x system-auth-control
dot1x default
dot1x max-req
dot1x port-control
dot1x operation-mode
dot1x re-authenticate
dot1x re-authentication
dot1x timeout quiet-period
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
dot1x timeout tx-period
show dot1x
Network Access
network-access mode
network-access max-mac-count
network-access mac-filter
network-access port-mac-filter
network-access dynamic-vlan
mac-authentication reauth-time
clear network-access
show network-access
show network-access mac-filter
show network-access mac-address-table
Access Control List Commands
IP ACLs
access-list ip
permit, deny (Standard ACL)
permit, deny (Extended ACL)
show ip access-list
ip access-group
show ip access-group
map access-list ip
show map access-list ip
MAC ACLs
access-list mac
permit, deny (MAC ACL)
show mac access-list
mac access-group
show mac access-group
map access-list mac
show map access-list mac
ACL Information
show access-list
show access-group
SNMP Commands
viii
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4-113
4-113
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4-115
4-116
Contents
snmp-server
show snmp
snmp-server community
snmp-server contact
snmp-server location
snmp-server host
snmp-server enable traps
snmp-server engine-id
show snmp engine-id
snmp-server view
show snmp view
snmp-server group
show snmp group
snmp-server user
show snmp user
Interface Commands
interface
description
speed-duplex
negotiation
capabilities
flowcontrol
shutdown
switchport broadcast packet-rate
clear counters
show interfaces status
show interfaces counters
show interfaces switchport
Mirror Port Commands
port monitor
show port monitor
Rate Limit Commands
rate-limit
rate-limit granularity
show rate-limit
Link Aggregation Commands
channel-group
lacp
lacp system-priority
lacp admin-key (Ethernet Interface)
lacp admin-key (Port Channel)
lacp port-priority
show lacp
Address Table Commands
mac-address-table static
4-117
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ix
Contents
clear mac-address-table dynamic
show mac-address-table
mac-address-table aging-time
show mac-address-table aging-time
Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree
spanning-tree mode
spanning-tree forward-time
spanning-tree hello-time
spanning-tree max-age
spanning-tree priority
spanning-tree pathcost method
spanning-tree transmission-limit
spanning-tree mst-configuration
mst vlan
mst priority
name
revision
max-hops
spanning-tree spanning-disabled
spanning-tree cost
spanning-tree port-priority
spanning-tree edge-port
spanning-tree portfast
spanning-tree link-type
spanning-tree mst cost
spanning-tree mst port-priority
spanning-tree protocol-migration
show spanning-tree
show spanning-tree mst configuration
VLAN Commands
Editing VLAN Groups
vlan database
vlan
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
interface vlan
switchport mode
switchport acceptable-frame-types
switchport ingress-filtering
switchport native vlan
switchport allowed vlan
switchport forbidden vlan
Displaying VLAN Information
show vlan
Configuring Private VLANs
x
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Contents
private-vlan
private vlan association
switchport mode private-vlan
switchport private-vlan host-association
switchport private-vlan isolated
switchport private-vlan mapping
show vlan private-vlan
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
bridge-ext gvrp
show bridge-ext
switchport gvrp
show gvrp configuration
garp timer
show garp timer
Priority Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
queue mode
switchport priority default
queue bandwidth
queue cos-map
show queue mode
show queue bandwidth
show queue cos-map
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
map ip port (Global Configuration)
map ip port (Interface Configuration)
map ip precedence (Global Configuration)
map ip precedence (Interface Configuration)
map ip dscp (Global Configuration)
map ip dscp (Interface Configuration)
show map ip port
show map ip precedence
show map ip dscp
Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping Commands
ip igmp snooping
ip igmp snooping vlan static
ip igmp snooping version
ip igmp snooping immediate-leave
show ip igmp snooping
show mac-address-table multicast
IGMP Query Commands (Layer 2)
ip igmp snooping querier
ip igmp snooping query-count
ip igmp snooping query-interval
4-189
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4-217
xi
Contents
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
Static Multicast Routing Commands
ip igmp snooping vlan mrouter
show ip igmp snooping mrouter
IGMP Filtering and Throttling Commands
ip igmp filter (Global Configuration)
ip igmp profile
permit, deny
range
ip igmp filter (Interface Configuration)
ip igmp max-groups
ip igmp max-groups action
show ip igmp filter
show ip igmp profile
show ip igmp throttle interface
Multicast VLAN Registration Commands
mvr (Global Configuration)
mvr (Interface Configuration)
show mvr
Domain Name Service Commands
ip host
clear host
ip domain-name
ip domain-list
ip name-server
ip domain-lookup
show hosts
show dns
show dns cache
clear dns cache
DHCP Commands
ip dhcp relay information option
ip dhcp relay information policy
ip dhcp relay server
show ip dhcp-relay
IP Interface Commands
ip address
ip default-gateway
ip dhcp restart
show ip interface
show ip redirects
ping
Switch Cluster Commands
cluster
xii
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4-249
Contents
cluster commander
cluster ip-pool
cluster member
rcommand
show cluster
show cluster members
show cluster candidates
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4-252
4-253
4-253
Appendix A: Software Specifications
Software Features
Management Features
Standards
Management Information Bases
A-1
A-1
A-2
A-2
A-3
Appendix B: Troubleshooting
Problems Accessing the Management Interface
Using System Logs
B-1
B-1
B-2
Glossary
Index
xiii
Contents
xiv
Tables
Table 1-1
Table 1-2
Table 3-1
Table 3-2
Table 3-3
Table 3-6
Table 3-7
Table 3-8
Table 3-9
Table 3-10
Table 3-11
Table 3-12
Table 3-13
Table 3-14
Table 3-15
Table 3-16
Table 4-1
Table 4-2
Table 4-3
Table 4-4
Table 4-5
Table 4-6
Table 4-7
Table 4-8
Table 4-9
Table 4-10
Table 4-11
Table 4-12
Table 4-13
Table 4-14
Table 4-15
Table 4-16
Table 4-17
Table 4-18
Table 4-19
Table 4-20
Table 4-21
Table 4-22
Table 4-23
Table 4-24
Table 4-25
Table 4-26
Key Features
System Defaults
Configuration Options
Main Menu
Logging Levels
HTTPS System Support
802.1X Statistics
LACP Port Counters
LACP Internal Configuration Information
LACP Neighbor Configuration Information
Port Statistics
Egress Queue Priority Mapping
CoS Priority Levels
Mapping IP Precedence
Mapping DSCP Priority Values
Egress Queue Priority Mapping
Command Modes
Configuration Modes
Command Line Processing
Command Groups
Line Commands
General Commands
System Management Commands
Device Designation Commands
User Access Commands
Default Login Settings
IP Filter Commands
Web Server Commands
HTTPS System Support
Telnet Server Commands
SSH Commands
show ssh - display description
Event Logging Commands
Logging Levels
show logging flash/ram - display description
show logging trap - display description
SMTP Alert Commands
Time Commands
System Status Commands
Frame Size Commands
Flash/File Commands
File Directory Information
1-1
1-5
3-3
3-4
3-29
3-59
3-73
3-99
3-101
3-103
3-110
3-160
3-160
3-165
3-166
3-169
4-6
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-11
4-20
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4-29
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4-42
4-44
4-45
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4-50
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4-70
4-74
xv
Tables
Table 4-27
Table 4-28
Table 4-29
Table 4-30
Table 4-31
Table 4-32
Table 4-33
Table 4-35
Table 4-34
Table 4-36
Table 4-37
Table 4-38
Table 4-39
Table 4-40
Table 4-41
Table 4-42
Table 4-43
Table 4-44
Table 4-45
Table 4-46
Table 4-47
Table 4-48
Table 4-49
Table 4-50
Table 4-51
Table 4-52
Table 4-54
Table 4-53
Table 4-55
Table 4-56
Table 4-57
Table 4-58
Table 4-59
Table 4-60
Table 4-61
Table 4-62
Table 4-63
Table 4-64
Table 4-65
Table 4-66
Table 4-67
Table 4-68
Table 4-69
Table 4-70
Table 4-71
xvi
Authentication Commands
Authentication Sequence
RADIUS Client Commands
TACACS Commands
Port Security Commands
802.1X Port Authentication
Network Access
IP ACLs
Access Control Lists
Egress Queue Priority Mapping
MAC ACLs
Egress Queue Priority Mapping
ACL Information
SNMP Commands
show snmp engine-id - display description
show snmp view - display description
show snmp group - display description
show snmp user - display description
Interface Commands
Interfaces Switchport Statistics
Mirror Port Commands
Rate Limit Commands
Link Aggregation Commands
show lacp counters - display description
show lacp internal - display description
show lacp neighbors - display description
Address Table Commands
show lacp sysid - display description
Spanning Tree Commands
VLANs
Editing VLAN Groups
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
Show VLAN Commands
Private VLAN Commands
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
Priority Commands
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
Default CoS Priority Levels
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
Mapping IP Precedence Values
IP DSCP to CoS Vales
Multicast Filtering Commands
IGMP Snooping Commands
IGMP Query Commands (Layer 2)
Static Multicast Routing Commands
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4-81
4-84
4-85
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Tables
Table 4-72
Table 4-73
Table 4-74
Table 4-76
Table 4-75
Table 4-77
Table 4-78
Table 4-79
Table 4-80
Table 4-81
Table B-1
IGMP Filtering and Throttling Commands
Multicast VLAN Registration Commands
show mvr - display description
show mvr members - display description
show mvr interface - display description
DNS Commands
show dns cache - display description
DHCP Commands
IP Interface Commands
Switch Cluster Commands
Troubleshooting Chart
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4-232
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B-1
xvii
Tables
xviii
Figures
Figure 3-1
Figure 3-2
Figure 3-3
Figure 3-4
Figure 3-5
Figure 3-6
Figure 3-7
Figure 3-8
Figure 3-9
Figure 3-10
Figure 3-11
Figure 3-12
Figure 3-13
Figure 3-14
Figure 3-15
Figure 3-16
Figure 3-17
Figure 3-18
Figure 3-19
Figure 3-20
Figure 3-21
Figure 3-22
Figure 3-23
Figure 3-24
Figure 3-25
Figure 3-26
Figure 3-27
Figure 3-28
Figure 3-29
Figure 3-30
Figure 3-31
Figure 3-32
Figure 3-33
Figure 3-34
Figure 3-35
Figure 3-36
Figure 3-37
Figure 3-38
Figure 3-39
Figure 3-40
Figure 3-41
Figure 3-42
Home Page
Panel Display
System Information
Displaying Switch Information
Bridge Extension Configuration
Manual IP Configuration
IP Configuration using DHCP
DHCP Relay Option 82 Configuration
Operation Code Image File Transfer
Select Start-Up Operation File
Deleting Files
Copy Configuration Settings
Setting the Startup Configuration Settings
Console Port Settings
Enabling Telnet
System Logs
Remote Logs
Displaying Logs
Enabling and Configuring SMTP Alerts
Resetting the System
SNTP Configuration
NTP Client Configuration
Setting the System Clock
Enabling the SNMP Agent
Configuring SNMP Community Strings
Configuring SNMP Trap Managers
Setting the SNMPv3 Engine ID
Setting an Engine ID
Configuring SNMPv3 Users
Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
Configuring SNMPv3 Groups
Configuring SNMPv3 Views
Access Levels
Authentication Settings
HTTPS Settings
SSH Host-Key Settings
SSH Server Settings
Configuring Port Security
802.1X Global Information
802.1X Configuration
802.1X Port Configuration
Displaying 802.1X Port Statistics
3-2
3-3
3-10
3-12
3-13
3-15
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xix
Figures
Figure 3-43
Figure 3-44
Figure 3-45
Figure 3-46
Figure 3-47
Figure 3-48
Figure 3-49
Figure 3-50
Figure 3-51
Figure 3-52
Figure 3-53
Figure 3-54
Figure 3-55
Figure 3-56
Figure 3-57
Figure 3-58
Figure 3-59
Figure 3-60
Figure 3-61
Figure 3-62
Figure 3-63
Figure 3-64
Figure 3-65
Figure 3-66
Figure 3-67
Figure 3-68
Figure 3-69
Figure 3-70
Figure 3-71
Figure 3-72
Figure 3-73
Figure 3-74
Figure 3-75
Figure 3-76
Figure 3-77
Figure 3-78
Figure 3-79
Figure 3-80
Figure 3-81
Figure 3-82
Figure 3-83
Figure 3-84
Figure 3-85
Figure 3-86
Figure 3-87
xx
Network Access Configuration
Network Access Port Configuration
Network Access MAC Address Information
Network Access MAC Filter Configuration
Creating a Web IP Filter List
Selecting ACL Type
ACL Configuration - Standard IP
ACL Configuration - Extended IP
ACL Configuration - MAC
Binding a Port to an ACL
Displaying Port/Trunk Information
Port/Trunk Configuration
Configuring Port Trunks
LACP Configuration
LACP - Aggregation Port
LACP - Port Counters Information
LACP - Port Internal Information
LACP - Port Neighbors Information
Port Broadcast Control
Mirror Port Configuration
Rate Limit Granularity Configuration
Output Rate Limit Port Configuration
Port Statistics
Static Addresses
Dynamic Addresses
Address Aging
STA Information
STA Global Configuration
STA Port Information
STA Port Configuration
MSTP VLAN Configuration
MSTP Port Information
MSTP Port Configuration
GLobally Enabling GVRP
VLAN Basic Information
VLAN Current Table
VLAN Static List - Creating VLANs
VLAN Static Table - Adding Static Members
VLAN Static Membership by Port
VLAN Port Configuration
Private VLAN Information
Private VLAN Configuration
Private VLAN Association
Private VLAN Port Information
Private VLAN Port Configuration
3-76
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Figure 3-88
Figure 3-89
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Figure 3-101
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Figure 3-109
Figure 3-110
Figure 3-111
Figure 3-112
Figure 3-113
Figure 3-114
Figure 3-115
Figure 3-116
Figure 3-117
Figure 3-118
Port Priority Configuration
Traffic Classes
Queue Mode
Configuring Queue Scheduling
IP Precedence/DSCP Priority Status
Mapping IP Precedence Priority Values
Mapping IP DSCP Priority Values
IP Port Priority Status
IP Port Priority
ACL CoS Priority
IGMP Configuration
IGMP Immediate Leave
Displaying Multicast Router Port Information
Static Multicast Router Port Configuration
IP Multicast Registration Table
IGMP Member Port Table
Enabling IGMP Filtering and Throttling
IGMP Profile Configuration
IGMP Filter and Throttling Port Configuration
MVR Global Configuration
MVR Port Information
MVR Group IP Information
MVR Port Configuration
MVR Group Member Configuration
DNS General Configuration
DNS Static Host Table
DNS Cache
Cluster Configuration
Cluster Member Configuration
Cluster Member Information
Cluster Candidate Information
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Figures
xxii
Chapter 1: Introduction
This switch provides a broad range of features for Layer 2 switching. It includes a
management agent that allows you to configure the features listed in this manual.
The default configuration can be used for most of the features provided by this
switch. However, there are many options that you should configure to maximize the
switch’s performance for your particular network environment.
Key Features
Table 1-1 Key Features
Feature
Description
Configuration Backup
and Restore
Backup to TFTP server
Authentication
Console, Telnet, web – User name / password, RADIUS, TACACS+
Web – HTTPS; Telnet – SSH
SNMP – Community strings
Port – IEEE 802.1X, MAC address filtering
Access Control Lists
Supports up to 88 IP or MAC ACLs
DHCP Client
Supported
Port Configuration
Speed, duplex mode and flow control
Rate Limiting
Input and output rate limiting per port
Port Mirroring
One port mirrored to a single analysis port
Port Trunking
Supports up to 4 trunks using either static or dynamic trunking (LACP)
Broadcast Storm
Control
Supported
Static Address
Up to 8K MAC addresses in the forwarding table
IEEE 802.1D Bridge
Supports dynamic data switching and addresses learning
Store-and-Forward
Switching
Supported to ensure wire-speed switching while eliminating bad frames
Spanning Tree Protocol Supports standard STP and Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
Virtual LANs
Up to 255 using IEEE 802.1Q, port-based, or private VLANs
Traffic Prioritization
Default port priority, traffic class map, queue scheduling, IP Precedence or
Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP), and TCP/UDP Port
Multicast Filtering
Supports IGMP snooping and query
1-1
1
Introduction
Description of Software Features
The switch provides a wide range of advanced performance enhancing features.
Flow control eliminates the loss of packets due to bottlenecks caused by port
saturation. Broadcast storm suppression prevents broadcast traffic storms from
engulfing the network. Port-based and protocol-based VLANs, plus support for
automatic GVRP VLAN registration provide traffic security and efficient use of
network bandwidth. CoS priority queueing ensures the minimum delay for moving
real-time multimedia data across the network. While multicast filtering provides
support for real-time network applications. Some of the management features are
briefly described below.
Configuration Backup and Restore – You can save the current configuration
settings to a file on a TFTP server, and later download this file to restore the switch
configuration settings.
Authentication – This switch authenticates management access via the console
port, Telnet or web browser. User names and passwords can be configured locally or
can be verified via a remote authentication server (i.e., RADIUS or TACACS+).
Port-based authentication is also supported via the IEEE 802.1X protocol. This
protocol uses the Extensible Authentication Protocol over LANs (EAPOL) to request
user credentials from the 802.1X client, and then verifies the client’s right to access
the network via an authentication server.
Other authentication options include HTTPS for secure management access via the
web, SSH for secure management access over a Telnet-equivalent connection, IP
address filtering for SNMP/web/Telnet management access, and MAC address
filtering for port access.
Access Control Lists – ACLs provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on
address, protocol, TCP/UDP port number or TCP control code) or any frames
(based on MAC address or Ethernet type). ACLs can be used to improve
performance by blocking unnecessary network traffic or to implement security
controls by restricting access to specific network resources or protocols.
Port Configuration – You can manually configure the speed, duplex mode, and
flow control used on specific ports, or use auto-negotiation to detect the connection
settings used by the attached device. Use the full-duplex mode on ports whenever
possible to double the throughput of switch connections. Flow control should also be
enabled to control network traffic during periods of congestion and prevent the loss
of packets when port buffer thresholds are exceeded. The switch supports flow
control based on the IEEE 802.3x standard.
Rate Limiting – This feature controls the maximum rate for traffic transmitted or
received on an interface. Rate limiting is configured on interfaces at the edge of a
network to limit traffic into or out of the network. Traffic that falls within the rate limit is
transmitted, while packets that exceed the acceptable amount of traffic are dropped.
1-2
Description of Software Features
1
Port Mirroring – The switch can unobtrusively mirror traffic from any port to a
monitor port. You can then attach a protocol analyzer or RMON probe to this port to
perform traffic analysis and verify connection integrity.
Port Trunking – Ports can be combined into an aggregate connection. Trunks can
be manually set up or dynamically configured using IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation
Control Protocol (LACP). The additional ports dramatically increase the throughput
across any connection, and provide redundancy by taking over the load if a port in
the trunk should fail. The switch supports up to four trunks.
Broadcast Storm Control – Broadcast suppression prevents broadcast traffic from
overwhelming the network. When enabled on a port, the level of broadcast traffic
passing through the port is restricted. If broadcast traffic rises above a pre-defined
threshold, it will be throttled until the level falls back beneath the threshold.
Static Addresses – A static address can be assigned to a specific interface on this
switch. Static addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved.
When a static address is seen on another interface, the address will be ignored and
will not be written to the address table. Static addresses can be used to provide
network security by restricting access for a known host to a specific port.
IEEE 802.1D Bridge – The switch supports IEEE 802.1D transparent bridging. The
address table facilitates data switching by learning addresses, and then filtering or
forwarding traffic based on this information. The address table supports up to 8K
addresses.
Store-and-Forward Switching – The switch copies each frame into its memory
before forwarding them to another port. This ensures that all frames are a standard
Ethernet size and have been verified for accuracy with the cyclic redundancy check
(CRC). This prevents bad frames from entering the network and wasting bandwidth.
To avoid dropping frames on congested ports, the switch provides 8 MB for frame
buffering. This buffer can queue packets awaiting transmission on congested
networks.
Spanning Tree Algorithm – The switch supports these spanning tree protocols:
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP, IEEE 802.1D) – This protocol provides loop detection
and recovery by allowing two or more redundant connections to be created between
a pair of LAN segments. When there are multiple physical paths between segments,
this protocol will choose a single path and disable all others to ensure that only one
route exists between any two stations on the network. This prevents the creation of
network loops. However, if the chosen path should fail for any reason, an alternate
path will be activated to maintain the connection.
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP, IEEE 802.1w) – This protocol reduces the
convergence time for network topology changes to 3 to 5 seconds, compared to 30
seconds or more for the older IEEE 802.1D STP standard. It is intended as a
complete replacement for STP, but can still interoperate with switches running the
older standard by automatically reconfiguring ports to STP-compliant mode if they
detect STP protocol messages from attached devices.
1-3
1
Introduction
Virtual LANs – The switch supports up to 255 VLANs. A Virtual LAN is a collection
of network nodes that share the same collision domain regardless of their physical
location or connection point in the network. The switch supports tagged VLANs
based on the IEEE 802.1Q standard. Members of VLAN groups can be dynamically
learned via GVRP, or ports can be manually assigned to a specific set of VLANs.
This allows the switch to restrict traffic to the VLAN groups to which a user has been
assigned. By segmenting your network into VLANs, you can:
• Eliminate broadcast storms which severely degrade performance in a flat network.
• Simplify network management for node changes/moves by remotely configuring
VLAN membership for any port, rather than having to manually change the network
connection.
• Provide data security by restricting all traffic to the originating VLAN.
• Use private VLANs to restrict traffic to pass only between data ports and the uplink
ports, thereby isolating adjacent ports within the same VLAN, and allowing you to
limit the total number of VLANs that need to be configured.
Traffic Prioritization – This switch prioritizes each packet based on the required
level of service, using four priority queues with strict or Weighted Round Robin
Queuing. It uses IEEE 802.1p and 802.1Q tags to prioritize incoming traffic based on
input from the end-station application. These functions can be used to provide
independent priorities for delay-sensitive data and best-effort data.
This switch also supports several common methods of prioritizing layer 3/4 traffic to
meet application requirements. Traffic can be prioritized based on the priority bits in
the IP frame’s Type of Service (ToS) octet or the number of the TCP/UDP port.
When these services are enabled, the priorities are mapped to a Class of Service
value by the switch, and the traffic then sent to the corresponding output queue.
Multicast Filtering – Specific multicast traffic can be assigned to its own VLAN to
ensure that it does not interfere with normal network traffic and to guarantee
real-time delivery by setting the required priority level for the designated VLAN. The
switch uses IGMP Snooping and Query to manage multicast group registration.
1-4
System Defaults
1
System Defaults
The switch’s system defaults are provided in the configuration file
“Factory_Default_Config.cfg.” To reset the switch defaults, this file should be set as
the startup configuration file (page 3-24).
The following table lists some of the basic system defaults.
Table 1-2 System Defaults
Function
Parameter
Default
Console Port
Connection
Baud Rate
9600
Data bits
8
Stop bits
1
Parity
none
Local Console Timeout
0 (disabled)
Privileged Exec Level
Username “admin”
Password “admin”
Normal Exec Level
Username “guest”
Password “guest”
Authentication
Enable Privileged Exec from Normal Password “super”
Exec Level
Web Management
SNMP
RADIUS Authentication
Disabled
TACACS Authentication
Disabled
802.1X Port Authentication
Disabled
HTTPS
Enabled
SSH
Disabled
Port Security
Disabled
IP Filtering
Disabled
HTTP Server
Enabled
HTTP Port Number
80
HTTP Secure Server
Enabled
HTTP Secure Port Number
443
Community Strings
“public” (read only)
“private” (read/write)
Traps
Authentication traps: enabled
Link-up-down events: enabled
1-5
1
Introduction
Table 1-2 System Defaults (Continued)
Function
Parameter
Default
Port Configuration
Admin Status
Enabled
Auto-negotiation
Enabled
Flow Control
Disabled
Rate Limiting
Input and output limits
Disabled
Port Trunking
Static Trunks
None
LACP (all ports)
Disabled
Broadcast Storm
Protection
Status
Disabled (all ports)
Broadcast Limit Rate
32,000 octets per second
Spanning Tree
Protocol
Status
Enabled
(Defaults: All values based on IEEE 802.1w)
Fast Forwarding (Edge Port)
Disabled
Address Table
Aging Time
300 seconds
Virtual LANs
Default VLAN
1
PVID
1
Acceptable Frame Type
All
Ingress Filtering
Disabled
Switchport Mode (Egress Mode)
Hybrid: tagged/untagged frames
GVRP (global)
Disabled
GVRP (port interface)
Disabled
Ingress Port Priority
0
Weighted Round Robin
Queue: 0 1 2 3
Weight: 1 2 4 6
IP Precedence Priority
Disabled
IP DSCP Priority
Disabled
IP Port Priority
Disabled
IP Address
0.0.0.0
Subnet Mask
255.0.0.0
Default Gateway
0.0.0.0
DHCP
Client: Enabled
Traffic Prioritization
IP Settings
Multicast Filtering
1-6
BOOTP
Disabled
IGMP Snooping
Snooping: Enabled
Querier: Enabled
System Defaults
1
Table 1-2 System Defaults (Continued)
Function
Parameter
Default
System Log
Status
Enabled
Messages Logged
Levels 0-7 (all)
Messages Logged to Flash
Levels 0-6
SMTP Email Alerts
Event Handler
Enabled (but no server defined)
SNTP
Clock Synchronization
Disabled
1-7
1
1-8
Introduction
Chapter 2: Initial Configuration
Connecting to the Switch
Configuration Options
The switch includes a built-in network management agent. The agent offers a variety
of management options, including SNMP, RMON and a Web-based interface. A PC
may also be connected directly to the switch for configuration and monitoring via a
command line interface (CLI).
Note: The IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default. To change this
address, see “Setting an IP Address” on page 2-4.
The switch’s HTTP Web agent allows you to configure switch parameters, monitor
port connections, and display statistics using a standard Web browser such as
Netscape Navigator version 6.2 and higher or Microsoft IE version 5.0 and higher.
The switch’s Web management interface can be accessed from any computer
attached to the network.
The CLI program can be accessed by a direct connection to the RS-232 serial
console port on the switch, or remotely by a Telnet connection over the network.
The switch’s management agent also supports SNMP (Simple Network
Management Protocol). This SNMP agent permits the switch to be managed from
any system in the network using network management software such as
HP OpenView.
The switch’s Web interface, CLI configuration program, and SNMP agent allow you
to perform the following management functions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Set user names and passwords for up to 16 users
Set an IP interface for a management VLAN
Configure SNMP parameters
Enable/disable any port
Set the speed/duplex mode for any port
Configure the bandwidth of any port by limiting input or output rates
Control port access through IEEE 802.1X security or static address filtering
Filter packets using Access Control Lists (ACLs)
Configure up to 255 IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
Enable GVRP automatic VLAN registration
Configure IGMP multicast filtering
Upload and download system firmware via TFTP
Upload and download switch configuration files via TFTP
Configure Spanning Tree parameters
Configure Class of Service (CoS) priority queuing
2-1
2
•
•
•
•
Initial Configuration
Configure up to 4 static or LACP trunks
Enable port mirroring
Set broadcast storm control on any port
Display system information and statistics
Required Connections
The switch provides an RS-232 serial port that enables a connection to a PC or
terminal for monitoring and configuring the switch. A null-modem console cable is
provided with the switch.
Attach a VT100-compatible terminal, or a PC running a terminal emulation program
to the switch. You can use the console cable provided with this package, or use a
null-modem cable that complies with the wiring assignments shown in the
Installation Guide.
To connect a terminal to the console port, complete the following steps:
1.
Connect the console cable to the serial port on a terminal, or a PC running
terminal emulation software, and tighten the captive retaining screws on the
DB-9 connector.
2.
Connect the other end of the cable to the RS-232 serial port on the switch.
3.
Make sure the terminal emulation software is set as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Select the appropriate serial port (COM port 1 or COM port 2).
Set the baud rate to 9600 bps.
Set the data format to 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, and no parity.
Set flow control to none.
Set the emulation mode to VT100.
When using HyperTerminal, select Terminal keys, not Windows keys.
Notes: 1. When using HyperTerminal with Microsoft® Windows® 2000, make sure that
you have Windows 2000 Service Pack 2 or later installed. Windows 2000
Service Pack 2 fixes the problem of arrow keys not functioning in
HyperTerminal’s VT100 emulation. See www.microsoft.com for information
on Windows 2000 service packs.
2. Refer to “Line Commands” on page 4-11 for a complete description of
console configuration options.
3. Once you have set up the terminal correctly, the console login screen will be
displayed.
For a description of how to use the CLI, see “Using the Command Line Interface” on
page 4-1. For a list of all the CLI commands and detailed information on using the
CLI, refer to “Command Groups” on page 4-9.
2-2
2
Basic Configuration
Remote Connections
Prior to accessing the switch’s onboard agent via a network connection, you must
first configure it with a valid IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway using a
console connection, DHCP or BOOTP protocol.
The IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default. To manually
configure this address or enable dynamic address assignment via DHCP or BOOTP,
see “Setting an IP Address” on page 2-4.
Note: This switch supports four concurrent Telnet/SSH sessions.
After configuring the switch’s IP parameters, you can access the onboard
configuration program from anywhere within the attached network. The onboard
configuration program can be accessed using Telnet from any computer attached to
the network. The switch can also be managed by any computer using a web
browser (Internet Explorer 5.0 or above, or Netscape Navigator 6.2 or above), or
from a network computer using SNMP network management software.
Note: The onboard program only provides access to basic configuration functions. To
access the full range of SNMP management functions, you must use
SNMP-based network management software.
Basic Configuration
Console Connection
The CLI program provides two different command levels — normal access level
(Normal Exec) and privileged access level (Privileged Exec). The commands
available at the Normal Exec level are a limited subset of those available at the
Privileged Exec level and allow you to only display information and use basic
utilities. To fully configure the switch parameters, you must access the CLI at the
Privileged Exec level.
Access to both CLI levels are controlled by user names and passwords. The switch
has a default user name and password for each level. To log into the CLI at the
Privileged Exec level using the default user name and password, perform these
steps:
1.
To initiate your console connection, press <Enter>. The “User Access
Verification” procedure starts.
2.
At the Username prompt, enter “admin.”
3.
At the Password prompt, also enter “admin.” (The password characters are not
displayed on the console screen.)
4.
The session is opened and the CLI displays the “Console#” prompt indicating
you have access at the Privileged Exec level.
2-3
2
Initial Configuration
Setting Passwords
Note: If this is your first time to log into the CLI program, you should define new
passwords for both default user names using the “username” command, record
them and put them in a safe place.
Passwords can consist of up to 8 alphanumeric characters and are case sensitive.
To prevent unauthorized access to the switch, set the passwords as follows:
1.
Open the console interface with the default user name and password “admin” to
access the Privileged Exec level.
2.
Type “configure” and press <Enter>.
3.
Type “username guest password 0 password,” for the Normal Exec level, where
password is your new password. Press <Enter>.
4.
Type “username admin password 0 password,” for the Privileged Exec level,
where password is your new password. Press <Enter>.
Note: ‘0’ specifies the password in plain text, ‘7’ specifies the password in encrypted
form.
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the Standalone Intelligent Switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#configure
Console(config)#username guest password 0 [password]
Console(config)#username admin password 0 [password]
Console(config)#
Setting an IP Address
You must establish IP address information for the switch to obtain management
access through the network. This can be done in either of the following ways:
Manual — You have to input the information, including IP address and subnet mask.
If your management station is not in the same IP subnet as the switch, you will also
need to specify the default gateway router.
Dynamic — The switch sends IP configuration requests to BOOTP or DHCP
address allocation servers on the network.
Manual Configuration
You can manually assign an IP address to the switch. You may also need to specify
a default gateway that resides between this device and management stations that
exist on another network segment. Valid IP addresses consist of four decimal
numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. Anything outside this format will not be
accepted by the CLI program.
Note: The IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default.
2-4
Basic Configuration
2
Before you can assign an IP address to the switch, you must obtain the following
information from your network administrator:
• IP address for the switch
• Default gateway for the network
• Network mask for this network
To assign an IP address to the switch, complete the following steps:
1.
From the Privileged Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type
“interface vlan 1” to access the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
2.
Type “ip address ip-address netmask,” where “ip-address” is the switch IP
address and “netmask” is the network mask for the network. Press <Enter>.
3.
Type “exit” to return to the global configuration mode prompt. Press <Enter>.
4.
To set the IP address of the default gateway for the network to which the switch
belongs, type “ip default-gateway gateway,” where “gateway” is the IP address
of the default gateway. Press <Enter>.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.5 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 192.168.1.254
Console(config)#
Dynamic Configuration
If you select the “bootp” or “dhcp” option, IP will be enabled but will not function until
a BOOTP or DHCP reply has been received. You therefore need to use the “ip dhcp
restart” command to start broadcasting service requests. Requests will be sent
periodically in an effort to obtain IP configuration information. (BOOTP and DHCP
values can include the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.)
If the “bootp” or “dhcp” option is saved to the startup-config file (step 6), then the
switch will start broadcasting service requests as soon as it is powered on.
To automatically configure the switch by communicating with BOOTP or DHCP
address allocation servers on the network, complete the following steps:
1.
From the Global Configuration mode prompt, type “interface vlan 1” to access
the interface-configuration mode. Press <Enter>.
2.
At the interface-configuration mode prompt, use one of the following commands:
• To obtain IP settings via DHCP, type “ip address dhcp” and press <Enter>.
• To obtain IP settings via BOOTP, type “ip address bootp” and press <Enter>.
3.
Type “end” to return to the Privileged Exec mode. Press <Enter>.
4.
Type “ip dhcp restart” to begin broadcasting service requests. Press <Enter>.
2-5
2
Initial Configuration
5.
Wait a few minutes, and then check the IP configuration settings by typing the
“show ip interface” command. Press <Enter>.
6.
Then save your configuration changes by typing “copy running-config
startup-config.” Enter the startup file name and press <Enter>.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#ip dhcp restart
Console#show ip interface
IP address and netmask: 192.168.1.54 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
and address mode: User specified.
Console#copy running-config startup-config
Startup configuration file name []: startup
\Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Enabling SNMP Management Access
The switch can be configured to accept management commands from Simple
Network Management Protocol (SNMP) applications such as HP OpenView. You
can configure the switch to (1) respond to SNMP requests or (2) generate SNMP
traps.
When SNMP management stations send requests to the switch (either to return
information or to set a parameter), the switch provides the requested data or sets the
specified parameter. The switch can also be configured to send information to
SNMP managers (without being requested by the managers) through trap
messages, which inform the manager that certain events have occurred.
The switch includes an SNMP agent that supports SNMP version 1, 2c, and 3
clients. To provide management access for version 1 or 2c clients, you must specify
a community string. The switch provides a default MIB View (i.e., an SNMPv3
construct) for the default “public” community string that provides read access to the
entire MIB tree, and a default view for the “private” community string that provides
read/write access to the entire MIB tree. However, you may assign new views to
version 1 or 2c community strings that suit your specific security requirements (see
“Setting SNMPv3 Views” on page 3-53).
Community Strings (for SNMP version 1 and 2c clients)
Community strings are used to control management access to SNMP version 1 and
2c stations, as well as to authorize SNMP stations to receive trap messages from
the switch. You therefore need to assign community strings to specified users, and
set the access level.
2-6
Basic Configuration
2
The default strings are:
• public - with read-only access. Authorized management stations are only able to
retrieve MIB objects.
• private - with read-write access. Authorized management stations are able to both
retrieve and modify MIB objects.
To prevent unauthorized access to the switch from SNMP version 1 or 2c clients, it is
recommended that you change the default community strings.
To configure a community string, complete the following steps:
1.
From the Privileged Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type
“snmp-server community string mode,” where “string” is the community access
string and “mode” is rw (read/write) or ro (read only). Press <Enter>. (Note that
the default mode is read only.)
2.
To remove an existing string, simply type “no snmp-server community string,”
where “string” is the community access string to remove. Press <Enter>.
Console(config)#snmp-server community admin rw
Console(config)#snmp-server community private
Console(config)#
4-118
Note: If you do not intend to support access to SNMP version 1 and 2c clients, we
recommend that you delete both of the default community strings. If there are no
community strings, then SNMP management access from SNMP v1 and v2c
clients is disabled.
Trap Receivers
You can also specify SNMP stations that are to receive traps from the switch. To
configure a trap receiver, use the “snmp-server host” command. From the Privileged
Exec level global configuration mode prompt, type:
“snmp-server host host-address community-string
[version {1 | 2c | 3 {auth | noauth | priv}}]”
where “host-address” is the IP address for the trap receiver, “community-string”
specifies access rights for a version 1/2c host, or is the user name of a version 3
host, “version” indicates the SNMP client version, and “auth | noauth | priv” means
that authentication, no authentication, or authentication and privacy is used for v3
clients. Then press <Enter>. For a more detailed description of these parameters,
see “snmp-server host” on page 4-120. The following example creates a trap host
for each type of SNMP client.
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.23 batman
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.98 robin version 2c
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.34 barbie version 3 auth
Console(config)#
4-120
2-7
2
Initial Configuration
Configuring Access for SNMP Version 3 Clients
To configure management access for SNMPv3 clients, you need to first create a
view that defines the portions of MIB that the client can read or write, assign the view
to a group, and then assign the user to a group. The following example creates one
view called “mib-2” that includes the entire MIB-2 tree branch, and then another view
that includes the IEEE 802.1d bridge MIB. It assigns these respective read and read/
write views to a group call “r&d” and specifies group authentication via MD5 or SHA.
In the last step, it assigns a v3 user to this group, indicating that MD5 will be used for
authentication, provides the password “greenpeace” for authentication, and the
password “einstien” for encryption.
Console(config)#snmp-server view mib-2 1.3.6.1.2.1 included
Console(config)#snmp-server view 802.1d 1.3.6.1.2.1.17 included
Console(config)#snmp-server group r&d v3 auth mib-2 802.1d
Console(config)#snmp-server user steve group r&d v3 auth md5
greenpeace priv des56 einstien
Console(config)#
4-125
4-126
4-128
For a more detailed explanation on how to configure the switch for access from
SNMP v3 clients, refer to “Simple Network Management Protocol” on page 3-38, or
refer to the specific CLI commands for SNMP starting on page 4-116.
Saving Configuration Settings
Configuration commands only modify the running configuration file and are not
saved when the switch is rebooted. To save all your configuration changes in
nonvolatile storage, you must copy the running configuration file to the start-up
configuration file using the “copy” command.
To save the current configuration settings, enter the following command:
1.
From the Privileged Exec mode prompt, type “copy running-config
startup-config” and press <Enter>.
2.
Enter the name of the start-up file. Press <Enter>.
Console#copy running-config startup-config
Startup configuration file name []: startup
\Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
2-8
Managing System Files
2
Managing System Files
The switch’s flash memory supports three types of system files that can be managed
by the CLI program, Web interface, or SNMP. The switch’s file system allows files to
be uploaded and downloaded, copied, deleted, and set as a start-up file.
The three types of files are:
• Configuration — This file stores system configuration information and is created
when configuration settings are saved. Saved configuration files can be selected
as a system start-up file or can be uploaded via TFTP to a server for backup. A file
named “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” contains all the system default settings and
cannot be deleted from the system. See “Saving or Restoring Configuration
Settings” on page 3-22 for more information.
• Operation Code — System software that is executed after boot-up, also known as
run-time code. This code runs the switch operations and provides the CLI and Web
management interfaces. See “Managing Firmware” on page 3-19 for more
information.
• Diagnostic Code — Software that is run during system boot-up, also known as
POST (Power On Self-Test).
Due to the size limit of the flash memory, the switch supports only two operation
code files. However, you can have as many diagnostic code files and configuration
files as available flash memory space allows.
In the system flash memory, one file of each type must be set as the start-up file.
During a system boot, the diagnostic and operation code files set as the start-up file
are run, and then the start-up configuration file is loaded.
Note that configuration files should be downloaded using a file name that reflects the
contents or usage of the file settings. If you download directly to the running-config,
the system will reboot, and the settings will have to be copied from the
running-config to a permanent file.
2-9
2
2-10
Initial Configuration
Chapter 3: Configuring the Switch
Using the Web Interface
This switch provides an embedded HTTP Web agent. Using a Web browser you can
configure the switch and view statistics to monitor network activity. The Web agent
can be accessed by any computer on the network using a standard Web browser
(Internet Explorer 5.0 or above, or Netscape Navigator 6.2 or above).
Note: You can also use the Command Line Interface (CLI) to manage the switch over a
serial connection to the console port or via Telnet. For more information on using
the CLI, refer to Chapter 4: “Command Line Interface.”
Prior to accessing the switch from a Web browser, be sure you have first performed
the following tasks:
1. Configure the switch with a valid IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway
using an out-of-band serial connection, BOOTP or DHCP protocol. (See
“Setting an IP Address” on page 2-4.)
2.
Set user names and passwords using an out-of-band serial connection. Access
to the Web agent is controlled by the same user names and passwords as the
onboard configuration program. (See “Setting Passwords” on page 2-4.)
3.
After you enter a user name and password, you will have access to the system
configuration program.
Notes: 1. You are allowed three attempts to enter the correct password; on the third
failed attempt the current connection is terminated.
2. If you log into the Web interface as guest (Normal Exec level), you can view
the configuration settings or change the guest password. If you log in as
“admin” (Privileged Exec level), you can change the settings on any page.
3. If the path between your management station and this switch does not pass
through any device that uses the Spanning Tree Algorithm, then you can set
the switch port attached to your management station to fast forwarding (i.e.,
enable Admin Edge Port) to improve the switch’s response time to
management commands issued through the web interface. See “Configuring
Interface Settings” on page 3-130.
3-1
3
Configuring the Switch
Navigating the Web Browser Interface
To access the web-browser interface you must first enter a user name and
password. The administrator has Read/Write access to all configuration parameters
and statistics. The default user name and password for the administrator is “admin.”
Home Page
When your web browser connects with the switch’s web agent, the home page is
displayed as shown below. The home page displays the Main Menu on the left side
of the screen and System Information on the right side. The Main Menu links are
used to navigate to other menus, and display configuration parameters and
statistics.
Figure 3-1 Home Page
Note: Most of the examples in this chapter are based on the ES3526XA. Other than the
number of fixed ports, there are no major differences between the ES3526XA and
ES3552XA.
3-2
Panel Display
3
Configuration Options
Configurable parameters have a dialog box or a drop-down list. Once a configuration
change has been made on a page, be sure to click on the Apply button to confirm
the new setting. The following table summarizes the web page configuration
buttons.
Table 3-1 Configuration Options
Button
Action.
Revert
Cancels specified values and restores current values prior to pressing Apply.
Apply
Sets specified values to the system.
Help
Links directly to webhelp.
Notes: 1. To ensure proper screen refresh, be sure that Internet Explorer 5.x is
configured as follows: Under the menu “Tools / Internet Options / General /
Temporary Internet Files / Settings,” the setting for item “Check for newer
versions of stored pages” should be “Every visit to the page.”
2. When using Internet Explorer 5.0, you may have to manually refresh the
screen after making configuration changes by pressing the browser’s refresh
button.
Panel Display
The web agent displays an image of the switch’s ports. The Mode can be set to
display different information for the ports, including Active (i.e., up or down), Duplex
(i.e., half or full duplex, or Flow Control (i.e., with or without flow control). Clicking on
the image of a port opens the Port Configuration page as described on page 3-91.
Figure 3-2 Panel Display
3-3
3
Configuring the Switch
Main Menu
Using the onboard web agent, you can define system parameters, manage and
control the switch, and all its ports, or monitor network conditions. The following
table briefly describes the selections available from this program.
Table 3-2 Main Menu
Menu
Description
System
Page
3-10
System Information
Provides basic system description, including contact information
3-10
Switch Information
Shows the number of ports, hardware/firmware version
numbers, and power status
3-11
Bridge Extension
Shows the bridge extension parameters
3-13
IP Configuration
Sets the IP address for management access
3-14
File
3-19
Copy
Allows the transfer and copying files
3-19
Delete
Allows deletion of files from the flash memory
3-20
Set Startup
Sets the startup file
3-20
Line
3-24
Console
Sets console port connection parameters
3-24
Telnet
Sets Telnet connection parameters.
3-26
Log
3-28
Logs
Stores and displays error messages
3-28
System Logs
Sends error messages to a logging process
3-28
Remote Logs
Configures the logging of messages to a remote logging process
3-30
SMTP Logs
Sends an SMTP client message to a participating server
3-32
Restarts the switch
3-34
Reset
SNTP
3-35
Configuration
Configures SNTP client settings, including broadcast mode or a
specified list of servers
3-35
Clock Time Zone
Sets the local time zone for the system clock
3-38
SNMP
Configuration
3-38
Configures community strings and related trap functions
Security
3-40
3-54
User Accounts
Assigns a new password for the current user
3-54
Authentication Settings
Configures authentication sequence, RADIUS and TACACS
3-56
HTTPS Settings
Configures secure HTTP settings
3-59
3-4
Main Menu
3
Table 3-2 Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
SSH
Host-Key Settings
Settings
Port Security
802.1X
Page
3-61
Generates the host key pair (public and private)
3-63
Configures Secure Shell server settings
3-65
Configures per port security, including status, response for
security breach, and maximum allowed MAC addresses
3-66
Port authentication
3-68
Information
Displays global configuration settings
3-70
Configuration
Configures the global configuration setting
3-70
Port Configuration
Sets parameters for individual ports
3-70
Statistics
Displays protocol statistics for the selected port
3-73
Network Access
MAC address authentication
3-74
Configuration
Sets the reauthentication time
3-75
Port Configuration
Configures MAC authentication and dynamic VLAN assignment
on port interfaces
3-76
MAC Address Information
Displays information in the secure MAC address table
3-77
MAC Filter Configuration
Configures MAC address filters
3-79
ACL
3-82
Configuration
Configures packet filtering based on IP or MAC addresses
3-82
Port Binding
Binds a port to the specified ACL
3-88
Sets IP addresses of clients allowed management access via
the Web, SNMP, and Telnet
3-80
IP Filter
Port
3-89
Port Information
Displays port connection status
Trunk Information
Displays trunk connection status
3-89
Port Configuration
Configures port connection settings
3-91
Trunk Configuration
Configures trunk connection settings
3-91
Trunk Membership
Specifies ports to group into static trunks
3-94
Allows ports to dynamically join trunks
3-95
LACP
Configuration
3-89
3-93
Aggregation Port
Configures parameters for link aggregation group members
3-97
Port Counters
Displays statistics for LACP protocol messages
3-99
Port Internal Information
Displays settings and operational state for the local side
Port Neighbors Information Displays settings and operational state for the remote side
Port Broadcast Control
Sets the broadcast storm threshold for each port
3-101
3-103
3-105
3-5
3
Configuring the Switch
Table 3-2 Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
Trunk Broadcast Control
Sets the broadcast storm threshold for each trunk
3-105
Mirror Port Configuration
Sets the source and target ports for mirroring
3-106
Granularity
Enables or disables the rate limit feature
3-107
Input Port Configuration
Sets the input rate limit for each port
3-108
Input Trunk Configuration
Sets the input rate limit for each trunk
3-108
Output Port Configuration
Sets the output rate limit for each port
Rate Limit
3-107
Output Trunk Configuration Sets the output rate limit for each trunk
Port Statistics
3-108
3-108
Lists Ethernet and RMON port statistics
3-109
Static Addresses
Displays entries for interface, address or VLAN
3-114
Dynamic Addresses
Displays or edits static entries in the Address Table
3-115
Address Aging
Sets timeout for dynamically learned entries
3-117
Address Table
3-114
Spanning Tree
3-117
STA
Information
Displays STA values used for the bridge
3-119
Configuration
Configures global bridge settings for STA and RSTP
3-123
Port Information
Displays individual port settings for STA
3-127
Trunk Information
Displays individual trunk settings for STA
3-127
Port Configuration
Configures individual port settings for STA
3-130
Trunk Configuration
Configures individual trunk settings for STA
3-130
VLAN
3-139
802.1Q VLAN
GVRP Status
Enables GVRP VLAN registration protocol
3-142
Basic Information
Displays information on the VLAN type supported by this switch
3-142
Current Table
Shows the current port members of each VLAN and whether or
not the port is tagged or untagged
3-143
Static List
Used to create or remove VLAN groups
3-145
Static Table
Modifies the settings for an existing VLAN
3-147
Static Membership by Port Configures membership type for interfaces, including tagged,
untagged or forbidden
3-6
3-148
Port Configuration
Specifies default PVID and VLAN attributes
3-150
Trunk Configuration
Specifies default trunk VID and VLAN attributes
3-150
Main Menu
3
Table 3-2 Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Private VLAN
Page
3-152
Information
Displays Private VLAN feature information
3-153
Configuration
This page is used to create/remove primary or community
VLANs
3-154
Association
Each community VLAN must be associated with a primary VLAN
3-154
Port Information
Shows VLAN port type, and associated primary or secondary
VLANs
3-155
Port Configuration
Sets the private VLAN interface type, and associates the
interfaces with a private VLAN
3-156
Trunk Information
Shows VLAN port type, and associated primary or secondary
VLANs
3-155
Trunk Configuration
Sets the private VLAN interface type, and associates the
interfaces with a private VLAN
3-156
Default Port Priority
Sets the default priority for each port
3-158
Default Trunk Priority
Sets the default priority for each trunk
3-158
Traffic Classes
Maps IEEE 802.1p priority tags to output queues
3-160
Traffic Classes Status
Enables/disables traffic class priorities (not implemented)
Priority
3-158
NA
Queue Mode
Sets queue mode to strict priority or Weighted Round-Robin
3-162
Queue Scheduling
Configures Weighted Round Robin queueing
3-163
IP Precedence/
DSCP Priority Status
Globally selects IP Precedence or DSCP Priority, or disables
both.
3-164
IP Precedence Priority
Sets IP Type of Service priority, mapping the precedence tag to
a class-of-service value
3-165
IP DSCP Priority
Sets IP Differentiated Services Code Point priority, mapping a
DSCP tag to a class-of-service value
3-166
IP Port Priority Status
Globally enables or disables IP Port Priority
3-165
IP Port Priority
Sets TCP/UDP port priority, defining the socket number and
associated class-of-service value
3-168
ACL CoS Priority
Sets the CoS value and corresponding output queue for packets
matching an ACL rule
3-169
3-7
3
Configuring the Switch
Table 3-2 Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
IGMP Snooping
Page
3-170
IGMP Configuration
Enables multicast filtering; configures parameters for multicast
query
3-171
IGMP Filter Configuration
Enables IGMP filtering and throttling for the switch, creates filter
profile numbers
3-178
IGMP Immediate Leave
Enables the immediate leave function
3-173
Multicast Router
Port Information
Displays the ports that are attached to a neighboring multicast
router for each VLAN ID
3-174
Static Multicast Router Port
Configuration
Assigns ports that are attached to a neighboring multicast router
3-175
IP Multicast Registration
Table
Displays all multicast groups active on this switch, including
multicast IP addresses and VLAN ID
3-176
IGMP Member Port Table
Indicates multicast addresses associated with the selected
VLAN
3-177
IGMP Filter Profile
Configuration
Configures IGMP filter profile controlled groups and access
mode
3-179
IGMP Filter/Throttling Port
Configuration
Assigns IGMP filter profiles to port interfaces and sets throttling
settings
3-181
IGMP Filter/Throttling Trunk
Configuration
Assigns IGMP filter profiles to trunk interfaces and sets throttling
settings
3-181
Configuration
Globally enables MVR, sets the MVR VLAN, adds multicast
stream addresses
3-184
Port Information
Displays MVR interface type, MVR operational and activity
status, and immediate leave status
3-185
Trunk Information
Displays MVR interface type, MVR operational and activity
status, and immediate leave status
3-185
Group IP Information
Displays the ports attached to an MVR multicast stream
3-186
Port Configuration
Configures MVR interface type and immediate leave status
3-187
Trunk Configuration
Configures MVR interface type and immediate leave status
3-187
MVR
Group Member Configuration Statically assigns MVR multicast streams to an interface
3-188
DNS
General Configuration
Enables DNS; configures domain name and domain list; and
specifies IP address of name servers for dynamic lookup
3-189
Static Host Table
Configures static entries for domain name to address mapping
3-192
Cache
Displays cache entries discovered by designated name servers
3-193
Globally enables clustering for the switch
3-194
Cluster
Configuration
3-8
Main Menu
3
Table 3-2 Main Menu (Continued)
Menu
Description
Page
Member Configuration
Adds switch Members to the cluster
3-195
Member Information
Displays cluster Member switch information
3-196
Candidate Information
Displays network Candidate switch information
3-197
3-9
3
Configuring the Switch
Basic Configuration
Displaying System Information
You can easily identify the system by displaying the device name, location and
contact information.
Field Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
System Name – Name assigned to the switch system.
Object ID – MIB II object ID for switch’s network management subsystem.
Location – Specifies the system location.
Contact – Administrator responsible for the system.
System Up Time – Length of time the management agent has been up.
These additional parameters are displayed for the CLI.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
MAC Address – The physical layer address for this switch.
Web server – Shows if management access via HTTP is enabled.
Web server port – Shows the TCP port number used by the web interface.
Web secure server – Shows if management access via HTTPS is enabled.
Web secure server port – Shows the TCP port used by the HTTPS interface.
Telnet server – Shows if management access via Telnet is enabled.
Telnet port – Shows the TCP port used by the Telnet interface.
Jumbo Frame – Shows if jumbo frames are enabled.
POST result – Shows results of the power-on self-test.
Web – Click System, System Information. Specify the system name, location, and
contact information for the system administrator, then click Apply. (This page also
includes a Telnet button that allows access to the Command Line Interface via Telnet.)
Figure 3-3 System Information
3-10
Basic Configuration
3
CLI – Specify the hostname, location and contact information.
Console(config)#hostname R&D 5
4-26
Console(config)#snmp-server location WC 9
4-119
Console(config)#snmp-server contact Ted
4-119
Console(config)#exit
Console#show system
4-67
System description: Layer2+ Fast Ethernet Standalone Switch ES3526XA
System OID string: 1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.74
System information
System Up time:
0 days, 2 hours, 4 minutes, and 7.13 seconds
System Name:
R&D 5
System Location:
WC 9
System Contact
Ted
MAC address
00-30-F1-12-34-56
Web server:
enabled
Web server port:
80
Web secure server:
enabled
Web secure server port: 443
Telnet server:
enabled
Telnet port:
23
Jumbo Frame:
Disabled
POST result
DUMMY Test 1.................PASS
UART LOOP BACK Test..........PASS
DRAM Test....................PASS
Timer Test...................PASS
RTC Initialization...........PASS
Switch Int Loopback test.....PASS
Done All Pass.
Console#
Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions
Use the Switch Information page to display hardware/firmware version numbers for
the main board and management software, as well as the power status of the system.
Field Attributes
Main Board
•
•
•
•
Serial Number – The serial number of the switch.
Number of Ports – Number of built-in ports.
Hardware Version – Hardware version of the main board.
Internal Power Status – Displays the status of the internal power supply.
Management Software
•
•
•
•
Loader Version – Version number of loader code.
Boot-ROM Version – Version of Power-On Self-Test (POST) and boot code.
Operation Code Version – Version number of runtime code.
Role – Shows that this switch is operating as Master or Slave.
Expansion Slot
• Expansion Slot 1/2 – Combination RJ-45/SFP ports.
3-11
3
Configuring the Switch
These additional parameters are displayed for the CLI.
• Unit - This is unit 1.
• Redundant Power Status – Displays the status of the redundant power supply.
Web – Click System, Switch Information.
Figure 3-4 Displaying Switch Information
CLI – Use the following command to display version information.
Console#show version
Unit 1
Serial number:
Service tag:
Hardware version:
Module A type:
Module B type:
Number of ports:
Main power status:
Redundant power status
Agent (master)
Unit ID:
Loader version:
Boot ROM version:
Operation code version:
Console#
3-12
4-68
S542021059
R01A
1000BaseT
1000BaseT
26
up
:not present
1
2.2.1.4
2.3.0.0
2.3.1.16
Basic Configuration
3
Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities
The Bridge MIB includes extensions for managed devices that support Multicast
Filtering, Traffic Classes, and Virtual LANs. You can access these extensions to
display default settings for the key variables.
Field Attributes
• Extended Multicast Filtering Services – This switch does not support the filtering
of individual multicast addresses based on GMRP (GARP Multicast Registration
Protocol).
• Traffic Classes – This switch provides mapping of user priorities to multiple traffic
classes. (Refer to “Class of Service Configuration” on page 3-158.)
• Static Entry Individual Port – This switch allows static filtering for unicast and
multicast addresses. (Refer to “Setting Static Addresses” on page 3-114.)
• VLAN Learning – This switch uses Independent VLAN Learning (IVL), where each
port maintains its own filtering database.
• Configurable PVID Tagging – This switch allows you to override the default Port
VLAN ID (PVID used in frame tags) and egress status (VLAN-Tagged or
Untagged) on each port. (Refer to “VLAN Configuration” on page 3-139.)
• Local VLAN Capable – This switch does not support multiple local bridges outside
of the scope of 802.1Q defined VLANs.
• GMRP – GARP Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP) allows network devices to
register endstations with multicast groups. This switch does not support GMRP; it
uses the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) to provide automatic
multicast filtering.
Web – Click System, Bridge Extension Configuration.
Figure 3-5 Bridge Extension Configuration
3-13
3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – Enter the following command.
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support VLAN numbers:
Max support VLAN ID:
Extended multicast filtering services:
Static entry individual port:
VLAN learning:
Configurable PVID tagging:
Local VLAN capable:
Traffic classes:
Global GVRP status:
GMRP:
Console#
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255
4094
No
Yes
IVL
Yes
No
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Setting the Switch’s IP Address
This section describes how to configure an IP interface for management access
over the network. The IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default. To
manually configure an address, you need to change the switch’s default settings
(IP address 0.0.0.0 and netmask 255.0.0.0) to values that are compatible with your
network. You may also need to a establish a default gateway between the switch
and management stations that exist on another network segment.
You can manually configure a specific IP address, or direct the device to obtain an
address from a BOOTP or DHCP server. Valid IP addresses consist of four decimal
numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. Anything outside this format will not be
accepted by the CLI program.
Command Attributes
• Management VLAN – ID of the configured VLAN (1-4094, no leading zeroes). By
default, all ports on the switch are members of VLAN 1. However, the management
station can be attached to a port belonging to any VLAN, as long as that VLAN has
been assigned an IP address.
• IP Address Mode – Specifies whether IP functionality is enabled via manual
configuration (Static), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), or Boot
Protocol (BOOTP). If DHCP/BOOTP is enabled, IP will not function until a reply has
been received from the server. Requests will be broadcast periodically by the
switch for an IP address. (DHCP/BOOTP values can include the IP address,
subnet mask, and default gateway.)
• IP Address – Address of the VLAN interface that is allowed management access.
Valid IP addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods.
(Default: 0.0.0.0)
• Subnet Mask – This mask identifies the host address bits used for routing to
specific subnets. (Default: 255.0.0.0)
• Gateway IP address – IP address of the gateway router between this device and
management stations that exist on other network segments. (Default: 0.0.0.0)
• MAC Address – The physical layer address for this switch.
• Restart DHCP – Requests a new IP address from the DHCP server.
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3
Basic Configuration
Manual Configuration
Web – Click System, IP Configuration. Select the VLAN through which the
management station is attached, set the IP Address Mode to “Static,” enter the IP
address, subnet mask and gateway, then click Apply.
Figure 3-6 Manual IP Configuration
CLI – Specify the management interface, IP address and default gateway.
Console#config
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 10.1.0.254 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 192.168.1.254
Console(config)#
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3-15
3
Configuring the Switch
Using DHCP/BOOTP
If your network provides DHCP/BOOTP services, you can configure the switch to be
dynamically configured by these services.
Web – Click System, IP Configuration. Specify the VLAN to which the management
station is attached, set the IP Address Mode to DHCP or BOOTP. Click Apply to
save your changes. Then click Restart DHCP to immediately request a new
address. Note that the switch will also broadcast a request for IP configuration
settings on each power reset.
Figure 3-7 IP Configuration using DHCP
Note: If you lose your management connection, use a console connection and enter
“show ip interface” to determine the new switch address.
CLI – Specify the management interface, and set the IP address mode to DHCP or
BOOTP, and then enter the “ip dhcp restart” command.
Console#config
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#ip dhcp restart
Console#show ip interface
IP address and netmask: 192.168.1.54 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
and address mode: dhcp
Console#
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Renewing DCHP – DHCP may lease addresses to clients indefinitely or for a
specific period of time. If the address expires or the switch is moved to another
network segment, you will lose management access to the switch. In this case, you
can reboot the switch or submit a client request to restart DHCP service via the CLI.
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3
Basic Configuration
Web – If the address assigned by DHCP is no longer functioning, you will not be
able to renew the IP settings via the web interface. You can only restart DHCP
service via the web interface if the current address is still available.
CLI – Enter the following command to restart DHCP service.
Console#ip dhcp restart
Console#
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DHCP Relay and Option 82 Information
The switch supports DHCP relay service for attached host devices. If a subnet does
not include a DHCP server, you can relay DHCP client requests to a DHCP server
on another subnet.
When DHCP relay is enabled and the switch sees a DHCP request broadcast, it
inserts its own IP address into the request (so that the DHCP server knows the
subnet of the client), then forwards the packet to the DHCP server. When the server
receives the DHCP request, it allocates a free IP address for the DHCP client from
its defined scope for the DHCP client’s subnet, and sends a DHCP response back to
the switch. The switch then broadcasts the DHCP response to the client.
DHCP also provides a mechanism for sending information about the switch and its
DHCP clients to the DHCP server. Known as DHCP Option 82, it allows compatible
DHCP servers to use the information when assigning IP addresses, or to set other
services or policies for clients.
Using DHCP Relay Option 82, clients can be identified by the VLAN and switch port
to which they are connected rather than just their MAC address. DHCP client-server
exchange messages are then forwarded directly between the server and client
without having to flood them to the entire VLAN.
In some cases, the switch may receive DHCP packets from a client that already
includes DHCP Option 82 information. The switch can be configured to set the
action policy for these packets. Either the switch can discard the Option 82
information, keep the existing information, or replace it with the switch’s relay
information.
Command Usage
You must specify the IP address of at least one DHCP server. Otherwise, the
switch’s DHCP relay agent will not operate and all DHCP request and reply packets
will be flooded to the entire VLAN.
Command Attributes
• DHCP Relay Option 82 – Enables the DHCP relay agant with Option 82 support.
• DHCP Relay Option 82 Policy – Sets the DHCP relay policy for DHCP client
packets that include Option 82 information. (Default: Drop)
• Replace – Overwrites the DHCP client packet information with the switch’s relay
information.
• Keep – Retains the client’s DHCP information.
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3
Configuring the Switch
• Drop – Discards the Option 82 information in a packet and then floods it to the
entire VLAN.
• DHCP Relay Server – IP addresses of DHCP servers to be used by the switch’s
DHCP relay agent in order of preference. Up to five servers can be specified.
Web – Click System, IP Configuration. Enable the DHCP Relay Option 82 function,
set the Option 82 policy, and specify at least one DHCP server IP address. Click
Apply.
Figure 3-8 DHCP Relay Option 82 Configuration
CLI – This example enables DHCP relay with Option 82, and sets the policy as
replace.
Console(config)#ip dhcp relay server 192.168.1.9 192.168.1.54
Console(config)#ip dhcp relay information option
Console(config)#ip dhcp relay information policy replace
Console(config)#exit
Console#show ip dhcp-relay
Status of DHCP relay option82:
Insertion of option82 is Enabled.
DHCP option policy :replace.
DHCP relay-server address 192.168.1.9 192.168.1.54 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Console#
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Basic Configuration
3
Managing Firmware
You can upload/download firmware to or from a TFTP server. By saving runtime
code to a file on a TFTP server, that file can later be downloaded to the switch to
restore operation. You can also set the switch to use new firmware without
overwriting the previous version. You must specify the method of file transfer, along
with the file type and file names as required.
Command Attributes
• File Transfer Method – The firmware copy operation includes these options:
- file to file – Copies a file within the switch directory, assigning it a new name.
- file to tftp – Copies a file from the switch to a TFTP server.
- tftp to file – Copies a file from a TFTP server to the switch.
- file to unit1 – Copies a file from this switch to another unit in the stack.
- unit to file1 – Copies a file from another unit in the stack to this switch.
• TFTP Server IP Address – The IP address of a TFTP server.
• File Type – Specify opcode (operational code) to copy firmware.
• File Name – The file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the leading letter of
the file name should not be a period (.), and the maximum length for file names on
the TFTP server is 127 characters or 31 characters for files on the switch.
(Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
Note: Up to two copies of the system software (i.e., the runtime firmware) can be stored
in the file directory on the switch. The currently designated startup version of this
file cannot be deleted.
1. These operations are not supported for this switch.
3-19
3
Configuring the Switch
Downloading System Software from a Server
When downloading runtime code, you can specify the destination file name to
replace the current image, or first download the file using a different name from the
current runtime code file, and then set the new file as the startup file.
Web –Click System, File Management, Copy Operation. Select “tftp to file” as the file
transfer method, enter the IP address of the TFTP server, set the file type to
“opcode,” enter the file name of the software to download, select a file on the switch
to overwrite or specify a new file name, then click Apply. If you replaced the current
firmware used for startup and want to start using the new operation code, reboot the
system via the System/Reset menu.
Figure 3-9 Operation Code Image File Transfer
If you download to a new destination file, go to the System/File/Set Start-Up menu,
mark the operation code file used at startup, and click Apply. To start the new
firmware, reboot the system via the System/Reset menu.
Figure 3-10 Select Start-Up Operation File
3-20
Basic Configuration
3
To delete a file select System, File, Delete. Select the file name from the given list by
checking the tick box and click Apply. Note that the file currently designated as the
startup code cannot be deleted.
Figure 3-11 Deleting Files
CLI – To download new firmware form a TFTP server, enter the IP address of the
TFTP server, select “opcode” as the file type, then enter the source and destination
file names. When the file has finished downloading, set the new file to start up the
system, and then restart the switch.
To start the new firmware, enter the “reload” command or reboot the system.
Console#copy tftp file
TFTP server ip address: 192.168.1.23
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: <1-2>: 2
Source file name: V2262.bix
Destination file name: ES3552XA_Opcpde_V2262.bix
\Write to FLASH Programming.
-Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#config
Console(config)#boot system opcode:ES3552XA_Opcpde_V2262.bix
Console(config)#exit
Console#reload
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3-21
3
Configuring the Switch
Saving or Restoring Configuration Settings
You can upload/download configuration settings to/from a TFTP server. The
configuration files can be later downloaded to restore the switch’s settings.
Command Attributes
• File Transfer Method – The configuration copy operation includes these options:
- file to file – Copies a file within the switch directory, assigning it a new name.
- file to running-config – Copies a file in the switch to the running configuration.
- file to startup-config – Copies a file in the switch to the startup configuration.
- file to tftp – Copies a file from the switch to a TFTP server.
- running-config to file – Copies the running configuration to a file.
- running-config to startup-config – Copies the running config to the startup config.
- running-config to tftp – Copies the running configuration to a TFTP server.
- startup-config to file – Copies the startup configuration to a file on the switch.
- startup-config to running-config – Copies the startup config to the running config.
- startup-config to tftp – Copies the startup configuration to a TFTP server.
- tftp to file – Copies a file from a TFTP server to the switch.
- tftp to running-config – Copies a file from a TFTP server to the running config.
- tftp to startup-config – Copies a file from a TFTP server to the startup config.
- file to unit2 – Copies a file from this switch to another unit in the stack.
- unit to file2 – Copies a file from another unit in the stack to this switch.
• TFTP Server IP Address – The IP address of a TFTP server.
• File Type – Specify config (configuration) to copy configuration settings.
• File Name — The file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the leading letter of
the file name should not be a period (.), and the maximum length for file names on
the TFTP server is 127 characters or 31 characters for files on the switch. (Valid
characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
Note: The maximum number of user-defined configuration files is limited only by
available flash memory space.
2. These operations are not supported for this switch.
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3
Basic Configuration
Downloading Configuration Settings from a Server
You can download the configuration file under a new file name and then set it as the
startup file, or you can specify the current startup configuration file as the destination
file to directly replace it. Note that the file “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” can be
copied to the TFTP server, but cannot be used as the destination on the switch.
Web – Click System, File, Copy. Select “tftp to startup-config” or “tftp to file” and
enter the IP address of the TFTP server. Specify the name of the file to download
and select a file on the switch to overwrite or specify a new file name, then click
Apply.
Figure 3-12 Copy Configuration Settings
If you download to a new file name using “tftp to startup-config” or “tftp to file,” the file
is automatically set as the start-up configuration file. To use the new settings, reboot
the system via the System/Reset menu.
Note that you can also select any configuration file as the start-up configuration by
using the System/File/Set Start-Up page.
Figure 3-13 Setting the Startup Configuration Settings
3-23
3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – Enter the IP address of the TFTP server, specify the source file on the server,
set the startup file name on the switch, and then restart the switch.
Console#copy tftp startup-config
TFTP server ip address: 192.168.1.19
Source configuration file name: config-1
Startup configuration file name [] : startup
\Write to FLASH Programming.
-Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
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Console#reload
To select another configuration file as the start-up configuration, use the boot
system command and then restart the switch.
Console#config
Console(config)#boot system config: startup-new
Console(config)#exit
Console#reload
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Console Port Settings
You can access the onboard configuration program by attaching a VT100
compatible device to the switch’s serial console port. Management access through
the console port is controlled by various parameters, including a password, timeouts,
and basic communication settings. These parameters can be configured via the
Web or CLI interface.
Command Attributes
• Login Timeout – Sets the interval that the system waits for a user to log into the
CLI. If a login attempt is not detected within the timeout interval, the connection is
terminated for the session. (Range: 0-300 seconds; Default: 0)
• Exec Timeout – Sets the interval that the system waits until user input is detected.
If user input is not detected within the timeout interval, the current session is
terminated. (Range: 0-65535 seconds; Default: 0 seconds)
• Password Threshold – Sets the password intrusion threshold, which limits the
number of failed logon attempts. When the logon attempt threshold is reached, the
system interface becomes silent for a specified amount of time (set by the Silent
Time parameter) before allowing the next logon attempt.
(Range: 0-120; Default: 3 attempts)
• Silent Time – Sets the amount of time the management console is inaccessible
after the number of unsuccessful logon attempts has been exceeded.
(Range: 0-65535; Default: 0)
• Data Bits – Sets the number of data bits per character that are interpreted and
generated by the console port. If parity is being generated, specify 7 data bits per
character. If no parity is required, specify 8 data bits per character. (Default: 8 bits)
• Parity – Defines the generation of a parity bit. Communication protocols provided
by some terminals can require a specific parity bit setting. Specify Even, Odd, or
None. (Default: None)
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Basic Configuration
3
• Speed – Sets the terminal line’s baud rate for transmit (to terminal) and receive
(from terminal). Set the speed to match the baud rate of the device connected to
the serial port. (Range: 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, or 115200 baud, Auto;
Default: 9600 bps)
• Stop Bits – Sets the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte.
(Range: 1-2; Default: 1 stop bit)
• Password3 – Specifies a password for the line connection. When a connection is
started on a line with password protection, the system prompts for the password.
If you enter the correct password, the system shows a prompt.
(Default: No password)
• Login3 – Enables password checking at login. You can select authentication by a
single global password as configured for the Password parameter, or by
passwords set up for specific user-name accounts. (Default: Local)
Web – Click System, Line, Console. Specify the console port connection parameters
as required, then click Apply.
Figure 3-14 Console Port Settings
3. CLI only.
3-25
3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – Enter Line Configuration mode for the console, then specify the connection
parameters as required. To display the current console port settings, use the show
line command from the Normal Exec level.
Console(config)#line console
Console(config-line)#login local
Console(config-line)#password 0 secret
Console(config-line)#timeout login response 0
Console(config-line)#exec-timeout 0
Console(config-line)#password-thresh 3
Console(config-line)#silent-time 60
Console(config-line)#databits 8
Console(config-line)#parity none
Console(config-line)#speed 115200
Console(config-line)#stopbits 1
Console(config-line)#end
Console#show line
Console configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: Disabled
Login timeout:
Disabled
Silent time:
60
Baudrate:
115200
Databits:
8
Parity:
none
Stopbits:
1
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VTY configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: 600 sec
Login timeout:
300 sec
Console#
Telnet Settings
You can access the onboard configuration program over the network using Telnet
(i.e., a virtual terminal). Management access via Telnet can be enabled/disabled and
other various parameters set, including the TCP port number, timeouts, and a
password. These parameters can be configured via the Web or CLI interface.
Command Attributes
• Telnet Status – Enables or disables Telnet access to the switch.
(Default: Enabled)
• Telnet Port Number – Sets the TCP port number for Telnet on the switch.
(Default: 23)
• Login Timeout – Sets the interval that the system waits for a user to log into the
CLI. If a login attempt is not detected within the timeout interval, the connection is
terminated for the session. (Range: 0-300 seconds; Default: 300 seconds)
• Exec Timeout – Sets the interval that the system waits until user input is detected.
If user input is not detected within the timeout interval, the current session is
terminated. (Range: 0-65535 seconds; Default: 600 seconds)
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Basic Configuration
3
• Password Threshold – Sets the password intrusion threshold, which limits the
number of failed logon attempts. When the logon attempt threshold is reached, the
system interface becomes silent for a specified amount of time (set by the Silent
Time parameter) before allowing the next logon attempt.
(Range: 0-120; Default: 3 attempts)
• Password4 – Specifies a password for the line connection. When a connection is
started on a line with password protection, the system prompts for the password.
If you enter the correct password, the system shows a prompt. (Default: No
password)
• Login4 – Enables password checking at login. You can select authentication by a
single global password as configured for the Password parameter, or by
passwords set up for specific user-name accounts. (Default: Local)
Web – Click System, Line, Telnet. Specify the connection parameters for Telnet
access, then click Apply.
Figure 3-15 Enabling Telnet
4. CLI only.
3-27
3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – Enter Line Configuration mode for a virtual terminal, then specify the
connection parameters as required. To display the current virtual terminal settings,
use the show line command from the Normal Exec level.
Console(config)#line vty
Console(config-line)#login local
Console(config-line)#password 0 secret
Console(config-line)#timeout login response 300
Console(config-line)#exec-timeout 600
Console(config-line)#password-thresh 3
Console(config-line)#end
Console#show line
Console configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: Disabled
Login timeout:
Disabled
Silent time:
Disabled
Baudrate:
9600
Databits:
8
Parity:
none
Stopbits:
1
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VTY configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: 600 sec
Login timeout: 300 sec
Console#
Configuring Event Logging
The switch allows you to control the logging of error messages, including the type of
events that are recorded in switch memory, logging to a remote System Log (syslog)
server, and displays a list of recent event messages.
System Log Configuration
The system allows you to enable or disable event logging, and specify which levels
are logged to RAM or flash memory.
Severe error messages that are logged to flash memory are permanently stored in
the switch to assist in troubleshooting network problems. Up to 4096 log entries can
be stored in the flash memory, with the oldest entries being overwritten first when the
available log memory (256 kilobytes) has been exceeded.
The System Logs page allows you to configure and limit system messages that are
logged to flash or RAM memory. The default is for event levels 0 to 3 to be logged to
flash and levels 0 to 6 to be logged to RAM.
Command Attributes
• System Log Status – Enables/disables the logging of debug or error messages to
the logging process. (Default: Enabled)
• Flash Level – Limits log messages saved to the switch’s permanent flash memory
for all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 3 is specified, all
messages from level 0 to level 3 will be logged to flash. (Range: 0-7, Default: 3)
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Basic Configuration
3
Table 3-3 Logging Levels
Level
Severity Name
Description
7
Debug
Debugging messages
6
Informational
Informational messages only
5
Notice
Normal but significant condition, such as cold start
4
Warning
Warning conditions (e.g., return false, unexpected return)
3
Error
Error conditions (e.g., invalid input, default used)
2
Critical
Critical conditions (e.g., memory allocation, or free memory
error - resource exhausted)
1
Alert
Immediate action needed
0
Emergency
System unusable
* There are only Level 2, 5 and 6 error messages for the current firmware release.
• RAM Level – Limits log messages saved to the switch’s temporary RAM memory
for all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 7 is specified, all
messages from level 0 to level 7 will be logged to RAM. (Range: 0-7, Default: 6)
Note: The Flash Level must be equal to or less than the RAM Level.
Web – Click System, Log, System Logs. Specify System Log Status, then change
the level of messages to be logged to RAM and flash memory, then click Apply.
Figure 3-16 System Logs
CLI – Enable system logging and then specify the level of messages to be logged to
RAM and flash memory. Use the show logging command to display the current
settings.
Console(config)#logging on
Console(config)#logging history ram 0
Console(config)#end
Console#show logging flash
Syslog logging: Enabled
History logging in FLASH: level emergencies
Console#
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3
Configuring the Switch
Remote Log Configuration
The Remote Logs page allows you to configure the logging of messages that are
sent to syslog servers or other management stations. You can also limit the error
messages sent to only those messages below a specified level.
Command Attributes
• Remote Log Status – Enables/disables the logging of debug or error messages
to the remote logging process. (Default: Enabled)
• Logging Facility – Sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages.
There are eight facility types specified by values of 16 to 23. The facility type is
used by the syslog server to dispatch log messages to an appropriate service.
The attribute specifies the facility type tag sent in syslog messages. (See RFC
3164.) This type has no effect on the kind of messages reported by the switch.
However, it may be used by the syslog server to process messages, such as
sorting or storing messages in the corresponding database. (Range: 16-23,
Default: 23)
• Logging Trap – Limits log messages that are sent to the remote syslog server for
all levels up to the specified level. For example, if level 3 is specified, all messages
from level 0 to level 3 will be sent to the remote server. (Range: 0-7, Default: 6)
• Host IP List – Displays the list of remote server IP addresses that receive the
syslog messages. The maximum number of host IP addresses allowed is five.
• Host IP Address – Specifies a new server IP address to add to the Host IP List.
Web – Click System, Log, Remote Logs. To add an IP address to the Host IP List,
type the new IP address in the Host IP Address box, and then click Add. To delete
an IP address, click the entry in the Host IP List, and then click Remove.
Figure 3-17 Remote Logs
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3
Basic Configuration
CLI – Enter the syslog server host IP address, choose the facility type and set the
logging trap.
Console(config)#logging host 192.168.1.15
Console(config)#logging facility 23
Console(config)#logging trap 4
Console(config)#end
Console#show logging trap
Syslog logging:
Enabled
REMOTELOG status:
Enabled
REMOTELOG facility type:
local use 7
REMOTELOG level type:
Warning conditions
REMOTELOG server ip address: 192.168.1.15
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server ip address: 0.0.0.0
Console#
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Displaying Log Messages
The Logs page allows you to scroll through the logged system and event messages.
The switch can store up to 2048 log entries in temporary random access memory
(RAM; i.e., memory flushed on power reset) and up to 4096 entries in permanent
flash memory.
Web – Click System, Log, Logs.
Figure 3-18 Displaying Logs
CLI – This example shows the event message stored in RAM.
Console#show log ram
[1] 00:01:37 2001-01-01
"DHCP request failed - will retry later."
level: 4, module: 9, function: 0, and event no.: 10
[0] 00:00:35 2001-01-01
"System coldStart notification."
level: 6, module: 6, function: 1, and event no.: 1
Console#
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3
Configuring the Switch
Sending Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Alerts
To alert system administrators of problems, the switch can use SMTP (Simple Mail
Transfer Protocol) to send email messages when triggered by logging events of a
specified level. The messages are sent to specified SMTP servers on the network
and can be retrieved using POP or IMAP clients.
Command Attributes
• Admin Status – Enables/disables the SMTP function. (Default: Enabled)
• Email Source Address – Sets the email address used for the “From” field in alert
messages. You may use a symbolic email address that identifies the switch, or the
address of an administrator responsible for the switch.
• Severity – Sets the syslog severity threshold level (see table on page 3-29) used
to trigger alert messages. All events at this level or higher will be sent to the
configured email recipients. For example, using Level 7 will report all events from
level 7 to level 0. (Default: Level 7)
• SMTP Server List – Specifies a list of up to three recipient SMTP servers. The
switch attempts to connect to the other listed servers if the first fails. Use the New
SMTP Server text field and the Add/Remove buttons to configure the list.
• Email Destination Address List – Specifies the email recipients of alert
messages. You can specify up to five recipients. Use the New Email Destination
Address text field and the Add/Remove buttons to configure the list.
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Basic Configuration
3
Web – Click System, Log, SMTP. Enable SMTP, specify a source email address,
and select the minimum severity level. To add an IP address to the SMTP Server
List, type the new IP address in the SMTP Server field and click Add. To delete an IP
address, click the entry in the SMTP Server List and click Remove. Specify up to five
email addresses to receive the alert messages, and click Apply.
Figure 3-19 Enabling and Configuring SMTP Alerts
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Configuring the Switch
CLI – Enter the IP address of at least one SMTP server, set the syslog severity level
to trigger an email message, and specify the switch (source) and up to five recipient
(destination) email addresses. Enable SMTP with the logging sendmail command
to complete the configuration. Use the show logging sendmail command to display
the current SMTP configuration.
Console(config)#logging sendmail host 192.168.1.200
Console(config)#logging sendmail level 4
Console(config)#logging sendmail source-email john@acme.com
Console(config)##logging sendmail destination-email geoff@acme.com
Console(config)#logging sendmail
Console(config)#exit
Console#show logging sendmail
SMTP servers
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.200
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4-53
4-53
SMTP minimum severity level: 4
SMTP destination email addresses
----------------------------------------------1. geoff@acme.com
SMTP source email address:
SMTP status:
Console#
john@acme.com
Enabled
Resetting the System
Web – Click System, Reset to reboot the switch. When prompted, confirm that you
want reset the switch.
Figure 3-20 Resetting the System
CLI – Use the reload command to restart the switch. When prompted, confirm that
you want to reset the switch.
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>? y
Note: When restarting the system, it will always run the Power-On Self-Test.
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Basic Configuration
3
Setting the System Clock
Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) allows the switch to set its internal clock
based on periodic updates from a Network Time Protocol (NTP) server. Maintaining
an accurate time on the switch enables the system log to record meaningful dates
and times for event entries. You can also manually set the clock using the CLI. (See
“calendar set” on page 4-62.) If the clock is not set, the switch will only record the
time from the factory default set at the last bootup.
When the SNTP client is enabled, the switch periodically sends a request for a time
update to a configured time server. You can configure up to three time server IP
addresses. The switch will attempt to poll each server in the configured sequence.
For more robust, secure time updates from trusted servers, the NTP client can be
enabled instead of the SNTP client. Using the NTP client provides more reliable time
updates, since the updates are collected from many NTP servers, then filtered and
selected using an algorithm that determines the most accurate time. The NTP client
also uses authentication and encryption to ensure that updates are received from
authorized servers only.
Note: The SNTP and NTP client cannot be enabled at the same time.
Configuring SNTP
You can configure the switch to send time synchronization requests to time servers.
Command Attributes
• SNTP Client – Configures the switch to operate as an SNTP client. This requires
at least one time server to be specified in the SNTP Server field. (Default: Disabled)
• SNTP Poll Interval – Sets the interval between sending requests for a time update
from a time server. (Range: 16-16384 seconds; Default: 16 seconds)
• SNTP Server – Sets the IP address for up to three time servers. The switch
attempts to update the time from the first server, if this fails it attempts an update
from the next server in the sequence.
Web – Select NTP/SNTP, Configuration. Modify any of the required parameters, and
click Apply.
Figure 3-21 SNTP Configuration
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Configuring the Switch
CLI – This example configures the switch to operate as an SNTP unicast client and
then displays the current time and settings.
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19 137.82.140.80 128.250.36.2
Console(config)#sntp poll 60
Console(config)#sntp client
Console(config)#exit
Console#show sntp
Current time: Jan 6 14:56:05 2004
Poll interval: 60
Current mode: unicast
SNTP status : Enabled
SNTP server 10.1.0.19 137.82.140.80 128.250.36.2
Current server: 128.250.36.2
Console#
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4-54
Configuring NTP
The NTP client allows you to configure up to 50 NTP servers to poll for time updates.
You can also enable authentication to ensure that reliable updates are received from
only authorized NTP servers. The authentication keys and their associated key
number must be centrally managed and manually distributed to NTP servers and
clients. The key numbers and key values must match on both the server and client.
Command Attributes
• NTP Client – Configures the switch to operate as an NTP client. This requires at
least one time server to be specified in the NTP Server list. (Default: Disabled)
• NTP Polling Interval – Sets the interval between sending requests for a time
update from NTP servers. (Range: 16-16384 seconds; Default: 16 seconds)
• NTP Authenticate – Enables authentication for time requests and updates
between the switch and NTP servers. (Default: Disabled)
• NTP Server – Sets the IP address for an NTP server to be polled. The switch
requests an update from all configured servers, then determines the most accurate
time update from the responses received.
• Version – Specifies the NTP version supported by the server. (Range: 1-3;
Default: 3)
• Authenticate Key – Specifies the number of the key in the NTP Authentication Key
List to use for authentication with the configured server. The authentication key
must match the key configured on the NTP server.
• Key Number – A number that specifies a key value in the NTP Authentication Key
List. Up to 255 keys can be configured in the NTP Authentication Key List. Note
that key numbers and values must match on both the server and client. (Range:
1-65535)
• Key Context – Specifies an MD5 authentication key string. The key string can be
up to 32 case-sensitive printable ASCII characters (no spaces).
Web – Select NTP/SNTP, Configuration. Modify any of the required parameters, and
click Apply.
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Basic Configuration
3
Figure 3-22 NTP Client Configuration
CLI – This example configures the switch to operate as an NTP client and then
displays the current settings.
Console(config)#ntp authentication-key 19 md5 thisiskey19
Console(config)#ntp authentication-key 30 md5 ntpkey30
Console(config)#ntp server 192.168.3.20
Console(config)#ntp server 192.168.3.21
Console(config)#ntp server 192.168.4.22 version 2
Console(config)#ntp server 192.168.5.23 version 3 key 19
Console(config)#ntp poll 60
Console(config)#ntp client
Console(config)#ntp authenticate
Console(config)#exit
Console#show ntp
Current time: Jan 1 02:58:58 2001
Poll interval: 60
Current mode: unicast
NTP status : Enabled
NTP Authenticate status : Enabled
Last Update NTP Server: 0.0.0.0
Port: 0
Last Update time: Dec 31 00:00:00 2000 UTC
NTP Server 192.168.3.20 version 3
NTP Server 192.168.3.21 version 3
NTP Server 192.168.4.22 version 2
NTP Server 192.168.5.23 version 3 key 19
NTP Authentication-Key 19 md5 Q33O16Q6338241J022S29Q731K7 7
NTP Authentication-Key 30 md5 D2V8777I51K1132K3552L26R6141O4 7
Console#
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4-59
4-60
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3
Configuring the Switch
Setting the Time Zone
SNTP uses Coordinated Universal Time (or UTC, formerly Greenwich Mean Time,
or GMT) based on the time at the Earth’s prime meridian, zero degrees longitude. To
display a time corresponding to your local time, you must indicate the number of
hours and minutes your time zone is east (before) or west (after) of UTC.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
Current Time – Displays the current time.
Name – Assigns a name to the time zone. (Range: 1-29 characters)
Hours (0-12) – The number of hours before/after UTC.
Minutes (0-59) – The number of minutes before/after UTC.
Direction – Configures the time zone to be before (east) or after (west) UTC.
Web – Select SNTP, Clock Time Zone. Set the offset for your time zone relative to
the UTC, and click Apply.
Figure 3-23 Setting the System Clock
CLI - This example shows how to set the time zone for the system clock.
Console(config)#clock timezone Taiwan hours 6 minute 0 after-UTC
Console(config)#
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Simple Network Management Protocol
SNMP is a communication protocol designed specifically for managing devices on a
network. Equipment commonly managed with SNMP includes switches, routers and
host computers. SNMP is typically used to configure these devices for proper
operation in a network environment, as well as to monitor them to evaluate
performance or detect potential problems.
Managed devices supporting SNMP contain software, which runs locally on the
device and is referred to as an agent. A defined set of variables, known as managed
objects, is maintained by the SNMP agent and used to manage the device. These
objects are defined in a Management Information Base (MIB) that provides a
standard presentation of the information controlled by the agent. SNMP defines both
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Simple Network Management Protocol
the format of the MIB specifications and the protocol used to access this information
over the network.
The switch includes an onboard agent that supports SNMP versions 1, 2c, and 3.
This agent continuously monitors the status of the switch hardware, as well as the
traffic passing through its ports. A network management station can access this
information using software such as HP OpenView. Access to the onboard agent
from clients using SNMP v1 and v2c is controlled by community strings. To
communicate with the switch, the management station must first submit a valid
community string for authentication.
Access to the switch using from clients using SNMPv3 provides additional security
features that cover message integrity, authentication, and encryption; as well as
controlling user access to specific areas of the MIB tree.
The SNMPv3 security structure consists of security models, with each model having
it’s own security levels. There are three security models defined, SNMPv1,
SNMPv2c, and SNMPv3. Users are assigned to “groups” that are defined by a
security model and specified security levels. Each group also has a defined security
access to set of MIB objects for reading and writing, which are known as “views.”
The switch has a default view (all MIB objects) and default groups defined for
security models v1 and v2c. The following table shows the security models and
levels available and the system default settings.
Table 3-4 SNMPv3 Security Models and Levels
Model Level
Read View
Write View Notify View Security
v1
noAuthNoPriv public
(read only)
Group
defaultview
none
none
Community string only
v1
noAuthNoPriv private
(read/write)
defaultview
defaultview none
Community string only
v1
noAuthNoPriv user defined user defined user defined user defined Community string only
v2c
noAuthNoPriv public
(read only)
defaultview
none
none
Community string only
v2c
noAuthNoPriv private
(read/write)
defaultview
defaultview none
Community string only
v2c
noAuthNoPriv user defined user defined user defined user defined Community string only
v3
noAuthNoPriv user defined user defined user defined user defined A user name match only
v3
AuthNoPriv
user defined user defined user defined user defined Provides user
authentication via MD5 or
SHA algorithms
v3
AuthPriv
user defined user defined user defined user defined Provides user
authentication via MD5 or
SHA algorithms and data
privacy using DES 56-bit
encryption
Note: The predefined default groups and view can be deleted from the system. You can
then define customized groups and views for the SNMP clients that require access.
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Configuring the Switch
Enabling the SNMP Agent
Enables SNMPv3 service for all management clients (i.e., versions 1, 2c, 3).
Command Attributes
SNMP Agent Status – Enables SNMP on the switch.
Web – Click SNMP, Agent Status. Enable the SNMP Agent by marking the Enabled
checkbox, and click Apply.
Figure 3-24 Enabling the SNMP Agent
CLI – The following example enables SNMP on the switch.
Console(config)#snmp-server
Console(config)#
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Setting Community Access Strings
You may configure up to five community strings authorized for management access
by clients using SNMP v1 and v2c. All community strings used for IP Trap Managers
should be listed in this table. For security reasons, you should consider removing the
default strings.
Command Attributes
• SNMP Community Capability – The switch supports up to five community strings.
• Current – Displays a list of the community strings currently configured.
• Community String – A community string that acts like a password and permits
access to the SNMP protocol.
Default strings: “public” (read-only access), “private” (read/write access)
Range: 1-32 characters, case sensitive
• Access Mode – Specifies the access rights for the community string:
- Read-Only – Authorized management stations are only able to retrieve MIB
objects.
- Read/Write – Authorized management stations are able to both retrieve and
modify MIB objects.
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Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types
Web – Click SNMP, Configuration. Add new community strings as required, select
the access rights from the Access Mode drop-down list, then click Add.
Figure 3-25 Configuring SNMP Community Strings
CLI – The following example adds the string “spiderman” with read/write access.
Console(config)#snmp-server community spiderman rw
Console(config)#
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Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types
Traps indicating status changes are issued by the switch to specified trap managers.
You must specify trap managers so that key events are reported by this switch to
your management station (using network management platforms such as HP
OpenView). You can specify up to five management stations that will receive
authentication failure messages and other trap messages from the switch.
Command Usage
• If you specify an SNMP Version 3 host, then the “Trap Manager Community String”
is interpreted as an SNMP user name. If you use V3 authentication or encryption
options (authNoPriv or authPriv), the user name must first be defined in the
SNMPv3 Users page (page 3-45). Otherwise, the authentication password and/or
privacy password will not exist, and the switch will not authorize SNMP access for
the host. However, if you specify a V3 host with the no authentication (noAuth)
option, an SNMP user account will be automatically generated, and the switch will
authorize SNMP access for the host.
• Notifications are issued by the switch as trap messages by default. The recipient
of a trap message does not send a response to the switch. Traps are therefore not
as reliable as inform messages, which include a request for acknowledgement of
receipt. Informs can be used to ensure that critical information is received by the
host. However, note that informs consume more system resources because they
must be kept in memory until a response is received. Informs also add to network
traffic. You should consider these effects when deciding whether to issue
notifications as traps or informs.
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3
Configuring the Switch
To send an inform to a SNMPv2c host, complete these steps:
1.Enable the SNMP agent (page 3-54).
2.Enable trap informs as described in the following pages.
3.Create a view with the required notification messages (page 3-53).
4.Create a group that includes the required notify view (page 3-49).
To send an inform to a SNMPv3 host, complete these steps:
1.Enable the SNMP agent (page 3-54).
2.Enable trap informs as described in the following pages.
3.Create a view with the required notification messages (page 3-53).
4.Create a group that includes the required notify view (page 3-49).
5.Specify a remote engine ID where the user resides (page 3-44).
6.Then configure a remote user (page 3-47).
Command Attributes
• Trap Manager Capability – This switch supports up to five trap managers.
• Current – Displays a list of the trap managers currently configured.
• Trap Manager IP Address – IP address of a new management station to receive
notification messages.
• Trap Manager Community String – Specifies a valid community string for the
new trap manager entry. Though you can set this string in the Trap Managers table,
we recommend that you define this string in the SNMP Configuration page (for
Version 1 or 2c clients), or define a corresponding “User Name” in the SNMPv3
Users page (for Version 3 clients). (Range: 1-32 characters, case sensitive)
• Trap UDP Port – Specifies the UDP port number used by the trap manager.
• Trap Version – Indicates if the user is running SNMP v1, v2c, or v3. (Default: v1)
• Trap Security Level – When trap version 3 is selected, you must specify one of
the following security levels. (Default: noAuthNoPriv)
- noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in SNMP
communications.
- AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the data is not
encrypted (only available for the SNMPv3 security model).
- AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and encryption (only
available for the SNMPv3 security model).
• Trap Inform – Notifications are sent as inform messages. Note that this option is
only available for version 2c and 3 hosts. (Default: traps are used)
- Timeout – The number of seconds to wait for an acknowledgment before
resending an inform message. (Range: 0-2147483647 centiseconds;
Default: 1500 centiseconds)
- Retry times – The maximum number of times to resend an inform message if
the recipient does not acknowledge receipt. (Range: 0-255; Default: 3)
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Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
3
• Enable Authentication Traps5 – Issues a notification message to specified IP
trap managers whenever authentication of an SNMP request fails.
(Default: Enabled)
• Enable Link-up and Link-down Traps – Issues a notification message whenever
a port link is established or broken. (Default: Enabled)
Web – Click SNMP, Configuration. Enter the IP address and community string for
each management station that will receive trap messages, specify the UDP port,
SNMP trap version, trap security level (for v3 clients), trap inform settings (for v2c/v3
clients), and then click Add. Select the trap types required using the check boxes for
Authentication and Link-up/down traps, and then click Apply.
Figure 3-26 Configuring SNMP Trap Managers
CLI – This example adds a trap manager and enables authentication traps.
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.23 private version 2c
udp-port 162
Console(config)#snmp-server enable traps authentication
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Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
To configure SNMPv3 management access to the switch, follow these steps:
1. If you want to change the default engine ID, do so before configuring other
SNMP parameters.
2. Specify read and write access views for the switch MIB tree.
3. Configure SNMP user groups with the required security model (i.e., SNMP v1,
5. These are legacy notifications and therefore when used for SNMP Version 3 hosts, they must
be enabled in conjunction with the corresponding entries in the Notification View (page 3-49).
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Configuring the Switch
v2c or v3) and security level (i.e., authentication and privacy).
4. Assign SNMP users to groups, along with their specific authentication and
privacy passwords.
Setting a Local Engine ID
An SNMPv3 engine is an independent SNMP agent that resides on the switch. This
engine protects against message replay, delay, and redirection. The engine ID is
also used in combination with user passwords to generate the security keys for
authenticating and encrypting SNMPv3 packets.
A local engine ID is automatically generated that is unique to the switch. This is
referred to as the default engine ID. If the local engineID is deleted or changed, all
SNMP users will be cleared. You will need to reconfigure all existing users.
A new engine ID can be specified by entering 1 to 26 hexadecimal characters. If less
than 26 characters are specified, trailing zeroes are added to the value. For
example, the value “1234” is equivalent to “1234” followed by 22 zeroes.
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Engine ID. Enter an ID of up to 26 hexadecimal
characters and then click Save.
Figure 3-27 Setting the SNMPv3 Engine ID
CLI – This example sets an SNMPv3 engine ID.
Console(config)#snmp-server engine-id local 12345abcdef
Console(config)#exit
Console#show snmp engine-id
Local SNMP engineID: 8000002a8000000000e8666672
Local SNMP engineBoots: 1
Console#
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Specifying a Remote Engine ID
To send inform messages to an SNMPv3 user on a remote device, you must first
specify the engine identifier for the SNMP agent on the remote device where the
user resides. The remote engine ID is used to compute the security digest for
authenticating and encrypting packets sent to a user on the remote host.
SNMP passwords are localized using the engine ID of the authoritative agent. For
informs, the authoritative SNMP agent is the remote agent. You therefore need to
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Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
3
configure the remote agent’s SNMP engine ID before you can send proxy requests
or informs to it. (See “Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types” on page 3-41 and
“Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users” on page 3-47.)
The engine ID can be specified by entering 1 to 26 hexadecimal characters. If less
than 26 characters are specified, trailing zeroes are added to the value. For
example, the value “1234” is equivalent to “1234” followed by 22 zeroes.
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Remote Engine ID. Enter an ID of up to 26
hexadecimal characters and then click Save.
Figure 3-28 Setting an Engine ID
CLI – This example specifies a remote SNMPv3 engine ID.
Console(config)#snmp-server engineID remote 54321 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#exit
Console#show snmp engine-id
Local SNMP engineID: 8000002a8000000000e8666672
Local SNMP engineBoots: 1
Remote SNMP engineID
80000000030004e2b316c54321
Console#
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IP address
192.168.1.19
Configuring SNMPv3 Users
Each SNMPv3 user is defined by a unique name. Users must be configured with a
specific security level and assigned to a group. The SNMPv3 group restricts users to
a specific read, write, or notify view.
Command Attributes
• User Name – The name of user connecting to the SNMP agent. (Range: 1-32
characters)
• Group Name – The name of the SNMP group to which the user is assigned.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
• Security Model – The user security model; SNMP v1, v2c or v3.
• Security Level – The security level used for the user:
- noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in SNMP
communications. (This is the default for SNMPv3.)
- AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the data is not
encrypted (only available for the SNMPv3 security model).
- AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and encryption (only
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Configuring the Switch
available for the SNMPv3 security model).
• Authentication Protocol – The method used for user authentication. (Options:
MD5, SHA; Default: MD5)
• Authentication Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is required.
• Privacy Protocol – The encryption algorithm use for data privacy; only 56-bit DES
is currently available.
• Privacy Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is required.
• Actions – Enables the user to be assigned to another SNMPv3 group.
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Users. Click New to configure a user name. In the
New User page, define a name and assign it to a group, then click Add to save the
configuration and return to the User Name list. To delete a user, check the box next
to the user name, then click Delete. To change the assigned group of a user, click
Change Group in the Actions column of the users table and select the new group.
Figure 3-29 Configuring SNMPv3 Users
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Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
CLI – Use the snmp-server user command to configure a new user name and
assign it to a group.
Console(config)#snmp-server user chris group r&d v3 auth md5
greenpeace priv des56 einstien
Console(config)#exit
Console#show snmp user
EngineId: 80000034030001f488f5200000
User Name: chris
Authentication Protocol: md5
Privacy Protocol: des56
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
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Console#
Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
Each SNMPv3 user is defined by a unique name. Users must be configured with a
specific security level and assigned to a group. The SNMPv3 group restricts users to
a specific read and a write view.
To send inform messages to an SNMPv3 user on a remote device, you must first
specify the engine identifier for the SNMP agent on the remote device where the
user resides. The remote engine ID is used to compute the security digest for
authenticating and encrypting packets sent to a user on the remote host. (See
“Specifying Trap Managers and Trap Types” on page 3-41 and “Specifying a
Remote Engine ID” on page 3-44.)
Command Attributes
• User Name – The name of user connecting to the SNMP agent. (Range: 1-32
characters)
• Group Name – The name of the SNMP group to which the user is assigned.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
• Engine ID – The engine identifier for the SNMP agent on the remote device where
the remote user resides. Note that the remote engine identifier must be specified
before you configure a remote user. (See “Specifying a Remote Engine ID” on
page 3-44.)
• Remote IP – The Internet address of the remote device where the user resides.
• Security Model – The user security model; SNMP v1, v2c or v3. (Default: v1)
• Security Level – The security level used for the user:
- noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in SNMP
communications. (This is the default for SNMPv3.)
- AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the data is not
encrypted (only available for the SNMPv3 security model).
- AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and encryption (only
available for the SNMPv3 security model).
• Authentication Protocol – The method used for user authentication. (Options:
MD5, SHA; Default: MD5)
• Authentication Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is required.
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Configuring the Switch
• Privacy Protocol – The encryption algorithm use for data privacy; only 56-bit DES
is currently available.
• Privacy Password – A minimum of eight plain text characters is required.
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Remote Users. Click New to configure a user name.
In the New User page, define a name and assign it to a group, then click Add to save
the configuration and return to the User Name list. To delete a user, check the box
next to the user name, then click Delete.
Figure 3-30 Configuring Remote SNMPv3 Users
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Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
CLI – Use the snmp-server user command to configure a new user name and
assign it to a group.
Console(config)#snmp-server user mark group r&d remote 192.168.1.19 v3
auth md5 greenpeace priv des56 einstien
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Console(config)#exit
Console#show snmp user
4-130
No user exist.
SNMP remote user
EngineId: 80000000030004e2b316c54321
User Name: mark
Authentication Protocol: none
Privacy Protocol: none
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
Console#
Configuring SNMPv3 Groups
An SNMPv3 group sets the access policy for its assigned users, restricting them to
specific read, write, and notify views. You can use the pre-defined default groups or
create new groups to map a set of SNMP users to SNMP views.
Command Attributes
• Group Name – The name of the SNMP group. (Range: 1-32 characters)
• Model – The group security model; SNMP v1, v2c or v3.
• Level – The security level used for the group:
- noAuthNoPriv – There is no authentication or encryption used in SNMP
communications.
- AuthNoPriv – SNMP communications use authentication, but the data is not
encrypted (only available for the SNMPv3 security model).
- AuthPriv – SNMP communications use both authentication and encryption (only
available for the SNMPv3 security model).
• Read View – The configured view for read access. (Range: 1-64 characters)
• Write View – The configured view for write access. (Range: 1-64 characters)
• Notify View – The configured view for notifications. (Range: 1-64 characters)
3-49
3
Configuring the Switch
Table 3-5 Supported Notification Messages
Object Label
Object ID
Description
newRoot
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.1
The newRoot trap indicates that the sending
agent has become the new root of the Spanning
Tree; the trap is sent by a bridge soon after its
election as the new root, e.g., upon expiration of
the Topology Change Timer immediately
subsequent to its election.
topologyChange
1.3.6.1.2.1.17.0.2
A topologyChange trap is sent by a bridge when
any of its configured ports transitions from the
Learning state to the Forwarding state, or from
the Forwarding state to the Discarding state. The
trap is not sent if a newRoot trap is sent for the
same transition.
coldStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.1
A coldStart trap signifies that the SNMPv2 entity,
acting in an agent role, is reinitializing itself and
that its configuration may have been altered.
warmStart
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.2
A warmStart trap signifies that the SNMPv2
entity, acting in an agent role, is reinitializing
itself such that its configuration is unaltered.
linkDowna
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.3
A linkDown trap signifies that the SNMP entity,
acting in an agent role, has detected that the
ifOperStatus object for one of its communication
links is about to enter the down state from some
other state (but not from the notPresent state).
This other state is indicated by the included
value of ifOperStatus.
linkUpa
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.4
A linkUp trap signifies that the SNMP entity,
acting in an agent role, has detected that the
ifOperStatus object for one of its communication
links left the down state and transitioned into
some other state (but not into the notPresent
state). This other state is indicated by the
included value of ifOperStatus.
authenticationFailurea
1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.5
An authenticationFailure trap signifies that the
SNMPv2 entity, acting in an agent role, has
received a protocol message that is not properly
authenticated. While all implementations of the
SNMPv2 must be capable of generating this
trap, the snmpEnableAuthenTraps object
indicates whether this trap will be generated.
risingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.1
The SNMP trap that is generated when an alarm
entry crosses its rising threshold and generates
an event that is configured for sending SNMP
traps.
fallingAlarm
1.3.6.1.2.1.16.0.2
The SNMP trap that is generated when an alarm
entry crosses its falling threshold and generates
an event that is configured for sending SNMP
traps.
RFC 1493 Traps
SNMPv2 Traps
RMON Events (V2)
3-50
3
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
Table 3-5 Supported Notification Messages (Continued)
Object Label
Object ID
Description
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.95.2.1.0.1
This trap is sent when the power state changes.
Private Traps swPowerStatus
ChangeTrap
swFanFailureTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.95.2.1.0.17 This trap is sent when the fan fails.
swFanRecoverTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.95.2.1.0.18 This trap is sent when the fan failure has
recovered.
swPortSecurityTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.95.2.1.0.36 This trap is sent when a port is intruded.
swIpFilterRejectTrap
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.95.2.1.0.40 This trap is sent when an incorrect IP address is
rejected by the IP Filter.
swSmtpConnFailure
Trap
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.95.2.1.0.41 This trap is triggered if the SMTP system cannot
open a connection to the mail server
successfully.
swMainBoardVer
MismatchNotificaiton
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.95.2.1.0.56 This trap is sent when the slave board version is
mismatched with the master board version. This
trap binds two objects, the first object indicates
the master version, whereas the second
represents the slave version.
swModuleVer
MismatchNotificaiton
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.95.2.1.0.57 This trap is sent when the slide-in module
version is mismatched with the main board
version.
swThermalRising
Notification
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.95.2.1.0.58 This trap is sent when the temperature exceeds
the switchThermalActionRisingThreshold.
swThermalFalling
Notification
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.95.2.1.0.59 This trap is sent when the temperature falls below
the switchThermalActionFallingThreshold.
swModuleInsertion
Notificaiton
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.95.2.1.0.60 This trap is sent when a module is inserted.
swModuleRemoval
Notificaiton
1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.95.2.1.0.61 This trap is sent when a module is removed.
a. These are legacy notifications and therefore must be enabled in conjunction with the corresponding traps on the
SNMP Configuration menu (page 3-43).
3-51
3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Groups. Click New to configure a new group. In the
New Group page, define a name, assign a security model and level, and then select
read, write, and notify views. Click Add to save the new group and return to the
Groups list. To delete a group, check the box next to the group name, then click
Delete.
Figure 3-31 Configuring SNMPv3 Groups
CLI – Use the snmp-server group command to configure a new group, specifying
the security model and level, and restricting MIB access to defined read and write
views.
Console(config)#snmp-server group secure-users v3 priv read defaultview
write defaultview notify defaultview
4-126
Console(config)#exit
Console#show
snmp group
4-127
.
.
.
Group Name: secure-users
Security Model: v3
Read View: defaultview
Write View: defaultview
Notify View: defaultview
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
Console#
3-52
Configuring SNMPv3 Management Access
3
Setting SNMPv3 Views
SNMPv3 views are used to restrict user access to specified portions of the MIB tree.
The predefined view “defaultview” includes access to the entire MIB tree.
Command Attributes
• View Name – The name of the SNMP view. (Range: 1-64 characters)
• View OID Subtrees – Shows the currently configured object identifiers of branches
within the MIB tree that define the SNMP view.
• Edit OID Subtrees – Allows you to configure the object identifiers of branches
within the MIB tree. Wild cards can be used to mask a specific portion of the OID
string.
• Type – Indicates if the object identifier of a branch within the MIB tree is included
or excluded from the SNMP view.
Web – Click SNMP, SNMPv3, Views. Click New to configure a new view. In the New
View page, define a name and specify OID subtrees in the switch MIB to be included
or excluded in the view. Click Back to save the new view and return to the SNMPv3
Views list. For a specific view, click on View OID Subtrees to display the current
configuration, or click on Edit OID Subtrees to make changes to the view settings. To
delete a view, check the box next to the view name, then click Delete.
Figure 3-32 Configuring SNMPv3 Views
3-53
3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – Use the snmp-server view command to configure a new view. This example
view includes the MIB-2 interfaces table, and the wildcard mask selects all index
entries.
Console(config)#snmp-server view ifEntry.a 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.*
included
Console(config)#exit
Console#show snmp view
View Name: ifEntry.a
Subtree OID: 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.*
View Type: included
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
4-125
4-126
View Name: readaccess
Subtree OID: 1.3.6.1.2
View Type: included
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
View Name: defaultview
Subtree OID: 1
View Type: included
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
Console#
User Authentication
You can restrict management access to this switch using the following options:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
User Accounts – Manually configure access rights on the switch for specified users.
Authentication Settings – Use remote authentication to configure access rights.
HTTPS Settings – Provide a secure web connection.
SSH Settings – Provide a secure shell (for secure Telnet access).
Port Security – Configure secure addresses for individual ports.
802.1X – Use IEEE 802.1X port authentication to control access to specific ports.
IP Filter – Filters management access to the web, SNMP or Telnet interface.
Configuring User Accounts
The guest only has read access for most configuration parameters. However, the
administrator has write access for all parameters governing the onboard agent. You
should therefore assign a new administrator password as soon as possible, and
store it in a safe place.
The default guest name is “guest” with the password “guest.” The default
administrator name is “admin” with the password “admin.”
Command Attributes
• Account List – Displays the current list of user accounts and associated access
levels. (Defaults: admin, and guest)
3-54
User Authentication
3
• New Account – Displays configuration settings for a new account.
- User Name – The name of the user.
(Maximum length: 8 characters)
- Access Level – Specifies the user level.
(Options: Normal and Privileged)
- Password – Specifies the user password.
(Range: 0-8 characters plain text, case sensitive)
• Change Password – Sets a new password for the specified user name.
• Add/Remove – Adds or removes an account from the list.
Web – Click Security, User Accounts. To configure a new user account, specify a
user name, select the user’s access level, then enter a password and confirm it.
Click Add to save the new user account and add it to the Account List. To change the
password for a specific user, enter the user name and new password, confirm the
password by entering it again, then click Apply.
Figure 3-33 Access Levels
CLI – Assign a user name to access-level 15 (i.e., administrator), then specify the
password.
Console(config)#username bob access-level 15
Console(config)#username bob password 0 smith
Console(config)#
4-27
3-55
3
Configuring the Switch
Configuring Local/Remote Logon Authentication
Use the Authentication Settings menu to restrict management access based on
specified user names and passwords. You can manually configure access rights on
the switch, or you can use a remote access authentication server based on RADIUS
or TACACS+ protocols.
Remote Authentication Dial-in
User Service (RADIUS) and
Terminal Access Controller
Access Control System Plus
console
Web
(TACACS+) are logon
Telnet
authentication protocols that
use software running on a
1. Client attempts management access.
central server to control
2. Switch contacts authentication server.
3. Authentication server challenges client.
RADIUS/
access to RADIUS-aware or
4. Client responds with proper password or key.
TACACS+
5. Authentication server approves access.
TACACS-aware devices on the
server
6. Switch grants management access.
network. An authentication
server contains a database of
multiple user name/password pairs with associated privilege levels for each user
that requires management access to the switch.
RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort delivery,
while TCP offers a connection-oriented transport. Also, note that RADIUS encrypts
only the password in the access-request packet from the client to the server, while
TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
Command Usage
• By default, management access is always checked against the authentication
database stored on the local switch. If a remote authentication server is used, you
must specify the authentication sequence and the corresponding parameters for
the remote authentication protocol. Local and remote logon authentication control
management access via the console port, web browser, or Telnet.
• RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assign a specific privilege level for
each user name/password pair. The user name, password, and privilege level
must be configured on the authentication server.
• You can specify up to three authentication methods for any user to indicate the
authentication sequence. For example, if you select (1) RADIUS, (2) TACACS and
(3) Local, the user name and password on the RADIUS server is verified first. If the
RADIUS server is not available, then authentication is attempted using the
TACACS+ server, and finally the local user name and password is checked.
3-56
User Authentication
3
Command Attributes
• Authentication – Select the authentication, or authentication sequence required:
- Local – User authentication is performed only locally by the switch.
- Radius – User authentication is performed using a RADIUS server only.
- TACACS – User authentication is performed using a TACACS+ server only.
- [authentication sequence] – User authentication is performed by up to three
authentication methods in the indicated sequence.
• RADIUS Settings
- Global – Provides globally applicable RADIUS settings.
- ServerIndex – Specifies one of five RADIUS servers that may be configured.
The switch attempts authentication using the listed sequence of servers. The
process ends when a server either approves or denies access to a user.
- Server IP Address – Address of authentication server. (Default: 10.1.0.1)
- Server Port Number – Network (UDP) port of authentication server used for
authentication messages. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 1812)
- Secret Text String – Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for
client. Do not use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 20 characters)
- Number of Server Transmits – Number of times the switch tries to authenticate
logon access via the authentication server. (Range: 1-30; Default: 2)
- Timeout for a reply – The number of seconds the switch waits for a reply from
the RADIUS server before it resends the request. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 5)
• TACACS Settings
- Server IP Address – Address of the TACACS+ server. (Default: 10.11.12.13)
- Server Port Number – Network (TCP) port of TACACS+ server used for
authentication messages. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 49)
- Secret Text String – Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for
client. Do not use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 20 characters)
Note: The local switch user database has to be set up by manually entering user names
and passwords using the CLI. (See “username” on page 4-27.)
3-57
3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Security, Authentication Settings. To configure local or remote
authentication preferences, specify the authentication sequence (i.e., one to three
methods), fill in the parameters for RADIUS or TACACS+ authentication if selected,
and click Apply.
Figure 3-34 Authentication Settings
CLI – Specify all the required parameters to enable logon authentication.
Console(config)#authentication login radius
Console(config)#radius-server port 181
Console(config)#radius-server key green
Console(config)#radius-server retransmit 5
Console(config)#radius-server timeout 10
Console(config)#radius-server 1 host 192.168.1.25
Console(config)#end
Console#show radius-server
Remote RADIUS server configuration:
Global settings:
Communication key with RADIUS server: *****
Server port number:
181
Retransmit times:
5
Request timeout:
10
Server 1:
Server IP address: 192.168.1.25
Communication key with RADIUS server: *****
Server port number: 1812
Retransmit times: 2
Request timeout: 5
3-58
4-76
4-79
4-79
4-80
4-80
4-78
4-81
User Authentication
Console#configure
Console(config)#authentication login tacacs
Console(config)#tacacs-server host 10.20.30.40
Console(config)#tacacs-server port 200
Console(config)#tacacs-server key green
Console#show tacacs-server
Server IP address: 10.20.30.40
Communication key with tacacs server: *****
Server port number: 200
Console(config)#
3
4-76
4-82
4-82
4-82
4-83
Configuring HTTPS
You can configure the switch to enable the Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTPS) over the Secure Socket Layer (SSL), providing secure access (i.e., an
encrypted connection) to the switch’s web interface.
Command Usage
• Both the HTTP and HTTPS service can be enabled independently on the switch.
However, you cannot configure both services to use the same UDP port.
• If you enable HTTPS, you must indicate this in the URL that you specify in your
browser: https://device[:port_number]
• When you start HTTPS, the connection is established in this way:
- The client authenticates the server using the server’s digital certificate.
- The client and server negotiate a set of security protocols to use for the
connection.
- The client and server generate session keys for encrypting and decrypting data.
• The client and server establish a secure encrypted connection.
A padlock icon should appear in the status bar for Internet Explorer 5.x or above
and Netscape Navigator 6.2 or above.
• The following web browsers and operating systems currently support HTTPS:
Table 3-6 HTTPS System Support
Web Browser
Operating System
Internet Explorer 5.0 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP
Netscape Navigator 6.2 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP, Solaris 2.6
• To specify a secure-site certificate, see “Replacing the Default Secure-site
Certificate” on page 3-60.
Command Attributes
• HTTPS Status – Allows you to enable/disable the HTTPS server feature on the
switch. (Default: Enabled)
• Change HTTPS Port Number – Specifies the UDP port number used for HTTPS/
SSL connection to the switch’s web interface. (Default: Port 443)
3-59
3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Security, HTTPS Settings. Enable HTTPS and specify the port number,
then click Apply.
Figure 3-35 HTTPS Settings
CLI – This example enables the HTTP secure server and modifies the port number.
Console(config)#ip http secure-server
Console(config)#ip http secure-port 443
Console(config)#
4-32
4-33
Replacing the Default Secure-site Certificate
When you log onto the web interface using HTTPS (for secure access), a Secure
Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate appears for the switch. By default, the certificate that
Netscape and Internet Explorer display will be associated with a warning that the
site is not recognized as a secure site. This is because the certificate has not been
signed by an approved certification authority. If you want this warning to be replaced
by a message confirming that the connection to the switch is secure, you must
obtain a unique certificate and a private key and password from a recognized
certification authority.
Caution: For maximum security, we recommend you obtain a unique Secure Sockets
Layer certificate at the earliest opportunity. This is because the default
certificate for the switch is not unique to the hardware you have purchased.
When you have obtained these, place them on your TFTP server, and use the
following command at the switch's command-line interface to replace the default
(unrecognized) certificate with an authorized one:
Console#copy tftp https-certificate
TFTP server ip address: <server ip-address>
Source certificate file name: <certificate file name>
Source private file name: <private key file name>
Private password: <password for private key>
4-70
Note: The switch must be reset for the new certificate to be activated. To reset the
switch, type: Console#reload
3-60
User Authentication
3
Configuring the Secure Shell
The Berkley-standard includes remote access tools originally designed for Unix
systems. Some of these tools have also been implemented for Microsoft Windows
and other environments. These tools, including commands such as rlogin (remote
login), rsh (remote shell), and rcp (remote copy), are not secure from hostile attacks.
The Secure Shell (SSH) includes server/client applications intended as a secure
replacement for the older Berkley remote access tools. SSH can also provide
remote management access to this switch as a secure replacement for Telnet.
When the client contacts the switch via the SSH protocol, the switch generates a
public-key that the client uses along with a local user name and password for access
authentication. SSH also encrypts all data transfers passing between the switch and
SSH-enabled management station clients, and ensures that data traveling over the
network arrives unaltered.
Note that you need to install an SSH client on the management station to access the
switch for management via the SSH protocol.
Note: The switch supports both SSH Version 1.5 and 2.0.
Command Usage
The SSH server on this switch supports both password and public key
authentication. If password authentication is specified by the SSH client, then the
password can be authenticated either locally or via a RADIUS or TACACS+ remote
authentication server, as specified on the Authentication Settings page
(page 3-56). If public key authentication is specified by the client, then you must
configure authentication keys on both the client and the switch as described in the
following section. Note that regardless of whether you use public key or password
authentication, you still have to generate authentication keys on the switch (SSH
Host Key Settings) and enable the SSH server (Authentication Settings).
To use the SSH server, complete these steps:
1. Generate a Host Key Pair – On the SSH Host Key Settings page, create a host
public/private key pair.
2.
Provide Host Public Key to Clients – Many SSH client programs automatically
import the host public key during the initial connection setup with the switch.
Otherwise, you need to manually create a known hosts file on the management
station and place the host public key in it. An entry for a public key in the known
hosts file would appear similar to the following example:
10.1.0.54 1024 35 15684995401867669259333946775054617325313674890836547254
15020245593199868544358361651999923329781766065830956 10825913212890233
76546801726272571413428762941301196195566782 59566410486957427888146206
51941746772984865468615717739390164779355942303577413098022737087794545
24083971752646358058176716709574804776117
3-61
3
3.
Configuring the Switch
Import Client’s Public Key to the Switch – Use the copy tftp public-key
command (page 4-70) to copy a file containing the public key for all the SSH
client’s granted management access to the switch. (Note that these clients
must be configured locally on the switch via the User Accounts page as
described on page 3-54.) The clients are subsequently authenticated using
these keys. The current firmware only accepts public key files based on
standard UNIX format as shown in the following example for an RSA Version 1
key:
1024 35 1341081685609893921040944920155425347631641921872958921143173880
05553616163105177594083868631109291232226828519254374603100937187721199
69631781366277414168985132049117204830339254324101637997592371449011938
00609025394840848271781943722884025331159521348610229029789827213532671
31629432532818915045306393916643 steve@192.168.1.19
4.
Set the Optional Parameters – On the SSH Settings page, configure the
optional parameters, including the authentication timeout, the number of retries,
and the server key size.
5.
Enable SSH Service – On the SSH Settings page, enable the SSH server on
the switch.
6.
Challenge-Response Authentication – When an SSH client attempts to contact
the switch, the SSH server uses the host key pair to negotiate a session key
and encryption method. Only clients that have a private key corresponding to
the public keys stored on the switch can access. The following exchanges take
place during this process:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The client sends its public key to the switch.
The switch compares the client's public key to those stored in memory.
If a match is found, the switch uses the public key to encrypt a random
sequence of bytes, and sends this string to the client.
The client uses its private key to decrypt the bytes, and sends the
decrypted bytes back to the switch.
The switch compares the decrypted bytes to the original bytes it sent. If the
two sets match, this means that the client's private key corresponds to an
authorized public key, and the client is authenticated.
Notes: 1. To use SSH with only password authentication, the host public key must still
be given to the client, either during initial connection or manually entered into
the known host file. However, you do not need to configure the client’s keys.
2. The SSH server supports up to four client sessions. The maximum number
of client sessions includes both current Telnet sessions and SSH sessions.
3-62
User Authentication
3
Generating the Host Key Pair
A host public/private key pair is used to provide secure communications between an
SSH client and the switch. After generating this key pair, you must provide the host
public key to SSH clients and import the client’s public key to the switch as
described in the proceeding section (Command Usage).
Field Attributes
• Public-Key of Host-Key – The public key for the host.
- RSA (Version 1): The first field indicates the size of the host key (e.g., 1024), the
second field is the encoded public exponent (e.g., 65537), and the last string is
the encoded modulus.
- DSA (Version 2): The first field indicates that the encryption method used by
SSH is based on the Digital Signature Standard (DSS). The last string is the
encoded modulus.
• Host-Key Type – The key type used to generate the host key pair (i.e., public and
private keys). (Range: RSA (Version 1), DSA (Version 2), Both: Default: RSA)
The SSH server uses RSA or DSA for key exchange when the client first
establishes a connection with the switch, and then negotiates with the client to
select either DES (56-bit) or 3DES (168-bit) for data encryption.
• Save Host-Key from Memory to Flash – Saves the host key from RAM (i.e.,
volatile memory to flash memory. Otherwise, the host key pair is stored to RAM by
default. Note that you must select this item prior to generating the host-key pair.
• Generate – This button is used to generate the host key pair. Note that you must
first generate the host key pair before you can enable the SSH server on the SSH
Server Settings page.
• Clear – This button clears the host key from both volatile memory (RAM) and
non-volatile memory (Flash).
3-63
3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Security, SSH, Host-Key Settings. Select the host-key type from the
drop-down box, select the option to save the host key from memory to flash (if
required) prior to generating the key, and then click Generate.
Figure 3-36 SSH Host-Key Settings
CLI – This example generates a host-key pair using both the RSA and DSA
algorithms, stores the keys to flash memory, and then displays the host’s public keys.
Console#ip ssh crypto host-key generate
4-37
Console#ip ssh save host-key
4-37
Console#show public-key host
4-37
Host:
RSA:
1024 65537 127250922544926402131336514546131189679055192360076028653006761
82409690947448320102524878965977592168322225584652387791546479807396314033
86925793105105765212243052807865885485789272602937866089236841423275912127
60325919683697053439336438445223335188287173896894511729290510813919642025
190932104328579045764891
DSA:
ssh-dss AAAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAACBAN6zwIqCqDb3869jYVXlME1sHL0EcE/Re6hlasfEthIwmj
hLY4O0jqJZpcEQUgCfYlum0Y2uoLka+Py9ieGWQ8f2gobUZKIICuKg6vjO9XTs7XKc05xfzkBi
KviDa+2OrIz6UK+6vFOgvUDFedlnixYTVo+h5v8r0ea2rpnO6DkZAAAAFQCNZn/x17dwpW8RrV
DQnSWw4Qk+6QAAAIEAptkGeB6B5hwagH4gUOCY6i1TmrmSiJgfwO9OqRPUMbCAkCC+uzxatOo7
drnIZypMx+Sx5RUdMGgKS+9ywsa1cWqHeFY5ilc3lDCNBueeLykZzVS+RS+azTKIk/zrJh8GLG
Nq375R55yRxFvmcGIn/Q7IphPqyJ3o9MK8LFDfmJEAAACAL8A6tESiswP2OFqX7VGoEbzVDSOI
RTMFy3iUXtvGyQAOVSy67Mfc3lMtgqPRUOYXDiwIBp5NXgilCg5z7VqbmRm28mWc5a//f8TUAg
PNWKV6W0hqmshQdotVzDR1e+XKNTZj0uTwWfjO5Kytdn4MdoTHgrbl/DMdAfjnte8MZZs=
Console#
3-64
User Authentication
3
Configuring the SSH Server
The SSH server includes basic settings for authentication.
Field Attributes
• SSH Server Status – Allows you to enable/disable the SSH server on the switch.
(Default: Disabled)
• Version – The Secure Shell version number. Version 2.0 is displayed, but the
switch supports management access via either SSH Version 1.5 or 2.0 clients.
• SSH Authentication Timeout – Specifies the time interval in seconds that the
SSH server waits for a response from a client during an authentication attempt.
(Range: 1-120 seconds; Default: 120 seconds)
• SSH Authentication Retries – Specifies the number of authentication attempts
that a client is allowed before authentication fails and the client has to restart the
authentication process. (Range: 1-5 times; Default: 3)
• SSH Server-Key Size – Specifies the SSH server key size.
(Range: 512-896 bits; Default:768)
- The server key is a private key that is never shared outside the switch.
- The host key is shared with the SSH client, and is fixed at 1024 bits.
Web – Click Security, SSH, Settings. Enable SSH and adjust the authentication
parameters as required, then click Apply. Note that you must first generate the host
key pair on the SSH Host-Key Settings page before you can enable the SSH server.
Figure 3-37 SSH Server Settings
3-65
3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – This example enables SSH, sets the authentication parameters, and displays
the current configuration. It shows that the administrator has made a connection via
SHH, and then disables this connection.
Console(config)#ip ssh server
4-37
Console(config)#ip ssh timeout 100
4-38
Console(config)#ip ssh authentication-retries 5
4-38
Console(config)#ip ssh server-key size 512
4-39
Console(config)#end
Console#show ip ssh
4-41
SSH Enabled - version 2.0
Negotiation timeout: 120 secs; Authentication retries: 5
Server key size: 512 bits
Console#show ssh
4-42
Connection Version State
Username Encryption
0
2.0
Session-Started
admin
ctos aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
stoc aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
Console#disconnect 0
4-19
Console#
Configuring Port Security
Port security is a feature that allows you to configure a switch port with one or more
device MAC addresses that are authorized to access the network through that port.
When port security is enabled on a port, the switch stops learning new MAC
addresses on the specified port when it has reached a configured maximum
number. Only incoming traffic with source addresses already stored in the dynamic
or static address table will be accepted as authorized to access the network through
that port. If a device with an unauthorized MAC address attempts to use the switch
port, the intrusion will be detected and the switch can automatically take action by
disabling the port and sending a trap message.
To use port security, specify a maximum number of addresses to allow on the port
and then let the switch dynamically learn the <source MAC address, VLAN> pair for
frames received on the port. Note that you can also manually add secure addresses
to the port using the Static Address Table (page 3-114). When the port has reached
the maximum number of MAC addresses the selected port will stop learning. The
MAC addresses already in the address table will be retained and will not age out.
Any other device that attempts to use the port will be prevented from accessing the
switch.
Command Usage
• A secure port has the following restrictions:
- Cannot use port monitoring.
- Cannot be a multi-VLAN port.
- It cannot be used as a member of a static or dynamic trunk.
- It should not be connected to a network interconnection device.
• The default maximum number of MAC addresses allowed on a secure port is zero.
You must configure a maximum address count from 1 - 1024 for the port to allow
access.
3-66
3
User Authentication
• If a port is disabled (shut down) due to a security violation, it must be manually
re-enabled from the Port/Port Configuration page (page 3-91).
Command Attributes
• Port – Port number.
• Name – Descriptive text (page 4-132).
• Action – Indicates the action to be taken when a port security violation is detected:
- None: No action should be taken. (This is the default.)
- Trap: Send an SNMP trap message.
- Shutdown: Disable the port.
- Trap and Shutdown: Send an SNMP trap message and disable the port.
• Security Status – Enables or disables port security on the port. (Default: Disabled)
• Max MAC Count – The maximum number of MAC addresses that can be learned
on a port. (Range: 0 - 1024, where 0 means disabled)
• Trunk – Trunk number if port is a member (page 3-94 and 3-95).
Web – Click Security, Port Security. Mark the checkbox in the Status column to
enable security for a port, set the maximum number of MAC addresses allowed on a
port, and click Apply.
Figure 3-38 Configuring Port Security
CLI – This example selects the target port, sets the port security action to send a
trap and disable the port and sets the maximum MAC addresses allowed on the
port, and then enables port security for the port.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#port security action trap-and-shutdown
Console(config-if)#port security max-mac-count 20
Console(config-if)#port security
Console(config-if)#
4-84
3-67
3
Configuring the Switch
Configuring 802.1X Port Authentication
Network switches can provide open and easy access to network resources by
simply attaching a client PC. Although this automatic configuration and access is a
desirable feature, it also allows unauthorized personnel to easily intrude and
possibly gain access to sensitive network data.
The IEEE 802.1X (dot1X) standard defines a port-based access control procedure
that prevents unauthorized access to a network by requiring users to first submit
credentials for authentication. Access to all switch ports in a network can be
centrally controlled from a server, which means that authorized users can use the
same credentials for authentication from any point within the network.
This switch uses the
Extensible Authentication
Protocol over LANs (EAPOL)
802.1x
to exchange authentication
client
protocol messages with the
client, and a remote RADIUS
1. Client attempts to access a switch port.
authentication server to verify
2. Switch sends client an identity request.
3. Client sends back identity information.
RADIUS
user identity and access
4. Switch forwards this to authentication server.
server
5. Authentication server challenges client.
rights. When a client
6. Client responds with proper credentials.
(i.e., Supplicant) connects to
7. Authentication server approves access.
8. Switch grants client access to this port.
a switch port, the switch
(i.e., Authenticator) responds with an EAPOL identity request. The client provides its
identity (such as a user name) in an EAPOL response to the switch, which it
forwards to the RADIUS server. The RADIUS server verifies the client identity and
sends an access challenge back to the client. The EAP packet from the RADIUS
server contains not only the challenge, but the authentication method to be used.
The client can reject the authentication method and request another, depending on
the configuration of the client software and the RADIUS server. The encryption
method used to pass authentication messages can be MD5 (Message-Digest 5),
TLS (Transport Layer Security), TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Security), or
PEAP (Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol). The client responds to the
appropriate method with its credentials, such as a password or certificate. The
RADIUS server verifies the client credentials and responds with an accept or reject
packet. If authentication is successful, the switch allows the client to access the
network. Otherwise, network access is denied and the port remains blocked.
The operation of 802.1X on the switch requires the following:
• The switch must have an IP address assigned.
• RADIUS authentication must be enabled on the switch and the IP address of the
RADIUS server specified.
• 802.1X must be enabled globally for the switch.
• Each switch port that will be used must be set to dot1X “Auto” mode.
• Each client that needs to be authenticated must have dot1X client software
installed and properly configured.
3-68
User Authentication
3
• The RADIUS server and 802.1X client support EAP. (The switch only supports
EAPOL in order to pass the EAP packets from the server to the client.)
• The RADIUS server and client also have to support the same EAP encryption
method for passing authentication messages – MD5, TLS, TTLS, PEAP. Native
support for these encryption methods is provided in Windows XP, and in Windows
2000 with Service Pack 4. To support these encryption methods in Windows 95
and 98, you can use the AEGIS dot1x client or other comparable client software.
Displaying 802.1X Global Settings
The 802.1X protocol provides client authentication.
Command Attributes
• 802.1X System Authentication Control – The global setting for 802.1X.
Web – Click Security, 802.1X, Information.
Figure 3-39 802.1X Global Information
CLI – This example shows the default global setting for 802.1X.
Console#show dot1x
Global 802.1X Parameters
system-auth-control: enable
4-90
802.1X Port Summary
Port Name Status
1/1
disabled
1/2
disabled
.
.
.
802.1X Port Details
Operation Mode
Single-Host
Single-Host
Mode
ForceAuthorized
ForceAuthorized
Authorized
n/a
n/a
802.1X is disabled on port 1/1
.
.
.
802.1X is disabled on port 1/52
.
Console#
3-69
3
Configuring the Switch
Configuring 802.1X Global Settings
The 802.1X protocol includes port authentication. The 802.1X protocol must be
enabled globally for the switch system before port settings are active.
Command Attributes
• 802.1X System Authentication Control – Sets the global setting for 802.1X.
(Default: Disabled)
Web – Select Security, 802.1X, Configuration. Enable 802.1X globally for the switch,
and click Apply.
Figure 3-40 802.1X Configuration
CLI – This example enables 802.1X globally for the switch.
Console(config)#dot1x system-auth-control
Console(config)#
4-86
Configuring Port Settings for 802.1X
When 802.1X is enabled, you need to configure the parameters for the
authentication process that runs between the client and the switch (i.e.,
authenticator), as well as the client identity lookup process that runs between the
switch and authentication server. These parameters are described in this section.
Command Attributes
• Port – Port number.
• Status – Indicates if authentication is enabled or disabled on the port.
(Default: Disabled)
• Operation Mode – Allows single or multiple hosts (clients) to connect to an
802.1X-authorized port. (Options: Single-Host, Multi-Host; Default: Single-Host)
• Max Count – The maximum number of hosts that can connect to a port when the
Multi-Host operation mode is selected. (Range: 1-1024; Default: 5)
• Mode – Sets the authentication mode to one of the following options:
- Auto – Requires a dot1x-aware client to be authorized by the authentication
server. Clients that are not dot1x-aware will be denied access.
- Force-Authorized – Forces the port to grant access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise. (This is the default setting.)
- Force-Unauthorized – Forces the port to deny access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise.
3-70
User Authentication
3
• Re-authen – Sets the client to be re-authenticated after the interval specified by
the Re-authentication Period. Re-authentication can be used to detect if a new
device is plugged into a switch port. (Default: Disabled)
• Max-Req – Sets the maximum number of times the switch port will retransmit an
EAP request packet to the client before it times out the authentication session.
(Range: 1-10; Default 2)
• Quiet Period – Sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max Request Count
has been exceeded before attempting to acquire a new client.
(Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: 60 seconds)
• Re-authen Period – Sets the time period after which a connected client must be
re-authenticated. (Range: 1-65535 seconds; Default: 3600 seconds)
• TX Period – Sets the time period during an authentication session that the switch
waits before re-transmitting an EAP packet. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 30 seconds)
• Authorized –
- Yes – Connected client is authorized.
- No – Connected client is not authorized.
- Blank – Displays nothing when dot1x is disabled on a port.
• Supplicant – Indicates the MAC address of a connected client.
• Trunk – Indicates if the port is configured as a trunk port.
Web – Click Security, 802.1X, Port Configuration. Modify the parameters required,
and click Apply.
Figure 3-41 802.1X Port Configuration
3-71
3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – This example sets the 802.1X parameters on port 2. For a description of the
additional fields displayed in this example, see “show dot1x” on page 4-90.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x port-control auto
Console(config-if)#dot1x re-authentication
Console(config-if)#dot1x max-req 5
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout quiet-period 30
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout re-authperiod 1800
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout tx-period 40
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#exit
Console#show dot1x
Global 802.1X Parameters
system-auth-control: enable
4-131
4-87
4-89
4-87
4-89
4-90
4-90
4-90
802.1X Port Summary
Port Name
1/1
1/2
.
.
.
1/52
Status
disabled
enabled
Operation Mode
Single-Host
Single-Host
Mode
ForceAuthorized
auto
Authorized
n/a
yes
disabled
Single-Host
ForceAuthorized
n/a
802.1X Port Details
802.1X is disabled on port 1/1
802.1X is enabled on port 1/2
reauth-enabled: Enable
reauth-period: 1800
quiet-period:
30
tx-period:
40
supplicant-timeout:
30
server-timeout: 10
reauth-max:
2
max-req:
5
Status
Authorized
Operation mode
Single-Host
Max count
5
Port-control
Auto
Supplicant
00-00-e8-49-5e-dc
Current Identifier 3
Authenticator State Machine
State
Authenticated
Reauth Count
0
Backend State Machine
State
Idle
Request Count
0
Identifier(Server) 2
Reauthentication State Machine
State
Initialize
.
.
.
802.1X is disabled on port 1/52
Console#
3-72
3
User Authentication
Displaying 802.1X Statistics
This switch can display statistics for dot1x protocol exchanges for any port.
Table 3-7 802.1X Statistics
Parameter
Description
Rx EAPOL Start
The number of EAPOL Start frames that have been received by this
Authenticator.
Rx EAPOL Logoff
The number of EAPOL Logoff frames that have been received by this
Authenticator.
Rx EAPOL Invalid
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this
Authenticator in which the frame type is not recognized.
Rx EAPOL Total
The number of valid EAPOL frames of any type that have been received
by this Authenticator.
Rx EAP Resp/Id
The number of EAP Resp/Id frames that have been received by this
Authenticator.
Rx EAP Resp/Oth
The number of valid EAP Response frames (other than Resp/Id frames)
that have been received by this Authenticator.
Rx EAP LenError
The number of EAPOL frames that have been received by this
Authenticator in which the Packet Body Length field is invalid.
Rx Last EAPOLVer
The protocol version number carried in the most recently received EAPOL
frame.
Rx Last EAPOLSrc
The source MAC address carried in the most recently received EAPOL
frame.
Tx EAPOL Total
The number of EAPOL frames of any type that have been transmitted by
this Authenticator.
Tx EAP Req/Id
The number of EAP Req/Id frames that have been transmitted by this
Authenticator.
Tx EAP Req/Oth
The number of EAP Request frames (other than Rq/Id frames) that have
been transmitted by this Authenticator.
3-73
3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Select Security, 802.1X, Statistics. Select the required port and then click
Query. Click Refresh to update the statistics.
Figure 3-42 Displaying 802.1X Port Statistics
CLI – This example displays the 802.1X statistics for port 4.
Console#show dot1x statistics interface ethernet 1/4
Eth 1/4
Rx: EAPOL
Start
2
Last
EAPOLVer
1
Tx: EAPOL
Total
2017
Console#
EAPOL
Logoff
0
EAPOL
Invalid
0
EAPOL
Total
1007
EAP
Resp/Id
672
4-90
EAP
EAP
Resp/Oth LenError
0
0
Last
EAPOLSrc
00-00-E8-98-73-21
EAP
Req/Id
1005
EAP
Req/Oth
0
MAC Address Authentication
Some devices connected to switch ports may not be able to support 802.1X
authentication due to hardware or software limitations. This is often true for devices
such as network printers, IP phones, and some wireless access points. The switch
enables network access from these devices to be controlled by authenticating
device MAC addresses with a central RADIUS server.
Note: MAC authentication, 802.1X, and port security cannot be configured together on
the same port. Only one security mechanism can be applied.
The Network Access feature controls host access to the network by authenticating
its MAC address on the connected switch port. Traffic received from a specific MAC
3-74
3
User Authentication
address is forwarded by the switch only if the source MAC address is successfully
authenticated by a central RADIUS server. While authentication for a MAC address
is in progress, all traffic is blocked until authentication is completed. On successful
authentication, the RADIUS server may optionally assign VLAN settings for the
switch port
When enabled on a port interface, the authentication process sends a Password
Authentication Protocol (PAP) request to a configured RADIUS server. The
username and password are both equal to the MAC address being authenticated.
On the RADIUS server, PAP username and passwords must be configured in the
MAC address format XX-XX-XX-XX-XX-XX (all in upper case).
Authenticated MAC addresses are stored as dynamic entries in the switch secure
MAC address table and are removed when the aging time expires. The maximum
number of secure MAC addresses supported for the switch system is 1024.
Note: MAC authentication cannot be configured on trunk ports.
The RADIUS server may optionally return a VLAN identifier list to be applied to the
switch port. The following attributes need to be configured on the RADIUS server.
• Tunnel-Type = VLAN
• Tunnel-Medium-Type = 802
• Tunnel-Private-Group-ID = 1u,2t
[VLAN ID list]
The VLAN identifier list is carried in the RADIUS “Tunnel-Private-Group-ID” attribute.
The VLAN list can contain multiple VLAN identifiers in the format “1u,2t,3u” where
“u” indicates an untagged VLAN and “t” a tagged VLAN.
Configuring the MAC Authentication Reauthentication Time
MAC address authentication is configured on a per-port basis, however there are
two configurable parameters that apply globally to all ports on the switch.
Command Attributes
• Authenticated Age – The secure MAC address table aging time. This parameter
setting is the same as switch MAC address table aging time and is only
configurable from the Address Table, Aging Time web page (see page 3-117).
(Default: 300 seconds)
• MAC Authentication Reauthentication Time – Sets the time period after which
a connected MAC address must be re-authenticated. When the reauthentication
time expires for a secure MAC address, it is reauthenticated with the RADIUS
server. During the reauthentication process traffic through the port remains
unaffected. (Default: 1800 seconds; Range: 120-1000000 seconds)
3-75
3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Security, Network Access, Configuration.
Figure 3-43 Network Access Configuration
CLI – This example sets and displays the reauthentication time.
Console(config)#mac-authentication reauth-time 3000
Console(config)#exit
Console#show network-access interface ethernet 1/1
Port:1/1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MAC Authentication
:Disabled
Maximum MAC Count
:1024
Dynamic VLAN Assignment :Disabled
Reauthentication Time
:3000
Authenticated Age
:300
MAC Filter ID
:None
Console#
4-98
4-99
Configuring MAC Authentication for Ports
Configures MAC authentication on switch ports, including setting the maximum MAC
count, applying a MAC address filter, and enabling dynamic VLAN assignment.
Command Attributes
• Mode – Enables MAC authentication on a port. (Default: None)
• Maximum MAC Count – Sets the maximum number of MAC addresses that can
be authenticated on a port. The maximum number of MAC addresses per port is
1024, and the maximum number of secure MAC addresses supported for the
switch system is 1024. When the limit is reached, all new MAC addresses are
treated as authentication failed. (Default: 1024; Range: 1 to 1024)
• MAC Filter ID – Applies a MAC address filter to a port interface. MAC address
filters must first be created from the MAC Filter Configuration page. Only one filter
can be applied to a port. (Default: No filters are applied)
• Dynamic VLAN – Enables dynamic VLAN assignment for an authenticated port.
When enabled, any VLAN identifiers returned by the RADIUS server are applied to
the port, providing the VLANs have already been created on the switch. (GVRP is
not used to create the VLANs.) The VLAN settings specified by the first
authenticated MAC address are implemented for a port. Other authenticated MAC
address on the port must have same VLAN configuration, or they are treated as
authentication failure. (Default: Disabled)
3-76
User Authentication
3
Note: MAC authentication cannot be configured on trunk ports. Ports configured as trunk
members are indicated on the Network Access Port Configuration page in the
“Trunk” column.
Web – Click Security, Network Access, Port Configuration.
Figure 3-44 Network Access Port Configuration
CLI – This example configures MAC authentication for port 1.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#network-access mode mac-authentication
Console(config-if)#network-access max-mac-count 10
Console(config-if)#network-access port-mac-filter 5
Console(config-if)#network-access dynamic-vlan
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show network-access interface ethernet 1/1
Port:1/1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MAC Authentication
:Enabled
Maximum MAC Count
:10
Dynamic VLAN Assignment :Enabled
Reauthentication Time
:1800
Authenticated Age
:300
MAC Filter ID
:5
Console#
4-94
4-95
4-97
4-97
4-99
Displaying Secure MAC Address Information
Authenticated MAC addresses are stored in the secure MAC address table.
Information on the secure MAC entries can be displayed and selected entries can be
removed from the table.
Command Attributes
• Network Access MAC Address Count – The number of MAC addresses
currently in the secure MAC address table.
3-77
3
Configuring the Switch
• Query By – Specifies parameters to use in the MAC address query.
• Port – Specifies a port interface.
• MAC Address – Specifies a single MAC address information.
• Attribute – Displays static or dynamic addresses.
• Address Table Sort Key – Sorts the information displayed based on MAC
address or port interface.
• Unit/Port – The port interface associated with a secure MAC address.
• MAC Address – The authenticated MAC address.
• RADIUS Server – The IP address of the RADIUS server that authenticated the
MAC address.
• Time – The time when the MAC address was last authenticated.
• Attribute – Indicates a static or dynamic address.
• Remove – Click the Remove button to remove selected MAC addresses from the
secure MAC address table.
Web – Click Security, Network Access, MAC Address Information. Restrict the
displayed addresses by port, MAC Address, or attribute, then select the method of
sorting the displayed addresses. Click Query.
Figure 3-45 Network Access MAC Address Information
3-78
User Authentication
3
CLI – This example displays all entries currently in the secure MAC address table.
Console#show network-access mac-address-table
---- ----------------- --------------- --------Port MAC-Address
RADIUS-Server
Attribute
---- ----------------- --------------- --------1/1 00-00-01-02-03-04 172.155.120.17 Static
1/1 00-00-01-02-03-05 172.155.120.17 Dynamic
1/1 00-00-01-02-03-06 172.155.120.17 Static
1/3 00-00-01-02-03-07 172.155.120.17 Dynamic
4-100
------------------------Time
------------------------00d06h32m50s
00d06h33m20s
00d06h35m10s
00d06h34m20s
Console#
Configuring MAC Address Filters
MAC address filters are used to specify MAC addresses to be excluded from
network access authentication. MAC addresses in a filter are not authenticated by a
RADIUS server when seen on a port, the addresses are immediately added to the
secure MAC address table.
MAC address filters must first be created and assigned a filter ID, then the filter can
be applied to a port interface. Multiple MAC addresses can be included in a filter, but
only one filter can be applied to a port.
Command Attributes
• Query – Display all current MAC address filters or a specific filter configuration.
• Add/Remove – Specify a filter ID and MAC address to create a filter. Specify the
same filter ID with other MAC addresses to add them to the filter. Select an entry
in the displayed list and click Remove to delete a MAC address from a filter.
• Filter ID – Specifies a filter to configure. (Range: 1 -64)
• MAC Address – Specifies a single MAC address to add to a filter.
Web – Click Security, Network Access, MAC Filter Configuration.
Figure 3-46 Network Access MAC Filter Configuration
3-79
3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – This example configures filter ID 1 with three MAC addresses, then applies
the filter to port 1.
Console(config)#network-access mac-filter 1 00-12-34-56-78-9A
Console(config)#network-access mac-filter 1 00-12-34-56-78-9B
Console(config)#network-access mac-filter 1 00-12-34-56-78-9C
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#network-access port-mac-filter 1
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show network-access mac-filter 1
--------- ----------------Filter-id MAC-Address
--------- ----------------1
00-12-34-56-78-9A
1
00-12-34-56-78-9B
1
00-12-34-56-78-9C
Console#
4-96
4-97
4-100
Filtering Addresses for Management Access
You create a list of up to 16 IP addresses or IP address groups that are allowed
access to the switch through the web interface, SNMP, or Telnet.
Command Usage
• The management interfaces are open to all IP addresses by default. Once you add
an entry to a filter list, access to that interface is restricted to the specified
addresses.
• If anyone tries to access a management interface on the switch from an invalid
address, the switch will reject the connection, enter an event message in the
system log, and send a trap message to the trap manager.
• IP address can be configured for SNMP, web and Telnet access respectively. Each
of these groups can include up to five different sets of addresses, either individual
addresses or address ranges.
• When entering addresses for the same group (i.e., SNMP, web or Telnet), the
switch will not accept overlapping address ranges. When entering addresses for
different groups, the switch will accept overlapping address ranges.
• You cannot delete an individual address from a specified range. You must delete
the entire range, and reenter the addresses.
• You can delete an address range just by specifying the start address, or by
specifying both the start address and end address.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Web IP Filter – Configures IP address(es) for the web group.
SNMP IP Filter – Configures IP address(es) for the SNMP group.
Telnet IP Filter – Configures IP address(es) for the Telnet group.
IP Filter List – IP address which are allowed management access to this interface.
Start IP Address – A single IP address, or the starting address of a range.
End IP Address – The end address of a range.
Add/Remove Filtering Entry – Adds/removes an IP address from the list.
3-80
User Authentication
3
Web – Click Security, IP Filter. Enter the IP addresses or range of addresses that
are allowed management access to an interface, and click Add IP Filtering Entry to
update the filter list.
Figure 3-47 Creating a Web IP Filter List
CLI – This example allows SNMP access for a specific client.
Console(config)#management snmp-client 10.1.2.3
Console(config)#end
Console#show management all-client
Management IP Filter
HTTP-Client:
Start IP address End IP address
----------------------------------------------1. 10.1.2.1
10.1.2.254
4-29
SNMP-Client:
Start IP address End IP address
----------------------------------------------1. 10.1.2.3
10.1.2.3
TELNET-Client:
Start IP address End IP address
----------------------------------------------Console#
3-81
3
Configuring the Switch
Access Control Lists
Access Control Lists (ACL) provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on address,
protocol, Layer 4 protocol port number or TCP control code) or any frames (based
on MAC address or Ethernet type). To filter incoming packets, first create an access
list, add the required rules and then bind the list to a specific port.
Configuring Access Control Lists
An ACL is a sequential list of permit or deny conditions that apply to IP addresses,
MAC addresses, or other more specific criteria. This switch tests ingress or egress
packets against the conditions in an ACL one by one. A packet will be accepted as
soon as it matches a permit rule, or dropped as soon as it matches a deny rule. If no
rules match for a list of all permit rules, the packet is dropped; and if no rules match
for a list of all deny rules, the packet is accepted.
Command Usage
The following restrictions apply to ACLs:
• Each ACL can have up to 32 rules.
• The maximum number of ACLs is 88.
• However, due to resource restrictions, the average number of rules bound to the
ports should not exceed 20.
• This switch supports ACLs for ingress filtering only. However, you can only bind
one IP ACL to any port and one MAC ACL globally for ingress filtering. In other
words, only two ACLs can be bound to an interface - Ingress IP ACL and Ingress
MAC ACL.
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3
Access Control Lists
The order in which active ACLs are checked is as follows:
1. User-defined rules in the Ingress MAC ACL for ingress ports.
2. User-defined rules in the Ingress IP ACL for ingress ports.
3. Explicit default rule (permit any any) in the ingress IP ACL for ingress ports.
4. Explicit default rule (permit any any) in the ingress MAC ACL for ingress ports.
5. If no explicit rule is matched, the implicit default is permit all.
Setting the ACL Name and Type
Use the ACL Configuration page to designate the name and type of an ACL.
Command Attributes
• Name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• Type – There are three filtering modes:
- Standard: IP ACL mode that filters packets based on the source IP address.
- Extended: IP ACL mode that filters packets based on source or destination IP
address, as well as protocol type and protocol port number. If the “TCP” protocol
is specified, then you can also filter packets based on the TCP control code.
- MAC: MAC ACL mode that filters packets based on the source or destination
MAC address and the Ethernet frame type (RFC 1060).
Web – Click Security, ACL, Configuration. Enter an ACL name in the Name field,
select the list type (IP Standard, IP Extended, or MAC), and click Add to open the
configuration page for the new list.
Figure 3-48 Selecting ACL Type
CLI – This example creates a standard IP ACL named david.
Console(config)#access-list ip standard david
Console(config-std-acl)#
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3
Configuring the Switch
Configuring a Standard IP ACL
Command Attributes
• Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
• Address Type – Specifies the source IP address. Use “Any” to include all possible
addresses, “Host” to specify a specific host address in the Address field, or “IP” to
specify a range of addresses with the Address and SubMask fields.
(Options: Any, Host, IP; Default: Any)
• IP Address – Source IP address.
• Subnet Mask – A subnet mask containing four integers from 0 to 255, each
separated by a period. The mask uses 1 bits to indicate “match” and 0 bits to
indicate “ignore.” The mask is bitwise ANDed with the specified source IP address,
and compared with the address for each IP packet entering the port(s) to which this
ACL has been assigned.
Web – Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny). Select the address type (Any, Host,
or IP). If you select “Host,” enter a specific address. If you select “IP,” enter a subnet
address and the mask for an address range. Then click Add.
Figure 3-49 ACL Configuration - Standard IP
CLI – This example configures one permit rule for the specific address 10.1.1.21
and another rule for the address range 168.92.16.x – 168.92.31.x using a bitmask.
Console(config-std-acl)#permit host 10.1.1.21
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 168.92.16.0 255.255.240.0
Console(config-std-acl)#
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Access Control Lists
3
Configuring an Extended IP ACL
Command Attributes
• Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
• Source/Destination Address Type – Specifies the source or destination IP
address. Use “Any” to include all possible addresses, “Host” to specify a specific
host address in the Address field, or “IP” to specify a range of addresses with the
Address and SubMask fields. (Options: Any, Host, IP; Default: Any)
• Source/Destination Address – Source or destination IP address.
• Source/Destination Subnet Mask – Subnet mask for source or destination
address. (See the description for Subnet Mask on page 3-84.)
• Service Type – Packet priority settings based on the following criteria:
- Precedence – IP precedence level. (Range: 0-7)
- TOS – Type of Service level. (Range: 0-15)
- DSCP – DSCP priority level. (Range: 0-63)
• Protocol – Specifies the protocol type to match as TCP, UDP or Others, where
others indicates a specific protocol number (0-255). (Options: TCP, UDP, Others;
Default: TCP)
• Source/Destination Port – Source/destination port number for the specified
protocol type. (Range: 0-65535)
• Control Code – Decimal number (representing a bit string) that specifies flag bits
in byte 14 of the TCP header. (Range: 0-63)
• Control Code Bitmask – Decimal number representing the code bits to match.
The control bitmask is a decimal number (for an equivalent binary bit mask) that is
applied to the control code. Enter a decimal number, where the equivalent binary
bit “1” means to match a bit and “0” means to ignore a bit. The following bits may
be specified:
- 1 (fin) – Finish
- 2 (syn) – Synchronize
- 4 (rst) – Reset
- 8 (psh) – Push
- 16 (ack) – Acknowledgement
- 32 (urg) – Urgent pointer
For example, use the code value and mask below to catch packets with the
following flags set:
- SYN flag valid, use control-code 2, control bitmask 2
- Both SYN and ACK valid, use control-code 18, control bitmask 18
- SYN valid and ACK invalid, use control-code 2, control bitmask 18
3-85
3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny). Specify the source and/or
destination addresses. Select the address type (Any, Host, or IP). If you select
“Host,” enter a specific address. If you select “IP,” enter a subnet address and the
mask for an address range. Set any other required criteria, such as service type,
protocol type, or TCP control code. Then click Add.
Figure 3-50 ACL Configuration - Extended IP
CLI – This example adds two rules:
(1) Accept any incoming packets if the source address is in subnet 10.7.1.x. For
example, if the rule is matched; i.e., the rule (10.7.1.0 & 255.255.255.0) equals
the masked address (10.7.1.2 & 255.255.255.0), the packet passes through.
(2) Allow TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 to any destination
address when set for destination TCP port 80 (i.e., HTTP).
(3) Permit all TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 with the TCP control
code set to “SYN.”
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 10.7.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
destination-port 80
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
control-flag 2 2
Console(config-std-acl)#
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3
Access Control Lists
Configuring a MAC ACL
Command Attributes
• Action – An ACL can contain any combination of permit or deny rules.
• Source/Destination Address Type – Use “Any” to include all possible addresses,
“Host” to indicate a specific MAC address, or “MAC” to specify an address range
with the Address and Bitmask fields. (Options: Any, Host, MAC; Default: Any)
• Source/Destination MAC Address – Source or destination MAC address.
• Source/Destination Bitmask – Hexidecimal mask for source or destination MAC
address.
• VID – VLAN ID. (Range: 1-4094)
• Ethernet Type – This option can only be used to filter Ethernet II formatted
packets. (Range: 0-65535)
A detailed listing of Ethernet protocol types can be found in RFC 1060. A few of the
more common types include 0800 (IP), 0806 (ARP), 8137 (IPX).
Web – Specify the action (i.e., Permit or Deny). Specify the source and/or
destination addresses. Select the address type (Any, Host, or MAC). If you select
“Host,” enter a specific address (e.g., 11-22-33-44-55-66). If you select “MAC,” enter
a base address and a hexidecimal bitmask for an address range. Set any other
required criteria, such as VID or Ethernet type. Then click Add.
Figure 3-51 ACL Configuration - MAC
CLI – This rule permits packets from any source MAC address to the destination
address 00-e0-29-94-34-de where the Ethernet type is 0800.
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any host 00-e0-29-94-34-de
ethertype 0800
Console(config-mac-acl)#
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3
Configuring the Switch
Binding a Port to an Access Control List
After configuring Access Control Lists (ACL), you should bind them to the ports that
need to filter traffic. You can assign one IP access list to any port, but you can only
assign one MAC access list to all the ports on the switch.
Command Usage
• You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port.
• This switch only supports ACLs for ingress filtering. You can only bind one IP ACL
to any port, and one MAC ACL globally, for ingress filtering.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
Port – Fixed port or SFP module. (Range: 1-26/52)
IP – Specifies the IP Access List to enable for a port.
MAC – Specifies the MAC Access List to enable globally.
IN – ACL for ingress packets.
ACL Name – Name of the ACL.
Web – Click Security, ACL, Port Binding. Mark the Enabled field for the port you
want to bind to an ACL, select the required ACL from the drop-down list, then click
Apply.
Figure 3-52 Binding a Port to an ACL
3-88
Port Configuration
3
CLI – This example assigns an IP and MAC access list to port 1, and an IP access
list to port 3.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip access-group david in
Console(config-if)#mac access-group jerry in
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#ip access-group david in
Console(config-if)#
4-131
4-107
4-112
Port Configuration
Displaying Connection Status
You can use the Port Information or Trunk Information pages to display the current
connection status, including link state, speed/duplex mode, flow control, and
auto-negotiation.
Field Attributes (Web)
•
•
•
•
•
Name – Interface label.
Type – Indicates the port type. (100BASE-TX, 1000BASE-T, or SFP)
Admin Status – Shows if the interface is enabled or disabled.
Oper Status – Indicates if the link is Up or Down.
Speed Duplex Status – Shows the current speed and duplex mode.
(Auto, or fixed choice)
• Flow Control Status – Indicates the type of flow control currently in use.
(IEEE 802.3x, Back-Pressure or None)
• Autonegotiation – Shows if auto-negotiation is enabled or disabled.
• Trunk Member6 – Shows if port is a trunk member.
• Creation7 – Shows if a trunk is manually configured or dynamically set via LACP.
6. Port Information only.
7. Trunk information only.
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3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Port, Port Information or Trunk Information.
Figure 3-53 Displaying Port/Trunk Information
Field Attributes (CLI)
Basic Information:
• Port type – Indicates the port type. (100BASE-TX, 1000BASE-T, or SFP)
• MAC address – The physical layer address for this port. (To access this item on
the web, see “Setting the Switch’s IP Address” on page 3-14.)
Configuration:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Name – Interface label.
Port admin – Shows if the interface is enabled or disabled (i.e., up or down).
Speed-duplex – Shows the current speed and duplex mode. (Auto, or fixed choice)
Capabilities – Specifies the capabilities to be advertised for a port during
auto-negotiation. (To access this item on the web, see “Configuring Interface
Connections” on page 3-48.) The following capabilities are supported.
- 10half - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
- 10full - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
- 100half - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
- 100full - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
- 1000full - Supports 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation
- Sym - Transmits and receives pause frames for flow control
- FC - Supports flow control
Broadcast storm – Shows if broadcast storm control is enabled or disabled.
Broadcast storm limit – Shows the broadcast storm threshold.
(64-95232000 octets per second)
Flow control – Shows if flow control is enabled or disabled.
LACP – Shows if LACP is enabled or disabled.
Port Security – Shows if port security is enabled or disabled.
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Port Configuration
3
• Max MAC count – Shows the maximum number of MAC address that can be
learned by a port. (0 - 1024 addresses)
• Port security action – Shows the response to take when a security violation is
detected. (shutdown, trap, trap-and-shutdown, or none)
Current Status:
• Link Status – Indicates if the link is up or down.
• Port Operation Status – Provides detailed information on port state.
(Displayed only when the link is up.)
• Operation speed-duplex – Shows the current speed and duplex mode.
• Flow control type – Indicates the type of flow control currently in use.
(IEEE 802.3x, Back-Pressure or none)
CLI – This example shows the connection status for Port 5.
Console#show interfaces status ethernet 1/5
Information of Eth 1/5
Basic information:
Port type:
100TX
Mac address:
00-30-f1-47-58-46
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin:
Up
Speed-duplex:
Auto
Capabilities:
10half, 10full, 100half, 100full
Broadcast storm:
Enabled
Broadcast storm limit: 32000 octets/second
Flow control:
Disabled
Lacp:
Disabled
Port security:
Disabled
Max MAC count:
0
Port security action:
None
Current status:
Link status:
Down
Operation speed-duplex: 100full
Flow control type:
None
Console#
4-138
Configuring Interface Connections
You can use the Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration page to enable/disable an
interface, set auto-negotiation and the interface capabilities to advertise, or manually
fix the speed, duplex mode, and flow control.
Command Attributes
• Name – Allows you to label an interface. (Range: 1-64 characters)
• Admin – Allows you to manually disable an interface. You can disable an interface
due to abnormal behavior (e.g., excessive collisions), and then reenable it after the
problem has been resolved. You may also disable an interface for security
reasons.
• Speed/Duplex – Allows you to manually set the port speed and duplex mode.
(i.e., with auto-negotiation disabled)
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3
Configuring the Switch
• Flow Control – Allows automatic or manual selection of flow control.
• Autonegotiation (Port Capabilities) – Allows auto-negotiation to be enabled/
disabled. When auto-negotiation is enabled, you need to specify the capabilities to
be advertised. When auto-negotiation is disabled, you can force the settings for
speed, mode, and flow control.The following capabilities are supported.
- 10half - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
- 10full - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
- 100half - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
- 100full - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
- 1000full - Supports 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation
- Sym (Gigabit only) - Check this item to transmit and receive pause frames, or
clear it to auto-negotiate the sender and receiver for asymmetric pause frames.
(The current switch chip only supports symmetric pause frames.)
- FC - Supports flow control
Flow control can eliminate frame loss by “blocking” traffic from end stations or
segments connected directly to the switch when its buffers fill. When enabled,
back pressure is used for half-duplex operation and IEEE 802.3x for full-duplex
operation. (Avoid using flow control on a port connected to a hub unless it is
actually required to solve a problem. Otherwise back pressure jamming signals
may degrade overall performance for the segment attached to the hub.)
(Default: Autonegotiation enabled; Advertised capabilities for 100BASE-TX –
10half, 10full, 100half, 100full; 1000BASE-T – 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full,
1000full; 1000BASE-SX/LX/LH – 1000full)
• Trunk – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To create trunks and select port
members, see “Creating Trunk Groups” on page 3-93.
Note: Auto-negotiation must be disabled before you can configure or force the interface
to use the Speed/Duplex Mode or Flow Control options.
Web – Click Port, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Modify the required
interface settings, and click Apply.
Figure 3-54 Port/Trunk Configuration
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3
Port Configuration
CLI – Select the interface, and then enter the required settings.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/13
4-131
Console(config-if)#description RD SW#13
4-132
Console(config-if)#shutdown
4-136
.
Console(config-if)#no shutdown
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
4-133
Console(config-if)#speed-duplex 100half
4-132
Console(config-if)#flowcontrol
4-135
.
Console(config-if)#negotiation
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100half
4-134
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100full
Console(config-if)#capabilities flowcontrol
Creating Trunk Groups
You can create multiple links between devices that work as one virtual, aggregate
link. A port trunk offers a dramatic increase in bandwidth for network segments
where bottlenecks exist, as well as providing a fault-tolerant link between two
devices. You can create up to four trunks at a time.
The switch supports both static trunking and dynamic Link Aggregation Control
Protocol (LACP). Static trunks have to be manually configured at both ends of the
link, and the switches must comply with the Cisco EtherChannel standard. On the
other hand, LACP configured ports can automatically negotiate a trunked link with
LACP-configured ports on another device. You can configure any number of ports
on the switch as LACP, as long as they are not already configured as part of a static
trunk. If ports on another device are also configured as LACP, the switch and the
other device will negotiate a trunk link between them. If an LACP trunk consists of
more than eight ports, all other ports will be placed in a standby mode. Should one
link in the trunk fail, one of the standby ports will automatically be activated to
replace it.
Command Usage
Besides balancing the load across each port in the trunk, the other ports provide
redundancy by taking over the load if a port in the trunk fails. However, before
making any physical connections between devices, use the web interface or CLI to
specify the trunk on the devices at both ends. When using a port trunk, take note of
the following points:
• Finish configuring port trunks before you connect the corresponding network
cables between switches to avoid creating a loop.
• You can create up to four trunks on the switch, with up to eight ports per trunk.
• The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
3-93
3
Configuring the Switch
• When configuring static trunks on switches of different types, they must be
compatible with the Cisco EtherChannel standard.
• The ports at both ends of a trunk must be configured in an identical manner,
including communication mode (i.e., speed, duplex mode and flow control), VLAN
assignments, and CoS settings.
• All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to, added
or deleted from a VLAN.
• STP, VLAN, and IGMP settings can only be made for the entire trunk.
Statically Configuring a Trunk
Command Usage
statically
configured
}
• When configuring static trunks, you may not be
able to link switches of different types,
depending on the manufacturer’s
implementation. However, note that the static
trunks on this switch are Cisco EtherChannel
compatible.
• To avoid creating a loop in the network, be sure
you add a static trunk via the configuration
interface before connecting the ports, and also
disconnect the ports before removing a static
trunk via the configuration interface.
active
links
Command Attributes
• Member List (Current) – Shows configured trunks (Trunk ID, Unit, Port).
• New – Includes entry fields for creating new trunks.
- Trunk – Trunk identifier. (Range: 1-4)
- Port – Port identifier. (Range: 1-26/52)
Web – Click Port, Trunk Membership. Enter a trunk ID of 1-4 in the Trunk field,
select any of the switch ports from the scroll-down port list, and click Add. After you
have completed adding ports to the member list, click Apply.
Figure 3-55 Configuring Port Trunks
3-94
Port Configuration
3
CLI – This example creates trunk 2 with ports 1 and 2. Just connect these ports to
two static trunk ports on another switch to form a trunk.
Console(config)#interface port-channel 2
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#channel-group 2
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#channel-group 2
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 2
Information of Trunk 2
Basic information:
Port type:
100TX
Mac address:
00-00-E8-AA-AA-01
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin:
Up
Speed-duplex:
Auto
Capabilities:
10half, 10full, 100half, 100full
Flow control:
Disabled
Port security:
Disabled
Max MAC count:
0
Current status:
Created by:
User
Link status:
Up
Port operation status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 100full
Flow control type:
None
Member Ports: Eth1/1, Eth1/2,
Console#
4-131
4-131
4-147
4-138
Enabling LACP on Selected Ports
Command Usage
}
}
• To avoid creating a loop in the network, be sure
dynamically
enabled
you enable LACP before connecting the ports,
and also disconnect the ports before disabling
LACP.
active
backup
• If the target switch has also enabled LACP on the
links
link
connected ports, the trunk will be activated
automatically.
• A trunk formed with another switch using LACP
will automatically be assigned the next available
configured
members
trunk ID.
• If more than eight ports attached to the same
target switch have LACP enabled, the additional ports will be placed in standby
mode, and will only be enabled if one of the active links fails.
• All ports on both ends of an LACP trunk must be configured for full duplex, either
by forced mode or auto-negotiation.
• Trunks dynamically established through LACP will also be shown in the Member
List on the Trunk Membership menu (see page 3-94).
3-95
3
Configuring the Switch
Command Attributes
• Member List (Current) – Shows configured trunks (Unit, Port).
• New – Includes entry fields for creating new trunks.
- Port – Port identifier. (Range: 1-26/52)
Web – Click Port, LACP, Configuration. Select any of the switch ports from the
scroll-down port list and click Add. After you have completed adding ports to the
member list, click Apply.
Figure 3-56 LACP Configuration
CLI – The following example enables LACP for ports 3 to 6. Just connect these ports
to LACP-enabled trunk ports on another switch to form a trunk.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
.
.
.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/6
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
Information of Trunk 1
Basic information:
Port type:
100TX
Mac address:
22-22-22-22-22-2d
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin:
Up
Speed-duplex:
Auto
Capabilities:
10half, 10full, 100half, 100full
Flow control status:
Disabled
Port security:
Disabled
Max MAC count:
0
Current status:
Created by:
Lacp
Link status:
Up
Port operation status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 100full
Flow control type:
None
Member Ports: Eth1/3, Eth1/4, Eth1/5, Eth1/6,
Console#
3-96
4-131
4-148
4-138
Port Configuration
3
Configuring LACP Parameters
Dynamically Creating a Port Channel –
Ports assigned to a common port channel must meet the following criteria:
• Ports must have the same LACP System Priority.
• Ports must have the same LACP port Admin Key.
• However, if the “port channel” Admin Key is set (page 4-142), then the port Admin
Key must be set to the same value for a port to be allowed to join a channel group.
Note – If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key, page 4-151) is not set (through
the CLI) when a channel group is formed (i.e., it has a null value of 0), this key is set to
the same value as the port admin key used by the interfaces that joined the group (lacp
admin key, as described in this section and on page 4-150).
Command Attributes
Set Port Actor – This menu sets the local side of an aggregate link; i.e., the ports on
this switch.
• Port – Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• System Priority – LACP system priority is used to determine link aggregation
group (LAG) membership, and to identify this device to other switches during LAG
negotiations. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 32768)
- Ports must be configured with the same system priority to join the same LAG.
- System priority is combined with the switch’s MAC address to form the LAG
identifier. This identifier is used to indicate a specific LAG during LACP
negotiations with other systems.
• Admin Key – The LACP administration key must be set to the same value for ports
that belong to the same LAG. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 1)
• Port Priority – If a link goes down, LACP port priority is used to select a backup
link. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 32768)
Set Port Partner – This menu sets the remote side of an aggregate link; i.e., the
ports on the attached device. The command attributes have the same meaning as
those used for the port actor. However, configuring LACP settings for the partner
only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and will only take
effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the partner.
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3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Port, LACP, Aggregation Port. Set the System Priority, Admin Key, and
Port Priority for the Port Actor. You can optionally configure these settings for the
Port Partner. (Be aware that these settings only affect the administrative state of the
partner, and will not take effect until the next time an aggregate link is formed with
this device.) After you have completed setting the port LACP parameters, click Apply.
Figure 3-57 LACP - Aggregation Port
3-98
Port Configuration
3
CLI – The following example configures LACP parameters for ports 1-4. Ports 1-4
are used as active members of the LAG.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
4-131
Console(config-if)#lacp actor system-priority 3
4-149
Console(config-if)#lacp actor admin-key 120
4-150
Console(config-if)#lacp actor port-priority 128
4-152
Console(config-if)#exit
.
.
.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/4
Console(config-if)#lacp actor system-priority 3
Console(config-if)#lacp actor admin-key 120
Console(config-if)#lacp actor port-priority 512
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show lacp sysid
4-152
Port Channel
System Priority
System MAC Address
------------------------------------------------------------------------1
3
00-00-E9-31-31-31
2
32768
00-00-E9-31-31-31
3
32768
00-00-E9-31-31-31
4
32768
00-00-E9-31-31-31
Console#show lacp 1 internal
4-152
Port channel : 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Oper Key : 120
Admin Key : 0
Eth 1/1
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Internal:
30 sec
LACP System Priority: 3
LACP Port Priority:
128
Admin Key:
120
Oper Key:
120
Admin State : defaulted, aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
Oper State:
distributing, collecting, synchronization,
aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
Displaying LACP Port Counters
You can display statistics for LACP protocol messages.
Table 3-8 LACP Port Counters
Field
Description
LACPDUs Sent
Number of valid LACPDUs transmitted from this channel group.
LACPDUs Received
Number of valid LACPDUs received on this channel group.
Marker Sent
Number of valid Marker PDUs transmitted from this channel group.
Marker Received
Number of valid Marker PDUs received by this channel group.
3-99
3
Configuring the Switch
Table 3-8 LACP Port Counters (Continued)
Field
Description
LACPDUs Unknown Pkts
Number of frames received that either (1) Carry the Slow Protocols
Ethernet Type value, but contain an unknown PDU, or (2) are addressed
to the Slow Protocols group MAC Address, but do not carry the Slow
Protocols Ethernet Type.
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts
Number of frames that carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet Type value, but
contain a badly formed PDU or an illegal value of Protocol Subtype.
Web – Click Port, LACP, Port Counters Information. Select a member port to display
the corresponding information.
Figure 3-58 LACP - Port Counters Information
CLI – The following example displays LACP counters for port channel 1.
Console#show lacp counters
4-152
Port channel : 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Sent:
91
LACPDUs Receive:
43
Marker Sent:
0
Marker Receive:
0
LACPDUs Unknown Pkts: 0
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts: 0
.
.
.
3-100
Port Configuration
3
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Local Side
You can display configuration settings and the operational state for the local side of
an link aggregation.
Table 3-9 LACP Internal Configuration Information
Field
Description
Oper Key
Current operational value of the key for the aggregation port.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the key for the aggregation port.
LACPDUs Internal
Number of seconds before invalidating received LACPDU information.
LACP System Priority
LACP system priority assigned to this port channel.
LACP Port Priority
LACP port priority assigned to this interface within the channel group.
Admin State,
Oper State
Administrative or operational values of the actor’s state parameters:
• Expired – The actor’s receive machine is in the expired state;
• Defaulted – The actor’s receive machine is using defaulted operational partner
information, administratively configured for the partner.
• Distributing – If false, distribution of outgoing frames on this link is disabled; i.e.,
distribution is currently disabled and is not expected to be enabled in the absence
of administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
• Collecting – Collection of incoming frames on this link is enabled; i.e., collection
is currently enabled and is not expected to be disabled in the absence of
administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
• Synchronization – The System considers this link to be IN_SYNC; i.e., it has
been allocated to the correct Link Aggregation Group, the group has been
associated with a compatible Aggregator, and the identity of the Link Aggregation
Group is consistent with the System ID and operational Key information
transmitted.
• Aggregation – The system considers this link to be aggregatable; i.e., a potential
candidate for aggregation.
• Long timeout – Periodic transmission of LACPDUs uses a slow transmission rate.
• LACP-Activity – Activity control value with regard to this link.
(0: Passive; 1: Active)
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Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Port, LACP, Port Internal Information. Select a port channel to display
the corresponding information.
Figure 3-59 LACP - Port Internal Information
CLI – The following example displays the LACP configuration settings and
operational state for the local side of port channel 1.
Console#show lacp 1 internal
4-152
Port channel : 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Oper Key : 120
Admin Key : 0
Eth 1/1
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Internal:
30 sec
LACP System Priority: 3
LACP Port Priority:
128
Admin Key:
120
Oper Key:
120
Admin State : defaulted, aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
Oper State:
distributing, collecting, synchronization,
aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
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3
Port Configuration
Displaying LACP Settings and Status for the Remote Side
You can display configuration settings and the operational state for the remote side
of an link aggregation.
Table 3-10 LACP Neighbor Configuration Information
Field
Description
Partner Admin System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the user.
Partner Oper System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the LACP protocol.
Partner Admin Port Number Current administrative value of the port number for the protocol Partner.
Partner Oper Port Number
Operational port number assigned to this aggregation port by the port’s
protocol partner.
Port Admin Priority
Current administrative value of the port priority for the protocol partner.
Port Oper Priority
Priority value assigned to this aggregation port by the partner.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Oper Key
Current operational value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Admin State
Administrative values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
Oper State
Operational values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
Web – Click Port, LACP, Port Neighbors Information. Select a port channel to
display the corresponding information.
Figure 3-60 LACP - Port Neighbors Information
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Configuring the Switch
CLI – The following example displays the LACP configuration settings and
operational state for the remote side of port channel 1.
Console#show lacp 1 neighbors
4-152
Port channel 1 neighbors
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Partner Admin System ID:
32768, 00-00-00-00-00-00
Partner Oper System ID:
3, 00-30-F1-CE-2A-20
Partner Admin Port Number: 5
Partner Oper Port Number: 3
Port Admin Priority:
32768
Port Oper Priority:
128
Admin Key:
0
Oper Key:
120
Admin State:
defaulted, distributing, collecting,
synchronization, long timeout,
Oper State:
distributing, collecting, synchronization,
aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
3-104
Port Configuration
3
Setting Broadcast Storm Thresholds
Broadcast storms may occur when a device on your network is malfunctioning, or if
application programs are not well designed or properly configured. If there is too
much broadcast traffic on your network, performance can be severely degraded or
everything can come to complete halt.
You can protect your network from broadcast storms by setting a threshold for
broadcast traffic. Any broadcast packets exceeding the specified threshold will then
be dropped.
Command Usage
• Broadcast Storm Control is enabled by default.
• Broadcast control does not effect IP multicast traffic.
• The specified threshold applies to all ports on the switch.
Command Attributes
• Threshold – Threshold as percentage of port bandwidth.
(Range: 64-95232000; Default: 32000 octets per second)
• Protect Status – Shows whether or not broadcast storm control has been enabled.
(Default: Enabled)
Web – Click Port, Port/Trunk Broadcast Control. Set the threshold, mark the
Enabled field for the desired interface and click Apply.
Figure 3-61 Port Broadcast Control
3-105
3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – Specify any interface, and then enter the threshold. The following disables
broadcast storm control for port 1, and then sets broadcast suppression at 600
octets per second for port 2 (which applies to all ports).
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#no switchport broadcast
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport broadcast octet-rate 600
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/2
Information of Eth 1/2
Broadcast threshold:
Enabled, 600 octets/second
Lacp status:
Enabled
Ingress rate limit: disable, Level: 30
Egress rate limit: disable, Level: 30
VLAN membership mode:
Hybrid
Ingress rule:
Disabled
Acceptable frame type:
All frames
Native VLAN:
1
Priority for untagged traffic: 0
Gvrp status:
Disabled
Allowed Vlan:
1(u),
Forbidden Vlan:
Private-VLAN mode:
NONE
Private-VLAN host-association: NONE
Private-VLAN mapping:
NONE
Console#
4-131
4-137
4-137
4-140
Configuring Port Mirroring
You can mirror traffic from any source port to a
target port for real-time analysis. You can then
attach a logic analyzer or RMON probe to the
target port and study the traffic crossing the
source port in a completely unobtrusive manner.
Command Usage
Source
port(s)
Single
target
port
• Monitor port speed should match or exceed source port speed, otherwise traffic
may be dropped from the monitor port.
• All mirror sessions have to share the same destination port.
• When mirroring port traffic, the target port must be included in the same VLAN as
the source port.
Command Attributes
• Mirror Sessions – Displays a list of current mirror sessions.
• Source Port – The port whose traffic will be monitored.
• Type – Allows you to select which traffic to mirror to the target port, Rx (receive),
or Tx (transmit).
• Target Port – The port that will mirror the traffic on the source port.
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Port Configuration
Web – Click Port, Mirror Port Configuration. Specify the source port, the traffic type
to be mirrored, and the monitor port, then click Add.
Figure 3-62 Mirror Port Configuration
CLI – Use the interface command to select the monitor port, then use the port
monitor command to specify the source port and traffic type.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/10
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/13 tx
Console(config-if)#
4-131
4-142
Configuring Rate Limits
This function allows the network manager to control the maximum rate for traffic
transmitted or received on a port. Rate limiting is configured on ports at the edge of
a network to limit traffic coming into or out of the network. Traffic that falls within the
rate limit is transmitted, while packets that exceed the acceptable amount of traffic
are dropped.
Rate limiting can be applied to individual ports or trunks. When an interface is
configured with this feature, the traffic rate will be monitored by the hardware to
verify conformity. Non-conforming traffic is dropped, conforming traffic is forwarded
without any changes.
Rate Limit Granularity
Rate limit granularity is an additional feature enabling the network manager greater
control over traffic on the network. The “rate limit granularity” is multiplied by the
“rate limit level” (page 3-108) to set the actual rate limit for an interface. Granularity
is a global setting that applies to Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet interfaces.
Command Usage
• For Fast Ethernet interfaces, the rate limit granularity can be set to 512 Kbps,
1 Mbps, or 3.3 Mbps
• For Gigabit Ethernet interfaces, the rate limit granularity is 33.3 Mbps.
3-107
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Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Port, Rate Limit, Granularity. Select the required rate limit granularity for
Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet, and click apply.
Figure 3-63 Rate Limit Granularity Configuration
CLI - This example sets and displays Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet granularity.
Console(config)#rate-limit fastethernet granularity 512
Console(config)#rate-limit gigabitethernet granularity 33300
console#show rate-limit
Fast ethernet granularity:
4-145
4-145
4-145
512
Gigabit ethernet granularity:
Console#
33300
Rate Limit Configuration
Use the rate limit configuration pages to apply rate limiting.
Command Usage
• Input and output rate limit can be enabled or disabled for individual interfaces.
Command Attributes
• Port/Trunk – Displays the port number.
• Rate Limit Status – Enables or disables the rate limit. (Default: Disabled)
• Rate Limit Level – Sets the rate limit level.
Note: Actual rate limit = Rate Limit Level * Granularity
3-108
3
Port Configuration
Web – Click Port, Rate Limit, Input/Output Port/Trunk Configuration. Enable the
Rate Limit Status for the required interfaces, set the Rate Limit Level, and click
Apply.
Figure 3-64 Output Rate Limit Port Configuration
CLI - This example sets the rate limit level for input and output traffic passing
through port 3.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#rate-limit input level 25
Console(config-if)#rate-limit output level 25
Console(config-if)#
4-131
4-144
4-144
Showing Port Statistics
You can display standard statistics on network traffic from the Interfaces Group and
Ethernet-like MIBs, as well as a detailed breakdown of traffic based on the RMON
MIB. Interfaces and Ethernet-like statistics display errors on the traffic passing
through each port. This information can be used to identify potential problems with
the switch (such as a faulty port or unusually heavy loading). RMON statistics
provide access to a broad range of statistics, including a total count of different
frame types and sizes passing through each port. All values displayed have been
accumulated since the last system reboot, and are shown as counts per second.
Statistics are refreshed every 60 seconds by default.
Note: RMON groups 2, 3 and 9 can only be accessed using SNMP management
software such as HP OpenView.
3-109
3
Configuring the Switch
Table 3-11 Port Statistics
Parameter
Description
Interface Statistics
Received Octets
The total number of octets received on the interface, including framing
characters.
Received Unicast Packets
The number of subnetwork-unicast packets delivered to a higher-layer
protocol.
Received Multicast Packets
The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher (sub-)layer,
which were addressed to a multicast address at this sub-layer.
Received Broadcast Packets
The number of packets, delivered by this sub-layer to a higher (sub-)layer,
which were addressed to a broadcast address at this sub-layer.
Received Discarded Packets
The number of inbound packets which were chosen to be discarded even
though no errors had been detected to prevent their being deliverable to a
higher-layer protocol. One possible reason for discarding such a packet
could be to free up buffer space.
Received Unknown Packets
The number of packets received via the interface which were discarded
because of an unknown or unsupported protocol.
Received Errors
The number of inbound packets that contained errors preventing them
from being deliverable to a higher-layer protocol.
Transmit Octets
The total number of octets transmitted out of the interface, including
framing characters.
Transmit Unicast Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted to a subnetwork-unicast address, including those that were
discarded or not sent.
Transmit Multicast Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted, and which were addressed to a multicast address at this
sub-layer, including those that were discarded or not sent.
Transmit Broadcast Packets
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested be
transmitted, and which were addressed to a broadcast address at this
sub-layer, including those that were discarded or not sent.
Transmit Discarded Packets
The number of outbound packets which were chosen to be discarded even
though no errors had been detected to prevent their being transmitted.
One possible reason for discarding such a packet could be to free up
buffer space.
Transmit Errors
The number of outbound packets that could not be transmitted because of
errors.
Etherlike Statistics
Alignment Errors
The number of alignment errors (missynchronized data packets).
Late Collisions
The number of times that a collision is detected later than 512 bit-times
into the transmission of a packet.
FCS Errors
A count of frames received on a particular interface that are an integral
number of octets in length but do not pass the FCS check. This count does
not include frames received with frame-too-long or frame-too-short error.
3-110
3
Port Configuration
Table 3-11 Port Statistics (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Excessive Collisions
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails due
to excessive collisions. This counter does not increment when the
interface is operating in full-duplex mode.
Single Collision Frames
The number of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is
inhibited by exactly one collision.
Internal MAC Transmit Errors
A count of frames for which transmission on a particular interface fails due
to an internal MAC sublayer transmit error.
Multiple Collision Frames
A count of successfully transmitted frames for which transmission is
inhibited by more than one collision.
Carrier Sense Errors
The number of times that the carrier sense condition was lost or never
asserted when attempting to transmit a frame.
SQE Test Errors
A count of times that the SQE TEST ERROR message is generated by the
PLS sublayer for a particular interface.
Frames Too Long
A count of frames received on a particular interface that exceed the
maximum permitted frame size.
Deferred Transmissions
A count of frames for which the first transmission attempt on a particular
interface is delayed because the medium was busy.
Internal MAC Receive Errors
A count of frames for which reception on a particular interface fails due to
an internal MAC sublayer receive error.
RMON Statistics
Drop Events
The total number of events in which packets were dropped due to lack of
resources.
Jabbers
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets), and had either an FCS
or alignment error.
Received Bytes
Total number of bytes of data received on the network. This statistic can
be used as a reasonable indication of Ethernet utilization.
Collisions
The best estimate of the total number of collisions on this Ethernet
segment.
Received Frames
The total number of frames (bad, broadcast and multicast) received.
Broadcast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to the
broadcast address. Note that this does not include multicast packets.
Multicast Frames
The total number of good frames received that were directed to this
multicast address.
CRC/Alignment Errors
The number of CRC/alignment errors (FCS or alignment errors).
Undersize Frames
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets long
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
Oversize Frames
The total number of frames received that were longer than 1518 octets
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and were otherwise well
formed.
3-111
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Configuring the Switch
Table 3-11 Port Statistics (Continued)
Parameter
Description
Fragments
The total number of frames received that were less than 64 octets in length
(excluding framing bits, but including FCS octets) and had either an FCS
or alignment error.
64 Bytes Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and
transmitted that were 64 octets in length (excluding framing bits but
including FCS octets).
65-127 Byte Frames
128-255 Byte Frames
256-511 Byte Frames
512-1023 Byte Frames
1024-1518 Byte Frames
1519-1536 Byte Frames
The total number of frames (including bad packets) received and
transmitted where the number of octets fall within the specified range
(excluding framing bits but including FCS octets).
3-112
Port Configuration
3
Web – Click Port, Port Statistics. Select the required interface, and click Query. You
can also use the Refresh button at the bottom of the page to update the screen.
Figure 3-65 Port Statistics
3-113
3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – This example shows statistics for port 13.
Console#show interfaces counters ethernet 1/13
4-139
Ethernet 1/13
Iftable stats:
Octets input: 868453, Octets output: 3492122
Unicast input: 7315, Unitcast output: 6658
Discard input: 0, Discard output: 0
Error input: 0, Error output: 0
Unknown protos input: 0, QLen output: 0
Extended iftable stats:
Multi-cast input: 0, Multi-cast output: 17027
Broadcast input: 231, Broadcast output: 7
Ether-like stats:
Alignment errors: 0, FCS errors: 0
Single Collision frames: 0, Multiple collision frames: 0
SQE Test errors: 0, Deferred transmissions: 0
Late collisions: 0, Excessive collisions: 0
Internal mac transmit errors: 0, Internal mac receive errors: 0
Frame too longs: 0, Carrier sense errors: 0
Symbol errors: 0
RMON stats:
Drop events: 0, Octets: 4422579, Packets: 31552
Broadcast pkts: 238, Multi-cast pkts: 17033
Undersize pkts: 0, Oversize pkts: 0
Fragments: 0, Jabbers: 0
CRC align errors: 0, Collisions: 0
Packet size <= 64 octets: 25568, Packet size 65 to 127 octets: 1616
Packet size 128 to 255 octets: 1249, Packet size 256 to 511 octets: 1449
Packet size 512 to 1023 octets: 802, Packet size 1024 to 1518 octets: 871
Console#
Address Table Settings
Switches store the addresses for all known devices. This information is used to pass
traffic directly between the inbound and outbound ports. All the addresses learned
by monitoring traffic are stored in the dynamic address table. You can also manually
configure static addresses that are bound to a specific port.
Setting Static Addresses
A static address can be assigned to a specific interface on this switch. Static
addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved. When a static
address is seen on another interface, the address will be ignored and will not be
written to the address table.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
Static Address Counts8 – The number of manually configured addresses.
Current Static Address Table – Lists all the static addresses.
Interface – Port or trunk associated with the device assigned a static address.
MAC Address – Physical address of a device mapped to this interface.
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
8. Web Only.
3-114
3
Address Table Settings
Web – Click Address Table, Static Addresses. Specify the interface, the MAC
address and VLAN, then click Add Static Address.
Figure 3-66 Static Addresses
CLI – This example adds an address to the static address table, but sets it to be
deleted when the switch is reset.
Console(config)#mac-address-table static 00-e0-29-94-34-de interface
ethernet 1/1 vlan 1 delete-on-reset
4-157
Console(config)#
Displaying the Address Table
The Dynamic Address Table contains the MAC addresses learned by monitoring the
source address for traffic entering the switch. When the destination address for
inbound traffic is found in the database, the packets intended for that address are
forwarded directly to the associated port. Otherwise, the traffic is flooded to all ports.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
Interface – Indicates a port or trunk.
MAC Address – Physical address associated with this interface.
VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
Address Table Sort Key – You can sort the information displayed based on MAC
address, VLAN or interface (port or trunk).
• Dynamic Address Counts – The number of addresses dynamically learned.
• Current Dynamic Address Table – Lists all the dynamic addresses.
3-115
3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Address Table, Dynamic Addresses. Specify the search type (i.e., mark
the Interface, MAC Address, or VLAN checkbox), select the method of sorting the
displayed addresses, and then click Query.
Figure 3-67 Dynamic Addresses
CLI – This example also displays the address table entries for port 1.
Console#show mac-address-table interface ethernet 1/1
Interface Mac Address
Vlan Type
--------- ----------------- ---- ----------------Eth 1/ 1 00-E0-29-94-34-DE
1 Delete-on-reset
Eth 1/ 1 00-20-9C-23-CD-60
2 Learned
Console#
3-116
4-158
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
3
Changing the Aging Time
You can set the aging time for entries in the dynamic address table.
Command Attributes
• Aging Status – Enables/disables the function.
• Aging Time – The time after which a learned entry is discarded.
(Range: 10-30000 seconds; Default: 300 seconds)
Web – Click Address Table, Address Aging. Specify the new aging time, click Apply.
Figure 3-68 Address Aging
CLI – This example sets the aging time to 300 seconds.
Console(config)#mac-address-table aging-time 300
Console(config)#
4-159
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) can be used to detect and disable network
loops, and to provide backup links between switches, bridges or routers. This allows
the switch to interact with other bridging devices (that is, an STA-compliant switch,
bridge or router) in your network to ensure that only one route exists between any
two stations on the network, and provide backup links which automatically take over
when a primary link goes down.
The spanning tree algorithms supported by this switch include these versions:
• STP – Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
• RSTP – Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)
• MSTP – Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1s)
STP – STP uses a distributed algorithm to select a bridging device (STP-compliant
switch, bridge or router) that serves as the root of the spanning tree network. It
selects a root port on each bridging device (except for the root device) which incurs
the lowest path cost when forwarding a packet from that device to the root device.
Then it selects a designated bridging device from each LAN which incurs the lowest
path cost when forwarding a packet from that LAN to the root device. All ports
connected to designated bridging devices are assigned as designated ports. After
determining the lowest cost spanning tree, it enables all root ports and designated
3-117
3
Configuring the Switch
ports, and disables all other ports. Network packets are therefore only forwarded
between root ports and designated ports, eliminating any possible network loops.
Designated
Root
x
x
x
Designated
Bridge
x
Designated
Port
Root
Port
x
Once a stable network topology has been established, all bridges listen for Hello
BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) transmitted from the Root Bridge. If a bridge
does not get a Hello BPDU after a predefined interval (Maximum Age), the bridge
assumes that the link to the Root Bridge is down. This bridge will then initiate
negotiations with other bridges to reconfigure the network to reestablish a valid
network topology.
RSTP – RSTP is designed as a general replacement for the slower, legacy STP.
RSTP is also incorporated into MSTP. RSTP achieves must faster reconfiguration
(i.e., around 1 to 3 seconds, compared to 30 seconds or more for STP) by reducing
the number of state changes before active ports start learning, predefining an
alternate route that can be used when a node or port fails, and retaining the
forwarding database for ports insensitive to changes in the tree structure when
reconfiguration occurs.
MSTP – When using STP or RSTP, it may be difficult to maintain a stable path
between all VLAN members. Frequent changes in the tree structure can easily
isolate some of the group members. MSTP (which is based on RSTP for fast
convergence) is designed to support independent spanning trees based on VLAN
groups. Using multiple spanning trees can provide multiple forwarding paths and
enable load balancing. One or more VLANs can be grouped into a Multiple Spanning
Tree Instance (MSTI). MSTP builds a separate Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) for
each instance to maintain connectivity among each of the assigned VLAN groups.
3-118
3
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
MSTP then builds a Internal Spanning Tree (IST) for the Region containing all
commonly configured MSTP bridges.
IST
(for this Region)
MST 1
Region R
MST 2
An MST Region consists of a group of interconnected bridges that have the same
MST Configuration Identifiers (including the Region Name, Revision Level and
Configuration Digest – see “Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees” on page 3-132).
An MST Region may contain multiple MSTP Instances. An Internal Spanning Tree
(IST) is used to connect all the MSTP switches within an MST region. A Common
Spanning Tree (CST) interconnects all adjacent MST Regions, and acts as a virtual
bridge node for communications with STP or RSTP nodes in the global network.
Region 1
Region 1
CIST
CST
IST
Region 2
Region 4
Region 4
Region 3
Region 2
Region 3
MSTP connects all bridges and LAN segments with a single Common and Internal
Spanning Tree (CIST). The CIST is formed as a result of the running spanning tree
algorithm between switches that support the STP, RSTP, MSTP protocols.
Displaying Global Settings
You can display a summary of the current bridge STA information that applies to the
entire switch using the STA Information screen.
Field Attributes
• Spanning Tree State – Shows if the switch is enabled to participate in an
STA-compliant network.
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Configuring the Switch
• Bridge ID – A unique identifier for this bridge, consisting of the bridge priority, the
MST Instance ID 0 for the Common Spanning Tree when spanning tree mode is
set to MSTP (page 3-123), and MAC address (where the address is taken from the
switch system).
• Max Age – The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without receiving a
configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All device ports (except
for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at regular intervals.
Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last configuration
message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is a root port, a
new root port is selected from among the device ports attached to the network.
(References to “ports” in this section mean “interfaces,” which includes both ports
and trunks.)
• Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a
configuration message.
• Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait before
changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required
because every device must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
information that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary
data loops might result.
• Designated Root – The priority and MAC address of the device in the Spanning
Tree that this switch has accepted as the root device.
- Root Port – The number of the port on this switch that is closest to the root. This
switch communicates with the root device through this port. If there is no root
port, then this switch has been accepted as the root device of the Spanning Tree
network.
- Root Path Cost – The path cost from the root port on this switch to the root
device.
• Configuration Changes – The number of times the Spanning Tree has been
reconfigured.
• Last Topology Change – Time since the Spanning Tree was last reconfigured.
These additional parameters are only displayed for the CLI:
• Spanning tree mode – Specifies the type of spanning tree used on this switch:
- STP: Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
- RSTP: Rapid Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1w)
- MSTP: Multiple Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1s)
• Instance – Instance identifier of this spanning tree. (This is always 0 for the CIST.)
• VLANs configuration – VLANs assigned to the CIST.
• Priority – Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and
designated port. The device with the highest priority (i.e., lower numeric value)
becomes the STA root device. However, if all devices have the same priority, the
device with the lowest MAC address will then become the root device.
• Root Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which this device transmits a
configuration message.
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Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
3
• Root Maximum Age – The maximum time (in seconds) this device can wait
without receiving a configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All
device ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages
at regular intervals. If the root port ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message), a new root port is selected from among the device ports
attached to the network. (References to “ports” in this section means “interfaces,”
which includes both ports and trunks.)
• Root Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) this device will wait before
changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required
because every device must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
information that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary
data loops might result.
• Max hops – The max number of hop counts for the MST region.
• Remaining hops – The remaining number of hop counts for the MST instance.
• Transmission limit – The minimum interval between the transmission of
consecutive RSTP/MSTP BPDUs.
• Path Cost Method – The path cost is used to determine the best path between
devices. The path cost method is used to determine the range of values that can
be assigned to each interface.
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Information.
Figure 3-69 STA Information
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Configuring the Switch
CLI – This command displays global STA settings, followed by settings for each port.
Console#show spanning-tree
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode:
MSTP
Spanning tree enable/disable:
enable
Instance:
0
Vlans configuration:
1-4093
Priority:
32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.):
2
Bridge Max Age (sec.):
20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Root Hello Time (sec.):
2
Root Max Age (sec.):
20
Root Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Max hops:
20
Remaining hops:
20
Designated Root
32768.0.0000ABCD0000
Current root port:
1
Current root cost
200000
Number of topology changes:
1
Last topology changes time (sec.): 13380
Transmission limit:
3
Path Cost Method:
long
---------------------------------------------------------------
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Eth 1/ 1 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin status:
enabled
Role:
disable
State:
discarding
External admin path cost: 10000
Internal admin cost:
10000
External oper path cost: 10000
Internal oper path cost: 10000
Priority:
128
Designated cost:
300000
Designated port:
128.1
Designated root:
32768.0000E8AAAA00
Designated bridge:
32768.0030F1D473A0
Fast forwarding:
disabled
Forward transitions:
0
Admin edge port:
disabled
Oper edge port:
disabled
Admin Link type:
auto
Oper Link type:
point-to-point
enabled
.Spanning Tree Status:
.
.
Note: The current root port and current root cost display as zero when this device is not
connected to the network.
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Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
3
Configuring Global Settings
Global settings apply to the entire switch.
Command Usage
• Spanning Tree Protocol9
Uses RSTP for the internal state machine, but sends only 802.1D BPDUs. This
creates one spanning tree instance for the entire network. If multiple VLANs are
implemented on a network, the path between specific VLAN members may be
inadvertently disabled to prevent network loops, thus isolating group members.
When operating multiple VLANs, we recommend selecting the MSTP option.
• Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RSTP supports connections to either STP or RSTP nodes by monitoring the
incoming protocol messages and dynamically adjusting the type of protocol
messages the RSTP node transmits, as described below:
- STP Mode – If the switch receives an 802.1D BPDU (i.e., STP BPDU) after a
port’s migration delay timer expires, the switch assumes it is connected to an
802.1D bridge and starts using only 802.1D BPDUs.
- RSTP Mode – If RSTP is using 802.1D BPDUs on a port and receives an RSTP
BPDU after the migration delay expires, RSTP restarts the migration delay timer
and begins using RSTP BPDUs on that port.
• Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
- To allow multiple spanning trees to operate over the network, you must configure
a related set of bridges with the same MSTP configuration, allowing them to
participate in a specific set of spanning tree instances.
- A spanning tree instance can exist only on bridges that have compatible VLAN
instance assignments.
- Be careful when switching between spanning tree modes. Changing modes
stops all spanning-tree instances for the previous mode and restarts the system
in the new mode, temporarily disrupting user traffic.
Command Attributes
Basic Configuration of Global Settings
• Spanning Tree State – Enables/disables STA on this switch. (Default: Enabled)
• Spanning Tree Type – Specifies the type of spanning tree used on this switch:
- STP: Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D); i.e., when this option is selected,
the switch will use RSTP set to STP forced compatibility mode).
- RSTP: Rapid Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1w); RSTP is the default.
- MSTP: Multiple Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1s)
• Priority – Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and
designated port. The device with the highest priority becomes the STA root device.
However, if all devices have the same priority, the device with the lowest MAC
9.
STP and RSTP BPDUs are transmitted as untagged frames, and will cross any VLAN
boundaries.
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3
Configuring the Switch
address will then become the root device. (Note that lower numeric values indicate
higher priority.)
• Default: 32768
• Range: 0-61440, in steps of 4096
• Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864,
40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, 61440
Root Device Configuration
• Hello Time – Interval (in seconds) at which the root device transmits a
configuration message.
• Default: 2
• Minimum: 1
• Maximum: The lower of 10 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) -1]
• Maximum Age – The maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without
receiving a configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All device
ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at
regular intervals. Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If it is
a root port, a new root port is selected from among the device ports attached to the
network. (References to “ports” in this section mean “interfaces,” which includes
both ports and trunks.)
• Default: 20
• Minimum: The higher of 6 or [2 x (Hello Time + 1)].
• Maximum: The lower of 40 or [2 x (Forward Delay - 1)]
• Forward Delay – The maximum time (in seconds) this device will wait before
changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is required
because every device must receive information about topology changes before it
starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to listen for conflicting
information that would make it return to a discarding state; otherwise, temporary
data loops might result.
• Default: 15
• Minimum: The higher of 4 or [(Max. Message Age / 2) + 1]
• Maximum: 30
Configuration Settings for RSTP
The following attributes apply to both RSTP and MSTP:
• Path Cost Method – The path cost is used to determine the best path between
devices. The path cost method is used to determine the range of values that can
be assigned to each interface.
- Long: Specifies 32-bit based values that range from 1-200,000,000.
(This is the default.)
- Short: Specifies 16-bit based values that range from 1-65535.
• Transmission Limit – The maximum transmission rate for BPDUs is specified by
setting the minimum interval between the transmission of consecutive protocol
messages. (Range: 1-10; Default: 3)
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Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
Configuration Settings for MSTP
• Max Instance Numbers – The maximum number of MSTP instances to which this
switch can be assigned.
• Configuration Digest – An MD5 signature key that contains the VLAN ID to MST
ID mapping table. In other words, this key is a mapping of all VLANs to the CIST.
• Region Revision10 – The revision for this MSTI. (Range: 0-65535; Default: 0)
• Region Name – The name for this MSTI. (Maximum length: 32 characters)
• Max Hop Count – The maximum number of hops allowed in the MST region before
a BPDU is discarded. (Range: 1-40; Default: 20)
10. The MST name and revision number are both required to uniquely identify an MST region.
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3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Configuration. Modify the required attributes, and
click Apply.
Figure 3-70 STA Global Configuration
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3
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
CLI – This example enables Spanning Tree Protocol, sets the mode to MST, and
then configures the STA and MSTP parameters.
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config-mstp)#revision
Console(config-mstp)#name R&D
Console(config-mstp)#max-hops
Console(config-mstp)#
mode mstp
priority 40000
hello-time 5
max-age 38
forward-time 20
pathcost method long
transmission-limit 4
mst-configuration
1
30
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4-161
4-164
4-163
4-164
4-163
4-165
4-166
4-166
4-169
4-168
4-169
Displaying Interface Settings
The STA Port Information and STA Trunk Information pages display the current
status of ports and trunks in the Spanning Tree.
Field Attributes
• Spanning Tree – Shows if STA has been enabled on this interface.
• STA Status – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree:
- Discarding - Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward
packets.
- Learning - Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by
the Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory information. Port
address table is cleared, and the port begins learning addresses.
- Forwarding - Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
The rules defining port status are:
- A port on a network segment with no other STA compliant bridging device is
always forwarding.
- If two ports of a switch are connected to the same segment and there is no other
STA device attached to this segment, the port with the smaller ID forwards
packets and the other is discarding.
- All ports are discarding when the switch is booted, then some of them change
state to learning, and then to forwarding.
• Forward Transitions – The number of times this port has transitioned from the
Learning state to the Forwarding state.
• Designated Cost – The cost for a packet to travel from this port to the root in the
current Spanning Tree configuration. The slower the media, the higher the cost.
• Designated Bridge – The bridge priority and MAC address of the device through
which this port must communicate to reach the root of the Spanning Tree.
• Designated Port – The port priority and number of the port on the designated
bridging device through which this switch must communicate with the root of the
Spanning Tree.
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3
Configuring the Switch
• Oper Path Cost – The contribution of this port to the path cost of paths towards
the spanning tree root which include this port.
• Oper Link Type – The operational point-to-point status of the LAN segment
attached to this interface. This parameter is determined by manual configuration or
by auto-detection, as described for Admin Link Type in STA Port Configuration on
page 3-130.
• Oper Edge Port – This parameter is initialized to the setting for Admin Edge Port
in STA Port Configuration on page 3-130 (i.e., true or false), but will be set to false
if a BPDU is received, indicating that another bridge is attached to this port.
• Port Role – Roles are assigned according to whether the port is part of the active
topology connecting the bridge to the root bridge (i.e., root port), connecting a LAN
through the bridge to the root bridge (i.e., designated port), or is the MSTI regional
root (i.e., master port); or is an alternate or backup port that may provide
connectivity if other bridges, bridge ports, or LANs fail or are removed. The role is
set to disabled (i.e., disabled port) if a port has no role within the spanning tree.
R: Root Port
A: Alternate Port
D: Designated Port
B: Backup Port
Alternate port receives more
useful BPDUs from another
bridge and is therefore not
selected as the designated
R
port.
R
A
D
x
R
A
x
Backup port receives more
useful BPDUs from the same
bridge and is therefore not
selected as the designated
port.
R
D
B
B
• Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk.
(STA Port Information only)
These additional parameters are only displayed for the CLI:
• Admin status – Shows if this interface is enabled.
• External path cost – The path cost for the IST. This parameter is used by the
STA to determine the best path between devices. Therefore, lower values should
be assigned to ports attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports
with slower media. (Path cost takes precedence over port priority.)
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Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
3
• Internal path cost – The path cost for the MST. See the preceding item.
• Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Algorithm. If
the path cost for all ports on a switch is the same, the port with the highest priority
(i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an active link in the Spanning Tree. This
makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the Spanning Tree
Algorithm is detecting network loops. Where more than one port is assigned the
highest priority, the port with the lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
• Designated root – The priority and MAC address of the device in the Spanning
Tree that this switch has accepted as the root device.
• Fast forwarding – This field provides the same information as Admin Edge port,
and is only included for backward compatibility with earlier products.
• Admin Edge Port – You can enable this option if an interface is attached to a LAN
segment that is at the end of a bridged LAN or to an end node. Since end nodes
cannot cause forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to the spanning tree
forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker convergence for devices
such as workstations or servers, retains the current forwarding database to reduce
the amount of frame flooding required to rebuild address tables during
reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning tree to reconfigure when the
interface changes state, and also overcomes other STA-related timeout problems.
However, remember that Edge Port should only be enabled for ports connected to
an end-node device.
• Admin Link Type – The link type attached to this interface.
- Point-to-Point – A connection to exactly one other bridge.
- Shared – A connection to two or more bridges.
- Auto – The switch automatically determines if the interface is attached to a
point-to-point link or to shared media.
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Port Information or STA Trunk Information.
Figure 3-71 STA Port Information
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3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – This example shows the STA attributes for port 5.
Console#show spanning-tree ethernet 1/5
Eth 1/ 5 information
-------------------------------------------------------------Admin status:
enabled
Role:
disable
State:
discarding
External admin path cost: 10000
Internal admin cost:
10000
External oper path cost: 10000
Internal oper path cost: 10000
Priority:
128
Designated cost:
10000
Designated port:
128.1
Designated root:
32768.0.0000E8AAAA00
Designated bridge:
32768.0.0030F1D473A0
Fast forwarding:
disabled
Forward transitions:
2
Admin edge port:
disabled
Oper edge port:
disabled
Admin Link type:
auto
Oper Link type:
point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status:
enabled
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Console#
Configuring Interface Settings
You can configure RSTP and MSTP attributes for specific interfaces, including port
priority, path cost, link type, and edge port. You may use a different priority or path
cost for ports of the same media type to indicate the preferred path, link type to
indicate a point-to-point connection or shared-media connection, and edge port to
indicate if the attached device can support fast forwarding. (References to “ports” in
this section means “interfaces,” which includes both ports and trunks.)
Command Attributes
The following attributes are read-only and cannot be changed:
• STA State – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree.
(See Displaying Interface Settings on page 3-127 for additional information.)
• Discarding - Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward
packets.
• Learning - Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by
the Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory information. Port
address table is cleared, and the port begins learning addresses.
• Forwarding - Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
• Trunk11 – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk.
11. STA Port Configuration only
3-130
3
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
The following interface attributes can be configured:
• Spanning Tree – Enables/disables STA on this interface. (Default: Enabled)
• Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Protocol. If
the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with the highest priority
(i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an active link in the Spanning Tree. This
makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the Spanning Tree
Protocol is detecting network loops. Where more than one port is assigned the
highest priority, the port with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
• Default: 128
• Range: 0-240, in steps of 16
• Admin Path Cost – This parameter is used by the STA to determine the best path
between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports attached to
faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower media. (Path cost
takes precedence over port priority.) (Range: 0 for auto-configuration, 1-65535 for
the short path cost method (see page 3-123), 1-200,000,000 for the long path cost
method)
By default, the system automatically detects the speed and duplex mode used on
each port, and configures the path cost according to the values shown below. Path
cost “0” is used to indicate auto-configuration mode.
When the short path cost method is selected and the default path cost
recommended by the IEEE 8021w standard exceeds 65,535, the default is set to
65,535.
• Range –
-Ethernet: 200,000-20,000,000
-Fast Ethernet: 20,000-2,000,000
-Gigabit Ethernet: 2,000-200,000
• Default –
-Ethernet – Half duplex: 2,000,000; full duplex: 1,000,000; trunk: 500,000
-Fast Ethernet – Half duplex: 200,000; full duplex: 100,000; trunk: 50,000
-Gigabit Ethernet – Full duplex: 10,000; trunk: 5,000
• Admin Link Type – The link type attached to this interface.
• Point-to-Point – A connection to exactly one other bridge.
• Shared – A connection to two or more bridges.
• Auto – The switch automatically determines if the interface is attached to a
point-to-point link or to shared media. (This is the default setting.)
• Admin Edge Port (Fast Forwarding) – You can enable this option if an interface is
attached to a LAN segment that is at the end of a bridged LAN or to an end node.
Since end nodes cannot cause forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to
the spanning tree forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker
convergence for devices such as workstations or servers, retains the current
forwarding database to reduce the amount of frame flooding required to rebuild
address tables during reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning tree to
initiate reconfiguration when the interface changes state, and also overcomes
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Configuring the Switch
other STA-related timeout problems. However, remember that Edge Port should
only be enabled for ports connected to an end-node device. (Default: Disabled)
• Migration – If at any time the switch detects STP BPDUs, including Configuration
or Topology Change Notification BPDUs, it will automatically set the selected
interface to forced STP-compatible mode. However, you can also use the Protocol
Migration button to manually re-check the appropriate BPDU format (RSTP or
STP-compatible) to send on the selected interfaces. (Default: Disabled)
Web – Click Spanning Tree, STA, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Modify
the required attributes, then click Apply.
Figure 3-72 STA Port Configuration
CLI – This example sets STA attributes for port 7.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/7
Console(config-if)#no spanning-tree spanning-disabled
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree cost 50
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree link-type auto
Console(config-if)#no spanning-tree edge-port
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree protocol-migration
4-131
4-170
4-171
4-170
4-173
4-172
4-176
Configuring Multiple Spanning Trees
MSTP generates a unique spanning tree for each instance. This provides multiple
pathways across the network, thereby balancing the traffic load, preventing
wide-scale disruption when a bridge node in a single instance fails, and allowing for
faster convergence of a new topology for the failed instance.
By default all VLANs are assigned to the Internal Spanning Tree (MST Instance 0)
that connects all bridges and LANs within the MST region. This switch supports up
to 33 instances. You should try to group VLANs which cover the same general area
of your network. However, remember that you must configure all bridges within the
same MSTI Region (page 3-125) with the same set of instances, and the same
instance (on each bridge) with the same set of VLANs. Also, note that RSTP treats
each MSTI region as a single node, connecting all regions to the Common Spanning
Tree.
3-132
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Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
To use multiple spanning trees:
1. Set the spanning tree type to MSTP (STA Configuration, page 3-123).
2. Enter the spanning tree priority for the selected MST instance (MSTP VLAN
Configuration).
3. Add the VLANs that will share this MSTI (MSTP VLAN Configuration).
Note: All VLANs are automatically added to the IST (Instance 0).
To ensure that the MSTI maintains connectivity across the network, you must
configure a related set of bridges with the same MSTI settings.
Command Attributes
• MST Instance – Instance identifier of this spanning tree. (Default: 0)
• Priority – The priority of a spanning tree instance. (Range: 0-61440 in steps of
4096; Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864,
40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, 61440; Default: 32768)
• VLANs in MST Instance – VLANs assigned this instance.
• MST ID – Instance identifier to configure. (Range: 0-4094; Default: 0)
• VLAN ID – VLAN to assign to this selected MST instance. (Range: 1-4093)
The other global attributes are described under “Displaying Global Settings,” page 3-119. The
attributes displayed by the CLI for individual interfaces are described under “Displaying Interface
Settings,” page 3-127
3-133
3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Spanning Tree, MSTP, VLAN Configuration. Select an instance
identifier from the list, set the instance priority, and click Apply. To add the VLAN
members to an MSTI instance, enter the instance identifier, the VLAN identifier, and
click Add.
Figure 3-73 MSTP VLAN Configuration
CLI – This displays STA settings for instance 1, followed by settings for each port.
Console#show spanning-tree mst 1
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode:
MSTP
Spanning tree enabled/disabled:
enabled
Instance:
1
VLANs configuration:
1
Priority:
32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.):
2
Bridge Max Age (sec.):
20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Root Hello Time (sec.):
2
Root Max Age (sec.):
20
Root Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Max hops:
20
Remaining hops:
20
Designated Root:
32768.1.0030F1D473A0
Current root port:
7
Current root cost:
10000
Number of topology changes:
2
Last topology changes time (sec.):85
Transmission limit:
3
Path Cost Method:
long
3-134
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Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
3
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 7 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin status:
enabled
Role:
master
State:
forwarding
External admin path cost: 10000
Internal admin path cost: 10000
External oper path cost: 10000
Internal oper path cost: 10000
Priority:
128
Designated cost:
0
Designated port:
128.1
Designated root:
32768.1.0030F1D473A0
Designated bridge:
32768.1.0030F1D473A0
Fast forwarding:
disabled
Forward transitions:
1
Admin edge port:
disabled
Oper edge port:
disabled
Admin Link type:
auto
Oper Link type:
point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status:
enabled
.
.
.
CLI – This example sets the priority for MSTI 1, and adds VLANs 1-5 to this MSTI.
Console(config)#spanning-tree mst-configuration
Console(config-mst)#mst 1 priority 4096
Console(config-mstp)#mst 1 vlan 1-5
Console(config-mst)#
4-166
4-168
4-167
3-135
3
Configuring the Switch
Displaying Interface Settings for MSTP
The MSTP Port Information and MSTP Trunk Information pages display the current
status of ports and trunks in the selected MST instance.
Field Attributes
MST Instance ID – Instance identifier to configure. (Range: 0-4094; Default: 0)
The other attributes are described under “Displaying Interface Settings,” page 3-127.
Web – Click Spanning Tree, MSTP, Port Information or Trunk Information. Select the
required MST instance to display the current spanning tree values.
Figure 3-74 MSTP Port Information
CLI – This displays STA settings for instance 0, followed by settings for each port.
The settings for instance 0 are global settings that apply to the IST (page 3-119), the
settings for other instances only apply to the local spanning tree.
Console#show spanning-tree mst 0
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode:
MSTP
Spanning tree enabled/disabled:
enabled
Instance:
0
VLANs configuration:
2-4093
Priority:
32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.):
2
Bridge Max Age (sec.):
20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Root Hello Time (sec.):
2
Root Max Age (sec.):
20
Root Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Max hops:
20
Remaining hops:
20
Designated Root:
32768.0.0000E8AAAA00
Current root port:
1
Current root cost:
10000
Number of topology changes:
12
Last topology changes time (sec.):303
Transmission limit:
3
Path Cost Method:
long
3-136
4-178
Spanning Tree Algorithm Configuration
3
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin status:
enabled
Role:
root
State:
forwarding
External admin path cost: 10000
Internal admin path cost: 10000
External oper path cost: 10000
Internal oper path cost: 10000
Priority:
128
Designated cost:
0
Designated port:
128.4
Designated root:
32768.0.0000E8AAAA00
Designated bridge:
32768.0.0000E8AAAA00
Fast forwarding:
disabled
Forward transitions:
2
Admin edge port:
disabled
Oper edge port:
disabled
Admin Link type:
auto
Oper Link type:
point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status:
enabled
.
.
.
Configuring Interface Settings for MSTP
You can configure the STA interface settings for an MST Instance using the MSTP
Port Configuration and MSTP Trunk Configuration pages.
Field Attributes
The following attributes are read-only and cannot be changed:
• STA State – Displays current state of this port within the Spanning Tree.
(See Displaying Interface Settings on page 3-127 for additional information.)
• Discarding - Port receives STA configuration messages, but does not forward
packets.
• Learning - Port has transmitted configuration messages for an interval set by
the Forward Delay parameter without receiving contradictory information. Port
address table is cleared, and the port begins learning addresses.
• Forwarding - Port forwards packets, and continues learning addresses.
• Trunk – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk.
(STA Port Configuration only)
The following interface attributes can be configured:
• MST Instance ID – Instance identifier to configure. (Range: 0-4094; Default: 0)
• Priority – Defines the priority used for this port in the Spanning Tree Protocol. If
the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with the highest priority
(i.e., lowest value) will be configured as an active link in the Spanning Tree. This
makes a port with higher priority less likely to be blocked if the Spanning Tree
Protocol is detecting network loops. Where more than one port is assigned the
highest priority, the port with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
• Default: 128
• Range: 0-240, in steps of 16
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Configuring the Switch
• Admin MST Path Cost – This parameter is used by the MSTP to determine the
best path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports
attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower media.
(Path cost takes precedence over port priority.) Note that when the Path Cost
Method is set to short (page 3-63), the maximum path cost is 65,535.
By default, the system automatically detects the speed and duplex mode used on
each port, and configures the path cost according to the values shown below. Path
cost “0” is used to indicate auto-configuration mode. When the short path cost
method is selected and the default path cost recommended by the IEEE 8021w
standard exceeds 65,535, the default is set to 65,535.
• Range –
-Ethernet: 200,000-20,000,000
-Fast Ethernet: 20,000-2,000,000
-Gigabit Ethernet: 2,000-200,000
• Default –
-Ethernet – Half duplex: 2,000,000; full duplex: 1,000,000; trunk: 500,000
-Fast Ethernet – Half duplex: 200,000; full duplex: 100,000; trunk: 50,000
-Gigabit Ethernet – Full duplex: 10,000; trunk: 5,000
Web – Click Spanning Tree, MSTP, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Enter
the priority and path cost for an interface, and click Apply.
Figure 3-75 MSTP Port Configuration
CLI – This example sets the MSTP attributes for port 4.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/4
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst cost 50
Console(config-if)
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VLAN Configuration
VLAN Configuration
IEEE 802.1Q VLANs
In large networks, routers are used to isolate broadcast traffic for each subnet into
separate domains. This switch provides a similar service at Layer 2 by using VLANs
to organize any group of network nodes into separate broadcast domains. VLANs
confine broadcast traffic to the originating group, and can eliminate broadcast
storms in large networks. This also provides a more secure and cleaner network
environment.
An IEEE 802.1Q VLAN is a group of ports that can be located anywhere in the
network, but communicate as though they belong to the same physical segment.
VLANs help to simplify network management by allowing you to move devices to a
new VLAN without having to change any physical connections. VLANs can be easily
organized to reflect departmental groups (such as Marketing or R&D), usage groups
(such as e-mail), or multicast groups (used for multimedia applications such as
videoconferencing).
VLANs provide greater network efficiency by reducing broadcast traffic, and allow
you to make network changes without having to update IP addresses or IP subnets.
VLANs inherently provide a high level of network security since traffic must pass
through a configured Layer 3 link to reach a different VLAN.
This switch supports the following VLAN features:
• Up to 255 VLANs based on the IEEE 802.1Q standard
• Distributed VLAN learning across multiple switches using explicit or implicit tagging
and GVRP protocol
• Port overlapping, allowing a port to participate in multiple VLANs
• End stations can belong to multiple VLANs
• Passing traffic between VLAN-aware and VLAN-unaware devices
• Priority tagging
Assigning Ports to VLANs
Before enabling VLANs for the switch, you must first assign each port to the VLAN
group(s) in which it will participate. By default all ports are assigned to VLAN 1 as
untagged ports. Add a port as a tagged port if you want it to carry traffic for one or
more VLANs, and any intermediate network devices or the host at the other end of
the connection supports VLANs. Then assign ports on the other VLAN-aware
network devices along the path that will carry this traffic to the same VLAN(s), either
manually or dynamically using GVRP. However, if you want a port on this switch to
participate in one or more VLANs, but none of the intermediate network devices nor
the host at the other end of the connection supports VLANs, then you should add
this port to the VLAN as an untagged port.
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Configuring the Switch
Note: VLAN-tagged frames can pass through VLAN-aware or VLAN-unaware network
interconnection devices, but the VLAN tags should be stripped off before passing it
on to any end-node host that does not support VLAN tagging.
tagged frames
VA
VA
VA: VLAN Aware
VU: VLAN Unaware
tagged
frames
VA
untagged
frames
VA
VU
VLAN Classification – When the switch receives a frame, it classifies the frame in
one of two ways. If the frame is untagged, the switch assigns the frame to an
associated VLAN (based on the default VLAN ID of the receiving port). But if the
frame is tagged, the switch uses the tagged VLAN ID to identify the port broadcast
domain of the frame.
Port Overlapping – Port overlapping can be used to allow access to commonly
shared network resources among different VLAN groups, such as file servers or
printers. Note that if you implement VLANs which do not overlap, but still need to
communicate, you can connect them by enabled routing on this switch.
Untagged VLANs – Untagged (or static) VLANs are typically used to reduce
broadcast traffic and to increase security. A group of network users assigned to a
VLAN form a broadcast domain that is separate from other VLANs configured on the
switch. Packets are forwarded only between ports that are designated for the same
VLAN. Untagged VLANs can be used to manually isolate user groups or subnets.
However, you should use IEEE 802.3 tagged VLANs with GVRP whenever possible
to fully automate VLAN registration.
Automatic VLAN Registration – GVRP (GARP VLAN Registration Protocol)
defines a system whereby the switch can automatically learn the VLANs to which
each end station should be assigned. If an end station (or its network adapter)
supports the IEEE 802.1Q VLAN protocol, it can be configured to broadcast a
message to your network indicating the VLAN groups it wants to join. When this
switch receives these messages, it will automatically place the receiving port in the
specified VLANs, and then forward the message to all other ports. When the
message arrives at another switch that supports GVRP, it will also place the
receiving port in the specified VLANs, and pass the message on to all other ports.
VLAN requirements are propagated in this way throughout the network. This allows
GVRP-compliant devices to be automatically configured for VLAN groups based
solely on endstation requests.
To implement GVRP in a network, first add the host devices to the required VLANs
(using the operating system or other application software), so that these VLANs can
be propagated onto the network. For both the edge switches attached directly to
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VLAN Configuration
these hosts, and core switches in the network, enable GVRP on the links between
these devices. You should also determine security boundaries in the network and
disable GVRP on the boundary ports to prevent advertisements from being
propagated, or forbid those ports from joining restricted VLANs.
Note: If you have host devices that do not support GVRP, you should configure static or
untagged VLANs for the switch ports connected to these devices (as described in
“Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)” on page 3-147). But you can still
enable GVRP on these edge switches, as well as on the core switches in the
network.
Port-based VLAN
2
1
9
10 11
3
4
5
13
12
14
6
15 16
7
8
18
19
Forwarding Tagged/Untagged Frames
If you want to create a small port-based VLAN for devices attached directly to a
single switch, you can assign ports to the same untagged VLAN. However, to
participate in a VLAN group that crosses several switches, you should create a
VLAN for that group and enable tagging on all ports.
Ports can be assigned to multiple tagged or untagged VLANs. Each port on the
switch is therefore capable of passing tagged or untagged frames. When forwarding
a frame from this switch along a path that contains any VLAN-aware devices, the
switch should include VLAN tags. When forwarding a frame from this switch along a
path that does not contain any VLAN-aware devices (including the destination host),
the switch must first strip off the VLAN tag before forwarding the frame. When the
switch receives a tagged frame, it will pass this frame onto the VLAN(s) indicated by
the frame tag. However, when this switch receives an untagged frame from a
VLAN-unaware device, it first decides where to forward the frame, and then inserts a
VLAN tag reflecting the ingress port’s default VID.
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Configuring the Switch
Enabling or Disabling GVRP (Global Setting)
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP) defines a way for switches to exchange
VLAN information in order to register VLAN members on ports across the network.
VLANs are dynamically configured based on join messages issued by host devices
and propagated throughout the network. GVRP must be enabled to permit automatic
VLAN registration, and to support VLANs which extend beyond the local switch.
(Default: Disabled)
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, GVRP Status. Enable or disable GVRP, and click
Apply.
Figure 3-76 GLobally Enabling GVRP
CLI – This example enables GVRP for the switch.
Console(config)#bridge-ext gvrp
Console(config)#
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Displaying Basic VLAN Information
The VLAN Basic Information page displays basic information on the VLAN type
supported by the switch.
Field Attributes
• VLAN Version Number12 – The VLAN version used by this switch as specified in
the IEEE 802.1Q standard.
• Maximum VLAN ID – Maximum VLAN ID recognized by this switch.
• Maximum Number of Supported VLANs – Maximum number of VLANs that can
be configured on this switch.
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Basic Information.
Figure 3-77 VLAN Basic Information
12. Web Only.
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3
CLI – Enter the following command.
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support vlan numbers:
Max support vlan ID:
Extended multicast filtering services:
Static entry individual port:
VLAN learning:
Configurable PVID tagging:
Local VLAN capable:
Traffic classes:
Global GVRP status:
GMRP:
Console#
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255
4094
No
Yes
IVL
Yes
No
Enabled
Enabled
Disabled
Displaying Current VLANs
The VLAN Current Table shows the current port members of each VLAN and
whether or not the port supports VLAN tagging. Ports assigned to a large VLAN
group that crosses several switches should use VLAN tagging. However, if you just
want to create a small port-based VLAN for one or two switches, you can disable
tagging.
Command Attributes (Web)
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
• Up Time at Creation – Time this VLAN was created (i.e., System Up Time).
• Status – Shows how this VLAN was added to the switch.
- Dynamic GVRP: Automatically learned via GVRP.
- Permanent: Added as a static entry.
• Egress Ports – Shows all the VLAN port members.
• Untagged Ports – Shows the untagged VLAN port members.
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Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Current Table. Select any ID from the scroll-down
list.
Figure 3-78 VLAN Current Table
Command Attributes (CLI)
• VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094, no leading zeroes).
• Type – Shows how this VLAN was added to the switch.
- Dynamic: Automatically learned via GVRP.
- Static: Added as a static entry.
• Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
• Status – Shows if this VLAN is enabled or disabled.
- Active: VLAN is operational.
- Suspend: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• Ports / Channel groups – Shows the VLAN interface members.
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CLI – Current VLAN information can be displayed with the following command.
Console#show vlan id 1
Vlan ID:
Type:
Name:
Status:
Ports/Port channel:
1
Static
DefaultVlan
Active
Eth1/ 1(S) Eth1/ 2(S)
Eth1/ 6(S) Eth1/ 7(S)
Eth1/11(S) Eth1/12(S)
Eth1/16(S) Eth1/17(S)
Eth1/21(S) Eth1/22(S)
Eth1/26(S) Eth1/27(S)
Eth1/31(S) Eth1/32(S)
Eth1/36(S) Eth1/37(S)
Eth1/41(S) Eth1/42(S)
Eth1/46(S) Eth1/47(S)
Eth1/51(S) Eth1/52(S)
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Eth1/ 3(S)
Eth1/ 8(S)
Eth1/13(S)
Eth1/18(S)
Eth1/23(S)
Eth1/28(S)
Eth1/33(S)
Eth1/38(S)
Eth1/43(S)
Eth1/48(S)
Eth1/ 4(S)
Eth1/ 9(S)
Eth1/14(S)
Eth1/19(S)
Eth1/24(S)
Eth1/29(S)
Eth1/34(S)
Eth1/39(S)
Eth1/44(S)
Eth1/49(S)
Eth1/ 5(S)
Eth1/10(S)
Eth1/15(S)
Eth1/20(S)
Eth1/25(S)
Eth1/30(S)
Eth1/35(S)
Eth1/40(S)
Eth1/45(S)
Eth1/50(S)
Console#
Creating VLANs
Use the VLAN Static List to create or remove VLAN groups. To propagate
information about VLAN groups used on this switch to external network devices, you
must specify a VLAN ID for each of these groups.
Command Attributes
• Current – Lists all the current VLAN groups created for this system. Up to 255
VLAN groups can be defined. VLAN 1 is the default untagged VLAN.
• New – Allows you to specify the name and numeric identifier for a new VLAN
group. (The VLAN name is only used for management on this system; it is not
added to the VLAN tag.)
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094, no leading zeroes).
• VLAN Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
• Status (Web) – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
- Enabled: VLAN is operational.
- Disabled: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• State (CLI) – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
- Active: VLAN is operational.
- Suspend: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• Add – Adds a new VLAN group to the current list.
• Remove – Removes a VLAN group from the current list. If any port is assigned to
this group as untagged, it will be reassigned to VLAN group 1 as untagged.
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Configuring the Switch
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Static List. To create a new VLAN, enter the
VLAN ID and VLAN name, mark the Enable checkbox to activate the VLAN, and
then click Add.
Figure 3-79 VLAN Static List - Creating VLANs
CLI – This example creates a new VLAN.
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#vlan 2 name R&D media
Console(config-vlan)#end
Console#show vlan
Vlan ID:
1
Type:
Static
Name:
DefaultVlan
Status:
Active
Ports/Port channel: Eth1/ 1(S) Eth1/ 2(S)
Eth1/ 6(S) Eth1/ 7(S)
Eth1/11(S) Eth1/12(S)
Eth1/16(S) Eth1/17(S)
Eth1/21(S) Eth1/22(S)
Eth1/26(S) Eth1/27(S)
Eth1/31(S) Eth1/32(S)
Eth1/36(S) Eth1/37(S)
Eth1/41(S) Eth1/42(S)
Eth1/46(S) Eth1/47(S)
Eth1/51(S) Eth1/52(S)
Vlan ID:
Type:
Name:
Status:
Ports/Port Channel:
Console#
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Static
R&D
Active
ethernet state active
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Eth1/ 3(S)
Eth1/ 8(S)
Eth1/13(S)
Eth1/18(S)
Eth1/23(S)
Eth1/28(S)
Eth1/33(S)
Eth1/38(S)
Eth1/43(S)
Eth1/48(S)
Eth1/ 4(S)
Eth1/ 9(S)
Eth1/14(S)
Eth1/19(S)
Eth1/24(S)
Eth1/29(S)
Eth1/34(S)
Eth1/39(S)
Eth1/44(S)
Eth1/49(S)
Eth1/ 5(S)
Eth1/10(S)
Eth1/15(S)
Eth1/20(S)
Eth1/25(S)
Eth1/30(S)
Eth1/35(S)
Eth1/40(S)
Eth1/45(S)
Eth1/50(S)
VLAN Configuration
3
Adding Static Members to VLANs (VLAN Index)
Use the VLAN Static Table to configure port members for the selected VLAN index.
Assign ports as tagged if they are connected to 802.1Q VLAN compliant devices, or
untagged they are not connected to any VLAN-aware devices. Or configure a port
as forbidden to prevent the switch from automatically adding it to a VLAN via the
GVRP protocol.
Notes: 1. You can also use the VLAN Static Membership by Port page to configure
VLAN groups based on the port index (page 3-148). However, note that this
configuration page can only add ports to a VLAN as tagged members.
2. VLAN 1 is the default untagged VLAN containing all ports on the switch, and
can only be modified by first reassigning the default port VLAN ID as
described under “Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces” on page 3-150.
Command Attributes
• VLAN – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
• Name – Name of the VLAN (1 to 32 characters).
• Status – Enables or disables the specified VLAN.
- Enable: VLAN is operational.
- Disable: VLAN is suspended; i.e., does not pass packets.
• Port – Port identifier.
• Membership Type – Select VLAN membership for each interface by marking the
appropriate radio button for a port or trunk:
- Tagged: Interface is a member of the VLAN. All packets transmitted by the port
will be tagged, that is, carry a tag and therefore carry VLAN or CoS information.
- Untagged: Interface is a member of the VLAN. All packets transmitted by the
port will be untagged, that is, not carry a tag and therefore not carry VLAN or
CoS information. Note that an interface must be assigned to at least one group
as an untagged port.
- Forbidden: Interface is forbidden from automatically joining the VLAN via
GVRP. For more information, see “Automatic VLAN Registration” on page
3-140.
- None: Interface is not a member of the VLAN. Packets associated with this
VLAN will not be transmitted by the interface.
• Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To add a trunk to the
selected VLAN, use the last table on the VLAN Static Table page.
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Configuring the Switch
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Static Table. Select a VLAN ID from the
scroll-down list. Modify the VLAN name and status if required. Select the
membership type by marking the appropriate radio button in the list of ports or
trunks. Click Apply.
Figure 3-80 VLAN Static Table - Adding Static Members
CLI – The following example adds tagged and untagged ports to VLAN 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 tagged
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 untagged
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 2 tagged
Console(config-if)#
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Adding Static Members to VLANs (Port Index)
Use the VLAN Static Membership by Port menu to assign VLAN groups to the
selected interface as a tagged member.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Port or trunk identifier.
• Member – VLANs for which the selected interface is a tagged member.
• Non-Member – VLANs for which the selected interface is not a tagged member.
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VLAN Configuration
Web – Open VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Static Membership by Port. Select an interface
from the scroll-down box (Port or Trunk). Click Query to display membership
information for the interface. Select a VLAN ID, and then click Add to add the
interface as a tagged member, or click Remove to remove the interface. After
configuring VLAN membership for each interface, click Apply.
Figure 3-81 VLAN Static Membership by Port
CLI – This example adds Port 3 to VLAN 1 as a tagged port, and removes Port 3
from VLAN 2.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 1 tagged
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan remove 2
Console(config-if)#
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Configuring the Switch
Configuring VLAN Behavior for Interfaces
You can configure VLAN behavior for specific interfaces, including the default VLAN
identifier (PVID), accepted frame types, ingress filtering, GVRP status, and GARP
timers.
Command Usage
• GVRP – GARP VLAN Registration Protocol defines a way for switches to
exchange VLAN information in order to automatically register VLAN members on
interfaces across the network.
• GARP – Group Address Registration Protocol is used by GVRP to register or
deregister client attributes for client services within a bridged LAN. The default
values for the GARP timers are independent of the media access method or data
rate. These values should not be changed unless you are experiencing difficulties
with GVRP registration/deregistration.
Command Attributes
• PVID – VLAN ID assigned to untagged frames received on the interface. (Default: 1)
- If an interface is not a member of VLAN 1 and you assign its PVID to this VLAN,
the interface will automatically be added to VLAN 1 as an untagged member. For
all other VLANs, an interface must first be configured as an untagged member
before you can assign its PVID to that group.
• Acceptable Frame Type – Sets the interface to accept all frame types, including
tagged or untagged frames, or only tagged frames. When set to receive all frame
types, any received frames that are untagged are assigned to the default VLAN.
(Options: All, Tagged; Default: All)
• Ingress Filtering – Determines how to process frames tagged for VLANs for which
the ingress port is not a member. (Default: Disabled)
- Ingress filtering only affects tagged frames.
- If ingress filtering is disabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be flooded to all other ports (except
for those VLANs explicitly forbidden on this port).
- If ingress filtering is enabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be discarded.
- Ingress filtering does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as GVRP
or STP. However, they do affect VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such as GMRP.
• GVRP Status – Enables/disables GVRP for the interface. GVRP must be globally
enabled for the switch before this setting can take effect. (See “Displaying Bridge
Extension Capabilities” on page 3-13.) When disabled, any GVRP packets
received on this port will be discarded and no GVRP registrations will be
propagated from other ports. (Default: Disabled)
• GARP Join Timer13 – The interval between transmitting requests/queries to
participate in a VLAN group. (Range: 20-1000 centiseconds; Default: 20)
13. Timer settings should follow this rule: 2 x (join timer) < leave timer < leaveAll timer
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VLAN Configuration
3
• GARP Leave Timer10 – The interval a port waits before leaving a VLAN group.
This time should be set to more than twice the join time. This ensures that after a
Leave or LeaveAll message has been issued, the applicants can rejoin before the
port actually leaves the group. (Range: 60-3000 centiseconds; Default: 60)
• GARP LeaveAll Timer10 – The interval between sending out a LeaveAll query
message for VLAN group participants and the port leaving the group. This interval
should be considerably larger than the Leave Time to minimize the amount of traffic
generated by nodes rejoining the group.
(Range: 500-18000 centiseconds; Default: 1000)
• Mode – Indicates VLAN membership mode for an interface. (Default: Hybrid)
- 1Q Trunk – Specifies a port as an end-point for a VLAN trunk. A trunk is a direct
link between two switches, so the port transmits tagged frames that identify the
source VLAN. Note that frames belonging to the port’s default VLAN (i.e.,
associated with the PVID) are also transmitted as tagged frames.
- Hybrid – Specifies a hybrid VLAN interface. The port may transmit tagged or
untagged frames.
• Trunk Member – Indicates if a port is a member of a trunk. To add a trunk to the
selected VLAN, use the last table on the VLAN Static Table page.
Web – Click VLAN, 802.1Q VLAN, Port Configuration or VLAN Trunk Configuration.
Fill in the required settings for each interface, click Apply.
Figure 3-82 VLAN Port Configuration
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Configuring the Switch
CLI – This example sets port 3 to accept only tagged frames, assigns PVID 3 as the
native VLAN ID, enables GVRP, sets the GARP timers, and then sets the switchport
mode to hybrid.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport acceptable-frame-types tagged
Console(config-if)#switchport ingress-filtering
Console(config-if)#switchport native vlan 3
Console(config-if)#switchport gvrp
Console(config-if)#garp timer join 20
Console(config-if)#garp timer leave 90
Console(config-if)#garp timer leaveall 2000
Console(config-if)#switchport mode hybrid
Console(config-if)#
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4-196
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Private VLANs
Private VLANs provide port-based security and isolation between ports within
the assigned VLAN. This switch supports two types of private VLANs: primary/
secondary associated groups, and stand-alone isolated VLANs. A primary VLAN
contains promiscuous ports that can communicate with all other ports in the private
VLAN group, while a secondary (or community) VLAN contains community ports
that can only communicate with other hosts within the secondary VLAN and with any
of the promiscuous ports in the associated primary VLAN. Isolated VLANs, on the
other hand, consist a single stand-alone VLAN that contains one promiscuous port
and one or more isolated (or host) ports. In all cases, the promiscuous ports are
designed to provide open access to an external network such as the Internet, while
the community or isolated ports provide restricted access to local users.
Multiple primary VLANs can be configured on this switch, and multiple community
VLANs can be associated with each primary VLAN. One or more isolated VLANs
can also be configured. (Note that private VLANs and normal VLANs can exist
simultaneously within the same switch.)
To configure primary/secondary associated groups, follow these steps:
1.
Use the Private VLAN Configuration menu (page 3-154) to designate one or
more community VLANs, and the primary VLAN that will channel traffic outside
of the VLAN groups.
2.
Use the Private VLAN Association menu (page 3-154) to map the secondary
(i.e., community) VLAN(s) to the primary VLAN.
3.
Use the Private VLAN Port Configuration menu (page 3-156) to set the port
type to promiscuous (i.e., having access to all ports in the primary VLAN), or
host (i.e., having access restricted to community VLAN members, and
channeling all other traffic through promiscuous ports). Then assign any
promiscuous ports to a primary VLAN and any host ports a community VLAN.
To configure an isolated VLAN, follow these steps:
1.
Use the Private VLAN Configuration menu (page 3-154) to designate an
isolated VLAN that will channel all traffic through a single promiscuous port.
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2.
Use the Private VLAN Port Configuration menu (page 3-156) to set the port
type to promiscuous (i.e., the single channel to the external network), or
isolated (i.e., having access only to the promiscuous port in its own VLAN).
Then assign the promiscuous port and all host ports to an isolated VLAN.
Displaying Current Private VLANs
The Private VLAN Information page displays information on the private VLANs
configured on the switch, including primary, community, and isolated VLANs, and
their assigned interfaces.
Command Attributes
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094), and VLAN type.
• Primary VLAN – The VLAN with which the selected VLAN ID is associated. A
primary VLAN displays its own ID, a community VLAN displays the associated
primary VLAN, and an isolated VLAN displays the stand-alone VLAN.
• Ports List – The list of ports (and assigned port type) in the selected private VLAN.
Web – Click VLAN, Private VLAN, Information. Select the desired port from the
VLAN ID drop-down menu.
Figure 3-83 Private VLAN Information
CLI – This example shows the switch configured with primary VLAN 5 and
secondary VLAN 6. Port 3 has been configured as a promiscuous port and mapped
to VLAN 5, while ports 4 and 5 have been configured as a host ports and are
associated with VLAN 6. This means that traffic for port 4 and 5 can only pass
through port 3.
Console#show vlan private-vlan
Primary
Secondary
Type
-------- ----------- ---------5
primary
5
6
community
Console#
4-153
Interfaces
-------------------------------------Eth1/ 3
Eth1/ 4 Eth1/ 5
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3
Configuring the Switch
Configuring Private VLANs
The Private VLAN Configuration page is used to create/remove primary, community,
or isolated VLANs.
Command Attributes
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
• Type – There are three types of VLANs within a private VLAN:
- Primary VLANs – Conveys traffic between promiscuous ports, and to
community ports within secondary (or community) VLANs.
- Community VLANs - Conveys traffic between community ports, and to their
promiscuous ports in the associated primary VLAN.
- Isolated VLANs – Conveys traffic only between the VLAN’s isolated ports and
the promiscuous port. Traffic between isolated ports within the VLAN is blocked.
• Current – Displays a list of the currently configured VLANs.
Web – Click VLAN, Private VLAN, Configuration. Enter the VLAN ID number, select
Primary, Isolated or Community type, then click Add. To remove a private VLAN from
the switch, highlight an entry in the Current list box and then click Remove. Note that
all member ports must be removed from the VLAN before it can be deleted.
Figure 3-84 Private VLAN Configuration
CLI – This example configures VLAN 5 as a primary VLAN, and VLAN 6 as a
community VLAN and VLAN 7 as an isolated VLAN.
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#private-vlan 5 primary
Console(config-vlan)#private-vlan 6 community
Console(config-vlan)#private-vlan 7 isolated
Console(config-vlan)#
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4-189
Associating VLANs
Each community or isolated VLAN must be associated with a primary VLAN.
Command Attributes
• Primary VLAN ID – ID of primary VLAN (1-4094).
• Association – Community VLANs associated with the selected primary VLAN.
• Non-Association – Community VLANs not associated with the selected VLAN.
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3
VLAN Configuration
Web – Click VLAN, Private VLAN, Association. Select the required primary VLAN
from the scroll-down box, highlight one or more community VLANs in the
Non-Association list box, and click Add to associate these entries with the selected
primary VLAN. (A community VLAN can only be associated with one primary VLAN.)
Figure 3-85 Private VLAN Association
CLI – This example associates community VLANs 6 and 7 with primary VLAN 5.
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#private-vlan 5 association 6
Console(config-vlan)#private-vlan 5 association 7
Console(config-vlan)#
4-179
4-190
4-190
Displaying Private VLAN Interface Information
Use the Private VLAN Port Information and Private VLAN Trunk Information menus
to display the interfaces associated with private VLANs.
Command Attributes
• Port/Trunk – The switch interface.
• PVLAN Port Type – Displays private VLAN port types.
- Normal – The port is not configured in a private VLAN.
- Host – The port is a community port and can only communicate with other ports
in its own community VLAN, and with the designated promiscuous port(s). Or the
port is an isolated port that can only communicate with the lone promiscuous
port within its own isolated VLAN.
- Promiscuous – A promiscuous port can communicate with all the interfaces
within a private VLAN.
• Primary VLAN – Conveys traffic between promiscuous ports, and between
promiscuous ports and community ports within the associated secondary VLANs.
• Community VLAN – A community VLAN conveys traffic between community
ports, and from community ports to their designated promiscuous ports.
• Isolated VLAN – Conveys traffic only between the VLAN’s isolated ports and
promiscuous ports. Traffic between isolated ports within the VLAN is blocked.
• Trunk – The trunk identifier. (Port Information only)
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3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click VLAN, Private VLAN, Port Information or Trunk Information.
Figure 3-86 Private VLAN Port Information
CLI – This example shows the switch configured with primary VLAN 5 and
community VLAN 6. Port 3 has been configured as a promiscuous port and mapped
to VLAN 5, while ports 4 and 5 have been configured as host ports and associated
with VLAN 6. This means that traffic for port 4 and 5 can only pass through port 3.
Console#show vlan private-vlan
Primary
Secondary
Type
-------- ----------- ---------5
primary
5
6
community
Console#
4-193
Interfaces
-----------------------------Eth1/ 3
Eth1/ 4 Eth1/ 5
Configuring Private VLAN Interfaces
Use the Private VLAN Port Configuration and Private VLAN Trunk Configuration
menus to set the private VLAN interface type, and associate the interfaces with a
private VLAN.
Command Attributes
• Port/Trunk – The switch interface.
• PVLAN Port Type – Sets the private VLAN port types.
- Normal – The port is not assigned to a private VLAN.
- Host – The port is a community port or an isolated port. A community port can
communicate with other ports in its own community VLAN and with designated
promiscuous port(s). An isolated port can only communicate with the single
designated promiscuous port in the isolated VLAN; it cannot communicate with
any other host ports.
- Promiscuous – A promiscuous port can communicate with all interfaces within
a private VLAN.
• Primary VLAN – Conveys traffic between promiscuous ports, and between
promiscuous ports and community ports within the associated secondary VLANs.
If PVLAN type is “Promiscuous,” then specify the associated primary VLAN.
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VLAN Configuration
3
• Community VLAN – A community VLAN conveys traffic between community
ports, and from community ports to their designated promiscuous ports. Set
PVLAN Port Type to “Host,” and then specify the associated Community VLAN.
• Isolated VLAN – Conveys traffic only between the VLAN’s isolated ports and the
promiscuous port. Traffic between isolated ports within the VLAN is blocked. Set
the PVLAN Port Type to “Host,” then specify an isolated VLAN by marking the
check box for an “Isolated VLAN,” and selecting the required VLAN from the
drop-down box.
Web – Click VLAN, Private VLAN, Port Configuration or Trunk Configuration. Set the
PVLAN Port Type for each port that will join a private VLAN. Assign promiscuous
ports to a primary or isolated VLAN. Assign host ports to a community or isolated
VLAN. After all the ports have been configured, click Apply.
Figure 3-87 Private VLAN Port Configuration
CLI – This example shows the switch configured with primary VLAN 5 and
secondary VLAN 6. Port 3 has been configured as a promiscuous port and mapped
to VLAN 5, while ports 4 and 5 have been configured as a host ports and associated
with VLAN 6. This means that traffic for port 4 and 5 can only pass through port 3.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3Console(config-if)#switchport mode
private-vlan promiscuous
4-191
Console(config-if)#switchport private-vlan mapping 5
4-193
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/4
Console(config-if)#switchport mode private-vlan host
4-191
Console(config-if)#switchport private-vlan host-association 6
4-191
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#switchport mode private-vlan host
Console(config-if)#switchport private-vlan host-association 6
Console(config-if)#
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3
Configuring the Switch
Class of Service Configuration
Class of Service (CoS) allows you to specify which data packets have greater
precedence when traffic is buffered in the switch due to congestion. This switch
supports CoS with four priority queues for each port. Data packets in a port’s
high-priority queue will be transmitted before those in the lower-priority queues. You
can set the default priority for each interface, and configure the mapping of frame
priority tags to the switch’s priority queues.
Layer 2 Queue Settings
Setting the Default Priority for Interfaces
You can specify the default port priority for each interface on the switch. All untagged
packets entering the switch are tagged with the specified default port priority, and
then sorted into the appropriate priority queue at the output port.
Command Usage
• This switch provides four priority queues for each port. It uses Weighted Round
Robin to prevent head-of-queue blockage.
• The default priority applies for an untagged frame received on a port set to accept
all frame types (i.e, receives both untagged and tagged frames). This priority does
not apply to IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frames. If the incoming frame is an IEEE
802.1Q VLAN tagged frame, the IEEE 802.1p User Priority bits will be used.
• If the output port is an untagged member of the associated VLAN, these frames are
stripped of all VLAN tags prior to transmission.
Command Attributes
• Default Priority14 – The priority that is assigned to untagged frames received on
the specified interface. (Range: 0-7, Default: 0)
• Number of Egress Traffic Classes – The number of queue buffers provided for
each port.
14. CLI displays this information as “Priority for untagged traffic.”
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Class of Service Configuration
3
Web – Click Priority, Default Port Priority or Default Trunk Priority. Modify the default
priority for any interface, then click Apply.
Figure 3-88 Port Priority Configuration
CLI – This example assigns a default priority of 5 to port 3.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
4-131
Console(config-if)#switchport priority default 5
4-199
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/3
4-140
Information of Eth 1/3
Broadcast threshold:
Disabled
LACP status:
Disabled
Ingress rate limit: disable, Level: 30
Egress rate limit: disable, Level: 30
VLAN membership mode:
Hybrid
Ingress rule:
Enabled
Acceptable frame type:
Tagged frames only
Native VLAN:
1
Priority for untagged traffic: 5
GVRP status:
Disabled
Allowed VLAN:
1(u),
Forbidden VLAN:
Private-VLAN mode:
NONE
Private-VLAN host-association: NONE
Private-VLAN mapping:
NONE
Console#
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3
Configuring the Switch
Mapping CoS Values to Egress Queues
This switch processes Class of Service (CoS) priority tagged traffic by using four
priority queues for each port, with service schedules based on strict or Weighted
Round Robin (WRR). Up to eight separate traffic priorities are defined in IEEE
802.1p. The default priority levels are assigned according to recommendations in
the IEEE 802.1p standard as shown in the following table.
Table 3-12 Egress Queue Priority Mapping
Queue
0
1
2
3
Priority
1,2
0,3
4,5
6,7
1,2
Q0
0,3
Q1
4,5
Q2
6,7
Q3
Serviced
by weighted
round robin
The priority levels recommended in the IEEE 802.1p standard for various network
applications are shown in the following table. However, you can map the priority
levels to the switch’s output queues in any way that benefits application traffic for
your own network.
Table 3-13 CoS Priority Levels
Priority Level
Traffic Type
1
Background
2
(Spare)
0 (default)
Best Effort
3
Excellent Effort
4
Controlled Load
5
Video, less than 100 milliseconds latency and jitter
6
Voice, less than 10 milliseconds latency and jitter
7
Network Control
Command Attributes
• Priority – CoS value. (Range: 0-7, where 7 is the highest priority)
• Traffic Class15 – Output queue buffer. (Range: 0-3, where 3 is the highest CoS
priority queue)
15. CLI shows Queue ID.
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Class of Service Configuration
3
Web – Click Priority, Traffic Classes. Assign priorities to the traffic classes (i.e.,
output queues), then click Apply.
Figure 3-89 Traffic Classes
CLI – The following example shows how to change the CoS assignments.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
4-131
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 0 0
4-201
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 1 1
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 2 2
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show queue cos-map ethernet 1/1
4-203
Information of Eth 1/1
CoS Value
: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Priority Queue: 0 1 2 1 2 2 3 3
Console#
*
Mapping specific values for CoS priorities is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
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3
Configuring the Switch
Selecting the Queue Mode
You can set the switch to service the queues based on a strict rule that requires all
traffic in a higher priority queue to be processed before lower priority queues are
serviced, or use Weighted Round-Robin (WRR) queuing that specifies a relative
weight of each queue. WRR uses a predefined relative weight for each queue that
determines the percentage of service time the switch services each queue before
moving on to the next queue. This prevents the head-of-line blocking that can occur
with strict priority queuing.
Command Attributes
• WRR - Weighted Round-Robin shares bandwidth at the egress ports by using
scheduling weights 1, 2, 4, 6 for queues 0 through 3 respectively. (This is the
default selection.)
• Strict - Services the egress queues in sequential order, transmitting all traffic in the
higher priority queues before servicing lower priority queues.
Web – Click Priority, Queue Mode. Select Strict or WRR, then click Apply.
Figure 3-90 Queue Mode
CLI – The following sets the queue mode to strict priority service mode.
Console(config)#queue mode wrr
4-199
Console(config)#exit
Console#show queue mode
4-202
Queue mode: wrr
Console#
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Class of Service Configuration
3
Setting the Service Weight for Traffic Classes
This switch uses the Weighted Round Robin (WRR) algorithm to determine the
frequency at which it services each priority queue. As described in “Mapping CoS
Values to Egress Queues” on page 3-160, the traffic classes are mapped to one of
the four egress queues provided for each port. You can assign a weight to each of
these queues (and thereby to the corresponding traffic priorities). This weight sets
the frequency at which each queue will be polled for service, and subsequently
affects the response time for software applications assigned a specific priority value.
Command Attributes
• WRR Setting Table16 – Displays a list of weights for each traffic class (i.e., queue).
• Weight Value – Set a new weight for the selected traffic class. However, note that
Queue 0 is fixed at a weight of 1, and cannot be configured. (Range: 1-31)
Web – Click Priority, Queue Scheduling. Highlight a traffic class (i.e., output queue),
enter a weight, then click Apply.
Figure 3-91 Configuring Queue Scheduling
CLI – The following example shows how to assign WRR weights to each of the
priority queues.
Console(config)#queue bandwidth 6 9 12
Console(config)#exit
Console#show queue bandwidth
Queue ID Weight
-------- -----0
1
1
6
2
9
3
12
Console
4-200
4-202
16. CLI shows Queue ID.
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3
Configuring the Switch
Layer 3/4 Priority Settings
Mapping Layer 3/4 Priorities to CoS Values
This switch supports several common methods of prioritizing layer 3/4 traffic to meet
application requirements. Traffic priorities can be specified in the IP header of a
frame, using the priority bits in the Type of Service (ToS) octet or the number of the
TCP port. If priority bits are used, the ToS octet may contain three bits for IP
Precedence or six bits for Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) service. When
these services are enabled, the priorities are mapped to a Class of Service value by
the switch, and the traffic then sent to the corresponding output queue.
Because different priority information may be contained in the traffic, this switch
maps priority values to the output queues in the following manner:
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port Priority, IP Precedence or DSCP
Priority, and then Default Port Priority.
• IP Precedence and DSCP Priority cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these
priority types will automatically disable the other.
Selecting IP Precedence/DSCP Priority
The switch allows you to choose between using IP Precedence or DSCP priority.
Select one of the methods or disable this feature.
Command Attributes
• Disabled – Disables both priority services. (This is the default setting.)
• IP Precedence – Maps layer 3/4 priorities using IP Precedence.
• IP DSCP – Maps layer 3/4 priorities using Differentiated Services Code Point
Mapping.
Web – Click Priority, IP Precedence/DSCP Priority Status. Select Disabled,
IP Precedence or IP DSCP from the scroll-down menu, then click Apply.
Figure 3-92 IP Precedence/DSCP Priority Status
CLI – The following example enables IP Precedence service on the switch.
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#
3-164
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Class of Service Configuration
3
Mapping IP Precedence
The Type of Service (ToS) octet in the IPv4 header includes three precedence bits
defining eight different priority levels ranging from highest priority for network control
packets to lowest priority for routine traffic. The default IP Precedence values are
mapped one-to-one to Class of Service values (i.e., Precedence value 0 maps to
CoS value 0, and so forth). Bits 6 and 7 are used for network control, and the other
bits for various application types. ToS bits are defined in the following table.
Table 3-14 Mapping IP Precedence
Priority Level
Traffic Type
Priority Level
Traffic Type
7
Network Control
3
Flash
6
Internetwork Control
2
Immediate
5
Critical
1
Priority
4
Flash Override
0
Routine
Command Attributes
• IP Precedence Priority Table – Shows the IP Precedence to CoS map.
• Class of Service Value – Maps a CoS value to the selected IP Precedence value.
Note that “0” represents low priority and “7” represent high priority.
Web – Click Priority, IP Precedence Priority. Select an entry from the IP Precedence
Priority Table, enter a value in the Class of Service Value field, and then click Apply.
Figure 3-93 Mapping IP Precedence Priority Values
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3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – The following example globally enables IP Precedence service on the switch,
maps IP Precedence value 1 to CoS value 0 (on port 1), and then displays the IP
Precedence settings.
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#map ip precedence 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip precedence ethernet 1/1
Precedence mapping status: enabled
4-204
4-131
4-206
4-209
Port
Precedence COS
--------- ---------- --Eth 1/ 1
0
0
Eth 1/ 1
1
0
Eth 1/ 1
2
2
Eth 1/ 1
3
3
Eth 1/ 1
4
4
Eth 1/ 1
5
5
Eth 1/ 1
6
6
Eth 1/ 1
7
7
Console#
Note: Mapping specific values for IP Precedence is implemented as an interface
configuration command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the
switch.
Mapping DSCP Priority
The DSCP is six bits wide, allowing coding for up to 64 different forwarding
behaviors. The DSCP replaces the ToS bits, but it retains backward compatibility
with the three precedence bits so that non-DSCP compliant, ToS-enabled devices,
will not conflict with the DSCP mapping. Based on network policies, different kinds of
traffic can be marked for different kinds of forwarding. The DSCP default values are
defined in the following table. Note that all the DSCP values that are not specified
are mapped to CoS value 0.
Table 3-15 Mapping DSCP Priority Values
3-166
IP DSCP Value
CoS Value
0
0
8
1
10, 12, 14, 16
2
18, 20, 22, 24
3
26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36
4
38, 40, 42
5
48
6
46, 56
7
Class of Service Configuration
3
Command Attributes
• DSCP Priority Table – Shows the DSCP Priority to CoS map.
• Class of Service Value – Maps a CoS value to the selected DSCP Priority value.
Note that “0” represents low priority and “7” represent high priority.
Note: IP DSCP settings apply to all interfaces.
Web – Click Priority, IP DSCP Priority. Select an entry from the DSCP table, enter a
value in the Class of Service Value field, then click Apply.
Figure 3-94 Mapping IP DSCP Priority Values
CLI – The following example globally enables DSCP Priority service on the switch,
maps DSCP value 0 to CoS value 1 (on port 1), and then displays the DSCP Priority
settings.
Console(config)#map ip dscp
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#map ip dscp 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip dscp ethernet 1/1
DSCP mapping status: disabled
4-207
4-131
4-207
4-210
Port
DSCP COS
--------- ---- --Eth 1/ 1
0
0
Eth 1/ 1
1
0
Eth 1/ 1
2
0
Eth 1/ 1
3
0
.
.
.
Eth 1/ 1
61
0
Eth 1/ 1
62
0
Eth 1/ 1
63
0
Console#
Note: Mapping specific values for IP DSCP is implemented as an interface configuration
command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the switch.
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3
Configuring the Switch
Mapping IP Port Priority
You can also map network applications to Class of Service values based on the IP
port number (i.e., TCP/UDP port number) in the frame header. Some of the more
common TCP service ports include: HTTP: 80, FTP: 21, Telnet: 23 and POP3: 110.
Command Attributes
• IP Port Priority Status – Enables or disables the IP port priority.
• IP Port Priority Table – Shows the IP port to CoS map.
• IP Port Number (TCP/UDP) – Set a new IP port number.
• Class of Service Value – Sets a CoS value for a new IP port. Note that “0”
represents low priority and “7” represent high priority.
Web – Click Priority, IP Port Priority Status. Set IP Port Priority Status to Enabled.
Figure 3-95 IP Port Priority Status
Click Priority, IP Port Priority. Enter the port number for a network application in the
IP Port Number box and the new CoS value in the Class of Service box, and then
click Apply.
Figure 3-96 IP Port Priority
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3
Class of Service Configuration
CLI* – The following example globally enables IP Port Priority service on the switch,
maps HTTP traffic on port 5 to CoS value 0, and then displays all the IP Port Priority
settings for that port.
Console(config)#map ip port
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip port 80 cos 0
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show map ip port ethernet 1/5
TCP port mapping status: disabled
4-204
4-205
4-205
Port
Port no. COS
--------- -------- --Eth 1/ 5
80
0
Console#
Note: Mapping specific values for IP Port Priority is implemented as an interface
configuration command, but any changes will apply to the all interfaces on the
switch.
Mapping CoS Values to ACLs
Use the ACL CoS Mapping page to set the output queue for packets matching an
ACL rule as shown in the following table. Note that the specified CoS value is only
used to map the matching packet to an output queue; it is not written to the packet
itself. For information on mapping the CoS values to output queues, see page 3-160.
Table 3-16 Egress Queue Priority Mapping
Queue
0
1
2
3
Priority
1,2
0,3
4,5
6,7
Command Attributes
• Port – Port identifier.
•
•
•
•
Name17 – Name of ACL.
Type – Type of ACL (IP or MAC).
CoS Priority – CoS value used for packets matching an IP ACL rule. (Range: 0-7)
ACL CoS Priority Mapping – Displays the configured information.
17. For information on configuring ACLs, see page 3-82.
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3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Priority, ACL CoS Priority. Enable mapping for any port, select an ACL
from the scroll-down list, then click Add.
Figure 3-97 ACL CoS Priority
CLI – This example assigns a CoS value of zero to packets matching rules within
the specified ACL on port 24.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/24
Console(config-if)#map access-list ip bill cos 0
Console(config-if)#
4-131
4-108
Multicast Filtering
Multicasting is used to support real-time
applications such as videoconferencing or
streaming audio. A multicast server does not have
to establish a separate connection with each
client. It merely broadcasts its service to the
network, and any hosts that want to receive the
multicast register with their local multicast switch/
router. Although this approach reduces the
network overhead required by a multicast server,
the broadcast traffic must be carefully pruned at
every multicast switch/router it passes through to
ensure that traffic is only passed on to the hosts
which subscribed to this service.
This switch uses IGMP (Internet Group
Management Protocol) to query for any attached
hosts that want to receive a specific multicast
service. It identifies the ports containing hosts
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Unicast
Flow
Multicast
Flow
Multicast Filtering
3
requesting to join the service and sends data out to those ports only. It then
propagates the service request up to any neighboring multicast switch/router to
ensure that it will continue to receive the multicast service. This procedure is called
multicast filtering.
The purpose of IP multicast filtering is to optimize a switched network’s
performance, so multicast packets will only be forwarded to those ports containing
multicast group hosts or multicast routers/switches, instead of flooding traffic to all
ports in the subnet (VLAN).
Layer 2 IGMP (Snooping and Query)
IGMP Snooping and Query – If multicast routing is not supported on other switches
in your network, you can use IGMP Snooping and Query (page 3-171) to monitor
IGMP service requests passing between multicast clients and servers, and
dynamically configure the switch ports which need to forward multicast traffic.
Static IGMP Router Interface – If IGMP snooping cannot locate the IGMP querier,
you can manually designate a known IGMP querier (i.e., a multicast router/switch)
connected over the network to an interface on your switch (page 3-175). This
interface will then join all the current multicast groups supported by the attached
router/switch to ensure that multicast traffic is passed to all appropriate interfaces
within the switch.
Static IGMP Host Interface – For multicast applications that you need to control
more carefully, you can manually assign a multicast service to specific interfaces on
the switch (page 3-177).
Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters
You can configure the switch to forward multicast traffic intelligently. Based on the
IGMP query and report messages, the switch forwards traffic only to the ports that
request multicast traffic. This prevents the switch from broadcasting the traffic to all
ports and possibly disrupting network performance.
Command Usage
• IGMP Snooping – This switch can passively snoop on IGMP Query and Report
packets transferred between IP multicast routers/switches and IP multicast host
groups to identify the IP multicast group members. It simply monitors the IGMP
packets passing through it, picks out the group registration information, and
configures the multicast filters accordingly.
• IGMP Querier – A router, or multicast-enabled switch, can periodically ask their
hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic. If there is more than one router/switch
on the LAN performing IP multicasting, one of these devices is elected “querier”
and assumes the role of querying the LAN for group members. It then propagates
the service requests on to any upstream multicast switch/router to ensure that it will
continue to receive the multicast service.
Note: Multicast routers use this information, along with a multicast routing protocol such
as DVMRP or PIM, to support IP multicasting across the Internet.
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3
Configuring the Switch
Command Attributes
• IGMP Status — When enabled, the switch will monitor network traffic to determine
which hosts want to receive multicast traffic. This is also referred to as IGMP
Snooping. (Default: Enabled)
• Act as IGMP Querier — When enabled, the switch can serve as the Querier,
which is responsible for asking hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic.
(Default: Enabled)
• IGMP Query Count — Sets the maximum number of queries issued for which
there has been no response before the switch takes action to drop a client from the
multicast group. (Range: 2-10; Default: 2)
• IGMP Query Interval — Sets the frequency at which the switch sends IGMP
host-query messages. (Range: 60-125 seconds; Default: 125)
• IGMP Report Delay — Sets the time between receiving an IGMP Report for an IP
multicast address on a port before the switch sends an IGMP Query out of that port
and removes the entry from its list. (Range: 5-25 seconds; Default: 10)
• IGMP Query Timeout — The time the switch waits after the previous querier stops
before it considers the router port (i.e., the interface which had been receiving
query packets) to have expired. (Range: 300-500 seconds; Default: 300)
• IGMP Version — Sets the protocol version for compatibility with other devices on
the network. (Range: 1-2; Default: 2)
Notes: 1. All systems on the subnet must support the same version.
2. Some attributes are only enabled for IGMPv2, including IGMP Report Delay
and IGMP Query Timeout.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IGMP Configuration. Adjust the IGMP settings as
required, and then click Apply. (The default settings are shown below.)
Figure 3-98 IGMP Configuration
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Multicast Filtering
CLI – This example modifies the settings for multicast filtering, and then displays the
current status.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping querier
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-count 10
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-interval 100
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time 20
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time 300
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping version 2
Console(config)#exit
Console#show ip igmp snooping
Service status
: Enabled
Querier status
: Enabled
Query count
: 10
Query interval
: 100 sec
Query max response time : 20 sec
Router port expire time : 300 sec
IGMP snooping version
: Version 2
Console#
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4-216
4-216
4-217
4-218
4-218
4-213
4-214
Enabling IGMP Immediate Leave
The IGMP snooping immediate-leave feature enables a Layer 2 LAN interface to be
removed from the multicast forwarding table without first sending an IGMP
group-specific query to the interface. Upon receiving a group-specific IGMPv2 leave
message, the switch immediately removes the interface from the Layer 2 forwarding
table entry for that multicast group, unless a multicast router was learned on the
port.
IGMP immediate leave improves bandwidth management for all hosts in a switched
network.
Command Attributes
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4093).
• Immediate Leave – Enable or disable IGMP immediate leave for the selected
VLAN.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IGMP Immediate Leave.
Figure 3-99 IGMP Immediate Leave
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3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – This example enables IGMP immediate leave for VLAN 1 and then displays
the current IGMP snooping status.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip igmp snooping immediate-leave
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ip igmp snooping
Service status:
Enabled
Querier status:
Enabled
Query count:
2
Query interval:
125 sec
Query max response time: 10 sec
Router port expire time: 300 sec
Immediate Leave Processing: Enabled on VLAN
1,
IGMP snooping version:
Version 2
Console#
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4-214
Displaying Interfaces Attached to a Multicast Router
Multicast routers that are attached to ports on the switch use information obtained
from IGMP, along with a multicast routing protocol such as DVMRP or PIM, to
support IP multicasting across the Internet. These routers may be dynamically
discovered by the switch or statically assigned to an interface on the switch.
You can use the Multicast Router Port Information page to display the ports on this
switch attached to a neighboring multicast router/switch for each VLAN ID.
Command Attributes
• VLAN ID – ID of configured VLAN (1-4094).
• Multicast Router List – Multicast routers dynamically discovered by this switch or
those that are statically assigned to an interface on this switch.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, Multicast Router Port Information. Select the required
VLAN ID from the scroll-down list to display the associated multicast routers.
Figure 3-100 Displaying Multicast Router Port Information
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Multicast Filtering
CLI – This example shows that Port 11 has been statically configured as a port
attached to a multicast router.
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Port Type
---- ------------------ ------1
Eth 1/11 Static
Console#
4-220
Specifying Static Interfaces for a Multicast Router
Depending on your network connections, IGMP snooping may not always be able to
locate the IGMP querier. Therefore, if the IGMP querier is a known multicast router/
switch connected over the network to an interface (port or trunk) on your switch, you
can manually configure the interface (and a specified VLAN) to join all the current
multicast groups supported by the attached router. This can ensure that multicast
traffic is passed to all the appropriate interfaces within the switch.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
• VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN to propagate all multicast traffic coming from the
attached multicast router.
• Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface attached to a multicast router.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, Static Multicast Router Port Configuration. Specify the
interfaces attached to a multicast router, indicate the VLAN which will forward all the
corresponding multicast traffic, and then click Add. After you have finished adding
interfaces to the list, click Apply.
Figure 3-101 Static Multicast Router Port Configuration
CLI – This example configures port 11 as a multicast router port within VLAN 1.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 mrouter ethernet 1/11
Console(config)#exit
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Port Type
---- ------------------ ------1
Eth 1/11 Static
Console#
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4-220
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3
Configuring the Switch
Displaying Port Members of Multicast Services
You can display the port members associated with a specified VLAN and multicast
service.
Command Attributes
• VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN for which to display port members.
• Multicast IP Address – The IP address for a specific multicast service.
• Multicast Group Port List – Shows the interfaces that have already been
assigned to the selected VLAN to propagate a specific multicast service.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IP Multicast Registration Table. Select a VLAN ID and
the IP address for a multicast service from the scroll-down lists. The switch will
display all the interfaces that are propagating this multicast service.
Figure 3-102 IP Multicast Registration Table
CLI – This example displays all the known multicast services supported on VLAN 1,
along with the ports propagating the corresponding services. The Type field shows if
this entry was learned dynamically or was statically configured.
Console#show bridge 1 multicast vlan 1
VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.1.1.12
Eth1/12
USER
1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/12
IGMP
Console#
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3
Multicast Filtering
Assigning Ports to Multicast Services
Multicast filtering can be dynamically configured using IGMP Snooping and IGMP
Query messages as described in “Configuring IGMP snooping and Query
Parameters” on page 3-133. For certain applications that require tighter control, you
may need to statically configure a multicast service on the switch. First add all the
ports attached to participating hosts to a common VLAN, and then assign the
multicast service to that VLAN group.
Command Usage
• Static multicast addresses are never aged out.
• When a multicast address is assigned to an interface in a specific VLAN, the
corresponding traffic can only be forwarded to ports within that VLAN.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Activates the Port or Trunk scroll down list.
• VLAN ID – Selects the VLAN to propagate all multicast traffic coming from the
attached multicast router/switch.
• Multicast IP – The IP address for a specific multicast service
• Port or Trunk – Specifies the interface attached to a multicast router/switch.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IGMP Member Port Table. Specify the interface
attached to a multicast service (via an IGMP-enabled switch or multicast router),
indicate the VLAN that will propagate the multicast service, specify the multicast IP
address, and click Add. After you have completed adding ports to the member list,
click Apply.
Figure 3-103 IGMP Member Port Table
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3
Configuring the Switch
CLI – This example assigns a multicast address to VLAN 1, and then displays all the
known multicast services supported on VLAN 1.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 static 224.1.1.12
ethernet 1/12
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Console(config)#exit
Console#show mac-address-table multicast vlan 1
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VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.1.1.12
Eth1/12
USER
1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/12
IGMP
Console#
IGMP Filtering and Throttling
In certain switch applications, the administrator may want to control the multicast
services that are available to end users. For example, an IP/TV service based on a
specific subscription plan. The IGMP filtering feature fulfills this requirement by
restricting access to specified multicast services on a switch port and IGMP
throttling limits the number of simultaneous multicast groups a port can join.
IGMP filtering enables you to assign a profile to a switch port that specifies multcast
groups that are permitted or denied on the port. An IGMP filter profile can contain
one or more, or a range of multicast addresses, but only one profile can be assigned
to a port. When enabled, IGMP join reports received on the port are checked against
the filter profile. If a requested multicast group is permitted, the IGMP join report is
forwarded as normal. If a requested multicast group is denied, the IGMP join report
is dropped.
IGMP throttling sets a maximum number of multicast groups that a port can join at
the same time. When the maximum number of groups is reached on a port, the
switch can take one of two actions; either “deny” or “replace.” If the action is set to
deny, any new IGMP join reports will be dropped. If the action is set to replace, the
switch randomly removes an existing group and replaces it with the new multicast
group.
Note: IGMP filtering and throttling only applies to dynamically learned multicast groups, it
does not apply to statically configured groups.
Enabling IGMP Filtering and Throttling
To implement IGMP filtering and throttling on the switch, you must first enable the
feature globally and create IGMP profile numbers.
Command Attributes
• IGMP Filter – Enables IGMP filtering and throttling globally for the switch.
(Default: Disabled)
• IGMP Profile – Creates IGMP profile numbers. (Range: 1-4294967295)
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3
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IGMP Filter Configuration. Create a profile number by
entering the number in text box and clicking Add. Enable the IGMP filter status, then
click Apply.
Figure 3-104 Enabling IGMP Filtering and Throttling
CLI – This example enables IGMP filtering and creates a profile number, then
displays the current status and the existing profile numbers.
Console(config)#ip igmp filter
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Console(config)#ip igmp profile 19
4-222
Console(config-igmp-profile)#end
Console#show ip igmp filter
4-226
IGMP filter enable
Console#show ip igmp profile
4-226
IGMP Profile 19
IGMP Profile 50
Console#
Configuring IGMP Filter Profiles
When you have created an IGMP profile number, you can then configure the
multicast groups to filter and set the access mode.
Command Usage
• Each profile has only one access mode; either permit or deny.
• When the access mode is set to permit, IGMP join reports are processed when a
multicast group falls within the controlled range. When the access mode is set to
deny, IGMP join reports are only processed when a multicast group is not in the
controlled range.
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Configuring the Switch
Command Attributes
• Profile ID – Selects an existing profile number to configure. After selecting an ID
number, click the Query button to display the current configuration.
• Access Mode – Sets the access mode of the profile; either permit or deny.
(Default: Deny)
• New Multicast Address Range List – Specifies multicast groups to include in the
profile. Specify a multicast group range by entering a start and end IP address.
Specify a single multicast group by entering the same IP address for the start and
end of the range. Click the Add button to add a range to the current list.
• Current Multicast Address Range List – Lists multicast groups currently
included in the profile. Select an entry and click the Remove button to delete it from
the list.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IGMP Filter Profile Configuration. Select the profile
number you want to configure, then click Query to display the current settings.
Specify the access mode for the profile and then add multicast groups to the profile
list. Click Apply.
Figure 3-105 IGMP Profile Configuration
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Multicast Filtering
CLI – This example configures profile number 19 by setting the access mode to
“permit” and then specifying a range of multicast groups that a user can join. The
current profile configuration is then displayed.
Console(config)#ip igmp profile 19
4-222
Console(config-igmp-profile)#permit
4-223
Console(config-igmp-profile)#range 239.1.1.1
4-223
Console(config-igmp-profile)#range 239.2.3.1 239.2.3.100
Console(config-igmp-profile)#end
Console#show ip igmp profile 19
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IGMP Profile 19
permit
range 239.1.1.1 239.1.1.1
range 239.2.3.1 239.2.3.100
Console#
Configuring IGMP Filtering and Throttling for Interfaces
Once you have configured IGMP profiles, you can then assign them to interfaces on
the switch. Also, you can set the IGMP throttling number to limit the number of
multicast groups an interface can join at the same time.
Command Usage
• Only one profile can be assigned to an interface.
• An IGMP profile or throttling setting can be applied to a trunk interface. When ports
are configured as trunk members, the trunk uses the settings applied to the first
port member in the trunk.
• IGMP throttling sets a maximum number of multicast groups that a port can join at
the same time. When the maximum number of groups is reached on a port, the
switch can take one of two actions; either “deny” or “replace.” If the action is set to
deny, any new IGMP join reports will be dropped. If the action is set to replace, the
switch randomly removes an existing group and replaces it with the new multicast
group.
Command Attributes
• Profile – Selects an existing profile number to assign to an interface.
• Max Multicast Groups – Sets the maximum number of multicast groups an
interface can join at the same time. (Range: 0-64; Default: 64)
• Current Multicast Groups – Displays the current number of multicast groups the
interface has joined.
• Throttling Action Mode – Sets the action to take when the maximum number of
multicast groups for the interface has been exceeded. (Default: Deny)
• deny - The new multicast group join report is dropped.
• replace - The new multicast group replaces an existing group.
• Throttling Status – Indicates if the throttling action has been implemented on the
interface. (Options: True or False)
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Configuring the Switch
• Trunk – Indicates if a port is a trunk member.
Web – Click IGMP Snooping, IGMP Filter/Throttling Port Configuration or IGMP
Filter/Throttling Trunk Configuration. Select a profile to assign to an interface, then
set the throttling number and action. Click Apply.
Figure 3-106 IGMP Filter and Throttling Port Configuration
CLI – This example assigns IGMP profile number 19 to port 1, and then sets the
throttling number and action. The current IGMP filtering and throttling settings for the
interface are then displayed.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip igmp filter 19
4-224
Console(config-if)#ip igmp max-groups 10
4-224
Console(config-if)#ip igmp max-groups action replace
4-225
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show ip igmp filter interface ethernet 1/1
4-226
Information of Eth 1/1
IGMP Profile 19
deny
range 239.1.1.1 239.1.1.1
range 239.2.3.1 239.2.3.100
Console#show ip igmp throttle interface ethernet 1/1
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Information of Eth 1/1
status : FALSE
action : replace
max multicast groups : 10
current multicast groups : 1
Console#
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3
Multicast VLAN Registration
Multicast VLAN Registration
Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR) is a protocol that controls access to a single
network-wide VLAN most commonly used for transmitting multicast traffic (such as
television channels or video-on-demand) across a service provider’s network. Any
multicast traffic entering an MVR VLAN is sent to all attached subscribers. This
protocol can significantly reduce to processing overhead required to dynamically
monitor and establish the distribution tree for a normal multicast VLAN. This makes
it possible to support common multicast services over a wide part of the network
without having to use any multicast routing protocol.
MVR maintains the user isolation and data security provided by VLAN segregation
by passing only multicast traffic into other VLANs to which the subscribers belong.
Even though common multicast streams are passed onto different VLAN groups
from the MVR VLAN, users in different IEEE 802.1Q or private VLANs cannot
exchange any information (except through upper-level routing services).
Multicast Router
Satellite Services
Multicast Server
Layer 2 Switch
Source
Port
Service
Network
Receiver
Ports
Set-top Box
PC
TV
Set-top Box
TV
General Configuration Guidelines for MVR
1.
Enable MVR globally on the switch, select the MVR VLAN, and add the
multicast groups that will stream traffic to attached hosts (see “Configuring
Global MVR Settings” on page 3-184).
2.
Set the interfaces that will join the MVR as source ports or receiver ports (see
“Configuring MVR Interface Status” on page 3-187).
3.
Enable IGMP Snooping to a allow a subscriber to dynamically join or leave an
MVR group (see “Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters” on
page 3-171). Note that only IGMP version 2 or 3 hosts can issue multicast join
or leave messages.
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3
4.
Configuring the Switch
For multicast streams that will run for a long term and be associated with a
stable set of hosts, you can statically bind the multicast group to the
participating interfaces (see “Assigning Static Multicast Groups to Interfaces” on
page 3-188).
Configuring Global MVR Settings
The global settings for Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR) include enabling or
disabling MVR for the switch, selecting the VLAN that will serve as the sole channel
for common multicast streams supported by the service provider, and assigning the
multicast group address for each of these services to the MVR VLAN.
Command Attributes
• MVR Status – When MVR is enabled on both the switch, any multicast data
associated an MVR group is sent from all designated source ports, and to all
receiver ports that have registered to receive data from that multicast group.
(Default: Disabled)
• MVR Running Status – Indicates whether or not all necessary conditions in the
MVR environment are satisfied.
• MVR VLAN – Identifier of the VLAN that serves as the channel for streaming
multicast services using MVR. (Range: 1-4094; Default: 1)
• MVR Group IP – IP address for an MVR multicast group. The IP address range of
224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 is used for multicast streams. MVR group addresses
cannot fall within the reserved IP multicast address range of 224.0.0.x. (Range:
224.0.1.0 - 239.255.255.255; Default: no groups are assigned to the MVR VLAN)
• Count – The number of contiguous MVR group addresses. (Range: 1-255;
Default: 0)
Web – Click MVR, Configuration. Enable MVR globally on the switch, select the
MVR VLAN, add the multicast groups that will stream traffic to attached hosts, and
then click Apply.
Figure 3-107 MVR Global Configuration
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Multicast VLAN Registration
3
CLI – This example first enables IGMP snooping, enables MVR globally, and then
configures a range of MVR group addresses.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping
Console(config)#mvr
Console(config)#mvr group 228.1.23.1 10
Console(config)#
Displaying MVR Interface Status
You can display information about the interfaces attached to the MVR VLAN.
Field Attributes
• Type – Shows the MVR port type.
• Oper Status – Shows the link status.
• MVR Status – Shows the MVR status. MVR status for source ports is “ACTIVE” if
MVR is globally enabled on the switch. MVR status for receiver ports is “ACTIVE”
only if there are subscribers receiving multicast traffic from one of the MVR groups,
or a multicast group has been statically assigned to an interface.
• Immediate Leave – Shows if immediate leave is enabled or disabled.
• Trunk Member18 – Shows if port is a trunk member.
Web – Click MVR, Port or Trunk Information.
Figure 3-108 MVR Port Information
CLI – This example shows information about interfaces attached to the MVR VLAN.
Console#show mvr
Port
Type
------- -------eth1/1 SOURCE
eth1/2 RECEIVER
Console#
interface
Status
------------ACTIVE/UP
ACTIVE/UP
Immediate Leave
--------------Disable
Disable
18. Port Information only.
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3
Configuring the Switch
Displaying Port Members of Multicast Groups
You can display the multicast groups assigned to the MVR VLAN either through
IGMP snooping or static configuration.
Field Attributes
• Group IP – Multicast groups assigned to the MVR VLAN.
• Group Port List – Shows the interfaces with subscribers for multicast services
provided through the MVR VLAN.
Web – Click MVR, Group IP Information.
Figure 3-109 MVR Group IP Information
CLI – This example following shows information about the interfaces associated with
multicast groups assigned to the MVR VLAN.
Console#show mvr interface
MVR Group IP
---------------225.0.0.1
225.0.0.2
225.0.0.3
225.0.0.4
225.0.0.5
225.0.0.6
225.0.0.7
225.0.0.8
225.0.0.9
225.0.0.10
Console#
3-186
Status
-------ACTIVE
INACTIVE
INACTIVE
INACTIVE
INACTIVE
INACTIVE
INACTIVE
INACTIVE
INACTIVE
INACTIVE
Members
------eth1/1(d), eth1/2(s)
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
3
Multicast VLAN Registration
Configuring MVR Interface Status
Each interface that participates in the MVR VLAN must be configured as an MVR
source port or receiver port. If only one subscriber attached to an interface is
receiving multicast services, you can enable the immediate leave function.
Command Usage
• One or more interfaces may be configured as MVR source ports.
• MVR receiver ports cannot be members of a trunk. Receiver ports can belong to
different VLANs, but should not be configured as a member of the MVR VLAN.
• IGMP snooping can be used to allow a source port or receiver port to dynamically
join or leave multicast groups within the MVR VLAN using the standard rules for
multicast filtering. Multicast groups can also be statically assigned to a source port
or receiver port (see “Assigning Static Multicast Groups to Interfaces” on page
15-15).
• Immediate leave applies only to receiver ports. When enabled, the receiver port is
immediately removed from the multicast group identified in the leave message.
When immediate leave is disabled, the switch follows the standard rules by
sending a group-specific query to the receiver port and waiting for a response to
determine if there are any remaining subscribers for that multicast group before
removing the port from the group list. Using immediate leave can speed up leave\
latency, but should only be enabled on a port attached to one multicast subscriber
to avoid disrupting services to other group members attached to the same
interface. Note that immediate leave does not apply to multicast groups which have
been statically assigned to a port.
Command Attributes
• MVR Type – The following interface types are supported:
- Source – An uplink port that can send and receive multicast data for the groups
assigned to the MVR VLAN.
- Receiver – A subscriber port that can receive multicast data sent through the
MVR VLAN.
- Non-MVR – An interface that does not participate in the MVR VLAN. (This is the
default type.)
• Immediate Leave – Configures the switch to immediately remove an interface
from a multicast stream as soon as it receives a leave message for that group.
• Trunk19 – Shows if port is a trunk member.
19. Port Information only.
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3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click MVR, Port or Trunk Configuration.
Figure 3-110 MVR Port Configuration
CLI – This example configures an MVR source port and receiver port, and then
enables immediate leave on the receiver port.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#mvr type source
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#mvr type receiver
Console(config-if)#mvr immediate
Console(config-if)#
Assigning Static Multicast Groups to Interfaces
For multicast streams that will run for a long term and be associated with a stable set
of hosts, you can statically bind the multicast group to the participating interfaces.
Command Usage
• Any multicast groups that use the MVR VLAN must be statically assigned to it
under the MVR Configuration menu (see “Configuring Global MVR Settings” on
page 15-10).
• The IP address range from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 is used for multicast
streams. MVR group addresses cannot fall within the reserved IP multicast
address range of 224.0.0.x.
Command Attributes
• Interface – Indicates a port or trunk.
• Member – Shows the IP addresses for MVR multicast groups which have been
statically assigned to the selected interface.
• Non-Member – Shows the IP addresses for all MVR multicast groups which have
not been statically assigned to the selected interface.
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Configuring Domain Name Service
Web – Click MVR, Group Member Configuration. Select a port or trunk from the
“Interface” field, and click Query to display the assigned multicast groups. Select a
multicast address from the displayed lists, and click the Add or Remove button to
modify the Member list.
Figure 3-111 MVR Group Member Configuration
CLI – This example statically assigns a multicast group to a receiver port.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#mvr group 228.1.23.1
Console(config-if)#
Configuring Domain Name Service
The Domain Naming System (DNS) service on this switch allows host names to be
mapped to IP addresses using static table entries or by redirection to other name
servers on the network. When a client device designates this switch as a DNS
server, the client will attempt to resolve host names into IP addresses by forwarding
DNS queries to the switch, and waiting for a response.
You can manually configure entries in the DNS table used for mapping domain
names to IP addresses, configure default domain names, or specify one or more
name servers to use for domain name to address translation.
Configuring General DNS Service Parameters
Command Usage
• To enable DNS service on this switch, first configure one or more name servers,
and then enable domain lookup status.
• To append domain names to incomplete host names received from a DNS client
(i.e., not formatted with dotted notation), you can specify a default domain name or
a list of domain names to be tried in sequential order.
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3
Configuring the Switch
• If there is no domain list, the default domain name is used. If there is a domain list,
the default domain name is not used.
• When an incomplete host name is received by the DNS service on this switch and
a domain name list has been specified, the switch will work through the domain list,
appending each domain name in the list to the host name, and checking with the
specified name servers for a match.
• When more than one name server is specified, the servers are queried in the
specified sequence until a response is received, or the end of the list is reached
with no response.
• Note that if all name servers are deleted, DNS will automatically be disabled.
Command Attributes
• Domain Lookup Status – Enables DNS host name-to-address translation.
• Default Domain Name20 – Defines the default domain name appended to
incomplete host names. (Range: 1-64 alphanumeric characters)
• Domain Name List – Defines a list of domain names that can be appended to
incomplete host names. (Range: 1-64 alphanumeric characters. 1-5 names)
• Name Server List – Specifies the address of one or more domain name servers
to use for name-to-address resolution. (Range: 1-6 IP addresses)
20. Do not include the initial dot that separates the host name from the domain name.
3-190
3
Configuring Domain Name Service
Web – Select DNS, General Configuration. Set the default domain name or list of
domain names, specify one or more name servers to use to use for address
resolution, enable domain lookup status, and click Apply.
Figure 3-112 DNS General Configuration
CLI - This example sets a default domain name and a domain list. However,
remember that if a domain list is specified, the default domain name is not used.
Console(config)#ip domain-name sample.com
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.uk
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.jp
Console(config)#ip name-server 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#ip domain-lookup
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS enabled
Default Domain Name:
.sample.com
Domain Name List:
.sample.com.uk
.sample.com.jp
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
4-234
4-235
4-236
4-237
4-239
3-191
3
Configuring the Switch
Configuring Static DNS Host to Address Entries
You can manually configure static entries in the DNS table that are used to map
domain names to IP addresses.
Command Usage
• Static entries may be used for local devices connected directly to the attached
network, or for commonly used resources located elsewhere on the network.
• Servers or other network devices may support one or more connections via
multiple IP addresses. If more than one IP address is associated with a host name
in the static table or via information returned from a name server, a DNS client can
try each address in succession, until it establishes a connection with the target
device.
Field Attributes
• Host Name – Name of a host device that is mapped to one or more IP addresses.
(Range: 1-64 characters)
• IP Address – Internet address(es) associated with a host name.
(Range: 1-8 addresses)
• Alias – Displays the host names that are mapped to the same address(es) as a
previously configured entry.
Web – Select DNS, Static Host Table. Enter a host name and one or more
corresponding addresses, then click Apply.
Figure 3-113 DNS Static Host Table
3-192
3
Configuring Domain Name Service
CLI - This example maps two address to a host name, and then configures an alias
host name for the same addresses.
Console(config)#ip host rd5 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#ip host rd6 10.1.0.55
Console#show hosts
4-233
4-238
Hostname
rd5
Inet address
10.1.0.55 192.168.1.55
Alias
1.rd6
Console#
Displaying the DNS Cache
You can display entries in the DNS cache that have been learned via the designated
name servers.
Field Attributes
• No – The entry number for each resource record.
• Flag – The flag is always “4” indicating a cache entry and therefore unreliable.
• Type – This field includes CNAME which specifies the canonical or primary name
for the owner, and ALIAS which specifies multiple domain names which are
mapped to the same IP address as an existing entry.
• IP – The IP address associated with this record.
• TTL – The time to live reported by the name server.
• Domain – The domain name associated with this record.
Web – Select DNS, Cache.
Figure 3-114 DNS Cache
3-193
3
Configuring the Switch
CLI - This example displays all the resource records learned from the designated
name servers.
Console#show dns cache
NO
FLAG
TYPE
0
4
CNAME
1
4
CNAME
2
4
CNAME
3
4
CNAME
4
4
CNAME
5
4
ALIAS
6
4
CNAME
7
4
ALIAS
8
4
CNAME
9
4
ALIAS
10
4
CNAME
Console#
IP
207.46.134.222
207.46.134.190
207.46.134.155
207.46.249.222
207.46.249.27
POINTER TO:4
207.46.68.27
POINTER TO:6
65.54.131.192
POINTER TO:8
165.193.72.190
TTL
51
51
51
51
51
51
71964
71964
605
605
87
4-239
DOMAIN
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.akadns.net
www.microsoft.com
msn.com.tw
www.msn.com.tw
passportimages.com
www.passportimages.com
global.msads.net
Switch Clustering
Switch Clustering is a method of grouping switches together to enable centralized
management through a single unit. Switches that support clustering can be grouped
together regardless of physical location or switch type, as long as they are
connected to the same local network.
A switch cluster has a “Commander” unit that is used to manage all other “Member”
switches in the cluster. The management station uses Telnet to communicate
directly with the Commander throught its IP address, and the Commander manages
Member switches using cluster “internal” IP addresses. There can be up to 36
Member switches in one cluster. Cluster switches are limited to within a single IP
subnet.
Once a switch has been configured to be a cluster Commander, it automatically
discovers other cluster-enabled switches in the network. These “Candidate”
switches only become cluster Members when manually selected by the
administrator through the management station.
Note: Cluster Member switches can be managed through only using a Telnet connection
to the Commander. From the Commander CLI prompt, use the “rcommand”
command (see page 4-252) to connect to the Member switch.
Cluster Configuration
To create a switch cluster, first be sure that clustering is enabled on the switch (the
default is enabled), then set the switch as a Cluster Commander. Set a Cluster IP
Pool that does not conflict with the network IP subnet. Cluster IP addresses are
assigned to switches when they become Members and are used for communication
between Member switches and the Commander.
Command Attributes
• Cluster Status – Enables or disables clustering on the switch.
• Cluster Commander – Enables or disables the switch as a cluster Commander.
3-194
3
Switch Clustering
• Role – Indicates the current role of the switch in the cluster; either Commander,
Member, or Candidate.
• Cluster IP Pool – An “internal” IP address pool that is used to assign IP addresses
to Member switches in the cluster. Internal cluster IP addresses are in the form
10.x.x.member-ID. Only the base IP address of the pool needs to be set since
Member IDs can only be between 1 and 36. Note that you cannot change the cluster
IP pool when the switch is currently in Commander mode. Commander mode must first
be disabled.
• Number of Members – The current number of Member switches in the cluster.
• Number of Candidates – The current number of Candidate switches discovered
in the network that are available to become Members.
Web – Click Cluster, Configuration.
Figure 3-115 Cluster Configuration
CLI – This example first enables clustering on the switch, sets the switch as the
cluster Commander, and then configures the cluster IP pool.
Console(config)#cluster
Console(config)#cluster commander
Console(config)#cluster ip-pool 10.2.3.4
Console(config)#
4-249
4-250
4-250
Cluster Member Configuration
Adds Candidate switches to the cluster as Members.
Command Attributes
• Member ID – Specify a Member ID number for the selected Candidate switch.
(Range: 1-36)
• MAC Address – Select a discoverd switch MAC address from the Candidate
Table, or enter a specific MAC address of a known switch.
3-195
3
Configuring the Switch
Web – Click Cluster, Member Configuration.
Figure 3-116 Cluster Member Configuration
CLI – This example creates a new cluster Member by specifying the Candidate
switch MAC address and setting a Member ID.
Console(config)#cluster member mac-address 00-12-34-56-78-9a id 5
Console(config)#
4-251
Cluster Member Information
Displays current cluster Member switch information.
Command Attributes
•
•
•
•
•
Member ID – The ID number of the Member switch. (Range: 1-36)
Role – Indicates the current status of the switch in the cluster.
IP Address – The internal cluster IP address assigned to the Member switch.
MAC Address – The MAC address of the Member switch.
Description – The system description string of the Member switch.
Web – Click Cluster, Member Information.
Figure 3-117 Cluster Member Information
3-196
Switch Clustering
3
CLI – This example shows information about cluster Member switches.
Vty-0#show cluster members
Cluster Members:
ID:
1
Role:
Active member
IP Address: 10.254.254.2
MAC Address: 00-12-cf-23-49-c0
Description: 24/48 L2/L4 IPV4/IPV6 GE Switch
Vty-0#
4-253
Cluster Candidate Information
Displays information about discovered switches in the network that are already
cluster Members or are available to become cluster Members.
Command Attributes
• Role – Indicates the current status of Candidate switches in the network.
• MAC Address – The MAC address of the Candidate switch.
• Description – The system description string of the Candidate switch.
Web – Click Cluster, Candidate Information.
Figure 3-118 Cluster Candidate Information
CLI – This example shows information about cluster Candidate switches.
Vty-0#show cluster candidates
Cluster Candidates:
Role
Mac
--------------- ----------------ACTIVE MEMBER
00-12-cf-23-49-c0
CANDIDATE
00-12-cf-0b-47-a0
Vty-0#
4-253
Description
----------------------------------------24/48 L2/L4 IPV4/IPV6 GE Switch
24/48 L2/L4 IPV4/IPV6 GE Switch
3-197
3
Configuring the Switch
3-198
Chapter 4: Command Line Interface
This chapter describes how to use the Command Line Interface (CLI).
Using the Command Line Interface
Accessing the CLI
When accessing the management interface for the switch over a direct connection
to the server’s console port, or via a Telnet connection, the switch can be managed
by entering command keywords and parameters at the prompt. Using the switch's
command-line interface (CLI) is very similar to entering commands on a UNIX
system.
Console Connection
To access the switch through the console port, perform these steps:
1.
At the console prompt, enter the user name and password. (The default user
names are “admin” and “guest” with corresponding passwords of “admin” and
“guest.”) When the administrator user name and password is entered, the CLI
displays the “Console#” prompt and enters privileged access mode
(i.e., Privileged Exec). But when the guest user name and password is entered,
the CLI displays the “Console>” prompt and enters normal access mode
(i.e., Normal Exec).
2.
Enter the necessary commands to complete your desired tasks.
3.
When finished, exit the session with the “quit” or “exit” command.
After connecting to the system through the console port, the login screen displays:
User Access Verification
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the Standalone Intelligent Switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#
Telnet Connection
Telnet operates over the IP transport protocol. In this environment, your
management station and any network device you want to manage over the network
must have a valid IP address. Valid IP addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255,
separated by periods. Each address consists of a network portion and host portion.
For example, the IP address assigned to this switch, 10.1.0.1, with subnet mask
255.255.255.0, consists of a network portion (10.1.0) and a host portion (1).
Note: The IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default.
4-1
4
Command Line Interface
To access the switch through a Telnet session, you must first set the IP address for
the switch, and set the default gateway if you are managing the switch from a
different IP subnet. For example,
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 10.1.0.254 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 10.1.0.254
If your corporate network is connected to another network outside your office or to
the Internet, you need to apply for a registered IP address. However, if you are
attached to an isolated network, then you can use any IP address that matches the
network segment to which you are attached.
After you configure the switch with an IP address, you can open a Telnet session by
performing these steps:
1.
From the remote host, enter the Telnet command and the IP address of the
device you want to access.
2.
At the prompt, enter the user name and system password. The CLI will display
the “Vty-n#” prompt for the administrator to show that you are using privileged
access mode (i.e., Privileged Exec), or “Vty-n>” for the guest to show that you
are using normal access mode (i.e., Normal Exec), where n indicates the
number of the current Telnet session.
3.
Enter the necessary commands to complete your desired tasks.
4.
When finished, exit the session with the “quit” or “exit” command.
After entering the Telnet command, the login screen displays:
Username: admin
Password:
CLI session with the Standalone Intelligent Switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Vty-0#
Note: You can open up to four sessions to the device via Telnet.
4-2
Entering Commands
4
Entering Commands
This section describes how to enter CLI commands.
Keywords and Arguments
A CLI command is a series of keywords and arguments. Keywords identify a
command, and arguments specify configuration parameters. For example, in the
command “show interfaces status ethernet 1/5,” show interfaces and status are
keywords, ethernet is an argument that specifies the interface type, and 1/5
specifies the unit/port.
You can enter commands as follows:
• To enter a simple command, enter the command keyword.
• To enter multiple commands, enter each command in the required order. For
example, to enable Privileged Exec command mode, and display the startup
configuration, enter:
Console>enable
Console#show startup-config
• To enter commands that require parameters, enter the required parameters after
the command keyword. For example, to set a password for the administrator,
enter:
Console(config)#username admin password 0 smith
Minimum Abbreviation
The CLI will accept a minimum number of characters that uniquely identify a
command. For example, the command “configure” can be entered as con. If an
entry is ambiguous, the system will prompt for further input.
Command Completion
If you terminate input with a Tab key, the CLI will print the remaining characters of a
partial keyword up to the point of ambiguity. In the “logging history” example, typing
log followed by a tab will result in printing the command up to “logging.”
Getting Help on Commands
You can display a brief description of the help system by entering the help
command. You can also display command syntax by using the “?” character to list
keywords or parameters.
4-3
4
Command Line Interface
Showing Commands
If you enter a “?” at the command prompt, the system will display the first level of
keywords for the current command class (Normal Exec or Privileged Exec) or
configuration class (Global, ACL, Interface, Line or VLAN Database). You can also
display a list of valid keywords for a specific command. For example, the command
“show ?” displays a list of possible show commands:
Console#show ?
access-group
access-list
bridge-ext
calendar
cluster
dns
dot1x
garp
gvrp
history
hosts
interfaces
ip
lacp
line
log
logging
mac
mac-address-table
management
map
mvr
network-access
ntp
port
public-key
queue
radius-server
rate-limit
running-config
snmp
sntp
spanning-tree
ssh
startup-config
system
tacacs-server
users
version
vlan
Console#show
Access groups
Access lists
Bridge extend information
Date and time information
Display cluster information
DNS information
802.1X content
GARP properties
GVRP interface information
History information
Host information
Interface information
IP information
LACP statistics
TTY line information
Login records
Login setting
MAC access lists
Configuration of the address table
Management IP filter
Maps priority
CLI_MSG_PRIVILEGE_EXEC_CMD_W2_SHOW_MVR
Network Access
Network Time Protocol configuration
Port Characteristics
Public Key information
Priority queue information
RADIUS server information
Configures rate-limits
Information on the running configuration
Simple Network Management Protocol statistics
Simple Network Time Protocol configuration
Spanning-tree configuration
Secure shell server connections
Startup system configuration
System Information
TACACS server settings
Information about terminal lines
System hardware and software versions
Virtual LAN settings
The command “show interfaces ?” will display the following information:
Console#show interfaces ?
counters
Interface counters information
status
Interface status information
switchport
Interface switchport information
Console#
4-4
Entering Commands
4
Partial Keyword Lookup
If you terminate a partial keyword with a question mark, alternatives that match the
initial letters are provided. (Remember not to leave a space between the command
and question mark.) For example “s?” shows all the keywords starting with “s.”
Console#show s?
snmp
sntp
system
Console#show s
spanning-tree
ssh
startup-config
Negating the Effect of Commands
For many configuration commands you can enter the prefix keyword “no” to cancel
the effect of a command or reset the configuration to the default value. For example,
the logging command will log system messages to a host server. To disable
logging, specify the no logging command. This guide describes the negation effect
for all applicable commands.
Using Command History
The CLI maintains a history of commands that have been entered. You can scroll
back through the history of commands by pressing the up arrow key. Any command
displayed in the history list can be executed again, or first modified and then
executed.
Using the show history command displays a longer list of recently executed
commands.
Understanding Command Modes
The command set is divided into Exec and Configuration classes. Exec commands
generally display information on system status or clear statistical counters.
Configuration commands, on the other hand, modify interface parameters or enable
certain switching functions. These classes are further divided into different modes.
Available commands depend on the selected mode. You can always enter a
question mark “?” at the prompt to display a list of the commands available for the
4-5
4
Command Line Interface
current mode. The command classes and associated modes are displayed in the
following table:
Table 4-1 Command Modes
Class
Mode
Exec
Normal
Privileged
Configuration
Global*
Access Control List
IGMP Profile
Interface
Line
Multiple Spanning Tree
VLAN Database
* You must be in Privileged Exec mode to access the Global configuration mode.
You must be in Global Configuration mode to access any of the other configuration modes.
Exec Commands
When you open a new console session on the switch with the user name and
password “guest,” the system enters the Normal Exec command mode (or guest
mode), displaying the “Console>” command prompt. Only a limited number of the
commands are available in this mode. You can access all commands only from the
Privileged Exec command mode (or administrator mode). To access Privilege Exec
mode, open a new console session with the user name and password “admin.” The
system will now display the “Console#” command prompt. You can also enter
Privileged Exec mode from within Normal Exec mode, by entering the enable
command, followed by the privileged level password “super” (page 4-28).
To enter Privileged Exec mode, enter the following user names and passwords:
Username: admin
Password: [admin login password]
CLI session with the Standalone Intelligent Switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#
Username: guest
Password: [guest login password]
CLI session with the Standalone Intelligent Switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Console#enable
Password: [privileged level password]
Console#
4-6
4
Entering Commands
Configuration Commands
Configuration commands are privileged level commands used to modify switch
settings. These commands modify the running configuration only and are not saved
when the switch is rebooted. To store the running configuration in non-volatile
storage, use the copy running-config startup-config command.
The configuration commands are organized into different modes:
• Global Configuration - These commands modify the system level configuration,
and include commands such as hostname and snmp-server community.
• Access Control List Configuration - These commands are used for packet filtering.
• Interface Configuration - These commands modify the port configuration such as
speed-duplex and negotiation.
• Line Configuration - These commands modify the console port and Telnet
configuration, and include command such as parity and databits.
• VLAN Configuration - Includes the command to create VLAN groups.
To enter the Global Configuration mode, enter the command configure in Privileged
Exec mode. The system prompt will change to “Console(config)#” which gives you
access privilege to all Global Configuration commands.
Console#configure
Console(config)#
To enter the other modes, at the configuration prompt type one of the following
commands. Use the exit or end command to return to the Privileged Exec mode.
Table 4-2 Configuration Modes
Mode
Command
Prompt
Line
line {console | vty}
Console(config-line)#
Access
Control List
access-list ip standard
access-list ip extended
access-list mac
Console(config-std-acl)#
Console(config-ext-acl)#
Console(config-mac-acl)#
Interface
interface {ethernet port | port-channel id| vlan id} Console(config-if)#
4-131
MSTP
spanning-tree mst-configuration
Console(config-mstp)#
4-160
VLAN
vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#
4-179
Console(config-igmp-profile)#
4-211
IGMP Profile ip igmp profile
Page
4-11
4-102
For example, you can use the following commands to enter interface configuration
mode, and then return to Privileged Exec mode
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
.
.
.
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#
4-7
4
Command Line Interface
Command Line Processing
Commands are not case sensitive. You can abbreviate commands and parameters
as long as they contain enough letters to differentiate them from any other currently
available commands or parameters. You can use the Tab key to complete partial
commands, or enter a partial command followed by the “?” character to display a list
of possible matches. You can also use the following editing keystrokes for
command-line processing:
Table 4-3 Command Line Processing
Keystroke
Function
Ctrl-A
Shifts cursor to start of command line.
Ctrl-B
Shifts cursor to the left one character.
Ctrl-C
Terminates the current task and displays the command prompt.
Ctrl-E
Shifts cursor to end of command line.
Ctrl-F
Shifts cursor to the right one character.
Ctrl-K
Deletes all characters from the cursor to the end of the line.
Ctrl-L
Repeats current command line on a new line.
Ctrl-N
Enters the next command line in the history buffer.
Ctrl-P
Enters the last command.
Ctrl-R
Repeats current command line on a new line.
Ctrl-U
Deletes from the cursor to the beginning of the line.
Ctrl-W
Deletes the last word typed.
Esc-B
Moves the cursor back one word.
Esc-D
Deletes from the cursor to the end of the word.
Esc-F
Moves the cursor forward one word.
Delete key or backspace key
Erases a mistake when entering a command.
4-8
Command Groups
4
Command Groups
The system commands can be broken down into the functional groups shown below.
Table 4-4 Command Groups
Command Group
Description
Line
Sets communication parameters for the serial port and Telnet,
including baud rate and console time-out
Page
4-11
General
Basic commands for entering privileged access mode, restarting the
system, or quitting the CLI
4-20
System Management
Controls system logs, system passwords, user name, browser
management options, and a variety of other system information
4-25
Flash/File
Manages code image or switch configuration files
4-70
Authentication
Configures logon access using local or remote authentication;
also configures port security, IEEE 802.1X port access control, and
MAC address authentication
4-76
Access Control List
Provides filtering for IP frames (based on address, protocol, TCP/UDP
port number or TCP control code) or non-IP frames (based on MAC
address or Ethernet type)
4-102
SNMP
Activates authentication failure traps; configures community access
strings, and trap managers; also configures IP address filtering
4-116
Interface
Configures the connection parameters for all Ethernet ports,
aggregated links, and VLANs
4-131
Mirror Port
Mirrors data to another port for analysis without affecting the data
passing through or the performance of the monitored port
4-142
Rate Limiting
Controls the maximum rate for traffic transmitted or received on a port
4-144
Link Aggregation
Statically groups multiple ports into a single logical trunk; configures
Link Aggregation Control Protocol for port trunks
4-145
Address Table
Configures the address table for filtering specified addresses, displays
current entries, clears the table, or sets the aging time
4-156
Spanning Tree
Configures Spanning Tree settings for the switch
4-160
VLANs
Configures VLAN settings, and defines port membership for VLAN
groups; also enables or configures private VLANs
4-179
GVRP and
Bridge Extension
Configures GVRP settings that permit automatic VLAN learning;
shows the configuration for the bridge extension MIB
4-194
Priority
Sets port priority for untagged frames, selects strict priority or weighted
round robin, relative weight for each priority queue, also sets priority for
TCP/UDP traffic types, IP precedence, and DSCP
4-198
Multicast Filtering
Configures IGMP multicast filtering, query parameters, specifies ports
attached to a multicast router, and enables multicast VLAN registration
4-211
Domain Name Service
Configures DNS services.
4-233
DHCP Relay
Configures DHCP relay and Option 82 functions
4-241
IP Interface
Configures IP address for the switch
4-244
Switch Cluster
Configures switch clustering
4-249
4-9
4
Command Line Interface
The access mode shown in the following tables is indicated by these abbreviations:
NE (Normal Exec)
PE (Privileged Exec)
GC (Global Configuration)
ACL (Access Control List Configuration)
IPC (IGMP Profile Configuration)
4-10
IC (Interface Configuration)
LC (Line Configuration)
VC (VLAN Database Configuration)
MST (Multiple Spanning Tree)
Line Commands
4
Line Commands
You can access the onboard configuration program by attaching a VT100
compatible device to the server’s serial port. These commands are used to set
communication parameters for the serial port or Telnet (i.e., a virtual terminal).
Table 4-5 Line Commands
Command
Function
Mode
line
Identifies a specific line for configuration and starts the line
configuration mode
GC
Page
4-11
login
Enables password checking at login
LC
4-12
password
Specifies a password on a line
LC
4-13
timeout login
response
Sets the interval that the system waits for a user to log into the LC
CLI
4-14
exec-timeout
Sets the interval that the command interpreter waits until user
input is detected
LC
4-14
password-thresh
Sets the password intrusion threshold, which limits the number LC
of failed logon attempts
4-15
silent-time*
Sets the amount of time the management console is
LC
inaccessible after the number of unsuccessful logon attempts
exceeds the threshold set by the password-thresh command
4-16
databits*
Sets the number of data bits per character that are interpreted LC
and generated by hardware
4-16
parity*
Defines the generation of a parity bit
LC
4-17
speed*
Sets the terminal baud rate
LC
4-18
stopbits*
Sets the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte
LC
4-18
disconnect
Terminates a line connection
PE
4-19
show line
Displays a terminal line's parameters
NE, PE
4-19
* These commands only apply to the serial port.
line
This command identifies a specific line for configuration, and to process subsequent
line configuration commands.
Syntax
line {console | vty}
• console - Console terminal line.
• vty - Virtual terminal for remote console access (i.e., Telnet).
Default Setting
There is no default line.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-11
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
Telnet is considered a virtual terminal connection and will be shown as “Vty” in
screen displays such as show users. However, the serial communication
parameters (e.g., databits) do not affect Telnet connections.
Example
To enter console line mode, enter the following command:
Console(config)#line console
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
show line (4-19)
show users (4-67)
login
This command enables password checking at login. Use the no form to disable
password checking and allow connections without a password.
Syntax
login [local]
no login
local - Selects local password checking. Authentication is based on the
user name specified with the username command.
Default Setting
login local
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
• There are three authentication modes provided by the switch itself at login:
- login selects authentication by a single global password as specified by the
password line configuration command. When using this method, the
management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) mode.
- login local selects authentication via the user name and password
specified by the username command (i.e., default setting). When using this
method, the management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) or Privileged
Exec (PE) mode, depending on the user’s privilege level (0 or 15
respectively).
- no login selects no authentication. When using this method, the
management interface starts in Normal Exec (NE) mode.
• This command controls login authentication via the switch itself. To configure
user names and passwords for remote authentication servers, you must use
the RADIUS or TACACS software installed on those servers.
4-12
4
Line Commands
Example
Console(config-line)#login local
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
username (4-27)
password (4-13)
password
This command specifies the password for a line. Use the no form to remove the
password.
Syntax
password {0 | 7} password
no password
• {0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password
• password - Character string that specifies the line password.
(Maximum length: 8 characters plain text, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
Default Setting
No password is specified.
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
• When a connection is started on a line with password protection, the system
prompts for the password. If you enter the correct password, the system
shows a prompt. You can use the password-thresh command to set the
number of times a user can enter an incorrect password before the system
terminates the line connection and returns the terminal to the idle state.
• The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file
during system bootup or when downloading the configuration file from a TFTP
server. There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted passwords.
Example
Console(config-line)#password 0 secret
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
login (4-12)
password-thresh (4-15)
4-13
4
Command Line Interface
timeout login response
This command sets the interval that the system waits for a user to log into the CLI.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
timeout login response [seconds]
no timeout login response
seconds - Integer that specifies the timeout interval.
(Range: 0 - 300 seconds; 0: disabled)
Default Setting
• CLI: Disabled (0 seconds)
• Telnet: 600 seconds
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
• If a login attempt is not detected within the timeout interval, the connection is
terminated for the session.
• This command applies to both the local console and Telnet connections.
• The timeout for Telnet cannot be disabled.
• Using the command without specifying a timeout restores the default setting.
Example
To set the timeout to two minutes, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#timeout login response 120
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
silent-time (4-16)
exec-timeout (4-14)
exec-timeout
This command sets the interval that the system waits until user input is detected.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
exec-timeout [seconds]
no exec-timeout
seconds - Integer that specifies the number of seconds.
(Range: 0-65535 seconds; 0: no timeout)
Default Setting
CLI: No timeout
Telnet: 10 minutes
4-14
Line Commands
4
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
• If user input is detected within the timeout interval, the session is kept open;
otherwise the session is terminated.
• This command applies to both the local console and Telnet connections.
• The timeout for Telnet cannot be disabled.
• Using the command without specifying a timeout restores the default setting.
Example
To set the timeout to two minutes, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#exec-timeout 120
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
silent-time (4-16)
timeout login response (4-13)
password-thresh
This command sets the password intrusion threshold which limits the number of
failed logon attempts. Use the no form to remove the threshold value.
Syntax
password-thresh [threshold]
no password-thresh
threshold - The number of allowed password attempts.
(Range: 1-120; 0: no threshold)
Default Setting
The default value is three attempts.
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
• When the logon attempt threshold is reached, the system interface becomes
silent for a specified amount of time before allowing the next logon attempt.
(Use the silent-time command to set this interval.) When this threshold is
reached for Telnet, the Telnet logon interface shuts down.
• This command applies to both the local console and Telnet connections.
Example
To set the password threshold to five attempts, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#password-thresh 5
Console(config-line)#
4-15
4
Command Line Interface
Related Commands
silent-time (4-16)
timeout login response (4-13)
silent-time
This command sets the amount of time the management console is inaccessible
after the number of unsuccessful logon attempts exceeds the threshold set by the
password-thresh command. Use the no form to remove the silent time value.
Syntax
silent-time [seconds]
no silent-time
seconds - The number of seconds to disable console response.
(Range: 0-65535; 0: no silent-time)
Default Setting
The default value is no silent-time.
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Example
To set the silent time to 60 seconds, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#silent-time 60
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
password-thresh (4-15)
databits
This command sets the number of data bits per character that are interpreted and
generated by the console port. Use the no form to restore the default value.
Syntax
databits {7 | 8}
no databits
• 7 - Seven data bits per character.
• 8 - Eight data bits per character.
Default Setting
8 data bits per character
Command Mode
Line Configuration
4-16
Line Commands
4
Command Usage
The databits command can be used to mask the high bit on input from
devices that generate 7 data bits with parity. If parity is being generated,
specify 7 data bits per character. If no parity is required, specify 8 data bits per
character.
Example
To specify 7 data bits, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#databits 7
Console(config-line)#
Related Commands
parity (4-17)
parity
This command defines the generation of a parity bit. Use the no form to restore the
default setting.
Syntax
parity {none | even | odd}
no parity
• none - No parity
• even - Even parity
• odd - Odd parity
Default Setting
No parity
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
Communication protocols provided by devices such as terminals and modems
often require a specific parity bit setting.
Example
To specify no parity, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#parity none
Console(config-line)#
4-17
4
Command Line Interface
speed
This command sets the terminal line’s baud rate. This command sets both the
transmit (to terminal) and receive (from terminal) speeds. Use the no form to restore
the default setting.
Syntax
speed bps
no speed
bps - Baud rate in bits per second.
(Options: 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200 bps)
Default Setting
9600
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Command Usage
Set the speed to match the baud rate of the device connected to the serial
port. Some baud rates available on devices connected to the port might not be
supported. The system indicates if the speed you selected is not supported.
Example
To specify 57600 bps, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#speed 57600
Console(config-line)#
stopbits
This command sets the number of the stop bits transmitted per byte. Use the no
form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
stopbits {1 | 2}
• 1 - One stop bit
• 2 - Two stop bits
Default Setting
1 stop bit
Command Mode
Line Configuration
Example
To specify 2 stop bits, enter this command:
Console(config-line)#stopbits 2
Console(config-line)#
4-18
Line Commands
4
disconnect
This command terminates an SSH, Telnet, or console connection.
Syntax
disconnect session-id
session-id – The session identifier for an SSH, Telnet or console
connection. (Range: 0-4)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Specifying session identifier “0” will disconnect the console connection.
Specifying any other identifiers for an active session will disconnect an SSH or
Telnet connection.
Example
Console#disconnect 1
Console#
Related Commands
show ssh (4-42)
show users (4-67)
show line
This command displays the terminal line’s parameters.
Syntax
show line [console | vty]
• console - Console terminal line.
• vty - Virtual terminal for remote console access (i.e., Telnet).
Default Setting
Shows all lines
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
4-19
4
Command Line Interface
Example
To show all lines, enter this command:
Console#show line
Console configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: Disabled
Login timeout: Disabled
Silent time:
Disabled
Baudrate:
9600
Databits:
8
Parity:
none
Stopbits:
1
VTY configuration:
Password threshold: 3 times
Interactive timeout: 600 sec
Login timeout: 300 sec
console#
General Commands
Table 4-6 General Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
enable
Activates privileged mode
NE
4-20
disable
Returns to normal mode from privileged mode
PE
4-21
configure
Activates global configuration mode
PE
4-22
show history
Shows the command history buffer
NE, PE
4-22
reload
Restarts the system
PE
4-23
end
Returns to Privileged Exec mode
any
config.
mode
4-23
exit
Returns to the previous configuration mode, or exits the CLI
any
4-24
quit
Exits a CLI session
NE, PE
4-24
help
Shows how to use help
any
NA
?
Shows options for command completion (context sensitive)
any
NA
enable
This command activates Privileged Exec mode. In privileged mode, additional
commands are available, and certain commands display additional information. See
“Understanding Command Modes” on page 4-5.
Syntax
enable [level]
level - Privilege level to log into the device.
The device has two predefined privilege levels: 0: Normal Exec,
15: Privileged Exec. Enter level 15 to access Privileged Exec mode.
4-20
4
General Commands
Default Setting
Level 15
Command Mode
Normal Exec
Command Usage
• “super” is the default password required to change the command mode from
Normal Exec to Privileged Exec. (To set this password, see the enable
password command on page 4-28.)
• The “#” character is appended to the end of the prompt to indicate that the
system is in privileged access mode.
Example
Console>enable
Password: [privileged level password]
Console#
Related Commands
disable (4-21)
enable password (4-28)
disable
This command returns to Normal Exec mode from privileged mode. In normal
access mode, you can only display basic information on the switch's configuration or
Ethernet statistics. To gain access to all commands, you must use the privileged
mode. See “Understanding Command Modes” on page 4-5.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The “>” character is appended to the end of the prompt to indicate that the
system is in normal access mode.
Example
Console#disable
Console>
Related Commands
enable (4-20)
4-21
4
Command Line Interface
configure
This command activates Global Configuration mode. You must enter this mode to
modify any settings on the switch. You must also enter Global Configuration mode
prior to enabling some of the other configuration modes, including Interface
Configuration, Line Configuration, and VLAN Database Configuration. See
“Understanding Command Modes” on page 4-5.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#configure
Console(config)#
Related Commands
end (4-23)
show history
This command shows the contents of the command history buffer.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The history buffer size is fixed at 10 Execution commands and
10 Configuration commands.
Example
In this example, the show history command lists the contents of the command
history buffer:
Console#show history
Execution command history:
2 config
1 show history
Configuration command history:
4 interface vlan 1
3 exit
2 interface vlan 1
1 end
Console#
4-22
4
General Commands
The ! command repeats commands from the Execution command history buffer
when you are in Normal Exec or Privileged Exec Mode, and commands from the
Configuration command history buffer when you are in any of the configuration
modes. In this example, the !2 command repeats the second command in the
Execution history buffer (config).
Console#!2
Console#config
Console(config)#
reload
This command restarts the system.
Note: When the system is restarted, it will always run the Power-On Self-Test. It will also
retain all configuration information stored in non-volatile memory by the copy
running-config startup-config command.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command resets the entire system.
Example
This example shows how to reset the switch:
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>? y
end
This command returns to Privileged Exec mode.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration, Interface Configuration, Line Configuration, and VLAN
Database Configuration.
Example
This example shows how to return to the Privileged Exec mode from the Interface
Configuration mode:
Console(config-if)#end
Console#
4-23
4
Command Line Interface
exit
This command returns to the previous configuration mode or exit the configuration
program.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Any
Example
This example shows how to return to the Privileged Exec mode from the Global
Configuration mode, and then quit the CLI session:
Console(config)#exit
Console#exit
Press ENTER to start session
User Access Verification
Username:
quit
This command exits the configuration program.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
The quit and exit commands can both exit the configuration program.
Example
This example shows how to quit a CLI session:
Console#quit
Press ENTER to start session
User Access Verification
Username:
4-24
4
System Management Commands
System Management Commands
These commands are used to control system logs, passwords, user names, browser
configuration options, and display or configure a variety of other system information.
Table 4-7 System Management Commands
Command Group
Function
Device Designation
Configures information that uniquely identifies this switch
Page
4-25
User Access
Configures the basic user names and passwords for management access
4-26
IP Filter
Configures IP addresses that are allowed management access
4-29
Web Server
Enables management access via a web browser
4-31
Telnet Server
Enables management access via Telnet
4-34
Secure Shell
Provides secure replacement for Telnet
4-35
Event Logging
Controls logging of error messages
4-44
Time (System Clock)
Sets the system clock automatically via NTP/SNTP or manually
4-54
System Status
Displays system configuration, active managers, and version information
4-63
Frame Size
Enables support for jumbo frames
4-69
Device Designation Commands
Table 4-8 Device Designation Commands
Command
Function
Mode
prompt
Customizes the prompt used in PE and NE mode
GC
Page
4-25
hostname
Specifies the host name for the switch
GC
4-26
snmp-server contact
Sets the system contact string
GC
4-119
snmp-server location
Sets the system location string
GC
4-119
prompt
This command customizes the CLI prompt. Use the no form to restore the default
prompt.
Syntax
prompt string
no prompt
string - Any alphanumeric string to use for the CLI prompt. (Maximum
length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
Console
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-25
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console(config)#prompt RD2
RD2(config)#
hostname
This command specifies or modifies the host name for this device. Use the no form
to restore the default host name.
Syntax
hostname name
no hostname
name - The name of this host. (Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#hostname RD#1
Console(config)#
User Access Commands
The basic commands required for management access are listed in this section.
This switch also includes other options for password checking via the console or a
Telnet connection (page 4-11), user authentication via a remote authentication
server (page 4-76), and host access authentication for specific ports (page 4-85).
Table 4-9 User Access Commands
Command
Function
Mode
username
Establishes a user name-based authentication system at login
GC
4-27
enable password
Sets a password to control access to the Privileged Exec level
GC
4-28
4-26
Page
4
System Management Commands
username
This command adds named users, requires authentication at login, specifies or
changes a user's password (or specify that no password is required), or specifies or
changes a user's access level. Use the no form to remove a user name.
Syntax
username name {access-level level | nopassword |
password {0 | 7} password}
no username name
• name - The name of the user.
(Maximum length: 8 characters, case sensitive. Maximum users: 16)
• access-level level - Specifies the user level.
The device has two predefined privilege levels:
0: Normal Exec, 15: Privileged Exec.
• nopassword - No password is required for this user to log in.
• {0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password.
• password password - The authentication password for the user.
(Maximum length: 8 characters plain text, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
Default Setting
• The default access level is Normal Exec.
• The factory defaults for the user names and passwords are:
Table 4-10 Default Login Settings
username
access-level
password
guest
admin
0
15
guest
admin
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file during
system bootup or when downloading the configuration file from a TFTP server.
There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted passwords.
Example
This example shows how to set the access level and password for a user.
Console(config)#username bob access-level 15
Console(config)#username bob password 0 smith
Console(config)#
4-27
4
Command Line Interface
enable password
After initially logging onto the system, you should set the Privileged Exec password.
Remember to record it in a safe place. This command controls access to the
Privileged Exec level from the Normal Exec level. Use the no form to reset the
default password.
Syntax
enable password [level level] {0 | 7} password
no enable password [level level]
• level level - Level 15 for Privileged Exec. (Levels 0-14 are not used.)
• {0 | 7} - 0 means plain password, 7 means encrypted password.
• password - password for this privilege level.
(Maximum length: 8 characters plain text, 32 encrypted, case sensitive)
Default Setting
• The default is level 15.
• The default password is “super”
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• You cannot set a null password. You will have to enter a password to change
the command mode from Normal Exec to Privileged Exec with the enable
command (page 4-20).
• The encrypted password is required for compatibility with legacy password
settings (i.e., plain text or encrypted) when reading the configuration file
during system bootup or when downloading the configuration file from a TFTP
server. There is no need for you to manually configure encrypted passwords.
Example
Console(config)#enable password level 15 0 admin
Console(config)#
Related Commands
enable (4-20)
authentication enable (4-77)
4-28
4
System Management Commands
IP Filter Commands
Table 4-11 IP Filter Commands
Command
Function
management
Configures IP addresses that are allowed management access GC
Mode
Page
4-29
show management
Displays the switch to be monitored or configured from a
browser
4-30
PE
management
This command specifies the client IP addresses that are allowed management
access to the switch through various protocols. Use the no form to restore the
default setting.
Syntax
[no] management {all-client | http-client | snmp-client | telnet-client}
start-address [end-address]
•
•
•
•
•
•
all-client - Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP, web and Telnet groups.
http-client - Adds IP address(es) to the web group.
snmp-client - Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP group.
telnet-client - Adds IP address(es) to the Telnet group.
start-address - A single IP address, or the starting address of a range.
end-address - The end address of a range.
Default Setting
All addresses
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• If anyone tries to access a management interface on the switch from an invalid
address, the switch will reject the connection, enter an event message in the
system log, and send a trap message to the trap manager.
• IP address can be configured for SNMP, web and Telnet access respectively.
Each of these groups can include up to five different sets of addresses, either
individual addresses or address ranges.
• When entering addresses for the same group (i.e., SNMP, web or Telnet), the
switch will not accept overlapping address ranges. When entering addresses
for different groups, the switch will accept overlapping address ranges.
• You cannot delete an individual address from a specified range. You must
delete the entire range, and reenter the addresses.
• You can delete an address range just by specifying the start address, or by
specifying both the start address and end address.
4-29
4
Command Line Interface
Example
This example restricts management access to the indicated addresses.
Console(config)#management all-client 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#management all-client 192.168.1.25 192.168.1.30
Console(config)#
show management
This command displays the client IP addresses that are allowed management
access to the switch through various protocols.
Syntax
show management {all-client | http-client | snmp-client | telnet-client}
•
•
•
•
all-client - Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP, web and Telnet groups.
http-client - Adds IP address(es) to the web group.
snmp-client - Adds IP address(es) to the SNMP group.
telnet-client - Adds IP address(es) to the Telnet group.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show management all-client
Management IP Filter
HTTP-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
SNMP-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
TELNET-Client:
Start IP address
End IP address
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.19
192.168.1.19
2. 192.168.1.25
192.168.1.30
Console#
4-30
System Management Commands
4
Web Server Commands
Table 4-12 Web Server Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip http port
Specifies the port to be used by the web browser interface
GC
Page
4-31
ip http server
Allows the switch to be monitored or configured from a browser GC
4-31
ip http secure-server
Enables HTTPS/SSL for encrypted communications
GC
4-32
ip http secure-port
Specifies the UDP port number for HTTPS/SSL
GC
4-33
ip http port
This command specifies the TCP port number used by the web browser interface.
Use the no form to use the default port.
Syntax
ip http port port-number
no ip http port
port-number - The TCP port to be used by the browser interface.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
80
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip http port 769
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http server (4-31)
ip http server
This command allows this device to be monitored or configured from a browser. Use
the no form to disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip http server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-31
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console(config)#ip http server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http port (4-31)
ip http secure-server
This command enables the secure hypertext transfer protocol (HTTPS) over the
Secure Socket Layer (SSL), providing secure access (i.e., an encrypted connection)
to the switch’s web interface. Use the no form to disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip http secure-server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Both HTTP and HTTPS service can be enabled independently on the switch.
However, you cannot configure the HTTP and HTTPS servers to use the
same UDP port.
• If you enable HTTPS, you must indicate this in the URL that you specify in
your browser: https://device[:port_number]
• When you start HTTPS, the connection is established in this way:
- The client authenticates the server using the server’s digital certificate.
- The client and server negotiate a set of security protocols to use for the
connection.
- The client and server generate session keys for encrypting and decrypting
data.
• The client and server establish a secure encrypted connection.
A padlock icon should appear in the status bar for Internet Explorer 5.x and
Netscape Navigator 6.2 or later versions.
• The following web browsers and operating systems currently support HTTPS:
Table 4-13 HTTPS System Support
Web Browser
Operating System
Internet Explorer 5.0 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP
Netscape Navigator 6.2 or later
Windows 98,Windows NT (with service pack 6a),
Windows 2000, Windows XP, Solaris 2.6
• To specify a secure-site certificate, see “Replacing the Default Secure-site
Certificate” on page 3-60. Also refer to the copy command on page 4-70.
4-32
System Management Commands
4
Example
Console(config)#ip http secure-server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http secure-port (4-33)
copy tftp https-certificate (4-70)
ip http secure-port
This command specifies the UDP port number used for HTTPS/SSL connection to
the switch’s web interface. Use the no form to restore the default port.
Syntax
ip http secure-port port_number
no ip http secure-port
port_number – The UDP port used for HTTPS/SSL.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
443
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• You cannot configure the HTTP and HTTPS servers to use the same port.
• If you change the HTTPS port number, clients attempting to connect to the
HTTPS server must specify the port number in the URL, in this format:
https://device:port_number
Example
Console(config)#ip http secure-port 1000
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip http secure-server (4-32)
4-33
4
Command Line Interface
Telnet Server Commands
Table 4-14 Telnet Server Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip telnet port
Specifies the port to be used by the Telnet interface
GC
Page
4-31
ip telnet server
Allows the switch to be monitored or configured from Telnet
GC
4-31
ip telnet port
This command specifies the TCP port number used by the Telnet interface. Use the
no form to use the default port.
Syntax
ip telnet port port-number
no ip telnet port
port-number - The TCP port to be used by the browser interface.
(Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
23
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip telnet port 123
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip telnet server (4-34)
ip telnet server
This command allows this device to be monitored or configured from Telnet. Use the
no form to disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip telnet server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip telnet server
Console(config)#
4-34
System Management Commands
4
Related Commands
ip telnet port (4-34)
Secure Shell Commands
The Berkley-standard includes remote access tools originally designed for Unix
systems. Some of these tools have also been implemented for Microsoft Windows
and other environments. These tools, including commands such as rlogin (remote
login), rsh (remote shell), and rcp (remote copy), are not secure from hostile attacks.
The Secure Shell (SSH) includes server/client applications intended as a secure
replacement for the older Berkley remote access tools. SSH can also provide
remote management access to this switch as a secure replacement for Telnet.
When a client contacts the switch via the SSH protocol, the switch uses a public-key
that the client must match along with a local user name and password for access
authentication. SSH also encrypts all data transfers passing between the switch and
SSH-enabled management station clients, and ensures that data traveling over the
network arrives unaltered.
This section describes the commands used to configure the SSH server. However,
note that you also need to install a SSH client on the management station when
using this protocol to configure the switch.
Note: The switch supports both SSH Version 1.5 and 2.0.
Table 4-15 SSH Commands
Command
Function
Mode
ip ssh server
Enables the SSH server on the switch
GC
Page
4-37
ip ssh timeout
Specifies the authentication timeout for the SSH server
GC
4-38
ip ssh
authentication-retries
Specifies the number of retries allowed by a client
GC
4-38
ip ssh server-key size
Sets the SSH server key size
GC
4-39
copy tftp public-key
Copies the user’s public key from a TFTP server to the switch
PE
4-70
delete public-key
Deletes the public key for the specified user
PE
4-39
ip ssh crypto host-key
generate
Generates the host key
PE
4-40
ip ssh crypto zeroize
Clear the host key from RAM
PE
4-40
ip ssh save host-key
Saves the host key from RAM to flash memory
PE
4-41
disconnect
Terminates a line connection
PE
4-19
show ip ssh
Displays the status of the SSH server and the configured values PE
for authentication timeout and retries
4-41
show ssh
Displays the status of current SSH sessions
PE
4-42
show public-key
Shows the public key for the specified user or for the host
PE
4-43
show users
Shows SSH users, including privilege level and public key type PE
4-67
4-35
4
Command Line Interface
The SSH server on this switch supports both password and public key
authentication. If password authentication is specified by the SSH client, then the
password can be authenticated either locally or via a RADIUS or TACACS+ remote
authentication server, as specified by the authentication login command on
page 4-76. If public key authentication is specified by the client, then you must
configure authentication keys on both the client and the switch as described in the
following section. Note that regardless of whether you use public key or password
authentication, you still have to generate authentication keys on the switch and
enable the SSH server.
To use the SSH server, complete these steps:
1.
Generate a Host Key Pair – Use the ip ssh crypto host-key generate
command to create a host public/private key pair.
2.
Provide Host Public Key to Clients – Many SSH client programs automatically
import the host public key during the initial connection setup with the switch.
Otherwise, you need to manually create a known hosts file on the management
station and place the host public key in it. An entry for a public key in the known
hosts file would appear similar to the following example:
10.1.0.54 1024 35 15684995401867669259333946775054617325313674890836547254
15020245593199868544358361651999923329781766065830956 10825913212890233
76546801726272571413428762941301196195566782 59566410486957427888146206
51941746772984865468615717739390164779355942303577413098022737087794545
24083971752646358058176716709574804776117
3.
Import Client’s Public Key to the Switch – Use the copy tftp public-key
command to copy a file containing the public key for all the SSH client’s granted
management access to the switch. (Note that these clients must be configured
locally on the switch via the User Accounts page as described on page 3-54.)
The clients are subsequently authenticated using these keys. The current
firmware only accepts public key files based on standard UNIX format as shown
in the following example for an RSA Version 1 key:
1024 35 1341081685609893921040944920155425347631641921872958921143173880
05553616163105177594083868631109291232226828519254374603100937187721199
69631781366277414168985132049117204830339254324101637997592371449011938
00609025394840848271781943722884025331159521348610229029789827213532671
31629432532818915045306393916643 steve@192.168.1.19
4.
Set the Optional Parameters – Set other optional parameters, including the
authentication timeout, the number of retries, and the server key size.
5.
Enable SSH Service – Use the ip ssh server command to enable the SSH
server on the switch.
6.
Configure Challenge-Response Authentication – When an SSH client attempts
to contact the switch, the SSH server uses the host key pair to negotiate a
session key and encryption method. Only clients that have a private key
4-36
4
System Management Commands
corresponding to the public keys stored on the switch can gain access. The
following exchanges take place during this process:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
The client sends its public key to the switch.
The switch compares the client's public key to those stored in memory.
If a match is found, the switch uses the public key to encrypt a random
sequence of bytes, and sends this string to the client.
The client uses its private key to decrypt the bytes, and sends the
decrypted bytes back to the switch.
The switch compares the decrypted bytes to the original bytes it sent. If the
two sets match, this means that the client's private key corresponds to an
authorized public key, and the client is authenticated.
Note: To use SSH with only password authentication, the host public key must still be
given to the client, either during initial connection or manually entered into the
known host file. However, you do not need to configure the client’s keys.
ip ssh server
This command enables the Secure Shell (SSH) server on this switch. Use the no
form to disable this service.
Syntax
[no] ip ssh server
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The SSH server supports up to four client sessions. The maximum number of
client sessions includes both current Telnet sessions and SSH sessions.
• The SSH server uses DSA or RSA for key exchange when the client first
establishes a connection with the switch, and then negotiates with the client
to select either DES (56-bit) or 3DES (168-bit) for data encryption.
• You must generate the host key before enabling the SSH server.
Example
Console#ip ssh crypto host-key generate dsa
Console#configure
Console(config)#ip ssh server
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate (4-40)
show ssh (4-42)
4-37
4
Command Line Interface
ip ssh timeout
This command configures the timeout for the SSH server. Use the no form to restore
the default setting.
Syntax
ip ssh timeout seconds
no ip ssh timeout
seconds – The timeout for client response during SSH negotiation.
(Range: 1-120)
Default Setting
10 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The timeout specifies the interval the switch will wait for a response from the
client during the SSH negotiation phase. Once an SSH session has been
established, the timeout for user input is controlled by the exec-timeout
command for vty sessions.
Example
Console(config)#ip ssh timeout 60
Console(config)#
Related Commands
exec-timeout (4-14)
show ip ssh (4-41)
ip ssh authentication-retries
This command configures the number of times the SSH server attempts to
reauthenticate a user. Use the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
ip ssh authentication-retries count
no ip ssh authentication-retries
count – The number of authentication attempts permitted after which the
interface is reset. (Range: 1-5)
Default Setting
3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-38
System Management Commands
4
Example
Console(config)#ip ssh authentication-retires 2
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show ip ssh (4-41)
ip ssh server-key size
This command sets the SSH server key size. Use the no form to restore the default
setting.
Syntax
ip ssh server-key size key-size
no ip ssh server-key size
key-size – The size of server key. (Range: 512-896 bits)
Default Setting
768 bits
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The server key is a private key that is never shared outside the switch.
• The host key is shared with the SSH client, and is fixed at 1024 bits.
Example
Console(config)#ip ssh server-key size 512
Console(config)#
delete public-key
This command deletes the specified user’s public key.
Syntax
delete public-key username [dsa | rsa]
• username – Name of an SSH user. (Range: 1-8 characters)
• dsa – DSA public key type.
• rsa – RSA public key type.
Default Setting
Deletes both the DSA and RSA key.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-39
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#delete public-key admin dsa
Console#
ip ssh crypto host-key generate
This command generates the host key pair (i.e., public and private).
Syntax
ip ssh crypto host-key generate [dsa | rsa]
• dsa – DSA (Version 2) key type.
• rsa – RSA (Version 1) key type.
Default Setting
Generates both the DSA and RSA key pairs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• This command stores the host key pair in memory (i.e., RAM). Use the ip ssh
save host-key command to save the host key pair to flash memory.
• Some SSH client programs automatically add the public key to the known
hosts file as part of the configuration process. Otherwise, you must manually
create a known hosts file and place the host public key in it.
• The SSH server uses this host key to negotiate a session key and encryption
method with the client trying to connect to it.
Example
Console#ip ssh crypto host-key generate dsa
Console#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto zeroize (4-40)
ip ssh save host-key (4-41)
ip ssh crypto zeroize
This command clears the host key from memory (i.e. RAM).
Syntax
ip ssh crypto zeroize [dsa | rsa]
• dsa – DSA key type.
• rsa – RSA key type.
Default Setting
Clears both the DSA and RSA key.
4-40
System Management Commands
4
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• This command clears the host key from volatile memory (RAM). Use the no
ip ssh save host-key command to clear the host key from flash memory.
• The SSH server must be disabled before you can execute this command.
Example
Console#ip ssh crypto zeroize dsa
Console#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate (4-40)
ip ssh save host-key (4-41)
no ip ssh server (4-37)
ip ssh save host-key
This command saves host key from RAM to flash memory.
Syntax
ip ssh save host-key [dsa | rsa]
• dsa – DSA key type.
• rsa – RSA key type.
Default Setting
Saves both the DSA and RSA key.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#ip ssh save host-key dsa
Console#
Related Commands
ip ssh crypto host-key generate (4-40)
show ip ssh
This command displays the connection settings used when authenticating client
access to the SSH server.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-41
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show ip ssh
SSH Enabled - version 1.99
Negotiation timeout: 120 secs; Authentication retries: 3
Server key size: 768 bits
Console#
show ssh
This command displays the current SSH server connections.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ssh
Connection Version State
0
2.0
Session-Started
Username
admin
Encryption
ctos aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
stoc aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
Console#
Table 4-16 show ssh - display description
Field
Description
Session
The session number. (Range: 0-3)
Version
The Secure Shell version number.
State
The authentication negotiation state.
(Values: Negotiation-Started, Authentication-Started, Session-Started)
Username
The user name of the client.
Encryption
The encryption method is automatically negotiated between the client and server.
Options for SSHv1.5 include: DES, 3DES
Options for SSHv2.0 can include different algorithms for the client-to-server (ctos)
and server-to-client (stoc):
aes128-cbc-hmac-sha1
aes192-cbc-hmac-sha1
aes256-cbc-hmac-sha1
3des-cbc-hmac-sha1
blowfish-cbc-hmac-sha1
aes128-cbc-hmac-md5
aes192-cbc-hmac-md5
aes256-cbc-hmac-md5
3des-cbc-hmac-md5
blowfish-cbc-hmac-md5
Terminology:
DES – Data Encryption Standard (56-bit key)
3DES – Triple-DES (Uses three iterations of DES, 112-bit key)
aes – Advanced Encryption Standard (160 or 224-bit key)
blowfish – Blowfish (32-448 bit key)
cbc – cypher-block chaining
sha1 – Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (160-bit hashes)
md5 – Message Digest algorithm number 5 (128-bit hashes)
4-42
System Management Commands
4
show public-key
This command shows the public key for the specified user or for the host.
Syntax
show public-key [user [username]| host]
username – Name of an SSH user. (Range: 1-8 characters)
Default Setting
Shows all public keys.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• If no parameters are entered, all keys are displayed. If the user keyword is
entered, but no user name is specified, then the public keys for all users are
displayed.
• When an RSA key is displayed, the first field indicates the size of the host key
(e.g., 1024), the second field is the encoded public exponent (e.g., 35), and
the last string is the encoded modulus. When a DSA key is displayed, the first
field indicates that the encryption method used by SSH is based on the Digital
Signature Standard (DSS), and the last string is the encoded modulus.
Example
Console#show public-key host
Host:
RSA:
1024 35
1568499540186766925933394677505461732531367489083654725415020245593199868
5443583616519999233297817660658309586108259132128902337654680172627257141
3428762941301196195566782595664104869574278881462065194174677298486546861
5717739390164779355942303577413098022737087794545240839717526463580581767
16709574804776117
DSA:
ssh-dss AAAB3NzaC1kc3MAAACBAPWKZTPbsRIB8ydEXcxM3dyV/yrDbKStIlnzD/Dg0h2Hxc
YV44sXZ2JXhamLK6P8bvuiyacWbUW/a4PAtp1KMSdqsKeh3hKoA3vRRSy1N2XFfAKxl5fwFfv
JlPdOkFgzLGMinvSNYQwiQXbKTBH0Z4mUZpE85PWxDZMaCNBPjBrRAAAAFQChb4vsdfQGNIjw
bvwrNLaQ77isiwAAAIEAsy5YWDC99ebYHNRj5kh47wY4i8cZvH+/p9cnrfwFTMU01VFDly3IR
2G395NLy5Qd7ZDxfA9mCOfT/yyEfbobMJZi8oGCstSNOxrZZVnMqWrTYfdrKX7YKBw/Kjw6Bm
iFq7O+jAhf1Dg45loAc27s6TLdtny1wRq/ow2eTCD5nekAAACBAJ8rMccXTxHLFAczWS7EjOy
DbsloBfPuSAb4oAsyjKXKVYNLQkTLZfcFRu41bS2KV5LAwecsigF/+DjKGWtPNIQqabKgYCw2
o/dVzX4Gg+yqdTlYmGA7fHGm8ARGeiG4ssFKy4Z6DmYPXFum1Yg0fhLwuHpOSKdxT3kk475S7
w0W
Console#
4-43
4
Command Line Interface
Event Logging Commands
Table 4-17 Event Logging Commands
Command
Function
Mode
logging on
Controls logging of error messages
GC
Page
4-44
logging history
Limits syslog messages saved to switch memory based on
severity
GC
4-45
logging host
Adds a syslog server host IP address that will receive logging
messages
GC
4-46
logging facility
Sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages
GC
4-46
logging trap
Limits syslog messages saved to a remote server based on
severity
GC
4-47
clear logging
Clears messages from the logging buffer
PE
4-47
show logging
Displays the state of logging
PE
4-48
show log
Displays log messages
PE
4-49
logging on
This command controls logging of error messages, sending debug or error
messages to switch memory. The no form disables the logging process.
Syntax
[no] logging on
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The logging process controls error messages saved to switch memory. You
can use the logging history command to control the type of error messages
that are stored.
Example
Console(config)#logging on
Console(config)#
Related Commands
logging history (4-45)
clear logging (4-47)
4-44
4
System Management Commands
logging history
This command limits syslog messages saved to switch memory based on severity.
The no form returns the logging of syslog messages to the default level.
Syntax
logging history {flash | ram} level
no logging history {flash | ram}
• flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
• level - One of the levels listed below. Messages sent include the selected
level down to level 0. (Range: 0-7)
Table 4-18 Logging Levels
Level
Severity Name
Description
7
debugging
Debugging messages
6
informational
Informational messages only
5
notifications
Normal but significant condition, such as cold start
4
warnings
Warning conditions (e.g., return false, unexpected return)
3
errors
Error conditions (e.g., invalid input, default used)
2
critical
Critical conditions (e.g., memory allocation, or free
memory error - resource exhausted)
1
alerts
Immediate action needed
0
emergencies
System unusable
* There are only Level 2, 5 and 6 error messages for the current firmware release.
Default Setting
Flash: errors (level 3 - 0)
RAM: warnings (level 6 - 0)
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The message level specified for flash memory must be a higher priority (i.e.,
numerically lower) than that specified for RAM.
Example
Console(config)#logging history ram 0
Console(config)#
4-45
4
Command Line Interface
logging host
This command adds a syslog server host IP address that will receive logging
messages. Use the no form to remove a syslog server host.
Syntax
[no] logging host host_ip_address
host_ip_address - The IP address of a syslog server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• By using this command more than once you can build up a list of host IP
addresses.
• The maximum number of host IP addresses allowed is five.
Example
Console(config)#logging host 10.1.0.3
Console(config)#
logging facility
This command sets the facility type for remote logging of syslog messages. Use the
no form to return the type to the default.
Syntax
[no] logging facility type
type - A number that indicates the facility used by the syslog server to
dispatch log messages to an appropriate service. (Range: 16-23)
Default Setting
23
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The command specifies the facility type tag sent in syslog messages. (See
RFC 3164.) This type has no effect on the kind of messages reported by the
switch. However, it may be used by the syslog server to sort messages or to
store messages in the corresponding database.
Example
Console(config)#logging facility 19
Console(config)#
4-46
4
System Management Commands
logging trap
This command enables the logging of system messages to a remote server, or
limits the syslog messages saved to a remote server based on severity. Use this
command without a specified level to enable remote logging. Use the no form to
disable remote logging.
Syntax
logging trap [level]
no logging trap
level - One of the level arguments listed below. Messages sent include the
selected level up through level 0. (Refer to the table on page 4-45.)
Default Setting
• Enabled
• Level 6 - 0
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Using this command with a specified level enables remote logging and sets
the minimum severity level to be saved.
• Using this command without a specified level also enables remote logging, but
restores the minimum severity level to the default.
Example
Console(config)#logging trap 4
Console(config)#
clear logging
This command clears messages from the log buffer.
Syntax
clear logging [flash | ram]
• flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
Default Setting
Flash and RAM
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear logging
Console#
4-47
4
Command Line Interface
Related Commands
show logging (4-48)
show logging
This command displays the configuration settings for logging messages to local
switch memory, to an SMTP event handler, or to a remote syslog server.
Syntax
show logging {flash | ram | sendmail | trap}
• flash - Displays settings for storing event messages in flash memory
(i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Displays settings for storing event messages in temporary RAM
(i.e., memory flushed on power reset).
• sendmail - Displays settings for the SMTP event handler (page 4-53).
• trap - Displays settings for the trap function.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following example shows that system logging is enabled, the message level for
flash memory is “errors” (i.e., default level 3 - 0), the message level for RAM is
“debugging” (i.e., default level 7 - 0).
Console#show logging flash
Syslog logging:
Enabled
History logging in FLASH: level errors
Console#show logging ram
Syslog logging:
Enabled
History logging in RAM: level debugging
Console#
Table 4-19 show logging flash/ram - display description
Field
Description
Syslog logging
Shows if system logging has been enabled via the logging on command.
History logging in FLASH The message level(s) reported based on the logging history command.
History logging in RAM
4-48
The message level(s) reported based on the logging history command.
4
System Management Commands
The following example displays settings for the trap function.
Console#show logging trap
Syslog logging: Enable
REMOTELOG status: disable
REMOTELOG facility type: local use 7
REMOTELOG level type: Debugging messages
REMOTELOG server IP address: 1.2.3.4
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
REMOTELOG server IP address: 0.0.0.0
Console#
Table 4-20 show logging trap - display description
Field
Description
Syslog logging
Shows if system logging has been enabled via the logging on command.
REMOTELOG status
Shows if remote logging has been enabled via the logging trap command.
REMOTELOG
facility type
The facility type for remote logging of syslog messages as specified in the logging
facility command.
REMOTELOG level type The severity threshold for syslog messages sent to a remote server as specified in
the logging trap command.
REMOTELOG
server IP address
The address of syslog servers as specified in the logging host command.
Related Commands
show logging sendmail (4-53)
show log
This command displays the system and event messages stored in memory.
Syntax
show log {flash | ram} [login] [tail]
• flash - Event history stored in flash memory (i.e., permanent memory).
• ram - Event history stored in temporary RAM (i.e., memory flushed on
power reset).
• tail - Shows event history starting from the most recent entry.
• login - Shows the login record only.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command shows the system and event messages stored in memory,
including the time stamp, message level (page 4-45), program module,
function, and event number.
4-49
4
Command Line Interface
Example
The following example shows sample messages stored in RAM.
Console#show log ram
[5] 00:01:06 2001-01-01
"STA root change notification."
level: 6, module: 6, function: 1, and
[4] 00:01:00 2001-01-01
"STA root change notification."
level: 6, module: 6, function: 1, and
[3] 00:00:54 2001-01-01
"STA root change notification."
level: 6, module: 6, function: 1, and
[2] 00:00:50 2001-01-01
"STA topology change notification."
level: 6, module: 6, function: 1, and
[1] 00:00:48 2001-01-01
"VLAN 1 link-up notification."
level: 6, module: 6, function: 1, and
Console#
event no.: 1
event no.: 1
event no.: 1
event no.: 1
event no.: 1
SMTP Alert Commands
These commands configure SMTP event handling, and forwarding of alert
messages to the specified SMTP servers and email recipients.
Table 4-21 SMTP Alert Commands
Command
Function
Mode
logging sendmail host
SMTP servers to receive alert messages
GC
Page
4-50
logging sendmail level
Severity threshold used to trigger alert messages
GC
4-51
logging sendmail
source-email
Email address used for “From” field of alert messages
GC
4-52
logging sendmail
destination-email
Email recipients of alert messages
GC
4-52
logging sendmail
Enables SMTP event handling
GC
4-53
show logging sendmail
Displays SMTP event handler settings
NE, PE
4-53
logging sendmail host
This command specifies SMTP servers that will be sent alert messages. Use the no
form to remove an SMTP server.
Syntax
[no] logging sendmail host ip_address
ip_address - IP address of an SMTP server that will be sent alert
messages for event handling.
Default Setting
None
4-50
4
System Management Commands
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• You can specify up to three SMTP servers for event handing. However, you
must enter a separate command to specify each server.
• To send email alerts, the switch first opens a connection, sends all the email
alerts waiting in the queue one by one, and finally closes the connection.
• To open a connection, the switch first selects the server that successfully sent
mail during the last connection, or the first server configured by this command.
If it fails to send mail, the switch selects the next server in the list and tries to
send mail again. If it still fails, the system will repeat the process at a periodic
interval. (A trap will be triggered if the switch cannot successfully open a
connection.)
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail host 192.168.1.200
Console(config)#
logging sendmail level
This command sets the severity threshold used to trigger alert messages.
Syntax
logging sendmail level level
level - One of the system message levels (page 4-45). Messages sent
include the selected level down to level 0. (Range: 0-7; Default: 7)
Default Setting
Level 7
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The specified level indicates an event threshold. All events at this level or
higher will be sent to the configured email recipients. (For example, using
Level 7 will report all events from level 7 to level 0.)
Example
This example will send email alerts for system errors from level 4 through 0.
Console(config)#logging sendmail level 4
Console(config)#
4-51
4
Command Line Interface
logging sendmail source-email
This command sets the email address used for the “From” field in alert messages.
Use the no form to delete the source email address.
Syntax
[no] logging sendmail source-email email-address
email-address - The source email address used in alert messages.
(Range: 0-41 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
You may use an symbolic email address that identifies the switch, or the
address of an administrator responsible for the switch.
Example
This example will set the source email john@acme.com.
Console(config)#logging sendmail source-email john@acme.com
Console(config)#
logging sendmail destination-email
This command specifies the email recipients of alert messages. Use the no form to
remove a recipient.
Syntax
[no] logging sendmail destination-email email-address
email-address - The source email address used in alert messages.
(Range: 1-41 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
You can specify up to five recipients for alert messages. However, you must
enter a separate command to specify each recipient.
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail destination-email ted@this-company.com
Console(config)#
4-52
System Management Commands
4
logging sendmail
This command enables SMTP event handling. Use the no form to disable this
function.
Syntax
[no] logging sendmail
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#logging sendmail
Console(config)#
show logging sendmail
This command displays the settings for the SMTP event handler.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show logging sendmail
SMTP servers
----------------------------------------------1. 192.168.1.200
SMTP minimum severity level: 4
SMTP destination email addresses
----------------------------------------------1. geoff@acme.com
SMTP source email address:
SMTP status:
Console#
john@acme.com
Enabled
4-53
4
Command Line Interface
Time Commands
The system clock can be dynamically set by polling a set of specified NTP time
servers. Maintaining an accurate time on the switch enables the system log to
record meaningful dates and times for event entries. If the clock is not set, the switch
will only record the time from the factory default set at the last bootup.
Table 4-22 Time Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
sntp client
Enables the SNTP client for time updates from specified servers GC
sntp server
Specifies one or more time servers
GC
4-55
sntp poll
Sets the interval at which the SNTP client polls for time
GC
4-56
show sntp
Shows current SNTP configuration settings
NE, PE
4-56
ntp client
Enables the NTP client for time updates from specified servers GC
4-57
ntp server
Specifies NTP servers to poll for time updates
GC
4-57
ntp poll
Sets the interval at which the NTP client polls for time
GC
4-58
ntp authenticate
Enables authentication for NTP traffic
GC
4-59
4-54
ntp authentication-key Configures authentication keys
GC
4-59
show ntp
NE, PE
4-60
Shows current NTP configuration settings
clock timezone
Sets the time zone for the switch’s internal clock
GC
4-61
calendar set
Sets the system date and time
PE
4-62
show calendar
Displays the current date and time setting
NE, PE
4-62
sntp client
This command enables SNTP client requests for time synchronization from NTP or
SNTP time servers specified with the sntp servers command. Use the no form to
disable SNTP client requests.
Syntax
[no] sntp client
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The time acquired from time servers is used to record accurate dates and
times for log events. Without SNTP, the switch only records the time starting
from the factory default set at the last bootup (i.e., 00:00:00, Jan. 1, 2001).
• This command enables client time requests to time servers specified via the
sntp servers command. It issues time synchronization requests based on the
interval set via the sntp poll command.
4-54
System Management Commands
4
Example
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19
Console(config)#sntp poll 60
Console(config)#sntp client
Console(config)#end
Console#show sntp
Current time: Dec 23 02:52:44 2002
Poll interval: 60
Current mode: unicast
SNTP status: Enabled
SNTP server: 10.1.0.19 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
Current server: 10.1.0.19
Console#
Related Commands
sntp server (4-55)
sntp poll (4-56)
show sntp (4-56)
sntp server
This command sets the IP address of the servers to which SNTP time requests are
issued. Use this command with no arguments to clear all time servers from the
current list.
Syntax
sntp server [ip1 [ip2 [ip3]]]
ip - IP address of an NTP time server.
(Range: 1-3 addresses)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command specifies time servers from which the switch will poll for time
updates when set to SNTP client mode. The client will poll the time servers in
the order specified until a response is received. It issues time synchronization
requests based on the interval set via the sntp poll command.
Example
Console(config)#sntp server 10.1.0.19
Related Commands
sntp client (4-54)
sntp poll (4-56)
show sntp (4-56)
4-55
4
Command Line Interface
sntp poll
This command sets the interval between sending time requests when the switch is
set to SNTP client mode. Use the no form to restore to the default.
Syntax
sntp poll seconds
no sntp poll
seconds - Interval between time requests. (Range: 16-16384 seconds)
Default Setting
16 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#sntp poll 60
Console(config)#
Related Commands
sntp client (4-54)
show sntp
This command displays the current time and configuration settings for the SNTP
client, and indicates whether or not the local time has been properly updated.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the current time, the poll interval used for sending
time synchronization requests, and the current SNTP mode (i.e., unicast).
Example
Console#show sntp
Current time: Dec 23 05:13:28 2002
Poll interval: 16
Current mode: unicast
SNTP status : Enabled
SNTP server 137.92.140.80 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
Current server: 137.92.140.80
Console#
4-56
System Management Commands
4
ntp client
This command enables NTP client requests for time synchronization from NTP time
servers specified with the ntp servers command. Use the no form to disable NTP
client requests.
Syntax
[no] ntp client
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The SNTP and NTP clients cannot be enabled at the same time. First disable
the SNTP client before using this command.
• The time acquired from time servers is used to record accurate dates and
times for log events. Without NTP, the switch only records the time starting
from the factory default set at the last bootup (i.e., 00:00:00, Jan. 1, 2001).
• This command enables client time requests to time servers specified via the
ntp servers command. It issues time synchronization requests based on the
interval set via the ntp poll command.
Example
Console(config)#ntp client
Console(config)#
Related Commands
sntp client (4-54)
ntp poll (4-58)
ntp server (4-57)
ntp server
This command sets the IP addresses of the servers to which NTP time requests are
issued. Use the no form of the command to clear a specific time server or all servers
from the current list.
Syntax
ntp server ip-address [version number] [key key-number]
no ntp server [ip-address]
• ip-address - IP address of an NTP time server.
• number - The NTP version number supported by the server. (Range: 1-3)
• key-number - The number of an authentication key to use in
communications with the server. (Range: 1-65535)
4-57
4
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
Version number: 3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• This command specifies time servers that the switch will poll for time updates
when set to NTP client mode. It issues time synchronization requests based
on the interval set with the ntp poll command. The client will poll all the time
servers configured, the responses received are filtered and compared to
determine the most reliable and accurate time update for the switch.
• You can configure up to 50 NTP servers on the switch. Re-enter this
command for each server you want to configure.
• NTP authentication is optional. If enabled with the ntp authenticate
command, you must also configure at least one key number using the ntp
authentication-key command.
• Use the no form of this command without an argument to clear all configured
servers in the list.
Example
Console(config)#ntp
Console(config)#ntp
Console(config)#ntp
Console(config)#ntp
Console(config)#
server
server
server
server
192.168.3.20
192.168.3.21
192.168.4.22 version 2
192.168.5.23 version 3 key 19
Related Commands
ntp client (4-57)
ntp poll (4-58)
show ntp (4-60)
ntp poll
This command sets the interval between sending time requests when the switch is
set to NTP client mode. Use the no form to restore to the default.
Syntax
ntp poll seconds
no ntp poll
seconds - Interval between time requests. (Range: 16-16384 seconds)
Default Setting
16 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-58
System Management Commands
4
Example
Console(config)#ntp poll 60
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ntp client (4-57)
ntp authenticate
This command enables authentication for NTP client-server communications. Use
the no form to disable authentication.
Syntax
[no] ntp authenticate
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
You can enable NTP authentication to ensure that reliable updates are
received from only authorized NTP servers. The authentication keys and their
associated key number must be centrally managed and manually distributed to
NTP servers and clients. The key numbers and key values must match on
both the server and client.
Example
Console(config)#ntp authenticate
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ntp authentication-key (4-59)
ntp authentication-key
This command configures authentication keys and key numbers to use when NTP
authentication is enabled. Use the no form of the command to clear a specific
authentication key or all keys from the current list.
Syntax
ntp authentication-key number md5 key
no ntp authentication-key [number]
• number - The NTP authentication key ID number. (Range: 1-65535)
• md5 - Specifies that authentication is provided by using the message digest
algorithm 5.
4-59
4
Command Line Interface
• key - An MD5 authentication key string. The key string can be up to 32
case-sensitive printable ASCII characters (no spaces).
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The key number specifies a key value in the NTP authentication key list. Up
to 255 keys can be configured on the switch. Re-enter this command for each
server you want to configure.
• Note that NTP authentication key numbers and values must match on both the
server and client.
• NTP authentication is optional. When enabled with the ntp authenticate
command, you must also configure at least one key number using this
command.
• Use the no form of this command without an argument to clear all
authentication keys in the list.
Example
Console(config)#ntp authentication-key 45 md5 thisiskey45
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ntp authenticate (4-59)
show ntp
This command displays the current time and configuration settings for the NTP
client, and indicates whether or not the local time has been properly updated.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the current time, the poll interval used for sending
time synchronization requests, and the current NTP mode (i.e., unicast).
4-60
4
System Management Commands
Example
Console#show ntp
Current time: Jan 1 02:58:58 2001
Poll interval: 16
Current mode: unicast
NTP status : Enabled
NTP Authenticate status : Enabled
Last Update NTP Server: 0.0.0.0
Port: 0
Last Update time: Dec 31 00:00:00 2000 UTC
NTP Server 192.168.3.20 version 3
NTP Server 192.168.3.21 version 3
NTP Server 192.168.3.22 version 2
NTP Server 192.168.4.50 version 3 key 30
NTP Server 192.168.5.35 version 3 key 19
NTP Authentication-Key 12 md5 156S46Q24142414222711K66N80 7
NTP Authentication-Key 19 md5 Q33O16Q6338241J022S29Q731K7 7
NTP Authentication-Key 30 md5 D2V8777I51K1132K3552L26R6141O4 7
NTP Authentication-Key 45 md5 3U865531O13K38F0R8 7
NTP Authentication-Key 125 md5 A48S2810327947M76 7
Console#
clock timezone
This command sets the time zone for the switch’s internal clock.
Syntax
clock timezone name hour hours minute minutes {before-utc | after-utc}
•
•
•
•
•
name - Name of timezone, usually an acronym. (Range: 1-29 characters)
hours - Number of hours before/after UTC. (Range: 0-12 hours)
minutes - Number of minutes before/after UTC. (Range: 0-59 minutes)
before-utc - Sets the local time zone before (east) of UTC.
after-utc - Sets the local time zone after (west) of UTC.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the local time zone relative to the Coordinated Universal
Time (UTC, formerly Greenwich Mean Time or GMT), based on the earth’s
prime meridian, zero degrees longitude. To display a time corresponding to
your local time, you must indicate the number of hours and minutes your time
zone is east (before) or west (after) of UTC.
Example
Console(config)#clock timezone Japan hours 8 minute 0 after-UTC
Console(config)#
4-61
4
Command Line Interface
Related Commands
show sntp (4-56)
calendar set
This command sets the system clock. It may be used if there is no time server on
your network, or if you have not configured the switch to receive signals from a time
server.
Syntax
calendar set hour min sec {day month year | month day year}
•
•
•
•
•
hour - Hour in 24-hour format. (Range: 0-23)
min - Minute. (Range: 0-59)
sec - Second. (Range: 0-59)
day - Day of month. (Range: 1-31)
month - january | february | march | april | may | june | july | august |
september | october | november | december
• year - Year (4-digit). (Range: 2001-2100)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows how to set the system clock to 15:12:34, April 1st, 2004.
Console#calendar set 15 12 34 1 April 2004
Console#
show calendar
This command displays the system clock.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show calendar
15:12:34 April 1 2004
Console#
4-62
System Management Commands
4
System Status Commands
Table 4-23 System Status Commands
Command
Function
Mode
show startup-config
Displays the contents of the configuration file (stored in flash
memory) that is used to start up the system
PE
Page
4-63
show running-config
Displays the configuration data currently in use
PE
4-65
show system
Displays system information
NE, PE
4-67
show users
Shows all active console and Telnet sessions, including user
name, idle time, and IP address of Telnet clients
NE, PE
4-67
show version
Displays version information for the system
NE, PE
4-68
show startup-config
This command displays the configuration file stored in non-volatile memory that is
used to start up the system.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use this command in conjunction with the show running-config command to
compare the information in running memory to the information stored in
non-volatile memory.
• This command displays settings for key command modes. Each mode group
is separated by “!” symbols, and includes the configuration mode command,
and corresponding commands. This command displays the following
information:
-
SNMP community strings
Users (names and access levels)
VLAN database (VLAN ID, name and state)
VLAN configuration settings for each interface
IP address configured for the switch
Spanning tree settings
Any configured settings for the console port and Telnet
4-63
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show startup-config
building startup-config, please wait.....
!
!
username admin access-level 15
username admin password 0 admin
!
username guest access-level 0
username guest password 0 guest
!
enable password level 15 0 super
!
snmp-server community public ro
snmp-server community private rw
!
logging history ram 6
logging history flash 3
!
vlan database
vlan 1 name DefaultVlan media ethernet state active
!
interface ethernet 1/1
switchport allowed vlan add 1 untagged
switchport native vlan 1
.
.
.
interface vlan 1
ip address dhcp
!
line console
!
line vty
!
end
Console#
Related Commands
show running-config (4-65)
4-64
System Management Commands
4
show running-config
This command displays the configuration information currently in use.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use this command in conjunction with the show startup-config command to
compare the information in running memory to the information stored in
non-volatile memory.
• This command displays settings for key command modes. Each mode group
is separated by “!” symbols, and includes the configuration mode command,
and corresponding commands. This command displays the following
information:
-
SNTP server settings
SNMP community strings
Users (names, access levels, and encrypted passwords)
Event log settings
VLAN database (VLAN ID, name and state)
VLAN configuration settings for each interface
IP address configured for the switch
Layer 4 precedence settings
Any configured settings for the console port and Telnet
4-65
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show running-config
building running-config, please wait.....
!
SNTP server 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
!
clock timezone hours 0 minute 0 after-UTC
!
!
SNMP-server community private rw
SNMP-server community public ro
!
!
username admin access-level 15
username admin password 7 21232f297a57a5a743894a0e4a801fc3
username guest access-level 0
username guest password 7 084e0343a0486ff05530df6c705c8bb4
enable password level 15 7 1b3231655cebb7a1f783eddf27d254ca
!
!
logging history ram 6
logging history flash 3
!
vlan database
vlan 1 name DefaultVlan media ethernet state active
!
!
interface ethernet 1/1
switchport allowed vlan add 1 untagged
switchport native vlan 1
.
.
.
!
interface vlan 1
ip address DHCP
!
!
no map IP precedence
no map IP DSCP
!
!
line console
!
line vty
!
end
!
Console#
Related Commands
show startup-config (4-63)
4-66
System Management Commands
4
show system
This command displays system information.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• For a description of the items shown by this command, refer to “Displaying
System Information” on page 3-10.
• The POST results should all display “PASS.” If any POST test indicates
“FAIL,” contact your distributor for assistance.
Example
Console#show system
System description: Layer2+ Fast Ethernet Standalone Switch ES3526XA
System OID string: 1.3.6.1.4.1.259.6.10.74
System information
System Up time:
0 days, 0 hours, 0 minutes, and 7.18 seconds
System Name:
[NONE]
System Location:
[NONE]
System Contact:
[NONE]
MAC address:
00-30-F1-D3-26-00
Web server:
enabled
Web server port:
80
Web secure server:
enabled
Web secure server port: 443
Telnet server
: enable
Telnet port
: 23
Jumbo Frame :
Disabled
POST result
Dummy Test 1.................PASS
UART LOOP BACK Test..........PASS
DRAM Test....................PASS
Timer Test...................PASS
Switch Int Loopback test.....PASS
Done All Pass.
Console#
show users
Shows all active console and Telnet sessions, including user name, idle time, and IP
address of Telnet client.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
4-67
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
The session used to execute this command is indicated by a “*” symbol next to
the Line (i.e., session) index number.
Example
Console#show users
Username accounts:
Username Privilege Public-Key
-------- --------- ---------admin
15
None
guest
0
None
steve
15
RSA
Online users:
Line
Username Idle time (h:m:s) Remote IP addr.
----------- -------- ----------------- --------------0
console
admin
0:14:14
* 1
VTY 0
admin
0:00:00
192.168.1.19
2
SSH 1
steve
0:00:06
192.168.1.19
Web online users:
Line
Remote IP addr Username Idle time (h:m:s).
----------- -------------- -------- -----------------1
HTTP
192.168.1.19
admin
0:00:00
Console#
show version
This command displays hardware and software version information for the system.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
See “Displaying Switch Hardware/Software Versions” on page 3-11 for detailed
information on the items displayed by this command.
4-68
4
System Management Commands
Example
Console#show version
Unit1
Serial number
Service tag:
Hardware version
Module A type
Module B type
Number of ports
Main power status
Redundant power status
Agent(master)
Loader version:
Boot ROM version:
Operation code version:
Console#
:A419048860
:R0B
:1000BaseT
:1000BaseT
:26
:up
:not present
2.2.1.4
2.2.1.9
0.2.6.3
Frame Size Commands
Table 4-24 Frame Size Commands
Command
Function
Mode
jumbo frame
Enables support for jumbo frames
GC
Page
4-69
jumbo frame
This command enables support for jumbo frames. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] jumbo frame
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• This switch provides more efficient throughput for large sequential data
transfers by supporting jumbo frames up to 9216 bytes. Compared to
standard Ethernet frames that run only up to 1.5 KB, using jumbo frames
significantly reduces the per-packet overhead required to process protocol
encapsulation fields.
• To use jumbo frames, both the source and destination end nodes (such as a
computer or server) must support this feature. Also, when the connection is
operating at full duplex, all switches in the network between the two end nodes
must be able to accept the extended frame size. And for half-duplex
connections, all devices in the collision domain would need to support jumbo
frames.
4-69
4
Command Line Interface
• Enabling jumbo frames will limit the maximum threshold for broadcast storm
control. (See the switchport broadcast command on page 4-137.)
• The current setting for jumbo frames can be displayed with the show system
command (page 4-67).
Example
Console(config)#jumbo frame
Console(config)#
Flash/File Commands
These commands are used to manage the system code or configuration files.
Table 4-25
Flash/File Commands
Command
Function
Mode
copy
Copies a code image or a switch configuration to or from flash
memory or a TFTP server
PE
Page
4-70
delete
Deletes a file or code image
PE
4-73
dir
Displays a list of files in flash memory
PE
4-73
whichboot
Displays the files booted
PE
4-74
boot system
Specifies the file or image used to start up the system
GC
4-75
copy
This command moves (upload/download) a code image or configuration file
between the switch’s flash memory and a TFTP server. When you save the system
code or configuration settings to a file on a TFTP server, that file can later be
downloaded to the switch to restore system operation. The success of the file
transfer depends on the accessibility of the TFTP server and the quality of the
network connection.
Syntax
copy file { file | running-config | startup-config | tftp }
copy running-config { file | startup-config | tftp }
copy startup-config { file | running-config | tftp }
copy tftp { file | running-config | startup-config | https-certificate |
public-key }
• file - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from a file.
• running-config - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from the current
running configuration.
• startup-config - The configuration used for system initialization.
• tftp - Keyword that allows you to copy to/from a TFTP server.
• https-certificate - Copies an HTTPS certificate from an TFTP server to the
switch.
4-70
4
Flash/File Commands
• public-key - Keyword that allows you to copy a SSH key from a TFTP
server. (“Secure Shell Commands” on page 4-35)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• The system prompts for data required to complete the copy command.
• The destination file name should not contain slashes (\ or /), the leading letter
of the file name should not be a period (.), and the maximum length for file
names on the TFTP server is 127 characters or 31 characters for files on the
switch. (Valid characters: A-Z, a-z, 0-9, “.”, “-”, “_”)
• Due to the size limit of the flash memory, the switch supports only two
operation code files.
• The maximum number of user-defined configuration files depends on
available memory.
• You can use “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” as the source to copy from the
factory default configuration file, but you cannot use it as the destination.
• To replace the startup configuration, you must use startup-config as the
destination.
• The Boot ROM and Loader cannot be uploaded or downloaded from the TFTP
server. You must follow the instructions in the release notes for new firmware,
or contact your distributor for help.
• For information on specifying an https-certificate, see “Replacing the Default
Secure-site Certificate” on page 3-60. For information on configuring the
switch to use HTTPS/SSL for a secure connection, see “ip http secure-server”
on page 4-32.
Example
The following example shows how to upload the configuration settings to a file on
the TFTP server:
Console#copy file tftp
Choose file type:
1. config: 2. opcode: <1-2>: 1
Source file name: startup
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.99
Destination file name: startup.01
TFTP completed.
Success.
Console#
4-71
4
Command Line Interface
The following example shows how to copy the running configuration to a startup file.
Console#copy running-config file
destination file name: startup
Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
The following example shows how to download a configuration file:
Console#copy tftp startup-config
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.99
Source configuration file name: startup.01
Startup configuration file name [startup]:
Write to FLASH Programming.
\Write to FLASH finish.
Success.
Console#
This example shows how to copy a secure-site certificate from an TFTP server. It
then reboots the switch to activate the certificate:
Console#copy tftp https-certificate
TFTP server ip address: 10.1.0.19
Source certificate file name: SS-certificate
Source private file name: SS-private
Private password: ********
Success.
Console#reload
System will be restarted, continue <y/n>? y
This example shows how to copy a public-key used by SSH from an TFTP server.
Note that public key authentication via SSH is only supported for users configured
locally on the switch:
Console#copy tftp public-key
TFTP server IP address: 192.168.1.19
Choose public key type:
1. RSA: 2. DSA: <1-2>: 1
Source file name: steve.pub
Username: steve
TFTP Download
Success.
Write to FLASH Programming.
Success.
Console#
4-72
Flash/File Commands
4
delete
This command deletes a file or image.
Syntax
delete filename
filename - Name of the configuration file or image name.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• If the file type is used for system startup, then this file cannot be deleted.
• “Factory_Default_Config.cfg” cannot be deleted.
Example
This example shows how to delete the test2.cfg configuration file from flash memory.
Console#delete test2.cfg
Console#
Related Commands
dir (4-73)
delete public-key (4-39)
dir
This command displays a list of files in flash memory.
Syntax
dir {{boot-rom: | config: | opcode:} [:filename]}
The type of file or image to display includes:
•
•
•
•
boot-rom - Boot ROM (or diagnostic) image file.
config - Switch configuration file.
opcode - Run-time operation code image file.
filename - Name of the configuration file or code image.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If you enter the command dir without any parameters, the system displays all
files.
4-73
4
Command Line Interface
• File information is shown below:
Table 4-26 File Directory Information
Column Heading
Description
file name
The name of the file.
file type
File types: Boot-Rom, Operation Code, and Config file.
startup
Shows if this file is used when the system is started.
size
The length of the file in bytes.
Example
The following example shows how to display all file information:
Console#dir 1:
file name
file type
startup size (byte)
------------------------------------------------ ------- ----------ES3552XA_diag_v2.2.1.8.bix
Boot-Rom image Y
214124
ES3552XA_Opcode_V2.2.6.2.bix
Operation Code Y
1749228
ES3552XA_V2260.bix
Operation Code N
1745500
Factory_Default_Config.cfg
Config File
Y
5197
------------------------------------------------------------------------Total free space:
3345728
Console#
whichboot
This command displays which files were booted when the system powered up.
Syntax
whichboot
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows the information displayed by the whichboot command. See
the table under the dir command for a description of the file information displayed by
this command.
Console#whichboot
file name
file type startup
------------------------------ ------ES3552XA_diag_v2.2.1.8.bix
Boot-Rom image Y
ES3552XA_Opcode_V2.2.6.2.bix
Operation Code Y
Factory_Default_Config.cfg
Config File
Y
Console#
4-74
size (byte)
----------214124
1749228
5197
Flash/File Commands
4
boot system
This command specifies the image used to start up the system.
Syntax
boot system {boot-rom| config | opcode}: filename
The type of file or image to set as a default includes:
•
•
•
•
boot-rom* - Boot ROM.
config* - Configuration file.
opcode* - Run-time operation code.
filename - Name of the configuration file or code image.
* The colon (:) is required.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• A colon (:) is required after the specified file type.
• If the file contains an error, it cannot be set as the default file.
Example
Console(config)#boot system config: startup
Console(config)#
Related Commands
dir (4-73)
whichboot (4-74)
4-75
4
Command Line Interface
Authentication Commands
You can configure this switch to authenticate users logging into the system for
management access using local or RADIUS authentication methods. You can also
enable port-based authentication for network client access using IEEE 802.1X.
Table 4-27 Authentication Commands
Command Group
Function
Authentication Sequence
Defines logon authentication method and precedence
Page
4-76
RADIUS Client
Configures settings for authentication via a RADIUS server
4-78
TACACS+ Client
Configures settings for authentication via a TACACS+ server
4-81
Port Security
Configures secure addresses for a port
4-84
Port Authentication
Configures host authentication on specific ports using 802.1X
4-85
Network Access
Configures MAC authentication and dynamic VLAN assignment
4-94
Authentication Sequence
Table 4-28 Authentication Sequence
Command
Function
Mode
Page
authentication login
Defines logon authentication method and precedence
GC
4-76
authentication enable
Defines the authentication method and precedence for
command mode change
GC
4-77
authentication login
This command defines the login authentication method and precedence. Use the no
form to restore the default.
Syntax
authentication login {[local] [radius] [tacacs]}
no authentication login
• local - Use local password.
• radius - Use RADIUS server password.
• tacacs - Use TACACS server password.
Default Setting
Local
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort
delivery, while TCP offers a connection-oriented transport. Also, note that
RADIUS encrypts only the password in the access-request packet from the
client to the server, while TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
4-76
4
Authentication Commands
• RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assigns a specific privilege level
for each user name and password pair. The user name, password, and
privilege level must be configured on the authentication server.
• You can specify three authentication methods in a single command to indicate
the authentication sequence. For example, if you enter “authentication login
radius tacacs local,” the user name and password on the RADIUS server is
verified first. If the RADIUS server is not available, then authentication is
attempted on the TACACS+ server. If the TACACS+ server is not available,
the local user name and password is checked.
Example
Console(config)#authentication login radius
Console(config)#
Related Commands
username - for setting the local user names and passwords (4-27)
authentication enable
This command defines the authentication method and precedence to use when
changing from Exec command mode to Privileged Exec command mode with the
enable command (see page 4-20). Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
authentication enable {[local] [radius] [tacacs]}
no authentication enable
• local - Use local password only.
• radius - Use RADIUS server password only.
• tacacs - Use TACACS server password.
Default Setting
Local
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• RADIUS uses UDP while TACACS+ uses TCP. UDP only offers best effort
delivery, while TCP offers a connection-oriented transport. Also, note that
RADIUS encrypts only the password in the access-request packet from the
client to the server, while TACACS+ encrypts the entire body of the packet.
• RADIUS and TACACS+ logon authentication assigns a specific privilege level
for each user name and password pair. The user name, password, and
privilege level must be configured on the authentication server.
• You can specify three authentication methods in a single command to indicate
the authentication sequence. For example, if you enter “authentication
enable radius tacacs local,” the user name and password on the RADIUS
server is verified first. If the RADIUS server is not available, then
4-77
4
Command Line Interface
authentication is attempted on the TACACS+ server. If the TACACS+ server
is not available, the local user name and password is checked.
Example
Console(config)#authentication enable radius
Console(config)#
Related Commands
enable password - sets the password for changing command modes (4-28)
RADIUS Client
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) is a logon authentication
protocol that uses software running on a central server to control access to
RADIUS-aware devices on the network. An authentication server contains a
database of multiple user name/password pairs with associated privilege levels for
each user or group that require management access to a switch.
Table 4-29 RADIUS Client Commands
Command
Function
Mode
radius-server host
Specifies the RADIUS server
GC
4-79
radius-server port
Sets the RADIUS server network port
GC
4-79
radius-server key
Sets the RADIUS encryption key
GC
4-79
radius-server retransmit
Sets the number of retries
GC
4-80
radius-server timeout
Sets the interval between sending authentication requests GC
4-80
show radius-server
Shows the current RADIUS settings
4-81
PE
Page
radius-server host
This command specifies primary and backup RADIUS servers and authentication
parameters that apply to each server. Use the no form to restore the default values.
Syntax
[no] radius-server index host {host_ip_address | host_alias}
[auth-port auth_port] [timeout timeout] [retransmit retransmit] [key key]
• index - Allows you to specify up to five servers. These servers are queried
in sequence until a server responds or the retransmit period expires.
• host_ip_address - IP address of server.
• host_alias - Symbolic name of server. (Maximum length: 20 characters)
• port_number - RADIUS server UDP port used for authentication messages.
(Range: 1-65535)
• timeout - Number of seconds the switch waits for a reply before resending
a request. (Range: 1-65535)
4-78
4
Authentication Commands
• retransmit - Number of times the switch will try to authenticate logon access
via the RADIUS server. (Range: 1-30)
• key - Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for client. Do not
use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 20 characters)
Default Setting
• auth-port - 1812
• timeout - 5 seconds
• retransmit - 2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server 1 host 192.168.1.20 auth-port 181 timeout
10 retransmit 5 key green
Console(config)#
radius-server port
This command sets the RADIUS server network port. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
radius-server port port_number
no radius-server port
port_number - RADIUS server UDP port used for authentication
messages. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
1812
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server port 181
Console(config)#
radius-server key
This command sets the RADIUS encryption key. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
radius-server key key_string
no radius-server key
key_string - Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for client.
Do not use blank spaces in the string. (Maximum length: 20 characters)
4-79
4
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server key green
Console(config)#
radius-server retransmit
This command sets the number of retries. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
radius-server retransmit number_of_retries
no radius-server retransmit
number_of_retries - Number of times the switch will try to authenticate
logon access via the RADIUS server. (Range: 1-30)
Default Setting
2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#radius-server retransmit 5
Console(config)#
radius-server timeout
This command sets the interval between transmitting authentication requests to the
RADIUS server. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
radius-server timeout number_of_seconds
no radius-server timeout
number_of_seconds - Number of seconds the switch waits for a reply
before resending a request. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
5
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-80
Authentication Commands
4
Example
Console(config)#radius-server timeout 10
Console(config)#
show radius-server
This command displays the current settings for the RADIUS server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show radius-server
Remote RADIUS server configuration:
Global settings
Communication key with RADIUS server:
Server port number:
1812
Retransmit times:
2
Request timeout:
5
Sever 1:
Server IP address: 192.168.1.1
Communication key with RADIUS server: *****
Server port number: 1812
Retransmit times: 2
Request timeout: 5
Console#
TACACS+ Client
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS+) is a logon
authentication protocol that uses software running on a central server to control
access to TACACS-aware devices on the network. An authentication server
contains a database of multiple user name/password pairs with associated privilege
levels for each user or group that require management access to a switch.
Table 4-30 TACACS Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
tacacs-server host
Specifies the TACACS+ server
GC
4-82
tacacs-server port
Specifies the TACACS+ server network port
GC
4-82
tacacs-server key
Sets the TACACS+ encryption key
GC
4-82
show tacacs-server
Shows the current TACACS+ settings
GC
4-83
4-81
4
Command Line Interface
tacacs-server host
This command specifies the TACACS+ server. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
tacacs-server host host_ip_address
no tacacs-server host
host_ip_address - IP address of a TACACS+ server.
Default Setting
10.11.12.13
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server host 192.168.1.25
Console(config)#
tacacs-server port
This command specifies the TACACS+ server network port. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
tacacs-server port port_number
no tacacs-server port
port_number - TACACS+ server TCP port used for authentication
messages. (Range: 1-65535)
Default Setting
49
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server port 181
Console(config)#
tacacs-server key
This command sets the TACACS+ encryption key. Use the no form to restore the
default.
4-82
Authentication Commands
4
Syntax
tacacs-server key key_string
no tacacs-server key
key_string - Encryption key used to authenticate logon access for the
client. Do not use blank spaces in the string.
(Maximum length: 20 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#tacacs-server key green
Console(config)#
show tacacs-server
This command displays the current settings for the TACACS+ server.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show tacacs-server
Remote TACACS server configuration:
Server IP address:
10.11.12.13
Communication key with TACACS server: *****
Server port number:
49
Console#
4-83
4
Command Line Interface
Port Security Commands
These commands can be used to enable port security on a port. When using port
security, the switch stops learning new MAC addresses on the specified port when it
has reached a configured maximum number. Only incoming traffic with source
addresses already stored in the dynamic or static address table for this port will be
authorized to access the network. The port will drop any incoming frames with a
source MAC address that is unknown or has been previously learned from another
port. If a device with an unauthorized MAC address attempts to use the switch port,
the intrusion will be detected and the switch can automatically take action by
disabling the port and sending a trap message.
Table 4-31 Port Security Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
port security
Configures a secure port
IC
4-84
mac-address-table static
Maps a static address to a port in a VLAN
GC
4-157
show mac-address-table
Displays entries in the bridge-forwarding database
PE
4-158
port security
This command enables or configures port security. Use the no form without any
keywords to disable port security. Use the no form with the appropriate keyword to
restore the default settings for a response to security violation or for the maximum
number of allowed addresses.
Syntax
port security [action {shutdown | trap | trap-and-shutdown}
| max-mac-count address-count]
no port security [action | max-mac-count]
• action - Response to take when port security is violated.
- shutdown - Disable port only.
- trap - Issue SNMP trap message only.
- trap-and-shutdown - Issue SNMP trap message and disable port.
• max-mac-count
- address-count - The maximum number of MAC addresses that can be
learned on a port. (Range: 0-1024)
Default Setting
• Status: Disabled
• Action: None
• Maximum Addresses: 0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
4-84
Authentication Commands
4
Command Usage
• If you enable port security, the switch stops learning new MAC addresses on
the specified port when it has reached a configured maximum number. Only
incoming traffic with source addresses already stored in the dynamic or static
address table will be accepted.
• First use the port security max-mac-count command to set the number of
addresses, and then use the port security command to enable security on the
port.
• Use the no port security max-mac-count command to disable port security
and reset the maximum number of addresses to the default.
• You can also manually add secure addresses with the mac-address-table
static command.
• A secure port has the following restrictions:
- Cannot use port monitoring.
- Cannot be a multi-VLAN port.
- Cannot be connected to a network interconnection device.
- Cannot be a trunk port.
• If a port is disabled due to a security violation, it must be manually re-enabled
using the no shutdown command.
Example
The following example enables port security for port 5, and sets the response to a
security violation to issue a trap message:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#port security action trap
Related Commands
shutdown (4-136)
mac-address-table static (4-157)
show mac-address-table (4-158)
802.1X Port Authentication
The switch supports IEEE 802.1X (dot1x) port-based access control that prevents
unauthorized access to the network by requiring users to first submit credentials for
authentication. Client authentication is controlled centrally by a RADIUS server
using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol).
Table 4-32 802.1X Port Authentication
Command
Function
Mode
dot1x system-auth-control
Enables dot1x globally on the switch.
GC
Page
4-86
dot1x default
Resets all dot1x parameters to their default values
GC
4-86
dot1x max-req
Sets the maximum number of times that the switch
retransmits an EAP request/identity packet to the client
before it times out the authentication session
IC
4-87
dot1x port-control
Sets dot1x mode for a port interface
IC
4-87
4-85
4
Command Line Interface
Table 4-32 802.1X Port Authentication (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode
Page
dot1x operation-mode
Allows single or multiple hosts on an dot1x port
IC
4-88
dot1x re-authenticate
Forces re-authentication on specific ports
PE
4-88
dot1x re-authentication
Enables re-authentication for all ports
IC
4-89
dot1x timeout quiet-period
Sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max
Request Count has been exceeded before attempting to
acquire a new client
IC
4-89
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
Sets the time period after which a connected client must
be re-authenticated
IC
4-90
dot1x timeout tx-period
Sets the time period during an authentication session that IC
the switch waits before re-transmitting an EAP packet
4-90
show dot1x
Shows all dot1x related information
4-90
PE
dot1x system-auth-control
This command enables 802.1X port authentication globally on the switch. Use the
no form to restore the default.
Syntax
[no] system-auth-control
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x system-auth-control
Console(config)#
dot1x default
This command sets all configurable dot1x global and port settings to their default
values.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#dot1x default
Console(config)#
4-86
Authentication Commands
4
dot1x max-req
This command sets the maximum number of times the switch port will retransmit an
EAP request/identity packet to the client before it times out the authentication
session. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
dot1x max-req count
no dot1x max-req
count – The maximum number of requests (Range: 1-10)
Default
2
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x max-req 2
Console(config-if)#
dot1x port-control
This command sets the dot1x mode on a port interface. Use the no form to restore
the default.
Syntax
dot1x port-control {auto | force-authorized | force-unauthorized}
no dot1x port-control
• auto – Requires a dot1x-aware connected client to be authorized by the
RADIUS server. Clients that are not dot1x-aware will be denied access.
• force-authorized – Configures the port to grant access to all clients, either
dot1x-aware or otherwise.
• force-unauthorized – Configures the port to deny access to all clients,
either dot1x-aware or otherwise.
Default
force-authorized
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x port-control auto
Console(config-if)#
4-87
4
Command Line Interface
dot1x operation-mode
This command allows single or multiple hosts (clients) to connect to an
802.1X-authorized port. Use the no form with no keywords to restore the default to
single host. Use the no form with the multi-host max-count keywords to restore the
default maximum count.
Syntax
dot1x operation-mode {single-host | multi-host [max-count count]}
no dot1x operation-mode [multi-host max-count]
• single-host – Allows only a single host to connect to this port.
• multi-host – Allows multiple host to connect to this port.
• max-count – Keyword for the maximum number of hosts.
- count – The maximum number of hosts that can connect to a port.
(Range: 1-20; Default: 5)
Default
Single-host
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
• The “max-count” parameter specified by this command is only effective if the
dot1x mode is set to “auto” by the dot1x port-control command (page 4-87).
• In “multi-host” mode, only one host connected to a port needs to pass
authentication for all other hosts to be granted network access. Similarly, a
port can become unauthorized for all hosts if one attached host fails
re-authentication or sends an EAPOL logoff message.
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x operation-mode multi-host max-count 10
Console(config-if)#
dot1x re-authenticate
This command forces re-authentication on all ports or a specific interface.
Syntax
dot1x re-authenticate [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
4-88
Authentication Commands
4
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#dot1x re-authenticate
Console#
dot1x re-authentication
This command enables periodic re-authentication globally for all ports. Use the no
form to disable re-authentication.
Syntax
[no] dot1x re-authentication
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x re-authentication
Console(config-if)#
dot1x timeout quiet-period
This command sets the time that a switch port waits after the Max Request Count
has been exceeded before attempting to acquire a new client. Use the no form to
reset the default.
Syntax
dot1x timeout quiet-period seconds
no dot1x timeout quiet-period
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
60 seconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout quiet-period 350
Console(config-if)#
4-89
4
Command Line Interface
dot1x timeout re-authperiod
This command sets the time period after which a connected client must be
re-authenticated.
Syntax
dot1x timeout re-authperiod seconds
no dot1x timeout re-authperiod
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
3600 seconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout re-authperiod 300
Console(config-if)#
dot1x timeout tx-period
This command sets the time that an interface on the switch waits during an
authentication session before re-transmitting an EAP packet. Use the no form to
reset to the default value.
Syntax
dot1x timeout tx-period seconds
no dot1x timeout tx-period
seconds - The number of seconds. (Range: 1-65535)
Default
30 seconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Example
Console(config)#interface eth 1/2
Console(config-if)#dot1x timeout tx-period 300
Console(config-if)#
show dot1x
This command shows general port authentication related settings on the switch or a
specific interface.
4-90
Authentication Commands
4
Syntax
show dot1x [statistics] [interface interface]
• statistics - Displays dot1x status for each port.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the following information:
• Global 802.1X Parameters – Shows whether or not 802.1X port
authentication is globally enabled on the switch.
• 802.1X Port Summary – Displays the port access control parameters for
each interface, including the following items:
- Status
– Administrative state for port access control.
- Operation Mode – Dot1x port control operation mode (page 4-88).
- Mode
– Dot1x port control mode (page 4-87).
- Authorized
– Authorization status (yes or n/a - not authorized).
• 802.1X Port Details – Displays the port access control parameters for each
interface, including the following items:
- reauth-enabled
– Periodic re-authentication (page 4-89).
- reauth-period
– Time after which a connected client must be
re-authenticated (page 4-90).
- quiet-period
– Time a port waits after Max Request Count is
exceeded before attempting to acquire a new
client (page 4-89).
- tx-period
– Time a port waits during authentication session
before re-transmitting EAP packet (page 4-90).
- supplicant-timeout – Supplicant timeout.
- server-timeout
– Server timeout.
- reauth-max
– Maximum number of reauthentication attempts.
- max-req
– Maximum number of times a port will retransmit
an EAP request/identity packet to the client
before it times out the authentication session
(page 4-87).
- Status
– Authorization status (authorized or not).
- Operation Mode
– Shows if single or multiple hosts (clients) can
connect to an 802.1X-authorized port.
- Max Count
– The maximum number of hosts allowed to
access this port (page 4-88).
4-91
4
Command Line Interface
- Port-control
- Supplicant
- Current Identifier
– Shows the dot1x mode on a port as auto,
force-authorized, or force-unauthorized
(page 4-87).
– MAC address of authorized client.
– The integer (0-255) used by the Authenticator to
identify the current authentication session.
• Authenticator State Machine
- State
– Current state (including initialize, disconnected,
connecting, authenticating, authenticated, aborting,
held, force_authorized, force_unauthorized).
- Reauth Count
– Number of times connecting state is re-entered.
• Backend State Machine
- State
– Current state (including request, response,
success, fail, timeout, idle, initialize).
- Request Count
– Number of EAP Request packets sent to the
Supplicant without receiving a response.
- Identifier(Server) – Identifier carried in the most recent EAP Success,
Failure or Request packet received from the
Authentication Server.
• Reauthentication State Machine
- State
– Current state (including initialize, reauthenticate).
4-92
Authentication Commands
4
Example
Console#show dot1x
Global 802.1X Parameters
system-auth-control: enable
802.1X Port Summary
Port Name
1/1
1/2
.
.
.
1/26
Status
disabled
enabled
Operation Mode
Single-Host
Single-Host
Mode
ForceAuthorized
auto
Authorized
n/a
yes
disabled
Single-Host
ForceAuthorized
n/a
802.1X Port Details
802.1X is disabled on port 1/1
802.1X is enabled on port 1/2
reauth-enabled: Enable
reauth-period: 1800
quiet-period:
30
tx-period:
40
supplicant-timeout:
30
server-timeout: 10
reauth-max:
2
max-req:
5
Status
Authorized
Operation mode
Single-Host
Max count
5
Port-control
Auto
Supplicant
00-00-e8-49-5e-dc
Current Identifier 3
Authenticator State Machine
State
Authenticated
Reauth Count
0
Backend State Machine
State
Idle
Request Count
0
Identifier(Server) 2
Reauthentication State Machine
State
Initialize
.
.
.
802.1X is disabled on port 1/26
Console#
4-93
4
Command Line Interface
Network Access
The Network Access feature controls host access to the network by authenticating
its MAC address on the connected switch port. Traffic received from a specific MAC
address is forwarded by the switch only if the source MAC address is successfully
authenticated by a central RADIUS server. While authentication for a MAC address
is in progress, all traffic is blocked until authentication is completed. On successful
authentication, the RADIUS server may optionally assign VLAN settings for the
switch port.
Table 4-33 Network Access
Command
Function
Mode
network-access mode
Enables MAC authentication on an interface
IC
Page
4-94
network-access
max-mac-count
Sets a maximum for authenticated MAC addresses on an IC
interface
4-95
network-access mac-filter
Configures a MAC address filter
GC
4-96
network-access
port-mac-filter
Binds a MAC address filter to an interface
IC
4-97
network-access
dynamic-vlan
Enables dynamic VLAN assignment from a RADIUS
server
IC
4-97
mac-authentication
reauth-time
Sets the time period after which a connected MAC
address must be re-authenticated
GC
4-98
clear network-access
Clears authenticated MAC addresses from the address
table
PE
4-99
show network-access
Displays the MAC authentication settings for port
interfaces
PE
4-99
show network-access
mac-filter
Displays the configuration of MAC authentication filters
PE
4-100
show network-access
mac-address-table
Displays information for entries in the secure MAC
address table
PE
4-100
network-access mode
Use this command to enable network access authentication on a port interface. Use
the no form of this command to disable authentication.
Syntax
[no] network-access mode mac-authentication
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
4-94
Authentication Commands
4
Command Usage
• When enabled on a port interface, the authentication process sends a
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) request to a configured RADIUS
server. The username and password are both equal to the MAC address
being authenticated.
• On the RADIUS server, PAP username and passwords must be configured in
the MAC address format XX-XX-XX-XX-XX-XX (all in upper case).
• The RADIUS server may optionally return a VLAN identifier list. VLAN
identifier list is carried in the “Tunnel-Private-Group-ID” attribute. The VLAN
list can contain multiple VLAN identifiers in the format “1u,2t,” where “u”
indicates untagged VLAN and “t” tagged VLAN. The “Tunnel-Type” attribute
should be set to “VLAN,” and the “Tunnel-Medium-Type” attribute set to “802.”
• Authenticated MAC addresses are stored as dynamic entries in the switch
secure MAC address table and are removed when the aging time expires. The
maximum number of secure MAC addresses supported for the switch system
is 1024.
• Configured static MAC addresses are added to the secure address table
when seen on a switch port. Static addresses are treated as authenticated
without sending a request to a RADIUS server.
• MAC authentication, 802.1X, and port security cannot be configured together
on the same port. Only one security mechanism can be applied.
• MAC authentication cannot be configured on trunk ports.
• When a port interface status changes to down, all MAC addresses are cleared
from the secure MAC address table. Static VLAN assignments are not
restored.
Example
Console(config-if)#network-access mode mac-authentication
Console(config-if)#
network-access max-mac-count
Use this command to set the maximum number of MAC addresses that can be
authenticated on a port interface. Use the no form of this command to restore the
default.
Syntax
network-access max-mac-count count
no network-access max-mac-count
count - The maximum number of authenticated MAC addresses allowed.
(Range: 1 to 1024)
Default Setting
1024
4-95
4
Command Line Interface
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
The maximum number of MAC addresses per port is 1024, and the maximum
number of secure MAC addresses supported for the switch system is 1024.
When the limit is reached, all new MAC addresses are treated as
authentication failed.
Example
Console(config-if)#network-access max-mac-count 5
Console(config-if)#
network-access mac-filter
Use this command to define MAC address filters for network access. The MAC
address filters are used to specify MAC addresses to be excluded from network
access authentication. Use the no form of this command to remove existing MAC
address filters.
Syntax
[no] network-access mac-filter filter-id mac-address
• filter-id - The number that identifies the filter. (Range: 1-64)
• mac-address - A MAC address to be excluded from authentication. (Must
be in the format: xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx.)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Enter this command more than once with the same filter ID to add multiple
MAC addresses to a filter.
• Once created, filters must be applied to a port interface using the
network-access port-mac-filter command. Only one filter can be applied to
a port.
• MAC addresses in a filter are not authenticated by a RADIUS server when
seen on a port, the addresses are immediately added to the secure MAC
address table.
4-96
Authentication Commands
4
Example
The following example creates MAC filter 1 and adds MAC address
00-00-E8-12-11-01 to the filter.
Console(config)#network-access mac-filter 1 00-00-e8-12-11-01
Console(config)#
network-access port-mac-filter
Use this command to apply a MAC address filter to a port interface. Use the no form
of this command to remove a MAC address filter from an interface.
Syntax
network-access port-mac-filter filter-id
no network-access port-mac-filter
filter-id - The number that identifies the filter. (Range: 1-64)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
• MAC address filters must first be created using the network-access
mac-filter command.
• Only one filter can be applied to a port.
Example
The following example assigns MAC filter 1 to port 1.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#network-access port-mac-filter 1
Console(config-if)#
network-access dynamic-vlan
Use this command to enable dynamic VLAN assignment for an authenticated port.
Use the no to disable dynamic VLAN assignment.
Syntax
[no] network-access dynamic-vlan
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
4-97
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• When enabled, the VLAN identifiers returned by the RADIUS server will be
applied to the port, providing the VLANs have been already created on the
switch. GVRP is not used to create the VLANs.
• The VLAN settings specified by the first authenticated MAC address are
implemented for a port. Other authenticated MAC address on the port must
have same VLAN configuration, or they are treated as authentication failure.
• If dynamic VLAN assignment is enabled on a port and the RADIUS server
returns no VLAN configuration, the authentication is still treated as a success.
• When the dynamic VLAN assignment status is changed on a port, all
authenticated addresses are cleared from the secure MAC address table.
Example
The following example enables dynamic VLAN assignment on port 1.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#network-access dynamic-vlan
Console(config-if)#
mac-authentication reauth-time
Use this command to set the time period after which a connected MAC address
must be re-authenticated. Use the no form of this command to restore the default
value.
Syntax
mac-authentication reauth-time seconds
no mac-authentication reauth-time
seconds - The reauthentication time period.
(Range: 120-1000000 seconds)
Default Setting
1800
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The reauthentication time is a global setting and applies to all ports.
• When the reauthentication time expires for a secure MAC address it is
reauthenticated with the RADIUS server. During the reauthentication process
traffic through the port remains unaffected.
Example
Console(config)#mac-authentication reauth-time 300
Console(config)#
4-98
4
Authentication Commands
clear network-access
Use this command to clear entries from the secure MAC addresses table.
Syntax
clear network-access mac-address-table [static | dynamic]
[address mac-address] [interface interface]
•
•
•
•
static - Specifies static address entries.
dynamic - Specifies dynamic address entries.
mac-address - Specifies a MAC address entry. (Format: xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx)
interface - Specifies a port interface.
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear network-access mac-address-table interface ethernet 1/1
Console#
show network-access
Use this command to display the MAC authentication settings for port interfaces.
Syntax
show network-access [interface interface]
• interface - Specifies a port interface.
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Default Setting
Displays the settings for all interfaces.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-99
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show network-access interface ethernet 1/1
Port:1/1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MAC Authentication
:Disabled
Maximum MAC Count
:1024
Dynamic VLAN Assignment :Disabled
Reauthentication Time
:1800
Authenticated Age
:300
MAC Filter ID
:None
Console#
show network-access mac-filter
Use this command to display MAC authentication filters.
Syntax
show network-access mac-filter [filter-id]
filter-id - Specifies a filter number. (Range: 1-64)
Default Setting
Displays all filters.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show network-access mac-filter 1
--------- ----------------Filter-id MAC-Address
--------- ----------------1
00-12-34-56-78-9A
1
00-12-34-56-78-9B
1
00-12-34-56-78-9C
Console#
show network-access mac-address-table
Use this command to display secure MAC address table entries.
Syntax
show network-access mac-address-table [static | dynamic]
[address mac-address [mask]] [interface interface] [sort {address |
interface}]
•
•
•
•
•
4-100
static - Specifies static address entries.
dynamic - Specifies dynamic address entries.
mac-address - Specifies a MAC address entry. (Format: xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx)
mask - Specifies a MAC address bit mask for filtering displayed addresses.
interface - Specifies a port interface.
Authentication Commands
4
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• sort - Sorts displayed entries by either MAC address or interface.
Default Setting
Displays all filters.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
When using a bit mask to filter displayed MAC addresses, a 1 means "care"
and a 0 means "don't care". For example, a MAC of 00-00-01-02-03-04 and
mask FF-FF-FF-00-00-00 would result in all MACs in the range
00-00-01-00-00-00 to 00-00-01-FF-FF-FF to be displayed. All other MACs
would be filtered out.
Example
Console#show network-access mac-address-table
---- ----------------- --------------- --------Port MAC-Address
RADIUS-Server
Attribute
---- ----------------- --------------- --------1/1 00-00-01-02-03-04 172.155.120.17 Static
1/1 00-00-01-02-03-05 172.155.120.17 Dynamic
1/1 00-00-01-02-03-06 172.155.120.17 Static
1/3 00-00-01-02-03-07 172.155.120.17 Dynamic
------------------------Time
------------------------00d06h32m50s
00d06h33m20s
00d06h35m10s
00d06h34m20s
Console#
4-101
4
Command Line Interface
Access Control List Commands
Access Control Lists (ACL) provide packet filtering for IP frames (based on address,
protocol, Layer 4 protocol port number or TCP control code) or any frames (based
on MAC address or Ethernet type). To filter packets, first create an access list, add
the required rules and then bind the list to a specific port.
Access Control Lists
An ACL is a sequential list of permit or deny conditions that apply to IP addresses,
MAC addresses, or other more specific criteria. This switch tests ingress or egress
packets against the conditions in an ACL one by one. A packet will be accepted as
soon as it matches a permit rule, or dropped as soon as it matches a deny rule. If no
rules match for a list of all permit rules, the packet is dropped; and if no rules match
for a list of all deny rules, the packet is accepted.
There are three filtering modes:
• Standard IP ACL mode (STD-ACL) filters packets based on the source IP address.
• Extended IP ACL mode (EXT-ACL) filters packets based on source or destination
IP address, as well as protocol type and protocol port number. If the TCP protocol
is specified, then you can also filter packets based on the TCP control code.
• MAC ACL mode (MAC-ACL) filters packets based on the source or destination
MAC address and the Ethernet frame type (RFC 1060).
The following restrictions apply to ACLs:
• Each ACL can have up to 32 rules.
• The maximum number of ACLs is 88.
• However, due to resource restrictions, the average number of rules bound the
ports should not exceed 20.
• This switch supports ACLs for ingress filtering only. You can only bind one IP ACL
to any port and one MAC ACL globally for ingress filtering. In other words, only two
ACLs can be bound to an interface - Ingress IP ACL and Ingress MAC ACL.
The order in which active ACLs are checked is as follows:
1. User-defined rules in the Ingress MAC ACL for ingress ports.
2. User-defined rules in the Ingress IP ACL for ingress ports.
3. Explicit default rule (permit any any) in the ingress IP ACL for ingress ports.
4. Explicit default rule (permit any any) in the ingress MAC ACL for ingress ports.
5. If no explicit rule is matched, the implicit default is permit all.
4-102
Access Control List Commands
4
Table 4-34 Access Control Lists
Command Groups
Function
Page
IP ACLs
Configures ACLs based on IP addresses, TCP/UDP port number,
protocol type, and TCP control code
4-103
MAC ACLs
Configures ACLs based on hardware addresses, packet format, and
Ethernet type
4-110
ACL Information
Displays ACLs and associated rules; shows ACLs assigned to each port
4-115
IP ACLs
Table 4-35 IP ACLs
Command
Function
Mode
Page
access-list ip
Creates an IP ACL and enters configuration mode
GC
4-103
permit, deny
Filters packets matching a specified source IP address
STD-ACL
4-104
permit, deny
EXT-ACL
Filters packets meeting the specified criteria, including
source and destination IP address, TCP/UDP port number,
protocol type, and TCP control code
4-105
show ip access-list
Displays the rules for configured IP ACLs
PE
4-107
ip access-group
Adds a port to an IP ACL
IC
4-107
show ip access-group
Shows port assignments for IP ACLs
PE
4-107
map access-list ip
Sets the CoS value and corresponding output queue for
packets matching an ACL rule
IC
4-108
show map access-list ip
Shows CoS value mapped to an access list for an interface PE
4-109
access-list ip
This command adds an IP access list and enters configuration mode for standard or
extended IP ACLs. Use the no form to remove the specified ACL.
Syntax
[no] access-list ip {standard | extended} acl_name
• standard – Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the source IP
address.
• extended – Specifies an ACL that filters packets based on the source or
destination IP address, and other more specific criteria.
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-103
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• When you create a new ACL or enter configuration mode for an existing ACL,
use the permit or deny command to add new rules to the bottom of the list.
To create an ACL, you must add at least one rule to the list.
• To remove a rule, use the no permit or no deny command followed by the
exact text of a previously configured rule.
• An ACL can contain up to 32 rules.
Example
Console(config)#access-list ip standard david
Console(config-std-acl)#
Related Commands
permit, deny 4-104
ip access-group (4-107)
show ip access-list (4-107)
permit, deny (Standard ACL)
This command adds a rule to a Standard IP ACL. The rule sets a filter condition for
packets emanating from the specified source. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
[no] {permit | deny} {any | source bitmask | host source}
•
•
•
•
any – Any source IP address.
source – Source IP address.
bitmask – Decimal number representing the address bits to match.
host – Keyword followed by a specific IP address.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Standard ACL
Command Usage
• New rules are appended to the end of the list.
• Address bitmasks are similar to a subnet mask, containing four integers from
0 to 255, each separated by a period. The binary mask uses 1 bits to indicate
“match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.” The bitmask is bitwise ANDed with the
specified source IP address, and then compared with the address for each IP
packet entering the port(s) to which this ACL has been assigned.
4-104
Access Control List Commands
4
Example
This example configures one permit rule for the specific address 10.1.1.21 and
another rule for the address range 168.92.16.x – 168.92.31.x using a bitmask.
Console(config-std-acl)#permit host 10.1.1.21
Console(config-std-acl)#permit 168.92.16.0 255.255.240.0
Console(config-std-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list ip (4-103)
permit, deny (Extended ACL)
This command adds a rule to an Extended IP ACL. The rule sets a filter condition for
packets with specific source or destination IP addresses, protocol types, source or
destination protocol ports, or TCP control codes. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
[no] {permit | deny} [protocol-number | udp]
{any | source address-bitmask | host source}
{any | destination address-bitmask | host destination}
[precedence precedence] [tos tos] [dscp dscp]
[source-port sport [end]] [destination-port dport [end]]
[no] {permit | deny} tcp
{any | source address-bitmask | host source}
{any | destination address-bitmask | host destination}
[precedence precedence] [tos tos] [dscp dscp]
[source-port sport [end]] [destination-port dport [end]]
[control-flag control-flags flag-bitmask]
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
protocol-number – A specific protocol number. (Range: 0-255)
source – Source IP address.
destination – Destination IP address.
address-bitmask – Decimal number representing the address bits to match.
host – Keyword followed by a specific IP address.
precedence – IP precedence level. (Range: 0-7)
tos – Type of Service level. (Range: 0-15)
dscp – DSCP priority level. (Range: 0-63)
sport – Protocol21 source port number. (Range: 0-65535)
dport – Protocol1 destination port number. (Range: 0-65535)
end – Upper bound of the protocol port range. (Range: 0-65535)
control-flags – Decimal number (representing a bit string) that specifies flag
bits in byte 14 of the TCP header. (Range: 0-63)
• flag-bitmask – Decimal number representing the code bits to match.
(Range: 0-63)
21. Includes TCP, UDP or other Protocol types.
4-105
4
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Extended ACL
Command Usage
• All new rules are appended to the end of the list.
• Address bitmasks are similar to a subnet mask, containing four integers from
0 to 255, each separated by a period. The binary mask uses 1 bits to indicate
“match” and 0 bits to indicate “ignore.” The bitmask is bitwise ANDed with the
specified source IP address, and then compared with the address for each IP
packet entering the port(s) to which this ACL has been assigned.
• You can specify both Precedence and ToS in the same rule. However, if
DSCP is used, then neither Precedence nor ToS can be specified.
• The control-code bitmask is a decimal number (representing an equivalent bit
mask) that is applied to the control code. Enter a decimal number, where the
equivalent binary bit “1” means to match a bit and “0” means to ignore a bit.
The following bits may be specified:
- 1 (fin) – Finish
- 2 (syn) – Synchronize
- 4 (rst) – Reset
- 8 (psh) – Push
- 16 (ack) – Acknowledgement
- 32 (urg) – Urgent pointer
For example, use the code value and mask below to catch packets with the
following flags set:
- SYN flag valid, use “control-code 2 2”
- Both SYN and ACK valid, use “control-code 18 18”
- SYN valid and ACK invalid, use “control-code 2 18”
Example
This example accepts any incoming packets if the source address is within subnet
10.7.1.x. For example, if the rule is matched; i.e., the rule (10.7.1.0 & 255.255.255.0)
equals the masked address (10.7.1.2 & 255.255.255.0), the packet passes through.
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 10.7.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
Console(config-ext-acl)#
This allows TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 to any destination
address when set for destination TCP port 80 (i.e., HTTP).
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
destination-port 80
Console(config-ext-acl)#
4-106
4
Access Control List Commands
This permits all TCP packets from class C addresses 192.168.1.0 with the TCP
control code set to “SYN.”
Console(config-ext-acl)#permit tcp 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any
control-flag 2 2
Console(config-ext-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list ip (4-103)
show ip access-list
This command displays the rules for configured IP ACLs.
Syntax
show ip access-list {standard | extended} [acl_name]
• standard – Specifies a standard IP ACL.
• extended – Specifies an extended IP ACL.
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip access-list standard
IP standard access-list david:
permit host 10.1.1.21
permit 168.92.0.0 255.255.240.0
Console#
Related Commands
permit, deny 4-104
ip access-group (4-107)
ip access-group
This command binds a port to an IP ACL. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax
[no] ip access-group acl_name in
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• in – Indicates that this list applies to ingress packets.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
4-107
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• A port can only be bound to one ACL.
• If a port is already bound to an ACL and you bind it to a different ACL, the
switch will replace the old binding with the new one.
• You must configure a mask for an ACL rule before you can bind it to a port.
Example
Console(config)#int eth 1/25
Console(config-if)#ip access-group david in
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show ip access-list (4-107)
show ip access-group
This command shows the ports assigned to IP ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip access-group
Interface ethernet 1/25
IP access-list david in
Console#
Related Commands
ip access-group (4-107)
map access-list ip
This command sets the output queue for packets matching an ACL rule. The
specified CoS value is only used to map the matching packet to an output queue; it
is not written to the packet itself. Use the no form to remove the CoS mapping.
Syntax
[no] map access-list ip acl_name cos cos-value
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• cos-value – CoS value. (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
4-108
Access Control List Commands
4
Command Usage
A packet matching a rule within the specified ACL is mapped to one of the
output queues as shown in the following table. For information on mapping the
CoS values to output queues, see queue cos-map on page 4-201.
Table 4-36 Egress Queue Priority Mapping
Queue
0
1
2
3
Priority
1,2
0,3
4,5
6,7
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/25
Console(config-if)#map access-list ip david cos 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
queue cos-map (4-201)
show map access-list ip (4-109)
show map access-list ip
This command shows the CoS value mapped to an IP ACL for the current interface.
(The CoS value determines the output queue for packets matching an ACL rule.)
Syntax
show map access-list ip [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show map access-list ip
Eth 1/25
Access-list ip david cos 0
Console#
Related Commands
map access-list ip (4-108)
4-109
4
Command Line Interface
MAC ACLs
Table 4-37 MAC ACLs
Command
Function
Mode
Page
access-list mac
Creates a MAC ACL and enters configuration mode
GC
4-110
permit, deny
Filters packets matching a specified source and
destination address, packet format, and Ethernet type
MAC-ACL
4-111
show mac access-list
Displays the rules for configured MAC ACLs
PE
4-112
mac access-group
Adds a port to a MAC ACL
IC
4-112
show mac access-group
Shows port assignments for MAC ACLs
PE
4-113
map access-list mac
Sets the CoS value and corresponding output queue for
packets matching an ACL rule
IC
4-113
show map access-list
mac
Shows CoS value mapped to an access list for an interface PE
4-114
access-list mac
This command adds a MAC access list and enters MAC ACL configuration mode.
Use the no form to remove the specified ACL.
Syntax
[no] access-list mac acl_name
acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• When you create a new ACL or enter configuration mode for an existing ACL,
use the permit or deny command to add new rules to the bottom of the list.
To create an ACL, you must add at least one rule to the list.
• To remove a rule, use the no permit or no deny command followed by the
exact text of a previously configured rule.
• An ACL can contain up to 32 rules.
Example
Console(config)#access-list mac jerry
Console(config-mac-acl)#
4-110
4
Access Control List Commands
Related Commands
permit, deny (MAC ACL) (4-111)
mac access-group (4-112)
show mac access-list (4-112)
permit, deny (MAC ACL)
This command adds a rule to a MAC ACL. The rule filters packets matching a
specified MAC source or destination address (i.e., physical layer address), or
Ethernet protocol type. Use the no form to remove a rule.
Syntax
[no] {permit | deny}
{any | host source | source address-bitmask}
{any | host destination | destination address-bitmask}
[vid vid [vid-end]] [ethertype protocol [protocol-end]]
Note:- The default is for Ethernet II packets.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
any – Any MAC source or destination address.
host – A specific MAC address.
source – Source MAC address.
destination – Destination MAC address range with bitmask.
address-bitmask22 – Bitmask for MAC address (in hexidecimal format).
vid – VLAN ID. (Range: 1-4094)
vid-end – Upper bound of VID range. (Range: 1-4094)
protocol – A specific Ethernet protocol number. (Range: 0-65535)
protocol-end – Upper bound of protocol range. (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
MAC ACL
Command Usage
• New rules are added to the end of the list.
• The ethertype option can only be used to filter Ethernet II formatted packets.
• A detailed listing of Ethernet protocol types can be found in RFC 1060. A few
of the more common types include the following:
- 0800 - IP
- 0806 - ARP
- 8137 - IPX
22. For all bitmasks, “1” means care and “0” means ignore.
4-111
4
Command Line Interface
Example
This rule permits packets from any source MAC address to the destination address
00-e0-29-94-34-de where the Ethernet type is 0800.
Console(config-mac-acl)#permit any host 00-e0-29-94-34-de ethertype 0800
Console(config-mac-acl)#
Related Commands
access-list mac (4-110)
show mac access-list
This command displays the rules for configured MAC ACLs.
Syntax
show mac access-list [acl_name]
acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show mac access-list
MAC access-list jerry:
permit any host 00-e0-29-94-34-de ethertype 800 800
Console#
Related Commands
permit, deny 4-111
mac access-group (4-112)
mac access-group
This command binds a port to a MAC ACL. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax
mac access-group acl_name in
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• in – Indicates that this list applies to ingress packets.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
4-112
4
Access Control List Commands
Command Usage
• A port can only be bound to one ACL.
• If a port is already bound to an ACL and you bind it to a different ACL, the
switch will replace the old binding with the new one.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/25
Console(config-if)#mac access-group jerry in
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show mac access-list (4-112)
show mac access-group
This command shows the ports assigned to MAC ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show mac access-group
Interface ethernet 1/25
MAC access-list jerry in
Console#
Related Commands
mac access-group (4-112)
map access-list mac
This command sets the output queue for packets matching an ACL rule. The
specified CoS value is only used to map the matching packet to an output queue; it
is not written to the packet itself. Use the no form to remove the CoS mapping.
Syntax
[no] map access-list mac acl_name cos cos-value
• acl_name – Name of the ACL. (Maximum length: 16 characters)
• cos-value – CoS value. (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
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4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• You must configure an ACL mask before you can map CoS values to the rule.
• A packet matching a rule within the specified ACL is mapped to one of the
output queues as shown below.
Table 4-38 Egress Queue Priority Mapping
Queue
0
1
2
3
Priority
1,2
0,3
4,5
6,7
Example
Console(config)#int eth 1/5
Console(config-if)#map access-list mac jerry cos 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
queue cos-map (4-201)
show map access-list mac (4-114)
show map access-list mac
This command shows the CoS value mapped to a MAC ACL for the current
interface. (The CoS value determines the output queue for packets matching an
ACL rule.)
Syntax
show map access-list mac [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show map access-list mac
Access-list to COS of Eth 1/5
Access-list jerry cos 0
Console#
Related Commands
map access-list mac (4-113)
4-114
4
Access Control List Commands
ACL Information
Table 4-39 ACL Information
Command
Function
Mode
Page
show access-list
Show all ACLs and associated rules
PE
4-115
show access-group
Shows the ACLs assigned to each port
PE
4-115
show access-list
This command shows all ACLs and associated rules, as well as all the user-defined
masks.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Once the ACL is bound to an interface (i.e., the ACL is active), the order in
which the rules are displayed is determined by the associated mask.
Example
Console#show access-list
IP standard access-list david:
permit host 10.1.1.21
permit 168.92.16.0 255.255.240.0
IP extended access-list bob:
permit 10.7.1.1 255.255.255.0 any
permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any destination-port 80 80
permit 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 any protocol tcp control-code 2 2
MAC access-list jerry:
permit any host 00-30-29-94-34-de ethertype 800 800
IP extended access-list A6:
deny tcp any any control-flag 2 2
permit any any
IP ingress mask ACL:
mask protocol any any control-flag 2
Console#
show access-group
This command shows the port assignments of ACLs.
Command Mode
Privileged Executive
Example
Console#show access-group
Interface ethernet 1/25
IP standard access-list david
MAC access-list jerry
Console#
4-115
4
Command Line Interface
SNMP Commands
Controls access to this switch from management stations using the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP), as well as the error types sent to trap managers.
SNMP Version 3 also provides security features that cover message integrity,
authentication, and encryption; as well as controlling user access to specific areas of
the MIB tree. To use SNMPv3, first set an SNMP engine ID (or accept the default),
specify read and write access views for the MIB tree, configure SNMP user groups
with the required security model (i.e., SNMP v1, v2c or v3) and security level (i.e.,
authentication and privacy), and then assign SNMP users to these groups, along
with their specific authentication and privacy passwords.
Table 4-40 SNMP Commands
Command
Function
Mode
snmp-server
Enables the SNMP agent
GC
Page
4-117
show snmp
Displays the status of SNMP communications
NE, PE
4-117
snmp-server community
Sets up the community access string to permit access to
SNMP commands
GC
4-118
snmp-server contact
Sets the system contact string
GC
4-119
snmp-server location
Sets the system location string
GC
4-119
snmp-server host
Specifies the recipient of an SNMP notification operation
GC
4-120
GC
4-122
snmp-server enable traps Enables the device to send SNMP traps (i.e., SNMP
notifications)
snmp-server engine-id
Sets the SNMP engine ID
GC
4-123
show snmp engine-id
Shows the SNMP engine ID
PE
4-124
snmp-server view
Adds an SNMP view
GC
4-125
show snmp view
Shows the SNMP views
PE
4-126
snmp-server group
Adds an SNMP group, mapping users to views
GC
4-126
show snmp group
Shows the SNMP groups
PE
4-127
snmp-server user
Adds a user to an SNMP group
GC
4-128
show snmp user
Shows the SNMP users
PE
4-130
4-116
SNMP Commands
4
snmp-server
This command enables the SNMPv3 engine and services for all management clients
(i.e., versions 1, 2c, 3). Use the no form to disable the server.
Syntax
[no] snmp-server
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server
Console(config)#
show snmp
This command can be used to check the status of SNMP communications.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command provides information on the community access strings, counter
information for SNMP input and output protocol data units, and whether or not
SNMP logging has been enabled with the snmp-server enable traps
command.
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4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show snmp
SNMP Agent: enabled
SNMP traps:
Authentication: enable
Link-up-down: enable
SNMP communities:
1. private, and the privilege is read-write
2. public, and the privilege is read-only
0 SNMP packets input
0 Bad SNMP version errors
0 Unknown community name
0 Illegal operation for community name supplied
0 Encoding errors
0 Number of requested variables
0 Number of altered variables
0 Get-request PDUs
0 Get-next PDUs
0 Set-request PDUs
0 SNMP packets output
0 Too big errors
0 No such name errors
0 Bad values errors
0 General errors
0 Response PDUs
0 Trap PDUs
SNMP logging: disabled
Console#
snmp-server community
This command defines the SNMP v1 and v2c community access string. Use the no
form to remove the specified community string.
Syntax
snmp-server community string [ro|rw]
no snmp-server community string
• string - Community string that acts like a password and permits access to
the SNMP protocol. (Maximum length: 32 characters, case sensitive;
Maximum number of strings: 5)
• ro - Specifies read-only access. Authorized management stations are only
able to retrieve MIB objects.
• rw - Specifies read/write access. Authorized management stations are able
to both retrieve and modify MIB objects.
Default Setting
• public - Read-only access. Authorized management stations are only able to
retrieve MIB objects.
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SNMP Commands
4
• private - Read/write access. Authorized management stations are able to both
retrieve and modify MIB objects.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server community alpha rw
Console(config)#
snmp-server contact
This command sets the system contact string. Use the no form to remove the
system contact information.
Syntax
snmp-server contact string
no snmp-server contact
string - String that describes the system contact information.
(Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server contact Paul
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server location (4-119)
snmp-server location
This command sets the system location string. Use the no form to remove the
location string.
Syntax
snmp-server location text
no snmp-server location
text - String that describes the system location.
(Maximum length: 255 characters)
Default Setting
None
4-119
4
Command Line Interface
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server location WC-19
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server contact (4-119)
snmp-server host
This command specifies the recipient of a Simple Network Management Protocol
notification operation. Use the no form to remove the specified host.
Syntax
snmp-server host host-addr [inform [retry retries | timeout seconds]]
community-string [version {1 | 2c | 3 {auth | noauth | priv} [udp-port port]}
no snmp-server host host-addr
• host-addr - Internet address of the host (the targeted recipient).
(Maximum host addresses: 5 trap destination IP address entries)
• inform - Notifications are sent as inform messages. Note that this option is
only available for version 2c and 3 hosts. (Default: traps are used)
- retries - The maximum number of times to resend an inform message if
the recipient does not acknowledge receipt. (Range: 0-255; Default: 3)
- seconds - The number of seconds to wait for an acknowledgment before
resending an inform message. (Range: 0-2147483647 centiseconds;
Default: 1500 centiseconds)
• community-string - Password-like community string sent with the
notification operation to SNMP V1 and V2c hosts. Although you can set this
string using the snmp-server host command by itself, we recommend that
you define this string using the snmp-server community command prior
to using the snmp-server host command. (Maximum length:
32 characters)
• version - Specifies whether to send notifications as SNMP Version 1, 2c or
3 traps. (Range: 1, 2c, 3; Default: 1)
- auth | noauth | priv - This group uses SNMPv3 with authentication, no
authentication, or with authentication and privacy. See “Simple Network
Management Protocol” on page 3-38 for further information about these
authentication and encryption options.
• port - Host UDP port to use. (Range: 1-65535; Default: 162)
Default Setting
• Host Address: None
• Notification Type: Traps
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SNMP Commands
4
• SNMP Version: 1
• UDP Port: 162
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• If you do not enter an snmp-server host command, no notifications are sent.
In order to configure the switch to send SNMP notifications, you must enter at
least one snmp-server host command. In order to enable multiple hosts, you
must issue a separate snmp-server host command for each host.
• The snmp-server host command is used in conjunction with the
snmp-server enable traps command. Use the snmp-server enable traps
command to enable the sending of traps or informs and to specify which
SNMP notifications are sent globally. For a host to receive notifications, at
least one snmp-server enable traps command and the snmp-server host
command for that host must be enabled.
• Some notification types cannot be controlled with the snmp-server enable
traps command. For example, some notification types are always enabled.
• Notifications are issued by the switch as trap messages by default. The
recipient of a trap message does not send a response to the switch. Traps are
therefore not as reliable as inform messages, which include a request for
acknowledgement of receipt. Informs can be used to ensure that critical
information is received by the host. However, note that informs consume more
system resources because they must be kept in memory until a response is
received. Informs also add to network traffic. You should consider these
effects when deciding whether to issue notifications as traps or informs.
To send an inform to a SNMPv2c host, complete these steps:
1. Enable the SNMP agent (page 4-117).
2. Allow the switch to send SNMP traps; i.e., notifications (page 4-122).
3. Specify the target host that will receive inform messages with the
snmp-server host command as described in this section.
4. Create a view with the required notification messages (page 4-125).
5. Create a group that includes the required notify view (page 4-126).
To send an inform to a SNMPv3 host, complete these steps:
1. Enable the SNMP agent (page 4-117).
2. Allow the switch to send SNMP traps; i.e., notifications (page 4-122).
3. Specify the target host that will receive inform messages with the
snmp-server host command as described in this section.
4. Create a view with the required notification messages (page 4-125).
5. Create a group that includes the required notify view (page 4-126).
6. Specify a remote engine ID where the user resides (page 4-123).
7. Then configure a remote user (page 4-128).
• The switch can send SNMP Version 1, 2c or 3 notifications to a host IP
address, depending on the SNMP version that the management station
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Command Line Interface
supports. If the snmp-server host command does not specify the SNMP
version, the default is to send SNMP version 1 notifications.
• If you specify an SNMP Version 3 host, then the community string is
interpreted as an SNMP user name. If you use the V3 “auth” or “priv” options,
the user name must first be defined with the snmp-server user command.
Otherwise, the authentication password and/or privacy password will not
exist, and the switch will not authorize SNMP access for the host. However, if
you specify a V3 host with the “noauth” option, an SNMP user account will be
generated, and the switch will authorize SNMP access for the host.
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server host 10.1.19.23 batman
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server enable traps (4-122)
snmp-server enable traps
This command enables this device to send Simple Network Management Protocol
traps or informs (i.e., SNMP notifications). Use the no form to disable SNMP
notifications.
Syntax
[no] snmp-server enable traps [authentication | link-up-down]
• authentication - Keyword to issue authentication failure notifications.
• link-up-down - Keyword to issue link-up or link-down notifications.
Default Setting
Issue authentication and link-up-down traps.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• If you do not enter an snmp-server enable traps command, no notifications
controlled by this command are sent. In order to configure this device to send
SNMP notifications, you must enter at least one snmp-server enable traps
command. If you enter the command with no keywords, both authentication
and link-up-down notifications are enabled. If you enter the command with a
keyword, only the notification type related to that keyword is enabled.
• The snmp-server enable traps command is used in conjunction with the
snmp-server host command. Use the snmp-server host command to
specify which host or hosts receive SNMP notifications. In order to send
notifications, you must configure at least one snmp-server host command.
• The authentication, link-up, and link-down traps are legacy notifications, and
therefore when used for SNMP Version 3 hosts, they must be enabled in
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SNMP Commands
4
conjunction with the corresponding entries in the Notify View assigned by the
snmp-server group command (page 4-126).
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server enable traps link-up-down
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server host (4-120)
snmp-server engine-id
This command configures an identification string for the SNMPv3 engine. Use the
no form to restore the default.
Syntax
snmp-server engine-id {local | remote {ip-address}} engineid-string
no snmp-server engine-id {local | remote {ip-address}}
•
•
•
•
local - Specifies the SNMP engine on this switch.
remote - Specifies an SNMP engine on a remote device.
ip-address - The Internet address of the remote device.
engineid-string - String identifying the engine ID.
(Range: 10-64 hexadecimal characters)
Default Setting
A unique engine ID is automatically generated by the switch based on its MAC
address.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• An SNMP engine is an independent SNMP agent that resides either on this
switch or on a remote device. This engine protects against message replay,
delay, and redirection. The engine ID is also used in combination with user
passwords to generate the security keys for authenticating and encrypting
SNMPv3 packets.
• A remote engine ID is required when using SNMPv3 informs. (See
snmp-server host on page 4-120.) The remote engine ID is used to compute
the security digest for authenticating and encrypting packets sent to a user on
the remote host. SNMP passwords are localized using the engine ID of the
authoritative agent. For informs, the authoritative SNMP agent is the remote
agent. You therefore need to configure the remote agent’s SNMP engine ID
before you can send proxy requests or informs to it.
• Trailing zeroes need not be entered to uniquely specify a engine ID. In other
words, the value “0123456789” is equivalent to “0123456789” followed by 22
zeroes.
4-123
4
Command Line Interface
• A local engine ID is automatically generated that is unique to the switch. This
is referred to as the default engine ID. If the local engine ID is deleted or
changed, all SNMP users will be cleared. You will need to reconfigure all
existing users (page 4-128).
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server engine-id local 12345
Console(config)#snmp-server engineID remote 54321 192.168.1.19
Console(config)#
Related Commands
snmp-server host (4-120)
show snmp engine-id
This command shows the SNMP engine ID.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example shows the default engine ID.
Console#show snmp engine-id
Local SNMP engineID: 8000002a8000000000e8666672
Local SNMP engineBoots: 1
Remote SNMP engineID
80000000030004e2b316c54321
Console#
IP address
192.168.1.19
Table 4-41 show snmp engine-id - display description
Field
Description
Local SNMP engineID
String identifying the engine ID.
Local SNMP engineBoots The number of times that the engine has (re-)initialized since the snmp EngineID
was last configured.
Remote SNMP engineID
String identifying an engine ID on a remote device.
IP address
IP address of the device containing the corresponding remote SNMP engine.
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4
snmp-server view
This command adds an SNMP view which controls user access to the MIB. Use the
no form to remove an SNMP view.
Syntax
snmp-server view view-name oid-tree {included | excluded}
no snmp-server view view-name
• view-name - Name of an SNMP view. (Range: 1-64 characters)
• oid-tree - Object identifier of a branch within the MIB tree. Wild cards can
be used to mask a specific portion of the OID string. (Refer to the
examples.)
• included - Defines an included view.
• excluded - Defines an excluded view.
Default Setting
defaultview (includes access to the entire MIB tree)
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Views are used in the snmp-server group command to restrict user access
to specified portions of the MIB tree.
• The predefined view “defaultview” includes access to the entire MIB tree.
Examples
This view includes MIB-2.
Console(config)#snmp-server view mib-2 1.3.6.1.2.1 included
Console(config)#
This view includes the MIB-2 interfaces table, ifDescr. The wild card is used to select
all the index values in this table.
Console(config)#snmp-server view ifEntry.2 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.*.2 included
Console(config)#
This view includes the MIB-2 interfaces table, and the mask selects all index entries.
Console(config)#snmp-server view ifEntry.a 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.* included
Console(config)#
4-125
4
Command Line Interface
show snmp view
This command shows information on the SNMP views.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show snmp view
View Name: mib-2
Subtree OID: 1.2.2.3.6.2.1
View Type: included
Storage Type: permanent
Row Status: active
View Name: defaultview
Subtree OID: 1
View Type: included
Storage Type: volatile
Row Status: active
Console#
Table 4-42 show snmp view - display description
Field
Description
View Name
Name of an SNMP view.
Subtree OID
A branch in the MIB tree.
View Type
Indicates if the view is included or excluded.
Storage Type
The storage type for this entry.
Row Status
The row status of this entry.
snmp-server group
This command adds an SNMP group, mapping SNMP users to SNMP views. Use
the no form to remove an SNMP group.
Syntax
snmp-server group groupname {v1 | v2c | v3 {auth | noauth | priv}}
[read readview] [write writeview] [notify notifyview]
no snmp-server group groupname
• groupname - Name of an SNMP group. (Range: 1-32 characters)
• v1 | v2c | v3 - Use SNMP version 1, 2c or 3.
• auth | noauth | priv - This group uses SNMPv3 with authentication, no
authentication, or with authentication and privacy. See “Simple Network
Management Protocol” on page 3-38 for further information about these
authentication and encryption options.
• readview - Defines the view for read access. (1-64 characters)
• writeview - Defines the view for write access. (1-64 characters)
• notifyview - Defines the view for notifications. (1-64 characters)
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SNMP Commands
4
Default Setting
•
•
•
•
Default groups: public23 (read only), private24 (read/write)
readview - Every object belonging to the Internet OID space (1.3.6.1).
writeview - Nothing is defined.
notifyview - Nothing is defined.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• A group sets the access policy for the assigned users.
• When authentication is selected, the MD5 or SHA algorithm is used as
specified in the snmp-server user command.
• When privacy is selected, the DES 56-bit algorithm is used for data encryption.
• For additional information on the notification messages supported by this
switch, see “Supported Notification Messages” on page 3-50. Also, note that
the authentication, link-up and link-down messages are legacy traps and must
therefore be enabled in conjunction with the snmp-server enable traps
command (page 4-122).
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server group r&d v3 auth write daily
Console(config)#
show snmp group
Four default groups are provided – SNMPv1 read-only access and read/write
access, and SNMPv2c read-only access and read/write access.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show snmp group
Group Name: r&d
Security Model: v3
Read View: defaultview
Write View: daily
Notify View: none
Storage Type: permanent
Row Status: active
Group Name: public
Security Model: v1
Read View: defaultview
Write View: none
Notify View: none
Storage Type: volatile
Row Status: active
23. No view is defined.
24. Maps to the defaultview.
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Command Line Interface
Group Name: public
Security Model: v2c
Read View: defaultview
Write View: none
Notify View: none
Storage Type: volatile
Row Status: active
Group Name: private
Security Model: v1
Read View: defaultview
Write View: defaultview
Notify View: none
Storage Type: volatile
Row Status: active
Group Name: private
Security Model: v2c
Read View: defaultview
Write View: defaultview
Notify View: none
Storage Type: volatile
Row Status: active
Console#
Table 4-43 show snmp group - display description
Field
Description
groupname
Name of an SNMP group.
security model
The SNMP version.
readview
The associated read view.
writeview
The associated write view.
notifyview
The associated notify view.
storage-type
The storage type for this entry.
Row Status
The row status of this entry.
snmp-server user
This command adds a user to an SNMP group, restricting the user to a specific
SNMP Read, Write, or Notify View. Use the no form to remove a user from an SNMP
group.
Syntax
snmp-server user username groupname [remote ip-address] {v1 | v2c | v3
[encrypted] [auth {md5 | sha} auth-password [priv des56 priv-password]]
no snmp-server user username {v1 | v2c | v3 | remote}
• username - Name of user connecting to the SNMP agent.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
• groupname - Name of an SNMP group to which the user is assigned.
(Range: 1-32 characters)
4-128
4
SNMP Commands
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
remote - Specifies an SNMP engine on a remote device.
ip-address - The Internet address of the remote device.
v1 | v2c | v3 - Use SNMP version 1, 2c or 3.
encrypted - Accepts the password as encrypted input.
auth - Uses SNMPv3 with authentication.
md5 | sha - Uses MD5 or SHA authentication.
auth-password - Authentication password. Enter as plain text if the
encrypted option is not used. Otherwise, enter an encrypted password.
(A minimum of eight characters is required.)
• priv des56 - Uses SNMPv3 with privacy with DES56 encryption.
• priv-password - Privacy password. Enter as plain text if the encrypted
option is not used. Otherwise, enter an encrypted password.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The SNMP engine ID is used to compute the authentication/privacy digests
from the password. You should therefore configure the engine ID with the
snmp-server engine-id command before using this configuration command.
• Before you configure a remote user, use the snmp-server engine-id
command (page 4-123) to specify the engine ID for the remote device where
the user resides. Then use the snmp-server user command to specify the
user and the IP address for the remote device where the user resides. The
remote agent’s SNMP engine ID is used to compute authentication/privacy
digests from the user’s password. If the remote engine ID is not first configured,
the snmp-server user command specifying a remote user will fail.
• SNMP passwords are localized using the engine ID of the authoritative agent.
For informs, the authoritative SNMP agent is the remote agent. You therefore
need to configure the remote agent’s SNMP engine ID before you can send
proxy requests or informs to it.
Example
Console(config)#snmp-server user steve group r&d v3 auth md5 greenpeace
priv des56 einstien
Console(config)#snmp-server user mark group r&d remote 192.168.1.19 v3
auth md5 greenpeace priv des56 einstien
Console(config)#
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Command Line Interface
show snmp user
This command shows information on SNMP users.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show snmp user
EngineId: 800000ca030030f1df9ca00000
User Name: steve
Authentication Protocol: md5
Privacy Protocol: des56
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
SNMP remote user
EngineId: 80000000030004e2b316c54321
User Name: mark
Authentication Protocol: mdt
Privacy Protocol: des56
Storage Type: nonvolatile
Row Status: active
Console#
Table 4-44 show snmp user - display description
Field
Description
EngineId
String identifying the engine ID.
User Name
Name of user connecting to the SNMP agent.
Authentication Protocol
The authentication protocol used with SNMPv3.
Privacy Protocol
The privacy protocol used with SNMPv3.
Storage Type
The storage type for this entry.
Row Status
The row status of this entry.
SNMP remote user
A user associated with an SNMP engine on a remote device.
4-130
Interface Commands
4
Interface Commands
These commands are used to display or set communication parameters for an
Ethernet port, aggregated link, or VLAN.
Table 4-45 Interface Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
interface
Configures an interface type and enters interface configuration
mode
GC
4-131
description
Adds a description to an interface configuration
IC
4-132
speed-duplex
Configures the speed and duplex operation of a given interface IC
when autonegotiation is disabled
4-132
negotiation
Enables autonegotiation of a given interface
IC
4-133
capabilities
Advertises the capabilities of a given interface for use in
autonegotiation
IC
4-134
flowcontrol
Enables flow control on a given interface
IC
4-135
shutdown
Disables an interface
IC
4-136
switchport broadcast
packet-rate
Configures the broadcast storm control threshold
IC
4-137
clear counters
Clears statistics on an interface
PE
4-137
show interfaces status Displays status for the specified interface
NE, PE
4-138
show interfaces
counters
Displays statistics for the specified interfaces
NE, PE
4-139
show interfaces
switchport
Displays the administrative and operational status of an
interface
NE, PE
4-140
interface
This command configures an interface type and enter interface configuration mode.
Use the no form to remove a trunk.
Syntax
interface interface
no interface port-channel channel-id
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
• vlan vlan-id (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
None
4-131
4
Command Line Interface
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
To specify port 24, enter the following command:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/24
Console(config-if)#
description
This command adds a description to an interface. Use the no form to remove the
description.
Syntax
description string
no description
string - Comment or a description to help you remember what is attached
to this interface. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
The following example adds a description to port 24.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/24
Console(config-if)#description RD-SW#3
Console(config-if)#
speed-duplex
This command configures the speed and duplex mode of a given interface when
autonegotiation is disabled. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
speed-duplex {1000full | 100full | 100half | 10full | 10half}
no speed-duplex
•
•
•
•
•
4-132
1000full - Forces 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation
100full - Forces 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
100half - Forces 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
10full - Forces 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
10half - Forces 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
4
Interface Commands
Default Setting
• Auto-negotiation is enabled by default.
• When auto-negotiation is disabled, the default speed-duplex setting is 100half
for 100BASE-TX ports and 1000full for Gigabit Ethernet ports.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• To force operation to the speed and duplex mode specified in a speed-duplex
command, use the no negotiation command to disable auto-negotiation on
the selected interface.
• When using the negotiation command to enable auto-negotiation, the
optimal settings will be determined by the capabilities command. To set the
speed/duplex mode under auto-negotiation, the required mode must be
specified in the capabilities list for an interface.
Example
The following example configures port 5 to 100 Mbps, half-duplex operation.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#speed-duplex 100half
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation (4-133)
capabilities (4-134)
negotiation
This command enables autonegotiation for a given interface. Use the no form to
disable autonegotiation.
Syntax
[no] negotiation
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• When auto-negotiation is enabled the switch will negotiate the best settings
for a link based on the capabilities command. When auto-negotiation is
disabled, you must manually specify the link attributes with the speed-duplex
and flowcontrol commands.
4-133
4
Command Line Interface
• If autonegotiation is disabled, auto-MDI/MDI-X pin signal configuration will
also be disabled for the RJ-45 ports.
Example
The following example configures port 11 to use autonegotiation.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
capabilities (4-134)
speed-duplex (4-132)
capabilities
This command advertises the port capabilities of a given interface during
autonegotiation. Use the no form with parameters to remove an advertised
capability, or the no form without parameters to restore the default values.
Syntax
[no] capabilities {1000full | 100full | 100half | 10full | 10half | flowcontrol |
symmetric}
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1000full - Supports 1000 Mbps full-duplex operation
100full - Supports 100 Mbps full-duplex operation
100half - Supports 100 Mbps half-duplex operation
10full - Supports 10 Mbps full-duplex operation
10half - Supports 10 Mbps half-duplex operation
flowcontrol - Supports flow control
symmetric (Gigabit only) - When specified, the port transmits and receives
pause frames; when not specified, the port will auto-negotiate to determine
the sender and receiver for asymmetric pause frames. (The current switch
ASIC only supports symmetric pause frames.)
Default Setting
• 100BASE-TX: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full
• 1000BASE-T: 10half, 10full, 100half, 100full, 1000full
• SFP: 1000full
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
When auto-negotiation is enabled with the negotiation command, the switch
will negotiate the best settings for a link based on the capabilites command.
When auto-negotiation is disabled, you must manually specify the link
attributes with the speed-duplex and flowcontrol commands.
4-134
Interface Commands
4
Example
The following example configures Ethernet port 5 capabilities to 100half, 100full and
flow control.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100half
Console(config-if)#capabilities 100full
Console(config-if)#capabilities flowcontrol
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation (4-133)
speed-duplex (4-132)
flowcontrol (4-135)
flowcontrol
This command enables flow control. Use the no form to disable flow control.
Syntax
[no] flowcontrol
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Flow control can eliminate frame loss by “blocking” traffic from end stations or
segments connected directly to the switch when its buffers fill. When enabled,
back pressure is used for half-duplex operation and IEEE 802.3x for
full-duplex operation.
• To force flow control on or off (with the flowcontrol or no flowcontrol
command), use the no negotiation command to disable auto-negotiation on
the selected interface.
• When using the negotiation command to enable auto-negotiation, the
optimal settings will be determined by the capabilities command. To enable
flow control under auto-negotiation, “flowcontrol” must be included in the
capabilities list for any port
• Avoid using flow control on a port connected to a hub unless it is actually
required to solve a problem. Otherwise back pressure jamming signals may
degrade overall performance for the segment attached to the hub.
4-135
4
Command Line Interface
Example
The following example enables flow control on port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#flowcontrol
Console(config-if)#no negotiation
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
negotiation (4-133)
capabilities (flowcontrol, symmetric) (4-134)
shutdown
This command disables an interface. To restart a disabled interface, use the no
form.
Syntax
[no] shutdown
Default Setting
All interfaces are enabled.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
This command allows you to disable a port due to abnormal behavior
(e.g., excessive collisions), and then reenable it after the problem has been
resolved. You may also want to disable a port for security reasons.
Example
The following example disables port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#shutdown
Console(config-if)#
4-136
4
Interface Commands
switchport broadcast packet-rate
This command configures broadcast storm control. Use the no form to disable
broadcast storm control.
Syntax
switchport broadcast octet-rate rate
no switchport broadcast
rate - Threshold level as a rate; i.e., octets per second.
(Range: 64-95232000)
Default Setting
Enabled for all ports
Packet-rate limit: 32000 octets per second
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• When broadcast traffic exceeds the specified threshold, packets above that
threshold are dropped.
• This command can enable or disable broadcast storm control for the selected
interface. However, the specified threshold value applies to all ports on the
switch.
Example
The following shows how to configure broadcast storm control at 600 packets per
second:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#switchport broadcast octet-rate 600
Console(config-if)#
clear counters
This command clears statistics on an interface.
Syntax
clear counters interface
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
Default Setting
None
4-137
4
Command Line Interface
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Statistics are only initialized for a power reset. This command sets the base
value for displayed statistics to zero for the current management session.
However, if you log out and back into the management interface, the statistics
displayed will show the absolute value accumulated since the last power reset.
Example
The following example clears statistics on port 5.
Console#clear counters ethernet 1/5
Console#
show interfaces status
This command displays the status for an interface.
Syntax
show interfaces status [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
• vlan vlan-id (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
Shows the status for all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed. For a
description of the items displayed by this command, see “Displaying
Connection Status” on page 3-89.
4-138
4
Interface Commands
Example
Console#show interfaces status ethernet 1/5
Information of Eth 1/5
Basic information:
Port type:
100TX
Mac address:
00-00-AB-CD-00-01
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin:
Up
Speed-duplex:
Auto
Capabilities:
10half, 10full, 100half, 100full,
Broadcast storm:
Enabled
Broadcast storm limit: 32000 octets/second
Flow control:
Disabled
Lacp:
Disabled
Port security:
Disabled
Max MAC count:
0
Port security action:
None
Current status:
Link status:
Up
Port operation status: Up
Operation speed-duplex: 100full
Flow control type:
None
Console#show interfaces status vlan 1
Information of VLAN 1
MAC address:
00-00-AB-CD-00-00
Console#
show interfaces counters
This command displays interface statistics.
Syntax
show interfaces counters [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
Default Setting
Shows the counters for all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed. For a
description of the items displayed by this command, see “Showing Port
Statistics” on page 3-109.
4-139
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show interfaces counters ethernet 1/7
Ethernet 1/7
Iftable stats:
Octets input: 30658, Octets output: 196550
Unicast input: 6, Unicast output: 5
Discard input: 0, Discard output: 0
Error input: 0, Error output: 0
Unknown protos input: 0, QLen output: 0
Extended iftable stats:
Multi-cast input: 0, Multi-cast output: 3064
Broadcast input: 262, Broadcast output: 1
Ether-like stats:
Alignment errors: 0, FCS errors: 0
Single Collision frames: 0, Multiple collision frames: 0
SQE Test errors: 0, Deferred transmissions: 0
Late collisions: 0, Excessive collisions: 0
Internal mac transmit errors: 0, Internal mac receive errors: 0
Frame too longs: 0, Carrier sense errors: 0
Symbol errors: 0
RMON stats:
Drop events: 0, Octets: 227208, Packets: 3338
Broadcast pkts: 263, Multi-cast pkts: 3064
Undersize pkts: 0, Oversize pkts: 0
Fragments: 0, Jabbers: 0
CRC align errors: 0, Collisions: 0
Packet size <= 64 octets: 3150, Packet size 65 to 127 octets: 139
Packet size 128 to 255 octets: 49, Packet size 256 to 511 octets: 0
Packet size 512 to 1023 octets: 0, Packet size 1024 to 1518 octets: 0
Console#
show interfaces switchport
This command displays the administrative and operational status of the specified
interfaces.
Syntax
show interfaces switchport [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
Default Setting
Shows all interfaces.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If no interface is specified, information on all interfaces is displayed.
4-140
4
Interface Commands
Example
This example shows the configuration setting for port 24.
Console#show interfaces switchport ethernet 1/24
Broadcast threshold:
Enabled, 600 octets/second
LACP status:
Enabled
Ingress rate limit: disable, Level: 30
Egress rate limit: disable, Level: 30
VLAN membership mode:
Hybrid
Ingress rule:
Disabled
Acceptable frame type:
All frames
Native VLAN:
1
Priority for untagged traffic: 0
Gvrp status:
Disabled
Allowed Vlan:
1(u),
Forbidden Vlan:
Private-VLAN mode:
NONE
Private-VLAN host-association: NONE
Private-VLAN mapping:
NONE
Console#
Table 4-46 Interfaces Switchport Statistics
Field
Description
Broadcast threshold
Shows if broadcast storm suppression is enabled or disabled; if enabled it also
shows the threshold level (page 4-137).
Lacp status
Shows if Link Aggregation Control Protocol has been enabled or disabled
(page 4-148).
Ingress/Egress rate limit
Shows if rate limiting is enabled, and the current rate limit. (page 4-144).
VLAN membership mode Indicates membership mode as Trunk or Hybrid (page 4-182).
Ingress rule
Shows if ingress filtering is enabled or disabled (page 4-183).
Acceptable frame type
Shows if acceptable VLAN frames include all types or tagged frames only
(page 4-182).
Native VLAN
Indicates the default Port VLAN ID (page 4-184).
Priority for untagged traffic Indicates the default priority for untagged frames (page 4-198).
Gvrp status
Shows if GARP VLAN Registration Protocol is enabled or disabled (page 4-195).
Allowed Vlan
Shows the VLANs this interface has joined, where “(u)” indicates untagged and
“(t)” indicates tagged (page 4-185).
Forbidden Vlan
Shows the VLANs this interface can not dynamically join via GVRP (page 4-186).
Private VLAN mode
Shows the private VLAN mode as host, promiscuous, or none (4-191).
Private VLAN
host-association
Shows the secondary (or community) VLAN with which this port is associated
(4-191).
Private VLAN mapping
Shows the primary VLAN mapping for a promiscuous port (4-193).
4-141
4
Command Line Interface
Mirror Port Commands
This section describes how to mirror traffic from a source port to a target port.
Table 4-47 Mirror Port Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
port monitor
Configures a mirror session
IC
4-142
show port monitor
Shows the configuration for a mirror port
PE
4-143
port monitor
This command configures a mirror session. Use the no form to clear a mirror
session.
Syntax
port monitor interface [rx | tx]
no port monitor interface
• interface - ethernet unit/port (source port)
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• rx - Mirror received packets.
• tx - Mirror transmitted packets.
Default Setting
No mirror session is defined.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, destination port)
Command Usage
• You can mirror traffic from any source port to a destination port for real-time
analysis. You can then attach a logic analyzer or RMON probe to the
destination port and study the traffic crossing the source port in a completely
unobtrusive manner.
• The destination port is set by specifying an Ethernet interface.
• The mirror port and monitor port speeds should match, otherwise traffic may
be dropped from the monitor port.
• You can create multiple mirror sessions, but all sessions must share the same
destination port. However, you should avoid sending too much traffic to the
destination port from multiple source ports.
4-142
Mirror Port Commands
4
Example
The following example configures the switch to mirror received packets from port 6
to 11:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/6 rx
Console(config-if)#
show port monitor
This command displays mirror information.
Syntax
show port monitor [interface]
interface - ethernet unit/port (source port)
• unit - This is unit 1.
• port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
Default Setting
Shows all sessions.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
This command displays the currently configured source port, destination port,
and mirror mode (i.e., RX, TX).
Example
The following shows mirroring configured from port 6 to port 11:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#port monitor ethernet 1/6 rx
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show port monitor
Port Mirroring
------------------------------------Destination port(listen port):Eth1/11
Source port(monitored port) :Eth1/6
Mode
:RX
Console#
4-143
4
Command Line Interface
Rate Limit Commands
This function allows the network manager to control the maximum rate for traffic
transmitted or received on an interface. Rate limiting is configured on interfaces at
the edge of a network to limit traffic into or out of the network. Traffic that falls within
the rate limit is transmitted, while packets that exceed the acceptable amount of
traffic are dropped.
Rate limiting can be applied to individual ports or trunks. When an interface is
configured with this feature, the traffic rate will be monitored by the hardware to
verify conformity. Non-conforming traffic is dropped, conforming traffic is forwarded
without any changes.
Note: The “rate limit granularity” is multiplied by the “rate limit” (page 4-144) to set the
actual rate limit for an interface. Granularity is a global setting that applies to Fast
Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet interfaces.
Table 4-48 Rate Limit Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
rate-limit
Configures the maximum input or output rate for a port
IC
4-144
rate-limit granularity
Sets the Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet granularity
IC
4-145
show rate-limit
Shows the rate limit granularity
PE
4-145
rate-limit
Use this command to define the rate limit level for a specific interface. Use this
command without specifying a rate to restore the default rate limit level. Use the no
form to restore the default status of disabled.
Syntax
rate-limit {input | output} level [rate]
no rate-limit {input | output}
• input – Input rate
• output – Output rate
• rate – Maximum value. (Fast Etherne:Range:1-255;Gigabit Ethernet:Range:1-30)
Default Setting
Fast Ethernet:255 ; Gigabit Ethernet:30
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
Actual rate limit = Rate limit level * Granularity
4-144
4
Rate Limit Commands
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#rate-limit input level 20
Console(config-if)#
rate-limit granularity
Use this command to define the rate limit granularity for the Fast Ethernet ports, and
the Gigabit Ethernet ports. Use the no form of this command to restore the default
setting.
Syntax
rate-limit {fastethernet | gigabitethernet} granularity [granularity]
no rate-limit {fastethernet | gigabitethernet} granularity
• fastethernet – Fast Ethernet granularity
• gigabitethernet – Gigabit Ethernet granularity
• granularity – Sets rate limit granularity for the system. For Fast Ethernet,
choose 512 Kbps, 1 Mbps, or 3.3 Mbps. For Gigabit Ethernet, only one
granularity option is supported, 33.3 Mbps
Default Setting
Fast Ethernet interface – 3.3 Mbps
Gigabit Ethernet interface – 33.3 Mbps
Command Mode
Global Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
Actual rate limit = Rate limit level * Granularity
Example
The following sets Fast Ethernet granularity to 1 Mbps, and Gigabit Ethernet
granularity to 33.3 Mbps.
Console(config)#rate-limit fastethernet granularity 1000
Console(config)#rate-limit gigabitethernet granularity 33300
Console(config)#
show rate-limit
Use this command to display the rate limit granularity.
Default Setting
Fast Ethernet interface – 3.3 Mbps
Gigabit Ethernet interface – 33.3 Mbps
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-145
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• For Fast Ethernet interfaces, the rate limit granularity is 512 Kbps, 1 Mbps, or
3.3 Mbps.
• For Gigabit Ethernet interfaces, the rate limit granularity is 33.3 Mbps.
Example
Console#show rate-limit
Fast ethernet granularity:
1000
Gigabit ethernet granularity:
Console#
33300
Link Aggregation Commands
Ports can be statically grouped into an aggregate link (i.e., trunk) to increase the
bandwidth of a network connection or to ensure fault recovery. Or you can use the
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) to automatically negotiate a trunk link
between this switch and another network device. For static trunks, the switches have
to comply with the Cisco EtherChannel standard. For dynamic trunks, the switches
have to comply with LACP. This switch supports up to four trunks. For example, a
trunk consisting of two 1000 Mbps ports can support an aggregate bandwidth of
4 Gbps when operating at full duplex.
Table 4-49 Link Aggregation Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
Manual Configuration Commands
interface port-channel
Configures a trunk and enters interface
configuration mode for the trunk
GC
4-131
channel-group
Adds a port to a trunk
IC (Ethernet)
4-147
Dynamic Configuration Command
lacp
Configures LACP for the current interface
IC (Ethernet)
4-148
lacp system-priority
Configures a port's LACP system priority
IC (Ethernet)
4-149
lacp admin-key
Configures a port's administration key
IC (Ethernet)
4-150
lacp admin-key
Configures an port channel’s administration key
IC (Port Channel)
4-151
lacp port-priority
Configures a port's LACP port priority
IC (Ethernet)
4-152
Trunk Status Display Command
show interfaces status
port-channel
Shows trunk information
NE, PE
4-138
show lacp
Shows LACP information
PE
4-152
4-146
Link Aggregation Commands
4
Guidelines for Creating Trunks
General Guidelines –
• Finish configuring port trunks before you connect the corresponding network
cables between switches to avoid creating a loop.
• A trunk can have up to eight ports.
• The ports at both ends of a connection must be configured as trunk ports.
• All ports in a trunk must be configured in an identical manner, including
communication mode (i.e., speed, duplex mode and flow control), VLAN
assignments, and CoS settings.
• Any of the Gigabit ports on the front panel can be trunked together, including
ports of different media types.
• All the ports in a trunk have to be treated as a whole when moved from/to,
added or deleted from a VLAN via the specified port-channel.
• STP, VLAN, and IGMP settings can only be made for the entire trunk via the
specified port-channel.
•
•
•
•
•
Dynamically Creating a Port Channel –
Ports assigned to a common port channel must meet the following criteria:
Ports must have the same LACP system priority.
Ports must have the same port admin key (Ethernet Interface).
If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when
a channel group is formed (i.e., it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key (lacp admin key - Ethernet Interface) used
by the interfaces that joined the group.
However, if the port channel admin key is set, then the port admin key must
be set to the same value for a port to be allowed to join a channel group.
If a link goes down, LACP port priority is used to select the backup link.
channel-group
This command adds a port to a trunk. Use the no form to remove a port from a trunk.
Syntax
channel-group channel-id
no channel-group
channel-id - Trunk index (Range: 1-4)
Default Setting
The current port will be added to this trunk.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
4-147
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• When configuring static trunks, the switches must comply with the Cisco
EtherChannel standard.
• Use no channel-group to remove a port group from a trunk.
• Use no interfaces port-channel to remove a trunk from the switch.
Example
The following example creates trunk 1 and then adds port 11:
Console(config)#interface port-channel 1
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#channel-group 1
Console(config-if)#
lacp
This command enables 802.3ad Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) for the
current interface. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] lacp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• The ports on both ends of an LACP trunk must be configured for full duplex,
either by forced mode or auto-negotiation.
• A trunk formed with another switch using LACP will automatically be assigned
the next available port-channel ID.
• If the target switch has also enabled LACP on the connected ports, the trunk
will be activated automatically.
• If more than eight ports attached to the same target switch have LACP
enabled, the additional ports will be placed in standby mode, and will only be
enabled if one of the active links fails.
4-148
Link Aggregation Commands
4
Example
The following shows LACP enabled on ports 11-13. Because LACP has also been
enabled on the ports at the other end of the links, the show interfaces status
port-channel 1 command shows that Trunk 1 has been established.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/11
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/12
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/13
Console(config-if)#lacp
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#exit
Console#show interfaces status port-channel 1
Information of Trunk 1
Basic information:
Port type:
100TX
Mac address:
00-00-e8-00-00-0b
Configuration:
Name:
Port admin:
Up
Speed-duplex:
Auto
Capabilities:
10half, 10full, 100half, 100full
Flow control status:
Disabled
Port security:
Disabled
Max MAC count:
0
Current status:
Created by:
LACP
Link status:
Up
Operation speed-duplex: 100full
Flow control type:
None
Member Ports: Eth1/11, Eth1/12, Eth1/13,
Console#
lacp system-priority
This command configures a port's LACP system priority. Use the no form to restore
the default setting.
Syntax
lacp {actor | partner} system-priority priority
no lacp {actor | partner} system-priority
• actor - The local side an aggregate link.
• partner - The remote side of an aggregate link.
• priority - This priority is used to determine link aggregation group (LAG)
membership, and to identify this device to other switches during LAG
negotiations. (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
32768
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Command Line Interface
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• Port must be configured with the same system priority to join the same LAG.
• System priority is combined with the switch’s MAC address to form the LAG
identifier. This identifier is used to indicate a specific LAG during LACP
negotiations with other systems.
• Once the remote side of a link has been established, LACP operational
settings are already in use on that side. Configuring LACP settings for the
partner only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and
will only take effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the
partner.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor system-priority 3
Console(config-if)#
lacp admin-key (Ethernet Interface)
This command configures a port's LACP administration key. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
lacp {actor | partner} admin-key key
[no] lacp {actor | partner} admin-key
• actor - The local side an aggregate link.
• partner - The remote side of an aggregate link.
• key - The port admin key must be set to the same value for ports that belong
to the same link aggregation group (LAG). (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• Ports are only allowed to join the same LAG if (1) the LACP system priority
matches, (2) the LACP port admin key matches, and (3) the LACP port
channel key matches (if configured).
• If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when
a channel group is formed (i.e., it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key (lacp admin key - Ethernet Interface) used
by the interfaces that joined the group.
4-150
Link Aggregation Commands
4
• Once the remote side of a link has been established, LACP operational
settings are already in use on that side. Configuring LACP settings for the
partner only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and
will only take effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the
partner.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor admin-key 120
Console(config-if)#
lacp admin-key (Port Channel)
This command configures a port channel's LACP administration key string. Use the
no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
lacp {actor | partner} admin-key key
[no] lacp {actor | partner} admin-key
key - The port channel admin key is used to identify a specific link
aggregation group (LAG) during local LACP setup on this switch.
(Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
0
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Ports are only allowed to join the same LAG if (1) the LACP system priority
matches, (2) the LACP port admin key matches, and (3) the LACP port
channel key matches (if configured).
• If the port channel admin key (lacp admin key - Port Channel) is not set when
a channel group is formed (i.e., it has the null value of 0), this key is set to the
same value as the port admin key (lacp admin key - Ethernet Interface) used
by the interfaces that joined the group. Note that when the LAG is no longer
used, the port channel admin key is reset to 0.
Example
Console(config)#interface port-channel 1
Console(config-if)#lacp actor admin-key 3
Console(config-if)#
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Command Line Interface
lacp port-priority
This command configures LACP port priority. Use the no form to restore the default
setting.
Syntax
lacp {actor | partner} port-priority priority
no lacp {actor | partner} port-priority
• actor - The local side an aggregate link.
• partner - The remote side of an aggregate link.
• priority - LACP port priority is used to select a backup link. (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
32768
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet)
Command Usage
• Setting a lower value indicates a higher effective priority.
• If an active port link goes down, the backup port with the highest priority is
selected to replace the downed link. However, if two or more ports have the
same LACP port priority, the port with the lowest physical port number will be
selected as the backup port.
• Once the remote side of a link has been established, LACP operational
settings are already in use on that side. Configuring LACP settings for the
partner only applies to its administrative state, not its operational state, and
will only take effect the next time an aggregate link is established with the
partner.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#lacp actor port-priority 128
show lacp
This command displays LACP information.
Syntax
show lacp [port-channel] {counters | internal | neighbors | sysid}
•
•
•
•
•
4-152
port-channel - Local identifier for a link aggregation group. (Range: 1-4)
counters - Statistics for LACP protocol messages.
internal - Configuration settings and operational state for local side.
neighbors - Configuration settings and operational state for remote side.
sysid - Summary of system priority and MAC address for all channel groups.
4
Link Aggregation Commands
Default Setting
Port Channel: all
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show lacp 1 counters
Channel group : 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Sent : 21
LACPDUs Received : 21
Marker Sent : 0
Marker Received : 0
LACPDUs Unknown Pkts : 0
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts : 0
.
.
.
Table 4-50 show lacp counters - display description
Field
Description
LACPDUs Sent
Number of valid LACPDUs transmitted from this channel group.
LACPDUs Received
Number of valid LACPDUs received on this channel group.
Marker Sent
Number of valid Marker PDUs transmitted from this channel group.
Marker Received
Number of valid Marker PDUs received by this channel group.
LACPDUs Unknown Pkts Number of frames received that either (1) Carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type value, but contain an unknown PDU, or (2) are addressed to the Slow
Protocols group MAC Address, but do not carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet
Type.
LACPDUs Illegal Pkts
Number of frames that carry the Slow Protocols Ethernet Type value, but contain
a badly formed PDU or an illegal value of Protocol Subtype.
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4
Command Line Interface
Console#show lacp 1 internal
Port Channel : 1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Oper Key : 4
Admin Key : 0
Eth 1/1
------------------------------------------------------------------------LACPDUs Internal : 30 sec
LACP System Priority : 32768
LACP Port Priority : 32768
Admin Key : 4
Oper Key : 4
Admin State : defaulted, aggregation, long timeout, LACP-activity
Oper State : distributing, collecting, synchronization, aggregation,
long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
Table 4-51 show lacp internal - display description
Field
Description
Oper Key
Current operational value of the key for the aggregation port.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the key for the aggregation port.
LACPDUs Internal
Number of seconds before invalidating received LACPDU information.
LACP System Priority LACP system priority assigned to this port channel.
LACP Port Priority
LACP port priority assigned to this interface within the channel group.
Admin State,
Oper State
Administrative or operational values of the actor’s state parameters:
• Expired – The actor’s receive machine is in the expired state;
• Defaulted – The actor’s receive machine is using defaulted operational partner
information, administratively configured for the partner.
• Distributing – If false, distribution of outgoing frames on this link is disabled; i.e.,
distribution is currently disabled and is not expected to be enabled in the absence
of administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
• Collecting – Collection of incoming frames on this link is enabled; i.e., collection is
currently enabled and is not expected to be disabled in the absence of
administrative changes or changes in received protocol information.
• Synchronization – The System considers this link to be IN_SYNC; i.e., it has been
allocated to the correct Link Aggregation Group, the group has been associated
with a compatible Aggregator, and the identity of the Link Aggregation Group is
consistent with the System ID and operational Key information transmitted.
• Aggregation – The system considers this link to be aggregatable; i.e., a potential
candidate for aggregation.
• Long timeout – Periodic transmission of LACPDUs uses a slow transmission rate.
• LACP-Activity – Activity control value with regard to this link. (0: Passive; 1: Active)
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Link Aggregation Commands
4
Console#show lacp 1 neighbors
Port channel 1 neighbors
------------------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/1
------------------------------------------------------------------------Partner Admin System ID : 32768, 00-00-00-00-00-00
Partner Oper System ID : 32768, 00-00-00-00-00-01
Partner Admin Port Number : 1
Partner Oper Port Number : 1
Port Admin Priority : 32768
Port Oper Priority : 32768
Admin Key : 0
Oper Key : 4
Admin State : defaulted, distributing, collecting, synchronization,
long timeout,
Oper State : distributing, collecting, synchronization, aggregation,
long timeout, LACP-activity
.
.
.
Table 4-52 show lacp neighbors - display description
Field
Description
Partner Admin System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the user.
Partner Oper System ID
LAG partner’s system ID assigned by the LACP protocol.
Partner Admin
Port Number
Current administrative value of the port number for the protocol Partner.
Partner Oper
Port Number
Operational port number assigned to this aggregation port by the port’s protocol
partner.
Port Admin Priority
Current administrative value of the port priority for the protocol partner.
Port Oper Priority
Priority value assigned to this aggregation port by the partner.
Admin Key
Current administrative value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Oper Key
Current operational value of the Key for the protocol partner.
Admin State
Administrative values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
Oper State
Operational values of the partner’s state parameters. (See preceding table.)
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4
Command Line Interface
Console#show lacp sysid
Port Channel
System Priority
System MAC Address
------------------------------------------------------------------------1
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
2
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
3
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
4
32768
00-30-F1-8F-2C-A7
Console#
Table 4-53 show lacp sysid - display description
Field
Description
Channel group
A link aggregation group configured on this switch.
System Priority*
LACP system priority for this channel group.
System MAC Address*
System MAC address.
* The LACP system priority and system MAC address are concatenated to form the LAG system ID.
Address Table Commands
These commands are used to configure the address table for filtering specified
addresses, displaying current entries, clearing the table, or setting the aging time.
Table 4-54 Address Table Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
mac-address-table static
Maps a static address to a port in a VLAN
GC
4-157
clear mac-address-table
dynamic
Removes any learned entries from the forwarding database PE
4-158
show mac-address-table
Displays entries in the bridge-forwarding database
PE
4-158
mac-address-table
aging-time
Sets the aging time of the address table
GC
4-159
show mac-address-table
aging-time
Shows the aging time for the address table
PE
4-159
4-156
4
Address Table Commands
mac-address-table static
This command maps a static address to a destination port in a VLAN. Use the no
form to remove an address.
Syntax
mac-address-table static mac-address interface interface
vlan vlan-id [action]
no mac-address-table static mac-address vlan vlan-id
• mac-address - MAC address.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
• action - delete-on-reset - Assignment lasts until the switch is reset.
- permanent - Assignment is permanent.
Default Setting
No static addresses are defined. The default mode is permanent.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The static address for a host device can be assigned to a specific port within
a specific VLAN. Use this command to add static addresses to the MAC
Address Table. Static addresses have the following characteristics:
• Static addresses will not be removed from the address table when a given
interface link is down.
• Static addresses are bound to the assigned interface and will not be moved.
When a static address is seen on another interface, the address will be
ignored and will not be written to the address table.
• A static address cannot be learned on another port until the address is
removed with the no form of this command.
Example
Console(config)#mac-address-table static 00-e0-29-94-34-de interface
ethernet 1/1 vlan 1 delete-on-reset
Console(config)#
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4
Command Line Interface
clear mac-address-table dynamic
This command removes any learned entries from the forwarding database and
clears the transmit and receive counts for any static or system configured entries.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear mac-address-table dynamic
Console#
show mac-address-table
This command shows classes of entries in the bridge-forwarding database.
Syntax
show mac-address-table [address mac-address [mask]] [interface interface]
[vlan vlan-id] [sort {address | vlan | interface}]
• mac-address - MAC address.
• mask - Bits to match in the address.
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
• sort - Sort by address, vlan or interface.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• The MAC Address Table contains the MAC addresses associated with each
interface. Note that the Type field may include the following types:
- Learned - Dynamic address entries
- Permanent - Static entry
- Delete-on-reset - Static entry to be deleted when system is reset
• The mask should be hexadecimal numbers (representing an equivalent bit
mask) in the form xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx that is applied to the specified MAC
address. Enter hexadecimal numbers, where an equivalent binary bit “0”
4-158
4
Address Table Commands
means to match a bit and “1” means to ignore a bit. For example, a mask of
00-00-00-00-00-00 means an exact match, and a mask of
FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF means “any.”
• The maximum number of address entries is 8191.
Example
Console#show mac-address-table
Interface Mac Address
Vlan
--------- ----------------- ---Eth 1/1 00-e0-29-94-34-de
1
Trunk 2 00-E0-29-8F-AA-1B
1
Console#
Type
----------------Delete-on-reset
Learned
mac-address-table aging-time
This command sets the aging time for entries in the address table. Use the no form
to restore the default aging time.
Syntax
mac-address-table aging-time seconds
no mac-address-table aging-time
seconds - Aging time. (Range: 10-30000 seconds; 0 to disable aging)
Default Setting
300 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The aging time is used to age out dynamically learned forwarding information.
Example
Console(config)#mac-address-table aging-time 100
Console(config)#
show mac-address-table aging-time
This command shows the aging time for entries in the address table.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show mac-address-table aging-time
Aging time: 100 sec.
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4
Command Line Interface
Spanning Tree Commands
This section includes commands that configure the Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA)
globally for the switch, and commands that configure STA for the selected interface.
Table 4-55 Spanning Tree Commands
Command
Function
Mode
spanning-tree
Enables the spanning tree protocol
GC
4-161
spanning-tree mode
Configures STP, RSTP or MSTP mode
GC
4-161
spanning-tree forward-time
Configures the spanning tree bridge forward time
GC
4-162
spanning-tree hello-time
Configures the spanning tree bridge hello time
GC
4-163
spanning-tree max-age
Configures the spanning tree bridge maximum age
GC
4-163
spanning-tree priority
Configures the spanning tree bridge priority
GC
4-164
spanning-tree
path-cost method
Configures the path cost method for RSTP/MSTP
GC
4-165
spanning-tree
transmission-limit
Configures the transmission limit for RSTP/MSTP
GC
4-166
spanning-tree
mst-configuration
Changes to MSTP configuration mode
GC
4-166
mst vlan
Adds VLANs to a spanning tree instance
MST
4-167
mst priority
Configures the priority of a spanning tree instance
MST
4-168
name
Configures the name for the multiple spanning tree
MST
4-168
revision
Configures the revision number for the multiple spanning
tree
MST
4-169
max-hops
Configures the maximum number of hops allowed in the
region before a BPDU is discarded
MST
4-169
spanning-tree
spanning-disabled
Disables spanning tree for an interface
IC
4-170
spanning-tree cost
Configures the spanning tree path cost of an interface
IC
4-170
spanning-tree port-priority
Configures the spanning tree priority of an interface
IC
4-171
spanning-tree edge-port
Enables fast forwarding for edge ports
IC
4-172
spanning-tree portfast
Sets an interface to fast forwarding
IC
4-173
spanning-tree link-type
Configures the link type for RSTP/MSTP
IC
4-173
spanning-tree mst cost
Configures the path cost of an instance in the MST
IC
4-174
spanning-tree mst
port-priority
Configures the priority of an instance in the MST
IC
4-175
spanning-tree
protocol-migration
Re-checks the appropriate BPDU format
PE
4-176
show spanning-tree
Shows spanning tree configuration for the common
PE
spanning tree (i.e., overall bridge), a selected interface, or
an instance within the multiple spanning tree
4-176
show spanning-tree mst
configuration
Shows the multiple spanning tree configuration
4-178
4-160
PE
Page
4
Spanning Tree Commands
spanning-tree
This command enables the Spanning Tree Algorithm globally for the switch. Use the
no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree
Default Setting
Spanning tree is enabled.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA) can be used to detect and disable
network loops, and to provide backup links between switches, bridges or
routers. This allows the switch to interact with other bridging devices (that is,
an STA-compliant switch, bridge or router) in your network to ensure that only
one route exists between any two stations on the network, and provide backup
links which automatically take over when a primary link goes down.
Example
This example shows how to enable the Spanning Tree Algorithm for the switch:
Console(config)#spanning-tree
Console(config)#
spanning-tree mode
This command selects the spanning tree mode for this switch. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree mode {stp | rstp | mstp}
no spanning-tree mode
• stp - Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1D)
• rstp - Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)
• mstp - Multiple Spanning Tree (IEEE 802.1s)
Default Setting
rstp
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Spanning Tree Protocol
Uses RSTP for the internal state machine, but sends only 802.1D BPDUs.
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4
Command Line Interface
- This creates one spanning tree instance for the entire network. If multiple
VLANs are implemented on a network, the path between specific VLAN
members may be inadvertently disabled to prevent network loops, thus
isolating group members. When operating multiple VLANs, we recommend
selecting the MSTP option.
• Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RSTP supports connections to either STP or RSTP nodes by monitoring
the incoming protocol messages and dynamically adjusting the type of
protocol messages the RSTP node transmits, as described below:
- STP Mode – If the switch receives an 802.1D BPDU after a port’s migration
delay timer expires, the switch assumes it is connected to an 802.1D bridge
and starts using only 802.1D BPDUs.
- RSTP Mode – If RSTP is using 802.1D BPDUs on a port and receives an
RSTP BPDU after the migration delay expires, RSTP restarts the migration
delay timer and begins using RSTP BPDUs on that port.
• Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
- To allow multiple spanning trees to operate over the network, you must
configure a related set of bridges with the same MSTP configuration,
allowing them to participate in a specific set of spanning tree instances.
- A spanning tree instance can exist only on bridges that have compatible
VLAN instance assignments.
- Be careful when switching between spanning tree modes. Changing modes
stops all spanning-tree instances for the previous mode and restarts the
system in the new mode, temporarily disrupting user traffic.
Example
The following example configures the switch to use Rapid Spanning Tree:
Console(config)#spanning-tree mode rstp
Console(config)#
spanning-tree forward-time
This command configures the spanning tree bridge forward time globally for this
switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree forward-time seconds
no spanning-tree forward-time
seconds - Time in seconds. (Range: 4 - 30 seconds)
The minimum value is the higher of 4 or [(max-age / 2) + 1].
Default Setting
15 seconds
Command Mode
4-162
4
Spanning Tree Commands
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the maximum time (in seconds) the root device will wait
before changing states (i.e., discarding to learning to forwarding). This delay is
required because every device must receive information about topology
changes before it starts to forward frames. In addition, each port needs time to
listen for conflicting information that would make it return to the discarding
state; otherwise, temporary data loops might result.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree forward-time 20
Console(config)#
spanning-tree hello-time
This command configures the spanning tree bridge hello time globally for this switch.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree hello-time time
no spanning-tree hello-time
time - Time in seconds. (Range: 1-10 seconds).
The maximum value is the lower of 10 or [(max-age / 2) -1].
Default Setting
2 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the time interval (in seconds) at which the root device
transmits a configuration message.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree hello-time 5
Console(config)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree forward-time (4-162)
spanning-tree max-age (4-163)
4-163
4
Command Line Interface
spanning-tree max-age
This command configures the spanning tree bridge maximum age globally for this
switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree max-age seconds
no spanning-tree max-age
seconds - Time in seconds. (Range: 6-40 seconds)
The minimum value is the higher of 6 or [2 x (hello-time + 1)].
The maximum value is the lower of 40 or [2 x (forward-time - 1)].
Default Setting
20 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command sets the maximum time (in seconds) a device can wait without
receiving a configuration message before attempting to reconfigure. All device
ports (except for designated ports) should receive configuration messages at
regular intervals. Any port that ages out STA information (provided in the last
configuration message) becomes the designated port for the attached LAN. If
it is a root port, a new root port is selected from among the device ports
attached to the network.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree max-age 40
Console(config)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree forward-time (4-162)
spanning-tree hello-time (4-163)
spanning-tree priority
This command configures the spanning tree priority globally for this switch. Use the
no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree priority priority
no spanning-tree priority
priority - Priority of the bridge. (Range – 0-61440, in steps of 4096;
Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384, 20480, 24576, 28672, 32768,
36864, 40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344, 61440)
Default Setting
32768
4-164
Spanning Tree Commands
4
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Bridge priority is used in selecting the root device, root port, and designated
port. The device with the highest priority (i.e., lower numeric value) becomes
the STA root device. However, if all devices have the same priority, the device
with the lowest MAC address will then become the root device.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree priority 40000
Console(config)#
spanning-tree pathcost method
This command configures the path cost method used for Rapid Spanning Tree and
Multiple Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree pathcost method {long | short}
no spanning-tree pathcost method
• long - Specifies 32-bit based values that range from 1-200,000,000.
This method is based on the IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol.
• short - Specifies 16-bit based values that range from 1-65535.
This method is based on the IEEE 802.1 Spanning Tree Protocol.
Default Setting
Long method
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The path cost method is used to determine the best path between devices.
Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports attached to faster media,
and higher values assigned to ports with slower media. Note that path cost
(page 4-170) takes precedence over port priority (page 4-171).
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree pathcost method long
Console(config)#
4-165
4
Command Line Interface
spanning-tree transmission-limit
This command configures the minimum interval between the transmission of
consecutive RSTP/MSTP BPDUs. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree transmission-limit count
no spanning-tree transmission-limit
count - The transmission limit in seconds. (Range: 1-10)
Default Setting
3
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
This command limits the maximum transmission rate for BPDUs.
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree transmission-limit 4
Console(config)#
spanning-tree mst-configuration
This command changes to Multiple Spanning Tree (MST) configuration mode.
Default Setting
• No VLANs are mapped to any MST instance.
• The region name is set the switch’s MAC address.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#spanning-tree mst-configuration
Console(config-mstp)#
Related Commands
mst vlan (4-167)
mst priority (4-168)
name (4-168)
revision (4-169)
max-hops (4-169)
4-166
4
Spanning Tree Commands
mst vlan
This command adds VLANs to a spanning tree instance. Use the no form to remove
the specified VLANs. Using the no form without any VLAN parameters to remove all
VLANs.
Syntax
[no] mst instance_id vlan vlan-range
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-4094)
• vlan-range - Range of VLANs. (Range: 1-4093)
Default Setting
none
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
• Use this command to group VLANs into spanning tree instances. MSTP
generates a unique spanning tree for each instance. This provides multiple
pathways across the network, thereby balancing the traffic load, preventing
wide-scale disruption when a bridge node in a single instance fails, and
allowing for faster convergence of a new topology for the failed instance.
• By default all VLANs are assigned to the Internal Spanning Tree (MSTI 0) that
connects all bridges and LANs within the MST region. This switch supports up
to 33 instances. You should try to group VLANs which cover the same general
area of your network. However, remember that you must configure all bridges
within the same MSTI Region (page 4-168) with the same set of instances,
and the same instance (on each bridge) with the same set of VLANs. Also,
note that RSTP treats each MSTI region as a single node, connecting all
regions to the Common Spanning Tree.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#mst 1 vlan 2-5
Console(config-mstp)#
4-167
4
Command Line Interface
mst priority
This command configures the priority of a spanning tree instance. Use the no form
to restore the default.
Syntax
mst instance_id priority priority
no mst instance_id priority
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-4094)
• priority - Priority of the a spanning tree instance.
(Range – 0-61440, in steps of 4096; Options: 0, 4096, 8192, 12288, 16384,
20480, 24576, 28672, 32768, 36864, 40960, 45056, 49152, 53248, 57344,
61440)
Default Setting
32768
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
• MST priority is used in selecting the root bridge and alternate bridge of the
specified instance. The device with the highest priority (i.e., lowest numerical
value) becomes the MSTI root device. However, if all devices have the same
priority, the device with the lowest MAC address will then become the root
device.
• You can set this switch to act as the MSTI root device by specifying a priority
of 0, or as the MSTI alternate device by specifying a priority of 16384.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#mst 1 priority 16
Console(config-mstp)#
name
This command configures the name for the multiple spanning tree region in which
this switch is located. Use the no form to clear the name.
Syntax
name name
name - Name of the spanning tree.
Default Setting
Switch’s MAC address
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
4-168
Spanning Tree Commands
4
The MST region name and revision number (page 4-169) are used to
designate a unique MST region. A bridge (i.e., spanning-tree compliant device
such as this switch) can only belong to one MST region. And all bridges in the
same region must be configured with the same MST instances.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#name R&D
Console(config-mstp)#
Related Commands
revision (4-169)
revision
This command configures the revision number for this multiple spanning tree
configuration of this switch. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
revision number
number - Revision number of the spanning tree. (Range: 0-65535)
Default Setting
0
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
The MST region name (page 4-168) and revision number are used to
designate a unique MST region. A bridge (i.e., spanning-tree compliant device
such as this switch) can only belong to one MST region. And all bridges in the
same region must be configured with the same MST instances.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#revision 1
Console(config-mstp)#
Related Commands
name (4-168)
max-hops
This command configures the maximum number of hops in the region before a
BPDU is discarded. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
max-hops hop-number
hop-number - Maximum hop number for multiple spanning tree.
(Range: 1-40)
4-169
4
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
20
Command Mode
MST Configuration
Command Usage
An MSTI region is treated as a single node by the STP and RSTP protocols.
Therefore, the message age for BPDUs inside an MSTI region is never
changed. However, each spanning tree instance within a region, and the
internal spanning tree (IST) that connects these instances use a hop count to
specify the maximum number of bridges that will propagate a BPDU. Each
bridge decrements the hop count by one before passing on the BPDU. When
the hop count reaches zero, the message is dropped.
Example
Console(config-mstp)#max-hops 30
Console(config-mstp)#
spanning-tree spanning-disabled
This command disables the spanning tree algorithm for the specified interface. Use
the no form to reenable the spanning tree algorithm for the specified interface.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree spanning-disabled
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
This example disables the spanning tree algorithm for port 5.
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree spanning-disabled
Console(config-if)#
spanning-tree cost
This command configures the spanning tree path cost for the specified interface.
Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree cost cost
no spanning-tree cost
cost - The path cost for the port. (Range: 0 for auto-configuration, 1-65535
for short path cost method, 1-200,000,000 for long path cost method)
4-170
4
Spanning Tree Commands
The recommended range is:
•Ethernet: 200,000-20,000,000
•Fast Ethernet: 20,000-2,000,000
•Gigabit Ethernet: 2,000-200,000
Default Setting
By default, the system automatically detects the speed and duplex mode used
on each port, and configures the path cost according to the values shown
below. Path cost “0” is used to indicate auto-configuration mode. When the
short path cost method is selected and the default path cost recommended by
the IEEE 8021w standard exceeds 65,535, the default is set to 65,535.
• Ethernet – half duplex: 2,000,000; full duplex: 1,000,000; trunk: 500,000
• Fast Ethernet – half duplex: 200,000; full duplex: 100,000; trunk: 50,000
• Gigabit Ethernet – full duplex: 10,000; trunk: 5,000
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command is used by the Spanning Tree Algorithm to determine the best
path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned to ports
attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to ports with slower
media.
• Path cost takes precedence over port priority.
• When the spanning-tree pathcost method (page 4-165) is set to short, the
maximum value for path cost is 65,535.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree cost 50
Console(config-if)#
spanning-tree port-priority
This command configures the priority for the specified interface. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree port-priority priority
no spanning-tree port-priority
priority - The priority for a port. (Range: 0-240, in steps of 16)
Default Setting
128
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
4-171
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• This command defines the priority for the use of a port in the Spanning Tree
Algorithm. If the path cost for all ports on a switch are the same, the port with
the highest priority (that is, lowest value) will be configured as an active link in
the spanning tree.
• Where more than one port is assigned the highest priority, the port with lowest
numeric identifier will be enabled.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree port-priority 0
Related Commands
spanning-tree cost (4-170)
spanning-tree edge-port
This command specifies an interface as an edge port. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree edge-port
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• You can enable this option if an interface is attached to a LAN segment that
is at the end of a bridged LAN or to an end node. Since end nodes cannot
cause forwarding loops, they can pass directly through to the spanning tree
forwarding state. Specifying Edge Ports provides quicker convergence for
devices such as workstations or servers, retains the current forwarding
database to reduce the amount of frame flooding required to rebuild address
tables during reconfiguration events, does not cause the spanning tree to
initiate reconfiguration when the interface changes state, and also overcomes
other STA-related timeout problems. However, remember that Edge Port
should only be enabled for ports connected to an end-node device.
• This command has the same effect as the spanning-tree portfast.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree edge-port
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree portfast (4-173)
4-172
Spanning Tree Commands
4
spanning-tree portfast
This command sets an interface to fast forwarding. Use the no form to disable fast
forwarding.
Syntax
[no] spanning-tree portfast
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command is used to enable/disable the fast spanning-tree mode for the
selected port. In this mode, ports skip the Discarding and Learning states, and
proceed straight to Forwarding.
• Since end-nodes cannot cause forwarding loops, they can be passed through
the spanning tree state changes more quickly than allowed by standard
convergence time. Fast forwarding can achieve quicker convergence for
end-node workstations and servers, and also overcome other STA related
timeout problems. (Remember that fast forwarding should only be enabled for
ports connected to a LAN segment that is at the end of a bridged LAN or for
an end-node device.)
• This command is the same as spanning-tree edge-port, and is only included
for backward compatibility with earlier products. Note that this command may
be removed for future software versions.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#bridge-group 1 portfast
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree edge-port (4-172)
spanning-tree link-type
This command configures the link type for Rapid Spanning Tree and Multiple
Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree link-type {auto | point-to-point | shared}
no spanning-tree link-type
• auto - Automatically derived from the duplex mode setting.
• point-to-point - Point-to-point link.
• shared - Shared medium.
4-173
4
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
auto
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Specify a point-to-point link if the interface can only be connected to exactly
one other bridge, or a shared link if it can be connected to two or more bridges.
• When automatic detection is selected, the switch derives the link type from the
duplex mode. A full-duplex interface is considered a point-to-point link, while
a half-duplex interface is assumed to be on a shared link.
• RSTP only works on point-to-point links between two bridges. If you designate
a port as a shared link, RSTP is forbidden. Since MSTP is an extension of
RSTP, this same restriction applies.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree link-type point-to-point
spanning-tree mst cost
This command configures the path cost on a spanning instance in the Multiple
Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree mst instance_id cost cost
no spanning-tree mst instance_id cost
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree.
(Range: 0-4094, no leading zeroes)
• cost - Path cost for an interface. (Range: 1-200,000,000)
The recommended range is • Ethernet: 200,000-20,000,000
• Fast Ethernet: 20,000-2,000,000
• Gigabit Ethernet: 2,000-200,000
Default Setting
By default, the system automatically detects the speed and duplex mode used
on each port, and configures the path cost according to the values shown
below. Path cost “0” is used to indicate auto-configuration mode. When the
short path cost method is selected and the default path cost recommended by
the IEEE 8021w standard exceeds 65,535, the default is set to 65,535.
• Ethernet – half duplex: 2,000,000; full duplex: 1,000,000; trunk: 500,000
• Fast Ethernet – half duplex: 200,000; full duplex: 100,000; trunk: 50,000
• Gigabit Ethernet – full duplex: 10,000; trunk: 5,000
4-174
Spanning Tree Commands
4
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Each spanning-tree instance is associated with a unique set of VLAN IDs.
• This command is used by the multiple spanning-tree algorithm to determine
the best path between devices. Therefore, lower values should be assigned
to interfaces attached to faster media, and higher values assigned to
interfaces with slower media.
• Use the no spanning-tree mst cost command to specify auto-configuration
mode.
• Path cost takes precedence over interface priority.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst 1 cost 50
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree mst port-priority (4-175)
spanning-tree mst port-priority
This command configures the interface priority on a spanning instance in the
Multiple Spanning Tree. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
spanning-tree mst instance_id port-priority priority
no spanning-tree mst instance_id port-priority
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the spanning tree.
(Range: 0-4094, no leading zeroes)
• priority - Priority for an interface. (Range: 0-240 in steps of 16)
Default Setting
128
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command defines the priority for the use of an interface in the multiple
spanning-tree. If the path cost for all interfaces on a switch are the same, the
interface with the highest priority (that is, lowest value) will be configured as
an active link in the spanning tree.
• Where more than one interface is assigned the highest priority, the interface
with lowest numeric identifier will be enabled.
4-175
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#spanning-tree mst 1 port-priority 0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
spanning-tree mst cost (4-174)
spanning-tree protocol-migration
This command re-checks the appropriate BPDU format to send on the selected
interface.
Syntax
spanning-tree protocol-migration interface
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: Always 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-24/48)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
If at any time the switch detects STP BPDUs, including Configuration or
Topology Change Notification BPDUs, it will automatically set the selected
interface to forced STP-compatible mode. However, you can also use the
spanning-tree protocol-migration command at any time to manually
re-check the appropriate BPDU format to send on the selected interfaces (i.e.,
RSTP or STP-compatible).
Example
Console#spanning-tree protocol-migration eth 1/5
Console#
show spanning-tree
This command shows the configuration for the common spanning tree (CST) or for
an instance within the multiple spanning tree (MST).
Syntax
show spanning-tree [interface | mst instance_id]
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: Always 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-24/48)
4-176
Spanning Tree Commands
4
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-32)
• instance_id - Instance identifier of the multiple spanning tree.
(Range: 0-4094, no leading zeroes)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use the show spanning-tree command with no parameters to display the
spanning tree configuration for the switch for the Common Spanning Tree
(CST) and for every interface in the tree.
• Use the show spanning-tree interface command to display the spanning tree
configuration for an interface within the Common Spanning Tree (CST).
• Use the show spanning-tree mst instance_id command to display the
spanning tree configuration for an instance within the Multiple Spanning Tree
(MST).
• For a description of the items displayed under “Spanning-tree information,”
see “Configuring Global Settings” on page 3-123. For a description of the
items displayed for specific interfaces, see “Displaying Interface Settings” on
page 3-127.
Example
Console#show spanning-tree
Spanning-tree information
--------------------------------------------------------------Spanning tree mode:
MSTP
Spanning tree enable/disable:
enable
Instance:
0
Vlans configuration:
1-4093
Priority:
32768
Bridge Hello Time (sec.):
2
Bridge Max Age (sec.):
20
Bridge Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Root Hello Time (sec.):
2
Root Max Age (sec.):
20
Root Forward Delay (sec.):
15
Max hops:
20
Remaining hops:
20
Designated Root:
32768.0.0000ABCD0000
Current root port:
1
Current root cost:
10000
Number of topology changes:
1
Last topology changes time (sec.): 22
Transmission limit:
3
Path Cost Method:
long
4-177
4
Command Line Interface
--------------------------------------------------------------Eth 1/ 1 information
--------------------------------------------------------------Admin status:
enable
Role:
root
State:
forwarding
External admin path cost: 10000
Internal admin cost:
10000
External oper path cost: 10000
Internal oper path cost: 10000
Priority:
128
Designated cost:
200000
Designated port:
128.24
Designated root:
32768.0.0000ABCD0000
Designated bridge:
32768.0.0030F1552000
Fast forwarding:
disable
Forward transitions:
1
Admin edge port:
enable
Oper edge port:
disable
Admin Link type:
auto
Oper Link type:
point-to-point
Spanning Tree Status:
enable
.
.
.
show spanning-tree mst configuration
This command shows the configuration of the multiple spanning tree.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show spanning-tree mst configuration
Mstp Configuration Information
-------------------------------------------------------------Configuration name: R&D
Revision level:0
Instance Vlans
-------------------------------------------------------------1
2
Console#
4-178
VLAN Commands
4
VLAN Commands
A VLAN is a group of ports that can be located anywhere in the network, but
communicate as though they belong to the same physical segment. This section
describes commands used to create VLAN groups, add port members, specify how
VLAN tagging is used, and enable automatic VLAN registration for the selected
interface.
Table 4-56 VLANs
Command Groups
Function
Page
Editing VLAN Groups
Sets up VLAN groups, including name, VID and state
4-179
Configuring VLAN
Interfaces
Configures VLAN interface parameters, including ingress and egress
tagging mode, ingress filtering, PVID, and GVRP
4-181
Displaying VLAN
Information
Displays VLAN groups, status, port members, and MAC addresses
4-186
Configuring Private VLANs
Configures private VLANs, including uplink and downlink ports
4-188
Editing VLAN Groups
Table 4-57 Editing VLAN Groups
Command
Function
Mode
Page
vlan database
Enters VLAN database mode to add, change, and delete
VLANs
GC
4-179
vlan
Configures a VLAN, including VID, name and state
VC
4-180
vlan database
This command enters VLAN database mode. All commands in this mode will take
effect immediately.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Use the VLAN database command mode to add, change, and delete VLANs.
After finishing configuration changes, you can display the VLAN settings by
entering the show vlan command.
• Use the interface vlan command mode to define the port membership mode
and add or remove ports from a VLAN. The results of these commands are
written to the running-configuration file, and you can display this file by
entering the show running-config command.
4-179
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#
Related Commands
show vlan (4-187)
vlan
This command configures a VLAN. Use the no form to restore the default settings or
delete a VLAN.
Syntax
vlan vlan-id [name vlan-name] media ethernet [state {active | suspend}]
no vlan vlan-id [name | state]
• vlan-id - ID of configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
• name - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN name.
- vlan-name - ASCII string from 1 to 32 characters.
• media ethernet - Ethernet media type.
• state - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN state.
- active - VLAN is operational.
- suspend - VLAN is suspended. Suspended VLANs do not pass packets.
Default Setting
By default only VLAN 1 exists and is active.
Command Mode
VLAN Database Configuration
Command Usage
•
•
•
•
no vlan vlan-id deletes the VLAN.
no vlan vlan-id name removes the VLAN name.
no vlan vlan-id state returns the VLAN to the default state (i.e., active).
You can configure up to 255 VLANs on the switch.
Example
The following example adds a VLAN, using VLAN ID 105 and name RD5. The VLAN
is activated by default.
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#vlan 105 name RD5 media ethernet
Console(config-vlan)#
Related Commands
show vlan (4-187)
4-180
4
VLAN Commands
Configuring VLAN Interfaces
Table 4-58 Configuring VLAN Interfaces
Command
Function
Mode
Page
interface vlan
Enters interface configuration mode for a specified VLAN
IC
4-181
switchport mode
Configures VLAN membership mode for an interface
IC
4-182
switchport
acceptable-frame-types
Configures frame types to be accepted by an interface
IC
4-182
switchport ingress-filtering
Enables ingress filtering on an interface
IC
4-183
switchport native vlan
Configures the PVID (native VLAN) of an interface
IC
4-184
switchport allowed vlan
Configures the VLANs associated with an interface
IC
4-185
switchport gvrp
Enables GVRP for an interface
IC
4-195
switchport forbidden vlan
Configures forbidden VLANs for an interface
IC
4-186
switchport priority default
Sets a port priority for incoming untagged frames
IC
4-199
interface vlan
This command enters interface configuration mode for VLANs, which is used to
configure VLAN parameters for a physical interface.
Syntax
interface vlan vlan-id
vlan-id - ID of the configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following example shows how to set the interface configuration mode to
VLAN 1, and then assign an IP address to the VLAN:
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.254 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
shutdown (4-136)
4-181
4
Command Line Interface
switchport mode
This command configures the VLAN membership mode for a port. Use the no form
to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport mode {trunk | hybrid | private-vlan}
no switchport mode
• trunk - Specifies a port as an end-point for a VLAN trunk. A trunk is a direct
link between two switches, so the port transmits tagged frames that identify
the source VLAN. Note that frames belonging to the port’s default VLAN
(i.e., associated with the PVID) are also transmitted as tagged frames.
• hybrid - Specifies a hybrid VLAN interface. The port may transmit tagged
or untagged frames.
• private-vlan - For an explanation of this command see “switchport mode
private-vlan” on page 4-191.
Default Setting
All ports are in hybrid mode with the PVID set to VLAN 1.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
The following shows how to set the configuration mode to port 1, and then set the
switchport mode to hybrid:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport mode hybrid
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
switchport acceptable-frame-types (4-182)
switchport acceptable-frame-types
This command configures the acceptable frame types for a port. Use the no form to
restore the default.
Syntax
switchport acceptable-frame-types {all | tagged}
no switchport acceptable-frame-types
• all - The port accepts all frames, tagged or untagged.
• tagged - The port only receives tagged frames.
Default Setting
All frame types
4-182
VLAN Commands
4
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
When set to receive all frame types, any received frames that are untagged
are assigned to the default VLAN.
Example
The following example shows how to restrict the traffic received on port 1 to tagged
frames:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport acceptable-frame-types tagged
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
switchport mode (4-182)
switchport ingress-filtering
This command enables ingress filtering for an interface. Use the no form to restore
the default.
Syntax
[no] switchport ingress-filtering
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• Ingress filtering only affects tagged frames.
• If ingress filtering is disabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be flooded to all other ports (except
for those VLANs explicitly forbidden on this port).
• If ingress filtering is enabled and a port receives frames tagged for VLANs for
which it is not a member, these frames will be discarded.
• Ingress filtering does not affect VLAN independent BPDU frames, such as
GVRP or STA. However, they do affect VLAN dependent BPDU frames, such
as GMRP.
4-183
4
Command Line Interface
Example
The following example shows how to set the interface to port 1 and then enable
ingress filtering:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport ingress-filtering
Console(config-if)#
switchport native vlan
This command configures the PVID (i.e., default VLAN ID) for a port. Use the no
form to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport native vlan vlan-id
no switchport native vlan
vlan-id - Default VLAN ID for a port. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
Default Setting
VLAN 1
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• If an interface is not a member of VLAN 1 and you assign its PVID to this
VLAN, the interface will automatically be added to VLAN 1 as an untagged
member. For all other VLANs, an interface must first be configured as an
untagged member before you can assign its PVID to that group.
• If acceptable frame types is set to all or switchport mode is set to hybrid, the
PVID will be inserted into all untagged frames entering the ingress port.
Example
The following example shows how to set the PVID for port 1 to VLAN 3:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport native vlan 3
Console(config-if)#
4-184
VLAN Commands
4
switchport allowed vlan
This command configures VLAN groups on the selected interface. Use the no form
to restore the default.
Syntax
switchport allowed vlan {add vlan-list [tagged | untagged] |
remove vlan-list}
no switchport allowed vlan
• add vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to add.
• remove vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to remove.
• vlan-list - Separate nonconsecutive VLAN identifiers with a comma and no
spaces; use a hyphen to designate a range of IDs. Do not enter leading
zeros. (Range: 1-4094).
Default Setting
All ports are assigned to VLAN 1 by default.
The default frame type is untagged.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• A port, or a trunk with switchport mode set to hybrid, must be assigned to at
least one VLAN as untagged.
• If a trunk has switchport mode set to trunk (i.e., 1Q Trunk), then you can only
assign an interface to VLAN groups as a tagged member.
• Frames are always tagged within the switch. The tagged/untagged parameter
used when adding a VLAN to an interface tells the switch whether to keep or
remove the tag from a frame on egress.
• If none of the intermediate network devices nor the host at the other end of the
connection supports VLANs, the interface should be added to these VLANs
as an untagged member. Otherwise, it is only necessary to add at most one
VLAN as untagged, and this should correspond to the native VLAN for the
interface.
• If a VLAN on the forbidden list for an interface is manually added to that
interface, the VLAN is automatically removed from the forbidden list for that
interface.
Example
The following example shows how to add VLANs 1, 2, 5 and 6 to the allowed list as
tagged VLANs for port 1:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport allowed vlan add 1,2,5,6 tagged
Console(config-if)#
4-185
4
Command Line Interface
switchport forbidden vlan
This command configures forbidden VLANs. Use the no form to remove the list of
forbidden VLANs.
Syntax
switchport forbidden vlan {add vlan-list | remove vlan-list}
no switchport forbidden vlan
• add vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to add.
• remove vlan-list - List of VLAN identifiers to remove.
• vlan-list - Separate nonconsecutive VLAN identifiers with a comma and no
spaces; use a hyphen to designate a range of IDs. Do not enter leading
zeros. (Range: 1-4094).
Default Setting
No VLANs are included in the forbidden list.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• This command prevents a VLAN from being automatically added to the
specified interface via GVRP.
• If a VLAN has been added to the set of allowed VLANs for an interface, then
you cannot add it to the set of forbidden VLANs for that same interface.
Example
The following example shows how to prevent port 1 from being added to VLAN 3:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#switchport forbidden vlan add 3
Console(config-if)#
Displaying VLAN Information
Table 4-59 Show VLAN Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
show vlan
Shows VLAN information
NE, PE
4-187
show interfaces status vlan
Displays status for the specified VLAN interface
NE, PE
4-138
show interfaces switchport
Displays the administrative and operational status of an
interface
NE, PE
4-140
4-186
4
VLAN Commands
show vlan
This command shows VLAN information.
Syntax
show vlan [id vlan-id | name vlan-name | private-vlan private-vlan-type]
• id - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN ID.
- vlan-id - ID of the configured VLAN. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes)
• name - Keyword to be followed by the VLAN name.
- vlan-name - ASCII string from 1 to 32 characters.
• private-vlan - For an explanation of this command see “show vlan
private-vlan” on page 4-193
- private-vlan-type - Indicates the private vlan type. (Options: Community,
Isolated, Primary)
Default Setting
Shows all VLANs.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
The following example shows how to display information for VLAN 1:
Console#show vlan id 1
Vlan ID:
Type:
Name:
Status:
Ports/Port channel:
1
Static
DefaultVlan
Active
Eth1/ 1(S) Eth1/ 2(S)
Eth1/ 6(S) Eth1/ 7(S)
Eth1/11(S) Eth1/12(S)
Eth1/16(S) Eth1/17(S)
Eth1/21(S) Eth1/22(S)
Eth1/26(S) Eth1/27(S)
Eth1/31(S) Eth1/32(S)
Eth1/36(S) Eth1/37(S)
Eth1/41(S) Eth1/42(S)
Eth1/46(S) Eth1/47(S)
Eth1/51(S) Eth1/52(S)
Eth1/ 3(S)
Eth1/ 8(S)
Eth1/13(S)
Eth1/18(S)
Eth1/23(S)
Eth1/28(S)
Eth1/33(S)
Eth1/38(S)
Eth1/43(S)
Eth1/48(S)
Eth1/ 4(S)
Eth1/ 9(S)
Eth1/14(S)
Eth1/19(S)
Eth1/24(S)
Eth1/29(S)
Eth1/34(S)
Eth1/39(S)
Eth1/44(S)
Eth1/49(S)
Eth1/ 5(S)
Eth1/10(S)
Eth1/15(S)
Eth1/20(S)
Eth1/25(S)
Eth1/30(S)
Eth1/35(S)
Eth1/40(S)
Eth1/45(S)
Eth1/50(S)
Console#
4-187
4
Command Line Interface
Configuring Private VLANs
Private VLANs provide port-based security and isolation between ports within
the assigned VLAN. This switch supports two types of private VLANs: primary/
secondary associated groups, and stand-alone isolated VLANs. A primary VLAN
contains promiscuous ports that can communicate with all other ports in the private
VLAN group, while a secondary (or community) VLAN contains community ports
that can only communicate with other hosts within the secondary VLAN and with any
of the promiscuous ports in the associated primary VLAN. Isolated VLANs, on the
other hand, consist a single stand-alone VLAN that contains one promiscuous port
and one or more isolated (or host) ports. In all cases, the promiscuous ports are
designed to provide open access to an external network such as the Internet, while
the community or isolated ports provide restricted access to local users.
Multiple primary VLANs can be configured on this switch, and multiple community
VLANs can be associated with each primary VLAN. One or more isolated VLANs
can also be configured. (Note that private VLANs and normal VLANs can exist
simultaneously within the same switch.)
This section describes commands used to configure private VLANs.
Table 4-60 Private VLAN Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
Edit Private VLAN Groups
private-vlan
Adds or deletes primary and secondary VLANs
VC
4-189
private-vlan association
Associates a secondary VLAN with a primary VLAN
VC
4-190
Configure Private VLAN Interfaces
switchport mode
private-vlan
Sets an interface to host mode or promiscuous mode
IC
4-191
switchport private-vlan
host-association
Associates an interface with a secondary VLAN
IC
4-191
switchport private-vlan
isolated
Associates an interface with an isolated VLAN
IC
4-192
switchport private-vlan
mapping
Maps an interface to a primary VLAN
IC
4-193
NE,
PE
4-194
Display Private VLAN Information
show vlan private-vlan
Shows private VLAN information
To configure primary/secondary associated groups, follow these steps:
1.
Use the private-vlan command to designate one or more community VLANs
and the primary VLAN that will channel traffic outside of the community groups.
2.
Use the private-vlan association command to map the community VLAN(s) to
the primary VLAN.
4-188
4
VLAN Commands
3.
Use the switchport mode private-vlan command to configure ports as
promiscuous (i.e., having access to all ports in the primary VLAN) or host (i.e.,
community port).
4.
Use the switchport private-vlan host-association command to assign a port
to a secondary VLAN.
5.
Use the switchport private-vlan mapping command to assign a port to a
primary VLAN.
6.
Use the show vlan private-vlan command to verify your configuration settings.
To configure isolated VLANs, follow these steps:
1.
Use the private-vlan command to designate an isolated VLAN that will contain
a single promiscuous port and one or more isolated ports.
2.
Use the switchport mode private-vlan command to configure one port as
promiscuous (i.e., having access to all ports in the isolated VLAN) one or more
ports as host (i.e., isolated port).
3.
Use the switchport private-vlan isolated command to assign a port to an
isolated VLAN.
4.
Use the show vlan private-vlan command to verify your configuration settings.
private-vlan
Use this command to create a primary, community, or isolated private VLAN. Use
the no form to remove the specified private VLAN.
Syntax
private-vlan vlan-id {community | primary | isolated}
no private-vlan vlan-id
• vlan-id - ID of private VLAN. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes).
• community - A VLAN in which traffic is restricted to host members in the
same VLAN and to promiscuous ports in the associate primary VLAN.
• primary - A VLAN which can contain one or more community VLANs, and
serves to channel traffic between community VLANs and other locations.
• isolated – Specifies an isolated VLAN. Ports assigned to an isolated VLAN
can only communicate with the promiscuous port within their own VLAN.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
VLAN Configuration
Command Usage
• Private VLANs are used to restrict traffic to ports within the same community
or isolated VLAN, and channel traffic passing outside the community through
promiscuous ports. When using community VLANs, they must be mapped to
4-189
4
Command Line Interface
an associated “primary” VLAN that contains promiscuous ports. When using
an isolated VLAN, it must be configured to contain a single promiscuous port.
• Port membership for private VLANs is static. Once a port has been assigned
to a private VLAN, it cannot be dynamically moved to another VLAN via GVRP.
• Private VLAN ports cannot be set to trunked mode. (See “switchport mode” on
page 4-182.)
Example
Console(config)#vlan database
Console(config-vlan)#private-vlan 2 primary
Console(config-vlan)#private-vlan 3 community
Console(config)#
private vlan association
Use this command to associate a primary VLAN with a secondary (i.e., community)
VLAN. Use the no form to remove all associations for the specified primary VLAN.
Syntax
private-vlan primary-vlan-id association {secondary-vlan-id |
add secondary-vlan-id | remove secondary-vlan-id}
no private-vlan primary-vlan-id association
• primary-vlan-id - ID of primary VLAN.
(Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes).
• secondary-vlan-id - ID of secondary (i.e, community) VLAN.
(Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes).
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
VLAN Configuration
Command Usage
Secondary VLANs provide security for group members. The associated
primary VLAN provides a common interface for access to other network
resources within the primary VLAN (e.g., servers configured with promiscuous
ports) and to resources outside of the primary VLAN (via promiscuous ports).
Example
Console(config-vlan)#private-vlan 2 association 3
Console(config)#
4-190
4
VLAN Commands
switchport mode private-vlan
Use this command to set the private VLAN mode for an interface. Use the no form to
restore the default setting.
Syntax
switchport mode private-vlan {host | promiscuous}
no switchport mode private-vlan
• host – This port type can subsequently be assigned to a community or
isolated VLAN.
• promiscuous – This port type can communicate with all other promiscuous
ports in the same primary VLAN, as well as with all the ports in the
associated secondary VLANs.
Default Setting
Normal VLAN
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• To assign a promiscuous port to a primary VLAN, use the switchport
private-vlan mapping command. To assign a host port to a community
VLAN, use the private-vlan host association command.
• To assign a promiscuous port or host port to an isolated VLAN, use the
switchport private-vlan isolated command.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet
Console(config-if)#switchport mode
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet
Console(config-if)#switchport mode
Console(config-if)#
1/2
private-vlan promiscuous
1/3
private-vlan host
switchport private-vlan host-association
Use this command to associate an interface with a secondary VLAN. Use the no
form to remove this association.
Syntax
switchport private-vlan host-association secondary-vlan-id
no switchport private-vlan host-association
secondary-vlan-id - ID of secondary VLAN. (Range: 2-4094).
Default Setting
None
4-191
4
Command Line Interface
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
All ports assigned to a secondary (i.e., community) VLAN can pass traffic
between group members, but must communicate with resources outside of the
group via promiscuous ports in the associated primary VLAN.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport private-vlan host-association 3
Console(config-if)#
switchport private-vlan isolated
Use this command to assign an interface to an isolated VLAN. Use the no form to
remove this assignment.
Syntax
switchport private-vlan isolated isolated-vlan-id
no switchport private-vlan isolated
isolated-vlan-id - ID of isolated VLAN. (Range: 1-4094).
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
Host ports assigned to a isolated VLAN cannot pass traffic between group
members, and must communicate with resources outside of the group via a
promiscuous port.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport private-vlan isolated 3
Console(config-if)#
4-192
4
VLAN Commands
switchport private-vlan mapping
Use this command to map an interface to a primary VLAN. Use the no form to
remove this mapping.
Syntax
switchport private-vlan mapping primary-vlan-id
no switchport private-vlan mapping
primary-vlan-id – ID of primary VLAN. (Range: 1-4094, no leading zeroes).
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
Promiscuous ports assigned to a primary VLAN can communicate with any
other promiscuous ports in the same VLAN, and with the group members
within any associated secondary VLANs.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/2
Console(config-if)#switchport private-vlan mapping 2
Console(config-if)#
show vlan private-vlan
Use this command to show the private VLAN configuration settings on this switch.
Syntax
show vlan private-vlan [community | isolated | primary]
• community – Displays all community VLANs, along with their associated
primary VLAN and assigned host interfaces.
• isolated – Displays an isolated VLAN, along with the assigned
promiscuous interface and host interfaces. The Primary and Secondary
fields both display the isolated VLAN ID.
• primary – Displays all primary VLANs, along with any assigned
promiscuous interfaces.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Executive
4-193
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show vlan private-vlan
Primary
Secondary
Type
-------- ----------- ---------5
primary
5
6
community
0
8
isolated
Console#
Interfaces
-----------------------------Eth1/ 3
Eth1/ 4 Eth1/ 5
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN
information in order to automatically register VLAN members on interfaces across
the network. This section describes how to enable GVRP for individual interfaces
and globally for the switch, as well as how to display default configuration settings
for the Bridge Extension MIB.
Table 4-61 GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
bridge-ext gvrp
Enables GVRP globally for the switch
GC
4-194
show bridge-ext
Shows the global bridge extension configuration
PE
4-195
switchport gvrp
Enables GVRP for an interface
IC
4-195
switchport forbidden vlan
Configures forbidden VLANs for an interface
IC
4-186
show gvrp configuration
Displays GVRP configuration for the selected interface NE, PE
4-196
garp timer
Sets the GARP timer for the selected function
IC
4-196
show garp timer
Shows the GARP timer for the selected function
NE, PE
4-197
bridge-ext gvrp
This command enables GVRP globally for the switch. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] bridge-ext gvrp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
GVRP defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN information in order to
register VLAN members on ports across the network. This function should be
enabled to permit automatic VLAN registration, and to support VLANs which
extend beyond the local switch.
4-194
4
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
Example
Console(config)#bridge-ext gvrp
Console(config)#
show bridge-ext
This command shows the configuration for bridge extension commands.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
See “Enabling or Disabling GVRP (Global Setting)” on page 3-142 and
“Displaying Bridge Extension Capabilities” on page 3-13 for a description of
the displayed items.
Example
Console#show bridge-ext
Max support vlan numbers:
Max support vlan ID:
Extended multicast filtering services:
Static entry individual port:
VLAN learning:
Configurable PVID tagging:
Local VLAN capable:
Traffic classes:
Global GVRP status:
GMRP:
Console#
255
4094
No
Yes
IVL
Yes
No
Enabled
Enabled
Disabled
switchport gvrp
This command enables GVRP for a port. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] switchport gvrp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/6
Console(config-if)#switchport gvrp
Console(config-if)#
4-195
4
Command Line Interface
show gvrp configuration
This command shows if GVRP is enabled.
Syntax
show gvrp configuration [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
Default Setting
Shows both global and interface-specific configuration.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show gvrp configuration ethernet 1/6
Eth 1/ 6:
GVRP configuration: Enabled
Console#
garp timer
This command sets the values for the join, leave and leaveall timers. Use the no
form to restore the timers’ default values.
Syntax
garp timer {join | leave | leaveall} timer_value
no garp timer {join | leave | leaveall}
• {join | leave | leaveall} - Which timer to set.
• timer_value - Value of timer.
Ranges:
join: 20-1000 centiseconds
leave: 60-3000 centiseconds
leaveall: 500-18000 centiseconds
Default Setting
• join: 20 centiseconds
• leave: 60 centiseconds
• leaveall: 1000 centiseconds
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
4-196
GVRP and Bridge Extension Commands
4
Command Usage
• Group Address Registration Protocol is used by GVRP and GMRP to register
or deregister client attributes for client services within a bridged LAN. The
default values for the GARP timers are independent of the media access
method or data rate. These values should not be changed unless you are
experiencing difficulties with GMRP or GVRP registration/deregistration.
• Timer values are applied to GVRP for all the ports on all VLANs.
• Timer values must meet the following restrictions:
- leave >= (2 x join)
- leaveall > leave
Note: Set GVRP timers on all Layer 2 devices connected in the same network to
the same values. Otherwise, GVRP may not operate successfully.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#garp timer join 100
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
show garp timer (4-197)
show garp timer
This command shows the GARP timers for the selected interface.
Syntax
show garp timer [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
Default Setting
Shows all GARP timers.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show garp timer ethernet 1/1
Eth 1/ 1 GARP timer status:
Join timer:
100 centiseconds
Leave timer:
60 centiseconds
Leaveall timer: 1000 centiseconds
Console#
4-197
4
Command Line Interface
Related Commands
garp timer (4-196)
Priority Commands
The commands described in this section allow you to specify which data packets
have greater precedence when traffic is buffered in the switch due to congestion.
This switch supports CoS with four priority queues for each port. Data packets in a
port’s high-priority queue will be transmitted before those in the lower-priority
queues. You can set the default priority for each interface, the relative weight of each
queue, and the mapping of frame priority tags to the switch’s priority queues.
Table 4-62 Priority Commands
Command Groups
Function
Page
Priority (Layer 2)
Configures default priority for untagged frames, sets queue weights,
and maps class of service tags to hardware queues
4-198
Priority (Layer 3 and 4)
Maps TCP ports, IP precedence tags, or IP DSCP tags to class of
service values
4-204
Priority Commands (Layer 2)
Table 4-63 Priority Commands (Layer 2)
Command
Function
Mode
Page
queue mode
Sets the queue mode to strict priority or Weighted
Round-Robin (WRR)
GC
4-199
switchport priority default
Sets a port priority for incoming untagged frames
IC
4-199
queue bandwidth
Assigns round-robin weights to the priority queues
GC
4-200
queue cos map
Assigns class-of-service values to the priority queues
IC
4-201
show queue mode
Shows the current queue mode
PE
4-202
show queue bandwidth
Shows round-robin weights assigned to the priority queues
PE
4-202
show queue cos-map
Shows the class-of-service map
PE
4-203
PE
4-140
show interfaces switchport Displays the administrative and operational status of an
interface
4-198
4
Priority Commands
queue mode
This command sets the queue mode to strict priority or Weighted Round-Robin
(WRR) for the class of service (CoS) priority queues. Use the no form to restore the
default value.
Syntax
queue mode {strict | wrr}
no queue mode
• strict - Services the egress queues in sequential order, transmitting all
traffic in the higher priority queues before servicing lower priority queues.
• wrr - Weighted Round-Robin shares bandwidth at the egress ports by using
scheduling weights 1, 2, 4, 6 for queues 0 - 3 respectively.
Default Setting
Weighted Round Robin
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
You can set the switch to service the queues based on a strict rule that
requires all traffic in a higher priority queue to be processed before lower
priority queues are serviced, or use Weighted Round-Robin (WRR) queuing
that specifies a relative weight of each queue. WRR uses a predefined relative
weight for each queue that determines the percentage of service time the
switch services each queue before moving on to the next queue. This
prevents the head-of-line blocking that can occur with strict priority queuing.
Example
The following example sets the queue mode to strict priority service mode:
Console(config)#queue mode strict
Console(config)#
switchport priority default
This command sets a priority for incoming untagged frames. Use the no form to
restore the default value.
Syntax
switchport priority default default-priority-id
no switchport priority default
default-priority-id - The priority number for untagged ingress traffic.
The priority is a number from 0 to 7. Seven is the highest priority.
4-199
4
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
The priority is not set, and the default value for untagged frames received on
the interface is zero.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• The default priority applies for an untagged frame received on a port set to
accept all frame types (i.e, receives both untagged and tagged frames). This
priority does not apply to IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frames. If the incoming
frame is an IEEE 802.1Q VLAN tagged frame, the IEEE 802.1p User Priority
bits will be used.
• This switch provides eight priority queues for each port. It is configured to use
Weighted Round Robin, which can be viewed with the show queue
bandwidth command. Inbound frames that do not have VLAN tags are
tagged with the input port’s default ingress user priority, and then placed in the
appropriate priority queue at the output port. The default priority for all ingress
ports is zero. Therefore, any inbound frames that do not have priority tags will
be placed in queue 0 of the output port. (Note that if the output port is an
untagged member of the associated VLAN, these frames are stripped of all
VLAN tags prior to transmission.)
Example
The following example shows how to set a default priority on port 3 to 5:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/3
Console(config-if)#switchport priority default 5
queue bandwidth
This command assigns weighted round-robin (WRR) weights to the four class of
service (CoS) priority queues. Use the no form to restore the default weights.
Syntax
queue bandwidth weight1...weight4
no queue bandwidth
weight1...weight4 - The ratio of weights for queues 0-3 determines the
weights used by the WRR scheduler. However, note that Queue 0 is fixed
at a weight of 1, and cannot be configured. (Range: 1-31)
Default Setting
Weights 1, 2, 4, 6 are assigned to queues 0-3 respectively.
Queue 0 is non-configurable.
4-200
4
Priority Commands
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
WRR controls bandwidth sharing at the egress port by defining scheduling
weights.
Example
This example shows how to assign WRR weights to priority queues 1 - 3:
Console(config)#queue bandwidth 6 9 12
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show queue bandwidth (4-202)
queue cos-map
This command assigns class of service (CoS) values to the priority queues (i.e.,
hardware output queues 0 - 3). Use the no form set the CoS map to the default
values.
Syntax
queue cos-map queue_id [cos1 ... cosn]
no queue cos-map
• queue_id - The ID of the priority queue.
Ranges are 0 to 3, where 3 is the highest priority queue.
• cos1 .. cosn - The CoS values that are mapped to the queue ID. It is a
space-separated list of numbers. The CoS value is a number from 0 to 7,
where 7 is the highest priority.
Default Setting
This switch supports Class of Service by using four priority queues, with
Weighted Round Robin queuing for each port. Eight separate traffic classes
are defined in IEEE 802.1p. The default priority levels are assigned according
to recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard as shown below.
Table 4-64 Default CoS Priority Levels
Queue
0
1
2
3
Priority
1, 2
0, 3
4, 5
6, 7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
4-201
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• CoS values assigned at the ingress port are also used at the egress port.
• This command sets the CoS priority for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map CoS values 0, 1 and 2 to egress queue 0,
value 3 to egress queue 1, values 4 and 5 to egress queue 2, and values 6 and 7 to
egress queue 3:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 0 0 1 2
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 1 3
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 2 4 5
Console(config-if)#queue cos-map 3 6 7
Console(config-if)#end
Console#show queue cos-map ethernet 1/1
Information of Eth 1/1
CoS Value
: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Priority Queue: 0 0 0 1 2 2 3 3
Console#
Related Commands
show queue cos-map (4-203)
show queue mode
This command shows the current queue mode.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show queue mode
Queue mode: wrr
Console#
show queue bandwidth
This command displays the weighted round-robin (WRR) bandwidth allocation for
the four priority queues.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-202
Priority Commands
4
Example
Console#show queue bandwidth
Queue ID Weight
-------- -----0
1
1
2
2
4
3
6
Console#
show queue cos-map
This command shows the class of service priority map.
Syntax
show queue cos-map [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show queue
Information of Eth
CoS Value
: 0
Priority Queue: 0
Console#
cos-map ethernet 1/1
1/1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 0 1 2 2 3 3
4-203
4
Command Line Interface
Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
Table 4-65 Priority Commands (Layer 3 and 4)
Command
Function
Mode
Page
map ip port
Enables TCP class of service mapping
GC
4-204
map ip port
Maps TCP socket to a class of service
IC
4-205
map ip precedence
Enables IP precedence class of service mapping
GC
4-204
4-206
map ip precedence
Maps IP precedence value to a class of service
IC
map ip dscp
Enables IP DSCP class of service mapping
GC
4-207
map ip dscp
Maps IP DSCP value to a class of service
IC
4-207
map access-list ip
Sets the CoS value and corresponding output queue for
packets matching an ACL rule
IC
4-108
map access-list mac
Sets the CoS value and corresponding output queue for
packets matching an ACL rule
IC
4-113
show map ip port
Shows the IP port map
PE
4-208
show map ip precedence
Shows the IP precedence map
PE
4-209
show map ip dscp
Shows the IP DSCP map
PE
4-210
show map access-list ip
Shows CoS value mapped to an access list for an interface
PE
4-109
show map access-list mac Shows CoS value mapped to an access list for an interface
PE
4-114
map ip port (Global Configuration)
This command enables IP port mapping (i.e., class of service mapping for TCP/UDP
sockets). Use the no form to disable IP port mapping.
Syntax
[no] map ip port
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
Example
The following example shows how to enable TCP/UDP port mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip port
Console(config)#
4-204
Priority Commands
4
map ip port (Interface Configuration)
This command set IP port priority (i.e., TCP/UDP port priority). Use the no form to
remove a specific setting.
Syntax
map ip port port number cos cos-value
no map ip port port-number
• port-number - 16-bit TCP/UDP port number.(Range 1-65535)
• cos-value - Class-of-Service value. (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• This command sets the IP port priority for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map HTTP traffic to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip port 80 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
map ip precedence (Global Configuration)
This command enables IP precedence mapping (i.e., IP Type of Service). Use the
no form to disable IP precedence mapping.
Syntax
[no] map ip precedence
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• IP Precedence and IP DSCP cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these
priority types will automatically disable the other type.
4-205
4
Command Line Interface
Example
The following example shows how to enable IP precedence mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip precedence
Console(config)#
map ip precedence (Interface Configuration)
This command sets IP precedence priority (i.e., IP Type of Service priority). Use the
no form to restore the default table.
Syntax
map ip precedence ip-precedence-value cos cos-value
no map ip precedence
• precedence-value - 3-bit precedence value. (Range: 0-7)
• cos-value - Class-of-Service value (Range: 0-7)
Default Setting
The list below shows the default priority mapping.
Table 4-66 Mapping IP Precedence Values
IP Precedence Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
CoS Value
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• IP Precedence values are mapped to default Class of Service values on a
one-to-one basis according to recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard,
and then subsequently mapped to the eight hardware priority queues.
• This command sets the IP Precedence for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map IP precedence value 1 to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip precedence 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
4-206
Priority Commands
4
map ip dscp (Global Configuration)
This command enables IP DSCP mapping (i.e., Differentiated Services Code Point
mapping). Use the no form to disable IP DSCP mapping.
Syntax
[no] map ip dscp
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• IP Precedence and IP DSCP cannot both be enabled. Enabling one of these
priority types will automatically disable the other type.
Example
The following example shows how to enable IP DSCP mapping globally:
Console(config)#map ip dscp
Console(config)#
map ip dscp (Interface Configuration)
This command sets IP DSCP priority (i.e., Differentiated Services Code Point
priority). Use the no form to restore the default table.
Syntax
map ip dscp dscp-value cos cos-value
no map ip dscp
• dscp-value - 8-bit DSCP value. (Range: 0-63)
• cos-value - Class-of-Service value (Range: 0-7)
4-207
4
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
The DSCP default values are defined in the following table. Note that all the
DSCP values that are not specified are mapped to CoS value 0.
Table 4-67 IP DSCP to CoS Vales
IP DSCP Value
CoS Value
0
0
8
1
10, 12, 14, 16
2
18, 20, 22, 24
3
26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36
4
38, 40, 42
5
48
6
46, 56
7
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• The precedence for priority mapping is IP Port, IP Precedence or IP DSCP,
and default switchport priority.
• DSCP priority values are mapped to default Class of Service values according
to recommendations in the IEEE 802.1p standard, and then subsequently
mapped to the four hardware priority queues.
• This command sets the IP DSCP priority for all interfaces.
Example
The following example shows how to map IP DSCP value 1 to CoS value 0:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#map ip dscp 1 cos 0
Console(config-if)#
show map ip port
Use this command to show the IP port priority map.
Syntax
show map ip port [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
4-208
Priority Commands
4
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
The following shows that HTTP traffic has been mapped to CoS value 0:
Console#show map ip port
TCP port mapping status: disabled
Port
Port no. COS
--------- -------- --Eth 1/ 5
80
0
Console#
Related Commands
map ip port (Global Configuration) (4-204)
map ip port (Interface Configuration) (4-205)
show map ip precedence
This command shows the IP precedence priority map.
Syntax
show map ip precedence [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-209
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show map ip precedence ethernet 1/5
Precedence mapping status: disabled
Port
Precedence COS
--------- ---------- --Eth 1/ 5
0
0
Eth 1/ 5
1
1
Eth 1/ 5
2
2
Eth 1/ 5
3
3
Eth 1/ 5
4
4
Eth 1/ 5
5
5
Eth 1/ 5
6
6
Eth 1/ 5
7
7
Console#
Related Commands
map ip port (Global Configuration) (4-204)
map ip precedence (Interface Configuration) (4-206)
show map ip dscp
This command shows the IP DSCP priority map.
Syntax
show map ip dscp [interface]
interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-210
Multicast Filtering Commands
4
Example
Console#show map ip dscp ethernet 1/1
DSCP mapping status: disabled
Port
DSCP COS
--------- ---- --Eth 1/ 1
0
0
Eth 1/ 1
1
0
Eth 1/ 1
2
0
Eth 1/ 1
3
0
.
.
.
Eth 1/ 1
61
0
Eth 1/ 1
62
0
Eth 1/ 1
63
0
Console#
Related Commands
map ip dscp (Global Configuration) (4-207)
map ip dscp (Interface Configuration) (4-207)
Multicast Filtering Commands
This switch uses IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) to query for any
attached hosts that want to receive a specific multicast service. It identifies the ports
containing hosts requesting a service and sends data out to those ports only. It then
propagates the service request up to any neighboring multicast switch/router to
ensure that it will continue to receive the multicast service.
Table 4-68 Multicast Filtering Commands
Command Groups
Function
Page
IGMP Snooping
Configures multicast groups via IGMP snooping or static assignment,
sets the IGMP version, displays current snooping and query settings,
and displays the multicast service and group members
4-211
IGMP Query
Configures IGMP query parameters for multicast filtering at Layer 2
4-216
Static Multicast Routing
Configures static multicast router ports
4-219
IGMP Filtering and
Throttling
Configures IGMP filtering and throttling controls
4-221
Multicast VLAN Registration Configures a single network-wide multicast VLAN shared by hosts
residing in other standard or private VLAN groups, preserving
security and data isolation for normal traffic
4-227
IGMP Snooping Commands
Table 4-69 IGMP Snooping Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
ip igmp snooping
Enables IGMP snooping
GC
4-212
GC
4-212
ip igmp snooping vlan static Adds an interface as a member of a multicast group
4-211
4
Command Line Interface
Table 4-69 IGMP Snooping Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
ip igmp snooping version
Configures the IGMP version for snooping
GC
4-213
ip igmp snooping
immediate-leave
Enables IGMP immediate leave for a VLAN interface
IC
4-213
show ip igmp snooping
Shows the IGMP snooping and query configuration
PE
4-214
show mac-address-table
multicast
Shows the IGMP snooping MAC multicast list
PE
4-214
ip igmp snooping
This command enables IGMP snooping on this switch. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following example enables IGMP snooping.
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping vlan static
This command adds a port to a multicast group. Use the no form to remove the port.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id static ip-address interface
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
• ip-address - IP address for multicast group
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
Default Setting
None
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4
Multicast Filtering Commands
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following shows how to statically configure a multicast group on a port:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 static 224.0.0.12 ethernet 1/5
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping version
This command configures the IGMP snooping version. Use the no form to restore
the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping version {1 | 2}
no ip igmp snooping version
• 1 - IGMP Version 1
• 2 - IGMP Version 2
Default Setting
IGMP Version 2
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• All systems on the subnet must support the same version. If there are legacy
devices in your network that only support Version 1, you will also have to
configure this switch to use Version 1.
• Some commands are only enabled for IGMPv2, including ip igmp
query-max-response-time and ip igmp query-timeout.
Example
The following configures the switch to use IGMP Version 1:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping version 1
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping immediate-leave
This command enables IGMP immediate leave for specific VLAN. Use the no form
to disable the feature for a VLAN.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping immediate-leave
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4
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
Command Usage
The IGMP snooping immediate-leave feature enables a Layer 2 LAN interface
to be removed from the multicast forwarding table without first sending an
IGMP group-specific query to the interface. Upon receiving a group-specific
IGMPv2 leave message, the switch immediately removes the interface from
the Layer 2 forwarding table entry for that multicast group, unless a multicast
router was learned on the port.
Example
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip igmp snooping immediate-leave
Console(config-if)#
show ip igmp snooping
This command shows the IGMP snooping configuration.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
See “Configuring IGMP Snooping and Query Parameters” on page 3-171 for a
description of the displayed items.
Example
The following shows the current IGMP snooping configuration:
Console#show ip igmp snooping
Service status:
Enabled
Querier status:
Enabled
Query count:
2
Query interval:
125 sec
Query max response time: 10 sec
Router port expire time: 300 sec
IGMP snooping version:
Version 2
Console#
show mac-address-table multicast
This command shows known multicast addresses.
4-214
4
Multicast Filtering Commands
Syntax
show mac-address-table multicast [vlan vlan-id] [user | igmp-snooping]
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (1 to 4094)
• user - Display only the user-configured multicast entries.
• igmp-snooping - Display only entries learned through IGMP snooping.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Member types displayed include IGMP or USER, depending on selected
options.
Example
The following shows the multicast entries learned through IGMP snooping for
VLAN 1:
Console#show mac-address-table multicast vlan 1 igmp-snooping
VLAN M'cast IP addr. Member ports Type
---- --------------- ------------ ------1
224.1.2.3
Eth1/11
IGMP
Console#
4-215
4
Command Line Interface
IGMP Query Commands (Layer 2)
Table 4-70 IGMP Query Commands (Layer 2)
Command
Function
ip igmp snooping querier
Allows this device to act as the querier for IGMP snooping GC
Mode
4-216
Page
ip igmp snooping
query-count
Configures the query count
GC
4-216
ip igmp snooping
query-interval
Configures the query interval
GC
4-217
ip igmp snooping
query-max-response-time
Configures the report delay
GC
4-218
ip igmp snooping
router-port-expire-time
Configures the query timeout
GC
4-218
ip igmp snooping querier
This command enables the switch as an IGMP querier. Use the no form to disable it.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping querier
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
If enabled, the switch will serve as querier if elected. The querier is
responsible for asking hosts if they want to receive multicast traffic.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping querier
Console(config)#
ip igmp snooping query-count
This command configures the query count. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping query-count count
no ip igmp snooping query-count
count - The maximum number of queries issued for which there has been
no response before the switch takes action to drop a client from the
multicast group. (Range: 2-10)
4-216
4
Multicast Filtering Commands
Default Setting
2 times
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The query count defines how long the querier waits for a response from a
multicast client before taking action. If a querier has sent a number of queries
defined by this command, but a client has not responded, a countdown timer
is started using the time defined by ip igmp snooping query-maxresponse-time. If the countdown finishes, and the client still has not
responded, then that client is considered to have left the multicast group.
Example
The following shows how to configure the query count to 10:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-count 10
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time (4-218)
ip igmp snooping query-interval
This command configures the query interval. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping query-interval seconds
no ip igmp snooping query-interval
seconds - The frequency at which the switch sends IGMP host-query
messages. (Range: 60-125)
Default Setting
125 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
The following shows how to configure the query interval to 100 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-interval 100
Console(config)#
4-217
4
Command Line Interface
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
This command configures the query report delay. Use the no form to restore the
default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time seconds
no ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time
seconds - The report delay advertised in IGMP queries. (Range: 5-25)
Default Setting
10 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The switch must be using IGMPv2 for this command to take effect.
• This command defines the time after a query, during which a response is
expected from a multicast client. If a querier has sent a number of queries
defined by the ip igmp snooping query-count, but a client has not
responded, a countdown timer is started using an initial value set by this
command. If the countdown finishes, and the client still has not responded,
then that client is considered to have left the multicast group.
Example
The following shows how to configure the maximum response time to 20 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time 20
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping version (4-213)
ip igmp snooping query-max-response-time (4-218)
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
This command configures the query timeout. Use the no form to restore the default.
Syntax
ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time seconds
no ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time
seconds - The time the switch waits after the previous querier stops before
it considers the router port (i.e., the interface which had been receiving
query packets) to have expired.
(Range: 300-500)
4-218
Multicast Filtering Commands
4
Default Setting
300 seconds
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The switch must use IGMPv2 for this command to take effect.
Example
The following shows how to configure the default timeout to 300 seconds:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping router-port-expire-time 300
Console(config)#
Related Commands
ip igmp snooping version (4-213)
Static Multicast Routing Commands
Table 4-71 Static Multicast Routing Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
ip igmp snooping vlan
mrouter
Adds a multicast router port
GC
4-219
show ip igmp snooping
mrouter
Shows multicast router ports
PE
4-220
ip igmp snooping vlan mrouter
This command statically configures a multicast router port. Use the no form to
remove the configuration.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp snooping vlan vlan-id mrouter interface
• vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
Default Setting
No static multicast router ports are configured.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-219
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
Depending on your network connections, IGMP snooping may not always be
able to locate the IGMP querier. Therefore, if the IGMP querier is a known
multicast router/switch connected over the network to an interface (port or
trunk) on your router, you can manually configure that interface to join all the
current multicast groups.
Example
The following shows how to configure port 11 as a multicast router port within VLAN 1:
Console(config)#ip igmp snooping vlan 1 mrouter ethernet 1/11
Console(config)#
show ip igmp snooping mrouter
This command displays information on statically configured and dynamically learned
multicast router ports.
Syntax
show ip igmp snooping mrouter [vlan vlan-id]
vlan-id - VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
Displays multicast router ports for all configured VLANs.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Multicast router port types displayed include Static.
Example
The following shows that port 11 in VLAN 1 is attached to a multicast router:
Console#show ip igmp snooping mrouter vlan 1
VLAN M'cast Router Ports Type
---- ------------------- ------1
Eth 1/11 Static
2
Eth 1/12 Static
Console#
4-220
Multicast Filtering Commands
4
IGMP Filtering and Throttling Commands
In certain switch applications, the administrator may want to control the multicast
services that are available to end users. For example, an IP/TV service based on a
specific subscription plan. The IGMP filtering feature fulfills this requirement by
restricting access to specified multicast services on a switch port and IGMP
throttling limits the number of simultaneous multicast groups a port can join.
Table 4-72 IGMP Filtering and Throttling Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
ip igmp filter
Enables IGMP filtering and throttling on the switch
GC
4-221
ip igmp profile
Sets a profile number and enters IGMP filter profile
configuration mode
GC
4-222
permit, deny
Sets a profile access mode to permit or deny
IPC
4-222
range
Specifies one or a range of multicast addresses for a profile IPC
4-223
ip igmp filter
Assigns an IGMP filter profile to an interface
IC
4-223
ip igmp max-groups
Specifies an IGMP throttling number for an interface
IC
4-224
ip igmp max-groups action
Sets the IGMP throttling action for an interface
IC
4-225
show ip igmp filter
Displays the IGMP filtering status
PE
4-225
show ip igmp profile
Displays IGMP profiles and settings
PE
4-226
show ip igmp throttle
interface
Displays the IGMP throttling setting for interfaces
PE
4-226
ip igmp filter (Global Configuration)
This command globally enables IGMP filtering and throttling on the switch. Use the
no form to disable the feature.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp filter
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• IGMP filtering enables you to assign a profile to a switch port that specifies
multcast groups that are permitted or denied on the port. An IGMP filter profile
can contain one or more, or a range of multicast addresses, but only one
profile can be assigned to a port. When enabled, IGMP join reports received
on the port are checked against the filter profile. If a requested multicast group
is permitted, the IGMP join report is forwarded as normal. If a requested
multicast group is denied, the IGMP join report is dropped.
4-221
4
Command Line Interface
• IGMP filtering and throttling only applies to dynamically learned multicast
groups, it does not apply to statically configured groups.
• The IGMP filtering feature operates in the same manner when MVR is used
to forward the multicast traffic.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp filter
Console(config)#
ip igmp profile
This command creates an IGMP filter profile number and enters IGMP profile
configuration mode. Use the no form to delete a profile number.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp profile profile-number
profile-number - An IGMP filter profile number. (Range: 1-4294967295)
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
A profile defines the multicast groups that a subscriber is permitted or denied
to join. The same profile can be applied to many interfaces, but only one
profile can be assigned to one interface. Each profile has only one access
mode; either permit or deny.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp profile 19
Console(config-igmp-profile)#
permit, deny
This command sets the access mode for an IGMP filter profile. Use the no form to
delete a profile number.
Syntax
{permit | deny}
Default Setting
Deny
Command Mode
IGMP Profile Configuration
4-222
4
Multicast Filtering Commands
Command Usage
• Each profile has only one access mode; either permit or deny.
• When the access mode is set to permit, IGMP join reports are processed
when a multicast group falls within the controlled range. When the access
mode is set to deny, IGMP join reports are only processed when a multicast
group is not in the controlled range.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp profile 19
Console(config-igmp-profile)#permit
Console(config-igmp-profile)#
range
This command specifies multicast group addresses for a profile. Use the no form to
delete addresses from a profile.
Syntax
[no] range low-ip-address [high-ip-address]
• low-ip-address - A valid IP address of a multicast group or start of a group
range.
• high-ip-address - A valid IP address for the end of a multicast group range.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
IGMP Profile Configuration
Command Usage
Enter this command multiple times to specify more than one multicast address
or address range for a profile.
Example
Console(config)#ip igmp profile 19
Console(config-igmp-profile)#range 239.1.1.1
Console(config-igmp-profile)#range 239.2.3.1 239.2.3.100
ip igmp filter (Interface Configuration)
This command assigns an IGMP filtering profile to an interface on the switch. Use
the no form to remove a profile from an interface.
Syntax
[no] ip igmp filter profile-number
profile-number - An IGMP filter profile number. (Range: 1-4294967295)
4-223
4
Command Line Interface
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
• The IGMP filtering profile must first be created with the ip igmp profile
command before being able to assign it to an interface.
• Only one profile can be assigned to an interface.
• A profile can be assigned to a trunk interface. When ports are configured as
trunk members, the trunk uses the filtering profile assigned to the first port
member in the trunk.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip igmp filter 19
Console(config-if)#
ip igmp max-groups
This command sets the IGMP throttling number for an interface on the switch. Use
the no form to restore the default setting.
Syntax
ip igmp max-groups number
no ip igmp max-groups
number - The maximum number of multicast groups an interface can join
at the same time. (Range: 0-64)
Default Setting
64
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
• IGMP throttling sets a maximum number of multicast groups that a port can
join at the same time. When the maximum number of groups is reached on a
port, the switch can take one of two actions; either “deny” or “replace.” If the
action is set to deny, any new IGMP join reports will be dropped. If the action
is set to replace, the switch randomly removes an existing group and replaces
it with the new multicast group.
• IGMP throttling can also be set on a trunk interface. When ports are
configured as trunk members, the trunk uses the throttling settings of the first
port member in the trunk.
4-224
Multicast Filtering Commands
4
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip igmp max-groups 10
Console(config-if)#
ip igmp max-groups action
This command sets the IGMP throttling action for an interface on the switch.
Syntax
ip igmp max-groups action <replace | deny>
• replace - The new multicast group replaces an existing group.
• deny - The new multicast group join report is dropped.
Default Setting
Deny
Command Mode
Interface Configuration
Command Usage
When the maximum number of groups is reached on a port, the switch can
take one of two actions; either “deny” or “replace.” If the action is set to deny,
any new IGMP join reports will be dropped. If the action is set to replace, the
switch randomly removes an existing group and replaces it with the new
multicast group.
Example
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/1
Console(config-if)#ip igmp max-groups action replace
Console(config-if)#
show ip igmp filter
This command displays the global and interface settings for IGMP filtering.
Syntax
show ip igmp filter [interface]
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
Default Setting
None
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Command Line Interface
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip igmp filter
IGMP filter enable
Console#show ip igmp filter interface ethernet 1/1
Information of Eth 1/1
IGMP Profile 19
deny
range 239.1.1.1 239.1.1.1
range 239.2.3.1 239.2.3.100
Console#
show ip igmp profile
This command displays IGMP filtering profiles created on the switch.
Syntax
show ip igmp profile [profile-number]
profile-number - An existing IGMP filter profile number.
(Range: 1-4294967295)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip igmp profile
IGMP Profile 19
IGMP Profile 50
Console#show ip igmp profile 19
IGMP Profile 19
deny
range 239.1.1.1 239.1.1.1
range 239.2.3.1 239.2.3.100
Console#
show ip igmp throttle interface
This command displays the interface settings for IGMP throttling.
Syntax
show ip igmp throttle interface [interface]
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - This is unit 1.
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-26/52)
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Multicast Filtering Commands
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-4)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
Using this command without specifying an interface displays all interfaces.
Example
Console#show ip igmp throttle interface ethernet 1/1
Information of Eth 1/1
status : TRUE
action : deny
max multicast groups : 32
current multicast groups : 0
Console#
Multicast VLAN Registration Commands
This section describes commands used to configure Multicast VLAN Registration
(MVR). A single network-wide VLAN can be used to transmit multicast traffic (such
as television channels) across a service provider’s network. Any multicast traffic
entering an MVR VLAN is sent to all subscribers. This can significantly reduce to
processing overhead required to dynamically monitor and establish the distribution
tree for a normal multicast VLAN. Also note that MVR maintains the user isolation
and data security provided by VLAN segregation by passing only multicast traffic
into other VLANs to which the subscribers belong.
Table 4-73 Multicast VLAN Registration Commands
Command
Function
Mode
mvr
Globally enables MVR, statically configures MVR group
address(es), or specifies the MVR VLAN identifier
GC
mvr
Configures an interface as an MVR receiver or source port, IC
enables immediate leave capability, or configures an
interface as a static member of the MVR VLAN
4-229
show mvr
Shows information about the global MVR configuration
settings, the interfaces attached to the MVR VLAN, or the
multicast groups assigned to the MVR VLAN
4-230
PE
Page
4-228
4-227
4
Command Line Interface
mvr (Global Configuration)
This command enables Multicast VLAN Registration (MVR) globally on the switch,
statically configures MVR multicast group IP address(es) using the group keyword,
or specifies the MVR VLAN identifier using the vlan keyword. Use the no form of
this command without any keywords to globally disable MVR. Use the no form with
the group keyword to remove a specific address or range of addresses. Or use the
no form with the vlan keyword restore the default MVR VLAN.
Syntax
[no] mvr [group ip-address [count] | vlan vlan-id]
• ip-address - IP address for an MVR multicast group.
(Range: 224.0.1.0 - 239.255.255.255)
• count - The number of contiguous MVR group addresses. (Range: 1-255)
• vlan-id - MVR VLAN ID (Range: 1-4094)
Default Setting
• MVR is disabled.
• No MVR group address is defined.
• The default number of contiguous addresses is 0.
• MVR VLAN ID is 1.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Use the mvr group command to statically configure all multicast group
addresses that will join the MVR VLAN. Any multicast data associated an
MVR group is sent from all source ports, and to all receiver ports that have
registered to receive data from that multicast group.
• The IP address range from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 is used for multicast
streams. MVR group addresses cannot fall within the reserved IP multicast
address range of 224.0.0.x.
• IGMP snooping must be enabled to a allow a subscriber to dynamically join or
leave an MVR group (see ip igmp snooping on page 4-212). Note that only
IGMP version 2 or 3 hosts can issue multicast join or leave messages.
Example
The following example enables MVR globally, and configures a range of MVR group
addresses:
Console(config)#mvr
Console(config)#mvr group 228.1.23.1 10
Console(config)#
4-228
Multicast Filtering Commands
4
mvr (Interface Configuration)
This command configures an interface as an MVR receiver or source port using the
type keyword, enables immediate leave capability using the immediate keyword, or
configures an interface as a static member of the MVR VLAN using the group
keyword. Use the no form to restore the default settings.
Syntax
[no] mvr {type {receiver | source} | immediate | group ip-address}
• receiver - Configures the interface as a subscriber port that can receive
multicast data.
• source - Configure the interface as an uplink port that can send and receive
multicast data for the configured multicast groups.
• immediate - Configures the switch to immediately remove an interface from
a multicast stream as soon as it receives a leave message for that group.
• ip-address - Statically configures an interface to receive multicast traffic
from the IP address specified for an MVR multicast group.
(Range: 224.0.1.0 - 239.255.255.255)
Default Setting
• The port type is not defined.
• Immediate leave is disabled.
• No receiver port is a member of any configured multicast group.
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (Ethernet, Port Channel)
Command Usage
• A port which is not configured as an MVR receiver or source port can use
IGMP snooping to join or leave multicast groups using the standard rules for
multicast filtering.
• MVR receiver ports cannot be members of a trunk. Receiver ports can belong
to different VLANs, but should not be configured as a member of the MVR
VLAN. IGMP snooping can be used to allow a receiver port to dynamically join
or leave multicast groups within the MVR VLAN. Multicast groups can also be
statically assigned to a receiver port using the group keyword.
• One or more interfaces may be configured as MVR source ports. A source
port is able to both receive and send data for multicast groups which it has
joined through IGMP snooping or which have been statically assigned using
the group keyword.
• The IP address range from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 is used for multicast
streams. MVR group addresses cannot fall within the reserved IP multicast
address range of 224.0.0.x.
• Immediate leave applies only to receiver ports. When enabled, the receiver
port is immediately removed from the multicast group identified in the leave
message. When immediate leave is disabled, the switch follows the standard
rules by sending a group-specific query to the receiver port and waiting for a
4-229
4
Command Line Interface
response to determine if there are any remaining subscribers for that multicast
group before removing the port from the group list.
• Using immediate leave can speed up leave latency, but should only be
enabled on a port attached to one multicast subscriber to avoid disrupting
services to other group members attached to the same interface.
• Immediate leave does not apply to multicast groups which have been
statically assigned to a port.
• IGMP snooping must be enabled to a allow a subscriber to dynamically join or
leave an MVR group (see ip igmp snooping on page 4-212). Note that only
IGMP version 2 or 3 hosts can issue multicast join or leave messages.
Example
The following configures one source port and several receiver ports on the switch,
enables immediate leave on one of the receiver ports, and statically assigns a
multicast group to another receiver port:
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/5
Console(config-if)#mvr type source
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/6
Console(config-if)#mvr type receiver
Console(config-if)#mvr immediate
Console(config-if)#exit
Console(config)#interface ethernet 1/7
Console(config-if)#mvr type receiver
Console(config-if)#mvr group 225.0.0.5
Console(config-if)#
show mvr
This command shows information about the global MVR configuration settings when
entered without any keywords, the interfaces attached to the MVR VLAN using the
interface keyword, or the multicast groups assigned to the MVR VLAN using the
members keyword.
Syntax
show mvr [interface [interface] | members [ip-address]]
• interface
• ethernet unit/port
- unit - Stack unit. (Range: 1)
- port - Port number. (Range: 1-28)
• port-channel channel-id (Range: 1-12)
• ip-address - IP address for an MVR multicast group.
(Range: 224.0.1.0 - 239.255.255.255)
Default Setting
Displays global configuration settings for MVR when no keywords are used.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-230
4
Multicast Filtering Commands
Command Usage
Enter this command without any keywords to display the global settings for
MVR. Use the interface keyword to display information about interfaces
attached to the MVR VLAN. Or use the members keyword to display
information about multicast groups assigned to the MVR VLAN.
Example
The following shows the global MVR settings:
Console#show mvr
MVR Status:enable
MVR running status:TRUE
MVR multicast vlan:1
MVR Max Multicast Groups:255
MVR Current multicast groups:10
Console#
Table 4-74 show mvr - display description
Field
Description
MVR Status
Shows if MVR is globally enabled on the switch.
MVR running status
Indicates whether or not all necessary conditions in the MVR environment
are satisfied.
MVR multicast vlan
Shows the VLAN used to transport all MVR multicast traffic.
MVR Max Multicast Groups
Shows the maximum number of multicast groups which can assigned to the
MVR VLAN.
MVR Current multicast groups Shows the number of multicast groups currently assigned to the MVR VLAN.
The following displays information about the interfaces attached to the MVR VLAN:
Console#show mvr interface
Port
Type
Status
------- -------------------eth1/1 SOURCE
ACTIVE/UP
eth1/2 RECEIVER
ACTIVE/UP
eth1/5 RECEIVER
INACTIVE/DOWN
eth1/6 RECEIVER
INACTIVE/DOWN
eth1/7 RECEIVER
INACTIVE/DOWN
Console#
Immediate Leave
--------------Disable
Disable
Disable
Disable
Disable
Table 4-75 show mvr interface - display description
Field
Description
Port
Shows interfaces attached to the MVR.
Type
Shows the MVR port type.
Status
Shows the MVR status and interface status. MVR status for source ports is
“ACTIVE” if MVR is globally enabled on the switch. MVR status for receiver
ports is “ACTIVE” only if there are subscribers receiving multicast traffic from
one of the MVR groups, or a multicast group has been statically assigned to
an interface.
Immediate Leave
Shows if immediate leave is enabled or disabled.
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4
Command Line Interface
The following shows information about the interfaces associated with multicast
groups assigned to the MVR VLAN:
Console#show mvr members
MVR Group IP
Status
---------------- -------225.0.0.1
ACTIVE
225.0.0.2
INACTIVE
225.0.0.3
INACTIVE
225.0.0.4
INACTIVE
225.0.0.5
INACTIVE
225.0.0.6
INACTIVE
225.0.0.7
INACTIVE
225.0.0.8
INACTIVE
225.0.0.9
INACTIVE
225.0.0.10
INACTIVE
Console#
Members
------eth1/1(d), eth1/2(s)
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Table 4-76 show mvr members - display description
Field
Description
MVR Group IP
Multicast groups assigned to the MVR VLAN.
Status
Shows whether or not the there are active subscribers for this multicast group. Note that
this field will also display “INACTIVE” if MVR is globally disabled.
Members
Shows the interfaces with subscribers for multicast services provided through the MVR
VLAN. Also shows if an interface has dynamically joined a multicast group (d), or if a
multicast group has been statically bound to the interface (s).
Domain Name Service Commands
These commands are used to configure Domain Naming System (DNS) services.
You can manually configure entries in the DNS domain name to IP address mapping
table, configure default domain names, or specify one or more name servers to use
for domain name to address translation.
Note that domain name services will not be enabled until at least one name server is
specified with the ip name-server command and domain lookup is enabled with the
ip domain-lookup command.
Table 4-77 DNS Commands
Command
Function
Mode Page
ip host
Creates a static host name-to-address mapping
GC
4-233
clear host
Deletes entries from the host name-to-address table
PE
4-233
ip domain-name
Defines a default domain name for incomplete host names
GC
4-234
ip domain-list
Defines a list of default domain names for incomplete host names GC
4-235
ip name-server
Specifies the address of one or more name servers to use for host GC
name-to-address translation
4-236
ip domain-lookup
Enables DNS-based host name-to-address translation
GC
4-236
show hosts
Displays the static host name-to-address mapping table
PE
4-237
4-232
Domain Name Service Commands
4
Table 4-77 DNS Commands (Continued)
Command
Function
Mode Page
show dns
Displays the configuration for DNS services
PE
show dns cache
Displays entries in the DNS cache
PE
4-238
clear dns cache
Clears all entries from the DNS cache
PE
4-239
4-238
ip host
This command creates a static entry in the DNS table that maps a host name to an
IP address. Use the no form to remove an entry.
Syntax
[no] ip host name address1 [address2 … address8]
• name - Name of the host. (Range: 1-64 characters)
• address1 - Corresponding IP address.
• address2 … address8 - Additional corresponding IP addresses.
Default Setting
No static entries
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
Servers or other network devices may support one or more connections via
multiple IP addresses. If more than one IP address is associated with a host
name using this command, a DNS client can try each address in succession,
until it establishes a connection with the target device.
Example
This example maps two address to a host name.
Console(config)#ip host rd5 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#end
Console#show hosts
Hostname
rd5
Inet address
10.1.0.55 192.168.1.55
Alias
Console#
clear host
This command deletes entries from the DNS table.
Syntax
clear host {name | *}
• name - Name of the host. (Range: 1-64 characters)
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4
Command Line Interface
• * - Removes all entries.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
This example clears all static entries from the DNS table.
Console(config)#clear host *
Console(config)#
ip domain-name
This command defines the default domain name appended to incomplete host
names (i.e., host names passed from a client that are not formatted with dotted
notation). Use the no form to remove the current domain name.
Syntax
ip domain-name name
no ip domain-name
name - Name of the host. Do not include the initial dot that separates the
host name from the domain name. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Example
Console(config)#ip domain-name sample.com
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS disabled
Default Domain Name:
.sample.com
Domain Name List:
Name Server List:
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-list (4-235)
ip name-server (4-236)
ip domain-lookup (4-236)
4-234
Domain Name Service Commands
4
ip domain-list
This command defines a list of domain names that can be appended to incomplete
host names (i.e., host names passed from a client that are not formatted with dotted
notation). Use the no form to remove a name from this list.
Syntax
[no] ip domain-list name
name - Name of the host. Do not include the initial dot that separates the
host name from the domain name. (Range: 1-64 characters)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Domain names are added to the end of the list one at a time.
• When an incomplete host name is received by the DNS service on this switch,
it will work through the domain list, appending each domain name in the list to
the host name, and checking with the specified name servers for a match.
• If there is no domain list, the domain name specified with the ip domain-name
command is used. If there is a domain list, the default domain name is not used.
Example
This example adds two domain names to the current list and then displays the list.
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.jp
Console(config)#ip domain-list sample.com.uk
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS disabled
Default Domain Name:
.sample.com
Domain Name List:
.sample.com.jp
.sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-name (4-234)
4-235
4
Command Line Interface
ip name-server
This command specifies the address of one or more domain name servers to use for
name-to-address resolution. Use the no form to remove a name server from this list.
Syntax
[no] ip name-server server-address1 [server-address2 … server-address6]
• server-address1 - IP address of domain-name server.
• server-address2 … server-address6 - IP address of additional
domain-name servers.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
The listed name servers are queried in the specified sequence until a
response is received, or the end of the list is reached with no response.
Example
This example adds two domain-name servers to the list and then displays the list.
Console(config)#ip domain-server 192.168.1.55 10.1.0.55
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS disabled
Default Domain Name:
.sample.com
Domain Name List:
.sample.com.jp
.sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
Related Commands
ip domain-name (4-234)
ip domain-lookup (4-236)
ip domain-lookup
This command enables DNS host name-to-address translation. Use the no form to
disable DNS.
Syntax
[no] ip domain-lookup
4-236
4
Domain Name Service Commands
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• At least one name server must be specified before you can enable DNS.
• If all name servers are deleted, DNS will automatically be disabled.
Example
This example enables DNS and then displays the configuration.
Console(config)#ip domain-lookup
Console(config)#end
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS enabled
Default Domain Name:
.sample.com
Domain Name List:
.sample.com.jp
.sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Related Commands
ip domain-name (4-234)
ip name-server (4-236)
show hosts
This command displays the static host name-to-address mapping table.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Note that a host name will be displayed as an alias if it is mapped to the same
address(es) as a previously configured entry.
Console#show hosts
Hostname
rd5
Inet address
10.1.0.55 192.168.1.55
Alias
1.rd6
Console#
4-237
4
Command Line Interface
show dns
This command displays the configuration of the DNS service.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show dns
Domain Lookup Status:
DNS enabled
Default Domain Name:
sample.com
Domain Name List:
sample.com.jp
sample.com.uk
Name Server List:
192.168.1.55
10.1.0.55
Console#
show dns cache
This command displays entries in the DNS cache.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show dns cache
NO
FLAG
TYPE
2
4
CNAME
3
4
CNAME
4
4
CNAME
5
4
CNAME
6
4
CNAME
7
4
CNAME
8
4
ALIAS
Console#
IP
66.218.71.84
66.218.71.83
66.218.71.81
66.218.71.80
66.218.71.89
66.218.71.86
POINTER TO:7
TTL
298
298
298
298
298
298
298
DOMAIN
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.akadns.net
www.yahoo.com
Table 4-78 show dns cache - display description
Field
Description
NO
The entry number for each resource record.
FLAG
The flag is always “4” indicating a cache entry and therefore unreliable.
TYPE
This field includes CNAME which specifies the canonical or primary name for the
owner, and ALIAS which specifies multiple domain names which are mapped to
the same IP address as an existing entry.
IP
The IP address associated with this record.
TTL
The time to live reported by the name server.
DOMAIN
The domain name associated with this record.
4-238
Domain Name Service Commands
4
clear dns cache
This command clears all entries in the DNS cache.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#clear dns cache
Console#show dns cache
NO
FLAG
TYPE
IP
Console#
TTL
DOMAIN
4-239
4
Command Line Interface
DHCP Commands
These commands are used to configure Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP) relay and Option 82 functions. The switch can be configured to relay DHCP
client configuration requests to a DHCP server on another network and include
information about the switch and its DHCP clients.
Table 4-79 DHCP Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
ip dhcp relay information Enables or disables DHCP Option 82 information relay
option
GC
4-240
ip dhcp relay information Sets the information option policy for DHCP client packets that
policy
include Option 82 information
GC
4-241
ip dhcp relay server
Specifies the IP addresses of DHCP servers to be used by the
switch’s DHCP relay agent
GC
4-241
show ip dhcp-relay
Displays the current DHCP relay configuration
PE
4-242
ip dhcp relay information option
This command enables the DHCP Option 82 information relay for the switch. Use
the no form to disable this function.
Syntax
[no] ip dhcp relay information option
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• DHCP provides a relay mechanism for sending information about the switch
and its DHCP clients to the DHCP server. Known as DHCP Option 82, it
allows compatible DHCP servers to use the information when assigning IP
addresses, or to set other services or policies for clients.
• When the DHCP relay Option 82 is enabled, clients can be identified by the
VLAN and switch port to which they are connected rather than just their MAC
address. DHCP client-server exchange messages are then forwarded directly
between the server and client without having to flood them to the entire VLAN.
Example
This example enables the DHCP relay Option 82.
Console(config)#ip dhcp relay information option
Console(config)#
4-240
DHCP Commands
4
ip dhcp relay information policy
This command sets the DHCP snooping information option policy for DHCP client
packets that include Option 82 information.
Syntax
ip dhcp relay information policy <drop | keep | replace>
• drop - Discards the client’s DHCP information and then floods the packet
to the VLAN.
• keep - Retains the client’s DHCP information
• replace - Overwrites the DHCP client packet information with the switch’s
relay information.
Default Setting
Replace
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
When the switch receives DHCP packets from clients that already include
DHCP Option 82 information, the switch can be configured to set the action
policy for these packets. Either the switch can discard the Option 82
information, keep the existing information, or replace it with the switch’s relay
information.
Example
Console(config)#ip dhcp relay information policy drop
Console(config)#
ip dhcp relay server
This command specifies the addresses of DHCP servers to be used by the switch’s
DHCP relay agent. Use the no form to clear all addresses.
Syntax
ip dhcp relay server address1 [address2 [address3 ...]]
no ip dhcp relay server
address - IP address of a DHCP server. (Range: 1-5 addresses)
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
4-241
4
Command Line Interface
Usage Guidelines
You must specify the IP address for at least one DHCP server. Otherwise, the
switch’s DHCP relay agent will not operate and all DHCP request and reply
packets will be flooded to the entire VLAN.
Example
Console(config)#ip dhcp relay server 192.168.1.9 192.168.1.54
Console(config)#
show ip dhcp-relay
This command shows the current DHCP relay agent configuration.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip dhcp-relay
Status of DHCP relay option82:
Insertion of option82 is Enabled.
DHCP option policy :replace.
DHCP relay-server address 192.168.1.9 192.168.1.54 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Console#
4-242
IP Interface Commands
4
IP Interface Commands
An IP addresses may be used for management access to the switch over your
network. The IP address for this switch is obtained via DHCP by default. You can
manually configure a specific IP address, or direct the device to obtain an address
from a BOOTP or DHCP server when it is powered on. You may also need to a
establish a default gateway between this device and management stations or other
devices that exist on another network segment.
Table 4-80 IP Interface Commands
Command
Function
Mode
Page
ip address
Sets the IP address for the current interface
IC
4-243
ip default-gateway
Defines the default gateway through which this switch can reach GC
other subnetworks
4-244
ip dhcp restart
Submits a BOOTP or DHCP client request
PE
4-245
ip dhcp relay information Enables or disables DHCP Option 82 information relay
option
GC
4-240
ip dhcp relay information Sets the information option policy for DHCP client packets that
policy
include Option 82 information
GC
4-241
ip dhcp relay server
Specifies the IP addresses of DHCP servers to be used by the
switch’s DHCP relay agent
show ip interface
Displays the IP settings for this device
PE
4-245
show ip redirects
Displays the default gateway configured for this device
PE
4-246
ping
Sends ICMP echo request packets to another node on the
network
NE,
PE
4-246
ip address
This command sets the IP address for the currently selected VLAN interface. Use
the no form to restore the default IP address.
Syntax
ip address {ip-address netmask | bootp | dhcp}
no ip address
• ip-address - IP address
• netmask - Network mask for the associated IP subnet. This mask identifies
the host address bits used for routing to specific subnets.
• bootp - Obtains IP address from BOOTP.
• dhcp - Obtains IP address from DHCP.
Default Setting
DHCP
Command Mode
Interface Configuration (VLAN)
4-243
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• You must assign an IP address to this device to gain management access
over the network. You can manually configure a specific IP address, or direct
the device to obtain an address from a BOOTP or DHCP server. Valid IP
addresses consist of four numbers, 0 to 255, separated by periods. Anything
outside this format will not be accepted by the configuration program.
• If you select the bootp or dhcp option, IP is enabled but will not function until
a BOOTP or DHCP reply has been received. Requests will be broadcast
periodically by this device in an effort to learn its IP address. (BOOTP and
DHCP values can include the IP address, default gateway, and subnet mask).
• You can start broadcasting BOOTP or DHCP requests by entering an ip dhcp
restart command, or by rebooting the switch.
Note: Only one VLAN interface can be assigned an IP address (the default is
VLAN 1). This defines the management VLAN, the only VLAN through
which you can gain management access to the switch. If you assign an IP
address to any other VLAN, the new IP address overrides the original IP
address and this becomes the new management VLAN.
Example
In the following example, the device is assigned an address in VLAN 1.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.5 255.255.255.0
Console(config-if)#
Related Commands
ip dhcp restart (4-245)
ip default-gateway
This command establishes a static route between this switch and devices that exist
on another network segment. Use the no form to remove the static route.
Syntax
ip default-gateway gateway
no ip default-gateway
gateway - IP address of the default gateway
Default Setting
No static route is established.
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
A gateway must be defined if the management station is located in a different
IP segment.
4-244
IP Interface Commands
4
Example
The following example defines a default gateway for this device:
Console(config)#ip default-gateway 10.1.1.254
Console(config)#
Related Commands
show ip redirects (4-246)
ip dhcp restart
This command submits a BOOTP or DHCP client request.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• This command issues a BOOTP or DHCP client request for any IP interface
that has been set to BOOTP or DHCP mode via the ip address command.
• DHCP requires the server to reassign the client’s last address if available.
• If the BOOTP or DHCP server has been moved to a different domain, the
network portion of the address provided to the client will be based on this new
domain.
Example
In the following example, the device is reassigned the same address.
Console(config)#interface vlan 1
Console(config-if)#ip address dhcp
Console(config-if)#end
Console#ip dhcp restart
Console#show ip interface
IP address and netmask: 192.168.1.54 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
and address mode: DHCP.
Console#
Related Commands
ip address (4-243)
show ip interface
This command displays the settings of an IP interface.
Default Setting
All interfaces
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
4-245
4
Command Line Interface
Example
Console#show ip interface
IP address and netmask: 192.168.1.54 255.255.255.0 on VLAN 1,
and address mode:
User specified.
Console#
Related Commands
show ip redirects (4-246)
show ip redirects
This command shows the default gateway configured for this device.
Default Setting
None
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show ip redirects
IP default gateway 10.1.0.254
Console#
Related Commands
ip default-gateway (4-244)
ping
This command sends ICMP echo request packets to another node on the network.
Syntax
ping host [size size] [count count]
• host - IP address or IP alias of the host.
• size - Number of bytes in a packet. (Range: 32-512, default: 32)
The actual packet size will be eight bytes larger than the size specified
because the switch adds header information.
• count - Number of packets to send. (Range: 1-16, default: 5)
Default Setting
This command has no default for the host.
Command Mode
Normal Exec, Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• Use the ping command to see if another site on the network can be reached.
• Following are some results of the ping command:
4-246
IP Interface Commands
4
- Normal response - The normal response occurs in one to ten seconds,
depending on network traffic.
- Destination does not respond - If the host does not respond, a “timeout”
appears in ten seconds.
- Destination unreachable - The gateway for this destination indicates that
the destination is unreachable.
- Network or host unreachable - The gateway found no corresponding entry
in the route table.
• Press <Esc> to stop pinging.
Example
Console#ping 10.1.0.9
Type ESC to abort.
PING to 10.1.0.9, by 5 32-byte payload ICMP packets, timeout is 5 seconds
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
response time: 10 ms
Ping statistics for 10.1.0.9:
5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received (100%), 0 packets lost (0%)
Approximate round trip times:
Minimum = 10 ms, Maximum = 20 ms, Average = 10 ms
Console#
Related Commands
interface (4-131)
4-247
4
Command Line Interface
Switch Cluster Commands
Switch Clustering is a method of grouping switches together to enable centralized
management through a single unit. A switch cluster has a “Commander” unit that is
used to manage all other “Member” switches in the cluster. The management station
uses Telnet to communicate directly with the Commander throught its IP address,
and the Commander manages Member switches using cluster “internal” IP
addresses. There can be up to 36 Member switches in one cluster. Cluster switches
are limited to within a single IP subnet.
Table 4-81 Switch Cluster Commands
Command
Function
Mode
cluster
Configures clustering on the switch
GC
Page
cluster commander
Configures the switch as a cluster Commander
GC
4-249
cluster ip-pool
Sets the cluster IP address pool for Members
GC
4-249
4-248
cluster member
Sets Candidate switches as cluster members
GC
4-250
rcommand
Provides configuration access to Member switches
GC
4-250
show cluster
Displays the switch clustering status
PE
4-251
show cluster members
Displays current cluster Members
PE
4-251
PE
4-252
show cluster candidates Displays current cluster Candidates in the network
cluster
This command enables clustering on the switch. Use the no form to disable
clustering.
Syntax
[no] cluster
Default Setting
Enabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• To create a switch cluster, first be sure that clustering is enabled on the switch
(the default is enabled), then set the switch as a Cluster Commander. Set a
Cluster IP Pool that does not conflict with any other IP subnets in the network.
Cluster IP addresses are assigned to switches when they become Members
and are used for communication between Member switches and the
Commander.
• Switch clusters are limited to a single IP subnet (Layer 2 domain).
• A switch can only be a Member of one cluster.
• Configured switch clusters are maintained across power resets and network
changes.
4-248
4
Switch Cluster Commands
Example
Console(config)#cluster
Console(config)#
cluster commander
This command enables the switch as a cluster Commander. Use the no form to
disable the switch as cluster Commander.
Syntax
[no] cluster commander
Default Setting
Disabled
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• Once a switch has been configured to be a cluster Commander, it
automatically discovers other cluster-enabled switches in the network. These
“Candidate” switches only become cluster Members when manually selected
by the administrator through the management station.
• Cluster Member switches can be managed through only using a Telnet connection
to the Commander. From the Commander CLI prompt, use the rcommand id
command (see page 4-250) to connect to the Member switch.
Example
Console(config)#cluster commander
Console(config)#
cluster ip-pool
This command sets the cluster IP address pool. Use the no form to reset to the
default address.
Syntax
cluster ip-pool <ip-address>
no cluster ip-pool
ip-address - The base IP address for IP addresses assigned to cluster
Members. The IP address must start 10.x.x.x.
Default Setting
10.254.254.1
Command Mode
Global Configuration
4-249
4
Command Line Interface
Command Usage
• An “internal” IP address pool is used to assign IP addresses to Member
switches in the cluster. Internal cluster IP addresses are in the form
10.x.x.member-ID. Only the base IP address of the pool needs to be set since
Member IDs can only be between 1 and 36.
• Set a Cluster IP Pool that does not conflict with addresses in the network IP
subnet. Cluster IP addresses are assigned to switches when they become
Members and are used for communication between Member switches and the
Commander.
• You cannot change the cluster IP pool when the switch is currently in Commander
mode. Commander mode must first be disabled.
Example
Console(config)#cluster ip-pool 10.2.3.4
Console(config)#
cluster member
This command configures a Candidate switch as a cluster Member. Use the no form
to remove a Member switch from the cluster.
Syntax
cluster member mac-address <mac-address> id <member-id>
no cluster member id <member-id>
mac-address - The MAC address of the Candidate switch.
member-id - The ID number to assign to the Member switch.
(Range: 1-36)
Default Setting
No Members
Command Mode
Global Configuration
Command Usage
• The maximum number of cluster Members is 36.
• The maximum number of switch Candidates is 100.
Example
Console(config)#cluster member mac-address 00-12-34-56-78-9a id 5
Console(config)#
rcommand
This command provides access to a cluster Member CLI for configuration.
Syntax
rcommand id <member-id>
member-id - The ID number of the Member switch. (Range: 1-36)
4-250
Switch Cluster Commands
4
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Command Usage
• This command only operates through a Telnet connection to the Commander
switch. Managing cluster Members using the local console CLI on the
Commander is not supported.
• There is no need to enter the username and password for access to the
Member switch CLI.
Example
Vty-0#rcommand id 1
CLI session with the 24/48 L2/L4 GE Switch is opened.
To end the CLI session, enter [Exit].
Vty-0#
show cluster
This command shows the switch clustering configuration.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show cluster
Role:
Interval heartbeat:
Heartbeat loss count:
Number of Members:
Number of Candidates:
Console#
commander
30
3
1
2
show cluster members
This command shows the current switch cluster members.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show cluster members
Cluster Members:
ID:
1
Role:
Active member
IP Address: 10.254.254.2
MAC Address: 00-12-cf-23-49-c0
Description: 24/48 L2/L4 IPV4/IPV6 GE Switch
Console#
4-251
4
Command Line Interface
show cluster candidates
This command shows the discovered Candidate switches in the network.
Command Mode
Privileged Exec
Example
Console#show cluster candidates
Cluster Candidates:
Role
Mac
--------------- ----------------ACTIVE MEMBER
00-12-cf-23-49-c0
CANDIDATE
00-12-cf-0b-47-a0
Console#
4-252
Description
----------------------------------------24/48 L2/L4 IPV4/IPV6 GE Switch
24/48 L2/L4 IPV4/IPV6 GE Switch
Appendix A: Software Specifications
Software Features
Authentication
Local, RADIUS, TACACS, Port (802.1X), HTTPS, SSH, Port Security
Access Control Lists
IP, MAC (up to 88 lists)
DHCP Client
Port Configuration
100BASE-TX: 10/100 Mbps, half/full duplex
1000BASE-T: 10/100 Mbps at half/full duplex, 1000 Mbps at full duplex
Flow Control
Full Duplex: IEEE 802.3-2002
Half Duplex: Back pressure
Broadcast Storm Control
Traffic throttled above a critical threshold
Port Mirroring
One source port, one destination port
Rate Limits
Input Limit
Output limit
Range (configured per port)
Port Trunking
Static trunks (Cisco EtherChannel compliant)
Dynamic trunks (Link Aggregation Control Protocol)
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP, IEEE 802.1D)
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP, IEEE 802.1w)
VLAN Support
Up to 255 groups; port-based or tagged (802.1Q),
GVRP for automatic VLAN learning, private VLANs
Class of Service
Supports four levels of priority and Weighted Round Robin Queueing
(which can be configured by VLAN tag or port),
Layer 3/4 priority mapping: IP Port, IP Precedence, IP DSCP
Multicast Filtering
IGMP Snooping (Layer 2)
A-1
A
Software Specifications
Additional Features
BOOTP client
SNTP (Simple Network Time Protocol)
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
RMON (Remote Monitoring, groups 1,2,3,9)
SMTP Email Alerts
Management Features
In-Band Management
Telnet, Web-based HTTP or HTTPS, SNMP manager, or Secure Shell
Out-of-Band Management
RS-232 DB-9 console port
Software Loading
TFTP in-band or XModem out-of-band
SNMP
Management access via MIB database
Trap management to specified hosts
RMON
Groups 1, 2, 3, 9 (Statistics, History, Alarm, Event)
Standards
IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol and traffic priorities
IEEE 802.1p Priority tags
IEEE 802.1Q VLAN
IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
IEEE 802.1X Port Authentication
IEEE 802.3-2002
Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet
Full-duplex flow control
Link Aggregation Control Protocol
IEEE 802.3ac VLAN tagging
DHCP Client (RFC 1541)
HTTPS
IGMP (RFC 1112)
IGMPv2 (RFC 2236)
RADIUS+ (RFC 2618)
RMON (RFC 1757 groups 1,2,3,9)
SNMP (RFC 1157)
SNMPv2 (RFC 2571)
SNTP (RFC 2030)
SSH (Version 2.0)
TFTP (RFC 1350)
A-2
Management Information Bases
A
Management Information Bases
Bridge MIB (RFC 1493)
Entity MIB (RFC 2737)
Ether-like MIB (RFC 2665)
Extended Bridge MIB (RFC 2674)
Extensible SNMP Agents MIB (RFC 2742)
Forwarding Table MIB (RFC 2096)
IGMP MIB (RFC 2933)
Interface Group MIB (RFC 2233)
Interfaces Evolution MIB (RFC 2863)
IP Multicasting related MIBs
MAU MIB (RFC 2668)
MIB II (RFC 1213)
Port Access Entity MIB (IEEE 802.1X)
Port Access Entity Equipment MIB
Private MIB
RADIUS Authentication Client MIB (RFC 2621)
RMON MIB (RFC 2819)
RMON II Probe Configuration Group (RFC 2021, partial implementation)
SNMP Community MIB (RFC 2576)
SNMPv2 IP MIB (RFC 2011)
TACACS+ Authentication Client MIB
TCP MIB (RFC 2013)
Trap (RFC 1215)
UDP MIB (RFC 2012)
A-3
A
A-4
Software Specifications
Appendix B: Troubleshooting
Problems Accessing the Management Interface
Table B-1 Troubleshooting Chart
Symptom
Action
Cannot connect using Telnet, • Be sure the switch is powered up.
web browser, or SNMP
• Check network cabling between the management station and the switch.
software
• Check that you have a valid network connection to the switch and that the
port you are using has not been disabled.
• Be sure you have configured the VLAN interface through which the
management station is connected with a valid IP address, subnet mask
and default gateway.
• Be sure the management station has an IP address in the same subnet as
the switch’s IP interface to which it is connected.
• If you are trying to connect to the switch via the IP address for a tagged
VLAN group, your management station, and the ports connecting
intermediate switches in the network, must be configured with the
appropriate tag.
• If you cannot connect using Telnet, you may have exceeded the maximum
number of concurrent Telnet/SSH sessions permitted. Try connecting
again at a later time.
Cannot connect using
Secure Shell
• If you cannot connect using SSH, you may have exceeded the maximum
number of concurrent Telnet/SSH sessions permitted. Try connecting
again at a later time.
• Be sure the control parameters for the SSH server are properly configured
on the switch, and that the SSH client software is properly configured on
the management station.
• Be sure you have generated a public key on the switch, and exported this
key to the SSH client.
• Be sure you have set up an account on the switch for each SSH user,
including user name, authentication level, and password.
• Be sure you have imported the client’s public key to the switch (if public
key authentication is used).
Cannot access the on-board • Be sure you have set the terminal emulator program to VT100 compatible,
configuration program via a
8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity, and 9600 bps.
serial port connection
• Check that the null-modem serial cable conforms to the pin-out
connections provided in the Installation Guide.
Forgot or lost the password
• Contact your local distributor.
B-1
B
Troubleshooting
Using System Logs
If a fault does occur, refer to the Installation Guide to ensure that the problem you
encountered is actually caused by the switch. If the problem appears to be caused
by the switch, follow these steps:
1.
Enable logging.
2.
Set the error messages reported to include all categories.
3.
Designate the SNMP host that is to receive the error messages.
4.
Repeat the sequence of commands or other actions that lead up to the error.
5.
Make a list of the commands or circumstances that led to the fault. Also make a
list of any error messages displayed.
6.
Contact your distributor’s service engineer.
For example:
Console(config)#logging on
Console(config)#logging history flash 7
Console(config)#snmp-server host 192.168.1.23
.
.
.
B-2
Glossary
Access Control List (ACL)
ACLs can limit network traffic and restrict access to certain users or devices by
checking each packet for certain IP or MAC (i.e., Layer 2) information.
Boot Protocol (BOOTP)
BOOTP is used to provide bootup information for network devices, including IP
address information, the address of the TFTP server that contains the devices
system files, and the name of the boot file.
Class of Service (CoS)
CoS is supported by prioritizing packets based on the required level of service, and
then placing them in the appropriate output queue. Data is transmitted from the
queues using weighted round-robin service to enforce priority service and prevent
blockage of lower-level queues. Priority may be set according to the port default, the
packet’s priority bit (in the VLAN tag), TCP/UDP port number, IP Precedence bit, or
DSCP priority bit.
Differentiated Services Code Point Service (DSCP)
DSCP uses a six-bit tag to provide for up to 64 different forwarding behaviors. Based
on network policies, different kinds of traffic can be marked for different kinds of
forwarding. The DSCP bits are mapped to the Class of Service categories, and then
into the output queues.
Domain Name Service (DNS)
A system used for translating host names for network nodes into IP addresses.
Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP)
Provides a framework for passing configuration information to hosts on a TCP/IP
network. DHCP is based on the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP), adding the capability
of automatic allocation of reusable network addresses and additional configuration
options.
Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPOL)
EAPOL is a client authentication protocol used by this switch to verify the network
access rights for any device that is plugged into the switch. A user name and
password is requested by the switch, and then passed to an authentication server
(e.g., RADIUS) for verification. EAPOL is implemented as part of the IEEE 802.1X
Port Authentication standard.
Glossary-1
Glossary
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol (GVRP)
Defines a way for switches to exchange VLAN information in order to register
necessary VLAN members on ports along the Spanning Tree so that VLANs defined
in each switch can work automatically over a Spanning Tree network.
Generic Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP)
GARP is a protocol that can be used by endstations and switches to register and
propagate multicast group membership information in a switched environment so
that multicast data frames are propagated only to those parts of a switched LAN
containing registered endstations. Formerly called Group Address Registration
Protocol.
Generic Multicast Registration Protocol (GMRP)
GMRP allows network devices to register end stations with multicast groups. GMRP
requires that any participating network devices or end stations comply with the IEEE
802.1p standard.
Group Attribute Registration Protocol (GARP)
See Generic Attribute Registration Protocol.
IEEE 802.1D
Specifies a general method for the operation of MAC bridges, including the
Spanning Tree Protocol.
IEEE 802.1Q
VLAN Tagging—Defines Ethernet frame tags which carry VLAN information. It
allows switches to assign endstations to different virtual LANs, and defines a
standard way for VLANs to communicate across switched networks.
IEEE 802.1p
An IEEE standard for providing quality of service (QoS) in Ethernet networks. The
standard uses packet tags that define up to eight traffic classes and allows switches
to transmit packets based on the tagged priority value.
IEEE 802.1X
Port Authentication controls access to the switch ports by requiring users to first
enter a user ID and password for authentication.
IEEE 802.3ac
Defines frame extensions for VLAN tagging.
IEEE 802.3x
Defines Ethernet frame start/stop requests and timers used for flow control on
full-duplex links.
Glossary-2
Glossary
IGMP Snooping
Listening to IGMP Query and IGMP Report packets transferred between IP Multicast
Routers and IP Multicast host groups to identify IP Multicast group members.
IGMP Query
On each subnetwork, one IGMP-capable device will act as the querier — that is, the
device that asks all hosts to report on the IP multicast groups they wish to join or to
which they already belong. The elected querier will be the device with the lowest IP
address in the subnetwork.
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
A protocol through which hosts can register with their local router for multicast
services. If there is more than one multicast switch/router on a given subnetwork,
one of the devices is made the “querier” and assumes responsibility for keeping
track of group membership.
In-Band Management
Management of the network from a station attached directly to the network.
IP Multicast Filtering
A process whereby this switch can pass multicast traffic along to participating hosts.
IP Precedence
The Type of Service (ToS) octet in the IPv4 header includes three precedence bits
defining eight different priority levels ranging from highest priority for network control
packets to lowest priority for routine traffic. The eight values are mapped one-to-one
to the Class of Service categories by default, but may be configured differently to
suit the requirements for specific network applications.
Layer 2
Data Link layer in the ISO 7-Layer Data Communications Protocol. This is related
directly to the hardware interface for network devices and passes on traffic based on
MAC addresses.
Link Aggregation
See Port Trunk.
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP)
Allows ports to automatically negotiate a trunked link with LACP-configured ports on
another device.
Management Information Base (MIB)
An acronym for Management Information Base. It is a set of database objects that
contains information about a specific device.
Glossary-3
Glossary
MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm
An algorithm that is used to create digital signatures. It is intended for use with 32 bit
machines and is safer than the MD4 algorithm, which has been broken. MD5 is a
one-way hash function, meaning that it takes a message and converts it into a fixed
string of digits, also called a message digest.
Multicast Switching
A process whereby the switch filters incoming multicast frames for services for
which no attached host has registered, or forwards them to all ports contained within
the designated multicast VLAN group.
Network Time Protocol (NTP)
NTP provides the mechanisms to synchronize time across the network. The time
servers operate in a hierarchical-master-slave configuration in order to synchronize
local clocks within the subnet and to national time standards via wire or radio.
Out-of-Band Management
Management of the network from a station not attached to the network.
Port Authentication
See IEEE 802.1X.
Port Mirroring
A method whereby data on a target port is mirrored to a monitor port for
troubleshooting with a logic analyzer or RMON probe. This allows data on the target
port to be studied unobstructively.
Port Trunk
Defines a network link aggregation and trunking method which specifies how to
create a single high-speed logical link that combines several lower-speed physical
links.
Private VLANs
Private VLANs provide port-based security and isolation between ports within the
assigned VLAN. Data traffic on downlink ports can only be forwarded to, and from,
uplink ports.
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS)
RADIUS is a logon authentication protocol that uses software running on a central
server to control access to RADIUS-compliant devices on the network.
Glossary-4
Glossary
Remote Monitoring (RMON)
RMON provides comprehensive network monitoring capabilities. It eliminates the
polling required in standard SNMP, and can set alarms on a variety of traffic
conditions, including specific error types.
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
RSTP reduces the convergence time for network topology changes to about 10% of
that required by the older IEEE 802.1D STP standard.
Secure Shell (SSH)
A secure replacement for remote access functions, including Telnet. SSH can
authenticate users with a cryptographic key, and encrypt data connections between
management clients and the switch.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
The application protocol in the Internet suite of protocols which offers network
management services.
Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP)
SNTP allows a device to set its internal clock based on periodic updates from a
Network Time Protocol (NTP) server. Updates can be requested from a specific NTP
server, or can be received via broadcasts sent by NTP servers.
Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA)
A technology that checks your network for any loops. A loop can often occur in
complicated or backup linked network systems. Spanning Tree detects and directs
data along the shortest available path, maximizing the performance and efficiency of
the network.
Telnet
Defines a remote communication facility for interfacing to a terminal device over
TCP/IP.
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus (TACACS+)
TACACS+ is a logon authentication protocol that uses software running on a central
server to control access to TACACS-compliant devices on the network.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Protocol suite that includes TCP as the primary transport protocol, and IP as the
network layer protocol.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
A TCP/IP protocol commonly used for software downloads.
Glossary-5
Glossary
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
UDP provides a datagram mode for packet-switched communications. It uses IP as
the underlying transport mechanism to provide access to IP-like services. UDP
packets are delivered just like IP packets – connection-less datagrams that may be
discarded before reaching their targets. UDP is useful when TCP would be too
complex, too slow, or just unnecessary.
Virtual LAN (VLAN)
A Virtual LAN is a collection of network nodes that share the same collision domain
regardless of their physical location or connection point in the network. A VLAN
serves as a logical workgroup with no physical barriers, and allows users to share
information and resources as though located on the same LAN.
XModem
A protocol used to transfer files between devices. Data is grouped in 128-byte
blocks and error-corrected.
Glossary-6
Index
Numerics
D
802.1X, port authentication 3-68
default gateway, configuration 3-14,
4-245
default priority, ingress port 3-158,
4-199
default settings, system 1-5
DHCP 3-16, 4-244
client 3-14, 4-233
dynamic configuration 2-5
DHCP Relay Option 82 3-17
DHCP snooping
global configuration 4-249, 4-250
verifying MAC addresses 4-241,
4-242
Differentiated Code Point Service See
DSCP
DNS
default domain name 3-189, 4-234
displaying the cache 3-193
domain name list 3-189, 4-233
enabling lookup 3-189, 4-237
name server list 3-189, 4-236
static entries 3-192
Domain Name Service See DNS
downloading software 3-20, 4-70
DSCP
enabling 3-164, 4-207
mapping priorities 3-166, 3-169,
4-207
dynamic addresses, displaying 3-115,
4-158
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
See DHCP
A
acceptable frame type 3-150, 4-182
Access Control List See ACL
ACL
Extended IP 3-83, 4-102, 4-103,
4-105
MAC 3-83, 4-102, 4-110,
4-110–4-112
Standard IP 3-83, 4-102, 4-103,
4-104
address table 3-114, 4-156
aging time 3-117, 4-159
B
BOOTP 3-16, 4-244
BPDU 3-118
broadcast storm, threshold 3-105,
4-137
C
Class of Service See CoS
CLI, showing commands 4-4
command line interface See CLI
community ports 3-152, 4-188
community string 2-6, 3-40, 4-118
community VLANs 3-154, 4-189
configuration settings, saving or
restoring 2-8, 3-22, 4-70
console port, required connections 2-2
CoS
configuring 3-158, 4-198
DSCP 3-166, 3-169, 4-207
IP precedence 3-165, 4-204, 4-205
layer 3/4 priorities 3-164, 4-204
queue mapping 3-160, 4-201
queue mode 3-162, 4-199
traffic class weights 3-163, 4-200
E
edge port, STA 3-129, 3-131, 4-172
event logging 4-44
F
firmware
displaying version 3-11, 4-68
upgrading 3-20, 4-70
Index-1
Index
G
GARP VLAN Registration Protocol See
GVRP
gateway, default 3-14, 4-245
GVRP
global setting 4-194
interface configuration 3-150, 4-195
GVRP, global setting 3-142
H
hardware version, displaying 3-11,
4-68
HTTPS 3-59, 4-32
HTTPS, secure server 3-59, 4-32
I
IEEE 802.1D 3-117, 4-162
IEEE 802.1s 4-162
IEEE 802.1w 3-117, 4-162
IEEE 802.1X 3-68, 4-85
IGMP
groups, displaying 3-176, 4-215
Layer 2 3-171, 4-212
query 3-171, 4-216
query, Layer 2 3-171, 4-216
snooping 3-171, 4-212
snooping, configuring 3-171, 4-212
ingress filtering 3-150, 4-183
IP address
BOOTP/DHCP 3-16, 4-244, 4-246
DHCP Option 82 3-17
setting 2-4, 3-14, 4-244
IP precedence
enabling 3-164, 4-204, 4-205
mapping priorities 3-165, 4-206
isolated ports 3-152, 4-188
link type, STA 3-129, 3-131, 4-173
logging
syslog traps 4-47
to syslog servers 4-46
log-in, Web interface 3-2
logon authentication 3-54, 4-76
RADIUS client 4-78
RADIUS server 4-78
TACACS+ client 3-56, 4-81
TACACS+ server 3-56, 4-81
logon authentication, sequence 3-57,
4-76, 4-77
M
main menu 3-4
Management Information Bases
(MIBs) A-3
mirror port, configuring 3-106, 4-142
MSTP 4-162
global settings 3-132, 4-160
interface settings 3-130, 4-161
multicast filtering 3-170, 3-183, 3-194,
4-211
multicast groups 3-176, 4-215
displaying 4-215
static 3-176, 4-212, 4-215
multicast services
configuring 3-177, 3-184, 3-185,
3-187, 4-212
displaying 3-176, 4-215
multicast, filtering and throttling 4-221
multicast, static router port 3-175,
4-219
MVR
setting interface type 4-229
setting multicast groups 4-228
specifying a VLAN 4-228
using immediate leave 4-229
J
jumbo frame 4-69
O
Option 82, DHCP 3-17
L
LACP
local parameters 4-152
partner parameters 4-152
protocol message statistics 4-152
Index-2
P
password, line 4-13, 4-14
passwords 2-4
administrator setting 3-54, 4-27
Index
path cost 3-120, 3-128
method 3-124, 4-165
STA 3-120, 3-128, 4-165
port authentication 3-68
port priority
configuring 3-158, 4-198
default ingress 3-158, 4-199
STA 3-129, 4-171
port security, configuring 3-66, 4-84
port, statistics 3-109, 4-139
ports
autonegotiation 3-92, 4-133
broadcast storm threshold 3-105,
4-137
capabilities 3-92, 4-134
duplex mode 3-91, 4-132
flow control 3-92, 4-135
speed 3-91, 4-132
ports, configuring 3-89, 4-131
ports, mirroring 3-106, 4-142
primary VLAN 3-153
priority, default port ingress 3-158,
4-199
private VLANs, configuring 3-152,
4-188
problems, troubleshooting B-1
promiscuous ports 3-152, 4-188
protocol migration 3-132, 4-176
PVLAN
association 3-154
community ports 3-152, 4-188
interface configuration 3-156
isolated ports 3-152, 4-188
primary VLAN 3-153
promiscuous ports 3-152, 4-188
Q
queue weights 3-163, 4-200
R
RADIUS, logon authentication 4-78
rate limits, setting 3-107, 4-144
remote logging 4-47
restarting the system 3-34, 4-23
RSTP 3-117, 4-162
global configuration 3-119, 4-162
S
secure shell 3-61, 4-35
Secure Shell configuration 3-61, 4-38
serial port
configuring 4-11
Simple Network Management Protocol
See SNMP
SNMP 3-38
community string 3-40, 4-118
enabling traps 3-41, 4-122
filtering IP addresses 3-80
trap manager 3-41, 4-120
software
displaying version 3-11, 4-68
downloading 3-20, 4-70
Spanning Tree Protocol See STA
specifications, software A-1
SSH, configuring 3-61, 4-38
STA 3-117, 4-160
edge port 3-129, 3-131, 4-172
global settings, configuring 3-123,
4-161–4-166
global settings, displaying 3-119,
4-176
interface settings 3-127, 3-136,
3-137, 4-170–4-176, 4-177
link type 3-129, 3-131, 4-173
path cost 3-120, 3-128, 4-170
path cost method 3-124, 4-165
port priority 3-129, 4-171
protocol migration 3-132, 4-176
transmission limit 3-124, 4-166
standards, IEEE A-2
startup files
creating 3-23, 4-70
displaying 3-20, 4-63
setting 3-20, 4-75
static addresses, setting 3-114, 4-157
statistics
port 3-109, 4-139
STP 3-123, 4-162
STP Also see STA
system clock, setting 3-35, 4-54
System Logs 3-28
system software, downloading from
server 3-20, 4-70
Index-3
Index
3-148, 4-185
creating 3-145, 4-180
description 3-139, 3-158
displaying basic information 3-142,
4-195
displaying port members 3-143,
4-187
egress mode 3-151, 4-182
interface configuration 3-150,
4-182–4-186
private 3-152, 4-188
T
TACACS+, logon authentication 3-56,
4-81
time, setting 3-35, 4-54
traffic class weights 3-163, 4-200
trap manager 2-7, 3-41, 4-120
troubleshooting B-1
trunk
configuration 3-93, 4-146
LACP 3-95, 4-148
static 3-94, 4-147
W
U
upgrading software 3-20, 4-70
user password 3-54, 4-27, 4-28
V
VLANs 3-139–3-158, 4-179–4-194
adding static members 3-147,
Index-4
Web interface
access requirements 3-1
configuration buttons 3-3
home page 3-2
menu list 3-4
panel display 3-3
ES3526XA
ES3552XA
E122006-CS-R02D
149100005500H