ZyXEL Communications P-660HW-DX User`s guide

P-660HW-Tx v3
802.11g Wireless ADSL2+ 4-port Gateway
Default Login Details
IP Address
Admin
Password
http://
192.168.1.254
broadband1
Firmware Version 3.70
Edition 3, 11/2009
www.zyxel.com
www.zyxel.com
Copyright © 2009
ZyXEL Communications Corporation
About This User's Guide
About This User's Guide
Intended Audience
This manual is intended for people who want to configure the ZyXEL Device using
the web configurator. You should have at least a basic knowledge of TCP/IP
networking concepts and topology.
Related Documentation
• Quick Start Guide
The Quick Start Guide is designed to help you get up and running right away. It
contains information on setting up your network and configuring for Internet
access.
• Web Configurator Online Help
Embedded web help for descriptions of individual screens and supplementary
information.
Note: It is recommended you use the web configurator to configure the ZyXEL
Device.
• Support Disc
Refer to the included CD for support documents.
• ZyXEL Web Site
Please refer to www.zyxel.com for additional support documentation and
product certifications.
Documentation Feedback
Send your comments, questions or suggestions to: techwriters@zyxel.com.tw
Thank you!
The Technical Writing Team, ZyXEL Communications Corp.,
6 Innovation Road II, Science-Based Industrial Park, Hsinchu, 30099, Taiwan.
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
3
About This User's Guide
Need More Help?
More help is available at www.zyxel.com.
• Download Library
Search for the latest product updates and documentation from this link. Read
the Tech Doc Overview to find out how to efficiently use the User Guide, Quick
Start Guide and Command Line Interface Reference Guide in order to better
understand how to use your product.
• Knowledge Base
If you have a specific question about your product, the answer may be here.
This is a collection of answers to previously asked questions about ZyXEL
products.
• Forum
This contains discussions on ZyXEL products. Learn from others who use ZyXEL
products and share your experiences as well.
Customer Support
In the event of problems that cannot be solved by using this manual, you should
contact your vendor. If you cannot contact your vendor, then contact a ZyXEL
office for the region in which you bought the device. See http://www.zyxel.com/
web/contact_us.php for contact information. Please have the following information
ready when you contact an office.
• Product model and serial number.
• Warranty Information.
• Date that you received your device.
• Brief description of the problem and the steps you took to solve it.
Disclaimer
Graphics in this book may differ slightly from the product due to differences in
operating systems, operating system versions, or if you installed updated
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P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
About This User's Guide
firmware/software for your device. Every effort has been made to ensure that the
information in this manual is accurate.
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
5
Document Conventions
Document Conventions
Warnings and Notes
These are how warnings and notes are shown in this User’s Guide.
Warnings tell you about things that could harm you or your device.
Note: Notes tell you other important information (for example, other things you may
need to configure or helpful tips) or recommendations.
Syntax Conventions
• The P-660HW-Tx v3 may be referred to as the “ZyXEL Device”, the “device”, the
“system” or the “product” in this User’s Guide.
• Product labels, screen names, field labels and field choices are all in bold font.
• A key stroke is denoted by square brackets and uppercase text, for example,
[ENTER] means the “enter” or “return” key on your keyboard.
• “Enter” means for you to type one or more characters and then press the
[ENTER] key. “Select” or “choose” means for you to use one of the predefined
choices.
• A right angle bracket ( > ) within a screen name denotes a mouse click. For
example, Maintenance > Log > Log Setting means you first click
Maintenance in the navigation panel, then the Log sub menu and finally the
Log Setting tab to get to that screen.
• Units of measurement may denote the “metric” value or the “scientific” value.
For example, “k” for kilo may denote “1000” or “1024”, “M” for mega may
denote “1000000” or “1048576” and so on.
• “e.g.,” is a shorthand for “for instance”, and “i.e.,” means “that is” or “in other
words”.
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P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
Document Conventions
Icons Used in Figures
Figures in this User’s Guide may use the following generic icons. The ZyXEL Device
icon is not an exact representation of your device.
ZyXEL Device
Computer
Notebook computer
Server
Firewall
Telephone
Router
Switch
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
7
Safety Warnings
Safety Warnings
• Do NOT use this product near water, for example, in a wet basement or near a swimming
pool.
• Do NOT expose your device to dampness, dust or corrosive liquids.
• Do NOT store things on the device.
• Do NOT install, use, or service this device during a thunderstorm. There is a remote risk
of electric shock from lightning.
• Connect ONLY suitable accessories to the device.
• Do NOT open the device or unit. Opening or removing covers can expose you to
dangerous high voltage points or other risks. ONLY qualified service personnel should
service or disassemble this device. Please contact your vendor for further information.
• Make sure to connect the cables to the correct ports.
• Place connecting cables carefully so that no one will step on them or stumble over them.
• Always disconnect all cables from this device before servicing or disassembling.
• Use ONLY an appropriate power adaptor or cord for your device.
• Connect the power adaptor or cord to the right supply voltage (for example, 110V AC in
North America or 230V AC in Europe).
• Do NOT allow anything to rest on the power adaptor or cord and do NOT place the
product where anyone can walk on the power adaptor or cord.
• Do NOT use the device if the power adaptor or cord is damaged as it might cause
electrocution.
• If the power adaptor or cord is damaged, remove it from the device and the power
source.
• Do NOT attempt to repair the power adaptor or cord. Contact your local vendor to order a
new one.
• Do not use the device outside, and make sure all the connections are indoors. There is a
remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
• Do NOT obstruct the device ventilation slots, as insufficient airflow may harm your
device.
• Use only No. 26 AWG (American Wire Gauge) or larger telecommunication line cord.
• Antenna Warning! This device meets ETSI and FCC certification requirements when using
the included antenna(s). Only use the included antenna(s).
Your product is marked with this symbol, which is known as the WEEE mark. WEEE
stands for Waste Electronics and Electrical Equipment. It means that used electrical
and electronic products should not be mixed with general waste. Used electrical and
electronic equipment should be treated separately.
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P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
Contents Overview
Contents Overview
Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 11
Introducing the ZyXEL Device ................................................................................................... 23
Introducing the Web Configurator .............................................................................................. 31
Status Screens .......................................................................................................................... 37
Tutorials ..................................................................................................................................... 47
Network ................................................................................................................................... 85
Internet (WAN) Setup ................................................................................................................ 87
Local Network (LAN) Setup ......................................................................................................111
Wireless LAN ........................................................................................................................... 129
Network Address Translation (NAT) ........................................................................................ 163
Security ................................................................................................................................. 179
Firewalls .................................................................................................................................. 181
Content Filtering ...................................................................................................................... 205
Packet Filter ..............................................................................................................................211
Certificates ............................................................................................................................... 223
Advanced .............................................................................................................................. 231
WAN IP Passthrough ............................................................................................................... 233
Static Route ............................................................................................................................. 239
VLANs ..................................................................................................................................... 243
Quality of Service (QoS) .......................................................................................................... 253
Dynamic DNS Setup ................................................................................................................ 275
Remote Management .............................................................................................................. 279
Universal Plug-and-Play (UPnP) ............................................................................................. 289
Maintenance ......................................................................................................................... 301
System Settings ....................................................................................................................... 303
Logs ......................................................................................................................................... 309
Update/Reboot ........................................................................................................................ 323
Diagnostic ................................................................................................................................ 337
Statistics .................................................................................................................................. 339
Troubleshooting and Specifications .................................................................................. 343
Troubleshooting ....................................................................................................................... 345
Product Specifications ............................................................................................................. 351
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
9
Contents Overview
Appendices and Index ......................................................................................................... 359
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P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
P ART I
Introduction
Introducing the ZyXEL Device (23)
Introducing the Web Configurator (31)
Status Screens (37)
Tutorials (47)
11
12
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
About This User's Guide .......................................................................................................... 3
Document Conventions............................................................................................................ 6
Safety Warnings........................................................................................................................ 8
Contents Overview ................................................................................................................... 9
Part I: Introduction..................................................................................11
Table of Contents.................................................................................................................... 13
Chapter 1
Introducing the ZyXEL Device ............................................................................................... 23
1.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 23
1.2 Ways to Manage the ZyXEL Device .................................................................................... 23
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the ZyXEL Device ..................................................................... 24
1.4 Applications for the ZyXEL Device ...................................................................................... 24
1.4.1 Internet Access .......................................................................................................... 24
1.5 LEDs (Lights) ....................................................................................................................... 26
1.6 The RESET Button .............................................................................................................. 27
1.6.1 Using the RESET Button ............................................................................................ 27
1.7 The WIFI button ................................................................................................................... 27
1.7.1 Turn the Wireless LAN Off or On ............................................................................... 28
1.7.2 Activate WPS ............................................................................................................. 28
Chapter 2
Introducing the Web Configurator ........................................................................................ 31
2.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 31
2.1.1 Accessing the Web Configurator ................................................................................ 31
2.2 Web Configurator Main Screen ........................................................................................... 33
2.2.1 Title Bar ...................................................................................................................... 33
2.2.2 Navigation Panel ........................................................................................................ 34
2.2.3 Main Window .............................................................................................................. 36
2.2.4 Status Bar ................................................................................................................... 36
Chapter 3
Status Screens ........................................................................................................................ 37
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3.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 37
3.2 The Status Screen ............................................................................................................... 38
3.2.1 Reset to Factory Defaults ........................................................................................... 40
3.2.2 Setting Up Remote Management for HTTP and Telnet .............................................. 41
3.3 DHCP Client List .................................................................................................................. 43
3.4 Wireless Clients ................................................................................................................... 43
3.5 Any IP Table ....................................................................................................................... 44
3.6 Packet Statistics .................................................................................................................. 45
Chapter 4
Tutorials ................................................................................................................................... 47
4.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 47
4.2 Setting Up a Secure Wireless Network ............................................................................... 47
4.2.1 Configuring the Wireless Network Settings ................................................................ 48
4.2.2 Using WPS ................................................................................................................. 49
4.2.3 Without WPS .............................................................................................................. 54
4.2.4 Setting Up Wireless Network Scheduling ................................................................... 54
4.3 Setting Up Multiple Wireless Groups ................................................................................... 55
4.4 Configuring the MAC Address Filter .................................................................................... 59
4.5 Access the ZyXEL Device Using DDNS .............................................................................. 61
4.5.1 Registering a DDNS Account on www.dyndns.org .................................................... 61
4.5.2 Configuring DDNS on Your ZyXEL Device ................................................................. 62
4.5.3 Adding a Firewall Rule for Remote Management ...................................................... 62
4.5.4 Testing the DDNS Setting .......................................................................................... 64
4.6 Configuring Static Route for Routing to Another Network ................................................... 65
4.7 Multiple Public and Private IP Address Mappings ............................................................... 67
4.7.1 Full Feature NAT + Many-to-Many No Overload Mapping ......................................... 68
4.7.2 Full Feature NAT + One-to-One Mapping .................................................................. 70
4.8 ATM QoS and QoS Overview .............................................................................................. 71
4.8.1 Two PVCs with ATM QoS Scenario ........................................................................... 71
4.8.2 Configuring QoS ......................................................................................................... 76
4.9 Setting Up NAT Port Forwarding ......................................................................................... 82
Part II: Network....................................................................................... 85
Chapter 5
Internet (WAN) Setup .............................................................................................................. 87
5.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 87
5.1.1 What You Can Do in the WAN Screens ..................................................................... 87
5.1.2 What You Need to Know About WAN ........................................................................ 87
5.1.3 Before You Begin ....................................................................................................... 88
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5.2 The Internet Access Setup Screen ...................................................................................... 89
5.2.1 Advanced Internet Access Setup ............................................................................... 92
5.3 The More Connections Screen ............................................................................................ 95
5.3.1 More Connections Edit ............................................................................................... 96
5.3.2 Configuring More Connections Advanced Setup ....................................................... 99
5.4 The WAN Backup Setup Screen ...................................................................................... 101
5.5 WAN Technical Reference ................................................................................................. 103
5.5.1 Encapsulation ........................................................................................................... 103
5.5.2 Multiplexing .............................................................................................................. 104
5.5.3 VPI and VCI ............................................................................................................. 105
5.5.4 IP Address Assignment ............................................................................................ 105
5.5.5 Nailed-Up Connection (PPP) .................................................................................. 105
5.5.6 NAT .......................................................................................................................... 106
5.6 Metric ................................................................................................................................ 106
5.7 Traffic Shaping ................................................................................................................... 106
5.7.1 ATM Traffic Classes ................................................................................................. 107
5.8 Zero Configuration Internet Access ................................................................................... 108
5.9 Traffic Redirect .................................................................................................................. 109
Chapter 6
Local Network (LAN) Setup.................................................................................................. 111
6.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................111
6.1.1 What You Can Do in the LAN Screens ......................................................................111
6.1.2 What You Need To Know About LAN ........................................................................112
6.1.3 Before You Begin ......................................................................................................113
6.2 The LAN IP Screen .............................................................................................................113
6.2.1 The Advanced LAN IP Setup Screen ........................................................................114
6.3 The DHCP Setup Screen ...................................................................................................116
6.4 The Client List Screen ........................................................................................................118
6.5 The IP Alias Screen ............................................................................................................119
6.5.1 Configuring the LAN IP Alias Screen ....................................................................... 120
6.6 LAN Technical Reference .................................................................................................. 121
6.6.1 LANs, WANs and the ZyXEL Device ........................................................................ 121
6.6.2 DHCP Setup ............................................................................................................. 122
6.6.3 DNS Server Addresses ............................................................................................ 122
6.6.4 LAN TCP/IP .............................................................................................................. 123
6.6.5 RIP Setup ................................................................................................................. 124
6.6.6 Multicast ................................................................................................................... 124
6.6.7 Any IP ....................................................................................................................... 125
Chapter 7
Wireless LAN......................................................................................................................... 129
7.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................ 129
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Table of Contents
7.1.1 What You Can Do in the Wireless LAN Screens ...................................................... 129
7.1.2 What You Need to Know About Wireless ................................................................. 130
7.1.3 Before You Start ....................................................................................................... 130
7.2 The AP Screen .................................................................................................................. 131
7.2.1 No Security ............................................................................................................... 133
7.2.2 WEP Encryption ....................................................................................................... 134
7.2.3 WPA(2)-PSK ............................................................................................................ 135
7.2.4 WPA(2) Authentication ............................................................................................. 136
7.2.5 Wireless LAN Advanced Setup ................................................................................ 138
7.2.6 MAC Filter ................................................................................................................ 139
7.3 The More AP Screen ......................................................................................................... 140
7.3.1 More AP Edit ............................................................................................................ 141
7.4 The WPS Screen ............................................................................................................... 143
7.5 The WPS Station Screen ................................................................................................... 144
7.6 The WDS Screen ............................................................................................................... 145
7.7 The Scheduling Screen ..................................................................................................... 147
7.8 Wireless LAN Technical Reference ................................................................................... 147
7.8.1 Wireless Network Overview ..................................................................................... 148
7.8.2 Additional Wireless Terms ........................................................................................ 149
7.8.3 Wireless Security Overview ..................................................................................... 150
7.8.4 Signal Problems ....................................................................................................... 153
7.8.5 BSS .......................................................................................................................... 153
7.8.6 MBSSID ................................................................................................................... 154
7.8.7 Wireless Distribution System (WDS) ........................................................................ 155
7.8.8 WiFi Protected Setup (WPS) .................................................................................... 155
Chapter 8
Network Address Translation (NAT).................................................................................... 163
8.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................ 163
8.1.1 What You Can Do in the NAT Screens ..................................................................... 163
8.1.2 What You Need To Know About NAT ....................................................................... 163
8.2 The NAT General Setup Screen ........................................................................................ 165
8.3 The Port Forwarding Screen ............................................................................................. 166
8.3.1 Configuring the Port Forwarding Screen .................................................................. 167
8.3.2 The Port Forwarding Rule Edit Screen .................................................................... 169
8.4 The Address Mapping Screen ........................................................................................... 169
8.4.1 The Address Mapping Rule Edit Screen .................................................................. 171
8.5 The ALG Screen ................................................................................................................ 173
8.6 NAT Technical Reference .................................................................................................. 173
8.6.1 NAT Definitions ........................................................................................................ 173
8.6.2 What NAT Does ....................................................................................................... 174
8.6.3 How NAT Works ....................................................................................................... 175
8.6.4 NAT Application ........................................................................................................ 176
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Table of Contents
8.6.5 NAT Mapping Types ................................................................................................. 176
Part III: Security.................................................................................... 179
Chapter 9
Firewalls................................................................................................................................. 181
9.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................ 181
9.1.1 What You Can Do in the Firewall Screens ............................................................... 181
9.1.2 What You Need to Know About Firewall .................................................................. 182
9.1.3 Firewall Rule for WAN Telnet Connection Example ................................................. 182
9.2 The Firewall General Screen ............................................................................................ 186
9.2.1 Firewall Rules Overview ........................................................................................... 186
9.3 The Firewall Rule Screen .................................................................................................. 189
9.3.1 Configuring Firewall Rules ...................................................................................... 191
9.3.2 Customized Services .............................................................................................. 193
9.3.3 Configuring a Customized Service ......................................................................... 194
9.3.4 Firewall Rule Using a Customized Service Example ............................................... 194
9.4 The Firewall Threshold Screen .......................................................................................... 197
9.4.1 Threshold Values ..................................................................................................... 198
9.4.2 Configuring Firewall Thresholds ............................................................................... 198
9.5 Firewall Technical Reference ............................................................................................. 200
9.5.1 Guidelines For Enhancing Security With Your Firewall ............................................ 200
9.5.2 Security Considerations ........................................................................................... 201
9.5.3 Triangle Route .......................................................................................................... 201
Chapter 10
Content Filtering ................................................................................................................... 205
10.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................... 205
10.1.1 What You Can Do in the Content Filter Screens .................................................... 205
10.1.2 What You Need to Know About Content Filtering .................................................. 205
10.1.3 Before You Begin ................................................................................................... 205
10.1.4 Content Filtering Example ...................................................................................... 206
10.2 The Keyword Screen ...................................................................................................... 208
10.3 The Schedule Screen ..................................................................................................... 209
10.4 The Trusted Screen ........................................................................................................ 210
Chapter 11
Packet Filter........................................................................................................................... 211
11.1 Overview ...........................................................................................................................211
11.1.1 What You Can Do in the Packet Filter Screen .........................................................211
11.1.2 What You Need to Know About the Packet Filter ....................................................211
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Table of Contents
11.2 The Packet Filter Screen ................................................................................................. 212
11.2.1 Reset to Factory Defaults ....................................................................................... 212
11.2.2 Editing Protocol Filters ........................................................................................... 213
11.2.3 Configuring Protocol Filter Rules ........................................................................... 214
11.2.4 Editing Generic Filters ............................................................................................ 216
11.2.5 Configuring Generic Packet Rules ......................................................................... 217
11.3 Packet Filter Technical Reference ................................................................................... 219
11.3.1 Filter Types and NAT .............................................................................................. 219
11.3.2 Firewall Versus Filters ............................................................................................ 219
Chapter 12
Certificates ............................................................................................................................ 223
12.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................... 223
12.1.1 What You Can Do in the Certificates Screens ........................................................ 223
12.1.2 What You Need to Know About Certificates ........................................................... 223
12.2 The Trusted CAs Screen ................................................................................................. 224
12.2.1 Trusted CA Import ................................................................................................. 226
12.2.2 Trusted CA Details ................................................................................................. 227
12.3 Certificates Technical Reference ..................................................................................... 229
12.3.1 Certificates Overview ............................................................................................. 229
12.3.2 Private-Public Certificates ...................................................................................... 229
Part IV: Advanced ................................................................................ 231
Chapter 13
WAN IP Passthrough ............................................................................................................ 233
13.1 The WAN IP Passthrough Screen ................................................................................... 233
13.1.1 What You Need to Know About IP Passthrough .................................................... 234
Chapter 14
Static Route ........................................................................................................................... 239
14.1 Overview ......................................................................................................................... 239
14.1.1 What You Can Do in the Static Route Screens ...................................................... 239
14.2 The Static Route Screen .................................................................................................. 240
14.2.1 Static Route Edit ................................................................................................... 241
Chapter 15
VLANs .................................................................................................................................... 243
15.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 243
15.1.1 What You Can Do in the VLANs Screens .............................................................. 243
15.1.2 What You Need to Know About VLANs .................................................................. 243
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15.1.3 VLANs Example ..................................................................................................... 245
15.2 The VLANs Group Setting Screen ................................................................................... 249
15.2.1 Editing VLANs Group Setting ................................................................................. 250
15.3 The VLANs Port Setting Screen ...................................................................................... 252
Chapter 16
Quality of Service (QoS)....................................................................................................... 253
16.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 253
16.2 QoS Overview ................................................................................................................. 254
16.2.1 What You Can Do in the QoS Screens .................................................................. 254
16.2.2 What You Need to Know About QoS ..................................................................... 255
16.2.3 QoS Class Setup Example ..................................................................................... 255
16.3 The QoS General Screen ............................................................................................... 259
16.4 The Class Setup Screen ................................................................................................. 260
16.4.1 The Class Configuration Screen ........................................................................... 261
16.5 Traffic Shaping ................................................................................................................. 265
16.6 Token Bucket ................................................................................................................... 265
16.7 Token Bucket Example .................................................................................................... 266
16.7.1 The Queue Setup Screen ..................................................................................... 267
16.7.2 The Queue Configuration Screen
........................................................................ 268
16.7.3 The QoS Monitor Screen ...................................................................................... 269
16.8 QoS Technical Reference ................................................................................................ 270
16.8.1 IEEE 802.1Q Tag ................................................................................................... 270
16.8.2 IP Precedence ........................................................................................................ 271
16.8.3 DiffServ ................................................................................................................. 271
16.8.4 Automatic Priority Queue Assignment ................................................................... 272
Chapter 17
Dynamic DNS Setup ............................................................................................................. 275
17.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 275
17.1.1 What You Can Do in the DDNS Screen ................................................................. 275
17.1.2 What You Need To Know About DDNS .................................................................. 275
17.2 The Dynamic DNS Screen .............................................................................................. 276
Chapter 18
Remote Management............................................................................................................ 279
18.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 279
18.1.1 What You Can Do in the Remote Management Screens ....................................... 280
18.1.2 What You Need to Know About Remote Management .......................................... 280
18.2 The WWW Screen ........................................................................................................... 281
18.2.1 Configuring the WWW Screen ............................................................................... 283
18.3 The Telnet Screen ........................................................................................................... 284
18.4 The FTP Screen .............................................................................................................. 285
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Table of Contents
18.5 The DNS Screen ............................................................................................................ 286
18.6 The ICMP Screen ............................................................................................................ 287
Chapter 19
Universal Plug-and-Play (UPnP).......................................................................................... 289
19.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 289
19.1.1 What You Can Do in the UPnP Screen .................................................................. 289
19.1.2 What You Need to Know About UPnP ................................................................... 289
19.2 The UPnP Screen ............................................................................................................ 291
19.3 Installing UPnP in Windows Example .............................................................................. 292
19.4 Using UPnP in Windows XP Example ............................................................................. 295
Part V: Maintenance............................................................................. 301
Chapter 20
System Settings .................................................................................................................... 303
20.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 303
20.1.1 What You Can Do in the System Settings Screens ................................................ 303
20.1.2 What You Need to Know About System Settings ................................................... 303
20.2 The General Screen ........................................................................................................ 304
20.3 The Time Setting Screen ................................................................................................ 306
Chapter 21
Logs ....................................................................................................................................... 309
21.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 309
21.1.1 What You Can Do in the Log Screens .................................................................... 309
21.1.2 What You Need To Know About Logs .................................................................... 309
21.2 The View Log Screen ...................................................................................................... 310
21.3 The Log Settings Screen ..................................................................................................311
21.4 SMTP Error Messages .................................................................................................... 314
21.4.1 Example E-mail Log ............................................................................................... 314
21.5 Log Descriptions .............................................................................................................. 315
Chapter 22
Update/Reboot ...................................................................................................................... 323
22.1 Overview .......................................................................................................................... 323
22.1.1 What You Can Do in the Update/Reboot Screens ................................................. 323
22.1.2 What You Need To Know About Update/Reboot .................................................... 324
22.1.3 Before You Begin ................................................................................................... 325
22.1.4 Tool Examples ........................................................................................................ 325
22.2 The Firmware Screen ...................................................................................................... 331
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Table of Contents
22.3 The Configuration Screen ................................................................................................ 333
22.4 The Restart Screen ......................................................................................................... 336
Chapter 23
Diagnostic.............................................................................................................................. 337
23.1 The Diagnostic General Screen ..................................................................................... 337
Chapter 24
Statistics ................................................................................................................................ 339
24.1 The Statistics General Screen ......................................................................................... 339
24.1.1 Terms ..................................................................................................................... 340
Part VI: Troubleshooting and Specifications .................................... 343
Chapter 25
Troubleshooting.................................................................................................................... 345
25.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs ...................................................................... 345
25.2 ZyXEL Device Access and Login .................................................................................... 346
25.3 Internet Access ................................................................................................................ 348
25.4 Network Connections ...................................................................................................... 349
Chapter 26
Product Specifications ......................................................................................................... 351
26.1 Hardware Specifications .................................................................................................. 351
26.2 Firmware Specifications ................................................................................................... 351
26.3 Wireless Features ............................................................................................................ 355
26.4 Power Adaptor Specifications .......................................................................................... 358
Part VII: Appendices and Index .......................................................... 359
Appendix A Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address............................................................ 361
Appendix B Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions ...................................... 385
Appendix C IP Addresses and Subnetting ........................................................................... 395
Appendix D Wireless LANs .................................................................................................. 405
Appendix E Services ............................................................................................................ 421
Appendix F Legal Information .............................................................................................. 425
Index....................................................................................................................................... 429
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P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
CHAPTER
1
Introducing the ZyXEL Device
This chapter introduces the main applications and features of the ZyXEL Device. It
also introduces the ways you can manage the ZyXEL Device.
1.1 Overview
The P-660HW-Tx v3 is an ADSL2+ router. By integrating DSL and NAT, you are
provided with ease of installation and high-speed, shared Internet access. The P660HW-Tx v3 is also a complete security solution with a robust firewall and
content filtering.
Please refer to the following description of the product name format.
• “H” denotes an integrated 4-port hub (switch).
• Models ending in “1”, for example P-660HW-T1, denote a device that works over
the analog telephone system, POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service). Models
ending in “3” denote a device that works over ISDN (Integrated Services Digital
Network) or T-ISDN (UR-2).
Only use firmware for your ZyXEL Device’s specific model. Refer
to the label on the bottom of your ZyXEL Device.
Note: All screens displayed in this user’s guide are from the P-660HW-T1 v3 model.
See the product specifications for a full list of features.
1.2 Ways to Manage the ZyXEL Device
Use any of the following methods to manage the ZyXEL Device.
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23
Chapter 1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device
• Web Configurator. This is recommended for everyday management of the ZyXEL
Device using a (supported) web browser.
• Command Line Interface. Line commands are mostly used for troubleshooting
by service engineers.
• FTP for firmware upgrades and configuration backup/restore.
• TR-069. This is an auto-configuration server used to remotely configure your
device.
1.3 Good Habits for Managing the ZyXEL Device
Do the following things regularly to make the ZyXEL Device more secure and to
manage the ZyXEL Device more effectively.
• Change the password. Use a password that’s not easy to guess and that consists
of different types of characters, such as numbers and letters.
• Write down the password and put it in a safe place.
• Back up the configuration (and make sure you know how to restore it).
Restoring an earlier working configuration may be useful if the device becomes
unstable or even crashes. If you forget your password, you will have to reset the
ZyXEL Device to its factory default settings. If you backed up an earlier
configuration file, you would not have to totally re-configure the ZyXEL Device.
You could simply restore your last configuration.
1.4 Applications for the ZyXEL Device
Here are some example uses for which the ZyXEL Device is well suited.
1.4.1 Internet Access
Your ZyXEL Device provides shared Internet access by connecting the DSL port to
the DSL or MODEM jack on a splitter or your telephone jack. Computers can
connect to the ZyXEL Device’s LAN ports (or wirelessly).
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P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
Chapter 1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device
Figure 1 ZyXEL Device’s Router Features
LAN
DSL
You can also configure firewall and content filtering on the ZyXEL Device for
secure Internet access. When the firewall is on, all incoming traffic from the
Internet to your network is blocked unless it is initiated from your network. This
means that probes from the outside to your network are not allowed, but you can
safely browse the Internet and download files.
Use content filtering to block access to specific web sites, with URL’s containing
keywords that you specify. You can define time periods and days during which
content filtering is enabled and include or exclude particular computers on your
network from content filtering. For example, you could block access to certain web
sites for the kids.
Use QoS to efficiently manage traffic on your network by giving priority to certain
types of traffic and/or to particular computers. For example, you could make sure
that the ZyXEL Device gives voice over Internet calls high priority, and/or limit
bandwidth devoted to the boss’s excessive file downloading.
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25
Chapter 1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device
1.5 LEDs (Lights)
The following graphic displays the labels of the LEDs.
Figure 2 LEDs on the Top of the Device
None of the LEDs are on if the ZyXEL Device is not receiving power.
Table 1 LED Descriptions
LED
COLOR STATUS
DESCRIPTION
Power
Green
On
The ZyXEL Device is receiving power and ready for use.
Blinking
The ZyXEL Device is self-testing.
On
The ZyXEL Device detected an error while self-testing,
or there is a device malfunction.
Off
The ZyXEL Device is not receiving power.
On
The ZyXEL Device has an Ethernet connection with a
device on the Local Area Network (LAN).
Blinking
The ZyXEL Device is sending/receiving data to /from the
LAN.
Off
The ZyXEL Device does not have an Ethernet connection
with the LAN.
On
The wireless network is activated.
Blinking
The ZyXEL Device is communicating with other wireless
clients.
Blinking
The ZyXEL Device is setting up a WPS connection after
pressing the WIFI button for 1-2 seconds.
Red
LAN 1-4
WiFi
Green
Green
Orange
When WPS connection has been configured successfully,
the LED will become green.
Off
26
The wireless network is not activated.
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Chapter 1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device
Table 1 LED Descriptions
LED
COLOR STATUS
DESCRIPTION
DSL
Green
On
The DSL line is up.
Blinking
The ZyXEL Device is initializing the DSL line.
Off
The DSL line is down.
On
The ZyXEL Device has an IP connection but no traffic.
INTERNET
Green
Your device has a WAN IP address (either static or
assigned by a DHCP server), PPP negotiation was
successfully completed (if used) and the DSL connection
is up.
Red
Blinking
The ZyXEL Device is sending or receiving IP traffic.
On
The ZyXEL Device attempted to make an IP connection
but failed. Possible causes are no response from a DHCP
server, no PPPoE response, PPPoE authentication failed.
Off
The ZyXEL Device does not have an IP connection.
Refer to the Quick Start Guide for information on hardware connections.
1.6 The RESET Button
If you forget your password or cannot access the web configurator, you will need
to use the RESET button at the back of the device to reload the factory-default
configuration file. This means that you will lose all configurations that you had
previously and the password will be reset to “broadband1”.
1.6.1 Using the RESET Button
1
Make sure the POWER LED is on (not blinking).
2
To set the device back to the factory default settings, press the RESET button for
5 seconds or until the Power LED begins to blink. Do not turn off the device while
the reset is in progress! When the Power LED stops blinking and lights green, the
defaults have been restored and the device restarts.
1.7 The WIFI button
By default, the wireless LAN is on. You can use the WIFI button on the back of the
device to disable or activate the wireless LAN. You can also use it to activate WPS
in order to quickly set up a wireless network with strong security.
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Chapter 1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device
1.7.1 Turn the Wireless LAN Off or On
1
Make sure the POWER LED is on (not blinking).
2
The wireless LAN of the ZyXEL Device is enabled by default, so the LED lights
green. If not, press the WIFI button for 5 to 6 seconds and release it when the
LED turns green. The Wireless LAN is on. If you want to turn it off, press the WIFI
button for 5 to 6 seconds again. The WiFi LED will initially turn to orange then
turn off: release the button after the LED turns off.
Figure 3 Wireless LAN On/Off
WLAN on (default)
1-2s
WLAN off
WLAN off
5-6s
WLAN on (default)
5-6s
1.7.2 Activate WPS
28
1
Make sure the POWER LED is on (not blinking).
2
Check if the LED lights green (wireless LAN on). If not, press the WIFI button for
5 to 6 seconds and release it when the LED turns green. Then press the WIFI
button again for 1 to 2 seconds and release it when the LED turns orange. Press
the WiFi or WPS button on another WPS-enabled device within range of the ZyXEL
Device. The WiFi LED should blink orange while the ZyXEL Device sets up a WPS
connection with the wireless device. When the WPS connection has been
configured successfully, the LED will become green.
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Chapter 1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device
Note: You must activate WPS in the ZyXEL Device and in another wireless device
within 120 seconds of each other. See Section 7.8.8 on page 155 for more
information.
Figure 4 Activating WPS
WLAN on
WPS on
WPS ends
1-2s
120s
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Chapter 1 Introducing the ZyXEL Device
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CHAPTER
2
Introducing the Web
Configurator
2.1 Overview
The web configurator is an HTML-based management interface that allows easy
device setup and management via Internet browser. Use Internet Explorer 6.0 and
later or Netscape Navigator 7.0 and later versions. The recommended screen
resolution is 1024 by 768 pixels.
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device. Web pop-up blocking is enabled
by default in Windows XP SP (Service Pack) 2.
• JavaScripts (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
See Appendix B on page 385 if you need to make sure these functions are allowed
in Internet Explorer.
2.1.1 Accessing the Web Configurator
1
Make sure your ZyXEL Device hardware is properly connected (refer to the Quick
Start Guide).
2
Launch your web browser.
3
Type "http://192.168.1.254" as the URL.
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Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
4
A password screen displays. Type the admin password (broadband1 by default) in
the password screen and click Login. Click Cancel to revert to the default user
password in the password field. If you have changed the password, enter your
password and click Login.
Figure 5 Password Screen
5
32
It is strongly recommended you change the default password. See Section 20.2 on
page 304 for more information on changing password.
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Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
2.2 Web Configurator Main Screen
Figure 6 Main Screen
A
B
C
D
As illustrated above, the main screen is divided into these parts:
• A - title bar
• B - navigation panel
• C - main window
• D - status bar
2.2.1 Title Bar
The title bar provides some icons in the upper right corner.
The icon(s) provide(s) the following function.
Table 2 Web Configurator Icons in the Title Bar
ICON
DESCRIPTION
Help: Click this icon to open up help screens.
Logout: Click this icon to log out of the web configurator.
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Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
2.2.2 Navigation Panel
Use the menu items on the navigation panel to open screens to configure ZyXEL
Device features. The following tables describe each menu item.
Table 3 Navigation Panel Summary
LINK
TAB
Status
FUNCTION
This screen shows the ZyXEL Device’s general device and network
status information. Use this screen to access the statistics and
client list.
Network
Internet
(WAN)
Local
Network
(LAN)
Wireless LAN
NAT
Internet
Access Setup
Use this screen to configure ISP parameters, WAN IP address
assignment, DNS servers and other advanced properties.
More
Connections
Use this screen to configure additional WAN connections.
WAN Backup
Setup
Use this screen to configure a backup gateway.
IP
Use this screen to configure LAN TCP/IP settings, enable Any IP
and other advanced properties.
DHCP Setup
Use this screen to configure LAN DHCP settings.
Client List
Use this screen to view current DHCP client information and to
always assign specific IP addresses to individual MAC addresses
(and host names).
IP Alias
Use this screen to partition your LAN interface into subnets.
AP
Use this screen to configure the wireless LAN settings and WLAN
authentication/security settings.
More AP
Use this screen to configure multiple BSSs on the ZyXEL Device.
WPS
Use this screen to configure WPS (Wi-Fi Protected Setup)
settings.
WPS Station
Use this screen to set up a WPS wireless network.
WDS
Use this screen to set up Wireless Distribution System links to
other access points.
Scheduling
Use this screen to configure the dates/times to enable or disable
the wireless LAN.
General
Use this screen to enable NAT.
Port
Forwarding
Use this screen to make your local servers visible to the outside
world.
This screen appears when you choose SUA Only from the NAT >
General screen.
Address
Mapping
Use this screen to configure network address translation mapping
rules.
This screen appears when you choose Full Feature from the NAT
> General screen.
ALG
Use this screen to enable or disable SIP ALG.
Security
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Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
Table 3 Navigation Panel Summary
LINK
Firewall
TAB
FUNCTION
General
Use this screen to activate/deactivate the firewall or set the
firewall level.
Rules
This screen shows a summary of the firewall rules, and allows you
to edit/add a firewall rule.
This screen appears when you choose Custom from the Firewall
> General screen.
Content Filter
Threshold
Use this screen to configure the thresholds for determining when
to drop sessions that do not become fully established.
Keyword
Use this screen to block access to web sites containing certain
keywords in the URL.
Schedule
Use this screen to set the days and times for your device to
perform content filtering.
Trusted
Use this screen to exclude a range of users on the LAN from
content filtering.
Packet Filter
Certificates
Use this screen to configure the rules for protocol and generic
filter sets.
Trusted CAs
Use this screen to save CA certificates to the ZyXEL Device.
Advanced
IP
Passthrough
Use this screen to enable IP Passthrough so one of your clients
can share the same public IP address as the WAN side.
Static Route
Use this screen to configure IP static routes to tell your device
about networks beyond the directly connected remote nodes.
VLANs
QoS
Group Setting
Use this screen to activate 802.1Q/1P, specify the management
VLAN group, display the VLAN groups and configure the settings
for each VLAN group.
Port Setting
Use this screen to configure the PVID and assign traffic priority for
each port.
General
Use this screen to enable QoS and traffic prioritizing, and
configure bandwidth management on the WAN.
Class Setup
Use this screen to define a classifier.
Queue Setup
Use this screen to configure QoS queues.
Monitor
Use this screen to view each queue’s statistics.
Dynamic DNS
Remote
MGMT
This screen allows you to use a static hostname alias for a
dynamic IP address.
WWW
Use this screen to configure through which interface(s) and from
which IP address(es) users can use HTTP to manage the ZyXEL
Device.
Telnet
Use this screen to configure through which interface(s) and from
which IP address(es) users can use Telnet to manage the ZyXEL
Device.
FTP
Use this screen to configure through which interface(s) and from
which IP address(es) users can use FTP to access the ZyXEL
Device.
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Chapter 2 Introducing the Web Configurator
Table 3 Navigation Panel Summary
LINK
TAB
FUNCTION
DNS
Use this screen to configure through which interface(s) and from
which IP address(es) users can send DNS queries to the ZyXEL
Device.
ICMP
Use this screen to set whether or not your device will respond to
pings and probes for services that you have not made available.
General
Use this screen to turn UPnP on or off.
General
Use this screen to configure your device’s name, domain name,
management inactivity timeout and password.
Time Setting
Use this screen to change your ZyXEL Device’s time and date.
View Log
Use this screen to display your device’s logs.
Log Settings
Use this screen to select which logs and/or immediate alerts your
device is to record. You can also set it to e-mail the logs to you.
Firmware
Use this screen to upload firmware to your device.
Configuration
Use this screen to backup and restore your device’s configuration
(settings) or reset the factory default settings.
Restart
This screen allows you to reboot the ZyXEL Device without turning
the power off.
Diagnostic
General
Use this screen to test the connections to other devices.
Statistics
General
These screen displays information to help you identify problems
with the DSL and Ethernet WAN connection.
UPnP
Maintenance
System
Logs
Update/
Reboot
2.2.3 Main Window
The main window displays information and configuration fields. It is discussed in
the rest of this document.
Right after you connect to the URL, the Status screen is displayed. See Chapter 3
on page 37 for more information about the Status screen.
2.2.4 Status Bar
Check the status bar when you click Apply or OK to verify that the configuration
has been updated.
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CHAPTER
3
Status Screens
3.1 Overview
Use the Status screens to look at the current status of the device, system
resources, and interfaces (LAN and WAN). The Status screen also provides
detailed information from Any IP and DHCP and statistics from bandwidth
management, and traffic.
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37
Chapter 3 Status Screens
3.2 The Status Screen
Use this screen to view the status of the ZyXEL Device. Click Status to open this
screen.
Figure 7 Status Screen
Each field is described in the following table.
Table 4 Status Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Refresh Interval Select how often you want the ZyXEL Device to update this screen.
Apply
Click this to update this screen immediately.
System
38
Model
Number
This is the model name of your device.
Serial
Number
This field displays the certificate’s identification number given by the
certification authority.
MAC
Address
This is the MAC (Media Access Control) or Ethernet address unique to
your ZyXEL Device.
ZyNOS
Firmware
Version
This is the current version of the firmware inside the device. It also
shows the date the firmware version was created. Click this to go to the
screen where you can change it.
DSL
Firmware
Version
This is the current version of the device’s DSL modem code.
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Chapter 3 Status Screens
Table 4 Status Screen
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System
Uptime
This field displays how long the ZyXEL Device has been running since it
last started up. The ZyXEL Device starts up when you plug it in, when
you restart it (Maintenance > Tools > Restart), or when you reset it.
Current
Date/Time
This field displays the current date and time in the ZyXEL Device. You
can change this in Maintenance > System > Time Setting.
System
Mode
This displays whether the ZyXEL Device is functioning as a router or a
bridge.
CPU Usage
This field displays what percentage of the ZyXEL Device’s processing
ability is currently used. When this percentage is close to 100%, the
ZyXEL Device is running at full load, and the throughput is not going to
improve anymore. If you want some applications to have more
throughput, you should turn off other applications (for example, using
QoS; see Chapter 16 on page 253).
Memory
Usage
This field displays what percentage of the ZyXEL Device’s memory is
currently used. Usually, this percentage should not increase much. If
memory usage does get close to 100%, the ZyXEL Device is probably
becoming unstable, and you should restart the device. See Section 22.4
on page 336, or turn off the device (unplug the power) for a few
seconds.
Connections
eircom
Broadband
This is the current status of your broadband.
DSL Mode
This is the DSL standard that your ZyXEL Device is using.
Speed
This is the speed of your DSL connection.
Line
Attenuation
This indicates the line attenuation status for each upstream and
downstream band.
DSL Noise
Margin
This is the signal to noise ratio for the downstream part of the
connection (coming into the ZyXEL Device from the ISP). It is measured
in decibels. The higher the number the more signal and less noise there
is.
WAN IP
Address
This is the current IP address of the ZyXEL Device in the WAN. Click this
to go to the screen where you can change it.
Default
Gateway
This is the IP address of the default gateway, if applicable.
First DNS
Secondary
DNS
Tertiary DNS
This is the IP address of your primary/second/third DNS server.
Local Network
Ethernet
LAN1
LAN2
LAN3
LAN4
This displays the link speed and duplex mode of the LAN port(s) in use.
Modem IP
Address
This is the current IP address of the ZyXEL Device in the LAN. Click this
to go to the screen where you can change it.
Modem
This is the current subnet mask in the LAN.
Subnet Mask
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39
Chapter 3 Status Screens
Table 4 Status Screen
LABEL
DHCP
DESCRIPTION
This field displays what DHCP services the ZyXEL Device is providing to
the LAN. Choices are:
Server - The ZyXEL Device is a DHCP server in the LAN. It assigns IP
addresses to other computers in the LAN.
Relay - The ZyXEL Device acts as a surrogate DHCP server and relays
DHCP requests and responses between the remote server and the
clients.
None - The ZyXEL Device is not providing any DHCP services to the
LAN.
Click this to go to the screen where you can change it.
DHCP Range
This is the IP address range that the ZyXEL Device is assigning to other
computers in the LAN when it acts as a DHCP server.
Firewall
This displays the level of the ZyXEL Device’s firewall.
Wireless
Status
This displays the maximum transmission rate when WLAN is enabled.
SSID
This is the descriptive name used to identify the ZyXEL Device in a
wireless LAN. Click this to go to the screen where you can change it.
Channel
This is the channel number used by the ZyXEL Device now.
Security
This displays the type of security mode the ZyXEL Device is using in the
wireless LAN.
Secuirity
Key
This displays the Pre-Shared Key of WPA(2)-PSK security mode.
WPS
This displays the status of WPS (Wi-Fi Protected Setup). Click this to go
to the screen where you can change it.
More Information
DHCP Client
List
Click this link to view current DHCP client information. See Section 6.4
on page 118.
AnyIP Table
Click this link to view a list of IP addresses and MAC addresses of
computers, which are not in the same subnet as the ZyXEL Device. See
Section 3.3 on page 43.
Wireless
Clients
Click this link to display the MAC address(es) of the wireless stations
that are currently associating with the ZyXEL Device. See Section 3.4
on page 43.
Packet
Statistics
Click this link to view port status and packet specific statistics. See
Section 3.6 on page 45.
3.2.1 Reset to Factory Defaults
There are two methods of resetting to factory defaults.
1
40
In the GUI go to Maintenance > Update/Reboot > Configuration. Click the
Reset button to clear all user-entered configuration information and return the
ZyXEL Device to its factory defaults.
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Chapter 3 Status Screens
2
If you forgot your password or cannot access the web configurator, you will need
to use the RESET button at the back of the device to reload the factory default
configuration file. This means that you will lose all configurations that you had
previously and the password will reset to “broadband1”.
3.2.1.1 Using the RESET Button
1
Make sure that the Power LED is on (not blinking).
2
To set the device back to the factory default settings, press the RESET button for
5 seconds or until the Power LED begins to blink. Do not turn off the device while
the reset is in progress! When the Power LED stops blinking and lights green, the
defaults have been restored and the device restarts.
3.2.2 Setting Up Remote Management for HTTP and Telnet
To enable Remote Management from the WAN for web access you have two
options: create a dynamic firewall rule or manually create a firewall rule. The
dynamic firewall rule is the simplest but unlike the manual firewall rule option it
does not allow you to specify the source IP address(es) for WAN access.
3.2.2.1 Dynamic WWW rule
1
Click Advanced > Remote MGMT > WWW and set Access Status to ALL (or
LAN & WAN or WLAN & WAN).
Note: IMPORTANT! If you choose WAN it will ONLY allow access from the WAN.
2
Next click on the option Create a dynamic firewall rule to permit WAN access
and click the Apply button.
To disable WAN remote management for Web, simply reverse the above. Be
careful to set the Access Status to either or both LAN and WLAN.
Note: It is recommended if you are allowing WAN access even temporarily to change
the default password (in Maintenance > System > General).
3.2.2.2 Manual WWW Rule
1
Click Advanced > Remote MGMT > WWW and set Access Status to ALL (or
LAN & WAN or WLAN & WAN).
Note: IMPORTANT! If you choose WAN it will ONLY allow access from the WAN.
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Chapter 3 Status Screens
2
Next click on the Firewall link in Note3 of the screen. For WAN access: If you want
to specify the source IP address for remote management, click on the Firewall
link. This will then redirect you to the main Firewall screen (Security >Firewall >
General).
3
Here you will choose the Custom option (please note that the Custom option will
inherit the default firewall behaviour of the firewall option that was specified
previously (High or Medium, BUT NOT for Low as it blocks WAN to LAN access
but this can easily be changed).
4
Next go to the Rules tab and in Packet direction choose WAN to WAN/Router.
Click the Add button.
5
In the Edit rule page that appears you may want to change the source address
from Any. Otherwise in Service > selected services remove Any(TCP) and
Any(UDP) and move HTTP(TCP:80) from available services to selected
services. Now click on the Apply button.
Use this screen to specify how to connect to the ZyXEL Device from a web
browser, such as Internet Explorer.
To enable Remote Management from the WAN for Telnet access:
1
Go to Advanced > Remote MGMT > Telnet and set Access Status to ALL (or
WAN & LAN or WAN & WLAN).
Note: IMPORTANT! If you choose WAN it will ONLY allow access from the WAN.
42
2
Next click on the Firewall link in Note3 of the screen. For WAN access: If you want
to specify the source IP address for remote management, click on the Firewall
link. This will then redirect you to the main Firewall screen (Security >Firewall >
General).
3
Here you will choose the Custom option (please note that the Custom option will
inherit the default firewall behaviour of the firewall option that was specified
previously (High or Medium, BUT NOT for Low as it blocks WAN to LAN access
but this can easily be changed).
4
Next go to the Rules tab and in Packet direction choose WAN to WAN/Router.
Click the Add button.
5
In the Edit rule page that appears you may want to change the source address
from Any. Otherwise in Service > selected services remove Any(TCP) and
Any(UDP) and move Telnet(TCP:23) from available services to selected
services. Now click on the Apply button.
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Chapter 3 Status Screens
Note: it is recommended if you are allowing WAN access even temporarily to change
the default password (in Maintenance > System > General).
To remove Telnet remote management:
1
Go to Advanced > Remote MGMT > Telnet and set Access Status to LAN,
WLAN, WLAN & LAN or Disabled.
2
Next go to Security > Firewall > General. There will be a Rules tab if Custom
is specified as the firewall option.
3
In Packet direction choose WAN to WAN/Router.
4
Untick the Active tick box for your remote management rule and click the Apply
button.
Note: it is recommended if you are allowing WAN access even temporarily to change
the default password (in Maintenance > System > General). In the New
Password box, type in a new password (up to 30 characters). Retype it in the
Retype to confirm box. Then click Apply to save your changes. Use the new
password to login.
3.3 DHCP Client List
See Section 6.4 on page 118 for information on this screen.
3.4 Wireless Clients
Use this screen to view the wireless stations that are currently associated to the
ZyXEL Device. Click Status > Wireless Clients to access this screen.
Figure 8 Wireless Clients
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Chapter 3 Status Screens
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 5 WLAN Status
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of an associated wireless station.
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC (Media Access Control) address of an
associated wireless station.
Association
Time
This field displays the time a wireless station first associated with the
ZyXEL Device.
Refresh
Click this to reload this screen.
3.5 Any IP Table
Click Status > AnyIP Table to access this screen. Use this screen to view the IP
address and MAC address of each computer that is using the ZyXEL Device but is
in a different subnet than the ZyXEL Device.
Figure 9 Any IP Table
Each field is described in the following table.
Table 6 Any IP Table
44
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This field is a sequential value. It is not associated with a specific entry.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address of each computer that is using the
ZyXEL Device but is in a different subnet than the ZyXEL Device.
MAC Address
This field displays the MAC address of the computer that is using the
ZyXEL Device but is in a different subnet than the ZyXEL Device.
Refresh
Click this to update this screen.
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3.6 Packet Statistics
Read-only information here includes port status and packet specific statistics. Also
provided are "system up time" and "poll interval(s)". The Poll Interval(s) field is
configurable. Click Status > Packet Statistics to access this screen.
Figure 10 Packet Statistics
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 7 Packet Statistics
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Monitor
System up Time
This is the elapsed time the system has been up.
Current Date/
Time
This field displays your ZyXEL Device’s present date and time.
CPU Usage
This field specifies the percentage of CPU utilization.
Memory Usage
This field specifies the percentage of memory utilization.
WAN Port Statistics
Link Status
This is the status of your WAN link.
WAN IP Address
This is the IP address of the ZyXEL Device’s WAN port.
Upstream Speed
This is the upstream speed of your ZyXEL Device.
Downstream
Speed
This is the downstream speed of your ZyXEL Device.
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Table 7 Packet Statistics (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Node-Link
This field displays the remote node index number and link type. Link
types are PPPoA, ENET, RFC 1483 and PPPoE.
Status
This field displays Down (line is down), Up (line is up or connected) if
you're using Ethernet encapsulation and Down (line is down), Up
(line is up or connected), Idle (line (ppp) idle), Dial (starting to
trigger a call) and Drop (dropping a call) if you're using PPPoE
encapsulation.
TxPkts
This field displays the number of packets transmitted on this port.
RxPkts
This field displays the number of packets received on this port.
Errors
This field displays the number of error packets on this port.
Tx B/s
This field displays the number of bytes transmitted in the last second.
Rx B/s
This field displays the number of bytes received in the last second.
Up Time
This field displays the elapsed time this port has been up.
LAN Port Statistics
Interface
This field displays either Ethernet (LAN ports) or Wireless (WLAN
port).
Status
For the LAN ports, this field displays Down (line is down) or Up (line
is up or connected).
For the WLAN port, it displays the transmission rate when WLAN is
enabled or N/A when WLAN is disabled.
46
TxPkts
This field displays the number of packets transmitted on this interface.
RxPkts
This field displays the number of packets received on this interface.
Collisions
This is the number of collisions on this interfaces.
Poll Interval(s)
Type the time interval for the browser to refresh system statistics.
Set Interval
Click this to apply the new poll interval you entered in the Poll
Interval field above.
Stop
Click this to halt the refreshing of the system statistics.
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4
Tutorials
4.1 Overview
This chapter shows you how to use the ZyXEL Device’s various features.
• Setting Up a Secure Wireless Network, see page 47
• Setting Up Multiple Wireless Groups, see page 55
• Configuring the MAC Address Filter, see page 59
• Access the ZyXEL Device Using DDNS, see page 61
• Configuring Static Route for Routing to Another Network, see page 65
• Multiple Public and Private IP Address Mappings, see page 67
• ATM QoS and QoS Overview, see page 71
• Setting Up NAT Port Forwarding, see page 82
4.2 Setting Up a Secure Wireless Network
Thomas wants to set up a wireless network so that he can use his notebook to
access the Internet. In this wireless network, the ZyXEL Device serves as an
access point (AP), and the notebook is the wireless client. The wireless client can
access the Internet through the AP.
Thomas has to configure the wireless network settings on the ZyXEL Device. Then
he can set up a wireless network using WPS (Section 4.2.2 on page 49) or manual
configuration (Section 4.2.3 on page 54).
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4.2.1 Configuring the Wireless Network Settings
This example uses the following parameters to set up a wireless network.
1
SSID
eircom07390946
Security Mode
WPA-PSK
Pre-Shared Key
DoNotStealMyWirelessNetwork
802.11 Mode
Mixed
Click Network > Wireless LAN to open the AP screen. Configure the screen
using the provided parameters (see page 48). Click Apply.
Note: To see the default SSID, check the sticker on the rear panel of your ZyXEL
Device. To see the current SSID, go to the Status screen.
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2
Click the Advanced Setup button and select Mixed in the 802.11 Mode field.
Click Apply.
Thomas can now use the WPS feature to establish a wireless connection between
his notebook and the ZyXEL Device (see Section 4.2.2 on page 49). He can also
use the notebook’s wireless client to search for the ZyXEL Device (see Section
4.2.3 on page 54).
4.2.2 Using WPS
This section shows you how to set up a wireless network using WPS. It uses the
ZyXEL Device as the AP and ZyXEL NWD210N as the wireless client which
connects to the notebook.
Note: The wireless client must be a WPS-aware device (for example, a WPS USB
adapter or PCMCIA card).
There are two WPS methods to set up the wireless client settings:
• Push Button Configuration (PBC) - simply press a button. This is the easier
of the two methods.
• PIN Configuration - configure a Personal Identification Number (PIN) on the
ZyXEL Device. A wireless client must also use the same PIN in order to
download the wireless network settings from the ZyXEL Device.
Push Button Configuration (PBC)
1
Make sure that your ZyXEL Device is turned on and your notebook is within the
cover range of the wireless signal.
2
Make sure that you have installed the wireless client driver and utility in your
notebook.
3
Press the WiFi or WPS button on your notebook within range of the ZyXEL Device.
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4
The wireless LAN of the ZyXEL Device is enabled by default, so the LED lights
green. If not, press the WIFI button for 5 to 6 seconds and release it when the
LED turns green. The wireless LAN is on. Then press the WIFI button for 1 to 2
seconds and release it when the LED is blinking orange.
5
Alternatively, you may log into ZyXEL Device’s web configurator and click the
Push Button in the Network > Wireless LAN > WPS Station screen.
Note: Your ZyXEL Device has a WIFI button located on its rear panel as well as a
WPS button in its configuration utility. Both buttons have exactly the same
function: you can use one or the other.
Note: It doesn’t matter which button is pressed first. You must press the second
button within 120 seconds of pressing the first one.
6
50
When the ZyXEL Device is sending the configuration settings to the wireless client,
the WiFi LED blinks orange. This may take up to two minutes. Then the WiFi LED
becomes green when the wireless client is able to communicate with the ZyXEL
Device securely. (You can refer to Section 1.7.2 on page 28 for more information
on activating WPS.)
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The following figure shows you an example of how to set up a wireless network
and its security by pressing a button on both ZyXEL Device and wireless client.
Example WPS Process: PBC Method
ZyXEL Device
Wireless Client
WITHIN 120 SECONDS
Press and hold for
more than 5 seconds
SECURITY INFO
COMMUNICATION
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PIN Configuration
When you use the PIN configuration method, you need to use both the ZyXEL
Device’s web configurator and the wireless client’s utility.
1
Launch your wireless client’s configuration utility. Go to the WPS settings and
select the PIN method to get a PIN number.
2
Enter the PIN number in the PIN field in the Network > Wireless LAN > WPS
Station screen on the ZyXEL Device.
3
Click the Start buttons (or the button next to the PIN field) on both the wireless
client utility screen and the ZyXEL Device’s WPS Station screen within two
minutes.
The ZyXEL Device authenticates the wireless client and sends the proper
configuration settings to the wireless client. This may take up to two minutes. The
wireless client is then able to communicate with the ZyXEL Device securely.
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The following figure shows you how to set up a wireless network and its security
on a ZyXEL Device and a wireless client by using PIN method.
Example WPS Process: PIN Method
Wireless Client
ZyXEL Device
WITHIN 2 MINUTES
Authentication by PIN
SECURITY INFO
COMMUNICATION
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4.2.3 Without WPS
Use the wireless adapter’s utility installed on the notebook to search for the
“Example” SSID. Then enter the “DoNotStealMyWirelessNetwork” pre-shared key
to establish an wireless Internet connection.
Note: The ZyXEL Device supports IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.11g wireless clients.
Make sure that your notebook or computer’s wireless adapter supports one of
these standards.
4.2.4 Setting Up Wireless Network Scheduling
Thomas mostly uses his notebook to access the Internet on weekends;
occasionally he uses it at night on weekdays. Here is how Thomas can set up a
schedule to turn on the wireless network at specific time and days.
1
54
Click Network > Wireless LAN > Scheduling to open the following screen and
configure as follows. Turn on the wireless network from Mondays to Fridays
between 18:00 and 23:30. Turn on the wireless network all day on Saturdays and
Sundays. Click Apply.
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4.3 Setting Up Multiple Wireless Groups
Company A wants to create different wireless network groups for different types of
users as shown in the following figure. Each group has its own SSID, security
mode and QoS control.
Company
Guest
VIP
• Employees in Company A will use a general eircom07390946 wireless network
group.
• Higher management level and important visitors will use the VIP group, which
has the highest QoS control.
• Visiting guests will use the Guest group, which has a lower security mode and
QoS control.
Company A will use the following parameters to set up the wireless network
groups.
COMPANY
VIP
GUEST
SSID
eircom07390946
VIP
Guest
Security Mode
WPA2-PSK
WPA2-PSK
Static WEP
Pre-Shared Key
ForCompanyOnly
ForVIPOnly
Guest
QoS
Default
Highest
Low
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56
1
Click Network > Wireless LAN to open the AP screen. Use this screen to set up
the company’s general wireless network group. Configure the screen using the
provided parameters and click Apply.
2
Click Network > Wireless LAN > More AP to open the following screen. Click
the Edit icon to configure the second wireless network group.
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Configure the screen using the provided parameters and click Apply.
4
In the More AP screen, click the Edit icon to configure the third wireless network
group.
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58
5
Configure the screen using the provided parameters and click Apply.
6
Activate the wireless network groups and click Apply.
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4.4 Configuring the MAC Address Filter
Thomas noticed that his daughter Josephine spends too much time surfing the
web and downloading media files. He decided to prevent Josephine from accessing
the Internet so that she can concentrate on preparing for her final exams.
Josephine’s computer connects wirelessly to the Internet through the ZyXEL
Device. Thomas can deny access to the wireless network using the MAC address of
Josephine’s computer.
Thomas
Josephine
1
Click Network > Local Network (LAN) > Client List to open the following
screen. Look for the MAC address of Josephine’s computer.
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2
Click Network > Wireless LAN to open the AP screen. Click the Edit button in
the MAC Filter field.
3
Select Active MAC Filter and Deny Filter Action. Enter the MAC address you
found in the Client List screen. Click Apply.
Josephine will no longer be able to access the Internet through the ZyXEL Device.
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4.5 Access the ZyXEL Device Using DDNS
If you connect your ZyXEL Device to the Internet and it uses a dynamic WAN IP
address, it is inconvenient for you to manage the device from the Internet. The
ZyXEL Device’s WAN IP address changes dynamically. Dynamic DNS (DDNS)
allows you to access the ZyXEL Device using a domain name.
http://zyxelrouter.dyndns.org
A
w.x.y.z
a.b.c.d
To use this feature, you have to apply for DDNS service at www.dyndns.org.
This tutorial shows you how to:
• Registering a DDNS Account on www.dyndns.org
• Configuring DDNS on Your ZyXEL Device
• Adding a Firewall Rule for Remote Management
• Testing the DDNS Setting
Note: If you have a private WAN IP address, then you cannot use DDNS.
4.5.1 Registering a DDNS Account on www.dyndns.org
1
Open a browser and type http://www.dyndns.org.
2
Apply for a user account. This tutorial uses UserName1 and 12345 as the
username and password.
3
Log into www.dyndns.org using your account.
4
Add a new DDNS host name. This tutorial uses the following settings as an
example.
• Hostname: zyxelrouter.dyndns.org
• Service Type: Host with IP address
• IP Address: Enter the WAN IP address that your ZyXEL Device is currently using.
You can find the IP address on the ZyXEL Device’s Web Configurator Status
page.
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Then you will need to configure the same account and host name on the ZyXEL
Device later.
4.5.2 Configuring DDNS on Your ZyXEL Device
1
Log into the ZyXEL Device's advanced mode.
2
Configure the following settings in the Advanced > Dynamic DNS screen.
2a
Select Active Dynamic DNS.
2b
Select Dynamic DNS for the DDNS type.
2c
Type zyxelrouter.dyndns.org in the Host Name field.
2d
Enter the user name (UserName1) and password (12345).
2e
Select Use WAN IP Address for the IP address update policy.
2f
Click Apply.
4.5.3 Adding a Firewall Rule for Remote Management
By default, your ZyXEL Device firewall is enabled to secure your network from
attacks. In this tutorial, you add a firewall rule that lets you manage the ZyXEL
Device from the Internet.
1
62
Select Custom from the General screen. The Rules tab will appear. Click the tab
to go to Rules screen.
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2
Select WAN to WAN / Router and select the number of the last rule that has
been configured on this screen. Click Add.
3
The Edit Rule screen opens. Configure the screen using the following settings.
3a
Select Active.
3b
Select Permit for matched packets.
3c
In the Source Address section, select Single Address and enter the IP
address of the computer that you allow to access the ZyXEL Device from the
Internet. Click Add. Select Any in the Source Address List and click Delete.
Note: If the computer gets a different IP address, this firewall rule will not work.
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3d
In the Service section, select HTTP(TCP:80) in the Available Services
field and click Add. Select Any(UDP) and Any(TCP) and click Remove oneby-one to not include them.
a.b.c.d
3e
Click Apply.
4.5.4 Testing the DDNS Setting
Now you should be able to access the ZyXEL Device from the Internet. To test
this:
64
1
Open a web browser on the computer (using the IP address a.b.c.d) that is
connected to the Internet.
2
Type http://zyxelrouter.dyndns.org and press [Enter].
3
The ZyXEL Device’s login page should appear. You can then log into the ZyXEL
Device and manage it.
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4.6 Configuring Static Route for Routing to
Another Network
In order to extend your Intranet and control traffic flowing directions, you may
connect a router to the ZyXEL Device’s LAN. The router may be used to separate
two department networks. This tutorial shows how to configure a static routing
rule for two network routings.
In the following figure, router R is connected to the ZyXEL Device’s LAN. R
connects to two networks, N1 (192.168.1.x/24) and N2 (192.168.10.x/24). If
you want to send traffic from computer A (in N1 network) to computer B (in N2
network), the traffic is sent to the ZyXEL Device’s WAN default gateway by
default. In this case, B will never receive the traffic.
N1
A
R
N2
B
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You need to specify a static routing rule on the ZyXEL Device to specify R as the
router in charge of forwarding traffic to N2. In this case, the ZyXEL Device routes
traffic from A to R and then R routes the traffic to B.
N1
A
R
N2
B
This tutorial uses the following example IP settings:
Table 8 IP Settings in this Tutorial
DEVICE / COMPUTER
IP ADDRESS
The ZyXEL Device’s WAN
172.16.1.1
The ZyXEL Device’s LAN
192.168.1.1
A
192.168.1.34
R’s N1
192.168.1.253
R’s N2
192.168.10.2
B
192.168.10.33
To configure a static route to route traffic from N1 to N2:
66
1
Log into the ZyXEL Device’s Web Configurator in advanced mode.
2
Click Advanced > Static Route.
3
Click Edit on a new rule in the Static Route screen.
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4
Configure the Static Route Setup screen using the following settings:
4a
Select Active.
4b
Specify a descriptive name for this routing rule.
4c
Type 192.168.10.0 and subnet mask 255.255.255.0 for the destination,
N2.
4d
Select Gateway Address for the gateway type.
4e
Type 192.168.1.253 (R’s N1 address) in the Gateway IP Address field.
4a
Click Apply.
Now B should be able to receive traffic from A. You may need to additionally
configure B’s firewall settings to allow specific traffic to pass through.
4.7 Multiple Public and Private IP Address
Mappings
If your ISP gives you more than one static IP address for your Internet access,
you can map each IP address for a specific service. This tutorial assumes you are
given two static public IP addresses. You want to map them to two servers A and
B.
IP-1
IP-2
A
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C
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This tutorial uses the following example settings:
Table 9 IP Settings in this Tutorial
DEVICE / COMPUTER
IP ADDRESS
The ZyXEL Device’s WAN
172.16.1.253 (IP-1)
172.16.1.254 (IP-2)
The ZyXEL Device’s LAN
192.168.1.1
A
192.168.1.2
B
192.168.1.3
C
a.b.c.d
To do this, you can use either of the following settings:
• Full Feature NAT with many-to-many no overload mapping
• Full Feature NAT with one-to-one mapping
4.7.1 Full Feature NAT + Many-to-Many No Overload Mapping
Use this setting if your applications can use random public IP addresses and the
applications are initiated from the Intranet computers (A and B). For example,
VoIP application. See Section 4.7.2 on page 70 if it is not.
IP-1
1
2
A
B
C
To configure this:
1
68
Click Network > NAT.
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2
Select Active Network Address Translation(NAT) and Full Feature in the
General screen. Click Apply.
3
Click the Address Mapping tab, and then click the Edit icon on a new rule.
4
Configure the rule using the following settings:
• Type: Many-to-Many No Overload
• Local IP addresses: 192.168.1.2 ~ 192.168.1.3
• Global IP addresses: 172.16.1.253 ~ 172.16.1.254
Then click Apply.
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4.7.2 Full Feature NAT + One-to-One Mapping
Use this setting if your applications must use fixed public IP addresses and the
applications can be initiated either from the Intranet computers (A and B) or the
Internet computer (C). For example, gaming application.
IP-1
A
B
C
To configure this setting:
1
Click Network > NAT.
2
Select Active Network Address Translation(NAT) and Full Feature in the
General screen. Click Apply.
3
Click the Address Mapping tab, click the Edit icon on a new rule.
4
Configure two rules for the one-to-one mappings:
• Rule 1 (This maps the public IP address 172.16.1.253 to the private IP address
192.168.1.2)
Type: One-to-One
Local Start IP: 192.168.1.2
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Global Start IP: 172.16.1.253
• Rule 2 (This maps the public IP address 172.16.1.254 to the private IP address
192.168.1.3)
Type: One-to-One
Local Start IP: 192.168.1.3
Global Start IP: 172.16.1.254
Click Apply on each of the screens.
4.8 ATM QoS and QoS Overview
Use the Network > Internet (WAN) menus to create PVCs and apply UBR, CBR
or VBR ATM QoS to them.
Use the Advanced > QoS menus to identify individual packets, assign each
packet a priority and then queue the packet. Packets assigned with a high priority
are processed more quickly than those with low priorities if there is network
congestion.
4.8.1 Two PVCs with ATM QoS Scenario
This tutorial shows you how to configure two PVCs and specify an ATM QoS type
for each PVC. In the following figure, the ZyXEL Device is configured to transmit
two types of traffic, general data for Internet access and VoIP using SIP using 1/
33 and 1/34 PVCs respectively. General data is assigned Unspecified Bit Rate
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(UBR) ATM QoS while VoIP traffic is assigned Constant Bit Rate (CBR) ATM QoS as
it is considered to transmit continuously.
port 4
PVC: 1/34
PVC: 1/33
port 1~3
: Voice
: General Data
4.8.1.1 PVC 1 for Internet Access (General Data)
1
Click Network > Internet (WAN) > Internet Access Setup, configure the
settings you (ISP) want to provide to the subscriber for general data transmission.
This tutorial uses the following example settings:
• Line Modulation: Multi Mode
• Mode: Routing
• Encapsulation: PPPoE
• User Name: eircom@eircom.net
• Password: 1234
• PVC: LLC, 1/33
• ATM QoS: UBR
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2
Leave the other settings as their defaults and click Apply.
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3
Click the Advanced Setup button to display the following options. Select UBR in
the ATM QoS Type field.
4
Click Apply.
4.8.1.2 PVC 2 for VoIP Traffic
1
Click the More Connections tab and then click the Edit icon next to the entry
two.
2
Then configure the screen using the following example settings:
• Select Active.
• Name: PVC-for-VoIP
• Mode: Routing
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• Encapsulation: ENET ENCAP
• PVC: LLC, 1/34
• ATM QoS: CBR
3
Click Apply.
4
Click the Advanced Setup button and then select CBR in the ATM QoS Type
field.
5
Click Apply.
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4.8.2 Configuring QoS
In this example, the maximum upstream transmission rate of the DSL port is 1
Mbps, with 70% being allocated to Internet access traffic and 92% (default
shaping rate) for VoIP. (The shaping rate total can be more than 100%.) Internet
access traffic is assigned queue 2 and VoIP traffic is assigned a higher priority of
queue 5. The bucket size for Internet access traffic is set as 87,500 bytes and
100,000 bytes (maximum size) for VoIP traffic. Configure the screens as shown in
the following sections with this information.
Table 10 QoS Queue Configuration
QUEUE NO.
SHAPING RATE IN
BUCKET SIZE
PERCENT
2
70%
87,500 Bytes
5
92% (default)
100,000 Bytes
4.8.2.1 Queue Setup
1
76
Click Advanced > QoS > Queue Setup. Click the Edit icon of queue 2 to open
the Queue Configuration screen.
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2
Enter 70 in the Rate field and 87500 in the Size field. Click Apply.
3
Click the Edit icon of queue 5 to open the Queue Configuration screen.
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4
The Rate field is 92% as in default. Enter 100,000 (maximum size) in the Size
field. Click Apply.
4.8.2.2 Class Setup
Now, configure these screens to identify the traffic you want to map to a PVC. In
this tutorial, the ZyXEL Device maps traffic from LAN ports 1~3 to the Internet
Access PVC with WAN Index 1 and traffic from LAN port 4 to the VoIP PVC with
WAN index 2.
You could further refine traffic identification from a port by specifying VLAN tags,
but this tutorial does not do that. See Chapter 15 on page 243 for how to
configure VLAN groups.
1
Click Advanced > QoS > Class Setup and then click Add to create a QoS
classifier rule for general data.
2
Configure this rule using the following example settings.
• Class Configuration:
• Select Active.
• Enter a descriptive name for this rule. For example, General Data.
• Interface: From LAN
• Priority: 2 (Default)
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• Routing Policy: To WAN Index
• WAN Index: 1
• Filter Configuration:
• Physical Port: 1~3 (exclude port 4)
3
Click Apply.
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4
Click Add to create another QoS classifier rule .
5
Create a class setup rule using the following example settings.
• Class Configuration:
• Select Active.
• Enter VoIP as the descriptive name for this rule.
• Interface: From LAN
• Priority: 5
• Routing Policy: To WAN Index
• WAN Index: 2
• Filter Configuration:
• Service: VoIP(SIP)
• Physical Port: All
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6
Click Apply.
4.8.2.3 Activate QoS on the ZyXEL Device
1
Click Advanced > QoS > General.
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2
Select Active QoS and click Apply.
Now you can connect a VoIP phone to the ZyXEL Device’s LAN port 4 and
computers to port 1~3. The ZyXEL Device classifies and prioritizes voice traffic to
optimize voice quality.
4.9 Setting Up NAT Port Forwarding
Thomas manages the Doom server on a computer behind the ZyXEL Device. In
order for players on the Internet to communicate with the Doom server, Thomas
needs to configure the port settings and IP address on the ZyXEL Device. Traffic
should be forwarded to the port 666 of the Doom server computer which has an IP
address of 192.168.1.34.
D=192.168.1.34
LAN
WAN
666
Thomas may set up the port settings by configuring the port settings for the Doom
server computer (see Section on page 167 for more information).
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1
Click Network > NAT to open the General screen. Select Active Network
Address Translation and SUA Only. Click Apply.
2
Click Network > NAT > Port Forwarding to open the following screen. Select
User define from the Service Name field.
3
Configure the screen as follows to forward port 666 traffic to the computer with IP
address 192.168.1.34. Click Apply.
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4
The port forwarding settings you configured are listed in the Port Forwarding
screen.
Players on the Internet then can have access to Thomas’ Doom server.
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P ART II
Network
Internet (WAN) Setup (87)
Local Network (LAN) Setup (111)
Wireless LAN (129)
Network Address Translation (NAT) (163)
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CHAPTER
5
Internet (WAN) Setup
5.1 Overview
This chapter describes how to configure WAN settings from the Internet (WAN)
screens. Use these screens to configure your ZyXEL Device for Internet access.
A WAN (Wide Area Network) connection is an outside connection to another
network or the Internet. It connects your private networks (such as a LAN (Local
Area Network) and other networks, so that a computer in one location can
communicate with computers in other locations.
Figure 11 LAN and WAN
LAN
WAN
5.1.1 What You Can Do in the WAN Screens
• Use the Internet Access Setup screen (Section 5.2 on page 89) to configure
the WAN settings on the ZyXEL Device for Internet access.
• Use the More Connections screen (Section 5.3 on page 95) to set up
additional Internet access connections.
• Use the WAN Backup Setup screen to set up a backup gateway that helps
forward traffic to its destination when the default WAN connection is down.
5.1.2 What You Need to Know About WAN
Encapsulation Method
Encapsulation is used to include data from an upper layer protocol into a lower
layer protocol. To set up a WAN connection to the Internet, you need to use the
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same encapsulation method used by your ISP (Internet Service Provider). If your
ISP offers a dial-up Internet connection using PPPoE (PPP over Ethernet) or PPPoA,
they should also provide a username and password (and service name) for user
authentication.
WAN IP Address
The WAN IP address is an IP address for the ZyXEL Device, which makes it
accessible from an outside network. It is used by the ZyXEL Device to
communicate with other devices in other networks. It can be static (fixed) or
dynamically assigned by the ISP each time the ZyXEL Device tries to access the
Internet.
If your ISP assigns you a static WAN IP address, they should also assign you the
subnet mask and DNS server IP address(es) (and a gateway IP address if you use
the Ethernet or ENET ENCAP encapsulation method).
Multicast
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways - Unicast (1
sender - 1 recipient) or Broadcast (1 sender - everybody on the network).
Multicast delivers IP packets to a group of hosts on the network - not everybody
and not just one.
IGMP
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to
establish membership in a Multicast group - it is not used to carry user data.
There are three versions of IGMP. IGMP version 2 and 3 are improvements over
version 1, but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use.
Finding Out More
See Section 5.5 on page 103 for technical background information on WAN.
5.1.3 Before You Begin
You need to know your Internet access settings such as encapsulation and WAN IP
address. Get this information from your ISP.
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5.2 The Internet Access Setup Screen
Use this screen to change your ZyXEL Device’s WAN settings. Click Network >
Internet (WAN) > Internet Access Setup. The screen differs by the WAN type
and encapsulation you select.
Figure 12 Network > Internet (WAN) >Internet Access Setup (PPPoE)
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 11 Network > Internet (WAN) > Internet Access Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WAN Type
If you have a DSL modem or router in your network already, you can
set the first Ethernet port as the WAN port and connect it to the DSL
modem or router. This way, you can access the Internet via an
Ethernet connection and still use the QoS, Firewall and VoIP functions
on the ZyXEL Device.
Type
Select ADSL to use the DSL port on the ZyXEL Device.
Select Ethernet(ETH1) to set the first Ethernet port as a WAN port.
The DSL port will then be disabled automatically. This allows the
ZyXEL Device to work as an Ethernet gateway, instead of a DSL
router. To access the Internet, connect the first Ethernet port to a
broadband modem or router.
Note: Only LAN1 port can be used as Ethernet WAN port. Make
sure your device is correctly connected.
Note: The ZyXEL Device restarts after you change the setting in
this field and click Apply.
Line
Modulation
Select the modulation supported by your ISP.
Use Multi Mode if you are not sure which mode to choose from. The
ZyXEL Device dynamically diagnoses the mode supported by the ISP
and selects the best compatible one for your connection.
Other options are ADSL G.dmt, ADSL2, ADSL2+, ADSL2 AnnexM,
ADSL2+ AnnexM, READSL2 Mode, ANSI T1.413 and ADSL G.lite.
General
Mode
Select Routing (default) from the drop-down list box if your ISP gives
you one IP address only and you want multiple computers to share an
Internet account. Select Bridge when your ISP provides you more
than one IP address and you want the connected computers to get
individual IP address from ISP’s DHCP server directly. If you select
Bridge, you cannot use Firewall, DHCP server and NAT on the ZyXEL
Device.
Encapsulation
Select the method of encapsulation used by your ISP from the dropdown list box. Choices vary depending on the mode you select in the
Mode field.
If you select Bridge in the Mode field, select either PPPoA or RFC
1483.
If you select Routing in the Mode field, select PPPoA, RFC 1483,
ENET ENCAP or PPPoE.
90
User Name
(PPPoA and PPPoE encapsulation only) Enter the user name exactly as
your ISP assigned. If assigned a name in the form user@domain
where domain identifies a service name, then enter both components
exactly as given.
Password
(PPPoA and PPPoE encapsulation only) Enter the password associated
with the user name above.
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Table 11 Network > Internet (WAN) > Internet Access Setup (continued)
LABEL
Service Name
Multiplexing
DESCRIPTION
(PPPoE only) Type the name of your PPPoE service here.
Select the method of multiplexing used by your ISP from the dropdown list. Choices are VC or LLC.
This field is not available if you set the WAN type to Ethernet.
Virtual Circuit ID
VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) and VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier) define
a virtual circuit. Refer to the appendix for more information.
These fields are not available if you set the WAN type to Ethernet.
VPI
The valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255. Enter the VPI assigned to you.
VCI
The valid range for the VCI is 32 to 65535 (0 to 31 is reserved for
local management of ATM traffic). Enter the VCI assigned to you.
IP Address
This option is available if you select Routing in the Mode field.
A static IP address is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP
address is not fixed; the ISP assigns you a different one each time you
connect to the Internet.
Select Obtain an IP Address Automatically if you have a dynamic
IP address; otherwise select Static IP Address and type your ISP
assigned IP address in the IP Address field below.
DNS Server
First DNS Server
Second DNS
Server
Third DNS Server
Select Obtained From ISP if your ISP dynamically assigns DNS
server information (and the ZyXEL Device's WAN IP address) and you
select Obtain an IP Address Automatically.
Select User-Defined if you have the IP address of a DNS server.
Enter the DNS server's IP address in the field to the right. If you chose
User-Defined, but leave the IP address set to 0.0.0.0, UserDefined changes to None after you click Apply. If you set a second
choice to User-Defined, and enter the same IP address, the second
User-Defined changes to None after you click Apply.
Select None if you do not want to configure DNS servers. You must
have another DNS server on your LAN, or else the computers must
have their DNS server addresses manually configured. If you do not
configure a DNS server, you must know the IP address of a computer
in order to access it.
Connection (PPPoA and PPPoE encapsulation only)
Always On
Select Always On when you want your connection up all the time.
The ZyXEL Device will try to bring up the connection automatically if it
is disconnected.
Instant On
Select Instant On when you don't want the connection up all the
time and specify an idle time-out in the Max Idle Timeout field.
Manual
Select Manual when you don't want the connection up all the time
and specify an idle time-out in the Max Idle Timeout field.
Max Idle Timeout
Specify an idle time-out in the Max Idle Timeout field when you
select Connect on Demand. The default setting is 0, which means
the Internet session will not timeout.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
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Table 11 Network > Internet (WAN) > Internet Access Setup (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
Advanced Setup
Click this to display the Advanced WAN Setup screen and edit more
details of your WAN setup.
5.2.1 Advanced Internet Access Setup
Use this screen to edit your ZyXEL Device's advanced WAN settings. Click the
Advanced Setup button in the Internet Access Setup screen. The screen
appears as shown.
Figure 13 Network > Internet (WAN) > Internet Access Setup: Advanced Setup
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 12 Network > Internet (WAN) > Internet Access Setup: Advanced Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RIP & Multicast
Setup
This section is not available when you configure the ZyXEL Device to
be in bridge mode.
RIP Direction
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) allows a router to exchange
routing information with other routers. Use this field to control how
much routing information the ZyXEL Device sends and receives on the
subnet.
Select the RIP direction from None, Both, In Only and Out Only.
RIP Version
This field is not configurable if you select None in the RIP Direction
field.
Select the RIP version from RIP-1, RIP-2B and RIP-2M.
Multicast
Multicast packets are sent to a group of computers on the LAN and are
an alternative to unicast packets (packets sent to one computer) and
broadcast packets (packets sent to every computer).
Internet Group Multicast Protocol (IGMP) is a network-layer protocol
used to establish membership in a multicast group. The ZyXEL Device
supports IGMP-v1, IGMP-v2 and IGMP-v3. Select None to disable
it.
ATM QoS
ATM QoS Type
Select CBR (Continuous Bit Rate) to specify fixed (always-on)
bandwidth for voice or data traffic. Select UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate)
for applications that are non-time sensitive, such as e-mail. Select
VBR-RT (real-time Variable Bit Rate) type for applications with bursty
connections that require closely controlled delay and delay variation.
Select VBR-nRT (non real-time Variable Bit Rate) type for
connections that do not require closely controlled delay and delay
variation.
Peak Cell Rate
Divide the DSL line rate (bps) by 424 (the size of an ATM cell) to find
the Peak Cell Rate (PCR). This is the maximum rate at which the
sender can send cells. Type the PCR here.
Sustain Cell
Rate
The Sustain Cell Rate (SCR) sets the average cell rate (long-term)
that can be transmitted. Type the SCR, which must be less than the
PCR. Note that system default is 0 cells/sec.
Maximum
Burst Size
Maximum Burst Size (MBS) refers to the maximum number of cells
that can be sent at the peak rate. Type the MBS, which is less than
65535.
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Table 12 Network > Internet (WAN) > Internet Access Setup: Advanced Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PPPoE
Passthrough
(PPPoE
encapsulation
only)
This field is available when you select PPPoE encapsulation.
In addition to the ZyXEL Device's built-in PPPoE client, you can enable
PPPoE pass through to allow up to ten hosts on the LAN to use PPPoE
client software on their computers to connect to the ISP via the ZyXEL
Device. Each host can have a separate account and a public WAN IP
address.
PPPoE pass through is an alternative to NAT for application where NAT
is not appropriate.
Disable PPPoE pass through if you do not need to allow hosts on the
LAN to use PPPoE client software on their computers to connect to the
ISP.
MTU
MTU
The Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) defines the size of the largest
packet allowed on an interface or connection. Enter the MTU in this
field.
For ENET ENCAP, the MTU value is 1500.
For PPPoE, the MTU value is 1492.
For PPPoA and RFC 1483, the MTU is 65535.
Packet Filter
Incoming Filter
Sets
Protocol Filter
Select the protocol filter(s) to control incoming traffic. You may choose
up to 4 sets of filters.
You can configure packet filters in the Packet Filter screen. See
Chapter 11 on page 211 for more details.
Generic Filter
Select the generic filter(s) to control incoming traffic. You may choose
up to 4 sets of filters.
You can configure generic filters in the Packet Filter screen. See
Chapter 11 on page 211 for more details.
Outgoing Filter Sets
Protocol Filter
Select the protocol filter(s) to control outgoing traffic. You may choose
up to 4 sets of filters.
You can configure protocol filters in the Packet Filter screen. See
Chapter 11 on page 211 for more details.
Generic Filter
Select the generic filter(s) to control outgoing traffic. You may choose
up to 4 sets of filters.
You can configure generic filters in the Packet Filter screen. See
Chapter 11 on page 211 for more details.
94
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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Chapter 5 Internet (WAN) Setup
5.3 The More Connections Screen
The ZyXEL Device allows you to configure more than one Internet access
connection. To configure additional Internet access connections click Network >
Internet (WAN) > More Connections. The screen differs by the encapsulation
you select. When you use the Internet (WAN) > Internet Access Setup screen
to set up Internet access, you are configuring the first WAN connection.
Figure 14 Network > Internet (WAN) > More Connections
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 13 Network > Internet (WAN) > More Connections
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is an index number indicating the number of the corresponding
connection.
Active
This field indicates whether the connection is active or not.
Clear the check box to disable the connection. Select the check box to
enable it.
Name
This is the name you gave to the Internet connection.
VPI/VCI
This field displays the Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and Virtual Channel
Identifier (VCI) numbers configured for this WAN connection.
Encapsulation
This field indicates the encapsulation method of the Internet connection.
Modify
The first (ISP) connection is read-only in this screen. Use the Internet
(WAN) > Internet Access Setup screen to edit it.
Click the Edit icon to edit the Internet connection settings. Click this icon
on an empty configuration to add a new Internet access setup.
Click the Remove icon to delete the Internet access setup from your
connection list.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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5.3.1 More Connections Edit
Use this screen to configure a connection. Click the edit icon in the More
Connections screen to display the following screen.
Figure 15 Network > Internet (WAN) > More Connections: Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 14 Network > Internet (WAN) > More Connections: Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
General
96
Active
Select the check box to activate or clear the check box to
deactivate this connection.
Name
Enter a unique, descriptive name of up to 13 ASCII characters for
this connection.
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Table 14 Network > Internet (WAN) > More Connections: Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Mode
Select Routing from the drop-down list box if your ISP allows
multiple computers to share an Internet account.
If you select Bridge, the ZyXEL Device will forward any packet
that it does not route to this remote node; otherwise, the packets
are discarded.
Encapsulation
Select the method of encapsulation used by your ISP from the
drop-down list box. Choices vary depending on the mode you
select in the Mode field.
If you select Bridge in the Mode field, select either PPPoA or
RFC 1483.
If you select Routing in the Mode field, select PPPoA, RFC
1483, ENET ENCAP or PPPoE.
User Name
(PPPoA and PPPoE encapsulation only) Enter the user name
exactly as your ISP assigned. If assigned a name in the form
user@domain where domain identifies a service name, then enter
both components exactly as given.
Password
(PPPoA and PPPoE encapsulation only) Enter the password
associated with the user name above.
Service Name
(PPPoE only) Type the name of your PPPoE service here.
Multiplexing
Select the method of multiplexing used by your ISP from the
drop-down list. Choices are VC or LLC.
By prior agreement, a protocol is assigned a specific virtual
circuit, for example, VC1 will carry IP. If you select VC, specify
separate VPI and VCI numbers for each protocol.
For LLC-based multiplexing or PPP encapsulation, one VC carries
multiple protocols with protocol identifying information being
contained in each packet header. In this case, only one set of VPI
and VCI numbers need be specified for all protocols.
VPI
The valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255. Enter the VPI assigned to
you.
VCI
The valid range for the VCI is 32 to 65535 (0 to 31 is reserved for
local management of ATM traffic). Enter the VCI assigned to you.
IP Address
This option is available if you select Routing in the Mode field.
A static IP address is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A
dynamic IP address is not fixed; the ISP assigns you a different
one each time you connect to the Internet.
If you use the encapsulation type except RFC 1483, select
Obtain an IP Address Automatically when you have a
dynamic IP address; otherwise select Static IP Address and
type your ISP assigned IP address in the IP Address field below.
If you use RFC 1483, enter the IP address given by your ISP in
the IP Address field.
Subnet Mask
This option is available if you select ENET ENCAP in the
Encapsulation field.
Enter a subnet mask in dotted decimal notation.
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Table 14 Network > Internet (WAN) > More Connections: Edit (continued)
LABEL
Gateway IP
address
DESCRIPTION
This option is available if you select ENET ENCAP in the
Encapsulation field.
Specify a gateway IP address (supplied by your ISP).
Connection
Nailed-Up Connection
Select Nailed-Up Connection when you want your connection
up all the time. The ZyXEL Device will try to bring up the
connection automatically if it is disconnected.
Connect on Demand
Select Connect on Demand when you don't want the connection
up all the time and specify an idle time-out in the Max Idle
Timeout field.
Max Idle Timeout
Specify an idle time-out in the Max Idle Timeout field when you
select Connect on Demand. The default setting is 0, which
means the Internet session will not timeout.
NAT
SUA only is available only when you select Routing in the Mode
field.
Select SUA Only if you have one public IP address and want to
use NAT. Click Edit Detail to go to the Port Forwarding screen
to edit a server mapping set.
Otherwise, select None to disable NAT.
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Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
Advanced Setup
Click this to display the More Connections Advanced Setup
screen and edit more details of your WAN setup.
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5.3.2 Configuring More Connections Advanced Setup
Use this screen to edit your ZyXEL Device's advanced WAN settings. Click the
Advanced Setup button in the More Connections Edit screen. The screen
appears as shown.
Figure 16 Network > Internet (WAN) > More Connections: Edit: Advanced Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 15 Network > Internet (WAN) > More Connections: Edit: Advanced Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RIP & Multicast Setup
This section is not available when you configure the ZyXEL Device
to be in bridge mode.
RIP Direction
Select the RIP direction from None, Both, In Only and Out
Only.
RIP Version
Select the RIP version from RIP-1, RIP-2B and RIP-2M.
Multicast
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer
protocol used to establish membership in a multicast group. The
ZyXEL Device supports IGMP-v1, IGMP-v2 and IGMP-v3.
Select None to disable it.
ATM QoS
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Table 15 Network > Internet (WAN) > More Connections: Edit: Advanced Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ATM QoS Type
Select CBR (Continuous Bit Rate) to specify fixed (always-on)
bandwidth for voice or data traffic. Select UBR (Unspecified Bit
Rate) for applications that are non-time sensitive, such as e-mail.
Select VBR-nRT (Variable Bit Rate-non Real Time) or VBR-RT
(Variable Bit Rate-Real Time) for bursty traffic and bandwidth
sharing with other applications.
Peak Cell Rate
Divide the DSL line rate (bps) by 424 (the size of an ATM cell) to
find the Peak Cell Rate (PCR). This is the maximum rate at which
the sender can send cells. Type the PCR here.
Sustain Cell Rate
The Sustain Cell Rate (SCR) sets the average cell rate (long-term)
that can be transmitted. Type the SCR, which must be less than
the PCR. Note that system default is 0 cells/sec.
Maximum Burst Size
Maximum Burst Size (MBS) refers to the maximum number of
cells that can be sent at the peak rate. Type the MBS, which is
less than 65535.
MTU
MTU
The Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) defines the size of the
largest packet allowed on an interface or connection. Enter the
MTU in this field.
For ENET ENCAP, the MTU value is 1500.
For PPPoE, the MTU value is 1492.
For PPPoA and RFC, the MTU is 65535.
Packet Filter
Incoming Filter Sets
Protocol Filter
Select the protocol filter(s) to control incoming traffic. You may
choose up to 4 sets of filters.
You can configure packet filters in the Packet Filter screen. See
Chapter 11 on page 211 for more details.
Generic Filter
Select the generic filter(s) to control incoming traffic. You may
choose up to 4 sets of filters.
You can configure generic filters in the Packet Filter screen. See
Chapter 11 on page 211 for more details.
Outgoing Filter Sets
Protocol Filter
Select the protocol filter(s) to control outgoing traffic. You may
choose up to 4 sets of filters.
You can configure protocol filters in the Packet Filter screen. See
Chapter 11 on page 211 for more details.
Generic Filter
Select the generic filter(s) to control outgoing traffic. You may
choose up to 4 sets of filters.
You can configure generic filters in the Packet Filter screen. See
Chapter 11 on page 211 for more details.
Back
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Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
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Table 15 Network > Internet (WAN) > More Connections: Edit: Advanced Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
5.4 The WAN Backup Setup Screen
Use this screen to configure your ZyXEL Device’s WAN backup. Click Network >
Internet (WAN) > WAN Backup Setup. This screen is not available if you set
the WAN type to Ethernet in the Internet Access Setup screen.
Figure 17 Network > Internet (WAN) > WAN Backup
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 16 Network > Internet (WAN) > WAN Backup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Backup Type
Select the method that the ZyXEL Device uses to check the DSL
connection.
Select DSL Link to have the ZyXEL Device check if the connection
to the DSLAM is up. Select ICMP to have the ZyXEL Device
periodically ping the IP addresses configured in the Check WAN
IP Address fields.
Check WAN IP
Address1-3
Configure this field to test your ZyXEL Device's WAN accessibility.
Type the IP address of a reliable nearby computer (for example,
your ISP's DNS server address).
If you activate either traffic redirect or dial backup, you must
configure at least one IP address here.
When using a WAN backup connection, the ZyXEL Device
periodically pings the addresses configured here and uses the
other WAN backup connection (if configured) if there is no
response.
Fail Tolerance
Type the number of times (2 recommended) that your ZyXEL
Device may ping the IP addresses configured in the Check WAN
IP Address field without getting a response before switching to a
WAN backup connection (or a different WAN backup connection).
Recovery Interval
When the ZyXEL Device is using a lower priority connection
(usually a WAN backup connection), it periodically checks whether
or not it can use a higher priority connection.
Type the number of seconds (30 recommended) for the ZyXEL
Device to wait between checks. Allow more time if your
destination IP address handles lots of traffic.
Timeout
Type the number of seconds (3 recommended) for your ZyXEL
Device to wait for a ping response from one of the IP addresses in
the Check WAN IP Address field before timing out the request.
The WAN connection is considered "down" after the ZyXEL Device
times out the number of times specified in the Fail Tolerance
field. Use a higher value in this field if your network is busy or
congested.
Traffic Redirect
Traffic redirect forwards traffic to a backup gateway when the
ZyXEL Device cannot connect to the Internet.
Active Traffic Redirect
Select this check box to have the ZyXEL Device use traffic redirect
if the normal WAN connection goes down.
Note: If you activate traffic redirect, you must configure at
least one Check WAN IP Address.
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Table 16 Network > Internet (WAN) > WAN Backup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Metric
This field sets this route's priority among the routes the ZyXEL
Device uses.
The metric represents the "cost of transmission". A router
determines the best route for transmission by choosing a path
with the lowest "cost". RIP routing uses hop count as the
measurement of cost, with a minimum of "1" for directly
connected networks. The number must be between "1" and "15";
a number greater than "15" means the link is down. The smaller
the number, the lower the "cost".
Backup Gateway
Type the IP address of your backup gateway in dotted decimal
notation. The ZyXEL Device automatically forwards traffic to this
IP address if the ZyXEL Device's Internet connection terminates.
Apply
Click Apply to save the changes.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
5.5 WAN Technical Reference
This section provides some technical background information about the topics
covered in this chapter.
5.5.1 Encapsulation
Be sure to use the encapsulation method required by your ISP. The ZyXEL Device
supports the following methods.
5.5.1.1 ENET ENCAP
The MAC Encapsulated Routing Link Protocol (ENET ENCAP) is only implemented
with the IP network protocol. IP packets are routed between the Ethernet interface
and the WAN interface and then formatted so that they can be understood in a
bridged environment. For instance, it encapsulates routed Ethernet frames into
bridged ATM cells. ENET ENCAP requires that you specify a gateway IP address in
the Gateway IP Address field in the wizard or WAN screen. You can get this
information from your ISP.
5.5.1.2 PPP over Ethernet
The ZyXEL Device supports PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet). PPPoE is
an IETF Draft standard (RFC 2516) specifying how a personal computer (PC)
interacts with a broadband modem (DSL, cable, wireless, etc.) connection. The
PPPoE option is for a dial-up connection using PPPoE.
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For the service provider, PPPoE offers an access and authentication method that
works with existing access control systems (for example RADIUS).
One of the benefits of PPPoE is the ability to let you access one of multiple network
services, a function known as dynamic service selection. This enables the service
provider to easily create and offer new IP services for individuals.
Operationally, PPPoE saves significant effort for both you and the ISP or carrier, as
it requires no specific configuration of the broadband modem at the customer site.
By implementing PPPoE directly on the ZyXEL Device (rather than individual
computers), the computers on the LAN do not need PPPoE software installed,
since the ZyXEL Device does that part of the task. Furthermore, with NAT, all of
the LANs’ computers will have access.
5.5.1.3 PPPoA
PPPoA stands for Point to Point Protocol over ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5). A
PPPoA connection functions like a dial-up Internet connection. The ZyXEL Device
encapsulates the PPP session based on RFC1483 and sends it through an ATM PVC
(Permanent Virtual Circuit) to the Internet Service Provider’s (ISP) DSLAM (Digital
Subscriber Line (DSL) Access Multiplexer). Please refer to RFC 2364 for more
information on PPPoA. Refer to RFC 1661 for more information on PPP.
5.5.1.4 RFC 1483
RFC 1483 describes two methods for Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM
Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5). The first method allows multiplexing of multiple
protocols over a single ATM virtual circuit (LLC-based multiplexing) and the second
method assumes that each protocol is carried over a separate ATM virtual circuit
(VC-based multiplexing). Please refer to RFC 1483 for more detailed information.
5.5.2 Multiplexing
There are two conventions to identify what protocols the virtual circuit (VC) is
carrying. Be sure to use the multiplexing method required by your ISP.
VC-based Multiplexing
In this case, by prior mutual agreement, each protocol is assigned to a specific
virtual circuit; for example, VC1 carries IP, etc. VC-based multiplexing may be
dominant in environments where dynamic creation of large numbers of ATM VCs is
fast and economical.
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LLC-based Multiplexing
In this case one VC carries multiple protocols with protocol identifying information
being contained in each packet header. Despite the extra bandwidth and
processing overhead, this method may be advantageous if it is not practical to
have a separate VC for each carried protocol, for example, if charging heavily
depends on the number of simultaneous VCs.
5.5.3 VPI and VCI
Be sure to use the correct Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and Virtual Channel
Identifier (VCI) numbers assigned to you. The valid range for the VPI is 0 to 255
and for the VCI is 32 to 65535 (0 to 31 is reserved for local management of ATM
traffic). Please see the appendix for more information.
5.5.4 IP Address Assignment
A static IP is a fixed IP that your ISP gives you. A dynamic IP is not fixed; the ISP
assigns you a different one each time. The Single User Account feature can be
enabled or disabled if you have either a dynamic or static IP. However the
encapsulation method assigned influences your choices for IP address and ENET
ENCAP gateway.
IP Assignment with PPPoA or PPPoE Encapsulation
If you have a dynamic IP, then the IP Address and Gateway IP Address fields
are not applicable (N/A). If you have a static IP, then you only need to fill in the IP
Address field and not the Gateway IP Address field.
IP Assignment with RFC 1483 Encapsulation
In this case the IP address assignment must be static.
IP Assignment with ENET ENCAP Encapsulation
In this case you can have either a static or dynamic IP. For a static IP you must fill
in all the IP Address and Gateway IP Address fields as supplied by your ISP.
However for a dynamic IP, the ZyXEL Device acts as a DHCP client on the WAN
port and so the IP Address and Gateway IP Address fields are not applicable
(N/A) as the DHCP server assigns them to the ZyXEL Device.
5.5.5 Nailed-Up Connection (PPP)
A nailed-up connection is a dial-up line where the connection is always up
regardless of traffic demand. The ZyXEL Device does two things when you specify
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a nailed-up connection. The first is that idle timeout is disabled. The second is that
the ZyXEL Device will try to bring up the connection when turned on and
whenever the connection is down. A nailed-up connection can be very expensive
for obvious reasons.
Do not specify a nailed-up connection unless your telephone company offers flatrate service or you need a constant connection and the cost is of no concern.
5.5.6 NAT
NAT (Network Address Translation - NAT, RFC 1631) is the translation of the IP
address of a host in a packet, for example, the source address of an outgoing
packet, used within one network to a different IP address known within another
network.
5.6 Metric
The metric represents the "cost of transmission". A router determines the best
route for transmission by choosing a path with the lowest "cost". RIP routing uses
hop count as the measurement of cost, with a minimum of "1" for directly
connected networks. The number must be between "1" and "15"; a number
greater than "15" means the link is down. The smaller the number, the lower the
"cost".
The metric sets the priority for the ZyXEL Device’s routes to the Internet. If any
two of the default routes have the same metric, the ZyXEL Device uses the
following pre-defined priorities:
• Normal route: designated by the ISP (see Section 5.2 on page 89)
• Traffic-redirect route (see Section 5.9 on page 109)
For example, if the normal route has a metric of "1" and the traffic-redirect route
has a metric of "2", then the normal route acts as the primary default route. If the
normal route fails to connect to the Internet, the ZyXEL Device tries the trafficredirect route next.
5.7 Traffic Shaping
Traffic Shaping is an agreement between the carrier and the subscriber to regulate
the average rate and fluctuations of data transmission over an ATM network. This
agreement helps eliminate congestion, which is important for transmission of real
time data such as audio and video connections.
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Peak Cell Rate (PCR) is the maximum rate at which the sender can send cells. This
parameter may be lower (but not higher) than the maximum line speed. 1 ATM
cell is 53 bytes (424 bits), so a maximum speed of 832Kbps gives a maximum
PCR of 1962 cells/sec. This rate is not guaranteed because it is dependent on the
line speed.
Sustained Cell Rate (SCR) is the mean cell rate of each bursty traffic source. It
specifies the maximum average rate at which cells can be sent over the virtual
connection. SCR may not be greater than the PCR.
Maximum Burst Size (MBS) is the maximum number of cells that can be sent at
the PCR. After MBS is reached, cell rates fall below SCR until cell rate averages to
the SCR again. At this time, more cells (up to the MBS) can be sent at the PCR
again.
If the PCR, SCR or MBS is set to the default of "0", the system will assign a
maximum value that correlates to your upstream line rate.
The following figure illustrates the relationship between PCR, SCR and MBS.
Figure 18 Example of Traffic Shaping
5.7.1 ATM Traffic Classes
These are the basic ATM traffic classes defined by the ATM Forum Traffic
Management 4.0 Specification.
Constant Bit Rate (CBR)
Constant Bit Rate (CBR) provides fixed bandwidth that is always available even if
no data is being sent. CBR traffic is generally time-sensitive (doesn't tolerate
delay). CBR is used for connections that continuously require a specific amount of
bandwidth. A PCR is specified and if traffic exceeds this rate, cells may be
dropped. Examples of connections that need CBR would be high-resolution video
and voice.
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Variable Bit Rate (VBR)
The Variable Bit Rate (VBR) ATM traffic class is used with bursty connections.
Connections that use the Variable Bit Rate (VBR) traffic class can be grouped into
real time (VBR-RT) or non-real time (VBR-nRT) connections.
The VBR-RT (real-time Variable Bit Rate) type is used with bursty connections that
require closely controlled delay and delay variation. It also provides a fixed
amount of bandwidth (a PCR is specified) but is only available when data is being
sent. An example of an VBR-RT connection would be video conferencing. Video
conferencing requires real-time data transfers and the bandwidth requirement
varies in proportion to the video image's changing dynamics.
The VBR-nRT (non real-time Variable Bit Rate) type is used with bursty
connections that do not require closely controlled delay and delay variation. It is
commonly used for "bursty" traffic typical on LANs. PCR and MBS define the burst
levels, SCR defines the minimum level. An example of an VBR-nRT connection
would be non-time sensitive data file transfers.
Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR)
The Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) ATM traffic class is for bursty data transfers.
However, UBR doesn't guarantee any bandwidth and only delivers traffic when the
network has spare bandwidth. An example application is background file transfer.
5.8 Zero Configuration Internet Access
Once you turn on and connect the ZyXEL Device to a telephone jack, it
automatically detects the Internet connection settings (such as the VCI/VPI
numbers and the encapsulation method) from the ISP and makes the necessary
configuration changes. In cases where additional account information (such as an
Internet account user name and password) is required or the ZyXEL Device cannot
connect to the ISP, you will be redirected to web screen(s) for information input or
troubleshooting.
Zero configuration for Internet access is disabled when
• the ZyXEL Device is in bridge mode
• you set the ZyXEL Device to use a static (fixed) WAN IP address.
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5.9 Traffic Redirect
Traffic redirect forwards traffic to a backup gateway when the ZyXEL Device
cannot connect to the Internet. An example is shown in the figure below.
Figure 19 Traffic Redirect Example
LAN
WAN
Internet
Backup Gateway
The following network topology allows you to avoid triangle route security issues
when the backup gateway is connected to the LAN. Use IP alias to configure the
LAN into two or three logical networks with the ZyXEL Device itself as the gateway
for each LAN network. Put the protected LAN in one subnet (Subnet 1 in the
following figure) and the backup gateway in another subnet (Subnet 2). Configure
filters that allow packets from the protected LAN (Subnet 1) to the backup
gateway (Subnet 2).
Figure 20 Traffic Redirect LAN Setup
Subnet 1
192.168.1.0 - 192.168.1.24
WAN
Internet
LAN
Backup Gateway
Subnet 2
192.168.2.0 - 192.168.2.24
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6
Local Network (LAN) Setup
6.1 Overview
A Local Area Network (LAN) is a shared communication system to which many
networking devices are connected. It is usually located in one immediate area
such as a building or floor of a building.
Use the LAN screens to help you configure a LAN DHCP server and manage IP
addresses.
LAN
DSL
6.1.1 What You Can Do in the LAN Screens
• Use the LAN IP screen (Section 6.2 on page 113) to set the LAN IP address and
subnet mask of your ZyXEL device. You can also edit your ZyXEL Device's RIP,
multicast, any IP and Windows Networking settings from this screen.
• Use the DHCP Setup screen (Section 6.3 on page 116) to configure the ZyXEL
Device’s DHCP settings.
• Use the Client List screen (Section 6.4 on page 118) to assign IP addresses on
the LAN to specific individual computers based on their MAC Addresses.
• Use the IP Alias screen (Section 6.5 on page 119) to change your ZyXEL
Device’s IP alias settings.
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6.1.2 What You Need To Know About LAN
IP Address
IP addresses identify individual devices on a network. Every networking device
(including computers, servers, routers, printers, etc.) needs an IP address to
communicate across the network. These networking devices are also known as
hosts.
Subnet Mask
Subnet masks determine the maximum number of possible hosts on a network.
You can also use subnet masks to divide one network into multiple sub-networks.
DHCP
A DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server can assign your ZyXEL
Device an IP address, subnet mask, DNS and other routing information when it's
turned on.
RIP
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) allows a router to exchange routing
information with other routers.
Multicast
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways - Unicast (1
sender - 1 recipient) or Broadcast (1 sender - everybody on the network).
Multicast delivers IP packets to a group of hosts on the network - not everybody
and not just 1.
IGMP
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to
establish membership in a Multicast group - it is not used to carry user data.
There are three versions of IGMP. IGMP version 2 and 3 are improvements over
version 1, but IGMP version 1 is still in wide use.
DNS
DNS (Domain Name System) is for mapping a domain name to its corresponding
IP address and vice versa. The DNS server is extremely important because
without it, you must know the IP address of a networking device before you can
access it.
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Finding Out More
See Section 6.6 on page 121 for technical background information on LANs.
6.1.3 Before You Begin
Find out the MAC addresses of your network devices if you intend to add them to
the DHCP Client List screen.
6.2 The LAN IP Screen
Use this screen to set the Local Area Network IP address and subnet mask of your
ZyXEL Device. Click Network > Local Network (LAN) to open the IP screen.
Follow these steps to configure your LAN settings.
1
Enter an IP address into the IP Address field. The IP address must be in dotted
decimal notation. This will become the IP address of your ZyXEL Device.
2
Enter the IP subnet mask into the IP Subnet Mask field. Unless instructed
otherwise it is best to leave this alone, the configurator will automatically compute
a subnet mask based upon the IP address you entered.
3
Click Apply to save your settings.
Figure 21 Network > Local Network (LAN) > IP
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 17 Network > Local Network (LAN) > IP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
Enter the LAN IP address you want to assign to your ZyXEL Device in
dotted decimal notation, for example, 192.168.1.254 (factory default).
IP Subnet Mask
Type the subnet mask of your network in dotted decimal notation, for
example 255.255.255.0 (factory default). Your ZyXEL Device
automatically computes the subnet mask based on the IP Address you
enter, so do not change this field unless you are instructed to do so.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
Advanced Setup
Click this to display the Advanced LAN Setup screen and edit more
details of your LAN setup.
6.2.1 The Advanced LAN IP Setup Screen
Use this screen to edit your ZyXEL Device’s RIP, multicast, Any IP and Windows
Networking settings. Click the Advanced Setup button in the LAN IP screen. The
screen appears as shown.
Figure 22 Network > Local Network (LAN) > IP: Advanced Setup
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 18 Network > Local Network (LAN) > IP: Advanced Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RIP & Multicast Setup
RIP Direction
Select the RIP direction from None, Both, In Only and Out Only.
RIP Version
Select the RIP version from RIP-1, RIP-2B and RIP-2M.
Multicast
IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol
used to establish membership in a multicast group. The ZyXEL Device
supports IGMP-v1, IGMP-v2 and IGMP-v3. Select None to disable
it.
Any IP Setup
Select the Active check box to enable the Any IP feature. This allows
a computer to access the Internet via the ZyXEL Device without
changing the network settings (such as IP address and subnet mask)
of the computer, even when the IP addresses of the computer and the
ZyXEL Device are not in the same subnet.
When you disable the Any IP feature, only computers with dynamic IP
addresses or static IP addresses in the same subnet as the ZyXEL
Device’s LAN IP address can connect to the ZyXEL Device or access
the Internet through the ZyXEL Device.
Note: You must enable NAT/SUA in the NAT screen to use the
Any IP feature on the ZyXEL Device.
Windows
Networking
(NetBIOS over
TCP/IP)
NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) are TCP or UDP
packets that enable a computer to connect to and communicate with
a LAN. For some dial-up services such as PPPoE or PPTP, NetBIOS
packets cause unwanted calls. However it may sometimes be
necessary to allow NetBIOS packets to pass through to the WAN in
order to find a computer on the WAN.
Allow between
LAN and WAN
Select this check box to forward NetBIOS packets from the LAN to the
WAN and from the WAN to the LAN. If your firewall is enabled with
the default policy set to block WAN to LAN traffic, you also need to
enable the default WAN to LAN firewall rule that forwards NetBIOS
traffic.
Clear this check box to block all NetBIOS packets going from the LAN
to the WAN and from the WAN to the LAN.
Packet Filter
Incoming Filter
Sets
Protocol Filter
Select the protocol filter(s) to control incoming traffic. You may
choose up to 4 sets of filters.
You can configure packet filters in the Packet Filter screen. See
Chapter 11 on page 211 for more details.
Generic Filter
Select the generic filter(s) to control incoming traffic. You may choose
up to 4 sets of filters.
You can configure generic filters in the Packet Filter screen. See
Chapter 11 on page 211 for more details.
Outgoing Filter
Sets
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Table 18 Network > Local Network (LAN) > IP: Advanced Setup
LABEL
Protocol Filter
DESCRIPTION
Select the protocol filter(s) to control outgoing traffic. You may
choose up to 4 sets of filters.
You can configure protocol filters in the Packet Filter screen. See
Chapter 11 on page 211 for more details.
Generic Filter
Select the generic filter(s) to control outgoing traffic. You may choose
up to 4 sets of filters.
You can configure generic filters in the Packet Filter screen. See
Chapter 11 on page 211 for more details.
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
6.3 The DHCP Setup Screen
Use this screen to configure the DNS server information that the ZyXEL Device
sends to the DHCP client devices on the LAN. Click Network > DHCP Setup to
open this screen.
Figure 23 Network > Local Network (LAN) > DHCP Setup
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 19 Network > Local Network (LAN) > DHCP Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DHCP Setup
DHCP
If set to Server, your ZyXEL Device can assign IP addresses, an IP
default gateway and DNS servers to Windows 95, Windows NT and
other systems that support the DHCP client.
If set to None, the DHCP server will be disabled.
If set to Relay, the ZyXEL Device acts as a surrogate DHCP server
and relays DHCP requests and responses between the remote server
and the clients. Enter the IP address of the actual, remote DHCP
server in the Remote DHCP Server field in this case.
When DHCP is used, the following items need to be set:
IP Pool Starting
Address
This field specifies the first of the contiguous addresses in the IP
address pool.
Pool Size
This field specifies the size, or count of the IP address pool.
Remote DHCP
Server
If Relay is selected in the DHCP field above then enter the IP
address of the actual remote DHCP server here.
Lease Time
You can assign the DHCP lease time by entering the seconds
manually. The lease time must be 10 seconds or more.
DNS Server
DNS Servers
Assigned by DHCP
Server
The ZyXEL Device passes a DNS (Domain Name System) server IP
address to the DHCP clients.
First DNS Server
Select Obtained From ISP if your ISP dynamically assigns DNS
server information (and the ZyXEL Device's WAN IP address).
Second DNS
Server
Third DNS Server
Select User-Defined if you have the IP address of a DNS server.
Enter the DNS server's IP address in the field to the right. If you
chose User-Defined, but leave the IP address set to 0.0.0.0, UserDefined changes to None after you click Apply. If you set a second
choice to User-Defined, and enter the same IP address, the second
User-Defined changes to None after you click Apply.
Select DNS Relay to have the ZyXEL Device act as a DNS proxy only
when the ISP uses IPCP DNS server extensions. The ZyXEL Device's
LAN IP address displays in the field to the right (read-only). The
ZyXEL Device tells the DHCP clients on the LAN that the ZyXEL Device
itself is the DNS server. When a computer on the LAN sends a DNS
query to the ZyXEL Device, the ZyXEL Device forwards the query to
the real DNS server learned through IPCP and relays the response
back to the computer. You can only select DNS Relay for one of the
three servers; if you select DNS Relay for a second or third DNS
server, that choice changes to None after you click Apply.
Select None if you do not want to configure DNS servers. You must
have another DHCP sever on your LAN, or else the computers must
have their DNS server addresses manually configured. If you do not
configure a DNS server, you must know the IP address of a computer
in order to access it.
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Table 19 Network > Local Network (LAN) > DHCP Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
6.4 The Client List Screen
This table allows you to assign IP addresses on the LAN to specific individual
computers based on their MAC Addresses.
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC
address is assigned at the factory and consists of six pairs of hexadecimal
characters, for example, 00:A0:C5:00:00:02.
Use this screen to change your ZyXEL Device’s static DHCP settings. Click
Network > Local Network (LAN) > Client List to open the following screen.
Figure 24 Network > Local Network (LAN) > Client List
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 20 Network > Local Network (LAN) > Client List
118
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Address
Enter the IP address that you want to assign to the computer on your
LAN with the MAC address that you will also specify.
MAC Address
Enter the MAC address of a computer on your LAN.
Add
Click this to add a static DHCP entry.
#
This is the index number of the static IP table entry (row).
Status
This field displays whether the client is connected to the ZyXEL Device.
Host Name
This field displays the computer host name.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address relative to the # field listed above.
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Table 20 Network > Local Network (LAN) > Client List
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
MAC Address
The MAC (Media Access Control) or Ethernet address on a LAN (Local
Area Network) is unique to your computer (six pairs of hexadecimal
notation).
A network interface card such as an Ethernet adapter has a hardwired
address that is assigned at the factory. This address follows an industry
standard that ensures no other adapter has a similar address.
Reserve
Select the check box in the heading row to automatically select all
check boxes or select the check box(es) in each entry to have the
ZyXEL Device always assign the selected entry(ies)’s IP address(es) to
the corresponding MAC address(es) (and host name(s)). You can select
up to 10 entries in this table.
Modify
Click the modify icon to have the IP address field editable and change
it.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
Refresh
Click this to reload the DHCP table.
6.5 The IP Alias Screen
IP alias allows you to partition a physical network into different logical networks
over the same Ethernet interface. The ZyXEL Device supports three logical LAN
interfaces via its single physical Ethernet interface with the ZyXEL Device itself as
the gateway for each LAN network.
When you use IP alias, you can also configure firewall rules to control access
between the LAN's logical networks (subnets).
Note: Make sure that the subnets of the logical networks do not overlap.
The following figure shows a LAN divided into subnets A, B, and C.
Figure 25 Physical Network & Partitioned Logical Networks
A: 192.168.1.1 - 192.168.1.24
Ethernet
Interface
B: 192.168.2.1 - 192.168.2.24
C: 192.168.3.1 - 192.168.3.24
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6.5.1 Configuring the LAN IP Alias Screen
Use this screen to change your ZyXEL Device’s IP alias settings. Click Network >
Local Network (LAN) > IP Alias to open the following screen.
Figure 26 Network > Local Network (LAN) > IP Alias
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 21 Network > Local Network (LAN) > IP Alias
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
IP Alias 1, 2
Select the check box to configure another LAN network for the ZyXEL
Device.
IP Address
Enter the IP address of your ZyXEL Device in dotted decimal notation.
Alternatively, click the right mouse button to copy and/or paste the IP
address.
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IP Subnet Mask
Your ZyXEL Device will automatically calculate the subnet mask based
on the IP address that you assign. Unless you are implementing
subnetting, use the subnet mask computed by the ZyXEL Device.
RIP Direction
RIP (Routing Information Protocol, RFC 1058 and RFC 1389) allows a
router to exchange routing information with other routers. The RIP
Direction field controls the sending and receiving of RIP packets.
Select the RIP direction from Both/In Only/Out Only/None. When
set to Both or Out Only, the ZyXEL Device will broadcast its routing
table periodically. When set to Both or In Only, it will incorporate the
RIP information that it receives; when set to None, it will not send any
RIP packets and will ignore any RIP packets received.
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Table 21 Network > Local Network (LAN) > IP Alias
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RIP Version
The RIP Version field controls the format and the broadcasting
method of the RIP packets that the ZyXEL Device sends (it recognizes
both formats when receiving). RIP-1 is universally supported but RIP-2
carries more information. RIP-1 is probably adequate for most
networks, unless you have an unusual network topology. Both RIP-2B
and RIP-2M sends the routing data in RIP-2 format; the difference
being that RIP-2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses
multicasting. Multicasting can reduce the load on non-router machines
since they generally do not listen to the RIP multicast address and so
will not receive the RIP packets. However, if one router uses
multicasting, then all routers on your network must use multicasting,
also. By default, RIP direction is set to Both and the Version set to
RIP-1.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
6.6 LAN Technical Reference
This section provides some technical background information about the topics
covered in this chapter.
6.6.1
LANs, WANs and the ZyXEL Device
The actual physical connection determines whether the ZyXEL Device ports are
LAN or WAN ports. There are two separate IP networks, one inside the LAN
network and the other outside the WAN network as shown next.
Figure 27 LAN and WAN IP Addresses
LAN
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6.6.2 DHCP Setup
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, RFC 2131 and RFC 2132) allows
individual clients to obtain TCP/IP configuration at start-up from a server. You can
configure the ZyXEL Device as a DHCP server or disable it. When configured as a
server, the ZyXEL Device provides the TCP/IP configuration for the clients. If you
turn DHCP service off, you must have another DHCP server on your LAN, or else
the computer must be manually configured.
IP Pool Setup
The ZyXEL Device is pre-configured with a pool of IP addresses for the DHCP
clients (DHCP Pool). See the product specifications in the appendices. Do not
assign static IP addresses from the DHCP pool to your LAN computers.
6.6.3 DNS Server Addresses
DNS (Domain Name System) maps a domain name to its corresponding IP
address and vice versa. The DNS server is extremely important because without
it, you must know the IP address of a computer before you can access it. The DNS
server addresses you enter when you set up DHCP are passed to the client
machines along with the assigned IP address and subnet mask.
There are two ways that an ISP disseminates the DNS server addresses.
• The ISP tells you the DNS server addresses, usually in the form of an
information sheet, when you sign up. If your ISP gives you DNS server
addresses, enter them in the DNS Server fields in the DHCP Setup screen.
• Some ISPs choose to disseminate the DNS server addresses using the DNS
server extensions of IPCP (IP Control Protocol) after the connection is up. If
your ISP did not give you explicit DNS servers, chances are the DNS servers are
conveyed through IPCP negotiation. The ZyXEL Device supports the IPCP DNS
server extensions through the DNS proxy feature.
If the DNS Server fields in the DHCP Setup screen are set to DNS Relay, the
ZyXEL Device tells the DHCP clients that it itself is the DNS server. When a
computer sends a DNS query to the ZyXEL Device, the ZyXEL Device acts as a
DNS proxy and forwards the query to the real DNS server learned through IPCP
and relays the response back to the computer.
Please note that DNS proxy works only when the ISP uses the IPCP DNS server
extensions. It does not mean you can leave the DNS servers out of the DHCP
setup under all circumstances. If your ISP gives you explicit DNS servers, make
sure that you enter their IP addresses in the DHCP Setup screen.
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6.6.4 LAN TCP/IP
The ZyXEL Device has built-in DHCP server capability that assigns IP addresses
and DNS servers to systems that support DHCP client capability.
IP Address and Subnet Mask
Similar to the way houses on a street share a common street name, so too do
computers on a LAN share one common network number.
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If
the ISP or your network administrator assigns you a block of registered IP
addresses, follow their instructions in selecting the IP addresses and the subnet
mask.
If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you
have a single user account and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when
the connection is established. If this is the case, it is recommended that you select
a network number from 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.0 and you must enable the
Network Address Translation (NAT) feature of the ZyXEL Device. The Internet
Assigned Number Authority (IANA) reserved this block of addresses specifically for
private use; please do not use any other number unless you are told otherwise.
Let's say you select 192.168.1.0 as the network number; which covers 254
individual addresses, from 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.254 (zero and 255 are
reserved). In other words, the first three numbers specify the network number
while the last number identifies an individual computer on that network.
Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address that is easy to
remember, for instance, 192.168.1.1, for your ZyXEL Device, but make sure that
no other device on your network is using that IP address.
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your
ZyXEL Device will compute the subnet mask automatically based on the IP
address that you entered. You don't need to change the subnet mask computed by
the ZyXEL Device unless you are instructed to do otherwise.
Private IP Addresses
Every machine on the Internet must have a unique address. If your networks are
isolated from the Internet, for example, only between your two branch offices, you
can assign any IP addresses to the hosts without problems. However, the Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of IP
addresses specifically for private networks:
• 10.0.0.0
• 172.16.0.0
— 10.255.255.255
— 172.31.255.255
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• 192.168.0.0 — 192.168.255.255
You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP or it can be assigned
from a private network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet
access is through an ISP, the ISP can provide you with the Internet addresses for
your local networks. On the other hand, if you are part of a much larger
organization, you should consult your network administrator for the appropriate IP
addresses.
Note: Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address;
always follow the guidelines above. For more information on address
assignment, please refer to RFC 1597, “Address Allocation for Private
Internets” and RFC 1466, “Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space”.
6.6.5 RIP Setup
RIP (Routing Information Protocol) allows a router to exchange routing
information with other routers. The RIP Direction field controls the sending and
receiving of RIP packets. When set to:
• Both - the ZyXEL Device will broadcast its routing table periodically and
incorporate the RIP information that it receives.
• In Only - the ZyXEL Device will not send any RIP packets but will accept all RIP
packets received.
• Out Only - the ZyXEL Device will send out RIP packets but will not accept any
RIP packets received.
• None - the ZyXEL Device will not send any RIP packets and will ignore any RIP
packets received.
The Version field controls the format and the broadcasting method of the RIP
packets that the ZyXEL Device sends (it recognizes both formats when receiving).
RIP-1 is universally supported; but RIP-2 carries more information. RIP-1 is
probably adequate for most networks, unless you have an unusual network
topology.
Both RIP-2B and RIP-2M sends the routing data in RIP-2 format; the difference
being that RIP-2B uses subnet broadcasting while RIP-2M uses multicasting.
6.6.6 Multicast
Traditionally, IP packets are transmitted in one of either two ways - Unicast (1
sender - 1 recipient) or Broadcast (1 sender - everybody on the network).
Multicast delivers IP packets to a group of hosts on the network - not everybody
and not just 1.
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IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol) is a network-layer protocol used to
establish membership in a Multicast group - it is not used to carry user data. IGMP
version 2 (RFC 2236) is an improvement over version 1 (RFC 1112) but IGMP
version 1 is still in wide use. IGMP version 3 supports source filtering, reporting or
ignoring traffic from specific source address to a particular host on the network. If
you would like to read more detailed information about interoperability between
IGMP version 2 and version 1, please see sections 4 and 5 of RFC 2236. The class
D IP address is used to identify host groups and can be in the range 224.0.0.0 to
239.255.255.255. The address 224.0.0.0 is not assigned to any group and is used
by IP multicast computers. The address 224.0.0.1 is used for query messages and
is assigned to the permanent group of all IP hosts (including gateways). All hosts
must join the 224.0.0.1 group in order to participate in IGMP. The address
224.0.0.2 is assigned to the multicast routers group.
The ZyXEL Device supports IGMP version 1 (IGMP-v1), IGMP version 2 (IGMPv2) and IGMP version 3 (IGMP-v3). At start up, the ZyXEL Device queries all
directly connected networks to gather group membership. After that, the ZyXEL
Device periodically updates this information. IP multicasting can be enabled/
disabled on the ZyXEL Device LAN and/or WAN interfaces in the web configurator
(LAN; WAN). Select None to disable IP multicasting on these interfaces.
6.6.7 Any IP
Traditionally, you must set the IP addresses and the subnet masks of a computer
and the ZyXEL Device to be in the same subnet to allow the computer to access
the Internet (through the ZyXEL Device). In cases where your computer is
required to use a static IP address in another network, you may need to manually
configure the network settings of the computer every time you want to access the
Internet via the ZyXEL Device.
With the Any IP feature and NAT enabled, the ZyXEL Device allows a computer to
access the Internet without changing the network settings (such as IP address and
subnet mask) of the computer, when the IP addresses of the computer and the
ZyXEL Device are not in the same subnet. Whether a computer is set to use a
dynamic or static (fixed) IP address, you can simply connect the computer to the
ZyXEL Device and access the Internet.
The following figure depicts a scenario where a computer is set to use a static
private IP address in the corporate environment. In a residential house where a
ZyXEL Device is installed, you can still use the computer to access the Internet
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without changing the network settings, even when the IP addresses of the
computer and the ZyXEL Device are not in the same subnet.
Figure 28 Any IP Example
192.168.10.1
192.168.10.1
192.168.1.1
The Any IP feature does not apply to a computer using either a dynamic IP
address or a static IP address that is in the same subnet as the ZyXEL Device’s IP
address.
Note: You must enable NAT/SUA to use the Any IP feature on the ZyXEL Device.
How Any IP Works
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a protocol for mapping an Internet Protocol
address (IP address) to a physical machine address, also known as a Media Access
Control or MAC address, on the local area network. IP routing table is defined on
IP Ethernet devices (the ZyXEL Device) to decide which hop to use, to help
forward data along to its specified destination.
The following lists out the steps taken, when a computer tries to access the
Internet for the first time through the ZyXEL Device.
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1
When a computer (which is in a different subnet) first attempts to access the
Internet, it sends packets to its default gateway (which is not the ZyXEL Device)
by looking at the MAC address in its ARP table.
2
When the computer cannot locate the default gateway, an ARP request is
broadcast on the LAN.
3
The ZyXEL Device receives the ARP request and replies to the computer with its
own MAC address.
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4
The computer updates the MAC address for the default gateway to the ARP table.
Once the ARP table is updated, the computer is able to access the Internet
through the ZyXEL Device.
5
When the ZyXEL Device receives packets from the computer, it creates an entry in
the IP routing table so it can properly forward packets intended for the computer.
After all the routing information is updated, the computer can access the ZyXEL
Device and the Internet as if it is in the same subnet as the ZyXEL Device.
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7
Wireless LAN
7.1 Overview
This chapter describes how to perform tasks related to setting up and optimizing
your wireless network, including the following.
• Turning the wireless connection on or off.
• Configuring a name, wireless channel and security for the network.
• Using WiFi Protected Setup (WPS) to configure your wireless network.
• Setting up multiple wireless networks.
• Using a MAC (Media Access Control) address filter to restrict access to the
wireless network.
• Setting up a Wireless Distribution System (WDS).
• Performing other performance-related wireless tasks.
7.1.1 What You Can Do in the Wireless LAN Screens
This section describes the ZyXEL Device’s Network > Wireless LAN screens. Use
these screens to set up your ZyXEL Device’s wireless connection.
• Use the AP screen (see Section 7.2 on page 131) to turn the wireless
connection on or off, set up wireless security, configure the MAC filter, and make
other basic configuration changes.
• Use the More AP screen (see Section 7.3 on page 140) to set up multiple
wireless networks on your ZyXEL Device.
• Use the WPS screen (see Section 7.4 on page 143) to enable or disable WPS,
generate a security PIN (Personal Identification Number) and see information
about the ZyXEL Device’s WPS status.
• Use the WPS Station (see Section 7.5 on page 144) screen to set up WPS by
pressing a button or using a PIN.
• Use the WDS screen (see Section 7.6 on page 145) to set up a Wireless
Distribution System, in which the ZyXEL Device acts as a bridge with other
ZyXEL access points.
• Use the Scheduling screen (see Section 7.7 on page 147) to configure the
dates/times to enable or disable the wireless LAN.
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You don’t necessarily need to use all these screens to set up your wireless
connection. For example, you may just want to set up a network name, a wireless
radio channel and security in the AP screen.
7.1.2 What You Need to Know About Wireless
Wireless Basics
“Wireless” is essentially radio communication. In the same way that walkie-talkie
radios send and receive information over the airwaves, wireless networking
devices exchange information with one another. A wireless networking device is
just like a radio that lets your computer exchange information with radios
attached to other computers. Like walkie-talkies, most wireless networking
devices operate at radio frequency bands that are open to the public and do not
require a license to use. However, wireless networking is different from that of
most traditional radio communications in that there a number of wireless
networking standards available with different methods of data encryption.
SSID
Each network must have a name, referred to as the SSID - “Service Set
IDentifier”. The “service set” is the network, so the “service set identifier” is the
network’s name. This helps you identify your wireless network when wireless
networks’ coverage areas overlap and you have a variety of networks to choose
from.
MAC Address Filter
Every Ethernet device has a unique MAC (Media Access Control) address. The MAC
address consists of twelve hexadecimal characters (0-9, and A to F), and it is
usually written in the following format: “0A:A0:00:BB:CC:DD”.
The MAC address filter controls access to the wireless network. You can use the
MAC address of each wireless client to allow or deny access to the wireless
network.
Finding Out More
See Section 7.8 on page 147 for advanced technical information on wireless
networks.
7.1.3 Before You Start
Before you start using these screens, ask yourself the following questions. See
Section 7.1.2 on page 130 if some of the terms used here are not familiar to you.
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• What wireless standards do the other wireless devices in your network support
(IEEE 802.11g, for example)? What is the most appropriate standard to use?
• What security options do the other wireless devices in your network support
(WPA-PSK, for example)? What is the strongest security option supported by all
the devices in your network?
• Do the other wireless devices in your network support WPS (Wi-Fi Protected
Setup)? If so, you can set up a well-secured network very easily.
Even if some of your devices support WPS and some do not, you can use WPS to
set up your network and then add the non-WPS devices manually, although this
is somewhat more complicated to do.
• What advanced options do you want to configure, if any? If you want to
configure advanced options such as Quality of Service, ensure that you know
precisely what you want to do. If you do not want to configure advanced
options, leave them as they are.
7.2 The AP Screen
Use this screen to configure the wireless settings of your ZyXEL Device. Click
Network > Wireless LAN to open the AP screen.
Figure 29 Network > Wireless LAN > AP
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 22 Network > Wireless LAN > AP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Wireless Setup
Active
Wireless LAN
Click the check box to activate wireless LAN.
Auto-Scan
Channel
Select this option to have the ZyXEL Device automatically scan for and
select a channel which is not used by another device.
Channel
Selection
Set the operating frequency/channel depending on your particular region.
Click the Scan button to list available channels and then select a channel
from the drop-down list box.
Common Setup
Network
Name (SSID)
The SSID (Service Set IDentity) identifies the service set with which a
wireless device is associated. Wireless devices associating to the access
point (AP) must have the same SSID. The default SSID is dependent on
the ZyXEL Device’s MAC address and is in the format eircomxxxxxxxx for
example, eircom07390946. This will be printed on a label on the bottom of
the device. If you want to change it, enter a descriptive name (up to 32
printable 7-bit ASCII characters) for the wireless LAN.
Note: If you are configuring the ZyXEL Device from a computer
connected to the wireless LAN and you change the ZyXEL
Device’s SSID or security settings, you will lose your wireless
connection when you press Apply to confirm. You must then
change the wireless settings of your computer to match the
ZyXEL Device’s new settings.
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Hide SSID
Select this check box to hide the SSID in the outgoing beacon frame so a
station cannot obtain the SSID through scanning using a site survey tool.
Security
Mode
See the following sections for more details about this field.
MAC Filter
This shows whether the wireless devices with the MAC addresses listed are
allowed or denied to access the ZyXEL Device using this SSID.
Edit
Click this to go to the MAC Filter screen to configure MAC filter settings.
See Section 7.2.6 on page 139 for more details.
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Table 22 Network > Wireless LAN > AP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
QoS
This shows whether Quality of Service (QoS) is activated or the priority
level for wireless traffic with this SSID. Select a priority level from the
drop-down list box. Choices are None, Default, Highest, High, Middle
and Low.
Select None to disable QoS.
Select Default to have the ZyXEL Device automatically give traffic a
priority level according to the ToS value in the IP header of packets it
sends. Wifi MultiMedia Quality of Service (WMM QoS) gives high priority to
voice and video, which makes them run more smoothly.
Highest - Typically used for voice or video that should be high-quality.
High - Typically used for voice or video that can be medium-quality.
Middle - Typically used for applications that do not fit into another
priority. For example, Internet surfing.
Low - Typically used for non-critical “background” applications, such as
large file transfers and print jobs that should not affect other applications.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
Advanced
Setup
Click this to display the Wireless Advanced Setup screen and edit more
details of your WLAN setup. See Section 7.2.5 on page 138 for more
details.
7.2.1 No Security
In the Network > Wireless LAN > AP screen, select No Security from the
Security Mode list to allow wireless devices to communicate with the ZyXEL
Device without any data encryption or authentication.
Note: If you do not enable any wireless security on your ZyXEL Device, your network
is accessible to any wireless networking device that is within range.
Figure 30 Network > Wireless LAN > AP: No Security
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 23 Network > Wireless LAN > AP: No Security
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security
Mode
Choose No Security from the drop-down list box.
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7.2.2 WEP Encryption
Use this screen to configure and enable WEP encryption. Click Network >
Wireless LAN to display the AP screen. Select Static WEP from the Security
Mode list.
Note: WEP is extremely insecure. Its encryption can be broken by an attacker, using
widely-available software. It is strongly recommended that you use a more
effective security mechanism. Use the strongest security mechanism that all the
wireless devices in your network support. For example, use WPA-PSK or
WPA2-PSK if all your wireless devices support it, or use WPA or WPA2 if your
wireless devices support it and you have a RADIUS server. If your wireless
devices support nothing stronger than WEP, use the highest encryption level
available.
Figure 31 Network > Wireless LAN > AP: Static WEP
The following table describes the wireless LAN security labels in this screen.
Table 24 Network > Wireless LAN > AP: Static WEP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security
Mode
Choose Static WEP from the drop-down list box.
Passphrase
Type a pre-shared key from 8 to 63 case-sensitive ASCII characters
(including spaces and symbols) and click Generate. The ZyXEL Device
automatically generates a 40-bit WEP key.
WEP Key
The WEP key is used to encrypt data. Both the ZyXEL Device and the
wireless stations must use the same WEP key for data transmission.
If you want to manually set the WEP key, enter any 5 (64-bit) or 13 (128bit) characters (ASCII string) or 10 or 26 hexadecimal characters ("0-9",
lowercase "a-f") for a 64-bit or 128-bit WEP key respectively.
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7.2.3 WPA(2)-PSK
Use this screen to configure and enable WPA(2)-PSK authentication. Click
Network > Wireless LAN to display the AP screen. Select WPA-PSK or WPA2PSK from the Security Mode list.
Figure 32 Network > Wireless LAN > AP: WPA(2)-PSK
The following table describes the wireless LAN security labels in this screen.
Table 25 Network > Wireless LAN > AP: WPA(2)-PSK
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security Mode
Choose WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK from the drop-down list box.
WPA Compatible
This check box is available only when you select WPA2-PSK or WPA2
in the Security Mode field.
Select the check box to have both WPA-PSK and WPA wireless clients
be able to communicate with the ZyXEL Device even when the ZyXEL
Device is using WPA2-PSK or WPA2.
Pre-Shared Key
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA(2) and WPA(2)-PSK are
the same. The only difference between the two is that WPA(2)-PSK
uses a simple common password, instead of user-specific credentials.
Type a pre-shared key from 8 to 63 case-sensitive ASCII characters
(including spaces and symbols).
ReAuthentication
Timer
Specify how often wireless stations have to resend usernames and
passwords in order to stay connected. Enter a time interval between
10 and 9999 seconds. The default time interval is 1800 seconds (30
minutes).
Note: If wireless station authentication is done using a RADIUS
server, the reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has
priority.
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Table 25 Network > Wireless LAN > AP: WPA(2)-PSK
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Idle Timeout
The ZyXEL Device automatically disconnects a wireless station from
the wired network after a period of inactivity. The wireless station
needs to enter the username and password again before access to the
wired network is allowed. The default time interval is 3600 seconds (or
1 hour).
Group Key
Update Timer
The Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP (if using
WPA(2)-PSK key management) or RADIUS server (if using WPA(2)
key management) sends a new group key out to all clients. The rekeying process is the WPA(2) equivalent of automatically changing the
WEP key for an AP and all stations in a WLAN on a periodic basis.
7.2.4 WPA(2) Authentication
Use this screen to configure and enable WPA or WPA2 authentication. Click the
Wireless LAN link under Network to display the AP screen. Select WPA, WPA2
or WPAMixed from the Security Mode list.
Figure 33 Network > Wireless LAN > AP: WPA(2)
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The following table describes the wireless LAN security labels in this screen.
Table 26 Network > Wireless LAN > AP: WPA(2)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Security Mode
Choose WPA or WPA2 from the drop-down list box.
WPA Compatible
This check box is available only when you select WPA2-PSK or WPA2
in the Security Mode field.
Select the check box to have both WPA-PSK and WPA wireless clients
be able to communicate with the ZyXEL Device even when the ZyXEL
Device is using WPA2-PSK or WPA2.
ReAuthentication
Timer
Specify how often wireless stations have to resend usernames and
passwords in order to stay connected. Enter a time interval between
10 and 9999 seconds. The default time interval is 1800 seconds (30
minutes).
Note: If wireless station authentication is done using a RADIUS
server, the reauthentication timer on the RADIUS server has
priority.
Idle Timeout
The ZyXEL Device automatically disconnects a wireless station from
the wired network after a period of inactivity. The wireless station
needs to enter the username and password again before access to the
wired network is allowed. The default time interval is 3600 seconds (or
1 hour).
Group Key
Update Timer
The Group Key Update Timer is the rate at which the AP (if using
WPA(2)-PSK key management) or RADIUS server (if using WPA(2)
key management) sends a new group key out to all clients. The rekeying process is the WPA(2) equivalent of automatically changing the
WEP key for an AP and all stations in a WLAN on a periodic basis.
Authentication Server
IP Address
Enter the IP address of the external authentication server in dotted
decimal notation.
Port Number
Enter the port number of the external authentication server.
You need not change this value unless your network administrator
instructs you to do so with additional information.
Shared Secret Enter a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be
shared between the external authentication server and the ZyXEL
Device.
The key must be the same on the external authentication server and
your ZyXEL Device. The key is not sent over the network.
Accounting Server (optional)
IP Address
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decimal notation.
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Table 26 Network > Wireless LAN > AP: WPA(2)
LABEL
Port Number
DESCRIPTION
Enter the port number of the external accounting server.
You need not change this value unless your network administrator
instructs you to do so with additional information.
Shared Secret Enter a password (up to 31 alphanumeric characters) as the key to be
shared between the external accounting server and the ZyXEL Device.
The key must be the same on the external accounting server and your
ZyXEL Device. The key is not sent over the network.
7.2.5 Wireless LAN Advanced Setup
Use this screen to configure advanced wireless settings. Click the Advanced
Setup button in the AP screen. The screen appears as shown.
See Section 7.8.2 on page 149 for detailed definitions of the terms listed in this
screen.
Figure 34 Network > Wireless LAN > AP: Advanced Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 27 Network > Wireless LAN > AP: Advanced Setup
138
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
RTS/CTS
Threshold
Enter a value between 0 and 2432.
Fragmentation
Threshold
This is the maximum data fragment size that can be sent. Enter a value
between 256 and 2432.
Output Power
Set the output power of the ZyXEL Device. If there is a high density of
APs in an area, decrease the output power to reduce interference with
other APs. Select one of the following Maximum, Middle or Minimum.
Preamble
Select a preamble type from the drop-down list menu. Choices are Long,
Short or Dynamic. The default setting is Long. See the appendix for
more information.
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Table 27 Network > Wireless LAN > AP: Advanced Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
802.11 Mode
Select 802.11b Only to allow only IEEE 802.11b compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Select 802.11g Only to allow only IEEE 802.11g compliant WLAN
devices to associate with the ZyXEL Device.
Select Mixed to allow either IEEE 802.11b or IEEE 802.11g compliant
WLAN devices to associate with the ZyXEL Device. The transmission rate
of your ZyXEL Device might be reduced.
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
7.2.6 MAC Filter
Use this screen to change your ZyXEL Device’s MAC filter settings. Click the Edit
button in the AP screen. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 35 Network > Wireless LAN > AP: MAC Address Filter
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 28 Network > Wireless LAN > AP: MAC Address Filter
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active MAC
Filter
Select the check box to enable MAC address filtering.
Filter Action
Define the filter action for the list of MAC addresses in the MAC Address
table.
Select Deny to block access to the ZyXEL Device. MAC addresses not listed
will be allowed to access the ZyXEL Device
Select Allow to permit access to the ZyXEL Device. MAC addresses not
listed will be denied access to the ZyXEL Device.
Set
This is the index number of the MAC address.
MAC
Address
Enter the MAC addresses of the wireless devices that are allowed or denied
access to the ZyXEL Device in these address fields. Enter the MAC
addresses in a valid MAC address format, that is, six hexadecimal character
pairs, for example, 12:34:56:78:9a:bc.
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
7.3 The More AP Screen
This screen allows you to enable and configure multiple Basic Service Sets (BSSs)
on the ZyXEL Device.
Click Network > Wireless LAN > More AP. The following screen displays.
Figure 36 Network > Wireless LAN > More AP
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 29 Network > Wireless LAN > More AP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of each SSID profile.
Active
Select the check box to activate an SSID profile.
SSID
An SSID profile is the set of parameters relating to one of the ZyXEL
Device’s BSSs. The SSID (Service Set IDentifier) identifies the Service
Set with which a wireless device is associated.
This field displays the name of the wireless profile on the network. When
a wireless client scans for an AP to associate with, this is the name that
is broadcast and seen in the wireless client utility.
Security
This field indicates the security mode of the SSID profile.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to configure the SSID profile.
Click the Remove icon to delete the SSID profile.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
7.3.1 More AP Edit
Use this screen to edit an SSID profile. Click the Edit icon next to an SSID in the
More AP screen. The following screen displays.
Figure 37 Network > Wireless LAN > More AP: Edit
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 30 Network > Wireless LAN > More AP: Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Network Name
(SSID)
The SSID (Service Set IDentity) identifies the service set with which
a wireless device is associated. Enter a descriptive name (up to 32
printable 7-bit ASCII characters) for the wireless LAN.
Note: If you are configuring the ZyXEL Device from a computer
connected to the wireless LAN and you change the
ZyXEL Device’s SSID or security settings, you will lose
your wireless connection when you press Apply to
confirm. You must then change the wireless settings of
your computer to match the ZyXEL Device’s new settings.
Hide SSID
Select this check box to hide the SSID in the outgoing beacon frame
so a station cannot obtain the SSID through scanning using a site
survey tool.
Security Mode
See Section 7.2 on page 131 for more details about this field.
MAC Filter
This shows whether the wireless devices with the MAC addresses
listed are allowed or denied to access the ZyXEL Device using this
SSID.
Edit
QoS
Click this to go to the MAC Filter screen to configure MAC filter
settings. See Section 7.2.6 on page 139 for more details.
This shows whether QoS (Quality of Service) is activated or the
priority level for wireless traffic with this SSID. Select a priority level
from the drop-down list box. Choices are None, Default, Highest,
High, Middle and Low.
Select None to disable QoS.
Select Default to have the ZyXEL Device automatically give traffic a
priority level according to the ToS value in the IP header of packets
it sends. WMM QoS (Wifi MultiMedia Quality of Service) gives high
priority to voice and video, which makes them run more smoothly.
Highest - Typically used for voice or video that should be highquality.
High - Typically used for voice or video that can be medium-quality.
Middle - Typically used for applications that do not fit into another
priority. For example, Internet surfing.
Low - Typically used for non-critical “background” applications, such
as large file transfers and print jobs that should not affect other
applications.
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Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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7.4 The WPS Screen
Use this screen to configure WiFi Protected Setup (WPS) on your ZyXEL Device.
WPS allows you to quickly set up a wireless network with strong security, without
having to configure security settings manually. Set up each WPS connection
between two devices. Both devices must support WPS.
Click Network > Wireless LAN > WPS. The following screen displays.
Figure 38 Network > Wireless LAN > WPS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 31 Network > Wireless LAN > WPS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WPS Setup
Enable WPS
Select the check box to activate WPS on the ZyXEL Device.
PIN Number
This shows the PIN (Personal Identification Number) of the ZyXEL
Device. Enter this PIN in the configuration utility of the device you want
to connect to using WPS.
The PIN is not necessary when you use WPS push-button method.
Generate
WPS Status
Click this to have the ZyXEL Device create a new PIN.
This displays Configured when the ZyXEL Device has connected to a
wireless network using WPS or Enable WPS is selected and wireless or
wireless security settings have been changed. The current wireless and
wireless security settings also appear in the screen.
This displays Unconfigured if WPS is disabled and there is no wireless
or wireless security changes on the ZyXEL Device or you click
Release_Configuration to remove the configured wireless and
wireless security settings.
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Table 31 Network > Wireless LAN > WPS
LABEL
Release_Co
nfiguration
DESCRIPTION
This button is available when the WPS status is Configured.
Click this button to remove all configured wireless and wireless security
settings for WPS connections on the ZyXEL Device.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Refresh
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
7.5 The WPS Station Screen
Use this screen to set up a WPS wireless network using either Push Button
Configuration (PBC) or PIN Configuration.
Click Network > Wireless LAN > WPS Station. The following screen displays.
Figure 39 Network > Wireless LAN > WPS Station
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 32 Network > Wireless LAN > WPS Station
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Push Button
Click this to add another WPS-enabled wireless device (within wireless
range of the ZyXEL Device) to your wireless network. This button may
either be a physical button on the outside of device, or a menu button
similar to the Push Button on this screen.
Note: You must press the other wireless device’s WPS button within
120 seconds of pressing this button.
Or input
station's PIN
number
Enter the PIN of the device that you are setting up a WPS connection
with and click Start to authenticate and add the wireless device to your
wireless network.
You can find the PIN either on the outside of the device, or by checking
the device’s settings.
Note: You must also activate WPS on that device within 120
seconds to have it present its PIN to the ZyXEL Device.
7.6 The WDS Screen
An AP using the Wireless Distribution System (WDS) can function as a wireless
network bridge allowing you to wirelessly connect two wired network segments.
The WDS screen allows you to configure the ZyXEL Device to connect to two or
more APs wirelessly when WDS is enabled.
Use this screen to set up your WDS (Wireless Distribution System) links between
the ZyXEL Device and other wireless APs. You need to know the MAC address of
the peer device. Once the security settings of peer sides match one another, the
connection between devices is made.
Note: WDS security is independent of the security settings between the ZyXEL
Device and any wireless clients.
Note: At the time of writing, WDS is compatible with other ZyXEL APs only. Not all
models support WDS links. Check your other AP’s documentation.
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Click Network > Wireless LAN > WDS. The following screen displays.
Figure 40 Network > Wireless LAN > WDS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 33 Network > Wireless LAN > WDS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable WDS
Security
Select this option and the type of the key used to encrypt data between
APs. All the wireless APs (including the ZyXEL Device) must use the
same pre-shared key for data transmission.
If you de-select this option, the data sent between APs is not encrypted.
Anyone can read it.
146
TKIP
Select this to use TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) encryption.
AES
Select this to use AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) encryption.
#
This is the index number of the individual WDS link.
Active
Select this to activate the link between the ZyXEL Device and the peer
device to which this entry refers. When you do not select the check box
this link is down.
Remote Bridge
MAC Address
Type the MAC address of the peer device in a valid MAC address format
(six hexadecimal character pairs, for example 12:34:56:78:9a:bc).
PSK
Enter a Pre-Shared Key (PSK) from 8 to 63 case-sensitive ASCII
characters (including spaces and symbols).
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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7.7 The Scheduling Screen
Use the wireless LAN scheduling to configure the days you want to enable or
disable the wireless LAN. Click Network > Wireless LAN > Scheduling. The
following screen displays.
Figure 41 Network > Wireless LAN > Scheduling
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 34 Network > Wireless LAN > Scheduling
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable
Wireless LAN
Scheduling
Select this box to activate wireless LAN scheduling on your ZyXEL
Device.
WLAN status
Select On or Off to enable or disable the wireless LAN.
Day
Check the day(s) you want to turn the wireless LAN on or off.
The following
times
Specify a time frame during which the schedule would apply.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Reset
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
For example, if you set the time range from 12:00 to 23:00, the wireless
LAN will be turned on only during this time period.
7.8 Wireless LAN Technical Reference
This section discusses wireless LANs in depth. For more information, see the
appendix.
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7.8.1 Wireless Network Overview
Wireless networks consist of wireless clients, access points and bridges.
• A wireless client is a radio connected to a user’s computer.
• An access point is a radio with a wired connection to a network, which can
connect with numerous wireless clients and let them access the network.
• A bridge is a radio that relays communications between access points and
wireless clients, extending a network’s range.
Traditionally, a wireless network operates in one of two ways.
• An “infrastructure” type of network has one or more access points and one or
more wireless clients. The wireless clients connect to the access points.
• An “ad-hoc” type of network is one in which there is no access point. Wireless
clients connect to one another in order to exchange information.
The following figure provides an example of a wireless network.
Figure 42 Example of a Wireless Network
The wireless network is the part in the blue circle. In this wireless network,
devices A and B use the access point (AP) to interact with the other devices (such
as the printer) or with the Internet. Your ZyXEL Device is the AP.
Every wireless network must follow these basic guidelines.
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• Every device in the same wireless network must use the same SSID.
The SSID is the name of the wireless network. It stands for Service Set
IDentifier.
• If two wireless networks overlap, they should use a different channel.
Like radio stations or television channels, each wireless network uses a specific
channel, or frequency, to send and receive information.
• Every device in the same wireless network must use security compatible with
the AP.
Security stops unauthorized devices from using the wireless network. It can also
protect the information that is sent in the wireless network.
Radio Channels
In the radio spectrum, there are certain frequency bands allocated for unlicensed,
civilian use. For the purposes of wireless networking, these bands are divided into
numerous channels. This allows a variety of networks to exist in the same place
without interfering with one another. When you create a network, you must select
a channel to use.
Since the available unlicensed spectrum varies from one country to another, the
number of available channels also varies.
7.8.2 Additional Wireless Terms
The following table describes some wireless network terms and acronyms used in
the ZyXEL Device’s Web Configurator.
Table 35 Additional Wireless Terms
TERM
DESCRIPTION
RTS/CTS Threshold
In a wireless network which covers a large area, wireless devices
are sometimes not aware of each other’s presence. This may cause
them to send information to the AP at the same time and result in
information colliding and not getting through.
By setting this value lower than the default value, the wireless
devices must sometimes get permission to send information to the
ZyXEL Device. The lower the value, the more often the devices must
get permission.
If this value is greater than the fragmentation threshold value (see
below), then wireless devices never have to get permission to send
information to the ZyXEL Device.
Preamble
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A preamble affects the timing in your wireless network. There are
two preamble modes: long and short. If a device uses a different
preamble mode than the ZyXEL Device does, it cannot communicate
with the ZyXEL Device.
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Table 35 Additional Wireless Terms
TERM
DESCRIPTION
Authentication
The process of verifying whether a wireless device is allowed to use
the wireless network.
Fragmentation
Threshold
A small fragmentation threshold is recommended for busy networks,
while a larger threshold provides faster performance if the network
is not very busy.
7.8.3 Wireless Security Overview
By their nature, radio communications are simple to intercept. For wireless data
networks, this means that anyone within range of a wireless network without
security can not only read the data passing over the airwaves, but also join the
network. Once an unauthorized person has access to the network, he or she can
steal information or introduce malware (malicious software) intended to
compromise the network. For these reasons, a variety of security systems have
been developed to ensure that only authorized people can use a wireless data
network, or understand the data carried on it.
These security standards do two things. First, they authenticate. This means that
only people presenting the right credentials (often a username and password, or a
“key” phrase) can access the network. Second, they encrypt. This means that the
information sent over the air is encoded. Only people with the code key can
understand the information, and only people who have been authenticated are
given the code key.
These security standards vary in effectiveness. Some can be broken, such as the
old Wired Equivalent Protocol (WEP). Using WEP is better than using no security at
all, but it will not keep a determined attacker out. Other security standards are
secure in themselves but can be broken if a user does not use them properly. For
example, the WPA-PSK security standard is very secure if you use a long key
which is difficult for an attacker’s software to guess - for example, a twenty-letter
long string of apparently random numbers and letters - but it is not very secure if
you use a short key which is very easy to guess - for example, a three-letter word
from the dictionary.
Because of the damage that can be done by a malicious attacker, it’s not just
people who have sensitive information on their network who should use security.
Everybody who uses any wireless network should ensure that effective security is
in place.
A good way to come up with effective security keys, passwords and so on is to use
obscure information that you personally will easily remember, and to enter it in a
way that appears random and does not include real words. For example, if your
mother owns a 1970 Dodge Challenger and her favorite movie is Vanishing Point
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(which you know was made in 1971) you could use “70dodchal71vanpoi” as your
security key.
The following sections introduce different types of wireless security you can set up
in the wireless network.
7.8.3.1 SSID
Normally, the ZyXEL Device acts like a beacon and regularly broadcasts the SSID
in the area. You can hide the SSID instead, in which case the ZyXEL Device does
not broadcast the SSID. In addition, you should change the default SSID to
something that is difficult to guess.
This type of security is fairly weak, however, because there are ways for
unauthorized wireless devices to get the SSID. In addition, unauthorized wireless
devices can still see the information that is sent in the wireless network.
7.8.3.2 MAC Address Filter
Every device that can use a wireless network has a unique identification number,
called a MAC address.1 A MAC address is usually written using twelve hexadecimal
characters2; for example, 00A0C5000002 or 00:A0:C5:00:00:02. To get the MAC
address for each device in the wireless network, see the device’s User’s Guide or
other documentation.
You can use the MAC address filter to tell the ZyXEL Device which devices are
allowed or not allowed to use the wireless network. If a device is allowed to use
the wireless network, it still has to have the correct information (SSID, channel,
and security). If a device is not allowed to use the wireless network, it does not
matter if it has the correct information.
This type of security does not protect the information that is sent in the wireless
network. Furthermore, there are ways for unauthorized wireless devices to get the
MAC address of an authorized device. Then, they can use that MAC address to use
the wireless network.
7.8.3.3 User Authentication
Authentication is the process of verifying whether a wireless device is allowed to
use the wireless network. You can make every user log in to the wireless network
before using it. However, every device in the wireless network has to support IEEE
802.1x to do this.
1.
Some wireless devices, such as scanners, can detect wireless networks but cannot use wireless networks.
These kinds of wireless devices might not have MAC addresses.
2.
Hexadecimal characters are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F.
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For wireless networks, you can store the user names and passwords for each user
in a RADIUS server. This is a server used in businesses more than in homes. If you
do not have a RADIUS server, you cannot set up user names and passwords for
your users.
Unauthorized wireless devices can still see the information that is sent in the
wireless network, even if they cannot use the wireless network. Furthermore,
there are ways for unauthorized wireless users to get a valid user name and
password. Then, they can use that user name and password to use the wireless
network.
7.8.3.4 Encryption
Wireless networks can use encryption to protect the information that is sent in the
wireless network. Encryption is like a secret code. If you do not know the secret
code, you cannot understand the message.
The types of encryption you can choose depend on the type of authentication.
(See Section 7.8.3.3 on page 151 for information about this.)
Table 36 Types of Encryption for Each Type of Authentication
NO AUTHENTICATION RADIUS SERVER
Weakest
No Security
WPA
Static WEP
WPA-PSK
Strongest
WPA2-PSK
WPA2
For example, if the wireless network has a RADIUS server, you can choose WPA
or WPA2. If users do not log in to the wireless network, you can choose no
encryption, Static WEP, WPA-PSK, or WPA2-PSK.
Usually, you should set up the strongest encryption that every device in the
wireless network supports. For example, suppose you have a wireless network
with the ZyXEL Device and you do not have a RADIUS server. Therefore, there is
no authentication. Suppose the wireless network has two devices. Device A only
supports WEP, and device B supports WEP and WPA. Therefore, you should set up
Static WEP in the wireless network.
Note: It is recommended that wireless networks use WPA-PSK, WPA, or stronger
encryption. The other types of encryption are better than none at all, but it is still
possible for unauthorized wireless devices to figure out the original information
pretty quickly.
When you select WPA2 or WPA2-PSK in your ZyXEL Device, you can also select
an option (WPA compatible) to support WPA as well. In this case, if some of the
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devices support WPA and some support WPA2, you should set up WPA2-PSK or
WPA2 (depending on the type of wireless network login) and select the WPA
compatible option in the ZyXEL Device.
Many types of encryption use a key to protect the information in the wireless
network. The longer the key, the stronger the encryption. Every device in the
wireless network must have the same key.
7.8.4 Signal Problems
Because wireless networks are radio networks, their signals are subject to
limitations of distance, interference and absorption.
Problems with distance occur when the two radios are too far apart. Problems with
interference occur when other radio waves interrupt the data signal. Interference
may come from other radio transmissions, such as military or air traffic control
communications, or from machines that are coincidental emitters such as electric
motors or microwaves. Problems with absorption occur when physical objects
(such as thick walls) are between the two radios, muffling the signal.
7.8.5 BSS
A Basic Service Set (BSS) exists when all communications between wireless
stations or between a wireless station and a wired network client go through one
access point (AP).
Intra-BSS traffic is traffic between wireless stations in the BSS. When Intra-BSS
traffic blocking is disabled, wireless station A and B can access the wired network
and communicate with each other. When Intra-BSS traffic blocking is enabled,
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wireless station A and B can still access the wired network but cannot
communicate with each other.
Figure 43 Basic Service set
7.8.6 MBSSID
Traditionally, you need to use different APs to configure different Basic Service
Sets (BSSs). As well as the cost of buying extra APs, there is also the possibility of
channel interference. The ZyXEL Device’s MBSSID (Multiple Basic Service Set
IDentifier) function allows you to use one access point to provide several BSSs
simultaneously. You can then assign varying QoS priorities and/or security modes
to different SSIDs.
Wireless devices can use different BSSIDs to associate with the same AP.
7.8.6.1 Notes on Multiple BSSs
• A maximum of eight BSSs are allowed on one AP simultaneously.
• You must use different keys for different BSSs. If two wireless devices have
different BSSIDs (they are in different BSSs), but have the same keys, they
may hear each other’s communications (but not communicate with each other).
• MBSSID should not replace but rather be used in conjunction with 802.1x
security.
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7.8.7 Wireless Distribution System (WDS)
The ZyXEL Device can act as a wireless network bridge and establish WDS
(Wireless Distribution System) links with other APs. You need to know the MAC
addresses of the APs you want to link to. Once the security settings of peer sides
match one another, the connection between devices is made.
At the time of writing, WDS security is compatible with other ZyXEL access points
only. Refer to your other access point’s documentation for details.
The following figure illustrates how WDS link works between APs. Notebook
computer A is a wireless client connecting to access point AP 1. AP 1 has no
wired Internet connection, but it can establish a WDS link with access point AP 2,
which has a wired Internet connection. When AP 1 has a WDS link with AP 2, the
notebook computer can access the Internet through AP 2.
Figure 44 WDS Link Example
WDS
A
AP 1
AP 2
7.8.8 WiFi Protected Setup (WPS)
Your ZyXEL Device supports WiFi Protected Setup (WPS), which is an easy way to
set up a secure wireless network. WPS is an industry standard specification,
defined by the WiFi Alliance.
WPS allows you to quickly set up a wireless network with strong security, without
having to configure security settings manually. Each WPS connection works
between two devices. Both devices must support WPS (check each device’s
documentation to make sure).
Depending on the devices you have, you can either press a button (on the device
itself, or in its configuration utility) or enter a PIN (a unique Personal Identification
Number that allows one device to authenticate the other) in each of the two
devices. When WPS is activated on a device, it has two minutes to find another
device that also has WPS activated. Then, the two devices connect and set up a
secure network by themselves.
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7.8.8.1 Push Button Configuration
WPS Push Button Configuration (PBC) is initiated by pressing a button on each
WPS-enabled device, and allowing them to connect automatically. You do not need
to enter any information.
Not every WPS-enabled device has a physical WPS button. Some may have a WPS
PBC button in their configuration utilities instead of or in addition to the physical
button.
Take the following steps to set up WPS using the button.
1
Ensure that the two devices you want to set up are within wireless range of one
another.
2
Look for a WPS button on each device. If the device does not have one, log into its
configuration utility and locate the button (see the device’s User’s Guide for how to
do this - for the ZyXEL Device, see Section 7.5 on page 144).
3
Press the button on one of the devices (it doesn’t matter which). For the ZyXEL
Device, the wireless LAN is activated by default, so the LED lights green. If not,
press the WIFI button for 5 to 6 seconds and release it when the LED turns green.
The Wireless LAN is on. Press the WIFI button again for 1 to 2 seconds and release
it when the LED is blinking orange. Press the WiFi or WPS button on another WPSenabled device within range of the ZyXEL Device.
4
Within two minutes, press the button on the other device. The WiFi LED blinks
orange while the registrar sends the network name (SSID) and security key
through an secure connection to the enrollee. When the WPS connection has been
configured successfully, the LED will become green.
If you need to make sure that WPS worked, check the list of associated wireless
clients in the AP’s configuration utility. If you see the wireless client in the list,
WPS was successful.
7.8.8.2 PIN Configuration
Each WPS-enabled device has its own PIN (Personal Identification Number). This
may either be static (it cannot be changed) or dynamic (in some devices you can
generate a new PIN by clicking on a button in the configuration interface).
Use the PIN method instead of the push-button configuration (PBC) method if you
want to ensure that the connection is established between the devices you specify,
not just the first two devices to activate WPS in range of each other. However, you
need to log into the configuration interfaces of both devices to use the PIN
method.
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When you use the PIN method, you must enter the PIN from one device (usually
the wireless client) into the second device (usually the Access Point or wireless
router). Then, when WPS is activated on the first device, it presents its PIN to the
second device. If the PIN matches, one device sends the network and security
information to the other, allowing it to join the network.
Take the following steps to set up a WPS connection between an access point or
wireless router (referred to here as the AP) and a client device using the PIN
method.
1
Ensure WPS is enabled on both devices.
2
Access the WPS section of the AP’s configuration interface. See the device’s User’s
Guide for how to do this.
3
Look for the client’s WPS PIN; it will be displayed either on the device, or in the
WPS section of the client’s configuration interface (see the device’s User’s Guide
for how to find the WPS PIN - for the ZyXEL Device, see Section 7.4 on page 143).
4
Enter the client’s PIN in the AP’s configuration interface.
5
If the client device’s configuration interface has an area for entering another
device’s PIN, you can either enter the client’s PIN in the AP, or enter the AP’s PIN
in the client - it does not matter which.
6
Start WPS on both devices within two minutes.
7
Use the configuration utility to activate WPS, not the push-button on the device
itself.
8
On a computer connected to the wireless client, try to connect to the Internet. If
you can connect, WPS was successful.
If you cannot connect, check the list of associated wireless clients in the AP’s
configuration utility. If you see the wireless client in the list, WPS was successful.
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The following figure shows a WPS-enabled wireless client (installed in a notebook
computer) connecting to the WPS-enabled AP via the PIN method.
Figure 45 Example WPS Process: PIN Method
ENROLLEE
REGISTRAR
WPS
This device’s
WPS PIN: 123456
WPS
Enter WPS PIN
from other device:
WPS
START
WPS
START
WITHIN 2 MINUTES
SECURE EAP TUNNEL
SSID
WPA(2)-PSK
COMMUNICATION
7.8.8.3 How WPS Works
When two WPS-enabled devices connect, each device must assume a specific role.
One device acts as the registrar (the device that supplies network and security
settings) and the other device acts as the enrollee (the device that receives
network and security settings. The registrar creates a secure EAP (Extensible
Authentication Protocol) tunnel and sends the network name (SSID) and the WPAPSK or WPA2-PSK pre-shared key to the enrollee. Whether WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK
is used depends on the standards supported by the devices. If the registrar is
already part of a network, it sends the existing information. If not, it generates
the SSID and WPA(2)-PSK randomly.
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The following figure shows a WPS-enabled client (installed in a notebook
computer) connecting to a WPS-enabled access point.
Figure 46 How WPS works
ACTIVATE
WPS
ACTIVATE
WPS
WITHIN 2 MINUTES
WPS HANDSHAKE
ENROLLEE
REGISTRAR
SECURE TUNNEL
SECURITY INFO
COMMUNICATION
The roles of registrar and enrollee last only as long as the WPS setup process is
active (two minutes). The next time you use WPS, a different device can be the
registrar if necessary.
The WPS connection process is like a handshake; only two devices participate in
each WPS transaction. If you want to add more devices you should repeat the
process with one of the existing networked devices and the new device.
Note that the access point (AP) is not always the registrar, and the wireless client
is not always the enrollee. All WPS-certified APs can be a registrar, and so can
some WPS-enabled wireless clients.
By default, a WPS devices is “unconfigured”. This means that it is not part of an
existing network and can act as either enrollee or registrar (if it supports both
functions). If the registrar is unconfigured, the security settings it transmits to the
enrollee are randomly-generated. Once a WPS-enabled device has connected to
another device using WPS, it becomes “configured”. A configured wireless client
can still act as enrollee or registrar in subsequent WPS connections, but a
configured access point can no longer act as enrollee. It will be the registrar in all
subsequent WPS connections in which it is involved. If you want a configured AP to
act as an enrollee, you must reset it to its factory defaults.
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7.8.8.4 Example WPS Network Setup
This section shows how security settings are distributed in an example WPS setup.
The following figure shows an example network. In step 1, both AP1 and Client 1
are unconfigured. When WPS is activated on both, they perform the handshake. In
this example, AP1 is the registrar, and Client 1 is the enrollee. The registrar
randomly generates the security information to set up the network, since it is
unconfigured and has no existing information.
Figure 47 WPS: Example Network Step 1
ENROLLEE
REGISTRAR
SECURITY INFO
AP1
CLIENT 1
In step 2, you add another wireless client to the network. You know that Client 1
supports registrar mode, but it is better to use AP1 for the WPS handshake with
the new client since you must connect to the access point anyway in order to use
the network. In this case, AP1 must be the registrar, since it is configured (it
already has security information for the network). AP1 supplies the existing
security information to Client 2.
Figure 48 WPS: Example Network Step 2
REGISTRAR
EXISTING CONNECTION
AP1
CLIENT 1
ENROLLEE
YI
RIT
U
C
SE
O
NF
CLIENT 2
In step 3, you add another access point (AP2) to your network. AP2 is out of
range of AP1, so you cannot use AP1 for the WPS handshake with the new access
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point. However, you know that Client 2 supports the registrar function, so you use
it to perform the WPS handshake instead.
Figure 49 WPS: Example Network Step 3
EXISTING CONNECTION
CLIENT 1
E
N
TIO
EC
N
ON
GC
N
I
T
XIS
AP1
REGISTRAR
CLIENT 2
SE
CU
RIT
Y
ENROLLEE
INF
O
AP2
7.8.8.5 Limitations of WPS
WPS has some limitations of which you should be aware.
• WPS works in Infrastructure networks only (where an AP and a wireless client
communicate). It does not work in Ad-Hoc networks (where there is no AP).
• When you use WPS, it works between two devices only. You cannot enroll
multiple devices simultaneously, you must enroll one after the other.
For instance, if you have two enrollees and one registrar you must set up the
first enrollee (by pressing the WPS button on the registrar and the first enrollee,
for example), then check that it successfully enrolled, then set up the second
device in the same way.
• WPS works only with other WPS-enabled devices. However, you can still add
non-WPS devices to a network you already set up using WPS.
WPS works by automatically issuing a randomly-generated WPA-PSK or WPA2PSK pre-shared key from the registrar device to the enrollee devices. Whether
the network uses WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK depends on the device. You can check
the configuration interface of the registrar device to discover the key the
network is using (if the device supports this feature). Then, you can enter the
key into the non-WPS device and join the network as normal (the non-WPS
device must also support WPA-PSK or WPA2-PSK).
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• When you use the PBC method, there is a short period (from the moment you
press the button on one device to the moment you press the button on the
other device) when any WPS-enabled device could join the network. This is
because the registrar has no way of identifying the “correct” enrollee, and
cannot differentiate between your enrollee and a rogue device. This is a possible
way for a hacker to gain access to a network.
You can easily check to see if this has happened. WPS works between only two
devices simultaneously, so if another device has enrolled your device will be
unable to enroll, and will not have access to the network. If this happens, open
the access point’s configuration interface and look at the list of associated
clients (usually displayed by MAC address). It does not matter if the access
point is the WPS registrar, the enrollee, or was not involved in the WPS
handshake; a rogue device must still associate with the access point to gain
access to the network. Check the MAC addresses of your wireless clients
(usually printed on a label on the bottom of the device). If there is an unknown
MAC address you can remove it or reset the AP.
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CHAPTER
8
Network Address Translation
(NAT)
8.1 Overview
This chapter discusses how to configure NAT on the ZyXEL Device. NAT (Network
Address Translation - NAT, RFC 1631) is the translation of the IP address of a host
in a packet, for example, the source address of an outgoing packet, used within
one network to a different IP address known within another network.
8.1.1 What You Can Do in the NAT Screens
• Use the NAT General Setup screen (Section 8.2 on page 165) to configure the
NAT setup settings.
• Use the Port Forwarding screen (Section 8.3 on page 166) to configure
forward incoming service requests to the server(s) on your local network.
• Use the Address Mapping screen (Section 8.4 on page 169) to change your
ZyXEL Device’s address mapping settings.
• Use the ALG screen (Section 8.5 on page 173) to enable and disable the SIP
(VoIP) ALG in the ZyXEL Device.
8.1.2 What You Need To Know About NAT
Inside/Outside
Inside/outside denotes where a host is located relative to the ZyXEL Device, for
example, the computers of your subscribers are the inside hosts, while the web
servers on the Internet are the outside hosts.
Global/Local
Global/local denotes the IP address of a host in a packet as the packet traverses a
router, for example, the local address refers to the IP address of a host when the
packet is in the local network, while the global address refers to the IP address of
the host when the same packet is traveling in the WAN side.
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NAT
In the simplest form, NAT changes the source IP address in a packet received from
a subscriber (the inside local address) to another (the inside global address)
before forwarding the packet to the WAN side. When the response comes back,
NAT translates the destination address (the inside global address) back to the
inside local address before forwarding it to the original inside host.
Port Forwarding
A port forwarding set is a list of inside (behind NAT on the LAN) servers, for
example, web or FTP, that you can make visible to the outside world even though
NAT makes your whole inside network appear as a single computer to the outside
world.
SUA (Single User Account) Versus NAT
SUA (Single User Account) is a ZyNOS implementation of a subset of NAT that
supports two types of mapping, Many-to-One and Server. The ZyXEL Device also
supports Full Feature NAT to map multiple global IP addresses to multiple private
LAN IP addresses of clients or servers using mapping types as outlined in Table 44
on page 177.
• Choose SUA Only if you have just one public WAN IP address for your ZyXEL
Device.
• Choose Full Feature if you have multiple public WAN IP addresses for your
ZyXEL Device.
Finding Out More
See Section 8.6 on page 173 for advanced technical information on NAT.
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8.2 The NAT General Setup Screen
Use this screen to activate NAT. Click Network > NAT to open the following
screen.
Note: You must create a firewall rule in addition to setting up SUA/NAT, to allow traffic
from the WAN to be forwarded through the ZyXEL Device.
Figure 50 Network > NAT > General
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 37 Network > NAT > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active Network
Address
Translation
(NAT)
Select this check box to enable NAT.
SUA Only
Select this radio button if you have just one public WAN IP address for
your ZyXEL Device.
Full Feature
Select this radio button if you have multiple public WAN IP addresses for
your ZyXEL Device.
Max NAT/
Firewall Session
Per User
When computers use peer to peer applications, such as file sharing
applications, they need to establish NAT sessions. If you do not limit the
number of NAT sessions a single client can establish, this can result in
all of the available NAT sessions being used. In this case, no additional
NAT sessions can be established, and users may not be able to access
the Internet.
Each NAT session establishes a corresponding firewall session. Use this
field to limit the number of NAT/Firewall sessions client computers can
establish through the ZyXEL Device.
If your network has a small number of clients using peer to peer
applications, you can raise this number to ensure that their
performance is not degraded by the number of NAT sessions they can
establish. If your network has a large number of users using peer to
peer applications, you can lower this number to ensure no single client
is exhausting all of the available NAT sessions.
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Table 37 Network > NAT > General (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
8.3 The Port Forwarding Screen
Use this screen to forward incoming service requests to the server(s) on your local
network.
You may enter a single port number or a range of port numbers to be forwarded,
and the local IP address of the desired server. The port number identifies a
service; for example, web service is on port 80 and FTP on port 21. In some
cases, such as for unknown services or where one server can support more than
one service (for example both FTP and web service), it might be better to specify
a range of port numbers. You can allocate a server IP address that corresponds to
a port or a range of ports.
The most often used port numbers and services are shown in Appendix E on page
421. Please refer to RFC 1700 for further information about port numbers.
Note: This screen is available only when you select SUA only in the NAT > General
screen.
Note: Many residential broadband ISP accounts do not allow you to run any server
processes (such as a Web or FTP server) from your location. Your ISP may
periodically check for servers and may suspend your account if it discovers any
active services at your location. If you are unsure, refer to your ISP.
Note: When using the port forwarding feature, make sure your firewall is configured
as Low, Custom, or Off.
Default Server IP Address
In addition to the servers for specified services, NAT supports a default server IP
address. A default server receives packets from ports that are not specified in this
screen.
Note: If you do not assign a Default Server IP address, the ZyXEL Device discards
all packets received for ports that are not specified here or in the remote
management setup.
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Note: Setting a device as the default server exposes the device to potential attacks.
Any port service trying to access the ZyXEL Device’s WAN IP address will be
forwarded to the default server. It is recommended that you set up a firewall rule
to protect the device.
Configuring Servers Behind Port Forwarding
Let's say you want to assign ports 21-25 to one FTP, Telnet and SMTP server (A in
the example), port 80 to another (B in the example) and assign a default server IP
address of 192.168.1.35 to a third (C in the example). You assign the LAN IP
addresses and the ISP assigns the WAN IP address. The NAT network appears as a
single host on the Internet.
Figure 51 Multiple Servers Behind NAT
A=192.168.1.33
WAN
LAN
B=192.168.1.34
192.168.1.1
C=192.168.1.35
IP Address assigned by ISP
D=192.168.1.36
8.3.1 Configuring the Port Forwarding Screen
Click Network > NAT > Port Forwarding to open the following screen.
Note: If WAN IP Passthrough is activated, Port Forwarding will be disabled.
See Appendix E on page 421 for port numbers commonly used for particular
services.
Figure 52 Network > NAT > Port Forwarding
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 38 Network > NAT > Port Forwarding
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Default Server Setup
Default Server
In addition to the servers for specified services, NAT supports a default
server. A default server receives packets from ports that are not
specified in this screen. If you do not assign a Default Server IP
address, the ZyXEL Device discards all packets received for ports that
are not specified here or in the remote management setup.
Port Forwarding
Service Name
Select a service from the drop-down list box.
Server IP
Address
Enter the IP address of the server for the specified service.
Add
Click this button to add a rule to the table below.
#
This is the rule index number (read-only).
Active
This field indicates whether the rule is active or not.
Clear the check box to disable the rule. Select the check box to enable
it.
Service Name
This is a service’s name.
Start Port
This is the first port number that identifies a service.
End Port
This is the last port number that identifies a service.
Server IP
Address
This is the server’s IP address.
Modify
Click the edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the port
forwarding rule.
Click the delete icon to delete an existing port forwarding rule. Note that
subsequent address mapping rules move up by one when you take this
action.
168
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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8.3.2 The Port Forwarding Rule Edit Screen
Use this screen to edit a port forwarding rule. Click the rule’s edit icon in the Port
Forwarding screen to display the screen shown next.
Figure 53 Network > NAT > Port Forwarding: Edit
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 39 Network > NAT > Port Forwarding: Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Click this check box to enable the rule.
Service Name
Enter a name to identify this port-forwarding rule.
Start Port
Enter a port number in this field.
To forward only one port, enter the port number again in the End Port
field.
To forward a series of ports, enter the start port number here and the end
port number in the End Port field.
End Port
Enter a port number in this field.
To forward only one port, enter the port number again in the Start Port
field above and then enter it again in this field.
To forward a series of ports, enter the last port number in a series that
begins with the port number in the Start Port field above.
Server IP
Address
Enter the inside IP address of the server here.
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
8.4 The Address Mapping Screen
Ordering your rules is important because the ZyXEL Device applies the rules in the
order that you specify. When a rule matches the current packet, the ZyXEL Device
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takes the corresponding action and the remaining rules are ignored. If there are
any empty rules before your new configured rule, your configured rule will be
pushed up by that number of empty rules. For example, if you have already
configured rules 1 to 6 in your current set and now you configure rule number 9.
In the set summary screen, the new rule will be rule 7, not 9. Now if you delete
rule 4, rules 5 to 7 will be pushed up by 1 rule, so old rules 5, 6 and 7 become new
rules 4, 5 and 6.
Note: The Address Mapping screen is available only when you select Full Feature
in the NAT > General screen.
To change your ZyXEL Device’s address mapping settings, click Network > NAT
> Address Mapping to open the following screen.
Figure 54 Network > NAT > Address Mapping
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 40 Network > NAT > Address Mapping
170
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the rule index number.
Local Start IP
This is the starting Inside Local IP Address (ILA). Local IP addresses are
N/A for Server port mapping.
Local End IP
This is the end Inside Local IP Address (ILA). If the rule is for all local IP
addresses, then this field displays 0.0.0.0 as the Local Start IP address
and 255.255.255.255 as the Local End IP address. This field is N/A for
One-to-one and Server mapping types.
Global Start
IP
This is the starting Inside Global IP Address (IGA). Enter 0.0.0.0 here if
you have a dynamic IP address from your ISP. You can only do this for
Many-to-One and Server mapping types.
Global End IP
This is the ending Inside Global IP Address (IGA). This field is N/A for
One-to-one, Many-to-One and Server mapping types.
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Table 40 Network > NAT > Address Mapping (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Type
1-1: One-to-one mode maps one local IP address to one global IP
address. Note that port numbers do not change for the One-to-one NAT
mapping type.
M-1: Many-to-One mode maps multiple local IP addresses to one global
IP address. This is equivalent to SUA (i.e., PAT, port address translation),
ZyXEL's Single User Account feature that previous ZyXEL routers
supported only.
M-M Ov (Overload): Many-to-Many Overload mode maps multiple local
IP addresses to shared global IP addresses.
MM No (No Overload): Many-to-Many No Overload mode maps each local
IP address to unique global IP addresses.
Server: This type allows you to specify inside servers of different
services behind the NAT to be accessible to the outside world.
Modify
Click the edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the address
mapping rule.
Click the delete icon to delete an existing address mapping rule. Note that
subsequent address mapping rules move up by one when you take this
action.
8.4.1 The Address Mapping Rule Edit Screen
Use this screen to edit an address mapping rule. Click the rule’s edit icon in the
Address Mapping screen to display the screen shown next.
Figure 55 Network > NAT > Address Mapping: Edit
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 41 Network > NAT > Address Mapping: Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Type
Choose the port mapping type from one of the following.
One-to-One: One-to-One mode maps one local IP address to one global
IP address. Note that port numbers do not change for One-to-one NAT
mapping type.
Many-to-One: Many-to-One mode maps multiple local IP addresses to
one global IP address. This is equivalent to SUA (i.e., PAT, port address
translation), ZyXEL's Single User Account feature that previous ZyXEL
routers supported only.
Many-to-Many Overload: Many-to-Many Overload mode maps multiple
local IP addresses to shared global IP addresses.
Many-to-Many No Overload: Many-to-Many No Overload mode maps
each local IP address to unique global IP addresses.
Server: This type allows you to specify inside servers of different services
behind the NAT to be accessible to the outside world.
Local Start IP
This is the starting local IP address (ILA). Local IP addresses are N/A for
Server port mapping.
Local End IP
This is the end local IP address (ILA). If your rule is for all local IP
addresses, then enter 0.0.0.0 as the Local Start IP address and
255.255.255.255 as the Local End IP address.
This field is N/A for One-to-One and Server mapping types.
172
Global Start
IP
This is the starting global IP address (IGA). Enter 0.0.0.0 here if you have
a dynamic IP address from your ISP.
Global End IP
This is the ending global IP address (IGA). This field is N/A for One-toOne, Many-to-One and Server mapping types.
Server
Mapping Set
Only available when Type is set to Server.
Edit Details
Click this link to go to the Port Forwarding screen to edit a port
forwarding set that you have selected in the Server Mapping Set field.
Select a number from the drop-down menu to choose a port forwarding
set.
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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8.5 The ALG Screen
Some NAT routers may include a SIP Application Layer Gateway (ALG). A SIP ALG
allows SIP calls to pass through NAT by examining and translating IP addresses
embedded in the data stream. When the ZyXEL Device registers with the SIP
register server, the SIP ALG translates the ZyXEL Device’s private IP address
inside the SIP data stream to a public IP address. You do not need to use STUN or
an outbound proxy if your ZyXEL Device is behind a SIP ALG.
Use this screen to enable and disable the SIP (VoIP) ALG in the ZyXEL Device. To
access this screen, click Network > NAT > ALG.
Figure 56 Network > NAT > ALG
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 42 Network > NAT > ALG
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable SIP ALG
Select this to make sure SIP (VoIP) works correctly with portforwarding and address-mapping rules.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Reset
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
8.6 NAT Technical Reference
This chapter contains more information regarding NAT.
8.6.1 NAT Definitions
Inside/outside denotes where a host is located relative to the ZyXEL Device, for
example, the computers of your subscribers are the inside hosts, while the web
servers on the Internet are the outside hosts.
Global/local denotes the IP address of a host in a packet as the packet traverses a
router, for example, the local address refers to the IP address of a host when the
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packet is in the local network, while the global address refers to the IP address of
the host when the same packet is traveling in the WAN side.
Note that inside/outside refers to the location of a host, while global/local refers to
the IP address of a host used in a packet. Thus, an inside local address (ILA) is the
IP address of an inside host in a packet when the packet is still in the local
network, while an inside global address (IGA) is the IP address of the same inside
host when the packet is on the WAN side. The following table summarizes this
information.
Table 43 NAT Definitions
ITEM
DESCRIPTION
Inside
This refers to the host on the LAN.
Outside
This refers to the host on the WAN.
Local
This refers to the packet address (source or destination) as the packet travels
on the LAN.
Global
This refers to the packet address (source or destination) as the packet travels
on the WAN.
NAT never changes the IP address (either local or global) of an outside host.
8.6.2 What NAT Does
In the simplest form, NAT changes the source IP address in a packet received from
a subscriber (the inside local address) to another (the inside global address)
before forwarding the packet to the WAN side. When the response comes back,
NAT translates the destination address (the inside global address) back to the
inside local address before forwarding it to the original inside host. Note that the
IP address (either local or global) of an outside host is never changed.
The global IP addresses for the inside hosts can be either static or dynamically
assigned by the ISP. In addition, you can designate servers, for example, a web
server and a telnet server, on your local network and make them accessible to the
outside world. If you do not define any servers (for Many-to-One and Many-toMany Overload mapping – see Table 44 on page 177), NAT offers the additional
benefit of firewall protection. With no servers defined, your ZyXEL Device filters
out all incoming inquiries, thus preventing intruders from probing your network.
For more information on IP address translation, refer to RFC 1631, The IP Network
Address Translator (NAT).
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8.6.3 How NAT Works
Each packet has two addresses – a source address and a destination address. For
outgoing packets, the ILA (Inside Local Address) is the source address on the LAN,
and the IGA (Inside Global Address) is the source address on the WAN. For
incoming packets, the ILA is the destination address on the LAN, and the IGA is
the destination address on the WAN. NAT maps private (local) IP addresses to
globally unique ones required for communication with hosts on other networks. It
replaces the original IP source address (and TCP or UDP source port numbers for
Many-to-One and Many-to-Many Overload NAT mapping) in each packet and then
forwards it to the Internet. The ZyXEL Device keeps track of the original addresses
and port numbers so incoming reply packets can have their original values
restored. The following figure illustrates this.
Figure 57 How NAT Works
NAT Table
LAN
Inside Local
IP Address
192.168.1.10
192.168.1.11
192.168.1.12
192.168.1.13
192.168.1.13
192.168.1.12
SA
SA
192.168.1.10
IGA1
Inside Local
Address (ILA)
192.168.1.11
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Inside Global
IP Address
IGA 1
IGA 2
IGA 3
IGA 4
WAN
Inside Global
Address (IGA)
192.168.1.10
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8.6.4 NAT Application
The following figure illustrates a possible NAT application, where three inside LANs
(logical LANs using IP alias) behind the ZyXEL Device can communicate with three
distinct WAN networks.
Figure 58 NAT Application With IP Alias
8.6.5 NAT Mapping Types
NAT supports five types of IP/port mapping. They are:
• One to One: In One-to-One mode, the ZyXEL Device maps one local IP address
to one global IP address.
• Many to One: In Many-to-One mode, the ZyXEL Device maps multiple local IP
addresses to one global IP address. This is equivalent to SUA (for instance, PAT,
port address translation), ZyXEL’s Single User Account feature that previous
ZyXEL routers supported (the SUA Only option in today’s routers).
• Many to Many Overload: In Many-to-Many Overload mode, the ZyXEL Device
maps the multiple local IP addresses to shared global IP addresses.
• Many-to-Many No Overload: In Many-to-Many No Overload mode, the ZyXEL
Device maps each local IP address to a unique global IP address.
• Server: This type allows you to specify inside servers of different services
behind the NAT to be accessible to the outside world.
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Port numbers do NOT change for One-to-One and Many-to-Many No Overload
NAT mapping types.
The following table summarizes these types.
Table 44 NAT Mapping Types
TYPE
IP MAPPING
One-to-One
ILA1ÅÆ IGA1
Many-to-One (SUA/PAT)
ILA1ÅÆ IGA1
ILA2ÅÆ IGA1
…
Many-to-Many Overload
ILA1ÅÆ IGA1
ILA2ÅÆ IGA2
ILA3ÅÆ IGA1
ILA4ÅÆ IGA2
…
Many-to-Many No Overload
ILA1ÅÆ IGA1
ILA2ÅÆ IGA2
ILA3ÅÆ IGA3
…
Server
Server 1 IPÅÆ IGA1
Server 2 IPÅÆ IGA1
Server 3 IPÅÆ IGA1
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P ART III
Security
Firewalls (181)
Content Filtering (205)
Packet Filter (211)
Certificates (223)
179
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CHAPTER
9
Firewalls
9.1 Overview
This chapter shows you how to enable and configure the ZyXEL Device firewall.
Use these screens to enable and configure the firewall that protects your ZyXEL
Device and network from attacks by hackers on the Internet and control access to
it. By default the firewall:
• allows traffic that originates from your LAN computers to go to all other
networks.
• blocks traffic that originates on other networks from going to the LAN.
The following figure illustrates the default firewall action. User A can initiate an IM
(Instant Messaging) session from the LAN to the WAN (1). Return traffic for this
session is also allowed (2). However other traffic initiated from the WAN is blocked
(3 and 4).
Figure 59 Default Firewall Action
WAN
LAN
A
1
2
3
4
9.1.1 What You Can Do in the Firewall Screens
• Use the General screen (Section 9.2 on page 186) to enable firewall or set the
firewall level on the ZyXEL Device.
• Use the Rules screen (Section 9.3 on page 189) to view the configured firewall
rules and add, edit or remove a firewall rule when you set the firewall level as
Custom in the General screen.
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• Use the Threshold screen (Section 9.4 on page 197) to set the thresholds that
the ZyXEL Device uses to determine when to start dropping sessions that do not
become fully established (half-open sessions).
9.1.2 What You Need to Know About Firewall
DoS
Denials of Service (DoS) attacks are aimed at devices and networks with a
connection to the Internet. Their goal is not to steal information, but to disable a
device or network so users no longer have access to network resources. The
ZyXEL Device is pre-configured to automatically detect and thwart all known DoS
attacks.
Anti-Probing
If an outside user attempts to probe an unsupported port on your ZyXEL Device,
an ICMP response packet is automatically returned. This allows the outside user to
know the ZyXEL Device exists. The ZyXEL Device supports anti-probing, which
prevents the ICMP response packet from being sent. This keeps outsiders from
discovering your ZyXEL Device when unsupported ports are probed.
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a message control and error-reporting
protocol between a host server and a gateway to the Internet. ICMP uses Internet
Protocol (IP) datagrams, but the messages are processed by the TCP/IP software
and directly apparent to the application user.
DoS Thresholds
For DoS attacks, the ZyXEL Device uses thresholds to determine when to drop
sessions that do not become fully established. These thresholds apply globally to
all sessions. You can use the default threshold values, or you can change them to
values more suitable to your security requirements.
Finding Out More
• See Section 9.1.3 on page 182 for an example of setting up a firewall.
• See Section 9.5 on page 200 for advanced technical information on firewall.
9.1.3 Firewall Rule for WAN Telnet Connection Example
The following Internet firewall rule example allows a Telnet connection from the
Internet. You must also configure remote management to allow Telnet from the
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WAN. See Advanced > Remote MGMT > Telnet (Section 18.3 on page 284) for
more information.
Figure 60 Firewall Rule Setup for Telnet Connection
LAN
WAN
192.168.1.2
Telnet
192.168.1.254
192.168.1.1
2.2.2.2
1
Select Custom from the General screen. The Rules tab will appear. Click the tab
to go to Rules screen.
2
Select WAN to LAN in the Packet Direction field.
Firewall Example: Rules
3
In the Rules screen, select the index number after that you want to add the rule.
4
Click Add to display the firewall rule configuration screen.
5
Select Single Address from the Address Type drop list of Source Address.
6
Enter the IP address of the computer from which you want to allow Telnet
(2.2.2.2) into the Start IP Address field. The IP address must be in dotted
decimal notation. Then click Add.
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7
Delete Any in the Source Address List box by clicking Delete.
Firewall Example: Edit Rule: Destination Address
8
Select Range Address from the Address Type drop list of Destination
Address.
9
Enter the IP address range of the ZyXEL Device (192.168.1.1) and computers on
your network (192.168.1.2 - 192.168.1.254) into the Start IP Address and End
IP Address fields. The IP addresses must be in dotted decimal notation. Then
click Add.
10 Delete Any in the Source Address List box by clicking Delete.
11 Select TELNET(TCP:23) from the Available Service list. Use the Add >>
button to add it to the Selected Services list. Use the Remove button to remove
services you do not need.
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12 Configure other settings in Schedule. Click Apply when you are done.
Firewall Example: Edit Rule: Select Customized Services
On completing the configuration procedure, the Rules screen should look like the
following.
The firewall rule allows a Telnet connection from WAN IP 2.2.2.2 to IP addresses
192.168.1.1 through 192.168.1.254.
Firewall Example: Rules: MyService-Telnet Connection
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9.2 The Firewall General Screen
9.2.1 Firewall Rules Overview
Your customized rules take precedence and override the ZyXEL Device’s default
settings. The ZyXEL Device checks the source IP address, destination IP address
and IP protocol type of network traffic against the firewall rules (in the order you
list them). When the traffic matches a rule, the ZyXEL Device takes the action
specified in the rule.
Firewall rules are grouped based on the direction of travel of packets to which they
apply:
• LAN to LAN/ Router
• WAN to LAN
• LAN to WAN
• WAN to WAN/ Router
Note: The LAN includes both the LAN port and the WLAN.
By default, the ZyXEL Device’s stateful packet inspection allows packets traveling
in the following directions:
• LAN to LAN/ Router
These rules specify which computers on the LAN can manage the ZyXEL Device
(remote management) and communicate between networks or subnets
connected to the LAN interface (IP alias).
Note: You can also configure the remote management settings to allow only a specific
computer to manage the ZyXEL Device.
• LAN to WAN
These rules specify which computers on the LAN can access which computers or
services on the WAN.
By default, the ZyXEL Device’s stateful packet inspection drops packets traveling
in the following directions:
• WAN to LAN
These rules specify which computers on the WAN can access which computers
or services on the LAN.
Note: You also need to configure NAT port forwarding (or full featured NAT address
mapping rules) to allow computers on the WAN to access devices on the LAN.
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• WAN to WAN/ Router
By default the ZyXEL Device stops computers on the WAN from managing the
ZyXEL Device or using the ZyXEL Device as a gateway to communicate with
other computers on the WAN. You could configure one of these rules to allow a
WAN computer to manage the ZyXEL Device.
You need to configure the remote management settings to allow a WAN computer
to manage the ZyXEL Device.
Use this screen to configure the firewall settings. Click Security > Firewall to
display the following screen.
Figure 61 Security > Firewall > General
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 45 Security > Firewall > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
High
Select this to turn off all traffic to and from the Internet. Only traffic
within your local network (LAN to LAN) is allowed.
Medium
Select this to allow traffic to the Internet but disallow traffic from the
Internet to your local network. This permits LAN to LAN and LAN to
WAN traffic.
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Table 45 Security > Firewall > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Low
Select this to allow traffic to the Internet and allow Internet access to
your local network from those WAN computers for which you configured
Port Forwarding, Default Server, WAN IP Passthrough, and One to One
NAT. This permits LAN to LAN, LAN to WAN, and WAN to LAN (with NAT
configured).
Custom
Select this to create and edit your own firewall rules. You can do this in
the Rules screen, which appears when you choose Custom.
Off
Select this disable all firewall protection. This allows all traffic to and
from the Internet to your ZyXEL Device.
Bypass Triangle
Route
If an alternate gateway on the LAN has an IP address in the same
subnet as the ZyXEL Device’s LAN IP address, return traffic may not go
through the ZyXEL Device. This is called an asymmetrical or “triangle”
route. This causes the ZyXEL Device to reset the connection, as the
connection has not been acknowledged.
Select this check box to have the ZyXEL Device permit the use of
asymmetrical route topology on the network (not reset the connection).
Note: Allowing asymmetrical routes may let traffic from the WAN go
directly to the LAN without passing through the ZyXEL
Device. A better solution is to use IP alias to put the ZyXEL
Device and the backup gateway on separate subnets. See
Section 9.5.3.2 on page 203 for an example.
Packet
Direction
This is the direction of travel of packets (LAN to LAN / Router, LAN to
WAN, WAN to WAN / Router, WAN to LAN).
Firewall rules are grouped based on the direction of travel of packets to
which they apply. For example, LAN to LAN / Router means packets
traveling from a computer/subnet on the LAN to either another
computer/subnet on the LAN interface of the ZyXEL Device or the ZyXEL
Device itself.
Default Action
Use the drop-down list boxes to select the default action that the
firewall is to take on packets that are traveling in the selected direction
and do not match any of the firewall rules.
Select Drop to silently discard the packets without sending a TCP reset
packet or an ICMP destination-unreachable message to the sender.
Select Reject to deny the packets and send a TCP reset packet (for a
TCP packet) or an ICMP destination-unreachable message (for a UDP
packet) to the sender.
Select Permit to allow the passage of the packets.
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Log
Select the check box to create a log (when the above action is taken)
for packets that are traveling in the selected direction and do not match
any of your customized rules.
Expand...
Click this to display more information.
Basic...
Click this to display less information.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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9.3 The Firewall Rule Screen
You may define firewall rules to allow or block certain types of traffic in or out of
your network.
For example, you may create rules to:
• Block certain types of traffic, such as Telnet, from the LAN to the Internet.
• Allow certain types of traffic, such as Lotus Notes database synchronization,
from specific hosts on the Internet to specific hosts on the LAN.
• Allow someone on the WAN to access a web server on your LAN.
These custom rules work by comparing the source IP address, destination IP
address and IP protocol type of network traffic to rules set by the administrator.
Your customized rules take precedence and override the ZyXEL Device’s default
rules.
Note: The ordering of your rules is very important as rules are applied in turn.
Refer to Section 9.5 on page 200 for more information.
Select Custom from the General screen. The Rules tab will appear. Click the tab
to go to Rules screen. This screen displays a list of the configured firewall rules.
Note the order in which the rules are listed.
Figure 62 Security > Firewall > Rules
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 46 Security > Firewall > Rules
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Firewall Rules
Storage
Space in Use
This read-only bar shows how much of the ZyXEL Device's memory for
recording firewall rules it is currently using. When you are using 80% or
less of the storage space, the bar is green. When the amount of space
used is over 80%, the bar is red.
Packet
Direction
Use the drop-down list box to select a direction of travel of packets for
which you want to configure firewall rules.
Create a new
rule after rule
number
Select an index number and click Add to add a new firewall rule after the
selected index number. For example, if you select “1”, your new rule
becomes number 2 and the previous rule 2 (if there is one) becomes rule
3.
The following read-only fields summarize the rules you have created that
apply to traffic traveling in the selected packet direction. The firewall rules
that you configure (summarized below) take priority over the general
firewall action settings in the General screen.
#
This is your firewall rule number. The ordering of your rules is important
as rules are applied in turn.
Active
This field displays whether a firewall is turned on or not. Select the check
box to enable the rule. Clear the check box to disable the rule.
Source IP
This drop-down list box displays the source addresses or ranges of
addresses to which this firewall rule applies. Please note that a blank
source or destination address is equivalent to Any.
Destination IP This drop-down list box displays the destination addresses or ranges of
addresses to which this firewall rule applies. Please note that a blank
source or destination address is equivalent to Any.
Service
This drop-down list box displays the services to which this firewall rule
applies. See Appendix E on page 421 for more information.
Action
This field displays whether the firewall silently discards packets (Drop),
discards packets and sends a TCP reset packet or an ICMP destinationunreachable message to the sender (Reject) or allows the passage of
packets (Permit).
Schedule
This field tells you whether a schedule is specified (Yes) or not (No).
Log
This field shows you whether a log is created when packets match this
rule (Yes) or not (No).
Modify
Click the Edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the rule.
Click the Remove icon to delete an existing firewall rule. A window
displays asking you to confirm that you want to delete the firewall rule.
Note that subsequent firewall rules move up by one when you take this
action.
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Order
Click the Move icon to display the Move the rule to field. Type a number
in the Move the rule to field and click the Move button to move the rule
to the number that you typed. The ordering of your rules is important as
they are applied in order of their numbering.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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9.3.1 Configuring Firewall Rules
Refer to Section 9.1.2 on page 182 for more information.
Use this screen to configure firewall rules. In the Rules screen, select an index
number and click Add or click a rule’s Edit icon to display this screen and refer to
the following table for information on the labels.
Figure 63 Security > Firewall > Rules: Edit
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 47 Security > Firewall > Rules: Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Edit Rule
Active
Select this option to enable this firewall rule.
Action for
Matched Packet
Use the drop-down list box to select whether to discard (Drop), deny
and send an ICMP destination-unreachable message to the sender of
(Reject) or allow the passage of (Permit) packets that match this
rule.
Source/Destination Address
Address Type
Do you want your rule to apply to packets with a particular (single) IP,
a range of IP addresses (for instance, 192.168.1.10 to 192.169.1.50),
a subnet or any IP address? Select an option from the drop-down list
box that includes: Single Address, Range Address, Subnet
Address and Any Address.
Start IP Address
Enter the single IP address or the starting IP address in a range here.
End IP Address
Enter the ending IP address in a range here.
Subnet Mask
Enter the subnet mask here, if applicable.
Add >>
Click Add >> to add a new address to the Source or Destination
Address box. You can add multiple addresses, ranges of addresses,
and/or subnets.
Edit <<
To edit an existing source or destination address, select it from the box
and click Edit <<.
Delete
Highlight an existing source or destination address from the Source or
Destination Address box above and click Delete to remove it.
Services
Available/
Please see Appendix E on page 421 for more information on services
Selected Services available. Highlight a service from the Available Services box on the
left, then click Add >> to add it to the Selected Services box on the
right. To remove a service, highlight it in the Selected Services box
on the right, then click Remove.
Edit Customized
Service
Click the Edit Customized Services link to bring up the screen that
you use to configure a new custom service that is not in the predefined
list of services.
Schedule
Day to Apply
Select everyday or the day(s) of the week to apply the rule.
Time of Day to
Apply (24-Hour
Format)
Select All Day or enter the start and end times in the hour-minute
format to apply the rule.
Log
Log Packet Detail
Information
This field determines if a log for packets that match the rule is created
or not. Go to the Log Settings page and select the Access Control
logs category to have the ZyXEL Device record these logs.
Alert
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Table 47 Security > Firewall > Rules: Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Send Alert
Message to
Administrator
When Matched
Select the check box to have the ZyXEL Device generate an alert when
the rule is matched.
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
9.3.2 Customized Services
Configure customized services and port numbers not predefined by the ZyXEL
Device. For a comprehensive list of port numbers and services, visit the IANA
(Internet Assigned Number Authority) website. See Appendix E on page 421 for
some examples. Click the Edit Customized Services link while editing a firewall
rule to configure a custom service port. This displays the following screen.
Figure 64 Security > Firewall > Rules: Edit: Edit Customized Services
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 48 Security > Firewall > Rules: Edit: Edit Customized Services
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
No.
This is the number of your customized port. Click a rule’s number of a service
to go to the Firewall Customized Services Config screen to configure or
edit a customized service.
Name
This is the name of your customized service.
Protocol
This shows the IP protocol (TCP, UDP or TCP/UDP) that defines your
customized service.
Port
This is the port number or range that defines your customized service.
Back
Click this to return to the Firewall Edit Rule screen.
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9.3.3 Configuring a Customized Service
Use this screen to add a customized rule or edit an existing rule. Click a rule
number in the Firewall Customized Services screen to display the following
screen.
Figure 65 Security > Firewall > Rules: Edit: Edit Customized Services: Config
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 49 Security > Firewall > Rules: Edit: Edit Customized Services: Config
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Config
Service
Name
Type a unique name for your custom port.
Service Type
Choose the IP port (TCP, UDP or TCP/UDP) that defines your customized
port from the drop down list box.
Port Configuration
Type
Click Single to specify one port only or Range to specify a span of ports
that define your customized service.
Port Number
Type a single port number or the range of port numbers that define your
customized service.
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
Delete
Click this to delete the current rule.
9.3.4 Firewall Rule Using a Customized Service Example
The following Internet firewall rule example allows a hypothetical “Doom”
connection from the Internet.
1
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Select Custom from the General screen. The Rules tab will appear. Click the tab
to go to Rules screen.
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2
Select WAN to LAN in the Packet Direction field.
Firewall Example: Rules-Customized Service
3
Click Add to display the firewall rule configuration screen.
4
In the Edit Rule screen, click the Edit Customized Services link to open the
Customized Service screen.
5
Click an index number to display the Customized Services Config screen and
configure the screen as follows and click Apply.
6
Return to the Edit Rule screen and configure the destination address screen and
click Add. Delete Any from the Destination Address List.
7
Scroll down the Available Services list and select *Doom(TCP/UDP:666). Use
the Add >> button to add it to the Available Services list. Use the Remove
button to remove services you do not need.
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8
Configure other settings in Schedule. Click Apply when you are done.
Note: Custom services show up with an “*” before their names in the Services list box
and the Rules list box.
On completing the configuration procedure for this Internet firewall rule, the
Rules screen should look like the following.
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Rule 1 allows a “MyService” connection from the WAN to IP addresses 10.0.0.10
through 10.0.0.15 on the LAN.
9.4 The Firewall Threshold Screen
For DoS attacks, the ZyXEL Device uses thresholds to determine when to start
dropping sessions that do not become fully established (half-open sessions).
These thresholds apply globally to all sessions.
For TCP, half-open means that the session has not reached the established statethe TCP three-way handshake has not yet been completed. Under normal
circumstances, the application that initiates a session sends a SYN (synchronize)
packet to the receiving server. The receiver sends back an ACK (acknowledgment)
packet and its own SYN, and then the initiator responds with an ACK
(acknowledgment). After this handshake, a connection is established.
Figure 66 Three-Way Handshake
For UDP, half-open means that the firewall has detected no return traffic. An
unusually high number (or arrival rate) of half-open sessions could indicate a DOS
attack.
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9.4.1 Threshold Values
If everything is working properly, you probably do not need to change the
threshold settings as the default threshold values should work for most small
offices. Tune these parameters when you believe the ZyXEL Device has been
receiving DoS attacks that are not recorded in the logs or the logs show that the
ZyXEL Device is classifying normal traffic as DoS attacks. Factors influencing
choices for threshold values are:
1
The maximum number of opened sessions.
2
The minimum capacity of server backlog in your LAN network.
3
The CPU power of servers in your LAN network.
4
Network bandwidth.
5
Type of traffic for certain servers.
Reduce the threshold values if your network is slower than average for any of
these factors (especially if you have servers that are slow or handle many tasks
and are often busy).
• If you often use P2P applications such as file sharing with eMule or eDonkey, it’s
recommended that you increase the threshold values since lots of sessions will
be established during a small period of time and the ZyXEL Device may classify
them as DoS attacks.
9.4.2 Configuring Firewall Thresholds
The ZyXEL Device also sends alerts whenever TCP Maximum Incomplete is
exceeded. The global values specified for the threshold and timeout apply to all
TCP connections.
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Click Firewall > Threshold to bring up the next screen.
Figure 67 Security > Firewall > Threshold
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 50 Security > Firewall > Threshold
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Denial of Service
Thresholds
The ZyXEL Device measures both the total number of existing halfopen sessions and the rate of session establishment attempts. Both
TCP and UDP half-open sessions are counted in the total number and
rate measurements. Measurements are made once a minute.
One Minute Low
This is the rate of new half-open sessions per minute that causes the
firewall to stop deleting half-open sessions. The ZyXEL Device
continues to delete half-open sessions as necessary, until the rate of
new connection attempts drops below this number.
One Minute High
This is the rate of new half-open sessions per minute that causes the
firewall to start deleting half-open sessions. When the rate of new
connection attempts rises above this number, the ZyXEL Device deletes
half-open sessions as required to accommodate new connection
attempts.
For example, if you set the one minute high to 100, the ZyXEL Device
starts deleting half-open sessions when more than 100 session
establishment attempts have been detected in the last minute. It stops
deleting half-open sessions when the number of session establishment
attempts detected in a minute goes below the number set as the one
minute low.
Maximum
Incomplete Low
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This is the number of existing half-open sessions that causes the
firewall to stop deleting half-open sessions. The ZyXEL Device
continues to delete half-open requests as necessary, until the number
of existing half-open sessions drops below this number.
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Table 50 Security > Firewall > Threshold (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Maximum
Incomplete High
This is the number of existing half-open sessions that causes the
firewall to start deleting half-open sessions. When the number of
existing half-open sessions rises above this number, the ZyXEL Device
deletes half-open sessions as required to accommodate new
connection requests. Do not set Maximum Incomplete High to lower
than the current Maximum Incomplete Low number.
For example, if you set the maximum incomplete high to 100, the
ZyXEL Device starts deleting half-open sessions when the number of
existing half-open sessions rises above 100. It stops deleting half-open
sessions when the number of existing half-open sessions drops below
the number set as the maximum incomplete low.
TCP Maximum
Incomplete
An unusually high number of half-open sessions with the same
destination host address could indicate that a DoS attack is being
launched against the host.
Specify the number of existing half-open TCP sessions with the same
destination host IP address that causes the firewall to start dropping
half-open sessions to that same destination host IP address. Enter a
number between 1 and 256. As a general rule, you should choose a
smaller number for a smaller network, a slower system or limited
bandwidth. The ZyXEL Device sends alerts whenever the TCP
Maximum Incomplete is exceeded.
Action taken
when TCP
Maximum
Incomplete
reached
threshold
Select the action that ZyXEL Device should take when the TCP
maximum incomplete threshold is reached. You can have the ZyXEL
Device either:
Delete the oldest half open session when a new connection request
comes.
or
Deny new connection requests for the number of minutes that you
specify (between 1 and 255).
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
9.5 Firewall Technical Reference
This section provides some technical background information about the topics
covered in this chapter.
9.5.1 Guidelines For Enhancing Security With Your Firewall
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1
Change the default password via web configurator.
2
Think about access control before you connect to the network in any way.
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3
Limit who can access your router.
4
Don't enable any local service (such as telnet or FTP) that you don't use. Any
enabled service could present a potential security risk. A determined hacker might
be able to find creative ways to misuse the enabled services to access the firewall
or the network.
5
For local services that are enabled, protect against misuse. Protect by configuring
the services to communicate only with specific peers, and protect by configuring
rules to block packets for the services at specific interfaces.
6
Protect against IP spoofing by making sure the firewall is active.
7
Keep the firewall in a secured (locked) room.
9.5.2 Security Considerations
Note: Incorrectly configuring the firewall may block valid access or introduce security
risks to the ZyXEL Device and your protected network. Use caution when
creating or deleting firewall rules and test your rules after you configure them.
Consider these security ramifications before creating a rule:
1
Does this rule stop LAN users from accessing critical resources on the Internet?
For example, if IRC is blocked, are there users that require this service?
2
Is it possible to modify the rule to be more specific? For example, if IRC is blocked
for all users, will a rule that blocks just certain users be more effective?
3
Does a rule that allows Internet users access to resources on the LAN create a
security vulnerability? For example, if FTP ports (TCP 20, 21) are allowed from the
Internet to the LAN, Internet users may be able to connect to computers with
running FTP servers.
4
Does this rule conflict with any existing rules?
Once these questions have been answered, adding rules is simply a matter of
entering the information into the correct fields in the web configurator screens.
9.5.3 Triangle Route
When the firewall is on, your ZyXEL Device acts as a secure gateway between your
LAN and the Internet. In an ideal network topology, all incoming and outgoing
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network traffic passes through the ZyXEL Device to protect your LAN against
attacks.
Figure 68 Ideal Firewall Setup
WAN
LAN
1
2
9.5.3.1 The “Triangle Route” Problem
A traffic route is a path for sending or receiving data packets between two
Ethernet devices. You may have more than one connection to the Internet
(through one or more ISPs). If an alternate gateway is on the LAN (and its IP
address is in the same subnet as the ZyXEL Device’s LAN IP address), the “triangle
route” (also called asymmetrical route) problem may occur. The steps below
describe the “triangle route” problem.
1
A computer on the LAN initiates a connection by sending out a SYN packet to a
receiving server on the WAN.
2
The ZyXEL Device reroutes the SYN packet through Gateway A on the LAN to the
WAN.
3
The reply from the WAN goes directly to the computer on the LAN without going
through the ZyXEL Device.
As a result, the ZyXEL Device resets the connection, as the connection has not
been acknowledged.
Figure 69 “Triangle Route” Problem
WAN
LAN
1
ISP 1
3
2
ISP 2
A
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9.5.3.2 Solving the “Triangle Route” Problem
If you have the ZyXEL Device allow triangle route sessions, traffic from the WAN
can go directly to a LAN computer without passing through the ZyXEL Device and
its firewall protection.
Another solution is to use IP alias. IP alias allows you to partition your network
into logical sections over the same Ethernet interface. Your ZyXEL Device supports
up to three logical LAN interfaces with the ZyXEL Device being the gateway for
each logical network.
It’s like having multiple LAN networks that actually use the same physical cables
and ports. By putting your LAN and Gateway A in different subnets, all returning
network traffic must pass through the ZyXEL Device to your LAN. The following
steps describe such a scenario.
1
A computer on the LAN initiates a connection by sending a SYN packet to a
receiving server on the WAN.
2
The ZyXEL Device reroutes the packet to Gateway A, which is in Subnet 2.
3
The reply from the WAN goes to the ZyXEL Device.
4
The ZyXEL Device then sends it to the computer on the LAN in Subnet 1.
Figure 70 IP Alias
LAN
Subnet 1
WAN
1
ISP 1
4
2
ISP 2
3
Subnet 2
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CHAPTER
10
Content Filtering
10.1 Overview
Internet content filtering allows you to block web sites based on keywords in the
URL.
See Section 10.1.4 on page 206 for an example of setting up content filtering.
10.1.1 What You Can Do in the Content Filter Screens
• Use the Keyword screen (Section 10.2 on page 208) to block web sites based
on a keyword in the URL.
• Use the Schedule screen (Section 10.3 on page 209) to specify the days and
times keyword blocking is active.
• Use the Trusted screen (Section 10.4 on page 210) to exclude computers and
other devices on your LAN from the keyword blocking filter.
10.1.2 What You Need to Know About Content Filtering
URL
The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) identifies and helps locate resources on a
network. On the Internet the URL is the web address that you type in the address
bar of your Internet browser, for example “http://www.zyxel.com”.
10.1.3 Before You Begin
To use the Trusted screen, you need the IP addresses of devices on your
network. See the LAN section (Section 10.4 on page 210) for more information.
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10.1.4 Content Filtering Example
The following shows the steps required for a parent (Bob) to set up content
filtering on a home network in order to limit his children’s access to certain web
sites. In the following example, all URLs containing the word ‘bad’ are blocked.
1
Click Security > Content Filter to display the following screen.
2
Select Active Keyword Blocking.
3
In the Keyword field type keywords to identify websites to be blocked.
4
Click Add Keyword for each keyword to be entered.
5
Click Apply.
Security > Content Filter > Keyword: Example
Bob’s son arrives home from school at four, while his parents arrive later, at about
7pm. So keyword blocking is enabled for these times on weekdays and not on the
weekend when the parents are at home.
206
1
Click Security > Content Filter > Schedule.
2
Click Edit Daily to Block and select all weekdays.
3
Under Start Time and End Time, type the times for blocking to begin and end
(4pm ~ 7pm in this example).
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4
Click Apply.
Security > Content Filter > Schedule: Example
The children can access the family computer in the living room, while only the
parents use another computer in the study room. So keyword blocking is only
needed on the family computer and the study computer can be excluded from
keyword blocking. Bob’s home network is on the domain “192.168.1.xxx”. Bob
gave his home computer a static IP address of 192.168.1.2 and the study
computer a static IP address of 192.168.1.3. To exclude the study computer from
keyword blocking he follows these steps.
1
Click Security > Content Filter > Trusted.
2
In the Start IP Address and End IP Address fields, type 192.168.1.3.
3
Click Apply.
Security > Content Filter > Trusted: Example
That finishes setting up keyword blocking on the home computer.
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10.2 The Keyword Screen
Use this screen to block sites containing certain keywords in the URL. For
example, if you enable the keyword "bad", the ZyXEL Device blocks all sites
containing this keyword including the URL http://www.example.com/bad.html.
To have your ZyXEL Device block websites containing keywords in their URLs, click
Security > Content Filter. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 71 Security > Content Filtering > Keyword
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 51 Security > Content Filtering > Keyword
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active Keyword
Blocking
Select this check box to enable this feature.
Block Websites that
contain these keywords
in the URL:
This box contains the list of all the keywords that you have
configured the ZyXEL Device to block.
Delete
Highlight a keyword in the box and click this to remove it.
Clear All
Click this to remove all of the keywords from the list.
Keyword
Type a keyword in this field. You may use any character (up to
127 characters). Wildcards are not allowed.
Add Keyword
Click this after you have typed a keyword.
Repeat this procedure to add other keywords. Up to 64
keywords are allowed.
When you try to access a web page containing a keyword, you
will get a message telling you that the content filter is blocking
this request.
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Table 51 Security > Content Filtering > Keyword (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
10.3 The Schedule Screen
Use this screen to set the days and times for the ZyXEL Device to perform content
filtering. Click Security > Content Filter > Schedule. The screen appears as
shown.
Figure 72 Security > Content Filter > Schedule
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 52 Security > Content Filter: Schedule
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Schedule
Select Block Everyday to make the content filtering active everyday.
Otherwise, select Edit Daily to Block and configure which days of the
week (or everyday) and which time of the day you want the content
filtering to be active.
Active
Select the check box to have the content filtering to be active on the
selected day.
Start TIme
Enter the time when you want the content filtering to take effect in hourminute format.
End Time
Enter the time when you want the content filtering to stop in hour-minute
format.
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Table 52 Security > Content Filter: Schedule (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
10.4 The Trusted Screen
Use this screen to exclude a range of users on the LAN from content filtering on
your ZyXEL Device. Click Security > Content Filter > Trusted. The screen
appears as shown.
Figure 73 Security > Content Filter: Trusted
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 53 Security > Content Filter: Trusted
210
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Start IP Address
Type the IP address of a computer (or the beginning IP address of
a specific range of computers) on the LAN that you want to
exclude from content filtering.
End IP Address
Type the ending IP address of a specific range of users on your
LAN that you want to exclude from content filtering. Leave this
field blank if you want to exclude an individual computer.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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CHAPTER
11
Packet Filter
11.1 Overview
Your ZyXEL Device uses filters to decide whether to allow passage of traffic. This
chapter discusses how to create and apply filters.
11.1.1 What You Can Do in the Packet Filter Screen
Use the Packet Filter screens (Section 11.2 on page 212) to display the filter sets
and configure the rules for protocol and generic filters.
11.1.2 What You Need to Know About the Packet Filter
Filters
Your ZyXEL Device uses filters to decide whether to allow passage of a data
packet. Filters are subdivided into generic and protocol filters. Generic filter rules
act on the raw data from/to LAN and WAN. Protocol filter rules act on IP packets.
Filter Structure
A filter set consists of one or more filter rules. The ZyXEL Device allows you to
configure up to twelve filter sets with six rules in each set, for a total of 72 filter
rules in the system. You cannot mix generic filter rules and protocol filter rules
within the same set. You can apply up to four filter sets to a particular port to
block multiple types of packets. With each filter set having up to six rules, you can
have a maximum of 24 rules active for a single port.
Finding Out More
See Section 11.3 on page 219 for technical background information on packet
filters.
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11.2 The Packet Filter Screen
Use this screen to set up packet filters on your ZyXEL Device. Click Security >
Packet Filter to display the following screen.
Figure 74 Security > Packet Filter
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 54 Security > Packet Filter
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This field displays the index number of the filter set.
Name
Enter a name for the filter set. The text may consist of up to 16
letters, numerals and any printable character found on a typical
English language keyboard.
Filter Type
Select Protocol Filter or Generic Filter for your filter set.
Protocol filter rules are used to filter IP packets while generic filter
rules allow filtering of non-IP packets.
Modify
Click the Edit button to configure a filter set.
Click the Remove button to delete a filter set.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
11.2.1 Reset to Factory Defaults
There are two methods of resetting to factory defaults.
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1
In the GUI go to Maintenance > Update/Reboot > Configuration. Click the
Reset button to clear all user-entered configuration information and return the
ZyXEL Device to its factory defaults.
2
If you forgot your password or cannot access the web configurator, you will need
to use the RESET button at the back of the device to reload the factory default
configuration file. This means that you will lose all configurations that you had
previously and the password will reset to “broadband1”.
11.2.1.1 Using the RESET Button
1
Make sure that the Power LED is on (not blinking).
2
To set the device back to the factory default settings, press the RESET button for
5 seconds or until the Power LED begins to blink. Do not turn off the device while
the reset is in progress! When the Power LED stops blinking and lights green, the
defaults have been restored and the device restarts.
11.2.2 Editing Protocol Filters
Use this screen to display a protocol filter set on your ZyXEL Device. Protocol rules
allow you to base the rule on the fields in the IP and the upper layer protocol, for
example, UDP and TCP headers.
In the Packet Filter screen, select Protocol Filter from the Filter Type field.
Then click the Edit button from the Modify field to display the following screen.
Figure 75 Security > Packet Filter > Filter Rules
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 55 Security > Packet Filter > Edit (Protocol Filter)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of the rules in a filter set.
Active
Use the check box to turn a filter rule on or off.
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Table 55 Security > Packet Filter > Edit (Protocol Filter) (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Filter Type
This field displays whether the filter type is a protocol filter or generic
filter.
Protocol
This field displays the upper layer protocol.
SA
This field displays the source IP address.
DA
This field displays the destination IP address.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to configure a filter rule.
Click the Remove icon to delete a filter rule.
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
11.2.3 Configuring Protocol Filter Rules
Use this screen to configure protocol filter rules. In the Edit (Protocol Filter)
screen, click an Edit icon to display the following screen.
Figure 76 Security > Packet Filter > Edit (Protocol Filter) > Edit Rule
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 56 Security > Packet Filter > Edit (Protocol Filter) > Edit Rule
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select the check box to enable the filter rule.
Protocol
Select ICMP, TCP or UDP for the upper layer protocol.
IP Source
Route
Select the check box to apply the filter rule to packets with an IP source
route option. The majority of IP packets do not have source route.
Destination
Address
Enter the destination IP address of the packet you wish to filter. This
field is ignored if it is 0.0.0.0.
Destination
Subnet
Netmask
Enter the IP subnet mask for the destination IP address.
Destination
Port
Enter the destination port of the packets that you wish to filter. The
range of this field is 0 to 65535. This field is ignored if it is 0.
Port Compare
Select the comparison to apply to the destination port in the packet
against the value given in the Destination Port field.
Options are None, Equal, Not Equal, Less and Greater.
Source Address Enter the source IP address of the packet you wish to filter. This field is
ignored if it is 0.0.0.0.
Source Subnet
Netmask
Enter the IP subnet mask for the source IP address
Source Port
Enter the source port of the packets that you wish to filter. The range of
this field is 0 to 65535. This field is ignored if it is 0.
Port Compare
Select the comparison to apply to the source port in the packet against
the value given in the Source Port field.
Options are None, Equal, Not Equal, Less and Greater.
TCP Estab
This field is only available when you select TCP in the Protocol field.
Select Yes to have the rule match packets that want to establish a TCP
connection. This field is ignored if you select No.
More
Select Yes to pass a matching packet to the next filter rule before an
action is taken. Select No to act upon the packet according to the action
fields.
Log
Select a logging option from the following:
None – No packets will be logged.
Match - Only packets that match the rule parameters will be logged.
Not Match - Only packets that do not match the rule parameters will be
logged.
Both – All packets will be logged.
Action Match
Select the action for a matching packet.
Options are Check Next Rule, Forward and Drop.
Action Not
Match
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Select the action for a packet not matching the rule.
Options are Check Next Rule, Forward and Drop.
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Table 56 Security > Packet Filter > Edit (Protocol Filter) > Edit Rule (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
If you applied the protocol filter rule, it will be displayed on the Security >
Packet Filter > Edit screen. Click the Edit icon if you want to modify the rule.
After you have configured the packet filters for incoming and outgoing traffic, you
can apply them to the WAN Internet access in the Network > Internet (WAN)
> Internet Access Setup: Advanced Setup screen. See Section 5.2.1 on page
92 for more information.
11.2.4 Editing Generic Filters
Use this screen to display a generic filter set on your ZyXEL Device. The purpose
of generic rules is to allow you to filter non-IP packets. For IP packets, it is
generally easier to use the IP rules directly.
For generic rules, the ZyXEL Device treats a packet as a byte stream as opposed
to an IP or IPX packet. You specify the portion of the packet to check with the
Offset (from 0) and the Length fields, both in bytes. The ZyXEL Device applies
the Mask (bit-wise ANDing) to the data portion before comparing the result
against the Value to determine a match. The Mask and Value are specified in
hexadecimal numbers. Note that it takes two hexadecimal digits to represent a
byte, so if the length is 4 bytes, the value in either field will take 8 digits, for
example, FFFFFFFF.
In the Packet Filter screen, select Generic Filter from the Filter Type field.
Then click the Edit button from the Modify field to display the following screen.
Figure 77 Security > Packet Filter > Filter Rules
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 57 Security > Packet Filter > Edit (Generic Filter)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of the rules in a filter set.
Active
Use the check box to turn on or off a filter rule.
Filter Type
This field displays whether the filter type is a protocol filter or
generic filter.
Offset
This field displays the offset value.
Length
This field displays the length value.
Mask
This field displays the mask value.
Value
This field displays the value.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to configure a filter rule.
Click the Remove icon to delete a filter rule.
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
11.2.5 Configuring Generic Packet Rules
Use this screen to configure generic filter rules. In the Edit (Generic Filter)
screen, click the Edit button from the Modify field to display the following screen.
Figure 78 Security > Packet Filter > Edit (Generic Filter) > Edit Rule
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 58 Security > Packet Filter > Edit (Generic Filter) > Edit Rule
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
Select the check box to enable the filter rule.
Offset
Enter the starting byte of the data portion in the packet that you
wish to compare. The range for this field is from 0 to 255.
Length
Enter the byte count of the data portion in the packet that you
wish to compare. The range for this field is 0 to 8.
Mask
Enter the mask (in hexadecimal notation) to apply to the data
portion before comparison.
Value
Enter the value (in hexadecimal notation) to compare with the
data portion.
More
Select Yes to pass a matching packet to the next filter rule before
an action is taken.
Select No to act upon the packet according to the action fields.
Log
Select a logging option from the following:
None – No packets will be logged.
Match - Only packets that match the rule parameters will be
logged.
Not Match - Only packets that do not match the rule parameters
will be logged.
Both – All packets will be logged.
Action Match
Select the action for a matching packet.
Options are Check Next Rule, Forward and Drop.
Action Not Match
Select the action for a packet not matching the rule.
Options are Check Next Rule, Forward and Drop.
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
If you applied the generic filter rule, it will be displayed on the Security > Packet
Filter > Edit screen. Click the Edit icon if you want to modify the rule.
After you have configured the packet filters for incoming and outgoing traffic, you
can apply them to the WAN Internet access in the Network > Internet (WAN)
> Internet Access Setup: Advanced Setup screen. See Section 5.2.1 on page
92 for more information.
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11.3 Packet Filter Technical Reference
This section provides some technical background information about the topics
covered in this chapter.
11.3.1 Filter Types and NAT
There are two classes of filter rules, generic filter rules and protocol filter rules.
Generic filter rules act on the raw data from/to LAN and WAN. Protocol filter rules
act on the IP packets. When NAT (Network Address Translation) is enabled, the
inside IP address and port number are replaced on a connection-by-connection
basis, which makes it impossible to know the exact address and port on the wire.
Therefore, the ZyXEL Device applies the protocol filters to the “native” IP address
and port number before NAT for outgoing packets and after NAT for incoming
packets. On the other hand, the generic filters are applied to the raw packets that
appear on the wire. They are applied at the point when the ZyXEL Device is
receiving and sending the packets; that is the interface. The interface can be an
Ethernet port or any other hardware port. The following diagram illustrates this.
Figure 79 Protocol and Generic Filter Sets
Route
Protocol
Filters
NAT
Generic
Filters
Incoming
Interface
Outgoing
11.3.2 Firewall Versus Filters
Below are some comparisons between the ZyXEL Device’s filtering and firewall
functions.
Packet Filtering
• The router filters packets as they pass through the router’s interface according
to the filter rules you designed.
• Packet filtering is a powerful tool, yet can be complex to configure and maintain,
especially if you need a chain of rules to filter a service.
• Packet filtering only checks the header portion of an IP packet.
When To Use Filtering
• To block/allow LAN packets by their MAC addresses.
• To block/allow special IP packets which are neither TCP nor UDP, nor ICMP
packets.
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• To block/allow both inbound (WAN to LAN) and outbound (LAN to WAN) traffic
between the specific inside host/network "A" and outside host/network "B". If
the filter blocks the traffic from A to B, it also blocks the traffic from B to A.
Generic filters cannot distinguish traffic originating from an inside host or an
outside host by IP address or subnets.
• To block/allow IP trace route.
Firewall
• The firewall inspects packet contents as well as their source and destination
addresses. Firewalls of this type employ an inspection module, applicable to all
protocols, that understands data in the packet is intended for other layers, from
the network layer (IP headers) up to the application layer.
• The firewall performs stateful inspection. It takes into account the state of
connections it handles so that, for example, a legitimate incoming packet can be
matched with the outbound request for that packet and allowed in. Conversely,
an incoming packet masquerading as a response to a non-existent outbound
request can be blocked.
• The firewall uses session filtering, i.e., smart rules, that enhance the filtering
process and control the network session rather than control individual packets in
a session.
• The firewall provides e-mail service to notify you of routine reports and when
alerts occur.
When To Use The Firewall
• To prevent DoS attacks and prevent hackers cracking your network.
• A range of source and destination IP addresses as well as port numbers can be
specified within one firewall rule making the firewall a better choice when
complex rules are required.
• To selectively block/allow inbound or outbound traffic between inside host/
networks and outside host/networks. Remember that filters cannot distinguish
traffic originating from an inside host or an outside host by IP address.
• The firewall performs better than filtering if you need to check many rules.
• Use the firewall if you need routine e-mail reports about your system or need to
be alerted when attacks occur.
• The firewall can block specific URL traffic that might occur in the future. The URL
can be saved in an Access Control List (ACL) database.
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CHAPTER
12
Certificates
12.1 Overview
This chapter describes how your ZyXEL Device can use certificates as a means of
authenticating wireless clients. It gives background information about public-key
certificates and explains how to use them.
A certificate contains the certificate owner’s identity and public key. Certificates
provide a way to exchange public keys for use in authentication.
Figure 80 Certificates Example
In the figure above, the ZyXEL Device (Z) checks the identity of the notebook (A)
using a certificate before granting it access to the network.
12.1.1 What You Can Do in the Certificates Screens
Use the Trusted CAs screens (Section 12.2 on page 224) to save CA certificates
to the ZyXEL Device.
12.1.2 What You Need to Know About Certificates
Certification Authority
A Certification Authority (CA) issues certificates and guarantees the identity of
each certificate owner. There are commercial certification authorities like
CyberTrust or VeriSign and government certification authorities. You can use the
ZyXEL Device to generate certification requests that contain identifying
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information and public keys and then send the certification requests to a
certification authority.
Certificate File Formats
The certification authority certificate that you want to import has to be in one of
these file formats:
• Binary X.509: This is an ITU-T recommendation that defines the formats for
X.509 certificates.
• PEM (Base-64) encoded X.509: This Privacy Enhanced Mail format uses
lowercase letters, uppercase letters and numerals to convert a binary X.509
certificate into a printable form.
Finding Out More
See Section 12.3 on page 229 for technical background information on
certificates.
12.2 The Trusted CAs Screen
This screen displays a summary list of certificates of the certification authorities
that you have set the ZyXEL Device to accept as trusted. The ZyXEL Device
accepts any valid certificate signed by a certification authority on this list as being
trustworthy; thus you do not need to import any certificate that is signed by one
of these certification authorities. Click Security > Certificates to open the
Trusted CAs screen.
Figure 81 Trusted CAs
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 59 Trusted CAs
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
PKI Storage
Space in Use
This bar displays the percentage of the ZyXEL Device’s PKI storage
space that is currently in use. The bar turns from blue to red when the
maximum is being approached. When the bar is red, you should
consider deleting expired or unnecessary certificates before adding
more certificates.
#
This field displays the certificate index number. The certificates are
listed in alphabetical order.
Name
This field displays the name used to identify this certificate.
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable. The
text displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the
certificate has not yet become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text displays
in red and includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the certificate is
about to expire or has already expired.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to open a screen with an in-depth list of information
about the certificate.
Click the Remove icon to remove the certificate. A window displays
asking you to confirm that you want to delete the certificates. Note that
subsequent certificates move up by one when you take this action.
Import
Click this to open a screen where you can save the certificate of a
certification authority that you trust, from your computer to the ZyXEL
Device.
Refresh
Click this to display the current validity status of the certificates.
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12.2.1 Trusted CA Import
Follow the instructions in this screen to save a trusted certification authority’s
certificate to the ZyXEL Device. Click Security > Certificates to open the
Trusted CAs screen and then click Import to open the Trusted CA Import
screen.
Note: You must remove any spaces from the certificate’s filename before you can
import the certificate.
Figure 82 Trusted CA Import
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 60 Trusted CA Import
226
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click Browse
to find it.
Browse
Click this to find the certificate file you want to upload.
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save the certificate on the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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12.2.2 Trusted CA Details
Use this screen to view in-depth information about the certification authority’s
certificate, change the certificate’s name and set whether or not you want the
ZyXEL Device to check a certification authority’s list of revoked certificates before
trusting a certificate issued by the certification authority. Click Security >
Certificates > Trusted CAs to open the Trusted CAs screen. Click the details
icon to open the Trusted CA Details screen.
Figure 83 Trusted CA Details
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 61 Trusted CA Details
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Certificate Name
This field displays the identifying name of this certificate. If you want
to change the name, type up to 31 characters to identify this key
certificate. You may use any character (not including spaces).
Certificate
Information
These read-only fields display detailed information about the
certificate.
Type
This field displays general information about the certificate. CA-signed
means that a Certification Authority signed the certificate. Self-signed
means that the certificate’s owner signed the certificate (not a
certification authority). X.509 means that this certificate was created
and signed according to the ITU-T X.509 recommendation that
defines the formats for public-key certificates.
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Table 61 Trusted CA Details (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Version
This field displays the X.509 version number.
Serial Number
This field displays the certificate’s identification number given by the
certification authority.
Signature
Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to sign the
certificate. Some certification authorities use rsa-pkcs1-sha1 (RSA
public-private key encryption algorithm and the SHA1 hash
algorithm). Other certification authorities may use rsa-pkcs1-md5
(RSA public-private key encryption algorithm and the MD5 hash
algorithm).
Valid From
This field displays the date that the certificate becomes applicable.
The text displays in red and includes a Not Yet Valid! message if the
certificate has not yet become applicable.
Valid To
This field displays the date that the certificate expires. The text
displays in red and includes an Expiring! or Expired! message if the
certificate is about to expire or has already expired.
Key Algorithm
This field displays the type of algorithm that was used to generate the
certificate’s key pair (the ZyXEL Device uses RSA encryption) and the
length of the key set in bits (1024 bits for example).
MD5 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the ZyXEL Device
calculated using the MD5 algorithm. You can use this value to verify
with the certification authority (over the phone for example) that this
is actually their certificate.
SHA1 Fingerprint
This is the certificate’s message digest that the ZyXEL Device
calculated using the SHA1 algorithm. You can use this value to verify
with the certification authority (over the phone for example) that this
is actually their certificate.
Certificate in PEM
(Base-64)
Encoded Format
This read-only text box displays the certificate or certification request
in Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) format. PEM uses 64 ASCII characters
to convert the binary certificate into a printable form.
You can copy and paste the certificate into an e-mail to send to
friends or colleagues or you can copy and paste the certificate into a
text editor and save the file on a management computer for later
distribution (via floppy disk for example).
228
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Export
Click this and then Save in the File Download screen. The Save As
screen opens, browse to the location that you want to use and click
Save.
Apply
Click this to save your changes. You can only change the name and/or
set whether or not you want the ZyXEL Device to check the CRL that
the certification authority issues before trusting a certificate issued by
the certification authority.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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Chapter 12 Certificates
12.3 Certificates Technical Reference
This section provides technical background information about the topics covered in
this chapter.
12.3.1 Certificates Overview
The ZyXEL Device can use certificates (also called digital IDs) to authenticate
users. Certificates are based on public-private key pairs. A certificate contains the
certificate owner’s identity and public key. Certificates provide a way to exchange
public keys for use in authentication.
The ZyXEL Device uses certificates based on public-key cryptology to authenticate
users attempting to establish a connection, not to encrypt the data that you send
after establishing a connection. The method used to secure the data that you send
through an established connection depends on the type of connection. For
example, a VPN tunnel might use the triple DES encryption algorithm.
The certification authority uses its private key to sign certificates. Anyone can then
use the certification authority’s public key to verify the certificates.
Advantages of Certificates
Certificates offer the following benefits.
• The ZyXEL Device only has to store the certificates of the certification
authorities that you decide to trust, no matter how many devices you need to
authenticate.
• Key distribution is simple and very secure since you can freely distribute public
keys and you never need to transmit private keys.
12.3.2 Private-Public Certificates
When using public-key cryptology for authentication, each host has two keys. One
key is public and can be made openly available. The other key is private and must
be kept secure.
These keys work like a handwritten signature (in fact, certificates are often
referred to as “digital signatures”). Only you can write your signature exactly as it
should look. When people know what your signature looks like, they can verify
whether something was signed by you, or by someone else. In the same way, your
private key “writes” your digital signature and your public key allows people to
verify whether data was signed by you, or by someone else. This process works as
follows.
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230
1
Tim wants to send a message to Jenny. He needs her to be sure that it comes from
him, and that the message content has not been altered by anyone else along the
way. Tim generates a public key pair (one public key and one private key).
2
Tim keeps the private key and makes the public key openly available. This means
that anyone who receives a message seeming to come from Tim can read it and
verify whether it is really from him or not.
3
Tim uses his private key to sign the message and sends it to Jenny.
4
Jenny receives the message and uses Tim’s public key to verify it. Jenny knows
that the message is from Tim, and that although other people may have been able
to read the message, no-one can have altered it (because they cannot re-sign the
message with Tim’s private key).
5
Additionally, Jenny uses her own private key to sign a message and Tim uses
Jenny’s public key to verify the message.
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P ART IV
Advanced
WAN IP Passthrough (233)
Static Route (239)
VLANs (243)
Quality of Service (QoS) (253)
Dynamic DNS Setup (275)
Remote Management (279)
Universal Plug-and-Play (UPnP) (289)
231
232
CHAPTER
13
WAN IP Passthrough
13.1 The WAN IP Passthrough Screen
WAN IP Passthrough (WIP) allows a WAN computer on the local network of the
ZyXEL Device to have access to web services using the public IP address. When
WAN IP Passthrough is configured, all traffic is forwarded to the computer and will
not go through NAT.
The following figure shows computers connected to the ZyXEL Device. Computers
A, B, and C are connected to the ZyXEL Device’s LAN interface with NAT enabled.
They make up a private LAN and are assigned private IP addresses by the ZyXEL
Device. Traffic to computer D does not go through NAT as it uses WAN IP
Passthrough.
Example of WAN IP Passthrough Topology
LAN
WAN
192.168.1.13
NAT
A
192.168.1.12
B
1.1.1.1
C
192.168.1.11
D
1.1.1.1
WIP
Use this feature on a LAN computer which runs applications that do not work well
with NAT. For example, VOIP softphones using the SIP protocol may not work on a
computer behind NAT.
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13.1.1 What You Need to Know About IP Passthrough
Outgoing Traffic
Outgoing traffic from the WAN IP Passthrough computer to the WAN does not go
through NAT.
Figure 84 Outgoing Traffic for WAN IP Passthrough
LAN
WAN
NAT
WIP
Incoming Traffic
If no NAT rule is found, then all traffic is forwarded to the WAN IP Passthrough
computer except incoming ping traffic that goes to the ZyXEL Device.
Note: The default NAT server does not work when WAN IP Passthrough is enabled.
Figure 85 Incoming Traffic for WAN IP Passthrough
LAN
WAN
Ping
NAT
WIP
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Chapter 13 WAN IP Passthrough
Intra-LAN Traffic
The WAN IP Passthrough computer can access a LAN computer with all firewall
settings. But traffic from a LAN computer to the WAN IP Passthrough goes through
the firewall and NAT.
Figure 86 Intra-LAN Traffic
WIP
NAT
H/M/L/C/X
LAN
WAN IP Passthrough and the Firewall
If you want the WAN IP Passthrough computer to access the Internet, you must
configure the firewall as Medium, Low, or Off. If you want to enable incoming
traffic to the WAN IP Passthrough, you must configure the firewall as Low or Off.
See Section 9.2 on page 186 for more information on configuring the firewall.
Figure 87 WAN IP Passthrough and the firewall
LAN
WAN
L/X
M/L/X
WIP
The table below shows the equivalent firewall rules when a LAN computer
becomes a WAN IP Passthrough computer. For example, WIP to WAN traffic uses
the LAN to WAN firewall rule. See Section 9.2.1 on page 186 for more information
on firewall rules.
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Table 62 Traffic Direction and Applicable
TRAFFIC DIRECTION
FIREWALL RULE
WIP to WAN
LAN to WAN
WAN to WIP
WAN to WAN/Router
WIP to LAN
LAN to LAN/Router
LAN to WIP
LAN to LAN/Router
WAN IP Passthrough and Remote Management
Figure 88 WAN IP Passthrough and Remote Management
LAN
WAN
L/X
M/L/X
WIP
If you configure the firewall as Low or Off and Remote Management is either
activated or disabled, trusted computers from the WAN side can access the WAN
IP Passthrough computer. If firewall is Off and Remote Management is activated,
trusted computers from the WAN side can access the ZyXEL Device. If you
configure the firewall as Medium or High and activate remote management,
trusted computers from the WAN side can only have access to the ZyXEL Device.
See Chapter 18 on page 279 for more information on Remote Management.
The table below explains the WAN access to WAN IP Passthrough computer and
the ZyXEL Device with different firewall and Remote Management settings.
Table 63 WAN Access, Remote Management, and Firewall
FIREWALL
REMOTE
MANAGEMENT
ACCESS TO THE
ZYXEL DEVICE
ACCESS TO THE
WIP COMPUTER
Low/Off
Off
No
Yes
Off
On
Yes
No
Low
On
No
Yes
Medium/High
On
Yes
No
Use this screen to select the computer to use for WAN IP Passthrough. The
selected computer cannot have a static IP address configured in Network >
Local Network (LAN) > Client List.
Note: To use WAN IP Passthrough you will need to set the firewall to either Off, Low
or Custom (with the correct WAN to WAN/Router rule).
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Click Advanced > WAN IP Passthrough to open the WAN IP Passthrough
screen.
Figure 89 Advanced > WAN IP Passthrough
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 64 Advanced > IP Passthrough
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active WAN IP
Passthrough
Select this to enable WAN IP Passthrough. After selecting it, choose which
local computer will use the same WAN side IP address (public IP address)
as the ZyXEL Device.
Note: A WAN IP Passthrough computer cannot have a reserved
static IP address in Network > Local Network(LAN) > Client
List.
Note: WAN IP Passthrough cannot work in Ethernet WAN mode.
Clear this to disable the function.
Manually
enter the WAN
IP address of
the DSL
Router in the
computer
Select this to manually enter the WAN IP address of the ZyXEL Device in
the computer. You can find the IP address on the ZyXEL Device’s Web
Configurator Status page.
Enter the
computer's
MAC Address
Select this and enter the MAC address of the computer you want to
configure IP Passthrough. Enter six pairs of hexadecimal notation with
colons.
See Section 6.4 on page 118 for more information on finding out your
computer’s MAC address.
Select the
computer
from a list of
connected
computers
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Select this to choose a computer from the list of computers that the
ZyXEL Device has assigned the addresses to.
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Table 64 Advanced > IP Passthrough
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the index number of the static IP table entry (row).
Status
This field displays whether the client is connected to the ZyXEL Device.
Host Name
This field displays the current computer name.
IP Address
This field displays the IP address of this computer.
MAC Address
Select this field to enter the MAC address of your computer.
IP
Passthrough
Select the computer you want to configure with WAN IP Passthrough.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
After you click Apply, you need to renew the WAN IP Passthrough
computer IP address.
Cancel
238
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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CHAPTER
14
Static Route
14.1 Overview
The ZyXEL Device usually uses the default gateway to route outbound traffic from
computers on the LAN to the Internet. To have the ZyXEL Device send data to
devices not reachable through the default gateway, use static routes.
For example, the next figure shows a computer (A) connected to the ZyXEL
Device’s LAN interface. The ZyXEL Device routes most traffic from A to the
Internet through the ZyXEL Device’s default gateway (R1). You create one static
route to connect to services offered by your ISP behind router R2. You create
another static route to communicate with a separate network behind a router R3
connected to the LAN.
Figure 90 Example of Static Routing Topology
A
R1
LAN
WAN
R3
R2
14.1.1 What You Can Do in the Static Route Screens
Use the Static Route screens (Section 14.2 on page 240) to view and configure
IP static routes on the ZyXEL Device.
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Chapter 14 Static Route
14.2 The Static Route Screen
Use this screen to view the static route rules. Click Advanced > Static Route to
open the Static Route screen.
Figure 91 Advanced > Static Route
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 65 Advanced > Static Route
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
#
This is the number of an individual static route.
Active
This field indicates whether the rule is active or not.
Clear the check box to disable the rule. Select the check box to enable it.
Name
This is the name that describes or identifies this route.
Destination
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination.
Routing is always based on network number.
Gateway
This is the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is a router or switch
on the same network segment as the device's LAN or WAN port. The
gateway helps forward packets to their destinations.
Subnet Mask
This parameter specifies the IP network subnet mask of the final
destination.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to go to the screen where you can set up a static route
on the ZyXEL Device.
Click the Remove icon to remove a static route from the ZyXEL Device. A
window displays asking you to confirm that you want to delete the route.
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Table 65 Advanced > Static Route
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
14.2.1 Static Route Edit
Use this screen to configure the required information for a static route. Select a
static route index number and click Edit. The screen shown next appears.
Figure 92 Advanced > Static Route: Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 66 Advanced > Static Route: Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active
This field allows you to activate/deactivate this static route.
Route Name
Enter the name of the IP static route. The text may consist of up to 9
letters, numerals and any printable character found on a typical English
language keyboard. Leave this field blank to delete this static route.
Destination IP
Address
This parameter specifies the IP network address of the final destination.
Routing is always based on network number. If you need to specify a
route to a single host, use a subnet mask of 255.255.255.255 in the
subnet mask field to force the network number to be identical to the host
ID.
IP Subnet
Mask
Enter the IP subnet mask here.
Gateway Type
Use either Gateway Address or Gateway Node to configure a static
route.
Gateway IP
Address
This field is available when you select Gateway Address from Gateway
Type.
Enter the IP address of the gateway. The gateway is a router or switch on
the same network segment as the device's LAN or WAN port. The
gateway helps forward packets to their destinations.
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Chapter 14 Static Route
Table 66 Advanced > Static Route: Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Gateway Node
This field is available when you select Gateway Node from Gateway
Type.
Select a remote node to set the static route. A remote note is a
connection point outside of the local area network. One example of a
remote node is your connection to your ISP. See Section 5.3 on page 95
for details on configuring a remote node.
242
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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CHAPTER
15
VLANs
15.1 Overview
This chapter describes how to configure the VLANs settings.
A Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) allows a physical network to be partitioned
into multiple logical networks. A VLAN group can be treated as an individual
device. Each group can have its own rules about where and how to forward traffic.
You can assign any ports on the ZyXEL Device to a VLAN group and configure the
settings for the group. You may also set the priority level for traffic transmitted
through the ports.
Figure 93 VLANs
802.1Q
Ports
VLAN Groups
802.1P
Priority Levels
15.1.1 What You Can Do in the VLANs Screens
• Use the Group Setting screen (Section 15.2 on page 249) to activate VLANs,
specify the management VLAN group, display the VLAN groups and configure
the settings for each VLAN group.
• Use the Port Setting screen (Section 15.3 on page 252) to configure the PVID
and assign traffic priority for each port.
15.1.2 What You Need to Know About VLANs
IEEE 802.1P Priority
IEEE 802.1P specifies the user priority field and defines up to eight separate traffic
types by inserting a tag into a MAC-layer frame that contains bits to define class of
service.
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Chapter 15 VLANs
IEEE 802.1Q Tagged VLAN
Tagged VLAN uses an explicit tag (VLAN ID) in the MAC header to identify the
VLAN membership of a frame across bridges - they are not confined to the device
on which they were created. The VLAN ID associates a frame with a specific VLAN
and provides the information that devices need to process the frame across the
network.
PVC
A virtual circuit is a logical point-to-point circuit between customer sites.
Permanent means that the circuit is preprogrammed by the carrier as a path
through the network. It does not need to be set up or torn down for each session.
Forwarding Tagged and Untagged Frames
Each port on the device is capable of passing tagged or untagged frames. To
forward a frame from an 802.1Q VLAN-aware device to an 802.1Q VLAN-unaware
device, the ZyXEL Device first decides where to forward the frame and then strips
off the VLAN tag. To forward a frame from an 802.1Q VLAN-unaware device to an
802.1Q VLAN-aware switch, the ZyXEL Device first decides where to forward the
frame, and then inserts a VLAN tag reflecting the ingress port's default VID. The
default PVID is VLAN 1 for all ports, but this can be changed.
Whether to tag an outgoing frame depends on the setting of the egress port on a
per-VLAN, per-port basis (recall that a port can belong to multiple VLANs). If the
tagging on the egress port is enabled for the VID of a frame, then the frame is
transmitted as a tagged frame; otherwise, it is transmitted as an untagged frame.
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15.1.3 VLANs Example
This example shows how to configure the VLANs settings on the ZyXEL Device.
802.1Q/1P Example
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1
1
VoIP Network
2
2
3
4
3
4
Internet - (PPPoE)
Internet - (PPPoE)
5
6
7
8
LAN1 and LAN2 are connected to ATAs (Analogue Telephone Adapters) and used
for VoIP traffic. You want to create high priority for this type of traffic, so you want
to group these ports into one VLAN (VLAN2) and then to a PVC (PVC1) where the
priority is set to high level of service.
You would start with the following steps.
1
Click Advanced > VLANs > Group Setting, and then click the Edit button to
display the following screen.
2
In the Name field type VoIP to identify the group.
3
In the VLAN ID field type in 2 to identify the VLAN group.
4
Select PVC1 from the Default Gateway drop-down list box.
5
In the Control field, select Fixed for LAN1, LAN2 and PVC1 to be permanent
members of the VLAN group.
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6
Click Apply.
Advanced > 802.1Q/1P > Group Setting > Edit: Example
To set a high priority for VoIP traffic, follow these steps.
246
1
Click Advanced > VLANs > Port Setting to display the following screen.
2
Type 2 in the 802.1Q PVID column for LAN1, LAN2 and PVC1.
3
Select 7 from the 802.1P Priority drop-down list box for LAN1, LAN2 and PVC1.
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Chapter 15 VLANs
4
Click Apply.
Advanced > 802.1Q/1P > Port Setting: Example
Ports 3 and 4 are connected to desktop computers and are used for Internet
traffic. You want to create low priority for this type of traffic, so you want to group
these ports and PVC2 into one VLAN (VLAN3). PVC2 priority is set to low level of
service.
SSID1 and SSID2 are two wireless networks. You want to create medium priority
for this type of traffic, so you want to group these ports and PVC3 into one VLAN
(VLAN4). PVC3 priority is set to medium level of service.
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Chapter 15 VLANs
Follow the same steps as in VLAN2 to configure the settings for VLAN3 and VLAN4.
The summary screen should then display as follows.
Advanced > 802.1Q/1P > Group Setting: Example
This completes the VLANs setup.
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15.2 The VLANs Group Setting Screen
Use this screen to activate 802.1Q/1P and display the VLAN groups. Click
Advanced > VLANs to display the following screen.
Figure 94 Advanced > VLANs > Group Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 67 Advanced > VLANs > Group Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
802.1Q/1P
Active
Select this check box to activate the 802.1P/1Q feature.
Management Vlan
ID
Enter the ID number of a VLAN group. All interfaces (ports, SSIDs and
PVCs) are in the management VLAN by default. If you disable the
management VLAN, you will not be able to access the ZyXEL Device.
Summary
#
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This field displays the index number of the VLAN group.
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Table 67 Advanced > VLANs > Group Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
This field displays the name of the VLAN group.
VID
This field displays the ID number of the VLAN group.
Port Number
These columns display the VLAN’s settings for each port. A tagged
port is marked as T, an untagged port is marked as U and ports not
participating in a VLAN are marked as “–“.
Modify
Click the Edit button to configure the ports in the VLAN group.
Click the Remove button to delete the VLAN group.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
15.2.1 Editing VLANs Group Setting
Use this screen to configure the settings for each VLAN group.
In the VLANs screen, click the Edit button from the Modify filed to display the
following screen.
Figure 95 Advanced > VLANs > Group Setting > Edit
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 68 Advanced > 802.1Q/1P > Group Setting > Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Name
Enter a descriptive name for the VLAN group for identification purposes.
The text may consist of up to 8 letters, numerals, “-”, “_” and “@”.
VLAN ID
Assign a VLAN ID for the VLAN group. The valid VID range is between 1
and 4094.
Default
Gateway
Select the default gateway for the VLAN group.
Ports
This field displays the types of ports available to join the VLAN group.
Control
Select Fixed for the port to be a permanent member of the VLAN group.
Select Forbidden if you want to prohibit the port from joining the VLAN
group.
Tx Tag
Select Tx Tagging if you want the port to tag all outgoing traffic
transmitted through this VLAN. You select this if you want to create
VLANs across different devices and not just the ZyXEL Device.
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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15.3 The VLANs Port Setting Screen
Use this screen to configure the PVID and assign traffic priority for each port. Click
Advanced > VLANs > Port Setting to display the following screen.
Figure 96 Advanced > VLANs > Port Setting
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 69 Advanced > VLANs > Port Setting
252
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Ports
This field displays the types of ports available to join the VLAN group.
802.1Q PVID
Assign a VLAN ID for the port. The valid VID range is between 1 and
4094. The ZyXEL Device assigns the PVID to untagged frames or
priority-tagged frames received on this port.
802.1P Priority
Assign a priority for the traffic transmitted through the port. Select
Same if you do not want to modify the priority. You may choose a
priority level from 0-7, with 0 being the lowest level and 7 being the
highest level.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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CHAPTER
16
Quality of Service (QoS)
16.1 Overview
Use the QoS screens to set up your ZyXEL Device to use QoS for traffic
management.
Quality of Service (QoS) refers to both a network’s ability to deliver data with
minimum delay, and the networking methods used to control bandwidth. QoS
allows the ZyXEL Device to group and prioritize application traffic and fine-tune
network performance.
Without QoS, all traffic data are equally likely to be dropped when the network is
congested. This can cause a reduction in network performance and make the
network inadequate for time-critical applications such as video-on-demand.
The ZyXEL Device assigns each packet a priority and then queues the packet
accordingly. Packets assigned with a high priority are processed more quickly than
those with low priorities if there is congestion, allowing time-sensitive applications
to flow more smoothly. Time-sensitive applications include both those that require
a low level of latency (delay) and a low level of jitter (variations in delay) such as
Voice over IP (VoIP) or Internet gaming, and those for which jitter alone is a
problem such as Internet radio or streaming video.
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Chapter 16 Quality of Service (QoS)
16.2 QoS Overview
The following figure gives an overview of how to configure QoS on this ZyXEL
Device:
2
1
PVC1, ATM QoS 1
PVC2, ATM QoS 2
3
Queue 1
Queue 2
1
First, you have to configure WAN connection(s) in Network > Internet (WAN)
> Internet Access Setup and Network > Internet (WAN) > More
Connections. Click the Advanced Setup button on the corresponding PVC
setting screens to configure ATM QoS, if you want to prioritize traffic and eliminate
congestion over the ATM network (at the ATM layer).
2
Configure queue settings in Advanced > QoS > Queue Setup according to the
priority you want to apply to different types of traffic.
3
Configure class settings in Advanced > QoS > Class Setup. This associates
queues with PVCs by mapping the priority of queues to the index number of PVCs.
16.2.1 What You Can Do in the QoS Screens
• Use the General screen (Section 16.3 on page 259) to enable QoS on the
ZyXEL Device, decide allowable bandwidth using QoS and configure priority
mapping settings for traffic that does not match a custom class.
• Use the Class Setup screen (Section 16.4 on page 260) to set up classifiers to
sort traffic into different flows and assign priority and define actions to be
performed for a classified traffic flow.
• Use the Queue Setup screen (Section 16.7.1 on page 267) to configure QoS
queue assignment.
• Use the Monitor screen (Section 16.7.1 on page 267) to view the ZyXEL
Device’s QoS-related packet statistics.
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16.2.2 What You Need to Know About QoS
QoS versus CoS
QoS is used to prioritize source-to-destination traffic flows. All packets in the same
flow are given the same priority. Class of Service (CoS) is a way of managing
traffic in a network by grouping similar types of traffic together and treating each
type as a class. You can use CoS to give different priorities to different packet
types.
CoS technologies include IEEE 802.1p layer 2 tagging and Differentiated Services
(DiffServ or DS). IEEE 802.1p tagging makes use of three bits in the packet
header, while DiffServ is a new protocol and defines a new DS field, which replaces
the eight-bit Type of Service (ToS) field in the IP header.
Tagging and Marking
In a QoS class, you can configure whether to add or change the DiffServ Code
Point (DSCP) value, IEEE 802.1p priority level and VLAN ID number in a matched
packet. When the packet passes through a compatible network, the networking
device, such as a backbone switch, can provide specific treatment or service
based on the tag or marker.
Finding Out More
See Section 16.8 on page 270 for advanced technical information on QoS.
16.2.3 QoS Class Setup Example
In the following figure, your Internet connection has an upstream transmission
speed of 50 Mbps. You configure a classifier to assign the priority queue (5) to
VoIP traffic from the LAN interface, so that voice traffic would not get delayed
when there is network congestion. Traffic from the boss’s IP address
(192.168.1.23 for example) is mapped to queue 4. Traffic that does not match
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Chapter 16 Quality of Service (QoS)
these two classes are assigned priority queue based on the internal QoS mapping
table on the ZyXEL Device.
Figure 97 QoS Example
VoIP: Queue 5
DSL
50 Mbps
Boss: Queue 4
IP=192.168.1.23
Figure 98 QoS Class Example: VoIP -1
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Figure 99 QoS Class Example: VoIP -2
Figure 100 QoS Class Example: Boss -1
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Figure 101 QoS Class Example: Boss -2
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16.3 The QoS General Screen
Use this screen to enable or disable QoS and have the ZyXEL Device automatically
assign priority to traffic according to the IEEE 802.1p priority level, IP precedence
and/or packet length.
Click Advanced > QoS to open the screen as shown next.
Figure 102 Advanced > QoS > General
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 70 Advanced > QoS > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active QoS
Select the check box to turn on QoS to improve your network
performance.
You can give priority to traffic that the ZyXEL Device forwards out through
the WAN interface. Give high priority to voice and video to make them
run more smoothly. Similarly, give low priority to many large file
downloads so that they do not reduce the quality of other applications.
Traffic priority
will be
automatically
assigned by
These fields are ignored if traffic matches a class you configured in the
Class Setup screen.
If you select ON and traffic does not match a class configured in the
Class Setup screen, the ZyXEL Device assigns priority to unmatched
traffic based on the IEEE 802.1p priority level, IP precedence and/or
packet length. See Section 16.8.4 on page 272 for more information.
If you select OFF, traffic which does not match a class is mapped to
queue two.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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16.4 The Class Setup Screen
Use this screen to add, edit or delete classifiers. A classifier groups traffic into data
flows according to specific criteria such as the source address, destination
address, source port number, destination port number or incoming interface. For
example, you can configure a classifier to select traffic from the same protocol
port (such as Telnet) to form a flow.
Click Advanced > QoS > Class Setup to open the following screen.
Figure 103 Advanced > QoS > Class Setup
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 71 Advanced > QoS > Class Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Create a new
Class
Click this to create a new classifier.
No
This is the number of each classifier. The ordering of the classifiers is
important as the classifiers are applied in turn.
Active
Select the check box to enable this classifier.
Name
This is the name of the classifier.
Interface
This shows the interface from which traffic of this classifier should
come.
Priority
This is the priority assigned to traffic of this classifier.
Filter Content
This shows criteria specified in this classifier.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the classifier.
Click the Remove icon to delete an existing classifier.
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Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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16.4.1 The Class Configuration Screen
Use this screen to configure a classifier. Click the Add button or the Edit icon in
the Modify field to display the following screen.
Figure 104 Advanced > QoS > Class Setup: Edit
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See Appendix E on page 421 for a list of commonly-used services. The following
table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 72 Advanced > QoS > Class Setup: Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Class Configuration
Active
Select the check box to enable this classifier.
Name
The text may consist of up to 20 letters, numerals and any printable
character found on a typical English language keyboard.
Interface
Select from which interface traffic of this class should come.
Priority
Select a priority level (between 0 and 7) or select Auto to have the
ZyXEL Device map the matched traffic to a queue according to the
internal QoS mapping table. See Section 16.8.4 on page 272 for more
information.
"0" is the lowest priority level and "7" is the highest.
Routing Policy
Select the next hop to which traffic of this class should be forwarded.
Select By Routing Table to have the ZyXEL Device use the routing
table to find a next hop and forward the matched packets
automatically.
Select To WAN Index to route the matched packets through the
specified PVC. This option is available only when the WAN type is
ADSL.
Select To Gateway Address to route the matched packets to the
router or switch you specified in the Gateway Address field.
WAN Index
Select a PVC index number.
Gateway
Address
Enter the IP address of the gateway, which should be a router or
switch on the same segment as the ZyXEL Device’s interface(s), that
can forward the packet to the destination.
Order
This shows the ordering number of this classifier. Select an existing
number for where you want to put this classifier and click Apply to
move the classifier to the number you selected. For example, if you
select 2, the classifier you are moving becomes number 2 and the
previous classifier 2 gets pushed down one.
Tag Configuration
DSCP Value
Select Same to keep the DSCP fields in the packets.
Select Auto to map the DSCP value to 802.1 priority level
automatically.
Select Mark to set the DSCP field with the value you configure in the
field provided.
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Table 72 Advanced > QoS > Class Setup: Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
802.1Q Tag
Select Same to keep the priority setting and VLAN ID of the frames.
Select Auto to map the 802.1 priority level to the DSCP value
automatically.
Select Remove to delete the priority queue tag and VLAN ID of the
frames.
Select Mark to replace the 802.1 priority field and VLAN ID with the
value you set in the fields below.
Select Add to treat all matched traffic untagged and add a second
priority queue tag and VLAN.
Ethernet
Priority
Select a priority level (between 0 and 7) from the drop down list box.
VLAN ID
Specify a VLAN ID number between 2 and 4094.
Filter
Configuration
Use the following fields to configure the criteria for traffic
classification.
Source
Address
Select the check box and enter the source IP address in dotted
decimal notation. A blank source IP address means any source IP
address.
Subnet
Netmask
Enter the source subnet mask. Refer to the appendix for more
information on IP subnetting.
Port
Select the check box and enter the port number of the source. 0
means any source port number. See Appendix E on page 421 for some
common services and port numbers.
MAC
Select the check box and enter the source MAC address of the packet.
MAC Mask
Type the mask for the specified MAC address to determine which bits
a packet’s MAC address should match.
Enter “f” for each bit of the specified source MAC address that the
traffic’s MAC address should match. Enter “0“ for the bit(s) of the
matched traffic’s MAC address, which can be of any hexadecimal
character(s). For example, if you set the MAC address to
00:13:49:00:00:00 and the mask to ff:ff:ff:00:00:00, a packet with a
MAC address of 00:13:49:12:34:56 matches this criteria.
Exclude
Select this option to exclude the packets that match the specified
criteria from this classifier.
Destination
Address
Select the check box and enter the destination IP address in dotted
decimal notation.
Subnet
Netmask
Enter the destination subnet mask. Refer to the appendix for more
information on IP subnetting.
Port
Select the check box and enter the port number of the destination. 0
means any source port number. See Appendix E on page 421 for some
common services and port numbers.
MAC
Select the check box and enter the destination MAC address of the
packet.
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Table 72 Advanced > QoS > Class Setup: Edit (continued)
LABEL
MAC Mask
DESCRIPTION
Type the mask for the specified MAC address to determine which bits
a packet’s MAC address should match.
Enter “f” for each bit of the specified destination MAC address that the
traffic’s MAC address should match. Enter “0“ for the bit(s) of the
matched traffic’s MAC address, which can be of any hexadecimal
character(s). For example, if you set the MAC address to
00:13:49:00:00:00 and the mask to ff:ff:ff:00:00:00, a packet with a
MAC address of 00:13:49:12:34:56 matches this criteria.
Exclude
Select this option to exclude the packets that match the specified
criteria from this classifier.
Others
Service
This field simplifies classifier configuration by allowing you to select a
predefined application. When you select a predefined application, you
do not configure the rest of the filter fields.
SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) is a signaling protocol used in
Internet telephony, instant messaging and other VoIP (Voice over IP)
applications. Select the check box and select VoIP(SIP) from the
drop-down list box to configure this classifier for traffic that uses SIP.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is an Internet file transfer service that
operates on the Internet and over TCP/IP networks. A system running
the FTP server accepts commands from a system running an FTP
client. The service allows users to send commands to the server for
uploading and downloading files. Select the check box and select FTP
from the drop-down list box to configure this classifier for FTP traffic.
Protocol
Select this option and select the protocol (TCP or UDP) or select User
defined and enter the protocol (service type) number. 0 means any
protocol number.
Packet Length
Select this option and enter the minimum and maximum packet
length (from 28 to 1500) in the fields provided.
DSCP
Select this option and specify a DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) number
between 0 and 63 in the field provided.
Ethernet Priority
Select this option and select a priority level (between 0 and 7) from
the drop down list box.
"0" is the lowest priority level and "7" is the highest.
264
VLAN ID
Select this option and specify a VLAN ID number between 2 and 4094.
Physical Port
Select this option and select a LAN port.
Remote Node
Select this option and select a remote node from the drop down list
box. When the WAN type is Ethernet in the Internet (WAN) >
Internet Access Setup screen, you can select WAN1 only.
Exclude
Select this option to exclude the packets that match the specified
criteria from this classifier.
Back
Click this to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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16.5 Traffic Shaping
Bursty traffic may cause network congestion. Traffic shaping regulates packets to
be transmitted with a pre-configured data transmission rate using buffers (or
queues). Token Bucket is a traffic shaping algorithm that allows a certain amount
of large bursts while keeping a limit at the average rate. Your ZyXEL Device uses
the Token Bucket algorithm.
16.6 Token Bucket
The token bucket algorithm uses tokens in a bucket to control when traffic can be
transmitted. The bucket is a buffer that temporarily stores outgoing packets and
transmits them at an average rate. The algorithm allows bursts of up to b bytes
which is also the bucket size.
In your ZyXEL Device, each token represents 1 byte, so the bucket can hold up to
b tokens. A token is generated and added into the bucket every 1/t seconds. If a
b+1 token arrives (a token that arrives after the bucket is full), that token will be
discarded. The following shows how tokens work with outgoing packets:
• A packet can be transmitted if the number of tokens in the bucket are equal to
or greater than the size of the packet (in bytes).
• After a packet is transmitted, the number of tokens that correspond to the
packet size are removed from the bucket.
• If there are no tokens in the bucket, the ZyXEL Device stops transmitting until
enough tokens are generated.
• If not enough tokens are available, the ZyXEL Device treats the packet in either
one of the following ways:
• Drops it.
• Holds it in the queue until enough tokens are available in the bucket.
• Transmits it but adds a mark. The ZyXEL Device may drop these marked
packets if the network is overloaded.
Configure the bucket size to be equal to or less than the amount of the bandwidth
that the interface can support. It does not help if you set it to a bucket size over
the interface’s capability. The smaller the bucket size, the lower the data
transmission rate and that may cause outgoing packets to be dropped. A larger
shaping rate requires a big bucket size. For example, use a bucket size of 10
kbytes to get the transmission rate up to 10 Mbps.
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16.7 Token Bucket Example
This is an example of how the token bucket works.
Table 73 Example Data
b=125,000 bytes
(around 1 Megabit)
This is the size of the bucket. The bucket holds up to 125,000
tokens.
t=100
This means a token is generated every 0.01 (=1/t) seconds. The
maximum instantaneous transmission rate for outgoing traffic is
(b’x8)/t Mbps where b’ is the number of tokens in the bucket at
that instant.
The algorithm works as follows (see also Figure 105 on page 266):
A: Assume that there are 2000 tokens in the bucket at the first moment (T = 0).
B: One hundred tokens are added to the bucket after one second. A packet of
1500 bytes arrives and the ZyXEL Device transmits it directly as there are already
enough tokens in the bucket to cover the size of the packet. The ZyXEL Device
then deducts 1500 tokens from the bucket leaving 600 tokens in the bucket
(2100-1500).
C: One hundred more tokens are added in the bucket after one second. A packet
of 500 bytes arrives and the ZyXEL Device again transmits it directly and then
deducts 500 tokens from the bucket leaving just 200 tokens (700-500).
D: After one more second, one hundred more tokens are added to the bucket. A
packet of 1000 bytes flows in. The ZyXEL Device holds the packet since the
number of tokens are insufficient.
E: After enough tokens (1000) are in the bucket, the ZyXEL Device transmits it
and then deducts 1000 tokens from the bucket.
Figure 105 Token Bucket Scenario Example
Available Tokens
A
2000
1200
400
2000
B
2100-1500
D
C
=600
700-500 300
=200
400
E
1000-1000
=0
0
Time (sec)
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16.7.1 The Queue Setup Screen
Use this screen to view or modify the ZyXEL Device’s Queue Setup. Click
Advanced > QoS > Queue Setup. The screen appears as shown.
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 74 QoS Queue Setup
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Interface
Select through which interface traffic of this queue should go.
No.
This is the index number of this entry.
Active
Select the check box to enable the queue.
Priority
This shows the priority of this queue.
Weight
This shows the weight of this queue.
Weight in
Percent
This shows the weight of this queue in percentage of all queues with the
same priority.
Shaping Rate
in Percent
This shows the maximum transmission rate allowed for traffic on this
queue.
Bucket
Size(Bytes)
This shows the size of the bucket, which is the maximum amount of bytes
that tokens can be available for instantaneously.
Drop
Algorithms
This shows the queue management algorithm used for this queue.
Modify
Click the Edit icon to go to the screen where you can edit the queue.
Click the Remove icon to delete an existing queue. Note that subsequent
rules move up by one when you take this action.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
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16.7.2 The Queue Configuration Screen
Use this screen to configure a queue. Click the Edit icon in the Modify field to
display the following screen.
Figure 106 Advanced > QoS > Queue Setup: Edit
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 75 QoS Queue Setup: Edit
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Class Configuration
Active
Select the check box to enable this queue.
Priority
Specify the priority level (from 0 to 7) of this queue.
The higher the number, the higher the priority level. Traffic assigned
to higher priority queues gets through faster while traffic in lower
priority queues is dropped if the network is congested.
Weight
Specify the weight (from 1 to 8) of this queue.
If two queues have the same priority level, the ZyXEL Device divides
the bandwidth across the queues according to their weights. Queues
with larger weights get more bandwidth than queues with smaller
weights.
Rate
Specify the maximum transmission rate allowed for traffic on this
queue. If you select WAN as the interface in the Advanced > QoS >
Queue Setup screen, the rate is in percentage of the total
bandwidth. If you select LAN or WLAN as the interface, the rate is
the maximum transmission rate in kpbs.
Size
Specify the token bucket size (in bytes) on this queue.
The size range is from 1,500 to 100,000 bytes and the maximum
transmission rate must be set if you want to configure the bucket size.
You can refer to Section 16.6 on page 265 for more information on
Token Bucket.
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Table 75 QoS Queue Setup: Edit (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Drop Algorithms
Queue management algorithms determine how the ZyXEL Device
should handle packets when it receives too many (network
congestion).
Drop Tail (DT) is a simple queue management algorithm that allows
the ZyXEL Device buffer to accept as many packets as it can until it is
full. Once the buffer is full, new packets that arrive are dropped until
there is space in the buffer again (packets are transmitted out of it).
Random Early Detection (RED) is a queue management algorithm
that doesn’t wait until a buffer is full before dropping packets. If the
buffer is almost empty, all incoming packets are accepted. As the
queue grows, the probability for dropping an incoming packet grows
too. When the buffer is full, the probability has reached 1 and all
incoming packets are dropped.
Select RED if your network is usually congested and/or has much
bursty traffic.
Back
Click Back to return to the previous screen without saving.
Apply
Click Apply to save your changes back to the ZyXEL Device.
Cancel
Click Cancel to begin configuring this screen afresh.
16.7.3 The QoS Monitor Screen
Use this screen to view the ZyXEL Device’s QoS packet statistics. Click Advanced
> QoS > Monitor. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 107 Advanced > QoS > Monitor
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 76 Advanced > QoS > Monitor
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Priority Queue
This shows the priority queue number.
Traffic assigned to higher index queues gets through faster while
traffic in lower index queues is dropped if the network is congested.
Pass
This shows how many packets mapped to this priority queue are
transmitted successfully.
Drop
This shows how many packets mapped to this priority queue are
dropped.
Poll Interval(s)
Enter the time interval for refreshing statistics in this field.
Set Interval
Click this to apply the new poll interval you entered in the Poll
Interval(s) field.
Stop
Click this to stop refreshing statistics.
16.8 QoS Technical Reference
This section provides some technical background information about the topics
covered in this chapter.
16.8.1 IEEE 802.1Q Tag
The IEEE 802.1Q standard defines an explicit VLAN tag in the MAC header to
identify the VLAN membership of a frame across bridges. A VLAN tag includes the
12-bit VLAN ID and 3-bit user priority. The VLAN ID associates a frame with a
specific VLAN and provides the information that devices need to process the frame
across the network.
IEEE 802.1p specifies the user priority field and defines up to eight separate traffic
types. The following table describes the traffic types defined in the IEEE 802.1d
standard (which incorporates the 802.1p).
Table 77 IEEE 802.1p Priority Level and Traffic Type
PRIORITY
LEVEL
270
TRAFFIC TYPE
Level 7
Typically used for network control traffic such as router configuration
messages.
Level 6
Typically used for voice traffic that is especially sensitive to jitter (jitter is the
variations in delay).
Level 5
Typically used for video that consumes high bandwidth and is sensitive to
jitter.
Level 4
Typically used for controlled load, latency-sensitive traffic such as SNA
(Systems Network Architecture) transactions.
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Table 77 IEEE 802.1p Priority Level and Traffic Type
PRIORITY
LEVEL
TRAFFIC TYPE
Level 3
Typically used for “excellent effort” or better than best effort and would
include important business traffic that can tolerate some delay.
Level 2
This is for “spare bandwidth”.
Level 1
This is typically used for non-critical “background” traffic such as bulk
transfers that are allowed but that should not affect other applications and
users.
Level 0
Typically used for best-effort traffic.
16.8.2 IP Precedence
Similar to IEEE 802.1p prioritization at layer-2, you can use IP precedence to
prioritize packets in a layer-3 network. IP precedence uses three bits of the eightbit ToS (Type of Service) field in the IP header. There are eight classes of services
(ranging from zero to seven) in IP precedence. Zero is the lowest priority level and
seven is the highest.
16.8.3 DiffServ
QoS is used to prioritize source-to-destination traffic flows. All packets in the flow
are given the same priority. You can use CoS (class of service) to give different
priorities to different packet types.
Differentiated Services (DiffServ) is a Class of Service (CoS) model that marks
packets so that they receive specific per-hop treatment at DiffServ-compliant
network devices along the route based on the application types and traffic flow.
Packets are marked with DiffServ Code Points (DSCPs) indicating the level of
service desired. This allows the intermediary DiffServ-compliant network devices
to handle the packets differently depending on the code points without the need to
negotiate paths or remember state information for every flow. In addition,
applications do not have to request a particular service or give advanced notice of
where the traffic is going.
DSCP and Per-Hop Behavior
DiffServ defines a new Differentiated Services (DS) field to replace the Type of
Service (TOS) field in the IP header. The DS field contains a 2-bit unused field and
a 6-bit DSCP field which can define up to 64 service levels. The following figure
illustrates the DS field.
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DSCP is backward compatible with the three precedence bits in the ToS octet so
that non-DiffServ compliant, ToS-enabled network device will not conflict with the
DSCP mapping.
DSCP (6 bits)
Unused (2 bits)
The DSCP value determines the forwarding behavior, the PHB (Per-Hop Behavior),
that each packet gets across the DiffServ network. Based on the marking rule,
different kinds of traffic can be marked for different kinds of forwarding. Resources
can then be allocated according to the DSCP values and the configured policies.
16.8.4 Automatic Priority Queue Assignment
If you enable QoS on the ZyXEL Device, the ZyXEL Device can automatically base
on the IEEE 802.1p priority level, IP precedence and/or packet length to assign
priority to traffic which does not match a class.
The following table shows you the internal layer-2 and layer-3 QoS mapping on
the ZyXEL Device. On the ZyXEL Device, traffic assigned to higher priority queues
gets through faster while traffic in lower index queues is dropped if the network is
congested.
Table 78 Internal Layer2 and Layer3 QoS Mapping
LAYER 2
LAYER 3
PRIORITY
QUEUE
IEEE 802.1P
USER PRIORITY
(ETHERNET
PRIORITY)
TOS (IP
PRECEDENCE) DSCP
0
1
0
000000
1
2
2
0
0
000000
>1100
3
3
1
001110
250~1100
IP PACKET
LENGTH (BYTE)
001100
001010
001000
4
4
2
010110
010100
010010
010000
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Table 78 Internal Layer2 and Layer3 QoS Mapping
LAYER 2
LAYER 3
PRIORITY
QUEUE
IEEE 802.1P
USER PRIORITY
(ETHERNET
PRIORITY)
TOS (IP
PRECEDENCE) DSCP
IP PACKET
LENGTH (BYTE)
5
5
3
<250
011110
011100
011010
011000
6
6
4
100110
100100
100010
100000
5
101110
101000
7
7
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110000
7
111000
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CHAPTER
17
Dynamic DNS Setup
17.1 Overview
Dynamic DNS allows you to update your current dynamic IP address with one or
many dynamic DNS services so that anyone can contact you (in NetMeeting, CUSeeMe, etc.). You can also access your FTP server or Web site on your own
computer using a domain name (for instance myhost.dhs.org, where myhost is a
name of your choice) that will never change instead of using an IP address that
changes each time you reconnect. Your friends or relatives will always be able to
call you even if they don't know your IP address.
First of all, you need to have registered a dynamic DNS account with
www.dyndns.org. This is for people with a dynamic IP from their ISP or DHCP
server that would still like to have a domain name. The Dynamic DNS service
provider will give you a password or key.
17.1.1 What You Can Do in the DDNS Screen
Use the Dynamic DNS screen (Section 17.2 on page 276) to enable DDNS and
configure the DDNS settings on the ZyXEL Device.
17.1.2 What You Need To Know About DDNS
DYNDNS Wildcard
Enabling the wildcard feature for your host causes *.yourhost.dyndns.org to be
aliased to the same IP address as yourhost.dyndns.org. This feature is useful if
you want to be able to use, for example, www.yourhost.dyndns.org and still reach
your hostname.
If you have a private WAN IP address, then you cannot use Dynamic DNS.
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17.2 The Dynamic DNS Screen
Use this screen to change your ZyXEL Device’s DDNS. Click Advanced >
Dynamic DNS. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 108 Advanced > Dynamic DNS
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 79 Advanced > Dynamic DNS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Dynamic DNS Setup
Active
Dynamic DNS
Select this check box to use dynamic DNS.
Service
Provider
This is the name of your Dynamic DNS service provider.
Dynamic DNS
Type
Select the type of service that you are registered for from your Dynamic
DNS service provider.
Host Name
Type the domain name assigned to your ZyXEL Device by your Dynamic
DNS provider.
You can specify up to two host names in the field separated by a comma
(",").
276
User Name
Type your user name.
Password
Type the password assigned to you.
Enable
Wildcard
Option
Select the check box to enable DynDNS Wildcard.
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Table 79 Advanced > Dynamic DNS (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Enable off line
option
This option is available when CustomDNS is selected in the DDNS Type
field. Check with your Dynamic DNS service provider to have traffic
redirected to a URL (that you can specify) while you are off line.
IP Address Update Policy
Use WAN IP
Address
Select this option to update the IP address of the host name(s) to the
WAN IP address.
Dynamic DNS
server auto
detect IP
Address
Select this option only when there are one or more NAT routers between
the ZyXEL Device and the DDNS server. This feature has the DDNS
server automatically detect and use the IP address of the NAT router
that has a public IP address.
Note: The DDNS server may not be able to detect the proper IP
address if there is an HTTP proxy server between the ZyXEL
Device and the DDNS server.
Use specified
IP Address
Type the IP address of the host name(s). Use this if you have a static IP
address.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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CHAPTER
18
Remote Management
18.1 Overview
Remote management allows you to determine which services/protocols can access
which ZyXEL Device interface (if any) from which computers.
The following figure shows remote management of the ZyXEL Device coming in
from the WAN.
Figure 109 Remote Management From the WAN
LAN
WAN
HTTP
Telnet
Note: When you configure remote management to allow management from the WAN,
you still need to configure a firewall rule to allow access.
You may manage your ZyXEL Device from a remote location via:
• Internet (WAN only)
• LAN only
• WLAN only
• LAN and WAN
• LAN and WLAN
• WLAN and WAN
• ALL (WAN, LAN and WLAN)
• None (Disable)
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You may only have one remote management session running at a time. The ZyXEL
Device automatically disconnects a remote management session of lower priority
when another remote management session of higher priority starts. The priorities
for the different types of remote management sessions are as follows.
1
Telnet
2
HTTP
18.1.1 What You Can Do in the Remote Management Screens
• Use the WWW screen (Section 18.2 on page 281) to configure through which
interface(s) and from which IP address(es) users can use HTTP to manage the
ZyXEL Device.
• Use the Telnet screen (Section 18.3 on page 284) to configure through which
interface(s) and from which IP address(es) users can use Telnet to manage the
ZyXEL Device.
• Use the FTP screen (Section 18.4 on page 285) to configure through which
interface(s) and from which IP address(es) users can use FTP to access the
ZyXEL Device.
• Use the DNS screen (Section 18.5 on page 286) to configure through which
interface(s) and from which IP address(es) users can send DNS queries to the
ZyXEL Device.
• Use the ICMP screen (Section 18.6 on page 287) to set whether or not your
ZyXEL Device will respond to pings and probes for services that you have not
made available.
18.1.2 What You Need to Know About Remote Management
Remote Management Limitations
Remote management does not work when:
• You have not enabled that service on the interface in the corresponding remote
management screen.
• You have disabled that service in one of the remote management screens.
• The IP address in the Secured Client IP field does not match the client IP
address. If it does not match, the ZyXEL Device will disconnect the session
immediately.
• There is already another remote management session with an equal or higher
priority running. You may only have one remote management session running
at one time.
• There is a firewall rule that blocks it.
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Remote Management and NAT
When NAT is enabled:
• Use the ZyXEL Device’s WAN IP address when configuring from the WAN.
• Use the ZyXEL Device’s LAN IP address when configuring from the LAN.
System Timeout
There is a default system management idle timeout of 15 minutes (900 seconds).
The ZyXEL Device automatically logs you out if the management session remains
idle for longer than this timeout period. The management session does not time
out when a statistics screen is polling.
18.2 The WWW Screen
To enable Remote Management from the WAN for web access you have two
options: create a dynamic firewall rule or manually create a firewall rule. The
dynamic firewall rule is the simplest but unlike the manual firewall rule option it
does not allow you to specify the source IP address(es) for WAN access.
18.2.0.1 Creating Dynamic WWW rule
1
Click Advanced > Remote MGMT > WWW and set Access Status to ALL (or
LAN & WAN or WLAN & WAN).
Note: IMPORTANT! If you choose WAN it will ONLY allow access from the WAN.
2
Next click on the option Create a dynamic firewall rule to permit WAN access
and click the Apply button.
To disable WAN remote management for Web, simply reverse the above. Be
careful to set the Access Status to either or both LAN and WLAN.
Note: It is recommended if you are allowing WAN access even temporarily to change
the default password (in Maintenance > System > General).
18.2.0.2 Manual WWW Rule
1
Click Advanced > Remote MGMT > WWW and set Access Status to ALL (or
LAN & WAN or WLAN & WAN).
Note: IMPORTANT! If you choose WAN it will ONLY allow access from the WAN.
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2
Next click on the Firewall link in Note3 of the screen. For WAN access: If you want
to specify the source IP address for remote management, click on the Firewall
link. This will then redirect you to the main Firewall screen (Security >Firewall >
General).
3
Here you will choose the Custom option (please note that the Custom option will
inherit the default firewall behaviour of the firewall option that was specified
previously (High or Medium, BUT NOT for Low as it blocks WAN to LAN access
but this can easily be changed).
4
Next go to the Rules tab and in Packet direction choose WAN to WAN/Router.
Click the Add button.
5
In the Edit rule page that appears you may want to change the source address
from Any. Otherwise in Service > selected services remove Any(TCP) and
Any(UDP) and move HTTP(TCP:80) from available services to selected
services. Now click on the Apply button.
Note: it is recommended if you are allowing WAN access even temporarily to change
the default password (in Maintenance > System > General). In the New
Password box, type in a new password (up to 30 characters). Retype it in the
Retype to confirm box. Then click Apply to save your changes. Use the new
password to login.
Use this screen to specify how to connect to the ZyXEL Device from a web
browser, such as Internet Explorer.
Note: If you disable the WWW service in the Remote MGMT > WWW screen, then
the ZyXEL Device blocks all HTTP connection attempts.
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18.2.1 Configuring the WWW Screen
Click Advanced > Remote MGMT to display the WWW screen.
Figure 110 Advanced > Remote Management > WWW
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 80 Advanced > Remote Management > WWW
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
You may change the server port number for a service, if needed.
However, you must use the same port number in order to use that
service for remote management.
Access Status
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the ZyXEL
Device using this service.
Secured Client
IP
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate
with the ZyXEL Device using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyXEL Device using this
service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that
you specify to access the ZyXEL Device using this service.
Create a
dynamic
firewall rule to
permit WAN
access
Select this check box if you want to create a dynamic firewall rule to
permit WAN access.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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This option is available only when you set the Access Status as ALL,
WAN, WLAN&WAN, or LAN&WAN.
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18.3 The Telnet Screen
You can use Telnet to access the ZyXEL Device’s command line interface. Specify
which interfaces allow Telnet access and from which IP address the access can
come.
To enable Remote Management from the WAN for Telnet access:
1
Go to Advanced > Remote MGMT > Telnet and set Access Status to ALL (or
WAN & LAN or WAN & WLAN).
Note: IMPORTANT! If you choose WAN it will ONLY allow access from the WAN.
2
Next click on the Firewall link in Note3 of the screen. For WAN access: If you want
to specify the source IP address for remote management, click on the Firewall
link. This will then redirect you to the main Firewall screen (Security >Firewall >
General).
3
Here you will choose the Custom option (please note that the Custom option will
inherit the default firewall behaviour of the firewall option that was specified
previously (High or Medium, BUT NOT for Low as it blocks WAN to LAN access
but this can easily be changed).
4
Next go to the Rules tab and in Packet direction choose WAN to WAN/Router.
Click the Add button.
5
In the Edit rule page that appears you may want to change the source address
from Any. Otherwise in Service > selected services remove Any(TCP) and
Any(UDP) and move Telnet(TCP:23) from available services to selected
services. Now click on the Apply button.
Note: it is recommended if you are allowing WAN access even temporarily to change
the default password (in Maintenance > System > General).
To remove Telnet remote management:
284
1
Go to Advanced > Remote MGMT > Telnet and set Access Status to LAN,
WLAN, WLAN & LAN or Disabled.
2
Next go to Security > Firewall > General. There will be a Rules tab if Custom
is specified as the firewall option.
3
In Packet direction choose WAN to WAN/Router.
4
Untick the Active tick box for your remote management rule and click the Apply
button.
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Note: it is recommended if you are allowing WAN access even temporarily to change
the default password (in Maintenance > System > General). In the New
Password box, type in a new password (up to 30 characters). Retype it in the
Retype to confirm box. Then click Apply to save your changes. Use the new
password to login.
Click Advanced > Remote MGMT > Telnet tab to display the screen as shown.
Figure 111 Advanced > Remote Management > Telnet
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 81 Advanced > Remote Management > Telnet
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
You may change the server port number for a service if needed, however
you must use the same port number in order to use that service for
remote management.
Access Status
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the ZyXEL
Device using this service.
Secured Client
IP
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate
with the ZyXEL Device using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyXEL Device using this
service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that you
specify to access the ZyXEL Device using this service.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
18.4 The FTP Screen
You can use FTP (File Transfer Protocol) to upload and download the ZyXEL
Device’s firmware and configuration files. Please see the User’s Guide chapter on
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firmware and configuration file maintenance for details. To use this feature, your
computer must have an FTP client.
Use this screen to specify which interfaces allow FTP access and from which IP
address the access can come. To change your ZyXEL Device’s FTP settings, click
Advanced > Remote MGMT > FTP. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 112 Advanced > Remote Management > FTP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 82 Advanced > Remote Management > FTP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
You may change the server port number for a service, if needed.
However, you must use the same port number in order to use that
service for remote management.
Access Status
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may access the ZyXEL
Device using this service.
Secured Client
IP
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to communicate
with the ZyXEL Device using this service.
Select All to allow any computer to access the ZyXEL Device using this
service.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that
you specify to access the ZyXEL Device using this service.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
18.5 The DNS Screen
Use DNS (Domain Name System) to map a domain name to its corresponding IP
address and vice versa. Refer to Chapter 6 on page 111 for background
information.
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Use this screen to set from which IP address the ZyXEL Device will accept DNS
queries and on which interface it can send them your ZyXEL Device’s DNS
settings. This feature is not available when the ZyXEL Device is set to bridge
mode. Click Advanced > Remote MGMT > DNS to change your ZyXEL Device’s
DNS settings.
Figure 113 Advanced > Remote Management > DNS
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 83 Advanced > Remote Management > DNS
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Port
The DNS service port number is 53 and cannot be changed here.
Access Status
Select the interface(s) through which a computer may send DNS queries
to the ZyXEL Device.
Secured Client
IP
A secured client is a “trusted” computer that is allowed to send DNS
queries to the ZyXEL Device.
Select All to allow any computer to send DNS queries to the ZyXEL
Device.
Choose Selected to just allow the computer with the IP address that
you specify to send DNS queries to the ZyXEL Device.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
18.6 The ICMP Screen
To change your ZyXEL Device’s security settings, click Advanced > Remote
MGMT > ICMP. The screen appears as shown.
If an outside user attempts to probe an unsupported port on your ZyXEL Device,
an ICMP response packet is automatically returned. This allows the outside user to
know the ZyXEL Device exists. Your ZyXEL Device supports anti-probing, which
prevents the ICMP response packet from being sent. This keeps outsiders from
discovering your ZyXEL Device when unsupported ports are probed.
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Note: If you want your device to respond to pings and requests for unauthorized
services, you may also need to configure the firewall anti probing settings to
match.
Figure 114 Advanced > Remote Management > ICMP
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 84 Advanced > Remote Management > ICMP
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol is a message control and errorreporting protocol between a host server and a gateway to the Internet.
ICMP uses Internet Protocol (IP) datagrams, but the messages are
processed by the TCP/IP software and directly apparent to the
application user.
Respond to
Ping on
The ZyXEL Device will not respond to any incoming Ping requests when
Disable is selected. Select ALL to reply to all incoming Ping requests.
Select LAN to reply to incoming LAN Ping requests. Select WAN to reply
to incoming WAN Ping requests. Otherwise select LAN & WAN to reply
to both incoming LAN and WAN Ping requests.
Do not respond
to requests for
unauthorized
services
Select this option to prevent hackers from finding the ZyXEL Device by
probing for unused ports. If you select this option, the ZyXEL Device will
not respond to port request(s) for unused ports, thus leaving the unused
ports and the ZyXEL Device unseen. If this option is not selected, the
ZyXEL Device will reply with an ICMP port unreachable packet for a port
probe on its unused UDP ports and a TCP reset packet for a port probe
on its unused TCP ports.
Note that the probing packets must first traverse the ZyXEL Device's
firewall rule checks before reaching this anti-probing mechanism.
Therefore if a firewall rule stops a probing packet, the ZyXEL Device
reacts based on the firewall rule to either send a TCP reset packet for a
blocked TCP packet (or an ICMP port-unreachable packet for a blocked
UDP packets) or just drop the packets without sending a response
packet.
288
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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CHAPTER
19
Universal Plug-and-Play (UPnP)
19.1 Overview
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) is a distributed, open networking standard that
uses TCP/IP for simple peer-to-peer network connectivity between devices. A
UPnP device can dynamically join a network, obtain an IP address, convey its
capabilities and learn about other devices on the network. In turn, a device can
leave a network smoothly and automatically when it is no longer in use.
19.1.1 What You Can Do in the UPnP Screen
Use the UPnP screen (Section 19.2 on page 291) to enable UPnP on the ZyXEL
Device and allow UPnP-enabled applications to automatically configure the ZyXEL
Device.
19.1.2 What You Need to Know About UPnP
Identifying UPnP Devices
UPnP hardware is identified as an icon in the Network Connections folder
(Windows XP). Each UPnP compatible device installed on your network will appear
as a separate icon. Selecting the icon of a UPnP device will allow you to access the
information and properties of that device.
NAT Traversal
UPnP NAT traversal automates the process of allowing an application to operate
through NAT. UPnP network devices can automatically configure network
addressing, announce their presence in the network to other UPnP devices and
enable exchange of simple product and service descriptions. NAT traversal allows
the following:
• Dynamic port mapping
• Learning public IP addresses
• Assigning lease times to mappings
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Windows Messenger is an example of an application that supports NAT traversal
and UPnP.
See the NAT chapter for more information on NAT.
Cautions with UPnP
The automated nature of NAT traversal applications in establishing their own
services and opening firewall ports may present network security issues. Network
information and configuration may also be obtained and modified by users in some
network environments.
When a UPnP device joins a network, it announces its presence with a multicast
message. For security reasons, the ZyXEL Device allows multicast messages on
the LAN only.
All UPnP-enabled devices may communicate freely with each other without
additional configuration. Disable UPnP if this is not your intention.
UPnP and ZyXEL
ZyXEL has achieved UPnP certification from the Universal Plug and Play Forum
UPnP™ Implementers Corp. (UIC). ZyXEL's UPnP implementation supports
Internet Gateway Device (IGD) 1.0.
See the following sections for examples of installing and using UPnP.
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19.2 The UPnP Screen
Use the following screen to configure the UPnP settings on your ZyXEL Device.
Click Advanced > UPnP to display the screen shown next.
See Section 19.1 on page 289 for more information.
Figure 115 Advanced > UPnP > General
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 85 Advanced > UPnP > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Active the Universal Plug
and Play (UPnP) Feature
Select this check box to activate UPnP. Be aware that anyone
could use a UPnP application to open the web configurator's
login screen without entering the ZyXEL Device's IP address
(although you must still enter the password to access the web
configurator).
Allow users to make
configuration changes
through UPnP
Select this check box to allow UPnP-enabled applications to
automatically configure the ZyXEL Device so that they can
communicate through the ZyXEL Device, for example by using
NAT traversal, UPnP applications automatically reserve a NAT
forwarding port in order to communicate with another UPnP
enabled device; this eliminates the need to manually configure
port forwarding for the UPnP enabled application.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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19.3 Installing UPnP in Windows Example
This section shows how to install UPnP in Windows Me and Windows XP.
Installing UPnP in Windows Me
Follow the steps below to install the UPnP in Windows Me.
1
Click Start and Control Panel. Double-click Add/Remove Programs.
2
Click on the Windows Setup tab and select Communication in the
Components selection box. Click Details.
Add/Remove Programs: Windows Setup: Communication
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3
In the Communications window, select the Universal Plug and Play check box
in the Components selection box.
Add/Remove Programs: Windows Setup: Communication: Components
4
Click OK to go back to the Add/Remove Programs Properties window and click
Next.
5
Restart the computer when prompted.
Installing UPnP in Windows XP
Follow the steps below to install the UPnP in Windows XP.
1
Click Start and Control Panel.
2
Double-click Network Connections.
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3
In the Network Connections window, click Advanced in the main menu and
select Optional Networking Components ….
Network Connections
4
The Windows Optional Networking Components Wizard window displays.
Select Networking Service in the Components selection box and click Details.
Windows Optional Networking Components Wizard
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5
In the Networking Services window, select the Universal Plug and Play check
box.
Networking Services
6
Click OK to go back to the Windows Optional Networking Component Wizard
window and click Next.
19.4 Using UPnP in Windows XP Example
This section shows you how to use the UPnP feature in Windows XP. You must
already have UPnP installed in Windows XP and UPnP activated on the ZyXEL
Device.
Make sure the computer is connected to a LAN port of the ZyXEL Device. Turn on
your computer and the ZyXEL Device.
Auto-discover Your UPnP-enabled Network Device
1
Click Start and Control Panel. Double-click Network Connections. An icon
displays under Internet Gateway.
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2
Right-click the icon and select Properties.
Network Connections
3
In the Internet Connection Properties window, click Settings to see the port
mappings there were automatically created.
Internet Connection Properties
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4
You may edit or delete the port mappings or click Add to manually add port
mappings.
Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings
Internet Connection Properties: Advanced Settings: Add
5
When the UPnP-enabled device is disconnected from your computer, all port
mappings will be deleted automatically.
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6
Select Show icon in notification area when connected option and click OK.
An icon displays in the system tray.
System Tray Icon
7
Double-click on the icon to display your current Internet connection status.
Internet Connection Status
Web Configurator Easy Access
With UPnP, you can access the web-based configurator on the ZyXEL Device
without finding out the IP address of the ZyXEL Device first. This comes helpful if
you do not know the IP address of the ZyXEL Device.
Follow the steps below to access the web configurator.
298
1
Click Start and then Control Panel.
2
Double-click Network Connections.
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3
Select My Network Places under Other Places.
Network Connections
4
An icon with the description for each UPnP-enabled device displays under Local
Network.
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5
Right-click on the icon for your ZyXEL Device and select Invoke. The web
configurator login screen displays.
Network Connections: My Network Places
6
Right-click on the icon for your ZyXEL Device and select Properties. A properties
window displays with basic information about the ZyXEL Device.
Network Connections: My Network Places: Properties: Example
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P ART V
Maintenance
System Settings (303)
Logs (309)
Update/Reboot (323)
Diagnostic (337)
Statistics (339)
301
302
CHAPTER
20
System Settings
20.1 Overview
This chapter shows you how to configure system related settings, such as system
time, password, name, the domain name and the inactivity timeout interval.
20.1.1 What You Can Do in the System Settings Screens
• Use the General screen (Section 20.2 on page 304) to configure system
settings.
• Use the Time Setting screen (Section 20.3 on page 306) to set the system
time.
20.1.2 What You Need to Know About System Settings
DHCP
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a method of allocating IP
addresses to devices on a network from a DHCP Server. Often your ISP or a router
on your network performs this function.
LAN
A LAN (local area network) is typically a network which covers a small area, made
up of computers and other devices which share resources such as Internet access,
printers etc.
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20.2 The General Screen
Use this screen to configure system settings such as the system and domain
name, inactivity timeout interval and system password.
The System Name is for identification purposes. However, because some ISPs
check this name you should enter your computer's "Computer Name". Find the
system name of your Windows computer by following one of the steps below.
• In Windows 95/98 click Start, Settings, Control Panel, Network. Click the
Identification tab, note the entry for the Computer Name field and enter it as
the System Name.
• In Windows 2000, click Start, Settings, Control Panel and then double-click
System. Click the Network Identification tab and then the Properties
button. Note the entry for the Computer name field and enter it as the
System Name.
• In Windows XP, click start, My Computer, View system information and
then click the Computer Name tab. Note the entry in the Full computer
name field and enter it as the ZyXEL Device System Name.
Click Maintenance > System to open the General screen.
Figure 116 Maintenance > System > General
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The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 86 Maintenance > System > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
System Setup
System Name
Choose a descriptive name for identification purposes. It is
recommended you enter your computer’s “Computer name” in this field.
This name can be up to 30 alphanumeric characters long. Spaces are not
allowed, but dashes “-” and underscores "_" are accepted.
Domain Name
Enter the domain name (if you know it) here. If you leave this field blank,
the ISP may assign a domain name via DHCP.
The domain name entered by you is given priority over the ISP assigned
domain name.
The Domain Name entry is propagated to the DHCP clients on the LAN.
Administrator
Inactivity
Timer
Type how many minutes a management session (either via the web
configurator or telnet) can be left idle before the session times out. The
default is 15 minutes. After it times out you have to log in with your
password again. Very long idle timeouts may have security risks. A value
of "0" means a management session never times out, no matter how
long it has been left idle (not recommended).
Enable Local
Admin Login
By default, a password is required to login to the device. This by default
is broadband1. A password can be disabled by deselecting the check box.
Note: It is strongly recommended that you do not disable Local
Admin Login and that you change the default login password.
Router Password
Admin
Password
New
Password
Type your new system password (up to 30 characters). Note that as you
type a password, the screen displays a (*) for each character you type.
After you change the password, use the new password to access the
ZyXEL Device.
Retype to
confirm
Type the new password again for confirmation.
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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20.3 The Time Setting Screen
Use this screen to configure the ZyXEL Device’s time based on your local time
zone. To change your ZyXEL Device’s time and date, click Maintenance >
System > Time Setting. The screen appears as shown.
Figure 117 Maintenance > System > Time Setting
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 87 Maintenance > System > Time Setting
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current Time
Current Time
This field displays the time of your ZyXEL Device.
Each time you reload this page, the ZyXEL Device synchronizes the
time with the time server.
Current Date
This field displays the date of your ZyXEL Device.
Each time you reload this page, the ZyXEL Device synchronizes the
date with the time server.
Time and Date Setup
Manual
306
Select this radio button to enter the time and date manually. If you
configure a new time and date, Time Zone and Daylight Saving at the
same time, the new time and date you entered has priority and the
Time Zone and Daylight Saving settings do not affect it.
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Table 87 Maintenance > System > Time Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
New Time
This field displays the last updated time from the time server or the last
time configured manually.
(hh:mm:ss)
When you set Time and Date Setup to Manual, enter the new time in
this field and then click Apply.
New Date
(yyyy/mm/dd)
This field displays the last updated date from the time server or the last
date configured manually.
When you set Time and Date Setup to Manual, enter the new date in
this field and then click Apply.
Get from Time
Server
Select this radio button to have the ZyXEL Device get the time and date
from the time server you specified below.
Time Protocol
Select the time service protocol that your time server sends when you
turn on the ZyXEL Device. Not all time servers support all protocols, so
you may have to check with your ISP/network administrator or use trial
and error to find a protocol that works.
The main difference between them is the format.
Daytime (RFC 867) format is day/month/year/time zone of the
server.
Time (RFC 868) format displays a 4-byte integer giving the total
number of seconds since 1970/1/1 at 0:0:0.
The default, NTP (RFC 1305), is similar to Time (RFC 868).
Time Server
Address
Enter the IP address or URL (up to 20 extended ASCII characters in
length) of your time server. Check with your ISP/network administrator
if you are unsure of this information.
Time Zone Setup
Time Zone
Choose the time zone of your location. This will set the time difference
between your time zone and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
Daylight
Savings
Daylight saving is a period from late spring to early fall when many
countries set their clocks ahead of normal local time by one hour to
give more daytime light in the evening.
Select this option if you use Daylight Saving Time.
Start Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time starts if you
selected Enable Daylight Saving. The o'clock field uses the 24 hour
format. Here are a couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time starts in most parts of the United States on the
second Sunday of March. Each time zone in the United States starts
using Daylight Saving Time at 2 A.M. local time. So in the United States
you would select Second, Sunday, March and type 2 in the o'clock
field.
Daylight Saving Time starts in the European Union on the last Sunday
of March. All of the time zones in the European Union start using
Daylight Saving Time at the same moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in
the European Union you would select Last, Sunday, March. The time
you type in the o'clock field depends on your time zone. In Germany
for instance, you would type 2 because Germany's time zone is one
hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
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Chapter 20 System Settings
Table 87 Maintenance > System > Time Setting (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
End Date
Configure the day and time when Daylight Saving Time ends if you
selected Enable Daylight Saving. The o'clock field uses the 24 hour
format. Here are a couple of examples:
Daylight Saving Time ends in the United States on the first Sunday of
November. Each time zone in the United States stops using Daylight
Saving Time at 2 A.M. local time. So in the United States you would
select First, Sunday, November and type 2 in the o'clock field.
Daylight Saving Time ends in the European Union on the last Sunday of
October. All of the time zones in the European Union stop using
Daylight Saving Time at the same moment (1 A.M. GMT or UTC). So in
the European Union you would select Last, Sunday, October. The
time you type in the o'clock field depends on your time zone. In
Germany for instance, you would type 2 because Germany's time zone
is one hour ahead of GMT or UTC (GMT+1).
308
Apply
Click this to save your changes.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
CHAPTER
21
Logs
21.1 Overview
This chapter contains information about configuring general log settings and
viewing the ZyXEL Device’s logs.
The web configurator allows you to choose which categories of events and/or
alerts to have the ZyXEL Device log and then display the logs or have the ZyXEL
Device send them to an administrator (as e-mail) or to a syslog server.
21.1.1 What You Can Do in the Log Screens
• Use the View Log screen (Section 21.2 on page 310) to see the logs for the
categories that you selected in the Log Settings screen.
• Use The Log Settings screen (Section 21.3 on page 311) to configure the mail
server, the syslog server, when to send logs and what logs to send.
21.1.2 What You Need To Know About Logs
Alerts
An alert is a message that is enabled as soon as the event occurs. They include
system errors, attacks (access control) and attempted access to blocked web
sites. Some categories such as System Errors consist of both logs and alerts. You
may differentiate them by their color in the View Log screen. Alerts display in red
and logs display in black.
Logs
A log is a message about an event that occurred on your ZyXEL Device. For
example, when someone logs in to the ZyXEL Device, you can set a schedule for
how often logs should be enabled, or sent to a syslog server.
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21.2 The View Log Screen
Use the View Log screen to see the logs for the categories that you selected in
the Log Settings screen (see Section 21.3 on page 311). Click Maintenance >
Logs to open the View Log screen.
Entries in red indicate alerts. The log wraps around and deletes the old entries
after it fills. Click a column heading to sort the entries. A triangle indicates
ascending or descending sort order.
Figure 118 Maintenance > Logs > View Log
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 88 Maintenance > Logs > View Log
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Display
The categories that you select in the Log Settings screen display in the
drop-down list box.
Select a category of logs to view; select All Logs to view logs from all of
the log categories that you selected in the Log Settings page.
310
Email Log Now
Click this to send the log screen to the e-mail address specified in the
Log Settings page (make sure that you have first filled in the E-mail
Log Settings fields in Log Settings).
Refresh
Click this to renew the log screen.
Clear Log
Click this to delete all the logs.
Save Log
Click this to save the log record file to your computer.
#
This field is a sequential value and is not associated with a specific entry.
Time
This field displays the time the log was recorded.
Message
This field states the reason for the log.
Source
This field lists the source IP address and the port number of the incoming
packet.
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Table 88 Maintenance > Logs > View Log
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Destination
This field lists the destination IP address and the port number of the
incoming packet.
Notes
This field displays additional information about the log entry.
21.3 The Log Settings Screen
Use the Log Settings screen to configure the mail server, the syslog server, when
to send logs and what logs to send.
To change your ZyXEL Device’s log settings, click Maintenance > Logs > Log
Settings. The screen appears as shown.
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Chapter 21 Logs
Alerts are e-mailed as soon as they happen. Logs may be e-mailed as soon as the
log is full. Selecting many alert and/or log categories (especially Access Control)
may result in many e-mails being sent.
Figure 119 Maintenance > Logs > Log Settings
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 89 Maintenance > Logs > Log Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
E-mail Log Settings
312
Mail Server
Enter the server name or the IP address of the mail server for the e-mail
addresses specified below. If this field is left blank, logs and alert
messages will not be sent via E-mail.
Mail Subject
Type a title that you want to be in the subject line of the log e-mail
message that the ZyXEL Device sends. Not all ZyXEL Device models have
this field.
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Chapter 21 Logs
Table 89 Maintenance > Logs > Log Settings
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Send Log to
The ZyXEL Device sends logs to the e-mail address specified in this field.
If this field is left blank, the ZyXEL Device does not send logs via e-mail.
Send Alerts to
Alerts are real-time notifications that are sent as soon as an event, such
as a DoS attack, system error, or forbidden web access attempt occurs.
Enter the E-mail address where the alert messages will be sent. Alerts
include system errors, attacks and attempted access to blocked web
sites. If this field is left blank, alert messages will not be sent via E-mail.
Log Schedule
This drop-down menu is used to configure the frequency of log messages
being sent as E-mail:
•
•
•
•
•
Daily
Weekly
Hourly
When Log is Full
None.
If you select Weekly or Daily, specify a time of day when the E-mail
should be sent. If you select Weekly, then also specify which day of the
week the E-mail should be sent. If you select When Log is Full, an alert
is sent when the log fills up. If you select None, no log messages are
sent.
Day for
Sending Log
Use the drop down list box to select which day of the week to send the
logs.
Time for
Sending Log
Enter the time of the day in 24-hour format (for example 23:00 equals
11:00 pm) to send the logs.
Clear log after
sending mail
Select the checkbox to delete all the logs after the ZyXEL Device sends an
E-mail of the logs.
Syslog
Logging
The ZyXEL Device sends a log to an external syslog server.
Active
Click Active to enable syslog logging.
Syslog IP
Address
Enter the server name or IP address of the syslog server that will log the
selected categories of logs.
Log Facility
Select a location from the drop down list box. The log facility allows you
to log the messages to different files in the syslog server. Refer to the
syslog server manual for more information.
Active Log and Alert
Log
Select the categories of logs that you want to record. Options include
System Maintenance, System Errors, Access Control, UPnP, Forward Web
Sites, Blocked Web Sites, Attacks, Any IP, PKI, TR069, ADSL, PPP,
Internet, WLAN, and DHCP.
Send
Immediate
Alert
Select log categories for which you want the ZyXEL Device to send E-mail
alerts immediately. Options include System Errors, Access Control,
Blocked Web Sites, Attacks, and PKI.
Apply
Click this to save your customized settings and exit this screen.
Cancel
Click this to restore your previously saved settings.
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21.4 SMTP Error Messages
If there are difficulties in sending e-mail the following error message appears.
“SMTP action request failed. ret= ??". The “??"are described in the following table.
Table 90 SMTP Error Messages
-1 means ZyXEL Device out of socket
-2 means tcp SYN fail
-3 means smtp server OK fail
-4 means HELO fail
-5 means MAIL FROM fail
-6 means RCPT TO fail
-7 means DATA fail
-8 means mail data send fail
21.4.1 Example E-mail Log
An "End of Log" message displays for each mail in which a complete log has been
sent. The following is an example of a log sent by e-mail.
• You may edit the subject title.
• "End of Log" message shows that a complete log has been sent.
Figure 120 E-mail Log Example
Subject:
Firewall Alert From
Date:
Fri, 07 Apr 2000 10:05:42
From:
user@zyxel.com
To:
user@zyxel.com
1|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.1
To:192.168.1.255
|default policy |forward
| 09:54:03 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,00>
|
2|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.131
To:192.168.1.255
|default policy |forward
| 09:54:17 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,00>
|
3|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.6
To:10.10.10.10 |match
|forward
| 09:54:19 |UDP
src port:03516 dest port:00053 |<1,01>
|
……………………………..{snip}…………………………………..
……………………………..{snip}…………………………………..
126|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.1
To:192.168.1.255
|match
|forward
| 10:05:00 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,02>
|
127|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.131
To:192.168.1.255
|match
|forward
| 10:05:17 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,02>
|
128|Apr 7 00 |From:192.168.1.1
To:192.168.1.255
|match
|forward
| 10:05:30 |UDP
src port:00520 dest port:00520 |<1,02>
|
End of Firewall Log
314
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Chapter 21 Logs
21.5 Log Descriptions
This section provides descriptions of example log messages.
Table 91 System Maintenance Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Time calibration is
successful
The router has adjusted its time based on information
from the time server.
Time calibration failed
The router failed to get information from the time
server.
WAN interface gets IP: %s
A WAN interface got a new IP address from the DHCP,
PPPoE, or dial-up server.
DHCP client IP expired
A DHCP client's IP address has expired.
DHCP server assigns %s
The DHCP server assigned an IP address to a client.
Successful WEB login
Someone has logged on to the router's web
configurator interface.
WEB login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router's web
configurator interface.
Successful TELNET login
Someone has logged on to the router via telnet.
TELNET login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router via telnet.
Successful FTP login
Someone has logged on to the router via ftp.
FTP login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router via ftp.
NAT Session Table is Full!
The maximum number of NAT session table entries
has been exceeded and the table is full.
Starting Connectivity
Monitor
Starting Connectivity Monitor.
Time initialized by Daytime
Server
The router got the time and date from the Daytime
server.
Time initialized by Time
server
The router got the time and date from the time
server.
Time initialized by NTP
server
The router got the time and date from the NTP server.
Connect to Daytime server
fail
The router was not able to connect to the Daytime
server.
Connect to Time server fail
The router was not able to connect to the Time server.
Connect to NTP server fail
The router was not able to connect to the NTP server.
Too large ICMP packet has
been dropped
The router dropped an ICMP packet that was too
large.
Configuration Change: PC =
0x%x, Task ID = 0x%x
The router is saving configuration changes.
Successful SSH login
Someone has logged on to the router’s SSH server.
SSH login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router’s SSH
server.
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Table 91 System Maintenance Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Successful HTTPS login
Someone has logged on to the router's web
configurator interface using HTTPS protocol.
HTTPS login failed
Someone has failed to log on to the router's web
configurator interface using HTTPS protocol.
Table 92 System Error Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
%s exceeds the max.
number of session per
host!
This attempt to create a NAT session exceeds the
maximum number of NAT session table entries allowed to
be created per host.
setNetBIOSFilter: calloc
error
The router failed to allocate memory for the NetBIOS
filter settings.
readNetBIOSFilter: calloc
error
The router failed to allocate memory for the NetBIOS
filter settings.
WAN connection is down.
A WAN connection is down. You cannot access the
network through this interface.
Table 93 Access Control Logs
316
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Firewall default policy: [ TCP |
UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
<Packet Direction>
Attempted TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF access
matched the default policy and was blocked or
forwarded according to the default policy’s
setting.
Firewall rule [NOT] match:[ TCP
| UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE | OSPF
] <Packet Direction>, <rule:%d>
Attempted TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF access
matched (or did not match) a configured firewall
rule (denoted by its number) and was blocked or
forwarded according to the rule.
Triangle route packet forwarded:
[ TCP | UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE |
OSPF ]
The firewall allowed a triangle route session to
pass through.
Packet without a NAT table entry
blocked: [ TCP | UDP | IGMP |
ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
The router blocked a packet that didn't have a
corresponding NAT table entry.
Router sent blocked web site
message: TCP
The router sent a message to notify a user that
the router blocked access to a web site that the
user requested.
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Table 94 TCP Reset Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Under SYN flood attack,
sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when a host was
under a SYN flood attack (the TCP incomplete count is per
destination host.)
Exceed TCP MAX
incomplete, sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when the number of
TCP incomplete connections exceeded the user configured
threshold. (the TCP incomplete count is per destination
host.) Note: Refer to TCP Maximum Incomplete in the
Firewall Attack Alerts screen.
Peer TCP state out of
order, sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when a TCP
connection state was out of order.Note: The firewall refers
to RFC793 Figure 6 to check the TCP state.
Firewall session time
out, sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when a dynamic
firewall session timed out.Default timeout values:ICMP
idle timeout (s): 60UDP idle timeout (s): 60TCP
connection (three way handshaking) timeout (s): 30TCP
FIN-wait timeout (s): 60TCP idle (established) timeout
(s): 3600
Exceed MAX incomplete,
sent TCP RST
The router sent a TCP reset packet when the number of
incomplete connections (TCP and UDP) exceeded the
user-configured threshold. (Incomplete count is for all
TCP and UDP connections through the firewall.)Note:
When the number of incomplete connections (TCP + UDP)
> “Maximum Incomplete High”, the router sends TCP RST
packets for TCP connections and destroys TOS (firewall
dynamic sessions) until incomplete connections <
“Maximum Incomplete Low”.
Access block, sent TCP
RST
The router sends a TCP RST packet and generates this log
if you turn on the firewall TCP reset mechanism (via CI
command: "sys firewall tcprst").
Table 95 Packet Filter Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
[ TCP | UDP | ICMP | IGMP |
Generic ] packet filter
matched (set: %d, rule: %d)
Attempted access matched a configured filter rule
(denoted by its set and rule number) and was blocked
or forwarded according to the rule.
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For type and code details, see Table 104 on page 321.
Table 96 ICMP Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
Firewall default policy: ICMP
<Packet Direction>, <type:%d>,
<code:%d>
ICMP access matched the default policy and was
blocked or forwarded according to the user's
setting.
Firewall rule [NOT] match: ICMP
<Packet Direction>, <rule:%d>,
<type:%d>, <code:%d>
ICMP access matched (or didn’t match) a firewall
rule (denoted by its number) and was blocked or
forwarded according to the rule.
Triangle route packet forwarded:
ICMP
The firewall allowed a triangle route session to
pass through.
Packet without a NAT table entry
blocked: ICMP
The router blocked a packet that didn’t have a
corresponding NAT table entry.
Unsupported/out-of-order ICMP:
ICMP
The firewall does not support this kind of ICMP
packets or the ICMP packets are out of order.
Router reply ICMP packet: ICMP
The router sent an ICMP reply packet to the
sender.
Table 97 CDR Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
board %d line %d channel %d,
call %d, %s C01 Outgoing Call
dev=%x ch=%x %s
The router received the setup requirements for a call.
“call” is the reference (count) number of the call.
“dev” is the device type (3 is for dial-up, 6 is for
PPPoE, 10 is for PPTP). "channel" or “ch” is the call
channel ID.For example,"board 0 line 0 channel 0, call
3, C01 Outgoing Call dev=6 ch=0 "Means the router
has dialed to the PPPoE server 3 times.
board %d line %d channel %d,
call %d, %s C02 OutCall
Connected %d %s
The PPPoE, PPTP or dial-up call is connected.
board %d line %d channel %d,
call %d, %s C02 Call
Terminated
The PPPoE, PPTP or dial-up call was disconnected.
Table 98 PPP Logs
318
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
ppp:LCP Starting
The PPP connection’s Link Control Protocol stage has started.
ppp:LCP Opening
The PPP connection’s Link Control Protocol stage is opening.
ppp:CHAP Opening
The PPP connection’s Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
stage is opening.
ppp:IPCP
Starting
The PPP connection’s Internet Protocol Control Protocol stage is
starting.
ppp:IPCP Opening
The PPP connection’s Internet Protocol Control Protocol stage is
opening.
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Table 98 PPP Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
ppp:LCP Closing
The PPP connection’s Link Control Protocol stage is closing.
ppp:IPCP Closing
The PPP connection’s Internet Protocol Control Protocol stage is
closing.
Table 99 UPnP Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
UPnP pass through Firewall
UPnP packets can pass through the firewall.
Table 100 Content Filtering Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
%s: block keyword
The content of a requested web page matched a user defined
keyword.
%s
The system forwarded web content.
For type and code details, see Table 104 on page 321.
Table 101 Attack Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
attack [ TCP | UDP | IGMP
| ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
The firewall detected a TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF
attack.
attack ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP attack.
land [ TCP | UDP | IGMP |
ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
The firewall detected a TCP/UDP/IGMP/ESP/GRE/OSPF
land attack.
land ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP land attack.
ip spoofing - WAN [ TCP |
UDP | IGMP | ESP | GRE |
OSPF ]
The firewall detected an IP spoofing attack on the WAN
port.
ip spoofing - WAN ICMP
(type:%d, code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP IP spoofing attack on the
WAN port.
icmp echo : ICMP
(type:%d, code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP echo attack.
syn flood TCP
The firewall detected a TCP syn flood attack.
ports scan TCP
The firewall detected a TCP port scan attack.
teardrop TCP
The firewall detected a TCP teardrop attack.
teardrop UDP
The firewall detected an UDP teardrop attack.
teardrop ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP teardrop attack.
illegal command TCP
The firewall detected a TCP illegal command attack.
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Table 101 Attack Logs (continued)
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
NetBIOS TCP
The firewall detected a TCP NetBIOS attack.
ip spoofing - no routing
entry [ TCP | UDP | IGMP
| ESP | GRE | OSPF ]
The firewall classified a packet with no source routing
entry as an IP spoofing attack.
ip spoofing - no routing
entry ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall classified an ICMP packet with no source
routing entry as an IP spoofing attack.
vulnerability ICMP
(type:%d, code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP vulnerability attack.
traceroute ICMP (type:%d,
code:%d)
The firewall detected an ICMP traceroute attack.
Table 102 802.1X Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
RADIUS accepts user.
A user was authenticated by the RADIUS Server.
RADIUS rejects user. Pls check
RADIUS Server.
A user was not authenticated by the RADIUS
Server. Please check the RADIUS Server.
User logout because of session
timeout expired.
The router logged out a user whose session
expired.
User logout because of user
deassociation.
The router logged out a user who ended the
session.
User logout because of no
authentication response from
user.
The router logged out a user from which there
was no authentication response.
User logout because of idle
timeout expired.
The router logged out a user whose idle timeout
period expired.
User logout because of user
request.
A user logged out.
No response from RADIUS. Pls
check RADIUS Server.
There is no response message from the RADIUS
server, please check the RADIUS server.
Use RADIUS to authenticate user. The RADIUS server is operating as the
authentication server.
No Server to authenticate user.
There is no authentication server to authenticate
a user.
Table 103 ACL Setting Notes
320
PACKET
DIRECTION
DIRECTION
DESCRIPTION
(L to W)
LAN to WAN
ACL set for packets traveling from the LAN to the
WAN.
(W to L)
WAN to LAN
ACL set for packets traveling from the WAN to the
LAN.
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Table 103 ACL Setting Notes (continued)
PACKET
DIRECTION
DIRECTION
DESCRIPTION
(L to L/ZyXEL
Device)
LAN to LAN/
ZyXEL Device
ACL set for packets traveling from the LAN to the
LAN or the ZyXEL Device.
(W to W/ZyXEL
Device)
WAN to WAN/
ZyXEL Device
ACL set for packets traveling from the WAN to the
WAN or the ZyXEL Device.
Table 104 ICMP Notes
TYPE
CODE
DESCRIPTION
Echo Reply
0
0
Echo reply message
Destination Unreachable
3
0
Net unreachable
1
Host unreachable
2
Protocol unreachable
3
Port unreachable
4
A packet that needed fragmentation was dropped because it was set
to Don't Fragment (DF)
5
Source route failed
Source Quench
4
0
A gateway may discard internet datagrams if it does not have the
buffer space needed to queue the datagrams for output to the next
network on the route to the destination network.
Redirect
5
0
Redirect datagrams for the Network
1
Redirect datagrams for the Host
2
Redirect datagrams for the Type of Service and Network
3
Redirect datagrams for the Type of Service and Host
Echo
8
0
Echo message
Time Exceeded
11
0
Time to live exceeded in transit
1
Fragment reassembly time exceeded
Parameter Problem
12
0
Pointer indicates the error
Timestamp
13
0
Timestamp request message
Timestamp Reply
14
0
15
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Information Request
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Chapter 21 Logs
Table 104 ICMP Notes (continued)
TYPE
CODE
DESCRIPTION
0
Information request message
Information Reply
16
0
Information reply message
Table 105 Syslog Logs
LOG MESSAGE
DESCRIPTION
<Facility*8 + Severity>Mon dd
hr:mm:ss hostname
src="<srcIP:srcPort>"
dst="<dstIP:dstPort>"
msg="<msg>" note="<note>"
devID="<mac address last three
numbers>" cat="<category>
"This message is sent by the system ("RAS"
displays as the system name if you haven’t
configured one) when the router generates a
syslog. The facility is defined in the web MAIN
MENU->LOGS->Log Settings page. The severity is
the log’s syslog class. The definition of messages
and notes are defined in the various log charts
throughout this appendix. The “devID” is the last
three characters of the MAC address of the router’s
LAN port. The “cat” is the same as the category in
the router’s logs.
The following table shows RFC-2408 ISAKMP payload types that the log displays.
Please refer to RFC 2408 for detailed information on each type.
Table 106 RFC-2408 ISAKMP Payload Types
322
LOG DISPLAY
PAYLOAD TYPE
SA
Security Association
PROP
Proposal
TRANS
Transform
KE
Key Exchange
ID
Identification
CER
Certificate
CER_REQ
Certificate Request
HASH
Hash
SIG
Signature
NONCE
Nonce
NOTFY
Notification
DEL
Delete
VID
Vendor ID
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
CHAPTER
22
Update/Reboot
22.1 Overview
This chapter explains how to upload new firmware, manage configuration files and
restart your ZyXEL Device.
Use the instructions in this chapter to change the device’s configuration file or
upgrade its firmware. After you configure your device, you can backup the
configuration file to a computer. That way if you later misconfigure the device, you
can upload the backed up configuration file to return to your previous settings.
You can alternately upload the factory default configuration file if you want to
return the device to the original default settings. The firmware determines the
device’s available features and functionality. You can download new firmware
releases from your nearest ZyXEL FTP site (or www.zyxel.com) to use to upgrade
your device’s performance.
Only use firmware for your device’s specific model. Refer to the
label on the bottom of your ZyXEL Device.
22.1.1 What You Can Do in the Update/Reboot Screens
• Use the Firmware Upgrade screen (Section 22.2 on page 331) to upload
firmware to your device.
• Use the Configuration screen (Section 22.3 on page 333) to backup and
restore device configurations. You can also reset your device settings back to
the factory default.
• Use the Restart screen (Section 22.4 on page 336) to restart your ZyXEL
device.
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22.1.2 What You Need To Know About Update/Reboot
Filename Conventions
The configuration file (often called the romfile or rom-0) contains the factory
default settings in the menus such as password, DHCP Setup, TCP/IP Setup, etc. It
arrives from ZyXEL with a “rom” filename extension. Once you have customized
the ZyXEL Device's settings, they can be saved back to your computer under a
filename of your choosing.
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System sometimes referred to as the “ras” file)
is the system firmware and has a “bin” filename extension. Find this firmware at
www.zyxel.com.With many FTP and TFTP clients, the filenames are similar to
those seen next.
ftp> put firmware.bin ras
This is a sample FTP session showing the transfer of the computer file
"firmware.bin" to the ZyXEL Device.
ftp> get rom-0 config.cfg
This is a sample FTP session saving the current configuration to the computer file
“config.cfg”.
If your (T)FTP client does not allow you to have a destination filename different
than the source, you will need to rename them as the ZyXEL Device only
recognizes “rom-0” and “ras”. Be sure you keep unaltered copies of both files for
later use.
The following table is a summary. Please note that the internal filename refers to
the filename on the ZyXEL Device and the external filename refers to the filename
not on the ZyXEL Device, that is, on your computer, local network or FTP site and
so the name (but not the extension) may vary. After uploading new firmware, see
the Status screen to confirm that you have uploaded the correct firmware
version.
Table 107 Filename Conventions
FILE TYPE
324
INTERNAL
NAME
DESCRIPTIO
N
EXTERNAL NAME
Configuration
File
Rom-0
This is the configuration filename on the
ZyXEL Device. Uploading the rom-0 file
replaces the entire ROM file system,
including your ZyXEL Device
configurations, system-related data
(including the default password), the error
log and the trace log.
*.rom
Firmware
Ras
This is the generic name for the ZyNOS
firmware on the ZyXEL Device.
*.bin
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FTP Restrictions
FTP will not work when:
1
The firewall is active (turn the firewall off or create a firewall rule to allow access
from the WAN).
2
You have disabled the FTP service in the Remote Management screen.
3
The IP you entered in the Secured Client IP field does not match the client IP. If it
does not match, the device will disallow the FTP session.
22.1.3 Before You Begin
• Ensure you have either created a firewall rule to allow access from the WAN or
turned the firewall off, otherwise the FTP will not function.
• FTP service is disabled by default. Make sure to activate the FTP service in the
Remote Management screen.
22.1.4 Tool Examples
Using FTP or TFTP to Restore Configuration
This example shows you how to restore a previously saved configuration. Note
that this function erases the current configuration before restoring a previous back
up configuration; please do not attempt to restore unless you have a backup
configuration file stored on disk.
FTP is the preferred method for restoring your current computer configuration to
your device since FTP is faster. Please note that you must wait for the system to
automatically restart after the file transfer is complete.
Do not interrupt the file transfer process as this may
PERMANENTLY DAMAGE your device. When the Restore
Configuration process is complete, the device automatically
restarts.
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Restore Using FTP Session Example
Figure 121 Restore Using FTP Session Example
ftp> put config.rom rom-0
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR rom-0
226 File received OK
221 Goodbye for writing flash
ftp: 16384 bytes sent in 0.06Seconds 273.07Kbytes/sec.
ftp>quit
Refer to Section 22.1.2 on page 324 to read about configurations that disallow
TFTP and FTP over WAN.
FTP and TFTP Firmware and Configuration File Uploads
These examples show you how to upload firmware and configuration files.
Do not interrupt the file transfer process as this may
PERMANENTLY DAMAGE your device.
FTP is the preferred method for uploading the firmware and configuration. To use
this feature, your computer must have an FTP client. The following sections give
examples of how to upload the firmware and the configuration files.
FTP File Upload Command from the DOS Prompt Example
326
1
Launch the FTP client on your computer.
2
Enter “open”, followed by a space and the IP address of your device.
3
Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
4
Enter your password as requested (the default is “broadband1”).
5
Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
6
Use “put” to transfer files from the computer to the device, for example, “put
firmware.bin ras” transfers the firmware on your computer (firmware.bin) to the
device and renames it “ras”. Similarly, “put config.rom rom-0” transfers the
configuration file on your computer (config.rom) to the device and renames it
“rom-0”. Likewise “get rom-0 config.rom” transfers the configuration file on the
device to your computer and renames it “config.rom.” See earlier in this chapter
for more information on filename conventions.
7
Enter “quit” to exit the ftp prompt.
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FTP Session Example of Firmware File Upload
Figure 122 FTP Session Example of Firmware File Upload
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> put firmware.bin ras
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR ras
226 File received OK
ftp: 1103936 bytes sent in 1.10Seconds 297.89Kbytes/sec.
ftp> quit
More commands (found in GUI-based FTP clients) are listed in this chapter.
Refer to Section 22.1.2 on page 324 to read about configurations that disallow
TFTP and FTP over WAN.
TFTP File Upload
The device also supports the uploading of firmware files using TFTP (Trivial File
Transfer Protocol) over LAN. Although TFTP should work over WAN as well, it is not
recommended.
To use TFTP, your computer must have both telnet and TFTP clients. To transfer
the firmware and the configuration file, follow the procedure shown next.
1
Use telnet from your computer to connect to the device and log in. Because TFTP
does not have any security checks, the device records the IP address of the telnet
client and accepts TFTP requests only from this address.
2
Enter the command “sys stdio 0” to disable the management idle timeout, so the
TFTP transfer will not be interrupted. Enter “command sys stdio 5” to restore the
five-minute management idle timeout (default) when the file transfer is complete.
3
Launch the TFTP client on your computer and connect to the device. Set the
transfer mode to binary before starting data transfer.
4
Use the TFTP client (see the example below) to transfer files between the device
and the computer. The file name for the firmware is “ras”.
Note that the telnet connection must be active and the device in CI mode before
and during the TFTP transfer. For details on TFTP commands (see following
example), please consult the documentation of your TFTP client program. For
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UNIX, use “get” to transfer from the device to the computer, “put” the other way
around, and “binary” to set binary transfer mode.
TFTP Upload Command Example
The following is an example TFTP command:
tftp [-i] host put firmware.bin ras
Where “i” specifies binary image transfer mode (use this mode when transferring
binary files), “host” is the device’s IP address, “put” transfers the file source on
the computer (firmware.bin – name of the firmware on the computer) to the file
destination on the remote host (ras - name of the firmware on the device).
Commands that you may see in GUI-based TFTP clients are listed earlier in this
chapter.
Using the FTP Commands to Back Up Configuration
328
1
Launch the FTP client on your computer.
2
Enter “open”, followed by a space and the IP address of your ZyXEL Device.
3
Press [ENTER] when prompted for a username.
4
Enter your password as requested (the default is “broadband1”).
5
Enter “bin” to set transfer mode to binary.
6
Use “get” to transfer files from the ZyXEL Device to the computer, for example,
“get rom-0 config.rom” transfers the configuration file on the ZyXEL Device to
your computer and renames it “config.rom”. See earlier in this chapter for more
information on filename conventions.
7
Enter “quit” to exit the ftp prompt.
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FTP Command Configuration Backup Example
This figure gives an example of using FTP commands from the DOS command
prompt to save your device’s configuration onto your computer.
Figure 123 FTP Session Example
331 Enter PASS command
Password:
230 Logged in
ftp> bin
200 Type I OK
ftp> get rom-0 zyxel.rom
200 Port command okay
150 Opening data connection for STOR ras
226 File received OK
ftp: 16384 bytes sent in 1.10Seconds 297.89Kbytes/sec.
ftp> quit
Configuration Backup Using GUI-based FTP Clients
The following table describes some of the commands that you may see in GUIbased FTP clients.
Table 108 General Commands for GUI-based FTP Clients
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
Host Address
Enter the address of the host server.
Login Type
Anonymous.
This is when a user I.D. and password is automatically supplied
to the server for anonymous access. Anonymous logins will work
only if your ISP or service administrator has enabled this option.
Normal.
The server requires a unique User ID and Password to login.
Transfer Type
Transfer files in either ASCII (plain text format) or in binary
mode.
Initial Remote
Directory
Specify the default remote directory (path).
Initial Local Directory
Specify the default local directory (path).
Backup Configuration Using TFTP
The ZyXEL Device supports the up/downloading of the firmware and the
configuration file using TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) over LAN. Although
TFTP should work over WAN as well, it is not recommended.
To use TFTP, your computer must have both telnet and TFTP clients. To backup the
configuration file, follow the procedure shown next.
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1
Use telnet from your computer to connect to the ZyXEL Device and log in. Because
TFTP does not have any security checks, the ZyXEL Device records the IP address
of the telnet client and accepts TFTP requests only from this address.
2
Enter command “sys stdio 0” to disable the management idle timeout, so the
TFTP transfer will not be interrupted. Enter command “sys stdio 5” to restore
the five-minute management idle timeout (default) when the file transfer is
complete.
3
Launch the TFTP client on your computer and connect to the ZyXEL Device. Set
the transfer mode to binary before starting data transfer.
4
Use the TFTP client (see the example below) to transfer files between the ZyXEL
Device and the computer. The file name for the configuration file is “rom-0” (romzero, not capital o).
Note that the telnet connection must be active before and during the TFTP
transfer. For details on TFTP commands (see following example), please consult
the documentation of your TFTP client program. For UNIX, use “get” to transfer
from the ZyXEL Device to the computer and “binary” to set binary transfer mode.
TFTP Command Configuration Backup Example
The following is an example TFTP command:
tftp [-i] host get rom-0 config.rom
where “i” specifies binary image transfer mode (use this mode when transferring
binary files), “host” is the ZyXEL Device IP address, “get” transfers the file source
on the ZyXEL Device (rom-0, name of the configuration file on the ZyXEL Device)
to the file destination on the computer and renames it config.rom.
Configuration Backup Using GUI-based TFTP Clients
The following table describes some of the fields that you may see in GUI-based
TFTP clients.
Table 109 General Commands for GUI-based TFTP Clients
COMMAN
D
330
DESCRIPTION
Host
Enter the IP address of the ZyXEL Device. 192.168.1.1 is the ZyXEL Device’s
default IP address when shipped.
Send/
Fetch
Use “Send” to upload the file to the ZyXEL Device and “Fetch” to back up the
file on your computer.
Local File
Enter the path and name of the firmware file (*.bin extension) or
configuration file (*.rom extension) on your computer.
Remote
File
This is the filename on the ZyXEL Device. The filename for the firmware is
“ras” and for the configuration file, is “rom-0”.
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Table 109 General Commands for GUI-based TFTP Clients (continued)
COMMAN
D
DESCRIPTION
Binary
Transfer the file in binary mode.
Abort
Stop transfer of the file.
Refer to Section 22.1.2 on page 324 to read about configurations that disallow
TFTP and FTP over WAN.
22.2 The Firmware Screen
Click Maintenance > Update/Reboot to open the Firmware screen. Follow the
instructions in this screen to upload firmware to your ZyXEL Device. The upload
process uses HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and may take up to 3 minutes.
After a successful upload, the system will reboot. See Section 22.1.4 on page 325
for upgrading firmware using FTP/TFTP commands.
Do NOT turn off the ZyXEL Device while firmware upload is in
progress!
Figure 124 Maintenance > Update/Reboot > Firmware
The following table describes the labels in this screen.
Table 110 Maintenance > Tools > Firmware
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Current
Firmware
Version
This is the present Firmware version and the date created.
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click
Browse ... to find it.
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Table 110 Maintenance > Tools > Firmware (continued)
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Browse...
Click this to find the .bin file you want to upload. Remember that you
must decompress compressed (.zip) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click this to begin the upload process. This process may take up to two
minutes.
After you see the Firmware Upload in Progress screen, wait 3 minutes before
logging into the ZyXEL Device again.
Figure 125 Firmware Upload In Progress
The ZyXEL Device automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network
disconnect. In some operating systems, you may see the following icon on your
desktop.
Figure 126 Network Temporarily Disconnected
After three minutes, log in again and check your new firmware version in the
Status screen.
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If the upload was not successful, the following screen will appear. Click Return to
go back to the Firmware screen.
Figure 127 Error Message
22.3 The Configuration Screen
See Section 22.1.4 on page 325 for transferring configuration files using FTP/TFTP
commands.
Click Maintenance > Update/Reboot > Configuration. Information related to
factory defaults, backup configuration, and restoring configuration appears in this
screen, as shown next.
Figure 128 Maintenance > Update/Reboot > Configuration
Backup Configuration
Backup Configuration allows you to back up (save) the ZyXEL Device’s current
configuration to a file on your computer. Once your ZyXEL Device is configured
and functioning properly, it is highly recommended that you back up your
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configuration file before making configuration changes. The backup configuration
file will be useful in case you need to return to your previous settings.
Click Backup to save the ZyXEL Device’s current configuration to your computer.
Restore Configuration
Restore Configuration allows you to upload a new or previously saved
configuration file from your computer to your ZyXEL Device.
Table 111 Restore Configuration
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
File Path
Type in the location of the file you want to upload in this field or click
Browse ... to find it.
Browse...
Click this to find the file you want to upload. Remember that you must
decompress compressed (.ZIP) files before you can upload them.
Upload
Click this to begin the upload process.
Do not turn off the ZyXEL Device while configuration file upload is
in progress.
After you see a “restore configuration successful” screen, you must then wait 1
minute before logging into the ZyXEL Device again.
Figure 129 Configuration Upload Successful
The ZyXEL Device automatically restarts in this time causing a temporary network
disconnect. In some operating systems, you may see the following icon on your
desktop.
Figure 130 Network Temporarily Disconnected
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If you uploaded the default configuration file you may need to change the IP
address of your computer to be in the same subnet as that of the default device IP
address (192.168.1.254). See Appendix A on page 361 for details on how to set
up your computer’s IP address.
If the upload was not successful, the following screen will appear. Click Return to
go back to the Configuration screen.
Figure 131 Configuration Upload Error
Reset to Factory Defaults
Click the Reset button to clear all user-entered configuration information and
return the ZyXEL Device to its factory defaults. The following warning screen
appears.
Figure 132 Reset Warning Message
Figure 133 Reset In Process Message
You can also press the RESET button on the rear panel to reset the factory
defaults of your ZyXEL Device. Refer to Section 1.6 on page 27 for more
information on using the RESET button.
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22.4 The Restart Screen
System restart allows you to reboot the ZyXEL Device remotely without turning
the power off. You may need to do this if the ZyXEL Device hangs, for example.
Click Maintenance > Update/Reboot > Restart. Click Restart to have the
ZyXEL Device reboot. This does not affect the ZyXEL Device's configuration.
Figure 134 Maintenance > Update/Reboot >Restart
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23
Diagnostic
23.1 The Diagnostic General Screen
Use this screen to test your WAN connection, ping an IP address, or test ATM
loopback. Click Maintenance > Diagnostic to open the screen shown next.
Figure 135 Maintenance > Diagnostic > General
The following table describes the fields in this screen.
Table 112 Maintenance > Diagnostic > General
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
WAN Connection Test
Click this to check your WAN connection status of DSL, ATM,
Ethernet PPPoE, IP, and Pinging.
IP Address or URL
Type the IP address or URL of a computer that you want to ping in
order to test a connection.
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Table 112 Maintenance > Diagnostic > General
338
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
Ping
Click this to ping the IP address that you entered.
ATM Loopback Test
Click this to start the ATM loopback test. Make sure you have
configured at least one PVC with proper VPIs/VCIs before you
begin this test. The ZyXEL Device sends an OAM F5 packet to the
DSLAM/ATM switch and then returns it (loops it back) to the
ZyXEL Device. The ATM loopback test is useful for troubleshooting
problems with the DSLAM and ATM network.
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24
Statistics
24.1 The Statistics General Screen
You can view the DSL and Ethernet WAN connection statistics in the Statistics
screen. The statistics displayed can help you identify connection problems. Errors
are common in all network connections. Too many errors may indicate a problem.
These statistics help experienced networking professionals identify the problem
and hopefully fix it. Excess errors may occur if there is a lot of traffic on your
network. Reducing usage of the network will decrease errors displayed here.
If you need to contact your vendor or customer support, you may be asked to
copy and send data from the Statistics screen. See the Network Connections
section in Troubleshooting if you are experiencing problems with your Internet
connection.
Click Maintenance > Statistics to open the screen shown next.
Figure 136 Maintenance > Statisticsl
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The following table describes the fields in this screen.
LABEL
DESCRIPTION
DSL
Click this to view statistics about the DSL connections.
ATM
Click this to view your DSL connection’s Asynchronous Transfer Mode
(ATM) statistics. ATM is a networking technology that provides high-speed
data transfer. ATM uses fixed-size packets of information called cells. With
ATM, a high QoS (Quality of Service) can be guaranteed.
The (Segmentation and Reassembly) SAR driver translates packets into
ATM cells. It also receives ATM cells and reassembles them into packets.
These counters are set back to zero whenever the device starts up.
Ethernet
LAN
Click this to view statistics about the Ethernet LAN.
Wireless LAN Click this to view statistics about the Wireless LAN.
Internet
Click this to view statistics about the Internet.
IP Interfaces
Click this to view statistics about the IP Interfaces.
Capture All
Click this to display information and statistics about your ZyXEL Device’s
DSL connection, ATM, Ethernet LAN, Wirelss LAN, Inernet and IP
Interfaces.
24.1.1 Terms
Here is a brief overview of what some of the terms displayed in the Statistics
screen mean.
Your modem or router is the near end and the device at your broadband service
provider, the DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer), is the far end. A
near end error is one that happened in the data traveling from the DSLAM to your
modem or router. A far end error is one that happened in the data traveling from
your modem or router to the DSLAM.
Fast and interleaving are methods of transferring data. Fast sends data in
contiguous packets. Interleaving rearranges packets and reassembles them again
on the other side.
Noise on a line can cause data to become corrupt so your modem or router has to
request all (if using fast) or some (if using interleaving) to be sent again. This
slows down the overall data transmission rate.
Interleaving is better on telephone lines with more than average noise or where
the DSL service provider is not near your residence as your modem or router will
be able to either re-assemble the data or just request the part of the data that it is
unable to recover to be sent again.
The method your modem or router use depends on what the DSLAM is using.
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When data packets are transmitted they contain control bits that enable your
modem or router to check and correct a certain amount of erroneous bits. This
type of error checking is known as Forward Error Correction (FEC). FEC errors are
correctable.
Noise margin downstream is the signal to noise ratio for the downstream part
of the connection (coming into the ZyXEL Device from the ISP). It is measured in
decibels. The higher the number the more signal and less noise there is.
Output power upstream is the amount of power (in decibels) that the ZyXEL
Device is using to transmit to the ISP.
Attenuation downstream is the reduction in amplitude (in decibels) of the DSL
signal coming into the ZyXEL Device from the ISP.
Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT) modulation divides up a line’s bandwidth into subcarriers (sub-channels) of 4.3125 KHz each called tones. The rest of the display is
the line’s bit allocation. This is displayed as the number (in hexadecimal format) of
bits transmitted for each tone. This can be used to determine the quality of the
connection, whether a given sub-carrier loop has sufficient margins to support
certain ADSL transmission rates, and possibly to determine whether particular
specific types of interference or line attenuation exist. Refer to the ITU-T G.992.1
recommendation for more information on DMT.
The better (or shorter) the line, the higher the number of bits transmitted for a
DMT tone. The maximum number of bits that can be transmitted per DMT tone is
15. There will be some tones without any bits as there has to be space between
the upstream and downstream channels.
A Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) is an error detecting code that discovers
errors that cannot be corrected. Data packets containing CRC errors need to be
re-sent.
Header Error Correction (HEC) errors are similar to CRC errors, except only the
header of the ATM cell is checked.
Typically one type of error causes others too, and as mentioned, some errors are
normal on a DSL line.
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Troubleshooting
and Specifications
Troubleshooting (345)
Product Specifications (351)
343
344
CHAPTER
25
Troubleshooting
This chapter offers some suggestions to solve problems you might encounter. The
potential problems are divided into the following categories.
• Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
• ZyXEL Device Access and Login
• Internet Access
• Network Connections
25.1 Power, Hardware Connections, and LEDs
The ZyXEL Device does not turn on. None of the LEDs turn on.
1
Make sure the ZyXEL Device is turned on.
2
Make sure you are using the power adaptor or cord included with the ZyXEL
Device.
3
Make sure the power adaptor or cord is connected to the ZyXEL Device and
plugged in to an appropriate power source. Make sure the power source is turned
on.
4
Turn the ZyXEL Device off and on.
5
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
One of the LEDs does not behave as expected.
1
Make sure you understand the normal behavior of the LED. See Section 1.5 on
page 26.
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2
Check the hardware connections.
3
Inspect your cables for damage. Contact the vendor to replace any damaged
cables.
4
Turn the ZyXEL Device off and on.
5
If the problem continues, contact the vendor.
25.2 ZyXEL Device Access and Login
I forgot the IP address for the ZyXEL Device.
1
The default IP address is 192.168.1.254.
2
If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, you might get the IP address
of the ZyXEL Device by looking up the IP address of the default gateway for your
computer. To do this in most Windows computers, click Start > Run, enter cmd,
and then enter ipconfig. The IP address of the Default Gateway might be the IP
address of the ZyXEL Device (it depends on the network), so enter this IP address
in your Internet browser.
3
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See
Section 1.6 on page 27.
I forgot the password.
1
The default admin password is broadband1.
2
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See
Section 1.6 on page 27.
I cannot see or access the Login screen in the web configurator.
1
Make sure you are using the correct IP address.
• The default IP address is 192.168.1.254.
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• If you changed the IP address (Section 6.2 on page 113), use the new IP
address.
• If you changed the IP address and have forgotten it, see the troubleshooting
suggestions for I forgot the IP address for the ZyXEL Device.
2
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as
expected. See Section 1.5 on page 26 for more information on LED status.
3
Make sure your Internet browser does not block pop-up windows and has
JavaScripts and Java enabled. See Appendix B on page 385.
4
If you disabled Any IP (Section 6.6.7 on page 125), make sure your computer is
in the same subnet as the ZyXEL Device. (If you know that there are routers
between your computer and the ZyXEL Device, skip this step.)
• If there is a DHCP server on your network, make sure your computer is using
a dynamic IP address. See Appendix A on page 361. Your ZyXEL Device is a
DHCP server by default.
• If there is no DHCP server on your network, make sure your computer’s IP
address is in the same subnet as the ZyXEL Device. See Appendix A on page
361.
5
Reset the device to its factory defaults, and try to access the ZyXEL Device with
the default IP address. See Section 1.6 on page 27.
6
If the problem continues, contact the network administrator or vendor, or try one
of the advanced suggestions.
Advanced Suggestions
• Try to access the ZyXEL Device using another service, such as Telnet. If you can
access the ZyXEL Device, check the remote management settings and firewall
rules to find out why the ZyXEL Device does not respond to HTTP.
• If your computer is connected to the WAN port or is connected wirelessly, use a
computer that is connected to a ETHERNET port.
I can see the Login screen, but I cannot log in to the ZyXEL Device.
1
Make sure you have entered the password correctly. The default admin password
is broadband1. The field is case-sensitive, so make sure [Caps Lock] is not on.
2
You cannot log in to the web configurator while someone is using Telnet to access
the ZyXEL Device. Log out of the ZyXEL Device in the other session, or ask the
person who is logged in to log out.
3
Turn the ZyXEL Device off and on.
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4
If this does not work, you have to reset the device to its factory defaults. See
Section 25.1 on page 345.
I cannot Telnet to the ZyXEL Device.
See the troubleshooting suggestions for I cannot see or access the Login screen in
the web configurator. Ignore the suggestions about your browser.
I cannot use FTP to upload / download the configuration file. / I cannot use FTP to
upload new firmware.
FTP service is disabled by default. Make sure to activate the FTP service in the
Remote Management screen.
See the troubleshooting suggestions for I cannot see or access the Login screen in
the web configurator. Ignore the suggestions about your browser.
25.3 Internet Access
I cannot access the Internet.
348
1
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as
expected. See Section 1.5 on page 26 for more information on LED status.
2
Make sure you entered your ISP account information correctly. These fields are
case-sensitive, so make sure [Caps Lock] is not on.
3
If you are trying to access the Internet wirelessly, make sure the wireless settings
in the wireless client are the same as the settings in the AP.
4
Disconnect all the cables from your device, and follow the directions in the Quick
Start Guide again.
5
If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
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Chapter 25 Troubleshooting
I cannot access the Internet anymore. I had access to the Internet (with the ZyXEL
Device), but my Internet connection is not available anymore.
1
Check the hardware connections, and make sure the LEDs are behaving as
expected. See Section 1.5 on page 26 for more information on LED status.
2
Turn the ZyXEL Device off and on.
3
If the problem continues, contact your ISP.
The Internet connection is slow or intermittent.
1
There might be a lot of traffic on the network. Look at the LEDs, and check Section
1.5 on page 26. If the ZyXEL Device is sending or receiving a lot of information,
try closing some programs that use the Internet, especially peer-to-peer
applications.
1
Check the signal strength. If the signal strength is low, try moving your computer
closer to the ZyXEL Device if possible, and look around to see if there are any
devices that might be interfering with the wireless network (for example,
microwaves, other wireless networks, and so on).
2
Turn the ZyXEL Device off and on.
3
If the problem continues, contact the network administrator or vendor, or try one
of the advanced suggestions.
Advanced Suggestions
• Check the settings for QoS. If it is disabled, you might consider activating it. If it
is enabled, you might consider raising or lowering the priority for some
applications.
25.4 Network Connections
My network cannot be connected. How can I check the Internet connection
status?
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Chapter 25 Troubleshooting
1
Check the LEDs on the ZyXEL Device for the following situations:
• If the DSL LED is off, there is no DSL connection. Check if your cables are
connected properly to the ZyXEL Device.
• If the DSL LED is blinking green, the ZyXEL Device is initializing the DSL line. If
it keeps blinking for a long time, please reboot the device.
• If the DSL LED lights green and the Internet LED lights red, the ZyXEL Device
has failed to get an IP address from your broadband service supplier. Please
contact your vendor or customer support.
• If the DSL LED lights green but the Internet LED is off, the ZyXEL Device does
not have an IP connection. Please check if you have entered the correct ISP
account and password when setting up the Internet connection. If the status is
the same, reboot the device. If the problem remains, please contact your
vendor or customer support.
2
350
Excess errors may occur if the quality of your line is poor. If you hear noise on the
line while making a telephone call, you should ask your local telecommunications
office to check the lines in your house or apartment building and the line from
your residence to your DSL service provider.
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
CHAPTER
26
Product Specifications
The following tables summarize the ZyXEL Device’s hardware and firmware
features.
26.1 Hardware Specifications
Table 113 Hardware Specifications
Dimensions
191 x 154 x 32mm
Weight
290g
Power Specification
12VDC 1A
Built-in Switch
Four auto-negotiating, auto MDI/MDI-X 10/100 Mbps RJ-45
Ethernet ports
ADSL Port
1 RJ-11 FXS POTS port
RESET Button
Restores factory defaults
Antenna
One fixed external antenna, 5dBi
WPS WIFI Button
5 ~ 6 seconds: turn on or off WLAN (WLAN on by default)
1 ~ 2 seconds: enable WPS (Wi-Fi Protected Setup)
Operation
Temperature
0º C ~ 40º C
Storage Temperature
-20º ~ 60º C
Operation Humidity
20% ~ 90% RH
Storage Humidity
20% ~ 90% RH
26.2 Firmware Specifications
Table 114 Firmware Specifications
Default IP Address
192.168.1.254
Default Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0 (24 bits)
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Chapter 26 Product Specifications
Table 114 Firmware Specifications (continued)
Default Admin
Password
broadband1
DHCP Server IP Pool
192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.200
Static DHCP
Addresses
10
Content Filtering
Web page blocking by URL keyword.
Static Routes
16
Device Management
Use the web configurator to easily configure the rich range of
features on the ZyXEL Device.
Wireless
Functionality
Allow the IEEE 802.11b and/or IEEE 802.11g wireless clients to
connect to the ZyXEL Device wirelessly. Enable wireless security
(WEP, WPA(2), WPA(2)-PSK) and/or MAC filtering to protect your
wireless network.
(wireless devices
only)
Firmware Upgrade
Download new firmware (when available) from the ZyXEL web site
and use the web configurator, an FTP or a TFTP tool to put it on
the ZyXEL Device.
Note: Only upload firmware for your specific model!
352
Configuration Backup
& Restoration
Make a copy of the ZyXEL Device’s configuration. You can put it
back on the ZyXEL Device later if you decide to revert back to an
earlier configuration.
Network Address
Translation (NAT)
Each computer on your network must have its own unique IP
address. Use NAT to convert your public IP address(es) to multiple
private IP addresses for the computers on your network.
Port Forwarding
If you have a server (mail or web server for example) on your
network, you can use this feature to let people access it from the
Internet.
DHCP (Dynamic Host
Configuration
Protocol)
Use this feature to have the ZyXEL Device assign IP addresses, an
IP default gateway and DNS servers to computers on your
network. Your device can also act as a surrogate DHCP server
(DHCP Relay) where it relays IP address assignment from the
actual real DHCP server to the clients.
Dynamic DNS
Support
With Dynamic DNS (Domain Name System) support, you can use
a fixed URL, www.zyxel.com for example, with a dynamic IP
address. You must register for this service with a Dynamic DNS
service provider.
IP Multicast
IP multicast is used to send traffic to a specific group of
computers. The ZyXEL Device supports versions 1 and 2 of IGMP
(Internet Group Management Protocol) used to join multicast
groups (see RFC 2236).
Time and Date
Get the current time and date from an external server when you
turn on your ZyXEL Device. You can also set the time manually.
These dates and times are then used in logs.
Logs
Use logs for troubleshooting. You can send logs from the ZyXEL
Device to an external syslog server.
Universal Plug and
Play (UPnP)
A UPnP-enabled device can dynamically join a network, obtain an
IP address and convey its capabilities to other devices on the
network.
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Chapter 26 Product Specifications
Table 114 Firmware Specifications (continued)
Firewall
Your device has a stateful inspection firewall with DoS (Denial of
Service) protection. By default, when the firewall is activated, all
incoming traffic from the WAN to the LAN is blocked unless it is
initiated from the LAN. The firewall supports TCP/UDP inspection,
DoS detection and prevention, real time alerts, reports and logs.
Content Filtering
Content filtering allows you to block access to Internet web sites
that contain key words (that you specify) in the URL. You can also
schedule when to perform the filtering and give trusted LAN IP
addresses unfiltered Internet access.
QoS (Quality of
Service)
You can efficiently manage traffic on your network by reserving
bandwidth and giving priority to certain types of traffic and/or to
particular computers.
Remote Management
This allows you to decide whether a service (HTTP or FTP traffic for
example) from a computer on a network (LAN or WAN for
example) can access the ZyXEL Device.
Any IP
The Any IP feature allows a computer to access the Internet and
the ZyXEL Device without changing the network settings (such as
IP address and subnet mask) of the computer, when the IP
addresses of the computer and the ZyXEL Device are not in the
same subnet.
PPPoE Support
(RFC2516)
PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) emulates a dial-up
connection. It allows your ISP to use their existing network
configuration with newer broadband technologies such as ADSL.
The PPPoE driver on your device is transparent to the computers
on the LAN, which see only Ethernet and are not aware of PPPoE
thus saving you from having to manage PPPoE clients on individual
computers.
Other PPPoE Features PPPoE idle time out
PPPoE dial on demand
Multiple PVC
(Permanent Virtual
Circuits) Support
Your device supports up to 8 Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs).
IP Alias
IP alias allows you to partition a physical network into logical
networks over the same Ethernet interface. Your device supports
three logical LAN interfaces via its single physical Ethernet
interface with the your device itself as the gateway for each LAN
network.
Packet Filters
Your device’s packet filtering function allows added network
security and management.
WAN IP Passthrough
This allows a WAN computer on the local network of the ZyXEL
Device to have access to web services using the public IP address.
When WAN IP Passthrough is configured, all traffic is forwarded to
the computer and will not go through NAT.
VLANs
This allows a physical network to be partitioned into multiple
logical networks.
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Chapter 26 Product Specifications
Table 114 Firmware Specifications (continued)
ADSL Standards
ANSI T1.413, Issue 2; G.dmt (G.992.1); G.lite (G992.2).
EOC specified in ITU-T G.992.1
ADSL2 G.dmt.bis (G.992.3)
ADSL2 G.lite.bis (G.992.4)
ADSL2+ (G.992.5)
Extended-Reach ADSL (ER ADSL)
SRA (Seamless Rate Adaptation)
Auto-negotiating rate adaptation
ADSL physical connection ATM AAL5 (ATM Adaptation Layer type
5)
Multi-protocol over AAL5 (RFC2684/1483)
PPP over ATM AAL5 (RFC2364)
PPP over Ethernet for DSL connection (RFC2516)
VC-based and LLC-based multiplexing
Support up to 8 PVCs
I.610 F4/F5 OAM
TR-067/TR-100
354
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Chapter 26 Product Specifications
Table 114 Firmware Specifications (continued)
Other Protocol
Support
PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) link layer protocol
IP routing
Transparent bridging for unsupported network layer protocols
RIP I/RIP II
ICMP
ATM QoS
IP Multicasting IGMP v1 and v2
IGMP Proxy
802.1Q/1P
Management
Embedded Web Configurator
CLI (Command Line Interpreter)
Embedded FTP/TFTP Server for firmware upgrade and
configuration file backup and restore
Telnet for remote management
Remote Management Control: WWW, Telnet, FTP, DNS, and ICMP.
Remote Firmware Upgrade
Syslog
TR-069
F4/F5 OAM
26.3 Wireless Features
Table 115 Wireless Features
External Antenna
The ZyXEL Device is equipped with one fixed antenna to
provide a clear radio signal between the wireless stations and
the access points.
Wireless LAN MAC Address
Filtering
Your device can check the MAC addresses of wireless stations
against a list of allowed or denied MAC addresses.
WEP Encryption
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) encrypts data frames before
transmitting over the wireless network to help keep network
communications private.
Wi-Fi Protected Access
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i
security standard. Key differences between WPA and WEP
are user authentication and improved data encryption.
WPA2
WPA 2 is a wireless security standard that defines stronger
encryption, authentication and key management than WPA.
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Chapter 26 Product Specifications
Table 115 Wireless Features
WMM QoS
WMM (Wi-Fi MultiMedia) QoS (Quality of Service) allows you
to prioritize wireless traffic according to the delivery
requirements of individual services.
Other Wireless Features
IEEE 802.11b/g Compliance
Frequency Range: 2.4 GHz ISM Band
WDS (wireless client: G-570S v2)
Auto channel selection
Advanced Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
(OFDM)
Data Rates: 54Mbps and Auto Fallback
WPA, WPA-PSK
WPA2, WPA2-PSK
WMM QoS
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) Data Encryption 64/128/256
bit.
WLAN bridge to LAN
Up to 32 MAC Address filters
IEEE 802.1x
External RADIUS server using EAP-MD5, TLS, TTLS
Wireless scheduling
Wireless output power adjustment
Configurable remote access for WLAN
WIFI button
The following list, which is not exhaustive, illustrates the standards supported in
the ZyXEL Device.
Table 116 Standards Supported
356
STANDARD
DESCRIPTION
RFC 867
Daytime Protocol
RFC 868
Time Protocol.
RFC 1058
RIP-1 (Routing Information Protocol)
RFC 1112
IGMP v1
RFC 1305
Network Time Protocol (NTP version 3)
RFC 1483
Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5
RFC 1631
IP Network Address Translator (NAT)
RFC 1661
The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
RFC 1723
RIP-2 (Routing Information Protocol)
RFC 2236
Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 2.
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Chapter 26 Product Specifications
Table 116 Standards Supported (continued)
STANDARD
DESCRIPTION
RFC 2364
PPP over AAL5 (PPP over ATM over ADSL)
RFC 2408
Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol
(ISAKMP)
RFC 2516
A Method for Transmitting PPP Over Ethernet (PPPoE)
RFC 2684
Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5.
RFC 2766
Network Address Translation - Protocol
IEEE 802.11
Also known by the brand Wi-Fi, denotes a set of Wireless LAN/
WLAN standards developed by working group 11 of the IEEE
LAN/MAN Standards Committee (IEEE 802).
IEEE 802.11b
Uses the 2.4 gigahertz (GHz) band
IEEE 802.11g
Uses the 2.4 gigahertz (GHz) band
IEEE 802.11g+
Turbo and Super G modes
IEEE 802.11d
Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: Media
Access Control (MAC) Bridges
IEEE 802.11x
Port Based Network Access Control.
IEEE 802.11e QoS
IEEE 802.11 e Wireless LAN for Quality of Service
ANSI T1.413, Issue 2
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) standard.
G dmt(G.992.1)
G.992.1 Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
Transceivers
ITU G.992.1 (G.DMT)
ITU standard for ADSL using discrete multitone modulation.
ITU G.992.2 (G. Lite)
ITU standard for ADSL using discrete multitone modulation.
ITU G.992.3
(G.dmt.bis)
ITU standard (also referred to as ADSL2) that extends the
capability of basic ADSL in data rates.
ITU G.992.4
(G.lite.bis)
ITU standard (also referred to as ADSL2) that extends the
capability of basic ADSL in data rates.
ITU G.992.5 (ADSL2+) ITU standard (also referred to as ADSL2+) that extends the
capability of basic ADSL by doubling the number of downstream
bits.
Microsoft PPTP
MS PPTP (Microsoft's implementation of Point to Point Tunneling
Protocol)
RFC 2383
ST2+ over ATM Protocol Specification - UNI 3.1 Version
TR-069
TR-069 DSL Forum Standard for CPE Wan Management.
1.363.5
Compliant AAL5 SAR (Segmentation And Re-assembly)
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Chapter 26 Product Specifications
26.4 Power Adaptor Specifications
Table 117 ZyXEL Device Series Power Adaptor Specifications
NORTH AMERICAN PLUG
STANDARDS
AC Power Adapter Model
12V 1A SOCB PA
Input Power
AC 120Volts/60Hz
Output Power
DC 12Volts/1.0A
Power Consumption
7.7 Watt max
Safety Standards
ANSI/UL 60950-1, CSA
60950-1
EUROPEAN PLUG
STANDARDS
AC Power Adapter Model
358
Input Power
AC 230Volts/50Hz
Output Power
DC 12Volts/1.0A
Power Consumption
8 Watt max
Safety Standards
CE, GS or TUV, EN60950-1
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
P ART VII
Appendices and
Index
Note: The appendices provide general
information. Some details may not
apply to your ZyXEL Device.
Setting up Your Computer’s IP Address
(361)
Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java
Permissions (385)
IP Addresses and Subnetting (395)
Wireless LANs (405)
Services (421)
Legal Information (425)
Index (429)
359
360
APPENDIX
A
Setting up Your Computer’s IP
Address
All computers must have a 10M or 100M Ethernet adapter card and TCP/IP
installed.
Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP/Vista, Macintosh OS 7 and later operating
systems and all versions of UNIX/LINUX include the software components you
need to install and use TCP/IP on your computer. Windows 3.1 requires the
purchase of a third-party TCP/IP application package.
TCP/IP should already be installed on computers using Windows NT/2000/XP,
Macintosh OS 7 and later operating systems.
After the appropriate TCP/IP components are installed, configure the TCP/IP
settings in order to "communicate" with your network.
If you manually assign IP information instead of using dynamic assignment, make
sure that your computers have IP addresses that place them in the same subnet
as the ZyXEL Device’s LAN port.
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Windows 95/98/Me
Click Start, Settings, Control Panel and double-click the Network icon to open
the Network window.
Figure 137 WIndows 95/98/Me: Network: Configuration
Installing Components
The Network window Configuration tab displays a list of installed components.
You need a network adapter, the TCP/IP protocol and Client for Microsoft
Networks.
If you need the adapter:
1
In the Network window, click Add.
2
Select Adapter and then click Add.
3
Select the manufacturer and model of your network adapter and then click OK.
If you need TCP/IP:
362
1
In the Network window, click Add.
2
Select Protocol and then click Add.
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3
Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
4
Select TCP/IP from the list of network protocols and then click OK.
If you need Client for Microsoft Networks:
1
Click Add.
2
Select Client and then click Add.
3
Select Microsoft from the list of manufacturers.
4
Select Client for Microsoft Networks from the list of network clients and then
click OK.
5
Restart your computer so the changes you made take effect.
Configuring
1
In the Network window Configuration tab, select your network adapter's TCP/IP
entry and click Properties
2
Click the IP Address tab.
• If your IP address is dynamic, select Obtain an IP address automatically.
• If you have a static IP address, select Specify an IP address and type your
information into the IP Address and Subnet Mask fields.
Figure 138 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: IP Address
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3
Click the DNS Configuration tab.
• If you do not know your DNS information, select Disable DNS.
• If you know your DNS information, select Enable DNS and type the
information in the fields below (you may not need to fill them all in).
Figure 139 Windows 95/98/Me: TCP/IP Properties: DNS Configuration
4
Click the Gateway tab.
• If you do not know your gateway’s IP address, remove previously installed
gateways.
• If you have a gateway IP address, type it in the New gateway field and click
Add.
5
Click OK to save and close the TCP/IP Properties window.
6
Click OK to close the Network window. Insert the Windows CD if prompted.
7
Turn on your ZyXEL Device and restart your computer when prompted.
Verifying Settings
364
1
Click Start and then Run.
2
In the Run window, type "winipcfg" and then click OK to open the IP
Configuration window.
3
Select your network adapter. You should see your computer's IP address, subnet
mask and default gateway.
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Windows 2000/NT/XP
The following example figures use the default Windows XP GUI theme.
1
Click start (Start in Windows 2000/NT), Settings, Control Panel.
Figure 140 Windows XP: Start Menu
2
In the Control Panel, double-click Network Connections (Network and Dialup Connections in Windows 2000/NT).
Figure 141 Windows XP: Control Panel
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3
Right-click Local Area Connection and then click Properties.
Figure 142 Windows XP: Control Panel: Network Connections: Properties
4
Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (under the General tab in Win XP) and then
click Properties.
Figure 143 Windows XP: Local Area Connection Properties
5
366
The Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window opens (the General tab in
Windows XP).
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• If you have a dynamic IP address click Obtain an IP address
automatically.
• If you have a static IP address click Use the following IP Address and fill in
the IP address, Subnet mask, and Default gateway fields.
• Click Advanced.
Figure 144 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties
6
If you do not know your gateway's IP address, remove any previously installed
gateways in the IP Settings tab and click OK.
Do one or more of the following if you want to configure additional IP addresses:
• In the IP Settings tab, in IP addresses, click Add.
• In TCP/IP Address, type an IP address in IP address and a subnet mask in
Subnet mask, and then click Add.
• Repeat the above two steps for each IP address you want to add.
• Configure additional default gateways in the IP Settings tab by clicking Add
in Default gateways.
• In TCP/IP Gateway Address, type the IP address of the default gateway in
Gateway. To manually configure a default metric (the number of transmission
hops), clear the Automatic metric check box and type a metric in Metric.
• Click Add.
• Repeat the previous three steps for each default gateway you want to add.
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• Click OK when finished.
Figure 145 Windows XP: Advanced TCP/IP Properties
7
In the Internet Protocol TCP/IP Properties window (the General tab in
Windows XP):
• Click Obtain DNS server address automatically if you do not know your
DNS server IP address(es).
• If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click Use the following DNS
server addresses, and type them in the Preferred DNS server and
Alternate DNS server fields.
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If you have previously configured DNS servers, click Advanced and then the
DNS tab to order them.
Figure 146 Windows XP: Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties
8
Click OK to close the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window.
9
Click Close (OK in Windows 2000/NT) to close the Local Area Connection
Properties window.
10
Close the Network Connections window (Network and Dial-up Connections
in Windows 2000/NT).
11 Turn on your ZyXEL Device and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
1
Click Start, All Programs, Accessories and then Command Prompt.
2
In the Command Prompt window, type "ipconfig" and then press [ENTER]. You
can also open Network Connections, right-click a network connection, click
Status and then click the Support tab.
Windows Vista
This section shows screens from Windows Vista Enterprise Version 6.0.
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1
Click the Start icon, Control Panel.
Figure 147 Windows Vista: Start Menu
2
In the Control Panel, double-click Network and Internet.
Figure 148 Windows Vista: Control Panel
3
Click Network and Sharing Center.
Figure 149 Windows Vista: Network And Internet
370
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4
Click Manage network connections.
Figure 150 Windows Vista: Network and Sharing Center
5
Right-click Local Area Connection and then click Properties.
Note: During this procedure, click Continue whenever Windows displays a screen
saying that it needs your permission to continue.
Figure 151 Windows Vista: Network and Sharing Center
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6
Select Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) and click Properties.
Figure 152 Windows Vista: Local Area Connection Properties
7
The Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties window opens (the
General tab).
• If you have a dynamic IP address click Obtain an IP address
automatically.
• If you have a static IP address click Use the following IP address and fill in
the IP address, Subnet mask, and Default gateway fields.
372
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• Click Advanced.
Figure 153 Windows Vista: Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties
8
If you do not know your gateway's IP address, remove any previously installed
gateways in the IP Settings tab and click OK.
Do one or more of the following if you want to configure additional IP addresses:
• In the IP Settings tab, in IP addresses, click Add.
• In TCP/IP Address, type an IP address in IP address and a subnet mask in
Subnet mask, and then click Add.
• Repeat the above two steps for each IP address you want to add.
• Configure additional default gateways in the IP Settings tab by clicking Add
in Default gateways.
• In TCP/IP Gateway Address, type the IP address of the default gateway in
Gateway. To manually configure a default metric (the number of transmission
hops), clear the Automatic metric check box and type a metric in Metric.
• Click Add.
• Repeat the previous three steps for each default gateway you want to add.
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• Click OK when finished.
Figure 154 Windows Vista: Advanced TCP/IP Properties
9
In the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties window, (the
General tab):
• Click Obtain DNS server address automatically if you do not know your
DNS server IP address(es).
• If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click Use the following DNS
server addresses, and type them in the Preferred DNS server and
Alternate DNS server fields.
374
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If you have previously configured DNS servers, click Advanced and then the
DNS tab to order them.
Figure 155 Windows Vista: Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties
10 Click OK to close the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties
window.
11 Click Close to close the Local Area Connection Properties window.
12
Close the Network Connections window.
13 Turn on your ZyXEL Device and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
1
Click Start, All Programs, Accessories and then Command Prompt.
2
In the Command Prompt window, type "ipconfig" and then press [ENTER]. You
can also open Network Connections, right-click a network connection, click
Status and then click the Support tab.
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Macintosh OS 8/9
1
Click the Apple menu, Control Panel and double-click TCP/IP to open the TCP/
IP Control Panel.
Figure 156 Macintosh OS 8/9: Apple Menu
376
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2
Select Ethernet built-in from the Connect via list.
Figure 157 Macintosh OS 8/9: TCP/IP
3
For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP Server from the
Configure: list.
4
For statically assigned settings, do the following:
• From the Configure box, select Manually.
• Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
• Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
• Type the IP address of your ZyXEL Device in the Router address box.
5
Close the TCP/IP Control Panel.
6
Click Save if prompted, to save changes to your configuration.
7
Turn on your ZyXEL Device and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the TCP/IP Control Panel window.
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Macintosh OS X
1
Click the Apple menu, and click System Preferences to open the System
Preferences window.
Figure 158 Macintosh OS X: Apple Menu
2
Click Network in the icon bar.
• Select Automatic from the Location list.
• Select Built-in Ethernet from the Show list.
• Click the TCP/IP tab.
3
For dynamically assigned settings, select Using DHCP from the Configure list.
Figure 159 Macintosh OS X: Network
4
378
For statically assigned settings, do the following:
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• From the Configure box, select Manually.
• Type your IP address in the IP Address box.
• Type your subnet mask in the Subnet mask box.
• Type the IP address of your ZyXEL Device in the Router address box.
5
Click Apply Now and close the window.
6
Turn on your ZyXEL Device and restart your computer (if prompted).
Verifying Settings
Check your TCP/IP properties in the Network window.
Linux
This section shows you how to configure your computer’s TCP/IP settings in Red
Hat Linux 9.0. Procedure, screens and file location may vary depending on your
Linux distribution and release version.
Note: Make sure you are logged in as the root administrator.
Using the K Desktop Environment (KDE)
Follow the steps below to configure your computer IP address using the KDE.
1
Click the Red Hat button (located on the bottom left corner), select System
Setting and click Network.
Figure 160 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Network Configuration: Devices
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2
Double-click on the profile of the network card you wish to configure. The
Ethernet Device General screen displays as shown.
Figure 161 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Ethernet Device: General
• If you have a dynamic IP address, click Automatically obtain IP address
settings with and select dhcp from the drop down list.
• If you have a static IP address, click Statically set IP Addresses and fill in
the Address, Subnet mask, and Default Gateway Address fields.
3
Click OK to save the changes and close the Ethernet Device General screen.
4
If you know your DNS server IP address(es), click the DNS tab in the Network
Configuration screen. Enter the DNS server information in the fields provided.
Figure 162 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Network Configuration: DNS
5
380
Click the Devices tab.
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6
Click the Activate button to apply the changes. The following screen displays.
Click Yes to save the changes in all screens.
Figure 163 Red Hat 9.0: KDE: Network Configuration: Activate
7
After the network card restart process is complete, make sure the Status is
Active in the Network Configuration screen.
Using Configuration Files
Follow the steps below to edit the network configuration files and set your
computer IP address.
1
Assuming that you have only one network card on the computer, locate the
ifconfig-eth0 configuration file (where eth0 is the name of the Ethernet card).
Open the configuration file with any plain text editor.
• If you have a dynamic IP address, enter dhcp in the BOOTPROTO= field. The
following figure shows an example.
Figure 164 Red Hat 9.0: Dynamic IP Address Setting in ifconfig-eth0
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=dhcp
USERCTL=no
PEERDNS=yes
TYPE=Ethernet
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• If you have a static IP address, enter static in the BOOTPROTO= field. Type
IPADDR= followed by the IP address (in dotted decimal notation) and type
NETMASK= followed by the subnet mask. The following example shows an
example where the static IP address is 192.168.1.10 and the subnet mask is
255.255.255.0.
Figure 165 Red Hat 9.0: Static IP Address Setting in ifconfig-eth0
DEVICE=eth0
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=static
IPADDR=192.168.1.10
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
USERCTL=no
PEERDNS=yes
TYPE=Ethernet
2
If you know your DNS server IP address(es), enter the DNS server information in
the resolv.conf file in the /etc directory. The following figure shows an example
where two DNS server IP addresses are specified.
Figure 166 Red Hat 9.0: DNS Settings in resolv.conf
nameserver 172.23.5.1
nameserver 172.23.5.2
3
After you edit and save the configuration files, you must restart the network card.
Enter ./network restart in the /etc/rc.d/init.d directory. The following
figure shows an example.
Figure 167 Red Hat 9.0: Restart Ethernet Card
[root@localhost init.d]# network restart
Shutting down interface eth0:
Shutting down loopback interface:
Setting network parameters:
Bringing up loopback interface:
Bringing up interface eth0:
382
[OK]
[OK]
[OK]
[OK]
[OK]
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Verifying Settings
Enter ifconfig in a terminal screen to check your TCP/IP properties.
Figure 168 Red Hat 9.0: Checking TCP/IP Properties
[root@localhost]# ifconfig
eth0
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:72:5B:44
inet addr:172.23.19.129 Bcast:172.23.19.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:717 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:13 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:100
RX bytes:730412 (713.2 Kb) TX bytes:1570 (1.5 Kb)
Interrupt:10 Base address:0x1000
[root@localhost]#
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APPENDIX
B
Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts
and Java Permissions
In order to use the web configurator you need to allow:
• Web browser pop-up windows from your device.
• JavaScripts (enabled by default).
• Java permissions (enabled by default).
Note: Internet Explorer 6 screens are used here. Screens for other Internet Explorer
versions may vary.
Internet Explorer Pop-up Blockers
You may have to disable pop-up blocking to log into your device.
Either disable pop-up blocking (enabled by default in Windows XP SP (Service
Pack) 2) or allow pop-up blocking and create an exception for your device’s IP
address.
Disable Pop-up Blockers
1
In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Pop-up Blocker and then select Turn Off
Pop-up Blocker.
Figure 169 Pop-up Blocker
You can also check if pop-up blocking is disabled in the Pop-up Blocker section in
the Privacy tab.
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1
In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options, Privacy.
2
Clear the Block pop-ups check box in the Pop-up Blocker section of the screen.
This disables any web pop-up blockers you may have enabled.
Figure 170 Internet Options: Privacy
3
Click Apply to save this setting.
Enable Pop-up Blockers with Exceptions
Alternatively, if you only want to allow pop-up windows from your device, see the
following steps.
1
386
In Internet Explorer, select Tools, Internet Options and then the Privacy tab.
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2
Select Settings…to open the Pop-up Blocker Settings screen.
Figure 171 Internet Options: Privacy
3
Type the IP address of your device (the web page that you do not want to have
blocked) with the prefix “http://”. For example, http://192.168.167.1.
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4
Click Add to move the IP address to the list of Allowed sites.
Figure 172 Pop-up Blocker Settings
5
Click Close to return to the Privacy screen.
6
Click Apply to save this setting.
JavaScripts
If pages of the web configurator do not display properly in Internet Explorer, check
that JavaScripts are allowed.
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Appendix B Pop-up Windows, JavaScripts and Java Permissions
1
In Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security tab.
Figure 173 Internet Options: Security
2
Click the Custom Level... button.
3
Scroll down to Scripting.
4
Under Active scripting make sure that Enable is selected (the default).
5
Under Scripting of Java applets make sure that Enable is selected (the
default).
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6
Click OK to close the window.
Figure 174 Security Settings - Java Scripting
Java Permissions
390
1
From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Security
tab.
2
Click the Custom Level... button.
3
Scroll down to Microsoft VM.
4
Under Java permissions make sure that a safety level is selected.
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5
Click OK to close the window.
Figure 175 Security Settings - Java
JAVA (Sun)
1
From Internet Explorer, click Tools, Internet Options and then the Advanced
tab.
2
Make sure that Use Java 2 for <applet> under Java (Sun) is selected.
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3
Click OK to close the window.
Figure 176 Java (Sun)
Mozilla Firefox
Mozilla Firefox 2.0 screens are used here. Screens for other versions may vary.
You can enable Java, Javascripts and pop-ups in one screen. Click Tools, then
click Options in the screen that appears.
Figure 177 Mozilla Firefox: Tools > Options
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Click Content.to show the screen below. Select the check boxes as shown in the
following screen.
Figure 178 Mozilla Firefox Content Security
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APPENDIX
C
IP Addresses and Subnetting
This appendix introduces IP addresses and subnet masks.
IP addresses identify individual devices on a network. Every networking device
(including computers, servers, routers, printers, etc.) needs an IP address to
communicate across the network. These networking devices are also known as
hosts.
Subnet masks determine the maximum number of possible hosts on a network.
You can also use subnet masks to divide one network into multiple sub-networks.
Introduction to IP Addresses
One part of the IP address is the network number, and the other part is the host
ID. In the same way that houses on a street share a common street name, the
hosts on a network share a common network number. Similarly, as each house
has its own house number, each host on the network has its own unique
identifying number - the host ID. Routers use the network number to send packets
to the correct network, while the host ID determines to which host on the network
the packets are delivered.
Structure
An IP address is made up of four parts, written in dotted decimal notation (for
example, 192.168.1.1). Each of these four parts is known as an octet. An octet is
an eight-digit binary number (for example 11000000, which is 192 in decimal
notation).
Therefore, each octet has a possible range of 00000000 to 11111111 in binary, or
0 to 255 in decimal.
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The following figure shows an example IP address in which the first three octets
(192.168.1) are the network number, and the fourth octet (16) is the host ID.
Figure 179 Network Number and Host ID
How much of the IP address is the network number and how much is the host ID
varies according to the subnet mask.
Subnet Masks
A subnet mask is used to determine which bits are part of the network number,
and which bits are part of the host ID (using a logical AND operation). The term
“subnet” is short for “sub-network”.
A subnet mask has 32 bits. If a bit in the subnet mask is a “1” then the
corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the network number. If a bit in the
subnet mask is “0” then the corresponding bit in the IP address is part of the host
ID.
The following example shows a subnet mask identifying the network number (in
bold text) and host ID of an IP address (192.168.1.2 in decimal).
Table 118 Subnet Masks
1ST
OCTET:
2ND
OCTET:
3RD
OCTET:
4TH
OCTET
(192)
(168)
(1)
(2)
IP Address (Binary)
11000000
10101000
00000001
00000010
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111
11111111
11111111
00000000
Network Number
11000000
10101000
00000001
Host ID
396
00000010
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By convention, subnet masks always consist of a continuous sequence of ones
beginning from the leftmost bit of the mask, followed by a continuous sequence of
zeros, for a total number of 32 bits.
Subnet masks can be referred to by the size of the network number part (the bits
with a “1” value). For example, an “8-bit mask” means that the first 8 bits of the
mask are ones and the remaining 24 bits are zeroes.
Subnet masks are expressed in dotted decimal notation just like IP addresses. The
following examples show the binary and decimal notation for 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit
and 29-bit subnet masks.
Table 119 Subnet Masks
BINARY
1ST
OCTET
2ND
OCTET
3RD
OCTET
4TH
OCTET
DECIMAL
8-bit mask
11111111
00000000
00000000
00000000
255.0.0.0
16-bit
mask
11111111
11111111
00000000
00000000
255.255.0.0
24-bit
mask
11111111
11111111
11111111
00000000
255.255.255.0
29-bit
mask
11111111
11111111
11111111
11111000
255.255.255.24
8
Network Size
The size of the network number determines the maximum number of possible
hosts you can have on your network. The larger the number of network number
bits, the smaller the number of remaining host ID bits.
An IP address with host IDs of all zeros is the IP address of the network
(192.168.1.0 with a 24-bit subnet mask, for example). An IP address with host
IDs of all ones is the broadcast address for that network (192.168.1.255 with a
24-bit subnet mask, for example).
As these two IP addresses cannot be used for individual hosts, calculate the
maximum number of possible hosts in a network as follows:
Table 120 Maximum Host Numbers
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF
HOSTS
SUBNET MASK
HOST ID SIZE
8 bits
24 bits
224 – 2
16777214
16 bits
216
65534
255.0.0.0
16 bits 255.255.0.0
–2
8
24 bits 255.255.255.0
8 bits
2 –2
254
29 bits 255.255.255.2
48
3 bits
23 – 2
6
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Notation
Since the mask is always a continuous number of ones beginning from the left,
followed by a continuous number of zeros for the remainder of the 32 bit mask,
you can simply specify the number of ones instead of writing the value of each
octet. This is usually specified by writing a “/” followed by the number of bits in
the mask after the address.
For example, 192.1.1.0 /25 is equivalent to saying 192.1.1.0 with subnet mask
255.255.255.128.
The following table shows some possible subnet masks using both notations.
Table 121 Alternative Subnet Mask Notation
SUBNET MASK
ALTERNATIVE
NOTATION
LAST OCTET
(BINARY)
LAST OCTET
(DECIMAL)
255.255.255.0
/24
0000 0000
0
255.255.255.128
/25
1000 0000
128
255.255.255.192
/26
1100 0000
192
255.255.255.224
/27
1110 0000
224
255.255.255.240
/28
1111 0000
240
255.255.255.248
/29
1111 1000
248
255.255.255.252
/30
1111 1100
252
Subnetting
You can use subnetting to divide one network into multiple sub-networks. In the
following example a network administrator creates two sub-networks to isolate a
group of servers from the rest of the company network for security reasons.
In this example, the company network address is 192.168.1.0. The first three
octets of the address (192.168.1) are the network number, and the remaining
octet is the host ID, allowing a maximum of 28 – 2 or 254 possible hosts.
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The following figure shows the company network before subnetting.
Figure 180 Subnetting Example: Before Subnetting
You can “borrow” one of the host ID bits to divide the network 192.168.1.0 into
two separate sub-networks. The subnet mask is now 25 bits (255.255.255.128 or
/25).
The “borrowed” host ID bit can have a value of either 0 or 1, allowing two
subnets; 192.168.1.0 /25 and 192.168.1.128 /25.
The following figure shows the company network after subnetting. There are now
two sub-networks, A and B.
Figure 181 Subnetting Example: After Subnetting
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In a 25-bit subnet the host ID has 7 bits, so each sub-network has a maximum of
27 – 2 or 126 possible hosts (a host ID of all zeroes is the subnet’s address itself,
all ones is the subnet’s broadcast address).
192.168.1.0 with mask 255.255.255.128 is subnet A itself, and 192.168.1.127
with mask 255.255.255.128 is its broadcast address. Therefore, the lowest IP
address that can be assigned to an actual host for subnet A is 192.168.1.1 and
the highest is 192.168.1.126.
Similarly, the host ID range for subnet B is 192.168.1.129 to 192.168.1.254.
Example: Four Subnets
The previous example illustrated using a 25-bit subnet mask to divide a 24-bit
address into two subnets. Similarly, to divide a 24-bit address into four subnets,
you need to “borrow” two host ID bits to give four possible combinations (00, 01,
10 and 11). The subnet mask is 26 bits
(11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000) or 255.255.255.192.
Each subnet contains 6 host ID bits, giving 26 - 2 or 62 hosts for each subnet (a
host ID of all zeroes is the subnet itself, all ones is the subnet’s broadcast
address).
Table 122 Subnet 1
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address (Decimal)
192.168.1.
0
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
00000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.0
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.1
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.63
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.62
Table 123 Subnet 2
400
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT
VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
64
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
01000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.64
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.65
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.127
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.126
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Table 124 Subnet 3
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
128
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
10000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.128
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.129
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.191
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.190
Table 125 Subnet 4
IP/SUBNET MASK
NETWORK NUMBER
LAST OCTET BIT VALUE
IP Address
192.168.1.
192
IP Address (Binary)
11000000.10101000.00000001.
11000000
Subnet Mask (Binary)
11111111.11111111.11111111.
11000000
Subnet Address:
192.168.1.192
Lowest Host ID: 192.168.1.193
Broadcast Address:
192.168.1.255
Highest Host ID: 192.168.1.254
Example: Eight Subnets
Similarly, use a 27-bit mask to create eight subnets (000, 001, 010, 011, 100,
101, 110 and 111).
The following table shows IP address last octet values for each subnet.
Table 126 Eight Subnets
SUBNET
SUBNET
ADDRESS
FIRST ADDRESS
LAST
ADDRESS
BROADCAST
ADDRESS
1
0
1
30
31
2
32
33
62
63
3
64
65
94
95
4
96
97
126
127
5
128
129
158
159
6
160
161
190
191
7
192
193
222
223
8
224
225
254
255
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Subnet Planning
The following table is a summary for subnet planning on a network with a 24-bit
network number.
Table 127 24-bit Network Number Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS
NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.255.128 (/25)
2
126
2
255.255.255.192 (/26)
4
62
3
255.255.255.224 (/27)
8
30
4
255.255.255.240 (/28)
16
14
5
255.255.255.248 (/29)
32
6
6
255.255.255.252 (/30)
64
2
7
255.255.255.254 (/31)
128
1
The following table is a summary for subnet planning on a network with a 16-bit
network number.
Table 128 16-bit Network Number Subnet Planning
NO. “BORROWED”
HOST BITS
SUBNET MASK
NO. SUBNETS NO. HOSTS PER
SUBNET
1
255.255.128.0 (/17)
2
32766
2
255.255.192.0 (/18)
4
16382
3
255.255.224.0 (/19)
8
8190
4
255.255.240.0 (/20)
16
4094
5
255.255.248.0 (/21)
32
2046
6
255.255.252.0 (/22)
64
1022
7
255.255.254.0 (/23)
128
510
8
255.255.255.0 (/24)
256
254
9
255.255.255.128 (/25)
512
126
10
255.255.255.192 (/26)
1024
62
11
255.255.255.224 (/27)
2048
30
12
255.255.255.240 (/28)
4096
14
13
255.255.255.248 (/29)
8192
6
14
255.255.255.252 (/30)
16384
2
15
255.255.255.254 (/31)
32768
1
Configuring IP Addresses
Where you obtain your network number depends on your particular situation. If
the ISP or your network administrator assigns you a block of registered IP
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addresses, follow their instructions in selecting the IP addresses and the subnet
mask.
If the ISP did not explicitly give you an IP network number, then most likely you
have a single user account and the ISP will assign you a dynamic IP address when
the connection is established. If this is the case, it is recommended that you select
a network number from 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.0. The Internet Assigned
Number Authority (IANA) reserved this block of addresses specifically for private
use; please do not use any other number unless you are told otherwise. You must
also enable Network Address Translation (NAT) on the ZyXEL Device.
Once you have decided on the network number, pick an IP address for your ZyXEL
Device that is easy to remember (for instance, 192.168.1.1) but make sure that
no other device on your network is using that IP address.
The subnet mask specifies the network number portion of an IP address. Your
ZyXEL Device will compute the subnet mask automatically based on the IP
address that you entered. You don't need to change the subnet mask computed by
the ZyXEL Device unless you are instructed to do otherwise.
Private IP Addresses
Every machine on the Internet must have a unique address. If your networks are
isolated from the Internet (running only between two branch offices, for example)
you can assign any IP addresses to the hosts without problems. However, the
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three
blocks of IP addresses specifically for private networks:
• 10.0.0.0
• 172.16.0.0
— 10.255.255.255
— 172.31.255.255
• 192.168.0.0 — 192.168.255.255
You can obtain your IP address from the IANA, from an ISP, or it can be assigned
from a private network. If you belong to a small organization and your Internet
access is through an ISP, the ISP can provide you with the Internet addresses for
your local networks. On the other hand, if you are part of a much larger
organization, you should consult your network administrator for the appropriate IP
addresses.
Regardless of your particular situation, do not create an arbitrary IP address;
always follow the guidelines above. For more information on address assignment,
please refer to RFC 1597, Address Allocation for Private Internets and RFC 1466,
Guidelines for Management of IP Address Space.
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APPENDIX
D
Wireless LANs
Wireless LAN Topologies
This section discusses ad-hoc and infrastructure wireless LAN topologies.
Ad-hoc Wireless LAN Configuration
The simplest WLAN configuration is an independent (Ad-hoc) WLAN that connects
a set of computers with wireless adapters (A, B, C). Any time two or more wireless
adapters are within range of each other, they can set up an independent network,
which is commonly referred to as an ad-hoc network or Independent Basic Service
Set (IBSS). The following diagram shows an example of notebook computers
using wireless adapters to form an ad-hoc wireless LAN.
Figure 182 Peer-to-Peer Communication in an Ad-hoc Network
BSS
A Basic Service Set (BSS) exists when all communications between wireless
clients or between a wireless client and a wired network client go through one
access point (AP).
Intra-BSS traffic is traffic between wireless clients in the BSS. When Intra-BSS is
enabled, wireless client A and B can access the wired network and communicate
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
with each other. When Intra-BSS is disabled, wireless client A and B can still
access the wired network but cannot communicate with each other.
Figure 183 Basic Service Set
ESS
An Extended Service Set (ESS) consists of a series of overlapping BSSs, each
containing an access point, with each access point connected together by a wired
network. This wired connection between APs is called a Distribution System (DS).
This type of wireless LAN topology is called an Infrastructure WLAN. The Access
Points not only provide communication with the wired network but also mediate
wireless network traffic in the immediate neighborhood.
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An ESSID (ESS IDentification) uniquely identifies each ESS. All access points and
their associated wireless clients within the same ESS must have the same ESSID
in order to communicate.
Figure 184 Infrastructure WLAN
Channel
A channel is the radio frequency(ies) used by wireless devices to transmit and
receive data. Channels available depend on your geographical area. You may have
a choice of channels (for your region) so you should use a channel different from
an adjacent AP (access point) to reduce interference. Interference occurs when
radio signals from different access points overlap causing interference and
degrading performance.
Adjacent channels partially overlap however. To avoid interference due to overlap,
your AP should be on a channel at least five channels away from a channel that an
adjacent AP is using. For example, if your region has 11 channels and an adjacent
AP is using channel 1, then you need to select a channel between 6 or 11.
RTS/CTS
A hidden node occurs when two stations are within range of the same access
point, but are not within range of each other. The following figure illustrates a
hidden node. Both stations (STA) are within range of the access point (AP) or
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
wireless gateway, but out-of-range of each other, so they cannot "hear" each
other, that is they do not know if the channel is currently being used. Therefore,
they are considered hidden from each other.
Figure 185
RTS/CTS
When station A sends data to the AP, it might not know that the station B is
already using the channel. If these two stations send data at the same time,
collisions may occur when both sets of data arrive at the AP at the same time,
resulting in a loss of messages for both stations.
RTS/CTS is designed to prevent collisions due to hidden nodes. An RTS/CTS
defines the biggest size data frame you can send before an RTS (Request To
Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake is invoked.
When a data frame exceeds the RTS/CTS value you set (between 0 to 2432
bytes), the station that wants to transmit this frame must first send an RTS
(Request To Send) message to the AP for permission to send it. The AP then
responds with a CTS (Clear to Send) message to all other stations within its range
to notify them to defer their transmission. It also reserves and confirms with the
requesting station the time frame for the requested transmission.
Stations can send frames smaller than the specified RTS/CTS directly to the AP
without the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake.
You should only configure RTS/CTS if the possibility of hidden nodes exists on
your network and the "cost" of resending large frames is more than the extra
network overhead involved in the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send)
handshake.
If the RTS/CTS value is greater than the Fragmentation Threshold value (see
next), then the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send) handshake will never
occur as data frames will be fragmented before they reach RTS/CTS size.
Note: Enabling the RTS Threshold causes redundant network overhead that could
negatively affect the throughput performance instead of providing a remedy.
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Fragmentation Threshold
A Fragmentation Threshold is the maximum data fragment size (between 256
and 2432 bytes) that can be sent in the wireless network before the AP will
fragment the packet into smaller data frames.
A large Fragmentation Threshold is recommended for networks not prone to
interference while you should set a smaller threshold for busy networks or
networks that are prone to interference.
If the Fragmentation Threshold value is smaller than the RTS/CTS value (see
previously) you set then the RTS (Request To Send)/CTS (Clear to Send)
handshake will never occur as data frames will be fragmented before they reach
RTS/CTS size.
Preamble Type
Preamble is used to signal that data is coming to the receiver. Short and long refer
to the length of the synchronization field in a packet.
Short preamble increases performance as less time sending preamble means
more time for sending data. All IEEE 802.11 compliant wireless adapters support
long preamble, but not all support short preamble.
Use long preamble if you are unsure what preamble mode other wireless devices
on the network support, and to provide more reliable communications in busy
wireless networks.
Use short preamble if you are sure all wireless devices on the network support it,
and to provide more efficient communications.
Use the dynamic setting to automatically use short preamble when all wireless
devices on the network support it, otherwise the ZyXEL Device uses long
preamble.
Note: The wireless devices MUST use the same preamble mode in order to
communicate.
IEEE 802.11g Wireless LAN
IEEE 802.11g is fully compatible with the IEEE 802.11b standard. This means an
IEEE 802.11b adapter can interface directly with an IEEE 802.11g access point
(and vice versa) at 11 Mbps or lower depending on range. IEEE 802.11g has
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
several intermediate rate steps between the maximum and minimum data rates.
The IEEE 802.11g data rate and modulation are as follows:
Table 129 IEEE 802.11g
DATA RATE
(MBPS)
MODULATION
1
DBPSK (Differential Binary Phase Shift Keyed)
2
DQPSK (Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)
5.5 / 11
CCK (Complementary Code Keying)
6/9/12/18/24/36/
48/54
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)
Wireless Security Overview
Wireless security is vital to your network to protect wireless communication
between wireless clients, access points and the wired network.
Wireless security methods available on the ZyXEL Device are data encryption,
wireless client authentication, restricting access by device MAC address and hiding
the ZyXEL Device identity.
The following figure shows the relative effectiveness of these wireless security
methods available on your ZyXEL Device.
Table 130 Wireless Security Levels
SECURITY
LEVEL
Least
Secure
SECURITY TYPE
Unique SSID (Default)
Unique SSID with Hide SSID Enabled
MAC Address Filtering
WEP Encryption
IEEE802.1x EAP with RADIUS Server
Authentication
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
WPA2
Most Secure
Note: You must enable the same wireless security settings on the ZyXEL Device and
on all wireless clients that you want to associate with it.
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
IEEE 802.1x
In June 2001, the IEEE 802.1x standard was designed to extend the features of
IEEE 802.11 to support extended authentication as well as providing additional
accounting and control features. It is supported by Windows XP and a number of
network devices. Some advantages of IEEE 802.1x are:
• User based identification that allows for roaming.
• Support for RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service, RFC 2138,
2139) for centralized user profile and accounting management on a network
RADIUS server.
• Support for EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol, RFC 2486) that allows
additional authentication methods to be deployed with no changes to the access
point or the wireless clients.
RADIUS
RADIUS is based on a client-server model that supports authentication,
authorization and accounting. The access point is the client and the server is the
RADIUS server. The RADIUS server handles the following tasks:
• Authentication
Determines the identity of the users.
• Authorization
Determines the network services available to authenticated users once they are
connected to the network.
• Accounting
Keeps track of the client’s network activity.
RADIUS is a simple package exchange in which your AP acts as a message relay
between the wireless client and the network RADIUS server.
Types of RADIUS Messages
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point
and the RADIUS server for user authentication:
• Access-Request
Sent by an access point requesting authentication.
• Access-Reject
Sent by a RADIUS server rejecting access.
• Access-Accept
Sent by a RADIUS server allowing access.
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• Access-Challenge
Sent by a RADIUS server requesting more information in order to allow access.
The access point sends a proper response from the user and then sends another
Access-Request message.
The following types of RADIUS messages are exchanged between the access point
and the RADIUS server for user accounting:
• Accounting-Request
Sent by the access point requesting accounting.
• Accounting-Response
Sent by the RADIUS server to indicate that it has started or stopped accounting.
In order to ensure network security, the access point and the RADIUS server use a
shared secret key, which is a password, they both know. The key is not sent over
the network. In addition to the shared key, password information exchanged is
also encrypted to protect the network from unauthorized access.
Types of EAP Authentication
This section discusses some popular authentication types: EAP-MD5, EAP-TLS,
EAP-TTLS, PEAP and LEAP. Your wireless LAN device may not support all
authentication types.
EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) is an authentication protocol that runs on
top of the IEEE 802.1x transport mechanism in order to support multiple types of
user authentication. By using EAP to interact with an EAP-compatible RADIUS
server, an access point helps a wireless station and a RADIUS server perform
authentication.
The type of authentication you use depends on the RADIUS server and an
intermediary AP(s) that supports IEEE 802.1x. .
For EAP-TLS authentication type, you must first have a wired connection to the
network and obtain the certificate(s) from a certificate authority (CA). A certificate
(also called digital IDs) can be used to authenticate users and a CA issues
certificates and guarantees the identity of each certificate owner.
EAP-MD5 (Message-Digest Algorithm 5)
MD5 authentication is the simplest one-way authentication method. The
authentication server sends a challenge to the wireless client. The wireless client
‘proves’ that it knows the password by encrypting the password with the challenge
and sends back the information. Password is not sent in plain text.
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However, MD5 authentication has some weaknesses. Since the authentication
server needs to get the plaintext passwords, the passwords must be stored. Thus
someone other than the authentication server may access the password file. In
addition, it is possible to impersonate an authentication server as MD5
authentication method does not perform mutual authentication. Finally, MD5
authentication method does not support data encryption with dynamic session
key. You must configure WEP encryption keys for data encryption.
EAP-TLS (Transport Layer Security)
With EAP-TLS, digital certifications are needed by both the server and the wireless
clients for mutual authentication. The server presents a certificate to the client.
After validating the identity of the server, the client sends a different certificate to
the server. The exchange of certificates is done in the open before a secured
tunnel is created. This makes user identity vulnerable to passive attacks. A digital
certificate is an electronic ID card that authenticates the sender’s identity.
However, to implement EAP-TLS, you need a Certificate Authority (CA) to handle
certificates, which imposes a management overhead.
EAP-TTLS (Tunneled Transport Layer Service)
EAP-TTLS is an extension of the EAP-TLS authentication that uses certificates for
only the server-side authentications to establish a secure connection. Client
authentication is then done by sending username and password through the
secure connection, thus client identity is protected. For client authentication, EAPTTLS supports EAP methods and legacy authentication methods such as PAP,
CHAP, MS-CHAP and MS-CHAP v2.
PEAP (Protected EAP)
Like EAP-TTLS, server-side certificate authentication is used to establish a secure
connection, then use simple username and password methods through the
secured connection to authenticate the clients, thus hiding client identity.
However, PEAP only supports EAP methods, such as EAP-MD5, EAP-MSCHAPv2
and EAP-GTC (EAP-Generic Token Card), for client authentication. EAP-GTC is
implemented only by Cisco.
LEAP
LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) is a Cisco implementation of
IEEE 802.1x.
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Dynamic WEP Key Exchange
The AP maps a unique key that is generated with the RADIUS server. This key
expires when the wireless connection times out, disconnects or reauthentication
times out. A new WEP key is generated each time reauthentication is performed.
If this feature is enabled, it is not necessary to configure a default encryption key
in the wireless security configuration screen. You may still configure and store
keys, but they will not be used while dynamic WEP is enabled.
Note: EAP-MD5 cannot be used with Dynamic WEP Key Exchange
For added security, certificate-based authentications (EAP-TLS, EAP-TTLS and
PEAP) use dynamic keys for data encryption. They are often deployed in corporate
environments, but for public deployment, a simple user name and password pair
is more practical. The following table is a comparison of the features of
authentication types.
Table 131 Comparison of EAP Authentication Types
EAP-MD5
EAP-TLS
EAP-TTLS
PEAP
LEAP
Mutual Authentication
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Certificate – Client
No
Yes
Optional
Optional
No
Certificate – Server
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Dynamic Key Exchange
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Credential Integrity
None
Strong
Strong
Strong
Moderate
Deployment Difficulty
Easy
Hard
Moderate
Moderate
Moderate
Client Identity
Protection
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
WPA and WPA2
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a subset of the IEEE 802.11i standard. WPA2
(IEEE 802.11i) is a wireless security standard that defines stronger encryption,
authentication and key management than WPA.
Key differences between WPA or WPA2 and WEP are improved data encryption and
user authentication.
If both an AP and the wireless clients support WPA2 and you have an external
RADIUS server, use WPA2 for stronger data encryption. If you don't have an
external RADIUS server, you should use WPA2-PSK (WPA2-Pre-Shared Key) that
only requires a single (identical) password entered into each access point, wireless
gateway and wireless client. As long as the passwords match, a wireless client will
be granted access to a WLAN.
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If the AP or the wireless clients do not support WPA2, just use WPA or WPA-PSK
depending on whether you have an external RADIUS server or not.
Select WEP only when the AP and/or wireless clients do not support WPA or WPA2.
WEP is less secure than WPA or WPA2.
Encryption
WPA improves data encryption by using Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP),
Message Integrity Check (MIC) and IEEE 802.1x. WPA2 also uses TKIP when
required for compatibility reasons, but offers stronger encryption than TKIP with
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in the Counter mode with Cipher block
chaining Message authentication code Protocol (CCMP).
TKIP uses 128-bit keys that are dynamically generated and distributed by the
authentication server. AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is a block cipher that
uses a 256-bit mathematical algorithm called Rijndael. They both include a perpacket key mixing function, a Message Integrity Check (MIC) named Michael, an
extended initialization vector (IV) with sequencing rules, and a re-keying
mechanism.
WPA and WPA2 regularly change and rotate the encryption keys so that the same
encryption key is never used twice.
The RADIUS server distributes a Pairwise Master Key (PMK) key to the AP that
then sets up a key hierarchy and management system, using the PMK to
dynamically generate unique data encryption keys to encrypt every data packet
that is wirelessly communicated between the AP and the wireless clients. This all
happens in the background automatically.
The Message Integrity Check (MIC) is designed to prevent an attacker from
capturing data packets, altering them and resending them. The MIC provides a
strong mathematical function in which the receiver and the transmitter each
compute and then compare the MIC. If they do not match, it is assumed that the
data has been tampered with and the packet is dropped.
By generating unique data encryption keys for every data packet and by creating
an integrity checking mechanism (MIC), with TKIP and AES it is more difficult to
decrypt data on a Wi-Fi network than WEP and difficult for an intruder to break
into the network.
The encryption mechanisms used for WPA(2) and WPA(2)-PSK are the same. The
only difference between the two is that WPA(2)-PSK uses a simple common
password, instead of user-specific credentials. The common-password approach
makes WPA(2)-PSK susceptible to brute-force password-guessing attacks but it’s
still an improvement over WEP as it employs a consistent, single, alphanumeric
password to derive a PMK which is used to generate unique temporal encryption
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
keys. This prevent all wireless devices sharing the same encryption keys. (a
weakness of WEP)
User Authentication
WPA and WPA2 apply IEEE 802.1x and Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) to
authenticate wireless clients using an external RADIUS database. WPA2 reduces
the number of key exchange messages from six to four (CCMP 4-way handshake)
and shortens the time required to connect to a network. Other WPA2
authentication features that are different from WPA include key caching and preauthentication. These two features are optional and may not be supported in all
wireless devices.
Key caching allows a wireless client to store the PMK it derived through a
successful authentication with an AP. The wireless client uses the PMK when it tries
to connect to the same AP and does not need to go with the authentication
process again.
Pre-authentication enables fast roaming by allowing the wireless client (already
connecting to an AP) to perform IEEE 802.1x authentication with another AP
before connecting to it.
Wireless Client WPA Supplicants
A wireless client supplicant is the software that runs on an operating system
instructing the wireless client how to use WPA. At the time of writing, the most
widely available supplicant is the WPA patch for Windows XP, Funk Software's
Odyssey client.
The Windows XP patch is a free download that adds WPA capability to Windows
XP's built-in "Zero Configuration" wireless client. However, you must run Windows
XP to use it.
WPA(2) with RADIUS Application Example
To set up WPA(2), you need the IP address of the RADIUS server, its port number
(default is 1812), and the RADIUS shared secret. A WPA(2) application example
with an external RADIUS server looks as follows. "A" is the RADIUS server. "DS" is
the distribution system.
416
1
The AP passes the wireless client's authentication request to the RADIUS server.
2
The RADIUS server then checks the user's identification against its database and
grants or denies network access accordingly.
3
A 256-bit Pairwise Master Key (PMK) is derived from the authentication process by
the RADIUS server and the client.
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
4
The RADIUS server distributes the PMK to the AP. The AP then sets up a key
hierarchy and management system, using the PMK to dynamically generate
unique data encryption keys. The keys are used to encrypt every data packet that
is wirelessly communicated between the AP and the wireless clients.
Figure 186 WPA(2) with RADIUS Application Example
WPA(2)-PSK Application Example
A WPA(2)-PSK application looks as follows.
1
First enter identical passwords into the AP and all wireless clients. The Pre-Shared
Key (PSK) must consist of between 8 and 63 ASCII characters or 64 hexadecimal
characters (including spaces and symbols).
2
The AP checks each wireless client's password and allows it to join the network
only if the password matches.
3
The AP and wireless clients generate a common PMK (Pairwise Master Key). The
key itself is not sent over the network, but is derived from the PSK and the SSID.
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
4
The AP and wireless clients use the TKIP or AES encryption process, the PMK and
information exchanged in a handshake to create temporal encryption keys. They
use these keys to encrypt data exchanged between them.
Figure 187 WPA(2)-PSK Authentication
Security Parameters Summary
Refer to this table to see what other security parameters you should configure for
each authentication method or key management protocol type. MAC address
filters are not dependent on how you configure these security features.
Table 132 Wireless Security Relational Matrix
AUTHENTICATION
METHOD/ KEY
MANAGEMENT
PROTOCOL
ENCRYPTIO ENTER
IEEE 802.1X
N METHOD MANUAL KEY
Open
None
No
Disable
Enable without Dynamic WEP
Key
Open
Shared
418
WEP
WEP
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP
Key
Yes
Disable
No
Enable with Dynamic WEP Key
Yes
Enable without Dynamic WEP
Key
Yes
Disable
WPA
TKIP/AES
No
Enable
WPA-PSK
TKIP/AES
Yes
Disable
WPA2
TKIP/AES
No
Enable
WPA2-PSK
TKIP/AES
Yes
Disable
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
Antenna Overview
An antenna couples RF signals onto air. A transmitter within a wireless device
sends an RF signal to the antenna, which propagates the signal through the air.
The antenna also operates in reverse by capturing RF signals from the air.
Positioning the antennas properly increases the range and coverage area of a
wireless LAN.
Antenna Characteristics
Frequency
An antenna in the frequency of 2.4GHz (IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.11g) or 5GHz
(IEEE 802.11a) is needed to communicate efficiently in a wireless LAN
Radiation Pattern
A radiation pattern is a diagram that allows you to visualize the shape of the
antenna’s coverage area.
Antenna Gain
Antenna gain, measured in dB (decibel), is the increase in coverage within the RF
beam width. Higher antenna gain improves the range of the signal for better
communications.
For an indoor site, each 1 dB increase in antenna gain results in a range increase
of approximately 2.5%. For an unobstructed outdoor site, each 1dB increase in
gain results in a range increase of approximately 5%. Actual results may vary
depending on the network environment.
Antenna gain is sometimes specified in dBi, which is how much the antenna
increases the signal power compared to using an isotropic antenna. An isotropic
antenna is a theoretical perfect antenna that sends out radio signals equally well
in all directions. dBi represents the true gain that the antenna provides.
Types of Antennas for WLAN
There are two types of antennas used for wireless LAN applications.
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Appendix D Wireless LANs
• Omni-directional antennas send the RF signal out in all directions on a horizontal
plane. The coverage area is torus-shaped (like a donut) which makes these
antennas ideal for a room environment. With a wide coverage area, it is possible
to make circular overlapping coverage areas with multiple access points.
• Directional antennas concentrate the RF signal in a beam, like a flashlight does
with the light from its bulb. The angle of the beam determines the width of the
coverage pattern. Angles typically range from 20 degrees (very directional) to
120 degrees (less directional). Directional antennas are ideal for hallways and
outdoor point-to-point applications.
Positioning Antennas
In general, antennas should be mounted as high as practically possible and free of
obstructions. In point-to–point application, position both antennas at the same
height and in a direct line of sight to each other to attain the best performance.
For omni-directional antennas mounted on a table, desk, and so on, point the
antenna up. For omni-directional antennas mounted on a wall or ceiling, point the
antenna down. For a single AP application, place omni-directional antennas as
close to the center of the coverage area as possible.
For directional antennas, point the antenna in the direction of the desired
coverage area.
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APPENDIX
E
Services
The following table lists some commonly-used services and their associated
protocols and port numbers.
• Name: This is a short, descriptive name for the service. You can use this one or
create a different one, if you like.
• Protocol: This is the type of IP protocol used by the service. If this is TCP/
UDP, then the service uses the same port number with TCP and UDP. If this is
USER-DEFINED, the Port(s) is the IP protocol number, not the port number.
• Port(s): This value depends on the Protocol.
• If the Protocol is TCP, UDP, or TCP/UDP, this is the IP port number.
• If the Protocol is USER, this is the IP protocol number.
• Description: This is a brief explanation of the applications that use this service
or the situations in which this service is used.
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Appendix E Services
Table 133 Examples of Services
422
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
AH
(IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
51
The IPSEC AH (Authentication Header)
tunneling protocol uses this service.
AIM
TCP
5190
AOL’s Internet Messenger service.
AUTH
TCP
113
Authentication protocol used by some
servers.
BGP
TCP
179
Border Gateway Protocol.
BOOTP_CLIENT
UDP
68
DHCP Client.
BOOTP_SERVER
UDP
67
DHCP Server.
CU-SEEME
TCP/UDP
7648
A popular videoconferencing solution
from White Pines Software.
TCP/UDP
24032
DNS
TCP/UDP
53
Domain Name Server, a service that
matches web names (for instance
www.zyxel.com) to IP numbers.
ESP
(IPSEC_TUNNEL)
User-Defined
50
The IPSEC ESP (Encapsulation
Security Protocol) tunneling protocol
uses this service.
FINGER
TCP
79
Finger is a UNIX or Internet related
command that can be used to find out
if a user is logged on.
FTP
TCP
20
TCP
21
File Transfer Protocol, a program to
enable fast transfer of files, including
large files that may not be possible by
e-mail.
H.323
TCP
1720
NetMeeting uses this protocol.
HTTP
TCP
80
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol - a client/
server protocol for the world wide
web.
HTTPS
TCP
443
HTTPS is a secured http session often
used in e-commerce.
ICMP
User-Defined
1
Internet Control Message Protocol is
often used for diagnostic purposes.
ICQ
UDP
4000
This is a popular Internet chat
program.
IGMP
(MULTICAST)
User-Defined
2
Internet Group Multicast Protocol is
used when sending packets to a
specific group of hosts.
IKE
UDP
500
The Internet Key Exchange algorithm
is used for key distribution and
management.
IMAP4
TCP
143
The Internet Message Access Protocol
is used for e-mail.
IMAP4S
TCP
993
This is a more secure version of IMAP4
that runs over SSL.
IRC
TCP/UDP
6667
This is another popular Internet chat
program.
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Appendix E Services
Table 133 Examples of Services (continued)
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
MSN Messenger
TCP
1863
Microsoft Networks’ messenger
service uses this protocol.
NetBIOS
TCP/UDP
137
TCP/UDP
138
The Network Basic Input/Output
System is used for communication
between computers in a LAN.
TCP/UDP
139
TCP/UDP
445
NEW-ICQ
TCP
5190
An Internet chat program.
NEWS
TCP
144
A protocol for news groups.
NFS
UDP
2049
Network File System - NFS is a client/
server distributed file service that
provides transparent file sharing for
network environments.
NNTP
TCP
119
Network News Transport Protocol is
the delivery mechanism for the
USENET newsgroup service.
PING
User-Defined
1
Packet INternet Groper is a protocol
that sends out ICMP echo requests to
test whether or not a remote host is
reachable.
POP3
TCP
110
Post Office Protocol version 3 lets a
client computer get e-mail from a
POP3 server through a temporary
connection (TCP/IP or other).
POP3S
TCP
995
This is a more secure version of POP3
that runs over SSL.
PPTP
TCP
1723
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
enables secure transfer of data over
public networks. This is the control
channel.
PPTP_TUNNEL
(GRE)
User-Defined
47
PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling
Protocol) enables secure transfer of
data over public networks. This is the
data channel.
RCMD
TCP
512
Remote Command Service.
REAL_AUDIO
TCP
7070
A streaming audio service that
enables real time sound over the web.
REXEC
TCP
514
Remote Execution Daemon.
RLOGIN
TCP
513
Remote Login.
ROADRUNNER
TCP/UDP
1026
This is an ISP that provides services
mainly for cable modems.
RTELNET
TCP
107
Remote Telnet.
RTSP
TCP/UDP
554
The Real Time Streaming (media
control) Protocol (RTSP) is a remote
control for multimedia on the
Internet.
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Appendix E Services
Table 133 Examples of Services (continued)
424
NAME
PROTOCOL
PORT(S)
DESCRIPTION
SFTP
TCP
115
The Simple File Transfer Protocol is an
old way of transferring files between
computers.
SMTP
TCP
25
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is the
message-exchange standard for the
Internet. SMTP enables you to move
messages from one e-mail server to
another.
SMTPS
TCP
465
This is a more secure version of SMTP
that runs over SSL.
SNMP
TCP/UDP
161
Simple Network Management
Program.
SNMP-TRAPS
TCP/UDP
162
Traps for use with the SNMP
(RFC:1215).
SQL-NET
TCP
1521
Structured Query Language is an
interface to access data on many
different types of database systems,
including mainframes, midrange
systems, UNIX systems and network
servers.
SSDP
UDP
1900
The Simple Service Discovery Protocol
supports Universal Plug-and-Play
(UPnP).
SSH
TCP/UDP
22
Secure Shell Remote Login Program.
STRM WORKS
UDP
1558
Stream Works Protocol.
SYSLOG
UDP
514
Syslog allows you to send system logs
to a UNIX server.
TACACS
UDP
49
Login Host Protocol used for (Terminal
Access Controller Access Control
System).
TELNET
TCP
23
Telnet is the login and terminal
emulation protocol common on the
Internet and in UNIX environments. It
operates over TCP/IP networks. Its
primary function is to allow users to
log into remote host systems.
TFTP
UDP
69
Trivial File Transfer Protocol is an
Internet file transfer protocol similar
to FTP, but uses the UDP (User
Datagram Protocol) rather than TCP
(Transmission Control Protocol).
VDOLIVE
TCP
7000
UDP
userdefined
A videoconferencing solution. The UDP
port number is specified in the
application.
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
APPENDIX
F
Legal Information
Copyright
Copyright © 2009 by ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in any part or as a whole,
transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, translated into any language, or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic,
optical, chemical, photocopying, manual, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of ZyXEL Communications Corporation.
Published by ZyXEL Communications Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
ZyXEL does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any
products, or software described herein. Neither does it convey any license under
its patent rights nor the patent rights of others. ZyXEL further reserves the right
to make changes in any products described herein without notice. This publication
is subject to change without notice.
Trademarks
ZyNOS (ZyXEL Network Operating System) is a registered trademark of ZyXEL
Communications, Inc. Other trademarks mentioned in this publication are used for
identification purposes only and may be properties of their respective owners.
Certifications
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Interference Statement
The device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the
following two conditions:
• This device may not cause harmful interference.
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
425
Appendix F Legal Information
• This device must accept any interference received, including interference that
may cause undesired operations.
This device has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B
digital device pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to
provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential
installation. This device generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy,
and if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause
harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee
that interference will not occur in a particular installation.
If this device does cause harmful interference to radio/television reception, which
can be determined by turning the device off and on, the user is encouraged to try
to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:
1
Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
2
Increase the separation between the equipment and the receiver.
3
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the
receiver is connected.
4
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
FCC Radiation Exposure Statement
• This transmitter must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any
other antenna or transmitter.
• IEEE 802.11b or 802.11g operation of this product in the U.S.A. is firmwarelimited to channels 1 through 11.
• To comply with FCC RF exposure compliance requirements, a separation
distance of at least 20 cm must be maintained between the antenna of this
device and all persons.
注意 !
依據
低功率電波輻射性電機管理辦法
第十二條 經型式認證合格之低功率射頻電機,非經許可,公司、商號或使用
者均不得擅自變更頻率、加大功率或變更原設計之特性及功能。
第十四條 低功率射頻電機之使用不得影響飛航安全及干擾合法通信;經發現
有干擾現象時,應立即停用,並改善至無干擾時方得繼續使用。
前項合法通信,指依電信規定作業之無線電信。低功率射頻電機須忍
受合法通信或工業、科學及醫療用電波輻射性電機設備之干擾。
426
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
Appendix F Legal Information
本機限在不干擾合法電臺與不受被干擾保障條件下於室內使用。
減少電磁波影響,請妥適使用。
Notices
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for
compliance could void the user's authority to operate the equipment.
This device has been designed for the WLAN 2.4 GHz network throughout the EC
region and Switzerland, with restrictions in France.
This Class B digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe B est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du
Canada.
Viewing Certifications
1
Go to http://www.zyxel.com.
2
Select your product on the ZyXEL home page to go to that product's page.
3
Select the certification you wish to view from this page.
ZyXEL Limited Warranty
ZyXEL warrants to the original end user (purchaser) that this product is free from
any defects in materials or workmanship for a period of up to two years from the
date of purchase. During the warranty period, and upon proof of purchase, should
the product have indications of failure due to faulty workmanship and/or
materials, ZyXEL will, at its discretion, repair or replace the defective products or
components without charge for either parts or labor, and to whatever extent it
shall deem necessary to restore the product or components to proper operating
condition. Any replacement will consist of a new or re-manufactured functionally
equivalent product of equal or higher value, and will be solely at the discretion of
ZyXEL. This warranty shall not apply if the product has been modified, misused,
tampered with, damaged by an act of God, or subjected to abnormal working
conditions.
Note
Repair or replacement, as provided under this warranty, is the exclusive remedy of
the purchaser. This warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, express or implied,
including any implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
427
Appendix F Legal Information
purpose. ZyXEL shall in no event be held liable for indirect or consequential
damages of any kind to the purchaser.
To obtain the services of this warranty, contact ZyXEL's Service Center for your
Return Material Authorization number (RMA). Products must be returned Postage
Prepaid. It is recommended that the unit be insured when shipped. Any returned
products without proof of purchase or those with an out-dated warranty will be
repaired or replaced (at the discretion of ZyXEL) and the customer will be billed
for parts and labor. All repaired or replaced products will be shipped by ZyXEL to
the corresponding return address, Postage Paid. This warranty gives you specific
legal rights, and you may also have other rights that vary from country to country.
Registration
Register your product online to receive e-mail notices of firmware upgrades and
information at www.zyxel.com for global products, or at www.us.zyxel.com for
North American products.
428
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
Index
Index
Numbers
802.1Q/1P 243
activation 249
example 245
group settings 250
management VLAN 249
port settings 252
priority 243, 252
PVC 244
PVID 252
tagging frames 244, 251
algorithm, certificates 228
MD5 fingerprint 228
SHA1 fingerprint 228
alternative subnet mask notation 398
antenna
directional 420
gain 419
omni-directional 420
anti-probing 182
Any IP 115, 125
ARP 126
example 125
status 44
AP (access point) 407
A
applications, NAT 176
ARP 126
activation
802.1Q/1P 249
Any IP 115
classifiers 260
content filtering 208
dynamic DNS 276
DYNDNS wildcard 276
MAC address filter 140
NAT 165
port forwarding 169
protocol filters 213
QoS 259
SIP ALG 173
SSID 141
static route 237, 240
UPnP 291
wireless LAN 132
scheduling 147
WPS 143
address mapping 169
rules 171
types 171, 172, 176
Address Resolution Protocol, see ARP
asymmetrical routes 188
ATM
MBS
PCR
QoS
SCR
93, 100
93, 100
93, 100, 107
93, 100
authentication 150, 151
RADIUS server 152
WPA 137
B
backup
configuration 328, 329, 333
backup type 102
Basic Service Set, See BSS 405
Basic Service Set, see BSS
broadcast 88
BSS 153, 405
example 154
administrator password 305
alerts 309
firewalls 193
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
429
Index
logs 311
packet filtering 214
port forwarding 167
reset 335
restoring 325, 334
WAN 89
wireless LAN 131
C
CA 223, 413
algorithm 228
trusted 224, 227
CBR 93, 100, 107
Certificate Authority
See CA.
certificates 223, 229
advantages 229
algorithm 228
CA 223
trusted 224, 227
example 223
exporting 228
formats 224
PEM 228
Certification Authority, see CA
certifications 425
notices 427
viewing 427
channel 407
interference 407
channel, wireless LAN 149
Class of Service, see CoS
classifiers 260
802.1Q tags 263
activation 260
configuration 261, 268
creation 260
DSCP 262, 264
FTP 264
priority 262
remote node 264
routing policy 262
SIP 264
430
connection
nailed-up 98, 105
on demand 98
content filtering 205
activation 208
example 206
keywords 208
schedules 209
trusted IP addresses 210
URL 205
copyright 425
CoS 255
DiffServ 271
creation
classifiers 260
CTS (Clear to Send) 408
CTS threshold 138, 149
customized services 192, 193, 194
D
data fragment threshold 138, 150
default server, NAT 166, 168
Denials of Service, see DoS
DHCP 112, 117, 122, 303
Differentiated Services, see DiffServ
DiffServ 271
CLI 24
DiffServ Code Point, see DSCP
client list 118
disclaimer 425
Command Line Interface, see CLI
DNS 91, 112, 117, 122, 286
compatibility, WDS 145
Domain Name System, see DNS
configuration 333
backup 328, 329, 333
classifiers 261, 268
DHCP 117
file 324
firewalls 187, 191, 198
IP alias 120
DoS 182
three-way handshake 197
thresholds 182, 197, 198, 199
DSCP 262, 264, 271
dynamic DNS 275
activation 276
wildcard 275
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
Index
activation 276
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, see DHCP
dynamic WEP key exchange 414
DYNDNS wildcard 275
activation 276
E
EAP Authentication 412
e-mail logs 312
encapsulation 87, 90, 97
ENET ENCAP 103
PPPoA 104
PPPoE 103
RFC 1483 104
encryption 132, 152, 415
WEP 134
key 134
WPA 136
authentication 137
reauthentication 135, 137
WPA-PSK 135
pre-shared key 135
ENET ENCAP 90, 97, 103
ESS 406
exporting
trusted CA 228
Extended Service Set, See ESS 406
F
FCC interference statement 425
filters
content 205
activation 208
example 206
keywords 208
schedules 209
trusted IP addresses 210
URL 205
MAC address 139, 151
activation 140
packets 211
configuration 214
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
firewalls 219
generic filters 216
logs 215, 218
NAT 219
protocol filters 213
structure 211
types 212, 219
firewalls 181
actions 192
address types 192
alerts 193
anti-probing 182
asymmetrical routes 188
configuration 187, 191, 198
customized services 192, 193, 194
default action 188
DoS 182
thresholds 182, 197, 198, 199
example 182
half-open sessions 199
ICMP 182
logs 192
maximum incomplete 199
P2P 198
packet direction 188
packet filtering 219
rules 186
schedules 192
security 200
three-way handshake 197
triangle route 188, 201, 202
solutions 203
firmware 324, 331
upgrading 326
version 38
forwarding ports 164, 166
activation 169
configuration 167
example 167
rules 169
fragmentation threshold 138, 150, 409
FTP 24, 285
backing up configuration 328
limitations 325
QoS 264
restoring configuration 325, 326
upgrading firmware 326, 327
431
Index
G
L
generic filters 216, 219
length 218
logs 218
mask 218
offset 218
LAN 111
Any IP 115, 125
example 125
client list 118
DHCP 112, 117, 122
DNS 112, 117, 122
IGMP 112, 125
IP address 112, 113, 123
IP alias 119
configuration 120
MAC address 119, 238
multicast 112, 115, 124
NetBIOS 115
packet filter 115
RIP 112, 115, 120, 124
status 39
subnet mask 112, 113, 123
H
half-open sessions 199
hidden node 407
I
IANA 403
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
see IANA
LEDs 26
ICMP 182, 287
limitations
FTP 325
wireless LAN 153
WPS 161
IEEE 802.11g 409
Local Area Network, see LAN
IGA 174
login 31
passwords 32
IBSS 405
IGMP 88, 112, 115, 125
ILA 174
importing
trusted CA 225
Independent Basic Service Set
See IBSS 405
initialization vector (IV) 415
Inside Global Address, see IGA
Inside Local Address, see ILA
Internet Control Message Protocol, see ICMP
logs 309
alerts 309
e-mail 312
error messages 314
example 314
firewalls 192
generic filters 218
protocol filters 215
schedules 313
settings 311
Internet Group Multicast Protocol, see IGMP
IP address 88, 91, 97, 105, 112, 123
ARP 126
default server 166, 168
private 123
IP alias 119
configuration 120
NAT applications 176
IP precedence 271
M
MAC address 119, 140, 238
filter 130, 132, 139, 151
MAC address filter
activation 140
management VLAN 249
mapping address 169
432
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
Index
rules 171
types 171, 172, 176
activation 173
SUA 164, 165
Maximum Burst Size, see MBS
NetBIOS 115
maximum incomplete 199
Maximum Transmission Unit, see MTU
Network Address Translation
see NAT
MBS 93, 100, 107
Network Address Translation, see NAT
MBSSID 154
Network Basic Input/Output System
MD5 fingerprint 228
metric 106
monitor, QoS 267, 269
P
MTU 94, 100
multicast 88, 93, 99, 112, 115, 124
IGMPInternet Group Multicast Protocol, see
IGMP
Multiple BSS, see MBSSID
multiplexing 91, 97, 104
LLC-based 105
VC-based 104
N
nailed-up connection 91, 98, 105
NAT 98, 163, 164, 173, 174, 403
activation 165
address mapping 169
rules 171
types 171, 172, 176
applications 176
IP alias 176
default server IP address 166, 168
example 175
global 174
IGA 174
ILA 174
inside 174
local 174
outside 174
P2P 165
packet filtering 219
port forwarding 164, 166
activation 169
configuration 167
example 167
rules 169
remote management 281
SIP ALG 173
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
P2P 165, 198
packet direction 188
packet filter
LAN 115
structure 211
WAN 94, 100
packet filtering 211
configuration 214
firewalls 219
generic filters 216
NAT 219
protocol filters 213
types 212, 219
packet filters
logs 215, 218
packet statistics 45
Pairwise Master Key (PMK) 415, 417
passthrough, PPPoE 94
passwords 32
administrator 305
PBC 156
PCR 93, 100, 107
Peak Cell Rate, see PCR
PEM 228
PIN, WPS 143, 145, 156
example 158
port forwarding 164, 166
activation 169
configuration 167
example 167
rules 169
PPPoA 90, 97, 104
PPPoE 90, 97, 103
passthrough 94
preamble 138, 149
433
Index
preamble mode 409
messages 411
shared secret key 412
pre-shared key 135
private IP address 123
RADIUS server 152
probing, firewalls 182
reauthentication, WPA 135, 137
product registration 428
registration
product 428
protocol filters 213, 219
activation 213
logs 215
related documentation 3
PVC 244
remote management 279
DNS 286
FTP 285
ICMP 287
limitations 280
NAT 281
Telnet 284
WWW 283
PVID 252
remote node 264
PSK 415
public-private key pairs 229
push button 27, 145
Push Button Configuration, see PBC
push button, WPS 156
reset 27, 335
restart 336
Q
QoS 253
802.1Q tags 263, 270
activation 259
classifiers 260
activation 260
configuration 261, 268
creation 260
priority 262
CoS 255
DiffServ 271
DSCP 262, 264, 271
example 255
FTP 264
IP precedence 271
monitor 267, 269
priority queue 272
remote node 264
routing policy 262
SIP 264
Quality of Service, see QoS
Queue Setup 267
R
RADIUS 411
message types 411
434
restoring configuration 325, 334
restrictions
FTP 325
RFC 1483 90, 97, 104
RIP 93, 99, 112, 115, 120, 124
Routing Information Protocol, see RIP
routing policy 262
RTS (Request To Send) 408
threshold 407, 408
RTS threshold 138, 149
rules, port forwarding 169
S
safety warnings 8
schedules
content filtering 209
firewalls 192
logs 313
wireless LAN 147
SCR 93, 100, 107
security
network 200
wireless LAN 132, 150
Service Set IDentifier, see SSID
Session Initiation Protocol, see SIP
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
Index
setup 333
classifiers 261, 268
DHCP 117
firewalls 187, 191, 198
IP alias 120
logs 311
packet filtering 214
port forwarding 167
WAN 89
wireless LAN 131
SHA1 fingerprint 228
shaping traffic 106, 107
Single User Account, see SUA
SIP ALG 173, 264
activation 173
SSID 130, 132, 142, 151
activation 141
MBSSID 154
static route 239
activation 237, 240
example 239
Statistics 339
status 34, 37
Any IP 44
firmware version 38
LAN 39
packet statistics 45
WAN 39
wireless LAN 40
WLAN 43
WPS 143
SUA 164, 165
subnet 395
subnet mask 112, 123, 396
subnetting 398
Sustain Cell Rate, see SCR
syntax conventions 6
system 304
backing up configuration 329
backup configuration 328
firmware 324, 331
upgrading 326
version 38
LED 26
name 305
passwords 32
administrator 305
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
reset 27
restoring configuration 325
status 34, 37
LAN 39
WAN 39
wireless LAN 40
time 306
T
tagging frames 244, 251
Telnet 284
TFTP 329
backing up configuration 329
upgrading firmware 327
three-way handshake 197
thresholds
data fragment 138, 150
DoS 182, 197, 198, 199
P2P 198
RTS/CTS 138, 149
time 306
TR-069 24
trademarks 425
traffic priority 243, 252
traffic redirect 102, 109
traffic shaping 106
example 107
triangle route 188, 201, 202
solutions 203
trusted CA 224, 227
algorithm 228
exporting 228
importing 225
MD5 fingerprint 228
PEM 228
SHA1 fingerprint 228
U
UBR 93, 100, 108
unicast 88
Universal Plug and Play, see UPnP
upgrading firmware 326, 331
435
Index
UPnP 289
activation 291
cautions 290
example 292
installation 292
NAT traversal 289
URL 205
RIP 93, 99
setup 89
status 39
traffic shaping 106
example 107
VCI 91, 97, 105
VPI 91, 97, 105
warranty 427
note 427
V
VBR 108
VBR-nRT 93, 100, 108
VBR-RT 93, 100, 108
VCI 91, 97, 105
web configurator 24, 31
login 31
passwords 32
Virtual Channel Identifier, see VCI
WEP 134, 152
key 134
Virtual Local Area Network, see VLAN
Wide Area Network, see WAN
Virtual Path Identifier, see VPI
Wi-Fi Protected Access 414
VLAN 243
802.1P priority 243, 252
activation 249
example 245
group settings 250
management group 249
port settings 252
PVC 244
PVID 252
tagging frames 244, 251
WiFi Protected Setup, see WPS
VPI 91, 97, 105
W
WAN 87
ATM QoS 93, 100, 107
DNS 91
encapsulation 87, 90, 97
IGMP 88
IP address 88, 91, 97, 105
mode 90, 97
modulation 90
MTU 94, 100
multicast 88, 93, 99
multiplexing 91, 97, 104
nailed-up connection 91, 98, 105
NAT 98
packet filter 94, 100
436
WDS 145, 155
compatibility 145
example 155
wireless client WPA supplicants 416
Wireless Distribution System, see WDS
wireless LAN 129, 148
activation 132
authentication 150, 151
BSS 153
example 154
channel 149
configuration 131
encryption 132, 152
example 148
fragmentation threshold 138, 150
limitations 153
MAC address filter 130, 132, 139, 140, 151
MBSSID 154
preamble 138, 149
RADIUS server 152
RTS/CTS threshold 138, 149
scheduling 147
security 150
SSID 130, 132, 142, 151
activation 141
status 40
WDS 145, 155
compatibility 145
example 155
WEP 134, 152
key 134
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
Index
WPA 136, 152
authentication 137
reauthentication 135, 137
WPA-PSK 135, 152
pre-shared key 135
WPS 143, 155, 158
activation 143
adding stations 145
example 160
limitations 161
PIN 143, 145, 156
push button 27, 145, 156
status 143
Z
zero configuration Internet access 108
wireless security 410
Wireless tutorial 49
WLAN
interference 407
security parameters 418
WPA 136, 152, 414
authentication 137
key caching 416
pre-authentication 416
reauthentication 135, 137
user authentication 416
vs WPA-PSK 415
wireless client supplicant 416
with RADIUS application example 416
WPA2 414
user authentication 416
vs WPA2-PSK 415
wireless client supplicant 416
with RADIUS application example 416
WPA2-Pre-Shared Key 414
WPA2-PSK 414, 415
application example 417
WPA-PSK 135, 152, 415
application example 417
pre-shared key 135
WPS 143, 155, 158
activation 143
adding stations 145
example 160
limitations 161
PIN 143, 145, 156
example 158
push button 27, 145, 156
status 143
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide
437
Index
438
P-660HW-Tx v3 User’s Guide