Dell PowerEdge Expandable RAID Controller 3 User`s guide

Dell_PERC6.2_UG.book Page 1 Wednesday, June 24, 2009 6:08 PM
Dell™ PowerEdge™ Expandable
RAID Controller (PERC) 6/i,
PERC 6/E and CERC 6/i
User’s Guide
w w w. d e l l . c o m | s u p p o r t . d e l l . c o m
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Notes, Cautions, and Warnings
NOTE: A NOTE indicates important information that helps you make better use of
your system.
CAUTION: A CAUTION indicates potential damage to hardware or loss of data if
instructions are not followed.
WARNING: A WARNING indicates a potential for property damage,
personal injury, or death.
____________________
Information in this document is subject to change without notice.
© 2007–2009 Dell Inc. All rights reserved.
Reproduction of these materials in any manner whatsoever without the written permission of Dell Inc.
is strictly forbidden.
Trademarks used in this text: Dell, the DELL logo, PowerEdge, PowerVault, Dell Precision, and
OpenManage are trademarks of Dell Inc.; MegaRAID is a registered trademark of LSI Corporation;
Microsoft, MS-DOS, Windows Server, Windows, and Windows Vista are either trademarks or registered
trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries; Citrix XenServer is
a trademark of Citrix Systems Inc. and/or one or more of its subsidiaries, and may be registered in the
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and in other countries; VMware is a registered trademark of VMware,
Inc. in the United States and/or other jurisdictions; Solaris is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc.;
Intel is a registered trademark of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States or other
countries; Novell and NetWare are registered trademarks, and SUSE is a registered trademark of Novell,
Inc. in the United States and other countries; Red Hat and Red Hat Enterprise Linux are registered
trademarks of Red Hat, Inc.
Other trademarks and trade names may be used in this document to refer to either the entities claiming
the marks and names or their products. Dell Inc. disclaims any proprietary interest in trademarks and
trade names other than its own.
Models UCC-60, UCP-60, UCPM-60, and UCP-61
June 2009
Rev. A01
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Contents
1
WARNING: Safety Instructions
. . . . . . . .
11
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
SAFETY: When Working Inside Your System
. . . . . .
12
Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge
. . . . . .
13
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
SAFETY: General
SAFETY: Battery Disposal
2
Overview
PERC 6 and CERC 6/i Controller Descriptions .
PCI Architecture
. . . . .
15
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15
Operating System Support .
RAID Description
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
Summary of RAID Levels .
RAID Terminology .
3
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
About PERC 6 and CERC
6/i Controllers . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
PERC 6 and CERC 6 Controller Features .
Using the SMART Feature .
21
. . . . . . . .
21
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24
Contents
3
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Initializing Virtual Disks .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Background Initialization .
25
. . . . . . . . . .
26
Full Initialization of Virtual Disks
Fast Initialization of Virtual Disks .
. . . . . . . . .
26
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26
Disk Roaming.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
Disk Migration
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
Consistency Checks
Compatibility With Virtual Disks Created
on PERC 5 Controllers . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .
28
Compatibility With Virtual Disks Created
on SAS 6/iR Controllers . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .
28
. . . . . . .
29
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30
. . . . . . . . . . .
30
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31
Migrating Virtual Disks from SAS 6/iR
to PERC 6 and CERC 6/i . . . . . . . .
Battery Management .
Battery Warranty Information
Battery Learn Cycle .
Virtual Disk Write Cache Policies .
. . . . . . . . . . .
Write-Back and Write-Through.
. . . . . . . . . .
Conditions Under Which Write-Back
is Employed . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
Conditions Under Which Write-Through
is Employed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .
Conditions Under Which Forced Write-Back
With No Battery is Employed . . . . . . . . .
32
32
33
33
Virtual Disk Read Policies .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33
Reconfiguring Virtual Disks
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36
. . . . . . . . . . . .
36
. . . . . . . . . . .
37
Physical Disk Hot Swapping
Failed Physical Disk Detection
Contents
32
. . .
Fault Tolerance Features .
4
25
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Redundant Path With Static Load
Balancing Support . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
Using Replace Member and Revertible
Hot Spares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .
37
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
Patrol Read Feature
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38
Patrol Read Modes .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
39
Patrol Read .
4
37
Installing and Configuring Hardware
. . .
41
. . . . .
41
Installing the Transportable Battery Backup
Unit (TBBU) on PERC 6/E . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .
46
Installing the DIMM on a PERC 6/E Adapter
. . . . . .
47
. . . . . . .
48
Installing the PERC 6/E and PERC 6/i Adapters
Transferring a TBBU Between Controllers
Removing the PERC 6/E and PERC 6/i Adapters .
Removing the DIMM and Battery from a
PERC 6/E Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .
49
. . . . . . . .
52
Disconnecting the BBU from a PERC 6/i Adapter
or a PERC 6/i Integrated Controller . . . . . . . .
Setting up Redundant Path Support on the
PERC 6/E Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .
54
. . . . . . .
55
Reverting From Redundant Path Support to Single
Path Support on the PERC 6/E Adapter . . . . . . .
. .
58
Removing and Installing the PERC 6/i and CERC 6/i
Integrated Storage Controller Cards in Dell
Modular Blade Systems (Service-Only Procedure) .
. .
59
. . . . . . .
60
Installing the Storage Controller Card
Contents
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5
Driver Installation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Windows Drivers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
64
. . . . . . . . . . .
64
Creating the Driver Media
Pre-Installation Requirements
Installing the Driver During a Windows
Server 2003 or Windows XP
Operating System Installation. . . . . .
. . . . . .
Installing the Driver During a Windows Server
2008 or Windows Vista Installation . . . . . . .
66
. . .
67
. . . .
68
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
69
Updating an Existing Windows Server 2003,
Windows Server 2008, Windows XP,
or Windows Vista Driver . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux Operating
System Using the Driver Update Diskette . .
. . .
71
. . . . . .
71
. . . . . . . . .
72
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
74
Installing SUSE Linux Enterprise Server
Using the Driver Update Diskette . . . .
Installing the RPM Package With
DKMS Support . . . . . . . . . .
Installing Solaris Driver
Installing Solaris 10 on a PowerEdge System
Booting From a PERC 6 or CERC 6/i Controller
. . .
74
. . . . . . . . .
75
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
75
Adding/Updating the Driver to an
Existing System . . . . . . . . . .
Installing NetWare Drivers
Installing the NetWare Driver in a New
NetWare System . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .
Installing or Updating the NetWare Driver in
an Existing NetWare System . . . . . . . . .
6
Contents
65
. .
Installing a Windows Server 2003, Windows
Server 2008, Windows Vista, or Windows XP
Driver for a New RAID Controller . . . . . . .
Installing Linux Driver .
63
. . .
75
76
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6
Configuring and Managing RAID .
. . . . . .
77
. . . . . . .
77
. . . . . . . . . . . .
77
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
78
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
79
Dell OpenManage Storage Management .
Dell SAS RAID Storage Manager
RAID Configuration Functions .
BIOS Configuration Utility .
Entering the BIOS Configuration Utility .
Exiting the Configuration Utility .
79
. . . . . . . . . .
80
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
80
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
83
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
85
Menu Navigation Controls
Setting Up Virtual Disks.
Virtual Disk Management
. . . . . .
Creating Virtual Disks .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Initializing Virtual Disks .
85
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
88
. . . . . . . . . . . .
88
Checking Data Consistency
Importing or Clearing Foreign Configurations
Using the VD Mgmt Menu . . . . . . . . . .
. . .
89
. . . . . . . . .
90
. . . . . . . . . . . .
93
Importing or Clearing Foreign
Configurations Using the Foreign
Configuration View Screen . . . .
Managing Preserved Cache
Managing Dedicated Hot Spares.
. . . . . . . . .
94
Deleting Virtual Disks .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
95
Deleting Disk Groups .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
95
. . . . . . . . . . . .
96
Resetting the Configuration
BIOS Configuration Utility Menu Options.
. . . . .
96
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
105
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
105
Physical Disk Management
Setting LED Blinking
Creating Global Hot Spares.
. . . . . . . . . . . .
105
. . . .
106
Removing Global or Dedicated Hot Spares
Contents
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Replacing an Online Physical Disk
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
108
Performing a Manual Rebuild of an
Individual Physical Disk . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
108
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
109
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
109
. . . . . . . . . . .
110
Controller Management
Enabling Boot Support
Enabling BIOS Stop on Error
Restoring Factory Default Settings .
7
Troubleshooting .
. . . . . . .
111
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
113
Post Error Messages .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
113
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
119
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
120
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
120
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
121
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
122
. . . . . . . . .
123
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
125
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
126
Virtual Disks Degraded
Memory Errors
Pinned Cache State
General Problems
Physical Disk Related Issues
Physical Disk Failures and Rebuilds
SMART Errors
Replace Member Errors
Linux Operating System Errors .
Controller LED Indicators
. . . . . . . . . . . .
127
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
129
Drive Carrier LED Indicators .
8
Contents
107
Stopping Background Initialization .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
130
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A Regulatory Notices
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
133
B Corporate Contact Details (Taiwan Only) 135
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
137
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
157
Glossary
Index
Contents
9
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10
Contents
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WARNING: Safety Instructions
Use the following safety guidelines to help ensure your own personal safety
and to help protect your system and working environment from potential
damage.
WARNING: There is a danger of a new battery exploding if it is incorrectly
installed. Replace the battery only with the same or equivalent type recommended
by the manufacturer. See "SAFETY: Battery Disposal" on page 14.
NOTE: For complete information about U.S. Terms and Conditions of Sale, Limited
Warranties, and Returns, Export Regulations, Software License Agreement, Safety,
Environmental and Ergonomic Instructions, Regulatory Notices, and Recycling
Information, see the documentation that was shipped with your system.
SAFETY: General
•
Observe and follow service markings. Do not service any product except as
explained in your user documentation. Opening or removing covers that
are marked with the triangular symbol with a lightning bolt may expose
you to electrical shock. Components inside these compartments must be
serviced only by a trained service technician.
•
If any of the following conditions occur, unplug the product from the
electrical outlet, and replace the part or contact your trained service
provider:
•
–
The power cable, extension cable, or plug is damaged.
–
An object has fallen in the product.
–
The product has been exposed to water.
–
The product has been dropped or damaged.
–
The product does not operate correctly when you follow the operating
instructions.
Use the product only with approved equipment.
WARNING: Safety Instructions
11
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•
Operate the product only from the type of external power source indicated
on the electrical ratings label. If you are not sure of the type of power
source required, consult your service provider or local power company.
•
Handle batteries carefully. Do not disassemble, crush, puncture, short
external contacts, dispose of in fire or water, or expose batteries to
temperatures higher than 60° Celsius (140° Fahrenheit). Do not attempt
to open or service batteries; replace batteries only with batteries designated
for the product.
SAFETY: When Working Inside Your System
Before you remove the system covers, perform the following steps in the
sequence indicated.
WARNING: Except as expressly otherwise instructed in Dell documentation, only
trained service technicians are authorized to remove the system cover and access
any of the components inside the system.
WARNING: To help avoid possible damage to the system board, wait 5 seconds
after turning off the system before removing a component from the system board or
disconnecting a peripheral device.
1 Turn off the system and any connected devices.
2 Disconnect your system and devices from their power sources. To reduce
the potential of personal injury or shock, disconnect any
telecommunication lines from the system.
3 Ground yourself by touching an unpainted metal surface on the chassis
before touching anything inside the system.
4 While you work, periodically touch an unpainted metal surface on the
chassis to dissipate any static electricity that might harm internal
components.
12
WARNING: Safety Instructions
Dell_PERC6.2_UG.book Page 13 Wednesday, June 24, 2009 6:08 PM
In addition, note these safety guidelines when appropriate:
•
When you disconnect a cable, pull on its connector or on its strain-relief
loop, not on the cable itself. Some cables have a connector with locking
tabs. If you are disconnecting this type of cable, press in on the locking
tabs before disconnecting the cable. As you pull connectors apart, keep
them evenly aligned to avoid bending any connector pins. Also, when you
connect a cable, make sure both connectors are correctly oriented and
aligned.
•
Handle components and cards with care. Do not touch the components or
contacts on a card. Hold a card by its edges or by its metal mounting
bracket. Hold a component such as a microprocessor chip by its edges, not
by its pins.
Protecting Against Electrostatic Discharge
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) events can harm electronic components inside
your system. Under certain conditions, ESD may build up on your body or an
object, such as a peripheral, and then discharge insto another object, such as
your system. To prevent ESD damage, you must discharge static electricity from
your body before you interact with any of your system’s internal electronic
components, such as a memory module. You can protect against ESD by
touching a metal grounded object (such as an unpainted metal surface on
your system’s I/O panel) before you interact with anything electronic. When
connecting a peripheral (including handheld digital assistants) to your system,
you should always ground both yourself and the peripheral before connecting
it to the system. Additionally, as you work inside the system, periodically
touch an I/O connector to remove any static charge your body may have
accumulated.
WARNING: Safety Instructions
13
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You can also take the following steps to prevent damage from electrostatic
discharge:
•
When unpacking a static-sensitive component from its shipping carton, do
not remove the component from the antistatic packing material until you
are ready to install the component. Just before unwrapping the antistatic
package, be sure to discharge static electricity from your body.
•
When transporting a sensitive component, first place it in an antistatic
container or packaging.
•
Handle all electrostatic sensitive components in a static-safe area. If
possible, use antistatic floor pads and work bench pads.
SAFETY: Battery Disposal
Your system may use a nickel-metal hydride (NiMH), lithium
coin-cell, and/or a lithium-ion battery. The NiMH, lithium coincell, and lithium-ion batteries are long-life batteries, and it is
possible that you will never need to replace them. However, should
you need to replace them, see the instructions included in the
section "Configuring and Managing RAID" on page 77.
NOTE: Do not dispose of the battery along with household waste. Contact your
local waste disposal agency for the address of the nearest battery deposit site.
NOTE: Your system may also include circuit cards or other components that
contain batteries. These batteries too must be disposed of in a battery deposit site.
For information about such batteries, see the documentation for the specific card or
component.
Taiwan Battery Recycling Mark
14
WARNING: Safety Instructions
Dell_PERC6.2_UG.book Page 15 Wednesday, June 24, 2009 6:08 PM
Overview
The Dell™ PowerEdge™ Expandable RAID Controller (PERC) 6 family of
controllers and the Dell Cost-Effective RAID Controller (CERC) 6/i offer
redundant array of independent disks (RAID) control capabilities. The PERC 6
and CERC 6/i Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) RAID controllers only support
Dell-qualified SAS and SATA hard disk drives (HDD) and solid-state
drives (SSD). The controllers are designed to provide reliability, high
performance, and fault-tolerant disk subsystem management.
PERC 6 and CERC 6/i Controller Descriptions
The following list describes each type of controller:
•
The PERC 6/E Adapter with two external x4 SAS ports and a transportable
battery backup unit (TBBU)
•
The PERC 6/i Adapter with two internal x4 SAS ports, with or without a
battery backup unit, depending on the system
•
The PERC 6/i Integrated controller with two internal x4 SAS ports and a
battery backup unit
•
The CERC 6/i Integrated controller with one internal x4 SAS port and no
battery backup unit
Each controller supports up to 64 virtual disks.
NOTE: The number of virtual disks supported by the PERC 6/i and the CERC 6/i
cards is limited by the configuration supported by the system.
PCI Architecture
•
PERC 6 controllers support a Peripheral Component Interconnect
Express (PCI-E) x8 host interface.
•
CERC 6/i Modular controllers support a PCI-E x4 host interface.
NOTE: PCI-E is a high-performance input/output (I/O) bus architecture designed to
increase data transfers without slowing down the Central Processing Unit (CPU).
Overview
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Operating System Support
The PERC 6 and CERC 6/i controllers support the following operating systems:
•
Citrix® XenServer® Dell Edition
•
Microsoft® Windows Server® 2003
•
Microsoft Windows® XP
•
Microsoft Windows Vista®
•
Microsoft Windows Server 2008 (including Hyper-V™ virtualization)
•
Novell® NetWare® 6.5
•
Red Hat® Enterprise Linux® Version 4 and Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Version 5
•
Solaris™ 10 (64-bit)
•
SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server Version 9 (64-bit), Version 10 (64-bit),
and Version 11 (64-bit)
•
VMware® ESX 3.5 and 3.5i
NOTE: Windows XP and Windows Vista operating systems are supported with a
PERC 6 controller only when the controller is installed in a Dell Precision™
workstation.
NOTE: For the latest list of supported operating systems and driver installation
instructions, see the system documentation on the Dell Support website
at support.dell.com. For specific operating system service pack requirements,
see the Drivers and Downloads section on the Dell Support site at support.dell.com.
RAID Description
RAID is a group of independent physical disks that provides high performance by
increasing the number of drives used for saving and accessing data. A RAID disk
subsystem improves I/O performance and data availability. The physical disk
group appears to the host system either as a single storage unit or multiple
logical units. Data throughput improves because several disks are accessed
simultaneously. RAID systems also improve data storage availability and fault
tolerance. Data loss caused by a physical disk failure can be recovered by rebuilding
missing data from the remaining physical disks containing data or parity.
CAUTION: In the event of a physical disk failure, a RAID 0 virtual disk fails,
resulting in data loss.
16
Overview
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Summary of RAID Levels
•
RAID 0 uses disk striping to provide high data throughput, especially for
large files in an environment that requires no data redundancy.
•
RAID 1 uses disk mirroring so that data written to one physical disk is
simultaneously written to another physical disk. RAID 1 is good for small
databases or other applications that require small capacity, but also require
complete data redundancy.
•
RAID 5 uses disk striping and parity data across all physical disks
(distributed parity) to provide high data throughput and data redundancy,
especially for small random access.
•
RAID 6 is an extension of RAID 5 and uses an additional parity block.
RAID 6 uses block-level striping with two parity blocks distributed across
all member disks. RAID 6 provides protection against double disk failures,
and failures while a single disk is rebuilding. If you are using only one array,
deploying RAID 6 is more effective than deploying a hot spare disk.
•
RAID 10, a combination of RAID 0 and RAID 1, uses disk striping across
mirrored disks. It provides high data throughput and complete data
redundancy. RAID 10 can support up to eight spans, and up to 32 physical
disks per span.
•
RAID 50, a combination of RAID 0 and RAID 5, uses distributed data
parity and disk striping and works best with data that requires high system
availability, high request rates, high data transfers, and medium to large
capacity.
•
RAID 60 is a combination of RAID 6 and RAID 0, a RAID 0 array is striped
across RAID 6 elements. RAID 60 requires at least 8 disks.
RAID Terminology
Disk Striping
Disk striping allows you to write data across multiple physical disks instead of
just one physical disk. Disk striping involves partitioning each physical disk
storage space in stripes of the following sizes: 8 KB, 16 KB, 32 KB, 64 KB,
128 KB, 256 KB, 512 KB, and 1024 KB. These stripes are interleaved in a
repeated sequential manner. The part of the stripe on a single physical disk is
called a stripe element.
Overview
17
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For example, in a four-disk system using only disk striping (used in RAID 0),
segment 1 is written to disk 1, segment 2 is written to disk 2, and so on. Disk
striping enhances performance because multiple physical disks are accessed
simultaneously, but disk striping does not provide data redundancy.
Figure 2-1 shows an example of disk striping.
Figure 2-1.
Example of Disk Striping (RAID 0)
Stripe element 1
Stripe element 5
Stripe element 9
Stripe element 2
Stripe element 6
Stripe element 10
Stripe element 3
Stripe element 7
Stripe element 11
Stripe element 4
Stripe element 8
Stripe element 12
Disk Mirroring
With mirroring (used in RAID 1), data written to one disk is simultaneously
written to another disk. If one disk fails, the contents of the other disk can be
used to run the system and rebuild the failed physical disk. The primary
advantage of disk mirroring is that it provides complete data redundancy.
Because the contents of the disk are completely written to a second disk, it
does not matter if one of the disks fails. Both disks contain the same data at
all times. Either of the physical disks can act as the operational physical disk.
Disk mirroring provides complete redundancy, but is expensive because each
physical disk in the system must be duplicated.
NOTE: Mirrored physical disks improve read performance by read load balance.
18
Overview
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Figure 2-2 shows an example of disk mirroring.
Figure 2-2. Example of Disk Mirroring (RAID 1)
Stripe element 1
Stripe element 2
Stripe element 3
Stripe element 4
Stripe element 1 Duplicated
Stripe element 2 Duplicated
Stripe element 3 Duplicated
Stripe element 4 Duplicated
Spanned RAID Levels
Spanning is a term used to describe the way in which RAID levels 10, 50,
and 60 are constructed from multiple sets of basic, or simple RAID levels.
For example, a RAID 10 has multiple sets of RAID 1 arrays where each RAID 1
set is considered a span. Data is then striped (RAID 0) across the RAID 1
spans to create a RAID 10 virtual disk. If you are using RAID 50 or RAID 60,
you can combine multiple sets of RAID 5 and RAID 6 together with striping.
Parity Data
Parity data is redundant data that is generated to provide fault tolerance
within certain RAID levels. In the event of a drive failure the parity data can
be used by the controller to regenerate user data. Parity data is present for
RAID 5, 6, 50, and 60.
The parity data is distributed across all the physical disks in the system. If a
single physical disk fails, it can be rebuilt from the parity and the data on the
remaining physical disks. RAID level 5 combines distributed parity with disk
striping, as shown in Figure 2-3. Parity provides redundancy for one physical
disk failure without duplicating the contents of entire physical disks.
RAID 6 combines dual distributed parity with disk striping. This level of
parity allows for two disk failures without duplicating the contents of entire
physical disks.
Overview
19
Dell_PERC6.2_UG.book Page 20 Wednesday, June 24, 2009 6:08 PM
Figure 2-3.
Example of Distributed Parity (RAID 5)
Stripe element 1
Stripe element 7
Stripe element 13
Stripe element 19
Stripe element 25
Parity (26–30)
Stripe element 2
Stripe element 8
Stripe element 14
Stripe element 20
Parity (21–25)
Stripe element 26
Stripe element 3
Stripe element 9
Stripe element 15
Parity (16–20)
Stripe element 21
Stripe element 27
Stripe element 4
Stripe element 10
Parity (11–15)
Stripe element 16
Stripe element 22
Stripe element 28
Stripe element 5
Parity (6–10)
Stripe element 11
Stripe element 17
Stripe element 23
Stripe element 29
Parity (1–5)
Stripe element 6
Stripe element 12
Stripe element 18
Stripe element 24
Stripe element 30
NOTE: Parity is distributed across multiple physical disks in the disk group.
Figure 2-4.
Example of Dual Distributed Parity (RAID 6)
Stripe element 1
Stripe element 5
Parity (9–12)
Stripe element 13
Stripe element 2
Stripe element 6
Parity (9–12)
Stripe element 14
Stripe element 3
Parity (5–8)
Stripe element 9
Parity (13–16)
Stripe element 4
Parity (5–8)
Stripe element 10
Parity (13–16)
Parity (1–4)
Stripe element 7
Stripe element 11
Stripe element 15
NOTE: Parity is distributed across all drives in the array.
20
Overview
Parity (1–4)
Stripe element 8
Stripe element 12
Stripe element 16
Dell_PERC6.2_UG.book Page 21 Wednesday, June 24, 2009 6:08 PM
About PERC 6 and CERC 6/i
Controllers
This section describes the features of the Dell™ PowerEdge™ Expandable
RAID Controller (PERC) 6 and the Dell Cost-Effective RAID Controller
(CERC) 6/i such as the configuration options, disk array performance,
RAID management utilities, and operating system software drivers.
PERC 6 and CERC 6 Controller Features
The PERC 6 and CERC 6 family of controllers support only Dell-qualified
Serial-attached SCSI (SAS) hard disk drives(HDDs), SATA HDDs, and
solid-state disks (SSD). Mixing SAS and SATA drives within a virtual disk is
not supported. Also, mixing HDDs and SSDs within a virtual disk is not
supported.
Table 3-1 compares the hardware configurations for the PERC 6 and CERC 6/i
controllers.
Table 3-1.
PERC 6 and CERC 6/i Controller Comparisons
Specification
PERC 6/E
Adapter
PERC 6/i Adapter
PERC 6/i
Integrated
CERC 6/i
Integrated
RAID Levels
0, 1, 5, 6, 10,
50, 60
0, 1, 5, 6, 10,
50, 60
0, 1, 5, 6, 10,
50, 60
0,1,5,6,
and 10a
Enclosures
per Port
Up to 3
enclosures
N/A
N/A
N/A
Ports
2 x4 external
wide port
2 x4 internal
wide port
2 x4 internal
wide port
1 x4
internal
wide port
Processor
LSI adapter
LSI adapter SAS
SAS RAID-on- RAID-on-Chip,
Chip, 8-port
8-port with 1078
with 1078
LSI adapter SAS
RAID-on-Chip,
8-port with 1078
LSI adapter
SAS RAIDon-Chip,
4-port with
1078
About PERC 6 and CERC 6/i Controllers
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Table 3-1.
PERC 6 and CERC 6/i Controller Comparisons (continued)
Specification
PERC 6/E
Adapter
PERC 6/i Adapter
PERC 6/i
Integrated
CERC 6/i
Integrated
Battery
Backup Unit
Yes,
Transportable
Yesb
Yes
No
Cache
Memory
256-MB
DDRII cache
memory size.
256-MB DDRII
cache memory
size
256-MB DDRII
cache memory
size
128-MB
DDRII
cache
memory
size
Optional
512-MB
DIMM
Cache
Function
Write-Back,
Write-Through,
Adaptive
Read Ahead,
No-Read
Ahead,
Read Ahead
Write-Back,
Write-Through,
Adaptive
Read Ahead,
No-Read Ahead,
Read Ahead
Write-Back,
Write-Through,
Adaptive
Read Ahead,
No-Read Ahead,
Read Ahead
Write-Back,
WriteThrough,
Adaptive
Read
Ahead,
No-Read
Ahead,
Read Ahead
Maximum
Number of
Spans per
Disk Group
Up to 8 arrays
Up to 8 arrays
Up to 8 arrays
Up to 2
arrays
Maximum
Number of
Virtual Disks
per Disk
Group
Up to 16
virtual disks
per disk group
for nonspanned RAID
levels: 0, 1, 5,
and 6.
Up to 16 virtual
disks per disk
group for nonspanned RAID
levels: 0, 1, 5,
and 6.
Up to 16 virtual
disks per disk
group for nonspanned RAID
levels: 0, 1, 5,
and 6.
One virtual disk
per disk group
for spanned
RAID levels: 10,
50, and 60.
One virtual disk
per disk group
for spanned
RAID levels: 10,
50, and 60.
Up to 16
virtual disks
per disk
group for
nonspanned
RAID
levels: 0, 1,
5, and 6.
One virtual
disk per disk
group for
spanned RAID
levels: 10, 50,
and 60.
22
About PERC 6 and CERC 6/i Controllers
One virtual
disk per
disk group
for spanned
RAID
level 10.
Dell_PERC6.2_UG.book Page 23 Wednesday, June 24, 2009 6:08 PM
Table 3-1.
PERC 6 and CERC 6/i Controller Comparisons (continued)
Specification
PERC 6/E
Adapter
PERC 6/i Adapter
PERC 6/i
Integrated
CERC 6/i
Integrated
Multiple
Virtual Disks
per
Controller
Up to 64
virtual disks
per controller
Up to 64 virtual
disks per
controller
Up to 64 virtual
disks per
controller
Up to 64
virtual disks
per
controller
Support for
x8 PCIe Host
Interface
Yes
Yes
Yes
x4 PCIe
Online
Capacity
Expansion
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Dedicated
and Global
Hot Spares
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Hot Swap
Devices
Supported
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Enclosure
Hot-Addc
Yes
N/A
N/A
N/A
Mixed
Capacity
Physical
Disks
Supported
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Hardware
Yes
Exclusive-OR
(XOR)
Assistance
Yes
Yes
Yes
About PERC 6 and CERC 6/i Controllers
23
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Table 3-1.
PERC 6 and CERC 6/i Controller Comparisons (continued)
Specification
PERC 6/E
Adapter
PERC 6/i Adapter
PERC 6/i
Integrated
CERC 6/i
Integrated
Revertible
Hot Spares
Supported
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Redundant
Path Support
Yes
N/A
N/A
N/A
a.
b.
c.
These RAID configurations are only supported on select Dell modular systems.
The PERC 6/i adapter supports a battery backup unit (BBU) on selected systems only.
For additional information, see the documentation that shipped with the system.
Using the enclosure Hot-Add feature, you can hot plug enclosures to the PERC 6/E adapter
without rebooting the system.
NOTE: The maximum array size is limited by the maximum number of drives per
disk group (32), the maximum number of spans per disk group (8), and the size of the
physical drives.
NOTE: The number of physical disks on a controller is limited by the number of slots
in the backplane on which the card is attached.
Using the SMART Feature
The Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology (SMART) feature
monitors the internal performance of all motors, heads, and physical disk
electronics to detect predictable physical disk failures. The SMART feature
helps monitor physical disk performance and reliability.
SMART-compliant physical disks have attributes for which data can be
monitored to identify changes in values and determine whether the values are
within threshold limits. Many mechanical and electrical failures display some
degradation in performance before failure.
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A SMART failure is also referred to as a predicted failure. There are numerous
factors that relate to predicted physical disk failures, such as a bearing failure,
a broken read/write head, and changes in spin-up rate. In addition, there are
factors related to read/write surface failure, such as seek error rate
and excessive bad sectors.
For information on physical disk status, see "Disk Roaming" on page 27.
NOTE: For detailed information on Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
interface specifications, see www.t10.org and for detailed information on for Serial
Attached ATA (SATA) interface specifications, see www.t13.org.
Initializing Virtual Disks
You can initialize the virtual disks as described in the following sections.
Background Initialization
Background Initialization (BGI) is an automated process that writes the
parity or mirror data on newly created virtual disks. BGI assumes that the data
is correct on all new drives. BGI does not run on RAID 0 virtual disks.
NOTE: You cannot permanently disable BGI. If you cancel BGI, it automatically
restarts within five minutes. For information on stopping BGI, see "Stopping
Background Initialization" on page 108.
You can control the BGI rate in the Dell™ OpenManage™ storage
management application. Any change in the BGI rate does not take effect
until the next BGI run.
NOTE: Unlike full or fast initialization of virtual disks, Background Initialization does
not clear data from the physical disks.
Consistency Check (CC) and BGI perform similar functions in that they
both correct parity errors. However, CC reports data inconsistencies through
an event notification, but BGI does not (BGI assumes the data is correct, as it
is run only on a newly created disk). You can start CC manually, but not BGI.
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Full Initialization of Virtual Disks
Performing a Full Initialization on a virtual disk overwrites all blocks and
destroys any data that previously existed on the virtual disk. Full Initialization
of a virtual disk eliminates the need for that virtual disk to undergo a
Background Initialization and can be performed directly after the creation of
a virtual disk.
During Full Initialization, the host is not able to access the virtual disk.
You can start a Full Initialization on a virtual disk by using the Slow Initialize
option in the Dell OpenManage storage management application. To use the
BIOS Configuration Utility to perform a Full Initialization, see "Initializing
Virtual Disks" on page 88.
NOTE: If the system reboots during a Full Initialization, the operation aborts and a
BGI begins on the virtual disk.
Fast Initialization of Virtual Disks
A fast initialization on a virtual disk overwrites the first and last 8 MB of the
virtual disk, clearing any boot records or partition information. This operation
takes only 2–3 seconds to complete and is recommended when recreating
virtual disks. To perform a fast initialization using the BIOS Configuration
Utility, see "Initializing Virtual Disks" on page 88.
Consistency Checks
CC is a background operation that verifies and corrects the mirror or parity
data for fault tolerant virtual disks. It is recommended that you periodically
run a consistency check on virtual disks.
You can manually start a consistency check using the BIOS Configuration
Utility or a OpenManage storage management application. To start a CC
using the BIOS Configuration Utility, see "Checking Data Consistency" on
page 88. CCs can be scheduled to run on virtual disks using a OpenManage
storage management application.
By default, CC automatically corrects mirror or parity inconsistencies.
However, you can enable the Abort Consistency Check on Error feature on
the controller using Dell OpenManage storage management application.
With the Abort Consistency Check on Error setting enabled, consistency
check notifies if any inconsistency is found and aborts instead of
automatically correcting the error.
26
About PERC 6 and CERC 6/i Controllers
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Disk Roaming
The PERC 6 and CERC 6/i controllers support moving physical disks from
one cable connection or backplane slot to another on the same controller.
The controller automatically recognizes the relocated physical disks and
logically places them in the proper virtual disks that are part of the disk group.
You can perform disk roaming only when the system is turned off.
CAUTION: Do not attempt disk roaming during RAID level migration (RLM) or
online capacity expansion (OCE). This causes loss of the virtual disk.
Perform the following steps to use disk roaming:
1 Turn off the power to the system, physical disks, enclosures, and system
components. Disconnect power cords from the system.
2 Move the physical disks to desired positions on the backplane or
the enclosure.
3 Perform a safety check. Make sure the physical disks are inserted properly.
4 Turn on the system.
The controller detects the RAID configuration from the configuration
data on the physical disks.
Disk Migration
The PERC 6 and CERC 6/i controllers support migration of virtual disks from
one controller to another without taking the target controller offline.
However, the source controller must be offline prior to performing the
disk migration. The controller can import RAID virtual disks in optimal,
degraded, or partially degraded states. You cannot import a virtual disk that is in
an offline state.
NOTE: Disks cannot be migrated back to previous Dell PERC RAID controllers.
When a controller detects a physical disk with an existing configuration, it
flags the physical disk as foreign, and it generates an alert indicating that a
foreign disk was detected.
CAUTION: Do not attempt disk roaming during RAID level migration (RLM) or
online capacity expansion (OCE). This causes loss of the virtual disk.
About PERC 6 and CERC 6/i Controllers
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Perform the following steps to use disk migration:
1 Turn off the system that contains the source controller.
2 Move the appropriate physical disks from the source controller to the
target controller.
The system with the target controller can be running while inserting the
physical disks.
The controller flags the inserted disks as foreign disks.
3 Use the OpenManage storage management application to import the
detected foreign configuration.
NOTE: Ensure that all physical disks that are part of the virtual disk are migrated.
NOTE: You can also use the controller BIOS configuration utility to migrate disks.
Compatibility With Virtual Disks Created on PERC 5 Controllers
Virtual disks that were created on the PERC 5 family of controllers can be
migrated to the PERC 6 and CERC 6/i controllers without risking data or
configuration loss. Migrating virtual disks from PERC 6 and CERC 6/i controllers
to PERC 5 is not supported.
Virtual disks created on the CERC 6/i controller or the PERC 5 family of
controllers can be migrated to PERC 6.
NOTE: For more information about compatibility, contact your Dell technical
support representative.
Compatibility With Virtual Disks Created on SAS 6/iR Controllers
Virtual disks created on the SAS 6/iR family of controllers can be migrated to
PERC 6 and CERC 6/i. However, only virtual disks with boot volumes of the
following Linux operating systems successfully boot after migration:
•
Red Hat® Enterprise Linux® 4
•
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
•
SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server 10 (64-bit)
NOTE: The migration of virtual disks with Microsoft® Windows® operating systems
is not supported.
CAUTION: Before migrating virtual disks, back up your data and ensure the
firmware of both controllers is the latest revision. Also ensure you use the SAS 6
firmware version 00.25.47.00.06.22.03.00 or newer.
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Migrating Virtual Disks from SAS 6/iR to PERC 6 and CERC 6/i
NOTE: The supported operating systems listed in "Compatibility With Virtual Disks
Created on SAS 6/iR Controllers" on page 28 contain the driver for the PERC 6
and CERC 6/i controller family. No additional drivers are needed during the
migration process.
1 If virtual disks with one of the supported Linux operating systems listed in
"Compatibility With Virtual Disks Created on SAS 6/iR Controllers" on
page 28 are being migrated, open a command prompt and type the
following commands:
modprobe megaraid_sas
mkinitrd -f --preload megaraid_sas /boot/initrd`uname -r`.img `uname -r`
2 Turn off the system.
3 Move the appropriate physical disks from the SAS 6/iR controller to the
PERC 6 and CERC 6/i. If you are replacing your SAS 6/iR controller with a
PERC 6 controller, see the Hardware Owner’s Manual shipped with your
system or on the Dell Support website at support.dell.com.
CAUTION: After you have imported the foreign configuration on the PERC 6 or
CERC 6/i storage controllers, migrating the storage disks back to the SAS 6/iR
controller may result in the loss of data.
4 Boot the system and import the foreign configuration that is detected.
You can do this in two ways:
•
Press <F> to automatically import the foreign configuration
•
Enter the BIOS Configuration Utility and navigate to the Foreign
Configuration View
NOTE: For more information on accessing the BIOS Configuration Utility,
see "Entering the BIOS Configuration Utility" on page 79.
NOTE: For more information on Foreign Configuration View, see "Foreign
Configuration View" on page 104
5 If the migrated virtual disk is the boot volume, ensure that the virtual disk
is selected as the bootable volume for the target PERC 6 and CERC 6/i
controller. See "Controller Management Actions" on page 104.
About PERC 6 and CERC 6/i Controllers
29
Dell_PERC6.2_UG.book Page 30 Wednesday, June 24, 2009 6:08 PM
6 Exit the BIOS Configuration Utility and reboot the system.
7 Ensure all the latest drivers for PERC 6 or CERC 6/i controller
(available on the Dell support website at support.dell.com) are installed.
For more information, see "Driver Installation" on page 63.
NOTE: For more information about compatibility, contact your Dell technical
support representative.
Battery Management
NOTE: Battery management is only applicable to PERC 6 family of controllers.
The Transportable Battery Backup Unit (TBBU) is a cache memory module
with an integrated battery pack that enables you to transport the cache
module with the battery in a new controller. The TBBU protects the integrity
of the cached data on the PERC 6/E adapter by providing backup power
during a power outage.
The Battery Backup Unit (BBU) is a battery pack that protects the integrity of
the cached data on the PERC 6/i adapter and PERC 6/i Integrated controllers
by providing backup power during a power outage.
The battery, when new, provides up to 24 hours of backup power for the
cache memory.
Battery Warranty Information
The BBU offers an inexpensive way to protect the data in cache memory.
The lithium-ion battery provides a way to store more power in a smaller
form factor than previous batteries.
Your PERC 6 battery, when new, provides up to 24 hours of controller cache
memory backup power. Under the 1–year limited warranty, we warrant that
the battery will provide at least 24 hours of backup coverage during the 1-year
limited warranty period. To prolong battery life, do not store or operate the
BBU in temperatures exceeding 60°C.
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About PERC 6 and CERC 6/i Controllers
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Battery Learn Cycle
Learn cycle is a battery calibration operation performed by the controller
periodically to determine the condition of the battery. This operation cannot
be disabled.
You can start battery learn cycles manually or automatically. In addition,
you can enable or disable automatic learn cycles in the software utility. If you
enable automatic learn cycles, you can delay the start of the learn cycles for
up to 168 hours (7 days). If you disable automatic learn cycles, you can start
the learn cycles manually, and you can choose to receive a reminder to start
a manual learn cycle.
You can put the learn cycle in Warning Only mode. In the Warning Only
mode, a warning event is generated to prompt you to start the learn cycle
manually when it is time to perform the learn cycle operation. You can select
the schedule for initiating the learn cycle. When in Warning Only mode,
the controller continues to prompt you to start the learn cycle every seven
days until it is performed.
NOTE: Virtual disks automatically switch to Write-Through mode when the battery
charge is low because of a learn cycle.
Learn Cycle Completion Time Frame
The time frame for completion of a learn cycle is a function of the battery
charge capacity and the discharge/charge currents used. For PERC 6,
the expected time frame for completion ofa learn cycle is approximately
seven hours and consists of the following parts:
•
Learn cycle discharge cycle: approximately three hours
•
Learn cycle charge cycle: approximately four hours
Learn cycles shorten as the battery capacity deteriorates over time.
NOTE: For additional information, see the OpenManage storage
management application.
During the discharge phase of a learn cycle, the PERC 6 battery charger
is disabled and remains disabled until the battery is discharged. After the
battery is discharged, the charger is re-enabled.
About PERC 6 and CERC 6/i Controllers
31
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Virtual Disk Write Cache Policies
The write cache policy of a virtual disk determines how the controller handles
writes to that virtual disk. Write-Back and Write-Through are the two write
cache policies and can be set on virtual disks individually.
All RAID volumes will be presented as Write-Through (WT) to the operating
system (Windows and linux) independent of the actual write cache policy of
the virtual disk. The PERC/CERC controllers manage the data in cache
independently of the OS or any applications. Use OpenManage or the BIOS
configuration utility to view and manage virtual disk cache settings.
Write-Back and Write-Through
In Write-Through caching, the controller sends a data transfer completion
signal to the host system when the disk subsystem has received all the data
in a transaction.
In Write-Back caching, the controller sends a data transfer completion signal
to the host when the controller cache has received all the data in a
transaction. The controller then writes the cached data to the storage device
in the background.
The risk of using Write-Back cache is that the cached data can be lost if there
is a power failure before it is written to the storage device. This risk is
mitigated by using a BBU on selected PERC 6 controllers. For information
on which controllers support a BBU, see Table 3-1.
Write-Back caching has a performance advantage over Write-Through
caching.
NOTE: The default cache setting for virtual disks is Write-Back caching.
NOTE: Certain data patterns and configurations perform better with a
Write-Through cache policy.
Conditions Under Which Write-Back is Employed
Write-Back caching is used under all conditions in which the battery is
present and in good condition.
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Conditions Under Which Write-Through is Employed
Write-Through caching is used under all conditions in which the battery is
missing or in a low-charge state. Low-charge state is when the battery is not
capable of maintaining data for at least 24 hours in the case of a power loss.
Conditions Under Which Forced Write-Back With No Battery is
Employed
Write-Back mode is available when the user selects Force WB with no
battery. When Forced Write-Back mode is selected, the virtual disk is in
Write-Back mode even if the battery is not present.
CAUTION: It is recommended that you use a power backup system when forcing
Write-Back to ensure there is no loss of data if the system suddenly loses power.
Virtual Disk Read Policies
The read policy of a virtual disk determines how the controller handles reads
to that virtual disk. The read policies are:
•
Always Read Ahead — Read-Ahead capability allows the controller to read
sequentially ahead of requested data and to store the additional data in
cache memory, anticipating that the data is required soon. This speeds up
reads for sequential data, but there is little improvement when accessing
random data.
•
No Read Ahead — Disables the Read-Ahead capability.
•
Adaptive Read Ahead — When selected, the controller begins using
Read-Ahead if the two most recent disk accesses occurred in sequential
sectors. If the read requests are random, the controller reverts to
No Read Ahead mode.
Reconfiguring Virtual Disks
There are two methods to reconfigure RAID virtual disks — RAID Level
Migration and Online Capacity Expansion.
RAID Level Migrations (RLM) involve the conversion of a virtual disk to a
different RAID level. Online Capacity Expansions (OCE) refer to increasing
the capacity of a virtual disk by adding drives and/or migrating to a different
About PERC 6 and CERC 6/i Controllers
33
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RAID level. When a RLM/OCE operation is complete, a reboot is not
necessary. For a list of RAID level migrations and capacity expansion
possibilities, see Table 3-2.
The source RAID level column indicates the virtual disk level before the
RAID level migration and the target RAID level column indicates the RAID
level after the operation is complete.
NOTE: If you configure 64 virtual disks on a controller, you cannot perform a
RAID level migration or capacity expansion on any of the virtual disks.
NOTE: The controller changes the write cache policy of all virtual disks undergoing
a RLM/OCE to Write-Through until the RLM/OCE is complete.
Table 3-2.
RAID Level Migration
Source Target
RAID
RAID
Level
Level
Required
Number of
Physical
Disks
(Beginning)
Number of Capacity Description
Physical Expansion
Disks
Possible
(End)
RAID 0 RAID 1 1
2
RAID 0 RAID 5 1 or more
3 or more Yes
At least one drive needs to be
added for distributed parity
data.
RAID 0 RAID 6 1 or more
4 or more Yes
At least two drives need to be
added for dual distributed
parity data.
RAID 1 RAID 0 2
1 or more Yes
Removes redundancy while
increasing capacity.
RAID 1 RAID 5 2
3 or more Yes
Maintains redundancy while
doubling capacity.
RAID 1 RAID 6 2
4 or more Yes
Two drives are required to be
added for distributed parity
data.
34
No
About PERC 6 and CERC 6/i Controllers
Converting non-redundant
virtual disk into a mirrored
virtual disk by adding one drive.
Dell_PERC6.2_UG.book Page 35 Wednesday, June 24, 2009 6:08 PM
Table 3-2.
RAID Level Migration (continued)
Source Target
RAID
RAID
Level
Level
Required
Number of
Physical
Disks
(Beginning)
Number of Capacity Description
Physical Expansion
Disks
Possible
(End)
RAID 5 RAID 0 3 or more
2 or more Yes
Converting to a non-redundant
virtual disk and reclaiming disk
space used for distributed
parity data.
RAID 5 RAID 6 3 or more
4 or more Yes
At least one drive needs to be
added for dual distributed
parity data.
RAID 6 RAID 0 4 or more
2 or more Yes
Converting to a non-redundant
virtual disk and reclaiming disk
space used for distributed
parity data.
RAID 6 RAID 5 4 or more
3 or more Yes
Removing one set of parity data
and reclaiming disk space used
for it.
NOTE: The total number of physical disks in a disk group cannot exceed 32.
NOTE: You cannot perform RAID level migration and expansion on RAID
levels 10, 50, and 60.
About PERC 6 and CERC 6/i Controllers
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Fault Tolerance Features
Table 3-3 lists the features that provide fault tolerance to prevent data loss in
case of a failed physical disk.
Table 3-3.
Fault Tolerance Features
Specification
PERC
CERC
Support for SMART
Yes
Yes
Support for Patrol Read
Yes
Yes
a
N/A
Redundant path support
Yes
Physical disk failure detection
Automatic Automatic
Physical disk rebuild using hot spares
Automatic Automatic
Parity generation and checking (RAID 5, 50, 6, and 60 only) Yes
Yes
Battery backup of controller cache to protect data
Yesb
N/A
Manual learn cycle mode for battery backup
Yes
N/A
Detection of batteries with low charge after boot up
Yes
N/A
a.
b.
Supported only on PERC 6/E adapters.
The PERC 6/i adapter supports a BBU on selected systems only. For additional information, see
the documentation that was shipped with the system
Physical Disk Hot Swapping
Hot swapping is the manual replacement of a defective unit in a disk
subsystem while the subsystem is performing its normal functions.
NOTE: The system backplane or enclosure must support hot swapping for the
PERC 6 and CERC 6/i controllers to support hot swapping.
NOTE: Replace a physical disk with a new one of the same protocol and
drive technology. For example, only a SAS HDD can replace a SAS HDD;
only a SATA SSD can replace a SATA SSD.
NOTE: The replacement drive must be of equal or greater capacity than the one it
is replacing.
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Failed Physical Disk Detection
The controller automatically detects and rebuilds failed physical disks when you
place a new drive in the slot where the failed drive resided or when an
applicable hot spare is present. Automatic rebuilds can be performed
transparently with hot spares. If you have configured hot spares, the
controllers automatically try to use them to rebuild failed physical disks.
Redundant Path With Static Load Balancing Support
The PERC 6/E adapter can detect and use redundant paths to drives
contained in enclosures. This provides the ability to connect two SAS cables
between a controller and an enclosure for path redundancy. The controller is
able to tolerate the failure of a cable or Enclosure Management
Module (EMM) by utilizing the remaining path.
When redundant paths exist, the controller automatically balances I/O load
through both paths to each disk drive. This load balancing feature increases
throughput to each drive and is automatically turned on when redundant
paths are detected. To set up your hardware to support redundant paths, see
"Setting up Redundant Path Support on the PERC 6/E Adapter" on page 55.
NOTE: This support for redundant paths refers to path-redundancy only and not to
controller-redundancy.
Using Replace Member and Revertible Hot Spares
The Replace Member functionality allows a previously commissioned hot
spare to be reverted back to a usable hot spare. When a drive failure occurs
within a virtual disk, an assigned hot spare (dedicated or global) is
commissioned and begins rebuilding until the virtual disk is optimal.
After the failed drive is replaced (in the same slot) and the rebuild to the hot
spare is complete, the controller automatically starts to copy data from the
commissioned hot spare to the newly-inserted drive. After the data is copied,
the new drive is part of the virtual disk and the hot spare is reverted back to
being a ready hot spare. This allows hot spares to remain in specific enclosure
slots. While the controller is reverting the hot spare, the virtual disk
remains optimal.
NOTE: The controller automatically reverts a hot spare only if the failed drive is
replaced with a new drive in the same slot. If the new drive is not placed in the
same slot, a manual Replace Member operation can be used to revert a previously
commissioned hot spare.
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Automatic Replace Member with Predicted Failure
A Replace Member operation can occur when there is a SMART predictive
failure reporting on a drive in a virtual disk. The automatic Replace Member
is initiated when the first SMART error occurs on a physical disk that is part
of a virtual disk. The target drive needs to be a hot spare that qualifies as
a rebuild drive. The physical disk with the SMART error is marked as failed
only after the successful completion of the Replace Member. This avoids
putting the array in degraded status.
If an automatic Replace Member occurs using a source drive that was
originally a hot spare (that was used in a rebuild), and a new drive added for
the Replace Member operation as the target drive, the hot spare reverts to the
hot spare state after a successful Replace Member operation.
NOTE: To enable the automatic Replace Member, use the Dell OpenManage
storage management application. For more information on automatic Replace
Member, see "Dell OpenManage Storage Management" on page 77.
NOTE: For information on manual Replace Member, see "Replacing an Online
Physical Disk" on page 107.
Patrol Read
The Patrol Read feature is designed as a preventative measure to ensure
physical disk health and data integrity. Patrol Read scans for and resolves
potential problems on configured physical disks. The OpenManage storage
management application can be used to start Patrol Read and change its
behavior.
Patrol Read Feature
The following is an overview of Patrol Read behavior:
1 Patrol Read runs on all disks on the controller that are configured as part
of a virtual disk, including hot spares.
2 Patrol Read does not run on physical disks that are not part of a virtual disk
or are in Ready state.
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3 Patrol Read adjusts the amount of controller resources dedicated to
Patrol Read operations based on outstanding disk I/O. For example, if the
system is busy processing I/O operation, then Patrol Read uses fewer
resources to allow the I/O to take a higher priority.
4 Patrol Read does not run on any disks involved in any of the following
operations:
•
Rebuild
•
Replace Member
•
Full or Background Initialization
•
Consistency Check
•
RAID Level Migration or Online Capacity Expansion
Patrol Read Modes
The following describes each of the modes Patrol Read can be set to:
•
Auto (default) — Patrol Read is set to the Auto mode by default. In this
mode, Patrol Read is enabled to run automatically and start every seven
days on SAS and SATA HDDs. Patrol Read is not necessary on SSD and is
disabled by default. You can start and stop Patrol Read as well.
•
Manual — Patrol Read does not run automatically and you must start it
manually.
•
Disabled — Patrol Read is not allowed to start on the controller.
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Installing and Configuring
Hardware
WARNING: Only trained service technicians are authorized to remove the system
cover and access any of the components inside the system. Before performing any
procedure, see the safety and warranty information that shipped with your system
for complete information about safety precautions, working inside the system, and
protecting against electrostatic discharge.
CAUTION: Electrostatic discharge can damage sensitive components.
Always use proper antistatic protection when handling components.
Touching components without using a proper ground can damage the equipment.
NOTE: For a list of compatible controllers, see the documentation that shipped with
the system.
Installing the PERC 6/E and PERC 6/i Adapters
1 Unpack the PERC 6/E adapter and check for damage.
NOTE: Contact Dell technical support if the controller is damaged.
2 Turn off the system and attached peripherals, and disconnect the system
from the electrical outlet. For more information on power supplies, see the
Hardware Owner’s Manual shipped with your system or on the Dell
Support website at support.dell.com.
3 Disconnect the system from the network and remove the system cover. For
more information on opening the system, see your system’s
Hardware Owner’s Manual.
4 Select an empty PCI Express (PCI-E) slot. Remove the blank filler bracket
on the back of the system aligned with the PCI-E slot you have selected.
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5 Align the PERC 6/E adapter to the PCI-E slot you have selected.
CAUTION: Never apply pressure to the adapter module while inserting it in the
PCI-E slot. Applying pressure could break the adapter module.
6 Insert the controller gently, but firmly, until the controller is firmly seated
in the PCI-E slot. For more information on installing the PERC 6 adapter,
see Figure 4-1. For more information on installing the PERC 6/i adapter,
see Figure 4-2.
Figure 4-1.
Installing a PERC 6/E Adapter
4
3
2
42
1
1
PCI-e slot
3
filler bracket
2
PERC 6/i adapter
4
bracket screw
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Figure 4-2. Installing a PERC 6/i Adapter
4
3
2
1
1
PCI-e slot
3
filler brackets
2
PERC 6/i adapter
4
bracket screw
7 Tighten the bracket screw, if any, or use the system’s retention clips to
secure the controller to the system’s chassis.
8 For PERC 6/E adapter, replace the cover of the system. For more
information on closing the system, see the Hardware Owner’s Manual
shipped with your system or on the Dell Support website at
support.dell.com.
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9 Connect the cable from the external enclosure to the controller. For more
information, see Figure 4-3.
Figure 4-3.
Connecting the Cable From the External Enclosure
1
2
3
1
connector on the controller
2
system
3
cable from the external enclosure
10 For PERC 6/i adapter, connect the cables from the backplane of the system
to the controller. The primary SAS connector is white and the secondary
SAS connector is black. For more information, see Figure 4-4.
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Figure 4-4. Connecting Cables to the Controller
1
2
3
1 cable
3
PERC 6/i adapter
2 connector
11 Replace the cover of the system. For more information on closing the
system, see the Hardware Owner’s Manual shipped with your system or on
the Dell Support website at support.dell.com.
12 Reconnect the power and network cables, and turn on the system.
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Installing the Transportable Battery Backup
Unit (TBBU) on PERC 6/E
CAUTION: The following procedure must be performed at an
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)-safe workstation to meet the requirements of
EIA-625 – "Requirements For Handling Electrostatic Discharge Sensitive Devices."
The following procedure must be performed following the IPC-A-610 latest
revision ESD recommended practices.
CAUTION: When transporting a sensitive component, first place it in an antistatic
container or packaging.
CAUTION: Handle all sensitive components in a static-safe area. If possible, use
antistatic floor pads and work bench pads.
1 Unpack the TBBU and follow all antistatic procedures.
2 Remove the DIMM from the controller. Insert one end of the battery pack
harness (the red, white, yellow, and green wires) in the connector on the
memory module and the other end in the connector on the battery.
3 Place the top edge of the battery over the top edge of the memory module
so that the arms on the side of the battery fit in their sockets on the
memory module. For more information, see Figure 4-5.
Figure 4-5.
Installing a TBBU
5
4
1
2
3
46
1
battery
4
connector on the memory module
2
connector on the battery
5
memory module
3
battery pack harness
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4 Place the PERC 6/E adapter on a flat, clean, and static–free surface.
5 Mount the memory module in the controller memory socket like a
standard DIMM. For more information, see "Installing the DIMM on a
PERC 6/E Adapter" on page 47.
The memory module is mounted flush with the controller board so that
the memory module is parallel to the board when installed.
6 Press the memory module firmly in the memory socket. As you press the
memory module in the socket, the TBBU clicks in place, indicating that
the controller is firmly seated in the socket. The arms on the socket fit in
the notches on the memory module to hold it securely.
Installing the DIMM on a PERC 6/E Adapter
CAUTION: When unpacking a static sensitive component from its shipping
carton, do not remove the component from the antistatic packing material until you
are ready to install the component. Before unwrapping the antistatic package,
ensure to discharge static electricity from your body. Handle all sensitive
components in a static-safe area. If possible, use antistatic floor pads and work
bench pads.
CAUTION: PERC 6 cards support Dell-qualified 512 MB and 256 MB
DDRII 667 MHz ECC-registered DIMMs with x16 DRAM components.
Installing unsupported memory causes the system to hang at POST.
CAUTION: Do not touch the gold leads and do not bend the memory module.
1 Remove the memory module from its packaging.
2 Align the keyed edge of the memory module to the physical divider on
the memory socket to avoid damage to the module.
3 Insert the memory module in the memory socket. Apply a constant,
downward pressure on both ends or the middle of the memory module
until the retention clips fall in the allotted slots on either side of the
memory module. For more information, see Figure 4-6.
Figure 4-6 displays the installation of a memory module on a PERC 6/E
adapter.
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Figure 4-6.
Installing a DIMM
4
3
1
2
1
PERC 6/E adapter
3
memory socket
2
retention clip
4
memory module
Transferring a TBBU Between Controllers
The TBBU provides uninterrupted power supply for up to 24 hours to the
cache memory module. If the controller fails as a result of a power failure, you
can move the TBBU to a new controller and recover the data. The controller
that replaces the failed controller should not have any prior configuration.
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Perform the following steps to replace a failed controller with data in the TBBU:
1 Perform a controlled shutdown on the system in which the PERC 6/E is
installed, as well as any attached storage enclosures.
2 Remove the controller that has the TBBU currently installed from the
system.
3 Remove the TBBU from the controller.
4 Insert the TBBU in the new controller.
For more information on installing the TBBU, see "Installing the
Transportable Battery Backup Unit (TBBU) on PERC 6/E" on page 46.
5 Insert the replacement controller in the system.
See the relevant sections on installing controllers under "Installing the
PERC 6/E and PERC 6/i Adapters" on page 41.
6 Turn on the system.
The controller flushes the cache data to the virtual disks.
Removing the PERC 6/E and PERC 6/i Adapters
NOTE: In the event that the SAS cable is accidentally pulled out when the system is
operational, reconnect the cable and see the online help of your
Dell™ OpenManage™ storage management application for the required recovery
steps.
NOTE: Some PERC 6/i adapters installed on a Dell workstation or
Dell PowerEdge™ SC systems do not have a BBU.
1 Perform a controlled shutdown on the system in which the PERC 6/E
is installed, as well as any attached storage enclosures.
2 Disconnect the system from the electrical outlet and remove the system
cover.
CAUTION: Running a system without the system cover installed may cause
damage due to improper cooling.
NOTE: For more information on removing peripherals installed in the system’s
PCI-E slots, see the Hardware Owner’s Manual shipped with your system or
on the Dell Support website at support.dell.com.
For instructions on removing a PERC 6/E adapter, go to step 3.
For instructions on removing a PERC 6/i adapter, go to step 5.
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3 Locate the PERC 6/E adapter in the system and disconnect the external
cables from the adapter.
NOTE: The location of the PERC 6/i varies from system to system. For
information on PERC 6/i card location, see the Hardware Owner’s Manual
shipped with your system or on the Dell Support website at support.dell.com.
4 Remove any retention mechanism, such as a bracket screw, that may be
holding the PERC 6/E in the system and gently lift the controller from the
system’s PCI-E slot. For more information, see Figure 4-7.
Figure 4-7. Removing the PERC 6/E Adapter
1
2
3
4
50
1 bracket screw
3
memory module
2 battery
4
PERC 6/E adapter
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5 Determine whether the Dirty Cache LED on the controller is illuminated.
For location of the LED, see Figure 4-8
•
If the LED is illuminated, replace the system cover, reconnect the
system to power, turn on the system, and repeat step 1 and step 2.
If the LED is not illuminated, continue with the next step.
6 Disconnect the data cables and battery cable from the PERC 6/i.
Remove any retention mechanism, such as a bracket screw, that might be
holding the PERC 6/i in the system, and gently lift the controller from the
system’s PCI-E slot.
Figure 4-8.
Removing the PERC 6/i Adapter
1
2
3
1 bracket screw
3
dirty cache LED
2 PERC 6/i controller
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Removing the DIMM and Battery from a PERC 6/E
Adapter
NOTE: The TBBU on the PERC 6/E adapter consists of a DIMM and battery
backup unit.
1 Perform a controlled shutdown on the system in which the PERC 6/E
adapter is installed, as well as any attached storage enclosures
2 Disconnect the system from the electrical outlet and open the
system cover.
CAUTION: Running a system without the system cover installed can cause
damage due to improper cooling.
3 Remove the PERC 6/E adapter from the system. For instruction on
removing the PERC 6/E adapter, see "Removing the PERC 6/E and PERC
6/i Adapters" on page 49.
4 Visually inspect the controller and determine whether the dirty cache LED
on the DIMM is illuminated. For location of the LED, see Figure 4-9.
If the LED is illuminated, reinsert the controller in the system, replace the
system cover, reconnect the system to power, turn the system on and
repeat step 1. If the LED is not illuminated, proceed to step 5.
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Figure 4-9. PERC 6/E Adapter Dirty Cache LED Location
1
2
3
4
1 battery
3
dirty cache LED
2 memory module
4
PERC 6/E adapter
5 Press down on the tabs at each edge of the DIMM slot until the TBBU
pops out. Lift the TBBU off the adapter.
6 Disconnect the battery cable from the DIMM.
7 Detach the battery from the DIMM by pressing out on the battery clips
inserted through the DIMM and rotating the battery off the DIMM.
See Figure 4-10.
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Figure 4-10.
Removing the TBBU
2
1
1 memory module
2
battery
Disconnecting the BBU from a PERC 6/i Adapter
or a PERC 6/i Integrated Controller
NOTE: A PERC 6/i adapter installed in a Dell workstation or a Dell PowerEdge SC
system does not have a BBU.
NOTE: Batteries with low charges can be detected and recharged. The battery must
first be charged and the system must be restarted for the battery to be active again.
This section describes how to disconnect the BBU on a PERC 6/i adapter or a
PERC 6/i Integrated controller while the adapter or controller is installed in a
system.
NOTE: The location of the PERC 6/i varies from system to system. For information on
PERC 6/i card location, see the Hardware Owner’s Manual shipped with your
system or on the Dell Support website at support.dell.com.
NOTE: For more information on removing and replacing parts, see the Hardware
Owner’s Manual shipped with your system or on the Dell Support website at
support.dell.com.
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1 Perform a controlled shutdown on the system in which the PERC 6/i
is installed.
2 Disconnect the system from the electrical outlet and remove the system
cover.
CAUTION: Running a system without the system cover installed can cause
damage due to improper cooling.
3 Determine whether the dirty cache LED on the controller is illuminated.
•
If the LED is illuminated, replace the system cover, reconnect the
system to power, turn on the system, and repeat step 1 and step 2.
•
If the LED is not illuminated, continue with the next step.
CAUTION: The PERC 6/i Integrated controller for Dell modular blade systems does
not have a dirty cache LED. A non-graceful system shutdown may result in the
controller containing dirty cache. If a non-graceful shutdown occurs, reboot the
system and ensure no cache-related warnings appear during POST. Then shut
down the system and remove the controller. If this is not done, cache data may be
discarded.
4 Locate the battery cable connection on the controller and disconnect the
battery.
Setting up Redundant Path Support on the
PERC 6/E Adapter
The PERC 6/E adapter can detect and use redundant paths to drives
contained in enclosures. With redundant paths to the same port of a device,
if one path fails, another path can be used to communicate between the
controller and the device. For more information about redundant paths,
see "Redundant Path With Static Load Balancing Support" on page 37.
To set up a configuration with redundant paths, both ports on a controller
must be cabled to the In ports of a single enclosure.
To add multiple enclosures, both Out ports of the first enclosure must be
cabled to the In ports of the next enclosure.
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If the connection between an Out port on the controller and an In port on an
enclosure fails, an alternate path exists through the second Out port on the
controller and the second In port on the enclosure. For more information, see
Figure 4-11, Figure 4-12 and Figure 4-13.
NOTE: The PERC 6/E adapter supports redundant paths when used with
Dell PowerVault™ MD1000 and Dell PowerVault MD1120 disk storage enclosures.
Figure 4-11 displays Redundant path Storage Configuration with one
enclosure.
Figure 4-11.
Redundant Path Support Configuration With One Enclosure
Storage
Storage
Figure 4-12 displays Redundant path Storage Configuration with two
enclosures.
Figure 4-12.
56
Redundant Path Support Configuration With Two Enclosures
Storage
Storage
Storage
Storage
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Figure 4-13 displays Redundant path Storage Configuration with three
enclosures
Figure 4-13.
Redundant Path Support Configuration With Three Enclosures
Storage
Storage
Storage
Storage
Storage
Storage
A single PERC 6/E adapter can support up to three disk storage enclosures in
a redundant path configuration.
NOTE: Ensure that the latest firmware version is installed on your storage
controller. You can find the latest firmware and installation instructions on the
Dell Support website at support.dell.com.
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Perform the following steps to configure the hardware to utilize redundant
paths on the PERC 6/E adapter:
1 Set up an enclosure on the PERC 6/E adapter.
2 Connect two SAS cables from the Out ports on your PERC 6/E adapter to
the In ports of the external enclosure. For more information,
see Figure 4-3.
NOTE: For information on Unified Mode, see the enclosure documentation
that was shipped with the system.
3 To add multiple enclosures, cable both Out ports of the first enclosure to
both In ports of the next enclosure.
After you set up the hardware, the controller detects the redundant paths and
automatically utilizes them to balance the I/O load.
Reverting From Redundant Path Support to Single
Path Support on the PERC 6/E Adapter
If you need to revert from redundant path support to single path support,
shut down the system and remove the exact same cables that were added to
support redundant path support, leaving only one connection between the
controller and enclosures. After you remove the cable and power up the
system, ensure that there are no warning messages during boot, and that all
virtual disks are online and optimal. If you are using OpenManage, see
"Clearing the Redundant Path View" in the OMSS documentation for
additional instructions.
CAUTION: If you remove any cables other than the ones added to enable
redundant path support, the enclosure and disks can get disconnected, and virtual
disk may fail.
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Removing and Installing the PERC 6/i and
CERC 6/i Integrated Storage Controller Cards in
Dell Modular Blade Systems (Service-Only
Procedure)
CAUTION: Electrostatic discharge can damage sensitive components.
Always use proper antistatic protection when handling components.
Touching components without using a proper ground can damage the equipment.
The storage controller card is located below the hard drive bays of the
Dell Modular Blade system. To remove the storage controller card:
1 Remove the Dell Modular Blade system from the Modular Blade
system chassis. For more information on removing the blade system from
the Modular Blade system chassis, see your system’s Hardware Owner’s
Manual or the User’s Guide.
2 Remove the system cover of the Modular Blade system. For more
information on opening the top cover of the Modular Blade system,
see your system’s Hardware Owner’s Manual or the User’s Guide.
3 Remove the system board and place it on a stable and flat surface.
For more information on removing the system board, see your system’s
Hardware Owner’s Manual or the User’s Guide.
4 Open the release lever to disconnect the storage controller card edge
connector from the system board connector as illustrated in Figure 4-14.
5 Lift the storage controller card straight up from the system board as
illustrated in Figure 4-14.
CAUTION: Applying pressure to the internal SAS port connectors may
damage them.
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Figure 4-14. Removing and Installing the Storage Controller Card
1
2
1
release lever
2
storage controller card
Installing the Storage Controller Card
To install your new storage controller card:
1 Unpack the new storage controller card and check for damage.
NOTE: If the card is damaged, contact Dell technical support.
2 Place the storage controller card onto the system board. Align the storage
controller card such that the tabs on the system board tray fit through the
notches on the edges of the storage controller card.
3 Slide the storage controller card towards the connector on the system
board until the storage controller clicks in place.
4 Reinstall the system board. For more information on reinstalling the
system board, see your system’s Hardware Owner’s Manual or the
User’s Guide.
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5 Close the top cover of the Modular Blade system. For more information on
closing the top cover of the Modular Blade system, see your system’s
Hardware Owner’s Manual or the User’s Guide.
6 Reinstall the Modular Blade system in the Modular Blade system chassis.
For more information on reinstalling the Modular Blade system in the
Modular Blade system chassis, see your system’s Hardware Owner’s
Manual or the User’s Guide.
NOTE: The CERC 6/i Integrated does not provide support for a battery backup unit.
NOTE: For the latest list of firmware and installation instructions, see the system
documentation located at the Dell Support website at support.dell.com.
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Driver Installation
The Dell™ PowerEdge™ Expandable RAID Controller (PERC) 6 and
Dell Cost-Effective RAID Controller (CERC) 6/i family of controllers require
software drivers to operate with the supported operating systems.
This chapter contains the procedures for installing the drivers for the
following operating systems.
•
Citrix® XenServer Dell Edition
•
Microsoft® Windows Server® 2003
•
Microsoft Windows® XP
•
Microsoft Windows Vista®
•
Microsoft Windows Server 2008 (including Hyper-V™ virtualization)
•
Novell® NetWare® 6.5
•
Red Hat® Enterprise Linux™ Version 4 and Red Hat Enterprise
Linux Version 5
•
Solaris™10 (64-bit)
•
SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server Version 9 (64-bit), Version 10 (64-bit),
and Version 11 (64-bit)
•
VMware® ESX 3.5 and 3.5i
NOTE: For more information on Citrix XenServer and VMware ESX drivers, see the
Citrix XenServer and VMware ESX documentation respectively on the Dell Support
website at support.dell.com.
NOTE: To check operating system compatibility, see the Dell Support website
at support.dell.com.
The two methods for installing a driver discussed in this chapter are:
•
During operating system installation — Use this method if you are
performing a new installation of the operating system and want to include
the drivers.
•
Updating existing drivers — Use this method if the operating system and
PERC 6 and CERC 6/i family of controllers are already installed and you
want to update to the latest drivers.
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Installing Windows Drivers
Creating the Driver Media
Perform the following steps to create the driver media:
1 Browse to the download section for the system on the Dell Support
website at support.dell.com.
2 Locate and download the latest PERC 6 controller driver to the system.
3 Follow the instructions on the Dell Support website for extracting the
driver to the media.
Pre-Installation Requirements
Before you install the operating system:
•
Read the Microsoft Getting Started document that shipped with your
operating system.
•
Ensure that your system has the latest BIOS, firmware, and driver updates.
If required, download the latest BIOS, firmware, and driver updates from
the Dell Support website at support.dell.com.
•
Create a device driver media (diskette, USB drive, CD, or DVD).
Creating the Device Driver Media
Use one of the following two methods to create the device driver media.
Downloading Drivers From the Dell Systems Service and Diagnostic Tools Media
1 Insert the Dell Systems Service and Diagnostics Tools media in a system.
The Welcome to Dell Service and Diagnostic Utilities screen displays.
2 Select your system model and operating system (Microsoft Windows
Server 2008).
3 Click Continue.
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4 From the list of drivers displayed, select the driver you require. Select the
self-extracting zip file and click Run. Copy the driver to a diskette drive,
CD, DVD, or USB drive. Repeat this step for all the drivers you require.
5 During the operating system installation, use the media that you created
with the Load Driver option to load mass storage drivers. For more
information on reinstalling the operating system, see the relevant section
for your operating system below.
Downloading Drivers From the Dell Support Site
1 Go to support.dell.com.
2 Click Drivers and Downloads.
3 Enter the service tag of your system in the Choose by Service Tag field or
select your system’s model.
4 Select the System Type, Operating System, Driver Language, and
Category from the drop-down list.
5 The drivers that are applicable to your selection are displayed. From the
available list, download the drivers that you require to a diskette drive,
USB drive, CD, or DVD.
6 During the operating system installation, use the media that you created
with the Load Driver option to load mass storage drivers. For more
information on reinstalling the operating system, see the relevant section
for your operating system below.
Installing the Driver During a Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP
Operating System Installation
1 Boot the system using the Microsoft Windows XP/Microsoft Windows
Server 2003 media.
2 When the message Press F6 if you need to install a third party SCSI or
RAID driver displays in the bottom of the screen, press the <F6> key
immediately.
Within a few minutes, a screen displays asking for additional controllers in
the system.
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3 Press the <S> key.
The system prompts for the driver media to be inserted.
NOTE: The driver can be provided using a properly formatted USB key.
For additional details on the driver, go the Dell Support website
at support.dell.com.
4 Insert the driver media in the media drive and press <Enter>.
A list of PERC 6 and CERC 6/i controllers displays.
5 Select the right driver for the installed controller and press <Enter> to
load the driver.
NOTE: For Windows Server 2003, a message may appear that states that the
driver that you provided is older or newer than the existing Windows driver.
Press <S> to use the driver that is on the media.
6 Press <Enter> again to continue the installation process as usual.
Installing the Driver During a Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista
Installation
1 Boot the system using the Microsoft Windows Vista/Microsoft
Windows Server 2008 media.
2 Follow the on-screen instructions until you reach Where do you want to
install Vista/2008 and then select Load driver.
3 The system prompts for the media to be inserted. Insert the installation
media and browse to the proper location.
4 Select the appropriate PERC 6 controller from the list, click Next and
continue installation.
NOTE: Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista operating systems include
native drivers for the PERC 6 and CERC 6/i RAID controllers. For driver
updates, see the Drivers and Downloads section on the Dell Support website
at support.dell.com.
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Installing a Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista,
or Windows XP Driver for a New RAID Controller
NOTE: PERC 5 and PERC 6 use the same driver and do not require separate driver
installations.
Perform the following steps to configure the driver for the RAID controller on
a system that already has Windows installed.
1 Turn off the system.
2 Install the new RAID controller in the system.
For detailed instructions on installing and cabling the RAID controller in
the system, see "Installing and Configuring Hardware" on page 41.
3 Turn on the system.
4 The Found New Hardware Wizard screen pops up and displays the
detected hardware device.
NOTE: Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista have native drivers for the
PERC adapters. The system automatically detects the controller and installs
the drivers. Check the version of the driver and update if required.
5 Click Next.
6 On the Locate device driver screen, select Search for a suitable driver for
my device and click Next.
7 Browse and select the drivers from the Locate Driver Files screen.
8 Click Next.
9 The wizard detects and installs the appropriate device drivers for the new
RAID controller.
10 Click Finish to complete the installation.
11 Reboot the system when prompted.
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Updating an Existing Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008,
Windows XP, or Windows Vista Driver
NOTE: Close all applications on your system before you update the driver.
1 Insert the media (CD, DVD, or USB drive) containing the driver.
2 Select Start →Settings →Control Panel →System.
The System Properties screen displays.
NOTE: For systems running Windows Server 2003 operating system,
click Start →Control Panel →System.
3 Click on the Hardware tab.
4 Click Device Manager.
The Device Manager screen displays.
NOTE: Alternatively, to open the Device Manager applet, you can right click
My Computer and choose Manage. The Computer Management window
displays. Select Device Manager in the left pane.
5 Expand SCSI and RAID Controllers by double-clicking the entry or by
clicking on the plus symbol next to SCSI and RAID Controller.
NOTE: In Windows 2008 and Windows Vista, the PERC adapter is listed under
Storage Controllers.
6 Double-click the RAID controller for which you want to update the driver.
7 Click the Driver tab and click Update Driver.
The Upgrade Device Driver Wizard screen displays.
8 Select Install from a list or specific location.
9 Click Next.
10 Follow the steps in the wizard and browse to the location of the driver files.
11 Select the INF file from the driver media (CD, DVD, or other media).
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12 Click Next and continue the installation steps in the Wizard.
13 Click Finish to exit the wizard and reboot the system for the changes to
take place.
NOTE: Dell provides the Dell Update Package (DUP) to update drivers on systems
running Windows Server 2003 and Windows Server 2008. DUP is an executable
application that updates drivers for specific devices. DUP supports command line
interface and silent execution. For more information, see the Dell Support website
at support.dell.com.
Installing Linux Driver
Use the procedures in this section to install the driver for Linux. The driver is
updated frequently. To ensure that you have the current version of the driver,
download the updated Linux driver from the Dell Support website at
support.dell.com.
Creating a Driver Diskette
Before beginning the installation, copy the drivers from the Service and
Diagnostic Utilities media or download the driver appropriate for Linux from
the Dell Support website at support.dell.com. This file includes two Red Hat
Package Managers (RPMs) and driver update disk files. The package also
contains the Dynamic Kernel Module Support (DKMS) Red Hat Package
Manager (RPM) file, source code, and release notes.
For more information on DKMS, see the Dell Support website at
support.dell.com.
The package is a gzipped tar file. After downloading the package to a Linux
system, perform the following steps:
1 Unzip the package using gunzip.
2 Untar the file using tar -xvf.
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3 Use the dd command to create a driver update disk. Use the appropriate
image for the purpose.
dd if=<name of the dd image file> of=/dev/fd0
NOTE: You can create a driver update disk on a Windows system using the
program dcopynt.
NOTE: The output file of might be different, depending on how your operating
system maps the diskette drive. You do not need to mount the diskette drive in
order to execute the dd command.
4 Use the diskette for operating system installation. For Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, see "Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux Operating System Using
the Driver Update Diskette" on page 71. For SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server, see "Installing SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Using the Driver
Update Diskette" on page 71.
Creating a Driver Update Diskette Using DKMS
Perform the following steps to create the Driver Update Diskette (DUD)
using the DKMS tool:
NOTE: The driver must be installed on the system where this procedure is
performed.
1 Install the DKMS-enabled megaraid_sas driver rpm package.
2 Type the following command in any directory:
dkms mkdriverdisk –m megaraid_sas –v <driver
version> -k <kernel version> -d <distro>
NOTE: The values for the –d option are suse for Suse Linux Enterprise
Server diskettes and redhat for RHEL diskettes.
NOTE: For more information on usage of DKMS, see the DKMS main page.
This starts the process to create the megaraid_sas DUD image. After the
DUD image has been built, you can find it in the DKMS tree for the
megaraid_sas driver. See the output of the dkms mkdriverdisk
command for the exact path.
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Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux Operating System Using the Driver
Update Diskette
Perform the following steps to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux
(versions 4 and 5) and the appropriate driver.
1 Boot normally from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation media.
2 At the command prompt, type:
linux expert dd
3 When the install prompts for a driver diskette, insert the diskette and
press <Enter>.
For information about creating a driver diskette, see "Creating a Driver
Diskette" on page 69.
4 Complete the installation as directed by the installation program.
Installing SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Using the Driver
Update Diskette
NOTE: For information about creating a driver diskette, see "Creating a Driver
Diskette" on page 69.
To install SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (version 9 or 10) using the DUD:
1 Insert the appropriate SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (version 9 or 10)
Service Pack media in the system.
2 Select <F5> for the driver update disk.
NOTE: If you are installing Suse Linux Enterprise Server 10, press <F5>. If you
are installing Suse Linux Enterprise Server 9, press <F6>.
3 Select Installation from the menu.
4 Press <Enter> to load the Linux kernel.
5 At the prompt Please insert the driver update floppy,
click OK.
The system selects the driver from the diskette and installs it. The system
then displays the message DRIVER UPDATE ADDED with the
description of the driver module.
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6 Click OK.
If you want to install from another driver update medium, continue with
the following steps.
7 The system displays the message PLEASE CHOOSE DRIVER UPDATE
MEDIUM.
8 Select the appropriate driver update medium.
The system selects the driver from the disk and installs it.
NOTE: Suse Linux Enterprise Server 9 Gold media is required when you install
any Suse Linux Enterprise Server 9 service pack.
Installing the RPM Package With DKMS Support
Perform the following steps to install the RPM package with DKMS support:
1 Uncompress the gzipped tarball driver release package.
2 Install the DKMS package using the command: rpm –ihv dkms<version>.noarch.rpm
3 Install the driver package using the command: rpm –ihv
megaraid_sas-<version>.noarch.rpm
NOTE: Use rpm -Uvh <package name> when updating an existing
package.
4 If the previous device driver is in use, you must reboot the system for the
updated driver to take effect.
5 Verify that the driver has been loaded.
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Upgrading the Kernel
When upgrading to a new kernel, you must reinstall the DKMS-enabled
driver packages. Perform the following steps to update or install the driver for
the new kernel:
1 In a terminal window, type the following:
dkms build -m <module_name> -v <module version>
-k <kernel version>
dkms install -m <module_name> -v <module version>
-k <kernel version>
2 To check whether the driver is successfully installed in the new kernel, type:
dkms status
You see a message similar to the following one:
<driver name>, <driver version>, <new kernel
version>: installed
3 If the previous device driver is in use, you must reboot the system for the
updated driver to take effect.
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Installing Solaris Driver
Use the procedures in this section to install the driver for Solaris 10. To ensure
that you have the current version of the driver, download the updated Solaris
driver from the Dell Support website at support.dell.com.
The package is a gzipped .tar file. Download the package to a Solaris system,
and perform the following steps:
1 Extract the package contents: gunzip c <driver_package.tgz> | tar xvf –
2 Use the dd command to create a driver update disk. Use the appropriate
image for the purpose. Type: dd if=./mega_sas.img of=
/<diskette drive device node> bs=32k
NOTE: If you are uncertain which device node corresponds to your diskette
drive, execute the rmformat command and search for the correct Logical
Node.
NOTE: You can create a DUD on a system running the Windows operating
system using the program dcopynt.
3 If you prefer, you may use the cdrecord command to create a CDROM
instead of a floppy image. Type: cdrecord dev=
<bus>,<target>,<lun> mega_sas_cd.iso
NOTE: To identify the correct location of the bus, target, and logical unit
number (LUN) combination, execute the following command:
cdrecord --scanbus
Installing Solaris 10 on a PowerEdge System Booting From a PERC 6
or CERC 6/i Controller
To install the driver during Solaris 10 operating system installation:
1 Boot the system from the Solaris installation media and select the
preferred console.
2 After Solaris finishes configuring devices, a menu displays.
Select Apply Driver Updates.
3 Select [1] if you created a CD from the mega_sas_cd.iso file.
4 Select [2] if you created a diskette from the mega_sas.img file and you are
using a traditional diskette drive.
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5 Select [3] if you created a diskette from the mega_sas.img file and you are
using a removable (USB) diskette drive.
6 Follow instructions presented by Driver Update installer.
7 The following message displays: Installation of <megasas>
was successful.
8 Select [e] to end
9 Follow the instructions on the screen to complete installation.
Adding/Updating the Driver to an Existing System
1 To add the mega_sas driver to an existing system, or to upgrade to a newer
version of the driver, you must unarchive the driver package and execute
the installation script:
tar xvf x86_64.tar
cd x86_64
./install.sh
2 Restart your Solaris system to start using the new driver. To confirm the
mega_sas driver is loaded, run the following command:
modinfo | grep mega_sas
3 Ensure that the driver version is correct.
Installing NetWare Drivers
Use the procedures in this section to install the driver for Novell NetWare 6.5.
To ensure that you have the current version of the driver, download the
updated NetWare driver from the Dell Support website at support.dell.com.
Installing the NetWare Driver in a New NetWare System
Follow the instructions in the Novell NetWare Installation Guide to install
Novell NetWare in the system. Perform the following steps to install Novell
NetWare using the SAS RAID controller as a primary adapter:
1 Boot from the Novell NetWare media.
2 Follow the instructions on the screen until you reach the Device Driver screen.
3 Select Modify, and press <Enter>.
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4 From the screen that displays, go to the Storage Adapter screen to install
the MegaRAID SAS driver.
5 Delete any existing RAID adapter listings.
6 Press <Insert> to add unlisted drivers.
7 Press <Insert> again.
A path is displayed.
8 Press <F3>.
9 Insert the driver diskette in the diskette drive, and press <Enter>.
The system finds the .HAM driver.
10 Press <Tab>.
11 Select the Driver Summary screen, and press <Enter>.
12 Continue the Novell NetWare installation procedure.
Installing or Updating the NetWare Driver in an Existing NetWare System
Perform the following steps to add the Novell NetWare driver to an existing
installation:
1 At the root prompt, type hdetect and press <Enter>.
The Configuration Options screen is displayed.
2 From the screen that displays, go to the Storage Adapter screen to install
the MegaRAID SAS driver.
3 Delete any existing RAID adapter listings.
4 Press <Insert> to add unlisted drivers.
5 Press <Insert> again.
A path is displayed.
6 Press <F3>.
7 Insert the driver diskette in the diskette drive, and press <Enter>.
The system finds the .HAM driver.
8 Press <Tab>.
9 Select the Driver Summary screen, and press <Enter>.
10 Continue the Novell NetWare installation procedure.
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Configuring and Managing RAID
Dell™ OpenManage™ storage management applications enable you to
manage and configure the RAID system, create and manage multiple disk
groups, control and monitor multiple RAID systems, and provide online
maintenance. The management applications for PERC 6 include:
•
Dell OpenManage Storage Management
•
Dell Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) RAID Storage Manager
•
BIOS Configuration Utility (Ctrl+R)
Dell OpenManage Storage Management
Dell OpenManage storage management is a storage management application
for Dell systems that provides enhanced features for configuring a system's
locally-attached RAID and non-RAID disk storage. Dell OpenManage storage
management application enables you to perform controller and enclosure
functions for all supported RAID controllers and enclosures from a single
graphical or command-line interface without requiring the use of the
controller BIOS utilities. The graphical user interface (GUI) is wizard-driven
with features for novice and advanced users, and detailed online help. Using
Dell OpenManage storage management application, you can protect your
data by configuring data-redundancy, assigning hot spares, or rebuilding failed
physical disks. The command line interface available on selected operating
systems to perform RAID management tasks is fully featured and scriptable.
Dell SAS RAID Storage Manager
SAS RAID Storage Manager is a storage management application for Dell
PowerEdge™ SC systems and Dell Precision™ workstations. SAS RAID
Storage Manager configures virtual disks, and monitors and maintains PERC
6 controllers, battery backup units, and other devices running on systems and
workstations. You can perform these tasks using the application’s GUI.
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RAID Configuration Functions
After you attach physical disks, use a configuration utility to organize the
disks into virtual disks. If the operating system is not yet installed, use the
BIOS Configuration Utility to perform this procedure.
Use the configuration utilities to perform the following tasks:
•
Access controllers, virtual disks, and physical disks individually
•
Select a host controller to work on
•
Create hot spare physical disks
•
Configure virtual disks
•
Initialize one or more virtual disks
•
Perform consistency checks
•
Rebuild failed physical disks
•
Preserve the cache data, known as pinned cache, from a virtual disk that
goes offline or is deleted for any reason
The following sections describe the menu options and provide detailed
instructions to perform the configuration tasks. They apply to the BIOS
Configuration Utility. You can configure physical disks into virtual disks by
following the procedure below.
1 Define virtual disks using a group of physical disks.
NOTE: A disk group is deleted when the last virtual disk in the disk group
is deleted.
2 Designate hot spares (optional).
For more information, see "Managing Dedicated Hot Spares" on page 94.
3 Save the configuration information.
4 Initialize the virtual disks.
For the detailed configuration procedures, see "Physical Disk
Management" on page 105.
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BIOS Configuration Utility
The BIOS Configuration Utility, also known as Ctrl+R, is a storage
management application embedded on the PERC 6 controllers that
configures and maintains RAID disk groups and virtual disks. Ctrl+R is
independent of the operating system.
NOTE: Use the BIOS Configuration Utility for initial setup and disaster recovery.
You can use advanced features through Dell OpenManage storage management
application and Dell SAS RAID storage manager.
The following sections provide information about using the BIOS
Configuration Utility. For more information, see the online help option by
pressing <F1>.
NOTE: The PERC 6 controller configuration utility refreshes the screen to show
changes to information. The refresh occurs when you press a key or every 15
seconds.
Entering the BIOS Configuration Utility
The BIOS Configuration Utility configures physical disk groups and
virtual disks. The utility resides in the controller BIOS so its operation is
independent of the operating systems.
Perform the following steps to enter the BIOS Configuration Utility when
you boot the system.
1 Turn on the system.
A BIOS banner displays information about the controller and
configuration.
2 During startup, press <Ctrl><R> when prompted by the BIOS banner.
After you press <Ctrl><R>, if there is only one controller, the Virtual
Disk Management screen for that controller displays. If there are more
than one controllers, the main menu screen displays. This screen lists the
RAID controllers. Use the arrow keys to select the RAID controller you
want to configure, and press <Enter> to access the management menus
for the controller. The virtual disks, physical disks, free space, hot spares,
and other items displays in the other menu screens. The information can
appear in a list view or in an expandable tree directory similar to that of
Microsoft® Windows® Explorer.
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NOTE: You can access multiple controllers through the BIOS Configuration Utility
by pressing <F12>.
NOTE: You can access PERC 5 and PERC 6 controllers from the same BIOS if the
PERC 5 firmware version is 5.1.1-0040 or later. You need to verify if you are currently
set to edit the PERC 5 or PERC 6 adapter.
Exiting the Configuration Utility
To exit the BIOS Configuration Utility, press <Esc> at any menu screen.
If there is only one controller, then a dialog box displays to confirm your
choice. Select OK to exit and press <Enter>.
If multiple controllers are present, then the <Esc> key brings you to the
Controller Selection screen. Press <Esc> again to reach the exit screen.
A dialog box displays to confirm your choice. Select OK to exit and press
<Enter>.
Menu Navigation Controls
Table 6-1 displays the menu keys you can use to move between the different
screens in the BIOS Configuration Utility.
Table 6-1.
Menu Navigation Keys
Notation
Meaning and Use
right-arrow
key
Use the right-arrow key to open a submenu, move
Start
from a menu heading to the first submenu, or move
Programs
to the first item in that submenu. If you press the
right-arrow key at a menu heading, the submenu
expands. Press it again to go to the first item in the
submenu. The right-arrow key is also used to close a
menu list in a popup window. Word wrap is
supported.
left-arrow
key
Use the left-arrow key to close a submenu, move
Controller 0
from a menu item to the menu heading for that
Disk Group 1
item, or move from a submenu to a higher level
menu. If you press the left-arrow key at a menu
heading, the submenu collapses. Press it again to go
to the higher-level menu. Word wrap is supported.
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Table 6-1.
Menu Navigation Keys (continued)
Notation
Meaning and Use
Example
up-arrow
key
Use the up-arrow key to move to the upper menu
Virtual Disk 1
items within a menu or to a higher level menu. You
can also use the up-arrow key to close a menu list in a
popup window, such as the stripe element size menu. Virtual Disk 4
Word wrap is supported.
down-arrow Use the down-arrow key to move to the lower menu Virtual Disks
key
items within a menu or to a lower level menu. You
can also use the down-arrow key to open a menu list
in a popup window, such as the stripe element size Virtual Disk 1
menu, and select a setting. Word wrap is supported.
Underlined
letter in a
menu
heading on
the menu
bar
Indicates a shortcut you can use by pressing
Adapter
<Alt><underlined letter>. To use this feature, the
menu must be activated. Menu shortcuts are allowed
but cannot be used when a menu is active.
Underlined Indicates a shortcut you can use to expand a menu
letter in a
by pressing <Alt><menu underlined letter>.
menu item Pressing <Alt> again closes the menu. Menu
shortcuts are allowed but cannot be used when a
menu is active.
Virtual Disk 1
<>
Key presses are enclosed in angle brackets.
<F1>, <Esc>,
<Enter>
<Enter>
After you highlight a menu item, press <Enter> to
select that item. This opens an options menu for the
menu item. This applies to only certain menu items,
such as Virtual Disk #. In a list of options for that
item, such as the write policy for a virtual disk,
highlight a setting, such as Write-Through, and press
<Enter> to select it.
Select Add New
VD and press
<Enter> to
create a new
virtual disk.
In the right panel, you can press <Enter> to select
Tree View or List View under the View Type
heading.
<Esc>
After you expand a pop-up window, press <Esc> to Press <Esc> to
close the window. You can continue to press <Esc> return to the VD
to exit the BIOS Configuration Utility.
Mgmt screen.
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Table 6-1.
Menu Navigation Keys (continued)
Notation
Meaning and Use
<Tab>
Press <Tab> to move the cursor to the next control Press <Tab> to
on a dialog box or page.
move the cursor
to the next
parameter you
want to change.
<Shift>
<Tab>
Press <Shift><Tab> to move the cursor to the
previous control on a dialog or page.
<Ctrl>
<N>
Press <Ctrl><N> to move to the next menu screen Press
among the main menu screens: VD Mgmt, PD
<Ctrl><N> on
Mgmt, Ctrl Mgmt, and Foreign View.
the VD Mgmt
When you return to the original menu, the cursor is screen to move to
on the same menu item it was on before you pressed the PD Mgmt
screen.
<Ctrl><N>.
<Ctrl>
<P>
Press <Ctrl><P> to move to the previous menu
Press
screen among the main menu screens: VD Mgmt, PD <Ctrl><P> on
Mgmt, Ctrl Mgmt, and Foreign View.
the PD Mgmt
When you return to the previous screen, the cursor is screen to return
on the same menu item it was on before you pressed to the VD Mgmt
screen.
<Ctrl><P>.
<F1>
Press <F1> to access Help information. The Help
screens display a glossary of topics you can use to
access information about navigation, RAID levels,
and general topics.
<F1>
<F2>
Press <F2> to access the context menu, which
displays the list of options.
<F2>
<F5>
Press <F5> to refresh the information on the
screen.
<F5>
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Example
Press
<Shift><Tab>
to move the
cursor from
Virtual Disk to
Disk Group #.
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Table 6-1.
Menu Navigation Keys (continued)
Notation
Meaning and Use
Example
<F11>
Switch between two controllers.
<F11>
<F12>
Press <F12> to display a list of controllers.
<F12>
Spacebar
Press the spacebar to select an item, such as a virtual
disk in the List View, select all the virtual disks
(Mark All), or de-select all the virtual disks (Unmark
All).
Press the
spacebar to select
each virtual disk
on which you
want to check
data consistency.
Setting Up Virtual Disks
You can set up a disk group and create virtual disks using the procedures
contained in this section. Each of the following procedures are explained
individually in this section in detail.
1 Create the virtual disks and select the virtual disk options.
2 Designate hot spares (optional).
For more information, see "Managing Dedicated Hot Spares" on page 94.
NOTE: A disk group is deleted when the last virtual disk in the disk group is
deleted.
3 Initialize the virtual disks.
NOTE: When you use one physical disk group to create multiple virtual disks,
all the virtual disks must be configured with the same RAID level.
When you define the virtual disks, you can set the following virtual disk
parameters:
•
RAID level
•
Stripe element size
•
Read policy
•
Write policy
•
Type of initialization
•
Hot spare configuration
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Table 6-2 shows the parameters that you can configure when defining
virtual disks.
Table 6-2.
Virtual Disk Parameters and Descriptions
Parameter
Description
RAID Level
RAID Level specifies whether the virtual disk is RAID 0, 1, 5,
6, 10, 50, or 60. The RAID level you select depends on the
number of disks, disk capacity, and the requirements for fault
tolerance and performance. More more information, see
"Summary of RAID Levels" on page 17.
Stripe Element Size Stripe Element Size specifies the size of the segments written
to each physical disk in a RAID 0, 1, 5, 6, 10, and 50
virtual disk. You can set the stripe element size to 8 KB, 16 KB,
32 KB, 64 KB, 128 KB, 256 KB, 512 KB, or 1024 KB. The
default and recommended stripe element size is 64 KB.
A larger stripe element size provides better read performance if
your system mostly does sequential reads.
Write Policy
Write Policy specifies the controller write policy. You can set
the write policy to Write-Back or Write-Through.
In Write-Back caching, the controller sends a data transfer
completion signal to the host when the controller cache has
received all the data in a transaction.
NOTE: If a Battery Backup Unit (BBU) is present, the default
cache setting is Write-Back. If no BBU is present, the default
cache policy default setting is Write-Through.
NOTE: If Write-Back is enabled and the system is quickly turned
off and then on, the controller may pause as the system flushes
cache memory. Controllers that contain a battery backup default
to Write-Back caching.
In Write-Through caching, the controller sends a data transfer
completion signal to the host when the disk subsystem has
received all the data in a transaction.
Write-Back caching has a performance advantage over
Write-Through caching.
NOTE: Certain data patterns and configurations perform better
with Write-Through cache policy.
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Table 6-2.
Virtual Disk Parameters and Descriptions (continued)
Parameter
Description
Read Policy
Read-Ahead enables the read ahead feature for the virtual disk.
You can set this parameter to Read-Ahead, No-Read-Ahead, or
Adaptive. The default is No-Read-Ahead.
Read-Ahead specifies that the controller uses Read-Ahead for
the current virtual disk. Read-Ahead capability allows the
controller to read sequentially ahead of requested data and
store the additional data in cache memory, anticipating that
the data is required soon.
No-Read-Ahead specifies that the controller does not use read
ahead for the current virtual disk.
NOTE: No-Read-Ahead shows higher performance results due to
the effectiveness of hard-drive caching algorithms.
Adaptive specifies that the controller begins using Read-Ahead
if the two most recent disk accesses occurred in sequential
sectors. If all read requests are random, the algorithm reverts to
No-Read-Ahead; however, all requests are still evaluated for
possible sequential operation.
Virtual Disk Management
Creating Virtual Disks
NOTE: Combining SAS and SATA hard disk drives (HDDs) within a virtual disk is not
supported. Also, combining HDDs and Solid State Drives (SSDs) within a virtual disk
is not supported.
Perform the following steps to create virtual disks.
1 During host system bootup, press <Ctrl><R> when the BIOS banner
displays.
The Virtual Disk Management screen displays. If there is more than one
controller, the main menu screen displays. Select a controller, and press
<Enter>. The Virtual Disk Management screen displays for the selected
controller.
NOTE: This procedure describes the BIOS Configuration Utility screens in
Tree View.
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2 Use the arrow keys to highlight Controller # or Disk Group #.
3 Press <F2> to display the actions you can perform.
4 Select Create New VD and press <Enter>.
The Create New VD screen displays. The cursor is on the RAID Levels
option.
5 Press <Enter> to display the possible RAID levels, based on the physical
disks available.
6 Press the down-arrow key to select a RAID level and press <Enter>.
7 Press <Tab> to move the cursor to the list of physical disks.
8 Use the arrow key to highlight a physical disk and press the spacebar,
<Alt>, or <Enter> to select the disk.
9 Select additional disks, if desired.
10 Press <Tab> to move the cursor to the Basic Settings box.
11 Set the virtual disk size in the VD Size field.
The virtual disk size displays in megabyte (MB) format.
NOTE: For RAID levels 0, 1, 5, and 6 only, you can use part of the available disk
space to create one virtual disk and then use the rest of the disk space to
create another virtual disk or disks.
NOTE: The minimum virtual disk size is 100 MB.
12 Press <Tab> to access the VD Size field, and type a virtual disk name.
13 Press <Tab> to move the cursor to Advanced Settings.
14 Press the spacebar to make the settings active so that you can
change them.
An X displays beside Advanced Settings. The settings are the stripe
element size, read policy, and write policy. You can also choose advanced
options such as forcing the cache policy to Write-Back, initializing the
virtual disk, and configuring a dedicated hot spare.
The defaults for these parameters are present when the window displays.
You can accept the defaults or change them. For detailed information
about the virtual disk parameters, see "Virtual Disk Parameters and
Descriptions" on page 84.
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15 Perform the following steps to select the virtual disk parameters:
a
Press <Tab> to move the cursor to the parameters you want
to change.
b
Press the down-arrow key to open the parameters and scroll down the
list of settings.
c
To change the stripe element size, press <Tab> to highlight Stripe
Element Size.
d
Press <Enter> to display the list of stripe element sizes (8 KB, 16 KB,
32 KB, 64 KB, 128 KB, 256 KB, 512 KB, and 1024 KB). Press the
down-arrow key to highlight the desired option and press <Enter>.
The default is 64 KB.
e
If you need to change the read policy, press <Tab> to move the cursor
to Read Policy.
f
Press <Enter> to display the options (No Read Ahead, Read Ahead,
or Adaptive Read Ahead). Press the down-arrow key to highlight the
desired option and press <Enter>.
g
If you need to change the write policy, press <Tab> to move the
cursor to Write Policy.
h
Press <Enter> to display the options (Write-Through, Write Back).
Press the down-arrow key to highlight an option and press <Enter>.
i
Press <Tab> to move the cursor to Force WB with no battery and
press <Enter>. If you chose Write-Through as the write policy, then
this option is not available.
j
Press <Tab> to move the cursor to Initialize and press <Enter>.
CAUTION: Do not initialize virtual disks when attempting to recreate an existing
configuration.
NOTE: The initialization performed at this stage is fast initialization.
k
Press <Tab> to move the cursor to Configure HotSpare and press
<Enter>.
NOTE: The hot spare created at this stage is a dedicated hot spare.
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l
If you have chosen to create hot spares in the earlier steps, a pop-up
window displays where drives with appropriate sizes are displayed.
Press the spacebar to select the drive size.
Select the check box to enable the enclosure affinity setting for the
hot spare.
m
After you select the drive size, click OK to finalize the selection or
click Cancel to forfeit the selection.
n
Select OK to accept the settings and press <Enter> to exit this
window or select Cancel and press <Enter> to exit if you do not want
to change any virtual disk parameters.
Initializing Virtual Disks
CAUTION: A Full Initialization permanently destroys any existing data on
that drives.
Perform the following steps to initialize virtual disks.
1 On the VD Mgmt screen, select Virtual Disk # and press <F2> to display
the menu of available actions.
2 Select Initialization and press the right-arrow key to display the
Initialization submenu options.
3 Select Start Init. to begin a regular initialization or select Fast Init. to
begin a fast initialization.
4 A pop-up windows displays indicating that the virtual disk has been
initialized.
5 Repeat the procedures in this section to configure another virtual disk.
The PERC 6 controllers support up to 64 virtual disks per controller.
The currently configured virtual disks display on the screen.
Checking Data Consistency
Select the Consistency Check (CC) option in the configuration utility to
verify the redundancy data in virtual disks that use RAID levels 1, 5, 6, 10, 50,
and 60. (RAID 0 does not provide data redundancy.)
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If you attempt to run a Consistency Check on a virtual disk that has not been
initialized, the following error message displays:
The virtual disk has not been initialized. Running a
consistency check may result in inconsistent messages
in the log. Are you sure you want to continue?
You can select Yes or No. If you select Yes, the CC operation continues. If you
select No, the operation ends.
Perform the following steps to run a Consistency Check.
1 Press <Ctrl><N> to access the VD Mgmt menu screen.
2 Press the down-arrow key to highlight Virtual Disk #.
3 Press <F2> to display the menu of available actions.
4 Press the down-arrow key to select Consistency Check.
5 Press the right-arrow key to display the available actions (Start, Stop).
6 Select Start and press <Enter> to run a Consistency Check.
The Consistency Check runs and checks the redundancy data in the
virtual disks.
7 After you start the Consistency Check, press <Esc> to display the
previous menu if needed.
Importing or Clearing Foreign Configurations Using the VD Mgmt Menu
When a foreign configuration exists, the BIOS banner displays the message
Foreign configuration(s) found on adapter. In addition,
a foreign configuration, when present, displays on the right side of the
VD Mgmt screen.
You can use the VD Mgmt menu to import the existing configuration to the
RAID controller or clear the existing configuration. In addition, you can view
the foreign drive data from the Foreign View tab without importing the
configuration.
NOTE: The controller does not allow an import that results in more than 64
virtual disks.
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Perform the following steps to import or clear foreign configurations.
1 During bootup, press <Ctrl><R> when prompted by the BIOS banner.
The VD Mgmt screen displays by default.
2 On the VD Mgmt screen, highlight the Controller #.
The controller number is the only item that displays until you import the
foreign configuration.
3 Press <F2> to display the available actions.
4 Press the right-arrow key to display the available actions (Import, Clear).
NOTE: Ensure that your virtual disk has all the physical disks by verifying that
there are no physical disks marked as Missing in the foreign view page and
that all the disks appear as expected before importing them.
5 Select Import to import the foreign configuration or Clear to delete the
foreign configuration and then press <Enter>.
If you import the configuration, the VD Mgmt screen displays detailed
configuration information. This includes information about the disk
groups, virtual disks, physical disks, space allocation, and hot spares.
Importing or Clearing Foreign Configurations Using the Foreign
Configuration View Screen
If one or more physical disks are removed from a configuration, the
configuration on those disks is considered a foreign configuration by the
RAID controller.
You can use the Foreign Configuration View screen to view information
about the foreign configuration, such as disk groups, virtual disks, physical
disks, space allocation, and hot spares. The foreign configuration data displays
in the same format as configurations on the VD Mgmt screen. You can use this
screen to view the foreign configuration before importing it. After you view
the foreign configuration, you can either import it to the RAID controller or
clear it.
NOTE: Before you import the foreign configuration, review the configuration on the
screen to ensure that it is the desired end result.
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You can use the Foreign Configuration View screen to manage foreign
configurations in the following cases:
•
All the physical disks in a configuration are removed and re-inserted.
•
Some of the physical disks in a configuration are removed and re-inserted.
•
All the physical disks in a virtual disk are removed, but at different times,
and then re-inserted.
•
The physical disks in a non-redundant virtual disk are removed.
The following constraints apply to the physical disks that are considered
for import:
•
The drive state of a physical disk can change from the time the foreign
configuration is scanned to when the actual import occurs. The foreign
import occurs only on drives that are in the Unconfigured Good state.
•
Drives in the failed or offline state cannot be imported.
•
The firmware does not allow you to import more than eight foreign
configurations.
Perform the following procedures on the Foreign Configuration View screen
to manage foreign configurations in each specific case:
1 If all or some of the physical disks in a configuration are removed and
reinserted, the controller considers the drives to have foreign
configurations. Perform the following steps:
a
Select Foreign Configuration View to display the foreign
configuration information on the Foreign Configuration View
screen.
b
Press <F2> to display the options (Import, Clear).
NOTE: You must have all the drives in the system before you perform the
import operation.
c
Select Import to import the foreign configuration to the controller or
select Clear to delete the foreign configuration(s) from the re-inserted
disk(s).
In the Preview Configuration Data window, the status of a physical
disk that needs to be rebuilt is displayed as Rebuild.
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NOTE: When you import a foreign configuration, the dedicated hot spares in
the configuration are imported as dedicated hot spares on two conditions —
the associated virtual disk is already present or the associated virtual disk is
also imported along with the configuration.
NOTE: Start a consistency check immediately after the rebuild is complete to
ensure data integrity for the virtual disks. For more information about
checking data consistency, see "Checking Data Consistency" on page 88.
2 If all the physical disks in a virtual disk are removed at different times and
re-inserted, the controller considers the disks to have foreign
configurations. Perform the following steps:
a
Select Foreign Configuration View to display the complete virtual
disk, across different foreign configurations and allow foreign
configurations to be imported.
b
Press <F2> to display the options Import and Clear.
NOTE: You must have all the drives in the system before you perform the
import operation.
c
Select Import to merge the foreign configurations with the existing
configuration on the controller or Clear to delete the foreign
configuration(s) from the re-inserted disk(s).
If you select Import, all drives that were pulled before the virtual disk
became offline are imported, and then automatically rebuilt.
NOTE: Start a consistency check immediately after the rebuild is complete to
ensure data integrity for the virtual disks. For more information about
checking data consistency, see "Checking Data Consistency" on page 88.
3 If the physical disks in a non-redundant virtual disk are removed, the
controller considers the drives to have foreign configurations. Perform the
following steps:
a
Select Foreign Configuration View to display the complete foreign
configuration information.
b
Press <F2> to display the options Import and Clear.
c
Select Import to import the foreign configuration to the virtual disk or
Clear to delete the foreign configuration(s) from the re-inserted
disk(s).
No rebuilds occur after the import operation because there is no
redundant data to rebuild the drives with.
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Managing Preserved Cache
If a virtual disk becomes offline or is deleted because of missing physical
disks, the controller preserves the dirty cache from the virtual disk.
This preserved dirty cache, known as pinned cache, is preserved until you
import the virtual disk or discard the cache.
NOTE: Certain operations, such as creating a new virtual disk, cannot be
performed if pinned cache exists. You have to enter the BIOS Configuration Utility to
resolve the situation before you boot to the operating system. Messages are
displayed notifying you that you must enter the BIOS Configuration Utility to discard
the pinned cache or import the virtual disks with the pinned cache.
CAUTION: If there are any foreign configurations, it is strongly advised that you
import the foreign configuration before you discard the preserved cache.
Otherwise, you might lose data that belongs with the foreign configuration.
Perform the following steps to select whether to import the virtual disk or
discard the preserved cache.
1 On the VD Mgmt screen, click on a controller icon.
2 Press <F2> to display the menu of available actions.
3 Select Manage Preserved Cache.
A message displays advising you to import the foreign configuration before
you discard the preserved cache to avoid losing data belonging to the
foreign configuration. Confirm whether you want to continue.
The Manage Preserved Cache screen displays the affected virtual disks.
4 You can choose to discard the cache on the Manage Preserved Cache
screen. If you press Cancel, the process is cancelled and the Preserved
Cache Retained dialog box is displayed.
If you choose to discard the cache, you are prompted to confirm your
choice. If you choose to retain the cache, a message displays to notify you
that you cannot perform certain operations while the cache exists.
Click OK to continue.
Some operations, such as creating a new virtual disk, are not allowed if
preserved cache exists. A message warns you that you cannot perform the
operation while preserved cache exists. If you choose to clear a configuration,
and preserved cache exists, a message warns you that all data on all virtual
drives is lost and the preserved cache is discarded.
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Managing Dedicated Hot Spares
A dedicated hot spare automatically replaces a failed physical disk only in the
selected disk group which the hot spare is part of. A dedicated hot spare is
used before a global hot spare is used. You can create dedicated hot spares or
delete them on the VD Mgmt screen. Perform the following steps to create or
delete dedicated hot spares.
1 On the VD Mgmt screen, select Disk Group # and press <F2> to display
the menu of available actions.
The available menu options appear.
2 Select Manage Ded. HS and press <Enter>.
A screen displays a list of the current dedicated hot spares and the physical
disks that are available to create dedicated hot spares. An X displays next
to the current dedicated hot spares.
NOTE: The utility allows only disks of the same drive technology and of equal
or greater size to be selected as dedicated hot spare.
3 To create or delete a dedicated hot spare:
Creating a hot spare–
a
Press the down-arrow key to highlight an available physical disk.
b
Pess the spacebar to select the disk.
c
Repeat step a to step b for each dedicated hot spare that you want to
create.
An X displays beside the selected physical disk(s).
Deleting a dedicated hot spare–
94
a
Use the down-arrow key to highlight a current hot spare.
b
Press the spacebar to de-select the disk.
c
Repeat step a to step b for each dedicated hot spare that you want to
delete.
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4 Press <Enter> to confirm the changes.
The VD Mgmt screen displays the updated list of hot spares under the
Hot spares heading.
NOTE: If a global hot spare or dedicated hot spare is removed and reinserted,
it regains its status as a hot spare.
NOTE: If a dedicated hot spare is removed, re-inserted, and then imported,
the physical disk changes to a global hot spare upon completion of the foreign
configuration import.
Deleting Virtual Disks
NOTE: You cannot delete a virtual disk during an initialization.
NOTE: Warning messages appear stating the effect of deleting a virtual disk.
Click OK twice to complete the virtual disk deletion.
To delete virtual disks, perform the following steps in the BIOS Configuration
Utility:
1 Press <Ctrl><N> to access the VD Mgmt screen.
2 Press <Tab> to move the cursor to a virtual disk under the Virtual Disks
heading.
3 Press <F2>.
The action menu displays.
4 Select Delete VD and press <Enter>.
5 On the VD Mgmt screen, select Space Allocation to display the amount
of free space available after you delete the virtual disk.
Deleting Disk Groups
You can delete disk groups using the BIOS Configuration Utility. When you
delete a disk group, the utility also removes the virtual disks in that disk group.
To delete disk groups, perform the following steps in the BIOS Configuration
Utility.
1 Press <Ctrl><N> to access the VD Mgmt screen.
2 Press <Tab> to move the cursor to a disk group under the Virtual Disks
heading.
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3 Press <F2>.
The action menu displays.
4 Select Delete Disk Group and press <Enter>.
The disk group is deleted.
When you delete a disk group, the remaining disk groups with higher
numbers are automatically renumbered. For example, if you delete disk group
#2, disk group #3 is then automatically renumbered as disk group #2.
Resetting the Configuration
You can delete all virtual disks on the RAID controller by performing this
operation.
To reset the configuration, perform the following steps in the BIOS
Configuration Utility:
1 Press <Ctrl><N> to access the VD Mgmt screen.
2 Press <Tab> or use the arrow keys to move the cursor to the Controller
heading.
3 Press <F2>. The action menu displays.
4 Select Reset Configuration.
A pop-up window displays prompting for confirmation to delete all
virtual disks.
5 Select OK to delete the virtual disks or Cancel to retain the existing
configuration.
BIOS Configuration Utility Menu Options
The first menu that displays when you access the BIOS Configuration Utility
is the main menu screen. It lists the controller, controller number, and other
information, such as the slot number. On this screen, you can use the arrow
keys to select the RAID controller you want to configure. Press <Enter> to
access the controller.
This section describes the options for the BIOS Configuration Utility for each
of the major menus:
96
•
Virtual Disk Management (VD Mgmt) menu
•
Physical Disk Management (PD Mgmt) menu
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•
Controller Management (Ctrl Mgmt) menu
•
Foreign Configuration View menu
Most menus consist of two panels:
•
A left panel with the menu options
•
A right panel with details of the items selected in the left panel
The following sections describe the menu and submenu options for each of
the major menus.
Virtual Disk Management (VD Mgmt)
The Virtual Disk Management screen, VD Mgmt, is the first screen that
displays when you access a RAID controller from the main menu screen on
the BIOS Configuration Utility. In the Tree View, the left panel displays the
menus for the virtual disk management, which are:
•
Controller #
•
Disk Group #
•
Virtual Disks (displayed in descending numerical order)
•
Physical Disks (individual physical disks are displayed in
enclosure:slot format)
•
Space Allocation (virtual disk size and free space you can use to
create a virtual disk)
•
Hot Spares (global and dedicated)
In the Tree View, the right panel displays detailed information for the selected
controllers, disk groups, virtual disks, physical disks, space allocation, and hot
spares, as shown in Table 6-3.
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Table 6-3.
Information on the Virtual Disk Management Screen
Menu Item Selected Information Displayed in Right Panel
in Left Panel
Controller #
Controller Properties:
• Number of disk groups (DG)
• Number of virtuals disks (VD)
• Number of physical disks (PD)
Disk Group #
Disk Group # Properties:
• Number of virtuals disks (VD)
• Number of physical disks (PD)
• Space available on the physical disks
• Number of free segments
• Number of dedicated hot spares
Virtual Disks
Disk Group # Properties:
• Number of virtuals disks (VD)
• Number of physical disks (PD)
• Space available in the virtual disk
• Number of free segments
• Number of dedicated hot spares
Virtual Disk #
Virtual Disk # Properties:
• RAID level (0, 1, 5, 6, 10, 50, or 60)
• RAID status of the virtual disk (Failed, Degraded, or Optimal)
• Size of the virtual disk
• Operation currently in progress
Disk Group # Properties:
• Number of virtuals disks (VD)
• Number of physical disks (PD)
• Space available on the physical disks
• Number of free segments
• Number of dedicated hot spares
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Table 6-3.
Information on the Virtual Disk Management Screen (continued)
Menu Item Selected Information Displayed in Right Panel
in Left Panel
Physical Disks
Disk Group # Properties:
• Number of virtuals disks (VD)
• Number of physical disks (PD)
• Space available on the physical disks
• Number of free segments
• Number of dedicated hot spares
Physical Disk #
Physical Disk Properties:
• Vendor name
• Physical disk size
• Physical disk state
Disk Group # Properties:
• Number of virtuals disks (VD)
• Number of physical disks (PD)
• Space available on the physical disks
• Number of free segments
• Number of dedicated hot spares
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Table 6-3.
Information on the Virtual Disk Management Screen (continued)
Menu Item Selected Information Displayed in Right Panel
in Left Panel
Space Allocation
Disk Group # Properties:
• Number of virtuals disks (VD)
• Number of physical disks (PD)
• Space available on the physical disks
• Number of free segments
• Number of dedicated hot spares
Hot Spares
Physical disk properties:
• Vendor name
• Physical disk size
• Physical disk state
Disk group # properties:
• Number of virtuals disks (VD)
• Number of physical disks (PD)
• Space available on the physical disks
• Number of free segments
• Number of dedicated hot spares
NOTE: The List View of the Virtual Disk Management screen displays different
options from the Tree View.
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Virtual Disk Actions
Table 6-4 describes the actions you can perform on virtual disks. For
procedures you can use to perform these actions, See "Physical Disk
Management" on page 105.
Table 6-4.
Virtual Disk Actions
Action
Description
Create a new virtual Creates a new virtual disk from one or more physical disks.
disk
You can configure hot spares when you create a virtual disk.
Manage dedicated
hot spares
Creates or deletes a hot spare that you can dedicate to a single
redundant virtual disks.
Initialize a virtual
disk
Initializes the selected virtual disk. You must initialize every
virtual disk that is configured. You can perform a fast
initialization or a Full Initialization.
Check data
consistency on a
virtual disk
Verifies the correctness of the redundancy data in the selected
virtual disk. This option is available only if RAID level 1, 5, 6,
10, 50, or 60 is used. The PERC 6 controllers automatically
correct any differences found in the data.
Display or update
virtual disk
parameters
Displays the properties of the selected virtual disk. You can
modify the cache write policy, read policy, and the input/output
(I/O) policy from this menu.
Manage preserved
cache
Preserves the dirty cache from a virtual disk if it becomes offline
or is deleted. The dirty cache is preserved until you import the
virtual disk or discard the cache.
Delete a virtual disk Deletes the virtual disk and frees up disk space to create
another virtual disk.
Delete a disk group Deletes a disk group, which is a collection of disks from one or
more disk subsystems controlled by management software.
Physical Disk Management (PD Mgmt)
The Physical Disk Management screen (PD Mgmt) displays physical disk
information and action menus. The screen displays physical disk IDs, vendor
names, disk size, type, state, and disk group (DG). You can sort the list of
physical disks based on these headings. You can perform several actions on
the physical disks, including the following:
•
Rebuilding physical disks
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•
Performing the Replace Member operation
•
Setting the LED to blink
•
Making a disk online or offline (unaffiliated with a disk group)
•
Creating global hot spares
•
Removing dedicated hot spares or global hot spares
Physical Disk Actions
Table 6-5 describes the actions you can perform on physical disks.
For procedures that can be used to perform these actions, see "Physical Disk
Management" on page 105.
Table 6-5.
Physical Disk Actions
Action
Description
Rebuild
Regenerates all data to a replacement disk in a redundant
virtual disk (RAID level 1, 5, 6, 10, 50, or 60) after a disk
failure. A disk rebuild normally occurs without interrupting
normal operations on the affected virtual disk.
Replace Member
Replaces the drive in the virtual disk with another drive that
can be selected.
LED Blinking
Indicates when physical disks are being used to create a virtual
disk. You can choose to start or stop the LED blinking.
Force Online
Changes the state of the selected physical disk to online.
Force Offline
Changes the state of the selected physical disk so that it is no
longer part of a virtual disk.
Make Global HS
Designates the selected physical disk as a global hot spare.
A global hot spare is part of a pool for all virtual disks
controlled by the controller.
Designates the selected physical disk as a global hot spare.
You can select the hot spare to have enclosure affinity.
Remove HS
Removes a dedicated hot spare from its disk group or a global
hot spare from the global pool of hot spares.
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Rebuild
Select Rebuild to rebuild one or more failed physical disks. For information
on performing a physical disk rebuild, see "Performing a Manual Rebuild of an
Individual Physical Disk" on page 108.
If no workload is placed on the storage subsystem, the controller rebuilds SAS
drives at a rate of approximately 200 GB/hour and SATA drives at a rate of
approximately 100 GB/hour. Several of the controller configuration settings
and the virtual disk settings affect the actual rate of rebuild. These factors
include the rebuild rate setting, virtual disk stripe size, virtual disk read policy,
virtual disk write policy, and the amount of workload placed on the storage
subsystem. For information on getting the best rebuild performance from
your RAID controller, see the documentation on Dell Support website at
support.dell.com.
Controller Management (Ctrl Mgmt)
The Controller Management screen (Ctrl Mgmt) displays the product name,
package, BIOS version, firmware version, BIOS Configuration Utility version,
and boot block. Use this screen to perform actions on the controller and
BIOS. You can perform functions such as enable or disable the controller
BIOS, and the BIOS during bootup in event of BIOS errors. In addition, you
can select a virtual disk from which to boot, select default settings, and reset
the configuration.
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Controller Management Actions
Table 6-6 describes the actions you can perform on the Ctrl Mgmt screen.
Table 6-6.
Controller Management Options
Option
Description
Enable Controller
BIOS
Select this option to enable the controller BIOS. If the boot
device is on the RAID controller, the BIOS must be enabled.
Disable the BIOS to use other boot devices.
In a multiple controller environment, you can enable BIOS on
multiple controllers. However, if you want to boot from a
specific controller, then enable the BIOS on that controller
and disable it on the other controllers. The system can then
boot from the BIOS-enabled controller.
Enable Alarm
Select this option to enable or disable the audible alarm on
the controller, if alarm hardware is present. The alarm sounds
to warn you of any problems with the physical disks or the
virtual disks.
Enable BIOS Stop
On Error
Select this option to stop the system BIOS during bootup if
there are BIOS errors. This option enables you to enter the
configuration utility to resolve the problem.
Select Bootable VD
Select this option to specify a virtual disk as the boot disk on
the controller.
This option displays if you have built virtual disks.
Factory Default
Select this option to restore the default settings for the
options in the Settings box.
Foreign Configuration View
When a foreign configuration is present, you can select Foreign
Configuration View to display the configuration. This screen shows the
foreign configuration as it would be if you import it. You can preview the
foreign configuration before you decide whether to import it or clear it.
In some cases, a foreign configuration cannot be imported. If a physical disk
in a virtual disk is rebuilding, the physical disk's state is set to Rebuild. For the
virtual disks, the text Importable or Not Importable displays next to
each virtual disk. No virtual disk target ID displays for virtual disks that
cannot be imported.
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The section "Importing or Clearing Foreign Configurations Using the Foreign
Configuration View Screen" on page 90 contains the procedures you can use
to manage the foreign configurations.
NOTE: The BIOS Configuration Utility reports error codes for failed imports of
foreign configurations.
Physical Disk Management
Setting LED Blinking
The LED blinking option indicates when physical disks are being used to
create a virtual disk. You can choose to start or stop the LED blinking.
Perform the following steps to start or stop this option.
1 Press <Ctrl><N> to access the PD Mgmt screen.
A list of physical disks displays. The status of the each disk displays under
the heading State.
2 Press the down-arrow key to highlight a physical disk.
3 Press <F2> to display the menu of available actions.
4 Press the down-arrow key to highlight LED Blinking.
5 Press the right-arrow key to display the available actions, Start and Stop.
6 Select Start to begin LED blinking or Stop to end LED blinking.
Creating Global Hot Spares
You can use a global hot spare to replace a failed physical disk in any
redundant array as long as the capacity of the global hot spare is equal to or
larger than the coerced capacity of the failed physical disk.
You can designate the hot spare to have enclosure affinity. This means that if
there are drive failures present on a split backplane configuration, then the
hot spare is first used on the backplane that it resides in.
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Perform the following steps to create global hot spares.
1 Press <Ctrl><N> to access the PD Mgmt screen.
A list of physical disks displays. The status of the each disk displays under
the heading State.
2 Press the down-arrow key to highlight a physical disk to change to a global
hot spare.
3 Press <F2> to display the menu of available actions.
4 Press the down-arrow key to highlight Make Global HS and press
<Enter>.
The physical disk is changed to a global hot spare. The status of the
physical disk as a global hot spare displays under the heading State.
NOTE: To replace a failed physical disk global hot spares must use the same
drive technology and must be equal or greater in size.
5 Select additional physical disks if desired and follow the previous steps to
change them to global hot spares.
Removing Global or Dedicated Hot Spares
You can remove one global or dedicated hot spare at a time on the PD Mgmt
screen. Perform the following steps to remove a global hot spare or dedicated
hot spare.
1 Press <Ctrl><N> to access the PD Mgmt screen.
A list of physical disks displays. The status of each disk displays under the
heading State.
2 Press the down-arrow key to highlight a physical disk that is a hot spare.
3 Press <F2> to display the menu of available actions.
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4 Press the down-arrow key to select Remove Hot Spare from the list of
actions and press <Enter>.
The physical disk is changed to the Ready state. The status of the physical
disk is displayed under the heading State.
NOTE: Try to use physical disks of the same capacity in a specific virtual disk.
If you use physical disks with different capacities in a virtual disk, all physical
disks in the virtual disk are treated as if they have the capacity of the smallest
physical disk.
5 Select additional hot spares if desired and follow step 1 to step 4 to
remove them.
Replacing an Online Physical Disk
In addition to the automatic Replace Member operation, you can manually
replace any physical disk that is part of a virtual disk using the Replace
Member functionality. Perform the following steps to replace a physical disk:
1 In the Virtual Disk Management window, select Virtual Disk # and press
the down-arrow key until Physical Disks is highlighted.
2 Press the right-arrow key to expand the list of physical disks that are
members of the virtual disk.
3 Press the down-arrow key and highlight the desired physical disk you want
to replace. Press <F2> to expand the list of allowed operations on this
disk.
4 Select Replace and then Start.
5 Press the down-arrow to highlight a replacement disk and then press the
spacebar to select the disk.
6 Select OK to start the replacement.
NOTE: The replacement disk must be a hot spare or an unconfigured disk without a
foreign configuration. It must have the same or greater capacity and should be of
the same type as the disk it is replacing.
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Restrictions and Limitations
The following restrictions and limitations apply to the Replace Member
operation:
•
The Replace Member functions are restricted to one per array for RAID 0,
RAID 1, and RAID 5, and two per array for RAID 6.
•
The Replace Member function and rebuild function cannot run
simultaneously on a RAID 6 virtual disk. The rebuild operation has a
higher priority, and the Replace Member operation is aborted if a rebuild
begins.
Stopping Background Initialization
Background Initialization (BGI) is the automated operation in which parity is
created and written. BGI does not run on RAID 0 virtual disks. Under certain
conditions, the BIOS Configuration Utility displays a message if you want to
stop BGI in progress. An alert message displays if BGI is in progress and you
start any of the following actions:
•
A Full Initialization on the virtual disk
•
A fast initialization on the virtual disk
•
A consistency check on the virtual disk
The following alert message displays: The virtual disk is
undergoing a background initialization process. Would
you like to stop the operation and proceed with the
<full initialization/quick initialization/consistency
check> instead?
Click Yes to stop the BGI and start the requested operation or No to allow
BGI to continue.
Performing a Manual Rebuild of an Individual Physical Disk
Use the following procedures to rebuild one failed physical disk manually.
1 Press <Ctrl><N> to access the PD Mgmt screen.
A list of physical disks displays. The status of each disk displays under the
heading State.
2 Press the down-arrow key to highlight a physical disk that has a failed state.
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3 Press <F2> to display a menu of available actions.
The Rebuild option is highlighted at the top of the menu.
4 Press the right-arrow key to display the rebuild options and select Start.
5 After you start the rebuild, press <Esc> to display the previous menu.
NOTE: You can also use the VD Mgmt screen to perform a manual rebuild. Use the
arrow key to highlight physical disk in the tree view, and press <F2>. In the menu
that displays, select the Rebuild option.
CAUTION: If a physical disk is a member of a disk group that contains multiple
virtual disks and one of the virtual disks is deleted when a rebuild operation is in
progress, the rebuild operation stops. If this occurs, you can resume the rebuild
operation manually using a storage management application. To avoid
interruption, ensure that none of the virtual disks are deleted until the rebuild
is complete.
Controller Management
Enabling Boot Support
NOTE: See your system documentation to ensure the proper boot order is selected
in the system BIOS.
In a multiple controller environment, you can enable BIOS on multiple
controllers. However, if you want to boot from a specific controller, enable the
BIOS on that controller and disable it on the other controllers. The system
can then boot from the BIOS-enabled controller. Perform the following steps
to enable the controller BIOS:
1 Press <Ctrl><N> to access the Ctrl Mgmt menu screen.
2 Press <Tab> to move the cursor to Enable Controller BIOS in the
Settings box.
3 Press the spacebar to select Enable Controller BIOS.
An X displays beside Enable Controller BIOS.
4 Press <Tab> to move the cursor to the Apply button, and then press
<Enter> to apply the selection.
The controller BIOS is enabled. To disable the controller BIOS, use the
spacebar to de-select the Enable Controller BIOS control, and then select
Apply and press <Enter>.
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After you enable the BIOS for a controller, perform the following steps to
enable the boot support for that controller.
1 Press <Ctrl><N> to access the Ctrl Mgmt menu screen.
2 Press <Tab> to move the cursor to the Select Bootable VD in the
Settings box.
3 Press the down-arrow key to display a list of virtual disks.
4 Use the down-arrow key to highlight a virtual disk.
5 Press <Enter> to select the virtual disk.
6 Press <Tab> to move the cursor to the Apply button, and then press
<Enter> to apply the selection.
Boot support is enabled for the selected controller.
Enabling BIOS Stop on Error
The option BIOS Stop on Error is used to stop the system from booting if
there are BIOS errors. Perform the following steps to enable BIOS Stop on
Error.
1 Press <Ctrl><N> to access the Ctrl Mgmt menu screen.
2 Press <Tab> to move the cursor to Enable BIOS Stop on Error in the
Settings box.
3 Press the spacebar to select Enable BIOS Stop on Error.
An X displays beside Enable BIOS Stop on Error.
4 Press <Tab> to move the cursor to the Apply button, and then press
<Enter> to apply the selection.
The controller BIOS is enabled. To disable Enable BIOS Stop on Error,
use the spacebar to de-select Enable BIOS Stop on Error, then select
Apply and press <Enter>.
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Restoring Factory Default Settings
You can use the Ctrl Mgmt menu screen to restore the default settings for the
options in the Settings box. The settings are Enable Controller BIOS,
Enable Alarm, and Enable BIOS Stop on Error. Perform the following steps
to restore default settings:
1 Press <Ctrl><N> to access the Ctrl Mgmt menu screen.
2 Press <Tab> to move the cursor to the Settings box.
3 Use the spacebar to de-select the settings for the options in the Settings
box.
4 Press <Tab> to move the cursor to the Factory Default box, and press the
<Alt>, <Enter>, or the spacebar.
A dialog box displays for you to confirm your choice.
5 Select <OK> and press <Enter>.
The defaults are automatically selected for the controller settings and are
displayed in Settings.
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Troubleshooting
To get help with your Dell™ PowerEdge™ Expandable RAID Controller
(PERC) 6 and Dell Cost-Effective RAID Controller (CERC) 6/i controller,
you can contact your Dell Technical Service representative or access the
Dell Support website at support.dell.com.
Post Error Messages
The controller BIOS read-only memory (ROM) provides Int 13h functionality
(disk I/O) for the virtual disks connected to the controller. You can boot from
or access the physical disks without the need of a driver. Table 7-1 describes
the error and warning messages for the BIOS. Table 7-2 describes the error
messages for the Battery Backup Unit (BBU).
Table 7-1.
BIOS Errors and Warnings
Message
Meaning
BIOS Disabled. No Logical
Drives Handled by BIOS
This warning message displays after you
disable the ROM option in the
configuration utility. When the ROM
option is disabled, the BIOS cannot boot
to INT 13h and cannot provide the ability
to boot from the virtual disk.
Int 13h is an interrupt signal that supports
numerous commands that are sent to the
BIOS, then passed to the physical disk.
The commands include actions you can
perform with a physical disk, such as
reading, writing, and formatting.
Press <Ctrl><R> to Enable
BIOS
When the BIOS is disabled, you are given
the option to enable it by entering the
configuration utility. You can change the
setting to Enabled in the configuration
utility.
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Table 7-1.
BIOS Errors and Warnings (continued)
Message
Meaning
Adapter at Baseport xxxx is
not responding
If the BIOS detects the controller but the
controller does not respond for any reason,
it displays this warning and continues.
where xxxx is the baseport of the
controller
There are offline or missing
virtual drives with preserved
cache. Please check the
cables and ensure that all
drives are present.
Press any key to enter the
configuration utility.
Turn off the system and try to reseat the
controller. If this message is still displayed,
contact Dell Technical Support.
The controller preserves the dirty cache
from a virtual disk if the disk becomes
offline or is deleted because of missing
physical disks.
This preserved dirty cache is called pinned
cache, and is preserved until you import
the virtual disk, or discard the cache.
Use the Ctrl+R utility to import the
virtual disk or discard the pinned cache.
For the steps used to manage preserved
cache, see "Managing Preserved Cache" on
page 93.
x Virtual Disk(s) Offline
where x is the number of virtual disks
failed
x Virtual Disk(s) Degraded
where x is the number of virtual disks
degraded
x Virtual Disk(s) Partially
Degraded
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When the BIOS detects virtual disks in
the offline state, it displays this warning.
You must check to determine why the
virtual disks failed and correct the
problem. The BIOS does not take any
action.
When the BIOS detects virtual disks in a
degraded state, it displays this warning.
Take corrective action(s) to make the
virtual disks optimal. The BIOS does not
take any action.
When the BIOS detects a single disk
failure in a RAID 6 or RAID 60
configuration, it displays this warning. You
must check why the member disk is not
present to correct the problem. The BIOS
does not take any action.
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Table 7-1.
BIOS Errors and Warnings (continued)
Message
Meaning
Memory/Battery problems were This message occurs under the following
detected. The adapter has
conditions:
recovered, but cached data
• The adapter detects data in the
was lost. Press any key to
controller cache that has not yet been
continue.
written to the disk subsystem.
• The controller detects an
Error-Correcting Code (ECC) error
while performing its cache checking
routine during initialization.
• The controller discards the cache rather
than sending it to the disk subsystem
because the data integrity cannot be
guaranteed.
Allow the battery to charge fully to resolve
this problem. If the problem persists, the
battery or adapter DIMM might be faulty;
contact Dell Technical Support.
Firmware is in Fault State
Contact Dell Technical Support.
Firmware version
inconsistency was detected.
The adapter has recovered,
but cached data was lost.
Press any key to continue.
New firmware has been flashed that is
incompatible with the previous version.
The cache contains data that has not been
written to the physical disks and cannot
be recovered. Check data integrity.
You may need to restore the data from
a backup.
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Table 7-1.
BIOS Errors and Warnings (continued)
Message
Meaning
Foreign configuration(s)
found on adapter. Press any
key to continue, or ’C’ to
load the configuration
utility or ’F’ to import
foreign configuration(s) and
continue.
When a controller firmware detects a
physical disk with existing foreign
metadata, it flags the physical disk as
foreign and generates an alert indicating
that a foreign disk was detected.
The foreign configuration message is
always present during POST but no
foreign configurations are present in the
foreign view page in CTRL+R. All virtual
disks are in an optimal state.
Clear the foreign configuration using
CTRL+R or Dell OpenManage™ Server
Administrator Storage Management.
Press <F> at this prompt to import the
configuration (if all member drives of the
virtual disk are present) without loading
the BIOS configuration utility. Or, press
<C> to enter the BIOS configuration
utility and either import or clear the
foreign configuration.
CAUTION: The physical disk goes to
Ready state when you clear the foreign
configuration and this may lead to
data loss.
If you insert a physical disk that was
previously a member of a virtual disk in
the system, and that disk’s previous
location has been taken by a replacement
disk through a rebuild, you must manually
remove the foreign configuration flag of
the newly inserted disk.
Previous configuration(s)
cleared or missing. Importing
configuration created on
XX/XX XX.XX. Press any key to
continue, or ’C’ to load the
configuration utility.
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The message indicates that the controller
and physical disks have different
configurations. You can use the BIOS
Configuration Utility to clear the foreign
configuration.
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Table 7-1.
BIOS Errors and Warnings (continued)
Message
Meaning
Invalid SAS topology
detected. Please check your
cable configurations, repair
the problem, and restart your
system.
The SAS cables for your system are
improperly connected. Check the cable
connections and fix problems if any.
Restart the system.
Multibit ECC errors were
detected on the RAID
controller. If you continue,
data corruption can occur.
Contact technical support to
resolve this issue. Press 'X'
to continue or else power off
the system, replace the
controller and reboot.
This error is specific to the PERC 6/i
controller.
Multi-bit ECC errors (MBE) occur in the
memory and can corrupt cached data and
discard it.
CAUTION: MBE errors are serious, as
they cause data corruption and data loss.
In case of MBE errors, contact Dell
Technical Support.
NOTE: A similar message displays when
multiple single-bit ECC errors are detected
on the controller during bootup.
Multibit ECC errors were
detected on the RAID
controller.The DIMM on the
controller needs
replacement. If you continue,
data corruption can occur.
Press 'X' to continue or else
power off the system, replace
the DIMM module, and reboot.
If you have replaced the DIMM
please press 'X' to continue.
This error is specific to the PERC 6/E
controller.
Multi-bit ECC errors (MBE) occur in the
memory and can corrupt cached data and
discard it.
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Table 7-1.
BIOS Errors and Warnings (continued)
Message
Meaning
Some configured disks have
been removed from your system
or are no longer accessible.
Check your cables and ensure
all disks are present. Press
any key or ’C’ to continue.
The message indicates that some
configured disks were removed. If the
disks were not removed, they are no longer
accessible.
The SAS cables for your system might be
improperly connected. Check the cable
connections and fix any problems. Restart
the system.
If there are no cable problems, press any
key or <C> to continue.
Physical disk removed:
These two messages appear in the event
Physical Disk {x.x.x}
log when you remove a drive. The first
Controller {x}, Connector {x} message indicates that the disk was
Device failed: Physical Disk removed and the second message
indicates that the device has failed. This
{x.x.x} Controller {x},
feature is working as designed.
Connector {x}".
A storage component such as a physical
disk or an enclosure has failed. The failed
component might have been identified by
the controller while performing a task
such as a rescan or a Consistency Check.
Replace the failed component. You can
identify the failed disk as its status
displays a red X. Perform a rescan after
replacing the disk.
Your battery is either
NOTE: This message may appear for
charging, bad or missing, and controller without battery, depending on the
you have VDs configured for
virtual disks’ policies.
write-back mode. Because the • The controller battery is missing or
battery is not currently
damaged.
usable, these VDs will
•
The
controller battery is completely
actually run in write-through
discharged
and needs to be charged for it
mode until the battery is
to
become
active.
You must first charge
fully charged or replaced if
the battery, then wait for a few minutes
it is bad or missing.
for the system to detect it.
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Table 7-2 describes the BBU-related error messages and warnings.
Table 7-2.
Backup Battery Unit Errors and Warnings
Message
Meaning
Memory/Battery problems
were detected. The
adapter has recovered,
but cached data was
lost. Press any key to
continue.
This message displays under the following
conditions:
• The adapter detects that the cache in the
controller cache has not yet been written to the
disk subsystem.
• The controller detects an Error-Correcting
Code (ECC) error while performing its cache
checking routine during initialization.
• The controller discards the cache rather than
sending it to the disk subsystem because the
data integrity cannot be guaranteed.
To resolve this problem, allow the battery to
charge fully. If the problem persists, the battery
or adapter DIMM might be faulty; contact
Dell Technical Support.
Virtual Disks Degraded
A redundant virtual disk is in a degraded state when one or more physical disks
have failed or are inaccessible. For example, if a RAID 1 virtual disk consists of
two physical disks and one of then fails or become inaccessible, the virtual
disk become degraded.
To recover a virtual disk from a degraded state, you must replace the failed
physical disk and rebuild it. Once the rebuilding process is complete, the virtual
disk state changes from degraded to optimal. For information on rebuilding the
disk, see "Performing a Manual Rebuild of an Individual Physical Disk" on
page 108.
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Memory Errors
Memory errors can corrupt cached data, so the controllers are designed to
detect and attempt to recover from these memory errors. Single-bit memory
errors can be handled by the controller and do not disrupt normal operation.
A notification is sent if the number of single-bit errors exceeds a threshold value.
Multi-bit errors are more serious, as they result in corrupted data and data
loss. The following are the actions that occur in the case of multi-bit errors:
•
If a multi-bit error occurs while accessing data in the cache when the
controller is started with dirty cache, the controller discards the cache
contents. The controller generates a warning message to the system
console to indicate that the cache was discarded and generates an event.
•
If a multi-bit error occurs at run-time either in code/data or in the cache,
the controller stops.
•
The controller logs an event to the controller’s internal event log and
displays a message during POST indicating a multi-bit error has occurred.
NOTE: In case of a multi-bit error, contact Dell Technical Support.
Pinned Cache State
The controller preserves the dirty cache from a virtual disk if the virtual disk
becomes offline or is deleted because of missing physical disks. This preserved
dirty cache is called pinned cache and is preserved until you import the virtual
disk, or discard the cache.
Use the Ctrl+R utility to select whether to import the virtual disk or discard
the pinned cache. In the VD Mgmt menu, select Manage Preserved Cache
and follow the steps on the screen.
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General Problems
Table 7-3 describes general problems you might encounter, with suggested
solutions.
Table 7-3.
General Problems
Problem
Suggested Solution
The device displays in Device
Manager but has a yellow bang
(exclamation mark).
Reinstall the driver. For more information on
reinstalling drivers, see "Driver Installation" on
page 63.
The device does not appear in
Device Manager.
Turn off the system and reseat the controller.
The corresponding solutions are:
No Hard Drives Found
message displays during a
1 Press <F6> to install the RAID device driver
media-based installation of
during installation.
Microsoft® Windows Server® 2003 2 Enter the BIOS Configuration Utility to
or Microsoft Windows® XP because
configure the virtual disks. For procedures to
of the following causes:
configure the virtual disks, see the section
1 The driver is not native in the
"Configuring and Managing RAID" on page 77.
operating system.
3 Enter the BIOS Configuration Utility to enable
2 The virtual disks are not
the BIOS. For information on configuring
configured properly.
virtual disks, see "Installing and Configuring
3 The controller BIOS is disabled.
Hardware" on page 41.
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Physical Disk Related Issues
Table 7-4 describes physical disk-related problems you might encounter, with
suggested solutions.
Table 7-4.
Physical Disk Issues
Problem
Suggested Solution
One of the physical disks in Perform the following actions to resolve this problem:
the disk array is in the
1 Check the backplane for damage.
failed state.
2 Check the SAS cables.
3 Reseat the physical disk.
4 Contact Dell Technical Support if the problem persists.
Cannot rebuild a fault
tolerant virtual disk.
NOTE: For more
information, see the alert
log for virtual disks.
The replacement disk is too small or not compatible
with the virtual disk. Replace the failed disk with a
compatible good physical disk with equal or greater
capacity.
Fatal error(s) or data
Contact Dell Technical Support.
corruption(s) are reported
when accessing virtual
disks.
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Physical Disk Failures and Rebuilds
Table 7-5 describes issues related to physical disk failures and rebuilds.
Table 7-5.
Physical Disk Failure and Rebuild Issues
Issue
Suggested Solution
Rebuilding the physical
disks after multiple disks
become simultaneously
inaccessible.
Multiple physical disk errors in a single array typically
indicate a failure in cabling or connection and could
involve the loss of data. You can recover the virtual disk
after multiple physical disks become simultaneously
inaccessible. Perform the following steps to recover the
virtual disk.
CAUTION: Follow the safety precautions to prevent
electrostatic discharge.
1 Turn off the system, check cable connections, and reseat
physical disks.
2 Ensure that all the drives are present in the enclosure.
3 Turn on the system and enter the CTRL+R utility and
import the foreign configuration. Press <F> at the
prompt to import the configuration, or press <C> to
enter the BIOS configuration utility and either import
or clear the foreign configuration.
If the virtual disk is redundant and transitioned to
Degraded state before going Offline, a rebuild operation
starts automatically after the configuration is imported. If
the virtual disk has gone directly to the Offline state due
to a cable pull or power loss situation, the virtual disk is
imported in its Optimal state without a rebuild occurring.
You can use the BIOS Configuration Utility or Dell
OpenManage storage management application to perform a
manual rebuild of multiple physical disks.
For information on rebuilding a single physical disk, see
"Performing a Manual Rebuild of an Individual Physical
Disk" on page 108.
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Table 7-5.
Physical Disk Failure and Rebuild Issues (continued)
Issue
Suggested Solution
Rebuilding a physical
If you have configured hot spares, the PERC 6 controller
disk after one of them is automatically tries to use one of them to rebuild a physical
in a failed state.
disk that is in a failed state. Manual rebuild is necessary if
no hot spares with enough capacity to rebuild the failed
physical disks are available. You must insert a physical disk
with enough storage in the subsystem before rebuilding the
physical disk. You can use the BIOS Configuration Utility
or Dell OpenManage storage management application to
perform a manual rebuild of an individual physical disk.
For information on rebuilding a single physical disk, see
"Performing a Manual Rebuild of an Individual Physical
Disk" on page 108.
A virtual disk fails during The global hot spare goes back to Hotspare state and the
rebuild while using a
virtual disk goes to Failed state.
global hot spare.
A virtual disk fails during The dedicated hot spare goes to Ready state and the virtual
rebuild while using a
disk goes to Failed state.
dedicated hot spare.
A physical disk fails
during a reconstruction
process on a redundant
virtual disk that has a
hot spare.
The rebuild operation for the inaccessible physical disk
starts automatically after the reconstruction is completed.
A physical disk is taking A physical disk takes longer to rebuild when under high
longer than expected to stress. For example, there is one rebuild I/O operation for
rebuild.
every five host I/O operations.
You cannot add a second
virtual disk to a disk
group while the virtual
disk in that disk group is
undergoing a rebuild
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Troubleshooting
The firmware does not allow you to create a virtual disk
using the free space available in a disk group if a physical
disk in a virtual disk group is undergoing a rebuild
operation.
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SMART Errors
Table 7-6 describes issues related to the Self-Monitoring Analysis and
Reporting Technology (SMART). SMART monitors the internal performance
of all motors, heads, and physical disk electronics and detects predictable
physical disk failures.
NOTE: For information about where to find reports of SMART errors that could
indicate hardware failure, see the Dell OpenManage storage management
documentation on the Dell Support website at support.dell.com.
Table 7-6.
SMART Errors
Problem
Suggested Solution
A SMART error is
detected on a
physical disk in a
redundant virtual
disk.
Perform the following steps:
1 Force the physical disk offline.
NOTE: If a hot spare is present, the rebuild starts with the hot
spare after the drive is forced offline.
2 Replace it with a new physical disk of equal or higher capacity.
3 Perform the Replace Member operation.
The Replace Member operation allows you to copy data from
a source physical disk of a virtual disk to a target physical disk
that is not a part of the virtual disk. For more information
about the Replace Member feature, see "Using Replace
Member and Revertible Hot Spares" on page 37.
A SMART error is
detected on a
physical disk in a
non-redundant
virtual disk.
Perform the following steps:
1 Back up your data.
2 Use Replace Member or set up a global hot spare to replace
the disk automatically.
For more information about the Replace Member feature, see
"Using Replace Member and Revertible Hot Spares" on
page 37.
3 Replace the affected physical disk with a new physical disk of
equal or higher capacity.
4 Restore from the backup.
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Table 7-6.
SMART Errors (continued)
Problem
Suggested Solution
A SMART error
occurs during a
Consistency Check
(CC)
Specify how the CC operation must perform when a SMART
error is encountered.
There are two settings, Yes and No. No is the default setting
and allows CC to continue when the first error is encountered.
The Yes setting halts CC when the first error is encountered.
Events are generated in the Event Log when errors are
encountered during CC.
Replace Member Errors
Table 7-7 describes issues related to the Replace Member feature.
NOTE: For more information about the Replace Member features, see "Using
Replace Member and Revertible Hot Spares" on page 37.
Table 7-7.
Replace Member Operation Errors
Problem
Suggested Solution
The source drive fails If the source data is available from other drives in the virtual
during the Replace disk, the rebuild begins automatically on the target drive, using
Member operation. the data from the other drives.
Target drive fails
If the target drive fails, the Replace Member operation aborts.
Other drives fail
If the target drive fails and the Replace Member operation
aborts but the source data is still available, then the Replace
Member operation continues as Replace Member.
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Linux Operating System Errors
Table 7-8 describes issues related to the Linux operating system.
Table 7-8.
Linux Operating System Errors
Error Message
Suggested Solution
<Date:Time> <HostName>
kernel: sdb: asking for
cache data failed
This error message displays when the Linux
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)
mid-layer asks for physical disk cache settings.
The controller firmware manages the virtual disk
cache settings on a per controller and a per
virtual disk basis, so the firmware does not
respond to this command. The Linux SCSI midlayer assumes that the virtual disk's cache policy
is Write-Through. SDB is the device node for a
virtual disk. This value changes for each virtual
disk.
<Date:Time> <HostName>
kernel: sdb: assuming
drive cache: write
through
See the section "Physical Disk Management" on
page 105 for more information about WriteThrough cache.
Except for this message, there is no effect of this
behavior on normal operation. The cache policy
of the virtual disk and the I/O throughput are
not affected by this message. The cache policy
settings for the PERC6 SAS RAID system
remain unchanged.
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Table 7-8.
Linux Operating System Errors (continued)
Error Message
Suggested Solution
Driver does not auto-build into
This error is a generic problem for Dynamic
new kernel after customer updates. Kernel Module Support (DKMS) and applies to
all DKMS-enabled driver packages. This issue
occurs when you perform the following steps:
1 Install a DKMS-enabled driver package.
2 Run up2date or a similar tool to upgrade the
kernel to the latest version.
3 Reboot to the new kernel.
The driver running in the new kernel is the
native driver of the new kernel. The driver
package you installed previously in the new
kernel does not take effect in the new kernel.
Perform the following procedure to make the
driver auto-build into the new kernel:
1 Type:
dkms build -m <module_name> -v
<module version> -k <kernel
version>
2 Type:
dkms install -m <module_name> v <module version> -k <kernel
version>
3 Type the following to check whether the driver
is successfully installed in the new kernel:
DKMS
The following details appear:
<driver name>, <driver
version>, <new kernel version>:
installed
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Table 7-8.
Linux Operating System Errors (continued)
Error Message
Suggested Solution
smartd[smartd[2338]
Device: /dev/sda, Bad
IEC (SMART) mode page,
err=-5, skip device
This is a known issue. An unsupported
command is entered through the user
application. User applications attempt to direct
Command Descriptor Blocks to RAID volumes.
The error message does not effect the feature
functionality.
smartd[2338] Unable to
register SCSI device
/dev/sda at line 1 of
file /etc/smartd.conf
The Mode Sense/Select command is supported
by firmware on the controller. However, the
Linux kernel daemon issues the command to
the virtual disk instead of to the driver IOCTL
node. This action is not supported.
Controller LED Indicators
The external SAS ports on the PERC 6/E adapter have a port status LED
per x4 SAS port. This bi-color LED displays the status of any external SAS
port. The LED indicates whether all links are functional or only partial links
are functional.
Table 7-9 describes the patterns for the PERC 6/E adapter port status.
Table 7-9.
LED Behavior Patterns
Port State
LED State
Power-on state
Off
Reset state
Off
All links in port connected
Green light on
One or more links are not connected (applicable only in wide port
configurations)
Amber light on
All links in the port are disconnected or the cable is disconnected
Off
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Drive Carrier LED Indicators
The LED on the physical disk carrier indicates the state of each physical disk.
Each drive carrier in your enclosure has two LEDs: an activity LED (green)
and a status LED (bicolor, green/amber) as shown in Figure 7-1. The activity
LED flashes whenever the drive is accessed.
Figure 7-1. Drive Carrier LED Indicators
1
2
1
status LED
2
activity LED
Table 7-10 lists the flash patterns for the status LED.
Table 7-10. Drive Carrier Status LEDs
LED
Description
Off
Slot is empty, drive is not yet discovered by the system
Steady green
Drive is online
Green flashing
(250 milliseconds [ms])
Drive is being identified or is being prepared for removal
Green flashing
(On 400 ms, Off 100 ms)
Drive is rebuilding or undergoing a Replace Member
operation
Amber flashing
(125 ms)
Drive has failed
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Table 7-10.
Drive Carrier Status LEDs (continued)
LED
Description
Green/amber flashing
Predicted failure reported by drive
(Green On 500 ms / Amber
On 500 ms, Off 1000 ms)
Green flashing
(Green On 3000 ms, Off
3000 ms,
Amber On 3000 ms, Off
3000 ms)
Drive being spun down by user request or other
non-failure condition
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Regulatory Notices
For additional regulatory information, please go to the Regulatory
Compliance Homepage on www.dell.com at the following location:
www.dell.com/regulatory_compliance.
Regulatory Notices
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134
Regulatory Notices
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Corporate Contact Details (Taiwan
Only)
Pursuant to Article 11 of the Commodity Inspection Act, Dell provides the following corporate
contact details for the certified entity in Taiwan for the products addressed by this document:
Dell B.V. Taiwan Branch
20/F, No. 218, Sec. 2, Tung Hwa S. Road,
Taipei, Taiwan
Corporate Contact Details (Taiwan Only)
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Corporate Contact Details (Taiwan Only)
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Glossary
A
Adapter
An adapter enables the computer system to access peripheral devices by
converting the protocol of one bus or interface to another. An adapter may also
provide specialized function. For example, a RAID controller is a type of adapter
that provides RAID functions. Adapters may reside on the system board or be an
add-in card. Other examples of adapters include network and SCSI adapters.
Adaptive Read Ahead
Adaptive read ahead is a read policy that specifies that the controller begins
using Read-Ahead caching if the two most recent disk accesses occurred in
sequential sectors. If all read requests are random, the algorithm reverts to Non
read ahead; however, all requests are still evaluated for possible sequential
operation.
Array
A grouping of physical disks that combines the storage space on the physical
disks into a single segment of contiguous storage space. The RAID controller
can group physical disks on one or more channels into an array. A hot spare drive
does not participate in an array.
B
Background Initialization
Background Initialization is the automatic check for media errors on physical
disks. It ensures that striped data segments are the same on all physical disks in
a virtual disk. The difference between a Background Initialization and a
consistency check is that a Background Initialization is automatic for new
virtual disks. The operation starts within five minutes after you create the disk.
Baseport
Base register of the memory address range provided by the host.
Glossary
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Battery Backup Unit (BBU)
The battery backup unit protects the integrity of the cached data on the
controller by providing backup power if there is a complete AC power failure or
a brief power outage.
BIOS
Acronym for basic input/output system. Your system's BIOS contains programs
stored on a flash memory chip. The BIOS controls the following:
communications between the microprocessor and peripheral devices, such as
the keyboard and the video adapter, and miscellaneous functions, such as
system messages.
BIOS Configuration Utility
The BIOS Configuration Utility configures and maintains RAID disk groups
and virtual disks, and manages the RAID system. Because the utility resides in
the controller BIOS, its operation is independent of the operating systems on
your system. The BIOS Configuration Utility, also known as Ctrl+R, is built on
elements called controls. Each control performs a function. The functions
include procedures you can use to configure physical disks and virtual disks.
C
Cache
Fast memory that holds recently accessed data. Using cache speeds subsequent
access to the same data. It is most often applied to processor-memory access but
also can be used to store a copy of data accessible over a network. When data is
read from or written to main memory, a copy is also saved in cache memory with
the associated main memory address. The cache memory software monitors the
addresses of subsequent reads to see if the required data is already stored in
cache memory. If it is already in cache memory (a cache hit), it is read from
cache memory immediately and the main memory read is aborted (or not
started). If the data is not cached (a cache miss), it is fetched from main
memory and saved in cache memory.
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Glossary
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Caching
The process of utilizing a high speed memory buffer, referred to as a “cache,” in
order to speed up the overall read or write performance. This cache can be
accessed at a higher speed than a disk subsystem. To improve read performance,
the cache usually contains the most recently accessed data, as well as data from
adjacent disk sectors. To improve write performance, the cache may temporarily
store data in accordance with its write back policies. See the definition of
Write-Back for more information.
Consistency Check
An operation to verify that all stripes in a virtual disk with a redundant RAID
level are consistent and automatically fix any errors. For RAID 5, 6, 50, and 60
arrays, consistency check verifies correct parity data for each stripe. For RAID 1
and RAID 10 arrays, this operation verifies correct mirror data for each stripe.
Controller
A chip that controls the transfer of data between the microprocessor and
memory or between the microprocessor and a peripheral device such as a
physical disk or the keyboard. In Storage Management, the hardware or logic
that interacts with storage devices to write and retrieve data and perform storage
management. RAID controllers perform RAID functions such as striping and
mirroring to provide data protection.
D
DDR SDRAM
Acronym for Double Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access
Memory. This is a type of SDRAM that provides data throughput at double the
rate of conventional SDRAM. It uses a bursting technique to predict the address
of the next memory location to be accessed and allows two data transfers on
each clock cycle.
Disk
A non-volatile, randomly addressable, rewriteable mass storage device, including
both rotating magnetic and optical storage devices and solid-state storage
devices, or non-volatile electronic storage elements.
Glossary
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Disk Array
A collection of disks from one or more disk subsystems combined using a
configuration utility. The utility controls the disks and presents them to the
array operating environment as one or more logical drives.
Disk Group
A logical grouping of disks attached to a RAID controller on which one or more
virtual disks can be created, such that all virtual disks in the disk group use all of
the physical disks in the disk group.
Disk Migration
Moving a virtual disk or a hot spare from one controller to another by detaching
the physical disks and re-attaching them to the new controller.
Disk Roaming
Moving disks from one slot to another on a controller.
Disk Subsystem
A collection of disks and the hardware that controls them and connects them to
one or more controllers. The hardware can include an intelligent controller, or
the disks can attach directly to a system I/O bus controller.
Distributed Parity
Parity involves an extra bit added to a byte or word to reveal errors in storage (in
RAM or disk) or transmission. Parity is used to generate a set of redundancy data
from two or more parent data sets. The redundancy data can be used to rebuild
one of the parent data sets. In distributed parity, the parity data are distributed
among all the physical disks in the system. If a single physical disk fails, it can be
rebuilt from the parity of the applicable data on the remaining physical disks.
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DKMS
Acronym for Dynamic Kernel Module Support. Designed by Dell™, DKMS creates
a framework in which kernel-dependent module source can reside so that it is
easy to rebuild modules as you upgrade kernels. DKMS is used in the upgrade
process for drivers for Red Hat® Linux and SUSE® Linux Enterprise Server.
DUD
Acronym for driver update diskette. A DUD is an image of a diskette stored as a
regular file. To use it, you have to create the content to a real diskette from this
file. The steps used to create the diskette depend on how the image is supplied.
E
ECC Errors
Acronym for error correcting code. ECC errors occur in the memory and can
corrupt cached data so that it must be discarded. Single-bit ECC errors can be
handled by the firmware and do not disrupt normal operation. A notification is
sent if the number of single-bit errors exceeds a threshold value. ECC double-bit
errors are more serious, as they result in corrupted data and data loss.
Enclosure
A structure, such as a system, which contains physical disks that are grouped
together to create virtual disks.
Enclosure Management
Intelligent monitoring of the disk subsystem by software and/or hardware.
The disk subsystem can be part of the host system or can reside in an external
disk enclosure. Enclosure management helps you stay informed of events in
the disk subsystem, such as a physical disk or power supply failure.
Enclosure management increases the fault tolerance of the disk subsystem.
Exclusive-OR
A Boolean operation used to create a parity bit that can be used to restore data
affected by a damaged file or failed physical disk. The management utility
compares data from two physical disks and creates a parity bit that is stored on a
third physical disk. This operation is used for RAID levels that use parity bits,
such as RAID 5, which used distributed parity. Also known as X-OR.
Glossary
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F
Failed Physical Disk
A physical disk that has ceased to function, that consistently functions
improperly, or that is inaccessible.
Fault Tolerance
Fault tolerance is the capability of the disk subsystem to undergo a single drive
failure per disk group without compromising data integrity and processing
capability. The PERC 6 controllers provide this support through redundant
virtual disks in RAID levels 1, 5, 6, 10, 50, and 60.
Fault tolerance is often associated with system availability because it allows the
system to be available during drive failures. In case a disk fails, the PERC 6
controllers support hot spare disks and the auto-rebuild feature.
Firmware
Software stored in read-only memory (ROM) or Programmable ROM (PROM).
Firmware is often responsible for the behavior of a system when it is first turned
on. A typical example would be a monitor program in a system that loads the
full operating system from disk or from a network and then passes control to the
operating system.
Foreign Configuration
A RAID configuration that already exists on a replacement physical disk that
you install in a system. You can import the existing configuration to the RAID
controller or clear it so you can create a new one.
Format
The process of writing a specific value to all data fields on a physical disk, to
map out unreadable or bad sectors. Because most physical disks are formatted
when manufactured, formatting is usually done only if a physical disk generates
many media errors.
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G
GB
Acronym for gigabyte(s). A gigabyte equals 1,024 megabytes or 1,073,741,824
bytes (2^30 bytes).
H
Host System
Any system on which the RAID controller is installed. Mainframes,
workstations, and personal systems can all be considered host systems.
Hot Spare
An idle, powered on, stand-by physical disk ready for immediate use in case of
disk failure. It does not contain any user data. A hot spare can be dedicated to a
single redundant virtual disk or it can be part of the global hot-spare pool for all
virtual disks controlled by the controller.
When a disk fails, the controllers' firmware automatically replaces and rebuilds
the data from the failed physical disk to the hot spare. Data can be rebuilt only
from virtual disks with redundancy (RAID levels 1, 5, 10, or 50; not RAID 0),
and the hot spare must have sufficient capacity.
If the hot spare is designated as having enclosure affinity, it attempts to
rebuild any failed disks on the backplane within which it resides prior to
rebuilding any other on other backplanes.
Hot Swap
Replacement of a failed component while the system is running and operating
normally.
Glossary
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I
Initialization
The process of writing zeros to the data fields of a virtual disk and, in fault
tolerant RAID levels, generating the corresponding parity to put the virtual disk
in a Ready state. Initializing erases previous data and generates parity so that the
virtual disk passes a consistency check. Virtual disks can work without
initializing, but they can fail a consistency check because the parity fields have
not been generated.
Inter-IC
Inter-IC, also known as I2C, is a multi-master bus, meaning that more than one
chip can be connected to the same bus. Each chip can act as a master and
initiate a data transfer.
L
Load-balancing
Load balancing is a method of spreading work between two or more systems,
network links, CPUs, physical disk drives, or other resources. Load balancing is
used to maximize resource use, throughput, or response time. In the PERC 6
controllers, the balancing service is performed by the firmware.
You can choose between a single path for load balancing, and a “round-robin”
load balancing scheme. In single path, the firmware can detect multiple paths to
a device, and use only a single path for I/O activity to that device. The secondary
path is used if a failure is detected on the primary path.
In a simple round-robin scheme, if load balancing is enabled for the controller,
the firmware implements a round-robin scheme to issue I/Os to the redundant
path device. The round-robin scheme issues one I/O down one path, and the
other I/O down the second path, and so on. There is no restriction on firmware
regarding which path to choose first. If load balancing is disabled, the firmware
can use any one of the available paths to issue I/Os, and it should continue to
use the same path for all further I/O activity. On reboot or path failure, the
firmware again chooses any available path.
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Logical Disk
A set of contiguous chunks on a physical disk. Logical disks are used in array
implementations as constituents of logical volumes or partitions. Logical disks
are normally transparent to the host environment, except when the array
containing them is being configured.
M
MB
Acronym for megabyte(s). The term megabyte means 1,048,576 bytes (2^20 bytes);
however, when referring to hard drive storage, the term is often rounded to
mean 1,000,000 bytes.
Mirroring
The process of providing complete redundancy using two physical disks, by
maintaining an exact copy of one physical disk’s data on the second physical
disk. If one physical disk fails, the contents of the other physical disk can be
used to maintain the integrity of the system and to rebuild the failed physical
disk.
Multi-bit ECC Errors
ECC errors are errors that occur in the memory, which can corrupt cached data
so that it has to be discarded. ECC double-bit errors are serious, as they result in
corrupted data and data loss. In case of double-bit ECC errors, contact Dell
Technical Support.
Multi-pathing
PERC 6 firmware provides support for detecting and using multiple paths
from the RAID controllers to the SAS devices that are in enclosures.
Devices connected to enclosures have multiple paths to them. With redundant
paths to the same port of a device, if one path fails, another path can be used
to communicate between the controller and the device.
Glossary
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N
Non Read Ahead
Non read ahead is a cache read policy. If you select Non read ahead in the BIOS
Configuration Utility, the controller does not read sequentially ahead of
requested data and store the additional data in cache memory, anticipating that
the data is needed soon. Non read ahead is most effective when accessing
random data.
Non Redundant Virtual Disk
A non-redundant virtual disk is one which does not have redundant data on
physical disks that can be used to rebuild a failed physical disk. A RAID 0 virtual
disk consists of data striped across the physical disks, without disk mirroring or
parity to provide redundancy. This provides for high data throughput but offers
no protection in case of a physical disk failure.
Ns
Acronym for nanosecond(s), one billionth of a second.
NVRAM
Acronym for non-volatile random access memory. A storage system that does
not lose the data stored on it when power is removed. NVRAM is used to store
configuration data on the RAID controller.
O
Offline
A physical disk is offline when it is part of a virtual disk but its data is not
accessible to the virtual disk.
Online
An online device is a device that is accessible.
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Online Capacity Expansion
Operation to add capacity to an existing virtual disk by adding an additional
physical disk while the host system is active, and without affecting data
availability.
Operating Environment
An operating environment can include the host system where physical disks are
attached, any I/O buses and controllers, the host operating system and any
additional software required to manage the virtual disk. For host-based arrays,
the operating environment includes I/O driver software for the member disks but
does not include array management software, which is regarded as part of the
array itself.
P
Parity
An extra bit added to a byte or word to reveal errors in storage (in RAM or disk)
or transmission. Parity is used to generate a set of redundancy data from two or
more parent data sets. The redundancy data can be used to rebuild one of the
parent data sets. However, parity data does not fully duplicate the parent data
sets. In RAID, this method is applied to entire physical disks or stripe elements
across all physical disks in a virtual disk. Parity consists of dedicated parity, in which
the parity of the data on two or more physical disks is stored on an additional
physical disk, and distributed parity, in which the parity data are distributed among
all the physical disks in the system. If a single physical disk fails, it can be rebuilt
from the parity of the applicable data on the remaining physical disks.
Partition
A logical structure on a contiguous segment of storage on a physical disk or
virtual disk recognized by an operating system.
Patrol Read
A preventive measure that includes review of your system for possible physical
disk errors that could lead to drive failure and damage data integrity. The Patrol
Read operation can find and possibly resolve any potential problem with
physical disks prior to host access. This can enhance overall system performance
because error recovery during a normal I/O operation may not be necessary.
Glossary
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PHY
The interface required to transmit and receive data packets transferred across
the serial bus.
Each PHY can form one side of the physical link in a connection with a PHY on
a different SATA device. The physical link contains four wires that form two
differential signal pairs. One differential pair transmits signals, while the other
differential pair receives signals. Both differential pairs operate simultaneously
and allow concurrent data transmission in both the receive and the transmit
directions.
Physical Disk
A non-volatile, randomly addressable device for storing data. Physical disks are
rewritable and commonly referred to as disk drives.
Physical Disk States
A physical disk can be in one of the following states:
148
•
Un-configured Good: A disk accessible to the RAID controller but not
configured as a part of a virtual disk or as a hot spare.
•
Hot Spare: A physical disk that is configured as a hot spare.
•
Online: A physical disk can be accessed by the RAID controller and is a part of
the virtual disk.
•
Rebuild: A physical disk to which data is being written to restore full redundancy
for a virtual disk.
•
Failed: A physical disk that was originally configured as Online or Hot Spare, but
on which the firmware detects an unrecoverable error.
•
Un-configured Bad: A physical disk on which the firmware detects an
unrecoverable error; the physical disk was Un-configured Good or the physical
disk could not be initialized.
•
Missing: A physical disk that was Online, but which has been removed from its
location.
•
Offline: A physical disk that is part of a virtual disk but which has invalid data as
far as the RAID configuration is concerned.
•
None: A physical disk with the unsupported flag set. An Un-configured Good or
Offline physical disk that has completed the prepare for removal operation.
Glossary
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Protocol
A set of formal rules describing how to transmit data, generally across a network
or when communicating with storage subsystems. Low-level protocols define
the electrical and physical standards to be observed, bit- and byte-ordering, and
the transmission and error detection and correction of the bit stream. High-level
protocols deal with the data formatting, including the message syntax, the
terminal to system dialogue, character sets, sequencing of messages, etc.
R
RAID
Acronym for Redundant Array of Independent Disks (originally Redundant
Array of Inexpensive Disks). It is an array of multiple independent physical disks
managed together to yield higher reliability and/or performance exceeding that
of a single physical disk. The virtual disk appears to the operating system as a
single storage unit. I/O is expedited because several disks can be accessed
simultaneously. Redundant RAID levels (RAID levels 1, 5, 6, 10, 50, and 60)
provide data protection.
RAID Level Migration
RAID level migration (RLM) changes the array from one RAID level to another.
It is used to move between optimal RAID levels. You can perform a RLM while
the system continues to run, without having to reboot. This avoids downtime
and keeps data available to users.
RAID Levels
A set of techniques applied to disk groups to deliver higher data availability,
and/or performance characteristics to host environments. Each virtual disk must
have a RAID level assigned to it.
RAID Management Utility
A RAID management utility is used to configure physical disks into disk groups
and virtual disks. The BIOS Configuration Utility is also known as Ctrl+R. Use
the BIOS Configuration Utility if no operating system has been installed yet on
the controller. The BIOS Configuration Utility is built on elements called
controls. Each control performs a function. The functions include procedures
you can use to configure physical disks and virtual disks.
Glossary
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The Dell OpenManage™ storage management application configures the disks
after you have installed the operating system. Storage Management enables you
to perform controller and enclosure functions for all supported RAID and
non-RAID controllers and enclosures from a single graphical or command-line
interface without requiring the use of the controller BIOS utilities.
SAS RAID Storage Manager configures, monitors, and maintains the PERC 6
controllers, battery backup units, and other devices running on a system.
Read-Ahead
A memory caching capability in some controllers that allows them to read
sequentially ahead of requested data and store the additional data in cache
memory, anticipating that the additional data is required soon. Read-Ahead
supplies sequential data faster, but is not as effective when accessing random data.
Rebuild
The regeneration of all data to a replacement disk in a redundant virtual disk
(RAID level 1, 5, 6, 10, 50, or 60) after a physical disk failure. A disk rebuild
normally occurs without interrupting normal operations on the affected virtual
disk, though some degradation of performance of the disk subsystem can occur.
Rebuild Rate
The percentage of central processing unit (CPU) resources devoted to
rebuilding. 100% rebuild rate does not mean ALL CPU resources will be
dedicated to the rebuild without processing IOs.
Reconstruct
The act of remaking a virtual disk after changing RAID levels or adding a
physical disk to an existing virtual disk.
Redundancy
The provision of multiple interchangeable components to perform a single
function to cope with failures and errors. Common forms of hardware redundancy
are disk mirroring, implementations of parity disks, or distributed parity.
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Redundant Virtual Disk
A redundant virtual disk is one which has redundant data on physical disks in
the disk group that can be used to rebuild a failed physical disk. A virtual disk
can use disk striping across the physical disks, disk mirroring or parity to provide
redundancy. This offers protection in case of a physical disk failure.
Replace Member
The procedure used to copy data from a source physical disk of a virtual disk to a
target physical disk that is not a part of the virtual disk. The Replace Member
operation is often used to create or restore a specific physical configuration for an
array (for example, a specific arrangement of array members on the device I/O
buses). The Replace Member operation can be run automatically or manually.
Typically, a physical disk fails or is expected to fail, and the data is rebuilt on a hot
spare. The failed physical disk is replaced with a new disk. Then the data is copied
from the hot spare to the new physical disk, and the hot spare reverts from a
rebuild drive to its original hot spare status. The Replace Member operation runs
as a background activity, and the virtual disk is still available online to the host.
Replacement Disk
A physical disk replacing a failed member disk in a virtual disk.
Replacement Unit
A component or collection of components in a system or subsystem that is
always replaced as a unit when any part of the collection fails. Typical
replacement units in a disk subsystem include disks, controller logic boards,
power supplies and cables.
Revertible Hot Spare
When you use the Replace Member procedure, after data is copied from a
hot spare to a new physical disk, the hot spare reverts from a rebuild drive to
its original hot spare status.
Glossary
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RPM
Acronym for Red Hat Package Manager. RPM is a software manager used to
install, remove, query, and verify the software on your system. RPMs are used in
the driver update procedures for Red Hat Enterprise Linux and SUSE LINUX
Enterprise Server (SLES).
S
SAS
Acronym for Serial Attached SCSI. SAS is a serial, point-to-point,
enterprise-level device interface that leverages the proven Small Computer
System Interface (SCSI) protocol set. The SAS interface provides improved
performance, simplified cabling, smaller connectors, lower pin count, and lower
power requirements when compared to parallel SCSI. PERC 6 controllers
leverage a common electrical and physical connection interface that is
compatible with Serial ATA technology.
SATA
Acronym for Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. A physical storage
interface standard, is a serial link that provides point-to-point connections
between devices. The thinner serial cables allow for better airflow within the
system and permit smaller chassis designs.
SCSIport
The SCSIport driver is a feature of the Microsoft® Windows® storage
architecture, delivering SCSI commands to the storage targets. The SCSIport
driver works well with storage using parallel SCSI.
Single Bit ECC Errors
ECC stands for error correcting code. ECC errors are errors that occur in the
memory, which can corrupt cached data so that it has to be discarded. Single-bit
ECC errors can be handled by the firmware and do not disrupt normal
operation. A notification is sent if the number of single-bit errors exceeds a
threshold value.
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Glossary
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SMART
Acronym for Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology.
The self-monitoring analysis and reporting technology (SMART) feature
monitors the internal performance of all motors, heads, and drive electronics to
detect predictable drive failures. This feature helps monitor drive performance
and reliability, and protects the data on the drive. When problems are detected
on a drive, you can replace or repair the drive without losing any data.
SMART-compliant disks have attributes for which data (values) can be
monitored to identify changes in values and determine whether the values are
within threshold limits. Many mechanical failures and some electrical failures
display some degradation in performance before failure
SMP
Acronym for Serial Management Protocol. SMP communicates topology
management information directly with an attached SAS expander device.
Each PHY on the controller can function as an SMP initiator.
Spanning
The method by which nested RAID levels (such as RAID 10, 50, and 60) are
constructed from multiple sets of basic, or single RAID levels. For example, a
RAID 10 is made up of multiple sets of RAID 1 arrays where each RAID 1 set is
considered a span. Data is then striped (RAID 0) across the RAID 1 spans to
create a RAID 10 virtual disk. The same concept holds true for RAID 50 and 60
where multiple sets of RAID 5 or RAID 6 can be combined together with
striping. Spanning is generally used when referencing these three nested RAID
levels.
Spare
A physical disk available to replace another physical disk in case that physical
disk fails.
SSD
Acronym for solid-state drive. SSDs are storage devices that use solid-state
memory to store data as opposed to traditional rotational hard drives. SSDs can
be made to use either the SAS or SATA protocol.
Glossary
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SSP
Acronym for Serial SCSI Protocol. SSP enables communication with other SAS
devices. Each PHY on the SAS controller can function as an SSP initiator or
SSP target.
Storport
The Storport driver has been designed to replace SCSIport and work with
Windows 2003 and beyond. In addition, it offers better performance for RAID
controller newer protocols (like SAS), providing higher I/O throughput rates,
improved manageability, and an upgraded miniport interface. For example,
while SCSIport allows a maximum of 254 commands per controller, Storport
allows 254 command per logical unit number (LUN).
STP
Acronym for Serial Tunneling Protocol, STP, enables communication with a
SATA device through an attached expander. Each PHY on the SAS controller
can function as an STP initiator.
Stripe Element
A stripe element is the portion of a stripe that resides on a single physical disk.
See also striping.
Stripe Element Size
The total disk space consumed by a stripe not including a parity disk. For
example, consider a stripe that contains 64 KB of disk space and has 16 KB of
data residing on each disk in the stripe. In this case, the stripe element size is
16 KB and the stripe size is 64 KB.
Striping
Disk striping writes data across all physical disks in a virtual disk. Each stripe consists
of consecutive virtual disk data addresses that are mapped in fixed-size units to each
physical disk in the virtual disk using a sequential pattern. For example, if the virtual
disk includes five physical disks, the stripe writes data to physical disks one through
five without repeating any of the physical disks. The amount of space consumed by
a stripe is the same on each physical disk. The portion of a stripe that resides on a
physical disk is a stripe element. Striping by itself does not provide data redundancy.
Striping in combination with parity does provide data redundancy.
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Glossary
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V
Virtual Disk
A virtual disk refers to storage created by a RAID controller from one or more
physical disks. Although a virtual disk may be created from several physical
disks, it is seen by the operating system as a single disk. Depending on the RAID
level used, the virtual disk may retain redundant data in case of a disk failure.
W
Write-Back
In Write-Back caching mode, the controller sends a data transfer completion signal
to the host when the controller cache has received all the data in a disk write
transaction. Data is written to the disk subsystem in accordance with policies set up
by the controller. These policies include the amount of dirty/clean cache lines, the
number of cache lines available, elapsed time from the last cache flush, and others.
Write-Through
In Write-Through caching mode, the controller sends a data transfer completion
signal to the host when the disk subsystem has received all the data and has
completed the write transaction to the disk.
Glossary
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156
Glossary
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Index
B
background initialization, 25,
137
stopping, 108
baseport, 137
battery
installing transportable battery
backup, 46
management, 30
removing from PERC 5/E
Adapter, 52
BIOS, 104, 138
BIOS Configuration Utility, 79,
102-104, 138
controller management, 103
Foreign View menu, 104
menu navigation controls, 80
menu options, 96
menus, 96
physical disk management, 101
rebuild menu, 103
starting, 79
virtual disk management, 97
C
cables
SAS, 122
compatibility
with existing RAID controllers, 24
consistency check, 88, 101, 139
controller, 139, 151
descriptions, 15
controller management, 103
D
disk groups
deleting, 95
disk migration, 27
disk mirroring, 18
disk roaming, 27
disk striping, 17
display/update parameters, 101
distributed parity, 140
driver diskette, 64
driver installation, 63
NetWare, 75
drivers
installation, 63
Microsoft operating system
installation, 65
cache, 138
Index
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E
N
electrostatic discharge. See ESD
NetWare driver installation, 75
ESD, 13
Novell NetWare
drivers, 63
Novell Netware, 63
F
fault tolerance, 34
features, 34
O
foreign configuration, 104
operating system support, 16
Foreign Configuration View, 104
operating systems, 16
H
P
hot swap, 143
parity, 19, 36, 147
distributed, 140
hot swapping, 36
I
initialization, 144
Patrol Read, 38
behavior, 38
behavior details, 39
configuration, 39
modes, 39
PCI
architecture, 15
L
LED
behavior patterns, 129
operation, 27
PERC
features, 21
overview, 15
PERC 6
controller descriptions, 15
M
manual rebuild, 108
physical disk
actions, 102
physical disks
actions, 102
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management, 101
post error messages, 113
R
RAID, 143-144
configuration, 77
configuration and
management, 77
configuration functions, 83
configuration information, 33
definition, 16, 149
description, 16
level migration, 149
levels, 17, 101, 149
management, 77
parity, 147
summary of levels, 17
RAID level, 84
RAID levels, 149
SAS, 152
cables, 122
controller descriptions, 15
devices, 15
overview, 15
SATA, 152
SCSIport, 152
SMART technology, 24
spare, 153
Storport, 154
stripe element size, 84
T
troubleshooting, 113
general problems, 121
physical disk issues, 122
post error messages, 113
SMART error, 125-126
read policy, 85
rebuild, 103
manual, 108
Red Hat Enterprise Linux, 63
creating a driver diskette, 69
installing with the driver update
diskette, 71
replacement disk, 151
V
virtual disks
degraded, 119
deleting, 95
management, 97
menu options, 101, 104
parameters, 84
setting up, 103, 105
S
safety instructions
for preventing ESD, 13
Index
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W
Windows, 63
drivers, 63
updating drivers, 68
Windows XP Driver
Installation on an Existing
System, 76
write policy, 84
160
Index