McQuay IM 685 Unit installation

Installation, Operation and Maintenance manual
803 C – 01/05 A
Date: May 2001
Supersedes: none
PFS 106.1÷314.4
Water cooled water chillers
Introduction
Purpose of the manual
The manual allows the installer and the operator to perform correctly all the operations required for the installation
and maintenance of the chiller without provoking any damages to the unit or to the qualified personnel.
Therefore the manual is essential to help qualified personnel that have to arrange the equipment to provide the
correct installation in accordance with local codes and regulation.
Inspection
When the equipment is received, all items on the bill of lading should be carefully checked to insure a complete
shipment. All units should be carefully checked and all shipping damage should be reported to the carrier. The unit
serial plate should be checked before unloading the unit to be sure that it agrees with the power supply available.
Physical damage to unit after acceptance is not McQuay’s responsibility.
Responsibilities
McQuay Italia declines all present and future responsabilities referred to injuries to people and damage to things
and unit, coming from operators negligence, the unrespected installation/maintenance data carrier in this manual,
the lacking of the current regulations respect referred to the safety of the equipment and the qualified personnel.
Servicing and maintenance
Servicing and maintenance of these unit must carried out by experienced personnel with specific training in
refrigeration. Regular checking of safety devices should be carried out but routine maintenance should be carried
out in line with the recommendations list in the main section.
The simple design of the refrigeration circuit minimizes potential problems during normall unit operation.
Characteristics
General description
McQuay International introduces their newest water cooled screw chillers equipped with new single screw
compressors.
McQuay water cooled PFS chillers equipped with 1 or 2 McQuay screw compressors are a new range of the unit
using the StarGateTM single screw compressors. They are manufactured by McQuay to satisfy the requirements of
the consultants and the end user. McQuay PFS units are designed to minimise energy costs while maximising the
refrigeration capacities. Once again McQuay has developed a line of chillers unsurpassed in performance and
quality that will meet the most stringent requirements of comfort cooling, ice storage and process applications.
McQuay’s chiller design experience, combined with outstanding features makes the PFS chiller unmatched in the
industry.
Safety measures
The unit must be suitably clamped to the ground.
It is necessary to follow these cautions and warnings:
- The unit must be lifted only by using the proper tools able to support the weight of the unit.
- No admittance to unauthorized or unqualified personnel should be allowed.
- No operation on electrical components is allowed without having switched off electricity supply.
- No operation on electrical components is allowed without using insulated platforms; no water or moisture should
be present.
- All the operation on refrigerant circuit and pressurised components are to be performed by qualified personnel
only.
- Compressor substitution or oil addition must be performed by qualified personnel only.
- Avoid contamination of unrelated bodies into the water piping during the unit connection to the water system.
- It is necessary that a mechanical filter is fitted to the piping connected to the exchangers entry.
803 C – 01/05 A – pag. 2/17
Installation
Before any operation please check the instruction for use.
Warning
Installation and maintenance are to be performed only by qualified personnel who are familiar with local codes and
regulations, and who are experienced with this type of equipment. Must be avoided the installation of the unit in
places that could be considered dangerous for maintenance operations.
Receiving and Handling
Inspect the unit immediately after receipt for possible damage. The unit is shipped ex-factory and all claims for
handling and shipping damage are the responsibility of the consignee. Leave the shipping skid in place until the
unit is in final position. This will aid in handling the equipment. Use extreme care when rigging the equipment to
prevent damage to the control center, or refrigerant piping.
Lift the unit by fastening the rigging hooks to the four corners of the evaporator where the rigging eyes are located
(see Figure 1). Use spreader bars between the rigging lines to prevent damage to the control center.
Figure 1, Rigging Eyes
Rigging Eyes
Rigging Eyes
Location
A levelled and sufficiently strong floor is required. If necessary, additional structural members should be provided
to transfer the weight of the unit to the nearest beams.
Rubber-in-shear isolators can be furnished and field placed under each corner of the package. A rubber anti–skid
pad should be used under isolators if hold-down bolts are not used.
Vibration isolator in all water piping connected to the chiller are recommended to avoid straining the piping and
transmitting vibration and noise.
Compressor Condensation
Condensation occurs on the compressor surface when the temperature of the compressor surface is lower than
the ambient dew point temperature. Drain pans with drain connections are provided underneath each compressor
to collect the condensate. The compressor motor housing extends past the drain pans. Install a floor drain close to
the unit to collect condensate from motor housing and condensate pans.
Water treatment
If unit is operating with a cooling tower, clean and flush cooling tower. Make sure tower "blowdown" or bleedoff is
operating. Atmospheric air contains many contaminants which increases the need for water treatment. The use of
untreated water may result in corrosion, erosion, sliming, scaling, or algae formation. A water treatment service is
803 C – 01/05 A – pag. 3/17
recommended. McQuay International is not responsible for damage or faulty operation from untreated or
improperly treated water.
Head pressure control, tower system
The minimum entering water temperature to the condenser must not be lower than 18 °C at full tower water flow. If
lower temperature water is used, the flow must be reduced proportionally. Use a three-way bypass valve around
the tower to modulate the condenser water flow. Figure 2 shows a three-way pressure actuator water regulating
valve used for cooling applications. This regulating valve will assure an adequate condensing pressure if the inlet
condenser water temperature falls below 18 °C.
Head Pressure Control, Well Water System
When using city or well water for condensing refrigerant, install a normally closed direct acting water regulating
valve in the outlet piping of the condenser. This regulating valve will assure an adequate condensing pressure if
the inlet condenser water temperature falls below 18 °C. The condenser service valve provides a pressure tap for
the regulating valve. The valve can modulate in response to head pressure. On shutdown, the valve closes,
preventing water from siphoning out of the condenser. Siphoning causes condenser waterside drying and
accelerates fouling. If a valve is not used, Figure 3 illustrates the recommendation of a loop at the outlet. Size the
loop height (H) to offset the negative pressure caused by the siphoning effect. A vacuum breaker may be required.
Figure 2, Bypass valve
Figure 3, Well Water System
Temperature and Water Flow Limitations
PFS units are designed to operate in conditions from -8 °C to +15 °C leaving water temperature on the evaporator
side and +18 °C to +50 °C entering water temperature on the condenser side. Glycol in the evaporator is required
on all applications below +4 °C leaving evaporator fluid temperature. The maximum allowable water temperature
to the cooler in a non-operating cycle is 40 °C. Flow rates below the minimum values shown in the evaporator and
condenser pressure drop curves may cause freeze-up problems, scaling and poor control. Flow rates above the
maximum values shown in the evaporator and condenser pressure drop curves will result in unacceptable
pressure drops, excessive nozzle and tube erosion and possibly cause tube failure.
Evaporator Freeze Protection
When freeze protection is a concern, do the following:
•
If the unit will not be operated during the winter, drain and flush the evaporator and chilled water piping with
glycol. Drain and vent connections are provided on the evaporator.
803 C – 01/05 A – pag. 4/17
•
When using a cooling tower, add glycol solution to the chilled water system. Freeze point should be
approximately 6°C below minimum design ambient temperature.
•
Insulate field water piping, especially on the chilled water side.
Note: Freeze damage is not considered a warranty failure and is not the responsibility of McQuay International.
Water piping
Due to the variety of piping practices, it is advisable to follow the recommendations of local authorities. They can
supply the installer with the proper building and safety codes required for a safe and proper installation.
Basically, the piping should be designed with a minimum number of bends and changes in elevation to keep
system cost down and performance up. It should contain:
1. Vibration eliminators to reduce vibration and noise transmission to the building.
2. Shut-off valves to isolate the unit from the piping system during unit servicing.
3. Manual or automatic air vent valves at the high points of the system. Drains at the low parts in the system. The
evaporator should not be the highest point in the piping system.
4. Some means of maintaining adequate system water pressure (e.g., expansion tank or regulating valve).
5. Water temperature and pressure indicators located at the unit to aid in unit servicing.
6. A strainer or some means of removing foreign matter from the water before it enters the pump. The strainer
should be placed far enough upstream to prevent cavitation at the pump inlet (consult pump manufacturer for
recommendations). The use of a strainer will prolong pump life and help maintain high system performance
levels.
7. A strainer should also be placed in the supply water line just prior to the inlet of the evaporator. This will aid in
preventing foreign material from entering and decreasing the performance of the evaporator.
8. If the unit is used as a replacement chiller on a previously existing piping system, the system should be
thoroughly flushed prior to unit installation and then regular chilled water analysis and chemical water treatment
is recommended immediately at equipment start-up.
9. In the event glycol is added to the water system, as an afterthought for freeze protection, recognize that the
refrigerant suction pressure will be lower, cooling performance less, and water side pressure drop greater.
System safety devices such as freeze protection and low pressure protection must be reset.
Prior to insulating the piping and filling the system, a preliminary leak check should be made.
Chilled Water Thermostat
The PFS water-cooled chiller is equipped with the MicroTech II leaving water controller. Be careful when working
around the unit to avoid damaging lead wires and sensor cables. Check lead wires before running the unit. Avoid
rubbing the lead wires on the frame or other components. Verify the lead wires are firmly anchored. If the sensor is
removed from the well for servicing, do not wipe off the heat conducting compound supplied in the well.
Refrigerant Charge
All units are designed for use with HFC-134a and are shipped with a full operating charge. The operating charge
for each unit is shown in the Physical Data Table.
Flow Switch
A water flow switch must be mounted in either the entering or leaving water line to insure that there will be
adequate water flow to the evaporator before the unit can start. This will safeguard against slugging the
compressors on start-up. It also serves to shut down the unit in the event that water flow is interrupted to guard
against evaporator freeze-up. A flow switch is available from McQuay and it is a "paddle" type switch and
adaptable to any pipe size from 1" (25mm) to 8" (203mm) nominal.
Certain minimum flow rates are required to close the switch and are listed in Table 1.
803 C – 01/05 A – pag. 5/17
Flow direction marked on switch
NPT flow switch connection
Tee
NOMINAL PIPE
SIZE INCHES (MM)
MINIMUM REQUIRED FLOW
TO ACTIVATE SWITCH –
LITERS PER SECONDS
5 (127)
6 (152)
8 (203)
3.7
5.0
8.8
Figure 4 – Flow Switch
Table 1
Glycol Solutions
Use industrial grade glycols only. Do not use an automotive grade antifreeze. Automotive antifreeze contains
inhibitors that will cause plating on the copper tubes within the chiller evaporator. The type and handling of glycol
used must be consistent with local codes.
Evaporator and Condenser Water Flow and Pressure Drop
Flow rates must fall between the minimum and maximum values shown on the appropriate evaporator and
condenser curves. Flow rates below the minimum values shown will result in laminar flow that will reduce
efficiency, cause erratic operation of the electronic expansion valve and could cause low temperature cutouts.
Flow rates exceeding the maximum values shown can cause erosion on the evaporator water connections and
tubes. Measure the chilled water pressure drop through the evaporator at field installed pressure taps. It is
important not to include the effect of valves or strainers in these readings. Do not vary the water flow through the
evaporator while the compressor(s) are operating. MicroTech II control setpoints are based on constant flow.
Operating limits
PFS 106.1÷314.2
Max evaporator leaving water temperature
Min evaporator leaving water temperature (without glycol)
Min evaporator leaving water temperature (with glycol)
Min evaporator water ∆ T (2 passes)
Max evaporator water ∆ T (2 passes)
Min ∆ T between leaving water evaporator and leav. water condenser
Max ∆ T between leaving water evaporator and leav. water condenser
Max condenser leaving water temperature
Min condenser water ∆ T (2 passes)
Max condenser water ∆ T (2 passes)
803 C – 01/05 A – pag. 6/17
HFC 134a
°C
°C
°C
°C
°C
°C
°C
°C
°C
°C
15
4
-8
4
10
16
48
55
4
10
PFS SE 2 passes evaporator water pressure drop
PFS SE 2 passes condenser water pressure drop
803 C – 01/05 A – pag. 7/17
PFS XE 2 passes evaporator water pressure drop
PFS XE 2 passes condenser water pressure drop
803 C – 01/05 A – pag. 8/17
Physical data PFS SE (standard efficiency) HFC 134a
“PFS SE” Unit size
Cooling capacity (1)
Power input (1)
COP (1)
McQuay Screw compressors
Refrigerant circuits
Min % of capacity reduction
Refrigerant charge HFC 134a
Oil charge
Evaporator
Evaporators / water volume
Max water operating pressure
Condenser
Condensers / water volume
Max water operating pressure
Weight and dimensions
Shipping weight
Operating weight
Unit length
Unit width
Unit height
106.1
127.1
157.1
209.2
230.2
251.2
282.2
314.2
362,2
63,7
5,69
1
1
25,0
197
14,0
429,8
76,8
5,60
1
1
25,0
197
14,0
517,5
98,4
5,26
1
1
25,0
197
14,0
685,0
131,3
5,22
2
1
12,5
254
28,0
763,3
146,1
5,22
2
1
12,5
254
28,0
839,9
161,3
5,21
2
1
12,5
331
28,0
927,7
177,4
5,23
2
1
12,5
331
28,0
1072
196,5
5,46
2
1
12,5
349
28,0
No./l 1/138
10,5
bar
1/138
10,5
1/138
10,5
1/164
10,5
1/164
10,5
1/206
10,5
1/206
10,5
1/295
10,5
No./l 1/125
10,5
bar
1/125
10,5
1/125
10,5
1/162
10,5
1/162
10,5
1/162
10,5
1/147
10,5
1/147
10,5
kg
kg
mm
mm
mm
3567
3830
3945
1400
2137
3567
3830
3945
1400
2137
5012
5338
3945
1490
2137
5012
5338
3945
1490
2137
5207
5575
3945
1490
2137
5217
5570
3945
1490
2137
5255
5697
3945
1490
2137
kW
kW
No.
No.
%
kg
l
3567
3830
3945
1400
2137
Physical data PFS XE (high efficiency) HFC 134a
“PFS XE” Unit size
Cooling capacity (1)
Power input (1)
COP (1)
McQuay Screw compressors
Refrigerant circuits
Min % of capacity reduction
Refrigerant charge HFC 134a
Oil charge
Evaporator
Evaporators / water volume
Max water operating pressure
Condenser
Condensers / water volume
Max water operating pressure
Weight and dimensions
Shipping weight
Operating weight
Unit length
Unit width
Unit height
106.1
127.1
157.1
209.2
230.2
251.2
282.2
314.2
375,7
62,2
6,04
1
1
25,0
197
14,0
454,8
75,5
6,02
1
1
25,0
254
14,0
566,9
93,9
6,04
1
1
25,0
331
14,0
753,2
124,7
6,04
2
1
12,5
349
28,0
828,1
137,2
6,04
2
1
12,5
349
28,0
904,9
149,5
6,05
2
1
12,5
349
28,0
1024
168,5
6,08
2
1
12,5
357
28,0
1141
187,7
6,08
2
1
12,5
357
28,0
No./l 1/138
10,5
bar
1/164
10,5
1/206
10,5
1/295
10,5
1/295
10,5
1/295
10,5
1/252
10,5
1/252
10,5
No./l 1/162
10,5
bar
1/162
10,5
1/147
10,5
1/278
10,5
1/278
10,5
1/314
10,5
1/314
10,5
1/314
10,5
kg
kg
mm
mm
mm
3866
4192
3945
1400
2137
4071
4424
3945
1400
2137
5575
6148
3945
1490
2137
5575
6148
3945
1490
2137
5945
6554
3945
1650
2137
6108
6674
3945
1650
2137
6108
6674
3945
1650
2137
kW
kW
No.
No.
%
kg
l
3677
3977
3945
1400
2137
Note: (1) Nominal cooling capacity and power input are based on: 12/7 °C entering/leaving evaporator water temperature;
30/35 °C entering/leaving condenser water temperature.
Electrical data PFS (SE,XE)
PFS unit size
Standard Voltage (1)
Max current compressor 1
Max current compressor 2
Max unit current
Max inrush current star/delta (2)
106.1
A
A
A
A
230
230
572
127.1
273
273
572
157.1
209.2
230.2
251.2
400 V – 3Ph – 50 Hz
320
230
230
273
230
273
273
320
460
503
546
572
802
845
845
282.2
314.2
273
320
593
892
320
320
640
892
Note: (1) Allowed voltage tolerance ± 10%. Voltage unbalance between phases must be within ± 3%.
(2) Absorbed current of compressor n°1at full load+inrush current of compressor n°2.
803 C – 01/05 A – pag. 9/17
803 C – 01/05 A – pag. 10/17
Screw compressors
The newest StargateTM single-screw compressor has a well balanced compression mechanism which cancels the
screw rotor load in both the radial and axial directions. Inherent to the basic single-screw compressor design is the
virtually load-free operation, that gives main bearing design life of 3-4 times greater than twin-screws, and
eliminates expensive and complicated thrust balancing schemes. The two exactly opposed gaterotors create two
exactly opposed compression cycles. Compression is made at the lower and upper parts of the screw rotor at the
same time, thus cancelling the radial loads. Also, both ends of the screw rotor are subjected to suction pressure
only, which cancels the axial loads and eliminates the huge thrust loads inherent in twin-screw compressors.
Oil injection is used for these compressors in order to get high COP at high condensing pressure. PFS units are
provided with an high efficiency oil separator to maximise oil extraction.
Compressors have a infinitely variable capacity control down to 25% of its total capacity. This control is made by
means of capacity slides controlled by microprocessors.
Standard start is star-delta type; Soft start type is available (as option) in order to have lower inrush current.
Standard controls
High pressure control
The high pressure switch will shut-down the compressor when the discharge pressure exceeds the setting point
value.
Warning: during testing, stand by the emergency stop switch on control panel, to shut the unit down should the
safety control malfunction. Be sure that the installed gauge is accurately adjusted.
Phase/voltage monitor
The phase/voltage monitor is a device which provides protection against three-phase electrical motor loss due to
power failure conditions, phase loss, and phase reversal. Whenever any of these conditions occur, a contact
opens to the microprocessor which then de-energizes all inputs. When proper power is restored, contacts close
and microprocessor enables compressors for operation. When three-phase power has been applied, the output
relay should close and the "run light" should come on. If the output relay does not close, perform the following
tests:
1. Check the voltages between L1-L2, L1-L3 and L2-L3 (L1, L2, L3 are the three phases). These voltages should
be approximately equal and within + 10% of the rated three-phase line-to-line voltage.
2. If these voltages are extremely low or widely unbalanced check the power system to determine the cause of the
problem.
3. If the voltages are good, using a phase tester, verify that phases are in A, B, C sequence for L1, L2 and L3.
Correct rotation is required for compressor operation. If required to do so by phase sequence, turn off the
power and interchange any two of the supply power leads at the disconnect. This may be necessary as the
phase voltage monitor is sensitive to phase reversal. Turn on the power. The output relay should now close
after the appropriate delay.
System Maintenance
General
To ensure proper operation at peak capacity and to avoid damage to package components, a program of periodic
inspections should be set up and followed. The following items are intended as a guide and are to be used during
inspection and must be combined with sound refrigeration and electrical practicies to ensure trouble-free
performance. The liquid line sightglass indicator on all circuits must be checked to be sure the glass is full and
clear. If the indicator shows that a wet condition exists or if bubbles show in the glass, even with a full refrigerant
charge, the filter-drier element must be changed.
803 C – 01/05 A – pag. 11/17
Compressor maintenance
The screw Frame 4 compressor does not required frequent maintenance. However, vibration is an excellent check
for proper mechanical operation. Compressor vibration is an indicator of the requirement for maintenance and
contributes to a decrease in unit performance and efficiency. It is recommended that the compressor be checked
with a vibration analyzer at or shortly after start-up and again on an annual basis. When performing the test the
load should be maintained as closely as possible to the load of the original test. The vibration analyzer test
provides a fingerprint of the compressor and when performed routinely can give a warning of impending problems.
The compressor is supplied with a cartridge oil filter. It is a good policy to replace this filter anytime the compressor
is opened for servicing.
Electrical control centre
Warning: Electric shock hazard. Turn off all power before continuing with following service.
Caution: It is necessary to de-energize the complete panel, including crankase heater, before doing any servicing
inside.
Prior to attempting any service on the control centre it is advisable to study the wiring diagram so that you
understand the operation of the water chiller. Electrical components do not require particular maintenance other
than a monthly tightening of cables.
Warning: The warranty becomes void if the wiring is not in accordance with the specification. A blown fuse or
tripped protector indicates a short ground or overload.
Before replacing the fuse or restarting the compressor, the problem must be found and corrected. It is important to
have a qualified control panel electrician service this panel. Unqualified tampering with the controls can cause
serious damage to equipment and void the warranty.
Refrigerant sightglass
The refrigerant sightglasses should be observed periodicaly (a weekly observation should be adequate). A clear
glass of liquid indicates that there is adequate refrigerant charge in the system to insure proper feed through the
expansion valve. Bubbling refrigerant in the sightglass, during stable run conditions, indicates that the system may
be short of refrigerant charge. Refrigerant gas flashing in the sightglass could also indicate an excessive pressure
drop in the liquid line, possibly due to a clogged filter-drier or a restriction eisewhere in the liquid line. If subcooling
is low add charge to clear the sightglass. If subcooling is normal and flashing is visible in the sightglass check the
pressure drop across the filter-drier. An element inside the sightglass indicates the moisture condition
corresponding to a given element color. If the sightglass does not indicate a dry condition after about 3 hours of
operation, the unit should be pumped down and the filter-driers changed.
The following table is a guide to determinate the dry or wet condition of the system:
COLOUR
Green (Sky Blue)
Yellow (Pink)
MEANS
Dry
Wet
Filter-driers
A replacement of the filter-drier is recommended during scheduled service maintenance of the unit, any time
excessive pressure drop is read across the filter-drier and/or when bubbles occur in the sightglass with normal
subcooling. The maximum recommended pressure drop across the filter-drier at 75% to 100% circuit loading is 70
kPa. The maximum recommended pressure drop across the filter-drier at 25% to 50% circuit loading is 35 kPa.
The filter-drier should also be changed if the moisture indicating liquid line sightglass indicates excess moisture by
the wet system color indicators. During the first few months of operation the filter-drier replacement may be
necessary if the pressure drop across the filter-drier exceeds the values listed in the paragraph above. Any
residual particles from the unit heat transfer tubing, compressor and miscellaneous components are swept by the
refrigerant into the liquid line and are caught by the filter-drier.
To change the filter drier, pump the unit down by moving the ON/OFF compressors switches in “off” position.
Move the ON/OFF switch unit Q0 to the “off” position. Turn off all power to the unit and install jumpers across the
terminals.
This jumps out the low pressure control. Close the manual liquid line shutoff valve.
Turn the power of the unit back on and restart the unit by moving the ON/OFF switch unit Q0. The unitwill start
pumping down past the low pressure setting.
803 C – 01/05 A – pag. 12/17
When the evaporator pressure reaches 0,3 bar, move switch Q0 to the “off” position. Remove the jump.
Close the suction line valve. Remove and replace the filter-drier. Evacuate the lines through the liquid line manual
shutoff valve to remove non condensables that may have entered during filter replacement.
Open the suction line valve. A leak check is recommended before returning the unit to operation.
Electronic expansion valve
The PFS water cooled chiller is equipped with the most advanced electronic expansion valve to achieve precise
control of refrigerant mass flow. As today’s system requires improved energy efficiency, tighter temperature
control, wider range of operating conditions and incorporate new features like remote monitoring and diagnostics,
the application of electronic expansion valves becomes mandatory. PFS’s electronic expansion valve proposes
features that makes it unique: short opening and closing time, high resolution, positive shut-off function to
eliminate use of additional solenoid valve, highly linear flow capacity, continous modulation of mass flow without
stress in the refrigerant circuit and corrosion resistance stainless steel body.
Evaporator
Flooded shell-and-tube evaporator operating with refrigerant in shell and water in tubes. Replaceable water tubes
are fabricated from integral finned copper and mechanically bonded to steel tube sheets. Refrigerant side is
ISPESL, TUV or SDM designed, constructed, inspected and stamped. Water side working pressure is designed for
10,5 bar. Vessels include 1” FPT spring loaded pressure relief valves. Shell and non-connection water heads are
insulated with 3/4” thick closed cell insulation.
Condenser
Shell-and-tube type operating with refrigerant in shell and water in tubes. Replaceable water tubes are fabricated
from integral finned copper and mechanically bonded to steel tube sheets. Condenser is designed to conform
ISPESL. Water side working pressure is designed for 10.5 bar.
Lubrificating oils
Besides lubrificating the bearing and other moving parts, the oil has the equally important task of sealing the
clearances between the rotors and other potential leakage paths thereby improving pumping efficiency; the oil also
assists in dissipating the heat of compression. The amount of oil injected is therefore well in excess of that
required for lubrification alone.
Lubricating oil approved for use with McQuay Screw compressor is POE Emkarate RL220H.
The oil differential pressure switch monitors the pressure differential between oil injection pressure and
compressor suction pressure.
After the compressor has started and been in operation for a short time, allowing sufficient time for the system
pressure differential to become established, the oil differential pressure switch is brought into the safety trip circuit.
Oil is now being supplied to the compressor under the action of the system pressure differential, monitored by the
switch. If the pressure differential falls below the switch contacts ‘ break ’ setting and the oil differential pressure
switch trips and stops the compressor.
Because the oil pressure is generated by discharge pressure, a minimum discharge pressure must be maintained;
this minimum pressure increases as the suction pressure increases in order to maintain the pressure difference
required.
Crankcase and oil separator heaters
The function of the heaters is to prevent oil diluition with refrigerant during compressor shutdown, which would
cause foaming and consequent reduction in lubricating oil flow to the moving parts. Electric heaters are energized
every time the compressor shuts-down.
Warning: Verify the heaters have operated for at least 12 hours prior to start-up.
803 C – 01/05 A – pag. 13/17
Preventive maintenance schedule
PERIODICITY
Operation
Ref. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
TYPE OF OPERATION
Reading and recording of suction pressure
Reading and recording of discharge pressure
Reading and recording of supply voltage
Reading and recording of current intensity
Check refrigerant charge and possible moisture in the
circuit refrigerant through the liquid sight glass
Check the suction temperature and the superheating
Check setting and operation of safety devices
Check setting and proper operation of control devices
Weekly
Monthly
SixMonthly
Yearly
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Inspect the condenser for possible scaling or studging
x
Refrigerant
Refrigerant charging
PFS water cooled screw chillers are shipped factory charged with a full operating charge of refrigerant but there
may be times that a unit must be recharged at the jobsite. Follow these recommendations when field charging.
PFS water cooled screw chillers are more sensitive to under-charging than to overcharging therefore it is
preferable to be slightly overcharged rather than undercharged on a circuit. The optimum charge is the charge
which allows the unit to run with a solid stream of liquid in the liquid line at all operating conditions. When the liquid
line temperature does not drop with the addition of 2,2-4,5 Kg of charge then the subcooler is nearly full and
proper charge has been reached. If the liquid line temperature does not drop and the discharge pressure goes up
20,7-34,5 kPa as 2,2-4,5 Kg of refrigerant is added the correct maximum charge has been reached. Unit charging
can be done at any steady load condition, at any outdoor ambient temperature. Unit must be allowed to run 5
minutes or longer so that the condenser fan staging is stabilized at normal operating discharge pressure.
In case moisture is noticed in the system, through the moisture indicator, the system must be evacuated to
eliminate cause of trouble. After the evacuation, the system must be dried reducing it to an almost perfect vacuum.
For this purpose, a displacement vacuum pump should be used.
Any moisture and air left in the system will be absorbed by the dry nitrogen used to break the vacuum, and they
will be almost completely removed by the three evacuations.
If burnt oil or sludge are found in the refrigerant circuit (caused by the compressor motor burn-out), before the
vacuum operation it will be necessary to carefully clean the system using the filter dryer cleaneout method; which
basically involves the use of special filter dryers incorporating a suitable desiccant in both the liquid and suction
lines.
Excessive refrigerant losses can also leak oil from the system. Check the separator oil level during operation and
ensure that oil is visible in the top sightglass.
1. If the unit is slightly undercharged the unit will show bubbles in the sightglass. Recharge the unit.
2. If the unit is moderately undercharged the unit will most likely trip on freeze protection. Recharge the unit as
described in the charging procedure below.
Procedure to charge a moderately undercharged PFS unit
1. If a unit is low on refrigerant you must first determine the cause before attempting to recharge the unit. Locate
and repair any refrigerant leak. Evidence of oil is a good indicator of leakage however, oil may not be visible at
all leaks. Liquid leak detector fluids work well to show bubbles at medium size leaks but electronic leak detector
may be needed to locate small leaks.
2. Add the charge to the system through the schrader fitting on the tube entering the evaporator between the
expansion valve and the evaporator head.
3. The charge can be added at any load condition.
803 C – 01/05 A – pag. 14/17
Charging the refrigerant
1. Connect the refrigerant bottle with a filling pipe to the filling valveon the evaporator head. Before firmly
tightening the refrigerant botlle valve, open it and force the air out from the filling pipe. Tighten the charcing
valve connection.
2. When the refrigerant stops to enter the system, start the compressor and complete the refrigerant charge.
3. When the exact quantity of refrigerant has been predetermined, check the liquid sight glass.
If you do not know how much refrigerant has to be added, shut off the bottle valve every 5 minutes and continue to
charge the refrigerant until the sight glass is clear and free from bubbles.
Note: Do not discharge the refrigerant into the atmosphere. To recover it, use empty, clean and dry bottles. The
liquid refrigerant recovery can be made through the valve provided on the condenser coil subcooler outlet. To
facilitate the recovery of refrigerant, put the bottle inside a container full of ice; avoid excessive filling of the bottle
(70÷80% max).
Start-up and shut-down
Pre-Start-up
1. Open all electrical disconnects and check electrical connections are tight.
2. Verify water piping flow directions are correct and properly connected at the evaporator and condenser.
3. Using a phase tester, verify electrical phasing is A-B-C clockwise (A=L1, B=L2,C=L3).
4. Verify unit power supply is within 10% of nameplate rating.
5. Verify power supply wiring is the correct size and has a minimum temperature insulation rating of 75°C.
6. Verify all mechanical and electrical inspections have been completed according to local code.
7. Make certain all auxilliary control equipment is operative and an adequate cooling load is available.
8. Check all compressor valve connections for tightness.
9. Open compressor suction valve until backseated.
10. Open discharge shutoff valve until backseated.
11. Vent air from the evaporator and condenser water system piping.
12. Open all water flow valves and start chilled water pump.
13. Check all piping for leaks.
14. Flush the evaporator and condenser system piping.
Initial Start-up
Initial Start-up must be performed by McQuayService personnel.
1. Set up control as described in Initial Conditions.
2. Turn front panel switch to Auto position. (chilled water flow pump relay will energize.)
3. If the field installed flow indicator does not indicated chilled water flow after 30 seconds, then the alarm
output will be energized.
Note: The unit starts the compressor with the least starts and run hours while in auto lead lag setting
4. When the Active Setpoint is 3 °C lower than the actual leaving water temperature, the chiller starts.
5. When the chiller starts the following occurs:
• Crank case heaters de-energize
• Compressor starts
• Motor cooling solenoid is energized
6. Suction injection will turn off when the following conditions have been met:
• Discharge superheat drops below 3 °C
• Liquid Presence sensor shows liquid
803 C – 01/05 A – pag. 15/17
In warranty return material procedure
Material may not be returned except by permission of McQuayService department. A "Return Goods" tag will be
included with the returned material. This tag will all informations required to expedite handling at our factory.
Return of the parts does not constitute an order for replacement. Therefore, a purchase order must be entered
through our nearest Sales Representative. The order should include part name, part number, model number and
serial number of the unit involved. Following our per sonal inspection of the returned part, if it is determined that
the failure is due to faulty material or workmanship, credit will be issued on the customer's purchase order. All
parts shall be returned to McQuay factory, transportation charges prepaid.
Service & replacement parts
Always quote the model number, confirmation number and the machine's serial number stamped on the plaque
attached to the machine itself, whenever ordering maintenance service or replacement parts.
If replacement parts are being ordered, state the date the machine was installed and the date the breakdown
occurred. For an exact definition of the replacement part requested, make reference to the relative code number
or, failing that, attach a description of the part being requested.
803 C – 01/05 A – pag. 16/17
We reserve the right to make changes in design and construction at any time without notice, thus the cover picture is not binding.
McQuay Italia S.P.A.
S.S. Nettunense, km 12+300 – 00040 Cecchina (Roma) Italia – Tel. (06) 937311 – Fax (06) 9374014 – E-mail: mcquay.italia @pcg.telpress. it.