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User’s Guide
Publication number E3458-97001 October 1998
© Copyright Hewlett-Packard Company 1994-1998
All Rights Reserved
For Safety information, Warranties, and Regulatory information, see
the pages behind the index.
Emulation for
Motorola CPU32
Motorola CPU32 Emulation—At a Glance
This manual describes how to set up several HP emulation products: an
emulation probe, an emulation module, and an emulation migration.
These emulators provide a low-cost way to debug embedded software
for Motorola CPU32 microprocessors. The emulator lets you use the
target processor’s built-in background debugging features, including
run control and access to registers and memory. A high-level source
debugger can use the emulator to debug code running on the target
system.
You can connect the emulator to an analysis probe or you can connect
it to a debug port on the target system through the provided target
interface module (TIM). The emulator can be controlled by a debugger
on a host computer or by the Emulation Control Interface on an
HP16600A/700A-series logic analysis system.
Emulation Probe
The emulation probe is a stand-alone emulator.
2
CPU32 Emulation
Chapter :
Motorola CPU32 Emulation—At a Glance
Emulation Module
The emulation module plugs into your HP16600A/700A-series logic
analysis system frame.
You can connect the emulation module to an analysis probe or you can
connect it to a debug port on the target system through the provided
target interface module (TIM).
Emulation Migration
The emulation migration includes a target interface module and
firmware. Use the emulation migration if you already have an
emulation probe or an emulation module for another processor.
CPU32 Emulation
3
Chapter :
In This Book
In This Book
This book documents the following products:
Emulation Probe
Processor supported
Product ordered
Includes
CPU32
HP E5900A Option #030
HP E3458A emulation probe, HP E3458A
target interface module (TIM)
Processor supported
Product ordered
Includes
CPU32
HP E5901A Option #030
HP 16610A emulation module, HP E3458A
target interface module (TIM)
Processor supported
Product ordered
Includes
CPU32
HP E5902A Option #030
HP E3458A target interface module (TIM)
Emulation Module
Emulation Migration
4
CPU32 Emulation
Contents
Motorola CPU32 Emulation—At a Glance
1
Overview
Overview
2
15
16
Setup Flowchart
17
Emulation Probe
18
Equipment supplied 18
Minimum equipment required 20
To connect the emulation probe to a power source
To power on the system 22
To power off the system 22
Connection Sequence 22
Emulation Module
23
Equipment supplied 23
Minimum equipment required
Emulation Migration
Equipment supplied
24
25
25
Minimum equipment required
Additional Information Sources
2
20
26
27
Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
29
30
5
Contents
Setting Up a LAN Connection to a PC or Workstation 31
To obtain an IP address
32
To configure LAN parameters using the built-in terminal interface
To configure LAN parameters using BOOTP 37
To set the 10BASE-T configuration switches 40
To verify LAN communications 41
Setting Up a Serial Connection
42
To set the serial configuration switches
To connect a serial cable 44
To verify serial communications
46
3
42
Installing the Emulation Module
Installing the Emulation Module
34
47
48
To install the emulation module in an HP 16700A-series logic analysis system
or an HP 16701A expansion frame 49
To install the emulation module in an HP 16600A-series logic analysis
system 51
4
Installing Software on an HP 16600A/700A
Installing Software on an HP 16600A/700A
54
Installing and loading 54
What needs to be installed 55
To install the software from CD-ROM
(HP 16600A/700A)
56
To list software packages which are installed (HP 16600A/700A)
6
53
57
Contents
5
Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Using the Emulation Control Interface
59
60
61
To start the Emulation Control Interface from the main System window 62
To start the Emulation Control Interface from the Workspace window 63
To start the Emulation Control Interface from the Workspace window for an
emulation probe 64
Designing a Target System for the Emulator
65
Debug port connections 65
8-pin BDM port 67
10-pin BDM port 67
Target VDD 67
CONFIG2 pin 68
Enabling BDM 68
To test the emulator 68
Connecting the Emulator to the Target System
69
To connect to a target system using a 10-pin debug port 70
To connect to a target system via an 8-pin debug port
71
To connect to a target system using an analysis probe
73
To verify communication between the emulator and target system
Configuring the Emulator
74
75
What can be configured 75
To configure using the Emulation Control Interface 76
To configure using the built-in commands 77
To configure using a debugger 78
To configure the processor type 79
To configure the processor clock speed (BDM communication speed) 80
To set the default clock rate if the processor clock rate is less than 8 MHz 81
Detailed information about processor clock rates 83
To configure restriction to real-time runs 85
7
Contents
To configure the Trigger Out BNC (Emulation Probe Only) 85
To configure the Trigger In BNC (Emulation Probe Only) 86
Testing the emulator and target system
To test memory accesses 87
To test with a running program
6
87
87
Using Internal Registers (SIM and EMSIM
Registers) 89
Internal Registers (SIM and EMSIM Registers)
90
The purpose of SIM Registers 90
The purpose of EMSIM registers 90
Configuring the SIM Registers
91
Summary 91
How SIM Register Values are Set 91
The effect of processor type on the EMSIM registers 92
Using the Emulation Control Interface or built-in commands
Configuring EMSIM Register Values
93
To copy target SIM registers to EMSIM registers
To manually define EMSIM values 93
Configuring SIM Register Values
93
95
To copy EMSIM registers to target SIM registers
To manually define SIM values 96
Saving and Loading EMSIM Values
92
95
97
To save EMSIM values in a configuration file 97
To load EMSIM values from a configuration file 97
Configuring SIM and EMSIM Values Using Built-In Commands
8
99
Contents
To compare SIM and EMSIM registers 99
Summary of EMSIM-related built-in commands
7
100
Internal Representation of SIM and EMSIM Registers
101
Using the Emulator with a Debugger
103
Using the Emulator with a Debugger
Setting up Debugger Software
104
107
To connect the logic analysis system to the LAN 108
To change the port number of an emulation module 110
To verify communication with the emulator 111
To export the logic analysis system’s display to a workstation
To export the logic analysis system’s display to a PC 113
Using the Green Hills debugger
112
114
Compatibility 114
Overview 114
Getting started 114
To configure the emulator, analysis probe, and target using an initialization
script 118
To perform common debugger tasks 120
To send commands to the emulator 120
To view commands sent by MULTI to the emulator 120
To reinitialize the system 121
To disconnect from the emulator 121
Error conditions 121
Using the Software Development Systems debugger
123
Compatibility 123
Overview 123
Startup behavior 123
9
Contents
Getting started 124
To send commands to the emulator
Download performance 131
Error conditions 132
8
130
Using the Analysis Probe and Emulation Module
Together 133
Using the Analysis Probe and Emulation Module Together
What are some of the tools I can use? 134
Which assembly-level listing should I use? 134
Which source-level listing should I use? 135
Where can I find practical examples of measurements?
Triggering the Emulation Module from the Analyzer
134
135
136
To stop the processor when the logic analyzer triggers on a line of source code
(Source Viewer window) 136
To stop the processor when the logic analyzer triggers (Intermodule
window) 137
To minimize the “skid” effect 138
To stop the analyzer and view a measurement 138
Tracing Until the Processor Halts
140
To capture a trace before the processor halts
140
Triggering the Logic Analyzer from the Emulation Module
141
The emulation module trigger signal 141
Group Run 142
To trigger the analyzer when the processor halts 144
To trigger the analyzer when the processor reaches a breakpoint
145
10
Contents
9
Updating Firmware
Updating Firmware
147
148
Emulation Probe Firmware
149
To display current firmware version information 149
To update firmware for an emulation probe 149
Emulation Module Firmware
150
To display current firmware version information
150
To update firmware for an emulation module using the Emulation Control
Interface 150
To update firmware for an emulation module using the Setup Assistant 151
10
Specifications and Characteristics
Processor compatibility 154
Emulation probe electrical characteristics
153
155
Emulation Probe and Emulation Module Electrical
Characteristics 156
Emulation probe environmental characteristics 157
Emulation module environmental characteristics 157
11
Troubleshooting the Emulator
Troubleshooting the Emulator
Troubleshooting Guide
Status Lights
159
160
161
162
11
Contents
Emulation Module Status Lights 162
Emulation Probe Status Lights 163
Emulation Probe Status Lights 164
Emulator Built-in Commands
165
To telnet to the emulation module 165
To telnet to the emulation probe 166
To use the built-in commands 167
Problems with the BDM Connection
If a user interface behaves erratically
Problems with Configuration
169
169
170
If you have problems displaying some registers
If you have problems initializing some registers
Problems with the Target System
If boot area accesses fail 171
If the target system does not run
170
170
171
171
Problems with the LAN Interface (Emulation Module Only)
If LAN communication does not work 172
If it takes a long time to connect to the network
Problems with the Emulation Module
172
172
174
To run the built-in performance verification test using the logic analysis system
(Emulation Module Only) 174
To run complete performance verification tests using a telnet connection (Emulation Module Only) 175
If a performance verification test fails 176
Problems with the LAN Interface (Emulation Probe Only)
If you cannot verify LAN communication 177
If you have LAN connection problems 178
If the "POL" LED is lit 179
If it takes a long time to connect to the network
12
179
177
Contents
Problems with the Serial Interface (Emulation Probe Only)
180
If you cannot verify RS-232 communication 180
If you have RS-232 connection problems with the MS Windows Terminal
program 181
Problems with the Emulation Probe
182
To run the power up self test 182
To run the emulation probe performance verification tests 184
To run the performance verification tests using the logic analysis system 184
To run complete performance verification tests for an emulation probe 185
If a performance verification test fails 187
Returning Parts to Hewlett-Packard for Service
To return a part to Hewlett-Packard
To obtain replacement parts 191
To clean the instrument 192
Glossary
190
190
193
13
Contents
14
1
Overview
15
Overview
This chapter describes:
•
Setup flowchart
•
Equipment used with the emulation probe
•
Connection sequences for the emulation probe
•
Equipment used with the emulation module
•
Additional information sources
16
CPU32 Emulation
Chapter 1: Overview
Setup Flowchart
Setup Flowchart
Emulation module
Emulation migration
HP E5901A
Emulation probe
HP E5902A
Install emulation
module
(if necessary)
HP E5900A
Migrating
a module or
a probe?
Module
Probe
Connect power
supply
Connect to LAN
Install software on
logic analysis system
Update emulator
firmware
Target
Interface
Module
Connection
type?
Connect emulator
Analysis
Probe
Connect emulation
module to analysis
probe.
Connect emulator to target
interface module
See solution or analysis
probe manual.
Connect target interface
module to target
Installation done. Begin
making measurements.
E3497F01.VSD
CPU32 Emulation
17
Chapter 1: Overview
Emulation Probe
Emulation Probe
Equipment supplied
•
An emulation probe.
•
A 12V power supply for the emulation probe.
•
A power cord.
•
A target interface module (TIM) circuit board.
•
An emulation probe loopback test board (HP part number E3496-66502).
•
A 50-pin ribbon cable (connects the emulation probe to the target
interface module).
•
A 10-pin ribbon cable (connects the target interface module to your target
system).
•
Firmware for the emulation probe on 3.5-inch disks.
•
This User’s Guide.
18
CPU32 Emulation
Chapter 1: Overview
Emulation Probe
Equipment Supplied with the Emulation Probe
CPU32 Emulation
19
Chapter 1: Overview
Emulation Probe
Minimum equipment required
The following equipment is required to use the emulation probe:
•
A method for connecting the emulator to the target system. You can use an
HP analysis probe or you can design a debug port connector on the target
system. The target system must meet the criteria on page 65.
•
A host computer, such as a PC or workstation. You can also connect the
emulation probe to an HP 16600A or HP 16700A logic analysis system.
•
A LAN (local area network) to connect the emulation probe to the host
computer.
•
A user interface on the host computer, such as a high-level source
debugger or the logic analysis system’s Emulation Control Interface.
To connect the emulation probe to a power
source
The emulation probe does not have an On/Off switch. To turn the
emulation probe on or off, plug or unplug it from the power supply.
The emulation probe is shipped from the factory with a power supply
and cord appropriate for your country. If the cord you received is not
appropriate for your electrical power outlet type, contact your HewlettPackard sales and service office.
WARNING:
Use only the supplied HP power supply and cord. Failure to use the proper
power supply could result in electric shock.
CAUTION:
Use only the supplied HP power supply and cord. Failure to use the proper
power supply could result in equipment damage.
20
CPU32 Emulation
Chapter 1: Overview
Emulation Probe
1 Connect the power cord to the power supply and to a socket
outlet.
2 Connect the 12V power cord to the back of the emulation probe.
The power light on the target side of the emulation probe will be light.
The emulation probe does not have an On/Off switch.
CPU32 Emulation
21
Chapter 1: Overview
Emulation Probe
To power on the system
With all components connected, power on your system as follows:
1 Logic analyzer, if you are using one.
2 Emulation probe.
3 Your target system.
To power off the system
Power off your system as follows:
1 Your target system.
2 Emulation probe.
3 Logic analyzer, if you are using one.
Connection Sequence
Disconnect power from the target system, emulation probe, and logic
analyzer before you make or break connections.
1 Connect the emulation probe to a LAN (page 30).
2 Connect the emulation probe to your target system (page 59).
3 Configure the emulation probe (page 75).
22
CPU32 Emulation
Chapter 1: Overview
Emulation Module
Emulation Module
This section lists equipment supplied with the emulation module and
lists the minimum equipment required to use the emulation module.
Equipment supplied
The equipment supplied with your emulation module includes:
•
An HP 16610A emulation module. If you ordered an emulation module as
part of your HP 16600A or HP 16700A logic analysis system, it is already
installed in the frame.
•
A target interface module (TIM) circuit board.
•
An emulation module loopback test board (HP part number E3496-66502).
•
Firmware for the emulation module and/or updated software for the
Emulation Control Interface on a CD-ROM.
•
A 50-pin ribbon cable for connecting the emulation module to the target
interface module or the HP E2480A analysis probe.
•
A 10-pin ribbon cable for connecting the target interface module to the
target system.
•
Torx T-8, T-10 and T-15 screwdrivers.
•
This User’s Guide.
CPU32 Emulation
23
Chapter 1: Overview
Emulation Module
Equipment Supplied with the Emulation Module
Minimum equipment required
The following equipment is required to use the emulation module:
A method for connecting to the target system. The HP E2480A analysis
probe provides a debug port connector. You can also design a debug
port connector on the target system (see “Designing a Target System
for the Emulator” on page 65).
•
An HP 16600A or HP 16700A logic analysis system.
•
A user interface, such as a high-level source debugger or the logic analysis
system’s Emulation Control Interface.
24
CPU32 Emulation
Chapter 1: Overview
Emulation Migration
Emulation Migration
This section lists equipment supplied with the emulation migration and
lists the minimum equipment required to use the emulation migration.
Equipment supplied
The equipment supplied with your emulation migration includes:
•
A target interface module (TIM) circuit board.
•
Firmware for the emulation module and/or updated software for the
Emulation Control Interface on a CD-ROM.
•
A 10-pin ribbon cable for connecting the target interface module to the
target system.
•
This User's Guide.
CPU32 Emulation
25
Chapter 1: Overview
Minimum equipment required
Minimum equipment required
The following equipment is required to use the emulation migration:
•
An emulation module or emulation probe.
•
A 50-pin data cable (supplied with the emulation module or probe).
•
A method for connecting to the target system. An HP analysis probe
provides a debug port connector. You can also design a debug port
connector on the target system.
•
A host computer such as a PC, a workstation, or an HP16600A or
HP16700A logic analysis system.
•
A user interface, such as a high-level source debugger or the logic analysis
system's Emulation Control Interface.
26
CPU32 Emulation
Chapter 1: Overview
Additional Information Sources
Additional Information Sources
Additional or updated information can be found in the following places:
Newer editions of this manual may be available. Contact your local HP
representative.
If you have an analysis probe, the instructions for connecting the probe
to your target microprocessor are in the analysis probe documentation.
The Solutions User’s Guide for your microprocessor provides
information on using the analysis probe and emulation module
together.
Application notes may be available from your local HP representative
or on the World Wide Web at:
http://www.hp.com/go/logicanalyzer
If you have an HP 16600A or HP 16700A logic analysis system, the
online help for the Emulation Control Interface has additional
information on using the emulator.
The measurement examples include valuable tips for making
emulation and analysis measurements. You can find the measurement
examples under the system help in your HP 16600A/700A logic analysis
system.
If you cannot easily find the information you need, send email to
documentation@col.hp.com. Your comments will help HP improve
future manuals. (This address is for comments only; contact your local
HP representative if you need technical support.)
CPU32 Emulation
27
28
CPU32 Emulation
2
Connecting the Emulation Probe to a
LAN
29
Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
You can connect your PC, workstation, or logic analysis system to the
emulation probe via a serial or LAN connection.
Serial connection
A serial connection allows you to complete all of the performance
verification tests and set LAN parameters. Other use of the serial port
is not supported.
LAN connection
A LAN connection will allow you to make your measurements quickly
and easily. A few of the performance verification tests cannot be run
over a LAN.
Recommended connection
Use a LAN connection for routine use, and a serial connection for LAN
configuration and for troubleshooting.
30
CPU32 Emulation
Chapter 2: Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Setting Up a LAN Connection to a PC or
Workstation
The emulation probe has two LAN connectors:
•
A BNC connector that can be directly connected to an
IEEE 802.3 Type 10BASE2 cable (ThinLAN). When using
this connector, the emulation probe provides the
functional equivalent of a Medium Attachment Unit (MAU) for ThinLAN.
•
An IEEE 802.3 Type 10BASE-T (StarLAN) connector.
Use either the 10BASE2 or the 10BASE-T connector. Do not use both.
The emulation probe will not work with both connected at the same
time.
You must assign an IP address (Internet address) to the emulation
probe before it can operate on the LAN. You can also set other network
parameters such as a gateway address. The IP address and other
network parameters are stored in nonvolatile memory within the
emulation probe.
The emulation probe automatically sets a subnet mask based on the
subnet mask used by other devices on the network.
You can configure LAN parameters in any of the following ways:
•
Using the built-in terminal interface over a serial connection. This is the
most reliable method.
•
Using BOOTP, which is part of the HP-UX, SunOS, and Solaris operating
systems.
CPU32 Emulation
31
Chapter 2: Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
To obtain an IP address
1 Obtain the following information from your local network
administrator or system administrator:
•
An IP address for the emulation probe.
You can also use a "LAN name" for the emulation probe, but you must
configure it using the integer dot notation (such as 127.0.0.1).
•
The gateway address.
The gateway address is an IP address and is entered in integer dot
notation. The default gateway address is 0.0.0.0, which allows all
connections on the local network or subnet. If connections are to be made
to workstations on other networks or subnets, this address must be set to
the address of the gateway machine.
2 Find out whether port numbers 6470 and 6471 are already in use
on your network and if that use constitutes a conflict.
The host computer interfaces communicate with the emulation probe
through two TCP service ports. The default base port number is 6470.
The second port has the next higher number (default 6471).
In almost all cases, the default numbers (6470, 6471) can be used
without change. If necessary the default numbers can be changed if
they conflict with some other product on your network.
To change the port numbers, see page 34. If you have already set the IP
address, you can use a telnet connection instead of a serial connection
to connect to the emulation probe.
32
CPU32 Emulation
Chapter 2: Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
3 Write down the link-level address of the emulation probe.
You will need this address if you use BOOTP to set the IP address.
The link-level address (LLA) is printed on a label above the LAN
connectors on the emulation probe. This address is configured in each
emulation probe shipped from the factory and cannot be changed.
IP Address of Emulation probe
__________________________
LAN Name of Emulation Probe
__________________________
Gateway Address
__________________________
Link-Level Address of Emulation Probe __________________________
CPU32 Emulation
33
Chapter 2: Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
To configure LAN parameters using the built-in
terminal interface
1 Set configuration switches S1 through S4 to ON, and set the
other switches as appropriate for your serial interface.
Switch settings are printed on the bottom of the emulation probe. If
you will use a baud rate of 9600 baud, set the switches like this:
2 Connect an ASCII terminal (or terminal emulator) to the
emulation probe’s RS-232 port with a 9-pin RS-232 cable.
Complete instructions for setting up a serial connection begin on page
42.
3 Plug in the emulation probe’s power cord. Press the terminal’s
<RETURN> key a couple times. You should see a prompt such as
"p>", "?>", or "R>".
At this point, you are communicating with the emulation probe’s builtin terminal interface.
34
CPU32 Emulation
Chapter 2: Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
4 Display the current LAN configuration values by entering the lan
command:
R>
lan lan is disabled
lan -i 0.0.0.0
lan -g 0.0.0.0
lan -p 6470
Ethernet Address : 08000903212f
The "lan -i" line shows the current IP address (IP address) of the
emulation probe.
The Ethernet address, also known as the link level address, is
preassigned at the factory, and is printed on a label above the LAN
connectors.
5 Enter the following command:
lan -i > [-g >] [-p >]
The lan command parameters are:
-i <internet> The IP address which you obtained from your network administrator.
-g <gateway> The gateway address. Setting the gateway address allows access
outside your local network or subnet.
-p <port> This changes the base TCP service port number.
The default numbers (6470, 6471) can be changed if they conflict with
some other product on your network. TCP service port numbers must
be greater than 1024. If you change the base port, the new value must
also be entered in the /etc/services file on the host computer. For
example, you could modify the line:
hp64700
6470/tcp
The IP address and any other LAN parameters you change are stored
in nonvolatile memory and will take effect the next time the emulation
probe is powered off and back on again.
6 Disconnect the power cord from the emulation probe, and
connect the emulation probe to your network.
CPU32 Emulation
35
Chapter 2: Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
This connection can be made by using either the 10BASE-T connector
or the 10BASE2 (BNC) connector on the emulation probe. Do not use
both connectors at the same time.
7 Set the configuration switches to indicate the type of connection
that is to be made.
Switch S1 must be set to OFF, indicating that a LAN connection is
being made.
Switch S5 should be ON if you are connecting to the BNC connector:
Switch S5 should be OFF if you are connecting to the 10BASE-T
connector:
Set all other switches to ON.
8 Connect the power cord to the emulation probe.
9 Verify your emulation probe is now active and on the network.
See “To verify LAN communications” on page 41.
Once you have set a valid IP address, you can use the telnet utility to
connect to the emulation probe, and use the lan command to change
LAN parameters.
36
CPU32 Emulation
Chapter 2: Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Example
To assign an IP address of 192.6.94.2 to the emulation probe, enter
the following command:
R>lan -i 192.6.94.2
Now, cycle power on the emulation probe so that the new address
will take effect.
See Also
Page 172, if you have problems verifying LAN communication.
To configure LAN parameters using BOOTP
Use this method only on a workstation which is running bootpd, the
BOOTP daemon.
1 Make sure that BOOTP is enabled on your host computer.
If the following commands yield the results shown below, the BOOTP
protocol is enabled:
$ grep bootp /etc/services
bootps
67/udp
bootpc
68/udp
$ grep bootp /etc/inetd.conf
bootps dgram udp wait
root
/etc/bootpd
bootpd
If the commands did not yield the results shown, you must either add
BOOTP support to your workstation or use a different method to
configure the emulation probe LAN parameters.
CPU32 Emulation
37
Chapter 2: Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
2 Add an entry to the host BOOTP database file, /etc/bootptab.
Example
# Global template for options common to all HP64700
# emulators and Emulation Probes.
# Use a different gateway addresses if necessary.
hp64700.global:\
:gw=0.0.0.0:\
:vm=auto:\
:hn:\
:bs=auto:\
:ht=ether
# Specific emulator entry specifying hardware
address
# (link-level address) and ip address.
hpprobe.div.hp.com:\
:tc=hp64700.global:\
:ha=080009090B0E:\
:ip=192.6.29.31
In this example, the "ha=080009090B0E" identifies the link-level
address of the emulation probe. The "ip=192.6.29.31" specifies the
IP address that is assigned to the emulation probe. The node name
is "hpprobe.div.hp.com".
3 Connect the emulation probe to your network.
This connection can be made by using either LAN connector on the
emulation probe.
4 Set the configuration switches to indicate the type of connection
that is to be made.
Switch S1 must be set to OFF, indicating that a LAN connection is
being made.
Switch S6 must be set to OFF to enable BOOTP mode.
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CPU32 Emulation
Chapter 2: Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Switch S5 should be set to OFF if you are connecting to the BNC
connector
Switch S5 should be set to ON if you are connecting to the 10BASE-T
connector.
Set all other switches to ON.
5 Connect the power cord to the emulation probe.
6 Verify that the power light stays on after 10 seconds.
The IP address will be stored in EEPROM.
7 Set switch S6 back to ON.
Do this so that the emulation probe does not request its IP address
each time power is cycled. The IP address is stored in EEPROM, so
BOOTP does not need to be run again. Leaving this switch on will
result in slower performance, increased LAN traffic, and even failure to
power up (if the BOOTP server becomes inactive).
8 Verify your emulation probe is now active and on the network.
See "To verify LAN communications" on page 41.
See Also
For additional information about using bootpd, refer to the
bootpd (1M) man page.
CPU32 Emulation
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Chapter 2: Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
To set the 10BASE-T configuration switches
Set switches S7 and S8 to ON unless one of the following conditions is
true:
• If the LAN cable exceeds the standard length, set switch S7 to
OFF.
The emulation probe has a switch-selectable, twisted-pair receiver
threshold. With switch S7 set to OFF, the twisted-pair receiver
threshold is lowered by 4.5 dB. This should allow you to use cable
lengths of up to about 200 meters. If you use a long cable, you should
consult with your LAN cabling installer to ensure that:
•
The device at the other end of the cable has long cable capability, and
•
The cable is high-grade, low-crosstalk cable with crosstalk attenuation
of greater than 27.5 dB.
When switch S7 is set to ON, the LAN port operates at standard
10BASE-T levels. A maximum of 100 meters of UTP cable can be used.
• If your network doesn’t support Link Beat integrity checking or if
the emulation probe is connected to a non 10BASE-T network
(such as StarLAN) set this switch to LINK BEAT OFF (0 or
OPEN).
In normal mode (switch S8 set to ON), a link integrity pulse is
transmitted every 15 milliseconds in the absence of transmitted data. It
expects to receive a similar pulse from the remote MAU. This is the
standard link integrity test for 10BASE-T networks. If your network
doesn’t support the Link Beat integrity checking or if the emulation
probe is used on a non 10BASE-T network (such as StarLAN) set this
switch to LINK BEAT OFF (OFF).
NOTE:
Setting switch S8 to OFF when Link Beat integrity checking is required by
your network will cause the remote MAU to disable communications.
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CPU32 Emulation
Chapter 2: Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
To verify LAN communications
1 Verify your emulation probe is now active and on the network by
issuing a telnet to the IP address.
This connection will give you access to the emulation probe’s built-in
terminal interface.
2 To view the LAN parameters, enter the lan command at the
terminal interface prompt.
3 To exit from this telnet session, type <CTRL>D at the prompt.
The best way to change the emulation probe’s IP address, once it has
already been set, is to telnet to the emulation probe and use the
terminal interface lan command to make the change. Remember, after
making your changes, you must cycle power or enter a terminal
interface init -p command before the changes take effect. Doing this
will break the connection and end the telnet session.
If You Have Problems
“Troubleshooting the Emulator” on page 159.
Example
$ telnet 192.35.12.6
R>lan
lan is enabled
lan -i 192.35.12.6
lan -g 0.0.0.0
lan -p 6470
Ethernet Address : 08000F090B30
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Chapter 2: Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Setting Up a Serial Connection
Setting Up a Serial Connection
To set up a serial connection to an emulation probe, you will need to:
•
Set the serial configuration switches
•
Connect a serial cable between the host computer and the emulation
probe
•
Verify communications
Serial connections on a workstation
If you are using a UNIX workstation as the host computer, you need to
use a serial device file. If a serial device file does not already exist on
your host, you need to create one. Once it exists, you need to ensure
that it has the appropriate permissions so that you can access it. See
the system documentation for your workstation for help with setting up
a serial device.
Serial connections on a PC
Serial connections are supported on PCs. You must use hardware
handshaking if you will use the serial connection for anything other
than setting LAN parameters.
If you are using a PC as the host computer, you do not need to set up
any special files.
To set the serial configuration switches
1 Set switch S1 to ON (RS-232).
2 Set switches S2-S4 to ON.
3 Set switch S5 to ON (HW HANDSHAKE ON) if your serial
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CPU32 Emulation
Chapter 2: Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Setting Up a Serial Connection
interface uses the DSR:CTS/RTS lines for flow control. Set S5 to
OFF (HW HANDSHAKE OFF) if your serial interface uses
software flow control (XON/XOFF).
If your serial interface supports hardware handshaking, you should use
it (set switch S5 to ON). Hardware handshaking will make the serial
connection much more reliable.
4 Set switches S6-S8 for the baud rate you will use. These switch
settings are listed on the bottom of the emulation probe.
The higher baud rates may not work reliably with all hosts and user
interfaces. Make sure the baud rate you choose is supported by your
host and user interface.
Example
To use a baud rate of 9600 baud, set the switches as follows:
CPU32 Emulation
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Chapter 2: Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Setting Up a Serial Connection
To connect a serial cable
CAUTION:
Use a grounded, shielded cable. If the cable is not shielded, or if the cable is
not grounded at the serial controller, the emulation probe may be damaged by
electrostatic discharge.
Connect an RS-232C modem cable from the host computer to the
emulation probe. The recommended cable is HP part number C2932A.
This is a 9-pin cable with one-to-one pin connections.
If you want to build your own RS-232 cable, follow the pinout shown in
the following figure:
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Chapter 2: Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Setting Up a Serial Connection
Serial Cable Pinout
Pin
Number
Signal
Signal Description
1
DCD
Data Carrier Detect (not used)
2
TD
Transmit Data (data coming from HP emulation
probe)
3
RD
Receive Data (data going to
HP emulation probe)
4
DTR
Data Terminal Ready (not used)
5
GND
Signal Ground
6
DSR
Data Set Ready (Output from HP emulation probe)
7
RTS
Request to Send (Input to HP emulation probe)
8
CTS
Clear to Send (connected to pin 6)
9
RING
Ring Indicator (not used)
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Chapter 2: Connecting the Emulation Probe to a LAN
Setting Up a Serial Connection
To verify serial communications
1 Start a terminal emulator program on the host computer.
If you are using a PC, the Terminal application in Microsoft Windows
will work fine.
If you are using a UNIX workstation, you can use a terminal emulator
such as cu or kermit.
2 Plug the power cord into the emulation probe.
When the emulation probe powers up, it sends a message (similar to
the one that follows) to the serial port and then displays a prompt:
Copyright (c) Hewlett-Packard Co. 1987
All Rights Reserved. Reproduction, adaptation, or translation without
prior written permission is prohibited, except as allowed under
copyright laws.
HPE3499A Series Emulation System
Version:
A.07.53 01Mar98
Location: Generics
HPE3490A Motorola CPU16/32 BDM Emulator
Version:
A.02.05 01Mar98
R>
The version numbers may be different for your emulation probe.
3 Press the Return or Enter key a few times.
You should see a prompt such as "p>", "R>", or "?>".
For information about the commands you can use, enter ? or help at
the prompt.
See Also
“Troubleshooting the Emulator” on page 160.
46
CPU32 Emulation
3
Installing the Emulation Module
47
Installing the Emulation Module
This chapter shows you how to install an emulation module in your
HP 16600A/700A-series logic analysis system.
If your emulation module is already installed in your logic analysis
system frame, you may skip this chapter.
CAUTION:
These instructions are for trained service personnel. To avoid dangerous
electric shock, do not perform any service unless qualified to do so. Do not
attempt internal service or adjustment unless another person, capable of
rendering first aid and resuscitation, is present.
Electrostatic discharge can damage electronic components. Use grounded
wrist straps and mats when you handle modules.
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Chapter 3: Installing the Emulation Module
Installing the Emulation Module
To install the emulation module in an
HP 16700A-series logic analysis system or an
HP 16701A expansion frame
You will need T-10 and T-15 Torx screw drivers.
1 Turn off the logic analysis system and REMOVE THE POWER
CORD.
Remove any other cables (including mouse or video monitor cables).
2 Turn the logic analysis system frame upside-down.
3 Remove the bottom cover.
4 Remove the slot cover.
You may use either slot.
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Chapter 3: Installing the Emulation Module
Installing the Emulation Module
5 Install the emulation module.
6 Connect the cable and re-install the screws.
You may connect the cable to either of the two connectors. If you have
two emulation modules, note that many debuggers will work only with
the "first" module: the one toward the top of the frame ("Slot 1"),
plugged into the connector nearest the back of the frame.
7 Reinstall the bottom cover, then turn the frame right-side-up.
8 Plug in the power cord, reconnect the other cables, and turn on
the logic analysis system.
The new emulation module will be shown in the system window.
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Chapter 3: Installing the Emulation Module
Installing the Emulation Module
To install the emulation module in an
HP 16600A-series logic analysis system
You will need T-8, T-10, and T-15 Torx screw drivers (supplied with the
modules).
1 Turn off the logic analysis system and REMOVE THE POWER
CORD.
Remove any other cables (such as probes, mouse, or video monitor).
2 Slide the cover back.
3 Remove the slot cover.
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Chapter 3: Installing the Emulation Module
Installing the Emulation Module
4 Install the emulation module.
5 Connect the cable and re-install the screws.
6 Reinstall the cover.
Tighten the screws snugly ( 2 N-m or 18 inch-pounds).
7 Plug in the power cord, reconnect the other cables, and turn on
the logic analysis system.
The new emulation module will be shown in the system window.
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CPU32 Emulation
4
Installing Software on an HP 16600A/
700A
53
Installing Software on an HP 16600A/700A
This chapter explains how to install the software you will need for your
analysis probe or emulation solution.
Installing and loading
Installing the software will copy the files to the hard disk of your logic
anlysis system. Later, you will need to load some of the files into the
appropriate hardware module.
Logic analysis system or logic analyzer frame
CD-ROM or
flexible disk
54
Install
Load
Hard Disk
Logic analyzer
or emulation
module
CPU32 Emulation
Chapter 4: Installing Software on an HP 16600A/700A
Installing Software on an HP 16600A/700A
What needs to be installed
HP 16600A/700A-series logic analysis systems
If you ordered an emulation solution with your logic analysis system,
the software was installed at the factory.
The following files are installed when you install a processor support
package from the CD-ROM:
•
Logic analysis system configuration files
•
Inverse assembler (automatically loaded with the configuration files)
•
Personality files for the Setup Assistant
•
Emulation module firmware (for emulation solutions)
•
Emulation Control Interface (for emulation solutions)
The HP B4620B Source Correlation Tool Set is installed withthe logic
analysis system’s operating system.
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Chapter 4: Installing Software on an HP 16600A/700A
Installing Software on an HP 16600A/700A
To install the software from CD-ROM
(HP 16600A/700A)
Installing a processor support package from a CD-ROM will take just a
few minutes. If the processor support package requires an update to
the HP 16600A/700A operating system, installation may take
approximately 15 minutes.
If the CD-ROM drive is not connected, see the instructions printed on
the CD-ROM package.
1 Turn on the CD-ROM drive first and then turn on the logic
analysis system.
2 Insert the CD-ROM in the drive.
3 Click the System Admin icon.
4 Click Install... .
Change the media type to “CD-ROM” if necessary.
5 Click Apply.
6 From the list of types of packages, select “PROC-SUPPORT.”
A list of the available processor support packages will be displayed.
7 Click on the “M683XX” package.
If you are unsure if this is the correct package, click Details for
information on what the package contains.
8 Click Install... .
The dialog box will display “Progress: completed successfully” when
the installation is complete.
9 Click Close.
The configuration files are stored in /hplogic/configs/hp/processor.
The inverse assemblers are stored in /hplogic/ia.
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Chapter 4: Installing Software on an HP 16600A/700A
Installing Software on an HP 16600A/700A
See Also
The instructions printed on the CD-ROM package for a summary of the
installation instructions.
The online help for more information on installing, licensing, and
removing software.
To list software packages which are installed
(HP 16600A/700A)
In the System Administration Tools window, click List... .
CPU32 Emulation
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CPU32 Emulation
5
Connecting and Configuring the
Emulator
59
Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
This chapter shows you how to connect the emulator to the target
system and how to configure the emulator and target.
Here is a summary of the steps for connecting and configuring the
emulator:
1 Make sure the target system is designed to work properly with
the emulator. (page 65)
2 Install the emulation module in your logic analysis system, if
necessary. (page 47)
3 Connect the emulator to your target system using the 50-pin
cable and the TIM or an analysis probe. (page 69)
4 Update the firmware of the emulator, if necessary. (page 147)
5 Verify communication between the emulator and the target.
(page 74)
6 Configure the emulator. (page 75)
7 Test the connection between the emulator and the target. (page
87)
8 Connect a debugger to the emulator, if applicable. (page 103.)
See Also
Chapter 7, “Using the Emulator with a Debugger,” beginning on page
103 for information on configuration with a debugger, and on
configuring LAN port numbers.
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Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Using the Emulation Control Interface
Using the Emulation Control Interface
The Emulation Control Interface in your HP16600A/700A-series logic
analysis system allows you to control an emulator (an emulation
module or an emulation probe).
As you set up the emulator, you will use the Emulation Control
Interface to:
•
Update firmware (which reloads or changes the processor-specific
personality of the emulator).
•
Change the LAN port assignment (rarely necessary).
•
Run performance verification tests on the emulator.
The Emulation Control Interface allows you to:
•
Run, break, reset, and step the target processor.
•
Set and clear breakpoints.
•
Read and write registers.
•
Read and write memory.
•
Read and write I/O memory.
•
View memory in mnemonic form.
•
Read and write the emulator configuration.
•
Download programs (in Motorola S-Record or Intel Hex format) to the
target system RAM or ROM.
•
View emulator status and errors.
•
Write and play back emulator command script files.
If you have an emulation probe, this interface also allows you to
configure the LAN address of the emulation probe.
Using the logic analysis system’s intermodule bus does not require the
Emulation Control Interface to be running. If the emulation module
icon is in the Intermodule window, then it will be able to send and
receive signals. Therefore if you are using a debugger, you can use an
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Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Using the Emulation Control Interface
analyzer to cause a break.
Using a debugger with the Emulation Control Interface is not
recommended because:
See Also
•
The interfaces can get out of synchronization when commands are issued
from both interfaces. This causes windows to be out-of-date and can cause
confusion.
•
Most debuggers cannot tolerate another interface issuing commands and
may not start properly if another interface is running.
All of the Emulation Control Interface windows provide online help
with a Help button or a Help➞On this window menu selection. Refer
to the online help for complete details about how to use a particular
window.
To start the Emulation Control Interface from
the main System window
1 In the System window, click the emulation module icon.
2 Select Start Session....
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Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Using the Emulation Control Interface
To start the Emulation Control Interface from
the Workspace window
1 Open the Workspace window.
2 Drag the Emulator icon onto the workspace.
3 Right-click on the Emulator icon, then select Start Session....
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Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Using the Emulation Control Interface
To start the Emulation Control Interface from
the Workspace window for an emulation probe
If you have a stand-alone emulation probe connected to the logic
analysis system via LAN, use the Emulation Probe icon instead of the
Emulator icon.
1 Open the Workspace window.
2 Drag the Emulation Probe icon onto the workspace.
3 Right-click on the Emulation Probe icon, then select Start
Session....
4 In the Session window, enter the IP address or LAN name of the
emulation probe, then click Start Session.
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Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Designing a Target System for the Emulator
Designing a Target System for the Emulator
Debug port connections
If you plan to connect the emulator directly to the target system, the
target system should have a debug port (BDM) connector.
The connector should be a dual row header strip (“Berg connector”),
10 pins per inch, with 25 mil pins.
Some of the signals at the BDM port share the same lines, as shown in
the diagrams on the following pages.
When deciding whether to use an 8-pin or a 10-pin BDM port, consider
how often you are likely to encounter "hung" bus cycles. If you are
using an 8-pin BDM port, and a target bus cycle fails to terminate, you
will need to reset the target system. If you use a 10-pin BDM port, the
emulator will detect and terminate the "hung" cycle.
Therefore if your target system does not have a good bus monitor, or if
you are not using the built-in bus monitor, you should use a 10-pin
BDM port to take advantage of the DS and BERR signals.
The emulator adds about 40 pF to all target system signals routed to
the debug connector. This added capacitance may reduce the rise time
of some signals beyond the processor specifications. If so, the target
may need to increase the pull-up current on these signal lines.
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Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Designing a Target System for the Emulator
The following signals should be available at the BDM port:
BDM signal definitions
Mnemonic
Name
Direction
Signal Description
GND
Ground
BKPT
Breakpoint
Input
(to target)
Signals a hardware breakpoint. Also used to
place the CPU32 in background debug mode.
Active low
DSCLK
Development
system clock
Input
Serial input clock
FREEZE
Freeze
Output
Indicates BDM mode
QUOT
Quotient out
Output
Quotient bit of the polynomial divider. Not used in
BDM mode.
RESET
Reset
Output
Indicates system reset
IFETCH
Instruction fetch
Output
Indicates when the CPU is performing an
instruction word prefetch and when the
instruction pipeline has been flushed (active low)
DSI
Development
serial in
Input
BDM data input
Output
Target power (+5 V or +3.3 V)
VDD
IPIPE
Instruction pipe
Output
Used to track the movement of words through the
instruction pipeline (active low)
DSO
Development
serial out
Output
BDM data output
DS
Data strobe
Output
During read, indicates ready to receive valid data;
during write
BERR
Bus error
Input
Used to terminate target memory cycles (optional)
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Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Designing a Target System for the Emulator
8-pin BDM port
An 8-pin BDM port should be a dual row header strip ("Berg
connector"), 4 pins per row, 10 pins per inch, with 25 mil pins. If you
plan to use the 10-pin cable, use a header with 2 rows of 5 pins.
If you plan to make an 8-pin cable, you should use the following pin
assignments for the BDM port:
10-pin BDM port
If you plan to use the provided 10-pin cable, you should use the
following pin assignments for the BDM port:
Target VDD
The emulator may draw up to 10 mA from target VDD.
See page 162 for more information on current and voltage
requirements.
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Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Designing a Target System for the Emulator
CONFIG2 pin
The CONFIG2 pin on CPU32+ processors shares a pin with the
processor FREEZE output. The emulator can pull this line down and
cause the CPU32+ to power up in Slave Mode with the internal CPU
disabled. To ensure that CONFIG2 is high at reset, the target should
supply sufficient pullup current to drive the FREEZE input on the
emulator. Loading for the FREEZE pin (and all BDM pins) is described
in “Emulation module—electrical characteristics” on page 227.
Enabling BDM
Your target system does not need to enable background debug mode.
If the emulator is connected and turned on before you turn on the
target system, the emulator will enable BDM.
If you connect the emulator after you turn on the target system, the
emulator will enable BDM when the target is reset.
If you turn on the emulation probe while it is connected to a running
target system, the HPE3458A emulation probe will reset the target
system.
To test the emulator
If this is the first time that you have used the emulator, you should run
the built-in performance verification test before you connect to a target
system. Refer to page 174 for information on performance verification.
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Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Connecting the Emulator to the Target System
Connecting the Emulator to the Target System
Choose one of the following methods for connecting the emulator to a
target system.
•
Directly through a debug port connector on the target board.
•
Through an HP E2480A analysis probe, which provides a direct connection
to the debug port pins.
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Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Connecting the Emulator to the Target System
After you have connected the emulator to your target system, you may
need to update the firmware in the emulator.
See Also
For information on designing a debug port on your target board, see
page 65.
For a list of the parts supplied with the emulator, see page 23.
To connect to a target system using a 10-pin
debug port
The emulator can be connected to a target system through a 10-pin
debug port (BDM connector).
The emulator should be connected to the target system using the 10conductor cable assembly provided.
In order to connect the emulator to the microcontroller, a 10-pin male
2x5 header connector must be available on the target system.
1 Remove power from the target system and the emulator.
2 Plug one end of the 50-pin cable into the emulator.
3 Plug the other end of the 50-pin cable into the target interface
module.
4 Plug one end of the 10-pin cable into the target interface module.
5 Plug the other end of the 10-pin cable into the target system.
Orient the red wire toward pin 1 of the connector.
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Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Connecting the Emulator to the Target System
CAUTION:
Be careful to orient the connector as shown below. If the connector is rotated,
your target system or the emulator may be damaged.
6 Turn on the power to the logic analysis system, then turn on the
power to the target system.
See Also
“Designing a Target System for the Emulator” on page 65.
To connect to a target system via an 8-pin
debug port
1 Remove power from the target system and the emulator.
2 Plug one end of the 50-pin cable into the emulator.
3 Plug the other end of the 50-pin cable into the target interface
module.
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Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Connecting the Emulator to the Target System
4 Plug one end of the 10-pin cable into the target interface module.
5 Plug the other end of the 10-pin cable into the target system.
Orient the red wire toward pin 1 of the connector. Pins 1 and 2 of the
cable should be the ones which are not connected. Connect pin 3 of the
cable to pin 1 of the target connector.
CAUTION:
Be careful to orient the connector as shown below. If the connector is rotated,
your target system or the emulator may be damaged.
6 Turn on the power to the logic analysis system, then turn on the
power to the target system.
See Also
“Designing a Target System for the Emulator” on page 65.
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Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Connecting the Emulator to the Target System
To connect to a target system using an analysis
probe
1 Remove power from the target system.
2 Plug one end of the 50-pin cable into the emulator. The
connectors are keyed.
3 Plug the other end of the 50-pin cable into the connector on the
analysis probe.
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Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Connecting the Emulator to the Target System
To verify communication between the
emulator and target system
1 Turn on the target system.
2 Start the Emulation Control Interface.
If the electrical connections are correct, and if the emulator firmware
and analysis probe or TIM match your target processor, the Run
Control window should be displayed:
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Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Configuring the Emulator
Configuring the Emulator
The emulator has several user-configurable options. These options may
be customized for specific target systems and saved in configuration
files for future use.
The easiest way to configure the emulator is through the Emulation
Control Interface in an HP16600A or HP16700A logic analysis
system.
If you use the Emulation Control Interface, please refer to the online
help in the Configuration window for information on each of the
configuration options.
Other ways to configure the emulator are by using:
•
•
the emulator’s built-in terminal interface
your debugger, if it provides an “emulator configuration” window which
can be used with this HP emulator
What can be configured
The following options can be configured using the Emulation Control
Interface or using built-in commands:
•
•
•
•
•
Processor type.
Processor clock speed.
Initial values for internal registers (see Chapter 6, “Using Internal
Registers (SIM and EMSIM Registers),” beginning on page 89).
BNC break in behavior. (Emulation probe only)
BNC trigger out behavior. (Emulation probe only)
The following option can be configured using built-in commands:
•
Restriction to real-time runs.
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Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Configuring the Emulator
To configure using the Emulation Control
Interface
The easiest way to configure the emulator is to use the Emulation
Control Interface.
1 Start an Emulation Control Interface session.
In the system window, click the Emulation Control Interface icon, and
then select Start Session....
2 Open a Configuration window.
Select Configuration... from the Emulation Control Interface icon or
from the Navigate menu in any Emulation Control Interface window.
3 Set the configuration options, as needed.
Configuration changes will take effect when you close the configuration
window or when you move the mouse pointer outside the window.
4 Save the configuration settings.
To save the configuration settings, open the File Manager window and
click Save....
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Chapter 5: Connecting and Configuring the Emulator
Configuring the Emulator
See Also
Help➞Help on this window in the Configuration window for
information on each of the configuration options.
Help in the Emulation Control Interface menu for help on starting an
Emulation Control session.
To configure using the built-in commands
If you are unable to configure the emulator with the Emulation Control
Interface or a debugger interface, you can configure the emulator using
the built-in “terminal interface” commands.
1 Connect a telnet session to the emulator over the LAN.
For example, on a UNIX system, for an emulation module in Slot 1
enter:
telnet LAN_address 6472
2 Enter cf to see the current configuration settings.
3 Use the cf command to change the configuration settings.
See Also
Enter help cf for help on the configuration commands.
For information on connecting using telnet, and for information on
other built-in commands, see page 165.
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Configuring the Emulator
Example
To see a complete list of configuration items, type help cf. This
command displays:
M>help cf
cf - display or set emulation configuration
cf
- display current settings for all config items
cf <item>
- display current setting for specified <item>
cf <item>=<value> - set new <value> for specified <item>
cf <item> <item>=<value> <item> - set and display can be combined
help cf <item>
- display long help for specified <item>
--- VALID CONFIGURATION <item> NAMES --proc
- Set type of CPU16/32 Processor
procck
- Set Clock Speed of Processor
dprocck - Display Default Clock Speed of Processor
rrt
- Enable or Disable Restriction to Real-Time Runs
breakin - Select BNC break input option
trigout - Select BNC trigger output option
M>
To configure using a debugger
Because the HP emulator can be used with several third-party
debuggers, specific details for sending the configuration commands
from the debugger to the emulator cannot be given here. However, all
debuggers should provide a way of directly entering terminal mode
commands to the emulator. Ideally, you would create a file that
contains the modified configuration entries to be sent to the emulator
at the beginning of each debugger session.
See Also
Information about specific debuggers in Chapter 7, “Using the
Emulator with a Debugger,” beginning on page 103.
Your debugger manual.
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Configuring the Emulator
To configure the processor type
Processor type configuration
Value
Built-in command
Notes
CPU32 Processor Types
68330
68331
68332
68333
68334
68335
68336
68338
68340
68341
68349
68360
68376
683xx
cf
cf
cf
cf
cf
cf
cf
cf
cf
cf
cf
cf
cf
cf
proc=68330
proc=68331
proc=68332
proc=68333
proc=68334
proc=68335
proc=68336
proc=68338
proc=68340
proc=68341
proc=68349
proc=68360
proc=68376
proc=683xx
Use for other CPU32 processors
CPU16 Processor Types
68hc16z1
68hc16z2
68hc16y1
cf proc=68hc16z1
cf proc=68hc16z2
cf proc=68hc16y1
The cfsave -s command will store the processor type configuration
in the emulator’s flash memory. The cfsave -r command will restore
this configuration.
If you are using a processor in your target that is not listed as a choice,
the emulator can provide direct access to all the registers defined in
the CPU32 architecture programming model but will not have direct
access to memory mapped registers in the processor’s internal
modules.
If you are using a processor that is listed as a choice, the emulator will
have knowledge of on-chip peripheral registers and SIM registers and
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Configuring the Emulator
will allow display and modification from the user interface. For
example, when 68332 is selected as the processor type, the interface
will support direct access to the SIM, the QSM, the TPU, and the
TPURAM registers.
The emulator does not have explicit support for all CPU32 processors.
When using a member of the CPU32 family that is not explicitly
supported it may be possible to select a processor that is a formal
subset of the unsupported processor. This will provide direct access to
all of the internal memory mapped registers that are common. Since
the registers in the internal modules are memory mapped, registers in
unsupported CPU32 processors are also accessible through the
memory commands. For example, on a 68332, SIM registers can be
accessed at memory locations 7FFA00 to 7FFA7F or FFFA00 to
FFFA7F.
To configure the processor clock speed (BDM
communication speed)
The maximum communication rate with the target processor through
the BDM port is based upon the target processor type and the target
processor clock speed.
For best performance, set the processor clock speed to the highest
speed that is equal to or less than the clock speed of the target
processor. You may set the processor clock speed to a speed lower than
the actual clock speed of your target system. Use the 25 MHz option for
microcontrollers running faster than 25 MHz.
If using the internal clock synthesizer, set the EMSYNCR (EMulator
copy of the SYNthesizer Control Register, SYNCR) to the same value as
set by the initialization code. See Chapter 6, “Using Internal Registers
(SIM and EMSIM Registers),” beginning on page 89.
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Configuring the Emulator
Processor clock speed configuration
Value
Processor clock
is at least
33
33 MHz
cf procck=33
25
25 MHz
cf procck=25
20
20 MHz
cf procck=20
16
16 MHz
cf procck=16
8
8 MHz (default)
cf procck=8
4
4 MHz
cf procck=4
2
2 MHz
cf procck=2
1
1 MHz
cf procck=1
512
512 kHz
cf procck=512
32
32 kHz
cf procck=32
Built-in command
Use the cf dprocck command to display the default clock speed.
To set the default clock rate if the processor
clock rate is less than 8 MHz
If a target system’s processor clock rate is less than 8 MHz following
powerup, the default clock rate must be set to 131 kHz.
This can occur when the target system has the processor running off of
an external clock source that is less than 8 MHz or is using the clock
synthesizer with a crystal that is lower in frequency that the standard
crystal.
The actual processor clock rate should then be communicated to the
emulator through the configuration processor clock rate entry. The
emulator will then start communications with the target processor at
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Configuring the Emulator
the 131 kHz processor clock rate. When the configuration process is
complete, the emulator will change the communication rate to a rate
based on the clock speed (procck).
The emulator will not communicate correctly with target systems that
have a processor clock rate slower than 131 kHz.
Note
The emulator does not automatically match the communication
speed to the actual target speed (SYNCR register). Maintaining
consistency is the responsibility of the user.
To maintain consistency, specify a correct SYNCR register value in
the configuration process and make sure that the target code does
not change the SYNCR register to a value that is slower than what
is specified in the configuration.
The emulator will not run correctly if the actual target
processor clock rate is slower than the rate specified in the
configuration.
Emulation module
For an emulation module, the default clock rate must be set using the
Emulation Control Interface.
1 End any Emulation Control Interface session for the emulation
module.
2 Right-click the Emulation Control Interface icon and select
Update Firmware....
3 Click Modify Lan Port....
4 Select the clock rate.
5 Click Apply, then click Close.
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Emulation probe
• If your target system runs at a default clock rate less than 8 MHz
but greater than 131 kHz, set switch S2 to OFF.
Detailed information about processor clock
rates
Most target systems will communicate with the emulator properly and
with excellent performance following the basic guidelines given in the
preceding sections. In some target systems, the setting of this
parameter requires greater knowledge of the actual clock generation
model.
The CPU32 family has two major use models for the processor clock
rate which can be used to support the majority of target systems. When
using the internal clock synthesizer, the processor will run from reset
at a Motorola defined default clock rate which, when using the
Motorola recommended crystal is usually 8.38 MHz or 1/2 of the
maximum clock rate of the processor. The programmer’s initialization
code then programs the clock synthesizer to run at the desired clock
rate which is usually higher than the default. The second model uses an
external clock source to directly control the processor clock rate. The
emulator directly supports both processor clock rate models. Users
that use a different clock rate model can examine the support of these
models to determine the correct settings for supporting their processor
clock rate.
The emulator supports the use model of the target processor clock rate
being increased through the configuration. When applying the
configuration at the start of a user interface or through the
configuration process, the emulator communicates with the target
processor at a rate based on the default processor clock rate (either 8
MHz or 131 kHz). At this default rate, it copies the EMSYNCR
(EMulator copy of the SYNthesizer Control Register) to the SYNCR
(SYNthesizer Control Register). The emulator then changes its
communications rate to the maximum rate that the processor clock
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Configuring the Emulator
rate specified in the configuration can support.
Resetting the target processor also resets the SYNCR to its default
value. If the target processor is reset while running user code (as
opposed to putting the processor in a reset state from the interface),
no communications rate change takes place within the emulator. The
initialization code that runs on the target system from reset is required
to set the SYNCR to the correct value.
When the target processor clock rate is fixed through the use of an
external clock source, the Processor Clock Rate parameter can be set
to the highest rate that is equal to or less than the target clock rate.
There are no dependencies upon any other configuration parameters.
When the target system is using the internal clock synthesizer to
increase the final clock rate but the user leaves the emulator at the
default processor type (683xx) the EMSYNCR is not available to the
configuration process. The powerup default clock rate for the target
system can be entered into the "Processor Clock Rate". This is a
failsafe setting but can limit the emulator performance if the target
processor is programmed to run at a significantly faster rate than the
powerup default.
If the user desires the higher performance available by setting the
"Processor Clock Rate" configuration parameter to his final value but
does not set his processor type (which means that the configuration
process cannot set the SYNCR) the debugger interface will have a
number of failures when invoked because it cannot communicate
accurately with the target processor. These will show up as either
dashes or bad values in the source, backtrace, and memory windows.
These errors can be cleared up if the target system can support a "run
from reset" with code in the target system that initializes the target
SYNCR register. Following the target initializing this register, a break
can be requested and the emulator will communicate correctly with the
target. Until the emulator and the target system are running at
compatible rates, operations such as "run," "load," "modify memory/
registers," or "display memory/registers" will either fail or give incorrect
information.
If the user loses communication between the emulator and the target
system because of incompatible clock rates, control of the target
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processor through the emulator can be recovered by applying the
configuration to the emulator with the target processor clock rate set
to a known good value.
To configure restriction to real-time runs
Real-time runs configuration
Built-in
command
Value
Emulator configuration
no
Allows commands which break to the
monitor. Examples include commands
which display memory or registers.
(Default)
cf rrt=no
yes
No commands are allowed which
break to the monitor, except “break,”
“reset,” “run,” or “step.”
cf rrt=yes
To configure the Trigger Out BNC (Emulation
Probe Only)
With an emulation module, this configuration item is always set to the
default setting and cannot be changed with a cf command. The
Intermodule window of the logic analysis system must be used instead.
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Configuring the Emulator
Trigger out configuration
Value
The Trigger Out BNC will
Built-in command
fixhigh
Always be high
cf trigout=fixhigh
fixlow
Always be low
cf trigout=fixlow
monhigh
Go high when the processor is
running in background (Default)
cf trigout=monhigh
monlow
Go low when the processor is
running in background
cf trigout=monlow
To configure the Trigger In BNC (Emulation
Probe Only)
With an emulation module, this configuration item is always set to the
default setting and cannot be changed with a cf command. The
Intermodule window of the logic analysis system must be used instead.
Trigger in configuration
Value
Meaning
Built-in command
off
Inputs to the Break In BNC will be
ignored.
cf breakin=off
rising
The emulation probe will cause a
break on a rising edge. (Default)
cf breakin=rising
falling
The emulation probe will cause a
break on a falling edge.
cf breakin=falling
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Testing the emulator and target system
Testing the emulator and target system
After you have connected and configured the emulator, you should
perform some simple tests to verify that everything is working.
See Also
Chapter 11, “Troubleshooting the Emulator,” beginning on page 159,
for information on testing the emulator hardware.
To test memory accesses
1 Start the Emulation Control Interface and configure the
emulator, if necessary.
2 Open the Memory window.
3 Write individual locations or fill blocks of memory with patterns
of your choosing.
The access size is the size of memory access that will be used to write
or read the memory values.
4 Use the Memory I/O window to stimulate I/O locations by reading
and writing individual memory locations.
To test with a running program
To more fully test your target, you can load simple programs and
execute them.
1 Compile or assemble a small program and store it in a Motorola SRecord or Intel Hex file.
2 Use the Load Executable window to download the program into
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RAM or flash memory.
3 Use the Breakpoints window to set breakpoints. Use the
Registers window to initialize register values.
The new register or breakpoint values are sent to the processor when
you press the Enter key or when you move the cursor out of the
selected register field.
4 In the Run Control window, click Run.
5 Use the Memory Mnemonic window to view the program and use
the Memory window to view any output which has been written
to memory.
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6
Using Internal Registers (SIM and
EMSIM Registers)
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Chapter 6: Using Internal Registers (SIM and EMSIM Registers)
Internal Registers (SIM and EMSIM Registers)
Internal Registers (SIM and EMSIM Registers)
The purpose of SIM Registers
The CPU32 family of processors provides a variety of internal
peripheral and memory modules that are directly connected to the
CPU32 core through an internal bus. These modules are configured
through memory mapped register banks. The base address of the
register banks as well as the base address of internal memory modules
are established through Module Configuration Registers (e.g. MCR)
and Base Address Registers (e.g. CSBARx). A common module
throughout the family is a System Integration Module (SIM) which
controls such things as clock speed and external chip selects.
The purpose of EMSIM registers
The emulator maintains a set of pseudo registers known as EMSIM
registers. There is a one to one correspondence between the EMSIM
registers and the target SIM registers. The purpose of the EMSIM
registers is to provide a stable, known set of registers that can be
copied into the SIM to establish an initial SIM state or re-establish a
previous known state. This is useful because it allows emulator to
communicate with a target without first running initialization code to
set up the chip select registers.
The names and values of the EMSIM registers are displayed in the
Configuration window of the Emulation Control Interface. The SIM
registers can be viewed in the Registers window.
Note
The emulator supports configuration of the internal registers in the System
Integration Module (SIM) and other important Module Configuration Registers
and Base Address Registers. To simplify the interface, all configurable registers
will be referred to as SIM registers even if they are technically part of another
module.
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Configuring the SIM Registers
Configuring the SIM Registers
Summary
If you have a boot ROM that initializes the SIM registers, you don’t have
to configure the EMSIM registers in order to load code and run your
target. It is a good idea to configure the EMSIM registers anyway, since
the EMSIM registers are used configure an analysis probe. Page 93
discusses how to copy the SIM registers into the EMSIM registers.
If you do not have a boot ROM, then you will need to initialize the
EMSIM registers first so that you can communicate with the memory of
the processor. Once the EMSIM registers are defined, then every reset
followed by a break will write the EMSIM registers to the processor’s
SIM registers.
Once you have configured the EMSIM registers, it is a good idea to save
a configuration. Loading the configuration will restore the values of all
configuration options, including the EMSIM registers.
How SIM Register Values are Set
These registers are typically initialized by the CPU32 executing the
reset initialization code. During development this code may not be
available or may not exist on the target system. To aid in development,
the most important of these registers can be set directly by the
emulator. This enables such functions as clock speed, chip selects, and
location of internal memory to be established prior to executing any
user code. Once these registers are set, resources in the target system
can be accessed in the same manner as the processor would access
them after executing the reset initialization code. Activities such as
downloading code into the target system can now be performed
through the emulator.
The emulator copy is identified by the prefix "EM" on the register name
(e.g. EMSYNCR is the emulator copy of the SYNCR register) and are
referred to as the EMSIM. The EMSIM registers are transferred to the
processor registers when the target processor is reset while it is
running in the BDM monitor.
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Configuring the SIM Registers
Based on the previous discussion, it should be clear that the EMSIM
values specified during configuration need to match the intended
programming and of use of your CPU32 target system. You need to
carefully decide how the processor will be configured and the
corresponding SIM values.
The effect of processor type on the EMSIM
registers
EMSIM registers are valid only if the emulator has been configured
with a target processor name other than 683xx. If the processor is
683xx, the emulator does not know what type of SIM exists in the
target and will not display correct values for the SIM registers.
Using the Emulation Control Interface or built-in
commands
If you are using the logic analysis system’s Emulation Control Interface,
you should use the Emulation Control Interface to work with SIM and
EMSIM registers.
If you are using a debugger, use a telnet window or your debugger’s
“emulator command” window to enter the emulator’s built-in
commands.
See Also
See “Emulator Built-in Commands” on page 165 for more information
on how to use built-in commands.
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Configuring EMSIM Register Values
Configuring EMSIM Register Values
There are two methods you can use to configure EMSIM register
values:
•
Copy values from the SIMs into the EMSIM registers, or
•
Manually define each of the EMSIM values.
This will not change the value of the SIM registers.
To copy target SIM registers to EMSIM
registers
If you have initialization code that properly defines the SIMs, you can
copy your values of the SIMs into the EMSIM registers. Then you can
save the EMSIM values in a configuration file.
Using the Emulation Control Interface:
• In the Configuration window, click the Read Configuration
button.
Using the emulator’s built-in commands:
• Enter the sync sim command.
To manually define EMSIM values
Using the Emulation Control Interface:
1 Open the Configuration window.
2 Enter the values for the registers.
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Configuring EMSIM Register Values
3 Open the Workspace window and select File➞Save
Configuration....
The EMSIM values will be saved as part of the configuration. This
allows you to restore the EMSIM values by loading the configuration.
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Configuring SIM Register Values
Configuring SIM Register Values
There are three ways to configure the values of the SIM registers:
•
Using code in your target’s boot ROM, or
•
Copying values from the EMSIM registers into the SIM registers, or
•
Manually entering the value of each SIM register using the Emulation
Control Interface
Some registers can only be written once after processor reset.
If you set the EMSIM values, then reset and break, the EMSIM values will be
written to the SIM registers. If your initialization code then attempts to write to
one of the "write once after reset" registers, the writes will fail. In this case, you
must run from reset to correctly execute the initialization code.
To copy EMSIM registers to target SIM
registers
You can copy values from the EMSIM registers into the SIM registers in
three ways:
Using the Emulation Control Interface:
• In the Configuration window, click the Load Configuration
button.
Using the emulator’s built-in commands:
• Enter the sync emsim command.
By resetting the target:
1 Reset the target processor.
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Configuring SIM Register Values
2 Break the target processor.
Some registers can only be written once after processor reset.
If you set the EMSIM values, then reset and break, the EMSIM values will be
written to the SIM registers. If your initialization code then attempts to write to
one of the "write once after reset" registers, the writes will fail. In this case, you
must run from reset to correctly execute the initialization code.
To manually define SIM values
Using the Emulation Control Interface:
1 Open the Registers window.
2 Enter the values for the registers.
Once you have entered the values, it is a good idea to copy the SIM
values to the EMSIM registers and save a configuration. Then you will
be able to reload the SIM registers without typing all the values again:
3 In the Configuration window, click the Read Configuration
button.
4 Open the Workspace window and select File➞Save
Configuration....
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Saving and Loading EMSIM Values
Saving and Loading EMSIM Values
You can use the Emulation Control Interface to save the EMSIM values
to a configuration file then to restore the EMSIM values.
The configuration file contains more than just the EMSIM values.
When you load the configuration, the whole emulator configuration will be
restored, including all configuration settings, and the locations of windows.
Intermodule measurement configurations will be lost (unless you save and
restore with the Source set to All).
To save EMSIM values in a configuration file
1 Open the Workspace window and select File➞Save
Configuration....
2 Set the Source field to the emulator (for example, Motorola
CPU16/32 BDM Emulator (Slot 1)).
3 Select a file name and click Save.
To load EMSIM values from a configuration file
Once you have saved the configuration, you can specify the saved
configuration file and have your EMSIMs set up to the proper values.
1 Open the Workspace window and select File➞Load
Configuration....
2 Set the Source field to the emulator (for example, Motorola
CPU16/32 BDM Emulator (Slot 1)).
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Saving and Loading EMSIM Values
3 Select a file name and click Load.
This will not change the SIM registers. To apply the new values to the
corresponding SIM registers, see “To copy EMSIM registers to target
SIM registers” on page 95.
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Configuring SIM and EMSIM Values Using Built-In Commands
Configuring SIM and EMSIM Values Using BuiltIn Commands
To compare SIM and EMSIM registers
Target SIM registers may compared to the EMSIM to determine if they
have changed. The only way to do this is with a built-in command:
• Enter the sync diff command.
This will display the differences between the SIM and EMSIM register
sets.
The emulator, when comparing SIM and EMSIM registers, will not compare
EMSIM registers that have not been set.
When you first turn on the emulator and the target system, sync diff will not
find any differences. If one register is modified, just that one register may show
differences. A complete check of the register differences will occur only if a
complete configuration is loaded or the SIM registers are copied to the EMSIM
registers.
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Configuring SIM and EMSIM Values Using Built-In Commands
Summary of EMSIM-related built-in commands
See Also
Command
Meaning
sync sim
Copy values from SIM registers to EMSIM registers
sync emsim
Copy values from EMSIM registers to SIM registers
sync diff
Display differences between SIM and EMSIM registers
reset
break
Reset, break, and copy values from EMSIM registers to SIM
registers
Use the help sync command to display help for these commands.
See “Emulator Built-in Commands” on page 165 for more information
on how to use built-in commands.
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Internal Representation of SIM and EMSIM Registers
Internal Representation of SIM and EMSIM
Registers
Internal to the emulator the EMSIM and SIM memory spaces are
accessed using memory suffixes of the form offset@emsim and
offset@reg. All memory mapped registers in the 683xx family are
contained within a contiguous 4k block of memory (8k for the 68360).
The base address is determined by the SIM MCR MM bit in the 6833x or
the MBAR in the 68340 and 68360 processors. The internal
representation within the emulator of these registers is maintained as
an offset to the memory mapped register base. Referencing memory as
offset@emsim will access a SIM copy value in the EMSIM. Referencing
offset@reg will access a register within the processor. For example, on
a 68332 the memory address 00a00@emsim will access the EMSIM
MCR and 0a00@reg will access the SIM MCR. The memory address
0@reg within a 68340 will access its SIM MCR.
The command used to compare the values with the EMSIM and SIM
will result in memory references using this notation. For example
suppose the command is given to compare the SIM and EMSIM within
the 68332. Further suppose that the values in the Clock Synthesizer
Control differ. This is the SIM register SYNCR. The resulting display
may look as follows:
0a04@emsim=000, 0a04@reg=03f
0a05@emsim=000, 0a05@reg=008
Refer to the processor data book to understand which SIM register is
differing.
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Using the Emulator with a Debugger
103
Using the Emulator with a Debugger
Several prominent companies design and sell state-of-the-art source
debuggers which work with the HP emulation module and emulation
probe.
Benefits of using a debugger
The debugger will enable you to control the execution of your
processor from the familiar environment of your debugger. Using a
debugger lets you step through your code at the source-code level.
With a debugger connection, you can set breakpoints, single-step
through source code, examine variables, and modify source code
variables from the debugger interface. The debugger can also be used
to download executable code to your target system.
Using a debugger to connect to the emulator allows the entire design
team to have a consistent interface from software development to
hardware/software integration.
Debugger interfaces must be ordered directly from the debugger
vendor.
Compatibility with other logic analysis system tools
You can use your logic analysis system to collect and analyze trace data
while you use your debugger. If you are using an X windows
workstation or a PC with an X terminal emulator, you can display the
logic analyzer windows right next to your debugger.
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Using the Emulator with a Debugger
Here is an example of what the display on your PC or workstation
might look like:
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Using the Emulator with a Debugger
Minimum requirements
To use a debugger with the emulator, you will need:
•
A debugger which is compatible with the emulator
•
A LAN connection to the PC or workstation that is running the debugger
•
X windows or an X terminal emulator, such as Reflection X on a PC. This is
required only if you wish to have the logic analysis system user interface
displayed on your PC or workstation screen, along with the debugger.
Is your debugger compatible with the emulator?
Ask your debugger vendor whether the debugger can be used with an
HP emulation module or HP emulation probe (also known as a
"processor probe" or "software probe").
LAN connection
You will use a LAN connection to allow the debugger to communicate
with the emulator.
Compatibility with the Emulation Control Interface
Do not use the logic analysis system's Emulation Control Interface and
your debugger at the same time.
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Setting up Debugger Software
Setting up Debugger Software
The instructions in this manual assume that your PC or workstation is
already connected to the LAN, and that you have already installed the
debugger software according to the debugger vendor's documentation.
To use your debugger with the emulator, follow these general steps:
•
Connect the emulator to your target system (see page 69).
•
Connect the emulator or logic analysis system to the LAN (page 108).
•
Export the logic analysis system's display to your PC or workstation
(page 112).
•
Configure the emulator (page 75).
•
Begin using your debugger.
If you use the Emulation Control Interface to configure the emulator,
remember to end the Emulation Control Interface session before you
start the debugger.
CAUTION:
Do not use the Emulation Control Interface at the same time as a debugger.
The Emulation Control Interface and debuggers do not keep track of
commands issued by other tools. If you use both at the same time, the tools
may display incorrect information about the state of the processor, possibly
resulting in lost data.
See Also
Refer to the documentation for your debugger for more information on
connecting the debugger to the emulator.
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To connect the logic analysis system to the
LAN
Information on setting up a LAN connection is provided in the online
help or installation manual for your logic analysis system.
Your debugger will require some information about the LAN
connection before it can connect to the emulator. This information may
include:
•
IP address (Internet address) or LAN name of the logic analysis system.
•
Gateway address of the logic analysis system.
•
Port number of the emulator.
Port numbers for emulators
Port number
Debugger connections
6470
6474
6478
6482
Telnet connections
6472
6476
6480
6484
108
Use for
Slot 1 (First emulator in an HP 1660A/700A-series logic
analysis system)
Slot 2 (Second emulator in an HP 16700A-series system)
Slot 3 (Third emulator in an expansion frame)
Slot 4 (Fourth emulator in an expansion frame)
Slot 1 (First emulator)
Slot 2 (Second emulator)
Slot 3 (Third emulator)
Slot 4 (Fourth emulator)
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Write the information here for future reference:
IP Address of Logic Analysis System
___________________________
LAN Name of Logic Analysis System
___________________________
Gateway Address
___________________________
Port Number of Emulator
___________________________
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To change the port number of an emulation
module
Some debuggers do not provide a means to specify a port number. In
that case, the debugger will always connect to port 6470 (the first
emulator). If you need to connect to another module, or if the port
number of the first module has been changed, you must change the
port number to be 6470.
To view or change the port number:
1 Click on the emulation module icon in the system window of the
logic analysis system, then select Update Firmware.
2 Select Modify Lan Port...
3 If necessary, enter the new port number in the Lan Port
Address field.
The new port number must be greater than 1024 and must not already
be assigned to another emulator.
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To verify communication with the emulator
1 Telnet to the IP address.
For example, on a UNIX system, enter “telnet <IP_address> 6472”.
This connection will give you access to the emulator’s built-in terminal
interface. You should see a prompt, such as “M>”.
2 At the prompt, type:
ver
You should then see information about the emulator and firmware
version.
3 To exit from this telnet session, type <CTRL>D at the prompt.
See Also
The online help or manual for your logic analysis system, for
information on physically connecting the system to the LAN and
configuring LAN parameters.
If you have problems verifying LAN communication, see page 172.
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To export the logic analysis system’s display to
a workstation
By exporting the logic analyzer’s display, you can see and use the logic
analysis system’s windows on the screen of your workstation. To do
this, you must have telnet software and X window installed on your
computer.
1 On the workstation, add the host name of the logic analysis
system to the list of systems allowed to make connections:
xhost +<IP_address>
2 Use telnet to connect to the logic analysis system.
telnet <IP_address>
3 Log in as “hplogic”.
The logic analysis system will open a Session Manager window on your
display.
4 In the Session Manager, click Start Session on This Display.
Example
On a UNIX workstation, you could use the following commands to
export the display of a logic analysis system named “mylogic”:
$ xhost +mylogic
$ telnet mylogic
Trying...
Connected to mylogic.mycompany.com.
Escape character is ‘^]’.
Local flow control on
Telnet TERMINAL-SPEED option ON
HP Logic Analysis System
Please Log in as: hplogic [displayname:0]
login: hplogic
Connection closed by foreign host.
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To export the logic analysis system’s display to
a PC
By exporting the logic analyzer’s display, you can see and use the logic
analysis system’s windows on the screen of your PC. To do this, you
must have telnet software and an X terminal emulator installed on your
computer. The following instructions use the Reflection X emulator
from WRQ, running on Windows 95, as an example.
1 On the PC, start the X terminal emulator software.
To start Reflection X, click the Reflection X Client Startup icon.
2 Start a telnet connection to the logic analysis system.
Log in as “hplogic”.
For Reflection X, enter the following values in the Reflection X Client
Startup dialog:
a In the Host field, enter the LAN name or IP address of the
logic analysis system.
b In the User Name field, enter “hplogic”.
c Leave the Password field blank.
d Leave the Command field blank.
e Click Run to start the connection.
The logic analysis system will open a Session Manager window on your
display.
3 In the Session Manager window, click Start Session on This
Display.
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Using the Green Hills debugger
Using the Green Hills debugger
Compatibility
Version 1.8.8.A of the MULTI Development Environment from Green
Hills Software, Inc. is one of several debuggers which connect to the
emulator.
This section provides information that is specific to using MULTI with
the emulator. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the MULTI
documentation provided by Green Hills Software.
Overview
MULTI connects to an emulator through the Green Hills host-resident
program (hpserv).
Host computer
MULTI
hpserv
Logic analysis
system with
emulation
module
Target
Getting started
1 Check that your emulator is programmed with firmware for a
CPU32 processor.
For an emulation module, go to the system window of the logic analyzer
interface and verify that the Emulation Module icon is described as a
"Motorola CPU16/32 BDM Emulator". If it is not, follow the instructions
on page 147 to update the firmware.
2 Build the executable.
If you have the demo software shipped with the Green Hills debugger,
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follow these steps:
a Prepare the executable.
Go to the 68000PC subdirectory where you installed MULTI. Copy the
default.lnk file to user.lnk.
b Start MULTI.
On Unix, enter "multi".
On Windows, double-click the Green Hills icon.
c Set up the MULTI software environment:
•
•
•
Replace the project default.bld (in the Builder dialog box next to the
project button) with hpdemo/ecs.bld and press ENTER.
Make sure the target button on the MULTI window says "cross 68".
In the Builder window, double-click ecs.bld.
The box next to the Debug button should display "ecs". The window should
list the names of the source code files.
d In the Builder menu bar, select Options➞CPU, then set the
processor type.
e In the Builder menu bar, select Options➞Advanced, and
select the default output mode.
f Build the demo program:
•
•
In the Builder window, click the Build icon. (Or, in the menu bar, select
Build➞Build All.)
Close the Progress window when the "Build completed" message is
displayed.
g Select Options➞Advanced, and select the IEEE-695 output
mode to generate an IEEE-695 format file.
3 Connect MULTI to the emulator.
There are two ways to connect to the emulator:
•
In the Remote box in the MULTI Builder window, enter:
hpserv IP_address
OR
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•
In the Builder window, click Debug to open the Debugger window, then in
the Debugger window’s command pane, enter:
remote hpserv IP_address
Starting hpserv opens two windows: the Target window and the I/O
window. Commands entered in the Target window are sent directly to
the emulator.
The I/O window sends input (stdin) to and receives output (stdout)
from the target program while it is running.
Note that hpserv connects to the first emulation module (port 6470) in
a logic analysis system frame. You may specify another port by using
the -p option with hpserv. See page 108 for more information on port
numbers.
4 Start the debugger.
If you have not opened the Debugger window yet, click Debug in the
Builder window.
5 Configure the emulator and target system.
Before running the target processor, you must configure the HP
emulator for your target system. For example, you may have to set the
BDM clock speed, the reset operation, cache disabling, or other
configuration parameters.
If you are unsure of the configuration needed for your emulator, you
can use the Configuration window in the logic analysis system’s
Emulation Control Interface to explore the configuration options.
Once you know the configuration settings needed for your target
system, you may use one of the following methods to configure the
emulator and target system:
•
•
•
Use the Configuration window in the logic analysis system’s Emulation
Control Interface.
Enter "cf" commands in the Target window.
Use an initialization script.
See “To configure the emulator, analysis probe, and target using an
initialization script” on page 118 for information on saving the
configuration commands in a script.
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6 Specify an initialization address for the stack pointer.
This is required if the stack pointer is neither initialized when the
processor is reset nor set in the start-up code generated by the
compiler. If the stack pointer address needs to be initialized:
•
In the debugger’s command pane, enter:
_INIT_SP = <address>
OR
•
In the Target window, enter:
reg a7=<address>
OR
•
* Include the following line in an initialization script:
target reg a7=<address>
7 Download the code:
In the Debugger window, select Remote➞LoadProgram.
The Debugger command pane indicates that the code has been
downloaded to the target.
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To configure the emulator, analysis probe, and
target using an initialization script
You can use an initialization script to configure the emulator and set up
your target system. If you will always be using the same configuration,
this way will save time and reduce errors.
1 Save the configuration commands in a text file, one command
per line.
Green Hills provides an example initialization sequence in the file
hpserv.rc in the "hpdemo" directory.
2 To run the script, enter the following command in the Debugger
command pane:
<filename
Example: simple configuration script
Create a file with the following lines:
remote hpserv hplogic1
target cf proc=68360
_INIT_SP=0x10000
Save the file in the MULTI startup directory and name it hpserv.rc.
To run the script, enter the following command in the Debugger
command pane:
<hpserv.rc
When run, this script will:
•
•
•
118
Connect to the target through the emulation module in a logic
analysis system frame called "hplogic1".
Set the processor type.
Initialize the stack pointer.
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Example: script to configure EMSIM and SIM registers
The following script was written for a target which does not have
boot ROM and which is connected to an analysis probe. The script
sets the EMSIM registers, then copies the EMSIM values to the
target processor (sync emsim) and to the analysis probe (pp
load) to enable address reconstruction.
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
target
m -d4 0000@emmbar=01000133
m -d4 1000@emsim=00001438F
m -d4 1040@emsim=017CD23A0
m -d4 1034@emsim=000000000
m -d4 1030@emsim=000000000
m -d2 1014@emsim=000000000
m -d2 1016@emsim=0000000A0
m -d2 1026@emsim=00000070F
m -d2 102A@emsim=000000000
m -d2 1010@emsim=000008000
m -d1 1008@emsim=000000084
m -d1 100C@emsim=00000008C
m -d1 1023@emsim=000000000
m -d1 1022@emsim=00000000E
m -d4 1050@emsim=000000000
m -d4 1060@emsim=0A0000001
m -d4 1070@emsim=000000000
m -d4 1080@emsim=000000001
m -d4 1054@emsim=000000000
m -d4 1064@emsim=02FE00000
m -d4 1074@emsim=000000000
m -d4 1084@emsim=04FE00009
m -d4 1090@emsim=000000000
m -d4 10A0@emsim=000000000
m -d4 10B0@emsim=000000000
m -d4 10C0@emsim=000000000
m -d4 1094@emsim=0F0000004
m -d4 10A4@emsim=0F0000004
m -d4 10B4@emsim=0F0000004
m -d4 10C4@emsim=0F0000004
cf proc=68360
sync emsim
pp load
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To perform common debugger tasks
•
To display registers, click the regs button in the Display window.
•
To set a breakpoint, click on the source code line where the breakpoint is
to be located.
•
To clear a breakpoint, click again on the source line.
•
To step through code, click next.
•
To run from the current PC, click go.
•
To toggle the display between source code and source code interlaced with
assembly code, click assem.
•
To load program symbols, reset the PC, reset the stack pointer, and run
from the start, click restart.
To send commands to the emulator
MULTI communicates to the emulator using the emulator’s "terminal
interface" commands. MULTI automatically generates and sends the
commands required for normal operation. If you want to communicate
directly with the emulator during a debug session, you may do so using
"terminal interface" commands through the Target window (which
comes up when hpserv is brought up). You can also enter these
commands from the Debugger window’s command pane by preceding
the command with the "target" command.
To view commands sent by MULTI to the
emulator
The communication between MULTI and the emulator can be viewed
by running hpserv in a logging mode:
remote hpserv -dc -a
-o <filename> <emulator>
The options -dc and -da log both asynchronous and console messages
and the -o <filename> directs these messages to a log file called
<filename>. When using this option, disconnect from hpserv (to flush
out the file) and then you may view <filename> to see what
commands MULTI sent to the emulator.
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NOTE: logging commands in this way may result in a VERY large file.
Beware of the disk space it may require.
To reinitialize the system
If you suspect that the emulator is out of sync with the MULTI
debugger, you may want to reinitialize it. Perform the steps below to
accomplish reinitialization:
3 In the Target window, type:
init -c
4 Repeat step 5 in the "Getting started" section to configure the
emulator.
To disconnect from the emulator
• In the Debugger window, select Remote➞Disconnect.
The Debugger command pane indicates that the debugger has
disconnected from the emulator.
Error conditions
"!ERROR 800! Invalid command: bcast"
usually means that there is not a target interface module (TIM)
connected to the emulator or the emulator does not have firmware for
the CPU32 family. Verify that the emulator is connected to the target.
Next, go to the system window of the logic analyzer interface and verify
that the Emulation Module icon (stop-light) is described as a Motorola
CPU16/32 BDM Emulator. If it is not, follow the steps on page 150 to
update the firmware in the emulation module.
"command socket connection failed: WSAECONNREFUSED: connection refused"
usually means the emulation module is not at port #6470 on the Logic
Analysis System.
See Also
Green Hills MULTI Software Development Environment User’s
Guide.
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Using MULTI with the Hewlett-Packard Processor Probe from Green
Hills Software, Inc.
The Green Hills web site: http://www.ghs.com
“Configuring the Emulator” on page 75 for more information on
configuration options and the "cf" command.
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Using the Software Development Systems debugger
Using the Software Development Systems
debugger
Compatibility
Version 7.2 of the SingleStep debugger from Software Development
Systems, Inc. is one of several debuggers which connect to the HP
emulator.
This section provides information that is specific to using SingleStep
with the emulator. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the
SingleStep documentation provided by SDS.
Overview
Host computer
SingleStep
LAN
Logic analysis
system with
emulation
module
Target
Startup behavior
The following actions are performed at the start of a session and when
you select File➞Debug:
•
•
•
•
•
If the target reset option is selected, the target is reset and programmed
with the register values in the configuration file (<filename>.cfg).
Hardware breakpoints are disabled.
Software breakpoints are enabled.
All breakpoints are cleared.
main() _exit breakpoints are set, if that option is selected.
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Getting started
1 Check that your emulator is programmed with firmware for a
CPU32 processor:
For an emulation module, go to the system window of the logic analyzer
interface and verify that the Emulation Module icon is described as a
"Motorola CPU16/32 BDM Emulator". If it is not, follow the instructions
on page 147 to update the firmware.
2 Connect to the emulator:
a Start SingleStep running on your PC or workstation.
b When the small Debug dialog box appears in the middle of the
screen, click the Connection tab and then enter the IP
address of the HP logic analysis system which contains the
emulation module.
If the Debug dialog box is not visible, select File➞Debug.
Note: SingleStep is hard-coded to connect to the emulation module at port
6470 of the logic analysis system frame. See page 110 for more information
on port numbers.
3 Configure the emulator with the processor clock speed.
In the Debug dialog box, click the Connection tab and then enter a
Processor Clock speed which is less than or equal to the speed at which
the processor will run out of reset.
The emulator must know the target clock speed before it can
communicate with the target. This value depends on the oscillator or
crystal used on your target system and the multipliers applicable at
reset. The communications speed can be changed (see “Download
performance” on page 131) but will be reset to this value each time
SingleStep resets the processor.
4 Initialize the target system.
The target system must have various registers and memory locations
initialized before it can access RAM and before SingleStep can
download an application. Normally, code in the target’s boot ROM
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performs this initialization. However, when SingleStep resets the
target, it immediately places the processor in debug mode. Any
initialization code which may exist on the target board has not been
run.
SingleStep provides a way for target initialization to occur without
running application code through the use of the "_config" alias. _config
is used to define a list of commands that will be used to initialize the
target after a reset. The _config alias should be defined in the sstep.ini
file (in the "cmd" directory) and will point to a file of type .cfg which
contains the actual initialization commands.
SingleStep provides some workspace files for some standard targets.
These files will setup various registers in order to initialize these
targets. The files can be found in the init directory and are as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
•
EST SBC 360 - est360.wsp
Motorola 332 EVS revision a – 332evs_a.wsp
Motorola 332 EVS revision b – 332evs_b.wsp
Motorola 340 EVS – 340evs.wsp
Nohau Trg-332 – trg332.wsp
Vesta SBC332 – vesta332,wsp
Loading one of these workspace files followed by opening the Debug
Dialog from the File Menu and setting the File and Connection options
then clicking OK will create a corresponding .cfg file in the cmd
directory. This file will store the values of the items shown in the Target
Configuration tab. You may wish to edit these values before clicking OK
and saving them to a .cfg file.
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Example
If you load the est360.wsp and set up the Debug Dialog options for
the target you are connecting to, when you click OK, the file
68360.cfg will be created and place in the cmd directory.
Comments have been added to this file, in order to explain the
items (comments begin with a #).
Contents of 68360.cfg:
set vectbase = 0x400000
set vectaddr = 0x400000
write -l CPU:0x3FF00 = 0x08000133
write -l SD:0x08001000 = 0x00014F71
write -b SD:0x08001022 = 0x0E
write -l SD:0x08001040 = 0x17CD23A0
write -l SD:0x08001050 = 0x00000001
write -l SD:0x08001054 = 0x3FFC0002
write -l SD:0x08001060 = 0x00100001
write -l SD:0x08001064 = 0x2FF80000
write -l SD:0x08001080 = 0x00400001
write -l SD:0x08001084 = 0x2FE00003
write -b SD:0x0800100C = 0x8F
write -w SD:0x08001010 = 0x4000
write -w SD:0x08001014 = 0x8000
write -w SD:0x08001016 = 0x0000
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
MBAR
MCR
SYPCR
GIMR
BRO
OR0
BR1
OR1
BR3
OR3
CLKOCR
PLLCR
CDVCR
PEPAR
The .cfg file sets up the target’s chip select registers (SIM registers)
needed in order to map memory correctly. If your target is connected
to an analysis probe, you will need to execute some additional
commands in order to configure the analysis probe. The analysis probe
stores its own copy of the chip select registers. In general, just
executing the above write commands will configure the target’s
registers. The emulator also stores a copy of these registers. The
emulator command “sync sim” listed below will copy the values of the
target’s SIM registers into the EMSIM registers. Next, the EMSIM
registers must be copied over to the analysis probe. This is
accomplished by issuing the built-in command “pp load”. Enter the
following two commands into the Command window:
control –c “sync sim”
control –c “pp load”
You should have the appropriate values for your target first written into
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the SIM registers before issuing these two commands. “control –c” is
used by SingleStep to forward a command to the emulator. For help on
either the “sync sim” or “pp load” command, issue the commands,
control –c “help sync” or control –c “help pp load” into the Command
window. Also, note that the help pp load command will refer to the
analysis probe as a preprocessor. They are one in the same.
If your target is not one that SDS ships a workspace for, add a line to
the bottom of the file “sstep.ini” (which is supplied with the debugger)
that sets up the _config alias to point to a .cfg file to use. This line will
look like:
alias _config 'source ${cmdpath}68336.cfg'
In this case, the name of the config file to use is 68336.cfg. Edit this file
specific for your targets need. Keep in mind, that commands beginning
with “control –c” followed by a string of quoted text are commands that
will be forwarded to the emulator. Commands that do not begin with
“control –c” are SingleStep commands.
Example
Here is a configuration file which contains both emulator built-in
commands and SingleStep commands:
# Config file for 68336 Motorola Modular Board
# First set clock speed to 8 MHz
control -c "cf procck=8"
# Set the processor id to 68336
control -c "cf proc=68336"
set vectbase = 0x000000
set vectaddr = 0x000000
# write -l CPU:0x3FF00 =
# write -l SD:0x01001000
# write -b SD:0x01001022
# write -l SD:0x01001040
# write -l SD:0x01001050
# write -l SD:0x01001054
# write -l SD:0x01001060
# write -l SD:0x01001064
# write -l SD:0x01001080
# write -l SD:0x01001084
CPU32 Emulation
0x01000133
= 0x0001438F
= 0x0E
= 0x17CD23A0
= 0x00000000
= 0x00000000
= 0xA0000001
= 0x2FE00000
= 0x00000001
= 0x4FE00009
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
MBAR
MCR
SYPCR
GIMR
BR0
OR0
BR1
OR1
BR3
OR3
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#
#
#
#
#
#
write
write
write
write
write
write
-b
-w
-w
-w
-w
-b
SD:0x0100100C
SD:0x01001010
SD:0x01001014
SD:0x01001016
SD:0x01001026
SD:0x01001008
=
=
=
=
=
=
0x8C
0x8000
0x0000
0x00A0
0x070F
0x84
#
#
#
#
#
#
CLKOCR
PLLCR
CDVCR
PEPAR
PICR
AVR
# Reset, run, break in order to set up chip selects
# We can issue these commands since the target has boot
# code in ROM that sets up the chip select registers
control -c "rst"
control -c "r"
control -c "b"
# Issue the next two commands since there is an
# analysis probe connected to the target
# Copy the
control -c
# Copy the
control -c
sim values to the emsim set
"sync sim"
emsim values to the analysis probe
"pp load"
The config file shown in this example did not need to set up chip
select registers because the target has boot code in ROM that will
accomplish this. Therefore, just issuing a “reset, run, break” will
execute the boot code in ROM. If your ROM does not contain boot
code to set up these registers, add write commands to the .cfg file
(similar to what is shown here for the 68360) to set up these values.
Reset, run, break would not be used to set up a target that does not
contain boot code.
Given that you added a line to the sstep.ini file that points to this
configuration file, all you need to do now is to bring up the Debug
Dialog and enter the file to download (if desired), and the connection
port to use. Click OK when finished. This config file (the one pointed to
by the added line in sstep.ini) will get executed if and only if you have
not unchecked the “Reset Target” option on the Debug Dialog’s
“Options” tab. This is selected by default. Deselecting this option will
prevent the config file you specified in the sstep.ini file from being
executed. Also, keep in mind that this file will be executed every time
the Debug Dialog is terminated via the OK button when “Reset Target”
is selected.
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In summary, there are two ways for you to configure the emulator and
your target. The first method consisted of loading an existing
workspace, using the Debug Dialog to modify any items needed
followed by clicking the OK button and having it create a
corresponding .cfg file. If you have an analysis probe connected to this
target, you need to enter the two additional commands into the
Command window (control –c “sync sim”, control –c “pp load”). The
second method consisted of creating a .cfg file and specifying that file
in the _config alias in the sstep.ini file. This file will automatically be
loaded upon clicking OK in the Debug Dialog.
To save time, you may want to do the first method just to generate .cfg
file that you can edit and use in method two. If you had an analysis
probe connected you would add the two commands mentioned
previously to the .cfg file thereby not having to enter them through the
Command window.
The "Debug" dialog method and the sstep.ini method are mutually
exclusive. Use one or the other, but not both.
Initialization of the target (that is, execution of the _config alias) will
not actually occur until the "Debug" dialog is successfully exited.
5 Set up the download and execution options in the Options tab of
the Debug dialog.
6 Download the application and run:
Select the File tab and enter the application file name. Exit the
"Debug" dialog box by clicking OK.
Emulator initialization and target initialization occur every time the
"Debug" dialog is terminated via the OK button. A summary of the
actions taken by SingleStep is given here:
•
Initialize the emulator with the communication speed specified in the
"Debug" dialog.
•
If "reset target" was selected then execute the commands specified by the
_reset alias. The _reset alias should be used to specify commands that are
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specific to initializing the processor. It is executed each time the processor
is reset. The value of the _reset alias can be viewed by issuing a "alias
_reset" from the command window.
•
Execute the commands specified by the _config alias. The _config alias
should be used to specify commands that are specific to initializing
(configuring) the target system. It is executed each time the processor is
reset and each time the debug dialog is exited. The value of the _config
alias can be viewed by issuing an "alias _config" from the command
window.
•
If "load image" was selected then download the application and set the PC
based on object module file contents.
•
If "execute until main" was selected then set a breakpoint at main() and
run.
To send commands to the emulator
To view commands sent by SingleStep
SingleStep communicates to the emulator using the emulator’s
"terminal interface" commands. SingleStep automatically generates
and sends the commands required for normal operation. This
communication between SingleStep and the emulator can be observed
by entering the following command in the SingleStep command
window:
control -ms
To send commands
"Terminal interface" commands may be sent directly to the emulator
from the SingleStep command window or included in SingleStep’s .cfg
or .dbg command files.
Commands should be enclosed in double quotes and given the prefix:
control-c.
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Examples
To see the speed that the emulator is using to communicate with
the target system you would issue the following command in the
SingleStep command window:
control -c "cf procck"
To change the speed to match a 25MHz processor clock you would
issue the following command in the command window:
control -c "cf procck=25"
For more information about "terminal interface" commands see page
77.
Download performance
Downloads are fastest when the emulator speed is set to match that of
the target processor. The initial speed that the emulator uses to
communicate with the target processor is set by the Processor clock
item in the connection tab of the "Debug" dialog. The user is
responsible for specifying this speed to be less than or equal to the
initial, reset, speed of the processor. Usually a command in the _config
alias will raise the speed of the processor above its initial, reset value.
For maximum download performance the command to increase the
target processor speed should be followed by a command to increase
the speed of the emulator communication:
Example
After setting the clock rate of the target processor, the following
command should be entered to increase the emulator
communication speed:
control -c "cf procck=25"
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Error conditions
"!ERROR 800! Invalid command: bcast" usually means that there is not
a target interface module (TIM) connected to the emulator or the
emulator does not have firmware for the CPU32 family. Verify that the
emulator is connected to the target. Next, go to the system window of
the logic analyzer interface and verify that the Emulation Module icon
(stop-light) is described as a Motorola CPU16/32 BDM Emulator. If it is
not, follow the steps on page 147 to update the firmware in the
emulation module.
"command socket connection failed: WSAECONNREFUSED: connection refused"
usually means the emulation module is not at port #6470 on the Logic
Analysis System. See step 2 of the getting started section above.
"unrecognized hostname"
usually means that the debugger is unable to establish communication
with the emulator. Verify communication to the emulation module by
doing a ping to the logic analyzer. If you are unable to ping the logic
analyzer refer to page 172 for more information.
See Also
The SDS web site: http://www.sdsi.com
The SDS SingleStep Users Guide.
The configuration section beginning on page 75 for more information
on configuration options and the "cf" command.
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Using the Analysis Probe and
Emulation Module Together
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Using the Analysis Probe and Emulation Module Together
Using the Analysis Probe and Emulation Module
Together
This chapter describes how to use an analysis probe, an emulation
module, and other features of your HP 16600A or HP 16700A logic
analysis system to gain insight into your target system.
What are some of the tools I can use?
You can use a combination of all of the following tools to control and
measure the behavior of your target system:
•
Your analysis probe, to acquire data from the processor bus while it is
running full-speed.
•
Your emulation module, to control the execution of your target processor
and to examine the state of the processor and of the target system.
•
The Emulation Control Interface, to control and configure the emulation
module, and to display or change target registers and memory.
•
Display tools including the Listing tool, Chart tool, and System
Performance Analyzer tool to make sense of the data collected using the
analysis probe.
•
Your debugger, to control your target system using the emulation module.
Do not use the debugger at the same time as the Emulation Control
Interface.
•
The HP B4620B Source Correlation Tool Set, to relate the analysis trace to
your high-level source code.
Which assembly-level listing should I use?
Several windows display assembly language instructions. Be careful to
use to the correct window for your purposes:
•
The Listing tool shows processor states that were captured during a “Run”
of the logic analyzer. Those states are disassembled and displayed in the
Listing window.
•
The Emulation Control Interface shows the disassembled contents of a
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section of memory in the Memory Disassembly window.
•
Your debugger shows your program as it was actually assembled, and (if it
supports the emulation module) shows which line of assembly code
corresponds to the value of the program counter on your target system.
Which source-level listing should I use?
Different tools display source code for different uses:
•
The Source Viewer window allows you to follow how the processor
executed code as the analyzer captured a trace. Use the Source Viewer to
set analyzer triggers. The Source Viewer window is available only if you
have licensed the HP B4620B Source Correlation Tool Set.
•
Your debugger shows which line of code corresponds to the current value
of the program counter on your target system. Use your debugger to set
breakpoints.
Where can I find practical examples of
measurements?
The Measurement Examples section in the online help contains
examples of measurements which will save you time throughout the
phases of system development: hardware turn-on, firmware
development, software development, and system integration.
A few of the many things you can learn from the measurement
examples are:
•
How to find glitches.
•
How to find NULL pointer de-references.
•
How to profile system performance.
To find the measurement examples, click on the Help icon in the logic
analysis system window, then click on “Measurement Examples.”
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Triggering the Emulation Module from the Analyzer
Triggering the Emulation Module from the
Analyzer
You can trigger the emulation module from the logic analyzer using
either the Source Viewer window or the Intermodule window. If you
are using the HP B4620B Source Correlation Tool Set, using the Source
Viewer window is the easiest method.
To stop the processor when the logic analyzer
triggers on a line of source code (Source
Viewer window)
If you have the HP B4620B Source Correlation Tool Set, you can easily
stop the processor when a particular line of code is reached.
1 In the Source window, click on the line of source code where you
want to set the trigger, then select Trace about this line.
The logic analyzer trigger is now set.
2 Select Trace➞Enable - Break Emulator On Trigger.
The emulation module is now set to halt the processor after receiving a
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trigger from the logic analyzer.
To disable the processor stop on trigger, select Trace➞Disable Break Emulator On Trigger.
3 Click Group Run in the Source window (or other logic analyzer
window).
4 If your target system is not already running, click Run in the
emulation Run Control window to start your target.
To stop the processor when the logic analyzer
triggers (Intermodule window)
Use the Intermodule window if you do not have the HP B4620B Source
Correlation Tool Set or if you need to use a more sophisticated trigger
than is possible in the Source Viewer window.
1 Create a logic analyzer trigger.
2 In the Intermodule window, click the emulation module icon,
then select the analyzer which is intended to trigger it.
The emulation module is now set to stop the processor when the logic
analyzer triggers.
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3 Click Group Run in the Source window (or other logic analyzer
window).
4 If your target system is not already running, click Run in the
emulation Run Control window to start your target.
See Also
See the online help for your logic analysis system for more information
on setting triggers.
To minimize the “skid” effect
There is a finite amount of time between when the logic analyzer
triggers, and when the processor actually stops. During this time, the
processor will continue to execute instructions. This latency is referred
to as the skid effect.
To minimize the skid effect:
1 In the Emulation Control Interface, open the Configuration
window.
2 Set processor clock speed to the maximum value which your
target can support.
The amount of skid will depend on the processor’s execution speed and
whether code is executing from the cache. See page 80 for information
on how to configure the clock speed.
To stop the analyzer and view a measurement
• To view an analysis measurement you may have to click Stop
after the trigger occurs.
When the target processor stops it may cause the analyzer qualified
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clock to stop. Therefore most intermodule measurements will have to
be stopped to see the measurement.
Example
An intermodule measurement has been set up where the analyzer
is triggering the emulation module. The following sequence could
occur:
1. The analyzer triggers.
2. The trigger (“Break In”) is sent to the emulation module.
3. The emulation module stops the user program which is running on
the target processor. The processor enters a background debug
monitor.
4. Because the processor has stopped, the analyzer stops receiving a
qualified clock signal.
5. If the trigger position is “End”, the measurement will be completed.
If the trigger position is not “End”, the analyzer may continue waiting
for more states.
6. The user clicks Stop in a logic analyzer window, which tells the logic
analyzer to stop waiting, and to display the trace.
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Tracing Until the Processor Halts
Tracing Until the Processor Halts
If you are using a state analyzer, you can begin a trace, run the
processor, then manually end the trace when the processor has halted.
To halt the processor, you can set a breakpoint using the Emulation
Control Interface or a debugger.
Some possible uses for this measurement are:
•
•
•
To store and display processor bus activity leading up to a system crash.
To capture processor activity before a breakpoint.
To determine why a function is being called. To do this, you could set a
breakpoint at the start of the function then use this measurement to see
how the function is getting called.
This kind of measurement is easier than setting up an intermodule
measurement trigger.
To capture a trace before the processor halts
1 Set the logic analyzer to trigger on nostate.
2 Set the trigger point (position) to End.
3 In a logic analyzer window, click Run.
4 In the Emulation Control Interface or debugger click Run.
5 When the emulation module halts click Stop in the logic analyzer
window to complete the measurement.
This is the recommended method to do state analysis of the processor
bus when the processor halts.
If you need to capture the interaction of another bus when the
processor halts or you need to make a timing or oscilloscope
measurement you will need to trigger the logic analyzer from the
emulation module (described in the next section).
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Triggering the Logic Analyzer from the
Emulation Module
You can create an intermodule measurement which will allow the
emulation module to trigger another module such as a timing analyzer
or oscilloscope.
If you are only using a state analyzer to capture the processor bus then
it will be much simpler to use “Tracing until processor halts” as
described on page 140.
Before you trigger a logic analyzer (or another module) from the
emulation module, you should understand a few things about the
emulation module trigger:
The emulation module trigger signal
The trigger signal coming from the emulation module is an “In
Background Debug Monitor” (“In Monitor”) signal. This may cause
confusion because a variety of conditions could cause this signal and
falsely trigger your analyzer.
The “In Monitor” trigger signal can be caused by:
•
The most common method to generate the signal is to click Run and then
click Break in the Emulation Control Interface. Going from “Run”
(Running User Program) to “Break” (“In Monitor”) generates the trigger
signal.
•
Another method to generate the “In Monitor” signal is to click Reset and
then click Break. Going from the reset state of the processor to the “In
Monitor” state will generate the signal.
•
In addition, an “In Monitor” signal is generated any time a debugger or
other user interface reads a register, reads memory, sets breakpoints or
steps. Care must be taken to not falsely trigger the logic analyzers listening
to the “In Monitor” signal.
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Group Run
The intermodule bus signals can still be active even without a
Group Run.
The following setups can operate independently of Group Run:
•
Port In connected to an emulation module
•
Emulation modules connected in series
•
Emulation module connected to Port Out
Here are some examples:
•
If “Group Run” is armed from “Port In” and an emulation module is
connected to Group Run, then any “Port In” signal will cause the emulation
module to go into monitor. The Group Run button does not have to be
pressed for this to operate.
•
If two emulation modules are connected together so that one triggers
another, then the first one going into monitor will cause the second one to
go into monitor.
•
If an emulation module is connected to Port Out, then the state of the
emulation module will be sent out the Port Out without regard to “Group
Run”.
The current emulation module state (Running or In Monitor) should be
monitored closely when they are part of a Group Run measurement so
that valid measurements are obtained.
Group Run into an emulation module does not mean that
the Group Run will Run the emulation module.
The emulation module Run, Break, Step, and Reset are independent of
the Group Run of the Analyzers.
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For example, suppose you have the following IMB measurement set up:
Clicking the Group Run button (at the very top of the Intermodule
window or a logic analyzer window) will start the analyzer running. The
analyzer will then wait for an arm signal. Now when the emulation
module transitions into “Monitor” from “Running” (or from “Reset”), it
will send the arm signal to the analyzer. If the emulation module is “In
Monitor” when you click Group Run, you will then have to go to the
emulation module or your debugger interface and manually start it
running.
Debuggers can cause triggers
Emulation module user interfaces may introduce additional states into
your analysis measurement and in some cases falsely trigger your
analysis measurement.
When a debugger causes your target to break into monitor it will
typically read memory around the program stack and around the
current program counter. This will generate additional states which
appear in the listing.
You can often distinguish these additional states because the time tags
will be in the ms and ms range. You can use the time tag information to
determine when the processor went into monitor. Typically the time
between states will be in the nanoseconds while the processor is
running and will be in the ms and ms range when the debugger has
halted the processor and is reading memory.
Not also that some debugger commands may cause the processor to
break temporarily to read registers and memory. These states that the
debugger introduces will also show up in you trace listing.
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If you define a trigger on some state and the debugger happens to read
the same state, then you may falsely trigger your analyzer
measurement. In summary, when you are making an analysis
measurement be aware that the debugger could be impacting your
measurement.
To trigger the analyzer when the processor
halts
Remember: if you are only using a state analyzer to capture the
processor bus then it will be much simpler to use “Tracing until
processor halts” as described on page 140.
1 Set the logic analyzer to trigger on anystate.
2 Set the trigger point to center or end.
3 In the Intermodule window, click on the logic analyzer you want
to trigger and select the emulation module.
The logic analyzer is now set to trigger on a processor halt.
4 Click Group Run to start the analyzer(s).
5 Click Run in the Emulation Control Interface or use your
debugger to start the target processor running.
Clicking Group Run will not start the emulation module. The
emulation module run, break, step, and reset are independent of the
Group Run of the analyzers.
6 Wait for the Run Control window in the Emulation Control
Interface or the status display in your debugger to show that the
processor has stopped.
The logic analyzer will store states up until the processor stops, but
may continue running.
You may or may not see a “slow clock” error message. In fact, if you are
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using a state analyzer on the processor bus the status may never
change upon receiving the emulation module trigger (analysis arm).
This occurs because the qualified processor clock needed to switch the
state analyzer to the next state is stopped. For example, the state
analyzer before the arm event may have a status of “Occurrences
Remaining in Level 1: 1” and after the arm event it may have the same
status of “Occurrences Remaining in Level 1: 1”.
7 If necessary, in the logic analyzer window, click Stop to complete
the measurement.
If you are using a timing analyzer or oscilloscope the measurement
should complete automatically when the processor halts. If you are
using a state logic analyzer, click Stop if needed to complete the
measurement.
To trigger the analyzer when the processor
reaches a breakpoint
This measurement is exactly like the previous one, but with the one
additional complexity of setting breakpoints. Be aware that setting
breakpoints may cause a false trigger and that the breakpoints set may
not be valid after a reset.
Remember: if you are only using a state analyzer to capture the
processor bus then it will be much simpler to use “Tracing until
processor halts” as described on page 140.
1 Set the logic analyzer to trigger on anystate.
2 Set the trigger point to center or end.
3 In the Intermodule window, click on the logic analyzer you want
to trigger and select the emulation module.
The logic analyzer is now set to trigger on a processor halt.
4 Set the breakpoint.
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If you are going to run the emulation module from Reset you must do a
Reset followed by Break to properly set the breakpoints. The Reset
will clear all on-chip hardware breakpoint registers. The Break
command will then reinitialize the breakpoint registers. If you are using
software breakpoints which insert an illegal instruction into your
program at the breakpoint location you will not need to do the Reset,
Break sequence. Instead you must take care to properly insert your
software breakpoint in your RAM program location.
5 Click Group Run to start the analyzer(s).
6 Click Run in the Emulation Control Interface or use your
debugger to start the target processor running.
Clicking Group Run will not start the emulation module. The
emulation module run, break, step, reset are independent of the Group
Run of the analyzers.
7 Wait for the Run Control window in the Emulation Control
Interface or the status display in your debugger to show that the
processor has stopped.
The logic analyzer will store states up until the processor stops, but
may continue running.
You may or may not see a “slow clock” error message. In fact, if you are
using a state analyzer on the processor bus the status may never
change upon receiving the emulation module trigger (analysis arm).
This occurs because the qualified processor clock needed to switch the
state analyzer to the next state is stopped. For example, the state
analyzer before the arm event may have a status of “Occurrences
Remaining in Level 1: 1” and after the arm event it may have the same
status of “Occurrences Remaining in Level 1: 1”
8 If necessary, in the logic analyzer window, click Stop to complete
the measurement.
If you are using a timing analyzer or oscilloscope the measurement
should complete automatically when the processor halts. If you are
using a state logic analyzer, click Stop if needed to complete the
measurement.
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Updating Firmware
147
Updating Firmware
Firmware gives your emulator a “personality” for a particular processor
or processor family.
After you have connected the emulator to your target system, you may
need to update the firmware to give it the right personality for your
processor.
You must update the firmware if:
•
You have an emulation module which was not shipped already installed in
the logic analysis system.
•
You need to change the personality of the emulator for a new processor.
•
You have an updated version of the firmware from HP.
The procedure for updating firmware for an emulation probe is
different from the procedure for updating firmware for an emulation
module.
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Emulation Probe Firmware
Emulation Probe Firmware
To display current firmware version
information
• Use telnet or a terminal emulator to access the built-in
"terminal interface" and use the ver command to view the
version information for firmware currently in the emulation
probe.
To update firmware for an emulation probe
To update the firmware, you must have access to the World Wide Web
and a PC or a workstation connected to your emulation probe.
1 Download the new firmware from the following World Wide Web
site:
http://www.hp.com/go/emulator
The firmware will be in the “Technical Support Information” section of
this web site.
2 Follow the instructions on the web site for installing the
firmware.
If HP sends you firmware on a floppy disk, install the firmware from the
floppy disk. The README file on the floppy disk contains instructions
for installing the firmware using a PC or workstation.
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Emulation Module Firmware
Always update firmware by installing a processor support package.
This will ensure that the version of the Emulation Control Interface
software is compatible the version of the emulator firmware.
To display current firmware version
information
1 In the Update Firmware window, click Display Current Version.
There are usually two firmware version numbers: one for “Generics” and
one for the personality of your processor.
To update firmware for an emulation module
using the Emulation Control Interface
1 End any run control sessions which may be running.
2 In the Workspace window, remove any Emulator icons from the
workspace.
3 Install the processor support package from the CD-ROM, if
necessary.
In the system window, click the emulation module and select
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4 Update Firmware.
5 In the Update Firmware window, select the firmware to load into
the emulation module.
6 Click Update Firmware.
In about 20 seconds, the firmware will be installed and the screen will
update to show the current firmware version.
See also
“Installing Software” beginning on page 53 for instructions on how to
install the processor support package from the CD-ROM.
To update firmware for an emulation module
using the Setup Assistant
The Setup Assistant is an online tool for connecting and configuring
your logic analysis system for microprocessor and bus analysis. The
Setup Assistant is available on the HP 16600A and HP 16700A-series
logic analysis systems.
This menu-driven tool will guide you through the connection
procedures for connecting the logic analyzer to an analysis probe, an
emulation module, or other supported equipment. It will also guide you
through connecting an analysis probe to the target system.
Do not use the Setup Assistant to connect an emulation probe if you
already have an emulation module installed.
1 Install the processor support package from the CD-ROM.
2 Start the Setup Assistant by clicking its icon in the system
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window.
3 Follow the instructions displayed by the Setup Assistant.
See also
Page page 53 for instructions on how to install a the processor support
package from the CD-ROM.
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Processor compatibility
The emulator supports Motorola 68330, 68331, 68332, 68F333, 68334,
68335, 68336, 68338, 68340, 68341, 68349, 68360, or 68376
microprocessors operating at clock speeds up to 25 MHz.
The emulator supports both 5V and 3.3V operation.
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Emulation probe electrical characteristics
BNC, labeled TRIGGER OUT
Output Drive. Logic high level with 50-ohm load >= 2.0 V. Logic low
level with 50-ohm load <= 0.4 V. Output function is selectable, see the
configuration section (page 75).
BNC, labeled BREAK IN
Input. Edge-triggered TTL level input (active high), 20 pf, with 2K
ohms to ground in parallel. Maximum input: 5V above VCC; 5 V below
ground. The BNC introduces approximately 2.5 ms skid after break-in
at 25 MHz. Input function is selectable, see the configuration section
(page 87).
Communications
Serial Port. 9-pin female type D subminiature connector. RS-232 DCE
to 115.2 kbaud.
10BASE-T LAN Port. RJ-45 connector. IEEE 802.3 10BASE-T
(StarLAN).
10BASE 2 LAN Port. 50-ohm BNC connector. IEEE 802.3 10BASE2
(ThinLAN). When using this connector, the HP Emulator provides the
functional equivalent of a Medium Attachment Unit (MAU) for
ThinLAN.
Accessory Power Out
12 V, 3.0A, center negative
Power Supply
Input. 100-240 V, 9.75 A, 50/60 Hz, IEC 320 connector.
Output. 12 V, 3.3 A
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Emulation Probe and Emulation Module
Electrical Characteristics
Characteristic
Symbol
Value
Unit
Supply Voltage from Target
VDD
-0.3 to +5.5
V
Characteristic
Symbol
VDD = 5 Volts
Min
Max
Input Current (VDD)
Iil
Input Voltage
Vin
VSS-0.5
VDD+0.5
Input High Voltage
Vih
2
Input Low Voltage
Vil
VSS-0.5
Input High Current
Iih
Input Low Current
VDD = 3.3 Volts
Min
10
Unit
Max
6
mA
VSS-0.5
VDD+0.5
V
VDD+0.5
2
VDD+0.5
V
0.8
VSS-0.5
0.8
V
-20
-15
µA
Iil
0.6
0.35
mA
Input Capacitance
Cin
40
40
pF
Output High Voltage (BKPT,IFETCH/DSI)*
Voh
3.86
3
V
Output High Current (BKPT,IFETCH/DSI)
Ioh
-4
-2
mA
Output Low Voltage (BKPT,IFETCH/DSI)
Vol
0.4
0.4
V
Output Low Current (BKPT,IFETCH/DSI)
Iol
3.4
3.4
mA
Output Low Voltage (BERR,RESET),
Iol = 12 mA*
Vol
0.4
0.4
V
Output Low Voltage (BERR, RESET),
Iol = 24 mA*
Vol
0.5
0.5
V
*The Voh specification for BERR and RESET is not applicable because
they are OPEN-collector outputs.
Input-only pins: VDD, DS, FREEZE, I_PIPE/DSO
Output-only pins: BKPT
Input/output pins: IFETCH/DSI, BERR, RESET
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Emulation Probe and Emulation Module Electrical Characteristics
Emulation probe environmental characteristics
Temperature
Operating, +0 C to +40 C (+32 to +104 F); nonoperating, -40 to +60 C
(-40 to +140 F).
Altitude
Operating/nonoperating 4600 m (15 000 ft).
Relative Humidity
15% to 95%.
For indoor use only.
Emulation module environmental
characteristics
The HP 16610A emulation module meets the environmental
characteristics of the logic analysis system in which it is installed.
For indoor use only.
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Troubleshooting the Emulator
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Chapter 11: Troubleshooting the Emulator
Troubleshooting the Emulator
Troubleshooting the Emulator
If you have problems with the emulator, your first task is to determine
the source of the problem. Problems may originate in any of the
following places:
•
The connection between the emulator and your debugger
•
The emulation module or emulation probe itself
•
The connection between the emulator and the target interface module
•
The connection between the target interface module and the target system
•
The target system
You can use several means to determine the source of the problem:
•
The troubleshooting guide on the next page
•
The status lights on the emulator
•
The emulator "performance verification" tests
•
The emulator's built-in commands
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Troubleshooting the Emulator
Troubleshooting Guide
Common problems and what to do about them
Symptom
What to do
See also
Commands from the Emulation
Control Interface or debugger
have no effect
1 Verify LAN communication.
2 Check that you are using the correct firmware.
3 Use the Emulation Control Interface or a telnet
connection to try a few built-in commands. If this works,
your debugger may not be configured properly. If this
does not work, continue with the steps for the next
symptom....
1 Check that the emulator has been properly configured
for your target system.
2 Run the emulator performance verification tests.
3 If the performance verification tests pass, then there is
an electrical problem with the connection to the target
processor OR the target system may not have been
designed according to "Designing a Target System."
Check that the target system is running user code or is in
reset. (This message can appear if the processor is in
background mode.)
Check that the clock rate is properly configured.
page 41
Emulator built-in commands do
not work
"Slow or missing clock" message
after a logic analyzer run
"Slow clock" message in the
Emulation Control Interface or
"c>" prompt in the built-in
“terminal interface”
Some commands fail
Host computer reports LAN
connection problems
Check the "restrict to real-time runs" configuration
Follow the checklists in this chapter.
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page 165
page 75
page 174
page 65
page 171
page 80
page 85
page 177
page 172
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Status Lights
Status Lights
Emulation Module Status Lights
The emulation module uses status lights to communicate various
modes and error conditions.
The following table gives more information about the meaning of the
power and target status lights.
❍ = LED is off
● = LED is on
✳ = Not applicable (LED is off or on)
Power/Target Status Lights
Pwr/Target
LEDs
Meaning
❍ Reset
❍ Break
❍ Run
No target system power, or emulation module is not
connected to the target system
● Reset
❍ Break
❍ Run
Target system is in a reset state
❍ Reset
● Break
❍ Run
The target processor is executing in Debug Mode
❍ Reset
❍ Break
● Run
The target processor is executing user code
❍ Reset
● Break
● Run
Only boot firmware is good (other firmware has been
corrupted)
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Status Lights
Emulation Probe Status Lights
The following illustration shows the status lights on both sides of the
emulation probe and what they mean:
Lit when the power suply is properly
connected to the emulation probe
Lit when the target processor is running in
debug mode
Lit when the target system is in a
reset state
Lit when the target processor is running in
normal (user program) mode
Lit when LAN data is being transmitted
Lit when 10BASE-T connection has a good
link; not used for 10BASE2
Lit when the polarity on the receive twisted
pair is reversed for a 10BASE-T connection
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Lit when LAN data is being
received
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Status Lights
Emulation Probe Status Lights
The emulation probe uses status lights to communicate various modes
and error conditions.
The following table gives more information about the meaning of the
power and target status lights.
❍ = LED is off
● = LED is on
✳ = Not applicable (LED is off or on)
Power/Target Status Lights
Pwr/Target
LEDs
Meaning
❍❍
❍❍
Emulation probe is not connected to power supply
❍●
❍❍
No target system power, or emulation probe is not
connected to the target system
❍●
❍●
Target system is in a reset state
●●
❍❍
The target processor is executing in Debug Mode
❍●
●❍
The target processor is executing user code
●●
●❍
Only boot firmware is good (other firmware has been
corrupted)
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Emulator Built-in Commands
Emulator Built-in Commands
The emulator has some built-in commands (sometimes called the
“terminal interface”) which you can use for troubleshooting.
You can enter the built-in commands using:
•
A telnet (LAN) connection
•
The Command Line window in the Emulation Control Interface
•
A “debugger command” window in your debugger
•
A serial connection (emulation probe only; see page 42)
To telnet to the emulation module
You can establish a telnet connection to the emulation module if:
•
A host computer and the logic analysis system are both connected to a
local-area network (LAN), and
•
The host computer has the telnet program (often part of the operating
system or an internet software package).
To establish a telnet connection:
1 Find out the port number of the emulation module.
The default port number of the first emulation module in an
HP16600A/700A series logic analysis system is 6472. The default port
of a second module in an HP16600A-series system is 6476. The default
port numbers of a third and fourth module in an expansion frame are
6480 and 6484. These port numbers can be changed, but that is rarely
necessary.
2 Find out the LAN address or LAN name of the logic analysis
system.
3 Start the telnet program.
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Emulator Built-in Commands
If the LAN name of the logic analysis system is “test2” and you have
only one emulation module installed, the command might look like this:
telnet test2 6472
4 If you do not see a prompt, press the <Return> key a few times.
To exit from this telnet session, type <CTRL>D at the prompt.
To telnet to the emulation probe
You can establish a telnet connection to the emulation probe if:
•
A host computer and the probe are both connected to a local-area network
(LAN), and
•
The host computer has the telnet program (often part of the operating
system or an internet software package).
To establish a telnet connection:
1 Find out the LAN address or LAN name of the emulation probe.
2 Start the telnet program.
If the LAN name of the emulation probe is “test2”, the command might
look like this:
telnet test2
3 If you do not see a prompt, press the <Return> key a few times.
To exit from this telnet session, type <CTRL>D at the prompt.
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Emulator Built-in Commands
To use the built-in commands
Here are a few commonly used built-in commands:
Useful built-in commands
b
cf
help
init
lan
m
pp load
reg
r
rep
rst
s
sync diff
sync emsim
sync sim
ver
Break—go into the background monitor state
Configuration—read or write configuration options
Help—display online help for built-in commands
Initialize—init -c re-initializes everything in the emulator
except for the LAN software; init -p is the equivalent of
cycling power (it will break LAN connections)
configure LAN address (emulation probes only)
Memory—read or write memory
Load EMSIM values into preprocessor
Register—read or write a register
Run—start running user code
Repeat—repeat a command or group of commands
Reset—reset the target processor (the emulator will wait for you
to press the target’s RESET button)
Step—do a low-level single step
Compare EMSIM with SIM registers
Copy EMSIM to SIM registers
Copy SIM to EMSIM registers
Version—display the product number and firmware version of the
emulator
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Emulator Built-in Commands
The prompt indicates the status of the emulator:
Emulator prompts
U
M
p
R
r
d
?
Running user program
Running in background monitor
No target power
Emulation reset
Target reset
Cable disconnected
Unknown state
Examples
To set register R0, then view R0 to verify that it was set, enter:
R>rst
M>reg
M>reg
reg
-m
r0=ffff
r0
R0=0000ffff
To break execution then step a single instruction, enter:
M>b
M>s
PC=xxxxxxxx
M>
To determine what firmware version is installed in the emulator,
enter:
M>ver
See Also
Use the help command for more information on these and other
commands. Note that some of commands listed in the help screens are
generic commands for HP emulators and may not be available for your
product.
If you are writing your own debugger, contact HP for more information.
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Problems with the BDM Connection
Problems with the BDM Connection
If a user interface behaves erratically
❏ Check the orientation of the cable connecting the target interface module
to your target system. If the cable is offset or rotated, the emulator will try
to interpret the “random” signals with unpredictable results. If the cable is
rotated, the emulator or target system may also be damaged.
❏ Check that the processor clock speed has been properly configured. See
“To configure the processor clock speed (BDM communication speed)” on
page 80.
❏ If your target system uses a 68360, check that the FREEZE and CONFIG2
lines have sufficient pull-up current. See page 123 for more information.
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Problems with Configuration
Problems with Configuration
If you have problems displaying some registers
❏ If your user interface can read or write “generic” registers, but cannot
access registers that are unique to your target microcontroller, check that
the target microcontroller matches the processor type you have
configured in the emulator. You can use the Configuration window in the
Emulation Control Interface to configure the target processor type.
❏ If the value of the SP and PC are displayed as ???, see “If boot area
accesses fail” on page 171.
If you have problems initializing some registers
Some registers can only be written once after processor reset.
If you set the EMSIM values, then reset and break, the EMSIM values
will be written to the SIM registers. If your initialization code then
attempts to write to one of the “write once after reset” registers, the
writes will fail.
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Problems with the Target System
Problems with the Target System
If boot area accesses fail
When you start a debugger interface or attempt to run from reset, the
emulator makes four accesses to the target system boot area to find
reset values for the SP and PC. It then attempts to read the values on
the stack and the code at the PC.
This problem can result in unknown values for the SP and PC
(displayed as ???) and can make the debugger interface respond very
slowly.
To avoid this problem, you can do several things:
❏ Use the 10-pin connector. The extra two pins on this connector allow the
emulator to complete unterminated memory cycles.
❏ In your boot-up code, set the initial PC and stack pointer to memory which
will be accessible at reset. Be sure to set the chip selects appropriately.
If the target system does not run
❏ If your target system uses a 68360, check that the FREEZE and CONFIG2
lines have sufficient pull-up current. See page 123 for more information.
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Problems with the LAN Interface (Emulation Module Only)
Problems with the LAN Interface (Emulation
Module Only)
If LAN communication does not work
If you cannot verify the connection, or if the commands are not
accepted by the emulation module:
❏ Make sure that you wait for the power-on self test to complete before
connecting.
❏ Make sure that the LAN cable is connected. Watch the LAN LED’s on the
back of the logic analysis system to see whether the system is seeing LAN
activity. Refer to your LAN documentation for testing connectivity.
❏ Check that the host computer or debugger was configured with the correct
LAN address. If the logic analysis system is on a different subnet than the
host computer, check that the gateway address is correct.
❏ Make sure that the logic analysis system’s IP address is set up correctly.
❏ Refer to the online help in the logic analysis system for more information.
If it takes a long time to connect to the network
❏ Check the subnet masks on the other LAN devices connected to your
network. All of the devices should be configured to use the same subnet
mask.
Subnet mask error messages do not indicate a major problem. You can
continue using the emulation module.
The subnet mask is set in the logic analysis system’s System Admin
window. If it then detects other subnet masks, it will generate error
messages.
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Problems with the LAN Interface (Emulation Module Only)
If there are many subnet masks in use on the local subnet, the logic
analysis system may take a very long time to connect to the network after it
is turned on.
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Problems with the Emulation Module
Problems with the Emulation Module
Occasionally you may suspect a hardware problem with the emulation
module or target interface module. The procedures in this section
describe how to test the hardware, and if a problem is found, how to
repair or replace the broken component.
To run the built-in performance verification
test using the logic analysis system (Emulation
Module Only)
1 End any Emulation Control Interface or debugger sessions.
2 Disconnect the 50-pin cable from the emulation module, and plug
the loopback test board (HP part number E3496-66502) into the
emulation module.
3 In the system window, click the emulation module and select
Performance Verification.
4 Click Start PV.
The results will appear onscreen.
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Problems with the Emulation Module
To run complete performance verification tests
using a telnet connection (Emulation Module
Only)
1 Disconnect the 50-pin cable from the emulation module, and plug
the loopback test board (HP part number E3496-66502) directly
into the emulation module. Do not plug anything into the other
end of the loopback test board.
On a good system, the RESET LED will light and the BKG and USER
LEDs will be out.
2 telnet to the emulation module.
3 Enter the pv 1 command.
See Also
Options available for the “pv” command are explained in the help
screen displayed by typing “help pv” or “? pv” at the prompt. Note,
however, that some of the options listed may not apply to your
emulation module.
Examples
If you are using a UNIX system, to telnet to a logic analysis system
named “mylogic”, enter:
telnet mylogic 6472
Here are some examples of ways to use the pv command.
To execute both tests one time:
pv 1
To execute test 2 with maximum debug output repeatedly until a
^C is entered:
pv -t2 -v9 0
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Problems with the Emulation Module
To execute tests 3, 4, and 5 only for 2 cycles:
pv -t3-5 2
The results on a good system with the loopback test board
connected, are as follows:
M>pv 1
Testing: HPE3499C Series Emulation System
Test 1: Powerup PV Results
Test 2: Target Probe Feedback Test
Test 3: Boundary Scan Master Test
Test 4: I2C Test
Test 5: Data Lines Test
Number of tests: 1
Number of failures: 0
Passed!
Passed!
Passed!
Passed!
Passed!
Copyright (c) Hewlett-Packard Co. 1987
All Rights Reserved. Reproduction, adaptation, or translation without
prior
written permission is prohibited, except as allowed under copyright laws.
HPE3499C Series Emulation System
Version:
A.07.53 26Feb98
Location: Generics
HPE3490A Motorola CPU16/32 BDM Emulator
Version:
A.02.05 26Feb98
M>
If a performance verification test fails
❏ Details of the failure can be obtained through using a -v option (“verbose”
level) of 2 or more.
❏ Check that the loopback test board is connected.
❏ If the problem persists, contact HP for assistance.
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Problems with the LAN Interface (Emulation Probe Only)
Problems with the LAN Interface (Emulation
Probe Only)
If you cannot verify LAN communication
If you cannot verify connection using the procedure in "To verify LAN
communication", or if the commands are not accepted by the emulation
probe:
❏ Make sure that you have connected the emulation probe to the proper
power source and that the power light is lit.
❏ Make sure that you wait for the power-on self test to complete before
connecting.
❏ Make sure that the LAN cable is connected. Watch the LAN LED’s to see
whether the emulation probe is seeing LAN activity. Refer to your LAN
documentation for testing connectivity.
❏ Make sure that only one of the LAN ports is connected.
❏ Make sure the emulation probe communication configuration switches are
set correctly. Unplug the emulation probe power cord, then plug it in again
to make sure the switch settings are read correctly by the emulation probe.
❏ Check that the Emulation Control Interface or debugger was configured
with the correct LAN address. If the emulation probe is on a different
subnet than the host computer, check that the gateway address is correct.
❏ Make sure that the emulation probe’s IP address is set up correctly. Use
the RS-232 port to verify this that the IP address is set up correctly. When
you are connected to the RS-232 port, run performance verification on the
emulation probe’s LAN interface with the "pv" command.
❏ It’s also possible for there to be a problem with the emulation probe
firmware while the LAN interface is still up and running. In this case, you
must reboot the emulation probe by disconnecting power to the emulation
probe and reconnecting it again.
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Problems with the LAN Interface (Emulation Probe Only)
❏ Use a serial connection to run the LAN performance verification tests (see
page 174).
If you have LAN connection problems
❏ If the emulation probe does not accept commands from the
HP 16600A/700A:
1. Check that switch S1 is "0" (attached to LAN, not RS-232).
2. Check that switch S5 is in the correct position for your LAN interface
(either 10BASE2 or 10BASE-T).
(Remember: if you change any switch settings, the changes do not take
effect until you cycle power.)
❏ If the emulation probe still does not respond, you need to verify the IP
address and gateway mask of the emulation probe. To do this, connect the
emulation probe to a terminal or terminal emulator (see page 42), change
the switch settings so it is connected to RS-232, and enter the "lan"
command. The output looks something like this:
...lan -i 15.5.24.116
...lan -g 15.5.23.1
...lan -p 6470
...Ethernet Address : 08000909BAC1
"lan -i" shows the internet address is 15.5.24.116 in this case. If the
Internet address (IP) is not what you expect, you can change it with
the ’lan -i >’ command.
"lan -g" shows the gateway address. Make sure it is the address of your
gateway if you are connecting from another subnet, or 0.0.0.0 if you are
connecting from the local subnet.
"lan -p" shows the port is 6470.
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Problems with the LAN Interface (Emulation Probe Only)
If the "POL" LED is lit
The "POL" LED indicates that the polarity is reversed on the receive
pair if you are using a 10BASE-T connection. The emulator should still
work properly in this situation, but other LAN devices may not work.
If it takes a long time to connect to the network
❏ Check the subnet masks on the other LAN devices connected to your
network. All of the devices should be configured to use the same subnet
mask.
Subnet mask error messages do not indicate a major problem. You can
continue using the emulation probe.
The emulation probe automatically sets its subnet mask based on the
first subnet mask it detects on the network. If it then detects other
subnet masks, it will generate error messages.
If there are many subnet masks in use on the local subnet, the
emulation probe may take a very long time to connect to the network
after it is turned on.
To "clean up" the network, connect a terminal to the emulation porbe.
You can then see error messages which will help you identify which
devices on the network are using the wrong subnet masks.
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Problems with the Serial Interface (Emulation Probe Only)
Problems with the Serial Interface (Emulation
Probe Only)
If you cannot verify RS-232 communication
If the emulation probe prompt does not appear in the terminal
emulator window:
❏ Make sure that you have connected the emulation probe to the proper
power source and that the power light is lit.
❏ Make sure that you have properly configured the data communications
switches on the emulation probe and the data communications parameters
on the host computer. You should also verify that you are using the correct
cable.
The most common type of data communications configuration problem
involves the configuration of the emulator as a DTE device instead of as
a DCE device. If you are using the wrong type of cable, no prompt will
be displayed.
A cable with one-to-one connections will work with a PC or an HP
Series 700 workstation.
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Problems with the Serial Interface (Emulation Probe Only)
If you have RS-232 connection problems with
the MS Windows Terminal program
❏ Remember that Windows 3.1 only allows two active RS-232 connections at
a time. To be warned when you violate this restriction, choose Always Warn
in the Device Contention group box under 386 Enhanced in the Control
Panel.
❏ Use the "Terminal" program (usually found in the Accessories windows
program group) and set up the "Communications..." settings as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
Baud Rate: 9600 (or whatever you have chosen for the emulation
probe)
Data Bits: 8
Parity: None
Flow Control: hardware
Stop Bits: 1
When you are connected, hit the Enter key. You should get a prompt back.
If nothing echos back, check the switch settings on the emulation probe.
❏ If the switches are in the correct position and you still do not get a prompt
when you hit return, try turning OFF the power to the emulation probe
and turning it ON again.
❏ If you still don’t get a prompt, make sure the RS-232 cable is connected to
the correct port on your PC, and that the cable is appropriate for
connecting the PC to a DCE device.
With certain RS-232 cards, connecting to an RS-232 port where the
emulation probe is turned OFF (or is not connected) will hang the PC.
The only way to get control back is to reboot the PC. Therefore, we
recommend that you always turn ON the emulation probe before
attempting to connect via RS-232.
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Problems with the Emulation Probe
Problems with the Emulation Probe
To run the power up self test
1 Unplug the emulation probe, then plug it in.
2 Watch the status lights. They should show the following pattern:
❍ = LED is off
● = LED is on
✳ = Not applicable (LED is off or on)
Normal sequence during power up self test
Pwr/Target
LEDs
Meaning
1
❍●
❍❍
Initial power up, system reset
2
❍●
❍❍
XILINX array initialized successfully
3
❍●
●❍
XILINX array tested successfully
4
●●
❍❍
BOOT ROM space tested successfully
5
❍●
●❍
GENERIC ROM space tested successfully
6
●●
❍❍
DRIVER ROM space tested successfully
7
❍●
●❍
RESERVED ROM space tested successfully
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Problems with the Emulation Probe
Pwr/Target
LEDs
Meaning
8
●●
❍❍
RAM tested successfully
9
❍●
●❍
LAN internal feedback tested successfully
10
❍●
❍❍
Boundary scan master (BSM) test begun
11
●●
●❍
BSM test completed, start system, load drivers, initialize
LAN
If the power up self test fails, the RESET LED will flash the number of
the test, then stay lit.
If any of the LEDs fail to change, or all of them remain on, there is a
system failure.
Following power up, the LEDs will enter one of the following states
shown on page 164.
Starting a user interface will change the pattern to the one requested
by the interface.
If the power up self tests fail, try the following:
❏ Check and reset the LAN address. LAN powerup failures will occur if the
emulation probe does not have a valid link-level address and IP address.
❏ Disconnect all external connections, including the LAN, serial (RS-232),
and BNC break and trigger cables, then cycle power.
❏ To ensure that the firmware is working as it should, reprogram the
firmware, then cycle power.
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Problems with the Emulation Probe
To run the emulation probe performance
verification tests
In addition to the powerup tests, there are several additional
performance verification (PV) tests available.
Some of these tests can be performed through the HP 16700A/16700Aseries logic analysis system. The LAN tests for an emulation probe can
only be executed through the RS-232 port.
To fully test the emulation probe, you will need to run the PV test with
several hardware configurations:
•
For the BREAK IN, TRIGGER OUT BNC FEEDBACK TEST, connect a
coaxial cable between BREAK IN and TRIGGER OUT.
To run the performance verification tests using
the logic analysis system
1 End any Emulation Control Interface or debugger sessions.
2 Disconnect the 50-pin cable from the emulation probe, and plug
the loopback test board (HP part number E3496-66502) into the
emulation probe.
3 In the system window, click the emulation probe and select
Performance Verification.
4 Click Start PV.
The results will appear on screen.
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Problems with the Emulation Probe
To run complete performance verification tests
for an emulation probe
The LAN tests can only be executed through the RS-232 port. The
remainder of this section assumes that the tests are being run from a
terminal emulator connected to the RS-232 port.
1 Disconnect the 50-pin cable from the emulation probe, and plug
the emulator loopback test board (HP part number E349666502) directly into the emulator. Do not plug anything into the
other end of the emulator loopback test board.
On a good system, the RESET LED will light and the BKG and USER
LEDs will be out.
2 Connect a coaxial cable between BREAK IN and TRIGGER OUT.
3 Set all of the switches to CLOSED.
This is standard RS-232 at 9600 baud which can be connected directly
to a 9 pin RS-232 interface that conforms to the IBM PC-AT 9 pin
standard.
4 Use a terminal emulator to connect to the emulation probe.
CPU32 Emulation
185
Chapter 11: Troubleshooting the Emulator
Problems with the Emulation Probe
5 Enter the pv 1 command.
See Also
Options available for the pv command are explained in the help screen
displayed by typing help pv or ? pv at the prompt.
Examples
Here are some examples of ways to use the pv command.
To execute both tests one time:
pv 1
To execute test 2 with maximum debug output repeatedly until a
Ctrl-c is entered:
pv -t2 -v9 0
To execute tests 3, 4, and 5 only for 2 cycles:
pv -t3-5 2
The results on a good system, with the BNCs connected, and with
the loopback test board connected, are as follows:
c>pv 1
Testing:
Test #
Test #
Test #
Test #
Test #
Test #
Test #
Test #
PASSED
HPE3499B Series Emulation System passed!
1: Powerup PV Results
passed!
2: LAN 10Base2 Feedback Test
passed!
3: LAN 10BaseT Feedback Test
passed!
4: Break In and Trigger Out BNC Feedback Test
passed!
5: Target Probe Feedback Test
passed!
6: Boundary Scan Master Test
passed!
7: 12C Test
passed!
8: Data Lines Test
passed!
Number of tests: 1
Number of failures: 0
Copyright (c) Hewlett-Packard Co. 1987
All Rights Reserved. Reproduction, adaptation, or translation without
prior written permission is prohibited, except as allowed under copyright
laws.
HPE3499B Series Emulation System
Version:
A.07.53 01Mar98
Location: Generics
HPE3490A Motorola CPU16/32 BDM Emulator
Version:
A.02.05 01Mar98
R>
186
CPU32 Emulation
Chapter 11: Troubleshooting the Emulator
Problems with the Emulation Probe
If a performance verification test fails
There are some things you can do if a failure is found on one of these
tests. Details of the failure can be obtained through using a -v value
(“verbose level”) of 2 or more.
,I WKH SDUWLFXODU IDLOXUH \RX VHH LV QRW OLVWHG EHORZ FRQWDFW +3 IRU DVVLVWDQFH
TEST 2: LAN 10BASE2 Feedback Test failed
For LAN 10BASE2 test, the following is an example of a failure which is
not caused by a broken emulator.
R>pv -t2 -v2 1
Testing: HPE3499B Series Emulation System
Test # 2: LAN 10Base2 Feedback Test
failed!
FAILED - no lan connection (LAN probably not terminated
FAILED Number of tests: 1
Number of failures: 1
Check to see that the port under test has a good cable connected to it
and that the cable is properly terminated with a 50 ohm terminator on
each end of the overall cable.
R>pv -t2 -v2 1
Testing: HPE3499B Series Emulation System
Test # 2: LAN 10Base2 Feedback Test
failed!
FAILED due to excessive collisions
FAILED Number of tests: 1
Number of failures: 1
The most common cause of this problem is poor termination of the
cable or failure to remove the port under test from the LAN before
performing the test. Check to see that the terminators are good (50
ohms) and that you are isolated from any traffic on a system LAN.
R>pv -t2 -v2 1
Testing: HPE3499B Series Emulation System
Test # 2: LAN 10Base2 Feedback Test
failed!
FAILED - invalid Ethernet address in EEPROM
FAILED Number of tests: 1
Number of failures: 1
First check to see that a correct link-level address and IP address have
been set in the virtual EEPROM through the “lan” command. If the
“lan” command shows bad information for the link-level address and IP,
CPU32 Emulation
187
Chapter 11: Troubleshooting the Emulator
Problems with the Emulation Probe
then try to set them to correct values. If you are unable to set them to
correct values, their is a failure in the FLASH ROM which requires
service from HP.
Test 3: 10BaseT Feedback Test failed here
R>pv -t3 -v2 1
Testing: HPE3499B Series Emulation System
Test # 3: LAN 10BaseT Feedback Test
failed!
FAILED Number of tests: 1
Number of failures: 1
In addition to the internal checks performed in Test 2, this test also
checks for shorts on the cable connected to the network. If this test
fails, disconnect the cable and run the test again. If it then passes, the
cable is faulty. If it still fails, it requires service from HP.
If the emulator passes this “pv” test, additional testing can be
performed through exercising the connection to the network. To run
this test, set configuration switch 1 and switch 5 to OPEN, all other
configuration switches CLOSED (this enables LAN using 10BaseT).
Cycle power and wait for 15 to 30 seconds. Then “ping” the emulator
from your host computer or PC. See the LAN documentation for your
host computer for the location and action of the “ping” utility. If the
emulator fails to respond to the “ping” request, verify that the LAN
parameters (IP address and gateway address) are set correctly and
that your host computer recognizes the IP address of the emulator. If
all else is good, then failure to respond to ping indicates a faulty
emulator.
Test 4: Break In and Trigger Out BNC Feedback Test
R>pv -t4 -v2 1
Testing: HPE3499B Series Emulation System
Test # 4: Break In and Trigger Out BNC Feedback Test failed!
Break In not receiving Break Out HIGH
FAILED Number of tests: 1
Number of failures: 1
Before returning to HP, check to ensure that you have connected a
good coaxial cable between the two BNCs. If the cable is good, the
emulator is bad.
188
CPU32 Emulation
Chapter 11: Troubleshooting the Emulator
Problems with the Emulation Probe
TEST 5: Target Probe Feedback Test
TEST 6: Boundary Scan Master Test
TEST 7: I2C Test
TEST 8: Data Line Test
If these tests are not executed, check that you have connected the
emulator loopback test board.
If these tests fail, return the emulator to HP for replacement.
CPU32 Emulation
189
Chapter 11: Troubleshooting the Emulator
Returning Parts to Hewlett-Packard for Service
Returning Parts to Hewlett-Packard for Service
The repair strategy for this emulation solution is board replacement.
Exchange assemblies are available when a repairable assembly is returned
to Hewlett-Packard. These assemblies have been set up on the “Exchange
Assembly” program. This lets you exchange a faulty assembly with one
that has been repaired, calibrated, and performance verified by the factory.
The cost is significantly less than that of a new assembly.
To return a part to Hewlett-Packard
1 Follow the procedures in this chapter to make sure that the
problem is caused by a hardware failure, not by configuration or
cabling problems.
2 In the U.S., call 1-800-403-0801. Outside the U.S., call your
nearest HP sales office. Ask them for the address of the nearest
HP service center.
3 Package the part and send it to the HP service center.
Keep any parts which you know are working. For example, if only the
target interface module is broken, keep the emulation module and
cables.
4 When the part has been replaced, it will be sent back to you.
The unit returned to you will have the same serial number as the unit
you sent to HP.
The HP service center can also troubleshoot the hardware and replace
the failed part. To do this, send your entire measurement system to the
service center, including the logic analysis system, target interface
module, and cables.
In some parts of the world, on-site repair service is available. Ask an HP
sales or service representative for details.
190
CPU32 Emulation
Chapter 11: Troubleshooting the Emulator
Returning Parts to Hewlett-Packard for Service
To obtain replacement parts
The following table lists some parts that may be replaced if they are
damaged or lost. The part numbers are subject to change. Contact your
nearest Hewlett-Packard Sales Office for further information.
Exchange assemblies
Part number
Description
16600-69515
Emulation module
E3458-69401
Programmed emulation probe assembly
Replacement assemblies
Part number
Description
E3496-61601
50-pin control cable
E3496-61603
10-pin BDM cable
E3496-66502
Loopback test board
E3458-66501
CPU32 target interface module
16700-61608
Expansion cable for emulation module
0950-3043
Power supply for emulation probe
CPU32 Emulation
191
Chapter 11: Troubleshooting the Emulator
Returning Parts to Hewlett-Packard for Service
To clean the instrument
If the instrument requires cleaning:
1 Remove power from the instrument.
2 Clean with a mild detergent and water.
3 Make sure that the instrument is completely dry before
reconnecting it to a power source.
192
CPU32 Emulation
Glossary
Analysis Probe A probing solution
connected to the target
microcontroller. It provides an
interface between the signals of the
target microcontroller and the inputs
of the logic analyzer. Formerly called
a “preprocessor.”
Elastomeric Probe Adapter A
connector that is fastened on top of a
target microcontroller using a
retainer and knurled nut. The
conductive elastomer on the bottom
of the probe adapter makes contact
with pins of the target
microcontroller and delivers their
signals to connection points on top of
the probe adapter.
Emulation Module An emulation
module is installed within the
mainframe of a logic analyzer. It
provides run control within an
emulation and analysis test setup.
See Emulation Probe.
Emulation Probe An emulation
probe is a standalone instrument
connected via LAN to the mainframe
of a logic analyzer or to a host
computer. It provides run control
within an emulation and analysis test
setup. Formerly called a “processor
probe” or “software probe.” See
Emulation Module.
Emulator An emulation module or
CPU32 Emulation
an emulation probe.
Extender A part whose only
function is to provide connections
from one location to another. One or
more extenders might be stacked to
raise a probe above a target
microprocessor to avoid mechanical
contact with other components
installed close to the target
microcontroller. Sometimes called a
“connector board.”
Flexible Adapter Two connection
devices coupled with a flexible cable.
Used for connecting probing
hardware on the target
microcontroller to the analysis probe.
General-Purpose Flexible
Adapter A cable assembly that
connects the signals from an
elastomeric probe adapter to an
analysis probe. Normally, a male-tomale header or transition board
makes the connections from the
general-purpose flexible adapter to
the analysis probe.
High-Density Adapter Cable A
cable assembly that delivers signals
from an analysis probe hardware
interface to the logic analyzer pod
cables. A high-density adapter cable
has a single Mictor connector that is
installed into the analysis probe, and
two cables that are connected to
193
Glossary
corresponding odd and even logic
analyzer pod cables.
High-Density Termination
Adapter Cable Same as a HighDensity Adapter Cable, except it has
a termination in the Mictor
connector.
Jumper Moveable direct electrical
connection between two points.
Mainframe Logic Analyzer A logic
analyzer that resides on one or more
board assemblies installed in an
HP16500, HP1660-series, or
HP16600A/700A-series mainframe.
Male-to-male Header A board
assembly that makes point-to-point
connections between the female pins
of a flexible adapter or transition
board and the female pins of an
analysis probe.
Preprocessor See Analysis Probe.
Preprocessor Interface See
Analysis Probe.
Probe adapter See Elastomeric
Probe Adapter.
Processor Probe See Emulation
Probe.
Prototype Analyzer The HP16505A
194
prototype analyzer acts as an analysis
and display processor for the
HP16500B/C logic analysis system. It
provides a windowed interface and
powerful analysis capabilities.
Replaced by HP16600A/700A-series
logic analysis systems.
Run Control Probe See Emulation
Probe and Emulation Module.
Setup Assistant A software
program that guides a user through
the process of connecting and
configuring a logic analyzer to make
measurements on a specific
microcontroller.
Shunt Connector. See Jumper.
Software Probe See Emulation
Probe.
Solution HP’s term for a set of tools
for debugging your target system. A
solution includes probing, inverse
assembly, the HPB4620B Source
Correlation Tool Set, and an
emulation module.
Stand-alone Logic Analyzer A
standalone logic analyzer has a
predefined set of hardware
components which provide a specific
set of capabilities. It is designed to
perform logic analysis. A standalone
logic analyzer differs from a
CPU32 Emulation
Glossary
mainframe logic analyzer in that it
does not offer card slots for
installation of additional capabilities,
and its specifications are not
modified based upon selection from a
set of optional hardware boards that
might be installed within its frame.
that obtains one-quarter of the
signals from an elastomeric probe
adapter (one side of a target
microcontroller) and makes them
available for probing.
Target Control Port An 8-bit, TTL
port on a logic analysis system that
you can use to send signals to your
target system. It does not function
like a pattern generator or emulation
module, but more like a remote
control for the target’s switches.
Target Interface Module A small
circuit board which connects the 50pin cable from an emulation module
or emulation probe to signals from
the debug port on a target system.
TIM See Target Interface Module.
Trigger Specification A set of
conditions that must be true before
the instrument triggers. See the
printed or online documentation for
your logic analyzer for details.
Transition Board A board assembly
that obtains signals connected to one
side and rearranges them in a
different order for delivery at the
other side of the board.
1/4-Flexible Adapter An adapter
CPU32 Emulation
195
196
CPU32 Emulation
Index
A
address, IP
IP address, 32
altitude specifications, 157
analysis probe
connecting to, 73
definition, 193
processors supported, 4
product numbers, 4
assistant
See setup assistant
B
BDM port
See debug port
BKG light, 162, 164, 185
BNC
break in, 86
trigger out, 85
BNC, LAN, 31, 155
bootp, 37, 38
break in configuration, 86
breakpoints
tracing until, 145
built-in commands
configuration, 77
LAN configuration, 34
list of commands, 165
bus cycle termination, 65
C
cables
BDM, 71
emulator, 70
LAN, 40
serial, 44
CD-ROM, installing software from,
56
cf commands, 77
characteristics
emulation module, 156
cleaning, 192
clock speed
configuring, 80
clocks
qualified, and emulator, 138
slow, 144, 146
specifications, 155
configuration
emulation module
overview, 75
using debugger, 78
configuration files
installing, 53
connecting, 20
connection, 22, 178, 181
emulation module, 59, 60
host workstation, 29
problems, LAN, 172
connector
10BASE2, 31, 155
10BASE-T, 31, 155
BDM, 71
debug port, 65
serial, 155
connector board, 193
D
data communications
specifications, 155
DCE or DTE selection and RS-232
cable, 180
debug port
connecting to, 70
connections, 65
debuggers
configuration, 78
Green Hills, 114
SDS, 123
writing, 168
development port
See debug port
CPU32 Emulation
E
elastomeric probe adapter
definition, 193
EMSIM registers, 89
displaying, 90
example with debugger, 119
purpose of, 90
Emulation Control Interface
configuration, 76
introduction, 61
when to use, 134
emulation module
configuration, 78
connecting, 60, 69
definition, 193
description of, 3
product numbers, 4
target system design, 65
emulation probe
definition, 193
problems, solving, 182
emulation solution
See solution
emulator
definition, 193
equipment required
emulation module, 24
equipment supplied
emulation migration, 25
emulation module, 23
ordering information, 4
overview, 4
erratic behavior, 169
ethernet address, 35
examples, measurement, 135
extender, 193
F
files
loading vs. installing, 54
firmware
version, 149, 150
197
Index
flexible adapter
definition, 193
G
gateway address, 35, 178
general-purpose flexible adapter
definition, 193
Green Hills
debugger, 114
H
high-density adapter cable
definition, 193
high-density termination adapter
definition, 194
host computer
connecting to, 29
HRESET signal, 65
I
IEEE 802.3, 31
information sources, 27
installation, software, 53
intermodule measurement
creating, 137
intermodule measurement
problems
analyzer doesn’t stop, 138
internal registers, 89
internet address, 32
inverse assembly
displays, 134
IP address, 31, 32, 35, 177, 178
IPC
connecting to, 29
J
jumper, definition, 194
L
lan command, 34
198
LAN connection problems, 172,
178, 187, 188
LAN interface, 31
LAN parameters, configuring
BOOTP, 37
methods, 31
terminal interface, 34
lights
See status lights
link beat, 40
link level address, 35, 38
listing windows, 134
loading configurations
vs. installing, 53
loopback test board, 184
M
mainframe logic analyzer
definition, 194
male-to-male header
definition, 194
mask, subnet, 172, 179
MAU, 31, 155
measurement examples, 135
microprocessors supported, 4
minimum equipment, 20
MULTI debugger, 114
P
performance verification tests,
184, 185
ping command, 178
POL light, 179
port number, emulation module,
165
port number, emulation probe, 35
power supply, 20
power-on self test, 182
preprocessor
See analysis probe
problems, LAN, 178
problems, RS-232, 181
processor support package, 56
processor type
configuring, 79
effect on EMSIM registers, 92
processors supported, 4
prompts, 168
list of, 168
prototype analyzer
definition, 194
PV
See performance verification
R
real-time runs, configuring, 85
references, 27
registers
initializing, 170
internal, 89
problems displaying, 170, 171
unknown values, 171
repair
emulation module, 190
requirements, 20
target system, 65
RESET
light, 162, 164
reset
effects of, SDS debugger, 124
effects on SIM registers, 95
RESET LED, 183, 185
run control tool
See emulation control interface
S
SDS debugger, 123
self test, 182
sequence, 22
serial connection
DCE or DTE selection, 180
number of connections, 181
problems, 181
setting up, 42
CPU32 Emulation
Index
verifying, 46
service ports, 35
service, how to obtain, 190
setup
See configuration
setup assistant, 151
definition, 194
signals
debug port, 65
SIM registers
configuring, 95
displaying, 90
introduction, 90
SingleStep debugger, 123
skid, reducing, 138
slow clock message, 144, 146, 161
software
installing, 53
list of installed, 57
software probe
See emulation probe
solution
at a glance, 2
definition, 194
description of, 2
solving problems
emulation probe, 182
source code
displays, 134
specifications
altitude, 157
clock, 155
data communications, 155
See characteristics
temperature, 157
trigger in/out, 155
SRESET signal, 65
StarLAN, 31, 40
status lights, 162, 164, 182
subnet mask, 31, 172, 178, 179
switches, 38
bootp, 38
LAN configuration, 34, 40
serial configuration, 42
T
target control port
definition, 195
target interface module (TIM)
connecting, 70
definition, 195
target system
connecting to, 60
requirements for emulation, 65
TCP, 35
telnet, 41, 165, 166, 177
temperature specifications, 157
terminal (MS Windows program),
181
terminal interface, 41
LAN parameters, setting, 34
See also built-in commands
tests, emulation module, 174
ThinLAN, 31, 155
trace, 140
transition board
definition, 195
trigger
emulation module, 136
in/out specifications, 155
on break, 141
trigger out configuration, 85
troubleshooting, 161
emulation module, 156
W
web sites
HP logic analyzers, 27
See Also under debugger names
wizard
See setup assistant
workstation
connecting to, 29
U
until processor halts, 140
Updating Firmware, 148
USER LED, 185
USER light, 162, 164
V
versions
emulation module firmware, 150
emulation probe firmware, 149
voltage
CPU32 Emulation
199
200
CPU32 Emulation
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
according to ISO/IEC Guide 22 and EN 45014
Manufacturer’s Name:
Hewlett-Packard Company
Manufacturer’s Address:
Colorado Springs Division
1900 Garden of the Gods Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80907 USA
declares, that the product
Product Name:
Processor Probe
Model Number(s):
E3458A
Product Option(s):
All
conforms to the following Product Specifications:
Safety:
IEC 1010-1:1990+A1 / EN 61010-1:1993
UL3111
CSA-C22.2 No. 1010.1:1993
EMC:
CISPR 11:1990 / EN 55011:1991
Group 1 Class A
IEC 555-2:1982 + A1:1985 / EN 60555-2:1987
IEC 555-3:1982 + A1:1990 / EN 60555-3:1987 + A1:1991
IEC 801-2:1991 / EN 50082-1:1992
4 kV CD, 8 kV AD
IEC 801-3:1984 / EN 50082-1:1992
3 V/m, {1kHz 80% AM, 27-1000 MHz}
IEC 801-4:1998 / EN 50082-1:1992
0.5 kV Sig. Lines, 1 kV Power Lines
Supplementary Information:
The product herewith complies with the requirements of the Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC and the
EMC Directive 89/336/EEC and carries the CE marking accordingly.
This product was tested in a typical configuration with Hewlett-Packard test systems.
Colorado Springs, 11/01/96
John Strathman, Quality Manager
European Contact: Your local Hewlett-Packard Sales and Service Office or Hewlett-Packard GmbH, Department ZQ / Standards
Europe, Herrenberger Strasse 130, D-71034 Böblingen Germany (FAX: +49-7031-14-3143)
Product Regulations
Safety
EMC
IEC 1010-1:1990+A1 / EN 61010-1:1993
UL3111
CSA-C22.2 No. 1010.1:1993
This Product meets the requirement of the European Communities (EC) EMC
Directive 89/336/EEC.
Emissions
EN55011/CISPR 11 (ISM, Group 1, Class A equipment),
Immunity
EN50082-1
Code1
IEC 555-2
IEC 555-3
IEC 801-2 (ESD) 4kV CD, 8kV AD
IEC 801-3 (Rad.) 3 V/m
IEC 801-4 (EFT) 0.5 kV, 1kV
1
1
1
1
1
Notes2
1,2
2
1
Performance Codes:
1 PASS - Normal operation, no effect.
2 PASS - Temporary degradation, self recoverable.
3 PASS - Temporary degradation, operator intervention required.
4 FAIL - Not recoverable, component damage.
2
Notes:
1 The target cable assembly is sensitive to ESD events. use standard ESD
preventative practices to avoid component damage.
2 The target cable assembly, 10Base-T and 10Base-2, cables were
disconnected.
Sound Pressure
Level
N/A
© Copyright Hewlett-Packard
Company 1994-1998
All Rights Reserved.
Reproduction, adaptation, or
translation without prior written
permission is prohibited, except
as allowed under the copyright
laws.
Restricted Rights Legend
Use, duplication, or disclosure by
the U.S. Government is subject to
restrictions set forth in
subparagraph (C) (1) (ii) of the
Rights in Technical Data and
Computer Software Clause in
DFARS 252.227-7013. HewlettPackard Company, 3000 Hanover
Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 U.S.A.
Rights for non-DOD U.S.
Government Departments and
Agencies are set forth in FAR
52.227-19 (c) (1,2).
Document Warranty
The information contained in this
document is subject to change
without notice.
Hewlett-Packard makes no
warranty of any kind with
regard to this material,
including, but not limited to,
the implied warranties of
merchantability or fitness for
a particular purpose.
Hewlett-Packard shall not be
liable for errors contained herein
or for damages in connection with
the furnishing, performance, or
use of this material.
Safety
This apparatus has been designed
and tested in accordance with
IEC Publication 1010, Safety
Requirements for Measuring
Apparatus, and has been supplied
in a safe condition. This is a
Safety Class I instrument
(provided with terminal for
protective earthing). Before
applying power, verify that the
correct safety precautions are
taken (see the following
warnings). In addition, note the
external markings on the
instrument that are described
under "Safety Symbols."
Warning
• Before turning on the
instrument, you must connect the
protective earth terminal of the
instrument to the protective
conductor of the (mains) power
cord. The mains plug shall only be
inserted in a socket outlet
provided with a protective earth
contact. You must not negate the
protective action by using an
extension cord (power cable)
without a protective conductor
(grounding). Grounding one
conductor of a two-conductor
outlet is not sufficient protection.
• Only fuses with the required
rated current, voltage, and
specified type (normal blow, time
delay, etc.) should be used. Do
not use repaired fuses or shortcircuited fuseholders. To do so
could cause a shock of fire hazard.
Hewlett-Packard
P.O. Box 2197
1900 Garden of the Gods Road
Colorado Springs, CO 80901-2197, U.S.A.
• Service instructions are for
trained service personnel. To
avoid dangerous electric shock,
do not perform any service unless
qualified to do so. Do not attempt
internal service or adjustment
unless another person, capable of
rendering first aid and
resuscitation, is present.
• If you energize this instrument
by an auto transformer (for
voltage reduction), make sure the
common terminal is connected to
the earth terminal of the power
source.
• Whenever it is likely that the
ground protection is impaired,
you must make the instrument
inoperative and secure it against
any unintended operation.
• Do not operate the instrument
in the presence of flammable
gasses or fumes. Operation of any
electrical instrument in such an
environment constitutes a definite
safety hazard.
• Do not install substitute parts or
perform any unauthorized
modification to the instrument.
• Capacitors inside the
instrument may retain a charge
even if the instrument is
disconnected from its source of
supply.
Safety Symbols
!
Instruction manual symbol: the
product is marked with this
symbol when it is necessary for
you to refer to the instruction
manual in order to protect against
damage to the product.
Hazardous voltage symbol.
Earth terminal symbol: Used to
indicate a circuit common
connected to grounded chassis.
WARNING
The Warning sign denotes a
hazard. It calls attention to a
procedure, practice, or the like,
which, if not correctly performed
or adhered to, could result in
personal injury. Do not proceed
beyond a Warning sign until the
indicated conditions are fully
understood and met.
CAUTION
The Caution sign denotes a
hazard. It calls attention to an
operating procedure, practice, or
the like, which, if not correctly
performed or adhered to, could
result in damage to or destruction
of part or all of the product. Do
not proceed beyond a Caution
symbol until the indicated
conditions are fully understood or
met.
Product Warranty
This Hewlett-Packard product
has a warranty against defects in
material and workmanship for a
period of one year from date of
shipment. During the warranty
period, Hewlett- Packard
Company will, at its option, either
repair or replace products that
prove to be defective.
For warranty service or repair,
this product must be returned to
a service facility designated by
Hewlett- Packard.
For products returned to HewlettPackard for warranty service, the
Buyer shall prepay shipping
charges to Hewlett- Packard and
Hewlett-Packard shall pay
shipping charges to return the
product to the Buyer. However,
the Buyer shall pay all shipping
charges, duties, and taxes for
products returned to HewlettPackard from another country.
Hewlett-Packard warrants that its
software and firmware designated
by Hewlett-Packard for use with
an instrument will execute its
programming instructions when
properly installed on that
instrument. Hewlett-Packard
does not warrant that the
operation of the instrument
software, or firmware will be
uninterrupted or error free.
Limitation of Warranty
The foregoing warranty shall not
apply to defects resulting from
improper or inadequate
maintenance by the Buyer,
Buyer- supplied software or
interfacing, unauthorized
modification or misuse, operation
outside of the environmental
specifications for the product, or
improper site preparation or
maintenance.
No other warranty is
expressed or implied.
Hewlett-Packard specifically
disclaims the implied
warranties of merchantability
or fitness for a particular
purpose.
Exclusive Remedies
The remedies provided herein are
the buyer's sole and exclusive
remedies. Hewlett-Packard shall
not be liable for any direct,
indirect, special, incidental, or
consequential damages, whether
based on contract, tort, or any
other legal theory.
Assistance
Product maintenance agreements
and other customer assistance
agreements are available for
Hewlett-Packard products. For
any assistance, contact your
nearest Hewlett-Packard Sales
Office.
Certification
Hewlett-Packard Company
certifies that this product met its
published specifications at the
time of shipment from the factory.
Hewlett-Packard further certifies
that its calibration measurements
are traceable to the United States
National Institute of Standards
and Technology, to the extent
allowed by the Institute's
calibration facility, and to the
calibration facilities of other
International Standards
Organization members.
About this edition
This is the Emulation for
Motorola CPU32 User’s Guide.
Reflection 1 is a U.S. trademark of
Walker, Richer & Quinn, Inc.
Publication number
E3458-97001, October 1998
Printed in USA.
Windows, MS Windows, Windows
NT, and MS-DOS are U.S.
registered trademarks of
Microsoft Corporation.
The information in this manual
previously appeared in:
E3458-97000, Feb 1997
Many product updates do not
require manual changes, and
manual corrections may be done
without accompanying product
changes. Therefore, do not expect
a one-to-one correspondence
between product updates and
manual updates.
Comments welcome!
Send your comments or
suggestions regarding this manual
to:
documentation@col.hp.com
UNIX is a registered trademark of
The Open Group.
X/Open is a registered trademark,
and the X device is a trademark of
X/Open Company Ltd. in the UK
and other countries.