RabbitCore RCM2100
C-Programmable Module with Ethernet
Getting Started Manual
019–0093
• 050505–F
RabbitCore RCM2100 Getting Started Manual
Part Number 019-0093 • 050505–F • Printed in U.S.A.
©2001–2005 Z-World Inc. • All rights reserved.
Z-World reserves the right to make changes and
improvements to its products without providing notice.
Trademarks
Rabbit is a registered trademark of Rabbit Semiconductor.
Rabbit 2000 and RabbitCore are trademarks of Rabbit Semiconductor.
Z-World is a registered trademark of Z-World Inc.
Dynamic C is a registered trademark of Z-World Inc.
Z-World, Inc.
Rabbit Semiconductor
2900 Spafford Street
Davis, California 95616-6800
USA
2932 Spafford Street
Davis, California 95616-6800
USA
Telephone: (530) 757-3737
Fax: (530) 757-3792
Telephone: (530) 757-8400
Fax: (530) 757-8402
www.zworld.com
www.rabbitsemiconductor.com
RabbitCore RCM2100
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1. Introduction & Overview
1
1.1 RCM2100 Description .................................................................................................... 1
1.1.1 Standard Ethernet Versions ......................................................................................................... 2
1.1.2 Standard Non-Ethernet Versions ................................................................................................. 2
1.1.3 Physical & Electrical Specifications ........................................................................................... 2
1.2 Development Software .................................................................................................... 4
1.3 How to Use This Manual ................................................................................................. 5
1.3.1 Additional Product Information .................................................................................................. 5
1.3.2 Additional Reference Information .............................................................................................. 5
1.3.3 Using Online Documentation ...................................................................................................... 5
Chapter 2. Getting Started
7
2.1 Development Kit Contents ............................................................................................... 7
2.2 Overview of the Prototyping Board.................................................................................... 8
2.2.1 Prototyping Board Features ......................................................................................................... 9
2.2.2 Prototyping Board Expansion ................................................................................................... 10
2.3 Connections ................................................................................................................ 11
2.3.1 Attach Module to Prototyping Board ........................................................................................ 12
2.3.2 Connect Programming Cable .................................................................................................... 13
2.3.3 Connect Power .......................................................................................................................... 14
2.4 Run a Sample Program .................................................................................................. 15
2.4.1 Troubleshooting ........................................................................................................................ 15
2.5 Where Do I Go From Here? ........................................................................................... 16
2.5.1 Technical Support ..................................................................................................................... 16
Getting Started Manual
Chapter 3. Software Installation & Overview
17
3.1 An Overview of Dynamic C ............................................................................................17
3.2 Installing Dynamic C .....................................................................................................19
3.2.1 Early Versions of Dynamic C .................................................................................................... 19
3.3 Sample Programs ..........................................................................................................20
3.3.1 Getting to Know the RCM2100 ................................................................................................ 21
3.3.2 Serial Communication ............................................................................................................... 24
3.3.3 Other Sample Programs ............................................................................................................. 25
3.3.4 Sample Program Descriptions ................................................................................................... 26
3.4 Upgrading Dynamic C ...................................................................................................29
3.4.1 Add-On Modules ....................................................................................................................... 29
Chapter 4. Using the TCP/IP Features
31
4.1 TCP/IP Connections ......................................................................................................31
4.2 TCP/IP Primer on IP Addresses .......................................................................................33
4.3 IP Addresses Explained ..................................................................................................35
4.4 How IP Addresses are Used ............................................................................................36
4.5 Dynamically Assigned Internet Addresses .........................................................................37
4.6 Placing Your Device on the Network ................................................................................38
4.7 Running TCP/IP Sample Programs ...................................................................................39
4.8 How to Set IP Addresses in the Sample Programs................................................................40
4.9 How to Set Up your Computer’s IP Address for Direct Connect .............................................41
4.10 Run the PINGME.C Sample Program ..............................................................................42
4.11 Running More Sample Programs With Direct Connect .......................................................42
4.11.1 Sample Program: PINGLED.C ............................................................................................... 42
4.11.2 Sample Program: ETHCORE1.C ............................................................................................ 44
4.11.3 Additional Sample Programs ................................................................................................... 45
4.11.4 More Information .................................................................................................................... 45
4.12 Where Do I Go From Here? ..........................................................................................46
Notice to Users
47
Index
49
Schematics
51
RabbitCore RCM2100
1. INTRODUCTION & OVERVIEW
The RCM2100 series is an advanced line of modules that incorporates the powerful Rabbit 2000® microprocessor, flash memory, static RAM and an RJ-45 Ethernet port, all on a PCB the
size of a business card.
Throughout this manual, the term RCM2100 refers to the complete series of RCM2100
RabbitCore modules unless other production models are referred to specifically.
The RCM2100 modules are designed for use on a motherboard that supplies power and
interface to real-world I/O devices. Up to 40 pins of I/O and four serial ports are available
for system interfacing.
To accommodate a variety of user and production needs, the RCM2100 family includes
versions with varying amounts of onboard memory. Models with and without the Ethernet
port are available, to permit simultaneous development of Ethernet-capable and cheaper
non-Ethernet versions of production systems. All modules within the family are pin-forpin compatible and may be installed or swapped in a matter of minutes.
1.1 RCM2100 Description
There are four production models in the RCM2100 series. Their standard features are
summarized in Table 1.
Table 1. RCM2100 Versions
Feature
RCM2100
Microprocessor
RCM2110
RCM2120
RCM2130
Rabbit 2000 running at 22.1 MHz
Flash Memory
512K
256K
512K
256K
Static RAM
512K
128K
512K
128K
General-Purpose I/O
Ethernet
Serial Ports
Getting Started
34
40
10/100-compatible
10Base-T interface
None
4, high-speed, CMOS-compatible;
2 configurable as clocked ports;
1 clocked port dedicated to programming port use.
1
1.1.1 Standard Ethernet Versions
There are two RCM2100 models that incorporate an RJ-45 Ethernet port:
RCM2100. The RCM2100 is the most fully equipped module in the family, with an Ethernet port, 512K
flash memory, and 512K static RAM. The Ethernet port uses some of the Rabbit 2000 microprocessor’s parallel ports, reducing the available number of I/O pins to 34. This is the model included in
the Development Kit.
RCM2110. The RCM2110 is identical to the RCM2100 except that it is equipped with 128K SRAM and
256K flash memory.
1.1.2 Standard Non-Ethernet Versions
To accommodate developers and users who want the RCM2100’s footprint and capabilities without the integrated Ethernet port, two standard versions of the module are available
without the Ethernet hardware:
RCM2120. The RCM2120 is equipped with 512K flash memory and 512K static RAM, but does not
include the Ethernet port hardware. In its place, ports D and E of the Rabbit 2000 microprocessor
are enabled, giving this module 40 I/O pins.
RCM2130. The RCM2130 is identical to the RCM2120 except that it is equipped with 128K SRAM and
256K flash memory.
1.1.3 Physical & Electrical Specifications
Table 2 lists the basic specifications for the RCM2100 models.
Table 2. RCM2100 Specifications
Specification
Power Supply
Size
Environmental
Data
4.75–5.25 V DC (140 mA at 22.1 MHz clock speed)
2.0" × 3.5" × 0.85" (51mm × 89 mm × 22 mm)
–40°C to 70°C, 5–95% humidity, noncondensing
NOTE: For complete product specifications, see Appendix A in the RabbitCore
RCM2100 User’s Manual.
2
RabbitCore RCM2100
The RCM2100 modules have two 40-pin headers to which cables can be connected, or
which can be plugged into matching sockets on a production device. The pinouts for these
connectors are shown in Figure 1 below.
J1
VCC
PCLK
PA6
PA4
PA2
PA0
BA11
BA9
BA7
BA5
BA3
BA1
PC0
PC2
PC4
PC6-TXA
PD0
PD2
PD4
PD6
J2
GND
PA7
PA5
PA3
PA1
BA12
BA10
BA8
BA6
BA4
BA2
BA0
PC1
PC3
PC5
PC7-RXA
PD1
PD3
PD5
PD7
PB0
PB2
PB4
PB6
GND
BD6
BD4
BD2
BD0
PE6
PE4
PE2
PE0
VCC
VRAM
SMODE1
/RES_OUT
STATUS
/BIORD
GND
PB1-CLKA
PB3
PB5
PB7
BD7
BD5
BD3
BD1
PE7
PE5
PE3
PE1
GND
VBAT
/WDO
SMODE0
/RES_IN
/BIOWR
/BBUFEN
VCC
Note: These pinouts are as seen on
the Bottom Side of the module.
Figure 1. RCM2100 Pinout
Getting Started
3
1.2 Development Software
The RCM2100 modules use the Dynamic C development environment for rapid creation
and debugging of runtime applications. Dynamic C provides a complete development
environment with integrated editor, compiler and source-level debugger. It interfaces
directly with the target system, eliminating the need for complex and unreliable in-circuit
emulators.
Dynamic C must be installed on a Windows workstation with at least one free serial
(COM) port for communication with the target system. See Chapter 3., “Software Installation & Overview,” for complete information on installing Dynamic C.
NOTE: The RCM2100 modules require Dynamic C v7.04 or later for development. A
compatible version is included on the Development Kit CD-ROM.
4
RabbitCore RCM2100
1.3 How to Use This Manual
This Getting Started manual is intended to give users a quick but solid start with the
RCM2100 modules. It does not contain detailed information on the module hardware
capabilities, the Dynamic C development environment, or the TCP/IP software support for
the integrated Ethernet port. Most users will want more detailed information on some or
all of these topics in order to put the RCM2100 module to effective use.
1.3.1 Additional Product Information
Detailed information about the RCM2100 will be found in the RabbitCore RCM2100
User’s Manual, provided on the accompanying CD-ROM in both HTML and Adobe PDF
format.
Some advanced users may choose to skip the rest of this introductory manual and proceed
directly with the detailed hardware and software information in the User’s Manual.
NOTE: We recommend that anyone not thoroughly familiar with Z-World controllers at
least read through the rest of this manual to gain the necessary familiarity to make use
of the more advanced information.
1.3.2 Additional Reference Information
In addition to the product-specific information contained in the RabbitCore RCM2100
User’s Manual, several higher-level reference manuals are provided in HTML and PDF
form on the accompanying CD-ROM. Advanced users will find these references valuable
in developing systems based on the RCM2100 modules:
• Dynamic C User’s Manual
• An Introduction to TCP/IP
• Dynamic C TCP/IP User’s Manual
• Rabbit 2000 Microprocessor User’s Manual
1.3.3 Using Online Documentation
We provide the bulk of our user and reference documentation in two electronic formats,
HTML and Adobe PDF. We do this for several reasons.
We believe that providing all users with our complete library of product and reference
manuals is a useful convenience. However, printed manuals are expensive to print, stock
and ship. Rather than include and charge for manuals that every user may not want, or provide only product-specific manuals, we choose to provide our complete documentation
and reference library in electronic form with every development kit and with our Dynamic
C development environment.
NOTE: The most current version of Adobe Acrobat Reader can always be downloaded
from Adobe’s web site at http://www.adobe.com.
We recommend that you use version 4.0 or later.
Getting Started
5
Providing this documentation in electronic form saves an enormous amount of paper by
not printing copies of manuals that users don’t need. It reduces the number of outdated
manuals we have to discard from stock as well, and it makes providing a complete library
of manuals an almost cost-free option. For one-time or infrequent reference, electronic
documents are more convenient than printed ones—after all, they aren’t taking up shelf or
desk space!
Finding Online Documents
The online documentation is installed along with Dynamic C, and an icon for the documentation menu is placed on the workstation’s desktop. Double-click this icon to reach the
menu. If the icon is missing, create a new desktop icon that points to default.htm in the
docs folder, found in the Dynamic C installation folder.
The latest versions of all documents are always available for free, unregistered download
from our web sites as well.
Printing Electronic Manuals
We recognize that many users prefer printed manuals for some uses. Users can easily print
all or parts of those manuals provided in electronic form. The following guidelines may be
helpful:
• Print from the Adobe PDF versions of the files, not the HTML versions.
• Print only the sections you will need to refer to more than once.
• Print manuals overnight, when appropriate, to keep from tying up shared resources during the work day.
• If your printer supports duplex printing, print pages double-sided to save paper and
increase convenience.
• If you do not have a suitable printer or do not want to print the manual yourself, most
retail copy shops (e.g. Kinkos, AlphaGraphics, etc.) will print the manual from the PDF
file and bind it for a reasonable charge—about what we would have to charge for a
printed and bound manual.
6
RabbitCore RCM2100
2. GETTING STARTED
This chapter describes the RCM2100 hardware in more detail,
and explains how to set up and use the accompanying prototyping and development board.
NOTE: This chapter (and this manual) assume that you have the RabbitCore RCM2100
Development Kit. If you purchased an RCM2100 module by itself, you will have to
adapt the information in this chapter and elsewhere to your test and development setup.
2.1 Development Kit Contents
The RCM2100 Development Kit contains the following items:
• RCM2100 module with Ethernet port, 512K flash memory and 512K SRAM.
• RCM2100 Prototyping Board with accessory hardware and components.
• Wall transformer power supply, 12 V DC, 1 A. (Included only with Development Kits
sold for the North American market. Overseas users will have to substitute a power
supply compatible with their local mains power.)
• 10-pin header to DE9 programming cable with integrated level-matching circuitry.
• Dynamic C CD-ROM, with complete product documentation on disk.
• This Getting Started manual.
• Registration card.
Getting Started
7
2.2 Overview of the Prototyping Board
The Prototyping Board included in the Development Kit makes it easy to connect an
RCM2100 module to a power supply and a PC workstation for development. It also provides an array of basic I/O peripherals (switches and LEDs), as well as a prototyping area
for more advanced hardware development.
For the most basic level of evaluation and development, the Prototyping Board can be
used without modification.
As you progress to more sophisticated experimentation and hardware development, modifications and additions can be made to the board without modifying or damaging the
RCM2100 module itself.
The Prototyping Board is shown in Figure 2 below, with its main features identified
RCM2100
Connectors
Voltage
Regulator
Power
Input
Power
LED
Reset
Switch
User
LEDs
RS-232
Area
RCM2100
Extension Headers
Through-Hole
Prototyping Area
Vcc and GND
Buses
SMT Prototyping
Area
Figure 2. RCM2100 Prototyping Board
8
RabbitCore RCM2100
2.2.1 Prototyping Board Features
Power Connection. A 3-pin header is provided for connection of a power supply. Note that it is symmetrical, with both outer pins connected to ground and the center pin connected to the raw V+ input. The
cable of the wall transformer provided with the North American version of the Development Kit ends in
a connector that is correctly connected in either orientation.
Users providing their own power supply should ensure that it delivers 9–24 V DC at not less than 500
mA. The voltage regulator will get warm in use, but lower supply voltages will reduce thermal dissipation from the device.
Regulated Power Supply. The raw DC voltage provided at the POWER IN jack is routed to a 5 V
linear voltage regulator, which provides stable power to the RCM2100 module and the Prototyping
Board. A Shottky diode protects the power supply against damage from reversed raw power connections.
Power LED. The power LED lights whenever power is connected to the Prototyping Board.
Reset Switch. A momentary-contact, normally open switch is connected directly to the RCM2100’s
/RES_IN pin. Pressing the switch forces a hardware reset of the system.
I/O Switches & LEDs. Two momentary-contact, normally open switches are connected to the PB2 and
PB3 pins of the RCM2100 module, and may be read as inputs by sample applications.
Two LEDs are connected to the PA0 and PA1 pins of the module, and may be driven as output indicators
by sample applications. (Two more LEDs, driven by PA2 and PA3, may be added to the Prototyping
Board for additional outputs.)
All the LEDs are connected through JP1, which has traces shorting adjacent pads together. These traces
may be cut to disconnect the LEDs, and an 8-pin header soldered into JP1 to permit their selective reconnection with jumpers. See Figure 3 for details.
Expansion Areas. The Prototyping Board is provided with several unpopulated areas for expansion of
I/O and interfacing capabilities. See the next section for details.
Prototyping Area. A generous prototyping area has been provided for the installation of through-hole
components. Vcc (5 V DC) and Ground buses run around the edge of this area. An area for surfacemount devices is provided to the right of the through-hole area. (Note that there are SMT device pads on
both top and bottom of the Prototyping Board.)
Getting Started
9
2.2.2 Prototyping Board Expansion
The Prototyping Board comes with several unpopulated areas, which may be filled with
components to suit the user’s development needs. After you have experimented with the
sample programs in Chapter 4, you may wish to expand the board’s capabilities for further
experimentation and development. Refer to the Prototyping Board schematic (090–0116)
for details as necessary.
Module Extension Headers The complete pin set of the RCM2100 module is duplicated at these
two headers. Developers can solder wires directly into the appropriate holes, or, for more flexible development, two 40-pin header strips can be soldered into place. See Figure 1 on page 3 for the header
pinouts.
RS-232 Port Two 2-wire or one 5-wire RS-232 serial port can be added to the Prototyping Board by
installing a driver IC and four capacitors where indicated. The Maxim MAX232 driver chip or a similar
device is recommended for U2. Refer to the Prototyping Board schematic for additional details.
A 10-pin 0.1" spacing header strip can be installed at J6 to permit connection of a ribbon cable leading to
a standard DE-9 serial connector.
NOTE: The RS-232 chip, capacitors and header strip are available from electronics distributors such as Digi-Key and Mouser Electronics.
Additional LEDs Two additional LEDs (supplied with the development kit) can be soldered into place
at DS4 and DS5. The cathode lead (longer of the two, marked by a flat on the LED case) should go
towards the module.
Prototyping Board Component Header Several I/O pins from the module are hardwired to the
Prototyping Board LEDs and switches.
To disconnect these devices and permit the pins to be used for other purposes, cut the traces between the
pin rows. Use an exacto knife or similar tool to cut or break the traces crossing JP1, in the area indicated
in Figure 3.
To permit selective reconnection of the devices, jumpers may be placed across the 8-pin header strip at
JP1.
Figure 3. Where to Cut Traces to Permanently Disable
Demonstration Hardware on Prototyping Board
10
RabbitCore RCM2100
2.3 Connections
There are three steps to connecting the Prototyping Board for use with Dynamic C and the
sample programs:
1. Attach the RCM2100 module to the Prototyping Board.
2. Connect the programming cable between the RCM2100 module and the workstation PC.
3. Connect the power supply to the Prototyping Board.
Getting Started
11
2.3.1 Attach Module to Prototyping Board
Turn the RCM2100 module so that the Ethernet connector is on the left, as shown in Figure 4
below. Align the module headers J1 and J2 on the bottom side of the RCM2100 into header
sockets J1 and J3 on the Prototyping Board.
Figure 4. Installing the RCM2100 Module on the Prototyping Board.
Note the orientation of the module.
NOTE: It is important that you line up the RCM2100 pins on headers J1 and J2 exactly
with the corresponding pins of header sockets J1 and J3 on the Prototyping Board. The
header pins may become bent or damaged if the pin alignment is offset, and the module
will not work.
Press the module’s pins firmly into the Prototyping Board headers. The installed module is
shown in Figure 5 below.
Figure 5. RCM2100 Installed and Seated on the Prototyping Board
12
RabbitCore RCM2100
2.3.2 Connect Programming Cable
The programming cable connects the RCM2100 module to the PC running Dynamic C, to
download programs and to monitor the RCM2100 for debugging.
Connect the 10-pin connector of the programming cable labeled PROG to header J5 on
the RCM2100 module as shown in Figure 6 below. Be sure to orient the red edge of the
cable towards pin 1 of the connector. (Do not use the DIAG connector, which is used for a
normal serial connection.)
Note Pin 1 Indicator
Figure 6. Attaching Programming Cable to the RCM2100
NOTE: The stripe on the cable is towards pin 1 of the header J5.
Connect the other end of the programming cable to a COM port on your PC. Make a note
of the port to which you connect the cable, as Dynamic C needs to have this parameter
configured when it is installed.
NOTE: COM 1 is the default port used by Dynamic C.
NOTE: Some PCs now come equipped only with a USB port. It may be possible to use
an RS-232/USB converter with the programming cable supplied with your RCM2100
module. An RS-232/USB converter is available through the Z-World Web store.
Getting Started
13
2.3.3 Connect Power
When all other connections have been made, you can connect power to the RCM2100 Prototyping Board.
Hook the connector from the wall transformer to header J5 on the Prototyping Board as
shown in Figure 7 below. The connector may be attached either way as long as it is not
offset to one side.
Figure 7. Power Supply Connections to Prototyping Board
Plug in the wall transformer. The power LED on the Prototyping Board should light up.
The RCM2100 and the Prototyping Board are now ready to be used.
NOTE: A RESET button is provided on the Prototyping Board to allow hardware reset
without disconnecting power.
To power down the Prototyping Board, unplug the power connector from J5. You should
disconnect power before making any circuit adjustments in the prototyping area, changing
any connections to the board, or removing the RCM2100 module from the Prototyping
Board.
14
RabbitCore RCM2100
2.4 Run a Sample Program
If you already have Dynamic C installed, you are now ready to test your programming
connections by running a sample program.
If you are using a USB port to connect your computer to the RCM2100 module, choose
Options > Project Options and select “Use USB to Serial Converter” under the
Communications tab.
Find the file PONG.C, which is in the Dynamic C SAMPLES folder. To run the program,
open it with the File menu (if it is not still open), then compile and run it by pressing F9 or
by selecting Run in the Run menu. The STDIO window will open and will display a small
square bouncing around in a box.
2.4.1 Troubleshooting
If Dynamic C appears to compile the BIOS successfully, but you then receive a communication error message when you compile and load the sample program, it is possible that
your PC cannot handle the higher program-loading baud rate. Try changing the maximum
download rate to a slower baud rate as follows.
• Locate the Serial Options dialog in the Dynamic C Options > Project Options >
Communications menu. Select a slower Max download baud rate.
If a program compiles and loads, but then loses target communication before you can
begin debugging, it is possible that your PC cannot handle the default debugging baud
rate. Try lowering the debugging baud rate as follows.
• Locate the Serial Options dialog in the Dynamic C Options > Project Options >
Communications menu. Choose a lower debug baud rate.
If there are any other problems:
• Check to make sure you are using the PROG connector, not the DIAG connector, on the
programming cable.
• Check both ends of the programming cable to ensure that they are firmly plugged into
the PC and the programming port on the RCM2100.
• Ensure that the RCM2100 module is firmly and correctly installed in its connectors on
the Prototyping Board.
• Select a different COM port within Dynamic C. From the Options menu, select
Project Options, then select Communications. Select another COM port from the list,
then click OK. Press <Ctrl-Y> to force Dynamic C to recompile the BIOS. If Dynamic C
still reports it is unable to locate the target system, repeat the above steps until you locate
the active COM port.
Getting Started
15
2.5 Where Do I Go From Here?
If everything appears to be working, we recommend the following sequence of action:
1. Run all of the sample programs described in Chapter 3 to get a basic familiarity with
Dynamic C and the RabbitCore module’s capabilities.
2. For further development, refer to the RabbitCore RCM2100 User’s Manual for details
of the module’s hardware and software components.
A documentation icon should have been installed on your workstation’s desktop; click
on it to reach the documentation menu. You can create a new desktop icon that points to
default.htm in the docs folder in the Dynamic C installation folder.
3. For advanced development topics, refer to the Dynamic C User’s Manual and the
Dynamic C TCP/IP User’s Manual, also in the online documentation set.
2.5.1 Technical Support
NOTE: If you purchased your RCM2100 through a distributor or through a Z-World or
Rabbit Semiconductor partner, contact the distributor or partner first for technical support.
If there are any problems at this point:
• Use the Dynamic C Help menu to get further assistance with Dynamic C.
• Check the Z-World/Rabbit Semiconductor Technical Bulletin Board at
www.zworld.com/support/bb/.
• Use the Technical Support e-mail form at www.zworld.com/support/questionSubmit.shtml.
16
RabbitCore RCM2100
3. SOFTWARE INSTALLATION & OVERVIEW
To develop and debug programs for the RCM2100 (and for all other
Z-World and Rabbit Semiconductor hardware), you must install and
use Dynamic C. Dynamic C is an integrated development system
for writing embedded software. It runs on an IBM-compatible PC
and is designed for use with Z-World single-board computers and
other single-board computers based on the Rabbit microprocessor.
This chapter takes you through the installation of Dynamic C, and
then provides a tour of the sample programs for the RCM2100.
3.1 An Overview of Dynamic C
Dynamic C has been in use worldwide since 1989. It is specially designed for programming embedded systems, and features quick compile and interactive debugging. A complete reference guide to Dynamic C is contained in the Dynamic C User’s Manual.
You have a choice of doing your software development in the flash memory or in the
SRAM included on the RCM2100. The flash memory and SRAM options are selected
with the Options > Project Options > Compiler menu.
The advantage of working in RAM is to save wear on the flash memory, which is limited
to about 100,000 write cycles. The disadvantage is that the code and data might not both
fit in RAM.
NOTE: An application can be developed in RAM, but cannot run standalone from RAM
after the programming cable is disconnected. All standalone applications can only run
from flash memory.
NOTE: Do not depend on the flash memory sector size or type. Due to the volatility of
the flash memory market, the RCM2000 and Dynamic C were designed to accommodate flash devices with various sector sizes.
Developing software with Dynamic C is simple. Users can write, compile, and test C and
assembly code without leaving the Dynamic C development environment. Debugging
occurs while the application runs on the target. Alternatively, users can compile a program
to an image file for later loading. Dynamic C runs on PCs under Windows 95, 98, 2000,
NT, Me, and XP. Programs can be downloaded at baud rates of up to 460,800 bps after the
program compiles.
Getting Started
17
Dynamic C has a number of standard features.
• Full-feature source and/or assembly-level debugger, no in-circuit emulator required.
• Royalty-free TCP/IP stack with source code and most common protocols.
• Hundreds of functions in source-code libraries and sample programs:
X Exceptionally fast support for floating-point arithmetic and transcendental functions.
X RS-232 and RS-485 serial communication.
X Analog and digital I/O drivers.
X I2C, SPI, GPS, file system.
X LCD display and keypad drivers.
• Powerful language extensions for cooperative or preemptive multitasking
• Loader utility program to load binary images into Z-World targets in the absence of
Dynamic C.
• Provision for customers to create their own source code libraries and augment on-line
help by creating “function description” block comments using a special format for
library functions.
• Standard debugging features:
X Breakpoints—Set breakpoints that can disable interrupts.
X Single-stepping—Step into or over functions at a source or machine code level, µC/OS-II aware.
X Code disassembly—The disassembly window displays addresses, opcodes, mnemonics, and
machine cycle times. Switch between debugging at machine-code level and source-code level by
simply opening or closing the disassembly window.
X Watch expressions—Watch expressions are compiled when defined, so complex expressions
including function calls may be placed into watch expressions. Watch expressions can be updated
with or without stopping program execution.
X Register window—All processor registers and flags are displayed. The contents of general registers
may be modified in the window by the user.
X Stack window—shows the contents of the top of the stack.
X Hex memory dump—displays the contents of memory at any address.
X STDIO window—printf outputs to this window and keyboard input on the host PC can be
detected for debugging purposes. printf output may also be sent to a serial port or file.
18
RabbitCore RCM2100
3.2 Installing Dynamic C
Insert the Dynamic C CD from the Development Kit in your PC’s CD-ROM drive. If the
installation does not auto-start, run the setup.exe program in the root directory of the
Dynamic C CD. Install any Dynamic C modules after you install Dynamic C.
Dynamic C has two components that can be installed together or separately. One component is Dynamic C itself, with the development environment, support files and libraries.
The other component is the documentation library in HTML and PDF formats, which may
be left uninstalled to save hard drive space or installed elsewhere (on a separate or network drive, for example).
The installation type is selected in the installation menu. The options are:
• Typical Installation — Both Dynamic C and the documentation library will be
installed in the specified folder (default).
• Compact Installation — Only Dynamic C will be installed.
• Custom Installation — You will be allowed to choose which components are
installed. This choice is useful to install or reinstall just the documentation.
3.2.1 Early Versions of Dynamic C
If you are using Dynamic C version 7.04 or earlier, modify the BIOS source code as follows. Skip these three steps if your version of Dynamic C is 7.05 or later.
1. Open the BIOS source code file named RABBITBIOS.C, which can be found in the
BIOS directory.
2. Change the line
#define USE115KBAUD 1
// set to 0 to use 57600 baud
to read as follows.
#define USE115KBAUD 0
// set to 0 to use 57600 baud
3. Save the changes using File > Save.
Now press <Ctrl-Y>. You should receive the "BIOS successfully compiled …"
message indicating that the target is now ready to compile a program.
Getting Started
19
3.3 Sample Programs
To help familiarize you with the RCM2100 modules, several sample Dynamic C programs
have been included. Loading, executing and studying these programs will give you a solid
hands-on overview of the RCM2100’s capabilities, as well as a quick start with Dynamic C
as an application development tool. These programs are intended to serve as tutorials, but
then can also be used as starting points or building blocks for your own applications.
NOTE: It is assumed in this section that you have at least an elementary grasp of ANSI C.
If you do not, see the introductory pages of the Dynamic C User’s Manual for a suggested reading list.
Each sample program has comments that describe the purpose and function of the program.
Before running any of these sample programs, make sure that your RCM2100 is connected
to the Prototyping Board and to your PC as described in Section 2.3, “Connections.”
To run a sample program, open it with the File menu (if it is not already open), then compile and run it by pressing F9 or by selecting Run in the Run menu.
More complete information on Dynamic C is provided in the Dynamic C User’s Manual.
20
RabbitCore RCM2100
3.3.1 Getting to Know the RCM2100
The following sample programs can be found in the SAMPLES\RCM2100 folder.
• EXTSRAM.C—demonstrates the setup and simple addressing to an external SRAM.
This program first maps the external SRAM to the I/O Bank 7 register with a maximum
of 15 wait states, chip select strobe (PE7), and allows writes. The first 256 bytes of
SRAM are cleared and read back. Values are then written to the same area and are read
back. The Dynamic C STDIO window will indicate if writes and reads did not occur
Connect an external SRAM as shown below before you run this sample program.
8K × 8
SRAM
RCM2100
Core Module
A0–A12
BA0–BA12
D0–D7
BD0–BD7
/IOW
/IOR
PE7
/WE
/OE
/CE
10 kW
Vcc
• FLASHLED.C—repeatedly flashes LED DS3 on the Prototyping Board on and off.
LED DS3 is controlled by Parallel Port A bit 1 (PA1).
• FLASHLED2.C—repeatedly flashes LED DS3 on the Prototyping Board on and off.
LED DS3 is controlled by Parallel Port A bit 1 (PA1).
This sample program also shows the use of the runwatch() function to allow
Dynamic C to update watch expressions while running. The following steps explain
how to do this.
1. Add a watch expression for "k" in the Inspect > Add Watch dialog box.
2. Click "Add" or "Add to top" so that it will be in the watch list permanently.
3. Click OK to close the dialog box.
4. Press <Ctrl+U> while the program is running. This will update the watch window.
Getting Started
21
• FLASHLEDS.C—demonstrates the use of coding with assembly instructions, cofunctions, and costatements to flash LEDs DS2 and DS3 on the Prototyping Board on and
off. LEDs DS2 and DS3 are controlled by Parallel Port A bit 0 (PA0) and Parallel Port
A bit 1 (PA1).Once you have compile this program and it is running, LEDs DS2 and
DS3 will flash on/off at different rates.
• FLASHLEDS2.C—demonstrates the use of cofunctions and costatements to flash LEDs
DS2 and DS3 on the Prototyping Board on and off. LEDs DS2 and DS3 are controlled
by Parallel Port A bit 0 (PA0) and Parallel Port A bit 1 (PA1).Once you have compile
this program and it is running, LEDs DS2 and DS3 will flash on/off at different rates.
• KEYLCD2.C—demonstrates a simple setup for a 2 × 6 keypad and a 2 × 20 LCD.
Connect the keypad to Parallel Ports B, C, and D.
PB0—Keypad Col 0
PC1—Keypad Col 1
PB2—Keypad Col 2
PB3—Keypad Col 3
PB4—Keypad Col 4
PB5—Keypad Col 5
PD1—Keypad Row 0
PD2—Keypad Row 1
RCM2100
Prototyping Board
VCC
3
4
5
6
10 kW
resistors
PB0
PB2
PB3
PB4
PB5
26
PC1
34
PD1
PD2
J2
1
J4
Keypad
Col 0
Col 2
Col 3
Col 4
Col 5
Col 1
Row 0
Row 1
NC
NC
35
Connect the LCD to Parallel Port A.
RCM2100
Prototyping Board
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
PA1
PA2
PA3
PA4
PA5
PA6
PA7
680 W
100 nF
1 kW
3
470 W
2.2 kW
4.7 kW
20 kW
J4
2x20 LCD
VLC
10 kW
)PA0—backlight (if connected
PA1—LCD /CS
PA2—LCD RS (High = Control,
Low = Data) / LCD Contrast 0
PA3—LCD /WR/ LCD Contrast 1
PA4—LCD D4 / LCD Contrast 2
PA5—LCD D5 / LCD Contrast 3
PA6—LCD D6 / LCD Contrast 4
PA7—LCD D7 / LCD Contrast 5
2
6
4
5
11
12
13
14
7
8
9
10
VLC
VCC
/CS
RS
/WR
D4
D5
D6
D7
D0
D1
D2
D3
Once the connections have been made and the sample program isrunning, the LCD will
display two rows of 6 dots, each dot representing the corresponding key. When a key is
pressed, the corresponding dot will become an asterisk.
22
RabbitCore RCM2100
• LCD_DEMO.C—demonstrates a simple setup for an LCD that uses the HD44780 controller or an equivalent.
Connect the LCD to the RCM2100 address and data lines on the Prototyping Board.
BD0—DB0
BD1—DB1
BD2—DB2
BD3—DB3
BD4—DB4
BD5—DB5
BD6—DB6
BD7—DB7
2x20 LCD
DB0–DB7
BD0–BD7
BA0–BA1
RCM2100
Prototyping Board
BD7–BD0 are pins 10–17
on header J2
BA1–BA0 are pins 23–24
on header J4
2x20 LCD
BD0–BD7
DB0–DB7
BA0–BA1
HEADER J2:
36
24
37
25
/PE0 /BIOR /BIOW /PE1
E
E
BA0—RS (Register Select: 0 = command, 1 = data)
BA1—R/W (0=write, 1=read)
*—E (normally low: latches on high-to-low transition)
• SWTEST.C—demonstrates the use of pushbutton switches S2 and S3 to toggle LEDs
DS2 and DS3 on the Prototyping Board on and off.
Parallel Port A bit 0 = LED DS2
Parallel Port A bit 1 = LED DS3
Parallel Port B bit 2 = switch S2
Parallel Port B bit 3 = switch S3
• TOGGLELED.C—demonstrates the use of costatements to detect switch presses using
the press-and-release method of debouncing. As soon as the sample program starts running, LED DS3 on the Prototyping Board (which is controlled by PA1) starts flashing
once per second. Press switch S2 on the Prototyping Board (which is connected to PB2)
to toggle LED DS2 on the Prototyping Board (which is controlled by PA0). The pushbutton switch is debounced by the software.
Getting Started
23
3.3.2 Serial Communication
The following sample programs can be found in the SAMPLES\RCM2100 folder.
Two sample programs, CORE_FLOWCONTROL.C and CORE_PARITY.C,
are available to illustrate RS-232
communication. To run these sample
programs, you will have to add an
RS-232 transceiver such as the
MAX232 at location U2 and four
100 nF capacitors at C3–C6 on the
Prototyping Board. Also install the 2
× 5 IDC header included with the
Prototyping Board accessory parts at
J6 to interface the RS-232 signals.
32
2
MAX
100 nF
storage
capacitors
The diagram shows the connections.
• CORE_FLOWCONTROL.C—This program demonstrates hardware flow control by configuring Serial Port C (PC3/PC2) for CTS/RTS with serial data coming from TxB at
115,200 bps. One character at a time is received and is displayed in the STDIO window.
To set up the Prototyping Board, you will need to tie PC4 and PC5
(TxB and RxB) together at header J4, and you will also tie PC2 and
PC3 (TxC and RxC) together using the jumpers supplied in the Development Kit as shown in the diagram.
RxC TxC
J6
TxB RxB GND
A repeating triangular pattern should print out in the STDIO window.
The program will periodically switch flow control on or off to demonstrate the effect of
no flow control.
Refer to the serBflowcontrolOn() function call in the Dynamic C Function Reference Manual for a general description on how to set up flow control lines.
• CORE_PARITY.C—This program demonstrates the use of parity modes by repeatedly
sending byte values 0–127 from Serial Port B to Serial Port C. The program will switch
between generating parity or not on Serial Port B. Serial Port C will always be checking
parity, so parity errors should occur during every other sequence.
To set up the Prototyping Board, you will need to tie PC4 and PC3
(TxB and RxC) together at header J4 using the jumpers supplied in the
Development Kit as shown in the diagram.
RxC TxC
J6
TxB RxB GND
The Dynamic C STDIO window will display the error sequence.
24
RabbitCore RCM2100
Two sample programs, MASTER2.C
and SLAVE2.C, are available to illustrate RS-485 master/slave communication. To run these sample programs,
you will need a second Rabbit-based
system with RS-485, and you will also
have to add an RS-485 transceiver
such as the SP483E and bias resistors
to the Prototyping Board.
PC0
PC1
PD0
47 kW
Vcc
485+
Vcc
bias
681 W
RO
termination
220 W
/RE
bias
681 W
DI
A
RS-485
DE CHIP B
485–
The diagram shows the connections.
You will have to connect PC0 and PC1
(Serial Port D) on the Prototyping Board to the RS-485 transceiver, and you will connect
PD0 to the RS-485 transceiver to enable or disable the RS-485 transmitter.
The RS-485 connections between the slave and master devices are as follows.
•
RS485+ to RS485+
•
RS485– to RS485–
•
GND to GND
• MASTER2.C—This program demonstrates a simple RS-485 transmission of lower case
letters to a slave RCM2100. The slave will send back converted upper case letters back
to the master RCM2100 and display them in the STDIO window. Use SLAVE2.C to
program the slave RCM2100.
• SLAVE2.C—This program demonstrates a simple RS-485 transmission of lower case
letters to a master RCM2100. The slave will send back converted upper case letters
back to the master RCM2100 and display them in the STDIO window. Use MASTER2.C
to program the master RCM2100.
3.3.3 Other Sample Programs
Section 4.7 covers how to run the TCP/IP sample programs, which are then described in
detail.
Getting Started
25
3.3.4 Sample Program Descriptions
3.3.4.1 FLASHLED.C
This program is about as simple as a Dynamic C application can get—the equivalent of
the traditional “Hello, world!” program found in most basic programming tutorials. If you
are familiar with ANSI C, you should have no trouble reading through the source code and
understanding it.
The only new element in this sample application should be Dynamic C’s handling of the
Rabbit microprocessor’s parallel ports. The program:
4. Initializes the pins of Port A as outputs.
5. Sets all of the pins of Port A high, turning off the attached LEDs.
6. Starts an endless loop with a for(;;) expression, and within that loop:
• Writes a bit to turn bit 1 off, lighting LED DS3;
• Waits through a delay loop;
• Writes a bit to turn bit 1 on, turning off the LED;
• Waits through a second delay loop;
These steps repeat as long as the program is allowed to run.
You can change the flash rate of the LED by adjusting the loop values in the two for
expressions. The first loop controls the LED’s “off” time; the second loop controls its “on”
time.
NOTE: Since the variable j is defined as type int, the range for j must be between 0
and 32767. To permit larger values and thus longer delays, change the declaration of j
to unsigned int or long.
More Information
See the section on primitive data types, and the entries for the library functions
WrPortI( ) and BitWrPortI( ) in the Dynamic C User’s Manual.
26
RabbitCore RCM2100
3.3.4.2 FLASHLEDS.C
In addition to Dynamic C’s implementation of C-language programming for embedded
systems, it supports assembly-language programming for very efficient processor-level
control of the module hardware and program flow. This application is similar to
FLASHLED.C and TOGGLELEDS.C, but uses assembly language for the low-level port
control within cofunctions, another powerful multitasking tool.
Dynamic C permits the use of assembly language statements within C code. This program
creates three functions using assembly language statements, then creates a C cofunction to
call two of them. That cofunction is then called within main().
Within each of the C-like functions, the #asm and #endasm directives are used to indicate
the beginning and end of the assembly language statements.
In the function initialize_ports( ), port A is initialized to be all outputs while bit 0
of port E is initialized to be an output.
In the function ledon(), a 0 is written to the port A bit corresponding to the desired LED
(0, which equals DS3, or 1 which equals DS4), turning that LED on. The ledoff( )
function works exactly the same way except that a 1 is written to the bit, turning the
selected LED off.
Finally, in the cofunction flashled(), the LED to be flashed, the on time in milliseconds, and the off time in milliseconds are passed as arguments. This function uses an endless for(;;) loop to call the ledon() and ledoff() functions, separated by calls to
the wait function DelayMs(). This sequence will make the indicated LED flash on and
off.
As is proper in C program design, the contents of main() are almost trivial. The program
first calls initialize_ports(), then begins an endless for(;;) loop. Within this
loop, the program:
1. Calls the library function hitwd(), which resets the microprocessor’s watchdog timer.
(If the watchdog timer is not reset every so often, it will force a hard reset of the system. The purpose is to keep an intermittent program or hardware fault from locking up
the system. Normally, this function is taken care of by the virtual driver, but it is called
explicitly here).
2. Sets up a costatement which calls two instances of the flashled() function, one for
each LED. Note that one LED is flashed one second on, one-half second (500 ms) off,
while the other is flashed in the reverse pattern.
Note also the wfd keyword in the costatement. This keyword (an abbreviation for waitfordone, which can also be used) must be used when calling cofunctions. For a complete
explanation, see Section 5 and 6 in the Dynamic C User’s Manual.
More Information
See the entries for the hitwd() and DelayMs() functions in the Dynamic C User’s
Manual, as well as those for the directives #asm and #endasm. For a complete explanaGetting Started
27
tion of how Dynamic C handles multitasking with costatements and cofunctions, see
Chapter 5, “Multitasking with Dynamic C,” and Chapter 6, “The Virtual Driver,” in the
Dynamic C User’s Manual.
3.3.4.3 TOGGLELED.C
One of Dynamic C’s unique and powerful aspects is its ability to efficiently multitask
using cofunctions and costatements. This simple application demonstrates how these program elements work.
This sample program uses two costatements to set up and manage the two tasks. Costatements must be contained in a loop that will “tap” each of them at regular intervals. This
program:
1. Initializes the pins of Port A as outputs.
2. Sets all the pins of Port A high, turning off the attached LEDs.
3. Sets the toggled LED status variable vswitch to 0 (LED off).
4. Starts an endless loop using a while(1) expression, and within that loop:
• Executes a costatement that flashes LED DS3;
• Executes a costatement that checks the state of switch S2 and toggles the state of
vswitch if it is pressed;
• Turns LED DS2 on or off, according to the state of vswitch.
These steps repeat as long as the program is allowed to run.
The first costatement is a compressed version of FLASHLED.c, with slightly different
flash timing. It also uses the library function DelayMs() to deliver more accurate timing
than the simple delay loops of the previous program.
The second costatement does more than check the status of S2. Switch contacts often
“bounce” open and closed several times when the switch is actuated, and each bounce can
be interpreted by fast digital logic as an independent press. To clean up this input, the code
in the second costatement “debounces” the switch signal by waiting 50 milliseconds and
checking the state of the switch again. If it is detected as being closed both times, the program considers it a valid switch press and toggles vswitch.
Unlike most C statements, the two costatements are not executed in their entirety on each
iteration of the while(1) loop. Instead, the list of statements within each costatement is
initiated on the first loop, and then executed one “slice” at a time on each successive interation. This mode of operation is known as a state machine, a powerful concept that permits a single processor to efficiently handle a number of independent tasks.
The ability of Dynamic C to manage state machine programs enables you to create very
powerful and efficient embedded systems with much greater ease than other programming
methods.
More Information
See the entries for the DelayMs() function, as well as Section 5, “Multitasking with
Dynamic C,” in the Dynamic C User’s Manual.
28
RabbitCore RCM2100
3.4 Upgrading Dynamic C
Dynamic C patches that focus on bug fixes are available from time to time. Check the Web
sites
• www.zworld.com/support/
or
• www.rabbitsemiconductor.com/support/
for the latest patches, workarounds, and bug fixes.
3.4.1 Add-On Modules
Dynamic C installations are designed for use with the board they are included with, and
are included at no charge as part of our low-cost kits. Z-World offers add-on Dynamic C
modules for purchase, including the popular µC/OS-II real-time operating system, as well
as PPP, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), and other select libraries.
In addition to the Web-based technical support included at no extra charge, a one-year
telephone-based technical support module is also available for purchase.
Getting Started
29
30
RabbitCore RCM2100
4. USING THE TCP/IP FEATURES
4.1 TCP/IP Connections
Programming and development can be done with the RCM2100 RabbitCore modules without connecting the Ethernet port to a network. However, if you will be running the sample programs that use
the Ethernet capability or will be doing Ethernet-enabled development, you should connect the
RCM2100 module’s Ethernet port at this time.
Before proceeding you will need to have the following items.
• If you don’t have Ethernet access, you will need at least a 10Base-T Ethernet card
(available from your favorite computer supplier) installed in a PC.
• Two RJ-45 straight through Ethernet cables and a hub, or an RJ-45 crossover Ethernet
cable.
The Ethernet cables and a 10Base-T Ethernet hub are available from Z-World in a TCP/IP
tool kit. More information is available at www.zworld.com.
1. Connect the AC adapter and the programming cable as shown in Chapter 2, “Getting
Started.”
2. Ethernet Connections
There are four options for connecting the RCM2100 module to a network for development and runtime purposes. The first two options permit total freedom of action in
selecting network addresses and use of the “network,” as no action can interfere with
other users. We recommend one of these options for initial development.
• No LAN — The simplest alternative for desktop development. Connect the
RCM2100’s Ethernet port directly to the PC’s network interface card using an RJ-45
crossover cable. A crossover cable is a special cable that flips some connections
between the two connectors and permits direct connection of two client systems. A
standard RJ-45 network cable will not work for this purpose.
• Micro-LAN — Another simple alternative for desktop development. Use a small
Ethernet 10Base-T hub and connect both the PC’s network interface card and the
RCM2100’s Ethernet port to it, using standard network cables.
Getting Started
31
The following options require more care in address selection and testing actions, as
conflicts with other users, servers and systems can occur:
• LAN — Connect the RCM2100’s Ethernet port to an existing LAN, preferably one to
which the development PC is already connected. You will need to obtain IP addressing
information from your network administrator.
• WAN — The RCM2100 is capable of direct connection to the Internet and other Wide
Area Networks, but exceptional care should be used with IP address settings and all
network-related programming and development. We recommend that development and
debugging be done on a local network before connecting a RabbitCore system to the
Internet.
TIP: Checking and debugging the initial setup on a micro-LAN is recommended before
connecting the system to a LAN or WAN.
The PC running Dynamic C through the serial port on the RCM2100 does not need to
be the PC with the Ethernet card.
3. Apply Power
Plug in the AC adapter. The RCM2100 module is now ready to be used.
32
RabbitCore RCM2100
4.2 TCP/IP Primer on IP Addresses
Obtaining IP addresses to interact over an existing, operating, network can involve a number of complications, and must usually be done with cooperation from your ISP and/or
network systems administrator. For this reason, it is suggested that the user begin instead
by using a direct connection between a PC and the RCM2100 board using an Ethernet
crossover cable or a simple arrangement with a hub. (A crossover cable should not be confused with regular straight through cables.)
In order to set up this direct connection, the user will have to use a PC without networking,
or disconnect a PC from the corporate network, or install a second Ethernet adapter and set
up a separate private network attached to the second Ethernet adapter. Disconnecting your
PC from the corporate network may be easy or nearly impossible, depending on how it is
set up. If your PC boots from the network or is dependent on the network for some or all
of its disks, then it probably should not be disconnected. If a second Ethernet adapter is
used, be aware that Windows TCP/IP will send messages to one adapter or the other,
depending on the IP address and the binding order in Microsoft products. Thus you should
have different ranges of IP addresses on your private network from those used on the corporate network. If both networks service the same IP address, then Windows may send a
packet intended for your private network to the corporate network. A similar situation will
take place if you use a dial-up line to send a packet to the Internet. Windows may try to
send it via the local Ethernet network if it is also valid for that network.
The following IP addresses are set aside for local networks and are not allowed on the
Internet: 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255, 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255, and 192.168.0.0 to
192.168.255.255.
The RCM2100 board uses a 10Base-T type of Ethernet connection, which is the most
common scheme. The RJ-45 connectors are similar to U.S. style telephone connectors,
except they are larger and have 8 contacts.
An alternative to the direct connection using a crossover cable is a direct connection using
a hub. The hub relays packets received on any port to all of the ports on the hub. Hubs are
low in cost and are readily available. The RCM2100 board uses 10 Mbps Ethernet, so the
hub or Ethernet adapter must be either a 10 Mbps unit or a 10/100 unit that adapts to either
10 or 100 Mbps.
In a corporate setting where the Internet is brought in via a high-speed line, there are typically machines between the outside Internet and the internal network. These machines
include a combination of proxy servers and firewalls that filter and multiplex Internet traffic. In the configuration below, the RCM2100 board could be given a fixed address so any
of the computers on the local network would be able to contact it. It may be possible to
configure the firewall or proxy server to allow hosts on the Internet to directly contact the
controller, but it would probably be easier to place the controller directly on the external
network outside of the firewall. This avoids some of the configuration complications by
sacrificing some security.
Getting Started
33
Hub(s)
Internet
Adapter
Ethernet
Firewall
Proxy
Server
Network of
Workstations
Ethernet
Typical Corporate Network
RCM2100
Board
If your system administrator can give you an Ethernet cable along with its IP address, the
netmask and the gateway address, then you may be able to run the sample programs without having to set up a direct connection between your computer and the RCM2100 board.
You will also need the IP address of the nameserver, the name or IP address of your mail
server, and your domain name for some of the sample programs.
34
RabbitCore RCM2100
4.3 IP Addresses Explained
IP (Internet Protocol) addresses are expressed as 4 decimal numbers separated by periods,
for example:
216.103.126.155
10.1.1.6
Each decimal number must be between 0 and 255. The total IP address is a 32-bit number
consisting of the 4 bytes expressed as shown above. A local network uses a group of adjacent IP addresses. There are always 2N IP addresses in a local network. The netmask (also
called subnet mask) determines how many IP addresses belong to the local network. The
netmask is also a 32-bit address expressed in the same form as the IP address. An example
netmask is:
255.255.255.0
This netmask has 8 zero bits in the least significant portion, and this means that 28
addresses are a part of the local network. Applied to the IP address above
(216.103.126.155), this netmask would indicate that the following IP addresses belong to
the local network:
216.103.126.0
216.103.126.1
216.103.126.2
etc.
216.103.126.254
216.103.126.255
The lowest and highest address are reserved for special purposes. The lowest address
(216.103.126.0) is used to identify the local network. The highest address
(216.103.126.255) is used as a broadcast address. Usually one other address is used for the
address of the gateway out of the network. This leaves 256 - 3 = 253 available IP
addresses for the example given.
Getting Started
35
4.4 How IP Addresses are Used
The actual hardware connection via an Ethernet uses Ethernet adapter addresses (also
called MAC addresses). These are 48-bit addresses and are unique for every Ethernet
adapter manufactured. In order to send a packet to another computer, given the IP address
of the other computer, it is first determined if the packet needs to be sent directly to the
other computer or to the gateway. In either case, there is an IP address on the local network to which the packet must be sent. A table is maintained to allow the protocol driver
to determine the MAC address corresponding to a particular IP address. If the table is
empty, the MAC address is determined by sending an Ethernet broadcast packet to all
devices on the local network asking the device with the desired IP address to answer with
its MAC address. In this way, the table entry can be filled in. If no device answers, then
the device is nonexistent or inoperative, and the packet cannot be sent.
IP addresses are arbitrary and can be allocated as desired provided that they don’t conflict
with other IP addresses. However, if they are to be used with the Internet, then they must
be numbers that are assigned to your connection by proper authorities, generally by delegation via your service provider.
Each RCM2100 RabbitCore module has its own unique MAC address, which consists of
the prefix 0090C2 followed by the code that appears on the label affixed to the RCM2100
module. For example, a MAC address might be 0090C2C002C0.
TIP: You can always verify the MAC address on your board by running the sample program DISPLAY_MAC.C from the SAMPLES\TCPIP folder.
36
RabbitCore RCM2100
4.5 Dynamically Assigned Internet Addresses
In many instances, there are no fixed IP addresses. This is the case when, for example, you
are assigned an IP address dynamically by your dial-up Internet service provider (ISP) or
when you have a device that provides your IP addresses using the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). The RCM2100 RabbitCore modules can use such IP addresses to
send and receive packets on the Internet, but you must take into account that this IP
address may only be valid for the duration of the call or for a period of time, and could be
a private IP address that is not directly accessible to others on the Internet. These private
addresses can be used to perform some Internet tasks such as sending e-mail or browsing
the Web, but usually cannot be used to participate in conversations that originate elsewhere on the Internet. If you want to find out what this dynamically assigned IP address is,
under Windows XP you can run the ipconfig program while you are connected and look
at the interface used to connect to the Internet.
Many networks use private IP addresses that are assigned using DHCP. When your computer comes up, and periodically after that, it requests its networking information from a
DHCP server. The DHCP server may try to give you the same address each time, but a
fixed IP address is usually not guaranteed.
If you are not concerned about accessing the RCM2100 from the Internet, you can place
the RCM2100 on the internal network using a private address assigned either statically or
through DHCP.
Getting Started
37
4.6 Placing Your Device on the Network
In many corporate settings, users are isolated from the Internet by a firewall and/or a
proxy server. These devices attempt to secure the company from unauthorized network
traffic, and usually work by disallowing traffic that did not originate from inside the network. If you want users on the Internet to communicate with your RCM2100, you have
several options. You can either place the RCM2100 directly on the Internet with a real
Internet address or place it behind the firewall. If you place the RCM2100 behind the firewall, you need to configure the firewall to translate and forward packets from the Internet
to the RCM2100.
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RabbitCore RCM2100
4.7 Running TCP/IP Sample Programs
We have provided a number of sample programs demonstrating various uses of TCP/IP for
networking embedded systems. These programs require you to connect your PC and the
RCM2100 board together on the same network. This network can be a local private network (preferred for initial experimentation and debugging), or a connection via the Internet.
RCM2100
Board
User’s PC
Ethernet
crossover
cable
Direct Connection
(network of 2 computers)
Getting Started
RCM2100
Board
Ethernet
cables
Hub
To additional
network
elements
Direct Connection Using a Hub
39
4.8 How to Set IP Addresses in the Sample Programs
With the introduction of Dynamic C 7.30 we have taken steps to make it easier to run
many of our sample programs. Instead of the MY_IP_ADDRESS and other macros, you will
see a TCPCONFIG macro. This macro tells Dynamic C to select your configuration from a
list of default configurations. You will have three choices when you encounter a sample
program with the TCPCONFIG macro.
1. You can replace the TCPCONFIG macro with individual MY_IP_ADDRESS,
MY_NETMASK, MY_GATEWAY, and MY_NAMESERVER macros in each program.
2. You can leave TCPCONFIG at the usual default of 1, which will set the IP configurations
to 10.10.6.100, the netmask to 255.255.255.0, and the nameserver and gateway
to 10.10.6.1. If you would like to change the default values, for example, to use an IP
address of 10.1.1.2 for the RCM2100 board, and 10.1.1.1 for your PC, you can edit
the values in the section that directly follows the “General Configuration” comment in
the TCP_CONFIG.LIB library. You will find this library in the LIB/TCPIP directory.
3. You can create a CUSTOM_CONFIG.LIB library and use a TCPCONFIG value greater
than 100. Instructions for doing this are at the beginning of the TCP_CONFIG.LIB file.
There are some other “standard” configurations for TCPCONFIG that let you select different features such as DHCP. Their values are documented at the top of the
TCP_CONFIG.LIB library. More information is available in the Dynamic C TCP/IP
User’s Manual.
IP Addresses Before Dynamic C 7.30
Most of the sample programs such as shown in the example below use macros to define the
IP address assigned to the board and the IP address of the gateway, if there is a gateway.
#define
#define
#define
#define
MY_IP_ADDRESS "10.10.6.170"
MY_NETMASK "255.255.255.0"
MY_GATEWAY "10.10.6.1"
MY_NAMESERVER "10.10.6.1"
In order to do a direct connection, the following IP addresses can be used for the RCM2100:
#define MY_IP_ADDRESS "10.1.1.2"
#define MY_NETMASK "255.255.255.0"
// #define MY_GATEWAY "10.10.6.1"
// #define MY_NAMESERVER "10.10.6.1"
In this case, the gateway and nameserver are not used, and are commented out. The IP
address of the board is defined to be 10.1.1.2. The IP address of your PC can be defined
as 10.1.1.1.
40
RabbitCore RCM2100
4.9 How to Set Up your Computer’s IP Address for Direct Connect
When your computer is connected directly to the RCM2100 board via an Ethernet connection, you need to assign an IP address to your computer. To assign the PC the address
10.10.6.101 with the netmask 255.255.255.0, do the following.
Click on Start > Settings > Control Panel to bring up the Control Panel, and then double-click the Network icon. Depending on which version of Windows you are using, look
for the TCP/IP Protocol/Network > Dial-Up Connections/Network line or tab. Doubleclick on this line or select Properties or Local Area Connection > Properties to bring
up the TCP/IP properties dialog box. You can edit the IP address and the subnet mask
directly. (Disable “obtain an IP address automatically.”) You may want to write down the
existing values in case you have to restore them later. It is not necessary to edit the gateway address since the gateway is not used with direct connect.
RCM2100
Board
IP 10.10.6.101
Netmask
255.255.255.0
User’s PC
Ethernet
crossover
cable
Direct Connection PC to RCM2100 Board
Getting Started
41
4.10 Run the PINGME.C Sample Program
Connect the crossover cable from your computer’s Ethernet port to the RCM2100 board’s
RJ-45 Ethernet connector. Open this sample program from the SAMPLES\TCPIP\ICMP
folder, compile the program, and start it running under Dynamic C. When the program
starts running, the green LNK light on the RCM2100 board should be on to indicate an
Ethernet connection is made. (Note: If the LNK light does not light, you may not have a
crossover cable, or if you are using a hub perhaps the power is off on the hub.)
The next step is to ping the board from your PC. This can be done by bringing up the MSDOS window and running the pingme program:
ping 10.10.6.100
or by Start > Run
and typing the entry
ping 10.10.6.100
Notice that the red ACT light flashes on the RCM2100 board while the ping is taking
place, and indicates the transfer of data. The ping routine will ping the board four times
and write a summary message on the screen describing the operation.
4.11 Running More Sample Programs With Direct Connect
The sample programs discussed here are in the Dynamic C SAMPLES\RCM2100\ folder.
4.11.1 Sample Program: PINGLED.C
One of the RCM2100’s most important features is the availability of the built-in Ethernet
port. This program makes the simplest possible use of the network port by “pinging” a
remote system and using LEDs to report the status of the ping attempt and its return.
Compile & Run Program
Open the PINGLED.C sample program. Press F9 to compile and run the program.
Each time the program sends a ping to the remote address, LED DS2 on the Prototyping
Board will flash. Each time a successful return from a ping attempt is received, LED DS3
will flash.
If the ping return is unsuccessful (i.e., the remote system does not exist or does not
acknowledge the ping within the timeout period), DS3 will not flash.
With short ping times, as will be encountered in most micro-LAN and LAN settings, the
two LEDs should flash almost in parallel as pings are sent and returned.
You can modify the #define PING_DELAY statement to change the amount of time
between the outgoing pings.
42
RabbitCore RCM2100
Program Description
For operation, network addresses must be correctly defined at the start of this program.
The TCPCONFIG 1 macro in the sample program provides default settings for
MY_IP_ADDRESS, which is the address of the RCM2100 module, MY_NETMASK, and
MY_GATEWAY (which needs to be defined if you wish to ping systems outside the local
network). If you wish to ping systems using domain names instead of IP addresses, a valid
DNS server address must be defined for MY_NAMESERVER. These TCP/IP settings can be
changed as needed in the TCP_CONFIG.LIB library.
The IP address to be pinged is defined by PING_WHO. You will have to change this address
and recompile the program to ping different addresses. (In most real-world applications,
there should be some mechanism by which to dynamically define or select addresses.)
This address may be defined as a numeric IP address. If a gateway to the Internet and a
valid DNS server are specified, this definition may also be a fully-qualified domain name
(such as “www.zworld.com”).
The program first defines three functions to control the LEDs—one to initialize them, and
then one each to drive the “ping out” and “ping in” LEDs.
The program begins by calling the LED initialization function pingleds_setup( ).
More importantly, it then calls sock_init( ), which initializes the packet driver and the
TCP manager using the compiler defaults. This function must always be called before any
other TCP/IP functions.
The program then resolves the address to be pinged into a numeric value. using the library
function resolve(). If the defined address is numeric, it converts the define string into
truly numeric form. If the address is a domain name, the function queries the indicated
DNS server to obtain the numeric address. (If the function is unable to resolve the
address—if, for example, the numeric address is incomplete or badly formed, or the DNS
server is unable to identify the domain name—the program will print a message to the
screen and terminate.)
The program then begins an endless loop using for(;;). Within this loop, the program
executes the following steps:
1. Calls tcp_tick() to perform the basic housekeeping functions for the socket;
2. As a costatement, waits for the duration of PING_DELAY (defined by default as 500 ms
or one-half second), issues a ping to the resolved address using the _ping() function,
and flashes LED DS2;
3. As a second costatement, checks for a ping return using the _chk_ping() function. If
the ping is successful, the costatement flashes LED DS3.
If you uncomment the #VERBOSE define near the beginning of the program, the ping
return costatement will also print a message to the screen indicating each successful ping.
Getting Started
43
4.11.2 Sample Program: ETHCORE1.C
The RCM2100 modules with Ethernet ports can act as micro Web page servers, with
dynamic interaction between the controller and the web pages. This sample program demonstrates how a Web page can be used to both monitor and control an RCM2100 module.
Compile & Run Program
Open the sample program ETHCORE1.C. Press F9 to compile and run the program.
TIP: This program will be more interesting to observe if LEDs DS4 and DS5 are installed
on the Prototyping Board.
When the program starts, LEDs DS2, DS3 and DS5 will be lit, and DS4 will be dark.
Open a Web browser and enter the IP address you defined for the RCM2100 module in the
program in the address window. A page like that shown in Figure 8 should appear.
Figure 8. Browser screen for Sample Program ETHCORE1.C
Clicking on each of the button images in the browser window will toggle the state of the
associated LED image, and will toggle the state of the corresponding LED on the Prototyping Board. Since the Web page is generated by the RCM2100 (using Dynamic HTML),
the LED image and the corresponding LED’s real state will always be in step.
Program Description
This program begins to show the range of applications for an Ethernet-enabled embedded
system controller, so let’s look closely at its operation.
As with PINGLED.C, several network addresses must be defined before this application
can work. The TCPCONFIG 1 macro in the sample program provides default settings for
MY_IP_ADDRESS, which is the address of the RCM2100 module, MY_NETMASK, and
MY_GATEWAY (which needs to be defined if you wish to reach the system from outside the
local network). These TCP/IP settings can be changed as needed in the TCP_CONFIG.LIB
library.
44
RabbitCore RCM2100
Generally, the other defined values may be left at their default settings. If you are operating the system behind a firewall or proxy and need to specify a host port for redirection,
you should comment out the line reading:
#define REDIRECTHOST MY_IP_ADDRESS
Then uncomment the next line, which defines a specific redirection host and port:
#define REDIRECTHOST "my host.com:8080"
Be sure to enter the host port where indicated by "my host.com:8080".
This application creates dynamic HTML web pages on the fly. For simplicity, all of the
Web page components—shell HTML, image GIFs, etc.—are imported into flash memory
using the #ximport statements. It is also possible to read these files from other locations,
including the onboard flash file system, but this application keeps things simple by loading all the components into working memory.
The program then defines four instances of an LED toggling function, which are basic
CGI functions that swap the values “ledon.gif” and “ledoff.gif” as the contents of the
ledn strings, and then force a reload of the web page to change the associated LED
image. The physical LEDs on the Prototyping Board are turned on or off to match the
ledn strings displayed on the Web page.
4.11.3 Additional Sample Programs
• ETHCORE2.C—This program takes anything that comes in on a port and sends it out
Serial Port C. It uses SW2 as a signal that the connection should be closed, and PA0 as
an indication that there is an open connection. You may change SW2 and PA0 to suit
your application needs.
Follow the instructions included with the sample program. Run the Telnet program on
your PC (Start > Run telnet 10.10.6.100). As long as you have not modified the
TCPCONFIG 1 macro in the sample program, the IP address is 10.10.6.100 as shown;
otherwise use the TCP/IP settings you entered in the TCP_CONFIG.LIB library. Each
character you type will be printed in Dynamic C's STDIO window, indicating that the
board is receiving the characters typed via TCP/IP.
• LEDCONSOLE.C—Demonstrates the features of ZCONSOLE.LIB command-oriented
console library to control two LEDs on the Prototyping Board.
4.11.4 More Information
Refer to the Dynamic C TCP/IP User’s Manual for complete details on the Dynamic C
implementation of TCP/IP protocols.
Getting Started
45
4.12 Where Do I Go From Here?
NOTE: If you purchased your RCM2100 through a distributor or through a Z-World or
Rabbit Semiconductor partner, contact the distributor or Z-World partner first for technical support.
If there are any problems at this point:
• Use the Dynamic C Help menu to get further assistance with Dynamic C.
• Check the Z-World/Rabbit Semiconductor Technical Bulletin Board at
www.zworld.com/support/bb/.
• Use the Technical Support e-mail form at www.zworld.com/support/questionSubmit.shtml.
If the sample programs ran fine, you are now ready to go on.
Additional sample programs are described in the Dynamic C TCP/IP User’s Manual.
Please refer to the Dynamic C TCP/IP User’s Manual to develop your own applications.
An Introduction to TCP/IP provides background information on TCP/IP, and is available
on the CD and on Z-World’s Web site.
46
RabbitCore RCM2100
NOTICE TO USERS
Z-WORLD PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFESUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS UNLESS A SPECIFIC WRITTEN AGREEMENT REGARDING
SUCH INTENDED USE IS ENTERED INTO BETWEEN THE CUSTOMER AND Z-WORLD PRIOR
TO USE. Life-support devices or systems are devices or systems intended for surgical implantation into the
body or to sustain life, and whose failure to perform, when properly used in accordance with instructions for
use provided in the labeling and user’s manual, can be reasonably expected to result in significant injury.
No complex software or hardware system is perfect. Bugs are always present in a system of any size. In
order to prevent danger to life or property, it is the responsibility of the system designer to incorporate
redundant protective mechanisms appropriate to the risk involved.
All Z-World products are 100 percent functionally tested. Additional testing may include visual quality control inspections or mechanical defects analyzer inspections. Specifications are based on characterization of
tested sample units rather than testing over temperature and voltage of each unit. Z-World products may
qualify components to operate within a range of parameters that is different from the manufacturer’s recommended range. This strategy is believed to be more economical and effective. Additional testing or burn-in
of an individual unit is available by special arrangement.
Getting Started
47
48
RabbitCore RCM2100
INDEX
A
H
S
additional information
online documentation .......... 5
references ............................ 5
hardware connections ........... 11
install RCM2100 on Prototyping Board ...................... 12
power supply ..................... 14
programming cable ........... 13
hardware reset ....................... 14
sample programs
getting to know the RCM2100
EXTSRAM.C ................ 21
FLASHLED.C ........ 21, 26
FLASHLED2.C ............ 21
FLASHLEDS.C ...... 22, 27
FLASHLEDS2.C .......... 22
KEYLCD2.C ................. 22
LCD_DEMO.C ............. 23
SWTEST.C ................... 23
TOGGLELED.C ..... 23, 28
how to run TCP/IP sample
programs ................. 39, 40
how to set IP address ........ 40
PONG.C ............................ 15
serial communication
CORE_FLOWCONTROL.C
..................................... 24
CORE_PARITY.C ........ 24
MASTER2.C ................. 25
SLAVE2.C .................... 25
TCP/IP
DISPLAY_MAC.C ....... 36
ETHCORE1.C .............. 44
ETHCORE2.C .............. 45
LEDCONSOLE.C ......... 45
PINGLED.C .................. 42
PINGME.C .................... 42
specifications
physical and electrical ......... 2
D
description ............................... 1
Development Kit ..................... 7
Dynamic C ........................ 4, 17
add-on modules ................. 29
features .............................. 17
standard features ............... 18
debugging ...................... 18
telephone-based technical
support .......................... 29
upgrades and patches ........ 29
USB port settings .............. 15
E
Ethernet cables ...................... 31
Ethernet connections ....... 31, 33
10Base-T ........................... 33
10Base-T Ethernet card .... 31
additional resources .......... 46
direct connection ............... 33
Ethernet cables .................. 33
Ethernet hub ...................... 31
IP addresses ................. 33, 35
steps ............................ 31, 32
I
IP addresses .......................... 35
how to set in sample programs ............................ 40
how to set PC IP address ... 41
M
MAC addresses ..................... 36
models
factory versions ............... 1, 2
P
pinout
RCM2100 ............................ 3
power supply
connections ....................... 14
programming cable
RCM2100 connections ..... 13
Prototyping Board ................... 8
features ...................... 8, 9, 10
mounting RCM2100 ......... 12
F
R
features
Prototyping Board ..... 8, 9, 10
RCM2100 ............................ 1
RCM2100
mounting on Prototyping
Board ............................ 12
reset ....................................... 14
T
TCP/IP primer ....................... 33
technical support ................... 16
U
USB/serial port converter ..... 13
Dynamic C settings ........... 15
User’s Manual
49
User’s Manual
50
SCHEMATICS
090-0114 RCM2100 Schematic
www.rabbitsemiconductor.com/documentation/schemat/090-0114.pdf
090-0116 RCM2100 Prototyping Board Schematic
www.rabbitsemiconductor.com/documentation/schemat/090-0116.pdf
090-0128 Programming Cable Schematic
www.rabbitsemiconductor.com/documentation/schemat/090-0128.pdf
The schematics included with the printed manual were the latest revisions available at the
time the manual was last revised. The online versions of the manual contain links to the
latest revised schematic on the Web site. You may also use the URL information provided
above to access the latest schematics directly.
Getting Started
51