ZyXEL Communications MAX-110 User`s guide

ericom D1000 modem
Wireless N ADSL2+ 4-port Gateway
Version 2.00
Edition 1, 6/2013
Quick Start Guide
User’s Guide
Default Login Details
LAN IP Address
User Name
http://192.168.1.254
admin
www.zyxel.com
Password
see wireless key on the
back label
Copyright © 2013 ZyXEL Communications Corporation
IMPORTANT!
READ CAREFULLY BEFORE USE.
KEEP THIS GUIDE FOR FUTURE REFERENCE.
Screenshots and graphics in this book may differ slightly from your product due to differences in
your product firmware or your computer operating system. Every effort has been made to ensure
that the information in this manual is accurate.
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DSL-100HNU-T1 v2 User’s Guide
Table of Contents
Part I: User’s Guide .................................................................................................... 11
Introduction.........................................................................................................................................13
1.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................................13
1.2 Ways to Manage the Device .............................................................................................................13
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the Device ..............................................................................................13
1.4 Applications for the Device ................................................................................................................13
1.4.1 Internet Access ........................................................................................................................14
1.4.2 Wireless Access ......................................................................................................................14
1.4.3 Using the WPS/WLAN Button .................................................................................................15
1.5 The RESET Button ............................................................................................................................15
1.5.1 Using the Reset Button ............................................................................................................15
Introducing the Web Configurator ....................................................................................................17
2.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................................17
2.1.1 Accessing the Web Configurator .............................................................................................17
2.2 The Web Configurator Layout ...........................................................................................................20
2.2.1 Title Bar ...................................................................................................................................20
2.2.2 Main Window ...........................................................................................................................20
2.2.3 Navigation Panel .....................................................................................................................21
Part II: Technical Reference..................................................................................... 25
The System Info Screen .....................................................................................................................27
3.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................................27
3.2 The System Info Screen ....................................................................................................................27
3.3 The LAN Device Screen ....................................................................................................................29
Broadband...........................................................................................................................................31
4.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................................31
4.1.1 What You Can Do in the WAN Screens ...................................................................................31
4.1.2 What You Need to Know About WAN ......................................................................................31
4.1.3 Before You Begin .....................................................................................................................32
4.2 The Internet Connection Screen .......................................................................................................32
4.3 The More Connections Screen .........................................................................................................36
4.3.1 More Connections Edit ............................................................................................................37
4.4 The 3G Backup Screen .....................................................................................................................40
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4.5 WAN Technical Reference ................................................................................................................42
4.5.1 Encapsulation ..........................................................................................................................42
4.5.2 Multiplexing ..............................................................................................................................43
4.5.3 VPI and VCI .............................................................................................................................44
4.5.4 IP Address Assignment ...........................................................................................................44
4.5.5 Nailed-Up Connection (PPP) ...................................................................................................44
4.5.6 NAT ..........................................................................................................................................45
4.6 Traffic Shaping ..................................................................................................................................45
4.6.1 ATM Traffic Classes .................................................................................................................45
Wireless LAN.......................................................................................................................................47
5.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................................47
5.1.1 What You Can Do in the Wireless LAN Screens .....................................................................47
5.1.2 What You Need to Know About Wireless ................................................................................48
5.1.3 Before You Start .......................................................................................................................48
5.2 The General Screen ..........................................................................................................................48
5.2.1 No Security ..............................................................................................................................50
5.2.2 Basic (WEP Encryption) ..........................................................................................................50
5.2.3 More Secure (WPA(2)-PSK) ....................................................................................................51
5.2.4 WPA(2) Authentication .............................................................................................................52
5.3 The More AP Screen .........................................................................................................................54
5.3.1 More AP Edit ...........................................................................................................................54
5.4 The MAC Authentication Screen .......................................................................................................56
5.5 The WPS Screen ..............................................................................................................................57
5.6 The WDS Screen ..............................................................................................................................59
5.7 The WMM Screen .............................................................................................................................60
5.8 The Scheduling Screen .....................................................................................................................60
5.9 The Advanced Screen .......................................................................................................................61
5.10 Wireless LAN Technical Reference .................................................................................................63
5.10.1 Wireless Network Overview ...................................................................................................63
5.10.2 Additional Wireless Terms .....................................................................................................64
5.10.3 Wireless Security Overview ...................................................................................................64
5.10.4 Signal Problems ....................................................................................................................67
5.10.5 BSS .......................................................................................................................................67
5.10.6 MBSSID .................................................................................................................................68
5.10.7 Wireless Distribution System (WDS) .....................................................................................68
5.10.8 WiFi Protected Setup (WPS) .................................................................................................68
Home Networking ...............................................................................................................................77
6.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................................77
6.1.1 What You Can Do in the LAN Screens ....................................................................................77
6.1.2 What You Need To Know .........................................................................................................78
6.1.3 Before You Begin .....................................................................................................................79
6.2 The LAN Setup Screen .....................................................................................................................79
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6.3 The Static DHCP Screen ...................................................................................................................81
6.4 The IP Alias Screen ..........................................................................................................................83
6.4.1 Configuring the LAN IP Alias Screen .......................................................................................83
6.5 The UPnP Screen .............................................................................................................................83
6.6 The IPv6 LAN Setup Screen .............................................................................................................84
6.7 The File Sharing Screen ..................................................................................................................88
6.7.1 What You Need to Know ..........................................................................................................88
6.7.2 Before You Begin .....................................................................................................................89
6.7.3 The File Sharing Screen ..........................................................................................................89
6.7.4 User Edit .................................................................................................................................91
6.8 Print Server .......................................................................................................................................91
6.8.1 What You Need to Know ..........................................................................................................92
6.8.2 Before You Begin .....................................................................................................................92
6.8.3 The Print Server Screen ..........................................................................................................93
6.9 Add a New Printer Using Windows ...................................................................................................93
6.10 Add a New Printer Using Macintosh OS X ......................................................................................97
6.10.1 Mac OS 10.3 and 10.4 ...........................................................................................................97
6.10.2 Mac OS 10.5 and 10.6 .........................................................................................................100
6.11 Home Networking Technical Reference ........................................................................................103
6.11.1 LANs, WANs and the Device ...............................................................................................104
6.11.2 DHCP Setup ........................................................................................................................104
6.11.3 DNS Server Addresses ........................................................................................................104
6.11.4 LAN TCP/IP .........................................................................................................................105
6.11.5 RIP Setup .............................................................................................................................106
6.11.6 Multicast ...............................................................................................................................106
Static Route .......................................................................................................................................109
7.1 Overview ........................................................................................................................................109
7.1.1 What You Can Do in the Static Route Screens ......................................................................109
7.2 The Static Route Screen ................................................................................................................. 110
7.2.1 Static Route Add/Edit ........................................................................................................... 110
7.3 IPv6 Static Route ............................................................................................................................. 111
7.3.1 IPv6 Static Route Edit .......................................................................................................... 112
Quality of Service (QoS)................................................................................................................... 113
8.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................................... 113
8.1.1 What You Can Do in the QoS Screens .................................................................................. 113
8.1.2 What You Need to Know About QoS ..................................................................................... 114
8.2 The Quality of Service General Screen ........................................................................................... 114
8.3 The Queue Setup Screen ............................................................................................................... 115
8.3.1 Adding a QoS Queue ........................................................................................................... 116
8.4 The Class Setup Screen ................................................................................................................ 117
8.4.1 Class Setup Add/Edit ............................................................................................................. 117
8.5 The QoS Game List Screen ...........................................................................................................121
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8.6 QoS Technical Reference ...............................................................................................................122
8.6.1 IEEE 802.1p ..........................................................................................................................122
8.6.2 IP Precedence .......................................................................................................................122
8.6.3 Automatic Priority Queue Assignment ...................................................................................123
Network Address Translation (NAT)................................................................................................125
9.1 Overview .........................................................................................................................................125
9.1.1 What You Can Do in the NAT Screens ..................................................................................125
9.1.2 What You Need To Know About NAT ....................................................................................125
9.2 The NAT General Screen ................................................................................................................126
9.3 The Port Forwarding Screen ...........................................................................................................127
9.3.1 Configuring the Port Forwarding Screen ...............................................................................127
9.3.2 Port Forwarding Rule Add/Edit ..............................................................................................128
9.4 The DMZ Screen .............................................................................................................................129
9.5 The ALG Screen .............................................................................................................................130
9.6 NAT Technical Reference ................................................................................................................130
9.6.1 NAT Definitions ......................................................................................................................131
9.6.2 What NAT Does .....................................................................................................................131
9.6.3 How NAT Works ....................................................................................................................131
9.6.4 NAT Application .....................................................................................................................132
9.6.5 NAT Mapping Types ..............................................................................................................132
Port Isolation.....................................................................................................................................135
10.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................135
10.1.1 What You Can Do in the Port Isolation Screens ..................................................................136
10.2 The Port Isolation General Screen ................................................................................................136
10.3 The Port Isolation Screen ..............................................................................................................136
10.3.1 Port Isolation Summary Screen ...........................................................................................137
Dynamic DNS Setup .........................................................................................................................139
11.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................139
11.1.1 What You Can Do in the DDNS Screen ...............................................................................139
11.1.2 What You Need To Know About DDNS ...............................................................................139
11.2 The Dynamic DNS Screen ............................................................................................................139
Filter ...................................................................................................................................................141
12.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................................141
12.1.1 What You Can Do in the Filter Screens ...............................................................................141
12.1.2 What You Need to Know About Filtering .............................................................................141
12.2 The IP/MAC Filter Screen .............................................................................................................141
12.3 IPv6/MAC Filter .............................................................................................................................143
Firewall ..............................................................................................................................................147
13.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................147
13.1.1 What You Can Do in the Firewall Screens ...........................................................................147
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13.1.2 What You Need to Know About Firewall ..............................................................................148
13.2 The Firewall General Screen ........................................................................................................149
13.3 The Default Action Screen ............................................................................................................150
13.4 The Rules Screen .........................................................................................................................151
13.4.1 The Rules Add Screen ........................................................................................................152
13.4.2 Customized Services ..........................................................................................................154
13.4.3 Customized Service Add/Edit .............................................................................................155
13.5 The DoS Screen ............................................................................................................................156
13.5.1 The DoS Advanced Screen .................................................................................................156
13.5.2 Configuring Firewall Thresholds ..........................................................................................157
13.6 Firewall Technical Reference ........................................................................................................158
13.6.1 Firewall Rules Overview ......................................................................................................158
13.6.2 Guidelines For Enhancing Security With Your Firewall .......................................................159
13.6.3 Security Considerations .......................................................................................................160
13.6.4 Triangle Route .....................................................................................................................160
Parental Control ................................................................................................................................163
14.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................163
14.2 The Parental Control Screen .........................................................................................................163
14.2.1 Add/Edit Parental Control Rule ............................................................................................164
Certificates ........................................................................................................................................167
15.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................167
15.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter ........................................................................................167
15.2 What You Need to Know ...............................................................................................................167
15.3 Local Certificates ...........................................................................................................................167
15.4 The Trusted CA Screen ................................................................................................................169
15.5 Trusted CA Import .......................................................................................................................169
15.6 View Certificate .............................................................................................................................170
Log ....................................................................................................................................................173
16.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................................173
16.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter ........................................................................................173
16.1.2 What You Need To Know .....................................................................................................173
16.2 The System Log Screen ................................................................................................................174
Traffic Status .....................................................................................................................................175
17.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................175
17.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter ........................................................................................175
17.2 The WAN Status Screen ...............................................................................................................175
17.3 The LAN Status Screen .................................................................................................................176
17.4 The NAT Screen ............................................................................................................................177
User Account ....................................................................................................................................179
18.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................179
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18.2 The User Account Screen .............................................................................................................179
System Setting..................................................................................................................................181
19.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................181
19.2 The System Screen .......................................................................................................................181
Time Setting ......................................................................................................................................183
20.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................183
20.2 The Time Setting Screen .............................................................................................................183
Log Setting ........................................................................................................................................187
21.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................................187
21.2 The Log Setting Screen ................................................................................................................187
Firmware Upgrade ............................................................................................................................189
22.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................189
22.2 The Firmware Screen ....................................................................................................................189
Backup/Restore ................................................................................................................................191
23.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................191
23.2 The Backup/Restore Screen .........................................................................................................191
23.3 The Reboot Screen .......................................................................................................................193
Remote Management........................................................................................................................195
24.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................195
24.1.1 What You Can Do in the Remote Management Screens ....................................................195
24.1.2 What You Need to Know About Remote Management ........................................................196
24.2 The WWW Screen ........................................................................................................................196
24.2.1 Configuring the WWW Screen .............................................................................................196
24.3 The Telnet Screen .........................................................................................................................198
24.4 The FTP Screen ............................................................................................................................199
24.5 The SNMP Screen ........................................................................................................................199
24.5.1 Configuring SNMP ...............................................................................................................200
24.6 The DNS Screen ..........................................................................................................................201
24.7 The ICMP Screen ..........................................................................................................................202
24.8 The SSH Screen ...........................................................................................................................203
Diagnostic .........................................................................................................................................205
25.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................................205
25.1.1 What You Can Do in the Diagnostic Screens ......................................................................205
25.2 The General Screen ......................................................................................................................205
25.3 The DSL Line Screen ....................................................................................................................206
Troubleshooting................................................................................................................................209
26.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs ....................................................................................209
26.2 Device Access and Login ..............................................................................................................210
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26.3 Internet Access ............................................................................................................................. 211
LED Descriptions..............................................................................................................................213
27.1 LED Descriptions ..........................................................................................................................213
Appendix A Legal Information..........................................................................................................215
Index ..................................................................................................................................................219
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P ART I
User’s Guide
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C HAPT ER
1
Introduction
1.1 Overview
The eircom D1000 modem is an ADSL2+ router that integrates DSL and NAT, and provides ease of
installation and high-speed, shared Internet access. The Device is also a complete security solution
with a robust firewall and content filtering.
Only use firmware for your Device’s specific model. Refer to the label on
the bottom of your Device.
1.2 Ways to Manage the Device
Use any of the following methods to manage the Device.
• Web Configurator. This is recommended for everyday management of the Device using a
(supported) web browser.
• Command Line Interface. Line commands are mostly used for troubleshooting by service
engineers.
• TR-069. This is an auto-configuration server used to remotely configure your device.
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the Device
Do the following things regularly to make the Device more secure and to manage the Device more
effectively.
• Change the password. Use a password that’s not easy to guess and that consists of different
types of characters, such as numbers and letters.
• Write down the password and put it in a safe place.
• Back up the configuration (and make sure you know how to restore it). Restoring an earlier
working configuration may be useful if the device becomes unstable or even crashes. If you
forget your password, you will have to reset the Device to its factory default settings. If you
backed up an earlier configuration file, you would not have to totally re-configure the Device. You
could simply restore your last configuration.
1.4 Applications for the Device
Here are some example uses for which the Device is well suited.
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Chapter 1 Introduction
1.4.1 Internet Access
Your Device provides shared Internet access by connecting the DSL port to the DSL or MODEM
jack on a splitter or your telephone jack. Computers can connect to the Device’s Ethernet ports (or
wirelessly).
Figure 1 Device’s Router Features
LAN
WAN
DSL
You can also configure firewall and filtering feature on the Device for secure Internet access. When
the firewall is on, all incoming traffic from the Internet to your network is blocked unless it is
initiated from your network. This means that probes from the outside to your network are not
allowed, but you can safely browse the Internet and download files.
Use the filtering feature to block access to specific web sites or Internet applications such as MSN or
Yahoo Messenger. You can also configure IP/MAC filtering rules for incoming or outgoing traffic.
Use QoS to efficiently manage traffic on your network by giving priority to certain types of traffic
and/or to particular computers. For example, you could make sure that the Device gives voice over
Internet calls high priority, and/or limit bandwidth devoted to the boss’s excessive file downloading.
1.4.2 Wireless Access
The Device is a wireless Access Point (AP) for IEEE 802.11b/g/n compliant clients, such as notebook
computers or PDAs and iPads. It allows them to connect to the Internet without having to rely on
inconvenient Ethernet cables. You can set up a wireless network with WPS (WiFi Protected Setup)
or manually add a client to your wireless network.
Figure 2 Wireless Access Example
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Chapter 1 Introduction
1.4.3 Using the WPS/WLAN Button
By default, the wireless network on the Device is turned on. To turn it off, simply press the WPS/
WLAN button on top of the device for over 5 seconds. When the WPS/WLAN LED is green, the
wireless network is active.
You can also use the WPS/WLAN button to quickly set up a secure wireless connection between
the Device and a WPS-compatible client by adding one device at a time.
To activate WPS:
1
Make sure the POWER LED is on and not blinking.
2
Press the WPS/WLAN button for 1-5 seconds and release it.
3
Press the WPS button on another WPS-enabled device within range of the Device. The WPS/WLAN
LED should flash while the Device sets up a WPS connection with the other wireless device.
4
Once the connection is successfully made, the WPS/WLAN LED shines green.
1.5 The RESET Button
If you forget your password or cannot access the web configurator, you will need to use the RESET
button at the side panel of the device to reload the factory-default configuration file. This means
that you will lose all configurations that you had previously and the user name and password will be
reset to the default.
1.5.1 Using the Reset Button
1
Make sure the POWER LED is on (not blinking).
2
To set the device back to the factory default settings, press the RESET button for ten seconds or
until the POWER LED begins to blink and then release it. When the POWER LED begins to blink,
the defaults have been restored and the device restarts.
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C HAPT ER
2
Introducing the Web Configurator
2.1 Overview
The web configurator is an HTML-based management interface that allows easy device setup and
management via Internet browser. Use Internet Explorer 6.0 and later versions, Mozilla Firefox 3
and later versions, or Safari 2.0 and later versions. The recommended screen resolution is 1024 by
768 pixels.
In order to use the web configurator, you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device. Web pop-up blocking is enabled by default in
Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2.
• JavaScript (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
2.1.1 Accessing the Web Configurator
1
Make sure your Device hardware is properly connected.
2
Launch your web browser.
3
Type "192.168.1.254" as the URL.
4
A password screen displays. Type “admin” (default) as the username and enter the default
password (which is the same as the wireless key on the Device’s back label), then click Login. If
you have changed the password, enter your new password and click Login.
Figure 3 Password Screen
Note: For security reasons, the Device automatically logs you out if you do not use the
web configurator for 900 seconds (default). If this happens, log in again.
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Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
5
If you enter the wrong username and/or password three times, the Device lockes you out of the
login screen for ten minutes and the following screen displays.
Figure 4
6
Lockout Screen
The following screen displays if you have not yet changed your password. It is strongly
recommended you change the default password. Enter a new password, retype it to confirm and
click Apply; alternatively click Skip to proceed to the next screen if you do not want to change the
password now.
Figure 5 Change Password Screen
The following screen displays and asks if you want to change your wireless settings, including SSID
and wireless security key. If you have changed the settings, click Apply. If not, click Skip to
proceed to the Connection Status screen if you do not want to change them now.
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Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
Figure 6 Change Wireless Settings Screen
7
The Connection Status screen appears.
Figure 7 Connection Status
8
The System Info screen shows. You can view the Device’s interface and system information.
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Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
2.2 The Web Configurator Layout
Figure 8 Web Configurator Layout Screen
A
B
C
As illustrated above, the main screen is divided into these parts:
• A - title bar
• B - main window
• C - navigation panel
2.2.1 Title Bar
The title bar shows the following icon in the upper right corner.
Click this icon to log out of the web configurator.
Click the Help icon to go to eircom’s support website. Click the Logout icon to log out of the web
configurator.
2.2.2 Main Window
The main window displays information and configuration fields. It is discussed in the rest of this
document.
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Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
If you click LAN Device on the System Info screen, the Connection Status screen appears. See
Chapter 3 on page 27 for more information about the Connection Status screen.
If you click Virtual Device on the System Info screen, a visual graphic appears, showing the
connection status of the Device’s ports.
Figure 9 Virtual Device
2.2.3 Navigation Panel
Use the menu items on the navigation panel to open screens to configure Device features. The
following table describes each menu item.
Table 1 Navigation Panel Summary
LINK
TAB
Connection Status
FUNCTION
This screen shows the Device’s interface and system information.
Network Setting
Broadband
ericom D1000 modem User’s Guide
Internet
Connection
Use this screen to configure ISP parameters, WAN IP address
assignment, DNS servers and other advanced properties.
More Connections
Use this screen to configure additional WAN connections.
3G Backup
Use this screen to configure your 3G backup Internet connection
settings.
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Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
Table 1 Navigation Panel Summary (continued)
LINK
Wireless
Home
Networking
Static Route
QoS
NAT
Port Isolation
Dynamic DNS
TAB
FUNCTION
General
Use this screen to turn the wireless connection on or off, specify
the SSID(s) and configure the wireless LAN settings and WLAN
authentication/security settings.
More AP
Use this screen to configure multiple BSSs on the Device.
MAC
Authentication
Use this screen to block or allow wireless traffic from wireless
devices of certain SSIDs and MAC addresses to the Device.
WPS
Use this screen to use WPS (Wi-Fi Protected Setup) to establish a
wireless connection.
WDS
Use this screen to set up Wireless Distribution System (WDS) links
to other access points.
WMM
Use this screen to enable or disable Wi-Fi MultiMedia (WMM).
Scheduling
Use this screen to configure when the Device enables or disables
the wireless LAN.
Advanced
Use this screen to configure advanced wireless settings such as
output power.
LAN Setup
Use this screen to configure LAN TCP/IP settings, and other
advanced properties.
Static DHCP
Use this screen to assign specific IP addresses to individual MAC
addresses.
IP Alias
Use this screen to partition your LAN interface into dfferent logical
networks.
UPnP
Use this screen to enable the UPnP function.
IPv6 LAN Setup
Use this screen to configure the IPv6 settings on the Device’s LAN
interface.
File Sharing
Use this screen to set up file sharing.
Print Server
The print server screen is used to enable the print server function.
Static Route
Use this screen to view and set up static routes on the Device.
IPv6 Static Route
Use this screen to configure IPv6 static routes.
General
Use this screen to enable QoS and decide allowable bandwidth
using QoS.
Queue
Use this screen to configure QoS queue assignment.
Class Setup
Use this screen to set up classifiers to sort traffic into different
flows and assign priority and define actions to be performed for a
classified traffic flow.
Game List
Use this screen to give priority to traffic for specific games.
General
Use this screen to activate/deactivate NAT.
Port Forwarding
Use this screen to make your local servers visible to the outside
world.
DMZ
Use this screen to configure a default server which receives
packets from ports that are not specified in the Port Forwarding
screen.
ALG
Use this screen to activate/deactivate the SIP ALG feature.
General
Use this screen to activate/deactivate port isolation.
Port Isolation
Use this screen to configure and view port binding groups.
Dynamic DNS
Use this screen to allow a static hostname alias for a dynamic IP
address.
Security
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Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
Table 1 Navigation Panel Summary (continued)
LINK
TAB
FUNCTION
IP/MAC Filter
Use this screen to configure IPv4/MAC filtering rules for incoming
or outgoing traffic.
IPv6/MAC Filter
Use this screen to configure IPv6/MAC filtering rules for incoming
or outgoing traffic.
General
Use this screen to activate/deactivate the firewall.
Default Action
Use this screen to set the default action that the firewall takes on
packets that do not match any of the firewall rules.
Rules
Use this screen to view the configured firewall rules and add, edit
or remove a firewall rule.
DoS
Use this screen to set the thresholds that the Device uses to
determine when to start dropping sessions that are not fully
established (half-open sessions).
Parental Control
Parental Control
Use this screen to define time periods and days during which the
Device performs parental control and/or block web sites with the
specific URL.
Certificates
Local Certificates
Use this screen to export self-signed certificates or certification
requests and import the Device’s CA-signed certificates.
Trusted CA
Use this screen to save CA certificates to the Device.
Log
Log
Use this screen to view the logs for the level that you selected.
You can export or e-mail the logs.
Traffic Status
WAN
Use this screen to view the status of all network traffic going
through the WAN port of the Device.
LAN
Use this screen to view the status of all network traffic going
through the LAN ports of the Device.
NAT
Use this screen to view the status of NAT sessions on the Device.
Users Account
Users Account
Use this screen to configure the passwords your user accounts.
System
System
Use this screen to configure management inactivity time-out
setting.
Time Setting
Time Setting
Use this screen to change your Device’s time and date.
Log Setting
Log Setting
Use this screen to configure the Device’s log settings and which
logs and/or immediate alerts the Device is to record.
Firmware
Upgrade
Firmware Upgrade
Use this screen to upload firmware to your Device.
Backup/Restore
Backup/Restore
Use this screen to backup and restore your device’s configuration
(settings) or reset the factory default settings.
Reboot
Reboot
Use this screen to reboot the Device without turning the power
off.
Remote MGMT
WWW, Telnet, FTP,
SNMP, DNS, ICMP,
SSH
Use this screen to enable specific traffic directions for specific
network service.
Diagnostic
Ping
Use this screen to test the connections to other devices.
DSL Line
Use this screen to identify problems with the DSL connection.
Filter
Firewall
System Monitor
Maintenance
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Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
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Technical Reference
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3
The System Info Screen
3.1 Overview
After you log into the web configurator, the System Info screen shows. Use this screen to view the
status of the Device.
3.2 The System Info Screen
Figure 10 System Info Screen
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Chapter 3 The System Info Screen
Each field is described in the following table.
Table 2 System Info Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Refresh Interval
Select how often you want the Device to update this screen from the drop-down list
box.
System
Model Name
This is the model name of your device.
Serial Number
This field displays the certificate’s identification number given by the certification
authority.
MAC Address
This is the MAC (Media Access Control) or Ethernet address unique to your Device.
Firmware
Version
This field displays the current version of the firmware inside the device. It also shows
the date the firmware version was created.
DSL Version
This is the current version of the Device’s DSL modem code.
System UpTime
This field displays how long the Device has been running since it last started up. The
Device starts up when you plug it in, when you restart it (Maintenance > Reboot), or
when you reset it (see Chapter 1 on page 15).
Current Date/
Time
This field displays the current date and time in the Device. You can change this in
Maintenance > Time Setting.
System Mode
This displays whether the Device is functioning as a router or a bridge.
CPU Usage
This field displays what percentage of the Device’s processing ability is currently used.
When this percentage is close to 100%, the Device is running at full load, and the
throughput is not going to improve anymore. If you want some applications to have
more throughput, you should turn off other applications.
Memory Usage
This field displays what percentage of the Device’s memory is currently used. Usually,
this percentage should not increase much. If memory usage does get close to 100%
and remains like that for a high period of time, the Device may become unstable and
you should restart it. See Section 23.3 on page 193, or turn off the device (unplug the
power) for a few seconds.
Connection
Broadband
28
This is the current status of your broadband.
DSL Mode
This is the DSL standard that your Device is using.
Speed
This shows the speed of your DSL connection.
Line Attenuation
(Down/Up)
This indicates the line attenuation status for each upstream and downstream band.
DSL Noise
Margin
This is the signal to noise ratio for the downstream part of the connection (coming into
the Device from the ISP). It is measured in decibels. The higher the number the more
signal and less noise there is.
WAN IP Address
This field displays the current IP address of the Device in the WAN.
IP Subnet Mask
This field displays the current subnet mask in the WAN.
Default
Gateway
This is the IP address of the default gateway, if applicable.
IPv6 Address
This is the current IPv6 address of the Device in the WAN. Click this to go to the screen
where you can change it.
IPv6 Prefix
This is the current IPv6 prefix length in the WAN.
IPv6 Default
Gateway
This is the IPv6 address of the default gateway, if applicable.
Primary/
Secondary DNS
This is the primary/secondary DNS server IP address assigned to the Device.
3G Status
This shows the current status of your 3G connection. NoDevice is shown when no 3G
card is inserted.
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Chapter 3 The System Info Screen
Table 2 System Info Screen (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
3G Rate
This shows the rate of the 3G connection if it is available.
3G IP Address
This shows the IP address for the 3G connection.
3G IP Subnet
Mask
This shows the current subnet mask for the 3G connection.
3G Gateway
This shows the IP address of the 3G connection’s default gateway.
3G Primary/
Secondary DNS
This shows the first and second DNS server address assigned by the ISP.
Local Network
LAN1
LAN2
LAN3
LAN4
This displays the link speed and duplex mode of the LAN port(s) in use.
Modem Address
This field displays the current IP address of the Device in the LAN.
Modem Subnet
Mask
This field displays the current subnet mask in the LAN.
IPv6 Address
This is the current IPv6 address of the Device in the LAN. Click this to go to the screen
where you can change it.
(LAN1 is reserved for Ethernet WAN.)
IPv6 Prefix
This is the current IPv6 prefix length in the LAN.
IPv6 Prefix
This is the current IPv6 prefix in the LAN.
DHCP
This field displays what DHCP services the Device is providing to the LAN. Choices are:
Server - The Device is a DHCP server in the LAN. It assigns IP addresses to other
computers in the LAN.
Relay - The Device acts as a surrogate DHCP server and relays DHCP requests and
responses between the remote server and the clients.
None - The Device is not providing any DHCP services to the LAN.
DHCP Range
This is the IP address range that the Device is assigning to other computers in the LAN
when it acts as a DHCP server.
Firewall
This shows the security level setting of the Device’s firewall.
Wireless Status
This displays whether wireless LAN is turned on or off.
SSID
This is the descriptive name used to identify the Device in the wireless LAN.
Channel
This is the channel number used by the Device now.
Security Mode
This displays the type of security the Device is using in the wireless LAN.
Key
This displays the wireless key of the Device.
WPS
Configured displays when the WPS security settings have been configured and wireless
clients can connect with the device through WPS. Unconfigured displays when the
device has not been configured and wireless clients can’t establish a link with the device
through WPS.
3.3 The LAN Device Screen
Click LAN Device in the System Info screen to view the information of the client(s) connected to
the Device. In this screen, you can configure how often you want the Device to update this screen
in Refresh Interval.
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Chapter 3 The System Info Screen
Figure 11 LAN Device: List View
If you want to view the connection status of the Device and its client(s), click Icon View in the
Viewing mode selection box.
Figure 12 LAN Device: Icon View
Click on a client’s name to show an Info button.
• Click it to view information about the client. Click OK to close the screen.
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ericom D1000 modem User’s Guide
C HAPT ER
4
Broadband
4.1 Overview
This chapter describes the Device’s Broadband screens. Use these screens to configure your
Device for Internet access.
A WAN (Wide Area Network) connection is an outside connection to another network or the
Internet. It connects your private networks (such as a LAN (Local Area Network) and other
networks, so that a computer in one location can communicate with computers in other locations.
Figure 13 LAN and WAN
LAN
WAN
4.1.1 What You Can Do in the WAN Screens
• Use the Internet Connection screen (Section 4.2 on page 32) to configure the WAN settings on
the Device for Internet access.
• Use the More Connections screen (Section 4.3 on page 36) to set up additional Internet access
connections.
• Use the 3G Backup screen (Section 4.4 on page 40) to configure your 3G backup Internet
connection settings.
4.1.2 What You Need to Know About WAN
Encapsulation Method
Encapsulation is used to include data from an upper layer protocol into a lower layer protocol. To set
up a WAN connection to the Internet, you need to use the same encapsulation method used by your
ISP (Internet Service Provider). If your ISP offers a dial-up Internet connection using PPPoE (PPP
over Ethernet) or PPPoA, they should also provide a username and password (and service name)
for user authentication.
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Chapter 4 Broadband
WAN IP Address
The WAN IP address is an IP address for the Device, which makes it accessible from an outside
network. It is used by the Device to communicate with other devices in other networks. It can be
static (fixed) or dynamically assigned by the ISP each time the Device tries to access the Internet.
If your ISP assigns you a static WAN IP address, they should also assign you the subnet mask and
DNS server IP address(es) (and a gateway IP address if you use the Ethernet or ENET ENCAP
encapsulation method).
Multicast
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways - Unicast (1 sender - 1 recipient)
or Broadcast (1 sender - everybody on the network). Multicast delivers IP packets to a group of
hosts on the network - not everybody and not just one.
IGMP
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to establish membership
in a Multicast group - it is not used to carry user data. There are three versions of IGMP. IGMP
version 2 and 3 are improvements over version 1, but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use.
IPv6
IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6), is designed to increase IP address space and enhance features.
The Device supports IPv4/IPv6 dual stack and can connect to IPv4 and IPv6 networks.
Finding Out More
See Section 4.5 on page 42 for technical background information on WAN.
4.1.3 Before You Begin
You need to know your Internet access settings such as encapsulation and WAN IP address. Get this
information from your ISP.
4.2 The Internet Connection Screen
Use this screen to change your Device’s WAN settings. Click Network Setting > Broadband >
Internet Connection. The screen differs by the WAN type and encapsulation you select.
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Chapter 4 Broadband
Figure 14 Network Setting > Broadband > Internet Connection
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 3 Network Setting > Broadband > Internet Connection
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Line
Type
Select the mode supported by your ISP.
Use Auto Sync-Up if you are not sure which mode to choose from. The Device
dynamically diagnoses the mode supported by the ISP and selects the best
compatible one for your connection.
Other options are Ethernet(ETH1), ADSL2+, ADSL2, G.DMT, T1.413 and G.lite.
General
Mode
Select Router (default) from the drop-down list box if your ISP gives you one IP
address only and you want multiple computers to share an Internet account. Select
Bridge when your ISP provides you more than one IP address and you want the
connected computers to get individual IP address from ISP’s DHCP server directly. If
you select Bridge, you cannot use Firewall, DHCP server and NAT on the Device.
Encapsulation
Select the method of encapsulation used by your ISP from the drop-down list box.
Choices vary depending on the mode you select in the Mode field.
If you select Router in the Mode field, select IPoE, RFC 1483, PPPoE, or PPPoA.
If you select Bridge in the Mode field, method of encapsulation is not available.
User Name
(PPPoA and PPPoE encapsulation only) Enter the user name exactly as your ISP
assigned. If assigned a name in the form user@domain where domain identifies a
service name, then enter both components exactly as given.
Password
(PPPoA and PPPoE encapsulation only) Enter the password associated with the user
name above.
Service Name
(PPPoE only) Type the name of your PPPoE service here.
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Chapter 4 Broadband
Table 3 Network Setting > Broadband > Internet Connection (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Multiplex
Select the method of multiplexing used by your ISP from the drop-down list. Choices
are VC-Mux or LLC.
IPv6/IPv4 Dual Stack
If you select IPv4/IPv6, the Device can connect to both IPv4 and IPv6 networks and
choose the protocol for applications according to the address type. If you select IPv4
or IPv6 the Device will operate in IPv4 or IPv6 mode.
PPP Authentication
The Device supports PAP (Password Authentication Protocol) and CHAP (Challenge
Handshake Authentication Protocol). CHAP is more secure than PAP; however, PAP is
readily available on more platforms.
Use the drop-down list box to select an authentication protocol for outgoing calls.
Options are:
AUTO - Your Device accepts either CHAP or PAP when requested by this remote node.
CHAP - Your Device accepts CHAP only.
PAP - Your Device accepts PAP only.
Virtual Circuit ID
VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) and VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier) define a virtual
circuit. Refer to the appendix for more information.
VPI
The valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255. Enter the VPI assigned to you.
VCI
The valid range for the VCI is 32 to 65535 (0 to 31 is reserved for local management
of ATM traffic). Enter the VCI assigned to you.
IP Address
This option is available if you select Router in the Mode field.
A static IP address is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP address is not
fixed; the ISP assigns you a different one each time you connect to the Internet.
Select Obtain an IP Address Automatically if you have a dynamic IP address;
otherwise select Static IP Address and type your ISP assigned IP address in the IP
Address and Gateway IP Address fields (supplied by your ISP) below.
IPv6 Rapid
Deployment
This is available only when you select IPv4 in the IPv6/IPv4 Dual Stack field. By
enabling the IPv6 Rapid Deployment function, the Device uses an ISP’s IPv6 address
prefix instead of the 2002::/48 prefix. The operational domain of 6RD is limited to
and controlled by the ISP’s network. 6RD hosts are ensured to be reachable from all
native IPv6 addresses as 6RD only uses relay servers within control of the ISP.
Enable
Select this option to enable IPv6 Rapid Deployment.
Mode
Select Auto or Manual mode. If you select Manual, enter the tunneling relay
server's IPv4 address in the field below.
Relay Server
Enter the tunneling relay server's IPv4 address in this field.
DNS Server - This section is not available when you select Bridge in the Mode field.
Primary DNS
Server
Enter the first DNS server address assigned by the ISP.
Secondary DNS
Server
Enter the second DNS server address assigned by the ISP.
IPv6 Address (The following fields are available only when you select IPv6 in the IPv6/IPv4 Dual Stack
field.)
Obtain an IP Address
Automatically
34
Select this option if you want to have the Device use the IPv6 prefix from the
connected router’s Router Advertisement (RA) to generate an IPv6 address.
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Chapter 4 Broadband
Table 3 Network Setting > Broadband > Internet Connection (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DHCP IPv6
Select DHCP if you want to obtain an IPv6 address from a DHCPv6 server.
The IP address assigned by a DHCPv6 server has priority over the IP address
automatically generated by the Device using the IPv6 prefix from an RA.
Select SLAAC (Stateless address autoconfiguration) to have the Device use the prefix
to automatically generate a unique IP address that does not need to be maintained by
a DHCP server.
Selelct Auto to have the Device indicate to hosts for IPv6 address generation
depending on the M/O (Managed/Other) flag values in the router advertisements
sending to hosts.
•
•
•
•
If M flag is 1, the Device will indicate to hosts to obtain network settings (such as
WAN IP, LAN prefix and DNS settings) through DHCPv6.
If M flag is 0, the Device will check O flag.
If O flag is 1, the Device will indicate to hosts to obtain DNS information and LAN
prefix through DHCPv6.
If O flag is 0, the Device will not get information through DHCPv6.
DHCP PD
Select Enable to use DHCP PD (Prefix Delegation) to allow the Device to pass the
IPv6 prefix information to its LAN hosts. The hosts can then use the prefix to generate
their IPv6 addresses.
WAN Identifier Type
Select Manual to manually enter a WAN Identifier as the interface ID to identify the
WAN interface. The WAN Identifier is appended to the IPv6 address prefix to create
the routable global IPv6 address. Select EUI64 to use the EUI-64 format to generate
an interface ID from the MAC address of the WAN interface.
WAN Identifier
If you selected Manual, enter the WAN Identifier in this field. The WAN identifier
should be unique and 64 bits in hexadecimal form. Every 16 bit block should be
separated by a colon as in XXXX:XXXX:XXXX:XXXX where X is a hexadecimal
character. Blocks of zeros can be represented with double colons as in
XXXX:XXXX::XXXX.
Connection (PPPoA and PPPoE encapsulation only)
Always On
Select Always On when you want your connection up all the time. The Device will try
to bring up the connection automatically if it is disconnected.
Instant On
Select Instant On when you don't want the connection up all the time and specify an
idle time-out in the Max Idle Timeout field.
Advanced Setup
Click this to display the Advanced WAN Setup screen and edit more details of your
WAN setup. Click this button again to display less fields in this screen.
RIP & Multicast Setup
RIP Direction
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) allows a router to exchange routing information
with other routers. Use this field to control how much routing information the Device
sends and receives on the subnet.
Select the RIP direction from None, Both, In Only and Out Only.
RIP Version
This field is not configurable if you select None in the RIP Direction field.
Select the RIP version from RIP-1, RIP2-B/RIP2-M.
Multicast
Multicast packets are sent to a group of computers on the LAN and are an alternative
to unicast packets (packets sent to one computer) and broadcast packets (packets
sent to every computer).
Internet Group Multicast Protocol (IGMP) is a network-layer protocol used to establish
membership in a multicast group. The Device supports IGMP-v1/IGMP-v2/IGMPv3. Select None to disable it.
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Chapter 4 Broadband
Table 3 Network Setting > Broadband > Internet Connection (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MLD Proxy
Select the version of MLD proxy (MLDv1 or MLDv2) to have the Device act as for this
connection. This allows the Device to get subscription information and maintain a
joined member list for each multicast group. It can reduce multicast traffic
significantly. Select None to turn off MLD proxy.
ATM QoS
ATM QoS Type
Select CBR (Continuous Bit Rate) to specify fixed (always-on) bandwidth for voice or
data traffic. Select UBR With PCR (Unspecified Bit Rate) for applications that are
non-time sensitive, such as e-mail. Select Realtime VBR (real-time Variable Bit
Rate) type for applications with bursty connections that require closely controlled
delay and delay variation. Select Non Realtime VBR (non real-time Variable Bit
Rate) type for connections that do not require closely controlled delay and delay
variation.
Peak Cell Rate
Divide the DSL line rate (bps) by 424 (the size of an ATM cell) to find the Peak Cell
Rate (PCR). This is the maximum rate at which the sender can send cells. Type the
PCR here.
Sustain Cell Rate
The Sustain Cell Rate (SCR) sets the average cell rate (long-term) that can be
transmitted. Type the SCR, which must be less than the PCR. Note that system
default is 0 cells/sec.
Maximum Burst
Size
Maximum Burst Size (MBS) refers to the maximum number of cells that can be sent
at the peak rate. Type the MBS, which is less than 65535.
PPPoE Passthrough
If encapsulation type is PPPoE, select Yes to enable PPPoE Passthrough. In addition to
the Device’s built-in PPPoE client, you can select this to allow hosts on the LAN to use
PPPoE client software on their computers to connect to the ISP via the device. Each
host can have a separate account and a public WAN IP address.
MTU
MTU
The Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) defines the size of the largest packet allowed
on an interface or connection. Enter the MTU in this field.
For ENET ENCAP, the MTU value is 1500.
For PPPoE, the MTU value is 1492.
For PPPoA and RFC 1483, the MTU is 65535.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
4.3 The More Connections Screen
The Device allows you to configure more than one Internet access connection. To configure
additional Internet access connections click Network Setting > Broadband > More
Connections. The screen differs by the encapsulation you select. When you use the Broadband >
Internet Connection screen to set up Internet access, you are configuring the first WAN
connection.
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Chapter 4 Broadband
Figure 15 Network Setting > Broadband > More Connections
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 4 Network Setting > Broadband > More Connections
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is an index number indicating the number of the corresponding connection.
Active
This field indicates whether the connection is active or not.
Clear the check box to disable the connection. Select the check box to enable it.
Node Name
This is the name you gave to the Internet connection.
VPI/VCI
This field displays the Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI)
numbers configured for this WAN connection.
Encapsulation
This field indicates the encapsulation method of the Internet connection.
Modify
The first (ISP) connection is read-only in this screen. Use the Broadband > Internet
Connection screen to edit it.
Click the Edit icon to edit the Internet connection settings. Click this icon on an empty
configuration to add a new Internet access setup.
Click the Remove icon to delete the Internet access setup from your connection list.
4.3.1 More Connections Edit
Use this screen to configure a connection. Click the edit icon in the More Connections screen to
display the following screen.
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Chapter 4 Broadband
Figure 16 Network Setting > Broadband > More Connections: Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 5 Network Setting > Broadband > More Connections: Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General
38
Active
Select the check box to activate or clear the check box to deactivate this connection.
Node Name
Enter a unique, descriptive name of up to 13 ASCII characters for this connection.
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Chapter 4 Broadband
Table 5 Network Setting > Broadband > More Connections: Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Mode
Select Router from the drop-down list box if your ISP allows multiple computers to share
an Internet account.
If you select Bridge, the Device will forward any packet that it does not route to this
remote node; otherwise, the packets are discarded.
Encapsulation
Select the method of encapsulation used by your ISP from the drop-down list box.
Choices vary depending on the mode you select in the Mode field.
If you select Router in the Mode field, select PPPoA, RFC 1483, ENET ENCAP or
PPPoE.
If you select Bridge in the Mode field, method of encapsulation is not available.
Multiplex
Select the method of multiplexing used by your ISP from the drop-down list. Choices are
VC or LLC.
By prior agreement, a protocol is assigned a specific virtual circuit, for example, VC1 will
carry IP. If you select VC, specify separate VPI and VCI numbers for each protocol.
For LLC-based multiplexing or PPP encapsulation, one VC carries multiple protocols with
protocol identifying information being contained in each packet header. In this case, only
one set of VPI and VCI numbers need be specified for all protocols.
IPv6/IPv4 Dual
Stack
If you select Enable, the Device can connect to IPv4 and IPv6 networks and choose the
protocol for applications according to the address type. If you select Disable, the Device
will operate in IPv4 mode.
VPI
The valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255. Enter the VPI assigned to you.
VCI
The valid range for the VCI is 32 to 65535 (0 to 31 is reserved for local management of
ATM traffic). Enter the VCI assigned to you.
IP Address
This option is available if you select Router in the Mode field.
A static IP address is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP address is not fixed;
the ISP assigns you a different one each time you connect to the Internet.
If you use the encapsulation type except RFC 1483, select Obtain an IP Address
Automatically when you have a dynamic IP address; otherwise select Static IP
Address and type your ISP assigned IP address in the IP Address field below.
If you use RFC 1483, enter the IP address given by your ISP in the IP Address field.
Subnet Mask
Enter a subnet mask in dotted decimal notation.
Gateway IP
Address
Specify a gateway IP address (supplied by your ISP).
Primary DNS
Enter the primary DNS server’s address for the Device.
Secondary
DNS
Enter the secondary DNS server’s address for the Device.
NAT
SUA Only is available only when you select Router in the Mode field.
Select SUA Only if you have one public IP address and want to use NAT. Otherwise, select
None to disable NAT.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Advanced Setup
Click this to display more fields in this screen to configure more details of your WAN
settings.
RIP & Multicast Setup
RIP Direction
Select the RIP Direction from None, Both, In Only and Out Only.
RIP Version
This field is not configurable if you select None in the RIP Direction field.
Select the RIP Version from RIP-1, RIP2-B and RIP2-M.
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Chapter 4 Broadband
Table 5 Network Setting > Broadband > More Connections: Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Multicast
Internet Group Multicast Protocol (IGMP) is a network-layer protocol used to establish
membership in a multicast group. The Device supports IGMP-v1, IGMP-v2 and IGMPv3. Select None to disable it.
ATM QoS
ATM QoS Type
Select CBR (Continuous Bit Rate) to specify fixed (always-on) bandwidth for voice or data
traffic. Select UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate) for applications that are non-time sensitive,
such as e-mail. Select nrtVBR (Variable Bit Rate-non Real Time) or rtVBR (Variable Bit
Rate-Real Time) for bursty traffic and bandwidth sharing with other applications.
Peak Cell Rate
Divide the DSL line rate (bps) by 424 (the size of an ATM cell) to find the Peak Cell Rate
(PCR). This is the maximum rate at which the sender can send cells. Type the PCR here.
Sustain Cell Rate
The Sustain Cell Rate (SCR) sets the average cell rate (long-term) that can be
transmitted. Type the SCR, which must be less than the PCR. Note that system default is
0 cells/sec.
Maximum Burst
Size
Maximum Burst Size (MBS) refers to the maximum number of cells that can be sent at
the peak rate. Type the MBS, which is less than 65535.
MTU
MTU
The Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) defines the size of the largest packet allowed on
an interface or connection. Enter the MTU in this field.
For ENET ENCAP, the MTU value is 1500.
For PPPoE, the MTU value is 1492.
For PPPoA and RFC, the MTU is 100-1500.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
4.4 The 3G Backup Screen
Use this screen to configure your 3G settings. Click Network Setting > Broadband > 3G
Backup.
Note: The actual data rate you obtain varies depending the 3G card you use, the signal
strength to the service provider’s base station, and so on.
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ericom D1000 modem User’s Guide
Chapter 4 Broadband
Figure 17 Network Setting > Broadband > 3G Backup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 6 Network Setting > Broadband > 3G Backup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General
3G Backup
Select Enable to have the Device use the 3G connection as your WAN or a backup when the
wired WAN connection fails.
Card
description
This field displays the manufacturer and model name of your 3G card if you inserted one in
the Device. Otherwise, it displays N/A.
Username
Type the user name (of up to 64 ASCII printable characters) given to you by your service
provider.
Password
Type the password (of up to 64 ASCII printable characters) associated with the user name
above.
PIN
A PIN (Personal Identification Number) code is a key to a 3G card. Without the PIN code,
you cannot use the 3G card.
If your ISP enabled PIN code authentication, enter the 4-digit PIN code (0000 for example)
provided by your ISP. If you enter the PIN code incorrectly, the 3G card may be blocked by
your ISP and you cannot use the account to access the Internet.
If your ISP disabled PIN code authentication, leave this field blank.
Dial string
Enter the phone number (dial string) used to dial up a connection to your service provider’s
base station. Your ISP should provide the phone number.
For example, *99# is the dial string to establish a GPRS or 3G connection in Taiwan.
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Chapter 4 Broadband
Table 6 Network Setting > Broadband > 3G Backup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
APN
Enter the APN (Access Point Name) provided by your service provider. Connections with
different APNs may provide different services (such as Internet access or MMS (Multi-Media
Messaging Service)) and charge method.
You can enter up to 32 ASCII printable characters. Spaces are allowed.
Obtain an IP
Address
Automatically
Select this option If your ISP did not assign you a fixed IP address.
Use the
following static
IP address
Select this option If the ISP assigned a fixed IP address.
IP Address
Enter your WAN IP address in this field if you selected Use the following static IP
address.
Obtain DNS
info
dynamically
Select this to have the Device get the DNS server addresses from the ISP automatically.
Use the
following static
DNS IP address
Select this to have the Device use the DNS server addresses you configure manually.
Primary DNS
server
Enter the first DNS server address assigned by the ISP.
Secondary DNS
server
Enter the second DNS server address assigned by the ISP.
Connection
Select Keep Alive if you do not want the connection to time out.
Select Connect on Demand if you do not want the connection up all the time and specify
an idle time-out in the Max Idle Timeout field.
Max Idle
Timeout
This value specifies the time in minutes that elapses before the Device automatically
disconnects from the ISP.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previous configuration.
4.5 WAN Technical Reference
This section provides some technical background information about the topics covered in this
chapter.
4.5.1 Encapsulation
Be sure to use the encapsulation method required by your ISP. The Device supports the following
methods.
4.5.1.1 ENET ENCAP
The MAC Encapsulated Routing Link Protocol (ENET ENCAP) is only implemented with the IP
network protocol. IP packets are routed between the Ethernet interface and the WAN interface and
then formatted so that they can be understood in a bridged environment. For instance, it
encapsulates routed Ethernet frames into bridged ATM cells. ENET ENCAP requires that you specify
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a gateway IP address in the Gateway IP Address field in the wizard or WAN screen. You can get
this information from your ISP.
4.5.1.2 PPP over Ethernet
The Device supports PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet). PPPoE is an IETF Draft standard
(RFC 2516) specifying how a personal computer (PC) interacts with a broadband modem (DSL,
cable, wireless, etc.) connection. The PPPoE option is for a dial-up connection using PPPoE.
For the service provider, PPPoE offers an access and authentication method that works with existing
access control systems (for example RADIUS).
One of the benefits of PPPoE is the ability to let you access one of multiple network services, a
function known as dynamic service selection. This enables the service provider to easily create and
offer new IP services for individuals.
Operationally, PPPoE saves significant effort for both you and the ISP or carrier, as it requires no
specific configuration of the broadband modem at the customer site.
By implementing PPPoE directly on the Device (rather than individual computers), the computers on
the LAN do not need PPPoE software installed, since the Device does that part of the task.
Furthermore, with NAT, all of the LANs’ computers will have access.
4.5.1.3 PPPoA
PPPoA stands for Point to Point Protocol over ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5). A PPPoA connection
functions like a dial-up Internet connection. The Device encapsulates the PPP session based on
RFC1483 and sends it through an ATM PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit) to the Internet Service
Provider’s (ISP) DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Access Multiplexer). Please refer to RFC 2364
for more information on PPPoA. Refer to RFC 1661 for more information on PPP.
4.5.1.4 RFC 1483
RFC 1483 describes two methods for Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5
(AAL5). The first method allows multiplexing of multiple protocols over a single ATM virtual circuit
(LLC-based multiplexing) and the second method assumes that each protocol is carried over a
separate ATM virtual circuit (VC-based multiplexing). Please refer to RFC 1483 for more detailed
information.
4.5.2 Multiplexing
There are two conventions to identify what protocols the virtual circuit (VC) is carrying. Be sure to
use the multiplexing method required by your ISP.
VC-based Multiplexing
In this case, by prior mutual agreement, each protocol is assigned to a specific virtual circuit; for
example, VC1 carries IP, etc. VC-based multiplexing may be dominant in environments where
dynamic creation of large numbers of ATM VCs is fast and economical.
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LLC-based Multiplexing
In this case one VC carries multiple protocols with protocol identifying information being contained
in each packet header. Despite the extra bandwidth and processing overhead, this method may be
advantageous if it is not practical to have a separate VC for each carried protocol, for example, if
charging heavily depends on the number of simultaneous VCs.
4.5.3 VPI and VCI
Be sure to use the correct Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI) numbers
assigned to you. The valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255 and for the VCI is 32 to 65535 (0 to 31 is
reserved for local management of ATM traffic). Please see the appendix for more information.
4.5.4 IP Address Assignment
A static IP is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP is not fixed; the ISP assigns you a
different one each time. The Single User Account feature can be enabled or disabled if you have
either a dynamic or static IP. However the encapsulation method assigned influences your choices
for IP address and ENET ENCAP gateway.
IP Assignment with PPPoA or PPPoE Encapsulation
If you have a dynamic IP, then the IP Address and Gateway IP Address fields are not applicable
(N/A). If you have a Static IP Address assigned by your ISP, then they should also assign you a
Subnet Mask and a Gateway IP Address.
IP Assignment with RFC 1483 Encapsulation
In this case the IP address assignment must be static.
IP Assignment with ENET ENCAP Encapsulation
In this case you can have either a static or dynamic IP. For a static IP you must fill in all the IP
Address and Gateway IP Address fields as supplied by your ISP. However for a dynamic IP, the
Device acts as a DHCP client on the WAN port and so the IP Address and Gateway IP Address
fields are not applicable (N/A) as the DHCP server assigns them to the Device.
4.5.5 Nailed-Up Connection (PPP)
A nailed-up connection is a dial-up line where the connection is always up regardless of traffic
demand. The Device does two things when you specify a nailed-up connection. The first is that idle
timeout is disabled. The second is that the Device will try to bring up the connection when turned
on and whenever the connection is down. A nailed-up connection can be very expensive for obvious
reasons.
Do not specify a nailed-up connection unless your telephone company offers flat-rate service or you
need a constant connection and the cost is of no concern.
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4.5.6 NAT
NAT (Network Address Translation - NAT, RFC 1631) is the translation of the IP address of a host in
a packet, for example, the source address of an outgoing packet, used within one network to a
different IP address known within another network.
4.6 Traffic Shaping
Traffic Shaping is an agreement between the carrier and the subscriber to regulate the average rate
and fluctuations of data transmission over an ATM network. This agreement helps eliminate
congestion, which is important for transmission of real time data such as audio and video
connections.
Peak Cell Rate (PCR) is the maximum rate at which the sender can send cells. This parameter may
be lower (but not higher) than the maximum line speed. 1 ATM cell is 53 bytes (424 bits), so a
maximum speed of 832Kbps gives a maximum PCR of 1962 cells/sec. This rate is not guaranteed
because it is dependent on the line speed.
Sustained Cell Rate (SCR) is the mean cell rate of each bursty traffic source. It specifies the
maximum average rate at which cells can be sent over the virtual connection. SCR may not be
greater than the PCR.
Maximum Burst Size (MBS) is the maximum number of cells that can be sent at the PCR. After MBS
is reached, cell rates fall below SCR until cell rate averages to the SCR again. At this time, more
cells (up to the MBS) can be sent at the PCR again.
If the PCR, SCR or MBS is set to the default of "0", the system will assign a maximum value that
correlates to your upstream line rate.
The following figure illustrates the relationship between PCR, SCR and MBS.
Figure 18 Example of Traffic Shaping
4.6.1 ATM Traffic Classes
These are the basic ATM traffic classes defined by the ATM Forum Traffic Management 4.0
Specification.
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Constant Bit Rate (CBR)
Constant Bit Rate (CBR) provides fixed bandwidth that is always available even if no data is being
sent. CBR traffic is generally time-sensitive (doesn't tolerate delay). CBR is used for connections
that continuously require a specific amount of bandwidth. A PCR is specified and if traffic exceeds
this rate, cells may be dropped. Examples of connections that need CBR would be high-resolution
video and voice.
Variable Bit Rate (VBR)
The Variable Bit Rate (VBR) ATM traffic class is used with bursty connections. Connections that use
the Variable Bit Rate (VBR) traffic class can be grouped into real time (VBR-RT) or non-real time
(VBR-nRT) connections.
The VBR-RT (real-time Variable Bit Rate) type is used with bursty connections that require closely
controlled delay and delay variation. It also provides a fixed amount of bandwidth (a PCR is
specified) but is only available when data is being sent. An example of an VBR-RT connection would
be video conferencing. Video conferencing requires real-time data transfers and the bandwidth
requirement varies in proportion to the video image's changing dynamics.
The VBR-nRT (non real-time Variable Bit Rate) type is used with bursty connections that do not
require closely controlled delay and delay variation. It is commonly used for "bursty" traffic typical
on LANs. PCR and MBS define the burst levels, SCR defines the minimum level. An example of an
VBR-nRT connection would be non-time sensitive data file transfers.
Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR)
The Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) ATM traffic class is for bursty data transfers. However, UBR doesn't
guarantee any bandwidth and only delivers traffic when the network has spare bandwidth. An
example application is background file transfer.
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C HAPT ER
5
Wireless LAN
5.1 Overview
This chapter describes how to perform tasks related to setting up and optimizing your wireless
network, including the following.
• Turning the wireless connection on or off.
• Configuring a name, wireless channel and security for the network.
• Using WiFi Protected Setup (WPS) to configure your wireless network.
• Setting up multiple wireless networks.
• Using a MAC (Media Access Control) address filter to restrict access to the wireless network.
• Performing other performance-related wireless tasks.
5.1.1 What You Can Do in the Wireless LAN Screens
This section describes the Device’s Network Setting > Wireless screens. Use these screens to set
up your Device’s wireless connection.
• Use the General screen to enable the Wireless LAN, enter the SSID and select the wireless
security mode (Section 5.2 on page 48).
• Use the More AP screen (see Section 5.3 on page 54) to set up multiple wireless networks on
your Device.
• Use the MAC Authentication screen to allow or deny wireless clients based on their MAC
addresses from connecting to the Device (Section 5.4 on page 56).
• Use the WPS screen (see Section 5.5 on page 57) to enable or disable WPS, generate a security
PIN (Personal Identification Number) and see information about the Device’s WPS status.
• Use the WDS screen (see Section 5.6 on page 59) to set up a Wireless Distribution System, in
which the Device acts as a bridge with other access points.
• Use the WMM screen to enable Wi-Fi MultiMedia (WMM) to ensure quality of service in wireless
networks for multimedia applications (Section 5.7 on page 60).
• Use the Scheduling screen (see Section 5.8 on page 60) to configure the dates/times to enable
or disable the wireless LAN.
• Use the Advanced screen to configure wireless advanced features (Section 5.9 on page 61).
You don’t necessarily need to use all these screens to set up your wireless connection. For example,
you may just want to set up a network name, a wireless radio channel and security in the General
screen.
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5.1.2 What You Need to Know About Wireless
Wireless Basics
“Wireless” is essentially radio communication. In the same way that walkie-talkie radios send and
receive information over the airwaves, wireless networking devices exchange information with one
another. A wireless networking device is just like a radio that lets your computer exchange
information with radios attached to other computers. Like walkie-talkies, most wireless networking
devices operate at radio frequency bands that are open to the public and do not require a license to
use. However, wireless networking is different from that of most traditional radio communications in
that there a number of wireless networking standards available with different methods of data
encryption.
Finding Out More
See Section 5.10 on page 63 for advanced technical information on wireless networks.
5.1.3 Before You Start
Before you start using these screens, ask yourself the following questions. See Section 5.1.2 on
page 48 if some of the terms used here are not familiar to you.
• What wireless standards do the other wireless devices in your network support (IEEE 802.11g,
for example)? What is the most appropriate standard to use?
• What security options do the other wireless devices in your network support (WPA-PSK, for
example)? What is the strongest security option supported by all the devices in your network?
• Do the other wireless devices in your network support WPS (Wi-Fi Protected Setup)? If so, you
can set up a well-secured network very easily.
Even if some of your devices support WPS and some do not, you can use WPS to set up your
network and then add the non-WPS devices manually, although this is somewhat more
complicated to do.
• What advanced options do you want to configure, if any? If you want to configure advanced
options such as Quality of Service, ensure that you know precisely what you want to do. If you do
not want to configure advanced options, leave them as they are.
5.2 The General Screen
Use this screen to enable the Wireless LAN, enter the SSID and select the wireless security mode.
Note: If you are configuring the Device from a computer connected to the wireless LAN
and you change the Device’s SSID, channel or security settings, you will lose your
wireless connection when you press Apply to confirm. You must then change the
wireless settings of your computer to match the Device’s new settings.
Click Network Setting > Wireless to open the General screen.
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Figure 19 Network Setting > Wireless > General
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 7 Network Setting > Wireless > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Network Setup
Wireless
Select Enable Wireless LAN to activate wireless LAN.
Wireless Network Settings
Wireless
Network Name
(SSID)
The SSID (Service Set IDentity) identifies the service set with which a wireless device is
associated. Wireless devices associating to the access point (AP) must have the same
SSID.
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 English keyboard characters) for the wireless LAN.
Hide SSID
Select this check box to hide the SSID in the outgoing beacon frame so a station cannot
obtain the SSID through scanning using a site survey tool.
Client Isolation
Select this to keep the wireless clients in this SSID from communicating with each other
through the Device.
MBSSID/LAN
Isolation
Select this to keep the wireless clients in this SSID from communicating with clients in
other SSIDs or wired LAN devices through the Device.
Select both Client Isolation and MBSSID/LAN Isolation to allow this SSID’s wireless
clients to only connect to the Internet through the Device.
Channel
Selection
Set the operating channel manually by selecting a channel from the Channel Selection
list or use Auto to have it automatically determine a channel to use.
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Table 7 Network Setting > Wireless > General (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Operating
Channel
This field displays the channel the Device is currently using.
Security Level
Security Mode
Select Basic (WEP) or More Secure (WPA(2)-PSK, WPA(2)) to add security on this
wireless network. The wireless clients which want to associate to this network must have
same wireless security settings as the Device. When you select to use a security, additional
options appears in this screen.
Or you can select No Security to allow any client to associate this network without any
data encryption or authentication.
See the following sections for more details about this field.
WPS/WiFi
Button
Select the checkbox to enable the WPS/WiFi button.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
5.2.1 No Security
Select No Security to allow wireless stations to communicate with the access points without any
data encryption or authentication.
Note: If you do not enable any wireless security on your Device, your network is
accessible to any wireless networking device that is within range.
Figure 20 Wireless > General: No Security
5.2.2 Basic (WEP Encryption)
WEP encryption scrambles the data transmitted between the wireless stations and the access points
(AP) to keep network communications private. Both the wireless stations and the access points
must use the same WEP key.
Note: WEP is extremely insecure. Its encryption can be broken by an attacker, using
widely-available software. It is strongly recommended that you use a more
effective security mechanism. Use the strongest security mechanism that all the
wireless devices in your network support. For example, use WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK
if all your wireless devices support it, or use WPA or WPA2 if your wireless devices
support it and you have a RADIUS server. If your wireless devices support nothing
stronger than WEP, use the highest encryption level available.
Your Device allows you to configure one 64-bit or 128-bit WEP key.
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In order to configure and enable WEP encryption, click Network Setting > Wireless to display the
General screen, then select Basic as the security level.
Figure 21 Wireless > General: Basic (WEP)
The following table describes the wireless LAN security labels in this screen.
Table 8 Wireless > General: Basic (WEP)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security Level
Select Basic to enable WEP data encryption.
Generate
password
automatically
Select this option to have the Device automatically generate a password. The password
field will not be configurable when you select this option.
Password
The password (WEP key) are used to encrypt data. Both the Device and the wireless
stations must use the same password (WEP key) for data transmission.
If you chose 64-bit WEP, then enter any 5 ASCII characters or 10 hexadecimal characters
("0-9", "A-F").
If you chose 128-bit WEP, then enter 13 ASCII characters or 26 hexadecimal characters
("0-9", "A-F").
WEP Encryption
Select 64-bits or 128-bits.
This dictates the length of the security key that the network is going to use.
5.2.3 More Secure (WPA(2)-PSK)
The WPA-PSK security mode provides both improved data encryption and user authentication over
WEP. Using a Pre-Shared Key (PSK), both the Device and the connecting client share a common
password in order to validate the connection. This type of encryption, while robust, is not as strong
as WPA, WPA2 or even WPA2-PSK. The WPA2-PSK security mode is a newer, more robust version of
the WPA encryption standard. It offers slightly better security, although the use of PSK makes it
less robust than it could be.
Click Network Setting > Wireless to display the General screen. Select More Secure as the
security level. Then select WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK from the Security Mode list.
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Figure 22 Wireless > General: More Secure: WPA(2)-PSK
The following table describes the wireless LAN security labels in this screen.
Table 9 Wireless > General: More Secure: WPA(2)-PSK
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security Level
Select More Secure to enable WPA(2)-PSK data encryption.
Security Mode
Select WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK from the drop-down list box.
Pre-Shared Key
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA(2) and WPA(2)-PSK are the same. The only
difference between the two is that WPA(2)-PSK uses a simple common password,
instead of user-specific credentials.
Type a pre-shared key from 8 to 63 case-sensitive keyboard characters.
more.../hide more
Click more... to show more fields in this section. Click hide more to hide them.
WPA-PSK Compatible
This field appears when you choose WPA-PSK2 as the Security Mode.
Select Enable to allow wireless devices using WPA-PSK security mode to connect to
your Device. The Device supports WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK simultaneously. Otherwise,
select Disable.
Group Key Update
Timer
The Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the RADIUS server sends a new
group key out to all clients.
Encryption
This field displays the encryption type for data encryption.
If you choose WPA-PSK as the security mode, the Device uses TKIP for data
encryption.
If you choose WPA2-PSK as the security mode and enable WPA-PSK Compatible, the
Device uses either TKIP and AES (TKIPAES MIX) for data encryption.
If you choose WPA2-PSK as the security mode but disable WPA-PSK Compatible, the
Device uses AES for data encryption.
5.2.4 WPA(2) Authentication
The WPA2 security mode is currently the most robust form of encryption for wireless networks. It
requires a RADIUS server to authenticate user credentials and is a full implementation the security
protocol. Use this security option for maximum protection of your network. However, it is the least
backwards compatible with older devices.
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The WPA security mode is a security subset of WPA2. It requires the presence of a RADIUS server
on your network in order to validate user credentials. This encryption standard is slightly older than
WPA2 and therefore is more compatible with older devices.
Click Network Setting > Wireless to display the General screen. Select More Secure as the
security level. Then select WPA or WPA2 from the Security Mode list.
Figure 23 Wireless > General: More Secure: WPA(2)
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 10 Wireless > General: More Secure: WPA(2)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security Level
Select More Secure to enable WPA(2) data encryption.
Security Mode
Choose WPA or WPA2 from the drop-down list box.
Authentication Server
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the external authentication server in dotted decimal notation.
Port Number
Enter the port number of the external authentication server.
You need not change this value unless your network administrator instructs you to do
so with additional information.
Shared Secret
Enter a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be shared between
the external authentication server and the Device.
The key must be the same on the external authentication server and your Device. The
key is not sent over the network.
more.../hide more
Click more... to show more fields in this section. Click hide more to hide them.
ReAuthentication
Timer
Enter how often the external authentication server requires a connected wireless client
to reauthenticate itself to the server again.
Network Re-auth
Interval
Specify how often wireless stations have to resend usernames and passwords in order
to stay connected.
This field is available only when you select WPA2 as security mode. If wireless station
authentication is done using a RADIUS server, the reauthentication timer on the
RADIUS server has priority.
WPA Compatible
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This field is only available for WPA2. Select this if you want the Device to support WPA
and WPA2 simultaneously.
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Table 10 Wireless > General: More Secure: WPA(2) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Group Key Update
Timer
The Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the RADIUS server sends a new
group key out to all clients.
Encryption
Select the encryption type for data encryption.
If you choose WPA as the security mode, the Device uses TKIP for data encryption.
If you choose WPA2 as the security mode and enable WPA-PSK Compatible, the
Device uses either TKIP and AES (TKIPAES MIX) for data encryption.
If you choose WPA2 as the security mode but disable WPA-PSK Compatible, the
Device uses AES for data encryption.
5.3 The More AP Screen
This screen allows you to enable and configure multiple Basic Service Sets (BSSs) on the Device.
Click Network Setting > Wireless > More AP. The following screen displays.
Figure 24 Network Seting > Wireless > More AP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 11 Network Setting > Wireless > More AP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of each SSID profile.
Active
This field indicates whether this SSID is active. A yellow bulb signifies that this SSID is active. A
gray bulb signifies that this SSID is not active.
SSID
An SSID profile is the set of parameters relating to one of the Device’s BSSs. The SSID (Service
Set IDentifier) identifies the Service Set with which a wireless device is associated.
This field displays the name of the wireless profile on the network. When a wireless client scans for
an AP to associate with, this is the name that is broadcast and seen in the wireless client utility.
Security
This field indicates the security mode of the SSID profile.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to configure the SSID profile.
5.3.1 More AP Edit
Use this screen to edit an SSID profile. Click the Edit icon next to an SSID in the More AP screen.
The following screen displays.
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Figure 25 More AP: Edit
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 12 More AP: Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Network Setup
Wireless
Select Enable Wireless LAN to activate wireless LAN.
Wireless Network Settings
Wireless Network Name
(SSID)
The SSID (Service Set IDentity) identifies the service set with which a wireless
device is associated. Wireless devices associating to the access point (AP) must
have the same SSID.
Enter a descriptive name (up to 32 English keyboard characters) for the wireless
LAN.
Hide SSID
Select this check box to hide the SSID in the outgoing beacon frame so a station
cannot obtain the SSID through scanning using a site survey tool.
Client Isolation
Select this to keep the wireless clients in this SSID from communicating with each
other through the Device.
MBSSID/LAN Isolation
Select this to keep the wireless clients in this SSID from communicating with clients
in other SSIDs or wired LAN devices through the Device.
Select both Client Isolation and MBSSID/LAN Isolation to allow this SSID’s
wireless clients to only connect to the Internet through the Device.
Security Level
Security Mode
Select Basic (WEP) or More Secure (WPA(2)-PSK, WPA(2)) to add security on
this wireless network. The wireless clients which want to associate to this network
must have same wireless security settings as the Device. After you select to use a
security, additional options appears in this screen.
Or you can select No Security to allow any client to associate this network without
any data encryption or authentication.
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Table 12 More AP: Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
OK
Click OK to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
5.4 The MAC Authentication Screen
This screen allows you to configure the Device to give exclusive access to specific devices (Allow)
or exclude specific devices from accessing the Device (Deny). Every Ethernet device has a unique
MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC address is assigned at the factory and consists of six
pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example, 00:A0:C5:00:00:02. You need to know the MAC
addresses of the devices to configure this screen.
Use this screen to view your Device’s MAC filter settings and add new MAC filter rules. Click
Network Setting > Wireless > MAC Authentication. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 26 Network Setting > Wireless > MAC Authentication
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13 Network Setting > Wireless > MAC Authentication
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
SSID
Select the SSID for which you want to configure MAC filter settings.
MAC Restrict
Mode
Define the filter action for the list of MAC addresses in the MAC Address table.
Select Disable to turn off MAC filtering.
Select Allow to permit access to the Device. MAC addresses not listed will be denied access
to the Device.
Select Deny to block access to the Device. MAC addresses not listed will be allowed to access
the Device.
MAC address List
Add new MAC
address
56
Click this if you want to add a new MAC address entry to the MAC filter list below.
Enter the MAC addresses of the wireless devices that are allowed or denied access to the
Device in these address fields. Enter the MAC addresses in a valid MAC address format, that
is, six hexadecimal character pairs, for example, 12:34:56:78:9a:bc.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
MAC Address
This is the MAC addresses of the wireless devices that are allowed or denied access to the
Device.
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Table 13 Network Setting > Wireless > MAC Authentication (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Modify
Click the Delete icon to delete the entry.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
5.5 The WPS Screen
Use this screen to configure WiFi Protected Setup (WPS) on your Device.
WPS allows you to quickly set up a wireless network with strong security, without having to
configure security settings manually. Set up each WPS connection between two devices. Both
devices must support WPS. See Section 5.10.8.3 on page 71 for more information about WPS.
Note: The Device applies the security settings configured in the General screen (see
Section 5.2 on page 48). If you want to use the WPS feature, make sure you have
set the security mode to WPA-PSK, WPA2-PSK or No Security.
Click Network Setting > Wireless > WPS. The following screen displays. Select Enable and click
Apply to activate the WPS function. Then you can configure the WPS settings in this screen.
Figure 27 Network Setting > Wireless > WPS
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 14 Network Setting > Wireless > WPS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General
WPS
Select Enable to activate WPS on the Device. Otherwise, select Disable to deactivate
WPS.
Add a new device with WPS Method
Method 1 PBC
WPS
Use this section to set up a WPS wireless network using Push Button Configuration
(PBC).
Click this button to add another WPS-enabled wireless device (within wireless range of
the Device) to your wireless network. This button may either be a physical button on the
outside of device, or a menu button similar to the WPS button on this screen.
Note: You must press the other wireless device’s WPS button within two minutes of
pressing this button.
Method 2 PIN
Register
Use this section to set up a WPS wireless network by entering the PIN of the client into
the Device.
Enter the PIN of the device that you are setting up a WPS connection with and click
Register to authenticate and add the wireless device to your wireless network.
You can find the PIN either on the outside of the device, or by checking the device’s
settings.
Note: You must also activate WPS on that device within two minutes to have it present its
PIN to the Device.
WPS Configuration Summary
AP PIN
The PIN (Personal Identification Number) of the Device is shown here. Enter this PIN in
the configuration utility of the device you want to connect to using WPS.
The PIN is not necessary when you use WPS push-button method.
Click the Generate New PIN button to have the Device create a new PIN.
Status
This displays Configured when the Device has connected to a wireless network using
WPS or Enable WPS is selected and wireless or wireless security settings have been
changed. The current wireless and wireless security settings also appear in the screen.
This displays Unconfigured if WPS is disabled and there is no wireless or wireless
security changes on the Device or you click Release Configuration to remove the
configured wireless and wireless security settings.
Release
Configuration
58
The default WPS status is Configured.
Click this button to remove all configured wireless and wireless security settings for WPS
connections on the Device.
802.11 Mode
This field displays the Device’s wireless mode that only allows the compliant WLAN
devices to associate with it.
SSID
This field displays the SSID the Device is currently using.
Security
This field displays the security mode the Device is currently using.
Pre-Shared Key
This field displays the pre-shared key the Device uses when the security mode is set to
WPA(2)-PSK.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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5.6 The WDS Screen
An AP using the Wireless Distribution System (WDS) can function as a wireless network bridge
allowing you to wirelessly connect wired network segments. The WDS screen allows you to
configure the Device to connect to other APs wirelessly when WDS is enabled.
Use this screen to set up your WDS (Wireless Distribution System) links between the Device and
other wireless APs. You need to know the MAC address of the peer device. Once the security
settings of peer sides match one another, the connection between devices is made.
Note: WDS security is independent of the security settings between the Device and any
wireless clients.
Note: Not all APs support WDS links. Check your other AP’s documentation.
Click Network Setting > Wireless > WDS. The following screen displays.
Figure 28 Network Setting > Wireless > WDS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 15 Network Setting > Wireless > WDS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WDS Security
Select the type of the key used to encrypt data between APs. All the wireless APs
(including the Device) must use the same pre-shared key for data transmission.
The option is available only when you set the security mode to WPA(2) or WPA(2)PSK in the Wireless > General screen.
TKIP
Select this to use TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) encryption.
AES
Select this to use AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) encryption.
#
This is the index number of the individual WDS link.
Active
Select this to activate the link between the Device and the peer device to which this
entry refers. When you do not select the check box this link is down.
Remote Bridge
MAC Address
Type the MAC address of the peer device in a valid MAC address format (six hexadecimal
character pairs, for example 12:34:56:78:9a:bc).
PSK
Enter a Pre-Shared Key (PSK) from 8 to 63 case-sensitive ASCII characters (including
spaces and symbols).
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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5.7 The WMM Screen
Currently, the Wi-Fi MultiMedia (WMM) feauture of SSID1-4 is enabled and this screen is read-only.
Click Network Setting > Wireless > WMM. The following screen displays.
Figure 29 Network Setting > Wireless > WMM
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 16 Network Setting > Wireless > WMM
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable WMM of
SSID1~4
Determine whether to have the Device automatically give a service a priority level
according to the ToS value in the IP header of packets it sends for a wireless network.
WMM QoS (Wifi MultiMedia Quality of Service) gives high priority to voice and video,
which makes them run more smoothly.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
5.8 The Scheduling Screen
Use the wireless LAN scheduling to configure the days you want to enable or disable the wireless
LAN. Click Network Setting > Wireless > Scheduling. The following screen displays.
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Figure 30 Network Setting > Wireless > Scheduling
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 17 Network Setting > Wireless > Scheduling
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless LAN
Scheduling
Select Enable or Disable to activate or deactivate wireless LAN scheduling on your
Device.
State
Select On or Off to enable or disable the wireless LAN.
Day
Check the day(s) you want to turn the wireless LAN on or off.
Time (24-Hour
Format)
Specify a time frame during which the schedule would apply.
For example, if you set the time range from 12:00 to 23:00, the wireless LAN will be
turned on only during this time period.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
5.9 The Advanced Screen
Use this screen to configure advanced wireless settings. Click Network Setting > Wireless >
Advanced, the screen appears as shown.
See Section 5.10.2 on page 64 for detailed definitions of the terms listed in this screen.
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Figure 31 Network Setting > Wireless> Advanced
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 18 Network Setting > Wireless> Advanced
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Fragmentation
Threshold
This is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter a value between 256 and
2346.
Output Power
Set the output power of the Device. If there is a high density of APs in an area, decrease
the output power to reduce interference with other APs. Select one of the following:
100%, 75%, 50% or 25%.
Preamble
Select a preamble type from the drop-down list menu. Choices are Long or Short.
802.11 Mode
Select 802.11b Only to allow only IEEE 802.11b compliant WLAN devices to associate
with the Device.
Select 802.11g Only to allow only IEEE 802.11g compliant WLAN devices to associate
with the Device.
Select 802.11b+g to allow either IEEE 802.11b or IEEE 802.11g compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the Device. The transmission rate of your Device might be
reduced.
Select 802.11n to allow only IEEE 802.11n compliant WLAN devices to associate with the
Device.
Select 802.11g+n to allow either IEEE 802.11g or IEEE 802.11n compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the Device. The transmission rate of your Device might be
reduced.
Select 802.11b+g+n to allow IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g or IEEE802.11n compliant
WLAN devices to associate with the Device. The transmission rate of your Device might
be reduced.
Channel Width
Select whether the Device uses a wireless channel width of 20MHz or Auto. If Auto is
selected, the Device will use 40MHz if it is supported.
A standard 20MHz channel offers transfer speeds of up to 150Mbps whereas a 40MHz
channel uses two standard channels and offers speeds of up to 300 Mbps.
40MHz (channel bonding or dual channel) bonds two adjacent radio channels to increase
throughput. The wireless clients must also support 40 MHz. It is often better to use the 20
MHz setting in a location where the environment hinders the wireless signal.
Select 20MHz if you want to lessen radio interference with other wireless devices in your
neighborhood or the wireless clients do not support channel bonding.
This field is available only when you set the 802.11 Mode to 802.11n or 802.11b+g+n
in the Advanced Setup screen.
62
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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5.10 Wireless LAN Technical Reference
This section discusses wireless LANs in depth. For more information, see the appendix.
5.10.1 Wireless Network Overview
Wireless networks consist of wireless clients, access points and bridges.
• A wireless client is a radio connected to a user’s computer.
• An access point is a radio with a wired connection to a network, which can connect with
numerous wireless clients and let them access the network.
• A bridge is a radio that relays communications between access points and wireless clients,
extending a network’s range.
Traditionally, a wireless network operates in one of two ways.
• An “infrastructure” type of network has one or more access points and one or more wireless
clients. The wireless clients connect to the access points.
• An “ad-hoc” type of network is one in which there is no access point. Wireless clients connect to
one another in order to exchange information.
The following figure provides an example of a wireless network.
Figure 32 Example of a Wireless Network
The wireless network is the part in the blue circle. In this wireless network, devices A and B use the
access point (AP) to interact with the other devices (such as the printer) or with the Internet. Your
Device is the AP.
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Every wireless network must follow these basic guidelines.
• Every device in the same wireless network must use the same SSID.
The SSID is the name of the wireless network. It stands for Service Set IDentifier.
• If two wireless networks overlap, they should use a different channel.
Like radio stations or television channels, each wireless network uses a specific channel, or
frequency, to send and receive information.
• Every device in the same wireless network must use security compatible with the AP.
Security stops unauthorized devices from using the wireless network. It can also protect the
information that is sent in the wireless network.
Radio Channels
In the radio spectrum, there are certain frequency bands allocated for unlicensed, civilian use. For
the purposes of wireless networking, these bands are divided into numerous channels. This allows a
variety of networks to exist in the same place without interfering with one another. When you
create a network, you must select a channel to use.
Since the available unlicensed spectrum varies from one country to another, the number of
available channels also varies.
5.10.2 Additional Wireless Terms
The following table describes some wireless network terms and acronyms used in the Device’s Web
Configurator.
Table 19 Additional Wireless Terms
TERM
DESCRIPTION
Preamble
A preamble affects the timing in your wireless network. There are two preamble
modes: long and short. If a device uses a different preamble mode than the Device
does, it cannot communicate with the Device.
Authentication
The process of verifying whether a wireless device is allowed to use the wireless
network.
Fragmentation
Threshold
A small fragmentation threshold is recommended for busy networks, while a larger
threshold provides faster performance if the network is not very busy.
5.10.3 Wireless Security Overview
By their nature, radio communications are simple to intercept. For wireless data networks, this
means that anyone within range of a wireless network without security can not only read the data
passing over the airwaves, but also join the network. Once an unauthorized person has access to
the network, he or she can steal information or introduce malware (malicious software) intended to
compromise the network. For these reasons, a variety of security systems have been developed to
ensure that only authorized people can use a wireless data network, or understand the data carried
on it.
These security standards do two things. First, they authenticate. This means that only people
presenting the right credentials (often a username and password, or a “key” phrase) can access the
network. Second, they encrypt. This means that the information sent over the air is encoded. Only
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people with the code key can understand the information, and only people who have been
authenticated are given the code key.
These security standards vary in effectiveness. Some can be broken, such as the old Wired
Equivalent Protocol (WEP). Using WEP is better than using no security at all, but it will not keep a
determined attacker out. Other security standards are secure in themselves but can be broken if a
user does not use them properly. For example, the WPA-PSK security standard is very secure if you
use a long key which is difficult for an attacker’s software to guess - for example, a twenty-letter
long string of apparently random numbers and letters - but it is not very secure if you use a short
key which is very easy to guess - for example, a three-letter word from the dictionary.
Because of the damage that can be done by a malicious attacker, it’s not just people who have
sensitive information on their network who should use security. Everybody who uses any wireless
network should ensure that effective security is in place.
A good way to come up with effective security keys, passwords and so on is to use obscure
information that you personally will easily remember, and to enter it in a way that appears random
and does not include real words. For example, if your mother owns a 1970 Dodge Challenger and
her favorite movie is Vanishing Point (which you know was made in 1971) you could use
“70dodchal71vanpoi” as your security key.
The following sections introduce different types of wireless security you can set up in the wireless
network.
5.10.3.1 SSID
Normally, the Device acts like a beacon and regularly broadcasts the SSID in the area. You can hide
the SSID instead, in which case the Device does not broadcast the SSID. In addition, you should
change the default SSID to something that is difficult to guess.
This type of security is fairly weak, however, because there are ways for unauthorized wireless
devices to get the SSID. In addition, unauthorized wireless devices can still see the information that
is sent in the wireless network.
5.10.3.2 MAC Address Filter
Every device that can use a wireless network has a unique identification number, called a MAC
address.1 A MAC address is usually written using twelve hexadecimal characters2; for example,
00A0C5000002 or 00:A0:C5:00:00:02. To get the MAC address for each device in the wireless
network, see the device’s User’s Guide or other documentation.
You can use the MAC address filter to tell the Device which devices are allowed or not allowed to
use the wireless network. If a device is allowed to use the wireless network, it still has to have the
correct information (SSID, channel, and security). If a device is not allowed to use the wireless
network, it does not matter if it has the correct information.
This type of security does not protect the information that is sent in the wireless network.
Furthermore, there are ways for unauthorized wireless devices to get the MAC address of an
authorized device. Then, they can use that MAC address to use the wireless network.
1.
Some wireless devices, such as scanners, can detect wireless networks but cannot use wireless networks. These kinds
of wireless devices might not have MAC addresses.
2.
Hexadecimal characters are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F.
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5.10.3.3 User Authentication
Authentication is the process of verifying whether a wireless device is allowed to use the wireless
network. You can make every user log in to the wireless network before using it. However, every
device in the wireless network has to support IEEE 802.1x to do this.
For wireless networks, you can store the user names and passwords for each user in a RADIUS
server. This is a server used in businesses more than in homes. If you do not have a RADIUS server,
you cannot set up user names and passwords for your users.
Unauthorized wireless devices can still see the information that is sent in the wireless network,
even if they cannot use the wireless network. Furthermore, there are ways for unauthorized
wireless users to get a valid user name and password. Then, they can use that user name and
password to use the wireless network.
5.10.3.4 Encryption
Wireless networks can use encryption to protect the information that is sent in the wireless
network. Encryption is like a secret code. If you do not know the secret code, you cannot
understand the message.
The types of encryption you can choose depend on the type of authentication. (See Section
5.10.3.3 on page 66 for information about this.)
Table 20 Types of Encryption for Each Type of Authentication
Weakest
No Authentication
RADIUS Server
No Security
WPA
Static WEP
WPA-PSK
Strongest
WPA2-PSK
WPA2
For example, if the wireless network has a RADIUS server, you can choose WPA or WPA2. If users
do not log in to the wireless network, you can choose no encryption, Static WEP, WPA-PSK, or
WPA2-PSK.
Usually, you should set up the strongest encryption that every device in the wireless network
supports. For example, suppose you have a wireless network with the Device and you do not have
a RADIUS server. Therefore, there is no authentication. Suppose the wireless network has two
devices. Device A only supports WEP, and device B supports WEP and WPA-PSK. Therefore, you
should set up Static WEP in the wireless network.
Note: It is recommended that wireless networks use WPA-PSK, WPA, or stronger
encryption. The other types of encryption are better than none at all, but it is still
possible for unauthorized wireless devices to figure out the original information
pretty quickly.
When you select WPA2 or WPA2-PSK in your Device, you can also select an option (WPA
compatible) to support WPA as well. In this case, if some of the devices support WPA and some
support WPA2, you should set up WPA2-PSK or WPA2 (depending on the type of wireless network
login) and select the WPA compatible option in the Device.
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Many types of encryption use a key to protect the information in the wireless network. The longer
the key, the stronger the encryption. Every device in the wireless network must have the same key.
5.10.4 Signal Problems
Because wireless networks are radio networks, their signals are subject to limitations of distance,
interference and absorption.
Problems with distance occur when the two radios are too far apart. Problems with interference
occur when other radio waves interrupt the data signal. Interference may come from other radio
transmissions, such as military or air traffic control communications, or from machines that are
coincidental emitters such as electric motors or microwaves. Problems with absorption occur when
physical objects (such as thick walls) are between the two radios, muffling the signal.
5.10.5 BSS
A Basic Service Set (BSS) exists when all communications between wireless stations or between a
wireless station and a wired network client go through one access point (AP).
Intra-BSS traffic is traffic between wireless stations in the BSS. When Intra-BSS traffic blocking is
disabled, wireless station A and B can access the wired network and communicate with each other.
When Intra-BSS traffic blocking is enabled, wireless station A and B can still access the wired
network but cannot communicate with each other.
Figure 33 Basic Service set
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5.10.6 MBSSID
Traditionally, you need to use different APs to configure different Basic Service Sets (BSSs). As well
as the cost of buying extra APs, there is also the possibility of channel interference. The Device’s
MBSSID (Multiple Basic Service Set IDentifier) function allows you to use one access point to
provide several BSSs simultaneously. You can then assign varying QoS priorities and/or security
modes to different SSIDs.
Wireless devices can use different BSSIDs to associate with the same AP.
5.10.6.1 Notes on Multiple BSSs
• A maximum of eight BSSs are allowed on one AP simultaneously.
• You must use different keys for different BSSs. If two wireless devices have different BSSIDs
(they are in different BSSs), but have the same keys, they may hear each other’s
communications (but not communicate with each other).
• MBSSID should not replace but rather be used in conjunction with 802.1x security.
5.10.7 Wireless Distribution System (WDS)
The Device can act as a wireless network bridge and establish WDS (Wireless Distribution System)
links with other APs. You need to know the MAC addresses of the APs you want to link to. Once the
security settings of peer sides match one another, the connection between devices is made.
At the time of writing, WDS security is not compatible with all access points. Refer to your other
access point’s documentation for details.
The following figure illustrates how WDS link works between APs. Notebook computer A is a
wireless client connecting to access point AP 1. AP 1 has no wired Internet connection, but it can
establish a WDS link with access point AP 2, which has a wired Internet connection. When AP 1
has a WDS link with AP 2, the notebook computer can access the Internet through AP 2.
Figure 34 WDS Link Example
WDS
A
AP 1
AP 2
5.10.8 WiFi Protected Setup (WPS)
Your Device supports WiFi Protected Setup (WPS), which is an easy way to set up a secure wireless
network. WPS is an industry standard specification, defined by the WiFi Alliance.
WPS allows you to quickly set up a wireless network with strong security, without having to
configure security settings manually. Each WPS connection works between two devices. Both
devices must support WPS (check each device’s documentation to make sure).
Depending on the devices you have, you can either press a button (on the device itself, or in its
configuration utility) or enter a PIN (a unique Personal Identification Number that allows one device
to authenticate the other) in each of the two devices. When WPS is activated on a device, it has two
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minutes to find another device that also has WPS activated. Then, the two devices connect and set
up a secure network by themselves.
5.10.8.1 Push Button Configuration
WPS Push Button Configuration (PBC) is initiated by pressing a button on each WPS-enabled
device, and allowing them to connect automatically. You do not need to enter any information.
Not every WPS-enabled device has a physical WPS button. Some may have a WPS PBC button in
their configuration utilities instead of or in addition to the physical button.
Take the following steps to set up WPS using the button.
1
Ensure that the two devices you want to set up are within wireless range of one another.
2
Look for a WPS button on each device. If the device does not have one, log into its configuration
utility and locate the button (see the device’s User’s Guide for how to do this - for the Device, see
Section 5.6 on page 59).
3
Press the button on one of the devices (it doesn’t matter which). For the Device you must press the
WPS button for more than three seconds.
4
Within two minutes, press the button on the other device. The registrar sends the network name
(SSID) and security key through an secure connection to the enrollee.
If you need to make sure that WPS worked, check the list of associated wireless clients in the AP’s
configuration utility. If you see the wireless client in the list, WPS was successful.
5.10.8.2 PIN Configuration
Each WPS-enabled device has its own PIN (Personal Identification Number). This may either be
static (it cannot be changed) or dynamic (in some devices you can generate a new PIN by clicking
on a button in the configuration interface).
Use the PIN method instead of the push-button configuration (PBC) method if you want to ensure
that the connection is established between the devices you specify, not just the first two devices to
activate WPS in range of each other. However, you need to log into the configuration interfaces of
both devices to use the PIN method.
When you use the PIN method, you must enter the PIN from one device (usually the wireless client)
into the second device (usually the Access Point or wireless router). Then, when WPS is activated
on the first device, it presents its PIN to the second device. If the PIN matches, one device sends
the network and security information to the other, allowing it to join the network.
Take the following steps to set up a WPS connection between an access point or wireless router
(referred to here as the AP) and a client device using the PIN method.
1
Ensure WPS is enabled on both devices.
2
Access the WPS section of the AP’s configuration interface. See the device’s User’s Guide for how to
do this.
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3
Look for the client’s WPS PIN; it will be displayed either on the device, or in the WPS section of the
client’s configuration interface (see the device’s User’s Guide for how to find the WPS PIN - for the
Device, see Section 5.5 on page 57).
4
Enter the client’s PIN in the AP’s configuration interface.
5
If the client device’s configuration interface has an area for entering another device’s PIN, you can
either enter the client’s PIN in the AP, or enter the AP’s PIN in the client - it does not matter which.
6
Start WPS on both devices within two minutes.
7
Use the configuration utility to activate WPS, not the push-button on the device itself.
8
On a computer connected to the wireless client, try to connect to the Internet. If you can connect,
WPS was successful.
If you cannot connect, check the list of associated wireless clients in the AP’s configuration utility. If
you see the wireless client in the list, WPS was successful.
The following figure shows a WPS-enabled wireless client (installed in a notebook computer)
connecting to the WPS-enabled AP via the PIN method.
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Figure 35 Example WPS Process: PIN Method
ENROLLEE
REGISTRAR
WPS
This device’s
WPS PIN: 123456
WPS
Enter WPS PIN
from other device:
WPS
START
WPS
START
WITHIN 2 MINUTES
SECURE EAP TUNNEL
SSID
WPA(2)-PSK
COMMUNICATION
5.10.8.3 How WPS Works
When two WPS-enabled devices connect, each device must assume a specific role. One device acts
as the registrar (the device that supplies network and security settings) and the other device acts
as the enrollee (the device that receives network and security settings. The registrar creates a
secure EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) tunnel and sends the network name (SSID) and the
WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK pre-shared key to the enrollee. Whether WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK is used
depends on the standards supported by the devices. If the registrar is already part of a network, it
sends the existing information. If not, it generates the SSID and WPA(2)-PSK randomly.
The following figure shows a WPS-enabled client (installed in a notebook computer) connecting to a
WPS-enabled access point.
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Figure 36 How WPS works
ACTIVATE
WPS
ACTIVATE
WPS
WITHIN 2 MINUTES
WPS HANDSHAKE
ENROLLEE
REGISTRAR
SECURE TUNNEL
SECURITY INFO
COMMUNICATION
The roles of registrar and enrollee last only as long as the WPS setup process is active (two
minutes). The next time you use WPS, a different device can be the registrar if necessary.
The WPS connection process is like a handshake; only two devices participate in each WPS
transaction. If you want to add more devices you should repeat the process with one of the existing
networked devices and the new device.
Note that the access point (AP) is not always the registrar, and the wireless client is not always the
enrollee. All WPS-certified APs can be a registrar, and so can some WPS-enabled wireless clients.
By default, a WPS devices is “unconfigured”. This means that it is not part of an existing network
and can act as either enrollee or registrar (if it supports both functions). If the registrar is
unconfigured, the security settings it transmits to the enrollee are randomly-generated. Once a
WPS-enabled device has connected to another device using WPS, it becomes “configured”. A
configured wireless client can still act as enrollee or registrar in subsequent WPS connections, but a
configured access point can no longer act as enrollee. It will be the registrar in all subsequent WPS
connections in which it is involved. If you want a configured AP to act as an enrollee, you must reset
it to its factory defaults.
5.10.8.4 Example WPS Network Setup
This section shows how security settings are distributed in an example WPS setup.
The following figure shows an example network. In step 1, both AP1 and Client 1 are
unconfigured. When WPS is activated on both, they perform the handshake. In this example, AP1
is the registrar, and Client 1 is the enrollee. The registrar randomly generates the security
information to set up the network, since it is unconfigured and has no existing information.
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Figure 37 WPS: Example Network Step 1
ENROLLEE
REGISTRAR
SECURITY INFO
AP1
CLIENT 1
In step 2, you add another wireless client to the network. You know that Client 1 supports registrar
mode, but it is better to use AP1 for the WPS handshake with the new client since you must
connect to the access point anyway in order to use the network. In this case, AP1 must be the
registrar, since it is configured (it already has security information for the network). AP1 supplies
the existing security information to Client 2.
Figure 38 WPS: Example Network Step 2
REGISTRAR
EXISTING CONNECTION
AP1
CLIENT 1
ENROLLEE
YI
RIT
U
C
SE
O
NF
CLIENT 2
In step 3, you add another access point (AP2) to your network. AP2 is out of range of AP1, so you
cannot use AP1 for the WPS handshake with the new access point. However, you know that Client
2 supports the registrar function, so you use it to perform the WPS handshake instead.
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Figure 39 WPS: Example Network Step 3
EXISTING CONNECTION
CLIENT 1
E
CO
ING
T
XIS
ION
CT
E
NN
AP1
REGISTRAR
CLIENT 2
SE
CU
RIT
Y
ENROLLEE
INF
O
AP2
5.10.8.5 Limitations of WPS
WPS has some limitations of which you should be aware.
• WPS works in Infrastructure networks only (where an AP and a wireless client communicate). It
does not work in Ad-Hoc networks (where there is no AP).
• When you use WPS, it works between two devices only. You cannot enroll multiple devices
simultaneously, you must enroll one after the other.
For instance, if you have two enrollees and one registrar you must set up the first enrollee (by
pressing the WPS button on the registrar and the first enrollee, for example), then check that it
successfully enrolled, then set up the second device in the same way.
• WPS works only with other WPS-enabled devices. However, you can still add non-WPS devices to
a network you already set up using WPS.
WPS works by automatically issuing a randomly-generated WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK pre-shared
key from the registrar device to the enrollee devices. Whether the network uses WPA-PSK or
WPA2-PSK depends on the device. You can check the configuration interface of the registrar
device to discover the key the network is using (if the device supports this feature). Then, you
can enter the key into the non-WPS device and join the network as normal (the non-WPS device
must also support WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK).
• When you use the PBC method, there is a short period (from the moment you press the button
on one device to the moment you press the button on the other device) when any WPS-enabled
device could join the network. This is because the registrar has no way of identifying the
“correct” enrollee, and cannot differentiate between your enrollee and a rogue device. This is a
possible way for a hacker to gain access to a network.
You can easily check to see if this has happened. WPS works between only two devices
simultaneously, so if another device has enrolled your device will be unable to enroll, and will not
have access to the network. If this happens, open the access point’s configuration interface and
look at the list of associated clients (usually displayed by MAC address). It does not matter if the
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access point is the WPS registrar, the enrollee, or was not involved in the WPS handshake; a
rogue device must still associate with the access point to gain access to the network. Check the
MAC addresses of your wireless clients (usually printed on a label on the bottom of the device). If
there is an unknown MAC address you can remove it or reset the AP.
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C HAPT ER
6
Home Networking
6.1 Overview
A Local Area Network (LAN) is a shared communication system to which many networking devices
are connected. It is usually located in one immediate area such as a building or floor of a building.
Use the LAN screens to help you configure a LAN DHCP server and manage IP addresses.
LAN
DSL
6.1.1 What You Can Do in the LAN Screens
• Use the LAN Setup screen to set the LAN IP address, subnet mask, and DHCP settings of your
Device (Section 6.2 on page 79).
• Use the Static DHCP screen to assign IP addresses on the LAN to specific individual computers
based on their MAC Addresses (Section 6.3 on page 81).
• Use the IP Alias screen (Section 6.6 on page 84) to change your Device’s IP alias settings.
• Use the UPnP screen to enable UPnP and UPnP NAT traversal on the Device (Section 6.5 on page
83).
• Use the IPv6 LAN Setup screen (Section 6.6 on page 84) to configure the IPv6 settings on your
Device’s LAN interface.
• Use the File Sharing screen (Section 6.7 on page 88) to set up file sharing via the Device.
• Use the Print Server screen (Section 6.8 on page 91) to enable the print server function on the
Device.
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6.1.2 What You Need To Know
6.1.2.1 About LAN
IP Address
IP addresses identify individual devices on a network. Every networking device (including
computers, servers, routers, printers, etc.) needs an IP address to communicate across the
network. These networking devices are also known as hosts.
Subnet Mask
Subnet masks determine the maximum number of possible hosts on a network. You can also use
subnet masks to divide one network into multiple sub-networks.
DHCP
A DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server can assign your Device an IP address, subnet
mask, DNS and other routing information when it's turned on.
DNS
DNS (Domain Name System) is for mapping a domain name to its corresponding IP address and
vice versa. The DNS server is extremely important because without it, you must know the IP
address of a networking device before you can access it.
6.1.2.2 About UPnP
Identifying UPnP Devices
UPnP hardware is identified as an icon in the Network Connections folder (Windows XP). Each UPnP
compatible device installed on your network will appear as a separate icon. Selecting the icon of a
UPnP device will allow you to access the information and properties of that device.
NAT Traversal
UPnP NAT traversal automates the process of allowing an application to operate through NAT. UPnP
network devices can automatically configure network addressing, announce their presence in the
network to other UPnP devices and enable exchange of simple product and service descriptions.
NAT traversal allows the following:
• Dynamic port mapping
• Learning public IP addresses
• Assigning lease times to mappings
Windows Messenger is an example of an application that supports NAT traversal and UPnP.
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Cautions with UPnP
The automated nature of NAT traversal applications in establishing their own services and opening
firewall ports may present network security issues. Network information and configuration may also
be obtained and modified by users in some network environments.
When a UPnP device joins a network, it announces its presence with a multicast message. For
security reasons, the Device allows multicast messages on the LAN only.
All UPnP-enabled devices may communicate freely with each other without additional configuration.
Disable UPnP if this is not your intention.
Finding Out More
See Section 6.11 on page 103 for technical background information on LANs.
6.1.3 Before You Begin
Find out the MAC addresses of your network devices if you intend to add them to the DHCP Client
List screen.
6.2 The LAN Setup Screen
Use this screen to set the Local Area Network IP address, subnet mask and advanced networking
settings such as RIP, multicast of your Device. Click Network Setting > Home Networking to
open the LAN Setup screen.
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Figure 40 Network Setting > Home Networking > LAN Setup
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 21 Network Setting > Home Networking > LAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
LAN IP Setup
IP Address
Enter the LAN IP address you want to assign to your Device in dotted decimal
notation, for example, 192.168.1.254 (factory default).
Subnet Mask
Type the subnet mask of your network in dotted decimal notation, for example
255.255.255.0 (factory default). Your Device automatically computes the subnet mask
based on the IP Address you enter, so do not change this field unless you are
instructed to do so.
RIP Version
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) allows a router to exchange routing information
with other routers. Select the RIP version from RIP1 and RIP2-B/RIP2-M.
Direction
Use this field to control how much routing information the VDSL Router sends and
receives on the subnet. Select the RIP Direction from None, Both, IN Only and
OUT Only.
Multicast
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to establish
membership in a multicast group. The Device supports IGMP v1/IGMP v2/IGMP
v3. Select None to disable it.
IGMP Snooping
Select Enabled to activate IGMP Snooping. This allows the Device to passively learn
memberships in multicast groups. Otherwise, select Disabled to deactivate it.
DHCP Server State
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Table 21 Network Setting > Home Networking > LAN Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DHCP
If set to Enable, your Device can assign IP addresses, an IP default gateway and DNS
servers to Windows 95, Windows NT and other systems that support the DHCP client.
If set to Disable, the DHCP server will be disabled.
If set to DHCP Relay, the Device acts as a surrogate DHCP server and relays DHCP
requests and responses between the remote server and the clients. Enter the IP
address of the actual, remote DHCP server in the Remote DHCP Server field in this
case.
When DHCP is used, the following items need to be set:
IP Addressing Values
IP Pool Starting
Address
This field specifies the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP address pool.
Pool Size
This field specifies the size, or count of the IP address pool.
DHCP Server Lease Time
Lease Time
This field specifies the lease time in seconds of an IP address assigned by the DHCP
server.
DNS Values
DNS Server 1
DNS Server 2
Select Obtained From ISP if your ISP dynamically assigns DNS server information
(and the Device's WAN IP address).
Select UserDefined if you have the IP address of a DNS server. Enter the DNS
server's IP address in the field to the right. If you chose UserDefined, but leave the
IP address set to 0.0.0.0, UserDefined changes to None after you click Apply. If you
set a second choice to UserDefined, and enter the same IP address, the second
UserDefined changes to None after you click Apply.
Select DNS Relay to have the Device act as a DNS proxy only when the ISP uses IPCP
DNS server extensions. The Device's LAN IP address displays in the field to the right
(read-only). The Device tells the DHCP clients on the LAN that the Device itself is the
DNS server. When a computer on the LAN sends a DNS query to the Device, the
Device forwards the query to the real DNS server learned through IPCP and relays the
response back to the computer. You can only select DNS Relay for one of the three
servers; if you select DNS Relay for a second server, that choice changes to None
after you click Apply.
Select None if you do not want to configure DNS servers. You must have another
DHCP sever on your LAN, or else the computers must have their DNS server addresses
manually configured. If you do not configure a DNS server, you must know the IP
address of a computer in order to access it.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
6.3 The Static DHCP Screen
This table allows you to assign IP addresses on the LAN to specific individual computers based on
their MAC Addresses.
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC address is
assigned at the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal characters, for example,
00:A0:C5:00:00:02.
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Use this screen to change your Device’s static DHCP settings. Click Network Setting > Home
Networking > Static DHCP to open the following screen.
Figure 41 Network Setting > Home Networking > Static DHCP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 22 Network Setting > Home Networking > Static DHCP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new static lease Click this to add a new static DHCP entry.
#
This is the index number of the entry.
Active
This field displays whether the client is connected to the Device.
MAC Address
The MAC (Media Access Control) or Ethernet address on a LAN (Local Area Network) is
unique to your computer (six pairs of hexadecimal notation).
A network interface card such as an Ethernet adapter has a hardwired address that is
assigned at the factory. This address follows an industry standard that ensures no other
adapter has a similar address.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address relative to the # field listed above.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to have the IP address field editable and change it.
Click the Delete icon to delete a static DHCP entry. A window displays asking you to
confirm that you want to delete the selected entry.
If you click Add new static lease in the Static DHCP screen or the Edit icon next to a static DHCP
entry, the following screen displays.
Figure 42 Static DHCP: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 23 Static DHCP: Add/Edit
82
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MAC Address
If you select Manual Input in the Select Device Info field, enter the MAC address of
a computer on your LAN.
IP Address
If you select Manual Input in the Select Device Info field, enter the IP address that
you want to assign to the computer on your LAN with the MAC address that you will
also specify.
OK
Click OK to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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6.4 The IP Alias Screen
IP alias allows you to partition a physical network into different logical networks over the same
Ethernet interface. The Device supports multiple logical LAN interfaces via its physical Ethernet
interface with the Device itself as the gateway for the LAN network.
When you use IP alias, you can also configure firewall rules to control access to the LAN's logical
network (subnet).
6.4.1 Configuring the LAN IP Alias Screen
Use this screen to change your Device’s IP alias settings. Click Network Setting > Home
Networking > IP Alias to open the following screen.
Figure 43 Network Setting > Home Networking > IP Alias
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 24 Network Setting > Home Networking > IP Alias
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Alias
Select Enable to configure a LAN network for the Device.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your Device in dotted decimal notation.
IP Subnet Mask
Your Device will automatically calculate the subnet mask based on the IP address that
you assign. Unless you are implementing subnetting, use the subnet mask computed by
the Device.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
6.5 The UPnP Screen
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) is a distributed, open networking standard that uses TCP/IP for
simple peer-to-peer network connectivity between devices. A UPnP device can dynamically join a
network, obtain an IP address, convey its capabilities and learn about other devices on the network.
In turn, a device can leave a network smoothly and automatically when it is no longer in use.
See page 78 for more information on UPnP.
Use the following screen to enable or disable the UPnP function on your Device. Click Network
Setting > Home Networking > UPnP to display the screen shown next.
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Figure 44 Network Setting > Home Networking > UPnP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 25 Network Setting > Home Networking > UPnP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
UPnP
Select Enable to activate UPnP. Be aware that anyone could use a UPnP application to
open the web configurator's login screen without entering the Device's IP address
(although you must still enter the password to access the web configurator). Otherwise,
select Disable to deactivate UPnP.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
6.6 The IPv6 LAN Setup Screen
Use this screen to configure the IPv6 settings for your Device’s LAN interface.
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Figure 45 Network Setting > Home Networking > IPv6 LAN Setup
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 26 Network Setting > Home Networking > IPv6 LAN Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IPv6 LAN Setup
Link Local Address
Type
Select Manual to manually enter a link local address. Select EUI64 to use the EUI-64
format to generate a link local address from the Ethernet MAC address.
IPv6 Address
If you selected Manual in the Link Local Address Type field, enter the LAN IPv6
address you want to assign to your Device in hexadecimal notation, for example,
fe80::1 (factory default).
Prefix
Enter the address prefix to specify how many most significant bits in an IPv6 address
compose the network address.
MLD Snooping
Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) allows an IPv6 switch or router to discover the
presence of MLD hosts who wish to receive multicast packets and the IP addresses of
multicast groups the hosts want to join on its network. Select Enabled to activate
MLD Snooping on the Device. This allows the Device to check MLD packets passing
through it and learn the multicast group membership. It helps reduce multicast traffic.
Lan Global Identifier
Type
Select Manual to manually enter a LAN Identifier as the interface ID to identify the
LAN interface. The LAN Identifier is appended to the IPv6 address prefix to create the
routable global IPv6 address. Select EUI64 to use the EUI-64 format to generate an
interface ID from the Ethernet MAC address.
Lan Identifier
If you selected Manual, enter the LAN Identifier in this field. The LAN identifier should
be unique and 64 bits in hexadecimal form. Every 16 bit block should be separated by
a colon as in XXXX:XXXX:XXXX:XXXX where X is a hexadecimal character. Blocks of
zeros can be represented with double colons as in XXXX:XXXX::XXXX.
LAN IPv6 Address Setting
Delegate prefix from
WAN
Select this option to automatically obtain an IPv6 network prefix from the service
provider or an uplink router.
Static
Select this option to configure a fixed IPv6 address for the Device’s LAN IPv6 address.
Static IPv6 Address
Prefix
If you select static IPv6 address, enter the IPv6 address prefix that the Device uses for
the LAN IPv6 address.
Prefix length
If you select static IPv6 address, enter the IPv6 prefix length that the Device uses to
generate the LAN IPv6 address.
An IPv6 prefix length specifies how many most significant bits (starting from the left)
in the address compose the network address. This field displays the bit number of the
IPv6 subnet mask.
Preferred Lifetime
Enter the preferred lifetime for the prefix.
Valid Lifetime
Enter the valid lifetime for the prefix.
RADVD Setup
Send RA on
Select this to have the Device send router advertisement messages to the LAN hosts.
Router advertisement is a response to a router solicitation or a periodical multicast
advertisement from a router to advertise its presence and other parameters, such as
IPv6 prefix and DNS information.
Router solicitation is a request from a host to locate a router that can act as the
default router and forward packets.
Note: The LAN hosts neither generate global IPv6 addresses nor communicate with
other networks if you disable this feature.
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Delegate M/O flag
from WAN
Select this to have the Device obtain the M/O (Managed/Other) flag setting from the
service provider or uplink router.
Manual
Select this to specify the M/O flag setting manually.
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Table 26 Network Setting > Home Networking > IPv6 LAN Setup (continued)
LABEL
Managed config
flag on
DESCRIPTION
Select this to have the Device indicate to hosts to obtain network settings (such as
prefix and DNS settings) through DHCPv6.
Clear this to have the Device indicate to hosts that DHCPv6 is not available and they
should use the prefix in the router advertisement message.
Other config flag
on
Select this to have the Device indicate to hosts to obtain DNS information through
DHCPv6.
Clear this to have the Device indicate to hosts that DNS information is not available in
this network.
Advertisement
interval option on
Select this to have the Router Advertisement messages the VDSL Router
sends specify the allowed interval between Router Advertisement messages.
Hop limit
Enter the maximum number of network segments that a packet can cross before
reaching the destination. When forwarding an IPv6 packet, IPv6 routers are required
to decrease the Hop Limit by 1 and to discard the IPv6 packet when the Hop Limit is 0.
Possible value for this field are 0-255.
Router Lifetime
Enter the time in seconds that hosts should consider the Device to be the default
router. Possible values for this field are 0-9000.
Router Preference
Select the router preference (Low, Medium or High) for the Device. The Device
sends this preference in the router advertisements to tell hosts what preference they
should use for the Device. This helps hosts to choose their default router especially
when there are multiple IPv6 router in the network.
Note: Make sure the hosts also support router preference to make this function work.
Reachable Time (ms)
Enter the time in milliseconds that can elapse before a neighbor is detected. Possible
values for this field are 0-3600000.
Retrans Timer (ms)
Enter the time in milliseconds between neighbor solicitation packet retransmissions.
Possible values for this field are 1000-4294967295.
RA Interval
Enter the time in seconds between router advertisement messages. Possible values for
this field are 4-1800.
Delegate MTU from
WAN
Select this to have the Device obtain the MTU setting from the service provider or
uplink router.
Manual
Select this to specify the MTU manually.
MTU
The Maximum Transmission Unit. Type the maximum size of each IPv6 data packet, in
bytes, that can move through this interface. If a larger packet arrives, the Device
divides it into smaller fragments.
DAD attempts
Specify the number of DAD (Duplicate Address Detection) attempts before an IPv6
address is assigned to the Device LAN interface. Possible values for this field are 1-7.
DHCPv6
DHCPv6 Server
Use this field to Enable or Disable DHCPv6 server on the Device.
DNSv6 Mode
Select the DNS role (Proxy or Relay) that you want the Device to act in the IPv6 LAN
network. Alternatively, select Manual and specify the DNS servers’ IPv6 address in the
fields below.
Primary DNS
This field is available if you choose Manual as the DNSv6 mode. Enter the first DNS
server IPv6 address the Device passes to the DHCP clients.
Secondary DNS
This field is available if you choose Manual as the DNSv6 mode. Enter the second DNS
server IPv6 address the Device passes to the DHCP clients.
Information refresh
time
Enter the number of seconds a DHCPv6 client should wait before refreshing
information retrieved from DHCPv6.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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6.7 The File Sharing Screen
Share files on a USB memory stick or hard drive connected to your Device with users on your
network. The following figure is an overview of the Device’s file server feature. Computers A and B
can access files on a USB device (C) which is connected to the Device.
Figure 46 File Sharing Overview
B
C
A
6.7.1 What You Need to Know
Workgroup name
This is the name given to a set of computers that are connected on a network and share resources
such as a printer or files. Windows automatically assigns the workgroup name when you set up a
network.
Shares
When settings are set to default, each USB device connected to the Device is given a folder, called
a “share”. If a USB hard drive connected to the Device has more than one partition, then each
partition will be allocated a share. You can also configure a “share” to be a sub-folder or file on the
USB device.
File Systems
A file system is a way of storing and organizing files on your hard drive and storage device. Often
different operating systems such as Windows or Linux have different file systems. The file-sharing
feature on your Device supports File Allocation Table (FAT) and FAT32 file systems.
Windows/CIFS
Common Internet File System (CIFS) is a standard protocol supported by most operating systems
in order to share files across the network.
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CIFS runs over TCP/IP but uses the SMB (Server Message Block) protocol found in Microsoft
Windows for file and printer access; therefore, CIFS will allow all applications, not just Web
browsers, to open and share files across the Internet.
The Device uses Common Internet File System (CIFS) protocol for its file sharing functions. CIFS
compatible computers can access the USB file storage devices connected to the Device. CIFS
protocol is supported on Microsoft Windows, Linux Samba and other operating systems (refer to
your systems specifications for CIFS compatibility).
NFS
Network File System (NFS) is a protocol most commonly used on Unix-like systems in order to
share files across the network.
Samba
SMB is a client-server protocol used by Microsoft Windows systems for sharing files, printers, and
so on.
Samba is a free SMB server that runs on most Unix and Unix-like systems. It provides an
implementation of an SMB client and server for use with non-Microsoft operating systems.
File Transfer Protocol
This is a method of transferring data from one computer to another over a network such as the
Internet.
6.7.2 Before You Begin
Make sure the Device is connected to your network and turned on.
1
Connect the USB device to one of the Device’s USB ports. Make sure the Device is connected to
your network.
2
The Device detects the USB device and makes its contents available for browsing. If you are
connecting a USB hard drive that comes with an external power supply, make sure it is connected
to an appropriate power source that is on.
Note: If your USB device cannot be detected by the Device, try disconnecting and
reconnecting it.
6.7.3 The File Sharing Screen
Use this screen to set up file sharing via the Device. To access this screen, click Network Setting
> Home Networking > File Sharing.
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Figure 47 Network Setting > Home Networking > File Sharing
Each field is described in the following table.
Table 27 Network Setting > Home Networking > File Sharing
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Configuration
Active the File
Sharing Services
Select this to enable file sharing through the Device.
Share Directory
Access Level
Select Public to allow all users on the network to access the shared files.
Select Security to require users to log in to access shared files. Set up user accounts in
the Account Management section.
Account Management
90
Status
This field displays whether a user account is activated or not. Select the check box to
enable the account. Clear the check box to disable the account.
User Name
This displays the user name that has been configured on the Device for file sharing.
Edit
Click this to go to the screen for editing user account information.
Delete
Click this to remove a user account from the list.
Apply
Click this to save your changes to the Device.
Cancel
Click this to set every field in this screen to its last-saved value.
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6.7.4 User Edit
Click Edit in the File Sharing screen to edit a user’s information on the Device.
Figure 48 Network Setting > Home Networking > File Sharing > Edit
Each field is described in the following table.
Table 28 Network Setting > Home Networking > File Sharing > Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select the check box to enable the account. Clear the check box to disable the account.
User Name
Enter a user name that will be allowed to access shares. You can enter up to 16
characters. Only letters and numbers allowed.
New Password
Enter the password used to access the share. You can enter up to 15 characters. Only
letters and numbers are allowed. The password is case sensitive.
Retype New
Password
Retype the password that you entered above.
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click this to save your changes to the Device.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
6.8 Print Server
The Device allows you to share a USB printer on your LAN. You can do this by connecting a USB
printer to one of the USB ports on the Device and then allowing the computers connected to your
network to communicate with the print server (Device) using the Internet Printing Protocol.
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Figure 49 Sharing a USB Printer
6.8.1 What You Need to Know
Print Server
This is a computer or other device which manages one or more printers, and which sends print jobs
to each printer from the computer itself or other devices.
Operating System
An operating system (OS) is the interface which helps you manage a computer. Common examples
are Microsoft Windows, Mac OS or Linux.
Port
A port maps a network service such as http to a process running on your computer, such as a
process run by your web browser. When traffic from the Internet is received on your computer, the
port number is used to identify which process running on your computer it is intended for.
Internet Printing Protocol
The Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) uses TCP and UDP with port 631. It can run locally or over the
Internet on top of HTTP. It allows users to send print jobs to a printer, cancel a previous print job,
and know the status of the printer and print jobs.
Supported OSs
The following OSs support Device’s printer sharing feature.
• Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows Vista or Macintosh OS X and later
versions.
6.8.2 Before You Begin
To configure the print server you need the following:
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• Your Device must be connected to your computer and any other devices on your network. The
USB printer must be connected to your Device.
• The computers on your network must have the printer software already installed before they can
use the printer. Follow your printer manufacturers instructions on how to install the printer
software on your computer.
Note: Your printer’s installation instructions may ask that you connect the printer to your
computer. Connect your printer to the Device instead.
6.8.3 The Print Server Screen
The print server screen is used to enable the print server function on the Device.
Click Network Setting > Home Networking > Print Server to display the Print Server screen.
Figure 50 Network Setting > Home Networking > Print Server
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 29 Network Setting > Home Networking > Print Server
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active Print Server
Select this option to have the Device act as a print server.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to return to the previous configuration.
6.9 Add a New Printer Using Windows
This example shows how to connect a printer behind the Device to your computer using the
Windows XP Professional operating system. Some menu items may look different on your operating
system.
1
Click Start > Control Panel > Printers and Faxes to open the Printers and Faxes screen. Click
Add a Printer.
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Figure 51 Printers Folder
2
The Add Printer Wizard screen displays. Click Next.
Figure 52 Add Printer Wizard: Welcome
3
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Select A network printer, or a printer attached to another computer and click Next.
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Figure 53 Add Printer Wizard: Local or Network Printer
4
Select Connect to a printer on the Internet or on a home or office network: and enter
“http://192.168.1.254:631/printers/USB_PRINTER” as the URL to access the print server (Device).
Click Next.
Note: If you change the Device’s LAN IP address, use the new IP address in the URL to
access the print server.
Figure 54 Add Printer Wizard: Specify a Printer
5
Select the make of the printer that you want to connect to the print server in the Manufacturer list
of printers.
6
Select the printer model from the list of Printers.
7
If your printer is not displayed in the list of Printers, you can insert the printer driver installation
CD/disk or download the driver file to your computer, click Have Disk… and install the new printer
driver.
8
Click Next to continue.
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Figure 55 Add Printer Wizard: Printer Model
9
Select Yes and then click the Next button if you want to use this printer as the default printer on
your computer. Otherwise select No and then click Next to continue.
Figure 56 Add Printer Wizard: Default Printer
10 The following screen shows your current printer settings. Select Finish to complete adding a new
printer.
Figure 57 Add Printer Wizard Complete
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6.10 Add a New Printer Using Macintosh OS X
Complete the following steps to set up a print server driver on your Macintosh computer.
6.10.1 Mac OS 10.3 and 10.4
This example shows how to connect a printer behind the Device to your computer using Mac OS X
v10.4.11. Some menu items may look different on your operating system.
11 Click the Finder icon on the Dock (a place holding a series of icons/shortcuts at the bottom of the
desktop) or double-click your Mac hard disk icon (Mac OS X in this example) on your desktop to
open the Mac HD window.
Figure 58 Mac OS X HD
12 Open the Applications folder.
Figure 59 Macintosh HD Folder
13 Open the Utilities folder.
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Figure 60 Applications Folder
14 Double-click the Printer Setup Utility icon.
Figure 61 Utilities Folder
15 Click the Add icon at the top of the screen.
Figure 62 Printer List: Add
16 Click the IP Printer tab to set up your printer.
• Press the alt key and click More Printers in the Printer Browser screen.
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• Select Advanced from the top drop-down list.
• Select Internet Printing Protocol using HTTP from the Device drop-down list.
• Enter a descriptive name for the printer in the Device Name field.
• In the Device URL field, enter “http://192.168.1.254:631/printers/USB_PRINTER” as the
URL to access the print server (Device).
Note: If you change the Device’s LAN IP address, use the new IP address in the URL to
access the print server.
• Select your printer manufacturer from the Printer Model drop-down list and then select a
printer model. Click Add to save and close the Printer Browser configuration screen.
Figure 63 Printer Browser
17 The new network printer displays in the Printer List. The default printer Name displays in bold
type.
Figure 64 Printer List
18 Your print server driver setup is complete. You can now use the Device’s print server to print from a
Mac computer.
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6.10.2 Mac OS 10.5 and 10.6
This example shows how to connect a printer behind the Device to your computer using Mac OS X
v10.6.2. Some menu items may look different on your operating system.
1
Click the Finder icon on the Dock or double-click your Mac hard disk icon (Mac OS X in this
example) on your desktop to open the Mac HD window.
Figure 65 Mac OS X HD
2
Open the Applications folder.
Figure 66 Macintosh HD Folder
3
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Double-click the System Preferences icon.
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Figure 67 Applications Folder
4
Click the Print & Fax icon.
Figure 68 System Preferences
5
Select the Printing tab and click the + icon to add a new printer.
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Figure 69 Print & Fax
6
Click the Advanced button on the Add Printer toolbar to set up your printer.
If the Advanced button doesn’t appear, Ctrl-click the toolbar, select Customize Toolbar... and
then drag the Advanced button onto the toolbar.
• Select Internet Printing Protocol (HTTP) from the Type drop-down list.
• Select Another Device from the Device drop-down list.
• In the URL field, enter “http://192.168.1.254:631/printers/USB_PRINTER” as the URL to
access the print server (Device).
Note: If you change the Device’s LAN IP address, use the new IP address in the URL to
access the print server.
• Enter a descriptive name for the printer and where it is located.
• Select your printer manufacturer from the Print Using drop-down list and then select a
printer model. Click Add to save and close the Printer Browser configuration screen.
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Figure 70 Add Printer
7
The new network printer displays in the Printers list.
Figure 71 Printer List
8
Your print server driver setup is complete. You can now use the Device’s print server to print from a
Mac computer.
6.11 Home Networking Technical Reference
This section provides some technical background information about the topics covered in this
chapter.
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6.11.1 LANs, WANs and the Device
The actual physical connection determines whether the Device ports are LAN or WAN ports. There
are two separate IP networks, one inside the LAN network and the other outside the WAN network
as shown next.
Figure 72 LAN and WAN IP Addresses
LAN
WAN
6.11.2 DHCP Setup
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows individual clients to
obtain TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a server. You can configure the Device as a DHCP
server or disable it. When configured as a server, the Device provides the TCP/IP configuration for
the clients. If you turn DHCP service off, you must have another DHCP server on your LAN, or else
the computer must be manually configured.
IP Pool Setup
The Device is pre-configured with a pool of IP addresses for the DHCP clients (DHCP Pool). Do not
assign static IP addresses from the DHCP pool to your LAN computers.
6.11.3 DNS Server Addresses
DNS (Domain Name System) maps a domain name to its corresponding IP address and vice versa.
The DNS server is extremely important because without it, you must know the IP address of a
computer before you can access it. The DNS server addresses you enter when you set up DHCP are
passed to the client machines along with the assigned IP address and subnet mask.
There are two ways that an ISP disseminates the DNS server addresses.
• The ISP tells you the DNS server addresses, usually in the form of an information sheet, when
you sign up. If your ISP gives you DNS server addresses, enter them in the DNS Server fields in
the DHCP Setup screen.
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• Some ISPs choose to disseminate the DNS server addresses using the DNS server extensions of
IPCP (IP Control Protocol) after the connection is up. If your ISP did not give you explicit DNS
servers, chances are the DNS servers are conveyed through IPCP negotiation. The Device
supports the IPCP DNS server extensions through the DNS proxy feature.
Please note that DNS proxy works only when the ISP uses the IPCP DNS server extensions. It
does not mean you can leave the DNS servers out of the DHCP setup under all circumstances. If
your ISP gives you explicit DNS servers, make sure that you enter their IP addresses in the
DHCP Setup screen.
6.11.4 LAN TCP/IP
The Device has built-in DHCP server capability that assigns IP addresses and DNS servers to
systems that support DHCP client capability.
IP Address and Subnet Mask
Similar to the way houses on a street share a common street name, so too do computers on a LAN
share one common network number.
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If the ISP or your
network administrator assigns you a block of registered IP addresses, follow their instructions in
selecting the IP addresses and the subnet mask.
If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you have a single user
account and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when the connection is established. If this
is the case, it is recommended that you select a network number from 192.168.0.0 to
192.168.255.0 and you must enable the Network Address Translation (NAT) feature of the Device.
The Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) reserved this block of addresses specifically for
private use; please do not use any other number unless you are told otherwise. Let's say you select
192.168.1.0 as the network number; which covers 254 individual addresses, from 192.168.1.1 to
192.168.1.254 (zero and 255 are reserved). In other words, the first three numbers specify the
network number while the last number identifies an individual computer on that network.
Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address that is easy to remember, for
instance, 192.168.1.254, for your Device, but make sure that no other device on your network is
using that IP address.
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your Device will compute
the subnet mask automatically based on the IP address that you entered. You don't need to change
the subnet mask computed by the Device unless you are instructed to do otherwise.
Private IP Addresses
Every machine on the Internet must have a unique address. If your networks are isolated from the
Internet, for example, only between your two branch offices, you can assign any IP addresses to
the hosts without problems. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has
reserved the following three blocks of IP addresses specifically for private networks:
• 10.0.0.0
• 172.16.0.0
— 10.255.255.255
— 172.31.255.255
• 192.168.0.0 — 192.168.255.255
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You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP or it can be assigned from a private
network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet access is through an ISP, the ISP
can provide you with the Internet addresses for your local networks. On the other hand, if you are
part of a much larger organization, you should consult your network administrator for the
appropriate IP addresses.
Note: Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address;
always follow the guidelines above. For more information on address assignment,
please refer to RFC 1597, “Address Allocation for Private Internets” and RFC 1466,
“Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space”.
6.11.5 RIP Setup
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) allows a router to exchange routing information with other
routers. The RIP Direction field controls the sending and receiving of RIP packets. When set to:
• Both - the Device will broadcast its routing table periodically and incorporate the RIP information
that it receives.
• In Only - the Device will not send any RIP packets but will accept all RIP packets received.
• Out Only - the Device will send out RIP packets but will not accept any RIP packets received.
• None - the Device will not send any RIP packets and will ignore any RIP packets received.
The Version field controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP packets that the
Device sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving). RIP-1 is universally supported; but RIP2 carries more information. RIP-1 is probably adequate for most networks, unless you have an
unusual network topology.
Both RIP-2B and RIP-2M sends the routing data in RIP-2 format; the difference being that RIP-2B
uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses multicasting. Multicasting can reduce the load on
non-router machines since they generally do not listen to the RIP multicast address and so will not
receive the RIP packets. However, if one router uses multicasting, then all routers on your network
must use multicasting, also.
6.11.6 Multicast
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways - Unicast (1 sender - 1 recipient)
or Broadcast (1 sender - everybody on the network). Multicast delivers IP packets to a group of
hosts on the network - not everybody and not just 1.
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to establish membership
in a Multicast group - it is not used to carry user data. IGMP version 2 (RFC 2236) is an
improvement over version 1 (RFC 1112) but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use. IGMP version 3
supports source filtering, reporting or ignoring traffic from specific source address to a particular
host on the network. If you would like to read more detailed information about interoperability
between IGMP version 2 and version 1, please see sections 4 and 5 of RFC 2236. The class D IP
address is used to identify host groups and can be in the range 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. The
address 224.0.0.0 is not assigned to any group and is used by IP multicast computers. The address
224.0.0.1 is used for query messages and is assigned to the permanent group of all IP hosts
(including gateways). All hosts must join the 224.0.0.1 group in order to participate in IGMP. The
address 224.0.0.2 is assigned to the multicast routers group.
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At start up, the Device queries all directly connected networks to gather group membership. After
that, the Device periodically updates this information. IP multicasting can be enabled/disabled on
the Device LAN and/or WAN interfaces in the web configurator (LAN; WAN). Select None to
disable IP multicasting on these interfaces.
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Static Route
7.1 Overview
The Device usually uses the default gateway to route outbound traffic from computers on the LAN
to the Internet. To have the Device send data to devices not reachable through the default gateway,
use static routes.
For example, the next figure shows a computer (A) connected to the Device’s LAN interface. The
Device routes most traffic from A to the Internet through the Device’s default gateway (R1). You
create one static route to connect to services offered by your ISP behind router R2. You create
another static route to communicate with a separate network behind a router R3 connected to the
LAN.
Figure 73 Example of Static Routing Topology
A
R1
LAN
WAN
R3
R2
7.1.1 What You Can Do in the Static Route Screens
• Use the Static Route screens (Section 7.2 on page 110) to view and configure IP static routes
on the Device.
• Use the IPv6 Static Route screens (Section 7.3 on page 111) to view and configure IPv6 static
routes on the Device.
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7.2 The Static Route Screen
Use this screen to view the static route rules. Click Network Setting > Static Route to open the
Static Route screen.
Figure 74 Network Setting > Static Route
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 30 Network Setting > Static Route
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new static
route
Click this to configure a new static route.
#
This is the number of an individual static route.
Destination IP
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination. Routing is always
based on network number.
Gateway
This is the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is a router or switch on the same
network segment as the device's LAN or WAN port. The gateway helps forward packets to
their destinations.
Subnet Mask
This parameter specifies the IP network subnet mask of the final destination.
Metric
This is the number of transmission hops between this Device and the destination.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to go to the screen where you can set up a static route on the Device.
Click the Delete icon to remove a static route from the Device. A window displays asking
you to confirm that you want to delete the route.
7.2.1 Static Route Add/Edit
Use this screen to add or edit a static route. Click Add new Static Route Entry in the Routing
screen or the Edit icon next to the static route you want to edit. The screen shown next appears.
Figure 75 Network Setting > Static Route Add/Edit
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 31 Network Setting > Static Route Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Destination IP
Address
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination. Routing is always
based on network number. If you need to specify a route to a single host, use a subnet
mask of 255.255.255.255 in the subnet mask field to force the network number to be
identical to the host ID.
IP Subnet Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask here.
Gateway IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is a router or switch on the same
network segment as the device's LAN or WAN port. The gateway helps forward packets to
their destinations.
Metric
Enter the number of transmission hops (routers) that need to accross from the Device to
the destination.
OK
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
7.3 IPv6 Static Route
Use this screen to view the IPv6 static route rules. Click Network Setting > Static Route > IPv6
Static Route to open the IPv6 Static Route screen.
Figure 76 Network Setting > Static Route > IPv6 Static Route
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 32 Network Setting > Static Route > IPv6 Static Route
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new static
route
Click this to configure a new IPv6 static route.
#
This is the number of an individual static route.
Destination
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination. Routing is always
based on network number.
Prefix Length
An IPv6 prefix length specifies how many most significant bits (starting from the left) in
the address compose the network address. This field displays the bit number of the IPv6
subnet mask.
Gateway
This is the IPv6 address of the gateway. The gateway is a router or switch on the same
network segment as the device's LAN or WAN port. The gateway has a route to the
destination network and helps forward packets to their destinations.
Device
This specifies the LAN or WAN PVC.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to go to the screen where you can set up a static route on the Device.
Click the Remove icon to remove a static route from the Device. A window displays
asking you to confirm that you want to delete the route.
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7.3.1 IPv6 Static Route Edit
Use this screen to configure the required information for an IPv6 static route. Click Add new static
route or select an IPv6 static route index number and click Edit. The screen shown next appears.
Figure 77 Network Setting > Static Route > IPv6 Static Route: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 33 Network Setting > Static Route > IPv6 Static Route: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Destination IPv6
Address
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination. Routing is always
based on network number. If you need to specify a route to a single host, use a prefix
length of 128 in the prefix length field to force the network number to be identical to the
host ID.
IPv6 Prefix Length Enter the address prefix to specify how many most significant bits compose the network
address.
112
Gateway IPv6
Address
Enter the IPv6 address of the gateway. The gateway is a router or switch on the same
network segment as the device's LAN or WAN port. The gateway has a route to the
destination network and helps forward packets to their destinations. If a link local address
is used, the interface should also be specified.
PVC IPv6 Address
Select the interface through which the traffic is routed.
OK
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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8
Quality of Service (QoS)
8.1 Overview
Use the QoS screen to set up your Device to use QoS for traffic management.
Quality of Service (QoS) refers to both a network’s ability to deliver data with minimum delay, and
the networking methods used to control bandwidth. QoS allows the Device to group and prioritize
application traffic and fine-tune network performance.
Without QoS, all traffic data are equally likely to be dropped when the network is congested. This
can cause a reduction in network performance and make the network inadequate for time-critical
applications such as video-on-demand.
The Device assigns each packet a priority and then queues the packet accordingly. Packets assigned
with a high priority are processed more quickly than those with low priorities if there is congestion,
allowing time-sensitive applications to flow more smoothly. Time-sensitive applications include both
those that require a low level of latency (delay) and a low level of jitter (variations in delay) such as
Voice over IP (VoIP) or Internet gaming, and those for which jitter alone is a problem such as
Internet radio or streaming video.
In the following figure, your Internet connection has an upstream transmission speed of 50 Mbps.
You configure a classifier to assign the highest priority queue (6) to VoIP traffic from the LAN
interface, so that voice traffic would not get delayed when there is network congestion. Traffic from
the boss’s IP address (192.168.1.23 for example) is mapped to queue 5. Traffic that does not
match these two classes are assigned priority queue based on the internal QoS mapping table on
the Device.
Figure 78 QoS Example
VoIP: Queue 6
DSL
50 Mbps
Boss: Queue 5
IP=192.168.1.23
8.1.1 What You Can Do in the QoS Screens
• Use the General screen (Section 8.2 on page 114) to enable QoS on the Device, and specify the
type of scheduling.
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• Use the Queue Setup screen (Section 8.3 on page 115) to configure QoS settings on the Device.
• Use the Class Setup screen (Section 8.4 on page 117) to configure QoS settings on the Device.
• Use the Game List screen (Section 8.5 on page 121) to to give priority to traffic for specific
games.
8.1.2 What You Need to Know About QoS
802.1p
QoS is used to prioritize source-to-destination traffic flows. All packets in the same flow are given
the same priority. 802.1p is a way of managing traffic in a network by grouping similar types of
traffic together and treating each type as a class. You can use 802.1p to give different priorities to
different packet types.
Tagging and Marking
In a QoS class, you can configure whether to add or change the DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) value
and IEEE 802.1p priority level in a matched packet. When the packet passes through a compatible
network, the networking device, such as a backbone switch, can provide specific treatment or
service based on the tag or marker.
Finding Out More
See Section 8.6 on page 122 for advanced technical information on QoS.
8.2 The Quality of Service General Screen
Use this screen to enable or disable QoS and set the upstream bandwidth.
Click Network Setting > QoS > General to open the screen as shown next.
Figure 79 Network Setting > QoS > General
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 34 Network Setting > QoS > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active QoS
Use this field to turn on QoS to improve your network performance.
Traffic priority will be
automatically assigned by
Select how the Device assigns priorities to various incoming and outgoing traffic
flows.
•
•
•
•
None: Disables auto priority mapping and has the Device put packets into
the queues according to your classification rules. Traffic which does not
match any of the classification rules is mapped into the default queue with
the lowest priority.
Ethernet Priority: Automatically assign priority based on the IEEE 802.1p
priority level.
IP Precedence: Automatically assign priority based on the first three bits of
the TOS field in the IP header.
Packet Length: Automatically assign priority based on the packet size.
Smaller packets get higher priority since control, signaling, VoIP, internet
gaming, or other real-time packets are usually small while larger packets are
usually best effort data packets like file transfers.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
8.3 The Queue Setup Screen
Use this screen to configure QoS queue assignment disciplines and priorities.
Click Network Setting > QoS > Queue Setup to open the screen as shown next.
Figure 80 Network Setting > QoS > Queue Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 35 Network Setting > QoS > Queue Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Index
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the queue is active or not. A yellow bulb signifies that this queue is
active. A gray bulb signifies that this queue is not active.
Name
This shows the descriptive name of this queue.
Interface
This shows the name of the Device’s interface through which traffic in this queue passes.
Priority
This shows the priority of this queue.
Weight
This shows the weight of this queue.
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Table 35 Network Setting > QoS > Queue Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Rate Limit
This shows the maximum transmission rate allowed for traffic on this queue.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the queue.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing queue. Note that subsequent rules move up by one
when you take this action.
8.3.1 Adding a QoS Queue
Click the edit icon in the Queue Setup screen to configure a queue.
Figure 81 Queue Setup: Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 36 Queue Setup: Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select to enable or disable this queue.
Name
Enter the descriptive name of this queue.
Interface
Select the interface to which this queue is applied.
This field is read-only if you are editing the queue.
Priority
Select the priority level (from 1 to 3) of this queue.
The smaller the number, the higher the priority level. Traffic assigned to higher priority
queues gets through faster while traffic in lower priority queues is dropped if the network is
congested.
Weight
Select the weight (from 1 to 8) of this queue.
If two queues have the same priority level, the Device divides the bandwidth across the
queues according to their weights. Queues with larger weights get more bandwidth than
queues with smaller weights.
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Rate Limit
Specify the maximum transmission rate (in Kbps) allowed for traffic on this queue.
OK
Click OK to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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8.4 The Class Setup Screen
Use this screen to add, edit or delete QoS classifiers. A classifier groups traffic into data flows
according to specific criteria such as the source address, destination address, source port number,
destination port number or incoming interface. For example, you can configure a classifier to select
traffic from the same protocol port (such as Telnet) to form a flow.
You can give different priorities to traffic that the Device forwards out through the WAN interface.
Give high priority to voice and video to make them run more smoothly. Similarly, give low priority
to many large file downloads so that they do not reduce the quality of other applications.
Click Network Setting > QoS > Class Setup to open the screen as shown next.
Figure 82 Network Setting > QoS > Class Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 37 Network Setting > QoS > Class Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Add new Classifier
Click this to create a new classifier.
Index
This is the index number of the entry.
Status
This field displays whether the classifier is active or not. A yellow bulb signifies that this
classifier is active. A gray bulb signifies that this classifier is not active.
From Interface
This shows the interface from which traffic of this class should come.
Classification
Criteria
This shows criteria specified in this classifier, for example the type and the source MAC
address of traffic that matches this classifier.
DSCP (Traffic
Class) Mark
This is the DSCP number added to traffic of this classifier.
802.1P/1Q Mark
This is the IEEE 802.1p priority level and 802.1Q VLAN tag assigned to traffic of this
classifier.
To Queue
This is the name of the queue in which traffic of this classifier is put.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to edit the classifier.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing classifier. Note that subsequent rules move up
by one when you take this action.
8.4.1 Class Setup Add/Edit
Click Add new Classifier in the Network Setting > QoS > Class Setup screen or click the Edit
icon next to a class, the screen appears as shown next.
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Figure 83 QoS > Class Setup Add/Edit
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 38 QoS > Class Setup Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Rule Index
Select the rule’s index number from the drop-down list box. This field is available only
when you are adding a new QoS class.
Class Configuration
Active
Use this field to enable or disable the QoS class rule.
Ether Type
Select a predefined application to configure a class for the matched traffic.
If you select IPv4 or IPv6, you also need to configure source or destination IP address,
MAC address, DHCP options, DSCP value or the protocol type.
If you select ARP, you also need to configure source or destination MAC address.
If you select 802.1Q, you can configure an 802.1p priority level and VLAN ID.
Interface
Select an interface if you want to classify the traffic received by it.
To Queue
Select a queue that applies to this class.
You should have configured a queue in the Queue Setup screen already.
Criteria Configuration
Basic
From
Interface
If you select From LAN in the Interface field, you can select specific interface(s) from
which traffic is received. ra0 ~ ra3 means wireless interfaces WLAN0 to WLAN3.
If you select From WAN in the Interface field, you can select a specific WAN connection
(PVC0~PVC2) from which traffic is received.
Source
IP Address
Select the check box and enter the source IP address in dotted decimal notation. A blank
IP address means any source IP address.
Subnet
Netmask/
Source Prefix
Length
Enter the source subnet mask if you select IPv4 as the Ether Type.
Port Range
Enter the source prefix length if you select IPv6 as the Ether Type.
If you select TCP/UDP, TCP or UDP in the IP protocol field, select the check box and
enter the port number(s) of the source.
MAC Address
Select the check box and enter the source MAC address of the packet.
Mac Netmask
Type the mask for the specified MAC address to determine which bits a packet’s MAC
address should match.
Enter “f” for each bit of the specified source MAC address that the traffic’s MAC address
should match. Enter “0” for the bit(s) of the matched traffic’s MAC address, which can be
of any hexadecimal character(s). For example, if you set the MAC address to
00:13:49:00:00:00 and the mask to ff:ff:ff:00:00:00, a packet with a MAC address of
00:13:49:12:34:56 matches this criteria.
Exclude
Select this option to exclude the packets that match the specified criteria from this
classifier.
Destination
IP Address
Select the check box and enter the source IP address in dotted decimal notation. A blank
IP address means any destination IP address.
Subnet
Netmask/
Destination
Prefix Length
Enter the destination subnet mask if you select IPv4 as the Ether Type.
Port Range
If you select TCP/UDP, TCP or UDP in the IP Protocol field, select the check box and
enter the port number(s) of the source.
Enter the destination prefix length if you select IPv6 as the Ether Type.
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Table 38 QoS > Class Setup Add/Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MAC Address
Select the check box and enter the destination MAC address of the packet.
Mac Netmask
Type the mask for the specified MAC address to determine which bits a packet’s MAC
address should match.
Enter “f” for each bit of the specified source MAC address that the traffic’s MAC address
should match. Enter “0” for the bit(s) of the matched traffic’s MAC address, which can be
of any hexadecimal character(s). For example, if you set the MAC address to
00:13:49:00:00:00 and the mask to ff:ff:ff:00:00:00, a packet with a MAC address of
00:13:49:12:34:56 matches this criteria.
Exclude
Select this option to exclude the packets that match the specified criteria from this
classifier.
Others
IP Protocol
This field is available only when you select IPv4 or IPv6 in the Ether Type field.
If you select IPv4, select this option and select the protocol (service type) from TCP/
UDP, TCP, UDP or ICMP.If you select IPv6, select this option and select the protocol
(service type) from TCP/UDP, TCP, UDP or ICMPv6.
TCP ACK
This field is available only when you select TCP in the IP protocol field.
If you select this option, the matched TCP packets must contain the ACK (Acknowledge)
flag.
Packet Length
This field is available only when you select IPv4 or IPv6 in the Ether Type field.
Select this option and enter the minimum and maximum packet length (from 46 to 1500)
in the fields provided.
IPP/DS Field
Select IPP/TOS to specify an IP precedence range and type of services.
Select DSCP to specify a DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) range.
IP Precedence
Range
Enter a range from 0 to 7 for IP precedence. 0 is the lowest priority and 7 is the highest.
Type of
Service
Select a type of service from the drop-down list box.
Available options are: Normal service, Minimize delay, Maximize throughput,
Maximize reliability and Minimize monetary cost.
DSCP Range
Select this option and specify a DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) number between 0 and 63 in
the field provided.
802.1P
Select this option and select a priority level (between 0 and 7) from the drop-down list
box.
"0" is the lowest priority level and "7" is the highest.
VLAN ID
Select this option and enter the source VLAN ID in this field.
Exclude
Select this option to exclude the packets that match the specified criteria from this
classifier.
Action
Forward To
Select the interface through which traffic that matches the rule is forwarded out. If you
select Unchange, the Device forwards traffic of this class according to the default routing
table.
If traffic of this class comes from a WAN interface and is in a queue that forwards traffic
through the LAN/WLAN interface, the Device ignores the setting here.
IPP/DS Field
Select IPP/TOS to specify an IP precedence range and type of services.
Select DSCP to specify a DiffServ Code Point (DSCP) range.
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Table 38 QoS > Class Setup Add/Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Precedence
Mark
Enter a range from 0 to 7 to re-assign IP precedence to matched traffic. 0 is the lowest
priority and 7 is the highest.
Type Of
Service Mark
Select a type of service to re-assign the priority level to matched traffic.
DSCP
Mark(0~63)
Available options are: Normal service, Minimize delay, Maximize throughput,
Maximize reliability and Minimize monetary cost.
This field is available only when you select IP in the Ether Type field.
If you select Mark, enter a DSCP value with which the Device replaces the DSCP field in
the packets.
If you select Unchange, the Device keep the DSCP field in the packets.
802.1Q Tag
If you select Remark, select a priority level (in the Ethernet Priority field) and enter a
VLAN ID number (in the VLAN ID field) with which the Device replaces the IEEE 802.1p
priority field and VLAN ID of the frames.
If you select Remove, the Device deletes the VLAN ID of the frames before forwarding
them out.
If you select Add, the Device treat all matched traffic untagged and add a second priority
level and VLAN ID that you specify in the Ethernet Priority and VLAN ID fields.
If you select Same, the Device keep the Ethernet Priority and VLAN ID in the packets.
To configure the Ethernet Priority, you can either select a priority number in the first
drop-down list box (7 is the highest and 0 is the lowest priority) or select an application
from the second drop-down list box which automatically maps to the corresponding
priority number. (Key Net Traffic: 7; Voice: 6; Video: 5;IGMP: 4; Key Data: 3)
OK
Click OK to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
8.5 The QoS Game List Screen
Use this screen to give priority to traffic for specific games. Click Network Setting > QoS > Game
List to open the screen as shown next.
Figure 84 Network Setting > QoS > Game List
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 39 Network Setting > QoS > Game List
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable Game List
Select this to have QoS give the highest priority to traffic for the games you specify. This
priority is higher than the other QoS queues.
Select the games below.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore previously saved settings.
8.6 QoS Technical Reference
This section provides some technical background information about the topics covered in this
chapter.
8.6.1 IEEE 802.1p
IEEE 802.1p specifies the user priority field and defines up to eight separate traffic types. The
following table describes the traffic types defined in the IEEE 802.1d standard (which incorporates
the 802.1p).
Table 40 IEEE 802.1p Priority Level and Traffic Type
PRIORITY
LEVEL
TRAFFIC TYPE
Level 7
Typically used for network control traffic such as router configuration messages.
Level 6
Typically used for voice traffic that is especially sensitive to jitter (jitter is the variations in
delay).
Level 5
Typically used for video that consumes high bandwidth and is sensitive to jitter.
Level 4
Typically used for controlled load, latency-sensitive traffic such as SNA (Systems Network
Architecture) transactions.
Level 3
Typically used for “excellent effort” or better than best effort and would include important
business traffic that can tolerate some delay.
Level 2
This is for “spare bandwidth”.
Level 1
This is typically used for non-critical “background” traffic such as bulk transfers that are allowed
but that should not affect other applications and users.
Level 0
Typically used for best-effort traffic.
8.6.2 IP Precedence
Similar to IEEE 802.1p prioritization at layer-2, you can use IP precedence to prioritize packets in a
layer-3 network. IP precedence uses three bits of the eight-bit ToS (Type of Service) field in the IP
header. There are eight classes of services (ranging from zero to seven) in IP precedence. Zero is
the lowest priority level and seven is the highest.
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8.6.3 Automatic Priority Queue Assignment
If you enable QoS on the Device, the Device can automatically base on the IEEE 802.1p priority
level, IP precedence and/or packet length to assign priority to traffic which does not match a class.
The following table shows you the internal layer-2 and layer-3 QoS mapping on the Device. On the
Device, traffic assigned to higher priority queues gets through faster while traffic in lower index
queues is dropped if the network is congested.
Table 41 Internal Layer2 and Layer3 QoS Mapping
LAYER 2
LAYER 3
PRIORITY
QUEUE
IEEE 802.1P USER
PRIORITY
(ETHERNET
PRIORITY)
TOS (IP
PRECEDENCE)
DSCP
0
1
0
000000
1
2
2
0
0
000000
>1100
3
3
1
001110
250~1100
IP PACKET
LENGTH (BYTE)
001100
001010
001000
4
4
2
010110
010100
010010
010000
5
5
3
011110
<250
011100
011010
011000
6
6
4
100110
100100
100010
100000
5
101110
101000
7
7
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110000
7
111000
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C HAPT ER
9
Network Address Translation (NAT)
9.1 Overview
This chapter discusses how to configure NAT on the Device. NAT (Network Address Translation NAT, RFC 1631) is the translation of the IP address of a host in a packet, for example, the source
address of an outgoing packet, used within one network to a different IP address known within
another network.
9.1.1 What You Can Do in the NAT Screens
• Use the General screen (Section 9.2 on page 126) to activate/deactivate NAT for the default
WAN connection (PVC0).
• Use the Port Forwarding screen (Section 9.3 on page 127) to configure forward incoming
service requests to the server(s) on your local network.
• Use the DMZ screen to configure a default server (Section 9.4 on page 129).
• Use the ALG screen to enable and disable the SIP (VoIP) ALG in the Device (Section 9.5 on page
130).
9.1.2 What You Need To Know About NAT
Inside/Outside
Inside/outside denotes where a host is located relative to the Device, for example, the computers
of your subscribers are the inside hosts, while the web servers on the Internet are the outside
hosts.
Global/Local
Global/local denotes the IP address of a host in a packet as the packet traverses a router, for
example, the local address refers to the IP address of a host when the packet is in the local
network, while the global address refers to the IP address of the host when the same packet is
traveling in the WAN side.
NAT
In the simplest form, NAT changes the source IP address in a packet received from a subscriber
(the inside local address) to another (the inside global address) before forwarding the packet to the
WAN side. When the response comes back, NAT translates the destination address (the inside
global address) back to the inside local address before forwarding it to the original inside host.
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Port Forwarding
A port forwarding set is a list of inside (behind NAT on the LAN) servers, for example, web or FTP,
that you can make visible to the outside world even though NAT makes your whole inside network
appear as a single computer to the outside world.
Finding Out More
See Section 9.6 on page 130 for advanced technical information on NAT.
9.2 The NAT General Screen
Use this screen to activate NAT for the default WAN connection (PVC0). Click Network Setting >
NAT to open the following screen.
Note: You must create an IP filter rule in addition to setting up NAT, to allow traffic from
the WAN to be forwarded through the Device.
Figure 85 Network Setting > NAT > General
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 42 Network Setting > NAT > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this check box to enable NAT.
Max NAT/Firewall
Session Per User
When computers use peer to peer applications, such as file sharing applications, they
need to establish NAT sessions. If you do not limit the number of NAT sessions a single
client can establish, this can result in all of the available NAT sessions being used. In
this case, no additional NAT sessions can be established, and users may not be able to
access the Internet.
Each NAT session establishes a corresponding firewall session. Use this field to limit the
number of NAT/Firewall sessions client computers can establish through the Device.
If your network has a small number of clients using peer to peer applications, you can
raise this number to ensure that their performance is not degraded by the number of
NAT sessions they can establish. If your network has a large number of users using peer
to peer applications, you can lower this number to ensure no single client is exhausting
all of the available NAT sessions.
126
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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9.3 The Port Forwarding Screen
Use this screen to forward incoming service requests to the server(s) on your local network.
You may enter a single port number or a range of port numbers to be forwarded, and the local IP
address of the desired server. The port number identifies a service; for example, web service is on
port 80 and FTP on port 21. In some cases, such as for unknown services or where one server can
support more than one service (for example both FTP and web service), it might be better to
specify a range of port numbers. You can allocate a server IP address that corresponds to a port or
a range of ports.
Please refer to RFC 1700 for further information about port numbers.
Note: Many residential broadband ISP accounts do not allow you to run any server
processes (such as a Web or FTP server) from your location. Your ISP may
periodically check for servers and may suspend your account if it discovers any
active services at your location. If you are unsure, refer to your ISP.
Default Server IP Address
In addition to the servers for specified services, NAT supports a default server IP address. A default
server receives packets from ports that are not specified in this screen.
Note: If you do not assign a Default Server IP address, the Device discards all packets
received for ports that are not specified here or in the remote management setup.
9.3.1 Configuring the Port Forwarding Screen
Click Network Setting > NAT > Port Forwarding to open the following screen.
Note: Make sure NAT is activated on the WAN connection before you configure a port
forwarding rule for it. For the default WAN connection (PVC0), activate NAT in the
Network Setting > NAT > General screen. For other WAN connections
(PVC1~PVC7), activate NAT for an individual WAN connection in the Broadband >
More Connections > Edit screen.
Figure 86 Network Setting > NAT > Port Forwarding
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 43 Network Setting > NAT > Port Forwarding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WAN Interface
Select a WAN connection for which you want to configure a port forwarding rule.
Add new rule
Click this button to add a rule to the table below.
#
This is the rule index number (read-only).
Active
This field indicates whether the rule is active or not.
Clear the check box to disable the rule. Select the check box to enable it.
Service Name
This is a service’s name.
External Start Port
This is the first port number of a port range that incoming service requests may use to
access the service in your local network.
External End Port
This is the last port number of a port range that incoming service requests may use to
access the service in your local network.
Internal Start Port
This is the starting port number that the device translates for the service in your local
network.
Internal End Port
This is the ending port number that the device translates for the service in your local
network.
Server IP Address
This is the server’s IP address in your local network.
Modify
Click the edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the port forwarding rule.
Click the delete icon to delete an existing port forwarding rule. Note that subsequent
address mapping rules move up by one when you take this action.
9.3.2 Port Forwarding Rule Add/Edit
Use this screen to add or edit a port forwarding rule. Click the Add new rule button or a rule’s edit
icon in the Port Forwarding screen to display the screen as shown next.
Figure 87 Network Setting > NAT > Port Forwarding: Add/Edit
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 44 Network Setting > NAT > Port Forwarding: Edit
128
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Click this check box to enable the rule.
Service Name
Select the name of this port-forwarding rule.
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Table 44 Network Setting > NAT > Port Forwarding: Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
External Start
Port
Enter a port number in this field.
To forward only one port, enter the port number again in the End Port field.
To forward a series of ports, enter the start port number here and the end port number in
the End Port field.
External End Port
Enter a port number in this field.
To forward only one port, enter the port number in the Start Port field above and then
enter it again in this field.
To forward a series of ports, enter the last port number in a series that begins with the
port number in the Start Port field above.
Server IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the server in your local network.
Protocol
Select the protocol of the service, TCP, UDP or ALL (TCP+UDP).
Open Start Port
Enter the first port number here to which you want the device to translate the incoming
port. For a range of ports, you only need to enter the first number of the range to which
you want the incoming ports translated, the device automatically calculates the last port of
the translated port range.
Open End Port
Enter the last port number here to which you want the device to translate the incoming
port. For a range of ports, you only need to enter the first number of the range to which
you want the incoming ports translated, the device automatically calculates the last port of
the translated port range.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
9.4 The DMZ Screen
If you need to allow packets from a specific WAN connection to your local network, NAT supports a
default server IP address. A default server receives packets from the specified WAN connection and
the ports that are not specified in the NAT Port Forwarding Setup screen.
Figure 88 Network Setting > NAT > DMZ
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 45 Network Setting > NAT > DMZ
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WAN Interface
Select a WAN PVC connection (PVC0~PVC7) from which you want to forward the traffic
to the specified default server.
Default Server
Address
Enter the IP address of the default server which receives packets from ports that are not
specified in the NAT > Port Forwarding screen.
Note: If you do not assign a Default Server Address, the Device discards all packets
received for ports that are not specified in the NAT Port Forwarding screen.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
9.5 The ALG Screen
Some NAT routers may include a SIP Application Layer Gateway (ALG). A SIP ALG allows SIP calls
to pass through NAT by examining and translating IP addresses embedded in the data stream.
When the Device registers with the SIP register server, the SIP ALG translates the Device’s private
IP address inside the SIP data stream to a public IP address. You do not need to use STUN or an
outbound proxy if you enable this Device’s SIP ALG.
Use the ALG screen to enable and disable the SIP (VoIP) ALG in the Device. To access this screen,
click Network Setting > NAT > ALG.
Figure 89 Network Setting > NAT > ALG
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 46 Network Setting > NAT > ALG
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ALG
Select Enable to make sure SIP (VoIP) works correctly with NAT.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
9.6 NAT Technical Reference
This chapter contains more information regarding NAT.
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9.6.1 NAT Definitions
Inside/outside denotes where a host is located relative to the Device, for example, the computers
of your subscribers are the inside hosts, while the web servers on the Internet are the outside
hosts.
Global/local denotes the IP address of a host in a packet as the packet traverses a router, for
example, the local address refers to the IP address of a host when the packet is in the local
network, while the global address refers to the IP address of the host when the same packet is
traveling in the WAN side.
Note that inside/outside refers to the location of a host, while global/local refers to the IP address
of a host used in a packet. Thus, an inside local address (ILA) is the IP address of an inside host in
a packet when the packet is still in the local network, while an inside global address (IGA) is the IP
address of the same inside host when the packet is on the WAN side. The following table
summarizes this information.
Table 47 NAT Definitions
ITEM
DESCRIPTION
Inside
This refers to the host on the LAN.
Outside
This refers to the host on the WAN.
Local
This refers to the packet address (source or destination) as the packet travels on the LAN.
Global
This refers to the packet address (source or destination) as the packet travels on the WAN.
NAT never changes the IP address (either local or global) of an outside host.
9.6.2 What NAT Does
In the simplest form, NAT changes the source IP address in a packet received from a subscriber
(the inside local address) to another (the inside global address) before forwarding the packet to the
WAN side. When the response comes back, NAT translates the destination address (the inside
global address) back to the inside local address before forwarding it to the original inside host. Note
that the IP address (either local or global) of an outside host is never changed.
The global IP addresses for the inside hosts can be either static or dynamically assigned by the ISP.
In addition, you can designate servers, for example, a web server and a telnet server, on your local
network and make them accessible to the outside world. If you do not define any servers (for Manyto-One and Many-to-Many Overload mapping – see Table 48 on page 133), NAT offers the
additional benefit of firewall protection. With no servers defined, your Device filters out all incoming
inquiries, thus preventing intruders from probing your network. For more information on IP address
translation, refer to RFC 1631, The IP Network Address Translator (NAT).
9.6.3 How NAT Works
Each packet has two addresses – a source address and a destination address. For outgoing packets,
the ILA (Inside Local Address) is the source address on the LAN, and the IGA (Inside Global
Address) is the source address on the WAN. For incoming packets, the ILA is the destination
address on the LAN, and the IGA is the destination address on the WAN. NAT maps private (local)
IP addresses to globally unique ones required for communication with hosts on other networks. It
replaces the original IP source address (and TCP or UDP source port numbers for Many-to-One and
Many-to-Many Overload NAT mapping) in each packet and then forwards it to the Internet. The
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Device keeps track of the original addresses and port numbers so incoming reply packets can have
their original values restored. The following figure illustrates this.
Figure 90 How NAT Works
NAT Table
LAN
Inside Local
IP Address
192.168.1.10
192.168.1.11
192.168.1.12
192.168.1.13
192.168.1.13
192.168.1.12
SA
SA
192.168.1.10
IGA1
Inside Local
Address (ILA)
192.168.1.11
Inside Global
IP Address
IGA 1
IGA 2
IGA 3
IGA 4
WAN
Inside Global
Address (IGA)
192.168.1.10
9.6.4 NAT Application
The following figure illustrates a possible NAT application, where three inside LANs (logical LANs
using IP alias) behind the Device can communicate with three distinct WAN networks.
Figure 91 NAT Application With IP Alias
9.6.5 NAT Mapping Types
NAT supports five types of IP/port mapping. They are:
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• One to One: In One-to-One mode, the Device maps one local IP address to one global IP
address.
• Many to One: In Many-to-One mode, the Device maps multiple local IP addresses to one global
IP address.
• Many to Many Overload: In Many-to-Many Overload mode, the Device maps the multiple local
IP addresses to shared global IP addresses.
• Many-to-Many No Overload: In Many-to-Many No Overload mode, the Device maps each local
IP address to a unique global IP address.
• Server: This type allows you to specify inside servers of different services behind the NAT to be
accessible to the outside world.
Port numbers do NOT change for One-to-One and Many-to-Many No Overload NAT mapping
types.
The following table summarizes these types.
Table 48 NAT Mapping Types
TYPE
IP MAPPING
One-to-One
ILA1 IGA1
Many-to-One (SUA/PAT)
ILA1 IGA1
ILA2 IGA1
…
Many-to-Many Overload
ILA1 IGA1
ILA2 IGA2
ILA3 IGA1
ILA4 IGA2
…
Many-to-Many No Overload
ILA1 IGA1
ILA2 IGA2
ILA3 IGA3
…
Server
Server 1 IP IGA1
Server 2 IP IGA1
Server 3 IP IGA1
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C HAPTER
10
Port Isolation
10.1 Overview
This chapter describes how to configure the port isolation settings.
Port isolation allows you to aggregate port connections into logical groups. You may bind WAN PVCs
to Ethernet ports and WLANs to specify how traffic is forwarded. Different ATM QoS settings can be
specified for each WAN PVC to meet bandwidth requirements for the type of traffic to be
transferred.
For example, three port isolation groups could be created on the device (R1) for three different
WAN PVC connections. The first PVC (PVC0) is for non time-sensitive data traffic. The second and
third PVCs (PVC1 and PVC2) are for time sensitive Media-On-Demand (MOD) video traffic and VoIP
traffic, respectively.
Figure 92 Port Isolation Groups
Data
PVC0
R1
PVC1
VoIP
R1
S1
S2
MOD
PVC2
R1
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Chapter 10 Port Isolation
If a WAN PVC is bound to an Ethernet port, traffic from the Ethernet port will only be forwarded
through the specified WAN PVC and vice versa. If a port is not in a port isolation group, traffic to
and from the port will be forwarded according to the routing table.
10.1.1 What You Can Do in the Port Isolation Screens
• Use the General screen (Section 10.3 on page 136) to activate port isolation.
• Use the Port Isolation screen (Section 10.3 on page 136) to set up port isolation groups.
• Use the Port Isolation Summary screen (Section 10.3.1 on page 137) to view configured port
isolation groups.
10.2 The Port Isolation General Screen
Use this screen to activate port isolation and set up port isolation groups. Click Network Setting >
Port Isolation to display the following screen.
Figure 93 Network Setting > Isolation
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 49 Network Setting > Port Isolation
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Activated Port
Isolation
Activate or deactivate the port isolation feature.
Apply
Add the selected port isolation group configuration.
10.3 The Port Isolation Screen
Use this screen to set up port isolation groups. Click Network Setting > Port Isolation > Port
Isolation to display the following screen.
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Figure 94 Network Setting > Port Isolation > Port Isolation
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 50 Network Setting > Port Isolation > Port Isolation
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port Isolation
Active
Activate or deactivate port isolation for the port isolation group.
Group Index
Select the index number for the port isolation group.
When a port is assigned to a port isolation group, traffic will be forwarded to the other
ports in the group, but not to ports in other groups. If a port is not included in any
groups, traffic will be forwarded according to the routing table.
ATM VCs
Select the ATM VC (PVC) to include in the port isolation group. Each ATM VC can only
be bound to one group.
Ethernet
Select the Ethernet (Eth) ports to include in the port isolation group. Each Ethernet
port can only be bound to one group.
Wireless LAN
Select the WLAN (AP) connection to include in the port isolation group. Additional APs
can be enabled on the More AP screen (Section 5.3 on page 54).
Group Summary
Port Isolation
Summary
Click this to view a summary of configured port isolation groups.
Apply
Add the selected port isolation group configuration.
Delete
Delete the selected port isolation group configuration.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
10.3.1 Port Isolation Summary Screen
Use this screen to view configured port isolation groups.
In the Port Isolation screen, click the Port Isolation Summary button in the Group Summary
section to display the following screen.
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Chapter 10 Port Isolation
Figure 95 Network Setting > Port Isolation > Port Isolation Summary
Ex
a
mp
le
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 51 Network Setting > Port Isolation > Port Isolation Summary
138
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Group ID
This field displays the group index number.
Group Port
This field displays the ports included in the group.
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C HAPTER
11
Dynamic DNS Setup
11.1 Overview
Dynamic DNS allows you to update your current dynamic IP address with one or many dynamic
DNS services so that anyone can contact you (in NetMeeting, CU-SeeMe, etc.). You can also access
your FTP server or Web site on your own computer using a domain name (for instance
myhost.dhs.org, where myhost is a name of your choice) that will never change instead of using an
IP address that changes each time you reconnect. Your friends or relatives will always be able to
call you even if they don't know your IP address.
First of all, you need to have registered a dynamic DNS account with www.dyndns.org. This is for
people with a dynamic IP from their ISP or DHCP server that would still like to have a domain name.
The Dynamic DNS service provider will give you a password or key.
11.1.1 What You Can Do in the DDNS Screen
Use the Dynamic DNS screen (Section 11.2 on page 139) to enable DDNS and configure the DDNS
settings on the Device.
11.1.2 What You Need To Know About DDNS
DYNDNS Wildcard
Enabling the wildcard feature for your host causes *.yourhost.dyndns.org to be aliased to the same
IP address as yourhost.dyndns.org. This feature is useful if you want to be able to use, for example,
www.yourhost.dyndns.org and still reach your hostname.
If you have a private WAN IP address, then you cannot use Dynamic DNS.
11.2 The Dynamic DNS Screen
Use this screen to change your Device’s DDNS. Click Network Setting > Dynamic DNS. The
screen appears as shown.
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Figure 96 Network Setting > Dynamic DNS
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 52 Network Setting > Dynamic DNS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Dynamic DNS Setup
Active Dynamic
DNS
Select this check box to use dynamic DNS.
Service Provider
This is the website of your Dynamic DNS service p
Host Name
Type the domain name assigned to your Device by your Dynamic DNS provider.
rovider.
You can specify up to two host names in the field separated by a comma (",").
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Username
Type your user name.
Password
Type the password assigned to you.
Enable Wildcard
Option
Select the check box to enable DynDNS Wildcard.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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12
Filter
12.1 Overview
This chapter introduces the filters supported by the Device. You can configure rules to restrict traffic
by IP addresses, MAC addresses, and/or IPv6 addresses.
12.1.1 What You Can Do in the Filter Screens
• Use the IP/MAC Filter screen (Section 12.2 on page 141) to create IP and MAC filter rules.
• Use the IPv6/MAC Filter screen (Section 12.3 on page 143) to create IPv6 and MAC filter rules.
12.1.2 What You Need to Know About Filtering
URL
The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) identifies and helps locates resources on a network. On the
Internet the URL is the web address that you type in the address bar of your Internet browser.
URL and IP Filter Structure
The URL, IP and IPv6 filters have individual rule indexes. The Device allows you to configure each
type of filter with its own respective set of rules.
12.2 The IP/MAC Filter Screen
Use this screen to create and apply IP and MAC filters. Click Security > Filter > IP/MAC Filter.
The screen appears as shown.
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Figure 97 Security > Filter > IP/MAC Filter
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 53 Security > Filter > IP/MAC Filter
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Rule Type
Rule Type selection
Select White List to specify traffic to allow and Black List to specify traffic to
disallow.
IP / MAC Filter Rule Editing
IP / MAC Filter Rule Index
Select the index number of the filter rule.
Active
Use this field to enable or disable the filter rule.
Interface
Select the PVC to which to apply the filter.
Direction
Apply the filter to Incoming or Outgoing traffic direction.
Rule Type
Select IP or MAC type to configure the rule.
Use the IP Filter to block or allow traffic by IP addresses.
Use the MAC Filter to block or allow traffic by MAC address.
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Source IP Address
Enter the source IP address of the packets you wish to filter. This field is
ignored if it is 0.0.0.0.
Subnet Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask for the source IP address
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Table 53 Security > Filter > IP/MAC Filter (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port Number
Enter the source port of the packets that you wish to filter. The range of this
field is 0 to 65535. This field is ignored if it is 0.
Destination IP Address
Enter the destination IP address of the packets you wish to filter. This field is
ignored if it is 0.0.0.0.
Subnet Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask for the destination IP address.
Port Number
Enter the destination port of the packets that you wish to filter. The range of
this field is 0 to 65535. This field is ignored if it is 0.
Protocol
Select ICMP, TCP or UDP for the upper layer protocol.
IP / MAC Filter Listing
IP / MAC Filter Rule Index
Select the index number of the filter set from the drop-down list box.
#
This is the index number of the rule in a filter set.
Active
This field shows whether the rule is activated.
Interface
This is the interface that the filter set applies to.
Direction
The filter set applies to this traffic direction.
Src IP/Mask
This is the source IP address and subnet mask when you select IP as the rule
type.
Dest IP/Mask
This is the destination IP address and subnet mask.
Mac Address
This is the MAC address of the packets being filtered.
Src Port
This is the source port number.
Dest Port
This is the destination port number.
Protocol
This is the upper layer protocol.
Apply
Click this to apply your changes.
Delete
Click this to remove the filter rule.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
12.3 IPv6/MAC Filter
Use this screen to create and apply IPv6 filters. Click Security > Filter > IPv6/MAC Filter. The
screen appears as shown.
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Figure 98 Security > Filter > IPv6/MAC Filter
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 54 Security > Filter > IPv6/MAC Filter
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Rule Type
Rule Type selection
Select White List to specify traffic to allow and Black List to specify traffic to
block.
IPv6 / MAC Filter Rule Editing
IPv6 / MAC Filter Rule Index
Select the index number of the filter rule.
Active
Use this field to enable or disable the filter rule.
Interface
Select the PVC to which to apply the filter.
Direction
Apply the filter to Incoming or Outgoing traffic direction.
Rule Type
Select IP or MAC type to configure the rule.
Use the IP Filter to block or allow traffic by IPv6 addresses.
Use the MAC Filter to block or allow traffic by MAC address.
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Source IP Address
Enter the source IPv6 address of the packets you wish to filter. This field is
ignored if it is ::.
Source Prefix Length
Enter the prefix length for the source IPv6 address
Destination IPv6 Address
Enter the destination IPv6 address of the packets you wish to filter. This field is
ignored if it is ::.
Destination Prefix Length
Enter the prefix length for the destination IPv6 address.
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Table 54 Security > Filter > IPv6/MAC Filter (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ICMPv6 Type
Select the ICMPv6 message type to filter. The following message types can be
selected:
1 / Destination Unreachable: 0 - no route to destination; 1 communication with destination administratively prohibited; 3 - address
unreachable; 4 - port unreachable
2 / Packet Too Big
3 / Time Exceeded: 0 - hop limit exceeded in transit; 1 - fragment
reassembly time exceeded
4 / Parameter Problem: 0 - erroneous header field encountered; 1 unrecognized Next Header type encountered; 2 - unrecognized IPv6 option
encountered
128 / Echo Request
129 / Echo Response
130 / Listener Query - Multicast listener query
131 / Listener Report - Multicast listener report
132 / Listener Done - Multicast listener done
143 / Listener Report v2 - Multicast listener report v2
133 / Router Solicitation
134 / Router Advertisement
135 / Neighbor Solicitation
136 / Neighbor Advertisement
137 / Redirect - Redirect message
Protocol
This is the (upper layer) protocol that defines the service to which this rule
applies. By default it is ICMPv6.
IPv6 / MAC Filter Listing
IPv6 / MAC Filter Rule Index
Select the index number of the filter set from the drop-down list box.
#
This is the index number of the rule in a filter set.
Active
This field shows whether the rule is activated.
Interface
This is the interface that the rule applies to.
Direction
The filter set applies to this traffic direction.
Rule Type
The ICMPv6 message type to filter.
Src IP/PrefixLength
This displays the source IPv6 address and prefix length.
Dest IP/PrefixLength
This displays the destination IPv6 address and prefix length.
Mac Address
This is the MAC address of the packets being filtered.
Protocol
This is the (upper layer) protocol that defines the service to which this rule
applies. By default it is ICMPv6.
Apply
Click this to apply your changes.
Delete
Click this to remove the filter rule.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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13
Firewall
13.1 Overview
This chapter shows you how to enable the Device firewall. Use the firewall to protect your Device
and network from attacks by hackers on the Internet and control access to it. The firewall:
• allows traffic that originates from your LAN computers to go to all other networks.
• blocks traffic that originates on other networks from going to the LAN.
• blocks SYN and port scanner attacks.
By default, the Device blocks DDOS, LAND and Ping of Death attacks whether the firewall is enabled
or disabled.
The following figure illustrates the firewall action. User A can initiate an IM (Instant Messaging)
session from the LAN to the WAN (1). Return traffic for this session is also allowed (2). However
other traffic initiated from the WAN is blocked (3 and 4).
Figure 99 Default Firewall Action
WAN
LAN
A
1
2
3
4
13.1.1 What You Can Do in the Firewall Screens
• Use the General screen (Section 13.2 on page 149) to select the firewall protection level on the
Device.
• Use the Default Action screen (Section 13.3 on page 150) to set the default action that the
firewall takes on packets that do not match any of the firewall rules.
• Use the Rules screen (Section 13.4 on page 151) to view the configured firewall rules and add,
edit or remove a firewall rule.
• Use the DoS screen (Section 13.5 on page 156) to set the thresholds that the Device uses to
determine when to start dropping sessions that do not become fully established (half-open
sessions).
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13.1.2 What You Need to Know About Firewall
SYN Attack
A SYN attack floods a targeted system with a series of SYN packets. Each packet causes the
targeted system to issue a SYN-ACK response. While the targeted system waits for the ACK that
follows the SYN-ACK, it queues up all outstanding SYN-ACK responses on a backlog queue. SYNACKs are moved off the queue only when an ACK comes back or when an internal timer terminates
the three-way handshake. Once the queue is full, the system will ignore all incoming SYN requests,
making the system unavailable for legitimate users.
DoS
Denials of Service (DoS) attacks are aimed at devices and networks with a connection to the
Internet. Their goal is not to steal information, but to disable a device or network so users no longer
have access to network resources. The Device is pre-configured to automatically detect and thwart
all known DoS attacks.
DDoS
A Distributed DoS (DDoS) attack is one in which multiple compromised systems attack a single
target, thereby causing denial of service for users of the targeted system.
LAND Attack
In a Local Area Network Denial (LAND) attack, hackers flood SYN packets into the network with a
spoofed source IP address of the target system. This makes it appear as if the host computer sent
the packets to itself, making the system unavailable while the target system tries to respond to
itself.
Ping of Death
Ping of Death uses a "ping" utility to create and send an IP packet that exceeds the maximum
65,536 bytes of data allowed by the IP specification. This may cause systems to crash, hang or
reboot.
SPI
Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI) tracks each connection crossing the firewall and makes sure it is
valid. Filtering decisions are based not only on rules but also context. For example, traffic from the
WAN may only be allowed to cross the firewall in response to a request from the LAN.
RFC 4890 SPEC Traffic
RFC 4890 specifies the filtering policies for ICMPv6 messages. This is important for protecting
against security threats including DoS, probing, redirection attacks and renumbering attacks that
can be carried out through ICMPv6. Since ICMPv6 error messages are critical for establishing and
maintaining communications, filtering policy focuses on ICMPv6 informational messages.
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Anti-Probing
If an outside user attempts to probe an unsupported port on your Device, an ICMP response packet
is automatically returned. This allows the outside user to know the Device exists. The Device
supports anti-probing, which prevents the ICMP response packet from being sent. This keeps
outsiders from discovering your Device when unsupported ports are probed.
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a message control and error-reporting protocol
between a host server and a gateway to the Internet. ICMP uses Internet Protocol (IP) datagrams,
but the messages are processed by the TCP/IP software and directly apparent to the application
user.
DoS Thresholds
For DoS attacks, the Device uses thresholds to determine when to drop sessions that do not
become fully established. These thresholds apply globally to all sessions. You can use the default
threshold values, or you can change them to values more suitable to your security requirements.
13.2 The Firewall General Screen
Use this screen to select the firewall protection level on the Device. Click Security > Firewall >
General to display the following screen.
Figure 100 Security > Firewall > General
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 55 Security > Firewall > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
High
This setting blocks all traffic to and from the Internet. Only local network traffic and LAN to WAN
service (Telnet, FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, DNS, POP3, SMTP) is permitted.
Medium
This is the recommended setting. It allows traffic to the Internet but blocks anyone from the
Internet from accessing any services on your local network.
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Table 55 Security > Firewall > General (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Low
This setting allows traffic to the Internet and also allows someone from the Internet to access
services on your local network. This would be used with Port Forwarding, Default Server.
Custom
This setting allows the customer to create and edit individual firewall rules.
Firewall rules can be created in the Default Action screen (Section 13.3 on page 150) and Rules
screen (Section 13.4 on page 151).
Off
This setting is not recommended. It disables firewall protection for your network and could
potentially expose your network to significant security risks. This option should only be used for
troubleshooting or if you intend using another firewall in conjunction with your router.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
13.3 The Default Action Screen
Use this screen to set the default action that the firewall takes on packets that do not match any of
the firewall rules. Click Security > Firewall > Default Action to display the following screen.
Figure 101 Security > Firewall > Default Action
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 56 Security > Firewall > Default Action
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Packet Direction
This is the direction of travel of packets (WAN to LAN, LAN to WAN).
Firewall rules are grouped based on the direction of travel of packets to which they apply.
Default Action
Use the drop-down list boxes to select the default action that the firewall is to take on
packets that are traveling in the selected direction and do not match any of the firewall
rules.
Select Drop to silently discard the packets without sending a TCP reset packet or an ICMP
destination-unreachable message to the sender.
Select Reject to deny the packets and send a TCP reset packet (for a TCP packet) or an
ICMP destination-unreachable message (for a UDP packet) to the sender.
Select Permit to allow the passage of the packets.
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Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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13.4 The Rules Screen
Click Security > Firewall > Rules to display the following screen. This screen displays a list of the
configured firewall rules. Note the order in which the rules are listed.
Note: The firewall configuration screen shown in this section is specific to the following
devices: P-The ordering of your rules is very important as rules are applied in turn.
Figure 102 Security > Firewall > Rules
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 57 Security > Firewall > Rules
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Firewall Rules Storage
Space in Use
This read-only bar shows how much of the Device's memory for recording firewall
rules it is currently using. When you are using 80% or less of the storage space, the
bar is green. When the amount of space used is over 80%, the bar is red.
Packet Direction
Use the drop-down list box to select a direction of travel of packets for which you
want to configure firewall rules.
Create a new rule
after rule number
Select an index number and click Add to add a new firewall rule after the selected
index number. For example, if you select “6”, your new rule becomes number 7 and
the previous rule 7 (if there is one) becomes rule 8.
The following read-only fields summarize the rules you have created that apply to
traffic traveling in the selected packet direction. The firewall rules that you configure
(summarized below) take priority over the general firewall action settings in the
General screen.
#
This is your firewall rule number. The ordering of your rules is important as rules are
applied in turn.
Active
This field displays whether a firewall is turned on or not. Select the check box to
enable the rule. Clear the check box to disable the rule.
Source IP Address
This column displays the source addresses or ranges of addresses to which this
firewall rule applies. Please note that a blank source or destination address is
equivalent to Any.
Destination IP Address
This column displays the destination addresses or ranges of addresses to which this
firewall rule applies. Please note that a blank source or destination address is
equivalent to Any.
Service
This column displays the services to which this firewall rule applies.
Action
This field displays whether the firewall silently discards packets (Drop), discards
packets and sends a TCP reset packet or an ICMP destination-unreachable message
to the sender (Reject) or allows the passage of packets (Permit).
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Table 57 Security > Firewall > Rules (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Source Interface
This column displays the source interface to which this firewall rule applies. This is
the interface through which the traffic entered the Device. Please note that a blank
source interface is equivalent to Any.
Destination Interface
This column displays the destination interface to which this firewall rule applies. This
is the interface through which the traffic is destined to leave the Device. Please note
that a blank source interface is equivalent to Any.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the rule.
Click the Remove icon to delete an existing firewall rule. A window displays asking
you to confirm that you want to delete the firewall rule. Note that subsequent firewall
rules move up by one when you take this action.
Order
Click the Order icon to display the Move the rule to field. Type a number in the
Move the rule to field and click the Move button to move the rule to the number
that you typed. The ordering of your rules is important as they are applied in order of
their numbering.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
13.4.1 The Rules Add Screen
Use this screen to configure firewall rules. In the Rules screen, select an index number and click
Add or click a rule’s Edit icon to display this screen and refer to the following table for information
on the labels.
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Figure 103 Security > Firewall > Rules > Add
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 58 Security > Firewall > Rules > Add
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select this option to enable this firewall rule.
Action for Matched
Packets
Use the drop-down list box to select whether to discard (Drop), deny and send an
ICMP destination-unreachable message to the sender of (Reject) or allow the
passage of (Permit) packets that match this rule.
IP Version Type
Select the IP version, IPv4 or IPv6, to apply this firewall rule to.
Rate Limit
Set a maximum number of packets per second, minute, or hour to limit the
throughput of traffic that matches this rule.
Maximum Burst
Number
Set the maximum number of packets that can be sent at the peak rate.
Log
This field determines if a log for packets that match the rule is created or not.
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Table 58 Security > Firewall > Rules > Add (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Rules Source/Destination Address
Address Type
Do you want your rule to apply to packets with a particular (single) IP, a range of IP
addresses (for instance, 192.168.1.10 to 192.169.1.50), a subnet or any IP address?
Select an option from the drop-down list box that includes: Single Address, Range
Address, Subnet Address and Any Address.
Start IP Address
Enter the single IP address or the starting IP address in a range here.
End IP Address
Enter the ending IP address in a range here.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask here, if applicable.
Source Mac Address
Specify a source MAC address of traffic to which to apply this firewall rule applies.
Please note that a blank source MAC address is equivalent to any.
Source Interface
Specify a source interface to which this firewall rule applies. This is the interface
through which the traffic entered the Device. Please note that a blank source
interface is equivalent to any.
Destination Interface
Specify a destination interface to which this firewall rule applies. This is the interface
through which the traffic is destined to leave the Device. Please note that a blank
source interface is equivalent to any.
Services
Available Services
Select a service from the Available Services box.
Edit Customized
Service
Click the Edit Customized Service button to bring up the screen that you use to
configure a new custom service that is not in the predefined list of services.
TCP Flag
Specify any TCP flag bits the firewall rule is to check for.
Schedule
Select the days and time during which to apply the rule. Select Everyday and All
Day to always apply the rule.
OK
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
13.4.2 Customized Services
Configure customized services and port numbers not predefined by the Device. For a
comprehensive list of port numbers and services, visit the IANA (Internet Assigned Number
Authority) website. Click the Edit Customized Services button while editing a firewall rule to
configure a custom service port. This displays the following screen.
Figure 104 Security > Firewall > Rules: Edit: Edit Customized Services
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 59 Security > Firewall > Rules: Edit: Edit Customized Services
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the number of your customized port.
Name
This is the name of your customized service.
Protocol
This shows the IP protocol (TCP or UDP) that defines your customized service.
Port Type
This is the port number or range that defines your customized service.
Start Port
This is a single port number or the starting port number of a range that defines your
customized service.
End Port
This is a single port number or the ending port number of a range that defines your customized
service.
Modify
Click this to edit a customized service.
Add
Click this to configure a customized service.
OK
Click this to confirm and save your settings.
13.4.3 Customized Service Add/Edit
Use this screen to add a customized rule or edit an existing rule. Click Add or the Edit icon next to
a rule number in the Firewall Customized Services screen to display the following screen.
Figure 105 Security > Firewall > Rules: Edit: Edit Customized Services: Add/Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 60 Security > Firewall > Rules: Edit: Edit Customized Services: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Config
Service Name
Type a unique name for your custom port.
Service Type
Choose the IP port (TCP or UDP) that defines your customized port from the drop down list
box.
Port Configuration
Type
Click Single to specify one port only or Port Range to specify a span of ports that define
your customized service.
Port Number
Type a single port number or the range of port numbers that define your customized
service.
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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13.5 The DoS Screen
Use this screen to enable DoS protection. Click Security > Firewall > Dos to display the following
screen.
Figure 106 Security > Firewall > DoS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 61 Security > Firewall > DoS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Denial of Services
Enable this to protect against DoS attacks. The Device will drop sessions that surpass
maximum thresholds.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
Advanced
Click this to go to a screen to specify maximum thresholds at which the Device will start
dropping sessions.
13.5.1 The DoS Advanced Screen
For DoS attacks, the Device uses thresholds to determine when to start dropping sessions that do
not become fully established (half-open sessions). These thresholds apply globally to all sessions.
For TCP, half-open means that the session has not reached the established state-the TCP three-way
handshake has not yet been completed. Under normal circumstances, the application that initiates
a session sends a SYN (synchronize) packet to the receiving server. The receiver sends back an ACK
(acknowledgment) packet and its own SYN, and then the initiator responds with an ACK
(acknowledgment). After this handshake, a connection is established.
Figure 107 Three-Way Handshake
For UDP, half-open means that the firewall has detected no return traffic. An unusually high number
(or arrival rate) of half-open sessions could indicate a DOS attack.
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13.5.1.1 Threshold Values
If everything is working properly, you probably do not need to change the threshold settings as the
default threshold values should work for most small offices. Tune these parameters when you
believe the Device has been receiving DoS attacks that are not recorded in the logs or the logs
show that the Device is classifying normal traffic as DoS attacks. Factors influencing choices for
threshold values are:
1
The maximum number of opened sessions.
2
The minimum capacity of server backlog in your LAN network.
3
The CPU power of servers in your LAN network.
4
Network bandwidth.
5
Type of traffic for certain servers.
Reduce the threshold values if your network is slower than average for any of these factors
(especially if you have servers that are slow or handle many tasks and are often busy).
• If you often use P2P applications such as file sharing with eMule or eDonkey, it’s recommended
that you increase the threshold values since lots of sessions will be established during a small
period of time and the Device may classify them as DoS attacks.
13.5.2 Configuring Firewall Thresholds
Click Security > Firewall > DoS > Advanced to display the following screen.
Figure 108 Security > Firewall > DoS > Advanced
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 62 Security > Firewall > DoS > Advanced
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
TCP SYN-Request
Count
This is the rate of new TCP half-open sessions per second that causes the firewall to
start deleting half-open sessions. When the rate of new connection attempts rises
above this number, the Device deletes half-open sessions as required to
accommodate new connection attempts.
UDP Packet Count
This is the rate of new UDP half-open sessions per second that causes the firewall to
start deleting half-open sessions. When the rate of new connection attempts rises
above this number, the Device deletes half-open sessions as required to
accommodate new connection attempts.
ICMP Echo-Request
Count
This is the rate of new ICMP Echo-Request half-open sessions per second that causes
the firewall to start deleting half-open sessions. When the rate of new connection
attempts rises above this number, the Device deletes half-open sessions as required
to accommodate new connection attempts.
ICMP Redirect
Select Enable to monitor for and block ICMP redirect attacks.
An ICMP redirect attack is one where forged ICMP redirect messages can force the
client device to route packets for certain connections through an attacker’s host.
DoS Log(Log Level:
DEBUG)
Select Enable to log DoS attacks. See Chapter 16 on page 173 for information on
viewing logs.
Back
Click this button to return to the previous screen.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
13.6 Firewall Technical Reference
This section provides some technical background information about the topics covered in this
chapter.
13.6.1 Firewall Rules Overview
Your customized rules take precedence and override the Device’s default settings. The Device
checks the source IP address, destination IP address and IP protocol type of network traffic against
the firewall rules (in the order you list them). When the traffic matches a rule, the Device takes the
action specified in the rule.
Firewall rules are grouped based on the direction of travel of packets to which they apply:
• LAN to Router
• WAN to LAN
• LAN to WAN
• WAN to Router
Note: The LAN includes both the LAN port and the WLAN.
By default, the Device’s stateful packet inspection allows packets traveling in the following
directions:
• LAN to Router
These rules specify which computers on the LAN can manage the Device (remote management).
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Note: You can also configure the remote management settings to allow only a specific
computer to manage the Device.
• LAN to WAN
These rules specify which computers on the LAN can access which computers or services on the
WAN.
By default, the Device’s stateful packet inspection drops packets traveling in the following
directions:
• WAN to LAN
These rules specify which computers on the WAN can access which computers or services on the
LAN.
Note: You also need to configure NAT port forwarding (or full featured NAT address
mapping rules) to allow computers on the WAN to access devices on the LAN.
• WAN to Router
By default the Device stops computers on the WAN from managing the Device. You could
configure one of these rules to allow a WAN computer to manage the Device.
Note: You also need to configure the remote management settings to allow a WAN
computer to manage the Device.
You may define additional rules and sets or modify existing ones but please exercise extreme
caution in doing so.
For example, you may create rules to:
• Block certain types of traffic, such as IRC (Internet Relay Chat), from the LAN to the Internet.
• Allow certain types of traffic, such as Lotus Notes database synchronization, from specific hosts
on the Internet to specific hosts on the LAN.
• Allow everyone except your competitors to access a web server.
• Restrict use of certain protocols, such as Telnet, to authorized users on the LAN.
These custom rules work by comparing the source IP address, destination IP address and IP
protocol type of network traffic to rules set by the administrator. Your customized rules take
precedence and override the Device’s default rules.
13.6.2 Guidelines For Enhancing Security With Your Firewall
6
Change the default password via web configurator.
7
Think about access control before you connect to the network in any way.
8
Limit who can access your router.
9
Don't enable any local service (such as telnet or FTP) that you don't use. Any enabled service could
present a potential security risk. A determined hacker might be able to find creative ways to misuse
the enabled services to access the firewall or the network.
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10 For local services that are enabled, protect against misuse. Protect by configuring the services to
communicate only with specific peers, and protect by configuring rules to block packets for the
services at specific interfaces.
11 Protect against IP spoofing by making sure the firewall is active.
12 Keep the firewall in a secured (locked) room.
13.6.3 Security Considerations
Note: Incorrectly configuring the firewall may block valid access or introduce security
risks to the Device and your protected network. Use caution when creating or
deleting firewall rules and test your rules after you configure them.
Consider these security ramifications before creating a rule:
1
Does this rule stop LAN users from accessing critical resources on the Internet? For example, if IRC
is blocked, are there users that require this service?
2
Is it possible to modify the rule to be more specific? For example, if IRC is blocked for all users, will
a rule that blocks just certain users be more effective?
3
Does a rule that allows Internet users access to resources on the LAN create a security
vulnerability? For example, if FTP ports (TCP 20, 21) are allowed from the Internet to the LAN,
Internet users may be able to connect to computers with running FTP servers.
4
Does this rule conflict with any existing rules?
Once these questions have been answered, adding rules is simply a matter of entering the
information into the correct fields in the web configurator screens.
13.6.4 Triangle Route
When the firewall is on, your Device acts as a secure gateway between your LAN and the Internet.
In an ideal network topology, all incoming and outgoing network traffic passes through the Device
to protect your LAN against attacks.
Figure 109 Ideal Firewall Setup
LAN
WAN
1
2
13.6.4.1 The “Triangle Route” Problem
A traffic route is a path for sending or receiving data packets between two Ethernet devices. You
may have more than one connection to the Internet (through one or more ISPs). If an alternate
gateway is on the LAN (and its IP address is in the same subnet as the Device’s LAN IP address),
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the “triangle route” (also called asymmetrical route) problem may occur. The steps below describe
the “triangle route” problem.
1
A computer on the LAN initiates a connection by sending out a SYN packet to a receiving server on
the WAN.
2
The Device reroutes the SYN packet through Gateway A on the LAN to the WAN.
3
The reply from the WAN goes directly to the computer on the LAN without going through the
Device.
As a result, the Device resets the connection, as the connection has not been acknowledged.
Figure 110 “Triangle Route” Problem
WAN
LAN
1
ISP 1
3
2
ISP 2
A
13.6.4.2 Solving the “Triangle Route” Problem
If you have the Device allow triangle route sessions, traffic from the WAN can go directly to a LAN
computer without passing through the Device and its firewall protection.
Another solution is to use IP alias. IP alias allows you to partition your network into logical sections
over the same Ethernet interface. Your Device supports up to three logical LAN interfaces with the
Device being the gateway for each logical network.
It’s like having multiple LAN networks that actually use the same physical cables and ports. By
putting your LAN and Gateway A in different subnets, all returning network traffic must pass
through the Device to your LAN. The following steps describe such a scenario.
1
A computer on the LAN initiates a connection by sending a SYN packet to a receiving server on the
WAN.
2
The Device reroutes the packet to Gateway A, which is in Subnet 2.
3
The reply from the WAN goes to the Device.
4
The Device then sends it to the computer on the LAN in Subnet 1.
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Figure 111 IP Alias
Subnet 1
LAN
WAN
1
ISP 1
4
2
ISP 2
3
Subnet 2
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Parental Control
14.1 Overview
Parental control allows you to block web sites with the specific URL. You can also define time
periods and days during which the Device performs parental control on a specific user.
14.2 The Parental Control Screen
Use this screen to enable parental control, view the parental control rules and schedules.
Click Security > Parental Control to open the following screen.
Figure 112 Security > Parental Control
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 63 Security > Parental Control
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Parental Control
Use this field to activate or deactivate parental control.
Add new PCP
Click this to create a new parental control rule.
#
This is the index number of the rule.
Status
This indicates whether the rule is active or not.
A yellow bulb signifies that this rule is active. A gray bulb signifies that this rule is not
active.
PCP Name
This shows the name of the rule.
Home Network User
This shows the MAC address of the LAN user’s computer to which this rule applies.
Internet Access
Schedule
This shows the day(s) and time on which parental control is enabled.
Network Service
This shows whether the network service is configured. If not, None will be shown.
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Table 63 Security > Parental Control (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Website Blocked
This shows whether the website block is configured. If not, None will be shown.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the rule.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing rule.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
14.2.1 Add/Edit Parental Control Rule
Click Add new PCP in the Parental Control screen to add a new rule or click the Edit icon next to
an existing rule to edit it. Use this screen to configure a restricted access schedule and/or URL
filtering settings to block the users on your network from accessing certain web sites.
Figure 113 Add/Edit Parental Control Rule
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 64 Parental Control: Add/Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General
Active
Select the checkbox to activate this parental control rule.
Parental Control
Profile Name
Enter a descriptive name for the rule.
Home Network User
Select the LAN user that you want to apply this rule to from the drop-down list box. If
you select Custom, enter the LAN user’s MAC address. If you select All, the rule
applies to all LAN users.
Internet Access Schedule
Day
Select check boxes for the days that you want the Device to perform parental control.
Time of Day to Apply
Enter the starting and ending time that the LAN user is allowed access.
Network Service
Network Service
Setting
If you select Block, the Device prohibits the users from viewing the Web sites with the
URLs listed below.
If you select Access, the Device blocks access to all URLs except ones listed below.
Add new service
Click this to show a screen in which you can add a new service rule. You can configure
the Service Name, Protocol, and Name of the new rule.
Active
This shows whether a configured service is activated or not.
Service Name
This shows the name of the rule.
Protocol
This shows the protocol of the rule.
Port
This shows the port of the rule.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the rule.
Click the Delete icon to delete an existing rule.
Blocked Site/URL
Enter the URL of web sites or URL keywords to which the Device blocks access.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to exit this screen without saving.
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15
Certificates
15.1 Overview
The Device can use certificates (also called digital IDs) to authenticate users. Certificates are based
on public-private key pairs. A certificate contains the certificate owner’s identity and public key.
Certificates provide a way to exchange public keys for use in authentication.
15.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the Local Certificates screen to view and import the Device’s CA-signed certificates
(Section 15.3 on page 167).
• The Trusted CA screen lets you save the certificates of trusted CAs to the Device (Section 15.4
on page 169).
15.2 What You Need to Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read through this chapter.
Certification Authority
A Certification Authority (CA) issues certificates and guarantees the identity of each certificate
owner. There are commercial certification authorities like CyberTrust or VeriSign and government
certification authorities. The certification authority uses its private key to sign certificates. Anyone
can then use the certification authority's public key to verify the certificates. You can use the Device
to generate certification requests that contain identifying information and public keys and then send
the certification requests to a certification authority.
Certificate File Format
The certification authority certificate that you want to import has to be in one of these file formats:
• PEM (Base-64) encoded X.509: This Privacy Enhanced Mail format uses 64 ASCII characters to
convert a binary X.509 certificate into a printable form.
15.3 Local Certificates
Use this screen to view the Device’s summary list of certificates and certification requests. You can
import the following certificates to your Device:
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• Web Server - This certificate secures HTTP connections.
• SSH - This certificate secures remote connections.
Click Security > Certificates to open the Local Certificates screen.
Figure 114 Security > Certificates > Local Certificates
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 65 Security > Certificates > Local Certificates
168
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WebServer
Click Browse... to find the certificate file you want to upload.
Current File
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate. It is recommended that you
give each certificate a unique name.
Subject
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s owner, such as CN
(Common Name), OU (Organizational Unit or department), O (Organization or
company) and C (Country). It is recommended that each certificate have unique
subject information.
Issuer
This field displays identifying information about the certificate’s issuing certification
authority, such as a common name, organizational unit or department, organization or
company and country.
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The text displays in
red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the certificate has not yet become
applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays in red and
includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is about to expire or has
already expired.
Cert
Click this button and then Save in the File Download screen. The Save As screen
opens, browse to the location that you want to use and click Save.
SSH
Type in the location of the SSH certificate file you want to upload in this field or click
Browse to find it.
Current File
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate. It is recommended that you
give each certificate a unique name.
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Table 65 Security > Certificates > Local Certificates (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Key Type
This field applies to the SSH certificate.
This shows the file format of the current certificate.
Replace
Click this to replace the certificate(s) and save your changes back to the Device.
Reset
Click this to clear your settings.
15.4 The Trusted CA Screen
Use this screen to view a summary list of certificates of the certification authorities that you have
set the Device to accept as trusted. The Device accepts any valid certificate signed by a certification
authority on this list as being trustworthy; thus you do not need to import any certificate that is
signed by one of these certification authorities.
Click Security > Certificates > Trusted CA to open the Trusted CA screen.
Figure 115 Security > Certificates > Trusted CA
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 66 Security > Certificates > Trusted CA
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Import Certificate
Click this button to open a screen where you can save the certificate of a certification
authority that you trust to the Device.
Name
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate.
Subject
This field displays information that identifies the owner of the certificate, such as
Common Name (CN), OU (Organizational Unit or department), Organization (O), State
(ST) and Country (C). It is recommended that each certificate have unique subject
information.
Type
This field displays general information about the certificate. ca means that a
Certification Authority signed the certificate.
Action
Click View to open a screen with an in-depth list of information about the certificate.
Click Remove to delete the certificate.
15.5 Trusted CA Import
Click Import Certificate in the Trusted CA screen to open the Import Certificate screen. You
can save a trusted certification authority’s certificate to the Device.
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Note: You must remove any spaces from the certificate’s filename before you can import
the certificate.
Figure 116 Trusted CA > Import
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 67 Security > Certificates > Trusted CA > Import
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse to find it.
Browse
Click Browse to find the certificate file you want to upload.
Apply
Click Apply to save the certificate on the Device.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen.
15.6 View Certificate
Use this screen to view in-depth information about the certification authority’s certificate, change
the certificate’s name and set whether or not you want the Device to check a certification
authority’s list of revoked certificates before trusting a certificate issued by the certification
authority.
Click Security > Certificates > Trusted CA to open the Trusted CA screen. Click the View icon
to open the View Certificate screen.
Figure 117 Trusted CA: View
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 68 Trusted CA: View
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate Name
This field displays the identifying name of this certificate. If you want to change the
name, type up to 31 characters to identify this key certificate. You may use any
character (not including spaces).
Certificate Detail
This read-only text box displays the certificate or certification request in Privacy
Enhanced Mail (PEM) format. PEM uses 64 ASCII characters to convert the binary
certificate into a printable form.
You can copy and paste the certificate into an e-mail to send to friends or colleagues or
you can copy and paste the certificate into a text editor and save the file on a
management computer for later distribution (via floppy disk for example).
Back
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16
Log
16.1 Overview
The web configurator allows you to choose which categories of events and/or alerts to have the
Device log and then display the logs or have the Device send them to an administrator (as e-mail)
or to a syslog server.
16.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the Log screen to see the system logs for the categories that you select (Section 16.2 on
page 174).
16.1.2 What You Need To Know
The following terms and concepts may help as you read this chapter.
Alerts and Logs
An alert is a type of log that warrants more serious attention. They include system errors, attacks
(access control) and attempted access to blocked web sites. Some categories such as System
Errors consist of both logs and alerts. You may differentiate them by their color in the View Log
screen. Alerts display in red and logs display in black.
Syslog Overview
The syslog protocol allows devices to send event notification messages across an IP network to
syslog servers that collect the event messages. A syslog-enabled device can generate a syslog
message and send it to a syslog server.
Syslog is defined in RFC 3164. The RFC defines the packet format, content and system log related
information of syslog messages. Each syslog message has a facility and severity level. The syslog
facility identifies a file in the syslog server. Refer to the documentation of your syslog program for
details. The following table describes the syslog severity levels.
Table 69 Syslog Severity Levels
CODE
SEVERITY
0
Emergency: The system is unusable.
1
Alert: Action must be taken immediately.
2
Critical: The system condition is critical.
3
Error: There is an error condition on the system.
4
Warning: There is a warning condition on the system.
5
Notice: There is a normal but significant condition on the system.
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Table 69 Syslog Severity Levels
CODE
SEVERITY
6
Informational: The syslog contains an informational message.
7
Debug: The message is intended for debug-level purposes.
16.2 The System Log Screen
Click System Monitor > Log to open the System Log screen. Use the System Log screen to see
the system logs for the categories that you select in the upper left drop-down list box.
Figure 118 System Monitor > Log > System Log
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 70 System Monitor > Log > System Log
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LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Level
Select a severity level from the drop-down list box. This filters search results according to
the severity level you have selected. When you select a severity, the Device searches
through all logs of that severity or higher.
Refresh
Click this to renew the log screen.
Clear Logs
Click this to delete all the logs.
Export
Click this to download logs to a file on your computer.
Email Log Now
Click this to send logs to a specified e-mail address.
#
This field is a sequential value and is not associated with a specific entry.
Time
This field displays the time the log was recorded.
Level
This field displays the severity level of the logs that the device is to send to this syslog
server.
Message
This field states the reason for the log.
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17
Traffic Status
17.1 Overview
Use the Traffic Status screens to look at network traffic status and statistics of the WAN, LAN
interfaces and NAT.
17.1.1 What You Can Do in this Chapter
• Use the WAN screen to view the WAN traffic statistics (Section 17.2 on page 175) .
• Use the LAN screen to view the LAN traffic statistics (Section 17.3 on page 176).
• Use the NAT screen to view the NAT status of the Device’s client(s) (Section 17.4 on page 177).
17.2 The WAN Status Screen
Click System Monitor > Traffic Status to open the WAN screen. You can view the WAN traffic
statistics in this screen.
Figure 119 System Monitor > Traffic Status > WAN
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 71 System Monitor > Traffic Status > WAN
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Status
This shows the number of bytes received and sent through the WAN interface of the Device.
Refresh Interval
Enter how often you want the Device to update this screen from the drop-down list box.
Set Interval
Click this button to apply the new poll interval you entered in the Refresh Interval field.
Stop
Click Stop to stop refreshing statistics.
Connected
Interface
This shows the name of the WAN interface that is currently connected.
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Table 71 System Monitor > Traffic Status > WAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Packets Sent
Data
This indicates the number of transmitted packets on this interface.
Error
This indicates the number of frames with errors transmitted on this interface.
Drop
This indicates the number of outgoing packets dropped on this interface.
Packets Received
Data
This indicates the number of received packets on this interface.
Error
This indicates the number of frames with errors received on this interface.
Drop
This indicates the number of received packets dropped on this interface.
17.3 The LAN Status Screen
Click System Monitor > Traffic Status > LAN to open the following screen. You can view the LAN
traffic statistics in this screen.
Figure 120 System Monitor > Traffic Status > LAN
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 72 System Monitor > Traffic Status > LAN
176
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Refresh Interval(s)
Select how often you want the Device to update this screen from the drop-down list
box.
Set Interval
Click this button to apply the new poll interval you entered in the Refresh Interval
field.
Stop
Click Stop to stop refreshing statistics.
Interface
This shows the LAN or WLAN interface.
Bytes Sent
This indicates the number of bytes transmitted on this interface.
Bytes Received
This indicates the number of bytes received on this interface.
Interface
This shows the LAN or WLAN interface.
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Table 72 System Monitor > Traffic Status > LAN (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Sent (Packet)
Data
This indicates the number of transmitted packets on this interface.
Error
This indicates the number of frames with errors transmitted on this interface.
Drop
This indicates the number of outgoing packets dropped on this interface.
Received (Packet)
Data
This indicates the number of received packets on this interface.
Error
This indicates the number of frames with errors received on this interface.
Drop
This indicates the number of received packets dropped on this interface.
17.4 The NAT Screen
Click System Monitor > Traffic Status > NAT to open the following screen. You can view the NAT
status of the Device’s client(s) in this screen.
Figure 121 System Monitor > Traffic Status > NAT
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 73 System Monitor > Traffic Status > NAT
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Refresh Interval
Select how often you want the Device to update this screen from the drop-down list box.
Set Interval
Click this button to apply the new poll interval you entered in the Refresh Interval field.
Stop
Click Stop to stop refreshing statistics.
Device Name
This shows the name of the client.
IP Address
This shows the IP address of the client.
MAC Address
This shows the MAC address of the client.
No. of Open
Session
This shows the number of NAT sessions used by the client.
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18
User Account
18.1 Overview
You can configure system password for different user accounts in the User Account screen.
18.2 The User Account Screen
Use the User Account screen to configure system password.
Click Maintenance > User Account to open the following screen.
Figure 122 Maintenance > User Account
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 74 Maintenance > User Account
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
User Name
You can configure the password for the Power User and Admin accounts.
Old Password
Type the default password or the existing password you use to access the system in this
field.
New Password
Type your new system password (up to 30 characters). Note that as you type a password,
the screen displays a (*) for each character you type. After you change the password, use
the new password to access the Device.
Retype to
Confirm
Type the new password again for confirmation.
Enable Local
admin login
Select this to enable local adminstrator login.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
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19
System Setting
19.1 Overview
This chapter shows you how to configure the inactivity timeout interval.
19.2 The System Screen
Use this screen to configure system admin password.
Click Maintenance > System to open the screen as shown.
Figure 123 Maintenance > System
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 75 Maintenance > System
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Administrator
Inactivity Timer
Type how many seconds a management session (either via the web configurator) can be
left idle before the session times out and you have to log in again. Very long idle timeouts
may have security risks. A value of "0" means a management session never times out, no
matter how long it has been left idle (not recommended).
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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20
Time Setting
20.1 Overview
This chapter shows you how to configure the system time.
20.2 The Time Setting Screen
Use this screen to configure the Device’s time based on your local time zone. To change your
Device’s time and date, click Maintenance > System > Time. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 124 Maintenance > System > Time Setting
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 76 Maintenance > System > Time Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current Date/Time
Current Time
This field displays the time and date of your Device.
Each time you reload this page, the Device synchronizes the time and date with the
time server.
Time and Date Setup
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Table 76 Maintenance > System > Time Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Manual
Select this radio button to enter the time and date manually. If you configure a new
time and date, Time Zone and Daylight Saving at the same time, the new time and date
you entered has priority and the Time Zone and Daylight Saving settings do not affect
it.
Current Date/Time
This field displays the last updated time (in hh:mm:ss format) from the time server or
the last time configured manually.
When you set Time and Date Setup to Manual, enter the new time in this field and
then click Apply.
Current Time
This field displays the last updated date (in yyyy/mm/dd format) from the time server
or the last date configured manually.
When you set Time and Date Setup to Manual, enter the new date in this field and
then click Apply.
Get from Time
Server
Select this radio button to have the Device get the time and date from the time server
you specified below.
Time Server
Address 1/2
Enter the IP address or URL (up to 20 extended ASCII characters in length) of your time
server. Check with your ISP/network administrator if you are unsure of this information.
Time Zone Setup
Time Zone
Choose the time zone of your location. This will set the time difference between your
time zone and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Daylight Savings
Daylight saving is a period from late spring to early fall when many countries set their
clocks ahead of normal local time by one hour to give more daytime light in the
evening.
Select this option if you use Daylight Saving Time.
Start Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time starts if you selected Enable
Daylight Saving. The o'clock field uses the 24 hour format. Here are a couple of
examples:
Daylight Saving Time starts in most parts of the United States on the second Sunday of
March. Each time zone in the United States starts using Daylight Saving Time at 2 A.M.
local time. So in the United States you would select Second, Sunday, March and type
2 in the o'clock field.
Daylight Saving Time starts in the European Union on the last Sunday of March. All of
the time zones in the European Union start using Daylight Saving Time at the same
moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European Union you would select Last,
Sunday, March. The time you type in the o'clock field depends on your time zone. In
Germany for instance, you would type 2 because Germany's time zone is one hour
ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
End Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time ends if you selected Enable
Daylight Saving. The o'clock field uses the 24 hour format. Here are a couple of
examples:
Daylight Saving Time ends in the United States on the first Sunday of November. Each
time zone in the United States stops using Daylight Saving Time at 2 A.M. local time. So
in the United States you would select First, Sunday, November and type 2 in the
o'clock field.
Daylight Saving Time ends in the European Union on the last Sunday of October. All of
the time zones in the European Union stop using Daylight Saving Time at the same
moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in the European Union you would select Last,
Sunday, October. The time you type in the o'clock field depends on your time zone.
In Germany for instance, you would type 2 because Germany's time zone is one hour
ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
184
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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21
Log Setting
21.1 Overview
You can configure where the Device sends logs the Device records in the Log Setting screen.
21.2 The Log Setting Screen
To change your Device’s log settings, click Maintenance > Log Setting. The screen appears as
shown.
Figure 125 Maintenance > Log Setting
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 77 Maintenance > Log Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select the Active check box to enable logging.
Mode
Select the syslog destination from the drop-down list box.
If you select Local File, the log(s) will be saved in a local file. If you want to send the
log(s) to a remote syslog server and save it in a local file, select Local File and
Remote.
E-mail Log Settings (The following fields will display if you select Local File and Remote in the Mode field.)
SMTP
Authentication
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is the message-exchange standard for the
Internet. SMTP enables you to move messages from one E-mail server to another.
Select the check box to activate SMTP authentication. If mail server authentication is
needed but this feature is disabled, you will not receive the E-mail logs.
Mail Server
Enter the server name or the IP address of the mail server for the e-mail addresses
specified below. If this field is left blank, logs and alert messages will not be sent via Email.
Mail Subject
Type a title that you want to be in the subject line of the system log e-mail message
that the Device sends.
From
Specify where the logs are sent from.
To
The Device sends logs to the e-mail address specified in this field. If this field is left
blank, the Device does not send logs via E-mail.
User Name
Enter the user name (up to 32 characters) (usually the user name of a mail account).
Password
Enter the password associated with the user name above.
Log Schedule
Specify the schedule for sending log. Specify days and times for sending logs in the
following fields.
Day For Sending
Log
Specify the day for sending log.
Time for Sending
Log
Specify the time for sending log.
Clear log after
sending mail
Select this to delete all the logs after the Device sends an E-mail of the logs.
Syslog Settings (The following fields will display if you select Local File and Remote in the Mode field.)
Syslog Server IP
Address
Enter the server name or IP address of the syslog server that will log the selected
categories of logs.
Syslog Server UDP
Port
Enter the port number used by the syslog server.
Active Log and Alert
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Log Category
Select the categories of logs that you want to record.
Log Level
Select the log level. See Chapter 16 on page 173 for descriptions of log levels.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to restore your previously saved settings.
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22
Firmware Upgrade
22.1 Overview
This chapter explains how to upload new firmware to your Device. You can download new firmware
releases from your nearest ZyXEL FTP site (or www.zyxel.com) to use to upgrade your device’s
performance.
Only use firmware for your device’s specific model. Refer to the label on
the bottom of your Device.
22.2 The Firmware Screen
Click Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade to open the following screen. The upload process uses
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and may take up to two minutes. After a successful upload, the
system will reboot.
Do NOT turn off the Device while firmware upload is in progress!
Figure 126 Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 78 Maintenance > Firmware Upgrade
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current
Firmware
Version
This is the present Firmware version and the date created.
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse ... to find it.
Browse...
Click this to find the .bin file you want to upload. Remember that you must decompress
compressed (.zip) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click this to begin the upload process. This process may take up to two minutes.
After you see the firmware updating screen, wait two minutes before logging into the Device again.
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Figure 127 Firmware Uploading
The Device automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network disconnect. In some
operating systems, you may see the following icon on your desktop.
Figure 128 Network Temporarily Disconnected
After two minutes, log in again and check your new firmware version in the Status screen.
If the upload was not successful, the following screen will appear. Click OK to go back to the
Firmware Upgrade screen.
Figure 129 Error Message
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23
Backup/Restore
23.1 Overview
The Backup/Restore screen allows you to backup and restore device configurations. You can also
reset your device settings back to the factory default.
23.2 The Backup/Restore Screen
Click Maintenance > Backup/Restore. Information related to factory defaults, backup
configuration, and restoring configuration appears in this screen, as shown next.
Figure 130 Maintenance > Backup/Restore
Backup Configuration
Backup Configuration allows you to back up (save) the Device’s current configuration to a file on
your computer. Once your Device is configured and functioning properly, it is highly recommended
that you back up your configuration file before making configuration changes. The backup
configuration file will be useful in case you need to return to your previous settings.
Click Backup to save the Device’s current configuration to your computer.
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Restore Configuration
Restore Configuration allows you to upload a new or previously saved configuration file from your
computer to your Device.
Table 79 Restore Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse ... to find it.
Browse...
Click this to find the file you want to upload. Remember that you must decompress
compressed (.ZIP) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click this to begin the upload process.
Reset
Click this to reset your device settings back to the factory default.
Do not turn off the Device while configuration file upload is in progress.
After the Device configuration has been restored successfully, the login screen appears. Login again
to restart the Device.
The Device automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network disconnect. In some
operating systems, you may see the following icon on your desktop.
Figure 131 Network Temporarily Disconnected
If you restore the default configuration, you may need to change the IP address of your computer
to be in the same subnet as that of the default device IP address (192.168.1.254).
If the upload was not successful, an error screen will appear. Click OK to go back to the
Configuration screen.
Reset to Factory Defaults
Click the Reset button to clear all user-entered configuration information and return the Device to
its factory defaults. The following warning screen appears.
Figure 132 Reset Warning Message
Wait until the Device’s login screen appears. You can also press the RESET button on the rear panel
to reset the factory defaults of your Device. Refer to Section 1.5 on page 15 for more information
on the RESET button.
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23.3 The Reboot Screen
System restart allows you to reboot the Device remotely without turning the power off. You may
need to do this if the Device hangs, for example.
Click Maintenance > Reboot. Click the Reboot button to have the Device reboot. This does not
affect the Device's configuration.
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24
Remote Management
24.1 Overview
Remote management allows you to determine which services/protocols can access which Device
interface (if any) from which computers.
The following figure shows remote management of the Device coming in from the WAN.
Figure 133 Remote Management From the WAN
LAN
WAN
HTTP
Telnet
Note: When you configure remote management to allow management from the WAN, you
still need to configure a IP filter rule to allow access.
You may manage your Device from a remote location via:
• Internet (WAN only)
• LAN only
• LAN and WAN
• None (Disable)
To disable remote management of a service, select Disable in the corresponding Service Access
field.
24.1.1 What You Can Do in the Remote Management Screens
• Use the WWW screen (Section 24.2 on page 196) to configure through which interface(s) and
from which IP address(es) users can use HTTP to manage the Device.
• Use the Telnet screen (Section 24.3 on page 198) to configure through which interface(s) and
from which IP address(es) users can use Telnet to manage the Device.
• Use the FTP screen (Section 24.4 on page 199) to configure through which interface(s) and from
which IP address(es) users can use FTP to access the Device.
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• Your Device can act as an SNMP agent, which allows a manager station to manage and monitor
the Device through the network. Use the SNMP screen (see Section 24.5 on page 199) to
configure through which interface(s) and from which IP address(es) users can use SNMP to
access the Device.
• Use the DNS screen (Section 24.6 on page 201) to configure through which interface(s) and
from which IP address(es) users can send DNS queries to the Device.
• Use the ICMP screen (Section 24.7 on page 202) to set whether or not your Device will respond
to pings and probes for services that you have not made available.
• Use the SSH screen (Section 24.8 on page 203) to configure through which interface(s) and from
which IP address(es) users can use SSH to manage the Device.
24.1.2 What You Need to Know About Remote Management
Remote Management Limitations
• Remote management does not work when:
• You have not enabled that service on the interface in the corresponding remote management
screen.
• You have disabled that service in one of the remote management screens.
• The IP address in the Secured Client IP Address field does not match the client IP address. If
it does not match, the Device will disconnect the session immediately.
• There is a firewall rule that blocks it.
Remote Management and NAT
When NAT is enabled:
• Use the Device’s WAN IP address when configuring from the WAN.
• Use the Device’s LAN IP address when configuring from the LAN.
24.2 The WWW Screen
Use this screen to specify how to connect to the Device from a web browser, such as Internet
Explorer.
24.2.1 Configuring the WWW Screen
Click Maintenance > RemoteMGMT to display the WWW screen.
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Figure 134 Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > WWW
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 80 Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > WWW
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
This displays the service port number for accessing the Device using HTTP or HTTPS. If
the number is grayed out, it is not editable.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the Device using this
service.
Note: It is recommended if you are allowing WAN access even temporarily to change the
default password (in Maintenance > User Account). To allow access from the
WAN, you will need to configure a WAN to Router firewall rule. See Section 3.7 on
page 34 for information on configuring firewall rules.
Secured Client IP
Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the Device
using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the Device using this service.
Choose Range to just allow the computer(s) with an IP address in the range that you
specify to access the Device using this service.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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24.3 The Telnet Screen
You can use Telnet to access the Device’s command line interface. Specify which interfaces allow
Telnet access and from which IP address the access can come.
Click Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > Telnet tab to display the screen as shown.
Figure 135 Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > Telnet
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 81 Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > Telnet
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
This displays the service port number for accessing the Device. If the number is grayed
out, it is not editable.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the Device using this
service.
Note: It is recommended if you are allowing WAN access even temporarily to change the
default password (in Maintenance > User Account). To allow access from the
WAN, you will need to configure a WAN to Router firewall rule. See Section 3.7 on
page 34 for information on configuring firewall rules.
Secured Client IP
Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the Device
using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the Device using this service.
Choose Range to just allow the computer(s) with an IP address in the range that you
specify to access the Device using this service.
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Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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24.4 The FTP Screen
You can use FTP (File Transfer Protocol) to upload and download the Device’s firmware and
configuration files. Please see the User’s Guide chapter on firmware and configuration file
maintenance for details. To use this feature, your computer must have an FTP client.
Use this screen to specify which interfaces allow FTP access and from which IP address the access
can come. To change your Device’s FTP settings, click Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > FTP. The
screen appears as shown.
Figure 136 Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > FTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 82 Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > FTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
This displays the service port number for accessing the Device. If the number is grayed
out, it is not editable.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the Device using this
service.
Secured Client IP
Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the Device
using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the Device using this service.
Choose Range to just allow the computer(s) with an IP address in the range that you
specify to access the Device using this service.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
24.5 The SNMP Screen
Simple Network Management Protocol is a protocol used for exchanging management information
between network devices. Your Device supports SNMP agent functionality, which allows a manager
station to manage and monitor the Device through the network. The Device supports SNMP version
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one (SNMPv1) and version two (SNMPv2c). The next figure illustrates an SNMP management
operation.
Figure 137 SNMP Management Model
An SNMP managed network consists of two main types of component: agents and a manager.
An agent is a management software module that resides in a managed device (the Device). An
agent translates the local management information from the managed device into a form
compatible with SNMP. The manager is the console through which network administrators perform
network management functions. It executes applications that control and monitor managed
devices.
The managed devices contain object variables/managed objects that define each piece of
information to be collected about a device. Examples of variables include such as number of
packets received, node port status etc. A Management Information Base (MIB) is a collection of
managed objects. SNMP allows a manager and agents to communicate for the purpose of accessing
these objects.
24.5.1 Configuring SNMP
To change your Device’s SNMP settings, click Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > SNMP tab. The
screen appears as shown.
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Figure 138 Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > SNMP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 83 Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > SNMP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
This displays the port the SNMP agent listens on. If the number is grayed out, it is not
editable.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the Device using this
service.
Secured Client IP
Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to access the SNMP agent on the
Device.
Select All to allow any computer to access the SNMP agent.
Choose Range to just allow the computer(s) with an IP address in the range that you
specify to access the Device using this service.
Get Community
Enter the Get Community, which is the password for the incoming Get and GetNext
requests from the management station. The default is public and allows all requests.
Set Community
Enter the Set community, which is the password for incoming Set requests from the
management station. The default is public and allows all requests.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
24.6 The DNS Screen
Use DNS (Domain Name System) to map a domain name to its corresponding IP address and vice
versa.
Use this screen to set from which IP address the Device will accept DNS queries and on which
interface it can send them your Device’s DNS settings. This feature is not available when the Device
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is set to bridge mode. Click Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > DNS to change your Device’s DNS
settings.
Figure 139 Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > DNS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 84 Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > DNS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
This displays the service port number for accessing the Device. If the number is grayed
out, it is not editable.
Access Status
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may send DNS queries to the Device.
Secured Client IP
Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to send DNS queries to the
Device.
Select All to allow any computer to send DNS queries to the Device.
Choose Range to just allow the computer(s) with an IP address in the range that you
specify to send DNS queries to the Device.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
24.7 The ICMP Screen
To change your Device’s security settings, click Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > ICMP. The
screen appears as shown.
If an outside user attempts to probe an unsupported port on your Device, an ICMP response packet
is automatically returned. This allows the outside user to know the Device exists. Your Device
supports anti-probing, which prevents the ICMP response packet from being sent. This keeps
outsiders from discovering your Device when unsupported ports are probed.
Note: If you want your device to respond to pings and requests for unauthorized services,
you will also need to configure the firewall accordingly by disabling SPI.
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Figure 140 Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > ICMP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 85 Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > ICMP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Respond to Ping on
The Device will not respond to any incoming Ping requests when Disable is selected.
Select LAN to reply to incoming LAN Ping requests. Select WAN to reply to incoming
WAN Ping requests. Otherwise select LAN & WAN to reply to both incoming LAN and
WAN Ping requests.
Secured Client IP
Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to send Ping requests to the
Device.
Select All to allow any computer to send Ping requests to the Device.
Choose Range to just allow the computer(s) with an IP address in the range that you
specify to send Ping requests to the Device.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
24.8 The SSH Screen
You can use Secure SHell (SSH) to securely access the Device’s command line interface. Specify
which interfaces allow SSH access and from which IP address the access can come. SSH is a secure
communication protocol that combines authentication and data encryption to provide secure
encrypted communication between two hosts over an unsecured network.
Click Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > SSH tab to display the screen as shown.
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Figure 141 Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > SSH
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 86 Maintenance > RemoteMGMT > SSH
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Server Port
This displays the service port number for accessing the Device. If the number is grayed
out, it is not editable.
Server Access
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the Device using this
service.
Note: It is recommended if you are allowing WAN access even temporarily to change the
default password (in Maintenance > User Account). To allow access from the
WAN, you will need to configure a WAN to Router firewall rule. See Section 3.7 on
page 34 for information on configuring firewall rules.
Secured Client IP
Address
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate with the Device
using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the Device using this service.
Choose Range to just allow the computer(s) with an IP address in the range that you
specify to access the Device using this service.
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Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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25
Diagnostic
25.1 Overview
These read-only screens display information to help you identify problems with the Device.
25.1.1 What You Can Do in the Diagnostic Screens
• Use the Ping screen (Section 25.2 on page 205) to ping an IP address.
• Use the DSL Line screen (Section 25.3 on page 206) to view the DSL line statistics and reset the
ADSL line.
25.2 The General Screen
Use this screen to ping an IP address. Click Maintenance > Diagnostic > Ping to open the screen
shown next.
Figure 142 Maintenance > Diagnostic > Ping
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 87 Maintenance > Diagnostic > Ping
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Ping
Click this to ping the IP address that you entered.
PingV6
Click this to ping the IPv6 address that you entered.
Type the IP address of a computer that you want to ping in order to test a connection.
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Table 87 Maintenance > Diagnostic > Ping (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
TracerouteV6
Click this to display the route path and transmission delays between the Device to the IPv6
address that you entered.
TracerouteV4
Click this to display the route path and transmission delays between the Device to the IPv4
address that you entered.
25.3 The DSL Line Screen
Use this screen to view the DSL line statistics and reset the ADSL line. Click Maintenance >
Diagnostic > DSL Line to open the screen shown next.
Figure 143 Maintenance > Diagnostic > DSL Line
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 88 Maintenance > Diagnostic > DSL Line
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ATM Status
Click this to view your DSL connection’s Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) statistics.
ATM is a networking technology that provides high-speed data transfer. ATM uses fixedsize packets of information called cells. With ATM, a high QoS (Quality of Service) can be
guaranteed.
The (Segmentation and Reassembly) SAR driver translates packets into ATM cells. It also
receives ATM cells and reassembles them into packets.
These counters are set back to zero whenever the device starts up.
inPkts is the number of good ATM cells that have been received.
inDiscards is the number of received ATM cells that were rejected.
inF4Pkts is the number of ATM Operations, Administration, and Management (OAM) F4
cells that have been received. See ITU recommendation I.610 for more on OAM for ATM.
inF5Pkts is the number of ATM OAM F5 cells that have been received.
outPkts is the number of ATM cells that have been sent.
outDiscards is the number of ATM cells sent that were rejected.
outF4Pkts is the number of ATM OAM F4 cells that have been sent.
outF5Pkts is the number of ATM OAM F5 cells that have been sent.
ATM Loopback
Test
Click this to start the ATM loopback test. Make sure you have configured at least one PVC
with proper VPIs/VCIs before you begin this test. The Device sends an OAM F5 packet to
the DSLAM/ATM switch and then returns it (loops it back) to the Device. The ATM
loopback test is useful for troubleshooting problems with the DSLAM and ATM network.
DSL Line Status
Click this to view statistics about the DSL connections.
noise margin downstream is the signal to noise ratio for the downstream part of the
connection (coming into the Device from the ISP). It is measured in decibels. The higher
the number the more signal and less noise there is.
output power upstream is the amount of power (in decibels) that the Device is using to
transmit to the ISP.
attenuation downstream is the reduction in amplitude (in decibels) of the DSL signal
coming into the Device from the ISP.
Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT) modulation divides up a line’s bandwidth into sub-carriers
(sub-channels) of 4.3125 KHz each called tones. The rest of the display is the line’s bit
allocation. This is displayed as the number (in hexadecimal format) of bits transmitted for
each tone. This can be used to determine the quality of the connection, whether a given
sub-carrier loop has sufficient margins to support certain ADSL transmission rates, and
possibly to determine whether particular specific types of interference or line attenuation
exist. Refer to the ITU-T G.992.1 recommendation for more information on DMT.
The better (or shorter) the line, the higher the number of bits transmitted for a DMT tone.
The maximum number of bits that can be transmitted per DMT tone is 15. There will be
some tones without any bits as there has to be space between the upstream and
downstream channels.
Reset ADSL Line
Click this to reinitialize the ADSL line. The large text box above then displays the progress
and results of this operation, for example:
"Start to reset ADSL
Loading ADSL modem F/W...
Reset ADSL Line Successfully!"
WAN Connection
Test
Click this to check your WAN connection status of DSL, ATM, Ethernet PPPoE, IP, and
Pinging.
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26
Troubleshooting
This chapter offers some suggestions to solve problems you might encounter. The potential
problems are divided into the following categories.
• Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
• Device Access and Login
• Internet Access
26.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
The Device does not turn on. None of the LEDs turn on.
1
Make sure the Device is turned on.
2
Make sure you are using the power adaptor or cord included with the Device.
3
Make sure the power adaptor or cord is connected to the Device and plugged in to an appropriate
power source. Make sure the power source is turned on.
4
Turn the Device off and on.
5
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
One of the LEDs does not behave as expected.
1
Make sure you understand the normal behavior of the LED. See Section 27.1 on page 213.
2
Check the hardware connections.
3
Inspect your cables for damage. Contact the vendor to replace any damaged cables.
4
Turn the Device off and on.
5
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
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26.2 Device Access and Login
I forgot the IP address for the Device.
1
The default IP address is 192.168.1.254.
2
If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, you might get the IP address of the Device by
looking up the IP address of the default gateway for your computer. To do this in most Windows
computers, click Start > Run, enter cmd, and then enter ipconfig. The IP address of the Default
Gateway might be the IP address of the Device (it depends on the network), so enter this IP
address in your Internet browser.
3
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 1.5 on page
15.
I forgot the password.
1
The default admin user name and password can be found on the cover of this User’s Guide.
2
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 1.5 on page
15.
I cannot see or access the Login screen for the web configurator.
1
Make sure you are using the correct IP address.
• The default IP address is 192.168.1.254.
• If you changed the IP address (Section 6.2 on page 79), use the new IP address.
• If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, see the troubleshooting suggestions for I
forgot the IP address for the Device.
2
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected.
3
Make sure your Internet browser does not block pop-up windows and has JavaScripts and Java
enabled.
4
Reset the device to its factory defaults, and try to access the Device with the default IP address.
See Section 1.5 on page 15.
5
If the problem continues, contact the network administrator or vendor, or try one of the advanced
suggestions.
Advanced Suggestions
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• Try to access the Device using another service, such as Telnet. If you can access the Device,
check the remote management settings and firewall rules to find out why the Device does not
respond to HTTP.
• If your computer is connected to the DSL port or is connected wirelessly, use a computer that is
connected to a ETHERNET port.
I can see the Login screen, but I cannot log in to the Device.
1
Make sure you have entered the password correctly. The default user and default admin password
can be found on the cover page of this User’s Guide. The field is case-sensitive, so make sure [Caps
Lock] is not on.
2
You cannot log in to the web configurator while someone is using Telnet to access the Device. Log
out of the Device in the other session, or ask the person who is logged in to log out.
3
Turn the Device off and on.
4
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See Section 1.5 on page
15.
I cannot Telnet to the Device.
See the troubleshooting suggestions for I cannot see or access the Login screen for the web
configurator. Ignore the suggestions about your browser.
I cannot use FTP to upload / download the configuration file. / I cannot use FTP to upload
new firmware.
See the troubleshooting suggestions for I cannot see or access the Login screen for the web
configurator. Ignore the suggestions about your browser.
26.3 Internet Access
I cannot access the Internet.
1
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected. See the Quick
Start Guide and Section 27.1 on page 213.
2
Make sure you entered your ISP account information correctly in the wizard. These fields are casesensitive, so make sure [Caps Lock] is not on.
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3
If you are trying to access the Internet wirelessly, make sure the wireless settings in the wireless
client are the same as the settings in the AP.
4
If you are trying to access the Internet wirelessly, make sure you enabled the wireless LAN and
have selected the correct country and channel in which your Device operates in the Wireless LAN
> AP screen.
5
Disconnect all the cables from your device, and follow the directions in the Quick Start Guide again.
6
If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
I cannot access the Internet anymore. I had access to the Internet (with the Device), but my
Internet connection is not available anymore.
1
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as expected.
2
Turn the Device off and on.
3
If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
The Internet connection is slow or intermittent.
1
There might be a lot of traffic on the network. Look at the LEDs, and check Section 27.1 on page
213. If the Device is sending or receiving a lot of information, try closing some programs that use
the Internet, especially peer-to-peer applications.
2
Check the signal strength. If the signal strength is low, try moving your computer closer to the
Device if possible, and look around to see if there are any devices that might be interfering with the
wireless network (for example, microwaves, other wireless networks, and so on).
3
Turn the Device off and on.
4
If the problem continues, contact the network administrator or vendor, or try one of the advanced
suggestions.
Advanced Suggestions
• Check the settings for QoS. If it is disabled, you might consider activating it. If it is enabled, you
might consider raising or lowering the priority for some applications.
212
ericom D1000 modem User’s Guide
C HAPTER
27
LED Descriptions
27.1 LED Descriptions
Table 89 LED Descriptions
LED
COLOR
USB
Green
POWER
WiFi
DSL
INTERNET
DESCRIPTION
On
The Device recognizes a USB connection through the USB slot.
Blinking
The Device is sending/receiving data to /from the USB device
connected to it.
On
The Device is receiving power and ready for use.
Blinking
The Device is self-testing.
On
The Device detected an error while self-testing, or there is a
device malfunction.
Off
The Device is not receiving power.
On
The Device has an Ethernet connection with a device on the Local
Area Network (LAN).
Blinking
The Device is sending/receiving data to /from the LAN.
Off
The Device does not have an Ethernet connection with the LAN.
Green
On
The wireless network is activated.
Blinking
The Device is communicating with other wireless clients.
Orange
Blinking
The Device is setting up a WPS connection.
Off
The wireless network is not activated.
On
The DSL line is up.
Green
Red
ETHERNET 1-4
STATUS
Green
Green
Green
Blinking
The Device is initializing the DSL line.
Off
The DSL line is down.
On
The Device has an IP connection but no traffic.
Your device has a WAN IP address (either static or assigned by a
DHCP server), PPP negotiation was successfully completed (if
used) and the DSL connection is up.
Red
ericom D1000 modem User’s Guide
Blinking
The Device is sending or receiving IP traffic.
On
The Device attempted to make an IP connection but failed.
Possible causes are no response from a DHCP server, no PPPoE
response, PPPoE authentication failed.
Off
The Device does not have an IP connection.
213
Chapter 27 LED Descriptions
214
ericom D1000 modem User’s Guide
A PPENDIX
A
Legal Information
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 by ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, translated into
any language, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, chemical, photocopying, manual, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Published by ZyXEL Communications Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
ZyXEL does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any products, or software described herein. Neither does it
convey any license under its patent rights nor the patent rights of others. ZyXEL further reserves the right to make changes in any
products described herein without notice. This publication is subject to change without notice.
Trademarks
Trademarks mentioned in this publication are used for identification purposes only and may be properties of their respective owners.
Viewing Certifications
Go to http://www.zyxel.com to view this product’s documentation and certifications.
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
ZyXEL warrants to the original end user (purchaser) that this product is free from any defects in material or workmanship for a specific
period (the Warranty Period) from the date of purchase. The Warranty Period varies by region. Check with your vendor and/or the
authorized ZyXEL local distributor for details about the Warranty Period of this product. During the warranty period, and upon proof of
purchase, should the product have indications of failure due to faulty workmanship and/or materials, ZyXEL will, at its discretion, repair or
replace the defective products or components without charge for either parts or labor, and to whatever extent it shall deem necessary to
restore the product or components to proper operating condition. Any replacement will consist of a new or re-manufactured functionally
equivalent product of equal or higher value, and will be solely at the discretion of ZyXEL. This warranty shall not apply if the product has
been modified, misused, tampered with, damaged by an act of God, or subjected to abnormal working conditions.
Note
Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of the purchaser. This warranty is in lieu of all other
warranties, express or implied, including any implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. ZyXEL shall in
no event be held liable for indirect or consequential damages of any kind to the purchaser.
To obtain the services of this warranty, contact your vendor. You may also refer to the warranty policy for the region in which you bought
the device at http://www.zyxel.com/web/support_warranty_info.php.
Registration
Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades and information at www.zyxel.com for global products, or at
www.us.zyxel.com for North American products.
Open Source Licenses
This product contains in part some free software distributed under GPL license terms and/or GPL like licenses. Open source licenses are
provided with the firmware package. You can download the latest firmware at www.zyxel.com. To obtain the source code covered under
those Licenses, please contact support@zyxel.com.tw to get it.
Regulatory Information
European Union
The following information applies if you use the product within the European Union.
Declaration of Conformity with Regard to EU Directive 1999/5/EC (R&TTE Directive)
Compliance Information for 2.4GHz and 5GHz Wireless Products Relevant to the EU and Other Countries Following the EU Directive 1999/5/EC
(R&TTE Directive)
[Czech]
ZyXEL tímto prohlašuje, že tento zařízení je ve shodě se základními požadavky a dalšími příslušnými ustanoveními
směrnice 1999/5/EC.
[Danish]
Undertegnede ZyXEL erklærer herved, at følgende udstyr udstyr overholder de væsentlige krav og øvrige relevante
krav i direktiv 1999/5/EF.
ericom D1000 modem User’s Guide
215
Appendix A Legal Information
[German]
Hiermit erklärt ZyXEL, dass sich das Gerät Ausstattung in Übereinstimmung mit den grundlegenden Anforderungen
und den übrigen einschlägigen Bestimmungen der Richtlinie 1999/5/EU befindet.
[Estonian]
Käesolevaga kinnitab ZyXEL seadme seadmed vastavust direktiivi 1999/5/EÜ põhinõuetele ja nimetatud direktiivist
tulenevatele teistele asjakohastele sätetele.
English
Hereby, ZyXEL declares that this equipment is in compliance with the essential requirements and other relevant
provisions of Directive 1999/5/EC.
[Spanish]
Por medio de la presente ZyXEL declara que el equipo cumple con los requisitos esenciales y cualesquiera otras
disposiciones aplicables o exigibles de la Directiva 1999/5/CE.
[Greek]
ΜΕ ΤΗΝ ΠΑΡΟΥΣΑ ZyXEL ΔΗΛΩΝΕΙ ΟΤΙ εξοπλισμός ΣΥΜΜΟΡΦΩΝΕΤΑΙ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΙΣ ΟΥΣΙΩΔΕΙΣ ΑΠΑΙΤΗΣΕΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΙΣ
ΛΟΙΠΕΣ ΣΧΕΤΙΚΕΣ ΔΙΑΤΑΞΕΙΣ ΤΗΣ ΟΔΗΓΙΑΣ 1999/5/ΕC.
[Italian]
Con la presente ZyXEL dichiara che questo attrezzatura è conforme ai requisiti essenziali ed alle altre disposizioni
pertinenti stabilite dalla direttiva 1999/5/CE.
[Latvian]
Ar šo ZyXEL deklarē, ka iekārtas atbilst Direktīvas 1999/5/EK būtiskajām prasībām un citiem ar to saistītajiem
noteikumiem.
[Lithuanian]
Šiuo ZyXEL deklaruoja, kad šis įranga atitinka esminius reikalavimus ir kitas 1999/5/EB Direktyvos nuostatas.
[Dutch]
Hierbij verklaart ZyXEL dat het toestel uitrusting in overeenstemming is met de essentiële eisen en de andere
relevante bepalingen van richtlijn 1999/5/EC.
[Maltese]
Hawnhekk, ZyXEL, jiddikjara li dan tagħmir jikkonforma mal-ħtiġijiet essenzjali u ma provvedimenti oħrajn relevanti li
hemm fid-Dirrettiva 1999/5/EC.
[Hungarian]
Alulírott, ZyXEL nyilatkozom, hogy a berendezés megfelel a vonatkozó alapvetõ követelményeknek és az 1999/5/EK
irányelv egyéb elõírásainak.
[Polish]
Niniejszym ZyXEL oświadcza, że sprzęt jest zgodny z zasadniczymi wymogami oraz pozostałymi stosownymi
postanowieniami Dyrektywy 1999/5/EC.
[Portuguese]
ZyXEL declara que este equipamento está conforme com os requisitos essenciais e outras disposições da Directiva
1999/5/EC.
[Slovenian]
ZyXEL izjavlja, da je ta oprema v skladu z bistvenimi zahtevami in ostalimi relevantnimi določili direktive 1999/5/EC.
[Slovak]
ZyXEL týmto vyhlasuje, že zariadenia spĺňa základné požiadavky a všetky príslušné ustanovenia Smernice 1999/5/EC.
[Finnish]
ZyXEL vakuuttaa täten että laitteet tyyppinen laite on direktiivin 1999/5/EY oleellisten vaatimusten ja sitä koskevien
direktiivin muiden ehtojen mukainen.
[Swedish]
Härmed intygar ZyXEL att denna utrustning står I överensstämmelse med de väsentliga egenskapskrav och övriga
relevanta bestämmelser som framgår av direktiv 1999/5/EC.
[Bulgarian]
С настоящото ZyXEL декларира, че това оборудване е в съответствие със съществените изисквания и другите
приложими разпоредбите на Директива 1999/5/ЕC.
[Icelandic]
Hér með lýsir, ZyXEL því yfir að þessi búnaður er í samræmi við grunnkröfur og önnur viðeigandi ákvæði tilskipunar
1999/5/EC.
[Norwegian]
Erklærer herved ZyXEL at dette utstyret er I samsvar med de grunnleggende kravene og andre relevante
bestemmelser I direktiv 1999/5/EF.
[Romanian]
Prin prezenta, ZyXEL declară că acest echipament este în conformitate cu cerinţele esenţiale şi alte prevederi
relevante ale Directivei 1999/5/EC.
National Restrictions
This product may be used in all EU countries (and other countries following the EU directive 1999/5/EC) without any limitation except for
the countries mentioned below:
Ce produit peut être utilisé dans tous les pays de l’UE (et dans tous les pays ayant transposés la directive 1999/5/CE) sans aucune
limitation, excepté pour les pays mentionnés ci-dessous:
Questo prodotto è utilizzabile in tutte i paesi EU (ed in tutti gli altri paesi che seguono le direttive EU 1999/5/EC) senza nessuna
limitazione, eccetto per i paesii menzionati di seguito:
Das Produkt kann in allen EU Staaten ohne Einschränkungen eingesetzt werden (sowie in anderen Staaten die der EU Direktive 1995/5/CE
folgen) mit Außnahme der folgenden aufgeführten Staaten:
In the majority of the EU and other European countries, the 2, 4- and 5-GHz bands have been made available for the use of wireless local
area networks (LANs). Later in this document you will find an overview of countries inwhich additional restrictions or requirements or both
are applicable.
The requirements for any country may evolve. ZyXEL recommends that you check with the local authorities for the latest status of their
national regulations for both the 2,4- and 5-GHz wireless LANs.
216
ericom D1000 modem User’s Guide
Appendix A Legal Information
The following countries have restrictions and/or requirements in addition to those given in the table labeled “Overview of Regulatory
Requirements for Wireless LANs”:.
Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Wireless LANs
Frequency Band (MHz)
Max Power Level
(EIRP)1 (mW)
2400-2483.5
100
5150-5350
200
5470-5725
1000
Indoor ONLY
Indoor and Outdoor
V
V
V
Belgium
The Belgian Institute for Postal Services and Telecommunications (BIPT) must be notified of any outdoor wireless link having a range
exceeding 300 meters. Please check http://www.bipt.be for more details.
Draadloze verbindingen voor buitengebruik en met een reikwijdte van meer dan 300 meter dienen aangemeld te worden bij het Belgisch
Instituut voor postdiensten en telecommunicatie (BIPT). Zie http://www.bipt.be voor meer gegevens.
Les liaisons sans fil pour une utilisation en extérieur d’une distance supérieure à 300 mètres doivent être notifiées à l’Institut Belge des
services Postaux et des Télécommunications (IBPT). Visitez http://www.ibpt.be pour de plus amples détails.
Denmark
In Denmark, the band 5150 - 5350 MHz is also allowed for outdoor usage.
I Danmark må frekvensbåndet 5150 - 5350 også anvendes udendørs.
France
For 2.4 GHz, the output power is restricted to 10 mW EIRP when the product is used outdoors in the band 2454 - 2483.5 MHz. There are
no restrictions when used indoors or in other parts of the 2.4 GHz band. Check http://www.arcep.fr/ for more details.
Pour la bande 2.4 GHz, la puissance est limitée à 10 mW en p.i.r.e. pour les équipements utilisés en extérieur dans la bande 2454 2483.5 MHz. Il n'y a pas de restrictions pour des utilisations en intérieur ou dans d'autres parties de la bande 2.4 GHz. Consultez http://
www.arcep.fr/ pour de plus amples détails.
R&TTE 1999/5/EC
WLAN 2.4 – 2.4835 GHz
IEEE 802.11 b/g/n
Location
Frequency Range (GHz)
Power (EIRP)
Indoor (No restrictions)
2.4 – 2.4835
100mW (20dBm)
Outdoor
2.4 – 2.454
100mW (20dBm)
2.454 – 2.4835
10mW (10dBm)
Italy
This product meets the National Radio Interface and the requirements specified in the National Frequency Allocation Table for Italy. Unless
this wireless LAN product is operating within the boundaries of the owner's property, its use requires a “general authorization.” Please
check http://www.sviluppoeconomico.gov.it/ for more details.
Questo prodotto è conforme alla specifiche di Interfaccia Radio Nazionali e rispetta il Piano Nazionale di ripartizione delle frequenze in
Italia. Se non viene installato all 'interno del proprio fondo, l'utilizzo di prodotti Wireless LAN richiede una “Autorizzazione Generale”.
Consultare http://www.sviluppoeconomico.gov.it/ per maggiori dettagli.
Latvia
The outdoor usage of the 2.4 GHz band requires an authorization from the Electronic Communications Office. Please check http://
www.esd.lv for more details.
2.4 GHz frekvenèu joslas izmantoðanai ârpus telpâm nepiecieðama atïauja no Elektronisko sakaru direkcijas. Vairâk informâcijas: http://www.esd.lv.
Notes:
1. Although Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein are not EU member states, the EU Directive 1999/5/EC has also been implemented in
those countries.
2. The regulatory limits for maximum output power are specified in EIRP. The EIRP level (in dBm) of a device can be calculated by adding
the gain of the antenna used(specified in dBi) to the output power available at the connector (specified in dBm).
ericom D1000 modem User’s Guide
217
Appendix A Legal Information
List of national codes
COUNTRY
ISO 3166 2 LETTER CODE
COUNTRY
ISO 3166 2 LETTER CODE
Austria
AT
Malta
MT
Belgium
BE
Netherlands
NL
Cyprus
CY
Poland
PL
PT
Czech Republic
CR
Portugal
Denmark
DK
Slovakia
SK
Estonia
EE
Slovenia
SI
Finland
FI
Spain
ES
France
FR
Sweden
SE
Germany
DE
United Kingdom
GB
Greece
GR
Iceland
IS
Hungary
HU
Liechtenstein
LI
Ireland
IE
Norway
NO
Italy
IT
Switzerland
CH
Latvia
LV
Bulgaria
BG
Lithuania
LT
Romania
RO
Luxembourg
LU
Turkey
TR
Safety Warnings
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Do NOT use this product near water, for example, in a wet basement or near a swimming pool.
Do NOT expose your device to dampness, dust or corrosive liquids.
Do NOT store things on the device.
Do NOT install, use, or service this device during a thunderstorm. There is a remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
Connect ONLY suitable accessories to the device.
Do NOT open the device or unit. Opening or removing covers can expose you to dangerous high voltage points or other risks. ONLY
qualified service personnel should service or disassemble this device. Please contact your vendor for further information.Make sure to
connect the cables to the correct ports.
Place connecting cables carefully so that no one will step on them or stumble over them.
Always disconnect all cables from this device before servicing or disassembling.
Use ONLY an appropriate power adaptor or cord for your device. Connect it to the right supply voltage (for example, 110V AC in North
America or 230V AC in Europe).
Do NOT allow anything to rest on the power adaptor or cord and do NOT place the product where anyone can walk on the power
adaptor or cord.
Do NOT use the device if the power adaptor or cord is damaged as it might cause electrocution.
If the power adaptor or cord is damaged, remove it from the device and the power source.
Do NOT attempt to repair the power adaptor or cord. Contact your local vendor to order a new one.
Do not use the device outside, and make sure all the connections are indoors. There is a remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
Do NOT obstruct the device ventilation slots, as insufficient airflow may harm your device.
Use only No. 26 AWG (American Wire Gauge) or larger telecommunication line cord.
Antenna Warning! This device meets ETSI and FCC certification requirements when using the included antenna(s). Only use the
included antenna(s).
If you wall mount your device, make sure that no electrical lines, gas or water pipes will be damaged.
This product is for indoor use only (utilisation intérieure exclusivement).
Your product is marked with this symbol, which is known as the WEEE mark. WEEE stands for Waste Electronics and
Electrical Equipment. It means that used electrical and electronic products should not be mixed with general waste. Used
electrical and electronic equipment should be treated separately.
218
ericom D1000 modem User’s Guide
Index
Numbers
broadcast 32
802.1p 122
BSS 67
example 67
A
C
activation
dynamic DNS 140
DYNDNS wildcard 140
NAT 126
port binding 136
port forwarding 128
QoS 115
SSID 54
wireless LAN
scheduling 61
WPS 58
CA 167
CBR 36, 40, 46
certificate
factory default 168
certificates 167
authentication 167
CA
public key 167
replacing 168
storage space 168
trusted CAs 169
adding a printer example 93
Certification Authority 167
address mapping
types 132
Certification Authority. see CA
administrator password 17
certifications 215
viewing 215
anti-probing 149
channel, wireless LAN 64
applications, NAT 132
CIFS 88
Asynchronous Transfer Mode, see ATM
CIFS (Common Internet File System) 88
ATM 207
MBS 36, 40
PCR 36, 40
QoS 36, 40, 45
SCR 36, 40
status 207
CLI 13
authentication 64, 66
RADIUS server 66
compatibility, WDS 59
automatic logout 17
B
backup
configuration 191
Basic Service Set, see BSS
ericom D1000 modem User’s Guide
client list 81
Command Line Interface, see CLI
Common Internet File System (CIFS) 88
Common Internet File System, see CIFS
configuration
backup 191
DHCP 81
IP alias 83
IP precedence 120
IP/MAC filter 142
port forwarding 127
reset 192
restoring 192
static route 110, 112
219
WAN 32
connection
nailed-up 44
encryption 66
ENET ENCAP 33, 39, 42
Extended Service Set IDentification 49, 55
copyright 215
customized services 154, 155
F
D
data fragment threshold 62, 64
DDoS 148
default LAN IP address 17
default server address 130
default server, NAT 127
Denials of Service, see DoS
DHCP 29, 78, 81, 104
diagnostic 205
DiffServ Code Point, see DSCP
digital IDs 167
disclaimer 215
DMZ 129, 130
DNS 78, 104, 201
Domain Name System, see DNS
DoS 148
three-way handshake 156
thresholds 149, 156, 157
DSCP 120
DSL connections, status 207
dynamic DNS 139
activation 140
wildcard 139
activation 140
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, see DHCP
DYNDNS wildcard 139
activation 140
E
file sharing 88
filters 141
IP/MAC 141
structure 141
IP/MAC filter
configuration 142
MAC address 56, 65
URL 141
firewalls 147
actions 153
address types 154
anti-probing 149
customized services 154, 155
DDoS 148
default action 150
DoS 148
thresholds 149, 156, 157
ICMP 149
LAND attack 148
logs 153
P2P 157
packet direction 150
Ping of Death 148
rules 158
security 159
SYN attack 148
three-way handshake 156
triangle route 160
solutions 161
firmware 189
forwarding ports 126, 127
activation 128
configuration 127
rules 128
fragmentation threshold 62, 64
encapsulation 31, 33, 39
ENET ENCAP 42
PPPoA 43
PPPoE 43
RFC 1483 43
220
FTP 199
ericom D1000 modem User’s Guide
H
host 179
I
ICMP 149, 202
IGA 131
limitations
wireless LAN 67
WPS 74
Local Area Network, see LAN
login
passwords 17
logout 17
automatic 17
logs 173
firewalls 153
IGMP 32, 80, 106
ILA 131
importing trusted CAs 169
Inside Global Address, see IGA
M
Inside Local Address, see ILA
MAC 28
Internet Control Message Protocol, see ICMP
MAC address 56, 82
filter 56, 65
IP address 29, 32, 34, 39, 44, 78, 105
default 17
default server 127
ping 205
private 105
IP alias 83
configuration 83
NAT applications 132
IP precedence 121, 122
configuration 120
IP/MAC filter 141
configuration 142
structure 141
MAC authentication 56
Management Information Base (MIB) 200
mapping address
types 132
Maximum Burst Size, see MBS
Maximum Transmission Unit, see MTU
MBS 36, 40, 45
MBSSID 68
Media Access Control, see MAC Address
MLD proxy 36
model name 28
MTU 36, 40
L
multicast 32, 80, 106
IGMPInternet Group Multicast Protocol, see IGMP
Multiple BSS, see MBSSID
LAN 77
and USB printer 93
client list 81
DHCP 78, 81, 104
DNS 78, 104
IGMP 106
IP address 78, 79, 105
IP alias 83
configuration 83
MAC address 82
multicast 80, 106
RIP 106
subnet mask 78, 105
LAND attack 148
ericom D1000 modem User’s Guide
multiplexing 34, 39, 43
LLC-based 44
VC-based 43
N
nailed-up connection 35, 44
NAT 39, 125, 131
activation 126
address mapping
types 132
applications 132
221
IP alias 132
default server IP address 127
example 132
global 131
IGA 131
ILA 131
inside 131
local 131
outside 131
P2P 126
port forwarding 126, 127
activation 128
configuration 127
rules 128
remote management 196
product registration 215
push button 15
Push Button Configuration, see PBC
push button, WPS 69
Q
Network Address Translation, see NAT
QoS 113
802.1p 122
activation 115
DSCP 120
example 113
IP precedence 121, 122
priority queue 123
network map 21
Quality of Service, see QoS
P
R
P2P 126, 157
RADIUS server 66
packet direction 150
registration
product 215
passwords 17
PBC 69
PCR 36, 40, 45
Peak Cell Rate, see PCR
PIN, WPS 69
example 71
Ping of Death 148
port binding
activation 136
summary screen 137
port forwarding 126, 127
activation 128
configuration 127
rules 128
remote management 195
DNS 201
FTP 199
ICMP 202
NAT 196
WWW 196
reset 15, 192
restart 193
restoring configuration 192
RFC 1483 33, 39, 43
RFC 3164 173
RIP 106
rules, port forwarding 128
port isolation 135
PPPoA 33, 39, 43
PPPoE 33, 39, 43
preamble 62, 64
printer sharing 91
and LAN 93
requirements 92
private IP address 105
probing, firewalls 149
222
S
schedules
wireless LAN 61
SCR 36, 40, 45
security
network 159
ericom D1000 modem User’s Guide
wireless LAN 64
Security Parameter Index, see SPI
T
Service Set 49, 55
three-way handshake 156
setup
DHCP 81
IP alias 83
IP precedenceQoS
IP precedence 120
IP/MAC filter 142
port forwarding 127
static route 110, 112
WAN 32
thresholds
data fragment 62, 64
DoS 149, 156, 157
P2P 157
shaping traffic 45
sharing files 88
Simple Network Management Protocol, see SNMP
SNMP 199
agents 200
Manager 200
managers 200
MIB 200
network components 200
versions 199
SPI 148
SSID 65
activation 54
MBSSID 68
static route 109
configuration 110, 112
example 109
status 27
ATM 207
DSL connections 207
WPS 58
time 183
TR-069 13
trademarks 215
traffic shaping 45
example 45
triangle route 160
solutions 161
trusted CAs, and certificates 169
U
UBR 36, 40, 46
unicast 32
Universal Plug and Play, see UPnP
upgrading firmware 189
UPnP 83
cautions 79
NAT traversal 78
URL 141
URL filter
URL 141
USB
printer sharing 91
subnet mask 78, 105
Sustain Cell Rate, see SCR
SYN attack 148
V
syslog
protocol 173
severity levels 173
VBR 46
system 181
firmware 189
passwords 17
reset 15
status 27
time 183
System Info 27
ericom D1000 modem User’s Guide
VBR-nRT 36, 40, 46
VBR-RT 36, 40, 46
VCI 34, 39, 44
version
firmware
version 28
Virtual Channel Identifier, see VCI
Virtual Path Identifier, see VPI
223
VPI 34, 39, 44
W
WAN 31
ATM QoS 36, 40, 45
encapsulation 31, 33, 39
IGMP 32
IP address 32, 34, 39, 44
mode 33, 39
MTU 36, 40
multicast 32
multiplexing 34, 39, 43
nailed-up connection 35, 44
NAT 39
setup 32
traffic shaping 45
example 45
VCI 34, 39, 44
VPI 34, 39, 44
warranty 215
note 215
WDS 59, 68
compatibility 59
example 68
Web Configurator 17
web configurator 13
passwords 17
preamble 62, 64
RADIUS server 66
scheduling 61
security 64
SSID 65
activation 54
WDS 59, 68
compatibility 59
example 68
WEP 66
WPA 66
WPA-PSK 66
WPS 57, 68, 71
activation 58
example 72
limitations 74
PIN 69
push button 15, 69
status 58
WPA 66
WPA-PSK 66
WPS 57, 68, 71
activation 58
example 72
limitations 74
PIN 69
example 71
push button 15, 69
status 58
WEP 66
WEP Encryption 51, 52
WEP encryption 50
WEP key 50
Wide Area Network, see WAN
WiFi Protected Setup, see WPS
Wireless Distribution System, see WDS
wireless LAN 47, 63
authentication 64, 66
BSS 67
example 67
channel 64
encryption 66
example 63
fragmentation threshold 62, 64
limitations 67
MAC address filter 56, 65
MBSSID 68
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