Denso Power Net Terminal BHT-103 Specifications

Copyright © DENSO WAVE INCORPORATED, 2001
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means
without permission in writing from the publisher.
Specifications are subject to change without prior notice.
All products and company names mentioned in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
BHT is a trademark of DENSO CORPORATION.
Preface
This manual describes the syntax and development procedure of BHT-BASIC 3.5 which is a
programming language for developing application programs of the BHT-100Q/100B.
It is intended for programmers who already have some experience in BASIC programming.
For the basic description about the BASIC language, refer to documentations concerning
Microsoft BASIC® or QuickBASIC®. For the details about Windows™, refer to the Microsoft
Windows documentations.
i
How this book is organized
This manual is made up of 18 chapters and appendices.
Chapter 1. Software Overview for the BHT
Surveys the software structure of the BHT and introduces the programs integrated in the ROM
and the language features of BHT-BASIC.
Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
Describes hardware and software required for developing application programs and the developing procedure.
Chapter 3. Program Structure
Summarizes the basic structure of programs and programming techniques, e.g., program
chaining and included files.
Chapter 4. Basic Program Elements
Describes the format of a program line, usable characters, and labels.
Chapter 5. Data Types
Covers data which the programs can handle, by classifying them into data types--constants
and variables.
Chapter 6. Expressions and Operators
Surveys the expressions and operators to be used for calculation and for handling concatenated character strings. The operators connect, manipulate, and compare the expressions.
Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
Defines I/O facilities and describes output to the LCD, input from the keyboard, and control for
the timer, beeper, and other I/Os by the statements and functions.
Chapter 8. Files
Describes data files and device files.
Chapter 9. Event Polling and Error/Event Trapping
Describes the event polling and two types of traps: error traps and event (of keystroke) traps
supported by BHT-BASIC.
Chapter 10. Sleep Function
Describes the sleep function.
Chapter 11. Resume Function
Describes the resume function.
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Chapter 12. Power-related Functions
Describes low battery warning, the prohibited simultaneous operation of the beeper/illumination LED, the wakeup, and remote wakeup.
Chapter 13. Backlight Function
Describes the backlight function
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Describes the statements available in BHT-BASIC, including the error codes and messages.
Chapter 15. Function Reference
Describes the functions available in BHT-BASIC, including the error codes and messages.
Chapter 16. Extended Functions
Describes the extended functions available in BHT-BASIC, including the error codes and messages.
Chapter 17. Spread Spectrum Communication
(For models equipped with a spread spectrum wireless block)
Describes the spread-spectrum communication system and wireless communications programming.
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
Surveys the socket application program interface (API) and FTP client. This chapter also
describes the two function libraries--SOCKET.FN3 and FTP.FN3, which provide BHT-BASIC
programs with access to a subset of the TCP/IP family of protocols.
Appendix A: Error Codes and Error Messages
B: Reserved Words
C: Character Sets
D: I/O Ports
E: Key Number Assignment on the Keyboard
F: Memory Area
G: Handling Space Characters in Downloading
H: Programming Notes
I: Program Samples
J: Quick Reference for Statements and Functions
K: Unsupported Statements and Functions
iii
■
Notational Conventions Used in This Book
Several notational conventions are used in this book for the sake of clarity.
1. Reserved words are printed in UPPERCASE. These are BHT-BASIC’s keywords. You
should not use them as label names or variable names.
Example:
CHAIN, GOSUB, and ABS
2. Parameters or arguments which should be specified in the statements or functions are
expressed in italics.
Example:
characode and onduration
3. Items enclosed in square brackets [ ] are optional, which can be omitted.
Example:
[commonvariable]
4. Items enclosed in braces { } and separated by vertical bars | represent alternative items.
You should choose either item.
Example:
CURSOR {ON|OFF}
5. An ellipsis . . . indicates that you can code the previous item described in one line two or
more times in succession.
Example:
READ variable[,variable...]
6. Hexadecimal values are followed by h. In many cases, hexadecimal values are
enclosed with parentheses and preceded by decimal values.
Example:
65 (41h) and 255 (FFh)
In program description, hexadecimal values are preceded by &H.
Example:
&H41 and &HFF
7. Programs make no distinction between uppercase and lowercase letters, except for
character string data.
The uppercase-lowercase distinction used in this manual is intended to increase the
legibility of the statements. For example, reserved words are expressed in uppercase;
label names and variable names in lowercase. In practical programming, it is not necessary to observe the distinction rules used in this manual.
The examples below are regarded as the same.
Example 1: &HFFFF, &hffff, and &hFFFF
Example 2: A AND B, a and b, and a AND b
Example 3: PRINT STR$(12), Print Str$(12), and print str$(12)
iv
■
Icons Used in This Book
Statements and functions unique to BHT-BASIC.
■
Syntax for the Statement Reference and Function Reference
The syntax in programming is expressed as shown in the example below.
For the INPUT statement
Syntax:
INPUT [;]["prompt"{,|;}]variable
According to the above syntax, all of the following samples are correct:
INPUT;keydata
INPUT keydata
INPUT "input =",keydata
INPUT;"input =";keydata
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Technical Terms Used in This Manual
Compiler and Interpreter
The BHT-BASIC Compiler, which is a development tool, is expressed as Compiler.
The BHT-BASIC Interpreter, which runs in the BHT, is expressed as Interpreter.
Source Program and Object Program (User Program)
Generally, a source program is translated into an object program by a compiler. This
manual calls an object program a user program.
BHT and CU
This manual expresses all BHT series as "BHT." If it is necessary to make a clear distinction between the BHT supporting 2D codes and the BHT exclusively designed for
bar codes, this manual expresses the former as "BHT-100Q" and the latter as "BHT100B."
BHT Series
Readable codes
Models
2D codes
Bar codes
BHT-100Q
BHT-103Q
BHT-103QF
√
√
√
√
BHT-100B
BHT-102B
BHT-102BF
-
√
√
The BHT-103QF and BHT-102BF are equipped with a spread spectrum communications device.
The CU-7000 series is expressed as "CU."
v
■
Bar Code and 2D Code
The BHT-100B is capable of reading bar codes; the BHT-100Q is capable of reading 2D
codes and bar codes. In descriptions common to bar codes and 2D codes, both of
those codes are expressed as "bar code" in this manual.
■
■
Abbreviations
ANK
AlphaNumerics and Katakana
BASIC
Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
BCC
Block Check Character
BHT
Bar code Handy Terminal
CTS (CS)
Clear To Send (RS-232C signal control line)
CU
Communications Unit
I/F
Interface
I/O
Input/Output
LCD
Liquid Crystal Display
LED
Light-Emitting Diode
MOD
Modulo
MS-DOS
Microsoft-Disk Operating System
RAM
Random Access Memory
ROM
Read Only Memory
RTS (RS)
Request To Send (RS-232C signal control line)
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
UDP
User Datagram Protocol
VRAM
Video RAM
Related Publications
BHT-100 Series User’s Manuals
BHT-100 Series User’s Manual (LAN support version)
Transfer Utility Guide
Ir-Transfer Utility C Guide
Ir-Transfer Utility E Guide
■
Screen Indication
The lettering in the screens of the BHT and host computer in this manual is a little different from that in the actual screens. File names used are only for description purpose,
so they will not appear if you have not downloaded files having those names to the BHT.
vi
Chapter 1
Software Overview for the BHT
CONTENTS
1.1
Software Overview........................................................................................... 2
1.1.1 Software Structure of the BHT ............................................................. 2
1.1.2 Overview of BHT-BASIC ...................................................................... 4
1.2
BHT-BASIC...................................................................................................... 5
1.2.1 Features ...............................................................................................
1.2.2 What’s New in BHT-BASIC 3.5 Upgraded from BHT-BASIC 3.0? .......
[ 1 ] Compiler ......................................................................................
[ 2 ] Statements ..................................................................................
1.3
5
6
6
6
Program Development and Execution ............................................................. 8
1.3.1 Compiler ............................................................................................... 8
1.3.2 Interpreter............................................................................................. 8
1
1.1 Software Overview
1.1.1 Software Structure of the BHT
The structure of software for the BHT is shown below.
Flash memory
User data
User programs
Application
programs
Extension libraries
and extended functions
System Mode
System
programs
BHT-BASIC Interpreter
Font files
Drivers
Hardware
The BHT has a flash ROM and RAM. All of the system programs, user programs, extension
libraries, and extended functions are stored in the flash ROM. The RAM is used to run those
programs efficiently.
2
Chapter 1. Software Overview for the BHT
System Programs
Drivers
A set of programs which is called by the BHT-BASIC Interpreter or System Mode and
directly controls the hardware. The drivers include the Decoder Software used for bar
code reading.
BHT-BASIC Interpreter
Interprets and executes user programs.
System Mode
Sets up the execution environment for user programs.
Extension Library
A set of programs which extends the function of the BHT-BASIC to enable the following:
• Transmitting/receiving files by using the X-MODEM and Y-MODEM protocols
These extension programs are stored in files having an FN3 extension, in each file per
function. You should download a xxxx.FN3 file containing the necessary function from
the BHT-BASIC Extension Library (sold separately) to the user area.
Extended Functions
A set of functions integrated in system programs, which extends the function of the
BHT-BASIC. No downloading is required for those functions since they are integrated
in System. For details, refer to Chapter 16, "Extended Functions."
NOTE
Use extension libraries suited for your BHT.
Application Programs
User Programs
User-written object programs which are ready to be executed.
3
1.1.2 Overview of BHT-BASIC
With BHT-BASIC, you can customize application programs for meeting your specific needs as
given below.
• Retrieving products names, price information, etc. in a master file.
• Making a checking procedure more reliable with check digits in bar code reading.
• Improving the checking procedure by checking the number of digits entered from the keyboard.
• Calculating (e.g., subtotals and totals).
• Supporting file transmission protocols (or transmission procedures) suitable for host
computers and connected modems.
• Downloading master files.
• Supporting a program capable of transferring control to several job programs depending
upon conditions.
4
Chapter 1. Software Overview for the BHT
1.2 BHT-BASIC
1.2.1 Features
BHT-BASIC is designed as an optimal programming language in making application programs
for the bar code handy terminal BHT, and to enable efficient program development, with the following features:
■
Syntax Similar to Microsoft™ BASIC
BHT-BASIC uses the BASIC language which is the most widely used one among the high-level
languages. The syntax of BHT-BASIC is as close as possible to that used in Microsoft BASIC
(MS-BASIC).
■
No Line Numbers Required
BHT-BASIC requires no line number notation. You can write a branch statement with a label
instead of a line number so that it is possible to use cut and paste functions with an editor in
developing source programs, thus facilitating the use of program modules for development of
other programs.
■
Program Development in Windows95/98 or WindowsNT/Windows2000
You may develop programs with BHT-BASIC on those computers operating on Windows95/98
or WindowsNT4.0/Windows2000.
■
Advantages of the Dedicated Compiler
The dedicated compiler outputs debugging information including cross reference lists of variables and labels, enabling the efficient debugging in program development.
The Compiler assigns variables to fixed addresses so that it is not necessary for the Interpreter
to allocate or release memories when executing user programs, making the execution time
shorter.
■
Program Compression by the Dedicated Compiler
The Compiler compresses a source program into the intermediate language to produce an
object program (a user program).
(When a compiled user program is downloaded to the BHT, the BHT packs a pair of ASCII
bytes into a single byte by converting each byte into a 4-bit hexadecimal number for more efficient use of the memory area in the BHT.)
5
1.2.2 What’s New in BHT-BASIC 3.5 Upgraded from
BHT-BASIC 3.0?
Based on BHT-BASIC 3.0, BHT-BASIC 3.5 newly supports the following functions:
[ 1 ] Compiler
■
Object linkage editor, Linker
While BHT-BASIC 3.0 Compiler compiles a single source program into a single user program,
BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler can convert more than one source program into individual object
programs (intermediate code files for a user program) and then combine them together
through Linker to build a user program. With Linker, you may use existing object programs for
development of user programs.
■
Libraries
The Librarian allows you to build libraries out of object files resulting from compiling, which
makes it easier to use existing application programs. This facilitates the use of existing application programs for development of other programs.
■
Projects
BHT-BASIC 3.5 has added a concept of Project that makes it easier to use multiple source programs for producing a user program.
[ 2 ] Statements
■
Added statements
Based on BHT-BASIC 3.0, BHT-BASIC 3.5 newly supports several statements for making distinction between global variables and local variables, and for defining functions and constants.
Newly added statements
CALL
Calls a SUB function in addition to an FN3 function.
CONST
Defines symbolic constants to be replaced with labels.
DECLARE
Declares user-defined function FUNCTION or SUB externally defined.
FUNCTION…END FUNCTION
Names and defines user-defined function FUNCTION.
GLOBAL
Declares one or more work variables or register variables
defined in a file, as global variables.
PRIVATE
Declares one or more work variables or register variables
defined in a file, as local variables.
SUB...END SUB
Names and defines user-defined function SUB.
BHT-BASIC 3.5 provides the constants definition file "BHTDEF.INC." Reading the "BHTDEF.INC" as an included file allows you to use constant names defined in that file.
Example ’$INCLUDE:’BHTDEF.INC’
OUT .pnLEDCtrl, .pvLEDGrn
6
'Turn LED (green) ON
Chapter 1. Software Overview for the BHT
■
Defining and declaring user-defined functions more easily
BHT-BASIC 3.5 has added FUNCTION…END FUNCTION, SUB...END SUB, and DECLARE
statements. With the former two, you may easily define your own functions—FUNCTION and
SUB. With the latter one, you may declare FUNCTION and SUB functions which are defined
in any other source files.
■
Scoping variables to be local or global
(with PRIVATE or GLOBAL statement)
In BHT-BASIC 3.5, work variables and register variables may have "scope" to restrict the
access to them.
With the PRIVATE statement, you may declare a variable to be local. A local variable can only
be accessed by any routine in a file where it is defined. With the GLOBAL statement, you may
declare a variable to be global. A global variable can be accessed by any routine in a program.
However, a variable used inside the FUNCTION or SUB function without declaration is available only within a function where it is defined.
Since local variables are restricted in access, you can define them with a same name in different files.
For details about the scope of variables, refer to Chapter 5, Section 5.5.
■
Defining constants
BHT-BASIC 3.5 can define constants.
7
1.3 Program Development and Execution
BHT-BASIC consists of Compiler and Interpreter.
1.3.1 Compiler
BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler consists of the following Compiler, Linker and Librarian:
■
Compiler
Compiler, which is one of the development tools, compiles source programs written on a PC
into the resulting "object files."
It checks syntax of source programs during compilation and makes an error file if any syntax
error is found.
■
Linker
Linker, which is one of the development tools, combines object files (translated by Compiler)
together to build a "user program" in the intermediate language.
If linking does not end normally, Linker makes an error file.
■
Librarian
Librarian, which is one of the development tools, builds "library files" out of object files translated by Compiler.
If Librarian does not end normally, it makes an error file.
1.3.2 Interpreter
Interpreter interprets and executes a user program downloaded to the BHT, statement by statement.
8
Chapter 2
Development Environment and Procedures
CONTENTS
2.1
Overview of Development Environment ........................................................ 11
2.1.1 Required Hardware ............................................................................ 11
2.1.2 Required Software.............................................................................. 12
2.2
Overview of Developing Procedures ............................................................. 13
2.2.1 Developing Procedures ...................................................................... 13
2.2.2 Functions of BHT-BASIC 3.5.............................................................. 14
2.3
Writing a Source Program ............................................................................. 15
2.3.1 Writing a Source Program by an Editor.............................................. 15
2.3.2 Rules for Writing a Source Program................................................... 15
2.4
Producing a User Program ............................................................................ 17
2.4.1 Starting the BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler ............................................... 17
2.4.2 Outline of User Program or Library Production Procedure................. 18
[ 1 ] Building a user program out of a single source program file ..... 18
[ 2 ] Building a library out of a single source file, or building a user
program or library out of multiple source files ........................... 18
2.4.3 Designating a Single Source File or a Project File ............................. 19
2.4.3.1 Designating a single source file................................................. 19
[ 1 ] Select a source file .................................................................... 19
2.4.3.2 Designating a project file ........................................................... 20
[ 1 ] Create a new project ................................................................. 20
[ 2 ] Select an existing project file..................................................... 21
[ 3 ] Add files to a project file ............................................................ 22
[ 4 ] Select files in the active project ................................................. 23
2.4.4 Compiling and Building....................................................................... 25
[ 1 ] Specifying the compiling and linking options............................. 25
[ 2 ] Compiling .................................................................................. 26
[ 3 ] Building ..................................................................................... 26
2.4.5 Setting the Editor for Displaying Files ................................................ 27
2.4.6 Error Messages and Their Indication onto the Main Window............. 28
[ 1 ] Selecting either an editor or main window as an error message
output device ............................................................................. 28
[ 2 ] How error messages are displayed on the editor or main
window ...................................................................................... 29
9
2.4.7 Options ............................................................................................... 30
[ 1 ] Compiling options...................................................................... 30
[ 2 ] Linking options .......................................................................... 31
[ 3 ] Outputting debug information files............................................. 31
[ 4 ] Outputting list files ..................................................................... 32
[ 5 ] Outputting a mapfile .................................................................. 35
[ 6 ] Calculating the address for a statement causing a run-time
error........................................................................................... 36
2.4.8 Starting the BHT-BASIC Compiler from the Command Line.............. 37
[ 1 ] Syntax ....................................................................................... 37
[ 2 ] Options ...................................................................................... 38
[ 3 ] Error Level Indication by ERRORLEVEL .................................. 40
2.4.9 Output from the BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler......................................... 41
2.4.10 Structure of User Programs and Libraries.......................................... 43
2.5
Downloading .................................................................................................. 44
2.5.1 Overview of Transfer Utility/Ir-Transfer Utility C/Ir-Transfer Utility E .. 44
2.5.2 Setting up the BHT ............................................................................. 44
2.6
Executing a User Program............................................................................. 45
2.6.1 Starting ............................................................................................... 45
2.6.2 Execution............................................................................................ 45
2.6.3 Termination ........................................................................................ 45
10
Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
2.1 Overview of Development Environment
The following hardware and software are required for developing user programs:
2.1.1 Required Hardware
■
Personal computer
Use a computer operating with Windows95/98 or WindowsNT4.0/Windows2000.
■
BHT (Bar code handy terminal)
Any of the following BHTs is required:
• BHT-100Q
• BHT-100B
■
CU (Optical communications unit)
For IrDA communication, the following CU is required. Note that no CU is required if the BHT
is directly connected with the host computer via the direct-connect interface.
• CU-7000
■
(Option. Required if the host computer has no IR interface port.)
RS-232C interface cable
This cable connects the CU with the personal computer.
NOTE
The RS-232C interface cable should have the connector and pin assignment required
by the personal computer.
(For information about the connector configuration and pin assignments of the CU,
refer to the BHT User’s Manual.)
11
2.1.2 Required Software
• OS
Windows95/98 or WindowsNT4.0/Windows2000
• Editor
• BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler
• Transfer Utility (option)
BHTC35W.EXE
(Integrated environment manager)
BHT35CPL.DLL
(Compiler)
BHT35LNK.DLL
(Linker)
BHT35LIB.DLL
(Librarian)
BHTC35W.MSG
(Error message file)
TU3.EXE
(MS-DOS–based)
TU3W.EXE
(16-bit Windows-based)
TU3W32.EXE
(Windows-based)
• Ir-Transfer Utility C (option) IT3C.EXE
(MS-DOS–based)
IT3CW32.EXE
(Windows-based)
• Ir-Transfer Utility E (option) IT3EW32.EXE
(Windows-based)
Transfer Utility, Ir-Transfer Utility C, or Ir-Transfer Utility E is an essential tool for downloading
user programs to the BHT.
Each of the BHT-BASIC Compiler, Transfer Utility, Ir-Transfer Utility C, Ir-Transfer Utility E is
optionally provided in a CD or floppy disk.
NOTE
Prepare editor versions which are operable with the personal computer on which user
programs are to be developed.
For the manufacturers and models of computers to which Transfer Utility, Ir-Transfer
Utility C, or Ir-Transfer Utility E is applicable, refer to the “Transfer Utility Guide,”
“Ir-Transfer Utility C Guide,” or “Ir-Transfer Utility E Guide,” respectively.
12
Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
2.2 Overview of Developing Procedures
2.2.1 Developing Procedures
The program developing procedures using BHT-BASIC 3.5 are outlined below.
• Making source programs
Make source programs with an editor according to the syntax of BHT-BASIC.
• Producing a user program (compiling and linking)
Compile the source programs into object programs by BHT-BASIC Compiler. Then
combine those object programs or libraries (made up by Librarian) together through
Linker to produce a user program in the intermediate language format.
• Downloading the user program
Download the user program to the BHT by using Transfer Utility/Ir-Transfer Utility C/
Ir-Transfer Utility E.
• Executing the user program
Execute the user program on the BHT.
13
2.2.2 Functions of BHT-BASIC 3.5
BHT-BASIC 3.5 contains Compiler, Linker, and Librarian whose functions are listed below.
Functions of Compiler
Description
Syntax check
Detects syntax errors in source programs.
Output of object files
Translates source programs into object files and
outputs them.
Output of debug information
Outputs list files and debug information files
required for debugging.
Functions of Linker
Description
Output of a link map file
Outputs a symbol table along with its memory
address.
Output of a user program
Integrates more than one object program or
library to produce a user program in the intermediate language format. When downloaded to the
BHT by Transfer Utility/Ir-Transfer Utility C/IrTransfer Utility E, the user program will be compressed into programs that the Interpreter can
translate.
Functions of Librarian
Description
Output of a library
Builds a library out of multiple object files. The
library is a collection of object files that Linker
will use.
14
Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
2.3 Writing a Source Program
2.3.1 Writing a Source Program by an Editor
To write a source program, use an editor designed for operating environments where the BHTBASIC 3.5 Compiler will execute. The default editor is Windows Notepad.
TIP
To write a source program efficiently, use of a commercially available editor is recommended. For the operation of such an editor, refer to the instruction manual for
the editor.
2.3.2 Rules for Writing a Source Program
When writing a source program according to the syntax of BHT-BASIC 3.5, observe the following rules:
• A label name should begin in the 1st column.
ABC
2000
• A statement should begin in the 2nd or the following columns.
PRINT
FOR I=1 TO 100 : NEXT I
• One program line should be basically limited to 512 characters (excluding a CR code)
and should be ended with a CR code (by pressing the carriage return key).
If you use an underline (_) preceding a CR code, however, one program line can be
extended up to 8192 characters. For statements other than the PRINT, PRINT#, and
PRINT USING statements, you may use also a comma (,) preceding a CR code, instead
of an underline.
15
• Comment lines starting with a single quotation mark (') and those with a REM should have
the following description rules each.
A single quotation mark (') can be put starting from the 1st or the following columns, or
immediately following any other statement.
A REM should be put starting from the 2nd column or the following columns. To put a
REM following any other statement, a colon (:) should precede the REM.
’Comment
CLS
REM
CLS
’Comment
Comment
:REM
Comment
• It is necessary to end the IF statement with an END IF or ENDIF, since the IF statement will be treated as a block-structured statement.
IF a$ = “Y” OR a$ = “y” THEN
GOTO SUB12
END IF
• The default number of characters for a non-array string variable is 40; that for an array
string variable is 20.
Specifying the DIM or DEFREG statement allows a single string variable to treat 1
through 255 characters.
DIM b$[255]
DIM c$(2,3)[255]
DEFREG d$[255]
DEFREG e$(2,3)[255]
NOTE
BHT-BASIC does not support some of the statements and functions used in
Microsoft BASIC or QuickBASIC. For details, refer to Appendix K, “Unsupported
Statements and Functions.”
16
Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
2.4 Producing a User Program
2.4.1 Starting the BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler
Start the Compiler, e.g., by choosing the "BHTC35W.EXE" from the Windows Explorer or the
"BHT-BASIC 3.5" registered to the Start menu.
Menu bar
Tool bar
Main window
The BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler supports the following menus and icons which provide quick
ways to do tasks:
Menus
Commands
File
New
Open
Close
Open Project
Close Project
Exit
View
Toolbar
Status Bar
Clear Screen
Project
Select File
Icons
(Yellow)
Functions
Creates a new project.
Opens an existing file.
Closes the active file.
Opens an existing project.
Closes the active project.
Quits the BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler.
Shows or hides the toolbar.
Shows or hides the status bar.
Clears the screen.
Selects or deletes a file in the active project.
(Red)
Add File
Adds one or more files to the active project.
Compile
Build
Compiles one or more active files (or active
project) to produce an object file(s).
Compiles one or more active files (or active
project) and then links them to produce a user
program.
Tools
Options
Run Editor
Set Editor
Sets compiling options and linking options.
Runs the editor.
Selects the editor you want to run.
Help
About BHT-BASIC 3.5
Displays the program information, version
number and the copyright.
Build
17
2.4.2 Outline of User Program or Library Production
Procedure
Unlike the BHT-BASIC 3.0 Compiler that converts a single source program into a user program
(file named XXX.PD3), the BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler converts source programs into object programs (files named XXX.OBJ) and then links those object programs to produce a user program
(XXX.PD3). A sequence of the compiling and linking processes is called "Build."
The BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler can also build a library (XXX.LIB). You may select whether you
build a user program or library on the Project Configuration Files dialog box.
You may build a user program or library out of either multiple files or a single file (as in the
BHT-BASIC 3.0 Compiler).
Note that to build a library out of a single source file, you need to create a project file for a single source file.
[ 1 ] Building a user program out of a single source program file
What follows is a general procedure for building a user program out of a single source program
file.
(1) Designate a file that you want to use. (For details, refer to Subsection 2.4.3.1, "Designating a single source file.")
(2) Build a user program out of the designated file. (For details, refer to Subsection 2.4.4,
[ 3 ], "Building.")
[ 2 ] Building a library out of a single source file, or building a user program or
library out of multiple source files
What follows is a general procedure for building a library out of a single source file or for building a user program or library out of multiple source files.
(1) Designate a project that you want to use. (For details, refer to Subsection 2.4.3.2, "Designating a project file.")
(2) Build a user program or library out of the designated project. (For details, refer to Subsection 2.4.4, [ 3 ], "Building.")
18
Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
2.4.3 Designating a Single Source File or a Project File
2.4.3.1 Designating a single source file
Just as in the conventional BHT-BASIC 3.0 Compiler, you may designate a single source file to
build a user program or library.
[ 1 ] Select a source file
(1) In any of the following methods, display the Open File dialog box shown below:
■ From the File menu, choose the Open command.
■ Click the open file button
in the toolbar.
■ While holding down the Ctrl key, press the O key.
(2) Select a source file you want to use and then click the Open button.
Then the source file opens.
(3) Proceed to Section 2.4.4, "Compiling and Building."
19
2.4.3.2 Designating a project file
To build a library out of a single source file or to build a user program or library out of multiple
source files, you need to create a project file (described in [ 1 ] later) or select an existing
project file (in [ 2 ]).
You may add files or delete existing files to/from the designated project file (described in [ 3 ]
and [ 4 ], respectively).
[ 1 ] Create a new project
(1) In any of the following methods, display the Create File dialog box shown below:
■ From the File menu, choose the New command.
■ Click the new file button
in the toolbar.
■ While holding down the Ctrl key, press the N key.
(2) Designate a project file you want to create (Projtest.bhp in this example), and then click
the Save button.
If you create a project file having the same name as one already used, the warning message dialog box will appear. If you want to overwrite, click the OK button; if you do not,
click the Cancel button to quit the project creating procedure.
(3) The Add File(s) dialog box appears. Into the newly created project, you need to put files
which should configure the project, according to the instructions given in [ 3 ], "Add files to
a project file."
20
Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
[ 2 ] Select an existing project file
You may select an existing project file in the Select Project File dialog box or in the Open File
dialog box.
Selecting in the Select Project File dialog box
(1) In any of the following methods, display the Select Project File dialog box shown below:
■ From the File menu, choose the Open Project command.
■ Click the open project button
(yellow) in the toolbar.
■ While holding down the Ctrl key, press the P key.
(2) Select an existing project file you want to use (Projtest.bhp in this example), and then
click the Open button.
(3) Proceed to Section 2.4.4, "Compiling and Building."
Selecting in the Open File dialog box
(1) Display the Open File dialog box, referring to Subsection 2.4.3.1, [ 1 ].
(2) Select an existing project file you want to use (Projtest.bhp in this example), and then
click the Open button.
(3) Proceed to Section 2.4.4, "Compiling and Building."
21
[ 3 ] Add files to a project file
You may add one or more source files and libraries to a project file at a time.
(1) Create a new project (Refer to [ 1 ] in this subsection) or select an existing project file to
which you want to add files (Refer to [ 2 ] in this subsection).
(2) In either of the following methods, display the Add File(s) dialog box shown below:
■ From the Project menu, choose the Add File command.
■ Click the add file button
in the toolbar.
(3) Select files you want to add to the active project file and then click the Open button.
(4) The Project Configuration Files dialog box will appear which lists files in the project. For
details about the Project Configuration Files dialog box, refer to [ 4 ], "Select files in the
active project" given later.
22
Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
[ 4 ] Select files in the active project
From files existing in the active project, you may select files that you want to compile or build.
(1) In either of the following methods, display the Project Configuration Files dialog box
shown below:
■ From the Project menu, choose the Select File command.
■ Click the select file button
TIP
(red) in the toolbar.
The Project Configuration Files dialog box will appear also following the new
project creation process (see [ 1 ] earlier) or the file addition process to an existing project (see [ 3 ] earlier).
(2) Select files you want to compile or build.
Project configuration
files display area
Drive buttons
Main object display area
Selection buttons for user
program or library to be created
(3) In the Project Configuration Files dialog box are the following display areas and buttons
from which you may also select a user program or library to be built, may start compiling
or building, and may run the editor, as well as adding or deleting files to/from the active
project.
• List of Files in a Project
This display area shows a list of files which configures the active project. The filenames
are displayed as a relative path.
23
• Main Object display area
This area shows the name of a main object in a user program if you have selected
"User program (PD3)" with the "Type of File to be Created" selection button. If you
have selected "Create library (LIB)," nothing will appear on this area.
• Type of File to be Created
Lets you select whether you create a user program (PD3) or library (LIB).
• Add File button
Adds the currently selected files to the active project. (Refer to “[ 3 ] Add files to a
project file.”)
• Delete File button
Deletes the currently selected file(s) from the active project.
• Main Object button
Specifies the currently selected file as a main object if you have selected "User program
(PD3)" with the “Type of File to be Created” selection button. A library cannot be specified as a main object.
This button will be disabled if more than one file is selected or “Create library (LIB)” is
selected with the “Type of File to be Created” selection button.
• Run Editor button
Opens a file currently selected by the editor.
• Compile button
Compiles currently selected source files into object files.
• Build button
Builds a user program out of the active project.
24
Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
2.4.4 Compiling and Building
First specify the options and then proceed to the compiling or building process.
[ 1 ] Specifying the compiling and linking options
(1) In either of the following methods, display the Set Options dialog box shown below:
■ From the Tools menu, choose the Options command.
■ Click the option button
in the toolbar.
(2) Select the check boxes of the options you want to specify.
For details about the options, refer to Subsection 2.4.7.
25
[ 2 ] Compiling
In any of the following methods, compile the currently selected source file(s) into an object
file(s):
■ From the Build menu, choose the Compile command.
■ In the Project Configuration Files dialog box, click the Compile button. (For details
about the Project Configuration Files dialog box, refer to Subsection 2.4.3.2, [ 4 ].)
■ Click the compile start button
in the toolbar.
■ While holding down the Ctrl key, press the G key.
If compiling ends normally, the screen shown below will appear.
[ 3 ] Building
In any of the following methods, build a user program or library out of object files:
■ From the Build menu, choose the Build command.
■ In the Project Configuration Files dialog box, click the Build button. (For details about
the Project Configuration Files dialog box, refer to Subsection 2.4.3.2, [ 4 ].)
■ Click the build start button
in the toolbar.
■ While holding down the Ctrl key, press the B key.
If building ends normally, the screen shown below will appear.
26
Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
2.4.5 Setting the Editor for Displaying Files
Set the editor that you want to use for displaying source files and error message files
(XXX.ERR) according to the steps below.
(1) From the Tools menu, choose the Set Editor command.
The Set Editor dialog box appears as shown below.
(2) In the Command line edit box, type the filename of the editor. If the editor is not located in
the current directory or working directory, type the absolute path or relative path. (The
default editor is Windows NotePad.)
If you don’t know the editor’s filename or directory path, choose the Browse button in the
Set Editor dialog box to display the Select Editor dialog box. From a list of files and directories displayed, select the appropriate filename and then choose the OK button.
TIP
Setting the editor having the tag-jump function allows you to efficiently correct a source program file which has caused an error. For details about the
tag-jump function, refer to the user’s manual of the editor.
27
2.4.6 Error Messages and Their Indication onto the
Main Window
[ 1 ] Selecting either an editor or main window as an error message output
device
According to the procedure below, you may select whether error messages should be outputted to an editor or main window if an error message file (XXX.ERR) is produced.
(1) From the Tools menu, choose the Options command.
The Set Options dialog box appears as shown below.
(2) In the Set Options dialog box, select either "To the Editor" or "To the Window" check box.
(The default output device is Editor.)
28
Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
[ 2 ] How error messages are displayed on the editor or main window
During building, the BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler may detect errors which can be divided into two
types: syntax errors and fatal errors.
■ Syntax errors
If the Compiler detects a syntax error, it outputs the error message to the XXX.ERR file. For
details about the file, refer to Subsection 2.4.9, "Output from the BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler."
If the "To the Editor" check box of the Error Message Output is selected in the Set Options dialog box, the editor will automatically open and show the detected errors. If the "To the Window"
check box is selected, those errors will be outputted to the main window.
The total number of detected syntax errors always displays on the main window.
- Error messages displayed on the editor
- Error messages displayed on the main window
■ Fatal errors
If the Compiler detects a fatal error, it outputs the error message to the main window.
■ ERRORLEVEL
The ERRORLEVEL function is supported only when a +E option is specified at the command
line. (Refer to Subsection 2.4.8, "Starting the BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler from the Command
Line," [ 3 ].)
29
2.4.7 Options
To specify compiling options and linking options, select the check-box options you want in the
Set Options dialog box. Each of available options is explained below.
[ 1 ] Compiling options
Compiling Options
Debug information file
Description
Outputs debug information files (XXX.ADR, XXX.LBL, and
XXX.SYM files).
If this option is not selected, no debug information file will be
outputted. (default)
(For details, refer to [ 3 ].)
Address-source List
Outputs an address-source list to the file XXX.LST.
If this option is not selected, no address-source list will be
outputted. (default)
(For details, refer to [ 4 ].)
Symbol table
Outputs a symbol table to the file XXX.LST.
If this option is not selected, no symbol table will be outputted. (default)
(For details, refer to [ 4 ].)
X (Cross) reference
Outputs a cross reference to the file XXX.LST.
If this option is not selected, no cross reference will be outputted. (default)
(For details, refer to [ 4 ].)
Variable size
Outputs the sizes of common variables, work variables, and
register variables to the file XXX.ERR. or main window.
If this option is not selected, no variable size will be outputted. (default)
The output example (TESTA.err) is as follows:
Common area
= XXXXX
XXXXX
Work area
= XXXXX
XXXXX
Register area = XXXXX
30
bytes
bytes
bytes
bytes
bytes
(XXXXX bytes on memory.
in file)
(XXXXX bytes on memory.
in file)
in file
Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
[ 2 ] Linking options
Linking Options
Description
Outputs map information to the file XXX.MAP.
Mapfile
If this option is not selected, no map information will be
outputted. (default)
(For details, refer to [ 5 ] in this subsection.)
[ 3 ] Outputting debug information files
If you select the "Debug information file" check box in the Set Options dialog box and run the
Compiler, then the Compiler will output three types of debug information files.
Each information file will be given the same name as the source program and annexed one of
the three extensions .ADR, .LBL, and .SYM according to the file type as listed below.
Debug Information Files
Filename Extension
Source line–address file
Label-address file
Variable–intermediate language file
.ADR
.LBL
.SYM
• Source line–address file (.ADR)
Indicates the correspondence of line numbers in a source program to their
addresses in the object program written in intermediate language.
Each line consists of a four-digit line number in decimal notation and a four-digit
address in hexadecimal notation.
• Label–address file (.LBL)
Indicates the correspondence of labels and user-defined functions defined in a
source program to their addresses in the object program written in intermediate language.
For user-defined functions in the one-line format, the first addresses of those functions in the object program are listed in this file; for those in the block format, the
addresses of the first statements in the blocks are listed.
Each line consists of a label name or a user-defined function name, and a four-digit
address in hexadecimal notation.
• Variable–intermediate language file (.SYM)
Indicates the correspondence of variables used in a source program to the intermediate language.
Each line consists of a variable name and its intermediate language.
31
[ 4 ] Outputting list files
The Compiler may output three types of list files as listed below depending upon the options
specified at the start of compiling, in order to help you program and debug efficiently.
List File
Option
Filename Extension
Address-source list
Symbol table
Cross reference
Select the Address-source List check box.
Select the Symbol table check box.
Select the X (Cross) reference check box.
.LST
The list file will be given the same name as the source program file and annexed with an extension .LST.
When outputted, each list file has the header format as shown below.
BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler Version X.XX ←Version of BHT35CPL.DLL
Copyright (C) DENSO CORPORATION 1998. All rights reserved.
source = Source filename.ext (to be given as an absolute path)
■
Address-source list
Select the Address-source List check box and run the Compiler, and the following information
will be outputted:
BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler Version X.XX ←Version of BHT35CPL.DLL
Copyright (C) DENSO CORPORATION 1998. All rights reserved.
source = C:\TEST.SRC
Addr
Line
Statement
Address of object program in
intermediate language
0000
0001
'* * * * * * * * * * * * *
0000
0002
'*
0000
0014
ON ERROR GOTO ErrorProg
Line number in source
program
0003
0015
0003
0016
DEFREG vF% = 0
0003
0017
DEFREG ConF% = 0
0003
0018
DEFREG RecF% = 0
0003
0019
DEFREG FreeSpace
0003
0020
DEFREG ESC = -1
0003
0021
DEFREG bps$ = "9600"
0003
0022
Source program statement
0338
0023
REM $ INCLUDE : 'SAKeyFnc. SRC'
0338
0024
0338
0025
Master$
= "Master92. DAT"
034A
0026
Workfile$
= "WrkFils. DAT"
035C
0027
Sales$
= "SalesSA. DAT"
036D
0028
036D
0029
IF vf%
= 0 THEN
0377
0030
GOSUB cautionB
037A
0031
CLOSE
037E
0032
Freespace
= FRE(1)
0387
0033
vF%
= 1
038E
0034
END IF
038E
0035
MainProg:
038E
0036
GOSUB filOpen
0000 Error Statement Compiled End.
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Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
• Address of object program in intermediate language
Shows an intermediate language address corresponding to a source program line in
four-digit hexadecimal notation.
• Line number in source program
Shows a line number for a source program statement in four-digit decimal notation.
• Source program statement
Shows the same content as a statement written in a source program.
Notes for address-source lists
(1) If a source program statement contains line feeding caused by a CR code preceded by an
underline (_) or a comma (,), the line number will increase, but no address will appear.
(2) Neither page headers nor new page codes will be inserted.
(3) If a syntax error occurs, the error message will be outputted on the line following the error
statement line.
(4) If more than one syntax error occurs in a statement, the error message only for the first
detected error will appear.
(5) A TAB code will be replaced with eight space codes.
The total number of syntax errors will be outputted at the end of the list.
■
Symbol table
Select the Symbol table check box and run the Compiler, and the following information will be
outputted:
BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler Version X.XX
←Version of BHT35CPL.DLL
Copyright (C) DENSO CORPORATION 1998. All rights reserved.
source = C:\Test.SRC
Symbol table for common variables
Symbol table for work variables
COMMON SYMBOL
WORK SYMBOL
F%
SU%
INPUTERR%
SUBC%
REGISTER
COMF%
LABEL
SEQNO%
WREC%
SREC%
X1%
Symbol table for register variables
SYMBOL
RECNO%
Symbol table for labels
SYMBOL
AMOUNT
LABEL
J2%
SUBFLAG%
AMOUNTKYIN
CAUTIONB
COMRETRY
Symbol table for user-defined
functions
SYMBOL
FNKEYINPUT
FNSPAT
DATASET
FNXCENTER
FNZPAT
Variables will be outputted in the following format:
In case of global variables
Variablename
In case of local variables
Variablename:Filename (no extension)
In other cases
Variablename:Name of user-defined function defining the
variable
33
• Symbol table for common variables
Lists common variables arranged according to their types. An array variable has a suffix
of parentheses ( ).
• Symbol table for work variables
Lists work variables and dummy arguments arranged according to their types. An array
variable has a suffix of parentheses ( ).
• Symbol table for register variables
Lists register variables arranged according to their types. An array variable has a suffix
of parentheses ( ).
• Symbol table for labels
Lists labels arranged in alphabetic order.
• Symbol table for user-defined functions
Lists user-defined functions arranged according to their types (i.e. integer, real, and
string types).
Each of common variables, work variables, and register variables can be divided into the following types:
■
Non-array integer type
Non-array real type
Non-array string type
Array integer type
Array real type
Array string type
Cross reference
Select the X (Cross) reference check box and run the Compiler, and the following information
will be outputted:
• For common variables
Outputs line numbers where common variables are defined and referred to.
• For work variables
Outputs line numbers where work variables and dummy arguments are referred to.
• For register variables
Outputs line numbers where register variables are defined and referred to.
• For labels
Outputs line numbers where labels are defined and referred to.
• For user-defined functions
Outputs line numbers where user-defined functions are defined and referred to.
34
Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
[ 5 ] Outputting a mapfile
Select the Mapfile check box of the Linking Options in the Set Options dialog box and build a
user program, and the mapfile as shown below will be outputted. The mapfile will be given the
same name as the project file and annexed with an extension .MAP.
COMMON
Map for common variables
SYMBOL
C%
2400
Map for work variables
WORK
SYMBOL
A
2900
B
2901
W$
2A00
Map for register variables
REGISTER
SYMBOL
2E00
R$
Map for user-defined function
FUNCTION
SYMBOL
003B
AAA
OBJECT
Map for variables and object
codes
INFORMATION
offset
size
PRC
0000
0035
REG
0035
002F
PRD
0064
0047
Details of object codes
PRD
INFORMATION
[Filename]
offset
size
test.obj
0000
0038
Function.obj
0038
000F
[Total]
0047
• Map for common variables
Shows the symbols of common variables in the Interpreter which are arranged according
to their types together with their pointing addresses. An array variable has a suffix of
parentheses ( ). If no common variables are used, this item will not be outputted.
• Map for work variables
Shows the symbols of work variables in the Interpreter which are arranged according to
their types together with their pointing addresses. An array variable has a suffix of parentheses ( ). If no work variables are used, this item will not be outputted.
• Map for register variables
Shows the symbols of register variables in the Interpreter which are arranged according
to their types together with their pointing addresses. An array variable has a suffix of
parentheses ( ). If no register variables are used, this item will not be outputted.
35
• Map for user-defined functions
Shows the symbols of user-defined functions in the Interpreter which are arranged
according to their types (i.e., integer, real, and string types). If no user-defined functions
are used, this item will not be outputted.
• Map for variables and object codes
Shows the addresses of variables and object codes in a user program. The PRC indicates the program allocation information area, the REG indicates the register variables
area, and the PRD indicates the program reserved area.
• Details of object codes
Shows the allocation information of objects in a user program. The [Filename] lists the
names of object files configuring a user program. The [Offset] lists the heading
addresses of individual object files in 4-digit hexadecimal form. The [Size] lists the sizes
of individual object files in 4-digit hexadecimal form.
[ 6 ] Calculating the address for a statement causing a run-time error
If a run-time error occurs, the Compiler returns the address (ERL=XXXX) assigned starting
from the head of the user program. When building a user program out of multiple object files,
therefore, you need to calculate an address of a statement in an object file causing a run-time
error according to the procedure given below.
(1) In the Set Options dialog box, select the Address-source List check box of the Compiling
Options and the Mapfile check box of the Linking Options beforehand.
(2) Build a user program out of object files so as to output the address-source list file (source
filename.LST) and the mapfile (project name.MAP).
(3) In the "details of object codes" item, retrieve an object file containing the address
(ERL=XXXX) assigned to a statement causing a run-time error.
(4) In the Address-source List file of the retrieved object file, retrieve the address for the
statement causing a run-time error.
Subtract the heading address of the object file from the address of the statement causing
a run-time error, and you can obtain where a run-time error has occurred.
36
Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
2.4.8 Starting the BHT-BASIC Compiler from the
Command Line
You may start the BHT-BASIC Compiler from the command line in the MS-DOS Prompt of
Windows95/98 or WindowsNT4.0/Windows2000.
[ 1 ] Syntax
At the MS-DOS command prompt, type in the following format:
BHTC35W [options] [[directorypath]filename…][options]
directorypath
You may specify either an absolute path or relative path. Omitting
this option will make the Compiler look for that file in the current working directory. Specifications of directorypath only is not allowed.
filename
You may specify the name of any of a project file, source file and
library file.
options
You may specify compiler processing options, compiling options, and
linking option. For details, refer to the next item, [ 2 ], "Options."
NOTE
The Compiler will recognize a project specified by filename merely as a group of
files. If you do not specify a +BL option (Building library described in [ 2 ]), therefore, the Compiler automatically produces a user program.
TIP
To produce a user program from a single source file in a batch file, type in the following:
>START /W BHTC35W +E +B TEST.SRC
Writing START /W as above will not proceed to the next batch processing until the
BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler completes the processing. For details about +E or +B
option, refer to “[ 2 ] Options” in this subsection.
37
[ 2 ] Options
The BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler supports three types of options—compiler processing options,
compiling options, and linking option.
■ Compiler processing options
Processing options
Description
+C
Compiles one or more designated file(s) into object file(s).
+B programname
Builds a user program with the specified program name. If
no programname is specified, the filename specified
first will apply.
+BL libraryname
Builds a library with the specified library name. If no
libraryname is specified, the filename specified first
will apply.
+E, -E
Determines whether to terminate the BHT-BASIC 3.5
Compiler after completion of processing.
Specifying the +E terminates the Compiler without displaying the compiler window after completion of processing.
Specifying the -E displays the compiler window and does
not terminate the Compiler even after completion of processing.
The default is -E.
NOTE
If more than one option with different specifications is written (e.g., +C, +B, and
+BL), the last option takes effect.
If the same option is set more than one time with different specifications (e.g., +E and
-E), the last option takes effect.
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Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
■ Compiling options
Compiling options
Description
+D
Outputs debug information files (XXX.ADR, XXX.LBL. and
XXX.SYM files).
(Same as you select the Debug information file check box in
the Set Options dialog box. Refer to Subsection 2.4.7, [ 1 ].)
+L
Outputs an address-source list to the file XXX.LST.
(Same as you select the Address-source List check box in
the Set Options dialog box. Refer to Subsection 2.4.7, [ 1 ].)
+S
Outputs a symbol table to the file XXX.LST.
(Same as you select the Symbol table check box in the Set
Options dialog box. Refer to Subsection 2.4.7, [ 1 ].)
+X
Outputs a cross reference to the file XXX.LST.
(Same as you select the X (Cross) reference check box in
the Set Options dialog box. Refer to Subsection 2.4.7, [ 1 ].)
+V
Outputs the sizes of common variables, work variables, and
register variables to the file XXX.ERR or main window.
(Same as you select the Variable size check box in the Set
Options dialog box. Refer to Subsection 2.4.7, [ 1 ].)
■ Linking option
Linking options
+M
NOTE
Description
Outputs map information to the file XXX.MAP.
(Same as you select the Mapfile check box in the Set
Options dialog box. Refer to Subsection 2.4.7, [ 2 ].)
Options specified at the command line will take effect only when you run the BHTBASIC 3.5 Compiler at the command line. (Those option settings will not be written
into the initialization file BHTC35W.INI.)
Even if you specify a -E option (default) so that the Compiler does not terminate after
completion of processing, neither filename nor options designated for the preceding
processing will be saved. You need to designate them again.
Option settings stored in the initialization file BHTC35W.INI will not apply when
you run the BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler at the command line. To output debug information files, therefore, you need to specify options at the command line.
39
[ 3 ] Error Level Indication by ERRORLEVEL
If you specify a +E option at the command line and run the BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler, the
ERRORLEVEL of MS-DOS allows the Compiler to set the compiling end status to the MS-DOS
environmental variable ERRORLEVEL after completion of processing, as any of the error levels listed below.
By referring to this ERRORLEVEL, you can learn the compiling end status.
ERRORLEVEL
0
1
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
20
21
30
40
70
99
Description
Normal end
No designated file or path found.
Filename format not correct
Project invalid
File open error
Write-protect error
File renaming failure
Project file creating failure
Existing project file deleted
Entered option invalid
Compiling syntax error
Compiling fatal error
Link error
Library error
No empty space in the designated disk
Other errors
By making a batch file which automatically starts proper operation according to the error level,
you can facilitate debugging procedures.
For details about the ERRORLEVEL, refer to the MS-DOS Reference Manual.
40
Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
2.4.9 Output from the BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler
The BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler outputs the following information as well as object programs to
the destination depending upon the conditions.
Output
Destination
Conditions
Object file
File XXX.OBJ (in the directory where the source program is located)
When the specified source
program has been normally
compiled without occurrence of a compiling error.
User program
File YYY.PD3 (in the directory where the project is
located)
When the specified project
has been normally built without occurrence of a compiling error or linking error.
Library file
File YYY.LIB (in the
directory where the project
is located)
When the specified project
has been normally built without occurrence of a compiling error or library error.
Error message
(Syntax error)
File XXX.ERR (in the directory where the source program is located)
If a compiling error is
detected during compilation
of the specified source program.
File YYY.ERR (in the directory where the project is
located)
If an error is detected during
building of the specified
project.
Main window
If a fatal error is detected
during compilation of the
specified source program.
Error message
(Fatal error)
Debug
information
Source line–
Address
information
File XXX.ADR (in the directory where the source program is located)
Label–
Address
information
File XXX.LBL (in the directory where the source program is located)
Variable–
Intermediate
language
information
File XXX.SYM (in the directory where the source program is located)
41
If the Debug information file
check box is selected in the
Set Options dialog box.
Output
Destination
Address–Source list
Symbol table
Conditions
If the Address-source List
check box is selected in the
Set Options dialog box.
File XXX.LST (in the directory where the source program is located)
Cross reference
If the Symbol table check
box is selected in the Set
Options dialog box.
If the X (Cross) reference
check box is selected in the
Set Options dialog box.
Sizes of variables
File XXX.ERR (in the directory where the source program is located) or
File YYY.ERR (in the directory where the project is
located)
If the Variable size check
box is selected in the Set
Options dialog box.
Mapfile
File YYY.MAP (in the directory where the project is
located)
If the Mapfile check box is
selected in the Set Options
dialog box.
XXX represents a source program filename.
YYY represents a project name.
42
Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
2.4.10 Structure of User Programs and Libraries
If you specify a user program to be produced in the Project Configuration Files dialog box, the
BHT-BASIC 3.5 Compiler produces a user program provided that no compiling error or link
error occurs. The user program file will be given the same name as the project file and
annexed with an extension .PD3.
If you specify a library to be produced, the Compiler produces a library provided that no compiling error or library error occurs. The library file will be given the same name as the project file
and annexed with an extension .LIB.
If the name of a newly produced file is the same as that of an existing file in the destination
directory, Compiler will overwrite the existing file with the new file.
Structure of user programs
A user program is expressed in the intermediate language, where statements, functions and
variables are in two-byte form of ASCII characters. A record is 128 bytes in length and
annexed with CR and LF codes.
When downloaded to the BHT and stored in its memory, a user program will be compressed
from two-byte form into single-byte hexadecimal form. Accordingly, the length of a record
comes to 64 bytes.
Structure of libraries
A library consists of more than one object filename and object information.
43
2.5 Downloading
2.5.1 Overview of Transfer Utility/Ir-Transfer Utility C/
Ir-Transfer Utility E
Transfer Utility/Ir-Transfer Utility C/Ir-Transfer Utility E transfers user programs and data files
(e.g., master files) between the BHT and the connected personal computer. It has the following functions:
Functions of Transfer Utility/Ir-Transfer Utility C/Ir-Transfer Utility E
Downloading extension programs
Downloading programs
Downloading data
Uploading programs
Uploading data
For operations of Transfer Utility/Ir-Transfer Utility C/Ir-Transfer Utility E, refer to the related
guide.
2.5.2 Setting up the BHT
If the error message given below appears, it is necessary to set the calendar clock before
downloading user programs.
"Set the current date and time. XX/XX/XX YY:YY"
The above error message appears in any of the following cases:
• The BHT is first powered on from the time of purchase.
• The BHT is powered on after being left without main battery loaded for a long time.
For details about the calendar clock setting, refer to the BHT User’s Manual.
44
Chapter 2. Development Environment and Procedures
2.6 Executing a User Program
2.6.1 Starting
To run a user program, start System Mode and select the desired program in the Program Execution menu.
If you have selected a user program as an execution program in the Setting menu of System
Mode, the BHT automatically runs the user program when powered on.
For the operating procedure of System Mode, refer to the BHT User’s Manual.
2.6.2 Execution
The Interpreter interprets and executes a user program from the first statement to the next, one
by one.
2.6.3 Termination
The BHT system program terminates a running user program if
• the END, POWER OFF, or POWER 0 statement is executed in a user program,
• the power switch is pressed,
• no valid operations are performed within the specified time length (Automatic poweringoff),
Valid operations:
- Entry by pressing any key
- Bar-code reading by pressing the trigger switch
- Data transmission
- Data reception
Specified time length:
Length of time specified by the POWER statement in the
user program. If not specified in the program, three minutes will apply.
or
• the battery voltage level becomes low.
Low battery:
If the voltage level of the rechargeable battery cartridge
or that of the dry cells drops below the specified level,
the BHT displays the low battery warning message on
the LCD and powers itself off.
If the resume function is activated in System Mode, only the execution of the END, POWER
OFF, or POWER 0 statement can terminate a running user program. Other cases above
merely turn off the power, so turning it on again resumes the program.
45
Chapter 3
Program Structure
CONTENTS
3.1
Program Overview ......................................................................................... 47
3.1.1 Statement Blocks ............................................................................... 47
[ 1 ] Subroutines ...............................................................................
[ 2 ] Error-/Event-handling Routines .................................................
[ 3 ] User-defined Functions .............................................................
[ 4 ] Block-structured Statements .....................................................
3.1.2 Notes for Jumping into/out of Statement Blocks ................................
3.2
47
47
48
48
49
Handling User Programs ............................................................................... 50
3.2.1 User Programs in the Memory ........................................................... 50
3.2.2 Program Chaining .............................................................................. 50
3.2.3 Included Files ..................................................................................... 51
46
Chapter 3. Program Structure
3.1 Program Overview
3.1.1 Statement Blocks
A statement block is a significant set of statements (which is also called "program routine").
The following types of statement blocks are available in programming for the BHT:
Statement Blocks
Description
Subroutine
A routine called by the GOSUB statement.
Error-/event-handling routine
An error-/event-handling routine to which
control is passed when an error trap or event
(of keystroke) trap occurs, respectively.
User-defined function
A function defined by any of the following
statements:
DEF FN (in single-line form)
DEF FN...END DEF (in block form)
SUB...END SUB
FUNCTION...END FUNCTION
Block-structured statement
FOR...NEXT
IF...THEN...ELSE...END IF
SELECT...CASE...END SELECT
WHILE...WEND
Avoid jumping into or out of the midst of any of the above statement blocks using the GOTO
statement; otherwise, it will result in an error. (Refer to Section 3.1.2.)
[ 1 ] Subroutines
A subroutine is a statement block called from the main routine or other subroutines by the
GOSUB statement.
Using the RETURN statement passes control from the called subroutine back to the statement
immediately following the GOSUB statement in the original main routine or subroutine.
[ 2 ] Error-/Event-handling Routines
An error- or event-handling routine is a statement block to which program control passes when
an error trap or event (of keystroke) trap occurs during program execution, respectively.
The RESUME statement passes control from the error-handling routine back to the desired
statement.
The RETURN statement in the keyboard interrupt event-handling routine returns control to the
statement following the one that caused the interrupt.
47
[ 3 ] User-defined Functions
Before calling user-defined functions, it is necessary to define those functions with any of the
following statements. Generally, those statements should be placed before the main routine
starts.
DEF FN (in single-line form)
DEF FN...END DEF (in block form)
SUB...END SUB
FUNCTION...END FUNCTION
When using SUB and FUNCTION functions written in other files, it is necessary to declare
them with the DECLARE statement before calling them.
[ 4 ] Block-structured Statements
The statements listed below have the statement block structure and are useful for structured
programming.
FOR...NEXT
IF...THEN...ELSE...END IF
SELECT...CASE...END SELECT
WHILE...WEND
■ Nested Structure
Block-structured statements allow you to write nesting programs as shown below.
FOR i=1 TO 10
FOR j=2 TO 10 STEP 2
PRINT i, j, k
NEXT j
NEXT i
Nesting subroutines as shown below is also possible.
GOSUB aaa
.
.
.
aaa
PRINT "aaa"
GOSUB bbb
RETURN
bbb
PRINT "bbb"
RETURN
48
Chapter 3. Program Structure
3.1.2 Notes for Jumping into/out of Statement Blocks
It is not recommended to jump control from a main routine or subroutines into the midst of significant statement blocks or to jump out from the midst of those statement blocks, using the
GOTO statement.
Statement Blocks
Jump into
Jump out
Subroutine
✕
✕
Error-/event-handling routine
✕
✕
Block-format user-defined function
✕
✕
Block-structured statement
✕
▲
✕ :
To be avoided. A run-time error may occur.
▲:
Not recommended, although no run-time error will result directly. Nesting may
cause a run-time error.
• It is possible to jump control out of the midst of block-structured statements
(except for FOR...NEXT) by using the GOTO statement.
• Avoid jumping the control out of the midst of FOR...NEXT statement block with the
GOTO statement. The program given below, for example, should be avoided.
FOR I%=0 TO 10
IF I%=5 THEN
GOTO AAA
ENDIF
NEXT I%
AAA
NOTE
Generally, the frequent or improper use of GOTO statements in a program will
decrease debugging efficiency and might cause fatal run-time errors. You are, therefore, recommended to avoid using GOTO statements, if possible.
49
3.2 Handling User Programs
3.2.1 User Programs in the Memory
The user area of the memory (memories) in the BHT can store more than one user program.
(For details about memories, refer to Appendix F, "Memory Area.")
If you have selected one of those programs as an execution program in the Setting menu of
System Mode, the BHT automatically runs the user program when powered on.
For the operating procedure of System Mode, refer to the BHT User’s Manual.
3.2.2 Program Chaining
Program chaining, which is caused by the CHAIN statement as shown below, terminates a
currently running user program and transfers control to another program.
CHAIN "another.PD3"
To transfer the variables and their values used in the currently running user program to the
chained-to program along the program chain, use the COMMON statement as follows:
COMMON a$(2),b,c%(3)
CHAIN "another.PD3"
The Interpreter writes these declared variable values into the "common variable area" in the
memory. To make the chained-to program refer to these values, use the COMMON statement
again.
COMMON a$(2),b,c%(3)
In BHT-BASIC, all of the name, type, definition order, and number of COMMON-declared variables used in the currently running program should be identical with those in the next program
(the chained-to program).
When compiling and linking more than one file to produce a user program, define all necessary
common variables in the main object (to be executed first). In other objects, declare common
variables required only in that object. If you link an object where common variables not defined
in the main object are newly defined, an error will result.
’ prog1.PD3
COMMON a(10),b$(3),c%
.
.
.
CHAIN "prog2.PD3"
’ prog2.PD3
COMMON a(10),b$(3),c%
.
.
.
Since the COMMON statement is a declarative statement, no matter where it is placed in a
source program, the source program will result in the same output (same object program), if
compiled.
50
Chapter 3. Program Structure
3.2.3 Included Files
"Included files" are separate source programs which may be called by the INCLUDE metacommand.
Upon encounter with the INCLUDE metacommand in a source program, the Compiler fetches
the designated included file and then compiles the main source program while integrating that
included file to generate a user program.
You should specify the name of an included file by using the REM $INCLUDE or
’$INCLUDE. In the included files, you can describe any of the statements and functions
except the REM $INCLUDE and ’$INCLUDE.
If a compilation error occurs in an included file, it will be merely indicated on the line where the
included file is called by the INCLUDE metacommand in the main source program, and neither
detailed information of syntax errors detected in the included files nor the cross reference list
will be outputted. It is, therefore, necessary to debug the individual included files carefully
beforehand.
51
Chapter 4
Basic Program Elements
CONTENTS
4.1
Structure of a Program Line........................................................................... 53
4.1.1 Format of a Program Line ..................................................................
[ 1 ] Labels........................................................................................
[ 2 ] Statements ................................................................................
[ 3 ] Comments .................................................................................
4.1.2 Program Line Length..........................................................................
4.2
53
53
54
54
55
Usable Characters ......................................................................................... 56
4.2.1 Usable Characters.............................................................................. 56
4.2.2 Special Symbols and Control Codes.................................................. 57
4.3
Labels ............................................................................................................ 59
4.4
Identifiers ....................................................................................................... 60
4.5
Reserved Words ............................................................................................ 61
52
Chapter 4. Basic Program Elements
4.1 Structure of a Program Line
4.1.1 Format of a Program Line
A program line consists of the following elements:
[label] [statement] [:statement] ... [comment]
• label
A label is placed at the beginning of a program line to identify lines.
• statement
A statement is a combination of functions, variables, and operators according to the syntax.
A group of the statements is a program.
• comment
You may describe comments in order to make programs easy to understand.
[ 1 ] Labels
To transfer control to any other processing flow like program branching, you may use labels
which designate jump destinations. Labels can be omitted if unnecessary.
Labels differ from line numbers used in the general BASIC languages; that is, labels do not
determine the execution order of statements.
You should write a label beginning in the 1st column of a program line. To write a statement
following a label, it is necessary to place one or more separators (spaces or tabs) between the
label and the statement.
As shown below, using a label in the IF statement block can eliminate the GOTO statement
which should usually precede a jump-destination label.
IF a = 1 THEN Check
ELSE 500
ENDIF
Where the words "Check" and "500" are used as labels.
For detailed information about labels, refer to Section 4.3.
53
[ 2 ] Statements
Statements can come in two types: executable and declarative statements.
• Executable statements
They make the Interpreter process programs by instructing the operation to be executed.
• Declarative statements
They manage the memory allocation for variables and handle comments. Declarative
statements available in BHT-BASIC are listed below.
REM or single quotation mark (’)
DATA
COMMON
DEFREG
Multi-statements:
You can describe multiple statements in one program line by separating
them with a colon (:).
[ 3 ] Comments
A single quotation mark (’) or REM can begin a comment.
• Single quotation mark (')
A single quotation mark or apostrophe (’) can begin in the first column of a program line
to describe a comment.
When following any other statement, a comment starting with a single quotation mark
requires no preceding colon (:) as a delimiter.
’
comment
PRINT "abc"
’comment
• REM
The REM cannot begin in the first column of a program line.
When following any other statement, a comment starting with a REM requires a preceding colon (:).
REM comment
PRINT "abc"
:REM comment
54
Chapter 4. Basic Program Elements
4.1.2 Program Line Length
A program line is terminated with a CR code by pressing the carriage return key.
The allowable line length is basically 512 characters excluding a CR code placed at the end of
the line.
In either of the following two description ways, however, you can write a program line of up to
8192 characters:
In the samples below, symbol "↓" denotes a CR code entered by the carriage return key.
• Extend a program line with an underline (_) and a CR code.
IF (a$ = "," OR a$ = ".") AND b<c _↓
AND EOF(d) THEN ...
• Extend a program line with a comma (,) and a CR code.
FIELD #1,13 as p$,5 as k$,↓
10 as t$↓
Note that the latter description way above (using a comma and CR code) cannot be used for
the PRINT, PRINT#, and PRINT USING statements. Only the former way should apply to
them.
55
4.2 Usable Characters
4.2.1 Usable Characters
Listed below are characters which can be used for writing programs. Note that a double quote
(") cannot be used inside a character string. Symbols | and ~ inside a character string will
appear as ↓ and → on the LCD of the BHT, respectively.
If used outside of a character string, symbols and control codes below have special meaning
described in Subsection 4.2.2.
• Alphabet letters
Including both the uppercase and lowercase letters
(A to Z and a to z).
• Numerals
Including 0 to 9 for decimal notation, and 0 to 9 and
A to F (a to f) for hexadecimal notation.
• Symbols
Including the following:
$%*+–./<=>"&'():;[]{}#!?@\|
■
• Control codes
CR, space, and tab
• Katakana
e.g.,
• Kanji (2-byte codes)
(Full-width characters)
e.g.,
• Kanji (2-byte codes)
(Half-width characters)
e.g.,
~,_
Distinction between Uppercase and Lowercase Letters
The Compiler makes no distinction between the uppercase and lowercase letters, except for
those used in a character string data. All of the statements below, for example, produce the
same effect.
PRINT
print
PRINT
print
a
a
A
A
When used in a character string data, uppercase and lowercase letters will be distinguished
from each other. Each of the statements below, for example, produces different display output.
PRINT "abc"
PRINT "ABC"
56
Chapter 4. Basic Program Elements
4.2.2 Special Symbols and Control Codes
Symbols and control codes used outside of a character string have the following special meaning:
Symbols and
control codes
$
(Dollar sign)
%
(Percent sign)
Typical use
String suffix for variables or user-defined functions
Integer suffix for variables, constants (in decimal notation), or userdefined functions
*
(Asterisk)
Multiplication operator
+
(Plus sign)
• Addition operator or unary positive sign
• Concatenation operator in string operation
• Format control character in PRINT USING statement
–
(Minus sign)
.
(Period)
/
(Slant)
<
(Less-than sign)
=
(Equal sign)
Subtraction operator or unary negative sign
• Decimal point
• Format control character in PRINT USING statement
• Division operator
• Separator for date information in DATE$ function
Relational operator
• Relational operator
• Assignment operator in arithmetic or string operation
• User-defined function definition expressions in single-line form
DEF FN
• Register variable definition expressions
>
(Greater-than sign)
Relational operator
"
(Double quote)
A pair of double quotes delimits a string constant or a device file
name.
&
(Ampersand)
• Integer prefix for constants (in hexadecimal notation), which
should be followed by an H.
• Format control character in PRINT USING statement
'
(single quotation mark
or apostrophes)
• Initiates a comment.
• A pair of apostrophes (single quotations) delimits an included file
name.
()
(Left and right parentheses)
• Delimit an array subscript or a function parameter.
• Force the order of evaluation in mathematical, relational, string,
and logical expressions.
57
Symbols and
control codes
:
(Colon)
;
(Semicolon)
[]
(Square brackets)
{}
(Braces)
#
(Pound sign)
Typical use
• Separates statements.
• Separates time information in TIME$ function.
Line feed control character in INPUT and other statements.
• Define the length of a string variable.
• Define the string length of the returned value of a string userdefined function.
Define the initial value for an array element.
• File number prefix in OPEN, CLFILE, FIELD, and other statements.
• Format control character in PRINT USING statement
!
(Exclamation mark)
Format control character in PRINT USING statement
@
Format control character in PRINT USING statement
'
(Comma)
_
(Underline)
CR code
(Enter)
(Half-width space)
TAB
(Tab code)
• Separates parameters or arguments.
• Line feed control character in INPUT and other statements.
If followed by a CR code, an underline extends one program line
up to 8192 characters.
Terminates a program line.
Separator which separates program elements in a program line.
(Note that a two-byte full-width space cannot be used as a separator.)
Separator which separates program elements in a program line.
58
Chapter 4. Basic Program Elements
4.3 Labels
A label can contain the following characters:
• Alphabet characters
• Numeral characters
• Period (.)
■
Rules for naming labels
• The label length should be limited to 10 characters including periods.
• A program can contain up to 9999 labels.
• Label names make no distinction between uppercase and lowercase letters.
The following labels, for example, will be treated as the same label.
filewrite
FILEWRITE
FileWrite
• No asterisk (*) or dollar sign ($) should be used for a label. The following label examples
are invalid:
*Label0
Label1$
• A label made up of only numeral letters as shown below is valid.
1000
1230
Note that a single 0 (zero) should not be used as a label name since it has a special
meaning in ON ERROR GOTO, ON KEY...GOSUB, and RESUME statements.
• A reserved word cannot be used by itself for a label name, but can be included within a
label name as shown below.
inputkey
• A label should not start with the character string FN.
59
4.4 Identifiers
Identifiers for the names of variables should comprise the same alphanumerics as the labels.
■
Rules for naming identifiers
• The identifier length should be limited to 10 characters including periods and excluding $
(dollar sign) and % (percent sign) suffixes.
• Every type of variables can contain up to 255 identifiers.
• A reserved word cannot be used by itself for an identifier name, but can be included
within an identifier name.
• An identifier should not start with a numeral character or the character string FN. If starting with an FN, the character string will be treated as a function identifier defined by the
DEF FN statement.
Examples of identifiers:
a
abcdef$
a1
a12345%
60
Chapter 4. Basic Program Elements
4.5 Reserved Words
"Reserved words" are keywords to be used in statements, functions, and operators. For the
reserved words, refer to Appendix B, "Reserved Words."
■
Rules for using reserved words
• A reserved word cannot be used by itself for a label name, a variable name, or other
identifiers, but can be included within them. The following identifiers, for example, are
improper since they use reserved words "input" and "key" as is, without modification:
input = 3
key = 1
• A reserved word can be used for a data file name as shown below.
OPEN "input" AS #1
61
Chapter 5
Data Types
CONTENTS
5.1
Constants....................................................................................................... 63
5.1.1 Types of Constants ............................................................................ 63
[ 1 ] String Constants........................................................................ 63
[ 2 ] Numeric Constants.................................................................... 63
5.2
Variables........................................................................................................ 65
5.2.1 Types of Variables according to Format.............................................
[ 1 ] String Variables .........................................................................
[ 2 ] Numeric Variables .....................................................................
5.2.2 Classification of Variables ..................................................................
65
65
66
67
5.3
User-defined Functions.................................................................................. 68
5.4
Type Conversion............................................................................................ 69
5.4.1 Type Conversion ................................................................................ 69
5.4.2 Type Conversion Examples ............................................................... 70
5.5
Scope of Variables......................................................................................... 71
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.3
5.5.4
Global Variables .................................................................................
Local Variables...................................................................................
Variables Not Declared to be Global or Local ....................................
Common Variables.............................................................................
62
71
73
74
75
Chapter 5. Data Types
5.1 Constants
5.1.1 Types of Constants
A constant is a data item whose value does not change during program execution. Constants
are classified into two types: string constants and numeric constants.
Constant
Example
String constants
"ABC", "123"
Numeric constants
Integer constants
In decimal notation
In hexadecimal notation
Real constants
123%, -4567
&HFFF, &h1A2B
123.45, -67.8E3
[ 1 ] String Constants
A "string constant" is a character string enclosed with a pair of double quotation marks ("). Its
length should be a maximum of 255 characters.
The character string should not contain a double quotation mark (") or any control codes.
[ 2 ] Numeric Constants
■
Integer Constants
–
In decimal notation
An integer constant in decimals is usually followed by a percent sign (%) as shown
below, but the % can be omitted.
Syntax:
sign decimalnumericstring%
Where the sign is either a plus (+) or a minus (–). The plus sign can be omitted.
The valid range is from -32768 to 32767.
If included in an integer constant in decimals, a comma (,) for marking every three digits
will cause a syntax error.
–
In hexadecimal notation
Integer constants in hexadecimals should be formatted as shown below.
Syntax:
&Hhexnumericstring
The valid range is from 0h to FFFFh.
If included in a numeric string in hexadecimals, a period denoting a decimal point will
cause a syntax error.
63
■
Real Constants
Real constants should be formatted as shown below.
Syntax:
sign mantissa
Syntax:
sign mantissa E sign exponent
Where a lowercase letter "e" is also allowed instead of uppercase letter "E."
mantissa is a numeric string composed of a maximum of 10 significant digits. It can
include a decimal point.
If included in a real constant as shown below, a comma (,) for marking every three digits
will cause a syntax error.
123,456
’syntax error!
64
Chapter 5. Data Types
5.2 Variables
A variable is a symbolic name that refers to a unit of data storage. The contents of a variable
can change during program execution.
5.2.1 Types of Variables according to Format
Variables are classified into two types: string variables and numeric variables, each of which is
subclassified into non-array and array types.
Classification of Variables
String variables
Non-array type
Array type
Numeric variables
Example
Integer variables
Non-array type
Array type
Real variables
ab3$
One-dimensional
Two-dimensional
a%
One-dimensional
Two-dimensional
Non-array type
Array type
e$ (10)
gh$ (1,3)
e% (10)
fg% (2,3)
a,bcd
One-dimensional
Two-dimensional
e (10)
fg (2,3)
Array variables should be declared in any of the DIM, COMMON, and DEFREG statements.
Note that the DIM statement should precede statements that will access the array variable.
BHT-BASIC can handle array variables up to two-dimensional.
The subscript range for an array variable is from 0 to 254.
[ 1 ] String Variables
A string variable should consist of 1 through 255 characters.
• Non-array string variables
A non-array string variable should be formatted with an identifier followed by a dollar sign
($) as shown below.
Syntax:
identifier$
Example:
a$,bcd123$
The default number of characters for a non-array string variable is 40.
• Array string variables
An array string variable should be formatted with an identifier followed by a dollar sign ($)
and a pair of parentheses () as shown below.
Syntax:
identifier$(subscript[,subscript])
Example:
a$(2),bcd123$(1,3)
Where a pair of parentheses indicates an array.
The default number of characters for an array string variable is 20.
65
■
Memory Occupation
A string variable occupies the memory space by (the number of characters + one) bytes, where
the added one byte is used for the character count. That is, it may occupy 2 to 256 bytes.
If a non-array string variable consisting of 20 characters is declared, for example, it will occupy
21-byte memory space.
[ 2 ] Numeric Variables
• Non-array integer variables
A non-array integer variable should be formatted with an identifier followed by a percentage sign (%) as shown below.
Syntax:
identifier%
Example:
a%,bcd%
• Array integer variables
An array integer variable should be formatted with an identifier followed by a percentage
sign (%) and a pair of parentheses () as shown below.
Syntax:
identifier%(subscript[,subscript])
Example:
e%(10),fg%(2,3),h%(i%,j%)
Where a pair of parentheses indicates an array.
• Non-array real variables
A non-array real variable should be formatted with an identifier only as shown below.
Syntax:
identifier
Example:
a,bcd
• Array real variables
An array real variable should be formatted with an identifier followed by a pair of parentheses () as shown below.
Syntax:
identifier(subscript[,subscript])
Example:
e(10),fg(2,3),h(i%,j%)
Where a pair of parentheses indicates an array.
■
Memory Occupation
A numeric variable occupies 2 bytes or 6 bytes of the memory space for an integer variable or
a real variable, respectively.
66
Chapter 5. Data Types
5.2.2 Classification of Variables
■
Work Variables
A work variable is intended for general use. You may use it either by declaring with the DIM
statement as a non-array variable or without declaration as an array variable. The following
examples show work variables:
DIM a(10),b%(5),c$(1)
d=100:e%=45
FOR count% = s1% TO s2%
NEXT count%
At the start of a user program, the Interpreter initializes all of the work variables to zero (0) or a
null character string. At the end of the program, all of these variables will be deleted.
Upon execution of the DIM statement declaring an array variable, the Interpreter allocates the
memory for the array variable. The declared array variable can be deleted by the ERASE
statement.
■
Common Variables
A common variable is declared by the COMMON statement. It is used to pass its value to the
chained-to programs.
■
Register Variables
A register variable is a unique non-volatile variable supported exclusively by BHT-BASIC. It
will retain its value (by battery backup) even after the program has terminated or the BHT
power has been turned off. Therefore, it should be used to store settings of programs and
other values in the memory.
The Interpreter stores register variables in the register variables area of the memory which is
different from the work variables area.
Like other variables, register variables are classified into two types: string variables and
numeric variables, each of which is subclassified into non-array and array types.
The format of register variables is identical with that of general variables. However, you need to
declare register variables including non-array register variables with DEFREG statements.
BHT-BASIC can handle array variables up to two-dimensional.
67
5.3 User-defined Functions
Out of user-defined functions, the SUB and FUNCTION functions can be called from other
files. The DEF FN function can be called only in the file where that function is defined and
should start with an FN.
The DEF FN and FUNCTION functions are classified into three types: integer functions, real
functions, and character functions, each of which should be defined in the following format:
User-defined Function
■
Format of DEF FN
Format of FUNCTION
Integer functions
FN
functionname %
Real functions
FN
functionname
Character functions
FN
functionname $
Setting Character String Length of Returned Values of Character Functions
A character function may return 1 through 255 characters. Note that the default character
string length results in the returned value of 40 characters.
If the returned value of the character string length is always less than 40 characters, you can
use the stack efficiently by setting the actual required value smaller than the default as the
maximum length. This is because the Interpreter positions returned values on the stack during
execution of user-defined functions so as to occupy the memory area by the maximum length
size. To define a function which results in the returned value of one character, for example,
describe as follows:
DEF FNshort$(i%)[1]
On the other hand, if the returned value is more than 40 characters, it is necessary to set the
actually required length. To define a function which results in the returned values of 128 characters, for example, describe as follows:
DEF FNlong$(i%)[128]
■
Dummy Arguments and Real Arguments
Dummy arguments are used for defining user-defined functions. In the example below, i% is a
dummy argument.
DEF FNfunc%(i%)
FNfunc%=i%*5
END DEF
Real arguments are actually passed to user-defined functions when those functions are called.
In the example below, 3 is a real argument.
PRINT FNfunc%(3)
68
Chapter 5. Data Types
5.4 Type Conversion
5.4.1 Type Conversion
BHT-BASIC has the type conversion facility which automatically converts a value of one data
type into another data type during value assignment to numeric variables and operations; from
a real number into an integer number by rounding off, and vice versa, depending upon the conditions.
• The Interpreter automatically converts a value of a real into an integer, in any of the following cases:
- Assignment of real expressions to integer variables
- Operands for an arithmetic operator MOD
- Operands for logical operators: AND, OR, NOT, and XOR
- Parameters for functions
- File numbers
In the type conversion from real into integer, the allowable value range of resultant integer is limited as shown below. If the resultant integer comes out of the limit, a run-time
error will occur.
-32768 ≤ resultantintegervalue ≤ +32767
• In assignments or operations from integer to real, the type-converted real will have higher
accuracy:
Syntax:
realvariable = integerexpression
In the above case, the Interpreter applies the type conversion to the evaluated resultant
of the integer expression before assigning the real value to the real variable.
Therefore, a in the following program will result in the value of 184.5.
a=123%*1.5
69
5.4.2 Type Conversion Examples
The following examples show the type conversion from real to integer.
■
Assignment of Real Expressions to Integer Variables
When assigning the value of the real expression (right side) to the integer variable (left
side), the Interpreter carries out the type conversion.
Syntax:
integervariable = realexpression
Example:
b% = 123.45
Where b% will become 123.
■
Operands for an Arithmetic Operator MOD
Before executing the MOD operation, the Interpreter converts operands into integers.
Syntax:
realexpression MOD realexpression
Example:
10.5 MOD 3.4
Where the result will become identical with 11 MOD 3.
■
Operands for Logical Operators AND, OR, NOT, and XOR
Before executing each logical operation, the Interpreter converts operands into integers.
Syntax:
NOT realexpression,
realexpression {AND|OR|XOR} realexpression
Example:
10.6 AND 12.45
Where the result will become identical with 11 AND 12.
■
Parameters for Functions
If parameters i and j of the functions below are real expressions, for example, the
Interpreter converts them into integers before passing them to each function.
CHR$(i),HEX$(i),LEFT$(x$,i),MID$(x$,i,j),
RIGHT$(x$,i),...
■
File Numbers
The Interpreter also rounds off file numbers to integers.
EOF(fileno),LOC(fileno),LOF(fileno),...
70
Chapter 5. Data Types
5.5 Scope of Variables
You may scope work variables and register variables to be local or global with the PRIVATE
or GLOBAL statement, respectively.
(5)
Global variables
A global variable can be accessed by any routine in source files to share information
between those routines. Before access to it, you need to declare it with the GLOBAL
statement.
(6)
Local variables
A local variable can only be accessed by any routine in a source file where it is defined.
Before access to it, you need to declare it with the PRIVATE statement.
(7)
Variables not declared to be global or local
If not declared to be global or local, a variable is closed in each file where it is defined.
A variable used inside the FUNCTION or SUB function without declaration is available
only within a function where it is defined.
You may also share variables between user programs when one program chains to another by
declaring variables to be common with the COMMON statement.
5.5.1 Global Variables
A global variable can be shared between source files in a program. In each file where you want
to use a particular global variable, write GLOBAL preceding a desired variable name or
DEFREG statement.
(Example)
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
GLOBAL
aaa%
bbb$[10]
ccc$(5,3)[30]
DEFREG ddd
DEFREG eee%(5)
(Example 1) To share the variable aa% between Files 1 and 2, define aa% by using the GLO-
BAL statement in each file as follows:
File 1
File 2
GLOBAL aa%
GLOBAL aa%
Before access to a global variable, you should define it.
71
If used inside the SUB or FUNCTION function in the same file where the global variable is
defined, the variable will also have the same value.
(Example 2) The variable aa% defined by the GLOBAL statement will have the same value as
aa% within the FUNCTION.
File 1
File 2
GLOBAL aa%
DECLARE SUB printaa(x)
FUNCTION addaa(x)
addaa=aa%+x
END FUNCTION
aa%=2
print addaa(2)
printaa(2)
GLOBAL aa%
SUB printaa(x)
print aa%+x
END SUB
If you link Files 1 and 2 above into a program file, the variable aa% used in those files will have
the same value.
■
If a same name variable is used in one file where it is declared to be global
and in the other file where it is not declared
In those files where the variable is declared to be global by the GLOBAL statement, all of those
variables will have the same value. In a file where the variable is not declared, the variable is
available only in each file.
(Example) If in each of Files 1 and 2 the variable aa% is declared by the GLOBAL statement
and in File 3 the variable aa% is not declared:
File 1
File 2
File 3
GLOBAL aa%[50]
GLOBAL aa%[50]
dim aa%[50]
If you link Files 1, 2, and 3 above into a program file, the variables aa% in Files 1 and 2 will
have the same value and aa% in File 3 will be treated as a variable different from those in Files
1 and 2.
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Chapter 5. Data Types
5.5.2 Local Variables
A local variable can be accessed only in a file where it is defined. Write PRIVATE preceding a
desired variable name or DEFREG statement.
(Example)
PRIVATE
PRIVATE
PRIVATE
PRIVATE
PRIVATE
aaa%
bbb$[10]
ccc$(5,3)[30]
DEFREG ddd
DEFREG eee%(5)
Before access to a local variable, you should define it.
If used inside more than one SUB or FUNCTION function in the same file where the local variable is defined, all of those variables will also have the same value.
(Example)
PRIVATE aa%
FUNCTION addaa(x)
addaa=aa%+x
END FUNCTION
SUB printaa(x)
print aa%+x
END SUB
aa%=2
print addaa(2)
printaa(2)
In the above example, the variable aa% used in "addaa" and "printaa" will have the same
value.
■
Variables with overlapping scope
If your program has a global variable and a local variable with the same name, in those files
where the variable is declared with the GLOBAL statement, those variables will be treated as
the same; in a file where the variable is declared with the PRIVATE variable, the variable is
available only in that file.
(Example) If in each of Files 1 and 2 the variable aa% is declared by the GLOBAL statement
but in File 3 it is not declared by the GLOBAL statement:
File 1
File 2
File 3
GLOBAL aa%[50]
GLOBAL aa%[50]
PRIVATE aa%[50]
If you link Files 1, 2, and 3 above into a program file, the variables aa% in Files 1 and 2 will
have the same value and aa% in File 3 will be treated as a variable different from those in Files
1 and 2.
73
5.5.3 Variables Not Declared to be Global or Local
If not declared to be global or local, a variable is closed in each file where it is defined. A variable used inside the FUNCTION or SUB function without declaration is available only within a
function where it is defined.
(Example)
FUNCTION addaa(x)
addaa=aa%+x
END FUNCTION
SUB printaa(x)
print aa%+x
END SUB
aa%=2
print addaa(2)
printaa(2)
In the above example, all variables aa% used in "addaa," "printaa," and others will be treated
as different ones.
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Chapter 5. Data Types
5.5.4 Common Variables
A common variable should be declared in a main object beforehand. To share the common
variable by files other than the main object, you need to declare it with the COMMON statement
in each file where the common variable should be available.
File 1
File 2
DECLARE SUB printaa(x)
COMMON a%
a%=2
printaa(5)
COMMON a%
SUB printaa(x)
print a%+x
SUB
To use a% as a common variable in Files 1 and 2, define the variable with the COMMON statement in each file.
If a common variable declared with the COMMON statement is used within the SUB or FUNCTION function in a file where the variable is defined, then the common variable will have the
same value.
(Example)
COMMON aa%
FUNCTION addaa(x)
addaa=aa%+x
END FUNCTION
SUB printaa(x)
print aa%+x
END SUB
aa%=2
print addaa(2)
printaa(2)
In the above example, variables aa% used in "addaa" and "printaa" will be treated as same
one.
75
Chapter 6
Expressions and Operators
CONTENTS
6.1
Overview........................................................................................................ 77
6.2
Operator Precedence .................................................................................... 78
6.3
Operators....................................................................................................... 80
6.3.1 Arithmetic Operators ..........................................................................
6.3.2 Relational Operators ..........................................................................
6.3.3 Logical Operators ...............................................................................
[ 1 ] The NOT operator .....................................................................
[ 2 ] The AND operator .....................................................................
[ 3 ] The OR operator .......................................................................
[ 4 ] The XOR operator .....................................................................
6.3.4 Function Operators.............................................................................
6.3.5 String Operators .................................................................................
76
80
81
82
82
83
83
83
84
84
Chapter 6. Expressions and Operators
6.1 Overview
An expression is defined as a combination of constants, variables, and other expressions
which are connected using operators.
There are two types of expressions--numeric expressions and string expressions.
BHT-BASIC has the following types of operators:
Operators
Description
Arithmetic operator
Performs arithmetic operations.
Relational operator
Compares two values.
Logical operator
Combines multiple tests or Boolean expressions
into a single true/false test.
Function operator
Performs the built-in or user-defined functions.
String operator
Concatenates or compares character strings.
77
6.2 Operator Precedence
When an expression contains more than one operator, BHT-BASIC performs the operations in
the standard precedence as shown below.
Precedence
1.
Parentheses ( )
The parentheses allow you to override operator precedence; that is, operations
enclosed with parentheses are first carried out.
For improving the readability of an expression, you can use parentheses to separate
two operators placed in succession.
2.
Function operations
3.
Arithmetic operations
Operations
4.
Arithmetic Operators
Precedence
Negation
_
1
Multiplication and division
* and /
2
Modulo arithmetic
MOD
3
Addition and subtraction
+ and _
4
Relational operations
=, <>, ><, <, >, <=, >=, =<, =>
5.
Logical operations
Operations
6.
Logical Operators
Precedence
Logical negation
NOT
1
Logical multiplication
AND
2
Logical addition
OR
3
Exclusive logical addition
XOR
4
String operations
78
Chapter 6. Expressions and Operators
When more than one operator occurs at the same level of precedence, the BHT-BASIC
resolves the expression by proceeding from left to right.
a=4+5.0/20*2-1
In the above example, the operation order is as follows;
5.0/20
0.25*2
4+0.5
4.5-1
(=0.25)
(=0.5)
(=4.5)
(=3.5)
79
6.3 Operators
6.3.1 Arithmetic Operators
Arithmetic operators include a negative sign (-) and operators for multiplication (*), division (/),
addition (+), and subtraction (-). They also include modulo operator MOD.
Operations
Arithmetic Operators
Precedence
Examples
Negation
-
1
-a
Multiplication and division
* and /
2
a*b, a/b
Modulo arithmetic
MOD
3
a MOD b
Addition and subtraction
+ and –
4
a+b, a-b
■
Modulo Operation (MOD)
The MOD operator executes the modulo operation; that is, it divides expression 1
by expression 2 (see the format below) and returns the remainder.
Syntax:
expression1 MOD expression2
Where one or more spaces or tab codes should precede and follow the MOD.
If these expressions include real values, the MOD first rounds them off to integers and
then executes the division operation. For example, the MOD treats expression 8 MOD
3.4 as 8 MOD 3 so as to return the remainder "2".
■
Overflow and Division by Zero
Arithmetic overflow resulting from an operation or division by zero will cause a run-time
error. Such an error may be trapped by error trapping.
80
Chapter 6. Expressions and Operators
6.3.2 Relational Operators
A relational operator compares two values. Depending upon whether the comparison is true or
false, the operator returns true (–1) or false (0).
With the operation result, you can control the program flow.
The relational operators include the following:
Relational Operators
Meanings
Examples
=
Equal to
A = B
<> or ><
Not equal to
A <> B
<
Less than
A < B
>
Greater than
A > B
<= or =<
Less than or equal to
A <= B
>= or =>
Greater than or equal to
A >= B
If an expression contains both arithmetic and relational operators, the arithmetic operator has
higher precedence than the relational operator.
81
6.3.3 Logical Operators
A logical operator combines multiple tests and manipulates Boolean operands, then returns
the results. It is used, for example, to control the program execution flow or test the value of an
INP function bitwise, as shown in the sample below.
IF d<200 AND f<4 THEN ...
WHILE i>10 OR k<0 ...
IF NOT p THEN ...
barcod% = INP(0) AND &h02
Listed below are the four types of logical operators available.
Operations
Logical Operators
Precedence
Negation
NOT
1
Logical multiplication
AND
2
Logical addition
OR
3
Exclusive logical addition
XOR
4
One or more spaces or tab codes should precede and follow the NOT, AND, OR, and XOR
operators.
In the logical expressions (or operands), the logical operator first carries out the type conversion to integers before performing the logical operation. If the resultant integer value is out of
the range from -32768 to +32767, a run-time error will occur.
If an expression contains logical operators together with arithmetic and relational operators,
the logical operators are given lowest precedence.
[ 1 ] The NOT operator
The NOT operator reverses data bits by evaluating each bit in an expression and setting the
resultant bits according to the truth table below.
Syntax:
NOT expression
Truth Table for NOT
Bit in Expression
Resultant Bit
0
1
1
0
For example, NOT 0 = -1 (true).
The NOT operation for an integer has the returned value of negative 1’s complement. The
NOT X, for instant, is equal to –(X+1).
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Chapter 6. Expressions and Operators
[ 2 ] The AND operator
The AND operator ANDs the same order bits in two expressions on either side of the operator,
then sets 1 to the resultant bit if both of these bits are 1.
Syntax:
expression1 AND expression2
Truth Table for AND
Bit in Expression 1
Bit in Expression 2
Resultant Bit
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
[ 3 ] The OR operator
The OR operator ORes the same order bits in two expressions on either side of the operator,
then sets 1 to the resultant bit if at least one of those bits is 1.
Syntax:
expression1 OR expression2
Truth Table for OR
Bit in Expression 1
Bit in Expression 2
Resultant Bit
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
[ 4 ] The XOR operator
The XOR operator XORes the same order bits in two expressions on either side of the operator, then sets the resultant bit according to the truth table below.
Syntax:
expression1 XOR expression2
Truth Table for XOR
Bit in Expression 1
Bit in Expression 2
Resultant Bit
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
83
6.3.4 Function Operators
The following two types of functions are available in BHT-BASIC, both of which work as function operators:
■
Built-in Functions
Already built in BHT-BASIC, e.g., ABS and INT.
■
User-defined Functions
Defined by using DEF FN (in single-line form), DEF FN...END DEF (in block form),
SUB...END SUB, or FUNCTION...END FUNCTION statement.
6.3.5 String Operators
A character string operator may concatenate or compare character strings.
Listed below are the types of character string operators available.
Operations
Character String Operators
Examples
Concatenation
+ (Plus sign)
a$+"."+b$
Comparison
= (Equal)
a$=b$
<>, >< (Not equal)
a$<>b$, a$><b$
>, <, =<, =>, <=, >= (Greater or less)
a$>b$, a$=>b$
■
Concatenation of Character Strings
The process of combining character strings is called concatenation and is executed
with the plus sign (+). The example below concatenates the character strings, a$ and
b$.
a$="Work1" : b$ = "dat"
PRINT a$+"."+b$
Work1.dat
84
Chapter 6. Expressions and Operators
■
Comparison of Character Strings
The string operators compare two character strings according to character codes
assigned to individual characters.
In the example below, the expression a1$<b1$ returns the value of true so as to output -1.
a1$="ABC001"
b1$="ABC002"
PRINT a1$<b1$
-1
85
Chapter 7
I/O Facilities
CONTENTS
7.1
Output to the LCD Screen ............................................................................. 88
7.1.1 Display Fonts...................................................................................... 88
[ 1 ] Screen mode, font size, and display angle................................ 88
[ 2 ] Character attributes (Reverse font attribute, enlargement
attribute, tone attribute) ............................................................. 90
7.1.2 Coordinates on the LCD..................................................................... 91
7.1.3 Dot Patterns of Fonts ......................................................................... 94
7.1.4 Mixed Display of Different Screen Modes, Font Sizes, and/or
Character Enlargement Sizes .......................................................... 100
[ 1 ] ANK Mode and Kanji Mode Together in One Line .................. 100
[ 2 ] Standard-Size and Small-Size Fonts Together on the Same
Screen ..................................................................................... 100
[ 3 ] Regular-Size and Double-Width Characters Together on the
Same Screen........................................................................... 101
[ 4 ] Regular-Size and Double-Height Characters Together on the
Same Screen........................................................................... 101
[ 5 ] Regular-Size and Quadruple-Size Characters Together on the
Same Screen........................................................................... 102
7.1.5 Displaying User-defined Characters................................................. 104
7.1.6 VRAM ............................................................................................... 105
7.1.7 Other Facilities for the LCD .............................................................. 107
7.2
Input from the Keyboard ..............................................................................
7.2.1 Alphabet Entry..................................................................................
7.2.2 Other Facilities for the Keyboard......................................................
[ 1 ] Auto-repeat .............................................................................
[ 2 ] Shift key ..................................................................................
7.3
Timer and Beeper ........................................................................................ 111
7.3.1 Timer Functions................................................................................ 111
7.3.2 BEEP Statement .............................................................................. 111
7.4
Controlling and Monitoring the I/Os .............................................................
7.4.1 Controlling by the OUT Statement ...................................................
7.4.2 Monitoring by the INP Function ........................................................
7.4.3 Monitoring by the WAIT Statement...................................................
112
112
112
113
7.5
Entry from the Touch Screen
(Only for models equipped with a touch screen) .........................................
7.5.1 Outline ..............................................................................................
7.5.2 Function Touch Keys........................................................................
[ 1 ] Enabling or disabling the function touch keys .........................
[ 2 ] Key numbers assigned to the function touch keys ..................
[ 3 ] Assigning data to a function touch key....................................
[ 4 ] Displaying a character string on a function touch key .............
114
114
115
115
115
116
117
86
108
108
110
110
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Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
[ 5 ] Keystroke trapping ..................................................................
7.5.3 User-Defined Touch Keys ................................................................
[ 1 ] Creating a user-defined touch key with "CONSOLE. FN3" .....
[ 2 ] Canceling the user-defined touch key with "CONSOLE. FN3"
[ 3 ] Keystroke trapping ..................................................................
7.5.4 Software Keyboard..........................................................................
[ 1 ] Enabling/disabling software keyboard.....................................
[ 2 ] Displaying the software keyboard ...........................................
[ 3 ] Moving the software keyboard ................................................
7.5.5 Getting the Touch Screen Status .....................................................
[ 1 ] Enabling the touch screen.......................................................
[ 2 ] Getting the touch screen status and the coordinates that is
pressed last .............................................................................
87
118
119
119
120
120
121
121
123
123
124
124
124
7.1 Output to the LCD Screen
7.1.1 Display Fonts
[ 1 ] Screen mode, font size, and display angle
Listed below are the fonts available on each BHT series.
Screen mode
Single-byte
ANK* mode
Two-byte
Kanji mode
Font size
Letter type
Standard-size ANK chars
Standard-size Full-width
Half-width
Small-size
Full-width
Half-width
Character
enlargement
Dots (W x H)
Chars x Lines
Regular
12 x 12
16 x 25
Double-width
24 x 12
8 x 25
Double-height
12 x 24
16 x 12
Quadruple
24 x 24
8 x 12
Regular
16 x 16
12 x 19
Double-width
32 x 16
6 x 19
Double-height
16 x 32
12 x 9
Quadruple
32 x 32
6x9
8 x 16
25 x 19
Double-width
16 x 16
12 x 19
Double-height
8 x 32
25 x 9
Quadruple
16 x 32
12 x 9
Regular
12 x 12
16 x 25
Double-width
24 x 12
8 x 25
Double-height
12 x 24
16 x 12
Quadruple
24 x 24
8 x 12
6 x 12
33 x 25
Double-width
12 x 12
16 x 25
Double-height
6 x 24
33 x 12
12 x 24
16 x 12
Regular
Regular
Quadruple
*ANK: Alphanumerics and Katakana
88
Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
■
Screen mode
The ANK mode displays ANK characters listed in Appendices C1 and C2.
The Kanji mode displays the following characters:
• Half-width: Katakana and alphanumerics
• Full-width: JIS Levels 1 and 2 Kanji, alphabets and symbols
NOTE
■
Half-width Kanji characters differ from ANK characters in size.
Font size
The standard- and small-size fonts may be displayed.
To display Kanji characters, it is necessary to download Kanji font files listed below.
• To use standard-size fonts:
16-dot font file
• To use small-size fonts:
12-dot font file
Even without those files, the half-width alphanumerics and Katakana may be displayed.
Each of the 16-dot and 12-dot font files consists of JIS Level 1 and Level 2 files.
■
Display angle
You may rotate characters to be displayed 180°.
Switching the screen mode, font size, and display angle
You may switch the screen mode, font size, and display angle by using the SCREEN statement
(displaymode parameter). Refer to Chapter 14, SCREEN.
89
[ 2 ] Character attributes (Reverse font attribute, enlargement
attribute, tone attribute)
■
Reverse font attribute
Characters may be reversed (highlighted).
■
Enlargement attribute
Characters may be displayed in regular-size, double-width, double-height, and quadruple-size,
as listed in [ 1 ].
■
Tone attribute
Characters may be displayed in black, dark gray, light gray, and white.
Switching the character attributes
You may switch the reverse font attribute, enlargement attribute, and tone attribute by using
the SCREEN statement (charaattribute parameter). Refer to Chapter 14, SCREEN.
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Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
7.1.2 Coordinates on the LCD
To locate characters on the coordinates of the LCD screen, use the LOCATE statement. To
obtain the current cursor position, use the CSRLIN and POS functions.
The coordinates will differ depending upon the screen mode and font size.
Single-byte ANK mode
• Standard-size font
Regular Double-width
LOCATE 1,1
LOCATE 16,1
LOCATE 4,4
LOCATE 4,7
LOCATE 4,10
Double-height
LOCATE 4,14
Quadruple
LOCATE 16,25
91
Two-byte Kanji Mode
• Standard-size font
Be careful about the specification of line numbers in figures below. A single column
shown below represents an area for a half-width character; Double columns represent
an area for a full-width character.
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Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
• Small-size font
Be careful about the specification of line numbers in figures below. A single column
shown below represents an area for a half-width character; Double columns represent
an area for a full-width character.
93
7.1.3 Dot Patterns of Fonts
■
Character fonts
In the figures below, " " shows a display area for characters. Any character is displayed
within a set of the display areas.
" " shows a delimiter area that separates characters from each other and contains no display
data. The corresponding dots are always off.
Single-byte ANK mode
• Standard-size font
12 x 12 dots (Regular)
24 x 12 dots (Double-width)
12 x 24 dots
(Double-height)
24 x 24 dots (Quadruple)
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Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
Two-byte Kanji Mode
• Standard-size font
Half-width Kanji
8 x 16 dots (Regular)
Half-width Kanji
16 x 16 dots (Double-width)
Half-width Kanji
8 x 32 dots
(Double-height)
Half-width Kanji
16 x 32 dots (Quadruple)
Full-width Kanji
16 x 16 dots (Regular)
Full-width Kanji
32 x 16 dots (Double-width)
Full-width Kanji
16 x 32 dots
(Double-height)
Full-width Kanji
32 x 32 dots (Quadruple)
95
• Small-size font
Half-width Kanji
6 x 12 dots (Regular)
Half-width Kanji
12 x 12 dots (Double-width)
Half-width Kanji
6 x 24 dots
(Double-height)
Half-width Kanji
12 x 24 dots (Quadruple)
Full-width Kanji
12 x 12 dots (Regular)
Full-width Kanji
24 x 12 dots (Double-width)
Full-width Kanji
12 x 24 dots
(Double-height)
Full-width Kanji
24 x 24 dots (Quadruple)
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Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
■
Cursor shape
The LOCATE statement specifies the cursor shape--Underline cursor, full block cursor, or
invisible.
You may define and load the desired cursor shape with the APLOAD or KPLOAD statement
and then specify the user-defined cursor with the LOCATE statement. If the double-width
character size is specified, the cursor will be displayed in double width.
Single-byte ANK mode
• Standard-size font (12 x 12 dots)
In regular size
Underline cursor
Full block cursor
Invisible
In double-width
Full block cursor
Underline cursor
Invisible
In double-height
Underline cursor
Invisible
Full block cursor
In quadruple size
Underline cursor
Full block cursor
97
Invisible
Two-byte Kanji Mode
• Standard-size font ( 8 x 16 dots)
In regular size
Underline cursor
Full block cursor
Invisible
Full block cursor
Invisible
Full block cursor
Invisible
Full block cursor
Invisible
In double-width
Underline cursor
In double-height
Underline cursor
In quadruple size
Underline cursor
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Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
• Small-size font (6 x 12 dots)
In regular size
Underline cursor
Full block cursor
Invisible
Full block cursor
Invisible
Full block cursor
Invisible
Full block cursor
Invisible
In double-width
Underline cursor
In double-height
Underline cursor
In quadruple size
Underline cursor
99
7.1.4 Mixed Display of Different Screen Modes, Font
Sizes, and/or Character Enlargement Sizes
[ 1 ] ANK Mode and Kanji Mode Together in One Line
ANK characters and Kanji characters may display together in the same line on the LCD screen
as shown below.
CLS
SCREEN
LOCATE
SCREEN
LOCATE
0
1,1 : PRINT "ABCDEFGHabcdefgh"
1
1,1 : PRINT "
"
If the display data is outputted to the same location more than one time as shown in the above
program, the BHT overwrites the old data with new data.
[ 2 ] Standard-Size and Small-Size Fonts Together on the Same
Screen
Standard-size and small-size fonts of Kanji characters (both full-width and half-width) may display together on the same screen as shown below.
CLS
SCREEN 1
PRINT "
"
SCREEN 5
PRINT " ";
’Select standard-size font
’Select small-size font
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Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
[ 3 ] Regular-Size and Double-Width Characters Together on
the Same Screen
The regular-size and double-width characters may display together on the same screen as
shown below.
CLS
SCREEN
SCREEN
SCREEN
SCREEN
0,0
0,2
1,0
1,2
:
:
:
:
PRINT
PRINT
PRINT
PRINT
"ANK"
"ANK"
"
"
"
"
’Regular-size
’Double-width
’Regular-size
’Double-width
LOCATE 1,3
SCREEN 5,0 : LOCATE 14 : PRINT "
in
in
in
in
ANK mode
ANK mode
Kanji mode
Kanji mode
" ’Small-size font, regular
’size in Kanji mode
" ’Small-size font, double’width in Kanji mode
SCREEN 5,2 : LOCATE 14 : PRINT "
[ 4 ] Regular-Size and Double-Height Characters Together on
the Same Screen
The regular-size and double-height characters may display together on the same screen as
shown below.
CLS
SCREEN
SCREEN
SCREEN
SCREEN
SCREEN
0,0
0,4
1,0
1,4
5,0
:
:
:
:
:
PRINT
PRINT
PRINT
PRINT
PRINT
"ANK";
"ANK"
"
";
"
"
"
";
SCREEN 5,4 : PRINT "
"
’Regular-size in ANK mode
’Double-height in ANK mode
’Regular-size in Kanji mode
’Double-height in Kanji mode
’Small-size font, regular size
’in Kanji mode
’Small-size font, double-height
’in Kanji mode
101
[ 5 ] Regular-Size and Quadruple-Size Characters Together on
the Same Screen
The regular-size and quadruple-size characters may display together on the same screen as
shown below.
CLS
SCREEN
SCREEN
SCREEN
SCREEN
■
0,0
0,6
1,0
1,6
:
:
:
:
PRINT
PRINT
PRINT
PRINT
"ABC";
"ABC"
"
";
"
"
’Regular-size in ANK mode
’Quadruple-size in ANK mode
’Regular-size in Kanji mode
’Quadruple-size in Kanji mode
Switching the screen font from the standard-size to small-size
The coordinates on which standard-size fonts are displayed and one on which small-size fonts
are displayed are different from each other.
If the screen font is switched from the standard-size to small-size, then the cursor will move
from the current position to the nearest lower rightward position on the small-size font coordinates.
12 dots
16 dots
Small-size font coordinates
Moves the cursor position
Standard-size font coordinates
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Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
■
Switching the character size from the regular-size to double-height or quadruple-size
With the same screen font being in use, if the character size is switched from the regular-size
to double-height or quadruple-size, then the cursor will not change its current position. Assuming the upper left corner of the current cursor position as an origin, the subsequent character
will be displayed.
Display position of the
next regular-size character
Display position of the
next quadruple-size character
Coordinates
103
7.1.5 Displaying User-defined Characters
■
Loading a user-defined font
The APLOAD or KPLOAD statement loads a user-defined font.
The APLOAD statement is capable of loading up to 32 single-byte ANK fonts to be displayed in
the single-byte ANK mode.
The KPLOAD statement is capable of loading up to 128 two-byte Kanji fonts in full width to be
displayed in the two-byte Kanji mode.
■
Enlarging/condensing defined font patterns
If the double-width, double-height, or quadruple-size is specified, the Interpreter will enlarge
user-defined font patterns for display.
If the small-size font is specified for font patterns loaded by the KPLOAD statement, then the
Interpreter will use a total of 12 bits (bit 0 to 11) each on the 1st to 11th elements and ignores
the 12th to 15th elements and bits 12 to 15, as shown below.
0
15
0
11
Bit 0
Bit 11
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Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
7.1.6 VRAM
The INP function may read the VRAM data. The OUT statement writes data into the VRAM so
that graphics may be displayed on the LCD dotwise.
■
Specifying an address bytewise
An address on the LCD may be specified bytewise by giving a port number in the OUT statement and INP function. The entry range of the port number is as follows:
Series
Entry range of the port number
BHT-100
10h to 1DBFh
Port numbering system counts, starting from the top left corner of the LCD to the right bottom
corner.
10h
D7h
D8h
19Fh
1A0h
267h
268h
32Fh
330h
3F7h
3F8h
4BFh
4C0h
587h
588h
64Fh
105
■
Setting an 8-bit binary pattern
The data of an 8-bit binary pattern should be designated by bit 7 (LSB) to bit 0 (MSB) in the
OUT statement or INP function. If the bit is 1, the corresponding dot on the LCD will come ON.
OUT &h10,&h80
’Set bit 7 only to 1
10h
D7h
D8h
19Fh
1A0h
267h
268h
32Fh
330h
3F7h
3F8h
4BFh
4C0h
587h
588h
64Fh
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Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
7.1.7 Other Facilities for the LCD
■
Setting national characters
Using the COUNTRY$ function displays currency symbols and special characters for countries.
Refer to Appendix C2, "National Character Sets."
■
Specifying the cursor shape
The LOCATE statement specifies the cursor shape.
Cursor shape
LOCATE statement
Invisible
LOCATE ,,0
Underline cursor
LOCATE ,,1
Full block cursor
LOCATE ,,2
User-defined cursor
LOCATE ,,255
The shape of a user-defined cursor may be defined by using the APLOAD or KPLOAD statement in the single-byte ANK mode or two-byte Kanji mode, respectively.
In the single-byte ANK mode, the cursor size will become equal to the size of single-byte ANK
characters; in the double-byte Kanji mode, it will become equal to the size of the half-width
characters in each mode.
107
7.2 Input from the Keyboard
7.2.1 Alphabet Entry
In addition to the numeric entry from the keypad, the BHT-100 supports software keyboard
entry.
■
Switching between the Numeric Entry System and Alphanumeric Entry System
To switch between the numeric entry system and alphanumeric entry system, use the OUT
statement in a user program as shown below.
OUT &h60B0,0
OUT &h60B0,1
’Switch to the numeric entry system*
’Switch to the alphanumeric entry system
*Selected when the BHT-100 is cold-started.
To monitor the current key entry system, use the INP function as shown below.
INP(&h60B0)
■
Switching between Numeric and Alphabet Entry Modes in the Alphanumeric
Entry System
In the alphanumeric entry system, you may switch between numeric and alphabet entry modes
as described below. The default, which is applied immediately after the BHT-100 is switched to
the alphanumeric entry system, is the numeric entry mode.
• Pressing the SF key
Pressing the SF key toggles between the numeric and alphabet entry modes.
• Using the OUT statement
Issue the OUT statement as shown below.
OUT &h60B1,0
OUT &h60B1,1
’Switch to the numeric entry mode
’Switch to the alphabet entry mode
To monitor the current entry mode, use the INP function as shown below.
INP(&h60B1)
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Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
■
Alphabet Entry Procedure
(1) Switch to the alphanumeric entry system as follows:
Issue "OUT &h60B0,1".
(2) Switch to the alphabet entry mode as follows:
Press the SF key or issue "OUT &h60B1,1".
The ALP icon appears.
(3) Enter alphabet letters from the keypad as follows:
1)
Press a numerical key to which the desired alphabet letter is assigned by the required
number of times until the desired alphabet letter appears, referring to the relationship
between keys and their assigned data given below.
To enter "T," for example, press the 1 key two times. At this stage, the "T" is highlighted but not established yet.
Keys
2)
Key data assigned
7
A, B, C, a, b, c
8
D, E, F, d, e, f
9
G, H, I, g, h, i
4
J, K, L, j, k, l
5
M, N, O, m, n, o
6
P, Q, R, p, q, r
1
S, T, U, s, t, u
2
V, W, X, v, w, x
3
Y, Z, +, y, z
0
-, %, $, \
.
.comma (,), /, space
Press any of the following keys to establish the highlighted character ("T" in this example).
- If you press any one of the function keys (F1 to F8), BS, C, and magic keys (M1 to
M4), then the highlighted character ("T") will be established. The key data of both
the established key and the key you pressed now will be returned.
- If you press the ENT key, the highlighted character ("T") will be established and the
key data will be returned.
- If you press the SF key, the alphabet entry mode will be switched to the numeric
entry mode. The highlighted character will be ignored.
- If you press any other numerical key (e.g. "3" to which "Y" is assigned), the key data
of the highlighted character ("T") will be established and the key data will be
returned. At this state, the "Y" is not established yet.
109
When no key is ready to be established, pressing any of the function keys, BS, C,
ENT, and magic keys will return the key data of the pressed key.
(Example: If you press the 1, 1, 2, and 3 keys)
The key data of "T" and "V" will be returned. The "Y" is not established yet.
(Example: If you press the C, 1, 1, 1, and ENT keys)
The 18H and "U" will be returned.
7.2.2 Other Facilities for the Keyboard
[ 1 ] Auto-repeat
The keys on the BHT series are not auto-repeat.
[ 2 ] Shift key
The Shift key can be switched to non-lock type or lock type by selecting Nonlock or Onetime on
the SET KEY menu in System Mode, respectively.
• Non-lock type
The keypad will be shifted only when the Shift key is held down.
• Lock type
Once the Shift key is pressed, the next one key pressed will be shifted and
the following keys will not be shifted.
When the keys are shifted, the SF icon appears in the status display.
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Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
7.3 Timer and Beeper
7.3.1 Timer Functions
The timer functions (TIMEA, TIMEB, and TIMEC) are available in BHT-BASIC for accurate
time measurement.
Use these timer functions for monitoring the keyboard waiting time, communications timeout
errors, etc.
TIMEA = 100
WAIT 0,&H10
BEEP
PRINT "10sec."
’10 sec
TIMEC = 20
’2 sec
WAIT 0,&H41
BEEP
PRINT "2sec. or Keyboard"
7.3.2 BEEP Statement
The BEEP statement sounds a beeper and specifies the frequency of the beeper.
The example below sounds the musical scale of do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si, and do.
READ readDat%
WHILE (readDat% >= 0)
TIMEA = 3
BEEP 2,,,readDat%
WAIT 0,&h10
READ readDat%
WEND
DATA 523,587,659,698,783,880,987,1046,-1
Specifying the frequency with value 0, 1, or 2 produces the special beeper effects; that is, the
low-, medium-, or high-pitched tone, respectively.
FOR i% = 0 TO 2
TIMEC = 20
BEEP,,,i%
WAIT 0,&h40
NEXT
NOTE
Only if setting 0, 1, or 2 or making no specification to the frequency, you can adjust
the beeper volume on the LCD when turning on the BHT. (For the adjustment of the
beeper volume, refer to the BHT User’s Manual.)
111
7.4 Controlling and Monitoring the I/Os
7.4.1 Controlling by the OUT Statement
The OUT statement can control the input and output devices (I/Os) listed in Appendix D, I/O
Ports." The table below lists some examples.
I/O Devices
OUT Statement
OUT 1,&h02
OUT 1,&h01
OUT 1,&h00
Turns on the indicator LED in green.
Turns on the indicator LED in red.
Turns off the indicator LED.
OUT 3,&hXX (XX: 00 to 07)
Sets the LCD contrast.
OUT 4,&h00
OUT 4,&h01
Sets the Japanese message version.
Sets the English message version.
OUT 6,&hXX (XX: 00 to FF)
Sets the sleep timer.
7.4.2 Monitoring by the INP Function
The INP function monitors the input and output devices (I/Os) listed in Appendix D, "I/O Ports."
The table below lists some examples.
INP Function
I/O Devices
Value
Meaning
INP(0) AND &h01
Keyboard buffer & touch
key buffer status
1
0
Data present
No data
INP(0) AND &h02
Bar-code buffer status
1
0
Data present
No data
INP(0) AND &h04
Trigger switch status*
1
0
Being pressed
Being released
INP(0) AND &h08
Receive buffer status
1
0
Data present
No data
INP(0) AND &h10
TIMEA function
1
Set to 0
INP(0) AND &h20
TIMEB function
1
Set to 0
INP(0) AND &h40
TIMEC function
1
Set to 0
* The INP function can monitor the trigger switch status only when the trigger
switch function is assigned to any of the magic keys.
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Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
7.4.3 Monitoring by the WAIT Statement
The WAIT statement monitors the input and output devices (I/Os) listed in Appendix D, "I/O
Ports." Unlike the INP function, the WAIT statement makes the I/O devices idle while no entry
occurs, thus saving power consumption.
The table below lists some examples.
I/O Devices
WAIT Statement
WAIT 0,&h01
Keyboard buffer & touch key buffer status
WAIT 0,&h02
Barcode buffer status
WAIT 0,&h04
Trigger switch status*
WAIT 0,&h08
Receive buffer status
WAIT 0,&h10
TIMEA function
WAIT 0,&h20
TIMEB function
WAIT 0,&h40
TIMEC function
* The WAIT function can monitor the trigger switch status only when the trigger
switch function is assigned to any of the magic keys.
In a single WAIT statement, you can specify more than one I/O device if the same port number
applies. To monitor keyboard buffer & touch key buffer and the barcode buffer with the single
WAIT statement, for example, describe the program as shown below.
OPEN "BAR:" AS #10 CODE "A:"
WAIT 0,&h03
The above example sets the value of &h03 (00000011) to port 0, indicating that it keeps waiting
until either bit 0 or bit 1 becomes ON by pressing any key or by reading a bar code.
113
7.5 Entry from the Touch Screen
(Only for models equipped with a touch screen)
7.5.1 Outline
The touch screen supports the following functions:
(1) Function touch keys
The System provides 8 function touch keys that may be used in the same way as function
keys on the keyboard.
(2) User-defined touch keys
You may define touch keys in arbitrary areas on the touch screen. Those keys may be
used in the same way as keys on the keyboard.
(3) Software keyboard
You may use a software keyboard on the touch screen to enter ASCII characters.
(4) Getting the touch screen status and the coordinates on the touch screen that is pressed
last
The system may get the current touch screen status of whether the touch screen is
pressed or not and the coordinates that is pressed last.
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Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
7.5.2 Function Touch Keys
Eight function touch keys are defined by the System. You may enable four or eight of those
system-defined function touch keys.
You may operate those keys by:
- Pressing them or
- Pressing them while holding down the SF key
[ 1 ] Enabling or disabling the function touch keys
To enable or disable the function touch keys, set the number of function touch keys to be
enabled--4 or 8, in System Mode or in a user program.
For the setting procedure in System Mode, refer to the BHT User’s Manual.
In a user program, use the extension function "CONSOLE.FN3." The sample below enables
four function touch keys.
DATA%= .cnFKey4
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3".fcFKey DATA%
- The number of function touch keys specified in a user program takes effect only in the user
program. The specification will not affect the settings made in System Mode.
- If function touch keys are enabled, characters to be displayed on the area occupied by
those touch keys cannot display. Disabling those touch keys will display them.
[ 2 ] Key numbers assigned to the function touch keys
The function touch keys are assigned numbers as shown below.
Non-shift mode
Shift mode
1
2
3
4
9
10
11
12
5
6
7
8
13
14
15
16
115
[ 3 ] Assigning data to a function touch key
You may assign a desired character string (up to two characters) or a single control code to a
function touch key by using the KEY statement as shown below.
Example for characters
KEY 1,"AB"
Example for a control code
KEY 2,CHR$(8)
’Backspace
Where a backspace code is assigned to the function touch key numbered 2.
- Data is assigned to function touch keys as shown below by default.
Non-shift mode
Shift mode
A
B
C
D
I
J
K
L
E
F
G
H
M
N
O
P
- Assigning a NULL character or string to a function touch key makes the entry of that function
touch key invalid if pressed. In the example below, pressing the keys numbered 3 and 4 produces no entry.
KEY 3,""
KEY 4,CHR$(0)
- If you assign data to the same function touch key more than one time with the KEY statement, the last specification will take effect.
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Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
[ 4 ] Displaying a character string on a function touch key
You may display a desired character string on a function touch key by using the extended function "CONSOLE.FN3". In the sample below, the character string "ABC" will display on the
function touch key numbered 1 in ANK standard-size font in regular character size.
KEYNO% = 1
DSPDATA$ = "ABC"
FONT% = .cnANK
ATTRIB%=.cnW1H1
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3" .fcFKeyDsp KEYNO%,DSPDATA$,FONT%,ATTRIB%
ABC
F2
F3
F4
- Character strings are assigned to function touch keys as shown below by default.
Non-shift mode
Shift mode
F1
F2
F3
F4
F9
F10
F11
F12
F5
F6
F7
F8
F13
F14
F15
F16
- The length of a character string that can display on a function touch key is listed below. If
your specification exceeds this length, the excess will be discarded.
Screen mode and screen font
Standard-size font in ANK mode
Standard-size font
in Kanji mode
Full-width
Half-width
Small-size font
in Kanji mode
Full-width
Half-width
Character enlargement
Allowable
length of a
character string
Regular-size/double-height
3
Double-width/quadruple-size
1
Regular-size/double-height
2
Double-width/quadruple-size
1
Regular-size/double-height
5
Double-width/quadruple-size
2
Regular-size/double-height
3
Double-width/quadruple-size
1
Regular-size/double-height
6
Double-width/quadruple-size
3
117
The sample below may display only "ABC" on a function touch key.
KEYNO% = 3
DSPDATA$ = "ABCDE"
FONT% = .cnANK
’Standard-size font in ANK mode
ATTRIB%=.cnW1H1
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3" .fcFKeyDsp KEYNO%,DSPDATA$,FONT%,ATTRIB%
- If you assign a character string to the same function touch key more than one time, the last
specification will take effect.
[ 5 ] Keystroke trapping
You may trap the pressing of a particular function touch key, by programming with the KEY
ON, KEY OFF, and ON KEY...GOSUB statements.
For details about the keystroke trapping, refer to Chapter 9, "Event Polling and Error/Event
Trapping."
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Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
7.5.3 User-Defined Touch Keys
You may define touch keys in arbitrary areas on the touch screen.
You may operate those touch keys by:
- Pressing them
[ 1 ] Creating a user-defined touch key with "CONSOLE.
FN3"
To create a user-defined touch key, specify the area of a touch key and a character(s) to be
displayed on the touch key, by using the extended function "CONSOLE.FN3."
The area of a touch key can be specified with two diagonal points, "initial coordinates" and
"final coordinates."
Given below is a sample program which defines a key numbered 501 in the area specified with
initial coordinates (20, 50) and final coordinates (180, 100) and displays the character string
"ABCDE" in standard-size font in ANK quadruple.
DIM RECT%(3)
KEYNO%=501
’User-defined touch key numbered 501
KEYDATA$="U1"
’Key data="U1"
RECT%(0)=20:RECT%(1)=50
’Initial coordinates (20,50)
RECT%(2)=180:RECT%(3)=100
’Final coordinates (180,100)
DSPDATA$="ABCDE"
’Display "ABCDE"
FONT%=.cnANK
’Use standard-size font in ANK mode
ATTRIB%=.cnW2H2
’In quadruple size
CALL"CONSOLE.FN3" .fcUKey KEYNO%,KEYDATA$,RECT%(),DSPDATA$,
FONT%,ATTRIB%
Initial coordinates
(20,50)
ABCDE
Final coordinates
(180,100)
- User-defined touch keys may be assigned #501 through #550.
- You may assign a desired character string (up to two characters) or a single control code to a
user-defined touch key.
119
- If the specified character string length exceeds the specified touch key area, the excess will
be discarded. In the sample below, only "ABC" may display.
DIM RECT%(3)
KEYNO%=501
’User-defined touch key numbered 501
KEYDATA$="U1"
’Key data="U1"
RECT%(0)=0:RECT%(1)=0
’Initial coordinates (0,0)
RECT%(2)=40:RECT%(3)=20
’Final coordinates (40,20)
DSPDATA$="ABCDE"
’Display "ABCDE"
FONT%=.cnANK
’Use standard-size font in ANK mode
ATTRIB%=.cnW1H1
’In regular size
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3".fcUKey KEYNO%,KEYDATA$,RECT%(),DSPDATA$,
FONT%,ATTRIB%
- If you program a user-defined touch key to the same key number more than one time, then
the last specification will take effect.
- User-defined touch keys cannot overlap.
- If user-defined touch keys are enabled, characters to be displayed on the area occupied by
those touch keys cannot display. Disabling those touch keys will display them.
[ 2 ] Canceling the user-defined touch key with "CONSOLE.
FN3"
You may cancel a user-defined touch key(s) by using "CONSOLE.FN3."
Given below is a sample program which cancels definition made to a key numbered 501.
KEYNO%=501
’User-defined touch key #501
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3" .fcUKeyEnd KEYNO%
- You may clear the display screen so as to close all of user-defined touch keys, by using the
"CONSOLE.FN3."
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3".fcLcdClr
[ 3 ] Keystroke trapping
You may trap the pressing of a particular user-defined touch key, by programming with the KEY
ON, KEY OFF, and ON KEY...GOSUB statements.
For details about the keystroke trapping, refer to Chapter 9, "Event Polling and Error/Event
Trapping."
120
Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
7.5.4 Software Keyboard
[ 1 ] Enabling/disabling software keyboard
Enable the software keyboard function by using the OUT statement and then press the software keyboard display key* to show the software keyboard on the screen. On the keyboard
you may press letter keys to enter ASCII characters.
* The software keyboard display key is assigned to the combination
of the SF and M3 keys by default. You may change the key to be
used as a software keyboard display key by issuing a KEY statement.
For details about the software keyboard control through output port 5 by using the OUT statement (OUT 5,X), refer to Appendix D. Value examples of X in "OUT 5, X" are listed in the table
given on the next page.
Software keyboard function disabled
Enable the software keyboard
function with OUT statement
(e.g., OUT 5,1).
Disable the software keyboard
function with OUT statement
(OUT 5,0).
Software keyboard function
enabled (default)
Disable the software
keyboard function with
OUT statement
(OUT 5,0).
Press the software
keyboard display key*.
Press the EXIT key on the
software keyboard or the software
keyboard display key*.
Software keyboard displayed.
(Pressing letter keys on this
keyboard may enter ASCII
characters.)
121
Taking a shortcut through the above flow
If you issue the OUT statement (e.g., OUT 5,3), the software keyboard will automatically
appear the moment the software keyboard function becomes enabled.
Software keyboard function
enabled or disabled.
Display the software keyboard
with OUT statement
(e.g., OUT 5,3).
Disable the software keyboard
function with OUT statement
(OUT 5,0).
Software keyboard displayed.
(Pressing letter keys on this
keyboard may enter ASCII
characters.)
Value examples of X in "OUT 5, X"
Setting of output port 5
0
Software keyboard
function (Enable/disable)
Software keyboard
(Display/Hide)
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
Disable Enable Enable Enable Enable Enable Enable Enable Enable
Hide
Hide
Display
Hide
Display
Hide
Display
Hide
Display
Software keyboard
display position
(Upper/lower area on the
screen)
Lower
area
Lower
area
Lower
area
Upper
area
Upper
area
Lower
area
Lower
area
Upper
area
Upper
area
Software keyboard
movement
(Allow/not allow)
Not
allow
Not
allow
Not
allow
Not
allow
Not
allow
Allow
Allow
Allow
Allow
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Chapter 7. I/O Facilities
[ 2 ] Displaying the software keyboard
The software keyboard may display on the upper or lower area on the screen. If function touch
keys are displayed, the software keyboard will appear keeping out of the function touch keys.
The software keyboard may be switched between keyboards 1 and 2 shown below by pressing
the FNCx key. To hide the software keyboard, press the EXIT key.
Software keyboard 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
Q
W
E
R
T
Y
U
I
O
P
A
S
D
F
G
H
J
K
L
;
Z
X
C
V
B
N
M
.
/
ENT
EXIT
BS
CLR
FNC1
Software keyboard 2
#
$
%
&
@
-
=
+
q
w
e
r
t
y
u
i
o
p
a
s
d
f
g
h
j
k
l
:
z
x
c
v
b
n
m
,
BS
CLR
FNC2
ENT
*
EXIT
If the software keyboard is displayed, characters to be displayed on the area occupied by the
keyboard cannot display. Hiding the keyboard will display them.
[ 3 ] Moving the software keyboard
If the software keyboard movement is allowed with the OUT statement (e.g., OUT 5,11), then
dragging the software keyboard with a stylus may move the keyboard. The default of the software keyboard movement is "Not allowed."
Drag the keyboard
with a stylus to the
upper area.
123
7.5.5 Getting the Touch Screen Status
The system may get the current touch screen status of whether the touch screen is pressed or
not and the coordinates that is pressed last.
[ 1 ] Enabling the touch screen
The touch screen is disabled by default. Enabling any of function touch keys, user-defined
touch keys, and software keyboard will automatically enable the touch screen. To enable the
touch screen without using any of them, use the OUT statement as shown below.
OUT &h6120,1
’Enable touch screen
Disabling the touch screen will cut off the power to the touch screen device, reducing power
consumption. It is recommended that you cut off the power when you do not need to use the
touch screen.
OUT &h6120,0
’Disable touch screen
[ 2 ] Getting the touch screen status and the coordinates that is
pressed last
Using the INP function enables you to get the touch screen status of whether the touch screen
is pressed or not. To get the coordinates that is pressed last, use the extended function "CONSOLE.FN3."
The sample program below makes the system wait until the touch screen gets pressed. When
the touch screen is pressed, the coordinates will be assigned to the POINT%() variable.
DIM POINT%(1)
WAIT &h6122,1
’Wait until touch screen gets pressed
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3" .fcPnlGet POINT%()
’Get the coordinates that is pressed
124
Chapter 8
Files
CONTENTS
8.1
File Overview ............................................................................................... 125
8.1.1 Data Files and Device I/O Files........................................................ 125
8.1.2 Access Methods ............................................................................... 125
8.2
Data Files..................................................................................................... 126
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.2.3
8.2.4
8.2.5
8.2.6
8.3
Overview ..........................................................................................
Naming Files ....................................................................................
Structure of Data Files......................................................................
Data File Management by Directory Information..............................
Programming for Data Files .............................................................
About Drives.....................................................................................
126
126
127
128
129
131
Bar Code Device.......................................................................................... 132
8.3.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 132
8.3.2 Programming for Bar Code Device .................................................. 136
8.4
Communications Device .............................................................................. 139
8.4.1 Hardware Required for Data Communications.................................
8.4.2 Programming for Data Communications ..........................................
8.4.3 Overview of Communications Protocols...........................................
[ 1 ] BHT-protocol ...........................................................................
[ 2 ] BHT-Ir protocol ........................................................................
8.4.4 File Transfer Tools ...........................................................................
[ 1 ] Transfer Utility .........................................................................
[ 2 ] Ir-Transfer Utility C ..................................................................
[ 3 ] Ir-Transfer Utility E ..................................................................
125
139
139
140
140
141
142
142
142
142
8.1 File Overview
8.1.1 Data Files and Device I/O Files
BHT-BASIC treats not only data files but also bar code device I/Os and communications device
I/Os as files, by assigning the specified names to them.
File Type
Data File
File Name
Remarks
filename.extension
drivename:filename.extension
Device I/O File
BAR:
Bar code device
Device I/O File
COM:
Communications device
TIP
Data files and user program files are stored in the user area of the memory.
8.1.2 Access Methods
To access data files or device I/O files, first use the OPEN statement to open those files. Input
or output data to/from the opened files by issuing statements or functions to them according to
their file numbers. Then, close those files by using the CLOSE statement.
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Chapter 8. Files
8.2 Data Files
8.2.1 Overview
Like user programs, data files will be stored in the user area of the memory. The location of the
user area differs depending upon the BHT series as shown below.
BHT series
Location of user area
BHT-100
Drive A and drive B*
* Drive B is provided for ensuring the compatibility with conventional BHT series.
The memory space available for data files is (Memory space on drive A - Memory space occupied by user programs).
For the memory mapping, refer to Appendix F, "Memory Area." You may check the current
occupation of the memory with the FRE function.
8.2.2 Naming Files
The name of a data file generally contains filename.extension. The filename can
have one to eight characters; the extension can have one to three characters.
The filename.extension may be preceded by the drivename. The drivename is
A: or B:. If the drivename is omitted, the default A: applies.
The extension can be omitted. In such a case, a period should be also omitted. The following extensions cannot be used for data files:
Unavailable extensions for data files
.PD3, .FN3, .EX3, and .FLD
Programs make no distinction between uppercase and lowercase letters for drive names, file
names, and extensions. They regard those letters as uppercase.
127
8.2.3 Structure of Data Files
■
Record
A data file is made up of a maximum of 32767 records. A record is a set of data in a data
file and its format is defined by the FIELD statement. The maximum length of a record is
255 bytes including the number of the character count bytes* (= the number of the fields).
* When transferring data files, the BHT-protocol/BHT-Ir protocol automatically prefixes a character
count byte in binary format to each data field.
■
Field
A record is made up of 1 to 16 fields. Data within the fields will be treated as character
(ASCII) data.
Each field precedes a character count byte in binary format, as described above. Including
that one byte, the maximum length of a field is 255 bytes.
The following FIELD statement defines a record which occupies a 28-byte memory area
(13 + 5 + 10 bytes) for data and a 3-byte memory area for three character count bytes.
Totally, this record occupies not a 28-byte area but a 31-byte area in the memory.
FIELD #2,13 AS bardat$,5 AS keydat$,10 AS dt$
’1+13+1+5+1+10=31 bytes
When a data file is transmitted according to the BHT-protocol, the following conditions
should be also satisfied:
• The maximum length of a field is 254 bytes excluding a character count byte.
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Chapter 8. Files
8.2.4 Data File Management by Directory Information
The Interpreter manages data files using the directory information stored in the system area of
the memory.
The directory information, for example, contains the following:
filename.extension
Information of Each Field (Field length)
Number of Written Records
Maximum Number of Registrable Records
• Number of Written Records
Means the number of records already written in a data file, which the LOF function can
return.
If no record number is specified in the PUT statement, the Interpreter automatically assigns a
number of (the current written record number + 1) to the record.
PUT #1
• Maximum Number of Registrable Records
You may declare the maximum number of records registrable in a data file by using the
RECORD option in the OPEN statement, as shown below.
OPEN "work.DAT" AS #10 RECORD 50
FIELD #10,13 AS code$,5 AS price$
The above program allows you to write up to 50 records in the data file named work.DAT.
If the statement below is executed following the above program, a run-time error will occur.
PUT #10,51
The maximum number of registrable records can be optionally specified only when you
make a new data file. If designated to the already existing data file, the specification will be
ignored without occurrence of a run-time error.
If the BHT-100 receives a file with the XFILE statement, it will automatically set the maximum number of registrable records to 32,767 for that file.
Specifying the maximum number of registrable records will not cause the Interpreter to
reserve the memory area.
129
8.2.5 Programming for Data Files
■
Input/Output for Numeric Data
- To write numeric data into a data file:
It is necessary to use the STR$ function for converting the value of a numeric expression
into a string.
To write -12.56 into a data file, for example, the field length of at least 6 bytes is required.
When using the FIELD statement, designate the sufficient field length; otherwise, the data
will be lost from the lowest digit when written to the field.
- To read data to be treated as a numeric from a data file:
Use the VAL function for converting a string into a numeric value.
■
Data Retrieval
The SEARCH function not only helps you make programs for data retrieval efficiently but
also makes the retrieval speed higher.
The SEARCH function searches a designated data file for specified data, and returns the
record number where the search data is first encountered. If none of the specified data is
encountered, this function returns the value 0.
■
Deletion of Data Files
The CLFILE or KILL statement deletes the designated data file.
CLFILE
Erases only the data stored in a data file without erasing its directory information, and resets the number of written records to 0 (zero) in the directory. This
statement is valid only to opened data files.
KILL
Deletes the data stored in a data file together with its directory information.
This statement is valid only to closed data files.
• Program sample with the CLFILE statement
OPEN "work2.DAT" AS #1
FIELD #1,1 AS a$
CLFILE #1
CLOSE #1
• Program sample with the KILL statement
CLOSE
KILL "work2.DAT"
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Chapter 8. Files
■
Restrictions on Input/Output of Data Files
No INPUT#, LINE INPUT#, or PRINT# statement or INPUT$ function can access data
files. To access data files, use a PUT or GET statement.
■
Drive Defragmentation
During downloading, a delay of a few seconds (response delay from the BHT) may occur
according to the user area condition.
To eliminate the delay, defragment the drive for the size required for downloading beforehand. Doing so will also reduce the device open time in communications. Defragmentation
before downloading is recommended.
If there is no specified size of the empty area in the drive, it is necessary to defragment the
whole empty area.
In complicated write operation, any of the following symptoms may be caused in units of a
few seconds. If such occurs frequently, defragment the drive.
- The beeper sound is prolonged.
- Keys do not work.
- No bar code entry is possible.
- Switching the LCD screen is delayed.
- No data can be received.
- Timeout by the TIMEA/TIMEB/TIMEC is delayed.
The OUT statement may defragment the drive. In the OUT statement, you may specify the
size of the empty area to be defragmented in units of 4 kilobytes, starting with 4 kilobytes
up to the maximum size of the user area.
During drive defragmentation, user programs will be halted. Upon completion of defragmentation, they will resume operation.
In the OUT statement, you may also select whether a bar graph showing the progress of
defragmentation will be displayed on the LCD. The bar graph, if selected, will disappear
after completion of defragmentation and the previous screen will come back.
For details about defragmentation with OUT statement, refer to Appendix D, "I/O Ports."
131
8.2.6 About Drives
The BHT-100 has logical drives.
Drive B is provided for ensuring compatibility with other BHT series.
If you specify drive name "B:" preceding a filename.extension and open an existing file, then
the BHT will open the file as a read-only file. Executing the PUT statement to the read-only file
will result in a run-time error (43h).
If you specify drive name "A:" or omit a drive name, the BHT will open the file as a read/write
file.
The XFILE and KILL statements will ignore drive names "A:" and "B:."
The table below lists the file access details relating to drives.
File access operation
To drive A
To drive B
Download
Create
Open
Read
Write
Close
Clear
Delete
XFILE statement
New with OPEN statement
Open with OPEN statement
GET statement
PUT statement
CLOSE statement
CLFILE statement
KILL statement
Same as left.
Run-time error (43h)
Same as left.
Same as left.
Run-time error (43h)
Same as left.
Run-time error (43h)
Same as left.
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Chapter 8. Files
8.3 Bar Code Device
8.3.1 Overview
■
Opening the Bar Code Device by OPEN "BAR:" Statement
BHT-100Q
The OPEN "BAR:" statement opens the bar code device. In this statement, you may specify the following code types available in the BHT. The BHT can handle one of them or their
combination.
Available Code Types
Default Settings
2D codes
QR Code
All of Model 1, Model 2, and MicroQR supported.
No code version specified.
No split code scanning mode.
PDF417
No option required.
MaxiCode
No option required.
Data Matrix
No option required.
Bar codes
Universal product codes
EAN-13*1
EAN-8
UPC-A*1
UPC-E
No national flag specified.
Interleaved 2of5 (ITF)
No read data length specified.
No check digit.
Codabar (NW-7)
No read data length specified.
No check digit.
No start/stop character.
Code 39
No read data length specified.
No check digit.
Code 128 (EAN-128)*2
No read data length specified.
*1 Reading wide bars
EAN-13 and UPC-A bar codes may be wider than the readable area of the reading window.
Such wider bars can be read by long-distance scanning. Pull the reading window away
from the bar code so that the entire bar code comes into the illumination range. (No double-touch reading feature is supported.)
*2 Specifying Code 128 makes it possible to read not only Code 128 but also EAN-128.
133
BHT-100B
The OPEN "BAR:" statement opens the bar code device. In this statement, you may specify the following bar code types available in the BHT. The BHT can handle one of them or
their combination.
Available Bar Code Types
Universal product codes
Default Settings
EAN-13*1
EAN-8
UPC-A*1
UPC-E
No national flag specified.
Interleaved 2of5 (ITF)
No length of read data specified.
No check digit.
Standard 2of5 (STF)
No length of read data specified.
No check digit. Short format of the start/
stop characters supported.
Codabar (NW-7)
No length of read data specified.
No check digit.
No start/stop character.
Code 39
No length of read data specified.
No check digit.
Code 93
No length of read data specified.
Code 128 (EAN-128)*2
No length of read data specified.
*1 Reading wide bars
EAN-13 and UPC-A bar codes may be wider than the readable area of the bar-code
reading window.
Such wider bars can be read by long-distance scanning. Pull the bar-code reading window away from the bar code so that the entire bar code comes into the illumination
range. (No double-touch reading feature is supported.)
*2 Specifying Code 128 makes it possible to read not only Code 128 but also EAN-128.
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Chapter 8. Files
■
Specifying Options in the OPEN "BAR:" Statement
BHT-100Q
You may also specify several options as listed below for each of the code types in the
OPEN "BAR:" statement.
Options
2D codes
QR Code
- Model
- Code version
- Split-code scanning mode
PDF417
- No option required
MaxiCode
- No option required
Data Matrix
- No option required
Bar codes
- Check digit (only for ITF, NW-7, and
Code 39)
- Length of read data
- Start/stop character (only for NW-7)
- Country code represented by flag characters (only for universal product codes)
BHT-100B
You may also specify several options as listed below for each of the bar code types in the
OPEN "BAR:" statement.
Options
- Check digit (only for ITF, NW-7, Code 39, and STF)
- Length of read data
- Start/stop character (only for NW-7 and STF)
- Country code represented by flag characters (only for universal product codes)
- Supplemental code (only for universal product codes)
■
Barcode Buffer
The barcode buffer stores the inputted bar code data.
BHT-100Q
The barcode buffer will be occupied by one operator entry job and can contain up to 8192
bytes* for a 2D code or 99 bytes for a bar code. (*A Kanji character occupies two bytes.)
BHT-100B
The barcode buffer will be occupied by one operator entry job and can contain up to 99
characters.
135
You can check whether the barcode buffer stores code data, by using any of the EOF, INP,
and LOC functions, and the WAIT statement.
Any of the INPUT# and LINE INPUT# statements, and the INPUT$ function reads bar
code data stored in the buffer into a string variable.
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Chapter 8. Files
8.3.2 Programming for Bar Code Device
■
Code Mark
The MARK$ function allows you to check the code mark (denoting the code type) and the
length of the inputted bar code data.
This function returns a total of three bytes: one byte for the code mark and two bytes for the
data length.
BHT-100Q If the data length of a read 2D code exceeds 99 digits, the two bytes of the
returned value for the data length will indicate 00. To check the length of such 2D code
data, therefore, use the LOC function.
■
Multiple Code Reading
You may activate the multiple code reading feature which reads more than one code type
while automatically identifying them. To do it, you should designate desired code types following the CODE in the OPEN "BAR:" statement.
The BHT-100Q can identify more than one bar code type and/or more than one 2D code
type; the BHT-100B can do more than one bar code type.
■
Note for Reading Data in a 2D Code (for the BHT-100Q)
A single 2D code can contain more than hundreds of digits of data. From a 2D code containing 255 digits or more, a single INPUT# or LINE INPUT# statement cannot read out
all of the data. For such a 2D code, you need to check the data length with the LOC function and then call the INPUT$ function by the number of times required.
Given below is a typical programming sample for reading a 2D code containing more than
255 digits of data.
dim BUF$(20)[255]
f.no%=2
open"BAR:B"as #f.no% code "Q","A"
wait 0,&h02
for n%=1 to 100
len%=loc (#f.no%)
if len%>0 then
if len%>255 then
len%=255
endif
BUF$ (n%)=input$(len%,f.no%)
else
n%=20
endif
next n%
READEND:
close #f.no%
’Define the data buffer for 5100
’bytes.
’Designate the bar code device file.
’Enable reading of QR codes and
’universal product codes.
’Wait for completion of code reading.
’Check the number of digits.
’Inspect the number of digits.
’Read out data.
’Has read out all data.
137
■
Read Mode of the Trigger Switch
The trigger switch function is assigned to the magic keys M3 and M4 by default. You may
assign the trigger switch function to other keys by using the KEY statement.
You may select the read mode of the trigger switch by using the OPEN "BAR:" statement
as listed below.
Read Mode
OPEN "BAR:" Statement
Auto-off Mode (Default)
OPEN "BAR:F"...
Momentary Switching Mode
OPEN "BAR:M"...
Alternate Switching Mode
OPEN "BAR:A"...
Continuous Reading Mode
OPEN "BAR:C"...
To check whether the trigger switch is pressed or not, use the INP function or the WAIT
statement, as shown below.
trig% = INP(0) AND &h04
If the value of the trig% is 04h, the trigger switch is kept pressed; if 00h, it is released.
■
Generating a Check Digit of Bar Code Data
Specifying a check digit in the OPEN "BAR:" statement makes the Interpreter automatically check bar codes. If necessary, you may use the CHKDGT$ function for generating a
check digit of bar code data.
■
Controlling the Indicator LED and Beeper (Vibrator) for of Successful
Reading
By using the OPEN "BAR:" statement, you can control:
• whether the indicator LED should light in green or not (Default: Light in green)
• whether the beeper should beep or not (Default: No beep)
(The BHT-100 may control the vibrator also.)
when a bar code is read successfully. For detailed specification of the OPEN "BAR:"
statement, refer to Chapter 14.
Controlling the indicator LED
If you have activated the indicator LED (in green) in the OPEN "BAR:" statement, the
OUT statement cannot control the LED via output port 1 when the bar code device file is
opened. (For details about settings of bits 0 and 1 on output port 1, refer to Appendix D.)
If you have deactivated the indicator LED in the OPEN "BAR:" statement, the OUT statement can control the LED via output port 1 even when the bar code device file is opened.
(For details about settings of bits 0 and 1 on output port 1, refer to Appendix D.)
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Chapter 8. Files
This way, you can control the indicator LED, enabling that:
• a user program can check the value of a scanned bar code and turn on the green LED
when the bar code has been read successfully.
(For example, you can make the user program interpret bar code data valued from 0 to
100 as correct data.)
• a user program can turn on the red LED the moment the bar code has been read.
Controlling the beeper (vibrator)
If you have activated the beeper in the OPEN "BAR:" statement, the BHT will beep when
it reads a bar code successfully.
You may choose beeping only, vibrating only, or beeping & vibrating on the LCD screen or
by setting the output port in the OUT statement.
This feature is used to sound the beeper or operate the vibrator the moment the BHT-100
reads a bar code successfully.
■
View Finder (for the BHT-100Q)
The view finder displays the scanned image of a bar code or 2D code lying inside the scanner's view on the LCD when you scan the code. To set the view finder on or off, you use
the OUT statement. Actual switching of the view finder takes place at the execution of the
OPEN "BAR:" statement. Execution of the OUT statement after that of the OPEN
"BAR:" statement will not switch the view finder.
The default setting is OFF.
If the view finder is set to ON, the BHT-100Q in scanning operation (i.e., when the illumination LED is lit) displays the image of a code that the BHT-100Q is currently scanning. Upon
completion of scanning or when the BHT-100Q goes out of scanning operation (i.e., when
the illumination LED goes off by releasing the trigger switch), the LCD returns to the previous screen.
When the view finder is displaying a scanned image, if you attempt to display something
other than that, it cannot be displayed. It will appear after the view finder display goes off.
Programming examples
To turn the view finder ON:
OUT &h6310, 1
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "Q:L"
To turn the view finder OFF:
OUT &h6310, 0
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "Q:L"
For the details about the scanning with the view finder, refer to the BHT User's Manual.
139
■
Reading Split QR Codes (for the BHT-100Q)
The "QR Code" system supports a split QR code feature ("Structured Append") which can
divide data into a maximum of 16 blocks and encode each of them into a split QR code.
When those split codes are scanned, the system restores them into the original data string.
For reading split QR codes, you may choose either the edit mode or non-edit mode, by
using the OPEN "BAR:" statement as shown below.
Split QR code scanning mode
OPEN "BAR:" statement
Edit mode
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "Q:E"
Non-edit mode
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "Q:C"
In the edit mode, after completion of reading of all split QR codes the BHT-100Q will store
the read data into the code buffer. In the non-edit mode, each time a single split QR code is
read, the BHT-100Q will store the read data into the code buffer.
The MARK$ returns "Q" in the edit mode and "S" in the non-edit mode, as a code type.
When reading split QR codes, the BHT-100Q beeps in a different way from usual. That is,
when the BHT-100Q reads the first split code, it beeps twice and enters the split code scanning mode. After that, each time it reads the subsequent split code, it beeps once. If the
BHT-100Q reads the last split code, it beeps three times and completes the sequence of
split code scanning.
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Chapter 8. Files
8.4 Communications Device
8.4.1 Hardware Required for Data Communications
The following hardware is required for communications between the BHT and the host computer:
• Optical communications unit (CU) and its interface cable
or
• Direct-connect interface cable
For the communications specifications, refer to the BHT User's Manual.
Using Ir-Transfer Utility E allows the BHT to directly communicate with the IR port-integrated
host computer or an external IR transceiver. For details about IR port-integrated computers
and external IR transceivers available, refer to the "Ir-Transfer Utility E Guide."
8.4.2 Programming for Data Communications
Setting the Communications Parameters
Use the OPEN "COM:" statement to set the communications parameters.
■
For IrDA interface
Communications Parameters
Effective Setting
Default
Transmission speed (bps)
115200, 57600, 38400, 19200, 9600, or 2400
9600
Parameters other than the transmission speed are fixed (Parity = None, Character length = 8
bits, Stop bit length = 1 bit), since the physical layer of the IrDA interface complies with the
IrDA-SIR 1.0.
■
For direct-connect interface
Communications Parameters
Transmission speed (bps)
Effective Setting
Default
115200, 57600, 38400, 19200, 9600, 4800, 2400,
9600
1200, 600, or 300
Parity*
None, even, or odd
None
Character length*
7 or 8 bits
8 bits
Stop bit length*
1 or 2 bits
1 bit
* The parity, character length, and stop bit length are fixed to none, 8 bits, and 1 bit, respectively, if the BHT-Ir protocol is selected.
141
8.4.3 Overview of Communications Protocols
The BHT supports two communications protocols—BHT-protocol and BHT-Ir protocol for file
transmission. Using the XFILE statement, the BHT may upload or download a file according
to either of these protocols.
[ 1 ] BHT-protocol
This protocol may be used also in System Mode.
For the communications specifications of the BHT-protocol, refer to the BHT User's Manual.
■
Primary station and secondary station
The primary station and the secondary station should be defined as below.
• When uploading data files
Primary station:
BHT
Secondary station:
Host computer
• When downloading data files
■
Primary station:
Host computer
Secondary station:
BHT
Protocol functions
In the BHT-protocol, using the following protocol functions may modify a transmission
header or terminator in a send data:
■
For a header:
SOH$ or STX$
For a terminator:
ETX$
Field length that the BHT-protocol can handle
When the BHT transmits files according to the BHT-protocol, each field length should
be a maximum of 254 bytes.
In file transmission, the host computer should also support the same field length as the
BHT. The MS-DOS–based Transfer Utility supports the field length of up to 99 bytes;
the Windows-based Transfer Utility supports up to 254 bytes.
142
Chapter 8. Files
[ 2 ] BHT-Ir protocol
In addition to the BHT-protocol, the BHT supports the BHT-Ir protocol.
If you select the BHT-Ir protocol by using the OUT statement (Port &h6060) or in System Mode,
you can upload or download a data file with the XFILE statement.
The BHT-Ir protocol may be used also in System Mode.
For the communications specifications of the BHT-Ir protocol, refer to the BHT User’s Manual.
■
Primary station and secondary station
The primary station and the secondary station should be defined as below.
• When uploading data files
Primary station:
BHT
Secondary station:
Host computer
• When downloading data files
■
Primary station:
Host computer
Secondary station:
BHT
Protocol functions
In the BHT-Ir protocol, you cannot change the values of the headers and terminator with
the protocol functions in BHT-BASIC.
143
8.4.4 File Transfer Tools
[ 1 ] Transfer Utility
Transfer Utility is optionally available in two versions: MS-DOS–based and Windows-based. It
supports the BHT-protocol and allows you to upload or download user program files and data
files between the host and the BHT, when invoked by the XFILE statement.
This utility can also transfer user program files and data files to/from System Mode.
NOTE
If you have modified transmission headers or terminator to any other character codes
by using the protocol functions, then Transfer Utility is no longer available.
For computers and Windows version which are available for Transfer Utility and the operating
procedure of Transfer Utility, refer to the "Transfer Utility Guide."
[ 2 ] Ir-Transfer Utility C
Ir-Transfer Utility C is optionally available in two versions: MS-DOS–based and Windowsbased. It supports the BHT-Ir protocol and allows you to upload or download user program
files and data files between the host and the BHT, when invoked by the XFILE statement. IrTransfer Utility C handles IrDA SIR-compliant communications via the communications unit
CU.
This utility can also transfer user program files and data files to/from System Mode.
For computers and Windows versions which are available for Ir-Transfer Utility C and the operating procedure of Ir-Transfer Utility C, refer to the "Ir-Transfer Utility C Guide."
[ 3 ] Ir-Transfer Utility E
Ir-Transfer Utility E is optional Windows-based software. It supports the BHT-Ir protocol and
allows you to upload or download user program files and data files between the host and the
BHT, when invoked by the XFILE statement. Ir-Transfer Utility E handles IrDA SIR-compliant
communications via the IR port integrated in a computer or an external IR transceiver.
This utility can also transfer user program files and data files to/from System Mode.
For computers and Windows versions which are available for Ir-Transfer Utility E and the operating procedure of Ir-Transfer Utility E, refer to the "Ir-Transfer Utility E Guide."
144
Chapter 9
Event Polling and Error/Event Trapping
CONTENTS
9.1
Overview...................................................................................................... 146
9.2
Event Polling................................................................................................ 147
[ 1 ] Programming sample .............................................................. 147
[ 2 ] I/O devices capable of being monitored by the
event polling ............................................................................ 148
9.3
Error Trapping.............................................................................................. 149
[ 1 ] Overview ................................................................................. 149
[ 2 ] Programming for trapping errors ............................................. 150
9.4
Event (of Keystroke) Trapping ..................................................................... 151
[ 1 ] Overview ................................................................................. 151
[ 2 ] Programming for trapping keystrokes ..................................... 151
145
9.1 Overview
BHT-BASIC supports event polling and two types of trapping: error trapping and event trapping.
– Event polling
– Trapping
Error trapping
Event (of keystroke) trapping
■
Event Polling
Makes programs monitor the input devices for occurrence of events.
■
Error Trapping
Traps a run-time error and handles it by interrupt to transfer control to the error-handling routine.
If a run-time error occurs when this trapping ability is disabled, the Interpreter will terminate the
current user program while showing the error message.
■
Event (of Keystroke) Trapping
Traps a particular keystroke (caused by pressing any of the specified function keys) and handles it by interrupt to transfer control to the event-handling routine.
146
Chapter 9. Event Polling and Error/Event Trapping
9.2 Event Polling
[ 1 ] Programming sample
The program below shows the event polling example which monitors the bar code reader and
the keyboard for occurrence of events.
This example uses the EOF and INKEY$ functions to check the data input for the bar code
reader and the keyboard, respectively.
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "A"
loop
WAIT 0,3
IF NOT EOF(1) THEN
GOSUB barcod
ENDIF
k$=INKEY$
IF k$<>"" THEN
GOSUB keyin
ENDIF
GOTO loop
barcod
BEEP
LINE INPUT #1,dat$
PRINT dat$
RETURN
keyin
.
.
.
RETURN
147
[ 2 ] I/O devices capable of being monitored by the event polling
Listed below are the I/O devices which the event polling can monitor.
I/O Devices
Monitor Means
Events
Keyboard
INKEY$ function
Input of one character
from the keyboard
Bar code reader
EOF or LOC function
Presence/absence of bar
code data input or the
number of read characters
(bytes)
Receive buffer
EOF, LOC, or LOF function
Presence/absence of
receive data or the number of received characters (bytes)
Timer
TIMEA, TIMEB, or TIMEC function
Timer count-up
Touch screen*
INKEY$ function
Input of one character
from touch keys
* Only for models equipped with a touch screen
■
Monitoring with the INP Function
Combining the INP function with the above functions enables more elaborate programming for
event polling.
For the INP function, refer to Appendix D, "I/O Ports."
148
Chapter 9. Event Polling and Error/Event Trapping
9.3 Error Trapping
[ 1 ] Overview
If a run-time error occurs during program running, error trapping makes the program cause an
interrupt upon completion of the machine instruction so as to transfer control from the current
program to the error-handling routine which has been specified by a label.
If a run-time error occurs when this trapping ability is disabled, the Interpreter will terminate the
current user program while displaying the error message as shown below.
Error message sample:
ERL=38A4
ERR=0034
The above message indicates that a run-time error has occurred at address 38A4h and its
error code is 34h. Both the address and error code are expressed in hexadecimal notation.
The address is a relative address and corresponds to the address in the program list outputted
by the Compiler. According to this address indication, you can pinpoint the program line where
the run-time error has occurred.
The error code 34h (52 in decimal notation) means that the user program attempted to access
a file not opened. (Refer to Appendix A1, "Run-time Errors.")
The ERL and ERR functions described in an error-handling routine will return the same values,
38A4h and 34h, respectively.
NOTE
If an error occurs during execution of user-defined functions or subroutines so that
the error is trapped and handled by the error-handling routine, then do not directly
pass control back to the main routine having the different stack level by using the
RESUME statement. The return address from the user-defined functions or subroutines will be left on the stack, causing a run-time error due to stack overflow.
To prevent such a problem, once transfer control to the routine which caused the
interrupt in order to match the stack level and then jump to any other desired routine.
(Refer to Chapter 3, Section 3.1, "Program Overview.")
149
[ 2 ] Programming for trapping errors
To trap errors, use the ON ERROR GOTO statement in which you should designate the errorhandling routine (to which control is to be transferred if a run-time error occurs) by the label.
ON ERROR GOTO err01
.
.
.
(Main routine)
.
.
.
END
err01
(Error-handling routine)
PRINT"*** error ***"
PRINT ERR,HEX$(ERL)
RESUME NEXT
If a run-time error occurs in the main routine, the above program executes the error-handling
routine specified by the label err01 in the ON ERROR GOTO statement.
In the error-handling routine, the ERL and ERR functions allow you to pinpoint the address
where the error has occurred and the error code, respectively.
NOTE
According to the error location and error code, you should troubleshoot the programming error and correct it for proper error handling.
The RESUME statement may pass control from the error-handling routine back to any specified
statement as listed below.
RESUME Statement
Description
RESUME or RESUME 0
Resumes program execution with the statement
that caused the error.
RESUME NEXT
Resumes program execution with the statement
immediately following the one that caused the
error.
RESUME label
Resumes program execution with the statement
designated by label.
150
Chapter 9. Event Polling and Error/Event Trapping
9.4 Event (of Keystroke) Trapping
[ 1 ] Overview
If any of the function keys previously specified for keystroke trapping is pressed, event trapping
makes the program cause an interrupt so as to transfer control from the current program to the
specified event-handling routine.
This trapping facility checks whether any of the function keys is pressed or not between every
execution of the statements.
[ 2 ] Programming for trapping keystrokes
To trap keystrokes, use both the ON KEY...GOSUB and KEY ON statements. The ON
KEY...GOSUB statement designates the key number of the function key to be trapped and the
event-handling routine (to which control is to be transferred if a specified function key is
pressed) in its label. The KEY ON statement activates the designated function key.
This trapping cannot take effect until both the ON KEY...GOSUB and KEY ON statements have
been executed.
The keystroke of an unspecified function key or any of the numerical keys cannot be trapped.
The following program sample will trap keystroke of magic keys M1 and M2 (these keys are
numbered 30 and 31, respectively).
ON KEY (30) GOSUB sub1
ON KEY (31) GOSUB sub2
KEY (30) ON
KEY (31) ON
.
.
.
(Main routine)
.
.
.
END
sub1
(Event-handling routine 1)
RETURN
sub2
(Event-handling routine 2)
RETURN
The RETURN statement in the event-handling routine will return control to the statement immediately following that statement where the keyboard interrupt occurred.
Even if a function key is assigned a null string by the KEY statement, pressing the function key
will cause a keyboard interrupt when the KEY ON statement activates that function key.
151
If function keys specified for keystroke trapping are pressed during execution of the following
statements or functions relating keyboard input, this trapping facility operates as described
below.
Statements or Functions
Keystroke Trapping
INPUT statement
Ignores the entry of the pressed key and
causes no interrupt.
LINE INPUT statement
Same as above.
INPUT$ function
Same as above.
INKEY$ function
Ignores the entry of the pressed key, but
causes an interrupt.
152
Chapter 10
Sleep Function
CONTENTS
10.1 Sleep Function............................................................................................. 154
153
10.1 Sleep Function
The BHT supports the sleep function that automatically interrupts program execution if no
event takes place within the specified length of time in the BHT, thereby minimizing its power
consumption. Upon detection of any event, the BHT in the sleep state immediately starts the
interrupted user program.
By using the OUT statement, you may set the desired length of time to the sleep timer within
the range from 0 to 25.5 seconds in increment of 100 ms. The default is 1 second.
When setting the sleep timer, the OUT statement also copies (assigns) the set value to its internal variable. The sleep timer immediately starts counting down the value assigned to the internal variable, -1 per 100 ms. If the value becomes 0, the BHT goes into a sleep.
Note that the sleep timer will not count in any of the following cases. When the BHT exits from
any of them, the value preset to the sleep timer will be assigned to the internal variable again
and the sleep timer will start counting.
• While a communications device file is opened by an OPEN "COM:" statement.
• During execution of a SEARCH, DATE$, or TIME$ function.
• When a value less than 10 seconds is set to a TIMEA, TIMEB, or TIMEC function so that
the returned value is a nonzero.
• When the bar code device file is opened by the OPEN "BAR:" statement under any of the
following conditions:
- With the continuous reading mode specified
- With the momentary switching mode or auto-off mode specified, and with the trigger switch
held down
- With the alternate switching mode, and with the illumination LED being on
• When any key is held down.
• When the touch screen is pressed (if the touch screen is enabled in models equipped with a
touch screen).
• When the backlight is on (except when the backlight is kept on).
• When the beeper is beeping.
• When the vibrator is working.
• When the BHT is updating data on the screen.
• When the BHT is writing data into a data file.
• When a register variable is undergoing change.
154
Chapter 11
Resume Function
CONTENTS
11.1 Resume Function......................................................................................... 156
155
11.1 Resume Function
The resume function automatically preserves the current status of a running application program (user program) when the BHT is turned off, and then resumes it when the BHT is turned
on. That is, even if you unintentionally turn off the BHT or the automatic powering-off function
turns off the BHT, turning on the BHT once again resumes the previous status of the program
to allow you to continue the program execution.
The resume function is effective also during data transmission in execution of an application
program, but a few bytes of data being transmitted may not be assured.
NOTE
Even if you become disoriented with the operation during execution of an application
program and turn off the BHT when the resume function is enabled, the BHT cannot
escape you from the current status of the program. This is because the resume function will not initialize the variables or restart the BHT. (You can disable the resume
function in System Mode.)
The resume function does not work after execution of System Mode or any of the following
statements:
• END
• POWER OFF
• POWER 0
NOTE
In preparation for maintenance or inspection jobs involving execution of System
Mode (which will disable the resume function), store important information contained in user programs by using files or register variables, preventing your current
operation jobs from getting crippled.
156
Chapter 12
Power-related Functions
CONTENTS
12.1 Low Battery Warning ................................................................................... 158
12.2 Prohibited Simultaneous Operation of the Beeper and Illumination LED .... 158
12.3 Wakeup Function......................................................................................... 159
12.4 Remote Wakeup Function ...........................................................................
[ 1 ] Outline .....................................................................................
[ 2 ] Remote wakeup operation ......................................................
[ 3 ] Remote wakeup program ........................................................
157
160
160
160
162
12.1 Low Battery Warning
If the output voltage of the battery cartridge drops below a specified lower level limit when the
BHT is in operation, then the BHT displays the Level-1 message "Battery voltage has lowered."
on the LCD and beeps three times. After that, it will resume previous regular operation.
If the battery output voltage drops further, the BHT displays the Level-2 message "Charge the
battery!" or "Replace the batteries!" (when driven by the lithium-ion battery cartridge or dry battery cartridge, respectively), beeps five times, and then turns itself off automatically.
Refer to the BHT User’s Manual.
12.2 Prohibited Simultaneous Operation of the Beeper and Illumination LED
The BHT is so designed that the beeper (and vibrator) and illumination LED will not work simultaneously to save power consumption at peak load. There are priority orders between them;
that is, the beeper (and vibrator) has priority over the illumination LED.
158
Chapter 12. Power-related Functions
12.3 Wakeup Function
The wakeup function allows you to turn the BHT on at the wakeup time (of the system clock)
specified in user programs.
To set the wakeup time, use the TIME$ function as follows:
(1) Set 1 to bit 2 on port 8.
Switches the TIME$ function to the setting of the
wakeup time.
(2) Set the wakeup time by using the TIME$ function.
(3) Set 1 to bit 0 on port 8.
Activates the wakeup function.
To confirm the preset wakeup time, use the TIME$ function as follows:
(1) Set 1 to bit 2 on port 8.
Switches the TIME$ function to the setting of the
wakeup time.
(2) Retrieve the wakeup time by using the TIME$ function.
TIP
If you set or retrieve the system time or wakeup time by using the TIME$ function,
then the value of bit 2 on port 8 will be automatically reset to zero.
When bit 2 on port 8 is zero, you can set or retrieve the current system time by using
the TIME$ function.
By reading the value of bit 1 on port 8 in user programs, you may confirm the initiation option of the BHT. If this bit is 1, it means that the BHT is initiated by the
wakeup function and if 0, it means that it is initiated by the PW key.
159
12.4 Remote Wakeup Function
[ 1 ] Outline
The remote wakeup function allows you to turn the BHT on and run the specified user program
(hereafter referred to "remote wakeup program") from a remote location by sending the specified message from the host computer to the BHT via the CU.
Developing user programs utilizing the remote wakeup at both the host computer and BHT
enables you to automatically maintain the master system or update user programs.
To use the remote wakeup between the BHT and host computer, the following is required:
• Optical communications unit CU-7001
• CU interface cable
[ 2 ] Remote wakeup operation
■
Typical operation flow
At the host computer
(1) Send one character to the BHT.
(2) Wait for approx. 100 ms until the BHT wakes up from a sleep.
(3) Send a "WAKE" character string to the BHT.
(4) Wait for a response from the BHT.
- If the host receives "ACK + 0 + ID":
The host should conduct transactions with the remote wakeup program in the BHT.
- If the host receives "ACK + 1 + ID" or "ACK + 2 + ID":
The host should proceed to the corresponding error processing.
If the host receives no response from the BHT, go back to step (1).
160
Chapter 12. Power-related Functions
At the BHT
(1) Turn the BHT off and put it on the CU.
The BHT will enter into the charge state* (i.e., into sleep). (For details about charging, refer
to the BHT User’s Manual.)
*Charge state: Charging or charged-up state
(2) Upon receipt of any data via the IR port, the BHT wakes up. After the specified time length
(approx. 10 ms), the BHT becomes ready to receive data.
If no data comes in within the specified timeout period*1, then the BHT will go back to step
(1).
(3) If the BHT receives any data, it will check the data. If the BHT detects a “WAKE” character
string in the data, it will proceed; if not, the BHT will go back to step (1).
(4) The BHT will send the following response to the host computer depending upon whether
or not a remote wakeup program exists in the BHT and whether the remote wakeup function is activated or deactivated.
Remote wakeup
program
Remote wakeup
feature
Response message
from the BHT
Proceeds to:
Exists
Activated
Deactivated
ACK + "0" + ID**
ACK + "2" + ID
(5)
(1)
Not exist
Activated
Deactivated
ACK + "1" + ID
ACK + "1" + ID
(1)
(1)
**ID: 6-byte numeric string that refers to the lower 6 digits of the BHT product number.
Host computer
Send one
character
BHT
In charge state
"A"
Waiting for
"WAKE"
After approx.
100 ms has passed
"WAKE"
Send "WAKE."
"WAKE" received?
No
(Timeout)*1
Yes
Waiting for
response
No
ACK + "0" + ID
Send response*2
Start the remote
wakeup program
Any
response
received?
Transacted by the
BHT system program
Yes
Conduct transactions
with the remote
wakeup program
Conduct transactions
with the host program
*1 The timeout period specified in "[ 3 ] Remote wakeup program, step (3)" will apply.
*2 Upon receipt of "WAKE" as receive data, the BHT sends a response message.
(5) The BHT will exit from the sleep state and execute the remote wakeup program developed
by the user.
161
[ 3 ] Remote wakeup program
■
File name
The BHT may handle the file named "BHTRMT.PD3" as a remote wakeup program.
Upon receipt of data containing a “WAKE” character string, the BHT checks whether the
BHTRMT.PD3 file exists. If the file exists, the BHT will start the remote wakeup operation
described in [ 2 ].
■
Settings for remote wakeup
To use the remote wakeup function, make the following I/O port settings with the OUT or WAIT
statement or INP function beforehand (refer to Appendix D, "I/O Ports"):
(1) Activate the remote wakeup function
You may activate/deactivate the remote wakeup function as listed below. The default is 0
(Deactivate).
Port No.
Bit No.
R/W
60F0h
0
R/W
Specifications
0: Deactivate the remote wakeup
1: Activate the remote wakeup
(2) Set the transmission speed to be applied for remote wakeup
Set the transmission speed to be applied when activating the remote wakeup as listed
below. The default is 1 (9600 bps).
Port No.
Bit No.
R/W
60F1h
7-0
R/W
Specifications
1: 9600 bps
3: 38400 bps
5: 115200 bps
2: 19200 bps
4: 57600 bps
(3) Set the timeout for ready-to-receive state
Set the timeout length during which the BHT will wait for a “WAKE” character string after
receiving any data via the CU and becoming ready to receive. The default is 3 (seconds).
Port No.
Bit No.
R/W
Specifications
60F3h
7-0
R/W
1 to 255 seconds. Specification of 0
will not change the current setting.
(4) Set the BHT station ID to be used in the BHT response message
Set a 6-byte numeric string referring to the lower 6 digits of the BHT serial number as a
station ID which will be used in the response message to the host. To write and read the
setting, use the extended function SYSTEM.FN3 (Functions #3 and #4). For details, refer
to Chapter 16, "Extended Functions."
162
Chapter 12. Power-related Functions
Once made in a user program, the above settings will be retained even after the termination of
the user program.
The remote wakeup activation/deactivation and the transmission speed for remote wakeup
may be set in System Mode. For details, refer to the BHT User’s Manual.
■
Start of a remote wakeup program
When a remote wakeup program starts, the resume function of the most recently running user
program becomes disabled regardless of the resume setting made in System Mode. Also in
other user programs chained from the remote wakeup program with the CHAIN statement, the
resume function will remain disabled.
Accordingly, after termination of the remote wakeup program, any other user program will perform a cold start.
To enable the resume function of a user program running after the termination of the remote
wakeup program and its chained-to programs, use the extended function SYSTEM.FN3 (Function #1). For details, refer to Chapter 16, "Extended Functions."
■
End of a remote wakeup program
The remote wakeup program and its chained-to programs may be either normally terminated
or interrupted as follows:
• Normally terminated
when the program is ended with END, POWER OFF or POWER 0 statement.
• Interrupted
when the program is ended by pressing the PW key, with automatic powering-off function, low battery power-off or any other factor when the resume function is disabled.
If the resume function is made enabled, the remote wakeup program or its chained-to program
will be neither normally terminated nor interrupted since it will resume the operation in the next
powering-on.
163
■
Checking the execution record of remote wakeup
When starting, a user program (including a remote wakeup program) may check via the I/O
ports whether the BHT remotely woke up at the last powering on and its operation was normally ended. (Refer to Appendix D, "I/O Ports.”)
Making use of the execution record, you may display an alarm message.
Port No.
Bit 0
Bit 1
Specifications
60F2h
0
0
0
1
At the last powering on, the BHT did not remotely
wake up.*
1
0
At the last powering on, the BHT remotely woke
up and its operation was interrupted.
1
1
At the last powering on, the BHT remotely woke
up and its operation was normally ended.
*This means that the BHT was cold-started, driven by System Mode, or initialized.
164
Chapter 13
Backlight Function
CONTENTS
13.1 Backlight Function ....................................................................................... 166
165
13.1 Backlight Function
The BHT has a backlight function (LCD backlight and key backlight). Pressing the right-hand
trigger switch (M4 key) while holding down the Shift key activates or deactivates the backlight
function. The default length of backlight ON-time (ON-duration) is 3 seconds.
By using an OUT statement, you can enable/disable either or both the LCD backlight and key
backlight. (Refer to Appendix D, "I/O Ports.")
By using a KEY statement, you can select the backlight function on/off key instead of the combination of the trigger switch and Shift key, as well as modifying the ON-duration of the backlight. For details about the KEY statement, refer to KEY in Chapter 14.
The backlight function is
OFF when you turn on
the BHT.
Backlight OFF
Press the right-hand
trigger switch while holding
down the Shift key.
Or, press the backlight
function on/off key specified
by KEY statement.
Backlight ON
Press the right-hand
trigger switch while holding
down the Shift key.
If no key is pressed
for 3 seconds, the
backlight goes off.
Or, press the backlight
function on/off key specified
by KEY statement.
Press any key except for the
backlight function on/off key.
Backlight OFF
(The backlight function
remains ON.)
Press the right-hand
trigger switch while holding
down the Shift key.
Or, press the backlight
function on/off key specified
by KEY statement.
Setting 1 to port 6020h with the OUT statement activates the backlight function and turns on
the backlight. If no key is pressed for the time length preset to port 6021h (default time: 5 seconds), the backlight goes off but the backlight function remains activated.
166
Chapter 13. Backlight Function
Setting 0 to port 6020h deactivates the backlight function and turns off the backlight if lit.
When the backlight function is activated with the OUT statement, the backlight function on/off
key and ON-duration specified by the KEY statement will be ignored.
The backlight function is
deactivated when the
BHT is turned on.
Backlight OFF
With the OUT statement,
set 1 to port 6020h.
Backlight ON
With the OUT statement,
set 0 to port 6020h.
If no key is pressed
for the time length
preset to port 6021h,
the backlight goes off.
Press any key.
Backlight OFF
The backlight function
remains activated.
With the OUT statement,
set 0 to port 6020h.
167
Chapter 14
Statement Reference
CONTENTS
APLOAD .............................................. 169
BEEP ................................................... 174
CALL ................................................... 177
CHAIN ................................................. 181
CLFILE ................................................ 183
CLOSE ................................................ 185
CLS ..................................................... 186
COMMON ........................................... 187
CONST ................................................ 189
CURSOR ............................................. 190
DATA ................................................... 191
DECLARE ........................................... 192
DEF FN (Single-line form) ................... 194
DEF FN...END DEF (Block form) ........ 198
DEFREG ............................................. 202
DIM ...................................................... 206
END ..................................................... 208
ERASE ................................................ 209
FIELD .................................................. 210
FOR...NEXT ........................................ 212
FUNCTION…END FUNCTION ........... 214
GET ..................................................... 219
GLOBAL .............................................. 221
GOSUB ............................................... 223
GOTO .................................................. 225
IF...THEN...ELSE...END IF ................. 226
INPUT ................................................. 228
INPUT # .............................................. 231
KEY ..................................................... 233
KEY ON and KEY OFF ....................... 238
KILL ..................................................... 240
KPLOAD .............................................. 242
LET ..................................................... 247
LINE INPUT ........................................ 248
LINE INPUT # ..................................... 251
LOCATE ............................................. 253
ON ERROR GOTO ............................. 257
ON...GOSUB and ON...GOTO ........... 258
ON KEY...GOSUB .............................. 260
OPEN ................................................. 262
OPEN "BAR:" ..................................... 264
OPEN "COM:" .................................... 286
OUT .................................................... 290
POWER .............................................. 292
PRINT ................................................. 294
PRINT # .............................................. 297
PRINT USING .................................... 299
PRIVATE ............................................ 303
PUT .................................................... 306
READ .................................................. 308
REM .................................................... 310
RESTORE .......................................... 311
RESUME ............................................ 312
RETURN ............................................. 314
SCREEN ............................................. 315
SELECT...CASE...END SELECT ....... 319
SUB...END SUB ................................. 321
WAIT ................................................... 325
WHILE...WEND .................................. 327
XFILE .................................................. 329
$INCLUDE .......................................... 334
Additional Explanation for Statements 336
168
ANK Pattern LOAD
I/O statement
APLOAD
Loads a user-defined font in the single-byte ANK* mode
*ANK: Alphanumeric and Katakana
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Loading a user-defined font):
APLOAD characode,fontarrayname
Syntax 2 (Loading a user-defined cursor.):
APLOAD characode,cursorarrayname
Parameter:
characode
• For user-defined font
A numeric expression which returns a value
from 128 (80h) to 159 (9Fh).
• For user-defined cursor
A numeric expression which returns a value 0.
fontarrayname and cursorarrayname
An array integer variable name.
NOTE
Do not specify parentheses ( ) or subscripts which represent a general array
as shown below; doing so will result in a syntax error.
APLOAD &H80,cp%()
APLOAD &H80,cp%(5)
’error
’error
Description:
■ Loading a user-defined font
APLOAD loads a user-defined font data defined by fontarrayname to the user
font area specified by characode.
• To display user-defined fonts loaded by the APLOAD, you use the PRINT statement in the single-byte ANK mode. If you attempt to display an undefined character code, a space character will appear.
• The loaded user-defined fonts are effective during execution of the user program
which loaded those fonts and during execution of the successive user programs
chained by the CHAIN statement.
169
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
• If you issue more than one APLOAD statement specifying a same character code,
the last statement takes effect.
• Only when the Interpreter executes the APLOAD statement, it refers to the array
data defined by fontarrayname. So, once a user program has finished loading the user font, changing the data in the array or deleting the array itself (by the
ERASE statement) will not affect the already loaded user font.
• An array integer variable--a work array, register array, or common array--for fontarrayname should be declared by the DIM, DEFREG, or COMMON statement,
respectively.
DIM cp0%(11)
DEFREG cp1%(11)
COMMON cp2%(11)
The array variable should be one-dimensional and have at least 12 elements.
Each element data should be an integer and stored in the area from the 1st to
12th elements of the array.
• Also when the double-width, double-height, or quadruple-size is specified, userdefined fonts loaded by the APLOAD will be effective. The system will enlarge the
dot pattern of each loaded font in double-width, double-height, or quadruple-size.
For details, refer to Chapter 7, Subsection 7.1.3, "Dot Patterns of Fonts."
■ Loading a user-defined cursor
APLOAD loads a user-defined cursor data defined by cursorarrayname to the
user font area specified by characode.
• To display a user-defined cursor loaded by the APLOAD, you set 255 to the cursorswitch in the LOCATE statement in the single-byte ANK mode. (LOCATE
,,255)
• The loaded user-defined cursors are effective during execution of the user program which loaded those cursors and during execution of the successive user
programs chained by the CHAIN statement.
• Only when the Interpreter executes the APLOAD statement, it refers to the array
data defined by cursorarrayname. So, once a user program has finished
loading the user cursor, changing the data in the array or deleting the array itself
(by the ERASE statement) will not affect the already loaded user cursor.
170
• The cursor size will be as shown below.
Display font
Size (W x H)
No. of elements
Standard-size
12 x 12 dots
12
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
LSB
MSB
• An array integer variable--a work array, register array, or common array--for cursorarrayname should be declared by the DIM, DEFREG, or COMMON statement, respectively.
DIM cp0%(11)
DEFREG cp1%(11)
COMMON cp2%(11)
The array variable should be one-dimensional and have at least 12 elements.
Each element data should be an integer and stored in the area from the 1st to
12th elements of the array.
• If you specify cursorarrayname exceeding the allowable cursor size (height:
no. of bits, width: no. of elements), the excess will be discarded.
• If the double-width, double-height, or quadruple-size is specified, then userdefined cursors loaded by the APLOAD will display in double-width, doubleheight, or quadruple-size, respectively. For details, refer to Chapter 7, Subsection
7.1.3, "Dot Patterns of Fonts."
171
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
• No fontarrayname or cursorarrayname is defined.
• fontarrayname or cursorarrayname has an array string variable.
• fontarrayname or cursorarrayname includes parentheses ( ).
• fontarrayname or cursorarrayname includes subscripts.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(• characode is out of the specified range.)
(• The array structure is not correct.)
08h
Array not defined
Example:
DIM cp%(11)
cp%(0)=&h0C00
cp%(1)=&h0F00
cp%(2)=&h0FC0
cp%(3)=&h0FF0
cp%(4)=&h0FFC
cp%(5)=&h0FFF
cp%(6)=&h0FFF
cp%(7)=&h0FFC
cp%(8)=&h0FF0
cp%(9)=&h0FC0
cp%(10)=&hF00
cp%(11)=&hC00
APLOAD &H80,cp%
PRINT CHR$(&H80)
172
Array Elements
Bit in each
cp%(0) cp%(1) cp%(2) cp%(3) cp%(4) cp%(5) cp%(6) cp%(7) cp%(8) cp%(9) cp%(10)cp%(11) array element
0 (LSB)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15 (MSB)
Reference:
Statements:
COMMON, DEFREG, DIM, KPLOAD, PRINT, and SCREEN
173
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
I/O statement
BEEP
Drives the beeper or vibrator.
Syntax:
BEEP[onduration[,offduration[,repetitioncount
[,frequency]]]]
Parameter:
onduration, offduration, and repetitioncount
Numeric expressions, each of which returns a value from 0 to 255.
frequency
A numeric expression which returns a value from 0 to 32767.
Description:
BEEP sounds the beeper or drives the vibrator during the length of time specified by
onduration at the intervals of the length of time specified by offduration by
the number of repetitions specified by repetitioncount.
The beeper sounds at the pitch of the sound in Hz specified by frequency.
• The unit of onduration and offduration is 100 msec.
• Defaults:
onduration and offduration: 1 (100 msec.)
repetitioncount:
1
frequency:
2793 Hz*
(*Same as that when 2 is set to frequency)
• Note that specification of 0, 1, or 2 to frequency produces the special beeper
effects as listed below.
Specification to frequency
Frequency
Tone
Statement example
0
698 Hz
Low-pitched
BEEP ,,,0
1
1396 Hz
Medium-pitched
BEEP ,,,1
2
2793 Hz
High-pitched
BEEP ,,,2
Specification of 0, 1, or 2 to frequency drives the beeper or vibrator depending
upon the settings made on the main adjustment screen of the LCD, beeper, and
touch screen.
If 0, 1, or 2 is set to frequency (or if the frequency option is omitted), then
you can adjust the beeper volume on the LCD when turning on the BHT. (For the
adjustment procedure, refer to the BHT User's Manual.)
174
You may change the beeper volume with the OUT statement. (For details, refer to
Appendix D, "I/O Ports.")
If you set a value other than 0, 1, and 2 to frequency, the beeper volume is
automatically set to the maximum and not adjustable.
• Specification of any of 3 through 39 to frequency deactivates the beeper or
vibrator.
• Specification of zero to onduration deactivates the beeper.
• Specification of a value except for zero to onduration and specification of zero
to offduration keep beeping.
• Specification of a value except for zero to onduration and offduration
and specification of zero to repetitioncount deactivate the beeper.
• For your reference, the relationship between the frequencies and the musical
scale is listed below.
Scale 1
Scale 2
Scale 3
Scale 4
Scale 5
Scale 6
do
130 Hz
261 Hz
523 Hz
1046 Hz
2093 Hz
4186 Hz
do#
138
277
554
1108
2217
re
146
293
587
1174
2349
re#
155
311
622
1244
2489
mi
164
329
659
1318
2637
fa
174
349
698
1396
2793
fa#
184
369
739
1479
2959
sol
195
391
783
1567
3135
sol#
207
415
830
1661
3322
la
220
440
880
1760
3520
la#
233
466
932
1864
3729
si
246
493
987
1975
3951
• The BEEP statement does not suspend execution of the subsequent statement
until the beeper completes sounding or vibrating. Instead, the execution of the
subsequent statement proceeds immediately.
If a second BEEP statement is encountered while the BHT is still beeping or
vibrating by a first BEEP, the first BEEP is cancelled and the new BEEP statement
executes.
• If low battery warning operation starts during beeping or vibrating programmed by
the BEEP, then the warning operation overrides the programmed beeping or
vibrating. Upon completion of the warning operation, the beeper or vibrator
resumes working as programmed.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
The number of parameters or commas
(,) exceeds the limit.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
Example:
BEEP
BEEP
BEEP
BEEP
BEEP
BEEP
BEEP
BEEP
BEEP
BEEP
BEEP
BEEP
BEEP
BEEP
BEEP
BEEP
bon%,boff%,count%,helz%
bon%,boff%,count%
bon%,boff%,,helz%
bon%,,count%,helz%
,boff%,count%,helz%
bon%,boff%
bon%,,count%
,boff%,count%
bon%,,,helz%
,boff%,,helz%
,,count%,helz%
bon%
,boff%
,,count%
,,,helz%
176
Flow control statement
CALL
Calls an FN3 or SUB function.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Calling an FN3):
CALL "[drivename:]filename" functionnumber [data
[,data]...]
Syntax 2 (Calling a SUB):
CALL functionname [(realparameter[,realparameter…])]
Parameter:
[drivename:]filename
A string expression.
functionnumber
An integer constant.
data
A string variable or a numeric variable.
functionname
Real function name.
realparameter
A numeric expression or a string expression.
Description:
■ Calling an extension library (FN3 function)
CALL calls a function specified by functionnumber from a file specified by
"[drivename:]filename" and assigns the parameter specified by data to
the called function.
• [drivename:] is used in conventional BHT models. In the BHT-100 series, it
is merely for the compatibility with their specifications. The drivename may be
A: or B:, but it will be ignored.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
• filename is the name of an FN3 function. The extension of the file names is
fixed to .FN3. (For the FN3 functions, refer to Chapter 16, "Extended Functions"
or the "BHT-BASIC Extension Library Manual.")
• functionnumber is the function number of an FN3 specified by filename.
• data is a variable for the function number of the FN3 (that is, it is used as an
argument to the FN3 function).
• When specifying an array to data, add a pair of parentheses containing nothing
as shown below.
Example: CALL "_xxx.FN3" 1 DATA ()
• When calling a function (specified by functionnumber) that returns a string
variable:
Reserve a storage area for a returned string variable by using a variable declaration statement (DIM, COMMON, or DEFREG). It is not necessary to assign arbitrary data of the string length required for a return value to the variable.
If the string length of a returned value is greater than the length reserved by a
variable declaration statement, then a run-time error will result.
(Example 1) If a return value is a fixed-length string, e.g. 8-character length:
DIM OUTPUT$[8]
' Reserve a storage area of 8 characters.
(Example 2) If a return value is a variable-length string of a maximum of N characters:
DIM OUTPUT$[N]
NOTE
' Reserve a storage area of a max. of N chars.
To use FN3 functions except extended functions given in Chapter 16, you
need to download the extension programs from an extension library sold
separately.
178
■ Calling a user-defined function (SUB function)
This statement calls a user-defined function specified by functionname. You
may omit CALL when calling a SUB function.
• functionname should be a user-defined function defined by SUB...END SUB
statement.
• The number of realparameters should be equal to that of dummyparameters, and the types of the corresponding variables used in those parameters
should be identical.
• If you specify a global variable in realparameter when calling a user-defined
function, the user-defined function cannot update the value of the global variable.
This is because all realparameters are passed not by address but by value.
(So called "Call-by-value")
NOTE
Before any call to a SUB function, you need to place definition of the SUB
function or declaration of the SUB function by using the DECLARE statement in your source program.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 3:
No double quote precedes or follows
[drivename:]filename.
’"’ missing
• The number of real parameters is not
equal to that of the dummy parameters.
error 68: Mismatch
• dummyparameter was an integer
variable in defining a function, but
realparameter is a real type in calling the function. (If a dummy parameter
was a real variable in defining a function
and realparameter is an integer
type in calling, then no error occurs.)
error 71: Syntax error
• [drivename:]filename
enclosed in double quotes.
is
not
• The function specified by functionname has not been defined.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
02h
Syntax error
("[drivename:]filename" is in incorrect syntax or the
extension is not .FN3.)
05h
Parameter value out of range
(In calling an FN3 function, the number of parameters exceeds
16.)
07h
Insufficient memory space
(You nested calling statements of a user-defined function to
more than 10 levels.)
1Fh
functionnumber out of the range
35h
File not found
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
F2h
Insufficient string variable storage area
Reference:
Statements:
DECLARE and SUB...END SUB
180
Flow control statement
CHAIN
Transfers control to another program.
Syntax:
CHAIN "[drivename:]programfilename"
Parameter:
"[drivename:]programfilename"
A string expression.
Description:
CHAIN transfers control to a program specified by "[drivename:]programfilename". That is, it terminates the current running program (1st program) and
closes all of the files being opened. Then, it initializes environments for the chainedto user program (2nd program) specified by "[drivename:]programfilename" and executes it.
• [drivename:] is used in conventional BHT series. In the BHT-100 series, it is
merely for the compatibility with their specifications. The drivename may be A:
or B:, but it will be ignored.
• "[drivename:]programfilename" is an executable object program
compiled by the Compiler and has the extension .PD3, as shown below. The
extension .PD3 cannot be omitted.
CHAIN "prog1.PD3"
• You should download an executable object program (2nd program) to the BHT
before the CHAIN statement is executed.
• You can pass variables from the current program to the chained-to program (2nd
program) with the COMMON statement.
• User-defined fonts loaded by the APLOAD or KPLOAD statement and the setting
values assigned by the KEY statement or COUNTRY$ function remain effective in
chained-to programs.
• The ON ERROR GOTO statement cannot trap run-time error 07h (which means
"Insufficient memory space") happened during initialization of environments for
chained-to programs.
181
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 3: ’"’ missing
No double quote precedes or follows
[drivename:]programfilename.
error 71: Syntax error
[drivename:]programfilename is not enclosed in double quotes.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
02h
Syntax error
("[drivename:]programfilename" is in incorrect syntax
or the extension is not .PD3.)
07h
Insufficient memory space
(The 1st program uses too many variables.)
35h
File not found
(The file specified by "[drivename:]programfilename"
does not exist.)
41h
File damaged
Reference:
Statements:
APLOAD, COMMON, and KPLOAD
182
CLear FILE
File I/O statement
CLFILE
Erases the data stored in a data file.
Syntax:
CLFILE [#]filenumber
Parameter:
filenumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 16.
Description:
CLFILE erases data in the data file specified by filenumber and resets the
number of written records in the directory to zero.
• The memory area freed by CLFILE can be used for other data files or user program files.
• User programs can no longer refer to the erased data.
• CLFILE cannot erase data in files stored in drive B.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
filenumber is missing.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
34h
Bad file name or number
(You specified filenumber of an unopened file.)
36h
Improper file type
(You specified filenumber of a file other than data files.)
3Ah
File number out of the range
43h
Not allowed to access data in drive B
183
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Example:
OPEN "master.Dat" AS #1
FIELD #1,20 AS bar$,10 AS ky$
CLFILE #1
CLOSE #1
184
File I/O statement
CLOSE
Closes file(s).
Syntax:
CLOSE [[#]filenumber[,[#]filenumber...]]
Parameter:
filenumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 16.
Description:
CLOSE closes file(s) specified by filenumber(s).
• The file number(s) closed by the CLOSE statement becomes available for a subsequent OPEN statement.
• If no file number is specified, the CLOSE statement closes all of the opened data
files and device I/O files.
• Specifying an unopened file number causes neither operation nor a run-time error.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
filenumber is missing.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
3Ah
File number out of range
Reference:
Statements:
END and OPEN
185
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Clear Screen
I/O statement
CLS
Clears the LCD screen.
Syntax:
CLS
Description:
CLS clears the liquid crystal display (LCD) screen and returns the cursor to the
upper left corner of the screen.
• The CLS statement does not affect settings made by displaymode or
charaattribute in the SCREEN statement. (For details about displaymode and charaattribute, refer to the SCREEN statement.)
• This statement turns off the cursor.
186
Declarative statement
COMMON
Declares common variables for sharing between user programs.
Syntax:
COMMON commonvariable[,commonvariable...]
Parameter:
commonvariable
A non-array integer variable, a non-array real variable, a non-array string
variable, an array integer variable, an array real variable, or an array string
variable.
Description:
COMMON defines common variables for sharing them when one program chains to
another.
• Common variables defined by COMMON keep effective as long as programs
chained by the CHAIN statement are running.
• A COMMON statement can appear anywhere in a source program.
• All of the variable name, type, quantity, and definition order of common variables
used in the current program should be identical with those in the chained-to programs. If not, variables having indefinite values will be passed.
• Up to two-dimensional array variables can be defined. You can specify a subscript ranging from 0 to 254 for an array variable.
• The total variable data size which can be passed between chained programs is 6
kilobytes including work variables.
• The size of an array data is equal to the element size multiplied by the number of
elements.
• You can specify the maximum string length within the range from 1 to 255 to a
string variable.
• The default length of a non-array string variable is 40.
• The default length of an array string variable is 20.
187
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 5: Variable name
redefinition
A same variable name is double
declared in a program.
error 73: Improper
string length
The length of a string variable is out of
the range from 1 to 255.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
07h
Insufficient memory space
(The COMMON statement defines too much data.)
Example:
COMMON a%,b,c$,d%(2,3),e(4),f$(5)
Reference:
Statements:
CHAIN
188
Declarative statement
CONST
Defines symbolic constants to be replaced with labels.
Syntax:
CONST constname = expr
Parameter:
constname
A label, identifier, or string expression of a maximum of 10 characters consisting of alphanumerics and period (.).
expr
A string constant
Description:
CONST replaces a label, identifier or a character string specified by constname
with a string constant defined by expr before compiling.
• expr may contain labels defined by other CONST declarations. However, calling
those labels each other (recursively) will result in an error.
• A CONST statement can appear anywhere in your source program. However, it
will take effect from a program line following the CONST declaration.
189
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
I/O statement
CURSOR
Turns the cursor on or off.
Syntax:
CURSOR {ON|OFF}
Description:
When a user program is initiated, the cursor is set to OFF. CURSOR ON turns on the
cursor for keyboard entry operation by the INKEY$ function. CURSOR OFF turns
off the cursor.
• The cursor size depends upon the screen mode (single-byte ANK mode or twobyte Kanji mode), the screen font size (standard-size or small-size), and the character enlargement attribute (regular-size, double-width, double-height, or quadruple-size). For details about the cursor, refer to Chapter 7, Subsection 7.1.3.
• The cursor shape specified by the most recently executed LOCATE statement
takes effect.
• After execution of LOCATE ,,0 which makes the cursor invisible, even execution
of CURSOR ON statement cannot display the cursor. To display the cursor, it is
necessary to make the cursor visible by using the LOCATE statement.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
Specification other than ON and OFF is
described.
Reference:
Statements:
APLOAD, INPUT, KPLOAD, LINE INPUT, and LOCATE
Functions:
INKEY$ and INPUT$
190
Declarative statement
DATA
Stores numeric and string literals for READ statements.
Syntax:
DATA literal[,literal...]
Parameter:
literal
A numeric or string constant.
Description:
DATA stores numeric and string literals so that READ statements can assign them
to variables.
• A DATA statement can appear anywhere in a source program.
• A string data should be enclosed with a pair of double quotation marks (").
• You may have any number of DATA statements in a program. The READ statement assigns data stored by DATA statements in the exact same order that those
DATA statements appear in a source program.
• Using the RESTORE statement can read a same DATA statement more than
once since the RESTORE can change a location where the READ statement
should start reading data.
• You can specify more than one literal in a program line (within 512 characters) by separating them with commas (,).
• You can describe DATA statements also in included files.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 3:’"’ missing
No double quote precedes or follows a
string data.
Reference:
Statements:
READ, REM and RESTORE
191
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
User-defined function declarative statement
DECLARE
Declares user-defined function FUNCTION or SUB externally defined.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Defining a numeric FUNCTION):
DECLARE FUNCTION funcname
[(dummyparameter[,dummyparameter...])]
Syntax 2 (Defining a string FUNCTION):
DECLARE FUNCTION funcname [(dummyparameter
[,dummyparameter...])][[stringlength]]
Syntax 3 (Defining a SUB):
DECLARE SUB subname[(dummyparameter
[,dummyparameter...])]
Parameter:
funcname
• For numerics
funcname%
funcname
Integer function name
Real function name
• For strings
funcname$
String function name
subname
Real function name.
dummyparameter
A non-array integer variable, a non-array real variable, or a non-array string
variable.
stringlength
An integer constant having a value from 1 to 255.
192
Description:
DECLARE defines a user-defined function defined in other source program files.
• Declaration of a user-defined function should appear preceding a calling statement of the user-defined function in your source program.
• funcname, subname, and dummyparameter should be declared in the
same way as the function names and real parameters defined in the original functions (defined in other source program files).
• You cannot make double definition to a same function name.
• The DECLARE statement should not be defined in the block-structured statements (FOR...NEXT, IF...THEN...ELSE...END IF, SELECT...CASE...END
SELECT, WHILE...WEND, DEF FN...END DEF, FUNCTION...END FUNCTION,
and SUB...END SUB), in the error-handling routine, event-handling routine, or in
the subroutines.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 64: Function
redefinition
You made double definition to a same
function name.
error 71: Syntax error
• stringlength
range.
is
out
of
the
• stringlength is not an integer
constant.
Reference:
Statements:
FUNCTION...END FUNCTION and SUB...END SUB
193
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
DEFine FuNction
User-defined function definition statement
DEF FN
(Single-line form)
Names and defines a user-defined function.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Defining a numeric function):
DEF FNfunctionname[(dummyparameter[,dummyparameter
...])]=expression
Syntax 2 (Defining a string function):
DEF FNfunctionname[(dummyparameter
[,dummyparameter...])] [[stringlength]]=expression
Syntax 3 (Calling the function):
FNfunctionname[(realparameter[,realparameter ...])]
Parameter:
functionname
• For numerics
Integer function name
Real function name
functionname%
functionname
• For strings
String function name
where the FN can be in lowercase.
functionname$
dummyparameter
A non-array integer variable, a non-array real variable, or a non-array string
variable.
stringlength
An integer constant having a value from 1 to 255.
expression and realparameter
A numeric or string expression.
194
Description:
■ Creating a user-defined function
DEF FN creates a user-defined function.
• Definition of a user-defined function should appear preceding a calling statement
of the user-defined function in a source program.
• You cannot make double definition to a same function name.
• The DEF FN statement should not be defined in the block-structured statements
(DEF FN...END DEF, FOR...NEXT, FUNCTION...END FUNCTION, IF...THEN
...ELSE...END IF, SELECT...CASE...END SELECT, SUB...END SUB and
WHILE...WEND), in the error-handling routine, event-handling routine, or in the
subroutines.
• DEF FN functions cannot be recursive.
• The type of functionname should match that of the function definition
expression.
• In defining a string function, you can specify the maximum stringlength for a
return value. If its specification is omitted, the default value of 40 characters takes
effect.
• dummyparameter, which corresponds to the variable having the same name in
the function definition expression, is a local variable valid only in that
expression . Therefore, if a variable having the same name as dummyparameter is used outside DEF FN statement or used as a dummyparameter
of any other function in the same program, then it will be independently treated.
• expression describes some operations for the user-defined function. It
should be within one program line including definition described left to the equal
sign (=).
• expression can call other user-defined functions. You can nest DEF FN statements to a maximum of 10 levels.
• If variables other than dummyparameter(s) are specified in expression,
they will be treated as global variables whose current values are available.
• stringlength should be enclosed with a pair of square brackets [ ].
■ Calling a user-defined function
FNfunctionname calls a user-defined function.
• The number of realparameters should be equal to that of dummyparameters, and the types of the corresponding variables used in those parameters
should be identical.
• If you specify a global variable in realparameter when calling a user-defined
function, the user-defined function cannot update the value of the global variable.
This is because all realparameters are passed not by address but by value.
(So called "Call-by-value")
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Syntax errors:
■ When defining a user-defined function
Error code and message
Meaning
error 61: Cannot use DEF
FN in control
structure
The DEF FN statement is defined in
block-structured statements such as
FOR and IF statements.
error 64: Function
redefinition
You made double definition to a same
function name.
error 65: Function definitions exceed
200
error 66: Arguments
exceed 50
error 71: Syntax error
• functionname is an integer function name, but expression is a
real type. (If functionname is a
real function name and expression is an integer type, then no
error occurs.)
• stringlength
range.
is
out
of
the
• stringlength is not an integer
constant.
■ When calling a user-defined function
Error code and message
Meaning
error 68: Mismatch
argument type
or number
• The number of the real parameters is
not equal to that of the dummy
parameters.
• dummyparameter was an integer
variable in defining a function, but
realparameter is a real type in
calling the function. (If dummyparameter was a real variable in
defining a function and realparameter is an integer type, then no
error occurs.)
Calling of a user-defined function precedes the definition of the user-defined
function.
error 69: Function
undefined
196
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
07h
Insufficient memory space
(You nested DEF FN statements to more than 10 levels.)
0Fh
String length out of the range
(The returned value of the stringlength exceeds the allowable range.)
Example:
■ Example 1
DEF FNadd(a%,b%)=a%+b%
PRINT FNadd(3,5)
8
■ Example 2
DEF FNappend$(a$,b$)[80]=a$+b$
PRINT FNappend$("123","AB")
123AB
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
DEFine FuNction...END DEFine
User-defined function definition statement
DEF FN...END DEF
(Block form)
Names and defines a user-defined function.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Defining a numeric function):
DEF FNfunctionname[(dummyparameter[,dummyparameter
...])]
Syntax 2 (Defining a string function):
DEF FNfunctionname[(dummyparameter [,dummyparameter...])] [[stringlength]]
Syntax 3 (Exiting from the function block prematurely):
EXIT DEF
Syntax 4 (Ending the function block):
END DEF
Syntax 5 (Assigning a returned value):
FNfunctionname = generalexpression
Syntax 6 (Calling a function):
FNfunctionname[(realparameter[,realparameter ...])]
Parameter:
Same as for DEF FN (Single-line form).
198
Description:
■ Creating a user-defined function
DEF FN...END DEF creates a user-defined function. The function definition block
between DEF FN and END DEF is a set of some statements and functions.
• Definition of a user-defined function should appear preceding a calling statement
of the user-defined function in a source program.
• You cannot make double definition to a same function name.
• This statement block should not be defined in the block-structured statements
(DEF FN...END DEF, FOR...NEXT, FUNCTION...END FUNCTION, IF...THEN...
ELSE...END IF, SELECT...CASE...END SELECT, SUB...END SUB and WHILE
...WEND), in the error-handling routine, event-handling routine, or in the subroutines.
• DEF FN...END DEF functions can be recursive.
• In defining a string function, you can specify the maximum stringlength. If
its specification is omitted, the default value of 40 characters takes effect.
• dummyparameter, which corresponds to the variable having the same name in
the function definition block, is a local variable valid only in that block. Therefore,
if a variable having the same name as dummyparameter is used outside DEF
FN...END DEF statement block or used as a dummyparameter of any other
function in the same program, then it will be independently treated.
• In user-defined functions, you can call other user-defined functions. You can nest
DEF FN...END DEF statements to a maximum of 10 levels.
• When using the DEF FN...END DEF together with block-structured statements
(DEF FN...END DEF, FOR...NEXT, FUNCTION...END FUNCTION, IF...THEN...
ELSE...END IF, SELECT...CASE...END SELECT, SUB...END SUB and WHILE
...WEND), you can nest them to a maximum of 30 levels.
• If variables other than dummyparameter(s) are specified in the function definition block, they will be treated as global variables whose current values are available.
• EXIT DEF exits the function block prematurely and returns control to the position
immediately after the statement that called the user-defined function.
• The block-format DEF FN statement should be followed by END DEF which ends
the function block and returns control to the position immediately after the statement that called the user-defined function.
• Using Syntax 5 allows you to assign a return value for a user-defined function.
The type of functionname should match that of a return value. If no return
value is assigned to functionname, then the value 0 or a null string will be
returned for a numeric function or a string function, respectively.
199
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
■ Calling a user-defined function
FNfunctionname calls a user-defined function.
• The number of realparameters should be equal to that of dummyparameters, and the types of the corresponding variables used in those parameters
should be identical.
• If you specify a global variable in realparameter when calling a user-defined
function, the user-defined function cannot update the value of the global variable.
This is because all realparameters are passed not by address but by value.
(So called "Call-by-value")
Syntax errors:
■ When creating a user-defined function
Error code and message
Meaning
error 59: Incorrect use
of DEF FN...
EXIT DEF...END
DEF
• The EXIT DEF statement is specified outside the function definition
block.
• The END DEF statement is specified
outside the function definition block.
error 60: Incomplete
control structure (DEF FN
...END DEF)
END DEF is missing.
error 61: Cannot use DEF
FN in control
structure
The DEF FN...END DEF statement is
defined in other block-structured statements such as FOR and IF statement
blocks.
error 64: Function
redefinition
You made double definition to a same
function name.
error 71: Syntax error
• functionname is an integer function name, but generalexpression is a real type.
(If
functionname is a real function
name and generalexpression
is an integer type, then no error
occurs.)
• stringlength
range.
is
out
of
the
• stringlength is not an integer
constant.
• The function name is assigned a
value outside the function definition
block.
200
■ When calling a user-defined function
Error code and message
Meaning
error 68: Mismatch
argument type
or number
• The number of the real parameters is
not equal to that of the dummy
parameters.
• dummyparameter was an integer
variable in defining a function, but
realparameter is a real type in
calling the function. (If dummyparameter was a real variable in
defining a function and realparameter is an integer type, then no
error occurs.)
Calling of a user-defined function precedes the definition of the function.
error 69: Function
undefined
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
07h
Insufficient memory space
(You nested DEF FN statements to more than 10 levels.)
0Dh
END DEF out of the DEF FN block
0Fh
String length out of the range
(The returned value of stringlength exceeds the allowable
range.)
Example:
DEF FNappend$(a$,b%)[128]
C$=""
FOR i%=1 TO b%
C$=C$+a$
NEXT
FNappend$=C$
END DEF
PRINT FNappend$("AB",3)
ABABAB
201
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
DEFine REGister
Declarative statement
DEFREG
Defines register variables.
Syntax:
DEFREG registerdefinition[,registerdefinition ...]
Parameter:
registerdefinition
non-arraynumericvariable [=numericconstant]
DEFREG n1%=10
DEFREG n2=12.5
arraynumericvariable(subscript)
[=numericinitialvaluedefinition]
DEFREG n3(5,6)
non-arraystringvariable[[stringlength]]
[=stringconstant]
DEFREG s1$="abc123"
DEFREG s2$[6]="abc123"
arraystringvariable(subscript)[[stringlength]]
[=stringinitialvaluedefinition]
DEFREG s2$(1,3)[16]
subscript
For one-dimensional: integerconstant
DEFREG n4%(3)
For two-dimensional: integerconstant,integerconstant
DEFREG n5%(4,5)
Where integerconstant is a value from 0 to 254.
202
numericinitialvaluedefinition
For one-dimensional:
{numericconstant[,numericconstant...]}
DEFREG n6%(3)={9,8,7,6}
For two-dimensional:
{{numericconstant[,numericconstant...]}, {numericconstant[,numericconstant...]} ...}
DEFREG n7(1,2)={{10,11,12},{13,14,15}}
stringinitialvaluedefinition
For one-dimensional:
{stringconstant[,stringconstant...]}
DEFREG s3$(3)={"a","bc","123","45"}
For two-dimensional:
{{stringconstant[,stringconstant...]},
constant[,stringconstant...]} ...}
{string-
DEFREG s4$(1,1)={{"a","b"},{"c","1"}}
stringlength
An integer constant from 1 to 255.
Description:
DEFREG defines non-array or array register variables.
• A DEFREG statement can appear anywhere in a source program.
• Up to 2-dimensional array variables can be defined.
• For both non-arraystringvariable and arraystringvariable,
the string length can be specified.
• Defaults:
stringlength for non-array variables: 40 characters
stringlength for array variables:
20 characters
• The memory area for register variables is allocated in user program files in the
memory. Register variables, therefore, are always updated. An uploaded user
program, for example, contains the updated register variables if defined.
• The total number of bytes allowable for register variables is 64 kilobytes.
• You can specify an initial value to an array variable by enclosing it with a pair of
braces { }. No comma (,) is allowed for terminating the list of initial values.
If the number of the specified initial values is less than that of the array elements
or if no initial value is specified, then the Compiler automatically sets a zero (0) or
a null string as an initial value for a numeric variable or a string variable of the
array elements not assigned initial values, respectively.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 6: Variable name
redefinition
A same register variable name is double declared in a program.
error 71: Syntax error
• stringlength is not an integer
constant.
• The number of the specified initial
values is greater than that of the
array elements.
• The list of initial values is terminated
with a comma.
• The type of the specified variable
does not match that of its initial
value. (Note that a real variable can
have an integer constant as an initial
value.)
• subscript is not an integer constant.
error 73: Improper
string length
stringlength is out of the range.
error 74: Improper array
element number
subscript is out of the range.
error 75: Out of space
for register
variable area
Definition by DEFREG exceeds the
register variable area.
error 77: Initial string
too long
• The dimension of the specified array
variable does not match that of its initial value.
• The number of initial value elements
for the specified string variable is
greater than its string length.
No closing parenthesis follows sub-
error 83: ’)’ missing
script.
error 84: ’]’ missing
No closing square bracket follows
stringlength.
error 90: ’{’ missing
No opening brace precedes the initial
value.
204
Example:
Example 1: Valid DEFREG statements
DEFREG
DEFREG
DEFREG
DEFREG
DEFREG
DEFREG
DEFREG
DEFREG
DEFREG
a,e$
b=100,c(10),d$(2,4)[10]
bps$="19200"
a%(2)={1,2}
a%(2)={1,,3}
a%(2)={,,3}
b%(1,1)={{},{1,2}}
b%(1,1)={,{1,2}}
b%(1,1)={{1,2}}
Example 2: Position of elements in an array
DEFREG a%(1,1)={{1},{,3}}
The elements of the above array have the following initial values:
a%(0,0):1
a%(0,1):0
a%(1,0):0
a%(1,1):3
DEFREG b$(1,1)[3]={,{"123"}}
The elements of the above array have the following initial values:
b$(0,0):""
b$(0,1):""
b$(1,0):"123"
b$(1,1):""
Example 3: DEFREG statements causing syntax errors
DEFREG
DEFREG
DEFREG
DEFREG
c%(2)={1,2,3,4}
d%(2)={1,2,}
e%(1,1)={{,},{1,2}}
f%(1,1)={{1,2},}
Reference:
Statements:
DIM
205
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
DIMension
Memory control statement
DIM
Declares and dimensions arrays; also declares the string length for a string variable.
Syntax:
DIM arraydeclaration[,arraydeclaration...]
Parameter:
arraydeclaration
numericvariable (subscript)
DIM n1%(12)
DIM n2(5,6)
stringvariable (subscript)[[stringlength]]
DIM
DIM
DIM
DIM
s1$(2)
s2$(2,6)
s3$(4)[16]
s4$(5,3)[30]
subscript
For one-dimensional:
integerexpression
For two-dimensional:
integerexpression,
integerexpression
Where integerexpression is a numeric expression which returns
a value from 0 to 254.
stringlength
An integer constant that has a value from 1 to 255 which indicates the
number of characters.
Description:
DIM declares array variables and dimensions the arrays that a program will utilize.
• A DIM statement can appear anywhere before the first use of the array in a
source program. However, when possible, you should place all your DIM statements together near the beginning of the program and should not place them in
the program execution loops in order to prevent errors.
• Up to 2-dimensional array variables can be declared.
206
• In declaring an array string variable, you can specify the string length. If its specification is omitted, the default value of 20 characters takes effect.
• If no subscript is specified for a string variable, the Compiler automatically regards
the string variable as a non-array string variable so that the default for a non-array
string variable, 40 characters, takes effect.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 7: Variable name
redefinition
The array declared with DIM had been
already declared with DEFREG.
error 71: Syntax error
• stringlength
range.
is
out
of
the
• stringlength is not an integer
constant.
error 72: Variable name
redefinition
• A same variable name is double
declared inside a same DIM statement.
• A same variable name is used for a
non-array variable and array variable.
error 78: Array symbols
exceed 30 for
one DIM statement
More than 30 variables are declared
inside one DIM statement.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
07h
Insufficient memory space
(The variable area has run out.)
0Ah
Duplicate definition
(An array is double declared.)
Reference:
Statements:
DEFREG and ERASE
207
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Flow control statement
END
Terminates program execution.
Syntax:
END
Description:
END terminates program execution and sounds the beeper for a second.
• An END can appear anywhere in a source program.
• When an END statement executes, all of the files being opened become closed,
and then either of the following operations takes place depending upon whether
or not any application program has been selected as an execution program (to be
run when the BHT is turned on) in System Mode.
- If any application program has been selected, the BHT turns off the power
after three seconds from the message indication of the "Program end."
- If an execution program has not been selected, control passes to System
Mode.
(For System Mode, refer to the BHT User's Manual.)
208
Memory control statement
ERASE
Erases array variables.
Syntax:
ERASE arrayvariablename[,arrayvariablename...]
Parameter:
arrayvariablename
An array numeric or array string variable.
Description:
ERASE erases an array variable(s) specified by arrayvariablename and frees
the memory used by the array.
• arrayvariablename is the name of an array variable already declared by
the DIM statement. If it has not been declared by DIM, the ERASE statement will
be ignored.
• After erasing the name of an array variable with ERASE, you can use that name
to declare a new array variable with the DIM statement.
• arrayvariablename should not include subscripts or parentheses ( ) as
shown below.
DIM a(3),b1%(5,10),c$(3)[20]
ERASE a,b1%,c$
• ERASE cannot erase a register variable declared by the DEFREG statement, a
common variable declared by the COMMON statement, or a non-array string variable.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
You attempted to erase a register variable declared by DEFREG, a common
variable by COMMON, or a non-array
string variable.
Reference:
Statements:
DEFREG and DIM
209
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
File I/O statement
FIELD
Allocates string variables as field variables.
Syntax:
FIELD [#]filenumber,fieldwidth AS fieldvariable
[,fieldwidth AS fieldvariable...]
Parameter:
filenumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 16.
fieldwidth
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 254.
fieldvariable
A non-array string variable.
Description:
FIELD declares the length and field variable of each field of a record in a data file.
• filenumber is the file number of a data file opened by the OPEN statement.
• fieldwidth is the number of bytes for a corresponding field variable.
• You can assign a same field variable to more than one field.
• There is no difference in usage between a field variable and a general variable
except that no register variable, common variable, or array variable can be used
for a field variable.
• A record can contain up to 16 fields. The total number of bytes of all fieldwidths plus the number of fields should not exceed 255.
• If a FIELD statement executes for an opened file having the number of fields or
field width unmatching that of the FIELD specifications except for field variables,
a run-time error will occur.
• If more than one FIELD statement is issued to a same file, the last one takes
effect.
210
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
filenumber is missing.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(fieldwidth out of the range)
34h
Bad file name or number
(You specified filenumber of an unopened file.)
36h
Improper file type
(You specified filenumber of a file other than data files.)
3Ah
File number out of the range
3Ch
FIELD overflow
(A FIELD statement specifies the record length exceeding 255
bytes.)
3Dh
A FIELD statement specifies the field width which does not
match one that specified in file creation.
Example:
fileNumber% = 4
OPEN "Datafile.dat" AS #fileNumber%
FIELD #fileNumber%,20 AS code39$,
16 AS itf$,5 AS kyin$
Reference:
Statements:
CLFILE, CLOSE, GET, OPEN, and PUT
211
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Flow control statement
FOR...NEXT
Defines a loop containing statements to be executed a specified number of times.
Syntax:
FOR controlvariable = initialvalue TO finalvalue [STEP
increment]
.
.
.
NEXT [controlvariable]
Parameter:
controlvariable
A non-array numeric variable.
initialvalue, finalvalue, and increment
Numeric expressions.
Description:
FOR…NEXT defines a loop containing statements (which is called "body of a loop")
to be executed by the number of repetitions controlled by initialvalue,
finalvalue, and increment.
■ Processing procedures
(1) The Interpreter assigns initialvalue to controlvariable.
(2) The Interpreter checks terminating condition; that is, it compares the value of
controlvariable against the finalvalue.
- When the value of increment is positive:
If the value of controlvariable is equal to or less than the finalvalue, go to step (3). If it becomes greater the finalvalue, the program
proceeds with the first line after the NEXT statement (the loop is over).
- When the value of increment is negative:
If the value of controlvariable is equal to or greater than the finalvalue, go to step (3). If it becomes less than the finalvalue, the program proceeds with the first line after the NEXT statement (the loop is over).
(3) The body of the loop executes and the NEXT statement increases the value of
controlvariable by the value of increment. Then, control returns to
the FOR statement at the top of the loop. Go back to step (2).
212
• The default value of increment is 1.
• You can nest FOR...NEXT statements to a maximum of 10 levels.
• When using the FOR...NEXT statement together with block-structured statements
(DEF FN...END DEF, FOR...NEXT, FUNCTION...END FUNCTION, IF...THEN
...ELSE...END IF, SELECT...CASE...END SELECT, SUB...END SUB and
WHILE...WEND), you can nest them to a maximum of 30 levels.
• A same controlvariable should not be reused in a nested loop. Reusing it
will cause a run-time error when the NEXT statement for an outer FOR...NEXT
loop executes.
• Nested loops should not be crossed. Shown below is a correctly nested sample.
FOR i%=1 TO 10
FOR j%=2 TO 100
FOR k%=3 TO 1000
NEXT k%
NEXT j%
NEXT i%
FOR l%=1 TO 3
.
.
.
NEXT l%
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 26:
Too deep nesting.
error 52: Incorrect use
of FOR…NEXT
NEXT without FOR.
error 53: Incomplete
control structure
Incomplete pairs of FOR and NEXT.
error 54: Incorrect FOR
index variable
controlvariable for FOR is different from that for NEXT.
error 88: 'TO' missing
TO finalvalue is missing.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
01h
NEXT without FOR
07h
Insufficient memory space
(Too deep nesting.)
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
User-defined function statement
FUNCTION…END FUNCTION
Names and creates user-defined function FUNCTION.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Defining a numeric function):
FUNCTION funcname [(dummyparameter
[,dummyparameter...])]
Syntax 2 (Defining a string function):
FUNCTION funcname [(dummyparameter
[,dummyparameter...])][[stringlength]]
Syntax 3 (Existing from the function block prematurely):
EXIT FUNCTION
Syntax 4 (Ending the function block):
END FUNCTION
Syntax 5 (Assigning a returned value):
funcname = generalexpression
Syntax 6 (Calling a function):
funcname[(realparameter[,realparameter...])]
Parameter:
funcname
• For numerics
funcname%
funcname
Integer function name
Real function name
• For strings
funcname$
String function name
dummyparameter
A non-array integer variable, a non-array real variable, or a non-array string variable.
stringlength
An integer constant having a value from 1 to 255.
realparameter
A numeric or string expression.
214
Description:
■ Creating a user-defined function
FUNCTION...END FUNCTION creates a user-defined function. The function definition block between FUNCTION and END FUNCTION is a set of some statements
and functions.
• You cannot make double definition to a same function name.
• This statement block should not be defined in the block-structured statements
(DEF FN...END DEF, FOR...NEXT, FUNCTION...END FUNCTION, IF...THEN
...ELSE...END IF, SELECT...CASE...END SELECT, SUB...END SUB and
WHILE...WEND), in the error-handling routine, event-handling routine, or in the
subroutines.
• FUNCTION...END FUNCTION functions can be recursive.
• In defining a string function, you can specify the maximum stringlength. If
its specification is omitted, the default value of 40 characters takes effect.
• dummyparameter, which corresponds to the variable having the same name in
the function definition block, is a local variable valid only in that block. Therefore,
if a variable having the same name as dummyparameter is used outside
FUNCTION...END FUNCTION statement block or used as a dummyparameter of any other function in the same program, then it will be independently
treated.
• In user-defined functions, you can call other user-defined functions. You can nest
FUNCTION...END FUNCTION statements to a maximum of 10 levels.
• When using the FUNCTION...END FUNCTION together with block-structured
statements (DEF FN...END DEF, FOR...NEXT, FUNCTION...END FUNCTION,
IF…THEN...ELSE...END IF, SELECT...CASE...END SELECT, SUB...END SUB
and WHILE...WEND), you can nest them to a maximum of 30 levels.
• If variables other than dummyparameter(s) are specified in the function definition block, they will be treated as local variables whose current values are available only in that function definition block, unless PRIVATE or GLOBAL is
specified.
• EXIT FUNCTION exits the function block prematurely and returns control to the
position immediately after the statement that called the user-defined function.
• Using Syntax 5 allows you to assign a return value for a user-defined function.
The type of funcname should match that of a return value. If no return value is
assigned to funcname, then the value 0 or a null string will be returned for a
numeric function or a string function, respectively.
■ Calling a user-defined function
funcname calls the function.
• The number of realparameters should be equal to that of dummyparameters, and the types of the corresponding variables used in those parameters
should be identical.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
• If you specify a global variable in realparameter when calling a user-defined
function, the user-defined function cannot update the value of the global variable.
This is because all realparameters are passed not by address but by value.
(So called "Call-by-value")
NOTE
Before any call to a FUNCTION...END FUNCTION, you need to place definition of the FUNCTION function or declaration of the FUNCTION by the
DECLARE statement in your source program.
Syntax errors:
■ When programming a user-defined function
Error code and message
Meaning
error 64: Function
redefinition
You made double definition to a same
function name.
error 71: Syntax error
• funcname is an integer function
name, but generalexpression
is a real type. (If funcname is a
real function name and generalexpression is an integer type,
then no error occurs.)
• stringlength
range.
is
out
of
the
• stringlength is not an integer
constant.
• The function name is assigned a
value outside the function definition
block.
error 95: Incorrect use
of FUNCTION,
EXIT FUNCTION, or END
FUNCTION
216
• The EXIT FUNCTION statement is
specified outside the function definition block.
• The END FUNCTION statement is
specified outside the function definition block.
Error code and message
Meaning
error 96: Incomplete
control structure (FUNCTION...END
FUNCTION)
END FUNCTION is missing.
error 97: Cannot use
FUNCTION in
control structure
The FUNCTION…END FUNCTION
statement is defined in other blockstructured statements such as FOR
and IF statement blocks.
■ When calling a user-defined function
Error code and message
Meaning
error 68: Mismatch argument type or
number
• The number of the real parameters is
not equal to that of the dummy
parameters.
• dummyparameter was an integer
variable in defining a function, but
realparameter is a real type in
calling the function. (If dummyparameter was a real variable in
defining a function and realparameter is an integer type, then no
error occurs.)
error 69: Function undefined
Calling of a user-defined function precedes the definition of the user-defined
function.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
07h
Insufficient memory space
(You nested FUNCTION statements to more than 10 levels.)
0Fh
String length out of the range
(The returned value of stringlength exceeds the allowable
range.)
217
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Example:
File 1
File 2
DECLARE FUNCTION add(x,y)
A=1:B=2
PRINT "TEST"
C=add(A,B)
PRINT C
.
.
.
FUNCTION add(X,Y)
add=X+Y
END FUNCTION
TEST
3
Reference:
Statements:
DECLARE
218
File I/O statement
GET
Reads a record from a data file.
Syntax:
GET [#]filenumber[,recordnumber]
Parameter:
filenumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 16.
recordnumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 32767.
Description:
GET reads the record specified by recordnumber from the data file specified by
filenumber and assigns the data to the field variable(s) specified by the FIELD
statement.
• filenumber is the file number of a data file opened by the OPEN statement.
• If a data file having no record is specified, a run-time error will occur.
• The first record in a data file is counted as 1.
• If no recordnumber is specified, the GET statement reads a record whose
number is one greater than that of the record read by the preceding GET statement.
If no recordnumber is specified in the first GET statement after opening of a
file, the first record (numbered 1) in the file will be read.
• recordnumber should be equal to or less than the number of written records.
If it is greater, a run-time error will occur.
• If a GET statement without recordnumber is executed after occurrence of a
run-time error caused by an incorrect record number in the preceding GET statement, then the new GET statement reads the record whose record number is one
greater than that of the latest record correctly read.
• If a GET statement without recordnumber is executed after execution of the
preceding GET statement specifying the last record (the number of the written
records), then a run-time error will occur.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
filenumber is missing.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
34h
Bad file name or number
(You specified filenumber of an unopened file.)
36h
Improper file type
(You specified filenumber of a file other than data files.)
3Ah
File number out of the range
3Eh
A PUT or GET statement executed without a FIELD statement.
3Fh
Bad record number
(No record to be read in a data file.)
Example:
GET #filNo,RecordNo
GET #4
GET #3,100
Reference:
Statements:
FIELD, OPEN, and PUT
220
Declarative statement
GLOBAL
Declares one or more work variables or register variables defined in a file,
to be global.
Syntax:
GLOBAL varname [,varname...]
Parameter:
varname
numericvar [(subscript)]
stringvar [(subscript)[[stringlength]]]
subscript
For one-dimensional:
integerconstant
For two-dimensional:
integerconstant, integerconstant
Where integerconstant is a numeric expression which returns a value
from 0 to 254.
stringlength
An integer constant from 1 to 255 which indicates the number of characters.
Description:
GLOBAL allows variables declared by varname to be referred to or updated in
other programs.
• If a same variable name as specified inside the GLOBAL statement is already
declared in your file, the GLOBAL statement will result in an error.
• Up to 30 variables can be declared inside one GLOBAL statement.
• You may declare non-array variables and array variables together inside one
GLOBAL statement.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 7: Variable name
redefinition
The variable declared with GLOBAL
statement had been already declared
with DEFREG statement.
error 71: Syntax error
• stringlength
range.
is
out
of
the
• stringlength is not an integer
constant.
error 72: Variable name
redefinition
• A same variable name is double
declared inside a same GLOBAL
statement.
• A same variable name is used for a
non-array variable and array variable.
error 78: Array symbols
exceed 30 for
one DIM, PRIVATE, or GLOBAL statement
• More than 30 variables are declared
inside one GLOBAL statement.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
07h
Insufficient memory space
(The variable area has run out.)
0Ah
Duplicate definition
(An array is double declared.)
Reference:
Statements:
DIM and PRIVATE
222
Flow control statement
GOSUB
Branches to a subroutine.
Syntax:
GOSUB label
Description:
GOSUB calls a subroutine specified by label.
• Within the subroutine itself, you use a RETURN statement which indicates the logical end of the subroutine and returns control to the statement just after the
GOSUB that called the subroutine.
• You may call a subroutine any number of times as long as the Interpreter allows
the nest level and other conditions.
• Subroutines can appear anywhere in a source program. However, you should
separate subroutines from the main program by any means such as by placing
subroutines immediately following the END or GOTO statement, in order to prevent the main part of the program from falling into those subroutines.
• A subroutine can call other subroutines. You can nest GOSUB statements to a
maximum of 10 levels.
• When using the GOSUB statement together with block-structured statements
(DEF FN...END DEF, FOR...NEXT, FUNCTION...END FUNCTION, IF...THEN
...ELSE...END IF, SELECT...CASE...END SELECT, SUB...END SUB, and
WHILE...WEND), you can nest them to a maximum of 30 levels.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
• label has not been defined.
• label is missing.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
03h
RETURN without GOSUB
07h
Insufficient memory space
(Too deep nesting)
Reference:
Statements:
RETURN
224
Flow control statement
GOTO
Branches to a specified label.
Syntax:
GOTO label
Description:
GOTO unconditionally transfers control to a label specified by label.
• In an IF statement block, you can omit GOTO immediately following THEN or
ELSE, as shown below.
IF a=0 THEN Lbl1 ELSE Lbl2
END IF
• GOTO allows you to branch anywhere in your program. However, you should
branch only to another line in a program module or subroutine at the same program level. Avoid transferring control to a DEF FN block or other blocks at the different program level.
• You can use GO TO instead of GOTO.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
• label has not been defined.
• label is missing.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Flow control statement
IF...THEN...ELSE...END IF
Conditionally executes specified statement blocks depending upon the evaluation of a conditional expression.
Syntax:
Syntax 1:
IF conditionalexpression THEN
statementblock1
[ELSE
statementblock2]
END IF
Syntax 2:
IF conditionalexpression ELSE
statementblock
END IF
Parameter:
conditionalexpression
A numeric expression which evaluates to true or false.
Description:
IF statement block tests whether conditionalexpression is true or false. If
the condition is true (not zero), statementblock which follows THEN is executed; if it is false (zero), statementblock which follows ELSE is executed.
Then, program control passes to the first statement after END IF.
• You can omit either THEN block or ELSE block.
• IF statement block should terminate with END IF which indicates the end of the
block.
• IF statement blocks can be nested. When using the IF statement block together
with other block-structured statements (DEF FN...END DEF, FOR...NEXT, FUNCTION...END FUNCTION, IF...THEN...ELSE...END IF, SELECT...CASE…END
SELECT, SUB...END SUB, and WHILE...WEND), you can nest them to a maximum of 30 levels.
226
• A block-structured IF statement block has the following advantages over a single-line IF statement (which is not supported in BHT-BASIC):
- More complex conditions can be tested since an IF statement block can contain more than one line for describing conditions.
- You can describe as many statements or statement blocks as you want.
- Since it is not necessary to put more than one statement in a line, you can
describe easy-to-read programs according to the logical structure, making correction and debugging easy.
• You can use ENDIF instead of END IF.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 26:
Too deep nesting.
error 50: Incorrect use
of IF...THEN
...ELSE...END
IF
THEN is missing.
error 51: Incomplete
control
structure
END IF is missing.
Example:
k$=INKEY$
IF k$<>"" THEN
PRINT k$;
END IF
Reference:
Statements:
DEF FN...END DEF, FOR...NEXT, ON…GOSUB, ON...GOTO,
SELECT...CASE...END SELECT, and WHILE...WEND
227
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
I/O statement
INPUT
Reads input from the keyboard into a variable.
Syntax:
INPUT [;]["prompt"{,|;}]variable
Parameter:
"prompt"
A string constant.
variable
A numeric or string variable.
Description:
When execution reaches an INPUT statement, the program pauses and waits for
the user to enter data from the keyboard while showing a prompting message specified by "prompt".
After typing data, the user must press the ENT key. Then, the INPUT statement
assigns the typed data to variable.
• "prompt" is a prompting message to be displayed on the LCD.
• The semicolon (;) or comma (,) after "prompt" has the following meaning:
If "prompt" is followed by a semicolon, the INPUT statement displays the
prompting message followed by a question mark and a space.
INPUT "data= ";a$
data= ?
If "prompt" is followed by a comma, the statement displays the prompting message but no question mark or space is appended to the prompting message.
INPUT "data= ",a$
data=
228
• The cursor shape specified by the most recently executed LOCATE statement
takes effect.
• Even after execution of the CURSOR OFF statement, the INPUT statement displays the cursor.
• Data inputted by the user will echo back to the LCD. To assign it to variable, it
is necessary to press the ENT key.
Pressing the ENT key causes also a line feed. If INPUT is followed by a semicolon (;) in an INPUT statement, however, line feed is suppressed.
If you type no data and press the ENT key, an INPUT statement automatically
assigns a zero or a null string to variable that is a numeric or string, respectively.
• When any echoed back data is displayed on the LCD, pressing the Clear or BS
key erases the whole displayed data or a most recently typed-in character of the
data, respectively. If no data is displayed, pressing the Clear or BS key produces
no operation.
• Notes for entering numeric data:
The effective length of numeric data is 12 characters. The 13th typed-in literal
and the following will be ignored.
Valid literals include 0 to 9, a minus sign (-), and a period (.). They should be in
correct numeric data form. If not, INPUT statement accepts only numeric data
from the first literal up to correctly formed literal, as valid data. If no valid data is
found, the INPUT statement automatically assigns a zero (0) to variable.
A plus sign (+) can be typed in and echo back on the LCD, but it will be ignored in
evaluation of the typed-in data.
• Notes for entering string data:
The effective length of string data is the maximum string length of variable.
Overflowed data will be ignored.
• The sizes of prompting message literals, echoed back literals and cursor depend
upon the screen mode (single-byte ANK mode or two-byte Kanji mode), the
screen font size (standard-size or small-size), and the character enlargement
attribute (regular-size, double-width, double-height, or quadruple-size). For
details, refer to Chapter 7, Subsection 7.1.3.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
• Neither a comma (,) nor semicolon (;)
follows "prompt".
• "prompt" is not a string constant.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
06h
The operation result is out of the allowable range.
(Numeric variable is out of the range.)
Reference:
Statements:
LINE INPUT and LOCATE
Functions:
INKEY$ and INPUT$
230
File I/O statement
INPUT #
Reads data from a device I/O file into specified variables.
Syntax:
INPUT #filenumber,variable[,variable...]
Parameter:
filenumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 16.
variable
A numeric or string variable.
Description:
INPUT # reads data from a device I/O file (a communications device file or bar
code device file) specified by filenumber and assigns it to variable.
• filenumber is a number assigned to the device I/O file when it was opened.
• Reading data from a communications device file:
An INPUT # statement reads data fields separated by CR codes or commas (,)
and assigns them to variable.
If more than one variable is specified in an INPUT # statement, the program
waits until all of the specified variables receive data.
If an INPUT # statement reads data longer than the allowable string length, it
ignores only the overflowed data and completes execution, causing no run-time
error.
• Reading data from a bar code device file:
An INPUT # statement reads the scanned data into the 1st variable.
If more than one variable is specified in an INPUT # statement, the program
ignores the 2nd and the following variables.
If an INPUT # statement reads data longer than the allowable string length, it
ignores only the overflowed data and completes execution, causing no run-time
error.
TIP
If the maximum number of digits has been omitted in the read code specifications of the OPEN "BAR:" statement (except for the universal product codes), then the INPUT # statement can read bar codes of up to 99
digits. To read bar codes exceeding 40 digits, you should define a sufficient string variable length beforehand.
231
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
• Notes for entering numeric data:
Valid characters include 0 to 9, a minus sign (-), and a period (.). They should be
in correct numeric data form. If not, INPUT # statement accepts only numeric
data from the first character up to correctly formed character, as valid data. If no
valid data is found, the INPUT # statement automatically assigns a zero (0) to
variable.
If the INPUT # statement reads alphabetical characters with a numeric variable,
it automatically assigns a zero (0) to variable. For reading of Code 39 bar
codes that may encode alphabetical characters, therefore, special care should be
taken.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
filenumber is missing.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
06h
The operation result is out of the allowable range.
(Numeric variable is out of the range.)
34h
Bad file name or number
(You specified filenumber of an unopened file.)
36h
Improper file type
(You specified filenumber of a file other than device I/O
files.)
3Ah
File number out of the range
Example:
INPUT #fileNo,dat$
Reference:
Statements:
CLOSE, LINE INPUT #, OPEN "BAR:", and OPEN "COM:"
Functions:
INPUT$
232
I/O statement
KEY
Assigns a string or a control code to a function key; also defines a function key as a backlight
function on/off key. This statement also defines a magic key as a trigger switch, shift key, or
software keyboard display key.*
(*Only for models equipped with a touch screen)
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Assigning a string or a control code to a function key):
KEY keynumber,stringdata
Syntax 2 (Defining a function key as a backlight function on/off key):
KEY backlightkeynumber,onduration
Syntax 3 (Defining a magic key as a trigger switch, shift key, or software keyboard display key*):
KEY magickeynumber,"TRG"
KEY magickeynumber,"SFT"
KEY magickeynumber,"ALP"
(Trigger switch)
(Shift key)
(Software keyboard display key)
Parameter:
keynumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 31 and 33 to 38.
stringdata
A string expression which returns up to two characters or a single control
code.
backlightkeynumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 31 and 33 to 38.
onduration
Keyword BL and a string expression which returns a value from 0 to 255.
(BL0 to BL255)
magickeynumber
30, 31, 35, or 36
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Description:
■ Assigning a string or a control code to a function key
KEY in syntax 1 assigns a string or a control code specified by stringdata to a
function key specified by keynumber. Pressing the specified function key generates the assigned string data or control code and then passes it to the user program
as if each character is keyed in directly from the keyboard.
• keynumber is a key number assigned to a particular function key. (Refer to
Appendix E, "Key Number Assignment on the Keyboard.")
• Specifying 32 will be ignored.
• stringdata is a character code ranging from 0 (00h) to 255 (FFh). (For the
character codes, refer to Appendix C, "Character Sets.")
• If you specify more than two characters to stringdata, only the first two characters are valid.
• stringdata inputted by pressing the specified function key may be read to the
user program by INPUT or LINE INPUT statement or INKEY$ or INPUT$
function.
Note that INKEY$ or INPUT$ (1) function can read only the first one character
of the assigned two. The second character remains in the keyboard buffer and
can be read by the INPUT or LINE INPUT statement or INKEY$ or INPUT$
function.
• If pressed together with the shift key, any numerical key can operate as a function
key.
• If you issue more than one KEY statement specifying a same function key, the last
statement takes effect.
• If a null string is assigned to a function key, pressing the function key produces no
key entry. To make a particular function key invalid, you specify a null string to
stringdata as shown below.
KEY 1,""
KEY 2,CHR$(0)
KEY 3,CHR$(&h0)
■ Defining a function key as a backlight function on/off key
KEY in syntax 2 defines a function key specified by backlightkeynumber as a
backlight function on/off key and sets the length of backlight ON-time specified by
onduration. (Refer to Chapter 13, "Backlight Function.")
• backlightkeynumber is a key number assigned to a particular function key.
(Refer to Appendix E, "Key Number Assignment on the Keyboard.")
Pressing the specified backlight function on/off key activates or deactivates the
backlight function.
• Specifying a zero (0) or 32 to backlightkeynumber will be ignored.
234
• Pressing the M4 key (key number 38) while holding down the shift key functions
as a backlight on/off control key by default.
• If pressed together with the shift key, any numerical key can operate as a function
key.
• onduration is the length of time in seconds from when the backlight is turned
on to automatic turning-off. Pressing the trigger switch or any key (except for the
backlight function on/off key) while the backlight is on resets the counter of
onduration to the specified time length and restarts counting down.
Specification of BL0 disables the backlight function. Specification of BL255
keeps the backlight on.
• A function key defined as a backlight function on/off key cannot be used to enter
string data.
• If you issue more than one KEY statement, the last statement takes effect. That
is, if you define more than one key as a backlight function on/off key as shown
below, only the function key numbered 8 operates as a backlight function on/off
key and the length of backlight ON-time is 15 seconds.
KEY 5,"BL40"
KEY 8,"BL15"
■ Defining a magic key as a trigger switch, shift key, or software keyboard display
key
• KEY in syntax 3 defines a magic key as a trigger switch, shift key, or software keyboard display key, as well as assigning string data.
KEY 30,"TRG"
KEY 31,"SFT"
KEY 35,"ALP"
’M1 key as a trigger switch
’M2 key as a shift key
’M3 key as a software
’keyboard display key
• With the software keyboard function enabled, if you press a key defined as a software keyboard display key during running of a user program, then a software keyboard will appear.
• Pressing the M3 key while holding down the shift key functions as a software keyboard display key by default.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
NOTE
If you issue KEY statements specifying a same function key, only the last
KEY statement takes effect.
The description below, for example, makes the function key numbered 3
operate as a backlight function on/off key and the length of backlight ONtime is 100 seconds.
KEY 3,"a"
KEY 3,"BL100"
The description below assigns string data "a" to the function key numbered
3. The default backlight function on/off key (combination of M4 key and
shift key) will be restored.
KEY 3,"BL100"
KEY 3,"a"
The description below defines the M1 key as a trigger switch.
KEY 30,"SFT"
KEY 30,"TRG"
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
• keynumber is missing.
• stringdata is missing.
• backlightkeynumber is missing.
• stringdata is a numeric expression.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(keynumber, backlightkeynumber, or magickeynumber is out of the range.)
236
Example:
Syntax 1:
KEY 1,"a"
KEY 2,"F"+CHR$(13)
KEY 3,""
Syntax 2:
KEY 1,"BL60"
Reference:
Statements:
KEY OFF, KEY ON, and ON KEY...GOSUB
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
I/O statement
KEY ON and KEY OFF
Enables or disables keystroke trapping for a specified function key.
Syntax:
KEY (keynumber){ON|OFF}
Parameter:
keynumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 31, 33 to 38, and 501
to 550.
Description:
■ KEY ON
KEY ON enables keystroke trapping for a function key specified by keynumber.
(Refer to Appendix E, "Key Number Assignment on the Keyboard.")
• Between every execution of statements, the Interpreter checks whether a function
key specified by the KEY ON statement is pressed or not. If the key is pressed,
the Interpreter transfers control to the event-handling routine defined by an ON
KEY...GOSUB statement (which should be executed before the KEY ON statement).
• If a function key which has been assigned a null string by the KEY statement is
specified by the KEY ON statement, the keystroke trap takes place.
• If you specify a function key which has been defined as a backlight function on/off
key, trigger switch, shift key, or software keyboard display key by using the KEY
ON statement, then no keystroke trap takes place.
• Keystroke trapping has priority over the INKEY$ function.
• When a program waits for the keyboard entry by the INPUT, LINE INPUT statement or INPUT$ function, pressing a function key specified by the KEY ON statement neither reads the pressed key data nor causes keystroke trapping.
• Specifying 32 to keynumber will be ignored.
■ KEY OFF
KEY OFF disables keystroke trapping for a function key specified by keynumber.
• Specifying 32 to keynumber will be ignored.
238
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
• keynumber is not enclosed in
parentheses ( ).
• Neither ON or OFF follows (keynumber).
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(keynumber is out of the range.)
Reference:
Statements:
KEY and ON KEY...GOSUB
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
File I/O statement
KILL
Deletes a specified file from the memory.
Syntax:
KILL "[drivename:]filename"
Parameter:
"[drivename:]filename"
A string expression.
Description:
KILL deletes a data file or a user program file specified by "[drivename:]filename".
• [drivename:] is used in conventional BHT series. In the BHT-100 series, it is
merely for the compatibility with their specifications. The drivename may be A:
or B:, but it will be ignored.
• The specified file will be deleted from both the data and the directory in the memory.
• A file to be deleted should be closed beforehand.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 3: ’"’ missing
No double quote precedes or follows
[drivename:]filename.
error 71: Syntax error
[drivename:]filename is not
enclosed in double quotes.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
02h
Syntax error
(The format of "[drivename:]filename" is not correct.)
35h
File not found
37h
File already open
240
Example:
CLOSE
IF kyIn$="Y" THEN
KILL "Master.Dat"
END IF
Reference:
Statements:
CLFILE
241
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Kanji Pattern LOAD
I/O statement
KPLOAD
Loads a user-defined Kanji font in the two-byte Kanji mode.
This statement also loads a user-defined cursor.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Loading a user-defined Kanji font):
KPLOAD kanjicode, fontarrayname
Syntax 2 (Loading a user-defined cursor):
KPLOAD kanjicode, cursorarrayname
Parameter:
kanjicode
• For a user-defined Kanji font
A numeric expression which returns a value from EBC0h to EBDFh, EC40h
to EC7Eh, and EC80h to EC83h.
• For a user-defined cursor
A numeric expression which returns zero (0).
fontarrayname and cursorarrayname
An array integer variable name.
NOTE
Do not specify parentheses ( ) or subscripts which represent a general array
as shown below; doing so will result in a syntax error.
KPLOAD &HEBC0,kp%() ’error
KPLOAD &HEBC0,kp%(2) ’error
Description:
■ Loading a user-defined Kanji font
KPLOAD loads a user-defined Kanji font data defined by fontarrayname to the
user font area specified by kanjicode.
• kanjicode is a shift JIS code.
• To display user-defined Kanji fonts loaded by the KPLOAD, you use the PRINT
statement in the two-byte Kanji mode. If you attempt to display an undefined
Kanji character code, a full-width space character will appear.
242
• The loaded user-defined fonts are effective during execution of the user program
which loaded those fonts and during execution of the successive user programs
chained by the CHAIN statement.
• If you load a font to the same kanjicode more than one time, the most recently
specified font takes effect.
• Only when the Interpreter executes the KPLOAD statement, it refers to the array
data defined by fontarrayname. So, once a user program has finished loading the user font, changing the data in the array or deleting the array itself (by the
ERASE statement) will not affect the already loaded user font.
• An array integer variable--a work array, register array, or common array--for fontarrayname should be declared by the DIM, DEFREG, or COMMON statement,
respectively.
DIM kp0%(15)
DEFREG kp1%(15)
COMMON kp2%(15)
The array variable should be one-dimensional and have at least 16 elements.
Each element data should be an integer and stored in the area from the 1st to
16th elements of the array.
• Also when the double-width, double-height, or quadruple-size is specified, userdefined fonts loaded by the KPLOAD will be effective. The system will enlarge the
dot pattern of each loaded font in double-width, double-height, or quadruple-size.
For details, refer to Chapter 7, Subsection 7.1.3 "Dot Patterns of Fonts."
■ Loading a user-defined cursor
KPLOAD loads a user-defined cursor data defined by cursorarrayname to the
user font area specified by kanjicode.
• To display a user-defined cursor loaded by the KPLOAD, you set 255 to cursorswitch in the LOCATE statement in the two-byte Kanji mode. (LOCATE
,,255)
• The loaded user-defined cursors are effective during execution of the user program which loaded those cursors and during execution of the successive user
program chained by the CHAIN statement.
• Only when the Interpreter executes the KPLOAD statement, it refers to the array
data defined by cursorarrayname. So, once a user program has finished
loading the user cursor, changing the data in the array or deleting the array itself
(by the ERASE statement) will not affect the already loaded user cursor.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
• An array integer variable--a work array, register array, or common array--for cursorarrayname should be declared by the DIM, DEFREG, or COMMON statement, respectively.
DIM kp0%(5)
DEFREG kp1%(5)
COMMON kp2%(5)
The array variable should be one-dimensional and have at least 6 elements.
Each element data should be an integer and stored in the area from the 1st to 6th
elements of the array.
• If the cursor size (the number of elements in an array variable wide by the number
of bits high) defined by cursorarrayname exceeds the allowable size, the
excess will be discarded.
• The cursor size will be as follows depending upon the font size.
Font size
Cursor size (W x H)
No. of elements
Standard-size
8 x 16 dots
8
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
LSB
MSB
Small-size
6 x 12 dots
0 1 2 3 4 5
LSB
MSB
244
6
• If the double-width, double-height, or quadruple-size is specified, then userdefined cursors loaded by the KPLOAD will display in double-width, doubleheight, or quadruple-size, respectively. For details, refer to Chapter 7, Subsection
7.1.3 "Dot Patterns of Fonts."
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
• No fontarrayname or cursorarrayname is defined.
• fontarrayname or cursorarrayname has an array string variable.
• fontarrayname or cursorarrayname includes parentheses ( ).
• fontarrayname or cursorarrayname includes subscripts.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(• kanjicode is out of the range.)
(• fontarrayname or cursorarrayname is not correct.)
08h
Array not defined
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Example:
DIM kp%(15)
kp%(0)=&H0000
kp%(1)=&H8011
kp%(2)=&H6022
kp%(3)=&H1844
kp%(4)=&H0600
kp%(5)=&H8802
kp%(6)=&H8AF2
kp%(7)=&H4A92
kp%(8)=&H4A97
kp%(9)=&H2A92
kp%(10)=&H1FF2
kp%(11)=&H2A92
kp%(12)=&H4A97
kp%(13)=&H4A92
kp%(14)=&H8AF2
kp%(15)=&H8802
.
.
.
SCREEN 1
KPLOAD &HEBC0,kp%
PRINT CHR$(&HEB);CHR$(&HC0)
Array Elements
kp%(0)
kp%(5)
kp%(10)
kp%(15)
Bit in each array element
0 (LSB)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15 (MSB)
Reference:
Statements:
APLOAD, COMMON, DEFREG, DIM, PRINT, and SCREEN
246
Assignment statement
LET
Assigns a value to a given variable.
Syntax:
Syntax 1:
[LET] stringvariable = stringexpression
Syntax 2:
[LET] numericvariable = numericexpression
Description:
LET assigns a value of expression on the right-hand side to a variable on the lefthand side.
• In a numeric data assignment, the assignment statement automatically converts
an integer value to a real value. In the type conversion from a real value to an
integer value, it rounds off the fractional part.
• Keyword LET can be omitted since the equal sign is all that is required to assign
a value.
• The data type of a variable and an expression must correspond.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
The data type on the right- and lefthand sides does not correspond. That
is, the variable on the left-hand side is
numeric but the expression on the
right-hand side is a string, or vice
versa.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
06h
The operation result is out of the allowable range.
0Fh
String length out of the range
(In a string assignment, the string length of the evaluated result
on the right-hand side exceeds the maximum length of the string
variable on the left-hand side.)
10h
Expression too long or complex
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
I/O statement
LINE INPUT
Reads input from the keyboard into a string variable.
Syntax:
LINE INPUT ["prompt"{,|;}]stringvariable
Parameter:
"prompt"
A string constant.
stringvariable
A string variable.
Description:
When execution reaches a LINE INPUT statement, the program pauses and waits
for the user to enter data from the keyboard while showing a prompting message
specified by "prompt".
After typing data, the user must press the ENT key. Then, the LINE INPUT statement assigns the typed data to stringvariable.
• A LINE INPUT statement cannot assign a numeric variable. (An INPUT statement can do.)
• "prompt" is a prompting message to be displayed on the LCD.
• The semicolon (;) or comma (,) after "prompt" has the following meaning:
If "prompt" is followed by a semicolon, the LINE INPUT statement displays
the prompting message followed by a question mark and a space.
LINE INPUT "data= ";a$
data= ?
248
If "prompt" is followed by a comma, the statement displays the prompting message but no question mark or space is appended to the prompting message.
LINE INPUT "data= ",a$
data=
• The cursor shape specified by the most recently executed LOCATE statement
takes effect.
• Even after execution of the CURSOR OFF statement, the LINE INPUT statement
displays the cursor.
• Data inputted by the user will echo back to the LCD. To assign it to string-
variable, it is necessary to press the ENT key.
Pressing the ENT key causes also a line feed.
If you type no data and press the ENT key, a LINE INPUT statement automatically assigns a null string to stringvariable.
• When any echoed back data is displayed on the LCD, pressing the Clear or BS
key erases the whole displayed data or a most recently typed-in character of the
data, respectively. If no data is displayed, pressing the Clear or BS key produces
no operation.
• Notes for entering string data:
The effective length of string data is the maximum string length of string-
variable. Overflowed data will be ignored.
• The sizes of prompting message literals, echoed back literals and cursor depend
upon the screen mode (single-byte ANK mode or two-byte Kanji mode), the
screen font size (standard-size or small-size), and the character enlargement
attribute (regular-size, double-width, double-height, or quadruple-size). For
details, refer to Chapter 7, Subsection 7.1.3.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
• INPUT is missing.
• Neither a comma (,) or semicolon (;)
follows "prompt".
• "prompt" is not a string constant.
• stringvariable has a numeric
variable.
• A semicolon (;) immediately follows
LINE INPUT.
Reference:
Statements:
INPUT and LOCATE
Functions:
INKEY$ and INPUT$
250
File I/O statement
LINE INPUT #
Reads data from a device I/O file into a string variable.
Syntax:
LINE INPUT #filenumber,stringvariable
Parameter:
filenumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 16.
stringvariable
A string variable.
Description:
LINE INPUT # reads data from a device I/O file (a communications device file or
bar code device file) specified by filenumber and assigns it to stringvariable.
• filenumber is a number assigned to the device I/O file when it was opened.
• A LINE INPUT # statement cannot assign a numeric variable. (An INPUT #
statement can do.)
• Reading data from a communications device file:
A LINE INPUT # statement reads all of the string literals preceding a CR code
and assigns them to stringvariable except for CR codes and LF codes
which immediately follow a CR code.
If a LINE INPUT # statement reads data longer than the allowable string length
before reading a CR code, it ignores only the overflowed data and completes execution, causing no run-time error.
• Reading data from a bar code device file:
A LINE INPUT # statement reads the scanned data into stringvariable.
If a LINE INPUT # statement reads data longer than the allowable string length,
it ignores only the overflowed data and completes execution, causing no run-time
error.
TIP
If the maximum number of digits has been omitted in the read code specifications of the OPEN "BAR:" statement (except for the universal product codes),
then the LINE INPUT # statement can read bar codes of up to 99 digits. To
read bar codes exceeding 40 digits, you should define a sufficient string variable
length beforehand.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
• INPUT is missing.
• filenumber is missing.
• "prompt" is not a string constant.
• stringvariable has a numeric
variable.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
34h
Bad file name or number
(You specified filenumber of an unopened file.)
36h
Improper file type
(You specified filenumber of a file other than device I/O
files.)
3Ah
File number out of the range
Example:
LINE INPUT #fileNo,dat$
Reference:
Statements:
CLOSE, INPUT #, OPEN "BAR:", and OPEN "COM:"
Functions:
INPUT$
252
I/O statement
LOCATE
Moves the cursor to a specified position and changes the cursor shape.
Syntax:
Syntax 1:
LOCATE [column][,row[,cursorswitch]]
Syntax 2:
LOCATE,,cursorswitch
Parameter:
A numeric expression which returns a value given below.
Screen mode
Screen font
column
row
cursorswitch
Single-byte
ANK Mode
Standard-size
font
1 to 17
1 to 25
0 to 2, and 255
Two-byte Kanji
Mode
Standard-size
font
1 to 26
1 to 37
0 to 2, and 255
Small-size font
1 to 34
1 to 49
0 to 2, and 255
Description:
LOCATE moves the cursor to a position specified by column number and row
number as coordinates on the LCD. It also changes the cursor shape as specified
by cursorswitch.
• The cursor location in the upper left corner of the LCD is 1, 1 which is the default.
• cursorswitch specifies the cursor shape as listed below.
cursorswitch value
Cursor shape
0
Invisible
1
Underline cursor (default)
2
Full block cursor
255
User-defined cursor
• If some parameter is omitted, the current value remains active. If you omit column, for example, the cursor stays in the same column but moves to the newly
specified row position.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
• The entry ranges of the column and row are the same in the regular-size, doublewidth, double-height, and quadruple-size.
• Any parameter value outside its range will result in a run-time error.
• Specification of the maximum value to column moves the cursor off the screen
and out of sight.
Example: SCREEN 0,0
’Regular size in ANK mode
LOCATE 17
This cursor is invisible
If you display data on the screen under the above condition, the cursor moves to
the 1st column of the next row, from where the data appears.
• If the double-width or quadruple-size is specified, specification of the (maximum
value - 1) to column moves the cursor off the screen and out of sight.
Example: SCREEN 0,2
’Double-width in ANK mode
LOCATE 16
This cursor is invisible
If you display data on the screen under the above condition, the cursor moves to
the 1st column of the next row, from where the data appears.
Switching to the regular-size will make the cursor visible as shown below.
SCREEN 0,0
’Regular size in ANK mode
This cursor is visible
254
• If the double-height or quadruple-size is specified, specification of the maximum
value to row moves the cursor off the screen and out of sight.
Example: SCREEN 0,4 ’Double-height in ANK mode
LOCATE ,25
This cursor is invisible
If you display data on the screen under the above condition, the screen scrolls
and the data appears.
PRINT “A”;
A
This cursor is visible
Switching to the regular-size will make the cursor visible as shown below.
SCREEN 0,0 'Regular-size in ANK mode
This cursor is visible
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
Example:
LOCATE 1,2
LOCATE xPos,xCSRLIN
LOCATE ,,2
Reference:
Functions:
CSRLIN and POS
256
Error control statement
ON ERROR GOTO
Enables error trapping.
Syntax:
ON ERROR GOTO label
Description:
ON ERROR GOTO enables error trapping so as to pass control to the first line of an
error-handling routine specified by label if an error occurs during program execution.
• To return control from an error-handling routine to a specified program location,
you use a RESUME statement in the error-handling routine.
• Specification of zero (0) to label disables error trapping.
If ON ERROR GOTO 0 is executed outside the error-handling routine, the occurrence of any subsequent error displays a regular run-time error code and terminates the program.
If ON ERROR GOTO 0 is executed inside the error-handling routine, the Interpreter
immediately displays the regular run-time error code and terminates the program.
• You cannot trap errors which may occur during execution of the error-handling
routine. The occurrence of such an error immediately displays a run-time error
code and terminates the program.
• You can use ON ERROR GO TO instead of ON ERROR GOTO.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
• label has not been defined.
• label is missing.
Reference:
Statements:
RESUME
Functions:
ERL and ERR
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Flow control statement
ON...GOSUB and ON...GOTO
Branches to one of specified labels according to the value of an expression.
Syntax:
Syntax 1:
ON expression GOSUB label [,label...]
Syntax 2:
ON expression GOTO label [,label...]
Parameter:
expression
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 255.
Description:
ON...GOSUB or ON...GOTO block branches to a label in the label list according to
the value of expression.
• If expression has the value 3, for example, the target label is the third one in
the label list counting from the first.
• If expression has the value 0 or a value greater than the number of labels in
the label list, execution of the ON...GOSUB or ON...GOTO block causes no runtime error and passes control to the subsequent statement.
• You can specify any number of labels so long as a statement block does not
exceed one program line (512 characters).
• You can nest ON...GOSUB statements to a maximum of 10 levels.
• When using the GOSUB statement together with block-structured statements
(DEF FN...END DEF, FOR...NEXT, FUNCTION...END FUNCTION, IF...THEN
...ELSE...END IF, SELECT...CASE...END SELECT, SUB...END SUB and
WHILE...WEND), you can nest them to a maximum of 30 levels.
• You can use ON...GO TO instead of ON...GOTO.
258
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
• label has not been defined.
• label is missing.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(expression is negative or greater than 255.)
07h
Insufficient memory space
(The program nesting by GOSUB statements only is too deep.)
Reference:
Statements:
GOSUB, GOTO, and SELECT...CASE...END SELECT
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
I/O statement
ON KEY...GOSUB
Specifies an event-handling routine for keystroke interrupt.
Syntax:
ON KEY (keynumber) GOSUB label
Parameter:
keynumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 31, 33 to 38, and 501
to 550.
Description:
According to label, ON KEY...GOSUB specifies the first line of an event-handling
routine to be invoked if a function key specified by keynumber is pressed. (Refer
to Appendix E, "Key Number Assignment on the Keyboard.")
• ON KEY...GOSUB specifies only the location of an event-handling routine but does
not enable keystroke trapping. It is KEY ON statement that enables keystroke
trapping. (Refer to KEY ON and KEY OFF.)
• Specification of zero (0) to label disables keystroke trapping.
• If a keystroke trap occurs, the Interpreter automatically executes KEY OFF statement for the pressed function key before passing control to an event-handling routine specified by label in ON KEY...GOSUB statement. This prevents a same
event-handling routine from becoming invoked again by pressing a same function
key during execution of the routine until the current event-handling routine is completed by issuing a RETURN statement.
When control returns from the event-handling routine by a RETURN statement,
the Interpreter automatically executes KEY ON statement.
If it is not necessary to resume keystroke trapping, you describe a KEY OFF
statement in the event-handling routine.
• If you issue more than one ON KEY...GOSUB statement specifying a same key-
number, the last statement takes effect.
• You can nest GOSUB statements to a maximum of 10 levels.
260
• When using the ON KEY...GOSUB statement together with block-structured statements (DEF FN...END DEF, FOR...NEXT, FUNCTION...END FUNCTION,
IF...THEN...ELSE...END IF, SELECT...CASE...END SELECT, SUB...END SUB
and WHILE...WEND), you can nest them to a maximum of 30 levels.
• Specifying 32 to keynumber will be ignored.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
• label has not been defined.
• label is missing.
• keynumber is not enclosed in
parentheses ( ).
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(keynumber is out of the range.)
07h
Insufficient memory space
(The program nesting by GOSUB statements is too deep.)
Reference:
Statements:
KEY, KEY OFF, and KEY ON
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
File I/O statement
OPEN
Opens a data file for I/O activities.
Syntax:
OPEN "[drivename:]filename" AS [#] filenumber [RECORD
filelength]
Parameter:
filenumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 16.
"[drivename:]filename"
A string expression.
filelength
An integer constant which has the value from 1 to 32767.
Description:
OPEN opens a data file specified by "[drivename:]filename" and associates the opened file with filenumber for allowing I/O activities according to
filenumber.
• The maximum number of files which can be opened at one time is 16 including
the bar code device file and communications device files.
• "filename" consists of a file name and a file extension.
The file name should be 1 to 8 characters long. Usable characters for the file
name include alphabet letters, numerals, a minus (-) sign, and an underline (_).
Note that a minus sign and underline should not be used for the starting character
of the file name. Uppercase and lowercase alphabet letters are not distinguished
from each other and both are treated as uppercase letters.
The file extension should be up to 3 characters long. It should be other than
.PD3, .EX3, .FN3, and .FLD and may be omitted (together with a period).
a.dat
master01.dat
• If you set B: to [drivename], the specified file will be opened as a read-only
file; if you set "A:" or omit [drivename], it will be opened as a read/write file.
262
• filelength is the maximum number of registrable records in a file. It can be
set only when a new data file is created by an OPEN statement. If you specify
filelength when opening any of existing data files (including downloaded
data files), then the filelength will be ignored.
• Specifying only filelength does not allocate memory. Whether or not a PUT
statement can write records up to the specified filelength depends on the
memory occupation state.
• If filelength is omitted, the default file size is 1000 records.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 3: ’"’ missing
No double quote precedes or follows
[drivename:]filename.
error 71: Syntax error
• filelength is out of the range.
• filelength is not an integer constant.
• [drivename:]filename is not
enclosed in double quotes.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
02h
Syntax error
("[drivename:]filename" is not correct. Or the bar
code device file or communications device file is specified.)
07h
Insufficient memory space
32h
File type mismatch
37h
File already open
3Ah
File number out of the range
41h
File damaged
Reference:
Statements:
CLOSE, OPEN "BAR:", and OPEN "COM:"
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
File I/O statement
OPEN "BAR:"
Opens the bar code device file. This statement also activates or deactivates the indicator LED
and the beeper (vibrator) individually.
Syntax:
OPEN "BAR:[readmode][beepercontrol][LEDcontrol]" AS
[#]filenumber CODE readcode[,readcode...]
Parameter:
readmode
A string expression.
beepercontrol
A string expression. Specification of B activates the beeper (vibrator).
(Default: Deactivated)
LEDcontrol
A string expression. Specification of L deactivates the green indicator LED.
(Default: Activated)
filenumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 16.
readcode
A string expression.
Description:
OPEN "BAR:" opens the bar code device file and associates it with filenumber for allowing data entry from the bar code device (BHT) according to filenumber.
If the bar code device file has been opened with the OPEN "BAR:" statement,
pressing the trigger switch*1 turns on the illumination LED*2 and makes the BHT
ready to scan a bar code.
• If the BHT reads a bar code successfully, the indicator LED for reading confirmation will illuminate in green. Specification to LEDcontrol may activate or deactivate the indicator LED. Specification to beepercontrol may activate or
deactivate the beeper and vibrator function.
• A bar code read will be decoded and then transferred to the barcode buffer.
*1
The trigger switch function is assigned to the magic keys.
*2
The illumination LED may not come on where the environment is bright enough for the BHT
to scan.
264
• Only a single bar code device file can be opened at a time. The total number of
files which can be opened at a time is 16 including data files and communications
device files.
• The BHT cannot open the bar code device file and the IrDA interface of the communications device file concurrently. If you attempt to open them concurrently, a
run-time error will occur. The BHT can open the bar code device file and the
direct-connect interface concurrently.
• The name of the bar code device file, BAR, may be in lowercase.
OPEN "bar:" AS #10 CODE "A"
• Alphabet letters to be used for readmode, beepercontrol, LEDcontrol
and readcode may be in lowercase.
• Up to eight readcodes can be specified.
• If you specify more than one condition for a same bar code type with read-
code(s) ("I" in the example below), all of those conditions are valid. The sample below makes the BHT read both of the 6- and 10-digit ITF codes.
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "I:6","I:10"
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "I:6,10"
• BHT-100Q For a same 2D code type, you are allowed to specify conditions only
once with readcode. More than one specification will result in a run-time error.
• BHT-100Q max.code.version for QR Codes and max.no.digits for
bar codes will be subject to the restriction of the BHT's scanning view.
• If you specify more than one readcode including "I" (ITF), then ITF codes less
than 4 digits cannot be read unless numbers of digits are specified.
■ readmode
The BHT supports four read modes--the momentary switching mode, the autooff mode, the alternate switching mode, and the continuous reading mode,
which can be selected by specifying M, F, A, and C to readmode, respectively.
Momentary switching mode (M)
OPEN "BAR:M" AS #7 CODE "A"
Only while you hold down the trigger switch*1, the illumination LED*2 lights and
the BHT can read a bar code.
If the bar code device file becomes closed when the trigger switch*1 is held
down, the illumination LED will go off.
Until the entered bar code data is read out from the barcode buffer, pressing
the trigger switch*1 cannot turn on the illumination LED*2 so that the BHT cannot read the next bar code.
*1
The trigger switch function is assigned to the magic keys.
*2
The illumination LED may not come on where the environment is bright enough for the BHT
to scan.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Auto-off mode (F)
OPEN "BAR:F" AS #7 CODE "A"
If you press the trigger switch*1, the illumination LED*2 comes on. When you
release the switch or when the BHT completes bar code reading, then the illumination LED will go off. Holding down the trigger switch*1 lights the illumination LED for a maximum of 5 seconds.
While the illumination LED is on, the BHT can read a bar code until a bar code
is read successfully or the bar code devices file becomes closed.
If the illumination LED goes off after 5 seconds from when you press the trigger switch*1, it is necessary to press the trigger switch*1 again for reading a
bar code.
Once a bar code is read successfully, pressing the trigger switch*1 cannot turn
on the illumination LED*2 and the BHT cannot read the next bar code as long
as the entered bar code data is not read out from the barcode buffer.
Alternate switching mode (A)
OPEN "BAR:A" AS #7 CODE "A"
If you press the trigger switch*1, the illumination LED*2 comes on. Even if you
release the switch, the illumination LED*2 remains on until the bar code device
file becomes closed or you press that switch again. While the illumination
LED*2 is on, the BHT can read a bar code.
Pressing the trigger switch*1 toggles the illumination LED*2 on and off.
Once a bar code is read successfully, pressing the trigger switch*1 turns on
the illumination LED*2 but the BHT cannot read the next bar code as long as
the entered bar code data is not read out from the barcode buffer.
Continuous reading mode (C)
OPEN "BAR:C" AS #7 CODE "A"
Upon execution of the above statement, the BHT turns on the illumination
LED*2 and keeps it on until the bar code device file becomes closed, irrespective of the trigger switch*1.
While the illumination LED*2 is on, the BHT can read a bar code.
Once a bar code is read successfully, the BHT cannot read the next bar code
as long as the entered bar code data is not read out from the barcode buffer.
*1
The trigger switch function is assigned to the magic keys.
*2
The illumination LED may not come on where the environment is bright enough for the BHT
to scan.
266
• If readmode is omitted, the BHT defaults to the auto-off mode.
• In the momentary switching mode, alternate switching mode, or continuous
reading mode, after you read a low-quality bar code which needs more than
one second to be read, keeping applying the barcode reading window to that
bar code may re-read the same bar code in succession at intervals of one second or more.
■ beepercontrol and LEDcontrol
The OPEN "BAR:" statement can control the beeper and the indicator LED to
activate or deactivate each of them when a bar code is read successfully. The
BHT may also control the vibrator with beepercontrol.
• You should describe parameters of readmode, beepercontrol, and
LEDcontrol without any space inbetween.
• You should describe readmode, beepercontrol, and LEDcontrol in
this order.
• Specifying B to beepercontrol allows you to choose beeping only, vibrating only, or beeping & vibrating by making setting on the adjustment screen of
the LCD contrast, beeper, vibrator, and touch screen or by setting the I/O ports
with the OUT statement.
To sound the beeper when a bar code is read successfully:
OPEN "BAR:B" AS #7 CODE "A"
To deactivate the indicator LED when a bar code is read successfully:
OPEN "BAR:L" AS #7 CODE "A"
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
■ readcode
BHT-100Q
The BHT supports a total of nine types of codes--four types of 2D codes (QR
Code, PDF417, MaxiCode, and Data Matrix) and five types of bar codes (universal product codes, interleaved 2 of 5 (ITF), Codabar (NW7), Code 39, and Code
128). The BHT can read also EAN128 if Code 128 is specified.
(For readable code types, refer to the BHT User’s Manual.)
QR Code (Q)
Syntax:
Q[:[symbolindex][mini.code.version][-max.code.version][splitmode]]
[;symbolindex][mini.code.version][-max.code.version]]
[;symbolindex][mini.code.version][-max.code.version]]]
where
symbolindex is any of the following values:
symbolindex
Readable QR Codes
S
MicroQR
M
QR model 1
L
QR model 2
If symbolindex is omitted, the BHT can read all of MicroQR, QR model 1,
and QR model 2 codes by default.
mini.code.version and max.code.version are the minimal and
maximal code versions for QR Codes to be read by the BHT, respectively.
They should be a numeral within the following range:
mini.code.version
max.code.version
When symbolindex is:
1 to 4
S
1 to 22
M
1 to 40
L
mini.code.version and max.code.version should satisfy the following condition:
mini.code.version ≤ max.code.version
If both of mini.code.version and max.code.version are omitted,
then the BHT can read QR Codes of up to the maximum code version allowed
for the specified symbol index. If only max.code.version is omitted, the
BHT can only read QR Codes of the version specified by
mini.code.version.
268
The split code scanning mode ("Structured Append") of the QR Code system
can divide a data string into a maximum of 16 blocks. splitmode allows the
BHT to read those split codes in the edit mode or non-edit mode.
splitmode is E or C specifying the following:
Split code scanning allowed
in the mode below
splitmode
E
Edit mode
C
Non-edit mode
Specifying both of E and C to splitmode will result in a run-time error.
If splitmode is omitted, no split codes can be read.
Programming example for allowing the split code scanning mode:
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "Q:M5-14E;L1-40;S1-4"
If you specify the edit mode for reading split codes, the total data length
should not exceed a maximum of 8192 bytes. If it exceeds the limit, a read
error will occur as the beeper sounds for 500 ms and then all read data will be
discarded automatically.
If you specify the non-edit mode, the read data will be stored in the barcode
buffer in the format given below.
Code #
No. of splits
Parity
Data read
where each of Code # and the number of splits is expressed in a single-byte
hexadecimal (0 to F), and Parity is in a two-byte hexadecimal (00 to FF).
The Code # indicates the ordinal ID number assigned to the nth split code in a
QR Code. If the split code is the 1st one, 0 (30h) will be written and if it is the
16th one, F (46h). The number of splits is 1 (31h) if the QR Code is split into
two, and it is F (46h) if it is into 16.
The Parity is used for sum-checking the read data and also used as a separator from other split codes.
When reading split codes, the BHT beeps in a special way. That is, when the
BHT reads the first split code, it beeps twice and enters the split code scanning mode. After that, each time it reads the subsequent split code, it beeps
once. At last, when the BHT reads the last split code, it beeps three times and
completes the sequence of the split code scanning.
The scanning order of split codes is arbitrary, but you should scan all split
codes of a QR Code in succession. The split code scanning system does not
re-read the same split code until completion of that split code scanning
sequence.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
In any of the following cases, the BHT ends the split code scanning sequence
even in midway. If it happens in the edit mode, all read data will be discarded.
• The BHT reads a non-split code.
The non-split code data will be stored in the barcode buffer.
• The BHT reads a split code of any other QR Code.
The current sequence ends and a new sequence starts.
• In the momentary switching mode, alternate switching mode, or continuous reading mode, you pull the BHT's reading window away from a code
for three seconds or more. Or in the auto-off mode, five seconds or more
have passed after the BHT read a split code.
• You turn the illumination LED off by pressing the trigger switch.
That is, in the momentary switching mode or auto-off mode, you release
the trigger switch. In the alternate switching mode, you press the trigger
switch again.
The BHT is so designed that it does not read codes except for QR Code in
the split code scanning mode. Once it goes out of that mode, it can read
both bar codes and 2D codes.
PDF417 (Y)
Syntax :
Y
MaxiCode (X)
Syntax :
X
Data Matrix (Z)
Syntax :
Z
270
Universal product codes (A)
Syntax :
A[:[code][1stchara[2ndchara]]
[,[code][1stchara[2ndchara]]]
[,[code][1stchara[2ndchara]]]]
where
code is A, B, or C specifying the following:
code
Bar code type
A
EAN-13 or UPC-A
B
EAN-8
C
UPC-E
If code is omitted, the default is all of the universal product codes.
1stchara and 2ndchara are flag characters representing a country code
and should be numerals from 0 to 9. If a question mark (?) is specified to
1stchara or 2ndchara, it acts as a wild card.
To specify multi-line code scanning, the above syntax should be preceded by
an ampersand (&) and should be repeated by the number of lines of codes to
be scanned. code cannot be omitted. In multi-line code scanning, no question mark (?) should be specified to 1stchara or 2ndchara. (For detailed
specifications of multi-line code scanning, refer to the Multi-line code scanning
given on page 277.)
Example: To scan 3 lines of universal product codes, write as follows:
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","A:A","A:A","A:B"
or
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","A:A,A,B"
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Interleaved 2 of 5 (ITF) (I)
Syntax :
I[:[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][CD][;[1stchara[2ndchara]]]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][CD][;[1stchara[2ndchara]]]]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][CD][;[1stchara[2ndchara]]]]]
where
mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are the minimum and maximum
numbers of digits for bar codes to be read by the BHT, respectively.
They should be a numeral from 2 to 99 and should satisfy the following condition:
mini.no.digits ≤ max.no.digits
If both of mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are omitted, then the
default reading range is from the minimum number of digits specified in System Mode up to 99 digits. If only max.no.digits is omitted, the BHT can
only read the number of digits specified by mini.no.digits.
CD is a check digit. Specifying a C to CD makes the Interpreter check bar
codes with MOD-10. The check digit is included in the number of digits.
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "I:6-10C"
To specify multi-line code scanning, the above syntax should be preceded by
an ampersand (&) and should be repeated by the number of lines of codes to
be scanned. In the above syntax, the semicolon (;) and the following take
effect only in multi-line code scanning. 1stchara or 2ndchara is a
numeral from 0 to 9 specifying the first or second character of a bar code to be
scanned. (For detailed specifications of multi-line code scanning, refer to the
Multi-line code scanning given on page 277.)
Example: To scan 2 lines of ITF codes, write as follows:
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","I:;12","I:;23"
or
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","I:;12,;23"
272
Codabar (NW-7) (N)
Syntax:
N[:[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][startstop][CD]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][startstop][CD]]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][startstop][CD]]]
where
mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are the minimum and maximum numbers of digits for bar codes to be read by the BHT, respectively.
They should be a numeral from 3 to 99 and satisfy the following condition:
mini.no.digits ≤ max.no.digits
If both of mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are omitted, then the
default reading range is from the minimum number of digits specified in System Mode up to 99 digits.
If only max.no.digits is omitted, the BHT can only read the number of
digits specified by mini.no.digits.
start and stop are the start and stop characters, respectively. Each of
them should be an A, B, C, or D. If a question mark (?) is specified, it acts as
a wild card. The start and stop characters are included in the number of digits.
The A through D will be stored in the barcode buffer as a through d.
CD is a check digit. Specifying a C to CD makes the Interpreter check bar
codes with MOD-16. The check digit is included in the number of digits.
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "N:8AAC"
To specify multi-line code scanning, the above syntax should be preceded by
an ampersand (&) and should be repeated by the number of lines of codes to
be scanned. In multi-line code scanning, no question mark (?) should be
specified to startstop. (For detailed specifications of multi-line code scanning, refer to the Multi-line code scanning given on page 277.)
Example: To scan 3 lines of Codabar codes, write as follows:
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","N:8","N:6","N:4"
or
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","N:8,6,4"
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Code 39 (M)
Syntax:
M[:[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][CD][;[1stchara[2ndchara]]]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][CD][;[1stchara[2ndchara]]]]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][CD][;[1stchara[2ndchara]]]]]
where
mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are the minimum and maximum
numbers of digits for bar codes to be read by the BHT, respectively.
They should be a numeral from 1 to 99, excluding start/stop characters. They
should satisfy the following condition:
mini.no.digits ≤ max.no.digits
If both of mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are omitted, the
default reading range is 1 to 99 digits. If only max.no.digits is omitted,
the BHT can only read the number of digits specified by mini.no.digits.
CD is a check digit. Specifying a C to CD makes the Interpreter check bar
codes with MOD-43. The check digit is included in the number of digits.
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "M:8-12C"
To specify multi-line code scanning, the above syntax should be preceded by
an ampersand (&) and should be repeated by the number of lines of codes to
be scanned. In the above syntax, the semicolon (;) and the following take
effect only in multi-line code scanning. 1stchara or 2ndchara is a
numeral from 0 to 9 specifying the first or second character of a bar code to be
scanned. (For detailed specifications of multi-line code scanning, refer to the
Multi-line code scanning given on page 277.)
Example: To scan 2 lines of Code 39 codes, write as follows:
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","M:;12","M:;23"
or
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","M:;12,;23"
274
Code 128 (K)
Syntax :
K[:[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][;[1stchara[2ndchara]]]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][;[1stchara[2ndchara]]]]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][;[1stchara[2ndchara]]]]]
where
mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are the minimum and maximum
numbers of digits for bar codes to be read by the BHT, respectively.
They should be a numeral from 1 to 99, excluding start/stop characters and
check digit. They should satisfy the following condition:
mini.no.digits ≤ max.no.digits
If both of mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are omitted, the
default reading range is 1 to 99 digits. If only max.no.digits is omitted,
the BHT can only read the number of digits specified by mini.no.digits.
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "K:6-12"
Neither start/stop characters nor check digit will be transferred to the barcode
buffer.
To specify multi-line code scanning, the above syntax should be preceded by
an ampersand (&) and should be repeated by the number of lines of codes to
be scanned. In the above syntax, the semicolon (;) and the following take
effect only in multi-line code scanning. 1stchara or 2ndchara is a
numeral from 0 to 9 specifying the first or second character of a bar code to be
scanned. (For detailed specifications of multi-line code scanning, refer to the
Multi-line code scanning given on page 277.)
Example: To scan 2 lines of Code 128 codes, write as follows:
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","K:;12","K:;23"
or
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","K:;12,;23"
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
If the BHT reads any bar code consisting of special characters only (such as
FNC, CODEA, CODEB, CODEC and SHIFT characters), it will not transfer the
data to the barcode buffer. The beeper sounds only if it is activated.
FNC characters will be handled as follows:
(1) FNC1
The BHT will not transfer an FNC1 character placed at the first or second
character position immediately following the start character, to the barcode
buffer. FNC characters in any other positions will be converted to GS characters (1Dh) and then transferred to the barcode buffer like normal data.
If an FNC1 immediately follows the start character, the code is recognized as
EAN-128 code and marked with W instead of K.
(2) FNC2
If the BHT reads a bar code containing an FNC2 character(s), it will not buffer
such data but transfer it excluding the FNC2 character(s).
(3) FNC3
If the BHT reads a bar code containing an FNC3 character(s), it will regard the
data as invalid and transfer no data to the barcode buffer, while it may drive
the indicator LED and beeper (vibrator) if activated with the OPEN statement.
(4) FNC4
In the BHT, an FNC4 converts data encoded by the code set A or B into a set
of extended ASCII-encoded data (128 added to each official ASCII code
value).
A single FN4 character converts only the subsequent data character into the
extended ASCII-encoded data.
A pair of FNC4 characters placed in successive positions converts all of the
subsequent data characters preceding the next pair of FNC4 characters or the
stop character, into the extended ASCII-encoded data. If a single FNC4 character is inserted in those data characters, however, it does not convert the
subsequent data character only.
An FNC4 character does not convert any of GS characters converted by an
FNC1 character, into the extended ASCII-encoded data.
276
Multi-line code scanning
To scan multi-line codes, specify an ampersand (&) followed by up to three
lines of codes to be scanned.
Syntax 1:
"&","[1stline]","[2ndline]"[,"[3rdline]"]
Syntax 2:
"&","[1stline],[2ndline][,[3rdline]]"
Syntax 3:
"&","[1stline],[2ndline]"[,"[3rdline]"]
As a multi-line code, you may specify five types of bar codes—universal product codes, Interleaved 2 of 5 (ITF), Codabar (NW-7), Code 39, and Code 128.
(1) Specification of multi-line code scanning is independent of that of singleline code scanning.
Example: To scan 2 lines of universal product codes EAN-8 and EAN-13,
write as follows:
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","A:B","A:A"
or
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","A:B,A"
Example: To scan a single line of universal product code EAN-8 and two
lines of Code 39 codes, write as follows:
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "A:B","&","M","M"
(2) 2D code and multi-line code can be specified at a time.
Example: To scan QR code and 3 lines of Code 39 codes, write as follows:
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "Q","&","M","M","M"
(3) The scanning order of multiple lines of codes can be specified by designating two heading characters (start and stop characters in Codabar).
Example: To scan 3 lines of ITF (specified with heading characters) in the
following order--"ITF starting with 12," "6- to 10-digit ITF starting with 21
and having CD," and "12-digit ITF starting with 23," write as follows:
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","I:;12","I:6-10C;21",
"I:11;23"
or
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","I:;12,6-10C;21,11;23"
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
A single heading character may also be designated.
Example: To scan EAN and ITF (specified with a heading character) in
the following order--"EAN starting with 49" and "6- to 10-digit ITF starting
with 2," write as follows:
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","A:49",
"I:6-10;2"
(4) Scanned codes will be outputted in the order specified to 1stline,
2ndline, or 3rdline.
Example: To output "EAN-8 starting with 12" and "EAN-8 starting with 21"
in this order, write as follows:
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","A:B12","A:B21"
or
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","A:B12,B21"
However, if the same code type, same heading character(s), and same
number of digits are specified to 1stline, 2ndline, or 3rdline as
given below, then the output order is indefinite.
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","I:6;49",
"I:6;49"
or
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","I:6;49,6;49"
For instance, the output order of ITF "495678" and ITF "498765" is indefinite in the above program.
(5) If codes whose code type and data are the same between codes as
shown below:
EAN-13 "4912345678901" at the 1st line
EAN-13 "1200000000000" at the 2nd line
EAN-13 "4912345678901" at the 3rd line
The above codes cannot be read if the following specification is defined:
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","A:A49","A:A12",
"A:A49"
or
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","A:A49,A12,A49"
278
(6) If the same type of code, same number of digits, and same conditions are
specified to both a single-line scanning and multi-line scanning, then the
specified single-line code cannot be read.
A single-line code
At multi-line code
EAN-13 "9012345678904"
EAN-13 "9012345678904"
EAN-13 "1200000000003"
The above single-line code cannot be read if the following specification is
made:
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","A:A49","A:A49",
"A:A12"
or
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "&","A:A49,A49,A12"
(7) In multi-line code scanning, ITF codes of less than four digits cannot be
read unless numbers of digits are specified.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
■ readcode
BHT-100B
The BHT supports seven types of bar codes--the universal product codes, Interleaved 2 of 5 (ITF), Standard 2 of 5 (STF), Codabar (NW-7), Code 39, Code 93,
and Code 128. The BHT can read also EAN-128 if Code 128 is specified.
(For readable bar code types, refer to the BHT User’s Manual.)
Universal product codes (A)
Syntax:
A[:[code][1stchara[2ndchara]][supplemental]
[,[code][1stchara[2ndchara]][supplemental]]
[,[code][1stchara[2ndchara]][supplemental]]]
where
code is A, B, or C specifying the following:
code
Bar code type
A
EAN-13 or UPC-A
B
EAN-8
C
UPC-E
If code is omitted, the default is all of the universal product codes.
1stchara and 2ndchara are flag characters representing a country code
and should be numerals from 0 to 9. If a question mark (?) is specified to
1stchara or 2ndchara, it acts as a wild card.
supplemental is a supplemental code. Specifying an S to supplemental allows the BHT to read also supplemental codes.
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "A:49S"
280
Interleaved 2 of 5 (ITF) (I)
Syntax :
I[:[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][CD]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][CD]]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][CD]]]
where
mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are the minimum and maximum
numbers of digits for bar codes to be read by the BHT, respectively.
They should be a numeral from 2 to 99 and satisfy the following conditions:
mini.no.digits ≤ max.no.digits
If both of mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are omitted, then the
default reading range is from the minimum number of digits specified in System Mode up to 99 digits.
If only max.no.digits is omitted, the BHT can only read the number of
digits specified by mini.no.digits.
CD is a check digit. Specifying a C to CD makes the Interpreter check bar
codes with MOD-10. The check digit is included in the number of digits.
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "I:6-10C"
Codabar (NW-7) (N)
Syntax:
N[:[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][startstop][CD]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][startstop][CD]]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][startstop][CD]]]
where
mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are the minimum and maximum numbers of digits for bar codes to be read by the BHT, respectively.
They should be a numeral from 3 to 99 and satisfy the following condition:
mini.no.digits ≤ max.no.digits
If both of mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are omitted, then the
default reading range is from the minimum number of digits specified in System Mode up to 99 digits.
If only max.no.digits is omitted, the BHT can only read the number of
digits specified by mini.no.digits.
start and stop are the start and stop characters, respectively. Each of
them should be an A, B, C, or D. If a question mark (?) is specified, it acts as
a wild card. The start and stop characters are included in the number of digits.
The A through D will be stored in the barcode buffer as a through d.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
CD is a check digit. Specifying a C to CD makes the Interpreter check bar
codes with MOD-16. The check digit is included in the number of digits.
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "N:8AAC"
Code 39 (M)
Syntax:
M[:[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][CD]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][CD]]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][CD]]]
where
mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are the minimum and maximum
numbers of digits for bar codes to be read by the BHT, respectively.
They should be a numeral from 1 to 99, excluding start/stop characters. They
should satisfy the following condition:
mini.no.digits ≤ max.no.digits
If both of mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are omitted, then the
default reading range is 1 to 99 digits. If only max.no.digits is omitted,
the BHT can only read the number of digits specified by mini.no.digits.
CD is a check digit. Specifying a C to CD makes the Interpreter check bar
codes with MOD-43. The check digit is included in the number of digits.
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "M:8-12C"
Code 93 (L)
Syntax:
L[:[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]]]
where
mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are the minimum and maximum
numbers of digits for bar codes to be read by the BHT, respectively.
They should be a numeral from 1 to 99, excluding start/stop characters and
check digits. They should satisfy the following condition:
mini.no.digits ≤ max.no.digits
If both of mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are omitted, then the
default reading range is 1 to 99 digits. If only max.no.digits is omitted,
the BHT can only read the number of digits specified by mini.no.digits.
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "L:6-12"
Neither start/stop characters nor check digits will be transferred to the barcode
buffer.
282
Code 128 (K)
Syntax :
K[:[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]]]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]]]]
where
mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are the minimum and maximum
numbers of digits for bar codes to be read by the BHT, respectively.
They should be a numeral from 1 to 99, excluding start/stop characters and
check digit. They should satisfy the following condition:
mini.no.digits ≤ max.no.digits
If both of mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are omitted, then the
default reading range is 1 to 99 digits. If only max.no.digits is omitted,
the BHT can only read the number of digits specified by mini.no.digits.
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "K:6-12"
Neither start/stop characters nor check digits will be transferred to the barcode
buffer.
If the BHT reads any bar code consisting of special characters only (such as
FNC, CODEA, CODEB, CODEC and SHIFT characters), it will not transfer the
data to the barcode buffer. The beeper sounds only if it is activated.
FNC characters will be handled as follows:
(1) FNC1
The BHT will not transfer an FNC1 character placed at the first or second
character position immediately following the start character, to the barcode
buffer. FNC1 characters in any other positions will be converted to GS
characters (1Dh) and then transferred to the barcode buffer like normal
data.
If an FNC1 immediately follows the start character, the bar code will be
recognized as EAN-128 and marked with W instead of K.
(2) FNC2
If the BHT reads a bar code containing an FNC2 character(s), it will not
buffer such data but transfer it excluding the FNC2 character(s).
(3) FNC3
If the BHT reads a bar code containing an FNC3 character(s), it will regard
the data as invalid and transfer no data to the barcode buffer, while it may
drive the indicator LED and beeper (vibrator) if activated with the OPEN
statement.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
(4) FNC4
An FNC4 converts data encoded by the code set A or B into a set of
extended ASCII-encoded data (128 added to each official ASCII code
value).
A single FN4 character converts only the subsequent data character into
the extended ASCII-encoded data.
A pair of FNC4 characters placed in successive positions converts all of
the subsequent data characters preceding the next pair of FNC4 characters or the stop character, into the extended ASCII-encoded data. If a single FNC4 character is inserted in those data characters, however, it does
not convert the subsequent data character only.
An FNC4 character does not convert any of GS characters converted by
an FNC1 character, into the extended ASCII-encoded data.
Standard 2 of 5 (STF) (H)
Syntax:
H[:[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][CD]
[startstop]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][CD]
[startstop]]
[,[mini.no.digits[-max.no.digits]][CD]
[startstop]]]
where
mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are the minimum and maximum
numbers of digits for bar codes to be read by the BHT, respectively.
They should be a numeral from 1 to 99, excluding start/stop characters. They
should satisfy the following condition:
mini.no.digits ≤ max.no.digits
If both of mini.no.digits and max.no.digits are omitted, then the
default reading range is from the minimum number of digits specified in System Mode up to 99 digits.
If only max.no.digits is omitted, only the number of digits specified by
mini.no.digits can be read.
CD is a check digit. Specifying a C to CD makes the Interpreter check bar
codes with MOD-10. The check digit is included in the number of digits.
startstop specifies the normal or short format of the start/stop characters.
Specify N for the normal format; specify S for the short format. If startstop
is omitted, start/stop characters can be read in either format.
OPEN "BAR:" AS #1 CODE "H:6-12"
284
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
The number of the specified read
codes exceeds eight.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
02h
Syntax error
(readcode is missing.)
05h
Parameter out of the range
(readcode is not correct.)
37h
File already open
3Ah
File number out of the range
45h
Device files prohibited from opening concurrently
(You attempted to open the bar code device file and IrDA interface of the communications device file concurrently.)
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
File I/O statement
OPEN "COM:"
Opens a communications device file.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (For the direct-connect interface):
OPEN "COMn:[baud][,[parity][,[charalength][,[stopbit][,[RS/CS][,[timeout]]]]]] "AS [#] filenumber
Syntax 2 (For the IrDA interface):
OPEN "COMn: [baud] "AS [#] filenumber
Parameter:
baud
For the IrDA interface
115200, 57600, 38400, 19200, 9600, or 2400
For the direct-connect interface
115200, 57600, 38400, 19200, 9600, 4800, 2400, 1200, 600, or 300
parity
N, E, or O
charalength
8 or 7
stopbit
1 or 2
RS/CS
0, 1, 2, 3 or 4
timeout
An integer numeral from 0 to 255.
RS
0 or 1
ER
0 or 1
filenumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 16.
286
Description:
OPEN "COM:" opens a communications device file and associates it with filenumber for allowing input/output activities using the communications interface.
• If optional parameters enclosed with brackets are omitted, the most recently specified values or the defaults become active.
Listed below are the defaults:
Baud rate
9600 bps
Parity check
No parity
Character length
8 bits
Stop bit
1 bit
RS/CS control
0 (No control)
Timeout
3 seconds
■ COMn
COMn is a communications device file name.
The BHT supports both the IrDA and direct-connect interfaces but cannot open
them concurrently. If you attempt to open both interfaces concurrently, a runtime error will occur.
Interface
Communications device file name
IrDA interface
"COM1:"
Direct-connect interface
Default interface
*1
"COM2:"
*1
"COM:"
The default interface refers to an interface which is selected on the SET COMMUNICATION
menu. (For details, refer to the BHT User’s Manual.)
COM may be in lowercase as shown below.
OPEN "com:" AS #8
If you attempt to open both the IrDA communications device file and bar code
device file concurrently, a run-time error will occur.
■ baud
When the IrDA interface is used, baud is one of the baud rates: 115200, 57600,
38400, 19200, 9600 (default), and 2400. When the direct-connect interface is
used, it is one of the baud rates: 115200, 57600, ,38400, 19200 (default), 9600,
4800, 2400, 1200, 600, and 300.
■ parity
parity is a parity check. It should be N (default), E, or O, which corresponds
to None, Even, or Odd parity, respectively.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
■ charalength
charalength is a character length or the number of data bits. It should be 8
(default) or 7 bits.
■ stopbit
stopbit is the number of stop bits. It should be 1 (default) or 2 bits.
NOTE
The IrDA interface is compliant with the IrDA physical layer (IrDASIR1.0), so the vertical parity, character length, and stop bit length are
fixed to none, 8 bits, and 1 bit, respectively. If selected, those parameters
will be ignored.
■ RS/CS
RS/CS enables or disables the RS/CS control. It should be 0 (default), 1, 2, 3,
or 4, which corresponds to the following function:
Value of RS/CS
IrDA I/F
Direct-connect I/F
0
Ignored
(default)
1
2
3
4
Ignored
Ignored
High RD will be regarded as a high CS.
Ignored
Low RD will be regarded as high CS.
Ignored
CS control disabled
(RD will be used as an input port.)
As listed above, you can specify RS/CS option for the direct-connect interface.
If you specify it for the IrDA interface, it will be ignored resulting in no run-time
error.
RS/CS option is also applicable to Busy control when the direct-connect interface is used. To do so, interface cable connection should be modified. For
details, refer to the BHT User’s Manual.
Shown below is a coding sample for enabling the RS/CS control.
OPEN "COM:,,,,1" AS #16
■ timeout
timeout is a maximum waiting time length until the CS signal goes ON after
the BHT becomes ready to send data. It should be 0 to 255 in increment of 100
ms.
Specification of zero (0) causes no timeout.
To make the direct-connect interface support timeout, the RS/CS option should
be set to "2" or "3" so that the RD signal is regarded as CS. If any of "0," "1,"
and "4" has been set to the RS/CS option, the value of the timeout option will
be modified.
The IrDA interface does not support timeout. If specified, the timeout option
will be ignored resulting in no run-time error.
288
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
filenumber is missing.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
02h
Syntax error
(The x in "COM:x" contains an invalid parameter.)
37h
File already open
3Ah
File number out of the range
45h
File already open
(You attempted to open the bar code device file and the IrDA
interface of the communications device file concurrently.)
(You attempted to concurrently open the two types of communications device files -- IrDA interface and spread spectrum interface, or direct-connect interface and spread spectrum interface.)
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
I/O statement
OUT
Sends a data byte to an output port.
Syntax:
OUT portnumber,data
Parameter:
portnumber
A numeric expression.
data
A numeric expression which returns a value from 0 to 255.
Description:
OUT sends a data byte designated by data to a port specified by portnumber.
• portnumber is not an actual hardware port number on the BHT but a logical
one which the Interpreter assigns. (Refer to Appendix D, "I/O Ports.")
• If bits not assigned a hardware resource are specified to portnumber or data,
they will be ignored.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
• portnumber is missing.
• data is missing.
290
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(portnumber or data is out of the range.)
Example:
OUT
3,7
The above example sets the LCD contrast to the maximum.
Reference:
Statements:
WAIT
Functions:
INP
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
I/O statement
POWER
Controls the automatic power-off facility.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Turning off the power according to the power-off counter):
POWER counter
Syntax 2 (Turning off the power immediately):
POWER {OFF|0}
Syntax 3 (Disabling the automatic power-off facility):
POWER CONT
Parameter:
counter
A numeric expression which returns a value from 0 to 32767.
Description:
■ Turning off the power according to the power-off counter
POWER counter turns off the power after the length of time specified by
counter from execution of the POWER statement.
• counter is a setting value of the power-off counter in seconds. Shown below is
a sample program for turning off the power after 4800 seconds from execution of
POWER statement.
POWER 4800
• If no POWER statement is issued, the default counter value is 180 seconds.
• If any of the following operations and events happens while the power-off counter
is counting, the counter will be reset to the preset value and start counting again:
- Any key is pressed.
- The trigger switch is pressed.
- The BHT sends or receives data via a communications device file. (If a communications device file is closed, this operation does not reset the power-off
counter.)
292
■ Turning off the power immediately
Execution of POWER OFF or POWER 0 immediately turns off the power.
• The execution of POWER OFF or POWER 0 deactivates the resume function if preset.
■ Disabling the automatic power-off facility
POWER CONT disables the automatic power-off facility.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(counter is out of the range.)
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
I/O statement
PRINT
Displays data on the LCD screen.
Syntax:
PRINT [data[CR/LFcontrol...]]
Parameter:
data
A numeric or string expression.
CR/LFcontrol
A comma (,) or a semicolon (;).
Description:
PRINT displays a number or a character string specified by data at the current
cursor position on the LCD screen (To position the cursor, use a LOCATE statement.) and then repositions the cursor according to CR/LFcontrol.
■ data
• data may be displayed according to the current display mode and character
attributes. You need to select the display mode with a SCREEN statement before
execution of the PRINT statement.
• If you omit data option, a blank line is outputted. That is, the cursor moves to
the first column of the next screen line.
• Positive numbers and zero automatically display with a leading space.
• Control codes (08h to 1Fh) appear as a space, except for BS (08h), CR (0Dh) and
C (18h) codes.
BS (08h) deletes a character immediately preceding the cursor so that the cursor
moves backwards by one column.
PRINT CHR$(8);
CR (0Dh) causes a carriage return so that the cursor moves to the first column of
the next screen line.
PRINT CHR$(&h0D);
C (18h) clears the LCD screen so that the cursor moves to its home position in the
top left corner, just like the CLS statement.
PRINT CHR$(&h18);
294
■ CR/LFcontrol
CR/LFcontrol determines where the cursor is to be positioned after the PRINT
statement executes.
• If CR/LFcontrol is a comma (,), the cursor moves to the column position of a
least multiple of 8 plus one following the last character output.
Statement example:
PRINT 123,
Output:
123
_
(
is a space.)
• If CR/LFcontrol is a semicolon (;), the cursor moves to the column position
immediately following the last character output.
Statement example:
PRINT 123;
Output:
123_
• If neither a comma (,) nor semicolon (;) is specified to CR/LFcontrol, the cursor moves to the first column on the next screen line.
Statement example:
PRINT 123
Output:
123
_
In any of the above cases, the screen automatically scrolls up so that the cursor
always positions in view on the LCD screen.
To extend one program line to more than 512 characters in a single PRINT statement, you should use an underline (_) preceding a CR code, not a comma (,) preceding a CR code.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
data contains a comma (,) or semicolon (;).
Reference:
Statements:
LOCATE, PRINT USING, and SCREEN
296
File I/O statement
PRINT #
Outputs data to a communications device file.
Syntax:
PRINT #filenumber[,data[CR/LFcontrol...]]
Parameter:
filenumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 16.
data
A numeric or string expression.
CR/LFcontrol
A comma (,) or a semicolon (;).
Description:
PRINT # outputs a numeric value or a character string specified by data to a communications device file specified by filenumber.
■ filenumber
• filenumber is a communications device file number assigned when the file is
opened.
■ CR/LFcontrol
• If CR/LFcontrol is a comma (,), the PRINT # statement pads data with
spaces so that the number of data bytes becomes a least multiple of 8, before
outputting the data.
Statement example:
PRINT #1,"ABC","123"
Output:
ABC_ _ _ _ _123 CR LF ("_" denotes a space.)
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
• If CR/LFcontrol is a semicolon (;), the PRINT # statement outputs data without adding spaces or control codes.
Statement example:
PRINT #1,"ABC";"123";
Output:
ABC123
• If neither a comma (,) nor semicolon (;) is specified to CR/LFcontrol, the
PRINT # statement adds a CR and LF codes.
Statement example:
PRINT #1,"ABC123"
Output:
ABC123 CR LF
To extend one program line to more than 512 characters in a single PRINT # statement, you should use an underline (_) preceding a CR code, not a comma (,) preceding a CR code.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
• filenumber is missing.
• data contains a comma (,) or semicolon (;).
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
34h
Bad file name or number
(You specified filenumber of an unopened file.)
36h
Improper file type
(You specified filenumber of a file other than communications device files.)
3Ah
File number out of the range
Reference:
Statements:
OPEN
298
I/O statement
PRINT USING
Displays data on the LCD screen under formatting control.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Displaying numbers):
PRINT USING "numericformat";expression
[CR/LFcontrol [expression]...]
Syntax 2 (Displaying strings):
PRINT USING "stringformat";stringexpression
[CR/LFcontrol[stringexpression]...]
Parameter:
numericformat
#, a decimal point (.), and/or +.
stringformat
!, @, and/or &
CR/LFcontrol
A comma (,) or a semicolon (;).
Description:
PRINT USING displays a number or a character string specified by expression
or stringexpression on the LCD according to a format specified by numericformat or stringformat, respectively.
• To extend one program line to more than 512 characters in a single PRINT
USING statement, you should use an underline (_) preceding a CR code, not a
comma (,) preceding a CR code.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
■ numericformat
numericformat is a formatting string consisting of #, decimal point (.), and/or +,
each of which causes a special printing effect as described below.
# Represents a digit position.
If the number specified by expression has fewer digits than the number
of digit positions specified by #, then it is padded with spaces and right-justified.
Statement example:
PRINT USING "#####";123
Output:
123
(
is a space.)
If the number specified by expression has more digits than the number
of digit positions specified by #, the extra digits before the decimal point are
truncated and those after the decimal point are rounded.
Statement example:
PRINT USING "###.#";1234.56
Output:
234.6
.
Specifies the position of the decimal point.
If the number specified by expression has fewer digits than the number
of digit positions specified by # after the decimal point, then the insufficient
digits appear as zeros.
Statement example:
PRINT USING "####.###";123
Output:
123.000
+ Displays the sign of the number.
If + is at the beginning of the format string, the sign appears before the number specified by expression; if + is at the end of the format string, the
sign appears after the number. If the number specified by expression is
a positive number or zero, it is preceded or followed by a space instead of a
sign. (+)
Statement example:
PRINT USING "+#####";-123
Output:
-123
300
■ stringformat
stringformat is a formatting string consisting of !, @, and/or &&, each of which
causes a special printing effect as described below.
! Displays the first character of the stringexpression.
Statement example:
PRINT USING "!";"ABC"
Output:
A
@ Displays the entire stringexpression.
Statement example:
PRINT USING "@";"ABC"
Output:
ABC
&& Displays the first n+2 characters of the stringexpression, where n is
the number of spaces between the ampersands (&&).
If the format field specified by stringformat is longer than the
stringexpression, the string is left-justified and padded with space; if
it is shorter, the extra characters are truncated.
Statement example:
PRINT USING "&
&";"ABCDE"
Output:
ABCDE
Below are statement examples containing incorrect formatting strings.
Example:
PRINT USING "Answer=###";a
Example:
PRINT USING "####.#
######";a,b
■ expression or stringexpression
If more than one number or string is specified, the PRINT USING statement displays each of them according to numericformat or stringformat, respectively.
PRINT USING "###";a,b,c
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
■ CR/LFcontrol
CR/LFcontrol determines where the cursor is to be positioned after the PRINT
USING statement executes. For details, refer to the CR/LFcontrol in the
PRINT statement.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
• numericformat is not correct.
• expression
or
stringexpression contains a
comma (,) or semicolon (;).
No semicolon (;) follows "numericformat" or "stringformat".
error 86: ’;’ missing
302
Declarative statement
PRIVATE
Declares one or more work variables or register variables defined in a file, to be private (as
local variables).
Syntax:
Syntax 1:
PRIVATE varname [,varname...]
Syntax 2:
PRIVATE DEFREG registerdefinition [,registerdefinition...]
Parameter:
varname
numericvar [(subscript)]
stringvar [(subscript)[[stringlength]]]
registerdefinition
non-arraynumericvar [=numericconstant]
arraynumericvar(subscript)
[=numericinitialvaluedefinition]
non-arraystringvar[[stringlength]]
[=stringconstant]
arraystringvar(subscript)[[stringlength]]
[=stringinitialvaluedefinition]
numericinitialvaluedefinition
For one-dimensional:
{numericconstant[,numericconstant...]}
For two-dimensional:
{{numericconstant[,numericconstant...]},
{numericconstant[,numericconstant...]} ...}
stringinitialvaluedefinition
For one-dimensional:
{stringconstant[,stringconstant...]}
For two-dimensional:
{{stringconstant[,stringconstant...]},
{stringconstant[,stringconstant...]} ...}
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
subscript
For one-dimensional:
integerconstant
For two-dimensional:
integerconstant,integerconstant
Where integerconstant is a numeric expression which returns a
value from 0 to 254.
stringlength
An integer constant from 1 to 255 which indicates the number of characters.
Description:
PRIVATE defines variables declared by varname or registerdefinition
as local variables which can be referred to or updated in that file.
• Inside one PRIVATE statement, up to 30 variables can be declared to varname
or registerdefinition.
• You may declare non-array variables and array variables together to varname.
• For details about registerdefinition, refer to DEFREG statement.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 7: Variable name
redefinition
The array declared with PRIVATE had
been already declared with DEFREG.
error 71: Syntax error
• stringlength
range.
is
out
of
the
• stringlength is not an integer
constant.
error 72: Variable name
redefinition
• A same variable name is double
declared inside a same PRIVATE
statement.
• A same variable name is used for a
non-array variable and array variable.
error 78: Array symbols
exceed 30 for
one DIM, PRIVATE, or GLOBAL statement
304
More than 30 variables are declared
inside one PRIVATE statement.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
07h
Insufficient memory space
(The variable area has run out.)
0Ah
Duplicate definition
(An array is double declared.)
Reference:
Statements:
DEFREG, DIM, and GLOBAL
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
File I/O statement
PUT
Writes a record from a field variable to a data file.
Syntax:
PUT [#]filenumber[,recordnumber]
Parameter:
filenumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 16.
recordnumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 32767.
Description:
PUT writes a record from a field variable(s) declared by the FIELD statement to a
data file specified by filenumber.
• filenumber is the number of a data file opened by the OPEN statement.
• recordnumber is the record number where the data is to be placed in a data
file.
It should be within the range from 1 to the maximum number of registrable
records (filelength) specified by the OPEN statement (when a new data file
is created).
• If recordnumber option is omitted, the default record number is one more than
the last record written.
• Record numbers to be specified do not have to be continuous. If you specify
record number 10 when records 1 through 7 have been written, for example, then
the PUT statement automatically creates records 8 and 9 filled with spaces and
then writes data to record 10.
• If the actual data length of a field variable is longer than the field width specified
by the FIELD statement, then the excess is truncated from the right end column.
• Since data in a data file is treated as text data (ASCII strings), numeric data
should be converted into the proper string form with the STR$ function before
being assigned to a field variable.
• The PUT statement cannot write data to files opened as read-only by specifying
drive B in the OPEN statement.
306
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
filenumber is missing.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(• filenumber is out of the range.)
(• recordnumber is out of the range.)
07h
Insufficient memory space
34h
Bad file name or number
(You specified filenumber of an unopened file.)
36h
Improper file type
(You specified filenumber of a file other than data files.)
3Ah
Filenumber out of the range
3Eh
A PUT or GET statement executed without a FIELD statement.
41h
File damaged
42h
File write error
(You attempted to write onto a read-only file.)
43h
Not allowed to access data in drive B
Reference:
Statements:
GET and OPEN
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
I/O statement
READ
Reads data defined by DATA statement(s) and assigns them to variables.
Syntax:
READ variable[,variable...]
Parameter:
variable
A numeric or string variable.
Description:
READ reads as many data values as necessary in turn from data stored by DATA
statement and assigns them, one by one, to each variable in the READ statement.
• If the data type of a read value does not match that of the corresponding variable,
the following operations take place so that no run-time error occurs:
- Assigning a numeric data to a string variable:
The READ statement converts the numeric data into the string data type and then
assigns it to the string variable.
Statement example:
DATA 123
READ a$
PRINT a$
Output:
123
- Assigning a string data to a numeric variable:
If the string data is valid as numeric data, the READ statement converts the string
data into the numeric data type and then assigns it to the numeric variable.
Statement example:
DATA "123"
READ b
PRINT b
Output:
123
308
If the string data is invalid as numeric data, the READ statement assigns the value
0 to the numeric variable.
Statement example:
DATA "ABC"
READ c
PRINT c
Output:
0
• The number of data values stored by the DATA statement must be equal to or
greater than that of variables specified by the READ statement. If not, a run-time
error occurs.
• To specify the desired DATA statement location where the READ statement
should start reading data, you use the RESTORE statement.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
04h
Out of DATA
(No DATA values remain to be read by the READ statement.)
Reference:
Statements:
DATA and RESTORE
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Declarative statement
REM
Declares the rest of a program line to be remarks or comments.
Syntax:
Syntax 1:
REM comment
Syntax 2:
’ comment
Description:
REM causes the rest of a program line to be treated as a programmer’s remark or
comment for the sake of the program readability and future program maintenance.
The remark statements are non-executable.
• Difference in description between syntax 1 and syntax 2:
The keyword REM cannot begin in the first column of a program line. When following any other statement, REM should be separated from it with a colon (:).
An apostrophe ('), which may be replaced for keyword REM, can begin in the first
column. When following any other statement, an apostrophe (') requires no colon
(:) as a delimiter.
• You can branch to a REM statement labelled by the GOTO or GOSUB statement.
The control is transferred to the first executable statement following the REM
statement.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 2: Improper label
name
REM begins in the first column of a
(redefinition, or variable
name/reserved word
used)
Reference:
Statements:
$INCLUDE
310
program line.
I/O statement
RESTORE
Specifies a DATA statement location where the READ statement should start reading data.
Syntax:
RESTORE [label]
Description:
RESTORE specifies a DATA statement location where the READ statement should
start reading data, according to label designating the DATA statement.
• You can specify DATA statements in included files.
• If label option is omitted, the default label is a DATA statement appearing first
in the user program.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 81: Must be DATA
statement
label
label is not a DATA statement label.
Reference:
Statements:
DATA and READ
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Error control statement
RESUME
Causes program execution to resume at a specified location after control is transferred to an
error-handling routine.
Syntax:
Syntax 1:
RESUME [0]
Syntax 2:
RESUME NEXT
Syntax 3:
RESUME label
Description:
RESUME returns control from the error-handling routine to a specified location of the
main program to resume program execution.
• The RESUME statement has three forms as listed below. The form determines
where execution resumes.
RESUME or RESUME 0
Resumes program execution with the
statement that caused the error.
RESUME NEXT
Resumes program execution with the
statement immediately following the one
that caused the error.
RESUME label
Resumes program execution with the
statement designated by label.
• The RESUME statement should be put inside the error-handling routine.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
label has not been defined.
312
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
14h
RESUME without error
(RESUME statement occurs outside of an error-handling routine.)
Reference:
Statements:
ON ERROR GOTO
Functions:
ERL and ERR
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Flow control statement
RETURN
Returns control from a subroutine or an event-handling routine (for keystroke interrupt).
Syntax:
RETURN
Description:
RETURN statement in a subroutine returns control to the statement immediately following the GOSUB that called the subroutine.
RETURN statement in an event-handling routine for keystroke interrupt returns control to the program location immediately following the one where the keystroke trap
occurred.
• No label designating a return location should be specified in a RETURN statement.
• You may specify more than one RETURN statement in a subroutine or an eventhandling routine.
Reference:
Statements:
GOSUB and ON KEY...GOSUB
314
I/O statement
SCREEN
Sets the display mode (display angle, screen mode, and font size) and character attributes
(tone, character enlargement, and font reverse attributes).
Syntax:
Syntax 1:
SCREEN displaymode[,charaattribute]
Syntax 2:
SCREEN ,charaattribute
Parameter:
displaymode and charaattribute
A numeric expression which returns a value from 0 to 65535.
Description:
displaymode in the SCREEN statement sets the display angle, screen mode,
and font size as listed below.
Display angle
Screen mode
Font size
SCREEN displaymode
No rotation
ANK mode
Standard-size
SCREEN 0
Kanji mode
Standard-size
SCREEN 1
Small-size
SCREEN 5
ANK mode
Standard-size
SCREEN &h10
Kanji mode
Standard-size
SCREEN &h11
Small-size
SCREEN &h15
Rotate 180°
displaymode is expressed wih a bit array as shown below.
Bit
Display angle
00: No rotation
01: Rotate 180
Screen mode
00: ANK mode
01: Kanji mode
Font size
00: Standard-size
01: Small-size
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
charaattribute sets the tone, character enlargement, and font reverse
attributes as listed below.
Tone
attribute
Character enlargement attribute
Font reverse attribute
SCREEN ,charaattribute
Black
Regular
Normal
SCREEN ,0
Reversed (Highlighted)
SCREEN ,1
Normal
SCREEN ,2
Reversed (Highlighted)
SCREEN ,3
Normal
SCREEN ,4
Reversed (Highlighted)
SCREEN ,5
Normal
SCREEN ,6
Reversed (Highlighted)
SCREEN ,7
Normal
SCREEN ,&h0400
Reversed (Highlighted)
SCREEN ,&h0401
Normal
SCREEN ,&h0402
Reversed (Highlighted)
SCREEN ,&h0403
Normal
SCREEN ,&h0404
Reversed (Highlighted)
SCREEN ,&h0405
Normal
SCREEN ,&h0406
Reversed (Highlighted)
SCREEN ,&h0407
Normal
SCREEN ,&h0800
Reversed (Highlighted)
SCREEN ,&h0801
Normal
SCREEN ,&h0802
Reversed (Highlighted)
SCREEN ,&h0803
Normal
SCREEN ,&h0804
Reversed (Highlighted)
SCREEN ,&h0805
Normal
SCREEN ,&h0806
Reversed (Highlighted)
SCREEN ,&h0807
Normal
SCREEN ,&h0FF0
Reversed (Highlighted)
SCREEN ,&h0FF1
Normal
SCREEN ,&h0FF2
Reversed (Highlighted)
SCREEN ,&h0FF3
Normal
SCREEN ,&h0FF4
Reversed (Highlighted)
SCREEN ,&h0FF5
Normal
SCREEN ,&h0FF6
Reversed (Highlighted)
SCREEN ,&h0FF7
Double-width
Double-height
Quadruple
Dark gray
Regular
Double-width
Double-height
Quadruple
Light gray
Regular
Double-width
Double-height
Quadruple
White
Regular
Double-width
Double-height
Quadruple
316
charaattribute is expressed with a bit array as shown below.
Bit
Tone attribute
00000000: Black
01000000: Dark gray
10000000: Light gray
11111111: White
Font reverse attribute
0: Normal
1: Reversed (Highlighted)
Character enlargement attribute
000: Regular
001: Double-width
010: Double-height
011: Quadruple
• At the start of program execution, the following settings apply:
Screen mode
ANK mode
Font size
Standard-size
Display angle
No rotation
Tone attribute
Black
Character enlargement attribute
Regular
Font reverse attribute
Normal
• If displaymode or charaattribute parameter is omitted, the associated
parameter value will not change.
• In the two-byte Kanji mode, characters can be displayed in either the full-width
(16 dots wide by 16 dots high) or the half-width (8 dots wide by 16 dots high). If a
small-size font is selected, those character sizes will become 12 dots wide by 12
dots high or 6 dots wide by 12 dots high, respectively.
• You may set parameter values by using the following CONST definition:
Parameters to be set
displaymode
charaattribute
CONST definition
Default
.scDefault
Kanji mode
.scMB
Small-size font
.scSmall
Rotate 180°
.scR180
Default
.scDefault
Reversed
.scInvert
Double-width
.scW2H1
Double-height
.scW1H2
Quadruple
.scW2H2
Dark gray
.scDGray
Light gray
.scLGray
White
.scWhite
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Example:
mode% = .scMB+.scSmall
attrib% = .scW2H1+.scDGray
SCREEN mode%, attrib%
’Kanji mode, small-size font
’Double-width, dark gray
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
318
Flow control statement
SELECT...CASE...END SELECT
Conditionally executes one of statement blocks depending upon the value of an expression.
Syntax:
SELECT conditionalexpression
CASE test1
[statementblock]
[CASE test2
[statementblock]]...
[CASE ELSE
[statementblock]]
END SELECT
Parameter:
conditionalexpression, test1, and test2
A numeric or string expression.
Description:
This statement executes one of statementblocks depending upon the value of
conditionalexpression according to the steps below.
(1) SELECT evaluates conditionalexpression and compares it with
tests sequentially to look for a match.
(2) When a match is found, the associated statementblock executes and
then control passes to the first statement following the END SELECT.
If no match is found, the statementblock following the CASE ELSE executes and then control passes to the first statement following the END SELECT.
If you include no CASE ELSE, control passes to the first statement following the
END SELECT.
• If the SELECT statement block includes more than one CASE statement containing the same value of test, only the first CASE statement executes and then
control passes to the first statement following the END SELECT.
• If a CASE followed by no executable statement is encountered, control passes to
the first statement following the END SELECT.
• conditionalexpression (numeric or string) and tests must agree in
type.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
• You can nest the SELECT…CASE…END SELECT statements to a maximum of
10 levels.
SELECT a
CASE 1
SELECT b
CASE 3
PRINT "a=1,b=3"
END SELECT
CASE 2
PRINT "a=2"
END SELECT
• When using the SELECT statement block together with block-structured statements (DEF FN...END DEF, FOR...NEXT, FUNCTION...END FUNCTION,
IF...THEN...ELSE...END IF, SELECT...CASE...END SELECT, SUB...END SUB
and WHILE...WEND), you can nest them to a maximum of 30 levels.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 26:
Too deep nesting.
error 55: Incorrect use
of SELECT...
CASE...END
SELECT
CASE, CASE ELSE, or END SELECT
statement appears outside of the
SELECT statement block.
error 56: Incomplete
control structure
No END SELECT corresponds to
SELECT.
error 71: Syntax error
conditionalexpression and
tests do not agree in type.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
0Ch
CASE and END SELECT without SELECT
10h
Expression too long or complex
(The program nesting by SELECT statement block is too deep.)
320
User-defined function statement
SUB...END SUB
Names and defines user-defined function SUB.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Defining a numeric function):
SUB subname [(dummyparameter[,dummyparameter]...)]
Syntax 2 (Exiting from the function block prematurely):
EXIT SUB
Syntax 3 (Ending the function block):
END SUB
Syntax 4 (Calling a function):
[CALL] subname[(realparameter[,realparameter]...)]
Parameter:
subname
Real function name
dummyparameter
A non-array integer variable, a non-array real variable, or a non-array string
variable.
realparameter
A numeric or string expression.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Description:
■ Creating a user-defined function
SUB...END SUB creates a user-defined function. The function definition block
between SUB and END SUB is a set of some statements and functions.
• You cannot make double definition to a same function name.
• This statement block should not be defined in the block-structured statements
(DEF FN...END DEF, FOR...NEXT, FUNCTION...END FUNCTION, IF...THEN
...ELSE...END IF, SELECT...CASE...END SELECT, SUB...END SUB, and
WHILE...WEND), in the error-handling routine, event-handling routine, or in the
subroutines.
• SUB...END SUB functions can be recursive.
• dummyparameter, which corresponds to the variable having the same name in
the function definition block, is a local variable valid only in that block. Therefore,
if a variable having the same name as dummyparameter is used outside
SUB...END SUB statement block or used as a dummyparameter of any other
function in the same program, then it will be independently treated.
• In user-defined functions, you can call other user-defined functions. You can nest
SUB...END SUB statements to a maximum of 10 levels.
• When using the SUB...END SUB together with block-structured statements (DEF
FN...END DEF, FOR...NEXT, FUNCTION...END FUNCTION, IF...THEN
...ELSE...END IF, SELECT...CASE...END SELECT, SUB...END SUB, and
WHILE...WEND), you can nest them to a maximum of 30 levels.
• If variables other than dummyparameter(s) are specified in the function definition block, they will be treated as local variables whose current values are available only in that function definition block, unless PRIVATE or GLOBAL statement
is used.
• EXIT SUB exits the function block prematurely and returns control to the position
immediately after the statement that called the user-defined function.
• Unlike other user-defined functions, SUB function cannot assign a return value.
■ Calling a user-defined function
CALL statement and subname call a user-defined function. CALL can be omitted.
• The number of realparameters should be equal to that of dummyparameters, and the types of the corresponding variables used in those parameters
should be identical.
• If you specify a global variable in realparameter when calling a user-defined
function, the user-defined function cannot update the value of the global variable.
This is because all realparameters are passed not by address but by value.
(So called "Call-by-value")
322
Syntax errors:
■ When defining a user function
Error code and message
Meaning
error 64: Function
redefinition
You made double definition to a same
function name.
error 71: Syntax error
• The string length is out of the range.
• The string length is not an integer
constant.
error 92: Incorrect use
of SUB, EXIT
SUB or END SUB
• The EXIT SUB statement is specified outside the function definition
block.
• The END SUB statement is specified
outside the function definition block.
error 93: Incomplete
control structure
(SUB...END SUB)
END SUB is missing.
error 94: Cannot use SUB
in control
structure
The SUB...END SUB statement is
defined in other block-structured statements such as FOR and IF statement
blocks.
■ When calling a user-defined function
Error code and message
Meaning
error 68: Mismatch
argument type
or number
• The number of the real parameters is
not equal to that of the dummy
parameters.
• dummyparameter was an integer
variable in defining a function, but
realparameter is a real type in
calling the function. (If dummyparameter was a real variable in
defining a function and realparameter is an integer type, then no
error occurs.)
Calling of a user-defined function precedes the definition of the user-defined
function.
error 69: Function
undefined
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
07h
Insufficient memory space
(You nested SUB statements to more than 10 levels.)
0Fh
String length out of the range
(The returned value of the string length exceeds the allowable
range.)
Reference:
Statements:
DECLARE
Example:
File 1
File 2
DECLARE SUB add(x,y)
A=1:B=2
PRINT "TEST"
CALL add(A,B)
.
.
.
SUB add(X,Y)
PRINT X+Y
END SUB
TEST
3
324
I/O statement
WAIT
Pauses program execution until a designated input port presents a given bit pattern.
Syntax:
WAIT portnumber,ANDbyte[,XORbyte]
Parameter:
portnumber
A numeric expression.
ANDbyte and XORbyte
A numeric expression which returns a value from 0 to 255.
Description:
WAIT suspends a user program while monitoring the input port designated by
portnumber until the port presents the bit pattern given by ANDbyte and XORbyte. (Refer to Appendix D, "I/O Ports.")
ANDbyte is a bit pattern in which bits to be checked should be set to 1. XORbyte
is a bit pattern in which the same bit positions as ones set to 1 in ANDbyte should
be set to the values to be picked out.
The byte at the input port is first XORed with the XORbyte parameter. Next, the
result is ANDed with the value of ANDbyte parameter.
If the final result is zero (0), the WAIT statement rereads the input port and continues the same process. If it is nonzero, control passes to the statement following the
WAIT.
• If XORbyte option is omitted, the WAIT statement uses a value of zero (0).
WAIT 1,x
’ = WAIT 1,x,0
• If an invalid port number or bit data is specified, then it will be assumed as zero (0)
so that the WAIT statement may fall into an infinite loop.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 71: Syntax error
• portnumber is missing.
• ANDbyte is missing.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
Example:
WAIT 0,&H03
The above statement suspends a user program until any data is inputted from the
keyboard or the bar code reader.
Reference:
Statements:
OUT
Functions:
INP
326
Flow control statement
WHILE...WEND
Continues to execute a statement block as long as the conditional expression is true.
Syntax:
WHILE conditionalexpression
[statementblock]
WEND
Description:
A WHILE...WEND continues to execute statementblock as long as the conditionalexpression is true (not zero) according to the steps below.
(1) The conditionalexpression in the WHILE statement is evaluated.
(2) If the condition is false (zero), the statementblock is bypassed and control
passes to the first statement following the WEND.
If the condition is true (not zero), the statementblock is executed. When
WEND statement is encountered, control returns to the WHILE statement. (Go
back to step (1) to be repeated.)
• The WHILE and WEND cannot be written on a same program line.
• If no WEND is written corresponding to the WHILE, a syntax error occurs.
• The BHT-BASIC does not support a DO…LOOP statement block.
• You can nest the WHILE...END statements to a maximum of 10 levels.
• When using the WHILE...WEND statement together with block-structured statements (DEF FN...END DEF, FOR...NEXT, FUNCTION...END FUNCTION,
IF...THEN...ELSE...END IF, SELECT...CASE...END SELECT, SUB...END SUB,
and WHILE...WEND), you can nest them to a maximum of 30 levels.
WHILE a
WHILE b
WHILE c
.
.
.
WEND
WEND
WEND
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 26:
Too deep nesting.
error 57: Incorrect use
of WHILE...WEND
WEND appears outside of the WHILE
error 58: Incomplete
control structure
No WEND corresponds to WHILE.
Reference:
Statements:
FOR…NEXT
328
statement block.
I/O statement
XFILE
Transmits a designated file according to the specified communications protocol.
Syntax:
XFILE "[drivename:]filename"[,"protocolspec"]
Parameter:
"[drivename:]filename" and "protocolspec"
String expressions.
Description:
XFILE transmits a data file designated by "[drivename:]filename"
between the BHT and host computer or between BHTs according to the communications protocol specified by "protocolspec." (For the BHT-protocol and
BHT-Ir protocol, refer to the BHT User’s Manual.)
■ "[drivename:]filename"
filename is a data file name. For the format of data file names, refer to the OPEN
statement.
• [drivename:] is used in conventional BHT series. In the BHT-100 series, it is
merely for the compatibility with their specifications. The drivename may be A:
or B:, but it will be ignored.
■ "protocolspec"
"protocolspec" parameter can specify the following protocol specifications:
BHT-protocol
BHT-Ir protocol
Multilink protocol
Transmission direction
Specifications
√
√
√
Serial number
√
Horizontal parity checking (BCC)
√
Transmission monitoring
√
√
√
Handling of trailing space codes in
a data field during file transmission
√
√
√
Timeout length when a link will be
established
√
√
Checking whether filenames are
identical
√
√
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
- Transmission direction
Parameter omitted (default)
Transmits a file from the BHT.
R or r
Receives a file from the host computer or any other BHT.
Example: XFILE "d2.dat","R"
"filename" cannot be omitted even in file reception.
- Serial number
Parameter omitted (default)
No serial number setting.
S or s
Adds a serial number to every transmission block.
Example: XFILE "d2.dat","S"
A serial number immediately follows a text control character heading each transmission block. It is a 5-digit decimal number. When it is less than five digits, the
upper digits having no value are filled with zeros.
- Horizontal parity checking (BCC)
Parameter omitted (default)
No horizontal parity checking.
P or p
Suffixes a BCC to every transmission
block.
Example: XFILE "d2.dat","P"
A block check character (BCC) immediately follows a terminator of each transmission block. The horizontal parity checking checks all bits except for headers
(SOH and STX).
- Transmission monitoring
Parameter omitted (default)
No serial number indication.
M or m
Displays a serial number of the transmission block during file transmission.
Example: XFILE "d2.dat","M"
A serial number will appear in the 5-digit decimal format at the current cursor
position before execution of the XFILE statement.
- Handling of trailing space codes in a data field during file transmission
Parameter omitted (default)
Trims space codes.
T or t
Handles space codes as data.
Example: XFILE "d2.dat","T"
Each of space codes placed in the tail of a data field will be handled as 20h in file
reception.
330
- Timeout length when a link will be established
Specify the timeout length by 1 to 9.
Uploading
Set value
Downloading
BHT-protocol
BHT-Ir protocol
1
30 sec.
Retries of ENQ, 10 times
Retries of ENQ, 60 times
2
60 sec.
Retries of ENQ, 20 times
Retries of ENQ, 120 times
3
90 sec.
Retries of ENQ, 30 times
Retries of ENQ, 180 times
4
120 sec.
Retries of ENQ, 40 times
Retries of ENQ, 240 times
5
150 sec.
Retries of ENQ, 50 times
Retries of ENQ, 300 times
6
180 sec.
Retries of ENQ, 60 times
Retries of ENQ, 360 times
7
210 sec.
Retries of ENQ, 70 times
Retries of ENQ, 420 times
8
240 sec.
Retries of ENQ, 80 times
Retries of ENQ, 480 times
9
No timeout
No timeout
No timeout
Example: XFILE "d2.dat","2"
In file reception, the timeout length is 60 seconds; in file transmission, the maximum number of ENQ retries is 20 (when the BHT-protocol is used.)
- Checking whether filenames are identical
This option can apply only to file reception (that is, when the transmission direction is specified with R or r).
Parameter omitted
(default)
Receives only a data file having the same name as
specified by filename. The "filename" should be
the same as that used in the sending station.
N or n
No checking whether filenames are identical. The BHT
may receive a data file with a different name (given in
the sending station) from that specified by filename.
That is, the received file is renamed as specified by
filename. If filename is omitted (only "" is specified), the BHT receives a data file with the name as is in
the sending station.
Example: If a file is named "TEST.DAT" in the sending station
Sample 1. XFILE "TEST.DAT","RN"
’Receives TEST.DAT as
’TEST2.DAT.
Sample 2. XFILE "","RN"
’Receives the file with the
’same name as used in the
’sending station.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
• A communications device file should be opened before execution of the XFILE
statement. (For the file opening, refer to the OPEN "COM:" statement.)
• The XFILE statement uses the interface specified by the OPEN "COM:" statement.
• A data file to be transmitted should be closed beforehand.
• To transfer a file by using the BHT-Ir protocol or multilink protocol, set the BHT's
ID to any of 1 to FFFFh. Specifying zero (0) to the ID will result in a run-time error.
• Undefined letters, if specified in protocolspec, will be ignored. The specifications below, therefore, produce the same operation. The last one of the timeout
values goes active.
"RSPMT1"
"R,S,P,M,T,1"
"r,s,p,m,t,1"
"ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ1"
"2"
"3462"
"22"
• If you transmit a data file having the same name as that already used in the
receiving station:
- the newly transmitted file replaces the old one when the field structure is
matched.
- a run-time error occurs when the field structure is not matched.
To receive a data file having the same name at the BHT but having a different
structure, therefore, it is necessary to delete that old file.
• Pressing the Clear key during file transmission aborts the execution of the XFILE
statement by issuing an EOT code and displays a run-time error.
Syntax errors:
Error code and message
Meaning
error 3: ’"’ missing
No double quote precedes or follows
[drivename:]filename.
error 71: Syntax error
[drivename:]filename is not
enclosed in double quotes.
332
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
02h
Syntax error
([drivename:]filename is not correct.)
07h
Insufficient memory space
(During file reception, the memory runs out.)
32h
File type mismatch
(The received file is not a data file.)
33h
Received text format not correct
34h
Bad file name or number
(You specified filename of an unopened file.)
35h
File not found
37h
File already open
38h
The file name is different from that in the receive header.
3Bh
The number of the records is greater than the defined maximum
value.
3Eh
FIELD statement not executed yet
40h
ID not set
46h
Communications error
(A communications protocol error has occurred.)
47h
Abnormal end of communications or termination of communications by the Clear key
(The Clear key has aborted the file transmission.)
49h
Received program file not correct
Example:
The sample below transmits a data file by adding a serial number and horizontal
parity checking, and then displays the serial number at the 1st line of the screen.
CLOSE
OPEN "d0.dat"AS #1
FIELD #1,10 AS A$,20 AS B$
L%=LOF(1)
CLOSE
LOCATE 1,1
PRINT "00000/";RIGHT$("00000"+MID$(STR$(L%),2),5)
LOCATE 1,1
OPEN "COM:19200,N,8,1" AS #8
XFILE "d0.dat","SPM"
CLOSE #8
Before file transmission
00000/00100
→
After file transmission
00100/00100
Reference:
Statements:
OPEN and OPEN "COM:"
333
Chapter 14. Statement Reference
File I/O statement
$INCLUDE
Specifies an included file.
Syntax:
Syntax 1:
REM $INCLUDE:’filename’
Syntax 2:
’$INCLUDE:’filename’
Description:
$INCLUDE reads a source program specified by ’filename’ into the program
line immediately following the $INCLUDE line in compilation.
Storing definitions of variables, subroutines, user-defined functions, and other data
to be shared by source programs into the included files will promote application of
valuable program resources.
If this statement is placed at the beginning of source programs, then same userdefined functions or subroutines may be shared by those source programs.
• filename is a file to be included.
• If the specified filename does not exist in compiling a source program, a fatal error
occurs and the compilation terminates.
• No characters including space should be put between $ and INCLUDE and
between single quotes (') and filename.
• As shown below, if any character except for space or tab codes is placed between
REM and $INCLUDE in syntax 1 or between a single quote (') and $INCLUDE in
syntax 2, the program line will be regarded as a comment line so that the
$INCLUDE statement will not execute.
REM xxx $INCLUDE:’mdlprg1.SRC’
• Before specifying included files, it is necessary to debug them carefully.
• $INCLUDE statements cannot be nested.
• The program lines in included files will not be outputted to the compile list.
If a compilation error occurs in an included file, the error message shows the line
number where the $INCLUDE statement is described.
Symbols defined in included files will not be outputted to the symbol list.
• If a program line in an included file refers to a variable, user-defined function, or
others defined outside the included file, then the program line number where the
$INCLUDE statement is described will be outputted to the cross reference list, as
the referred-to line.
334
Fatal Error:
Error code and message
Meaning
fatal error 30: Cannot find
include file
"XXX"
No included file is found.
fatal error 31: Cannot nest
include file
Included files are nested.
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Chapter 14. Statement Reference
Additional Explanation for Statements
■ Effective range of labels
Labels are effective only in a file.
■ Definition of common variables (by COMMON statement)
In an object to be executed first (that is, in a main object), you should define all common variables to be accessed. In any other objects, declare common variables required only in each
object. If a first executed object is linked with an object where an undefined common variable(s) is newly defined, then an error will result.
■ Definition and initialization of register variables (by DEFREG statement)
As for work variables, you should declare required register variables in each object. You may
specify an initial value to a register variable in each object; however, giving different initial values to a same register variable in more than one object will result in an error in linking process.
336
Chapter 15
Function Reference
CONTENTS
ABS ..................................................... 338
ASC ..................................................... 339
BCC$ ................................................... 340
CHKDGT$ ........................................... 342
CHR$ .................................................. 346
COUNTRY$ ........................................ 348
CSRLIN ............................................... 350
DATE$ ................................................. 351
EOF ..................................................... 353
ERL ..................................................... 355
ERR ..................................................... 356
ETX$ ................................................... 357
FRE ..................................................... 358
HEX$ ................................................... 359
INKEY$ ............................................... 360
INP ...................................................... 361
INPUT$ ............................................... 362
INSTR ................................................. 364
INT ...................................................... 366
LEFT$ ................................................. 367
LEN ..................................................... 368
LOC .................................................... 369
LOF ..................................................... 371
MARK$ ............................................... 372
MID$ ................................................... 374
POS .................................................... 376
RIGHT$ .............................................. 377
SEARCH ............................................. 378
SOH$ .................................................. 380
STR$ .................................................. 381
STX$ ................................................... 382
TIME$ ................................................. 383
TIMEA/TIMEB/TIMEC ........................ 385
VAL ..................................................... 386
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Chapter 15. Function Reference
ABSolute
Numeric function
ABS
Returns the absolute value of a numeric expression.
Syntax:
ABS(numericexpression)
Description:
ABS returns the absolute value of numericexpression. The absolute value is
the magnitude of numericexpression without regard to sign. For example,
both ABS (-12.34) and ABS (12.34) are equal to 12.34.
• If you give a real number, this function returns a real number; if an integer number,
this function returns an integer number.
338
ASCii code
String function
ASC
Returns the ASCII code value of a given character.
Syntax:
ASC(stringexpression)
Description:
ASC returns the ASCII code value of the first character of stringexpression,
which is an integer from 0 to 255. (For the ASCII character codes, refer to Appendix
C, "Character Sets.")
• If stringexpression is a null string, this function returns the value 0.
• If given a two-byte Kanji character, this function cannot return the two-byte Kanji
code.
Reference:
Functions:
CHR$
339
Chapter 15. Function Reference
Block Check Character
String function
BCC$
Returns a block check character (BCC) of a data block.
Syntax:
BCC$(datablock,checktype)
Parameter:
datablock
A string expression.
checktype
A numeric expression which returns a value from 0 to 2.
Description:
BCC$ calculates a block check character (BCC) of datablock according to the
block checking method specified by checktype, and returns the BCC.
• checktype is 0, 1, or 2 which specifies SUM, XOR, or CRC-16, respectively, as
described below.
checktype
Block checking method
No. of charas
for BCC
0
SUM
1
Lowest one byte of the
sum of all character
codes contained in a
datablock.
1
XOR
1
One byte gained by
XORing all character
codes contained in a
datablock.
2
CRC-16
2*
Two bytes gained from
the cyclic redundancy
check operation
applied to bit series of
all characters in datablock with the bit
order in each byte
inverted.
*
BCC
Generative
polynomial
X16+X15+X2+1
The upper byte and the lower byte of the operation result will be set to the 1st and 2nd characters,
respectively.
• A common use for BCC$ is to perform block checking or to generate a BCC for a
data block.
340
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(checktype is out of the range.)
341
Chapter 15. Function Reference
CHecK DiGiT
String function
CHKDGT$
Returns a check digit of bar code data.
Syntax:
CHKDGT$(barcodedata,CDtype)
Parameter:
barcodedata and CDtype
String expressions.
Description:
CHKDGT$ calculates a check digit (CD) of barcodedata according to the calculation method specified by CDtype, and then returns it as one-character string.
• CDtype is A, H, I, M or N, which specifies the bar code type and the corresponding calculation method as listed below.
CDtype
Bar Code Type
Calculation Method
A
EAN and UPC
MOD-10 (Modulo arithmetic-10)
H
STF (Standard 2 of 5) *
MOD-10 (Modulo arithmetic-10)
I
ITF (Interleaved 2 of 5)
MOD-10 (Modulo arithmetic-10)
M
Code 39
MOD-43 (Modulo arithmetic-43)
N
Codabar (NW-7)
MOD-16 (Modulo arithmetic-16)
* Supported by the BHT-100B only.
CDtype may be in lowercase.
• If barcodedata contains a character(s) out of the specification of the bar code
type specified by CDtype, then CHKDGT$ returns a null string. However, if only
the CD position character in barcodedata is out of the specification,
CHKDGT$ calculates the correct CD and returns it as one-character string.
Sample coding 1:
CD.Data$=CHKDGT$("494AB4458","A")
"A" and "B" are out of the specification of EAN or UPC, so
CD.Data$ will become a null string.
Sample coding 2:
CD.Data$=CHKDGT$("4940045X","A")
"X" is a CD position character, so CHKDGT$ calculates the
correct CD and CD.Data$ will become "8."
Sample coding 3:
CD.Data$=CHKDGT$("a0ef3-a","N")
"e" and "f" are out of the specification of Codabar (NW-7), so
CD.Data$ will become a null string.
342
Sample coding 4:
CD.Data$=CHKDGT$("a123Qa","N")
"Q" is a CD position character, so CHKDGT$ calculates the
correct CD and CD.Data$ will become "-."
■ When CDtype is A (EAN or UPC), CHKDGT$ identifies the EAN or UPC of
barcodedata depending upon the data length (number of digits) as listed
below.
Data length of barcodedata
13 digits
Universal Product Codes
EAN-13 or UPC-A
8 digits
EAN-8
7 digits
UPC-E
If the data length is a value other than 13, 8, and 7, this function returns a null
string.
- To check that the CD is correct:
Pass a CD-suffixed barcodedata to a CHKDGT$ as shown below. If the
returned value is equal to the CD, the CD data is suitable for the barcodedata.
Sample coding:
IF CHKDGT$("49400458","A")="8"
THEN...
- To add a CD to barcode data:
Pass barcodedata followed by a dummy character to a CHKDGT$ as shown
below. The returned value will become the CD to be replaced with the dummy character.
Sample coding:
PRINT"4940045"+CHKDGT$("4940045"+"0","A")
49400458
■ When CDtype is H (STF)*, the length of barcodedata must be two or more
digits. If not, CHKDGT$ returns a null string.
(* Supported by the BHT-100B only.)
- To check that the CD is correct:
Pass a CD-suffixed barcodedata to a CHKDGT$ as shown below. If the
returned value is equal to the CD, the CD data is suitable for the barcodedata.
Sample coding:
IF CHKDGT$("12345678905","H")="5"
THEN...
- To add a CD to barcode data:
Pass barcodedata followed by a dummy character to a CHKDGT$ as shown
below. The returned value will become the CD to be replaced with the dummy character.
Sample coding:
PRINT"1234567890"+CHKDGT$("1234567890"+"0"."H")
12345678905
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Chapter 15. Function Reference
■ When CDtype is I (ITF), the length of barcodedata must be an even number of two or more digits. If not, CHKDGT$ returns a null string.
- To check that the CD is correct:
Pass a CD-suffixed barcodedata to a CHKDGT$ as shown below. If the
returned value is equal to the CD, the CD data is suitable for the barcodedata.
Sample coding:
IF CHKDGT$("123457","I")="7"
THEN...
- To add a CD to barcode data:
Pass barcodedata followed by a dummy character to a CHKDGT$ as shown
below. The returned value will become the CD to be replaced with the dummy character.
Sample coding:
PRINT "12345"+CHKDGT$("12345"+"0","I")
123457
■ When CDtype is M (Code 39), the length of barcodedata must be two or
more digits except for start and stop characters. If not, CHKDGT$ returns a null
string.
- To check that the CD is correct:
Pass a CD-suffixed barcodedata to a CHKDGT$ as shown below. If the
returned value is equal to the CD, the CD data is suitable for the barcodedata.
Sample coding:
IF CHKDGT$("CODE39W","M")="W"
THEN...
- To add a CD to barcode data:
Pass barcodedata followed by a dummy character to a CHKDGT$ as shown
below. The returned value will become the CD to be replaced with the dummy character.
Sample coding:
PRINT "CODE39"+CHKDGT$("CODE39"+"0","M")
CODE39W
344
■ When CDtype is N (Codabar), the length of barcodedata must be three digits or more including start and stop characters. If not, CHKDGT$ returns a null
string.
- To check that the CD is correct:
Pass a CD-suffixed barcodedata to a CHKDGT$ as shown below. If the
returned value is equal to the CD, the CD data is suitable for the barcodedata.
Sample coding:
IF CHKDGT$("a0123-a","N")="-"
THEN...
- To add a CD to barcode data:
Pass barcodedata followed by a dummy character and enclosed with start and
stop characters, to a CHKDGT$ as shown below. The returned value will become
the CD to be replaced with the dummy character.
Sample coding:
ld%=LEN("a0123a")
PRINT LEFT$("a0123a",ld%-1)+CHKDGT$
("a01230a","N")+RIGHT$("a0123a",1)
a0123-a
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(CDtype is out of the range.)
Reference:
Statements:
OPEN "BAR:"
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Chapter 15. Function Reference
CHaRacter code
String function
CHR$
Returns the character corresponding to a given ASCII code.
Syntax:
CHR$(characode)
Parameter:
characode
A numeric expression which returns a value from 0 to 255.
Description:
CHR$ converts a numerical ASCII code specified by characode into the equivalent single-byte character. This function is used to send control codes (e.g., ENQ
and ACK) to a communications device file or to display a double quotation mark or
other characters having special meanings in the BHT-BASIC.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(characode is out of the range.)
Example:
• To output an ACK code to a communications device file, use CHR$(&H06). The
ASCII value for the ACK code is &H06.
PRINT #1,CHR$(&H06);
• To display control codes from 8 (08h) to 31 (1Fh), refer to the program examples
shown in the PRINT statement.
• To display double quotation marks around a string, use CHR$(34) as shown
below. The ASCII value for a double quotation mark is 34 (22h).
PRINT CHR$(34);"Barcode";CHR$(&H22)
"Barcode"
346
• To display a Kanji code, use a shift JIS code as shown below. The shift JIS code
for
is 8ABFh.
SCREEN 1
PRINT CHR$(&h8A);CHR$(&hBF)
Reference:
Statements:
PRINT
Functions:
ASC
347
Chapter 15. Function Reference
COUNTRY
I/O function
COUNTRY$
Sets a national character set or returns a current country code.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Setting a national character set):
COUNTRY$="countrycode"
Syntax 2 (Returning a country code):
COUNTRY$
Parameter:
countrycode
A string expression which returns any of A, D, E, F, G, I, J, N, S, and W.
Description:
■ Syntax 1
COUNTRY$ sets a national character set specified by "countrycode". The
national character set is assigned to codes from 32 (20h) to 127 (7Fh). (Refer to
Appendix C2, "National Character Sets.")
• "countrycode" specifies one of the following national character sets:
countrycode
National character set
A
America (default)
D
Denmark
E
England
F
France
G
Germany
I
Italy
J
Japan (default)
N
Norway
S
Spain
W
Sweden
• If "countrycode" is omitted, the default national character set is America
(code A) or Japan (code J) when you have selected the English or Japanese message version on the SET DISPLAY menu in System Mode, respectively.
348
• After setting a national character set, you may display national characters
assigned to 32 (20h) to 127 (7Fh), on the LCD.
• "countrycode" set by this function remains effective in the programs chained
by CHAIN statements.
• If "countrycode" has more than one character, only the first one takes effect.
• If "countrycode" is an invalid letter other than those listed above, the function is ignored.
• "countrycode" may be in lowercase.
COUNTRY$="j"
■ Syntax 2
COUNTRY$ returns a current country code as an uppercase alphabetic letter.
349
Chapter 15. Function Reference
CurSoR LINe
I/O function
CSRLIN
Returns the current row number of the cursor.
Syntax:
CSRLIN
Description:
CSRLIN returns the current row number of the cursor as an integer in the current
display mode specified by a SCREEN statement.
Screen mode
Font size
Row number
Single-byte ANK mode
Standard-size
1 to 25
Two-byte Kanji mode
Standard-size
1 to 37
Small-size
1 to 49
• Even if the cursor is invisible (by a LOCATE statement), the CSRLIN function
operates.
• For the current column number of the cursor, refer to the POS function.
Reference:
Statements:
LOCATE and SCREEN
Functions:
POS
350
DATE
I/O function
DATE$
Returns the current system date or sets a specified system date.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Retrieving the current system date):
DATE$
Syntax 2 (Setting the current system date):
DATE$="date"
Parameter:
date
A string expression.
Description:
■ Syntax 1
DATE$ returns the current system date as an 8-byte string. The string has the format below.
yy/mm/dd
where yy is the lower two digits of the year from 00 to 99, mm is the month from 01
to 12, and dd is the day from 01 to 31.
■ Syntax 2
DATE$ sets the system date specified by "date". The format of "date" is the
same as that in syntax 1.
Example: date$="00/10/12"
• The year yy must be the lower two digits of the year: otherwise, the system does
not compensate for leap years automatically.
• The calendar clock is backed up by the battery. (For the system time, refer to the
TIME$ function.)
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Chapter 15. Function Reference
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(date is out of the range.)
Reference:
Functions:
TIME$
352
End Of File
File I/O function
EOF
Tests whether the end of a device I/O file has been reached.
Syntax:
EOF([#]filenumber)
Parameter:
filenumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 16.
Description:
EOF tests for an end of a device I/O file designated by filenumber. Then it
returns -1 (true) if no data remains; it returns 0 (false) if any data remains, as listed
below.
File Type
Returned Value
End-of-file Condition
Communications device file
-1 (true)
No data remains in the
receive buffer.
0 (false)
Any data remains in the
receive buffer.
-1 (true)
No data remains in the
barcode buffer
0 (false)
Any data remains in the
barcode buffer.
Barcode device file
• filenumber should be the file number of an opened device file.
• The EOF function cannot be used for data files. Specifying a data file number for
filenumber causes a run-time error.
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Chapter 15. Function Reference
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
34h
Bad file name or number
(You specified filenumber of an unopened file.)
36h
Improper file type
(You specified filenumber of a data file.)
3Ah
File number out of the range
Reference:
Statements:
INPUT#, LINE INPUT#, OPEN "BAR:", and
OPEN "COM:"
Functions:
INPUT$, LOC, and LOF
354
ERror Line
Error-handling function
ERL
Returns the current statement location of the program where a run-time error occurred.
Syntax:
ERL
Description:
ERL returns the current statement location of the program where a run-time error
occurred most recently.
• The ERL function works only with line numbers and not with labels.
• The returned value is in decimals, so it may be necessary to use the HEX$ function for decimal-to-hexadecimal conversion when using the ERL function in errorhandling routines.
• If converted from decimals to hexadecimals with the HEX$ function, addresses
which the ERL returns correspond to ones that are outputted to the left end of the
address-source list in hexadecimal (which may be printed out if a +L option is
specified in compilation).
• Since the ERL function returns a significant value only when a run-time error
occurs, you should use this function in error-handling routines where you can
check the error type for effective error recovery.
Reference:
Statements:
ON ERROR GOTO and RESUME
Functions:
ERR and HEX$
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Chapter 15. Function Reference
ERRor code
Error-handling function
ERR
Returns the error code of the most recent run-time error.
Syntax:
ERR
Description:
ERR returns the code of a run-time error that invoked the error-handling routine.
• The returned value is in decimals, so it may be necessary to use the HEX$ function for decimal-to-hexadecimal conversion when using the ERR function in errorhandling routines.
• If converted from decimals to hexadecimals with the HEX$ function, codes which
the ERR returns correspond to ones that are listed in Appendix A1, "Run-time
Errors."
• Since the ERR function returns a significant value only when a run-time error
occurs, you should use this function in error-handling routines where you can
check the error type for effective error recovery.
Reference:
Statements:
ON ERROR GOTO and RESUME
Functions:
ERL and HEX$
356
End of TeXt
I/O function
ETX$
Modifies the value of a terminator (ETX) for the BHT-protocol; also returns the
current value of a terminator.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Changing the value of a terminator):
ETX$=stringexpression
Syntax 2 (Returning the current value of a terminator):
ETX$
Parameter:
stringexpression
A string expression which returns a single-byte character.
Description:
■ Syntax 1
ETX$ modifies the value of a terminator (one of the text control characters) which
indicates the end of a data text in the BHT-protocol when the data file is transmitted
by an XFILE statement. (For the BHT-protocol, refer to the BHT User’s Manual.)
• ETX$ is called a protocol function.
• The initial value of a terminator (ETX) is 03h.
■ Syntax 2
ETX$ returns the current value of a terminator.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(stringexpression is a null string.)
0Fh
String length out of the range
(stringexpression is more than a single byte.)
Reference:
Statements:
OPEN "COM:" and XFILE
Functions:
SOH$ and STX$
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Chapter 15. Function Reference
FREe area
Memory management function
FRE
Returns the number of bytes available in a specified area of the memory.
Syntax:
FRE(areaspec)
Parameter:
areaspec
A numeric expression which returns a value from 0 to 3.
Description:
FRE returns the number of bytes left unused in a memory area specified by
areaspec listed below.
Memory area
areaspec
0
Array work variable area
1
File area
2
Operation stack area for the Interpreter
• The file area will be allocated to data files and program files in cluster units. The
FRE function returns the total number of bytes of non-allocated clusters. (For
details about a cluster, refer to Appendix F, "Memory Area.")
• The operation stack area for the Interpreter is mainly used for numeric operations,
string operations, and for calling user-defined functions.
• A returned value of this function is a decimal number.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(areaspec is out of the range.)
358
HEXadecimal
String function
HEX$
Converts a decimal number into the equivalent hexadecimal string.
Syntax:
HEX$(numericexpression)
Parameter:
numericexpression
A numeric expression which returns a value from -32768 to 32767.
Description:
HEX$ function converts a decimal number from -32768 to 32767 into the equivalent
hexadecimal string which is expressed with 0 to 9 and A to F.
Listed below are conversion examples.
Returned value
numericexpression
-32768
8000
-1
FFFF
0
0
1
1
32767
7FFF
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
06h
The operation result is out of the allowable range.
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Chapter 15. Function Reference
INput KEYboard
I/O function
INKEY$
Returns a character read from the keyboard.
Syntax:
INKEY$
Description:
INKEY$ reads from the keyboard to see whether a key has been pressed, and
returns one character read. If no key has been pressed, INKEY$ returns a null
string. (For the character codes, refer to Appendix C. For the key number assignment, refer to Appendix E.)
• INKEY$ does not echo back a read character on the LCD screen.
• A common use for INKEY$ is to monitor a keystroke while the BHT is ready for
bar code reading or other events.
• If any key previously specified for keystroke trapping is pressed, INKEY$ cannot
return the typed data since the INKEY$ has lower priority than keystroke trapping.
• To display the cursor, you use the LOCATE and CURSOR statements as shown
below.
LOCATE,,1:CURSOR ON
k$=INKEY$
IF k$="" THEN...
Reference:
Statements:
CURSOR, KEY OFF, KEY ON, and LOCATE
Functions:
ASC and INPUT$
360
INPort data
I/O function
INP
Returns a byte read from a specified input port.
Syntax:
INP(portnumber)
Parameter:
portnumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 0 to 32767.
Description:
INP reads one-byte data from an input port specified by portnumber and returns
the value. (For the input port numbers, refer to Appendix D, "I/O Ports.")
• If you specify an invalid value to portnumber, INP returns an indeterminate
value.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(portnumber is out of the range.)
Reference:
Statements:
OUT and WAIT
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Chapter 15. Function Reference
INPUT
File I/O function
INPUT$
Returns a specified number of characters read from the keyboard or from a device file.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Reading from the keyboard):
INPUT$(numcharas)
Syntax 2 (Reading from a device file):
INPUT$(numcharas,[#]filenumber)
Parameter:
numcharas
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 255.
filenumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 16.
Description:
INPUT$ reads the number of characters specified by numcharas from the keyboard or from a device file specified by filenumber, then returns the resulting
string.
■ Syntax 1 (without specification of filenumber)
INPUT$ reads a string or control codes from the keyboard.
• INPUT$ does not echo back read characters on the LCD screen.
• The cursor shape (invisible, underlined, or full block) depends upon the specification selected by the LOCATE statement.
• The cursor size depends upon the screen mode (single-byte ANK mode or twobyte Kanji mode), the screen font size (standard-size or small-size), and the character enlargement attribute (regular-size, double-width, double-height, or quadruple-size). For details about the cursor, refer to Chapter 7, Subsection 7.1.3.
• If any key previously specified for keystroke trapping is pressed during execution
of the INPUT$, then the keyboard input will be ignored; that is, neither typed data
is read by INPUT$ nor keystroke is trapped.
■ Syntax 2 (with specification of filenumber)
INPUT$ reads from a device file (the bar code device file or any of the communications device files).
• The number of characters in a device file can be indicated by using a LOC function.
362
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(numcharas is out of the range.)
34h
Bad file name or number
(You specified filenumber of an unopened file.)
36h
Improper file type
(You specified filenumber of a data file.)
3Ah
File number out the range
Reference:
Statements:
CURSOR, INPUT, LINE INPUT, LOCATE,
OPEN "BAR:", and OPEN "COM:"
Functions:
EOF, INKEY$, LOC, and LOF
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Chapter 15. Function Reference
:
IN STRing
String function
INSTR
Searches a specified target string for a specified search string, and then returns the position
where the search string is found.
Syntax:
INSTR([startposition,]targetstring,searchstring)
Parameter:
startposition
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 32767.
targetstring and searchstring
A string expression.
Description:
INSTR searches a target string specified by targetstring to check whether a
search string specified by searchstring is present in it, and then returns the
first character position of the search string first found.
• startposition is the character position where the search is to begin in
targetstring. If you omit startposition option, the search begins at
the first character of targetstring.
• targetstring is the string being searched.
• searchstring is the string you are looking for.
NOTE
Do not mistake the description order of targetstring and searchstring.
364
• A returned value of INSTR is a decimal number from 0 to 255, depending upon
the conditions as listed below.
Conditions
Returned value
If searchstring is found within
targetstring:
First character position of the search
string first found.
If startposition is greater
than the length of targetstring
or 255:
0
If targetstring is a null string:
0
If searchstring is not found:
0
If searchstring is a null string:
Value of startposition.
1 if startposition option is omitted.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(startposition is out of the range.)
Reference:
Functions:
LEN
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Chapter 15. Function Reference
INTeger
Numeric operation function
INT
Returns the largest whole number less than or equal to the value of a given numeric expression
Syntax:
INT(numericexpression)
Parameter:
numericexpression
A real expression.
Description:
INT returns the largest whole number less than or equal to the value of
numericexpression by stripping off the fractional part.
• You use INT as shown below to round off the fractional part of a real number.
INT(realnumber+0.5)
Example:
dat=1.5
PRINT INT(dat+0.5)
2
• If numericexpression is negative, this function operates as shown below.
PRINT INT(-1.5)
PRINT INT(-0.2)
-2
-1
366
LEFT
String function
LEFT$
Returns the specified number of leftmost characters from a given string expression.
Syntax:
LEFT$(stringexpression,stringlength)
Parameter:
stringlength
A numeric expression which returns a value from 0 to 255.
Description:
LEFT$ extracts a portion of a string specified by stringexpression by the
number of characters specified by stringlength, starting at the left side of the
string.
• If stringlength is zero, LEFT$ returns a null string.
• If stringlength is greater than the length of stringexpression, the
whole stringexpression will be returned.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(stringlength is out of the range.)
Reference:
Functions:
LEN, MID$, and RIGHT$
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Chapter 15. Function Reference
LENgth
String function
LEN
Returns the length (number of bytes) of a given string.
Syntax:
LEN(stringexpression)
Description:
LEN returns the length of stringexpression, that is, the number of bytes in
the range from 0 to 255.
• If stringexpression is a null string, LEN returns the value 0.
• LEN counts a full-width Kanji (in the two-byte code mode) as two characters.
PRINT LEN("
4
368
")
LOcation Counter of file
File I/O function
LOC
Returns the current position within a specified file.
Syntax:
LOC([#]filenumber)
Parameter:
filenumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 16.
Description:
LOC returns the current position within a file (a data file, communications device file,
or bar code device file) specified by filenumber.
• Depending upon the file type, the content of the returned value differs as listed
below.
File type
Returned value
Data file
Record number following the number of the
last record read by a GET statement
Communications device file
Number of characters contained in the
receive buffer
(0 if no data is present in the receive buffer.)
Bar code device file
Number of characters contained in the barcode buffer*
(0 if the BHT is waiting for bar code reading.)
*The size of the barcode buffer is 99 bytes for bar codes and 32767 bytes for 2D codes.
• If LOC is used before execution of the first GET statement after a data file is
opened, it returns 1 or 0 when the data file has any or no data, respectively.
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Chapter 15. Function Reference
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
34h
Bad file name or number
(You specified filenumber of an unopened file.)
3Ah
File number out of the range
3Eh
A PUT or GET statement executed without a FIELD statement.
(No FIELD statement is found.)
Reference:
Statements:
OPEN
Functions:
EOF and LOF
370
Location Of File
File I/O function
LOF
Returns the length of a specified file.
Syntax:
LOF([#]filenumber)
Parameter:
filenumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 16.
Description:
LOF returns the length of a data file or communications device file specified by
filenumber.
• Depending upon the file type, the content of the returned value differs as listed
below.
File type
Returned value
Data file
Number of written records
Communications device file
Number of bytes of unoccupied area in the
receive buffer
• If you specify the bar code device file, a run-time error will occur.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
34h
Bad file name or number
(You specified filenumber of an unopened file.)
36h
Improper file type
(You specified filenumber of a bar code device file.)
3Ah
File number out of the range
Reference:
Statements:
GET, INPUT, LINE INPUT, OPEN, and OPEN "COM:"
Functions:
EOF, INPUT$, and LOC
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Chapter 15. Function Reference
code MARK
I/O function
MARK$
Returns the bar code type and the number of digits of a read bar code. In the BHT-100Q,
this function returns also the 2D code type and the number of digits of a read 2D code.
Syntax:
MARK$
Description:
BHT-100Q
MARK$ returns a maximum of 9 bytes of string in the format below. The first one
byte represents the code type and the remaining two bytes indicate the number of
digits of a read 2D code or bar code.
In multi-line code scanning, the code type and the number of digits will be returned
by the specified number of lines of codes.
In single-line code scanning
1
Code
type
2
3 bytes
No. of digits
In multi-line code scanning, when 2 lines of codes are specified
1
Code
type
2
3
No. of digits
4
5
Code
type
6 bytes
No. of digits
In multi-line code scanning, when 3 lines of codes are specified
1
Code
type
2
3
No. of digits
4
5
Code
type
6
No. of digits
9 bytes
7
8
Code
type
No. of digits
BHT-100B
MARK$ returns a 3-byte string which consists of the first one byte representing the
bar code type and the remaining two bytes indicating the number of digits of a read
bar code.
372
• The first one byte of a returned value contains one of the following letters representing code types:
Code type
First one byte of a returned value
QR Code
Q
Split QR Code (in non-edit mode)
S
PDF417
Y
MaxiCode
X
Data Matrix
Z
EAN-13 or UPC-A
A
EAN-8
B
(Supported by the BHT-100Q only)
UPC-E
C
ITF (Interleaved 2 of 5)
I
STF (Standard 2 of 5)
H (Supported by the BHT-100B only)
Codabar (NW-7)
N
Code 39
M
Code 93
L (Supported by the BHT-100B only)
Code 128
K
EAN-128
W
• The remaining two bytes of a returned value indicate the number of digits of the
bar code or 2D code in decimal notation.
• BHT-100Q If read 2D code data is more than 99 digits in length, then MARK$
returns 00 for the data length. To obtain the length of such a 2D code, use the
LOC function.
• BHT-100Q If split codes are read in the non-edit mode, the number of digits indicated by the returned value includes the code #, the number of splits, and parity.
• MARK$ returns a null string until bar code reading takes place first after start of
the program.
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Chapter 15. Function Reference
MIDdle
String function
MID$
Returns a portion of a given string expression from anywhere in the string.
Syntax:
MID$(stringexpression,startposition[,stringlength])
Parameter:
startposition
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 255.
stringlength
A numeric expression which returns a value from 0 to 255.
Description:
Starting from a position specified by startposition, MID$ extracts a portion of
a string specified by stringexpression, by the number of characters specified
by stringlength.
• A returned value of MID$ depends upon the conditions as listed below.
Conditions
Returned value
If stringlength
option is omitted:
All characters from startposition to the end
of the string
Example: PRINT MID$("ABC123",3)
C123
If stringlength is
greater than the number
of characters contained
between startposition and the end of the
string:
All characters from startposition to the end
of the string
Example: PRINT MID$("ABC123",3,10)
If startposition is
greater than the length of
stringexpression:
Null string
Example: PRINT MID$("ABC123",10,1)
NOTE
C123
BHT-BASIC does not support such MID$ function that replaces a part of a
string variable.
374
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
Functions:
LEFT$, LEN, and RIGHT$
Reference:
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Chapter 15. Function Reference
POSition
I/O function
POS
Returns the current column number of the cursor.
Syntax:
POS(0)
Description:
POS returns the current column number of the cursor in the current display mode
selected by a SCREEN statement, as an integer.
Screen mode
Font size
Column number
Single-byte ANK mode
Standard-size
1 to 17
Two-byte Kanji mode
Standard-size
1 to 26
Small-size
1 to 34
• Even if the cursor is invisible (by a LOCATE statement), the POS function operates.
• If the maximum value in the current screen mode is returned, it means that the
cursor stays outside of the rightmost column.
• (0) is a dummy parameter that can have any value or expression, but generally it
is 0.
• The range of the column numbers does not differ between the regular-size and
double-width characters.
• For the current row number of the cursor, refer to the CSRLIN function.
Reference:
Statements:
LOCATE and SCREEN
Functions:
CSRLIN
376
RIGHT
String function
RIGHT$
Returns the specified number of rightmost characters from a given string expression.
Syntax:
RIGHT$(stringexpression,stringlength)
Parameter:
stringlength
A numeric expression which returns a value from 0 to 255.
Description:
Starting at the right side of the string, RIGHT$ extracts a portion of a string specified by stringexpression by the number of characters specified by stringlength.
• If stringlength is zero, RIGHT$ returns a null string.
• If stringlength is greater than the length of stringexpression, the
whole stringexpression will be returned.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(stringlength is out of the range.)
Reference:
Functions:
LEFT$, LEN, and MID$
377
Chapter 15. Function Reference
SEARCH
File I/O function
SEARCH
Searches a specified data file for specified data, and then returns the record
number where the search data is found.
Syntax:
SEARCH([#]filenumber,fieldvariable,searchdata
[,startrecord])
Parameter:
filenumber
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 16.
fieldvariable
A non-array string variable.
searchdata
A string expression.
startrecord
A numeric expression which returns a value from 1 to 32767.
Description:
SEARCH searches a target field specified by fieldvariable in a data file specified by filenumber for data specified by searchdata, starting from a record
specified by startrecord, and then returns the record number where the search
data is found.
• fieldvariable is a string variable defined by a FIELD statement.
• searchdata is the data you are looking for.
• startrecord is a record number where the search is to begin in a data file.
The search ends when all of the written records have been searched.
If you omit startrecord option, the search begins at the first record (record
#1) of the data file.
• If the search data is not found, SEARCH returns the value 0.
• A convenient use for SEARCH is, for example, to search for a particular product
name, unit price, or stock quantity in a product master file by specifying a bar
code data to searchdata.
• Since the search begins at a record specified by startrecord in a data file
and finishes at the last record, sorting records in the data file in the order of frequency of use before execution of this function will increase the searching speed.
378
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
34h
Bad file name or number
(You specified filenumber of an unopened file.)
36h
Improper file type
(You specified filenumber of a file other than data files.)
3Ah
File number out of the range
3Eh
A PUT or GET statement executed without a FIELD statement.
(No FIELD statement is found.)
Reference:
Statements:
FIELD, GET, and OPEN
Functions:
LOF
379
Chapter 15. Function Reference
Start Of Heading
I/O function
SOH$
Modifies the value of a header (SOH) for the BHT-protocol; also returns the
current value of a header.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Changing the value of a header):
SOH$=stringexpression
Syntax 2 (Returning the current value of a header):
SOH$
Parameter:
stringexpression
A string expression which returns a single-byte character.
Description:
■ Syntax 1
SOH$ modifies the value of a header (one of the text control characters) which indicates the start of heading text in the BHT-protocol when a data file is transmitted by
an XFILE statement. (For the BHT-protocol, refer to the BHT User’s Manual.)
• SOH$ is called a protocol function.
• The initial value of a header (SOH) is 01h.
■ Syntax 2
SOH$ returns the current value of a header.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
0Fh
String length out of the range
(stringexpression is more than a single byte.)
Reference:
Statements:
OPEN "COM:" and XFILE
Functions:
ETX$ and STX$
380
STRing
String function
STR$
Converts the value of a numeric expression into a string.
Syntax:
STR$(numericexpression)
Parameter:
numericexpression
A numeric expression.
Description:
STR$ converts the value of numericexpression into a string.
• If numericexpression is 0 or positive, then STR$ automatically adds a leading space (meaning + sign) as shown below.
PRINT STR$(123);LEN(STR$(123))
123 4
To delete the leading space, you should use the MID$ function as shown below.
PRINT MID$(STR$(123),2);LEN(STR$(123))
123 4
• If numericexpression is negative, STR$ adds a minus sign as shown
below.
PRINT STR$(-456);LEN(STR$(-456))
-456 4
• A common use for STR$ is to write numeric data into a data file.
• The VAL function has the opposite capability to STR$.
Reference:
Functions:
VAL
381
Chapter 15. Function Reference
Start of TeXt
I/O function
STX$
Modifies the value of a header (STX) for the BHT-protocol; also returns the
current value of a header.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Changing the value of a header):
STX$=stringexpression
Syntax 2 (Returning the current value of a header):
STX$
Parameter:
stringexpression
A string expression which returns a single-byte character.
Description:
■ Syntax 1
STX$ modifies the value of a header (one of the text control characters) which indicates the start of data text in the BHT-protocol when a data file is transmitted by an
XFILE statement. (For the BHT-protocol, refer to the BHT User’s Manual.)
• STX$ is called a protocol function.
• The initial value of a header (STX) is 02h.
■ Syntax 2
STX$ returns the current value of a header.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
0Fh
String length out of the range
(stringexpression is more than a single byte.)
Reference:
Statements:
OPEN "COM:" and XFILE
Functions:
ETX$ and SOH$
382
TIME
I/O function
TIME$
Returns the current system time or wakeup time, or sets a specified system time or wakeup
time.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Retrieving the current system time or wakeup time):
TIME$
Syntax 2 (Setting the current system time or wakeup time):
TIME$="time"
Parameter:
time
A string expression.
Description:
■ Syntax 1
Retrieving the current system time
TIME$ returns the current system time as an 8-byte string. The string has the format below.
hh:mm:ss
where hh is the hour from 00 to 23 in 24-hour format, mm is the minute from 00 to
59, and ss is the second from 00 to 59.
Example:
CLS
PRINT TIME$
Retrieving the wakeup time
TIME$ returns the wakeup time as a 5-byte string. The string has the format below.
hh:mm
383
Chapter 15. Function Reference
■ Syntax 2
Setting the system time
TIME$ sets the system time specified by "time." The format of "time" is the
same as that in syntax 1.
Example:
TIME$="13:35:45"
Setting the wakeup time
TIME$ sets the wakeup time specified by "time." The format of "time" is the
same as that in syntax 1.
• The calendar clock is backed up by the battery. (For the system date, refer to the
DATE$ function.)
• For returning the current wakeup time or setting a specified wakeup time, bit 2 of
port 8 should be set to 1 with the OUT statement before execution of this function.
• For the wakeup function, refer to Chapter 12, Section 12.3, "Wakeup Function."
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(time is out of the range.)
Reference:
Functions:
DATE$
384
TIMER-A/TIMER-B/TIMER-C
I/O function
TIMEA/TIMEB/TIMEC
Returns the current value of a specified timer or sets a specified timer.
Syntax:
Syntax 1 (Retrieving the current value of a specified timer):
TIMEA
TIMEB
TIMEC
Syntax 2 (Setting a specified timer):
TIMEA=count
TIMEB=count
TIMEC=count
Parameter:
count
A numeric expression which returns a value from 0 to 32767.
Description:
■ Syntax 1
TIMEA, TIMEB, or TIMEC returns the current value of timer-A, -B, or -C, respectively, as a 2-byte integer.
■ Syntax 2
TIMEA, TIMEB, or TIMEC sets the count time specified by count.
• count is a numeric value in units of 100 ms.
• Upon execution of this function, the Interpreter starts a specified timer counting
down in decrements of 100 ms (equivalent to -1) until the timer value becomes 0.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(count is a negative value.)
06h
The operation result is out of the allowable range.
(count is greater than 32767.)
385
Chapter 15. Function Reference
VALue
String function
VAL
Converts a string into a numeric value.
Syntax:
VAL(stringexpression)
Parameter:
stringexpression
A string expression which represents a decimal number.
Description:
VAL converts the string specified by stringexpression into a numeric value.
• If stringexpression is nonnumeric, VAL returns the value 0.
PRINT VAL("ABC")
0
• If stringexpression contains a nonnumeric in midstream, VAL converts the
string until it reaches the first character that cannot be interpreted as a numeric.
PRINT VAL("1.2E-3ABC")
1.200000000E-03
• The STR$ function has the opposite capability to VAL.
Reference:
Functions:
ASC and STR$
386
Chapter 16
Extended Functions
CONTENTS
16.1 Overview...................................................................................................... 388
16.2 Reading or writing system settings from/to the memory (SYSTEM.FN3).... 389
16.2.1 Function Number List of SYSTEM.FN3............................................ 389
16.2.2 Detailed Function Specifications ...................................................... 390
16.3 Controlling the LCD and Touch Screen (CONSOLE.FN3) .......................... 399
16.3.1 Function Number List of CONSOLE.FN3......................................... 399
16.3.2 Detailed Function Specifications ...................................................... 400
16.4 Controlling system files (SYSMDFY.FN3) ................................................... 411
16.4.1 Function Number List of SYSMDFY.FN3 ......................................... 411
16.4.2 Detailed Function Specifications ...................................................... 412
16.5 Calculating a CRC (CRC.FN3) .................................................................... 415
16.5.1 Function Number List of CRC.FN3................................................... 415
16.5.2 Detailed Function Specifications ...................................................... 415
387
16.1 Overview
In addition to the BHT-BASIC statements and functions, the BHT-100 series supports the following extended functions which can be invoked by the CALL statement.
Extended functions
Used to:
Remarks
SYSTEM.FN3
Read or write system settings from/
to the memory.
CONSOLE.FN3
Draw a dot/line/rectangle or control
the touch screen.
SYSMDFY.FN3
Reconfigure BHT/CU systems or
get/set system reconfig file information.
CRC.FN3
Calculate a CRC.
SS.FN3
Connect or disconnect the BHT to/
from the spread spectrum system.
(For details, see Chapter 17.)
SOCKET.FN3
Implement a subset of the TCP/IP
socket application program interface (API). (For details, see Chapter
18.)
FTP.FN3
Implement FTP client services for
file transfer to/from FTP servers.
(For details, see Chapter 18.)
388
(Integrated in models
equipped with the spread
spectrum wireless device)
Chapter 16. Extended Functions
16.2 Reading or writing system settings from/to the memory
(SYSTEM.FN3)
16.2.1 Function Number List of SYSTEM.FN3
The SYSTEM.FN3 may read or write system settings depending upon the function number
specified, as listed below.
Function number
Used to:
.fcSysIGet
1
Read numeric data from System Mode settings
.fcSysISet
2
Write numeric data to System Mode settings
.fcSysSGet
3
Read string data from System Mode settings
.fcSysSSet
4
Write string data to System Mode settings
.fcFontInf
5
Get font information
.fcCReset
11
Reset the LAN-support CU to the power-on default
.fcCLkGet
12
Get link status between the BHT and the LAN-support CU
.fcCMdRqst
21
Place the LAN-support CU in system reconfiguration mode
Note:
Functions #11, #12, and #21 take effect only when the LAN communications software is installed to the BHT.
389
16.2.2 Detailed Function Specifications
.fcSysIGet
Read numeric data from System Mode settings
Syntax:
CALL "SYSTEM.FN3" .fcSysIGet PARA%,DATA%
Description:
This function reads numeric data (DATA%) from the system menu
item specified by PARA%.
Parameter:
PARA%
Item number of the system menu
Returned value:
DATA%
Numeric data read from the specified system menu item
System menu items list:
Item number
(PARA%)
.sySFMode
System menu item
1 Shift key mode
DATA%, numeric data of
the system menu item
Attribute
*1
R/W .sySFNlock 0 Nonlock
Initial
value
0
.sySF1time 1 Onetime
.syM1key
2 Assignment to M1 key
R/W .syMkyNone 0 None
0
.syMkyEnt
1 Enter key
.syMkyTrg
2 Trigger switch
.syMkySF
3 Shift key
.syMkyBL
4 Backlight on/off function key
–
5 (Reserved for system)
.syM2key
3 Assignment to M2 key
R/W
Same as above.
0
.syM3key
4 Assignment to M3 key
R/W
Same as above.
2
.syM4key
5 Assignment to M4 key
R/W
Same as above.
2
.syBarInvt
6 Black-and-white
inverted label reading
function
R/W .syInvtOff 0 OFF
–
7 (Reserved for system)
.syInvtOn
0
1 ON
–
.syDecdLvl
8 Decode level
R/W
1 to 9
4
.syITFMin
9 Minimum number of
digits to be read for
ITF
R/W
2 to 20
4
.sySTFMin
10 Minimum number of
digits to be read for
STF (BHT-100B only)
R/W
1 to 20
2
.syNW7Min
11 Minimum number of
digits to be read for
Codabar
R/W
3 to 20
4
*1
390
R/W: Read and write possible
RO: Read only
Chapter 16. Extended Functions
Item number
(PARA%)
.syCmifApl
.syCmifSys
.syTrSpdOp
System menu item
*1
12 Default interface to be
used for user programs
R/W .syCmifOpt 0 IrDA interface
13 Default interface to be
used for System Mode
R/W .syCmifOpt 0 IrDA interface
14 Transmission speed
for IrDA interface
R/W .syOp24
0 2400 bps
.syOp96
1 9600 bps
.syOp192
2 19200 bps
.syOp384
3 38400 bps
.syOp576
4 57600 bps
.syOp1152
5 115200 bps
–
–
16 (Reserved for system)
–
–
17 (Reserved for system)
–
.syVPrtyCn
.syDatLnCn
.syStpLnCn
.sySNoOp
19 Vertical parity for
direct-connect interface
0
0
.syCmifCon 1 Direct-connect interface
15 (Reserved for system)
18 Transmission speed
for direct-connect
interface
Initial
value
.syCmifCon 1 Direct-connect interface
–
.syTrSpdCn
DATA%, numeric data of
the system menu item
Attribute
R/W .syCn3
0 300 bps
.syCn6
1 600 bps
.syCn12
2 1200 bps
.syCn24
3 2400 bps
.syCn48
4 4800 bps
.syCn96
5 9600 bps
.syCn192
6 19200 bps
.syCn384
7 38400 bps
.syCn576
8 57600 bps
.syCn1152
9 115200 bps
R/W .syVPrtyN
0 None
.syVPrtyO
1 Odd
.syVPrtyE
2 Even
20 Character length for
direct-connect interface
R/W .syDatLen7 0 7 bits
21 Stop bit length for
direct-connect interface
R/W .syStpLen1 0 1 bit
22 Serial numbers for
IrDA interface
R/W .sySNoOff
1
6
0
1
.syDatLen8 1 8 bits
0
.syStpLen2 1 2 bits
.sySNoOn
0 No numbers (OFF)
1 Add numbers (ON)
*1
391
1
R/W: Read and write possible
RO: Read only
Item number
(PARA%)
.syHPrtyOp
.syLnkTmOp
System menu item
DATA%, numeric data of
the system menu item
Attribute
*1
23 Horizontal parity for
IrDA interface
R/W .syHPtyOff 0 No parity (OFF)
24 Timeout for data link
establishment for IrDA
interface
R/W .syLnkT0
.syHPtyOn
Initial
value
1
1 Add (ON)
0 No timeout
.syLnkT30
1 30 sec
.syLnkT60
2 60 sec
.syLnkT90
3 90 sec
1
.syLnkT120 4 120 sec
.syFldSpOp
.sySNoCn
.syHPrtyCn
.syLnkTmCn
25 Trailing spaces in a
data field for IrDA
interface
R/W .sySpIgnr
26 Serial numbers for
direct-connect interface
R/W .sySNoOff
27 Horizontal parity for
direct-connect interface
R/W .syHPtyOff 0 No parity (OFF)
28 Timeout for data link
establishment for
direct-connect interface
R/W .syLnkT0
.sySpData
.sySNoOn
.syHPtyOn
0
Ignore (Trim)
0
1 Handle as data
0 No numbers (OFF)
1
1 Add numbers (ON)
1
1 Add (ON)
0
No timeout
.syLnkT30
1 30 sec
.syLnkT60
2 60 sec
.syLnkT90
3 90 sec
1
.syLnkT120 4 120 sec
.syFldSpCn
.syCmPrtcl
.syResm
29 Trailing spaces in a
data field for directconnect interface
R/W .sySpIgnr
30 Communications protocol type
R/W .syCPBHT
31 Resume function
R/W .syResmOff 0 OFF
.sySpData
0 Ignore (Trim)
0
1 Handle as data
0 BHT protocol
0
.syCPBHTIr 2 BHT-Ir protocol
.syResmOn
–
32 (Reserved for system)
–
–
33 (Reserved for system)
–
–
34 (Reserved for system)
–
1*2
1 ON
.syRamSize
35 RAM size
RO
512/1024/2048 (kilobytes)
*3
.syRomSize
36 ROM size
RO
2048/4096/8192 (kilobytes)
*3
RO
4096 (bytes)
.syClstSize 37 Cluster size
*1
*2
*3
R/W: Read and write possible
RO: Read only
The resume function setting made here is effective also in user
programs downloaded to the BHT.
These values will vary depending upon the hardware type.
392
Chapter 16. Extended Functions
Item number
(PARA%)
.syScnMark
System menu item
38 Scanning range
marker
(BHT-100Q)
Scanning range
marker
(BHT-100B)
DATA%, numeric data of
the system menu item
Attribute
*1
R/W
R/W
–
0 Normal mode (Driven by the
trigger switch)
–
1 Fixed to ON
–
2 Fixed to OFF
–
0 Normal mode (Driven by the
trigger switch)
–
1 Fixed to OFF
39 View finder
(BHT-100Q only)
R/W .syVFOff
40 Option data
(BHT-100Q only)
R/W .syODOff
.syLkCnt
41 Retries of establish
link command
R/W
0 to 32767
.syLkIntv
42 Intervals between
retries of establish link
command
R/W
1 to 32767 (100 ms to 3276.7 sec.)
.syUlkCnt
43 Retries of release link
command
R/W
0 to 32767
.syUlkIntv
44 Intervals between
retries of release link
command
R/W
1 to 32767 (100 ms to 3276.7 sec)
.syUlkTmr
45 Link release period
R/W
0 to 32767 (sec.)
.syDvSpd
46 Transmission speed
between the BHT and
LAN-support CU
R/W
5: 115200 bps
.syVwFindr
.syOptData
.syVFOn
.syODOn
*1
Note:
0 OFF
Initial
value
0
0
0
1 ON
0 OFF
0
1 ON
5
5
(500 ms)
5
5
(500 ms)
30
5
(115200
bps)
R/W: Read and write possible
RO: Read only
Items #41 through #46 take effect only when the LAN communications software is installed to the BHT.
393
.fcSysISet
Write numeric data to System Mode settings
Syntax:
CALL "SYSTEM.FN3" .fcSysISet PARA%,DATA%
Description:
This function writes numeric data (DATA%) to the system menu item
specified by PARA%.
Parameter:
PARA%
DATA%
Returned value:
(None)
Item number of the system menu
Numeric data to be specified
(See the system menu items list given in Function #1.)
System menu items list:
.fcSysSGet
Refer to the System menu items list given in Function #1.
Read string data from System Mode settings
Syntax:
CALL "SYSTEM.FN3" .fcSysSGet PARA%,DATA$
Description:
This function reads string data (DATA$) from the system menu item
specified by PARA%.
Parameter:
PARA%
Item number of the system menu
Returned value:
DATA$
String data read from the specified system menu item
System menu items list:
Item number
(PARA%)
.syVersion
–
System menu item
Attribute
1 System version
RO
2 (Reserved for system)
DATA$,
numeric data of the system menu item
"X.XX" fixed to 4 characters
–
.syModel
3 Model name
RO
Max. of 8 characters
(e.g., "BHT75")
.syPrdctNo
4 Product number assigned to the
RO
Fixed to 16 characters
(e.g., "496310….")
BHT
.syBHTSNo
5 Serial number assigned to the BHT
R/W
Fixed to 6 characters
.syExePrg
6 Execution program
R/W
Filename.xxx
(Filename followed by period and
extension)
If not selected, a null string
–
7 (Reserved for system)
–
–
8 (Reserved for system)
–
.syCVGet
.syCMacGet
9 LAN-support CU system version
RO
"X.XX" fixed to 4 characters
10 MAC address of the LAN-support
RO
Fixed to 6 characters
RO
Fixed to 16 characters
CU
.syCPNoGet
11 Product number assigned to the
LAN-support CU
394
Chapter 16. Extended Functions
Note:
Items #9 through #11 take effect only when the LAN communications
software is installed to the BHT. Before using any of them, you need
to open the IrDA communications device file with OPEN "COM:"
statement.
Run-time errors:
In the case of item #7
Error code
Meaning
35h
File not found
(System reconfig file not found.)
In the case of items #9 to #11
Error code
Meaning
34h
Bad file name or number
(The communications device file is not opened.)
105h
Power-off detected
505h
Timeout
.fcSysSSet
Write string data to System Mode settings
Syntax:
CALL "SYSTEM.FN3" .fcSysSSet PARA%,DATA$
Description:
This function writes string data (DATA$) to the system menu item
specified by PARA%.
Parameter:
PARA%
DATA$
Returned value:
(None)
Item number of the system menu
String data to be specified
(See the System menu items list given in Function #3.)
System menu items list:
Refer to the System menu items list given in Function #3.
395
.fcFontInf
Get font information
Syntax:
CALL "SYSTEM.FN3" .fcFontInf N.FONT%,VERSION$()
Description:
This function returns font information--the number of downloaded
fonts, font name, font size, and font version.
Parameter:
(None)
Returned value:
N.FONT%
VERSION$
Note:
Number of fonts
Sets of the font name, font size, and font version in
the following format
Font name
Font size
Font version
8 bytes
2 bytes
8 bytes
If the number of elements of VERSION$ is less than the number of
fonts, then the SYSTEM.FN3 returns the sets of the font information
by the number of elements.
.fcCReset
Reset the LAN-support CU to the power-on default
Syntax:
CALL "SYSTEM.FN3" .fcCReset
Description:
This function resets the LAN-support CU settings to the power-on
default.
Parameter:
(None)
Returned value:
(None)
Note:
You need to open the IrDA communications device file with OPEN
"COM:" statement beforehand.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
34h
Bad file name or number
(The communications device file is not opened.)
105h
Power-off detected
396
Chapter 16. Extended Functions
.fcCLkGet
Get link status between the BHT and the LAN-support
CU
Syntax:
CALL "SYSTEM.FN3" .fcCLkGet STATE%
Description:
This function returns the link status (STATE%) of the latest communication between the BHT and the LAN-support CU.
Parameter:
(None)
Returned value:
STATE% :
Link status
.syNgLk
Link not established
- No link has been established between the
BHT and LAN-support CU.
0
- After the link has been established, the BHT
is transferred from the current LAN-support
CU onto any other CU (whose link is not
established).
Note:
.syOkLk
1
Link established
- The link between the BHT and LAN-support
CU has been established.
.syOkOthLk
2
CU whose link established with any other BHT
- After the link has been established, the BHT
is transferred from the current LAN-support
CU onto any other one (whose link is established with any other BHT).
.syLkNoRes
3
No response from the LAN-support CU
- After the link has been established, the BHT
is removed from the CU.
You need to open the IrDA communications device file with OPEN
"COM:" statement beforehand.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
397
.fcCMdRqst
Place the LAN-support CU in system reconfiguration
mode
Syntax:
CALL "SYSTEM.FN3" .fcCMdRqst
Description:
This function places the LAN-support CU in system reconfiguration
mode.
Parameter:
(None)
Returned value:
(None)
Note:
You need to open the IrDA communications device file with OPEN
"COM:" statement beforehand.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
34h
Bad file name or number
(The communications device file is not opened.)
105h
Power-off detected
398
Chapter 16. Extended Functions
16.3 Controlling the LCD and Touch
Screen (CONSOLE.FN3)
16.3.1 Function Number List of CONSOLE.FN3.
Function number
Used to:
.fcDot
1
Draw a dot
.fcLine
2
Draw a full line
.fcDtLine
3
Draw a dotted line
.fcRectFil
4
Draw a filled rectangle
.fcRect
5
Draw a rectangle
.fcDotGet
6
Get drawn dot state
.fcFKey
11
Set the number of function touch keys to be enabled
.fcFKeyDsp
12
Set a character string to be displayed on a function touch key
.fcUKey
13
Create a user-defined touch key and set a character(s) to be
displayed on the touch key
.fcUKeyEnd
15
Cancel the user-defined touch key
.fcPnlGet
21
Get coordinates on the touch screen that is pressed last
.fcLcdClr
51
Clear the LCD (including the touch screen)
399
16.3.2 Detailed Function Specifications
Draw a dot
.fcDot
Syntax:
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3" .fcDot POINT%(),ATTRIB%,
COLOR%
Description:
This function draws a dot on the X/Y coordinates specified by
POINT%() according to the attributes specified by ATTRIB% and
COLOR% on the LCD.
Parameter:
POINT%
ATTRIB%
COLOR%
Coordinates to locate a dot
POINT%(0)
X-coordinate (0≤POINT%(0)≤199)
POINT%(1)
Y-coordinate (0≤POINT%(1)≤303)
Drawing attributes*
.cnColor
0
Draw a dot in the color specified by
COLOR%
.cnInvert
1
Draw a dot in reverse display in the current
color
Color*
0 In black
.cnBlack
.cnDGray
64 In dark gray
.cnLGray
128 In light gray
.cnWhite
255 In white
*COLOR% is valid only when "0" is set to ATTRIB%.
Returned value:
(None)
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
F2h
Insufficient number of array variable elements
Example:
Drawing a dot at the coordinates (10, 50) in black
DIM POINT%(1)
POINT%(0)=10 : POINT%(1)=50 : ATTRIB%=.cnColor : COLOR%=.cnBlack
CALL"CONSOLE.FN3".fcDot POINT%(),ATTRIB%,COLOR%
400
Chapter 16. Extended Functions
Draw a full line
.fcLine
Syntax:
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3" .fcLine RECT%(),ATTRIB%,
COLOR%
Description:
This function draws a full line between two points specified by
RECT%() according to the attributes specified by ATTRIB% and
COLOR% on the LCD.
Parameter:
RECT%()
ATTRIB%
COLOR%
Coordinates to define a line
RECT%(0)
Initial X-coordinate (0≤RECT%(0)≤199)
RECT%(1)
Initial Y-coordinate (0≤RECT%(1)≤303)
RECT%(2)
Final X-coordinate (0≤RECT%(2)≤199)
RECT%(3)
Final Y-coordinate (0≤RECT%(3)≤303)
Drawing attributes*
.cnColor
0
Draw a line in the color specified by
COLOR%
.cnInvert
1
Draw a line in reverse display in the current color
Color*
0 In black
.cnBlack
.cnDGray
64 In dark gray
.cnLGray
128 In light gray
.cnWhite
255 In white
*COLOR% is valid only when "0" is set to ATTRIB%.
Returned value:
(None)
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
F2h
Insufficient number of array variable elements
Example:
Drawing a full line starting at the coordinates (3, 5) to (100, 60) in
black
DIM RECT%(3)
RECT%(0)=3 : RECT%(1)=5 : RECT%(2)=100 : RECT%(3)=60
ATTRIB%=.cnColor : COLOR%=.cnBlack
CALL"CONSOLE.FN3".fcLine RECT%(),ATTRIB%,COLOR%
401
.fcDtLine
Draw a dotted line
Syntax:
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3" .fcDtLine RECT%(),PTN%,
ATTRIB%,COLOR%
Description:
This function draws a dotted line specified by PTN% between two
points specified by RECT%() according to the attributes specified by
ATTRIB% and COLOR% on the LCD.
Parameter:
RECT%()
PTN%
Coordinates to define a line
RECT%(0)
Initial X-coordinate (0≤RECT%(0)≤199)
RECT%(1)
Initial Y-coordinate (0≤RECT%(1)≤303)
RECT%(2)
Final X-coordinate (0≤RECT%(2)≤199)
RECT%(3)
Final Y-coordinate (0≤RECT%(3)≤303)
2-byte (16-bit) dot pattern (The MSB is the head of
the pattern.)
If "0" is set to ATTRIB%: In the 16 bits, all bits already set to "1" will
be manipulated in the color specified by COLOR%, from the MSB to
LSB.
If "1" is set to ATTRIB%: In the 16 bits, all bits already set to "1" will
be manipulated in the reversed display of the current color, from the
MSB to LSB.
(Example) If PTN%=&HCCCC
In hex.
C
In binary
1100110011001100
BBWWBBWWBBWWBBWW...
C
C
C
(where B is black and W is white)
The above 16-bit pattern is repeated to produce a dotted line.
ATTRIB%
COLOR%
Drawing attributes*
.cnColor
0
Draw a line in the color specified by
COLOR%
.cnInvert
1
Draw a line in reverse display in the current color
Color*
.cnBlack
0 In black
.cnDGray
64 In dark gray
.cnLGray
128 In light gray
.cnWhite
255 In white
*COLOR% is valid only when "0" is set to ATTRIB%.
Returned value:
(None)
402
Chapter 16. Extended Functions
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
F2h
Insufficient number of array variable elements
Example:
Drawing a dotted line starting at the coordinates (10, 30) to (100, 60)
in black
DIM RECT%(3)
RECT%(0)=10 : RECT%(1)=30 : RECT%(2)=100 : RECT%(3)=60
PTN%=&HAAAA : ATTRIB%=.cnColor : COLOR%=.cnBlack
CALL"CONSOLE.FN3".fcDtLine RECT%(),PTN%,ATTRIB%,COLOR%
.fcRectFil
Draw a filled rectangle
Syntax:
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3" .fcRectFil RECT%(),ATTRIB%,
COLOR%
Description:
This function draws a filled rectangle defined by two diagonal points
specified by RECT%() according to the attributes specified by
ATTRIB% and COLOR% on the LCD.
X-coordinate
Initial
coordinates
Final
coordinates
Y-coordinate
403
Parameter:
RECT%()
ATTRIB%
Coordinates to define a rectangle
RECT%(0)
Initial X-coordinate (0≤RECT%(0)≤199)
RECT%(1)
Initial Y-coordinate (0≤RECT%(1)≤303)
RECT%(2)
Final X-coordinate (0≤RECT%(2)≤199)
RECT%(3)
Final Y-coordinate (0≤RECT%(3)≤303)
Drawing attributes*
.cnColor
0
Draw a line in the color specified by
COLOR%
.cnInvert
1
Draw a line in reverse display in the current color
*COLOR% is valid only when "0" is set to ATTRIB%.
Returned value:
(None)
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
F2h
Insufficient number of array variable elements
404
Chapter 16. Extended Functions
.fcRect
Draw a rectangle
Syntax:
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3" .fcRect RECT%(),ATTRIB%,
COLOR%
Description:
This function draws a rectangle defined by two diagonal points specified by RECT%() according to the attributes specified by ATTRIB%
and COLOR% on the LCD.
X-coordinate
Initial
coordinates
Final
coordinates
Y-coordinate
Parameter:
RECT%()
ATTRIB%
COLOR%
Coordinates to define a rectangle
RECT%(0)
Initial X-coordinate (0≤RECT%(0)≤199)
RECT%(1)
Initial Y-coordinate (0≤RECT%(1)≤303)
RECT%(2)
Final X-coordinate (0≤RECT%(2)≤199)
RECT%(3)
Final Y-coordinate (0≤RECT%(3)≤303)
Drawing attributes*
.cnColor
0
Draw a line in the color specified by
COLOR%
.cnInvert
1
Draw a line in reverse display in the current color
Color*
.cnBlack
0 In black
.cnDGray
64 In dark gray
.cnLGray
128 In light gray
.cnWhite
255 In white
*COLOR% is valid only when "0" is set to ATTRIB%.
Returned value:
(None)
405
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
F2h
Insufficient number of array variable elements
Example:
Drawing a rectangle defined by two diagonal points (3, 3) and (94, 40)
DIM RECT%(3)
RECT%(0)=3 : RECT%(1)=3 : RECT%(2)=94 : RECT%(3)=40
ATTRIB%=.cnColor : COLOR%=.cnBlack
CALL"CONSOLE.FN3".fcRect RECT%(),ATTRIB%,COLOR%
.fcDotGet
Get drawn dot state
Syntax:
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3" .fcDotGet POINT%(),COLOR%
Description:
This function returns the drawn state of a dot specified by POINT% in
COLOR%.
Parameter:
POINT%
COLOR%
Coordinates to locate a dot
POINT%(0)
X-coordinate (0≤POINT%(0)≤199)
POINT%(1)
Y-coordinate (0≤POINT%(1)≤303)
Color on the specified dot
0 In black
.cnBlack
.cnDGray
64 In dark gray
.cnLGray
128 In light gray
.cnWhite
255 In white
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
F2h
Insufficient number of array variable elements
Example:
Getting the drawn state of a dot at the coordinates (10, 50)
DIM POINT%(1)
POINT%(0)=10 : POINT%(1)=50
CALL"CONSOLE.FN3".fcDotGet POINT%(),COLOR%
406
Chapter 16. Extended Functions
Set the number of function touch keys to be enabled
.fcFKey
Syntax:
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3" .fcFKey DATA%
Description:
This function sets the number of function touch keys specified by
DATA%, to be enabled.
Parameter:
DATA%
Returned value:
Number of function touch keys
.cnFKey0
0
0 (Disable all function touch keys)
.cnFKey4
1
Enable 4 function touch keys
.cnFKey8
2
Enable 8 function touch keys
(None)
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
.fcFKeyDsp
Set a character string to be displayed on a function
touch key
Syntax:
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3" .fcFKeyDsp KEYNO%,DSPDATA$,
FONT%,ATTRIB%
Description:
This function sets the character string specified by DSPDATA$ in the
font specified by FONT% on the function touch key specified by
KEYNO% according to the attributes specified by ATTRIB%.
Parameter:
KEYNO%
Key number assigned to a function touch key (#1 to
#16)
DSPDATA$
Character string to be displayed (max. 6 characters)
FONT%
Font to be displayed
.cnAnk
0
Standard-size font in ANK
mode
.cnMB
1
Standard-size font in Kanji
mode
.cnMB+.cnSmallFt
5
Small-size font in Kanji mode
407
ATTRIB%
Returned value:
Character attributes
.cnW1H1
0
Regular-size
.cnW2H1
1
Double-width
.cnW1H2
2
Double-height
.cnW2H2
3
Quadruple-size
(None)
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
.fcUKey
Create a user-defined touch key and set a character(s) to
be displayed on the touch key
Syntax:
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3" .fcUKey KEYNO%,KEYDATA$,
RECT%(),DSPDATA$,FONT%,ATTRIB%
Description:
This function defines the area of a touch key (KEYNO%) with two
diagonal points specified by RECT%() and displays a character(s)
specified by DSPDATA$ in the font specified by FONT% according to
the attributes specified by ATTRIB%.
Parameter:
KEYNO%
KEYDATA$
User-defined touch key number (#501 to #550)
RECT%()
Coordinates to define a touch key
DSPDATA$
FONT%
String expression of up to 2 characters or string
expression which returns a singe control code
RECT%(0)
Initial X-coordinate (0≤RECT%(0)≤199)
RECT%(1)
Initial Y-coordinate (0≤RECT%(1)≤303)
RECT%(2)
Final X-coordinate (0≤RECT%(2)≤199)
RECT%(3)
Final Y-coordinate (0≤RECT%(3)≤303)
Character string to be displayed
Font to be used
.cnAnk
0
Standard-size font in ANK
mode
.cnMB
1
Standard-size font in Kanji
mode
.cnMB+.cnSmallFt
5
Small-size font in Kanji mode
408
Chapter 16. Extended Functions
ATTRIB%
Returned value:
Character attributes
.cnW1H1
0
Regular-size
.cnW2H1
1
Double-width
.cnW1H2
2
Double-height
.cnW2H2
3
Quadruple-size
(None)
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
(The initial coordinates are greater than the final coordinates. The
specified area has been used by any other touch key.)
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
F2h
Insufficient number of array variable elements
.fcUKeyEnd
Cancel the user-defined touch key
Syntax:
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3" .fcUKeyEnd KEYNO%
Description:
This function cancels the user-defined touch key on KEYNO%.
Parameter:
KEYNO%
Returned value:
(None)
Note:
If a key number out of the allowable range is specified, no run-time
error will occur.
User-defined touch key number (#501 to #550)
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
409
.fcPnlGet
Get coordinates on the touch screen that is pressed last
Syntax:
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3" .fcPnlGet POINT%()
Description:
This function returns the coordinates that is pressed last.
Parameter:
(None)
Returned value:
POINT%()
Coordinates to locate a dot
POINT%(0)
X-coordinate (0≤POINT%(0)≤199)
POINT%(1)
Y-coordinate (0≤POINT%(1)≤303)
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
F2h
Insufficient number of array variable elements
.fcLcdClr
Clear the LCD
Syntax:
CALL "CONSOLE.FN3" .fcLcdClr
Description:
This function clears the LCD to close all of user-defined touch keys.
Parameter:
(None)
Returned value:
(None)
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
410
Chapter 16. Extended Functions
16.4 Controlling system files
(SYSMDFY.FN3)
16.4.1
Function Number List of SYSMDFY.FN3
The SYSMDFY.FN3 may reconfigure the BHT system or LAN-support CU system, as well as
getting/setting system reconfig file information, depending upon the function number specified,
as listed below.
Function number
Used to:
.fcMdBVGet
1
Get version of BHT system reconfig file
.fcMdBDo
2
Reconfigure BHT system
.fcMdBNGet
3
Get filename of BHT system reconfig file
.fcMdBNSet
4
Set filename of BHT system reconfig file
5-10
(Reserved for system)
.fcMdCVGet
11
Get version of CU system reconfig file
.fcMdCDo
12
Reconfigure CU system
.fcMdCNGet
13
Get filename of CU system reconfig file
.fcMdCNSet
14
Set filename of CU system reconfig file
15-20
(Reserved for system)
Note:
Functions #11 through #20 take effect only when the LAN communications software is installed to the BHT.
411
16.4.2
Detailed Function Specifications
.fcMdBVGet
Get version of BHT system reconfig file
Syntax:
CALL "SYSMDFY.FN3" .fcMdBVGet FILE$, VERSION$
Description:
This function returns the version (VERSION$) of the BHT system
reconfig file specified by FILE$.
Parameter:
FILE$
Returned value:
VERSION$ Version, 4 characters fixed
Filename
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
32h
File type mismatch
.fcMdBDo
Reconfigure BHT system
Syntax:
CALL "SYSMDFY.FN3" .fcMdBDo FILE$, OPT%
Description:
This function automatically reconfigures the BHT system by using the
BHT system reconfig file specified by FILE$.
Parameter:
FILE$
Filename
OPT%
Task after system reconfiguration
Returned value:
.smPwOff
0
Power off
.smReset
1
Reset the system software
(None)
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
32h
File type mismatch
412
Chapter 16. Extended Functions
.fcMdBNGet
Get filename of BHT system reconfig file
Syntax:
CALL "SYSMDFY.FN3" .fcMdBNGet FILE$
Description:
This function returns the filename of the BHT system reconfig file to
be used in System Mode, in FILE$.
Parameter:
FILE$
Returned value:
(None)
.fcMdBNSet
Filename consisting of drive name and file name, max. 14
characters (No drive name might be returned.)
Set filename of BHT system reconfig file
Syntax:
CALL "SYSMDFY.FN3" .fcMdBNSet FILE$
Description:
This function sets the filename (specified by FILE$) of the BHT system reconfig file to be used in System Mode.
Parameter:
FILE$
Returned value:
(None)
.fcMdCVGet
Filename consisting of drive name and file name, max. 14
characters (Drive name omissible)
Get version of CU system reconfig file
Syntax:
CALL "SYSMDFY.FN3" .fcMdCVGet FILE$, VERSION$
Description:
This function returns the version (VERSION$) of the LAN-support
CU system reconfig file specified by FILE$.
Parameter:
FILE$
Returned value:
VERSION$ Version, 4 characters fixed
Filename
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
35h
File not found
413
.fcMdCDo
Reconfigure CU system
Syntax:
CALL "SYSMDFY.FN3" .fcMdCDo FILE$
Description:
This function reconfigures the LAN-support CU system by using the
LAN-support CU system reconfig file specified by FILE$.
Parameter:
FILE$
Returned value:
(None)
Note:
Before using this function, you need to (1) open the IrDA communications device file with OPEN "COM:" statement and (2) place the
LAN-support CU in system reconfiguration mode with the CALL
"SYSTEM.FN3" .fcCMdRqst statement.
Filename
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
34h
Bad file name or number
(The communications device file is not opened.)
35h
File not found
41h
File damaged
46h
Communications error
.fcMdCNGet
Get filename of CU system reconfig file
Syntax:
CALL "SYSMDFY.FN3".fcMdCNGet FILE$
Description:
This function returns the filename of the LAN-support CU system
reconfig file to be used in System Mode, in FILE$.
Parameter:
(None)
Returned value:
FILE$
.fcMdCNSet
Filename consisting of drive name and file name, max. 14
characters (No drive name might be returned.)
Set filename of CU system reconfig file
Syntax:
CALL "SYSMDFY.FN3" .fcMdCNSet FILE$
Description:
This function sets the filename (specified by FILE$) of the LAN-support CU system reconfig file to be used in System Mode.
Parameter:
FILE$
Returned value:
(None)
Filename consisting of drive name and file name, max. 14
characters (Drive name omissible)
414
Chapter 16. Extended Functions
16.5 Calculating a CRC (CRC.FN3)
16.5.1
Function Number List of CRC.FN3
The CRC.FN3 may calculate a CRC depending upon the function number specified, as listed
below.
Function number
Used to:
.fcCcitt
2
Calculate a CRC-CCITT.
.fcCrc16
3
Calculate a CRC-16.
16.5.2
Detailed Function Specifications
.fcCcitt
Calculate a CRC-CCITT
Syntax:
CALL "CRC.FN3" .fcCcitt STRING1$, [ STRING2$,
[...,]] CRC$
Description:
This function calculates a CRC of character strings specified by
STRING1$, STRING2$, ...STRING8$ and returns the calculation
result in CRC$.
Up to eight character strings may be specified by assigning them to
non-array string variables.
Parameter:
STRING1$, STRING2$, ...STRING8$
Non-array string variables that are operands of CRC generation
Returned value:
CRC$
Non-array string variable that stores the calculation result
(2 characters, fixed length. In the 1st character position is
the upper byte of the calculation result.)
415
.fcCrc16
Calculate a CRC-16
Syntax:
CALL "CRC.FN3" .fcCrc16 STRING1$, [ STRING2$,
[...,]] CRC$
Description:
This function calculates a CRC of character strings specified by
STRING1$, STRING2$, ...STRING8$ and returns the calculation
result in CRC$.
Up to eight character strings may be specified by assigning them to
non-array string variables.
Parameter:
STRING1$, STRING2$, ...STRING8$
Non-array string variables that are operands of CRC generation
Returned value:
CRC$
Non-array string variable that stores the calculation result
(2 characters, fixed length. In the 1st character position is
the upper byte of the calculation result.)
416
Chapter 17
Spread Spectrum Communication
(For models equipped with a spread spectrum wireless block)
CONTENTS
17.1 Overview...................................................................................................... 418
17.2 Programming for Spread Spectrum Communication ................................... 420
17.3 Spread Spectrum Communications-related Statement ............................... 421
17.4 Spread Spectrum Communication Library (SS.FN3)................................... 422
17.4.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 422
17.4.2 Detailed Function Specifications ...................................................... 423
417
17.1 Overview
■
Spread spectrum communications device
The BHT system consists of BHT main system and the spread spectrum communications
device; the former executes user programs and the latter performs spread spectrum communications.
User programs use the logical device file (named "COM3") to control the spread spectrum
communications device.
BHT with a spread spectrum wireless block
Main system
User programs
(written in BHT-BASIC)
Spread spectrum
communications
device
Logical device
file
■
Spread spectrum communications method
The BHT uses the TCP/IP protocol subset over the spread spectrum communications device.
For details about programming for spread spectrum communication, refer to Chapter 18, "TCP/
IP."
■
Configuration of spread spectrum system
Shown below is an example of the spread spectrum system configuration using the BHT. For
details, refer to the BHT User’s Manual.
Host computer
Access point (master)
Domain: 0
Security ID: DENSO
Channel: 1
Sub channel: 1
BHT (station)
Domain: 0
Security ID: DENSO
M1
M2
7 ABC
4 JKL
1STU
BS
8 DEF
9 GHI
5MNO
6 PQR
2 VWX
3 YZ
+
,/
0
C
SF
ENT
PW
Roaming function
Ethernet 10BASE-T
M1
M1
M2
7 ABC
8 DEF
9 GHI
4 JKL
5MNO
6 PQR
1STU
2 VWX
3 YZ
+
,/
0
BS
C
SF
ENT
PW
Wireless board
connection
BHT (station)
Domain: 0
Security ID: DENSO
M2
7 ABC
4 JKL
1STU
BS
Wireless card
connection
M1
M2
7 ABC
4 JKL
1STU
BS
8 DEF
9 GHI
5MNO
6 PQR
2 VWX
3 YZ
+
,/
0
C
SF
ENT
PW
BHT (station)
Domain: 0
Security ID: DENSO
418
8 DEF
9 GHI
5MNO
6 PQR
2 VWX
3 YZ
+
,/
0
C
SF
ENT
PW
Access point
BHT (station)
(master)
Domain: 0
Domain: 0
Security ID: DENSO
Security ID: DENSO
Channel: 2
Sub channel: 1
Chapter 17. Spread Spectrum Communication (For models equipped with a spread spectrum wireless block)
The table below shows the communications status transition as the state of the spread spectrum communications device built in the BHT changes.
Spread spectrum
communications device
Communication
Open (power on)
Impossible
Checking synchronization with
master
Impossible
Synchronization complete
Possible
Roaming
Impossible if roaming leads to the loss of synchronization
Possible if synchronization with the master is kept
End of roaming
Possible
Close (power off)
Impossible
If always being opened, the spread spectrum communications device will consume much
power. When the device is not in use, therefore, close it as soon as possible.
However, it will take several seconds to open the spread spectrum communications device and
synchronize it with the master for making communications ready. Frequent opening and closing of the device will require much time, resulting in slow response. Take into account the application purposes of user programs when programming.
When the spread spectrum communications device is synchronized with the master, the BHT
will display a synchronization icon on the LCD as shown below.
A synchronization icon will appear
if the spread spectrum communications
device is synchronized with the master.
419
17.2 Programming for Spread Spectrum Communication
When programming for spread spectrum communication, use the following statement and
extension functions:
(1) OPEN statement (OPEN "COM3:")
Refer to Section 17.3, "Spread Spectrum Communications-related Statement."
(2) Spread spectrum library (SS.FN3) for controlling the spread spectrum communications
device
Refer to Section 17.4, "Spread Spectrum Communication Library (SS.FN3)."
(3) Socket library (SOCKET.FN3) for data transmission according to TCP/IP
Refer to Section 18.6, "Socket Library (SOCKET.FN3)."
(4) FTP library (FTP.FN3) for file transfer
Refer to Section 18.7, "FTP Library (FTP.FN3)."
420
Chapter 17. Spread Spectrum Communication (For models equipped with a spread spectrum wireless block)
17.3 Spread Spectrum Communications-related Statement
OPEN "COM3:"
Open a spread spectrum communications device file
Syntax:
OPEN "COM3:" AS [#]filenumber
Description:
This statement opens a spread spectrum communications device file.
A spread spectrum communications device file cannot be opened with an
IrDA interface device file concurrently. If you attempt to open them concurrently, a run-time error will occur.
A spread spectrum communications device file can be opened with a bar
code device file concurrently.
Syntax error:
Refer to Chapter 14, "Statement Reference."
Run-time errors:
TIP
Error code
Meaning
02h
Syntax error
37h
File already open
3Ah
File number out of the range
45h
File already open (You attempted to open a spread spectrum communications device file and the IrDA interface device file concurrently.)
401h
Failed to open a spread spectrum communications device file.
A spread spectrum communications device uses TCP/IP for reading or writing data,
unlike other communications devices. For details about programming for using TCP/
IP over a spread spectrum communications device, refer to Chapter 18, "TCP/IP."
To close a spread spectrum communications device file, use a CLOSE statement
listed in Chapter 14.
421
17.4 Spread Spectrum Communication Library (SS.FN3)
17.4.1
Overview
The spread spectrum communication library (SS.FN3) used in a BHT-BASIC CALL statement
reads or writes parameter values from/to the spread spectrum wireless block.
If spread spectrum communication is frequent, a run-time error may occur when you set or
refer to spread spectrum-related parameters. In such a case, set or refer to them again.
■
Function Number List of SS.FN3
Function number
Used to:
.fcParaIGet
1
Read integer from the wireless block parameter
.fcParaSGet
2
Read string from the wireless block parameter
.fcParaISet
3
Write integer to the wireless block parameter
.fcParaSSet
4
Write string to the wireless block parameter
.fcSyncInf
7
Check wireless block synchronization with master
422
Chapter 17. Spread Spectrum Communication (For models equipped with a spread spectrum wireless block)
17.4.2
Detailed Function Specifications
.fcParaIGet
Read integer from the wireless block parameter
Syntax:
CALL "SS.FN3" .fcParaIGet PARA%,DATA%
Description:
This function reads integer (DATA%) from the wireless block setting specified by PARA%.
Parameters:
PARA% Item number
Returned value:
DATA% Integer read from the specified wireless block setting
Correspondence table:
Item number
(PARA%)
.ssDmnGet
Wireless block
parameter
1
Domain information
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
423
Parameter value
(DATA%)
0 to 15
Initial
value
0
.fcParaSGet
Read string from the wireless block parameter
Syntax:
CALL "SS.FN3" .fcParaSGet PARA%,DATA$
Description:
This function reads string (DATA$) from the wireless block setting specified by PARA%.
Parameters:
PARA% Item number
Returned value:
DATA$ String read from the specified wireless block setting
Correspondence table:
Item number
(PARA%)
Wireless block
parameter
Parameter value (DATA$)
.ssFWVerGet
1
Wireless block firmware
version
Character string, 4 bytes
.ssMACIDGet
2
Physical address
Character string, 6 bytes
Note:
The above parameter should be referred to after execution of OPEN
"COM3:" statement.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
34h
Bad file name or number (The spread spectrum communications
device is not opened.)
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
F2h
Insufficient string variable storage area
105h
Power-off detected
400h
Failed to get the setting value. (Failed to set the value.)
424
Chapter 17. Spread Spectrum Communication (For models equipped with a spread spectrum wireless block)
.fcParaISet
Write integer to the wireless block parameter
Syntax:
CALL "SS.FN3" .fcParaISet PARA%,DATA%
Description:
This function writes integer (DATA%) to the wireless block setting specified
by PARA%.
Parameters:
PARA% Item number
Returned value:
DATA% Integer to be written to the specified wireless block setting
Correspondence table:
Item number
(PARA%)
.ssDmnSet
Notes:
Wireless block
parameter
1
Domain information
Parameter value (DATA%)
0 to 15
The above parameter will take effect at execution of an OPEN "COM3:"
statement first encountered after the parameter setting.
The above parameter should be set with the IrDA communications device
file and spread spectrum communications device file being closed.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
37h
File already open (The spread spectrum communications device
has already been opened.)
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
425
.fcParaSSet Write string to the wireless block parameter
Syntax:
CALL "SS.FN3" .fcParaSSet PARA%,DATA$
Description:
This function writes string (DATA$) to the wireless block setting specified
by PARA%.
Parameters:
PARA% Item number
Returned value:
DATA$ String to be written to the specified wireless block setting
Correspondence table:
Item number
(PARA%)
.ssSIDSet
Notes:
Wireless block
parameter
3
Security ID
Parameter value (DATA$)
Character string,
maximum of 20 bytes
The above parameter will take effect at execution of an OPEN "COM3:"
statement first encountered after the parameter setting.
The above parameter should be set with the IrDA communications device
file and spread spectrum communications device file being closed.
The allowable entry range of the ASCII codes is from 20h to 7Eh. If you set
" " to DATA$, the default will apply.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
05h
Parameter out of the range
37h
File already open (The spread spectrum communications device
has already been opened.)
45h
Device files prohibited from opening concurrently
(The IrDA interface communications device has been opened.)
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
105h
Power-off detected
400h
Failed to get the setting value. (Failed to set the value.)
426
Chapter 17. Spread Spectrum Communication (For models equipped with a spread spectrum wireless block)
.fcSyncInf
Check wireless block synchronization with master
Syntax:
CALL "SS.FN3" .fcSyncInf TIMEOUT%,ASSOC%
Description:
This function checks whether the wireless block is synchronized with the
master.
According to the timeout length specified by TIMEOUT%, the system operates as follows:
- If greater than zero (0) is specified to TIMEOUT% (recommended), this
program will check synchronization with the master during the specified
time. Upon completion of synchronization, the program will set zero (0)
to ASSOC% to end the checking operation.
If the wireless block fails to synchronize with the master within the specified time, the program will set -1 to ASSOC% to end the checking operation.
- If zero (0) is specified to TIMEOUT%, this function will check synchronization with the master and immediately return.
- If -1 is specified to TIMEOUT%, no timeout will occur so that this function
will wait until synchronization will be complete.
Parameters:
TIMEOUT%
Returned value:
ASSOC%
Note:
Maximum period (unit: 100 ms) to wait for synchronization
with master
Synchronization with master complete
.ssNowInf
0
.ssWtSync
-1 Failed to synchronize with master
The above parameter should be referred to after execution of OPEN
"COM3:" statement.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
105h
Power-off detected
427
Chapter 18
TCP/IP
(BHTs with spread spectrum communications device or
BHTs designed for LAN-support software)
CONTENTS
18.1 Two Sides .................................................................................................... 430
18.1.1 BHT .................................................................................................. 430
18.1.2 Hosts ................................................................................................ 430
18.2 TCP/IP over Spread Spectrum System ....................................................... 431
18.2.1 General Procedure ...........................................................................
[ 1 ] Configure Spread Spectrum Communications Device ............
[ 2 ] Configure TCP/IP System .......................................................
[ 3 ] Declare TCP/IP Communications Pathway.............................
[ 4 ] Open Spread Spectrum Communications Device...................
[ 5 ] Check Spread Spectrum Communications Device
Synchronization with Master ...................................................
[ 6 ] Connect to TCP/IP Communications Pathway........................
[ 7 ] Transfer Data or File via Socket Interface...............................
[ 8 ] Disconnect TCP/IP Communications Pathway .......................
[ 9 ] Close Spread Spectrum Communications Device ..................
18.2.2 Programming Notes for Socket API According to UDP....................
18.2.3 Programming Notes for TCP/IP Communication..............................
18.2.4 Sample Program ..............................................................................
431
431
432
433
433
434
435
435
436
436
437
439
441
18.3 TCP/IP over IrDA Communication System .................................................. 442
18.3.1 General Procedure ...........................................................................
[ 1 ] Configure IrDA Communications Device for LAN-Support
System ....................................................................................
[ 2 ] Configure TCP/IP System .......................................................
[ 3 ] Declare TCP/IP Communications Pathway.............................
[ 4 ] Open IrDA Communications Device........................................
[ 5 ] Connect to TCP/IP Communications Pathway........................
[ 6 ] Transfer Data or File via Socket Interface...............................
[ 7 ] Disconnect TCP/IP Communications Pathway .......................
[ 8 ] Close IrDA Communications Device .......................................
18.3.2 Programming Notes for Socket API According to UDP....................
18.3.3 Programming Notes for TCP/IP Communication..............................
18.3.4 Sample Program ..............................................................................
442
442
443
444
444
445
445
446
446
447
447
448
18.4 Socket API ................................................................................................... 451
18.4.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 451
18.4.2 Client Program Samples for Socket API According to TCP and
UDP.................................................................................................. 453
18.4.3 Programming Notes for Socket API ................................................. 457
428
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
18.5 FTP Client.................................................................................................... 459
18.5.1 Overview ..........................................................................................
18.5.2 File Formats .....................................................................................
[ 1 ] User Programs (*.PD3) ...........................................................
[ 2 ] Extension Libraries (*.FN3 and *.EX3) ....................................
[ 3 ] Data Files ................................................................................
18.5.3 Using FTP Client ..............................................................................
[ 1 ] Basic Procedure ......................................................................
[ 2 ] Configuring FTP Client ............................................................
[ 3 ] Calculating Memory Requirements .........................................
[ 4 ] Optimizing Drive (Recommended) ..........................................
[ 5 ] FTP Transfers .........................................................................
459
459
459
461
462
465
465
465
466
467
467
18.6 Socket Library (SOCKET.FN3).................................................................... 468
18.6.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 468
18.6.2 Detailed Function Specifications ...................................................... 471
18.7 FTP Library (FTP.FN3) ................................................................................ 495
18.7.1 Overview .......................................................................................... 495
18.7.2 Detailed Function Specifications ...................................................... 498
429
18.1 Two Sides
18.1.1
BHT
The BHT equipped with a spread spectrum communications device or IrDA communications
device includes two built-in libraries providing BHT-BASIC programs with access to a subset of
the TCP/IP family of protocols over the spread spectrum communication system or IrDA communication system, respectively.
SOCKET.FN3: This library implements a subset of the BSD4.4 socket application program
interface (API).
FTP.FN3:
18.1.2
This library implements FTP client services for file transfers to and from FTP
servers.
Hosts
SOCKET.FN3 and FTP.FN3 require a host machine with the equivalent TCP/IP functionality
and running the appropriate server software.
430
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
18.2
TCP/IP over Spread Spectrum
System
18.2.1
General Procedure
The following is the procedure for using TCP/IP over a spread spectrum communications
device.
[ 1 ] Configure Spread Spectrum Communications Device
To connect to the spread spectrum communications pathway, specify the following system settings in System Mode or by using the extension library SS.FN3 in a user program:
• Domain
• Security ID
For the procedure in System Mode, refer to the BHT User’s Manual. For the details of the
SS.FN3, refer to Section 17.4, "Spread Spectrum Communication Library (SS.FN3)" in this
manual.
If no system settings are made in a user program, those made in System Mode will apply; if
made with SS.FN3, those will become system settings.
Given below is a setting example with SS.FN3:
para% = 1
’Specify domain (#1)
data% = 9
’Value to be set to domain
call "ss.fn3" .fcParaISet para%, data%
’Set domain (SS.FN3 function #3)
para% = 3
’Specify security ID (#3)
data$ = "9999"
’Value to be set to security ID
call "ss.fn3" .fcParaSSet para%, data$
’Set security ID
’(SS.FN3 function #4)
431
[ 2 ] Configure TCP/IP System
To connect to the TCP/IP pathway, specify the following system settings in System Mode or by
using the extension library SOCKET.FN3 in a user program:
• IP address
• Subnet mask
• Default gateway
These settings will be used in [ 6 ].
For the procedure in System Mode, refer to the BHT User’s Manual. For the details of the
SOCKET.FN3, refer to Section 18.6, "Socket Library (SOCKET.FN3)."
Given below is a setting example with SOCKET.FN3:
my.addr$ = "192.168.0.125"
’IP address of the BHT
subnetmask$ = "255.255.255.0"
’Subnet mask
gateway$ = "0.0.0.0"
’Default gateway
para% = 1
’Specify IP address (#1)
call "socket.fn3" .fcTSysSet para%, my.addr$
’Set IP address
’(SOCKET.FN3 Function #45)
para% = 2
’Specify subnet mask (#2)
call "socket.fn3" .fcTSysSet para%, subnetmask$ ’Set subnet mask
’(SOCKET.FN3 Function #45)
para% = 3
’Specify default gateway (#3)
call "socket.fn3" .fcTSysSet para%, gateway$
’Set default gateway
’(SOCKET.FN3 Function #45)
432
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
[ 3 ] Declare TCP/IP Communications Pathway
Specify the following system settings by using the socket library (SOCKET.FN3):
• Communications device: Spread spectrum communications device
• Link layer: Ethernet
For the setting procedure with the SOCKET.FN3, refer to Section 18.6, "Socket Library
(SOCKET.FN3)."
Given below is a setting example using SOCKET.FN3:
iftype% = 2
layermode% = 2
’Specify spread spectrum communications device
’Specify Ethernest as a link layer
call "socket.fn3" .fcTSetup iftype%, layermode%, interface%
’Specify communications pathway
’(SOCKET.FN3 function #40)
’Returns value in interface%
’(The returned value will be used in
’[6] and [8].)
[ 4 ] Open Spread Spectrum Communications Device
Use the OPEN "COM3:" statement.
At the opening time, the following will take place:
• Powering up the wireless block
• Performing the self test of the wireless block
• Initializing the wireless block
For the details, refer to Section 17.3, "Spread Spectrum Communications-related Statement."
Given below is an example using the spread spectrum communications-related statement:
hCom3% = 1
’Specify a file number to be opened
’(The file number will be used also in [9].)
open "COM3:" as #hCom3%
’Open the spread spectrum communications device
’(OPEN "COM3:" statement)
433
[ 5 ] Check Spread Spectrum Communications Device Synchronization with Master
Using a spread spectrum communications device for TCP/IP communication requires synchronizing with the master (e.g., access point). To check the synchronization, use the extension
library SS.FN3.
In any of the following cases, a spread spectrum communications device may not be synchronized with the master:
• When a spread spectrum communications device is opened (Opening a spread spectrum
communications device and synchronizing with the master will take a few seconds.)
• When a wireless block tries to synchronize with a new master in roaming.
• When a wireless block is moved out of the radio-wave area with the master.
• When a wireless block is moved to a place where there is any radio-wave obstruction
between the wireless block and the master.
For details about SS.FN3, refer to Section 17.4, "Spread Spectrum Communication Library
(SS.FN3)."
Given below is a setting example using SS.FN3.
timeout% = 100
’Set time (10 sec.) to wait for
’synchronization with master.
call "ss.fn3" .fcSyncInf timeout%, assoc%
’Check synchronization with master.
’(SS.FN3 function #7)
’Returns value in assoc%
if assoc% = -1 then
goto Sync.Err
’If synchronization is not complete,
’go to Sync.Err.
endif
434
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
[ 6 ] Connect to TCP/IP Communications Pathway
Use the extension library SOCKET.FN3. Connecting to the TCP/IP communications pathway
requires the following settings (specified in [ 2 ]):
• IP address
• Subnet mask
• Default gateway
There are two ways to specify these parameters.
(a) Use the system settings with the extension library SOCKET.FN3. Refer to Section 18.6,
"Socket Library (SOCKET.FN3)."
Given below is an example using SOCKET.FN3.
call "socket.fn3" .fcTCnnSys interface%
’Connect to communications pathway
’(SOCKET.FN3 function #41)
’Use the returned value of [3] in
’interface%.
(b) Use user-defined values provided by the application with the extension library
SOCKET.FN3. Refer to Section 18.6, "Socket Library (SOCKET.FN3)."
Given below is an example using SOCKET.FN3.
my.addr$ = "192.168.0.125"
’IP address of the BHT
subnetmask$ = "255.255.255.0"
’Subnet mask
gateway$ = "0.0.0.0"
’Default gateway
call "socket.fn3" .fcTCnnUsr interface%, my.addr$, subnetmask$, gateway$
’Connect to communications pathway
’(SOCKET.FN3 function #42)
’Use the returned value of [3] in
’interface%.
[ 7 ] Transfer Data or File via Socket Interface
To transfer data via the socket interface, use the extension library SOCKET.FN3. Refer to
Section 18.4, "Socket API" and Section 18.6, "Socket Library (SOCKET.FN3)."
To transfer file via the socket interface, refer to Section 18.5.3, "Using FTP Client."
435
[ 8 ] Disconnect TCP/IP Communications Pathway
Use the extension library SOCKET.FN3. Refer to Section 18.6, "Socket Library
(SOCKET.FN3)."
Given below is an example using SOCKET.FN3.
Call "socket.fn3" .fcTDiscnn interface%
’Disconnect TCP/IP communications
’pathway (SOCKET.FN3 function #43)
’Use the returned value of [3] in
’interface%.
[ 9 ] Close Spread Spectrum Communications Device
Use the CLOSE statement in BHT-BASIC.
Closing the device will power off the wireless block. For details about the CLOSE statement,
refer to Chapter 14 "Statement Reference."
Given below is an example using the CLOSE statement.
close #hCom3%
’Close the spread spectrum communications device
’(Use CLOSE statement)
’Use the file number specified in [4]
For details, refer to the sample program given in Subsection 18.2.4.
436
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
18.2.2 Programming Notes for Socket API According
to UDP
The user datagram protocol (UDP) has no flow control, so send/receive data may go missing
due to poor line conditions or difference of communications capabilities between wireless and
Ethernet. To prevent data missing, be sure to incorporate some flow control process into user
programs at both the BHT and host.
Given below are message transmission examples that support retransmission controls at each
of the BHT and host.
■
BHT’s retransmission control for a transmission error
Assume that the BHT uses the protocol of receiving transmission completion message from
the host after sending a message.
If the BHT times out for waiting a transmission completion message, it will transmit the unsent
message again.
Normal end
BHT
Host
Data message
Transmission
completion message
Disconnect
Transmission error in a message sent from the BHT
Host
BHT
Data
message
Error
Transmission
completion
message
Data message
(sent again)
Timeout for receiving
the transmission
completion message
Disconnect
437
Transmission
completion
message
■
Host’s retransmission control for a transmission error
Assume that the host uses the protocol of receiving transmission completion message from the
BHT after sending a message.
If the host times out for waiting a transmission completion message, it will transmit the unsent
message again.
Normal end
BHT
Host
Data message
Transmission
completion message
Disconnect
Transmission error in a message sent from the host
Host
Data
message
BHT
Error
Transmission
completion
message
Data message
(sent again)
Transmission
completion
message
Timeout for receiving
the transmission
completion message
Disconnect
438
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
18.2.3
Programming Notes for TCP/IP Communication
If TCP/IP communication becomes no longer possible during data transmission, any of the following run-time errors will be returned:
Run-time errors:
■
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected. (The BHT has been turned off during data
transmission and then turned on. The communications device
remains off.)
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
Error recovery procedure from run-time errors 105h, 106h, and 108h
(1)
Use the ON ERROR GOTO statement for error interrupt (In the error-handling routine,
none of (3) through (5) should be carried out.)
(2)
Use the RESUME statement for transferring control to the main program
(3)
Close the socket.
(4)
Disconnect the TCP/IP communications pathway.
(5)
Close the spread spectrum communications device.
For details, refer to Subsection 18.2.4, "Sample Program."
439
■
Note for run-time error 105h
Socket close processing (SOCKET.FN3, Function #28) following occurrence of run-time error
105h would not complete immediately. This is because a FIN packet will be transmitted repeatedly in the socket close processing until the communications device receives any response
from the server independent of the power on/off state of the communications device.
The socket close processing period may be shortened by changing the retry count that determines the number of FIN packet retransmission times and is controlled by SOCKET.FN3,
function #24, option #26.
(Example)
Sock.Err:
’Socket error-handling routine
print "ERR:";hex$(err.code%)
’Display error code
print "ERL:";hex$(err.line%)
’Display error line number
if sock.stts%>=3 then
’If OK until socket generation,
optname%=26
’set retry count
option=0
’No retry (transmit once)
call "socket.fn3" .fcSSckOpt sockfd%,optname%,option
call "socket.fn3" .fcClose sockfd%
’Close socket
end if
if sock.stts%>=2 then
’If OK until connection of TCP/IP
’communications pathway,
call "socket.fn3" .fcTDiscnn interface% ’Disconnect the pathway
end if
if sock.stts%>=1 then
’If OK until opening the spread
’spectrum communications device,
close #hCom3%
’close the device
end if
goto main
’To main program
440
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
18.2.4
Sample Program
main:
on error goto Err.TCP
..
.
open "COM3:" as #hCom3%
..
.
sock.stts% = 1
..
.
call "socket.fn3" .fcTCnnSys interface%
’ Main program
’ Prepare for error interrupt (To Err.TCP
’ at the time of error occurrence)
’ Open a spread spectrum communications device
’ Use the OPEN "COM3:" statement
’ Set "1" to socket processing number
’ Connect TCP/IP communications pathway
’ (system settings)
’ Use SOCKET.FN3 function #41
..
.
sock.stts% = 2
’ Set "2" to socket processing number
..
.
call "socket.fn3" .fcSocket family%,type%,protocol%,sockfd%
’ Generate socket
’ Use SOCKET.FN3 function #26
..
.
sock.stts% = 3
’ Set "3" to socket processing number
..
.
call "socket.fn3" .fcConnect sockfd%,family%,port%,serv.addr$
’ Connect socket
’ Use SOCKET.FN3 function #3
..
.
sock.stts% = 4
’ Set "4" to socket processing number
..
..
..
return
Err.TCP:
err.code% = ERR
err.line% = ERL
resume Sock.Err
Sock.Err:
print " ERR : " ; hex$( err.code% )
print " ERL : " ; hex$( err.line% )
if sock.stts% >= 3 then
call "socket.fn3" .fcClose sockfd%
endif
if sock.stts% >= 2 then
call "socket.fn3" .fcTDiscnn interface%
endif
if sock.stts% >= 1 then
close #hCom3%
endif
goto main
’
’ Error interrupt processing
’ Control transferred to this step if an
’ error occurs
’ Get error number
’ Get error line number
’ RESUME statement to transfer control from
’ error interrupt processing to socket error
’ processing routine
’ Socket error processing routine
’ Display error number
’ Display error line number
’ If OK until socket generation,
’ close the socket
’ If OK until connection of TCP/IP
’ communications pathway
’ disconnect the pathway
’
’ If OK until opening the spread spectrum
’ communications device,
’ close the device
’
’ To main program
441
18.3
TCP/IP over IrDA Communication
System
18.3.1
General Procedure
The following is the procedure for using TCP/IP over an IrDA communications device.
[ 1 ] Configure IrDA Communications Device for LAN-Support System
To communicate with the LAN-support CU, specify the following system settings in System
Mode or by using the extension library SYSTEM.FN3 in a user program:
• Number of retries of establish link command and intervals between retries for LAN-support CU
• Number of retries of release link command and intervals between retries for LAN-support
CU
• Link release period for LAN-support CU
For the procedure in System Mode, refer to the BHT User's Manual. For the details of the
SYSTEM.FN3, refer to Section 16.2, "Reading or writing system settings from/to the memory
(SYSTEM.FN3)."
If no system settings are made in a user program, those made in System Mode will apply; if
made with SYSTEM.FN3, those will become system settings.
442
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
[ 2 ] Configure TCP/IP System
To connect to the TCP/IP pathway, specify the following system settings in System Mode or by
using the extension library SOCKET.FN3 in a user program:
• IP address
• Subnet mask
• Default gateway
These settings will be used in [ 5 ].
For the procedure in System Mode, refer to the BHT User’s Manual. For the details of the
SOCKET.FN3, refer to Section 18.6, "Socket Library (SOCKET.FN3)."
Given below is a setting example with SOCKET.FN3:
my.addr$ = "192.168.0.125"
’IP address of the BHT
subnetmask$ = "255.255.255.0"
’Subnet mask
gateway$ = "0.0.0.0"
’Default gateway
para% = 1
’Specify IP address (#1)
call "socket.fn3" .fcTSysSet para%, my.addr$
’Set IP address
’(SOCKET.FN3 Function #45)
para% = 2
’Specify subnet mask (#2)
call "socket.fn3" .fcTSysSet para%, subnetmask$
’Set subnet mask
’(SOCKET.FN3 Function #45)
para% = 3
’Specify default gateway (#3)
call "socket.fn3" .fcTSysSet para%, gateway$
’Set default gateway
’(SOCKET.FN3 Function #45)
443
[ 3 ] Declare TCP/IP Communications Pathway
Specify the following system settings by using the socket library (SOCKET.FN3):
• Communications device: IrDA communications device
• Link layer: Ethernet
For the setting procedure with the SOCKET.FN3, refer to Section 18.6, "Socket Library
(SOCKET.FN3)."
Given below is a setting example using SOCKET.FN3:
iftype% = 2
layermode% = 2
’Specify IrDA communications device
’Specify Ethernet as a link layer
call "socket.fn3" .fcTSetup iftype%, layermode%, interface%
’Specify communications pathway
’(SOCKET.FN3 function #40)
’Returns value in interface%
’(The returned value will be used in
’[5] and [7].)
[ 4 ] Open IrDA Communications Device
Use the OPEN "COM1:" statement in BHT-BASIC.
For details on how to use OPEN statement, refer to the BHT-BASIC Programmer's Manual,
Chapter 14 "Statement Reference."
Given below is an example using the IrDA communications-related statement:
hCom1% = 1
’Specify a file number to be opened
’(The file number will be used also in [8].)
open "COM1:115200:" as #hCom1%
’Open the IrDA communications device
’(OPEN "COM1:" statement)
444
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
[ 5 ] Connect to TCP/IP Communications Pathway
Use the extension library SOCKET.FN3. Connecting to the TCP/IP communications pathway
requires the following settings (specified in [ 2 ]):
• IP address
• Subnet mask
• Default gateway
There are two ways to specify these parameters.
(a) Use the system settings with the extension library SOCKET.FN3. Refer to Section 18.6,
"Socket Library (SOCKET.FN3)."
Given below is an example using SOCKET.FN3.
call "socket.fn3" .fcTCnnSys interface%
’Connect to communications pathway
’(SOCKET.FN3 function #41)
’Use the returned value of [3] in
’interface%.
(b) Use user-defined values provided by the application with the extension library
SOCKET.FN3. Refer to Section 18.6, "Socket Library (SOCKET.FN3)."
Given below is an example using SOCKET.FN3.
my.addr$ = "192.168.0.125"
’IP address of the BHT
subnetmask$ = "255.255.255.0"
’Subnet mask
gateway$ = "0.0.0.0"
’Default gateway
call "socket.fn3" .fcTCnnUsr interface%, my.addr$, subnetmask$, gateway$
’Connect to communications pathway
’(SOCKET.FN3 function #42)
’Use the returned value of [3] in
’interface%.
[ 6 ] Transfer Data or File via Socket Interface
To transfer data via the socket interface, use the extension library SOCKET.FN3. Refer to
Section 18.4, "Socket API" and Section 18.6, "Socket Library (SOCKET.FN3)."
To transfer file via the socket interface, refer to Section 18.5.3, "Using FTP Client."
445
[ 7 ] Disconnect TCP/IP Communications Pathway
Use the extension library SOCKET.FN3. Refer to Section 18.6, "Socket Library
(SOCKET.FN3)."
Given below is an example using SOCKET.FN3.
Call "socket.fn3" .fcTDiscnn interface%
’Disconnect TCP/IP communications
’pathway (SOCKET.FN3 function #43)
’Use the returned value of [3] in
’interface%.
[ 8 ] Close IrDA Communications Device
Use the CLOSE statement in BHT-BASIC.
Closing the device will power off the IrDA communications device. For details about the
CLOSE statement, refer to Chapter 14 "Statement Reference."
Given below is an example using the CLOSE statement.
close #hCom1%
’Close the IrDA communications device
’(Use CLOSE statement)
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Chapter 18. TCP/IP
18.3.2
Programming Notes for Socket API According
to UDP
Refer to Subsection 18.2.2.
18.3.3
Programming Notes for TCP/IP Communication
When using an IrDA communications device, observe same programming notes as those
given for a spread spectrum communications device. Refer to Subsection 18.2.3.
For details, refer to Subsection 18.3.4, "Sample Program."
447
18.3.4
Sample Program
Given below is a sample program that shows only the skeleton of communication program and
requires modification in actual programming as necessary.
’****************************************
’
Data Section
*
’****************************************
DIM RECVBUFF$[255]
’Receive data buffer
DIM SENDBUFF$[255]
’Send data buffer
DIM IPADDRESS$[15]
’IP address
DIM R.SOCKSET$[41]
’Read socket ID set
DIM W.SOCKSET$[41]
’Write socket ID set
DIM E.SOCKSET$[41]
’Exception socket ID set
’************************************************
’
Sample subroutine for TCP client
*
’************************************************
TCPCLIENT:
’Create send data
FOR I%=0 TO 254 STEP 1
SENDBUFF$[I%] = CHR$(I%)
NEXT I%
TCP.STTS% = 0
ON ERROR GOTO 0
ON ERROR GOTO TCP.ERR
’Disable error trapping
’Enable error trapping
’Set TCP/IP parameters
IFTYPE% = 0
’Specify COM1
LAYERMODE% = 2
’Specify Ethernet
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcTSetup IFTYPE%, LAYERMODE%, INTERFACE%
’Open IrDA communications device
TCP.OPEN:
OPEN "COM1:115200" AS #1
’Open COM1
TCP.STTS% = 1
’Connect to TCP/IP communications pathway (with user settings)
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcTCnnUsr INTERFACE%, MY.ADDR$, SUBNETMASK$, GATEWAY$
TCP.STTS% = 2
’Create TCP socket <-----Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API () function
FAMILY% = 2
’Internet protocol
TYPE%
= 1
’Stream socket
PROTOCOL% = 6
’TCP protocol
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcSocket FAMILY%, TYPE%, PROTOCOL%, SOCKFD%
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Chapter 18. TCP/IP
TCP.STTS% = 3
’Convert IP address <----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API inet_addr() function
IPADDRESS$ = "192.100.100.001"
’Specify server IP address
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcINetAdr IPADDRESS$, ADDRESS
’Connect socket to server <----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API connect() function
PORT% = 1201
’Specify server port
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcConnect SOCKFD%, FAMILY%, PORT%, ADDRESS
’Transmit data <----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API send() function
SENDLEN% = 255
SENDMODE% = 0
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcSend SOCKFD%, SENDBUFF$, SENDLEN%, SENDMODE%,
SENDSIZE%
’Initialize socket identifier set
’<----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API FD_ZERO macro
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDZERO R.SOCKSET$ ’Initialize
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDZERO W.SOCKSET$ ’Initialize
’set
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDZERO E.SOCKSET$ ’Initialize
’identifier
read socket identifier set
write socket identifier
exception socket
set
’Add socket identifier to read socket identifier set
’<----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API FD_SET macro
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDSET SOCKFD%, R.SOCKSET$
’Wait for changes in socket identifier set (read condition)
’< ----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API select () function
MAXFD% = SOCKFD% +1
’Specify number of socket identifiers
TIMEOUT = 360
’Specify 6-minute (360-second) timeout
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcSelect MAXFD%, R.SOCKSET$, W.SOCKSET$, E.SOCKSET$,
TIMEOUT, RESULT%
IF RESULT% = 0 THEN
’Timeout occurred
’Processing for timeout
END IF
’Get socket identifier status from read socket identifier set
’< ----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API FD_ISSET macro
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDISSET SOCKFD%, R.SOCKSET$, FDISSET%
IF FDISSET% = 0 THEN
’No receive data
’Processing for no receive data
END IF
’Receive data < ----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API recv () function
RECVLEN% = 255
RECVMODE% = 0
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcRecv SOCKFD%, RECVBUFF$, RECVLEN%, RECVMODE%, RECVSIZE%
’Close socket < ----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API close () function
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcClose SOCKFD%
449
TCP.STTS% = 2
’Disconnect TCP/IP communications pathway
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcTDiscnn INTERFACE%
TCP.STTS% = 1
’Close IrDA communications device
CLOSE #1
TCP.STTS% = 0
ON ERROR GOTO 0
RETURN
’************************************************
’
Error-handling routine
*
’************************************************
TCP.ERR:
WERR = ERR
RESUME ERRSUB
ERRSUB:
ON ERROR GOTO 0
ON ERROR GOTO ERRSUB2
IF TCP.STTS% > 2 THEN
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcClose SOCKFD%
END IF
’Close socket
IF TCP.STTS% > 1 THEN
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcTDiscnn INTERFACE% ’Disconnect TCP/IP communications
’pathway
END IF
IF TCP.STTS% > 0 THEN
CLOSE #1
END IF
’Close IrDA communications device
ON ERROR GOTO 0
WAIT 0,1: W$ = INKEY$
IF WERR = &h105 THEN
ON ERROR GOTO TCP.ERR
GOTO TCP.OPEN
ELSE
RETURN
END IF
’If power-off error, retry
ERRSUB2:
RESUME NEXT
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Chapter 18. TCP/IP
18.4 Socket API
18.4.1
Overview
The SOCKET.FN3 library implements a subset of the BSD4.4 socket application program
interface (API).
The following flowcharts show the BSD4.4 socket API calls for the two communications protocols required for the TCP/IP transport layer: transmission control protocol (TCP) for streams
and user datagram protocol (UDP) for datagrams.
■ Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
Client
Server
socket()
socket()
bind()
listen()
connect()
accept()
send()
select()
select()
recv()
recv()
send()
close()
close()
451
■ User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
Client
Server
socket()
socket()
bind()
bind()
(listen ())
sendto()
select()
select()
recvfrom()
recvfrom()
sendto()
close()
close()
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Chapter 18. TCP/IP
18.4.2
Client Program Samples for Socket API
According to TCP and UDP
This section gives TCP and UDP client program samples. With ON ERROR GOTO statement,
you may trap errors if happened during execution of functions used in these samples.
These samples show only the skeleton of communication programs and require modification in
actual programming as necessary.
■
TCP client program
(Example)
’****************************************
’
Data Section
*
’****************************************
DIM RECVBUFF$[255]
’Receive data buffer
DIM SENDBUFF$[255]
’Send data buffer
DIM IPADDRESS$[15]
’IP address
DIM R.SOCKSET$[41]
’Read socket ID set
DIM W.SOCKSET$[41]
’Write socket ID set
DIM E.SOCKSET$[41]
’Exception socket ID set
’************************************************
’
Sample subroutine for TCP client
*
’************************************************
TCPCLIENT:
’Create send data
FOR I%=0 TO 254 STEP 1
SENDBUFF$[I%] = CHR$(I%)
NEXT I%
’Create TCP socket <-----Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API () function
FAMILY% = 2
’Internet protocol
TYPE%
= 1
’Stream socket
PROTOCOL% = 6
’TCP protocol
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcSocket FAMILY%, TYPE%, PROTOCOL%, SOCKFD%
’Convert IP address <----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API inet_addr() function
IPADDRESS$ = "192.100.100.001"
’Specify server IP address
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcINetAdr IPADDRESS$, ADDRESS
’Connect socket to server <----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API connect() function
PORT% = 1201
’Specify server port
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcConnect SOCKFD%, FAMILY%, PORT%, ADDRESS
’Transmit data <----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API send() function
SENDLEN% = 255
SENDMODE% = 0
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcSend SOCKFD%, SENDBUFF$, SENDLEN%, SENDMODE%,
SENDSIZE%
453
’Initialize socket identifier set
’<----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API FD_ZERO macro
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDZERO R.SOCKSET$ ’Initialize
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDZERO W.SOCKSET$ ’Initialize
’set
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDZERO E.SOCKSET$ ’Initialize
’identifier
read socket identifier set
write socket identifier
exception socket
set
’Add socket identifier to read socket identifier set
’<----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API FD_SET macro
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDSET SOCKFD%, R.SOCKSET$
’Wait for changes in socket identifier set (read condition)
’< ----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API select () function
MAXFD% = SOCKFD% +1
’Specify number of socket identifiers
TIMEOUT = 360
’Specify 6-minute (360-second) timeout
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcSelect MAXFD%, R.SOCKSET$, W.SOCKSET$, E.SOCKSET$,
TIMEOUT, RESULT%
IF RESULT% = 0 THEN
’Timeout occurred
’Processing for timeout
END IF
’Get socket identifier status from read socket identifier set
’< ----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API FD_ISSET macro
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDISSET SOCKFD%, R.SOCKSET$, FDISSET%
IF FDISSET% = 0 THEN
’No receive data
’Processing for no receive data
END IF
’Receive data < ----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API recv () function
RECVLEN% = 255
RECVMODE% = 0
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcRecv SOCKFD%, RECVBUFF$, RECVLEN%, RECVMODE%, RECVSIZE%
’Close socket < ----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API close () function
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcClose SOCKFD%
RETURN
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Chapter 18. TCP/IP
■
UDP client program (non-connection type)
(Example)
’****************************************
’
Data Section
*
’****************************************
DIM RECVBUFF$[255]
’Receive data buffer
DIM SENDBUFF$[255]
’Send data buffer
DIM IPADDRESS$[15]
’IP address
DIM R.SOCKSET$[41]
’Read socket ID set
DIM W.SOCKSET$[41]
’Write socket ID set
DIM E.SOCKSET$[41]
’Exception socket ID set
’************************************************
’
Sample subroutine for UDP client
*
’************************************************
UDPCLIENT:
’Create send data
FOR I%=0 TO 254 STEP 1
SENDBUFF$[I%] = CHR$(I%)
NEXT I%
’Create TCP socket <-----Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API () function
FAMILY% = 2
’Internet protocol
TYPE%
= 2
’Stream socket
PROTOCOL% = 17
’UDP protocol
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcSocket FAMILY%, TYPE%, PROTOCOL%, SOCKFD%
’Convert IP address <----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API inet_addr() function
IPADDRESS$ = "192.100.100.001"
’Specify server IP address
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcINetAdr IPADDRESS$, ADDRESS
’Transmit data <----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API sendto() function
SENDLEN% = 255
SENDMODE% = 0
PORT%
= 120
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcSendto SOCKFD%, SENDBUFF$, SENDLEN%, SENDMODE%, FAMILY%,
PORT%, ADDRESS, SENDSIZE%
’Initialize socket identifier set
’<----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API FD_ZERO macro
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDZERO R.SOCKSET$ ’Initialize
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDZERO W.SOCKSET$ ’Initialize
’set
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDZERO E.SOCKSET$ ’Initialize
’identifier
455
read socket identifier set
write socket identifier
exception socket
set
’Add socket identifier to the read socket identifier set
’<----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API FD_SET macro
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDSET SOCKFD%, R.SOCKSET$
’Wait for changes in socket identifier set (read condition)
’< ----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API select () function
MAXFD% = SOCKFD% +1
’Specify number of socket identifiers
TIMEOUT = 360
’Specify 6-minute (360-second) timeout
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcSelect MAXFD%, R.SOCKSET$, W.SOCKSET$, E.SOCKSET$,
TIMEOUT, RESULT%
IF RESULT% = 0 THEN
’Timeout occurred
’Processing for timeout
END IF
’Get socket identifier status from read socket identifier set
’< ----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API FD_ISSET macro
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDISSET SOCKFD%, R.SOCKSET$, FDISSET%
IF FDISSET% = 0 THEN
’No receive data
’Processing for no receive data
END IF
’Receive data < ----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API recvfrom() function
RECVLEN% = 255
RECVMODE% = 0
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcRcvfrom SOCKFD%, RECVBUFF$, RECVLEN%, RECVMODE%, FAMILY%,
PORT%, ADDRESS, RECVSIZE%
’Close socket < ----- Equivalent to BSD4.4 socket API close () function
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcClose SOCKFD%
RETURN
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Chapter 18. TCP/IP
18.4.3
Programming Notes for Socket API
Socket API according to the TCP/IP is restricted by the following specifications. For the
extended function SOCKET.FN3 given below, refer to Section 18.6, "Socket Library
(SOCKET.FN3)."
(1)
After closed, the TCP socket will retain data for 60 seconds to keep the current status.
For the 60 seconds, therefore, the socket cannot be used again.
(2)
SOCKET.FN3 function #26 may create a maximum of 64 sockets.
(3)
The TCP/IP will function from when SOCKET.FN3 function #41 or #42 connects the
TCP/IP communications pathway until SOCKET.FN3 function #43 disconnects it.
Except for this period, timers used in the TCP/IP will stop.
In programming for TCP socket communication, if the period from connection to disconnection
of the TCP/IP communications pathway is too short (approx. 1 second), then an error may
occur. In the sample below, when the 65th socket is created, a run-time error (error code:
&h218) may occur indicating too many sockets created.
(Example)
main:
on error goto Err.TCP
’Main program
’Prepare for error interrupt (To Err.TCP
’at the time of error occurrence)
iftype%=2
’Specify spread spectrum communications
’device
layermode%=2
’Specify Ethernet as a link layer
call "socket.fn3" .fcTSetup iftype%, layermode%, interface%
’Specify TCP/IP communications pathway
’Use SOCKET.FN3 function #40
hCom3%=1
’Specify a file number to be opened
open "COM3:" as #hCom3%
’Open spread spectrum communications
’device
’Use the OPEN "COM3:" statement
loop
call "socket.fn3" .fcTCnnSys interface%
’Connect to TCP/IP communications
’pathway (system settings)
’Use SOCKET.FN3 function #41
family%=2
’Internet protocol
type%=1
’Stream socket
protocol%=6
’TCP protocol
call "socket.fn3" .fcSocket family%, type%, protocol%, sockfd%
’Create TCP socket
’Use SOCKET.FN3 function #26
port%=1201
call "socket.fn3" .fcConnect sockfd%, family%, port%, serv.addr$
’Connect socket to server
’Use SOCKET.FN3 function #3
457
sendlen%=255
sendmode%=0
call "socket.fn3" .fcSend sockfd%, sendbuff$, sendlen%, sendmode%, sendsize%
’Transmit data
’Use SOCKET.FN3 function #22
recvlen%=255
recvmode%=0
call "socket.fn3" .fcRecv sockfd%, recvbuff$, recvlen%, recvmode%, recvsize%
’Receive data
’Use SOCKET.FN3 function #14
call "socket.fn3" .fcClose sockfd%
’Close socket
’Use SOCKET.FN3 function #28
call "socket.fn3" .fcTDiscnn interface% ’Disconnect TCP/IP communications
’pathway
’Use SOCKET.FN3 function #43
goto loop
’Conditional branch to get out of loop
loop_end:
close #hCom3%
’Close spread spectrum communications
’device
To avoid occurrence of run-time errors, set socket options (SOCKET.FN3 function #24) following TCP socket creation (SOCKET.FN3 function #26).
optname%=29
option%=0
’Set status retaining period after
’closing TCP socket to 0 second
’(release immediately)
call "socket.fn3" .fcSSckOpt sockfd%, optname%, option
’Set socket options
’Use SOCKET.FN3 function #24.
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Chapter 18. TCP/IP
18.5 FTP Client
18.5.1
Overview
The FTP.FN3 library implements FTP client services for file transfers to and from FTP servers.
Note that there are no server capabilities.
This FTP client transfers files between operating systems in image (binary) format. The only
translation support is for line delimiter conversion.
Note that this FTP client does not convert between such double-byte character encodings as
Shift JIS and EUC. Provide your own code conversion if the server uses a different encoding-for directory and file specifications, in particular.
18.5.2
File Formats
The FTP client classifies files into three types by their extensions: user programs (*.PD3),
extension libraries (*.FN3 and *.EX3), and data files (other extensions).
The following describes each file format in turn, assuming that the line delimiter setting specifies the CR-LF combination: a carriage return (0Dh) plus a line feed (0Ah).
[ 1 ] User Programs (*.PD3)
The FTP client reserves the .PD3 extension for user program files generated by the BHTBASIC compiler.
Program files use a fixed record length of 128 bytes for all records except the last. These
records are separated with line delimiters.
Record length (128 bytes)
Record
CR LF
CR LF
Program code
CR LF
CR LF
CR LF
459
The FTP client automatically pads the last record of a downloaded program file with null codes
(00h) to maintain the fixed-length format. (The number required is 128 less the number of
bytes in the last record).
Record length (128 bytes)
CR LF
CR LF
CR LF
Download
Record length (128 bytes)
Zeros
Aside:
To conserve memory and boost performance, the BHT packs a pair of ASCII bytes
into a single byte by converting each byte into a 4-bit hexadecimal number.
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Chapter 18. TCP/IP
[ 2 ] Extension Libraries (*.FN3 and *.EX3)
The FTP client treats files with extensions .FN3 and .EX3 as extension libraries.
Extension libraries use a fixed record length of 130 bytes for all records except the last. These
records are separated with line delimiters.
Record length (130 bytes)
Record
CR LF
CR LF
Program code
CR LF
CR LF
CR LF
CR LF
The FTP client automatically pads the last record of a downloaded program file with null codes
(00h) to maintain the fixed-length format. (The number required is 130 less the number of
bytes in the last record.)
Record length (130 bytes)
CR LF
CR LF
CR LF
CR LF
Download
Record length (130 bytes)
Zeros
Aside:
When downloading extension libraries, the BHT uses 128 bytes out of 130 bytes of
record length (the remaining 2 bytes will be used for checking data). To conserve
memory and boost performance, the BHT packs a pair of ASCII bytes into a single
byte by converting each byte into a 4-bit hexadecimal number.
461
[ 3 ] Data Files
The FTP client treats files with extensions other than .PD3, .FN3, and .EX3 as data files.
Data file records consist of fields separated with line delimiters. An EOF (1Ah) at the end of the
data file is optional.
Data files are not limited to ASCII characters. They can use all bytes codes from 00h to FFh.
Record length
Record
Field 1
Field 2
Field n
CR LF
CR LF
CR LF
CR LF
CR LF
EOF (optional)
There can be 1 to 16 fields, each 1 to 254 bytes long. The sum of the field lengths and the
number of fields, however, must not exceed 255.
If the actual record length is different from the specified record length
The FTP client discards any excess beyond the specified record length during downloads.
Specified record length
Record 1
← Specified length
CR LF
CR LF ← Length over
specification
Record 2
Specified record length
Record 1
← As is
Record 2
← Truncated
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Chapter 18. TCP/IP
The treatment of short records is under application control. The default is to delete any trailing
spaces (20h).
Specified record length
Record 1
Record 2
Record 3
CR LF
← Specified length
← Short
CR LF
Spaces CR LF
← Short, with trailing spaces
Specified record length
Record 1
← As is
Record 2
← As is
← Truncated further
Record 3
Alternatively, the FTP client can pad such short records to the specified record length with
spaces (20h).
Specified record length
CR LF ← Specified length
← Short
Record 1
Record 2
Record 3
CR LF
Spaces CR LF
← Short, with trailing spaces
Specified record length
← As is
Record 1
Record 2
Record 3
Spaces
Spaces
Spaces
463
← Padded
← Padded
Line delimiters inside data records
The FTP client can send and receive all codes from 00h to FFh as described above. The treatment of line delimiters (CR-LF, CR, or LF) inside downloaded data records is under application
control. The default is to split the incoming stream into short records.
Specified record length
Record n1
CR LF
Record n2
CR LF
Specified record length
Record n1
Spaces
Record n2
Spaces
Split
Alternatively, the FTP client can ignore any line delimiters inside downloaded data records,
treating them as data. Note, however, that the specified line delimiters must appear in the
specified positions between records. Otherwise, the FTP client cancels the transfer with an
error because a record is either too long or too short.
Specified record length
Record n1
CR LF
Record n2
CR LF
Specified record length
Record n1
CR LF
Record n2
464
Single record
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
18.5.3
Using FTP Client
[ 1 ] Basic Procedure
First, set up for using the FTP client, as necessary, with the following steps. All three are
optional, but the last two are highly recommended for downloads.
(1)
Configure the FTP client with the extension library FTP.FN3.
(2)
Use the FRE function to check whether there is sufficient free memory available to hold
the downloaded file.
(3)
Use a BHT-BASIC OUT statement to optimize the drive.
The rest of the procedure is the same as in Section 18.2, "TCP/IP over Spread Spectrum System." The key step is to use the FTP.FN3 for the file transfers.
[ 2 ] Configuring FTP Client
The FTP client requires the following information before it can transfer files.
• IP address for server
• Login (user) name for server
• Password for that login (user) name
FTP.FN3 provides functions #8 and #9 for reading and changing these settings. For further
details on these two functions, see their descriptions in Section 18.7, "FTP Library (FTP.FN3),"
Subsection 18.7.2.
465
[ 3 ] Calculating Memory Requirements
The FTP protocol specifications do not provide for checking the amount of BHT memory available during downloads. If the BHT runs out of memory during a download, the FTP client cancels the transfer and deletes the partially downloaded file. The user application program must,
therefore, check availability with the FRE function or equivalent method and compare the result
with the BHT file size (BFS) before using the download function. The formula for calculating the
BHT memory requirements (MEM) depends on the file format.
NOTE
• The line delimiter size (LDS) refers to the number of bytes in each line delimiter:
two for operating systems using the CR-LF combination and one for those using
only LF or CR.
• The number 4096 (4K) is the assumed memory management unit. Change this to
8192 (8K) if the BHT uses that larger block size.
• HFS = host file size
■
User Programs (*.PD3)
Determine MEM from HFS.
BFS = ROUND_UP (HFS ÷ (128 + LDS)) × 64
MEM = ROUND_UP (BFS ÷ 4096) × 4096
Example: File size of 12,345 bytes on operating system using CR-LF combination
BFS = ROUND_UP (12345 ÷ (128 + 2)) × 64 = ROUND_UP(94.96) × 64 = 6080
MEM = ROUND_UP (6080 ÷ 4096) × 4096 = ROUND_UP(1.48) × 4096 = 8192
Note that 128K of free memory is enough to download even the largest (128K) BASIC program.
■
Extension Libraries (*.FN3 and *.EX3)
Determine MEM from HFS.
BFS = ROUND_UP (HFS ÷ (130 + LDS)) × 64
MEM = ROUND_UP (BFS ÷ 4096) × 4096
The rest of the procedure is the same as for BASIC program files.
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Chapter 18. TCP/IP
■
Data Files
Determine MEM from the field lengths and number of records.
BPR = bytes per record = (number of fields) + (sum of field lengths)
RPB = records per block = ROUND_DOWN (4096 ÷ BPR)
MEM = ROUND_UP (records ÷ RPB) × 4096
Example: File with 1000 records with four fields of lengths 13, 12, 6, and 1
BPR = 4 + (13 + 12 + 6 + 1) = 36
RPB = ROUND_DOWN (4096 ÷ 36) = ROUND_DOWN (113.778) = 113
MEM = ROUND_UP (1000 ÷ 113) × 4096 = ROUND_UP (8.850) × 4096
= 9 × 4096 = 36,864
[ 4 ] Optimizing Drive (Recommended)
File system delays can sometimes retard file FTP downloads. The surest way to prevent such
delays is to use a BHT-BASIC OUT statement to optimize the drive.
Another reason for recommending this step is that it reduces air time, the period that the
spread spectrum communications device is open.
[ 5 ] FTP Transfers
The following is the basic procedure for transferring files with the FTP.FN3 extended functions.
(1)
Open an FTP client session with function #1 or #2.
(2)
Verify the FTP server current directory with function #4 or #5, if necessary.
(3)
Download and upload files with functions #6 and #7.
(4)
Close the FTP client session with function #3.
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18.6 Socket Library (SOCKET.FN3)
18.6.1
■
Overview
String Variables
The following are the string variables used by this library together with their memory
requirements.
Description
■
Variable name
Size in bytes
Internet address
IPADDRESS$
min. 15
Subnet mask
SUBNETMASK$
min. 15
Default gateway
GATEWAY$
min. 15
Receive buffer
RECVBUFF$
1 to 255
Transmit buffer
SENDBUFF$
1 to 255
Socket identifier set
SOCKFDSET$
READFDSET$
WRITEFDSET$
EXCEPTFDSET$
min. 41
min. 41
min. 41
min. 41
String Array Variables
The following are the string array variables used by this library together with their memory
requirements.
Description
Variable name
Receive buffer
RECVBUFF$()
Transmit buffer
SENDBUFF$()
Size in bytes
1 to 4096
TCP
1 to 4096
UDP
1 to 1472
468
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
■
Function Number List
Number
Used to:
Corresponding
Socket API Function
.fcAccept
1*
––
accept()
.fcBind
2
Assign address to socket
bind()
.fcConnect
3
Connect socket
connect()
.fcGPName
4*
––
getpeername()
.fcGSName
5*
––
getsockname()
.fcGSckOpt
6
Get socket option
getsockopt()
.fcHToNL
7
Convert host long (4 bytes) to network byte
order
htonl()
.fcHToNS
8
Convert host short (2 bytes) to network byte
order
htons()
.fcINetAdr
9
Convert Internet address from dotted quad
notation to 32-bit integer
inet_addr()
.fcListen
10*
––
listen()
.fcNToHL
11
Convert network long (4 bytes) to host byte
order
ntohl()
.fcNToHS
12
Convert network short (2 bytes) to host byte
order
ntohs()
.fcReadv
13*
––
readv()
.fcRecv
14
Receive data sent to the specified TCP
socket
recv()
.fcRcvfrom
15
Receive data sent to the specified UDP
socket
recvfrom()
.fcResvPrt
16*
––
rresvport()
.fcSelect
17
Monitor socket requests
select()
.fcFDZERO
18
Initialize socket identifier set
FD_ZERO macro
.fcFDSET
19
Add socket identifier to socket identifier set
FD_SET macro
.fcFDCLR
20
Delete socket identifier from socket identifier
set
FD_CLR macro
.fcFDISSET
21
Get socket identifier status from socket identifier set
FD_ISSET macro
.fcSend
22
Send message to another TCP socket
send()
.fcSendto
23
Send message to another UDP socket
sendto()
.fcSSckOpt
24
Set socket options
setsockopt()
.fcShutdwn
25
Shut down socket
shutdown()
* Socket API function not supported by SOCKET.FN3 library.
469
Number
Used to:
Corresponding
Socket API Function
.fcSocket
26
Create socket
socket()
.fcWritev
27*
––
writev()
.fcClose
28
Close socket
close()
.fcTSetup
40
Specify TCP/IP communications pathway
Unique to BHT
.fcTCnnSys
41
Connect TCP/IP communications pathway
with system settings
Unique to BHT
.fcTCnnUsr
42
Connect TCP/IP communications pathway
with user settings
Unique to BHT
.fcTDiscnn
43
Disconnect TCP/IP communications pathway
Unique to BHT
.fcTSysGet
44
Get TCP/IP system settings
Unique to BHT
.fcTSysSet
45
Set TCP/IP system settings
Unique to BHT
.fcTStsGet
46
Get TCP socket status
Unique to BHT
* Socket API function not supported by SOCKET.FN3 library.
470
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
18.6.2
Detailed Function Specifications
Assign address to socket
.fcBind
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcBind SOCKFD%, FAMILY%, PORT%,
address
where address is ADDRESS or IPADDRESS$
Description:
This function assigns an address to the specified socket identifier.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API bind() function.
Parameters:
Socket identifier
Protocol family
Port
Local address for connection
Internet address in dotted quad notation
SOCKFD%
FAMILY%
PORT%
ADDRESS
IPADDRESS$
The protocol family (FAMILY%) must be 2, the value indicating the ARPA
Internet protocols.
.soINet
Return value:
ARPA Internet protocols
2
(None)
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
209h
Socket identifier is invalid.
216h
A parameter is invalid, or the socket is already bound.
224h
The socket is being assigned an address.
230h
The specified IP address is already in use.
471
Connect socket
.fcConnect
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcConnect SOCKFD%, FAMILY%,
PORT%, address
where address is ADDRESS or IPADDRESS$
Description:
This function connects the specified socket identifier to another socket.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API connect() function.
Parameters:
Socket identifier
Protocol family
Port
Local address for connection
Internet address in dotted quad notation
SOCKFD%
FAMILY%
PORT%
ADDRESS
IPADDRESS$
The protocol family (FAMILY%) must be 2, the value indicating the ARPA
Internet protocols.
.soINet
Return value:
ARPA Internet protocols
2
(None)
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
201h
Cannot connect to socket
209h
Socket identifier is invalid.
216h
A parameter is invalid.
229h
The specified socket does not match the connection target socket.
22Fh
The specified address family is invalid for this socket.
230h
The specified address is already in use.
231h
The specified address is invalid.
238h
The specified socket is already connected.
23Ch
The connection attempt has timed out.
23Dh
Failed to connect
241h
There is no connection pathway to the host for TCP socket.
472
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
Get socket option
.fcGSckOpt
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcGSckOpt SOCKFD%, OPTNAME%,
option
where option is OPTION% or OPTION
Description:
This function gets the specified option setting for the specified socket.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API getsockopt() function.
Parameters:
SOCKFD%
OPTNAME%
Return value:
option
Socket identifier
Option name
Current setting for socket option (OPTION%/
OPTION) of type integer/real
Correspondence tables:
Option Number
(OPTNAME%)
Description
.soKepAliv
2
Keep-alive timer enable/disable
Option Number
(OPTNAME%)
Description
Values for Option (OPTION%)
.soDisable
0
Disabled
.soEnable
1
Enabled
Values for Option (OPTION)
.soSndBuff
8
Transmit buffer size (byte)
1 to 8192
.soRcvBuff
9
Receive buffer size (byte)
1 to 8192
.soMaxRT
26 Retry count
0 to 32
.soTIMEWAIT
29 Status retaining period after closing TCP socket (seconds)
0 to 60
.soRTODef
30 Initial round trip time (ms)*
100 to 3000
.soRTOMin
31 Minimum round trip time (ms)*
100 to 1000
.soRTOMax
32 Maximum round trip time (ms)*
100 to 60000
*Shown in units of 100. (e.g., 1 = 100 ms).
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
209h
Socket identifier is invalid.
216h
A parameter is invalid.
473
.fcHToNL
Convert host long (4 bytes) to network byte order
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcHToNL HOSTLONG, NETLONG
Description:
This function converts a (4-byte) long from host byte order to network byte
order.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API htonl() function.
Parameters:
HOSTLONG
Long in host byte order
Return value:
NETLONG
Long in network byte order
.fcHToNS
Convert host short (2 bytes) to network byte order
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcHToNS HOSTSHORT%, NETSHORT%
Description:
This function converts a (2-byte) short from host byte order to network byte
order.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API htons() function.
Parameters:
HOSTSHORT%
Short in host byte order
Return value:
NETSHORT%
Short in network byte order
.fcINetAdr
Convert Internet address from dotted quad notation to
32-bit integer
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcINetAdr IPADDRESS$, ADDRESS
Description:
This function converts an Internet address in dotted quad notation to a 4byte Internet address.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API inet_addr() function.
Parameters:
IPADDRESS$
Internet address in dotted quad notation
Return value:
ADDRESS
4-byte Internet address
.fcNToHL
Convert network long (4 bytes) to host byte order
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcNToHL NETLONG, HOSTLONG
Description:
This function converts a (4-byte) long from network byte to host byte order.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API ntohl() function.
Parameters:
NETLONG
Long in network byte order
Return value:
HOSTLONG
Long in host byte order
474
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
.fcNToHS
Convert network short (2 bytes) to host byte order
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcNToHS NETSHORT%, HOSTSHORT%
Description:
This function converts a (2-byte) short from network byte order to host byte
order.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API ntohs() function.
Parameters:
NETSHORT%
Short in network byte order
Return value:
HOSTSHORT%
Short in host byte order
.fcRecv
Receive data sent to the specified TCP socket
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcRecv SOCKFD%, RECVBUFF$[()],
RECVLEN%, RECVMODE%, RECVSIZE% [,RECVFLAG%]
Description:
This function receives data from the IP address and port number connected to the specified socket identifier into the specified buffer.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API recv() function.
Parameters:
SOCKFD%
RECVBUFF$[()]
RECVLEN%
RECVMODE%
RECVFLAG%
Socket identifier
Receive buffer
Maximum number of bytes to receive
Receive mode
Storage method (optional)
The receive buffer (RECVBUFF$) can be either a string non-array or string
array variable. The maximum size for a string is 255 bytes; for a string
array, 4096.
The receive mode (RECVMODE%) must be one of the following values:
.soRvNrm
0
Normal
.soRvOOB
1
Out of band data
.soRvPeek
2
Peek at next message
The storage method (RECVFLAG%) is required for a string array buffer. It
is ignored for a string variable and new data will be written.
The storage method (RECVFLAG%) must be one of the following values:
.soRvApend
0
Append data to buffer (default if omitted)
.soRvWrite
1
Overwrite buffer with data
Note: If RECVFLAG% is 0 or omitted, the user application program must
initialize the receive buffer string array variable before receiving any data.
Return value:
RECVSIZE%
Number of bytes received
475
Run-time errors:
Error code
Example:
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
209h
Socket identifier is invalid.
216h
A parameter is invalid.
228h
The maximum number of bytes to receive is too small.
236h
An RST from the opposite end has forced disconnection.
237h
There is insufficient system area memory.
239h
The specified socket is not connected.
23Ah
The specified TCP socket has been closed.
Append operation
Incoming data: 1024 bytes ("0123456789..........0123")
Receive buffer: 8 elements, 128 characters each for a total of 1024 bytes
• After initializing receive buffer
1
2
3
4
5
[ Strings ]
Element 0
–
–
–
–
–
• • • • • • • •
–
–
–
–
Element 7
–
–
–
–
–
• • • • • • • •
–
–
–
–
476
125 126 127 128
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
• After receiving first 512 bytes
1
2
3
4
5
[ Strings ]
125 126 127 128
Element 0
‘0’ ‘1’ ‘2’ ‘3’ ‘4’
• • • • • • • •
‘4’ ‘5’ ‘6’ ‘7’
Element 1
‘8’ ‘9’ ‘0’ ‘1’ ‘2’
• • • • • • • •
‘2’ ‘3’ ‘4’ ‘5’
Element 3
‘4’ ‘5’ ‘6’ ‘7’ ‘8’
• • • • • • • •
‘8’ ‘9’ ‘0’ ‘1’
Element 4
–
–
–
–
–
• • • • • • • •
–
–
–
–
Element 7
–
–
–
–
–
• • • • • • • •
–
–
–
–
• After receiving remaining 512 bytes
1
2
3
4
5
[ Strings ]
125 126 127 128
Element 0
‘0’ ‘1’ ‘2’ ‘3’ ‘4’
• • • • • • • •
‘4’ ‘5’ ‘6’ ‘7’
Element 1
‘8’ ‘9’ ‘0’ ‘1’ ‘2’
• • • • • • • •
‘2’ ‘3’ ‘4’ ‘5’
Element 3
‘4’ ‘5’ ‘6’ ‘7’ ‘8’
• • • • • • • •
‘8’ ‘9’ ‘0’ ‘1’
Element 4
‘2’ ‘3’ ‘4’ ‘5’ ‘6’
• • • • • • • •
‘6’ ‘7’ ‘8’ ‘9’
Second half is
appended to first.
Element 7
‘6’ ‘7’ ‘8’ ‘9’ ‘0’
• • • • • • • •
477
‘0’ ‘1’ ‘2’ ‘3’
Example:
Overwrite operation
Incoming data: 1024 bytes ("0123456789..........0123")
Receive buffer: 8 elements, 128 characters each for a total of 1024 bytes
• After initializing receive buffer
[ Strings ]
1
2
3
4
5
125 126 127 128
Element 0
–
–
–
–
–
• • • • • • • •
–
–
–
–
Element 7
–
–
–
–
–
• • • • • • • •
–
–
–
–
• After receiving first 512 bytes
[ Strings ]
1
2
3
4
5
125 126 127 128
Element 0
‘0’ ‘1’ ‘2’ ‘3’ ‘4’
• • • • • • • •
‘4’ ‘5’ ‘6’ ‘7’
Element 1
‘8’ ‘9’ ‘0’ ‘1’ ‘2’
• • • • • • • •
‘2’ ‘3’ ‘4’ ‘5’
Element 3
‘4’ ‘5’ ‘6’ ‘7’ ‘8’
• • • • • • • •
‘8’ ‘9’ ‘0’ ‘1’
Element 4
–
–
–
–
Element 7
–
–
–
–
–
• • • • • • • •
–
–
–
–
–
• • • • • • • •
–
–
–
–
• After receiving remaining 512 bytes
[ Strings ]
1
2
3
4
5
125 126 127 128
Element 0
‘2’ ‘3’ ‘4’ ‘5’ ‘6’
• • • • • • • •
‘6’ ‘7’ ‘8’ ‘9’
Element 1
‘0’ 1’ ‘2’ ‘3’ ‘4’
• • • • • • • •
‘4’ ‘5’ ‘6’ ‘7’
Element 3
‘6’ ‘7’ ‘8’ ‘9’ ‘0’
• • • • • • • •
‘0’ ‘1’ ‘2’ ‘3’
Element 4
–
–
–
–
–
• • • • • • • •
–
–
–
–
Element 7
–
–
–
–
–
• • • • • • • •
–
–
–
–
478
Second half
overwrites first.
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
.fcRcvfrom
Syntax:
Receive data sent to the specified UDP socket
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcRcvfrom SOCKFD%,
RECVBUFF$[()], RECVLEN%, RECVMODE%, FAMILY%, PORT%,
address, RECVSIZE% [,RECVFLAG%]
where address is ADDRESS or IPADDRESS$
Description:
This function receives data sent to the UDP socket specified by the socket
identifier.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API recvfrom() function.
Parameters:
SOCKFD%
RECVBUFF$[()]
RECVLEN%
RECVMODE%
RECVFLAG%
Socket identifier
Receive buffer
Maximum number of bytes to receive
Receive mode
Storage method (optional)
The receive buffer (RECVBUFF$) can be either a string non-array or string
array variable. The maximum size for a string non-array is 255 bytes; for a
string array, 4096.
The receive mode (RECVMODE%) must be one of the following values:
.soRvNrm
0
Normal
.soRvPeek
2
Peek at next message
The protocol family (FAMILY%) must be 2, the value indicating the ARPA
Internet protocols.
.soINet
ARPA Internet protocols
2
The storage method (RECVFLAG%) is required for a string array buffer. It
is ignored for a string non-array variable and new data will be written.
The storage method (RECVFLAG%) must be one of the following values:
.soRvApend
0
Append data to buffer (default if omitted)
.soRvWrite
1
Overwrite buffer with data
Note: If RECVFLAG% is 0 or omitted, the user application program must
initialize the receive buffer string array variable before receiving any data.
Return value:
FAMILY%
PORT%
ADDRESS
IPADDRESS$
RECVSIZE%
Protocol family of sending station
Port number of sending station
Address of sending station
Address of sending station in dotted quad notation
Number of bytes received
479
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
209h
Socket identifier is invalid.
216h
A parameter is invalid.
228h
The maximum number of bytes to receive is too small.
229h
TCP is the wrong protocol here.
237h
There is insufficient system area memory.
240h
No receiver found.
480
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
Monitor socket requests
.fcSelect
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcSelect MAXFD%, READFDSET$,
WRITEFDSET$, EXCEPTFDSET$, TIMEOUT, RESULT%
Description:
This function waits for changes in the socket identifier sets (read, write,
and exception conditions) for the specified socket identifiers.
The only exception condition is out of band data.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API select() function.
Parameters:
MAXFD%
READFDSET$
WRITEFDSET$
EXCEPTFDSET$
TIMEOUT
Number of socket identifiers + 1
Socket identifier set to monitor for read
Socket identifier set to monitor for write
Socket identifier set to check for exception conditions
Waiting period (in seconds)
The waiting period (TIMEOUT) must be one of the following values:
.soNoWait
-1
No waiting period
.soNotTOut
0
No timeout
Other time interval in seconds
Return value:
RESULT%
Number of sockets that are ready.
After a timeout, RESULT% contains 0.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
209h
Socket identifier is invalid.
216h
A parameter is invalid.
481
.fcFDZERO
Initialize socket identifier set
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDZERO SOCKFDSET$
Description:
This function initializes the specified socket identifier set.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API FD_ZERO macro.
Parameters:
SOCKFDSET$
Return value:
(None)
.fcFDSET
Socket identifier set
Add socket identifier to socket identifier set
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDSET SOCKFD%, SOCKFDSET$
Description:
This function adds the specified socket identifier to the specified identifier
set.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API FD_SET macro.
Parameters:
SOCKFD%
SOCKFDSET$
Return value:
(None)
.fcFDCLR
Socket identifier
Socket identifier set
Delete socket identifier from socket identifier set
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDCLR SOCKFD%, SOCKFDSET$
Description:
This function deletes the specified socket identifier from the specified identifier set.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API FD_CLR macro.
Parameters:
SOCKFD%
SOCKFDSET$
Return value:
(None)
Socket identifier
Socket identifier set
482
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
.fcFDISSET
Get socket identifier status from socket identifier set
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcFDISSET SOCKFD%, SOCKFDSET$,
FDISSET%
Description:
This function gets the status of the specified socket identifier in the specified socket identifier set.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API FD_ISSET macro.
Parameters:
SOCKFD%
SOCKFDSET$
Socket identifier
Socket identifier set
Return value:
FDISSET%
Socket identifier status
The socket identifier status (FDISSET%) must be one of the following values:
.fcSend
.soFDSet
0
No change
.soFDNoSet
1
Change in status
Send message to another TCP socket
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcSend SOCKFD%, SENDBUFF$[()],
SENDLEN%, SENDMODE%, SENDSIZE%
Description:
This function transmits data from the specified buffer to the IP address and
port number connected to the specified socket identifier.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API sendto() function.
Parameters:
Socket identifier
Transmit buffer
Number of bytes to transmit
Transmit mode
SOCKFD%
SENDBUFF$[()]
SENDLEN%
SENDMODE%
The transmit buffer (SENDBUFF$) can be either a string non-array or
string array variable. The maximum size for a string is 255 bytes; for a
string array, 4096.
The transmit mode (SENDMODE%) must be one of the following values:
Return value:
.soSdNrm
0
Normal
.soSdOOB
1
Out of band data
.soSdDnRt
4
Bypass pathway control function
SENDSIZE%
Number of bytes transmitted
483
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
209h
Socket identifier is invalid.
216h
A parameter is invalid.
228h
The maximum number of bytes to receive is too small.
237h
There is insufficient system area memory.
239h
The specified socket is not connected.
23Ah
The specified TCP socket has been closed.
241h
There is no connection pathway to the host for UDP socket.
484
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
Send message to another UDP socket
.fcSendto
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcSendto SOCKFD%, SENDBUFF$[()],
SENDLEN%, SENDMODE%, FAMILY%, PORT%, address,
SENDSIZE%
where address is ADDRESS or IPADDRESS$
Description:
This function transmits data from the specified buffer to the IP address and
port number connected to the specified socket identifier.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API sendto() function.
Parameters:
Socket identifier
Transmit buffer
Number of bytes to transmit
Transmit mode
Protocol family
Port
Local address for connection
Internet address in dotted quad notation
SOCKFD%
SENDBUFF$[()]
SENDLEN%
SENDMODE%
FAMILY%
PORT%
ADDRESS
IPADDRESS$
The transmit buffer (SENDBUFF$) can be either a string non-array or
string array variable. The maximum size for a string non-array is 255
bytes; for a string array, 1472.
The transmit mode (SENDMODE%) must be one of the following values:
.soSdNrm
0
Normal
.soSdDnRt
4
Bypass pathway control function
The protocol family (FAMILY%) must be 2, the value indicating the ARPA
Internet protocols.
.soINet
Return value:
SENDSIZE%
ARPA Internet protocols
2
Number of bytes transmitted
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
209h
Socket identifier is invalid.
216h
A parameter is invalid.
228h
The maximum number of bytes to receive is too small.
229h
TCP is the wrong protocol here.
237h
There is insufficient system area memory.
241h
There is no connection pathway to the host.
485
Set socket options
.fcSSckOpt
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcSSckOpt SOCKFD%, OPTNAME%,
option
where option is OPTION% or OPTION
Description:
This function sets the specified option for the specified socket to the new
value.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API setsockopt() function.
Parameters:
SOCKFD%
OPTNAME%
OPTION%/OPTION
Return value:
(None)
Socket identifier
Option name
New setting for socket option of type integer/real
Correspondence tables:
Option Number
(OPTNAME%)
.soKepAliv
Description
2
Keep-alive timer enable/disable
Option Number
(OPTNAME%)
Description
Values for Option (OPTION%)
.soDisable
0
Disabled
.soEnable
1
Enabled
Values for Option
(OPTION)
Initial
values
.soSndBuff
8
Transmit buffer size (byte)
1 to 8192
8192
.soRcvBuff
9
Receive buffer size (byte)
1 to 8192
8192
.soMaxRT
26 Retry count
0 to 32
12
.soTIMEWAIT
29 Status retaining period after closing TCP socket (seconds)
0 to 60
60
.soRTODef
30 Initial round trip time (ms)*
100 to 3000
3000
.soRTOMin
31 Minimum round trip time (ms)*
100 to 1000
100
.soRTOMax
32 Maximum round trip time (ms)*
100 to 60000
60000
*To be set in units of 100.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
201h
Cannot set option after connection established
209h
Socket identifier is invalid.
216h
A parameter is invalid.
486
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
Shut down socket
.fcShutdwn
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcShutdwn SOCKFD%, HOWTO%
Description:
This function shuts down socket transfers in the specified direction.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API shutdown() function.
Parameters:
SOCKFD%
HOWTO%
Socket identifier
Direction specification
The direction specification (HOWTO%) must be one of the following values:
Return value:
.soSdRecv
0
Receive
.soSdSend
1
Transmit
.soSdBoth
2
Both
(None)
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
209h
Socket identifier is invalid.
216h
A parameter is invalid.
22Ah
This option is not recognized at the specification level.
487
Create socket
.fcSocket
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcSocket FAMILY%, TYPE%,
PROTOCOL%, SOCKFD%
Description:
This function creates a socket from the specified protocol family, socket
type, and protocol layer and assigns it to a socket identifier.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API socket() function.
Parameters:
FAMILY%
TYPE%
PROTOCOL%
Protocol family for the socket
Socket type
Protocol layer for the socket
The protocol family (FAMILY%) must be 2, the value indicating the ARPA
Internet protocols.
.soINet
ARPA Internet protocols
2
The socket type (TYPE%) must be one of the following values:
.soStream
1
Stream socket
.soDGRam
2
Datagram socket
.soSoRaw
3
RAW socket
The protocol layer (PROTOCOL%) must be one of the following values:
Return value:
.soICMP
1
ICMP
.soTCP
6
TCP
.soUDP
17
UDP
SOCKFD%
Socket identifier
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
218h
Too many sockets
22Bh
This protocol family does not support the specified protocol type
and protocol.
237h
There is insufficient system area memory.
488
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
Close socket
.fcClose
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcClose SOCKFD%
Description:
This function closes the specified socket identifier.
BSD4.4 socket API equivalent: This function is equivalent to the BSD4.4
socket API close() function.
Parameters:
SOCKFD%
Return value:
(None)
Socket identifier
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
209h
Socket identifier is invalid.
225h
The last close operation for the specified socket is not complete.
23Ah
The specified TCP socket has been closed.
23Ch
The connection attempt has timed out.
489
Specify TCP/IP communications pathway
.fcTSetup
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcTSetup IFTYPE%, LAYERMODE%,
INTERFACE%
Description:
This function specifies the TCP/IP communications pathway from the
specified communications device and link layer.
Parameters:
IFTYPE%
LAYERMODE%
Communications device
Link layer
The communications device (IFTYPE%) must be one of the following values:
.soDvCOM1
0
COM1 (IrDA communications device)
For IrDA communication via the LANsupport CU
.soDvCOM3
2
COM3 (Spread spectrum communications
device)
The link layer (LAYERMODE%) must be 2, the value indicating an Ethernet
client.
.soLyEther
Return value:
INTERFACE%
Ethernet client.
2
Communications pathway
Run-time errors:
Error code
100h
Meaning
Cannot specify communications pathway
490
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
Connect TCP/IP communications pathway with system
settings
.fcTCnnSys
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcTCnnSys INTERFACE%
Description:
This function connects the TCP/IP communications pathway based on the
system settings.
Parameters:
INTERFACE%
Return value:
(None)
Communications pathway
Run-time errors:
Error code
34h
Meaning
Communications device file not open
101h
Cannot connect to communications pathway
102h
Communications pathway not specified
103h
Communications pathway already connected
105h
Power-off detected
216h
A parameter is invalid.
503h
The CU has been linked with any other BHT.
504h
LAN-support CU setting being made.
505h
Timeout
491
Connect TCP/IP communications pathway with user settings
.fcTCnnUsr
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcTCnnUsr INTERFACE%,
IPADDRESS$, SUBNETMASK$, GATEWAY$
Description:
This function connects the TCP/IP communications pathway based on the
supplied user settings.
Parameters:
INTERFACE%
IPADDRESS$
SUBNETMASK$
GATEWAY$
Return value:
(None)
Communications pathway
Internet address in dotted quad notation
Subnet mask in dotted quad notation
Default gateway in dotted quad notation
Run-time errors:
Error code
34h
Meaning
Communications device file not open
101h
Cannot connect to communications pathway
102h
Communications pathway not specified
103h
Communications pathway already connected
105h
Power-off detected
216h
A parameter is invalid.
503h
The CU has been linked with any other BHT.
504h
LAN-support CU setting being made.
505h
Timeout
492
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
Disconnect TCP/IP communications pathway
.fcTDiscnn
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcTDiscnn INTERFACE%
Description:
This function disconnects the specified TCP/IP communications pathway.
Parameters:
INTERFACE%
Return value:
(None)
Communications pathway
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
104h
Communications pathway already disconnected
105h
Power-off detected
216h
A parameter is invalid.
503h
The CU has been linked with any other BHT.
504h
LAN-support CU setting being made.
505h
Timeout
.fcTSysGet
Get TCP/IP system settings
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcTSysGet PARA%, data
where data is DATA% or DATA$
Description:
This function gets the current setting for the specified TCP/IP system settings.
Parameters:
PARA%
Item number
Return value:
data
Current setting for TCP/IP system settings (DATA%/
DATA$)
Correspondence tables:
Item number (PARA%)
.soDvGet
.soLyGet
100
200
Item number (PARA%)
Description
Values for Setting (DATA%)
Communications device
Link layer
Description
.soDvCOM1
0
COM1
.soDvCOM3
2
COM3
.soLyEther
2
Ethernet
Values for Setting (DATA$)
.soPmIPAdr
1
IP address
Character string in dotted quad notation,
maximum 15 bytes
.soPmNtMsk
2
Subnet mask
Character string in dotted quad notation,
maximum 15 bytes
.soPmDGWay
3
Default gateway
Character string in dotted quad notation,
maximum 15 bytes
493
Set TCP/IP system settings
.fcTSysSet
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcTSysSet PARA%, data
where data is DATA% or DATA$
Description:
This function sets the specified TCP/IP system settings to the new value.
Parameters:
PARA%
data
Return value:
(None)
Item number
New setting for TCP/IP system settings (DATA%/DATA$)
Correspondence tables:
See Table under function #44.
Get TCP socket status
.fcTStsGet
Syntax:
CALL "SOCKET.FN3" .fcTStsGet SOCKFD%, PATTERN%, TIMEOUT%, RESULT%
Description:
This function waits until the specified TCP socket is in the specified state
or the specified time elapsed.
Parameters:
SOCKFD%
PATTERN%
TIMEOUT%
Socket identifier
Desired socket state
Waiting period (in milliseconds, 100 ms resolution)
The socket state (PATTERN%) must be &h0020, the value indicating that
the opposite end has sent FIN to close the socket. Only TCP sockets support this function.
.soStRmtCl
&h0020
Close socket from the opposite end
(FIN received)
Note: Specifying an invalid state sometimes stops processing.
TIMEOUT% must be one of the following values:
.soNoWait
-1
No timeout
.soNotTOut
0
Read current state
1 to 32767
Return value:
RESULT%
Wait specified time
(timer resolution: 100 ms)
Current socket state
RESULT% contains the current socket state. After a timeout, RESULT%
contains 0.
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
209h
Socket identifier is invalid.
216h
A parameter is invalid.
494
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
18.7 FTP Library (FTP.FN3)
18.7.1
■
Overview
String Variables
The following are the string variables used by this library together with their memory
requirements.
Description
Variable name
Size in bytes
Server IP address
SERV.IP
15
Login user name
USERNAME$
0 to 16
Login password
PASSWORD$
0 to 16
Directory names
CURDIR$
NEWDIR$
0 to 255
0 to 255
File names
SERV.FNAME$
CLNT.FNAME$
OLD.FNAME$
NEW.FNAME$
0 to 12
0 to 12
0 to 12
0 to 12
Field lengths
FLD$
1 to 64 (48)
FTP parameter
FTP.PARA
Function Number
Description
FTP
Commands
.fcFTPOpnS
1
Open FTP client session with system settings
USER/PASS
.fcFTPOpnU
2
Open FTP client session with user settings
USER/PASS
.fcFTPClos
3
Close FTP client session
---
.fcPWD
4
Get current directory on FTP server
PWD
.fcCWD
5
Change current directory on FTP server
CWD
.fcRETR
6
Download file from FTP server
RETR
.fcSTOR
7
Upload file to FTP server
STOR/APPE
.fcFSysGet
8
Get FTP system settings
---
.fcFSysSet
9
Change FTP system settings
---
.fcRNFR
10
Change file name on FTP server
RNFR/RNTO
.fcPORT
11
Set port number for file transfer
PORT
.fcDELE
12
Delete file from FTP server
DELE
See also the run-time errors for the FTP.FN3 library.
495
■
Reply Codes
The messages that FTP servers send during and after FTP operations vary, but servers all
use the same reply codes. (See Table.) All function numbers therefore supply these as their
return value (REPLY%).
Reply Codes
Description
110
Restart marker replay.
120
Service ready in nnn minutes.
125
Data connection already open; transfer starting.
150
File status okay; about to open data connection.
200
Command okay.
202
Command not implemented, superfluous at this site.
211
System status, or system help reply.
212
Directory status.
213
File status.
214
Help message.
On how to use the server or the meaning of a particular non-standard
command. This reply is useful only to the human user.
215
NAME system type.
Where NAME is an official system name from the list in the Assigned
Numbers document.
220
Service ready for new users.
221
Service closing control connection.
Logged out if appropriate.
225
Data connection open; no transfer in progress.
226
Closing data connection.
Requested file action successful (for example, file transfer or file
abort).
227
Entering Passive Mode (h1, h2, h3, h4, p1, p2).
230
User logged in, proceed.
250
Requested file action okay, completed.
257
“PATHNAME” created.
331
User name okay, need password.
350
Requested file action pending further information.
421
Service not available, closing control connection.
This may be a reply to any command if the service knows it must shut
down.
425
Can’t open data connection.
496
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
Reply Codes
Description
426
Connection closed; transfer aborted.
450
Requested file action not taken.
File unavailable (e.g., file busy).
451
Requested action aborted: local error in processing.
452
Requested action not taken.
Insufficient storage space in system.
500
Syntax error, command unrecognized.
This may include errors such as command line too long.
501
Syntax error in parameters or arguments.
502
Command not implemented.
503
Bad sequence of commands.
504
Command not implemented for that parameter.
530
Not logged in.
532
Need account for storing files.
550
Requested action not taken.
File unavailable (e.g., file not found, no access).
551
Requested action aborted: page type unknown.
552
Requested file action aborted.
Exceeded storage allocation (for current directory or dataset).
553
Requested action not taken.
File name not allowed.
497
18.7.2
Detailed Function Specifications
Open FTP client session with system settings
.fcFTPOpnS
Syntax:
CALL "FTP.FN3" .fcFTPOpnS FTPHANDLE%, REPLY%
Description:
This function opens an FTP client session using the system settings.
Parameters:
(None)
Return value:
FTPHANDLE%
REPLY%
FTP client handle, for use by following functions
Server response to FTP command
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
110h
Response other than 2XX received
20Dh
Attempt to connect to different FTP server without disconnecting
216h
The FTP client handle is invalid.
239h
The specified socket is not connected.
23Ch
The connection attempt has timed out.
498
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
Open FTP client session with user settings
.fcFTPOpnU
Syntax:
CALL "FTP.FN3" .fcFTPOpnU FTPHANDLE%, SERV.IP$,
USERNAME$, PASSWORD$, REPLY%
Description:
This function opens an FTP client session based on the supplied user settings.
Parameters:
SERV.IP$
USERNAME$
PASSWORD$
FTP server IP address in dotted quad notation
User name for FTP authentication
Password for FTP authentication
Return value:
FTPHANDLE%
REPLY%
FTP client handle, for use by following functions
Server response to FTP command
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
110h
Response other than 2XX received
20Dh
Attempt to connect to different FTP server without disconnecting
216h
The FTP client handle is invalid.
239h
The specified socket is not connected.
23Ch
The connection attempt has timed out.
499
Close FTP client session
.fcFTPClos
Syntax:
CALL "FTP.FN3" .fcFTPClos FTPHANDLE%, REPLY%
Description:
This function closes the specified FTP client session.
Parameters:
FTPHANDLE%
FTP client handle
Return value:
REPLY%
Server response to FTP command
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
110h
Response other than 2XX received
216h
The FTP client handle is invalid.
239h
The specified socket is not connected.
500
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
Get current directory on FTP server
.fcPWD
Syntax:
CALL "FTP.FN3" .fcPWD FTPHANDLE%, CURDIR$, REPLY%
Description:
This function gets the current directory on the FTP server.
Parameters:
FTPHANDLE%
FTP client handle
Return value:
CURDIR$
REPLY%
FTP server current directory
Server response to FTP command
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
110h
Response other than 2XX received
216h
The FTP client handle is invalid.
239h
The specified socket is not connected.
295h
There is no user for login request.
Note: The directory specification (CURDIR$) is limited to 255 bytes, so
do not use longer directory names on the server.
501
Change current directory on FTP server
.fcCWD
Syntax:
CALL "FTP.FN3" .fcCWD FTPHANDLE%, NEWDIR$, REPLY%
Description:
This function changes the current directory on the FTP server.
Parameters:
FTPHANDLE%
NEWDIR$
FTP client handle
New directory
Return value:
REPLY%
Server response to FTP command
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
110h
Response other than 2XX received
216h
The FTP client handle is invalid.
239h
The specified socket is not connected.
295h
There is no user for login request.
502
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
.fcRETR
Download file from FTP server
Syntax:
CALL "FTP.FN3" .fcRETR FTPHANDLE%, SERV.FNAME$,
CLNT.FNAME$, CRLF.TYPE%, CRLF.MODE%, REPLY% [,FLD$]
[,DISP.MODE%]
Description:
This function downloads, from the current directory on the FTP server to
the BHT, the specified file using the specified parameters.
Parameters:
FTPHANDLE%
SERV.FNAME$
CLNT.FNAME$
FTP client handle
Name of file to download from FTP server
Name for file on handy terminal. Leaving this unspecified ("") uses the name in SERV.FNAME$ instead.
Note: SERV.FNAME$ and CLNT.FNAME$ must have the same type
(file extension): user program (.PD3), extension library (.FN3 or .EX3), or
data file (all other extensions). Otherwise, the run-time error 32h is the
result.
CRLF.TYPE%
Line delimiter
.ftCRLF
0
CR-LF combination
(Treat CR-LF combinations as delimiters. Use
this value when the data file delimits records with
CR-LF combinations.)
.ftCR
1
LF
(Treat LFs as delimiters. Use this value when the
data file delimits records with LFs.)
.ftLF
2
CR
(Treat CRs as delimiters. Use this value when
the data file delimits records with CRs.)
.ftNONE
3
None
Use this value when the data file does not delimit
records.
CRLF.MODE%
Treatment of line delimiters in records and trailing
spaces in fields
Note: CRLF.MODE% will be ignored for files except
data files.
.ftRcdSepa
0
Treat line delimiters in records as SEPARATORS.
TRIM trailing spaces in fields.
.ftRcdData
1
Treat line delimiters in records as DATA.
TRIM trailing spaces in fields.
.ftLspDel
10
Treat line delimiters in records as SEPARATORS.
RETAIN trailing spaces in fields.
.ftLspData
11
Treat line delimiters in records as DATA.
RETAIN trailing spaces in fields.
503
FLD$
Field lengths in bytes. Delimit the field length specifications with commas (,) or semicolons (;). (This
parameter applies only to downloaded data files.)
"<field length 1> [,<field length 2>,... <field length n>]"
(n=1 to 16, field length = 1 to 254)
DISP.MODE%
Flag controlling a progress display consisting of an 8digit number giving the number of bytes transferred
.ftNotDisp
0
Disable
.ftDisp
1
Enable
Return value:
REPLY%
Example:
Downloading a data file
Server response to FTP command
SERV.FNAME$ = "MASTER.DAT"
CLNT.FNAME$ = ""
’File name on server
’Name for file on the BHT
’Same as on server
CRLF.TYPE% = .ftCR
’Server line delimiter: LF
CRLF.MODE% = .ftRcdSepa
’Data composition
’There are no line delimiters in the data.
FLD$ = "3, 2, 1"
’Field lengths: 3, 2, 1
CALL "FTP.FN3" .fcRETR FTPHANDLE%, SERV.FNAME$, CLNT.FNAME$, CRLF.TYPE%, _
CRLF.MODE%, REPLY%, FLD$
Example:
Downloading a program file, with progress display
SERV.FNAME$ = "SAMPLE.PD3"
’File name on server
CLNT.FNAME$ = ""
’Name for file on the BHT
CRLF.TYPE% = .ftCRLF
’Server line delimiter: CR-LF combination
CRLF.MODE% = .ftRcdSepa
’Data composition: Will be ignored for
’Same as on server
’files except data files
DISP.MODE% = .ftDisp
’Enable progress display
CALL "FTP.FN3" .fcRETR FTPHANDLE%, SERV.FNAME$, CLNT.FNAME$, CRLF.TYPE%, _
CRLF.MODE%, REPLY%, DISP.MODE%
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Chapter 18. TCP/IP
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
02h
Syntax error (Incorrect file name)
05h
Number of field items or number of digits in a field out of the range
07h
Insufficient memory space
32h
Wrong file type
33h
Invalid text received
37h
File already open
39h
Too many files
3Ch
Record exceeds 255 bytes.
3Dh
Field mismatch error
41h
File damaged
47h
User break with cancel (C) key
49h
Invalid program file received (Invalid program size. Do not download user programs that have been run through Kanji conversion
utilities.)
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
110h
Response other than 2XX received
111h
File not closed
216h
The FTP client handle is invalid.
239h
The specified socket is not connected.
295h
There is no user for login request.
505
.fcSTOR
Upload file to FTP server
Syntax:
CALL "FTP.FN3" .fcSTOR FTPHANDLE%, SERV.FNAME$,
CLNT.FNAME$, CRLF.TYPE%, UP.MODE%, REPLY%
[,DISP.MODE%]
Description:
This function uploads, from the BHT to the current directory on the FTP
server, the specified file using the specified parameters.
Parameters:
FTPHANDLE%
SERV.FNAME$
CLNT.FNAME$
CRLF.TYPE%
UP.MODE%
FTP client handle
Name for file on FTP server. Leaving this unspecified
("") uses the name in CLNT.FNAME$ instead.
Name of file to upload to FTP server
Line delimiter (See description under function #6
above.)
Flag controlling treatment of existing files
.ftUpSTOR
0
Overwrite existing file
.ftUpAPPE
1
Append to existing file. Create new file if necessary.
DISP.MODE%
Flag controlling a progress display consisting of an 8digit number giving the number of bytes transferred
See the DISP.MODE% under function #6.
Return value:
REPLY%
Example:
Uploading data file
Server response to FTP command
CLNT.FNAME$ = "MASTER1.DAT"
’Name of file on BHT
SERV.FNAME$ = ""
’Name on server
’Same as on BHT
CRLF.TYPE% = .ftCRLF
’Server line delimiter: CR-LF combination
UP.MODE% = .ftUpAPPE
’Upload mode: Append
CALL "FTP.FN3" .fcSTOR FTPHANDLE%, SERV.FNAME$, CLNT.FNAME$, CRLF.TYPE%, _
UP.MODE%, REPLY%
Example:
Uploading program file, with progress display
CLNT.FNAME$ = "SAMPLE.PD3"
’Name of file on BHT
SERV.FNAME$ = ""
’Name on server
’Same as on BHT
CRLF.TYPE% = .ftCRLF
’Server line delimiter: CR-LF combination
UP.MODE% = .ftUpSTOR
’Upload mode: Overwrite
DISP.MODE% = .ftDisp
’Enable progress display
CALL "FTP.FN3" .fcSTOR FTPHANDLE%, SERV.FNAME$, CLNT.FNAME$, CRLF.TYPE%, _
UP.MODE%, REPLY%, DISP.MODE%
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Chapter 18. TCP/IP
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
35h
File not found
37h
File already open
47h
User break with cancel (C) key
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
110h
Response other than 2XX received
111h
File not closed
216h
The FTP client handle is invalid.
239h
The specified socket is not connected.
295h
There is no user for login request.
507
Get FTP system settings
.fcFSysGet
Syntax:
CALL "FTP.FN3" .fcFSysGet PARA%, ftp.para
where ftp.para is FTP.PARA% or FTP.PARA$
Description:
This function gets the current setting for the specified FTP system settings.
Parameters:
PARA%
Item number
Return value:
ftp.para
Current setting for FTP system settings of type integer/
string (FTP.PARA%/FTP.PARA$)
Correspondence tables:
Item number
(PARA%)
Description
Values for Setting (FTP.PARA%)
.ftCRLFTyp
5
Line delimiter
0 (CR-LF),
2 (CR),
.ftCRLFMd
6
Treatment of line delimiters
inside records
0 (separators), 1 (data)
.ftUpMd
7
Upload mode
0 (overwrite), 1 (append)
.ftDispMd
8
Progress display
0 (disable),
Item number
(PARA%)
Description
1 (LF),
3 (None)
1 (enable)
Values for Setting (FTP.PARA$)
.ftSrvIP
1
IP address for FTP server
Character string in dotted quad
notation, maximum 15 bytes
.ftUsrNm
2
User name for FTP authentication
Character string, maximum of 16
bytes
.ftPswd
3
Password for FTP authentication
Character string, maximum of 16
bytes
.ftDefDir
4
Initial directory on FTP
server
Character string, maximum of 63
bytes
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Chapter 18. TCP/IP
Change FTP system settings
.fcFSysSet
Syntax:
CALL "FTP.FN3" .fcFSysSet PARA%, ftp.para
where ftp.para is FTP.PARA% or FTP.PARA$
Description:
This function changes the specified FTP system settings to the new value.
Parameters:
PARA%
ftp.para
Return value:
(None)
Item number
New setting for FTP system settings of type integer/
string (FTP.PARA%/FTP.PARA$)
Correspondence tables:
See Table under .fcFSysGet.
Change file name on FTP server
.fcRNFR
Syntax:
CALL "FTP.FN3" .fcRNFR FTPHANDLE%, OLD.FNAME$,
NEW.FNAME$, REPLY%
Description:
This function changes the name of a file in the current directory on the FTP
server.
Parameters:
FTPHANDLE%
OLD.FNAME$
NEW.FNAME$
FTP client handle
Name before change
Name after change
Return value:
REPLY%
Server response to FTP command
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
110h
Response other than 2XX received
216h
The FTP client handle is invalid.
239h
The specified socket is not connected.
295h
There is no user for login request.
509
Set port number for file transfer
.fcPORT
Syntax:
CALL "FTP.FN3" .fcPORT FTPHANDLE%, PORT%
Description:
This function sets a port number specified by PORT% for file transfer.
Parameters:
FTPHANDLE%
PORT%
Return value:
(None)
FTP client handle
Port number
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
216h
The FTP client handle is invalid.
239h
The specified socket is not connected.
295h
There is no user for login request.
510
Chapter 18. TCP/IP
Delete file from FTP server
.fcDELE
Syntax:
CALL "FTP.FN3" .fcDELE FTPHANDLE%, SERV.FNAME$,
REPLY%
Description:
This function deletes a file specified by SERV.FNAME$
server.
Parameters:
FTPHANDLE%
SERV.FNAME$
FTP client handle
File name to be deleted
Return value:
REPLY%
Server response to FTP command
from the FTP
Run-time errors:
Error code
Meaning
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during data transmission.
110h
Response other than 2XX received
216h
The FTP client handle is invalid.
239h
The specified socket is not connected.
295h
There is no user for login request.
511
Appendices
CONTENTS
Appendix A
Error Codes and Error Messages .................................................. 513
A1.
Run-time Errors .............................................................................. 513
A2.
Compilation Errors ......................................................................... 517
Appendix B
Reserved Words ............................................................................ 526
Appendix C
Character Sets ............................................................................... 527
C1. Character Set ................................................................................. 527
C2. National Character Sets ................................................................. 528
Appendix D
I/O Ports ......................................................................................... 529
Appendix E
Key Number Assignment on the Keyboard .................................... 540
Appendix F
Memory Area .................................................................................. 541
Appendix G
Handling Space Characters in Downloading ................................. 543
Appendix H
Programming Notes ....................................................................... 547
Appendix I
Program Samples .......................................................................... 548
Appendix J
Quick Reference for Statements and Functions ............................ 551
Appendix K
Unsupported Statements and Functions ........................................ 559
Appendix A
512
Appendices
Appendix A
Error Codes and Error Messages
A1. Run-time Errors
Error code
Meaning
00h
Internal system error
01h
NEXT without FOR
02h
Syntax error
03h
RETURN without GOSUB
04h
Out of DATA
(No DATA values remain to be read by the READ statement.)
05h
Parameter out of the range
06h
The operation result is out of the allowable range.
07h
Insufficient memory space
(Too deep nesting, etc.)
08h
Array not defined
09h
Subscript out of range
(An array subscript is out of the array. Or the array is referenced by
different dimensions.)
0Ah
Duplicate definition
(An array is double defined.)
0Bh
Division by zero
0Ch
CASE and END SELECT without SELECT
0Dh
END DEF or EXIT DEF statement executed outside the DEF FN
statement block
0Fh
String length out of the range
10h
Expression too long or complex
14h
RESUME without error
(RESUME statement occurs before the start of an error-handling routine.)
1Fh
Function number out of the range (in CALL statement)
32h
File type mismatch
33h
Received text format not correct
34h
Bad file name or number
(A statement uses the file number of an unopened file.)
35h
File not found
513
Error code
Meaning
36h
Improper file type
(The statement attempts an operation that conflicts with the file type-data file, communications device file, or bar code device file.)
37h
File already open
(An OPEN statement executed for the already opened file.)
38h
The file name is different from that in the receive header.
39h
Too many files
3Ah
File number out of the range
3Bh
The number of the records is greater than the defined maximum
value.
3Ch
FIELD overflow
(A FIELD statement specifies the record length exceeding 255
bytes.)
3Dh
A FIELD statement specifies the field width which does not match
one that specified in file creation.
3Eh
FIELD statement not executed yet
(A PUT or GET statement executed without a FIELD statement.)
3Fh
Bad record number
(The record number is out of the range.)
40h
Parameter not set
(ID not set)
41h
File damaged
42h
File write error
(You attempted to write onto a read-only file.)
43h
Not allowed to access data in drive B
Not allowed to access a read-only file
45h
Device files prohibited from opening concurrently
46h
Communications error
47h
Abnormal end of communications or termination of communications
by the Clear key
48h
Device timeout
(No CS signal has been responded within the specified time period.)
49h
Received program file not correct
F0h
Mismatch parameter number
F1h
Mismatch parameter type
F2h
Out of string variable space
Insufficient number of array variable elements
100h
Cannot specify communications pathway
101h
Cannot connect to communications pathway
102h
Communications pathway not specified
514
Appendices
Error code
Meaning
103h
Communications pathway already connected
104h
Communications pathway already disconnected
105h
Power-off detected
106h
An internal error has occurred in the TCP/IP module during data
transmission.
107h
The TCP/IP module has not been initiated.
108h
The memory for the TCP/IP module has became insufficient during
data transmission.
110h
Response other than 2XX received
111h
File not closed
201h
Cannot connect to socket
209h
Socket identifier is invalid.
20Dh
Attempt to connect to different FTP server without disconnecting
216h
A parameter is invalid.
The FTP client handle is invalid.
A parameter is invalid, or the socket is already bound.
218h
Too many sockets
224h
The socket is being assigned an address.
225h
The last close operation for the specified socket is not complete.
228h
The maximum number of bytes to receive is too small.
229h
The specified socket does not match the connection target socket.
22Ah
This option is not recognized at the specification level.
22Bh
This protocol family does not support the specified protocol type and
protocol.
22Fh
The specified address family is invalid for this socket.
230h
The specified address is already in use.
231h
The specified address is invalid.
236h
An RST from the opposite end has forced disconnection.
237h
There is insufficient system area memory.
238h
The specified socket is already connected.
239h
The specified socket is not connected.
23Ah
The specified TCP socket has been closed.
23Ch
The connection attempt has timed out.
23Dh
Failed to connect
241h
There is no connection pathway to the host for TCP socket.
515
Error code
Meaning
295h
There is no user for login request.
400h
Failed to get the setting value (Failed to set the value)
401h
Failed to open a spread spectrum communications device file
503h
The CU has been linked with any other BHT.
504h
LAN-support CU setting being made.
505h
Timeout
516
Appendices
A2. Compilation Errors
■ Fatal Errors
Error code & Message
fatal error 1:
Out of memory
fatal error 2:
Work file I/O error
fatal error 3:
Object file I/O error
fatal error 4:
Token file I/O error
fatal error 5:
Relocation information file I/O error
fatal error 6:
Cross reference file I/O error
fatal error 7:
Symbol file I/O error
fatal error 8:
Compile list file I/O error
fatal error 9:
Debug information file I/O error (source-address)
fatal error 10:
Debug information file I/O error (label-address)
fatal error 11:
Debug information file I/O error
(variable-intermediate code)
fatal error 12:
Out of disk space for work file
fatal error 13:
Out of disk space for object file
fatal error 14:
Out of disk space for token file
fatal error 15:
Out of disk space for relocation information file
fatal error 16:
Out of disk space for cross reference file
fatal error 17:
Out of disk space for symbol file
fatal error 18:
Out of disk space for compile list file
fatal error 19:
Out of disk space for debug information file
(source-address)
fatal error 20:
Out of disk space for debug information file
(label-address)
fatal error 21:
Out of disk space for debug information file
(variable-intermediate code)
fatal error 22:
Source file I/O error
fatal error 23:
Cannot find XXXX.SRC
fatal error 24:
Error count exceeds 500
fatal error 25:
Out of memory
(internal labels exceed 3000)
fatal error 26:
Control structure nesting exceeds 30
fatal error 27:
Expression type stack exceeds 50
fatal error 28:
Program too large (Object area overflow)
517
Error code & Message
fatal error 29:
Out of memory for cross reference
fatal error 30:
Cannot find include file
fatal error 31:
Cannot nest include file
fatal error 32:
Internal memory allocation error (tag list buffer)
[function name]
fatal error 33:
(Preprocess) Source file I/O error
fatal error 34:
(Preprocess) Internal memory overflow
fatal error 35:
(Preprocess) Macro work file I/O error
fatal error 36:
(Preprocess) Macro double defined [Macro name]
fatal error 37:
(Preprocess) Internal memory overflow
(unread buffer)
fatal error 38:
(Preprocess) Memory allocation error
fatal error 39:
(Preprocess) Macro circular reference [Macro name]
518
Appendices
■ Syntax Errors
Error code & Message
error 1:
Improper label format
error 2:
Improper label name
(redefinition, variable name, or reserved word used)
error 3:
’"’missing
error 4:
Improper expression
error 5:
Variable name redefinition
(common variable already defined as label name or variable name)
error 6:
Variable name redefinition
(register variable already defined as label name or variable name)
error 7:
Variable name redefinition
(variable already defined as label name, non-array string
work variable, register variable, or common variable)
error 8:
Too many variables
(work integer non-array)
error 9:
Too many variables
(work float non-array)
error 10:
Too many variables
(work string non-array)
error 11:
Too many variables
(register integer non-array)
error 12:
Too many variables
(register float non-array)
error 13:
Too many variables
(register string non-array)
error 14:
Too many variables
(common integer non-array)
error 15:
Too many variables
(common float non-array)
error 16:
Too many variables
(common string non-array)
error 17:
Too many variables
(work integer array)
error 18:
Too many variables
(work float array)
error 19:
Too many variables
(work string array)
error 20:
Too many variables
(register integer array)
519
Error code & Message
error 21:
Too many variables
(register float array)
error 22:
Too many variables
(register string array)
error 23:
Too many variables
(common integer array)
error 24:
Too many variables
(common float array)
error 25:
Too many variables
(common string array)
error 26:
Too many variables
(work integer array, two-dimensional)
error 27:
Too many variables
(work float array, two-dimensional)
error 28:
Too many variables
(work string array, two-dimensional)
error 29:
Too many variables
(register integer array, two-dimensional)
error 30:
Too many variables
(register float array, two-dimensional)
error 31:
Too many variables
(register string array, two-dimensional)
error 32:
Too many variables
(common integer array, two-dimensional)
error 33:
Too many variables
(common float array, two-dimensional)
error 34:
Too many variables
(common string array, two-dimensional)
error 35:
Source line too long
error 36:
error 37:
error 38:
error 39:
error 40:
error 41:
Value out of range for integer constant
error 42:
Value out of range for float constant
error 43:
Value out of range for integer constant
(hexadecimal expression)
error 44:
Improper hexadecimal expression
error 45:
Symbol too long
520
Appendices
Error code & Message
error 46:
error 47:
error 48:
error 49:
error 50:
Incorrect use of IF...THEN...ELSE...ENDIF
error 51:
Incomplete control structure
(IF...THEN...ELSE...ENDIF)
error 52:
Incorrect use of FOR...NEXT
error 53:
Incomplete control structure
(FOR...NEXT)
error 54:
Incorrect FOR index variable
error 55:
Incorrect use of SELECT...CASE...END SELECT
error 56:
Incomplete control structure
(SELECT...CASE...END SELECT)
error 57:
Incorrect use of WHILE...WEND
error 58:
Incomplete control structure
(WHILE...WEND)
error 59:
Incorrect use of DEF FN...EXIT DEF...END DEF
error 60:
Incomplete control structure
(DEF FN...END DEF)
error 61:
Cannot use DEF FN in control structure
error 62:
Operator stack overflow
error 63:
Inside function definition
error 64:
Function redefinition
error 65:
Function definitions exceed 200
error 66:
Arguments exceed 50
error 67:
Total arguments exceed 500
error 68:
Mismatch argument type or number
error 69:
Function undefined
error 70:
Label redefinition
error 71:
Syntax error
error 72:
Variable name redefinition
error 73:
Improper string length
error 74:
Improper array elements number
error 75:
Out of space for register variable area
error 76:
Out of space for work, common variable area
521
Error code & Message
error 77:
Initial string too long
error 78:
Array symbols exceed 30 for one DIM, GLOBAL, or PRIVATE
statement
error 79:
Record number out of range (1 to 32767)
error 80:
Label undefined
error 81:
Must be DATA statement label
(in RESTORE statement)
error 82:
’(’ missing
error 83:
’)’ missing
error 84:
’]’ missing
error 85:
’,’ missing
error 86:
’;’ missing
error 87:
’DEF’ missing
error 88:
’TO’ missing
error 89:
’INPUT’ missing
error 90:
’{’ missing
error 91:
Improper initial value for integer variable
(not integer or out of range)
error 92:
Incorrect use of SUB, EXIT SUB, or END SUB
error 93:
Incomplete control structure
(SUB...END SUB)
error 94:
Cannot use SUB statement in control structure
error 95:
Incorrect use of FUNCTION, EXIT FUNCTION, or END FUNCTION
error 96:
Incomplete control structure
(FUNCTION...END FUNCTION)
error 97:
Cannot use FUNCTION statement in control structure
error 98:
Incorrect use of CONST
522
Appendices
■
Linking Errors
Error Message
PRC area size different
Out of space in RFG area
Out of space in PRD area
Cannot open project file
Cannot open object file [object name]
Cannot open MAP file
Cannot open PD3 file [PD3 filename]
Cannot close PD3 file [PD3 filename]
Write error to PD3 file [PD3 filename]
Seek error: Cannot move to the filename position
Seek error: Cannot move to the head of the block
Filename area too large
Symbolname area too large
Too many records in symbol table
Too many modules
Too many libraries
Too many objects
Failed to allocate memory in TAG area
Failed to allocate memory in link TAG area
Undefined value set to variable type [Value at variable type]
Undefined value set to tag type [Value at tag type]
Module [modulename] not defined
Symbol [symbolname] not defined
Cannot register symbol
More than one symbol type [variable type*] existing
Defined [variable types*] over the maximum limit
More than one symbol [symbolname] defined
Number of descriptors over the limit
Common variable [variablename] defined out of main module
Common data area overflow
Work data area overflow
Symbol name area overflow
523
Error Message
Non-array integer register variable area overflow
Non-array float register variable area overflow
Register memory pool area overflow
Failed to set up initial setting of register data
* To the [Variable type], any of the following character strings applies:
• Non-array integer common variable
• Non-array float common variable
• Non-array string common variable
• Non-array integer work variable
• Non-array float work variable
• Non-array string work variable
• Non-array integer register variable
• Non-array float register variable
• Non-array string register variable
• One-dimensional array integer common variable
• One-dimensional array float common variable
• One-dimensional array string common variable
• One-dimensional array integer work variable
• One-dimensional array float work variable
• One-dimensional array string work variable
• One-dimensional array integer register variable
• One-dimensional array float register variable
• One-dimensional array string register variable
• Two-dimensional array integer common variable
• Two-dimensional array float common variable
• Two-dimensional array string common variable
• Two-dimensional array integer work variable
• Two-dimensional array float work variable
• Two-dimensional array string work variable
• Two-dimensional array integer register variable
• Two-dimensional array float register variable
• Two-dimensional array string register variable
524
Appendices
■ Library Errors
Error Message
Cannot find object to be deleted [objectname]
Designated object already existing [objectname]
Cannot find object to be updated [objectname]
Module already defined [modulename]
Filename area too large
Too many block information pieces
Cannot open library file
Seek error: Cannot move to the filename position
Seek error: Cannot move to the head of the block
NOTE
No error code precedes any linking error or library error.
525
Appendix B
Reserved Words
The following list shows reserved words (keywords) of BHT-BASIC. Any of these words must
not be used as a variable name or label name.
A
B
C
D
E
ABS
AND
APLOAD
AS
ASC
BCC$
BEEP
CALL
CASE
CHAIN
CHKDGT
CHR
CLFILE
CLOSE
CLS
CODE
COMMON
CONT
COUNTRY
CSRLIN
CURSOR
DATA
DATE$
DEF
DEFREG
DIM
ELSE
END
EOF
ERASE
ERL
ERR
ERROR
ETB
ETX
EXIT
F
G
H
I
K
L
M
N
O
FIELD
FN
FOR
FRE
GET
GO
GOSUB
GOTO
HEX
IF
$INCLUDE
INKEY
INP
INPUT
INSTR
INT
KEY
KILL
KPLOAD
LEFT
LEN
LET
LINE
LOC
LOCATE
LOF
MARK
MID
MOD
NEXT
NOT
OFF
ON
OPEN
OR
OUT
526
P
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
POS
POWER
PRINT
PRINT#
PUT
READ
RECORD
REM
RESTORE
RESUME
RETURN
RIGHT$
SCREEN
SEARCH
SELECT
SEP
SOH
STEP
STR
STX
THEN
TIME
TIMEA
TIMEB
TIMEC
TO
USING
VAL
WAIT
WEND
WHILE
XFILE
XOR
Appendices
Appendix C
Character Sets
C1. Character Set
The table below lists the character set which the BHT can display on the LCD screen. It is
based on the ASCII codes.
NOTE 1: You can assign user-defined fonts to codes from 80h to 9Fh with APLOAD statement. (Refer to APLOAD statement in Chapter 14.)
NOTE 2: Characters assigned to codes 20h to 7Fh are default national characters when the
English message version is selected on the menu screen* in System Mode.
They can be switched to other national characters (see Appendix C2) by COUNTRY$ function. (Refer to COUNTRY$ function in Chapter 15.)
NOTE 3: BS is a backspace code.
NOTE 4: CR is a carriage return code.
NOTE 5: C is a cancel code.
NOTE 6:
is a space code.
527
C2. National Character Sets
You may switch characters assigned to codes 20h to 7Fh of the character set table listed in
Appendix C1 to one of the national character sets by using the COUNTRY$ function.
The default national character set is America (code A) or Japan (code J) depending upon the
English or Japanese message version selected on the menu screen in System Mode, respectively.
Listed below are national characters which are different from the defaults.
* Refer to COUNTRY$ function in Chapter 15.
COUNTRY$="countrycode"
NOTE 1:
is a space code.
NOTE 2: Empty boxes in the above table are assigned the same characters as default ones
listed in Appendix C1.
528
Appendices
Appendix D
I/O Ports
■ Input Ports
A user program can monitor the hardware status through the input ports by using the WAIT
statement or INP function. BHT-BASIC defines each of these ports as a byte. The table
below lists the input ports and their monitoring function in the BHT.
Bit
assignment
Port No.
.pnEvent
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
.pnLCDCnt
3
2-0
.pnMgLng
4
0
Monitors the following:
Keyboard buffer
and touch key
buffer
-
0
No data
.pvEvKeyOn
1
Data stored
0
No data
.pvEvBarOn
1
Data stored
-
0
OFF
.pvEvTrgOn
1
ON
-
0
No data
.pvEvtCmOn
1
Data stored
-
0
Nonzero
.pvEvTma0
1
Zero
-
0
Nonzero
.pvEvTmb0
1
Zero
-
0
Nonzero
.pvEvTmc0
1
Zero
-
0
OFF or file
closed
.pvEvCsOn
1
ON
Barcode buffer
Trigger switch
*1
Receive buffer
Value of TIMEA
function
Value of TIMEB
function
Value of TIMEC
function
CS (CTS) signal
*2
0 to 7 (0: Lowest, 7: Highest)
LCD contrast
level*3
Message version*4 .pvSysMSG
.pvEnglish
529
0
Japanese
1
English
Bit
assignment
Port No.
.pnAlpCtrl
5
0
1
2
3
.pnWupCtrl
8
0
1
2
3
.pnBarRrd
-
0
Disabled
1
Enabled
Software keyboard display
.pvAlpDisp
0
Hidden
1
Displayed
Software keyboard .pvAlpBotm
display position on
.pvAlpTop
the screen
0
Lower area
1
Upper area
Software keyboard movement
.pvAlpMove
0
Not allowed
1
Allowed
Wakeup function
-
0
Deactivated
.pvWupOn
1
Activated
-
0
Initiated by the
power key
.pvWupPwOn
1
Initiated by the
wakeup function
-
0
System time
selected
.pvWupTmSt
1
Wakeup time
selected
-
0
Not set
.pvWupTmOn
1
Set
Initiation of BHT
*5
TIME$ function
Wakeup time
7-0
Re-read prevention
enabled time*6
10h1DBFh
7-0
VRAM*7
6010h
7-0
.pnBtType
6011h
0
.pnBLight
Software keyboard .pvAlpOff
function
.pvAlpOn
Fh
.pnBtVolt
.pnCuOn
Monitors the following:
6012h
6022h
0
0
1
0-255
-
0
OFF
-
1
ON
Battery voltage
level*8
Battery type
0-255
.pvBtRcrg
0
Rechargeable
battery cartridge
.pvBtDry
1
Dry battery cartridge
BHT on/off the CU*9 .pvCuOff
0
Off the CU
.pvCuOn
1
On the CU
.pvCuErr
2
Loaded with dry
battery cartridge
-
0
Deactivated
.pvBLLcd
1
Activated
-
0
Deactivated
.pvBLKey
1
Activated
LCD backlight
Key backlight
530
Appendices
Bit
assignment
Port No.
.pnMKey
6040h
0
1
2
3
.pnCmPrtcl
6060h
7-0
Monitors the following:
Magic key 1
Magic key 2
Magic key 3
Magic key 4
Communications
protocol*10
-
0
Released
.pvM1kyOn
1
Held down
-
0
Released
.pvM2kyOn
1
Held down
-
0
Released
.pvM3kyOn
1
Held down
-
0
Released
.pvM4kyOn
1
Held down
.pvCPBHT
0
BHT-protocol
.pvCPBHTIr
2
BHT-Ir protocol
.pnBHTIDL
6061h
7-0
ID (lower byte)*11
0-255
.pnBHTIDH
6062h
7-0
ID (upper byte)*11
0-255
-
6070h
0
Output pulse width of IR beam*12
1
3/16 bit time
.pnBprVib
6090h
0
Beeper
-
0
Deactivated
.pvBprOn
1
Activated
-
0
Deactivated
.pvVibOn
1
Activated
.pvKyNm
0
Numeric entry
.pvKyAlpNm
1
Alphanumeric
entry
.pvKMNm
0
Numeric
.pvKMAlp
1
Alphabet
1
.pnKeyEnt
.pnKeyMd
60B0h
60B1h
7-0
7-0
Vibrator
Key entry system
Key entry mode
*13
.pnBprVolm
60C0h
7-0
Beeper volume
.pnDfrgSzL
60E0h
7-0
Drive size to be
defragmented
(lower byte)*14
0-255
.pnDfrgSzH
60E1h
7-0
Drive size to be
defragmented
(upper byte)*14
0-255
.pnRwuCtrl
60F0h
7-0
Remote wakeup
function*15
.pnRwuSpd
60F1h
2-0
Transmission
speed for remote
wakeup*16
531
0-3
.pvRwuOff
0
Deactivated
.pvRwuOn
1
Activated
.pvRwu96
001
9600 bps
.pvRwu192
010
19200 bps
.pvRwu384
011
38400 bps
.pvRwu576
100
57600 bps
.pvRwu1152
101
115200 bps
Bit
assignment
Port No.
.pnRwuHost
60F2h
Monitors the following:
0
Execution record of .pvRwuRgst
remote wakeup*17
1
Woken up
remotely
1
Termination of
remote wakeup*18
1
Terminated normally
.pnRwuWtT
60F3h
7-0
Timeout for remote
wakeup*19
.pnScrnMdL
6110h
1-0
Screen mode*20
3-2
5-4
.pnScrnMdH
.pnScrnAtL
6111h
6112h
.pnTPBeep
.pnTPSts
.pnVwFindr
6120h
6121h
6122h
6310h
00
ANK mode
.pvScMB
01
Kanji mode
-
00
Standard-size
.pvScSmall
01
Small-size
-
00
No rotation
.pvScR180
01
Rotate 180°
-
0
Normal
.pvScInv
1
Reversed
Character enlarge- ment*20
.pvScW2H1
000
Regular-size
001
Double-width
.pvScW1H2
010
Double-height
.pvScW2H2
011
Quadruple-size
Screen font
size*20
Display angle
*20
-
7-0
Reserved.
-
0
Font
reverse*20
Tone*20
3-0
7-4
.pnTPanel
-
Reserved.
7-4
6113h
1-255 (sec)
7-6
3-1
.pnScrnAtH
.pvRwuEdOk
0
0
0
0
Reserved.
-
7-4: 0000
3-0: 0000
Black
-
7-4: 0100
3-0: 0000
Dark gray
-
7-4: 1000
3-0: 0000
Light gray
-
7-4: 1111
3-0: 1111
White
-
Touch screen func- .pvTPOff
tion
.pvTPOn
0
Disabled
1
Enabled
Beeper when the
touch screen is
pressed
.pvTPBOff
0
Disabled
.pvTPBOn
1
Enabled
Current touch
screen status
.pvTPPull
0
Released
.pvTPPush
1
Pressed
.pvVFOff
0
Disabled
.pvVFOn
1
Enabled
View finder
(BHT-100Q/BHT100QF only)
532
Appendices
Bit
assignment
Port No.
.pnScnMark
6320h
0
Monitors the following:
Scanning range
marker
(BHT-100Q/BHT100QF only)
-
0
Normal mode
(Driven by the
trigger switch)
-
1
Fixed to ON
-
2
Fixed to OFF
*1
Only when the trigger switch function is assigned to either of the magic keys, a user program
returns the ON/OFF state of the switch.
*2
During the direct-connect interface operation, a user program can regard RD signal as CS
signal, provided that the returned value of CS should be specified by RS/CS control
parameter in the OPEN "COM:" statement as listed below.
OPEN "COM:" statement
Returned value of CS (CTS)
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
OPEN
Always 1
Always 1
1 if RD signal is High.
1 if RD signal is Low.
Depends upon the RD signal state.
"COM:,,,,0"
"COM:,,,,1"
"COM:,,,,2"
"COM:,,,,3"
"COM:,,,,4"
If the direct-connect interface is closed, the BHT returns the value 0.
*3
Lower three bits (bit 2 to bit 0) in this byte represent the contrast level of the LCD in 000 to
111 in binary notation or in 0 to 7 in decimal notation. 0 means the lowest contrast; 7
means the highest.
*4
In System Mode, the message version appears as English or Japanese on the LCD.
*5
If the BHT is initiated by the wakeup function, then this bit goes ON (1).
*6
The BHT returns the re-read prevention enabled time length in units of 100 ms. If the
returned value is zero (0), it means that the re-read prevention is permanently enabled so
that the BHT does not read same bar codes in succession.
*7
An 8-bit binary pattern (bits 7 to 0) on the input ports (which read VRAM) 10h to 1DBFh represents a basic dot pattern column of the LCD. Bit value 1 means a black dot. The port
number gives the dot column address.
*8
A user program returns the A/D converted value (0 to 255) of the battery voltage level (0 to
7V). The returned value is an instantaneous value when data on the input port is read. The
voltage level varies depending upon the BHT operation and it is not in proportion to the battery capacity, so use this voltage level as a reference value.
533
*9
If the BHT is placed on the CU and is ready to be charged (or being charged), then "1" will
be returned. In this condition, the indicator LED on the BHT is lit in red or green showing
the charging state.
In either of the following cases, "0" will be returned even if the BHT is placed on the CU:
- No power is supplied to the CU.
- The BHT cannot be recognized as being placed on the CU due to contact failure of charging terminals.
*10
A user program returns the communications protocol type used for file transmission with
the XFILE statement.
*11
A user program returns the BHT’s ID number which is required for the use of the BHT-Ir
protocol. The ID number is expressed by two bytes: lower byte on port 6061h and upper
byte on port 6062h. The range of the returned value is from 1 to FFFFh. If the ID number
is 1234h, for example, the value on 6061h is 34h and that on 6062h is 12h.
*12
Fixed to 3/16 bit time.
*13
A user program returns the beeper volume level--01h (Low), 02h (Medium), or 03h (High).
00h means no beeping.
*14
A user program returns the currently specified size of the empty area to be defragmented in
units of 4 kilobytes. The size is expressed by two bytes: lower byte on port 60E0h and
upper byte on port 60E1h. The range of the returned value is from 1 to FFFFh. (The actually allowable maximum value is the size of the empty user area. If a value exceeding the
size is returned, it means that the whole empty area is specified to be defragmented.)
If the size is 2048 kilobytes, for example, the value on 60E0h is 00h and that on 60E1h is
02h (2048 kilobytes/4 kilobytes = 512 or 200h). 0 means the whole empty area to be
defragmented.
*15
If "0" is returned, the remote wakeup function is deactivated; if "1," the function is activated.
*16
The transmission speed to be applied when activating the remote wakeup will be returned.
*17
If the BHT was woken up remotely at the last powering on, then "1" will be returned; if the
BHT is initiated from any other means, "0" will be returned.
*18
If a user program executed by the remote wakeup has been terminated with END, POWER
OFF, or POWER 0 statement, then "1" will be returned; in any other cases, "0" will be
returned.
*19
A user program returns the timeout period during which the BHT will wait for proper data
(specified remote wakeup character string) after receiving any data via the CU from the
host.
*20
Via port 6110h, the display mode (screen mode, screen font size, and display angle) specified by SCREEN statement may be read out.
Via ports 6112h and 6113h, the character attributes (font reverse, character enlargement,
and tone) specified by SCREEN statement may be read out.
534
Appendices
■ Output Ports
A user program can control the hardware through the output ports by using the OUT statement.
BHT-BASIC defines each of these ports as a byte. The table below lists the output ports and
their controlling function in the BHT.
Bit
assignment
Port No.
.pnLEDCtrl
1
0
1
.pnLCDCnt
3
2-0
.pnMgLng
4
0
.pnAlpCtrl
5
0
1
2
3
.pnSlpTime
.pnWupCtrl
6
8
7-0
0
2
.pnBarRrd
-
.pnSysMd
.pnBLCtrl
.pnBLTime
Controls the following:
Indicator LED
(red)*1
Indicator LED
(green)*1
Message version
1
ON
-
0
OFF
.pvLEDGrn
1
ON
0
Japanese
.pvEnglish
1
English
.pvAlpOff
0
Disable
.pvAlpOn
1
Enable
-
0
Hide
.pvAlpDisp
1
Display
Software keyboard
display position on
the screen
.pvAlpBotm
0
Lower area
.pvAlpTop
1
Upper area
Software keyboard
movement
-
0
Do not allow
.pvAlpMove
1
Allow
Software keyboard
function
Software keyboard
display
Sleep timer
Wakeup
*3
0-255
function*4
TIME$ function
*5
10h1DBFh
7-0
VRAM*7
0
Initiation of System Mode*8
0
Backlight*9
7-0
.pvLEDRed
.pvSysMSG
Re-read prevention
enabled time*6
6021h
OFF
0 to 7
(0: Lowest, 7: Highest)
7-0
6020h
0
LCD contrast
level*2
Fh
6000h
-
Backlight ONduration*9
535
-
0
Deactivate
.pvWupOn
1
Activate
-
0
Select the system time
.pvWupTmSt
1
Select the wakeup
time
0-255
-
0
OFF
-
1
ON
.pvSMdNGo
0
Do not initiate
.pvSMdGo
1
Initiate
.pvBLOff
0
Turn OFF
.pvBLOn
1
Turn ON
0-255
Bit
assignment
Port No.
.pnBLight
6022h
0
1
Controls the following:
LCD backlight *10
Key backlight *10
-
0
Deactivate
.pvBLLcd
1
Activate
-
0
Deactivate
.pvBLKey
1
Activate
.pnTmPOff
6030h
7-0
Effective helddown time of
power key*11
-
1-255
.pnCmPrtcl
6060h
1-0
Communications
protocol*12
.pvCPBHT
0
BHT-protocol
.pvCPBHTIr
2
BHT-Ir protocol
.pnBHTIDL
.pnBHTIDH
.pnBprVib
.pnKeyEnt
.pnKeyMd
6061h
6062h
6090h
60B0h
60B1h
7-0
7-0
*13
0-255
byte)*13
0-255
ID (lower byte)
ID (upper
*14
0
Beeper
1
Vibrator*14
0
0
Key entry system
Key entry mode
-
0
Deactivate
.pvBprOn
1
Activate
-
0
Deactivate
.pvVibOn
1
Activate
.pvKyNm
0
Numeric entry
.pvKyAlpNm
1
Alphanumeric entry
.pvKMNm
0
Numeric
.pvKMAlp
1
Alphabet
volume*15
.pnBprVolm
60C0h
1-0
Beeper
.pnDfrgSzL
60E0h
7-0
Drive size to be
defragmented
(lower byte)*16
0-255
.pnDfrgSzH
60E1h
7-0
Drive size to be
defragmented
(upper byte)*16
0-255
.pnDfrgGo
60E2h
1-0
Execution of defragmentation*17
.pnRwuCtrl
60F0h
0
Remote wakeup
function*18
536
0-3
.pvDFNoDsp
0
Defragment w/o bar
graph
.pvDFAGrph
1
Defragment w/ absolute bar graph
.pvDFRGrph
2
Defragment w/ relative
bar graph
.pvRwuOff
0
Deactivate
.pvRwuOn
1
Activate
Appendices
Bit
assignment
Port No.
.pnRwuSpd
.pnRwuHost
60F1h
60F2h
2-0
Controls the following:
Transmission
speed for remote
wakeup*19
011
38400 bps
.pvRwu576
100
57600 bps
.pvRwu1152
101
115200 bps
Termination of
remote wakeup
.pvRwuEdOk
1
Terminated normally
0
Touch screen function
*1
.pvRwu384
1
6120h
6320h
19200 bps
Woken remotely
.pnTPanel
.pnScnMark
010
1
Timeout for remote
wakeup*20
6310h
.pvRwu192
.pvRwuRgst
7-0
.pnVwFindr
9600 bps
Execution record of
remote wakeup
60F3h
6121h
001
0
.pnRwuWtT
.pnTPBeep
.pvRwu96
0
0
0
1-255 (sec)
.pvTPOff
0
Disable
.pvTPOn
1
Enable
Beeper when the
touch screen is
pressed
.pvTPBOff
0
Disable
.pvTPBOn
1
Enable
View finder
(BHT-100Q/BHT100QF only)
.pvVFOff
0
Disable
.pvVFOn
1
Enable
Scanning range
marker
(BHT-100Q/BHT100QF only)
-
0
Normal mode
(Driven by the trigger
switch)
-
1
Fixed to ON
-
2
Fixed to OFF
The indicator LED is controllable only when the bar code device file is closed. If the file is
opened, the OUT statement will be ignored.
If you have set the indicator LED to OFF in the OPEN "BAR:" statement, then a user program can control the indicator LED although the bar code device file is opened.
*2
Lower three bits (bit 2 to bit 0) in this byte control the contrast level of the LCD in 000 to 111
in binary notation or in 0 to 7 in decimal notation. 0 means the lowest contrast; 7 means the
highest.
OUT 3,7
OUT 3,&h07
*3
The sleep timer feature automatically interrupts program execution if no event takes place
within the specified length of time preset by bit 7 to 0. Shown below are examples of OUT
statements. Setting 0 to this byte disables the sleep timer feature. (Refer to Chapter 10.)
OUT 6,30
OUT 6,0
*4
’Contrast is highest
’Contrast is highest
’3 seconds
’No sleep operation
To activate the wakeup function, set 1 to this bit; to deactivate it, set 0.
537
*5
To make the TIME$ function return or set the system time, set 0 to this bit; to make the
TIME$ function return or set the wakeup time, set 1.
Execution of the TIME$ function after selection of the wakeup time will automatically reset
this bit to zero.
*6
This byte sets the re-read prevention enabled time length in units of 100 ms. Specification
of zero (0) permanently enables the re-read prevention so that the BHT does not read
same bar codes in succession. The default is 10 (1 second).
*7
An 8-bit binary pattern (bits 7 to 0) on the output ports (which are stored in the VRAM) 10h
to 1DBFh represents a basic dot pattern column of the LCD. Bit value 1 means a black dot.
The port number gives the dot column address.
*8
Refer to Appendix H, "Program file named APLINT.PD3."
*9
If the backlight function is activated with the OUT statement, the specification by the KEY
statement will be ignored. For details, refer to Chapter 13.
If you set 0 to the ON-duration (6021h), the backlight will not come on; if you set 255, it will
be kept on.
*10
If you set 1 to both the LCD backlight (bit 0) and key backlight (bit 1), then both of them may
be controlled at one time.
*11
You can set the held-down time of the power key required for powering off the BHT. The
setting range is from 0.1 to 25.5 seconds in increments of 0.1 second. The default is 5 (0.5
second).
*12
You can set the communications protocol type for transmitting files with the XFILE statement.
*13
You may set the BHT’s ID number to be used for the BHT-Ir protocol. The ID number is
expressed by two bytes: lower byte on port 6061h and upper byte on port 6062h. The setting range is from 1 to FFFFh. To set the ID number to 1234h, for example, write as follows:
OUT &h6061h,&h34
OUT &h6062h,&h12
’Sets 34h to the lower byte of the ID
’Sets 12h to the upper byte of the ID
*14
If you set 0 (Deactivate) to both bits 0 and 1, only the beeper will work.
*15
The beeper volume level may be adjusted to four levels--01h (Low), 02h (Medium), 03h
(High), and 00h (OFF).
*16
You may specify the size of the empty user area to be defragmented in units of 4 kilobytes.
The size is expressed by two bytes: lower byte on port 60E0h and upper byte on port
60E1h. The setting range is from 1 to FFFFh. (The actually allowable maximum value is
the size of the empty user area. If you specify a value exceeding the size, the whole empty
area will be defragmented.)
To defragment 2048 kilobytes of area, for example, write as follows:
2048 kilobytes/4 kilobytes = 512 (200h), so
OUT &h60E0,0
OUT &h60E1,2
’Sets 00h to the lower byte
’Sets 02h to the upper byte
If "0" is set, the whole empty user area will be defragmented.
538
Appendices
*17
To defragment the drive, set "0," "1," or "2." Setting "1" or "2" will display an absolute bar
graph or relative bar graph indicating the defragmentation progress during drive defragmentation, respectively. The bar graph will disappear after completion of defragmentation
and the previous screen will come back.
To defragment the drive while showing a relative bar graph, write as follows:
OUT &h60E2,1
’Defragment the drive showing relative bar
’graph
*18
To activate the remote wakeup, set "1"; to deactivate, set "0."
*19
Set the transmission speed to be applied for remote wakeup.
*20
You may set the timeout period during which the BHT will wait for proper data (specified
remote wakeup character string) after receiving any data via the CU from the host.
539
Appendix E
Key Number Assignment on the Keyboard
■ Key Number Assignment
The keys on the BHT keyboard are assigned numbers as shown below.
Non-shift mode
Shift mode
35
37
36
30
38
31
33
34
17
18
19
21
22
23
25
26
27
28
29
24
20
■ Default Data Assignment
The default data assignment is shown below.
Non-shift mode
Shift mode
TRG
TRG
TRG
TRG
7
8
9
Q
R
S
4
5
6
U
V
W
1
2
3
Y
Z
+
0
.
CR
-
,
BS
X
C
*1 BS,
T
CR, and C are a backspace (08h), carriage return (0Dh), and cancel (18h)
code, respectively.
540
Appendices
Appendix F
Memory Area
■ Memory Map
The memory maps are shown below.
BHT-100Q/BHT-100QF
System work area
(1024KB)
System program area
(3264KB)
Font area
JIS Level 1 font, 16-dot (120 KB)
JIS Level 2 font, 16-dot (112 KB)
JIS Level 1 font, 12-dot (88 KB)
JIS Level 2 font, 12-dot (84 KB)
This area may be used
as a user area if you
delete these fonts.
User area
(4524KB)
BHT-100B/BHT-100BF
System work area
(512KB/1024KB)
System program area
(1792KB)
Font area
JIS Level 1 font, 16-dot (120 KB)
JIS Level 2 font, 16-dot (112 KB)
JIS Level 1 font, 12-dot (88 KB)
JIS Level 2 font, 12-dot (84 KB)
User area
(1900KB)
541
This area may be used
as a user area if you
delete these fonts.
The size and area allocation of the memory incorporated in the BHT differ depending upon the
models as listed below.
BHT series
BHT-100
Models
User area
BHT-102B
BHT-102BF
1900*1
BHT-103Q
BHT-103QF
4524*1
*21Plus
a maximum of 404 KB if you delete fonts
■ Memory Management
The BHT manages the user area of the memory for user programs and data files by a unit
of segment called "cluster." The cluster size is usually 4 kilobytes. In some models or
drives, the cluster size is 8 kilobytes as listed above.
The maximum allowable size for a single user program is 64 kilobytes excluding register
variables.
■ Battery Backup of Memory
The BHT backs up the memory with a battery cartridge. Therefore, data stored in the
memory will not be lost if the BHT power is turned off.
■ Memory Space Available for Variables
Listed below are the maximum memory spaces available for work, common, and register
variables.
Variables
Max. memory space
Work and common variable area
32 KB
Register variable area
64 KB
Each variable occupies the memory space as listed below.
Variables
Max. memory space
Integer variable
2 bytes
Real variable
6 bytes
String variable
2 to 256 bytes
(Including a single character count byte)
An array variable occupies the memory space by (number of bytes per array element x
number of array elements).
542
Appendices
Appendix G
Handling Space Characters
in Downloading
■ Space characters used as padding characters
A data file can be downloaded with System Mode or an XFILE statement according to the
communications protocol which is designed to eliminate trailing spaces padded in the tail of
each data field.
The BHT has a new feature which can handle trailing spaces in a data field as data.
The figure below shows the process in which the spaces used as padding characters are eliminated. (Note that spaces between a and b and between b and c in field 3 are not padding
characters.)
Host computer
Field 1
2
1
Field 2
3
4
A
B
C
Field 3
D
a
b
(
c
denotes a space character.)
Downloading a data file
BHT
Field 1
4
Field 2
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
4
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
Field 3
5
a
b
c
a
b
c
is the count byte of a
significant data length
in a field.
543
■ To handle space characters as data
To handle trailing spaces in a data field as data (not as padding characters), you must take
special considerations in programming.
If you want to search for a field data containing spaces in its tail by using a SEARCH function,
for instance, use any of the following methods:
Example 1
After downloading a data file, fill the unused spaces in each field with spaces
and then search for the target field data.
A
B
C
Send data
A
B
C
Receive data
A
B
C
Filling with space characters
A
B
C
Search data to be specified
(
Example 2
denotes a space character.)
Before downloading a data file, substitute any of the characters which will not
be used as effective data, e.g., an asterisk (*), for the spaces in the host computer.
A
B
C
*
*
Send data
A
B
C
*
*
Receive data
A
B
C
A
B
C
Data to be searched
*
*
Search data to be specified
(
denotes a space character.)
544
Appendices
Example 3
When specifying a field data to be searched, do not include trailing spaces in a
data field.
A
B
C
Send data
A
B
C
Receive data
A
B
C
Data to be searched
A
B
C
Search data to be specified
(
denotes a space character.)
545
■ To make the BHT handle space characters as data
You can specify the handling of trailing spaces in a data field with System Mode or an XFILE
statement.
System Mode:
To handle trailing spaces as data, select "Data" in FIELD SPACE item on
the SET PROTOCOL screen of the SET SYSTEM menu.
XFILE statement:
To handle trailing spaces as data, specify T to "protocolspec" in
the XFILE statement.
XFILE "d2.dat","T"
The figure below shows the process in which trailing spaces in a data field are handled as data
in the BHT.
Host computer
Field 1
2
1
Field 2
3
4
A
B
C
Field 3
D
a
b
(
c
denotes a space character.)
Downloading a data file
BHT
Field 1
4
Field 2
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
6
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
Field 3
8
a
b
c
a
b
c
is the count byte of a significant
data length in a field.
546
Appendices
Appendix H
Programming Notes
■ Program file named APLINT.PD3
If a program file named APLINT.PD3 is stored in the BHT, the System Mode initiation
sequence (by pressing the PW key with the SF and 1 keys held down) will not start System
Mode but execute that user program.
Making a program file named APLINT.PD3 allows you to:
- enter an ID number at the start of System Mode and
- set the condensed System Mode which is used for maintenance of user programs.
To terminate the APLINT.PD3 file, you use the END or POWER OFF statement. When terminating the file with the END statement, you may start System Mode by setting the port
6000h as listed below.
Port No.
Bit assignment
6000h
0
Controls the following:
0: Not start System Mode (default)
1: Start System Mode
547
Appendix I
Program Samples
Writing the function for receiving both bar code entry and key entry
Feature:
This function receives earlier one of either bar code entry or key entry. If bar
code reading is completed, the function returns the scanned bar code data; if
key entry comes first, the function inhibits bar code reading and echoes back
the key entry data, then returns the key entry data when the ENT key is
pressed.
If pressing the BS key or C key makes the input string empty, then the function becomes ready to receive the subsequent bar code entry or key entry.
Returned value: The function returns bar code data or key entry data which has come in until
the ENT key is pressed, as a string.
Arguments:
f.no%
Specifies the file number which opens the bar code device file.
(Invariant allowed)
bar$
Specifies bar code reading. (Invariant allowed)
Ex. "M:10-20"
Work:
max%
Specifies the maximum length of a returned string
esc$
If a key(s) contained in this string is entered, the function returns
the key entry only.
.kb$ and .rt$
If you use an invariant for f.no% or bar$, it is not necessary to pass the value as an argument.
The bar$ can pass a single type of bar code. If two or more types are required, directly
describe necessary invariants.
def fnbarkey$(f. no%, bar$, max%, esc$)
while 1
open "BAR:" as #f. no% code bar$
wait 0, 3
’Wait for completion of bar code reading or key entry.
if loc(#f. no%) then
beep
’Beep when bar code reading is completed.
fnbarkey$ = input$(max%, #f. no%)
’For displaying:
’rt$ = input$(max%, #f. no%) : print .rt$;
’fnbarkey$ = .rt$
close #f. no%
exit def
else
close #f. no%
’Receive only key entry.
.rt$ = ""
.kb$ = input$(1)
while .kb$<>""
if instr(esc$, .kb$) then
’Key designated in esc$?
548
Appendices
fnbarkey$ = .kb$
’Then, return the character.
exit def
endif
select .kb$
case chr$(13)
fnbarkey$ = .rt$
exit def
case chr$(8)
’BS key.
if len(.rt$) then
print chr$(8);
’Erase one character.
.rt$ = left$(.rt$, len(.rt$)-1)
endif
case chr$(24)
’Clear key.
while len(.rt$)
’Erase all characters entered.
print chr$(8);
.rt$ = left$(.rt$, len(.rt$)-1)
wend
case else
if len(.rt$)<max% then
’Check if only numeric data should be
’received.
print .kb$;
’Echo back.
.rt$ = .rt$ + .kb$
else
beep
’Exceeded number of characters error.
endif
end select
if .rt$="" then
’If input string is empty, go back to
’the initial state.
.kb$ = ""
else
.kb$ = input$(1)
’Subsequent key entry.
end if
wend
endif
wend
end def
549
Testing the written function
while 1
a$ = fnbarkey$ (1, "A", 15, "DL")
print
if a$<>"D" and a$<>"L" then
print "Data="; a$
else
print "ESC(";a$;") key push"
endif
wend
end
’Infinite loop
’F4 and SFT/F4 as escape characters.
550
Appendices
Appendix J
Quick Reference
for Statements and Functions
Controlling program flow
Statements
CALL
Calls an FN3 or SUB function.
CHAIN
Transfers control to another program.
END
Terminates program execution.
FOR…NEXT
Defines a loop containing statements to be executed a specified number of times.
GOSUB
Branches to a subroutine.
GOTO
Branches to a specified label.
IF…THEN…ELSE…END IF
Conditionally executes specified statement blocks
depending upon the evaluation of a conditional
expression.
ON...GOSUB
Branches to one of specified labels according to
the value of an expression.
ON...GOTO
Branches to one of specified labels according to
the value of an expression.
RETURN
Returns control from a subroutine or an event-handling routine (for keystroke interrupt).
SELECT...CASE...END SELECT
Conditionally executes one of statement blocks
depending upon the value of an expression.
WHILE...WEND
Continues to execute a statement block as long as
the conditional expression is true.
551
Handling errors
Statements
ON ERROR GOTO
Enables error trapping.
RESUME
Causes program execution to resume at a specified location after control is transferred to an errorhandling routine.
Functions
ERL
Returns the current statement location of the program where a run-time error occurred.
ERR
Returns the error code of the most recent run-time
error.
Defining and allocating variables
Statements
COMMON
Declares common variables for sharing between
user programs.
CONST
Defines symbolic constants to be replaced with
labels.
DATA
Stores numeric and string literals for READ statements.
DECLARE
Declares user-defined function FUNCTION or SUB
externally defined.
DEFREG
Defines register variables.
DIM
Declares and dimensions arrays; also declares the
string length for a string variable.
ERASE
Erases array variables.
GLOBAL
Declares one or more work variables or register
variables defined in a file, to be global.
LET
Assigns a value to a given variable.
PRIVATE
Declares one or more work variables or register
variables defined in a file, to be private (as local
variables.)
READ
Reads data defined by DATA statement(s) and
assigns them to variables.
RESTORE
Specifies a DATA statement location where the
READ statement should start reading data.
552
Appendices
Controlling the LCD screen
Statements
APLOAD
Loads a user-defined font in the single-byte ANK
mode.
CLS
Clears the LCD screen.
CURSOR
Turns the cursor on or off.
KEY
Assigns a string or a control code to a function key;
also defines a function key as a backlight function
on/off key. This statement also defines a magic
key as a trigger switch, shift key, or software keyboard display key.
KPLOAD
Loads a user-defined Kanji font in the two-byte
Kanji mode. This statement also loads a userdefined cursor.
LOCATE
Moves the cursor to a specified position and
changes the cursor shape.
PRINT
Displays data on the LCD screen.
PRINT USING
Displays data on the LCD screen under formatting
control.
SCREEN
Sets the display mode (display angle, screen
mode, and font size) and character attributes (tone,
character enlargement, and font reverse
attributes).
Functions
COUNTRY$
Sets a national character set or returns a current
country code.
CSRLIN
Returns the current row number of the cursor.
POS
Returns the current column number of the cursor.
553
Controlling the keyboard input
Statements
INPUT
Reads input from the keyboard into a variable.
KEY
Assigns a string or a control code to a function key;
also defines a function key as a backlight function
on/off key. This statement also defines a magic
key as a trigger switch, shift key, or software keyboard display key.
KEY ON
Enables keystroke trapping for a specified function
key.
KEY OFF
Disables keystroke trapping for a specified function
key.
LINE INPUT
Reads input from the keyboard into a string variable.
ON KEY...GOSUB
Specifies an event-handling routine for keystroke
interrupt.
Functions
INKEY$
Returns a character read from the keyboard.
INPUT$
Returns a specified number of characters read
from the keyboard or from a device file.
Beeping
Statements
BEEP
Drives the beeper or vibrator.
Manipulating the system date, the current time, or the timers
Functions
DATE$
Returns the current system date or sets a specified
system date.
TIME$
Returns the current system time or wakeup time, or
sets a specified system time or wakeup time.
TIMEA
Returns the current value of timer A or sets timer A.
TIMEB
Returns the current value of timer B or sets timer B.
TIMEC
Returns the current value of timer C or sets timer C.
554
Appendices
Communicating with I/Os
Statements
OUT
Sends a data byte to an output port.
POWER
Controls the automatic power-off facility.
WAIT
Pauses program execution until a designated input
port presents a given bit pattern.
Functions
FRE
Returns the number of bytes available in a specified area of the memory.
INP
Returns a byte read from a specified input port.
Communicating with the barcode device
Statements
CLOSE
Closes file(s).
INPUT#
Reads data from a device I/O file into specified
variables.
OPEN "BAR:"
Opens the bar code device file. This statement
also activates or deactivates the indicator LED and
the beeper (vibrator) individually.
Functions
CHKDGT$
Returns a check digit of bar code data.
EOF
Tests whether the end of a device I/O file has been
reached.
INPUT$
Returns a specified number of characters read
from the keyboard or from a device file.
LOC
Returns the current position within a specified file.
MARK$
Returns the bar code type and the number of digits
of a bar code. In the BHT-100Q, this function
returns also the 2D code type and the number of
digits of a 2D code.
555
Manipulating data files and user program files
Statements
CLFILE
Erases the data stored in a data file.
CLOSE
Closes file(s).
FIELD
Allocates string variables as field variables.
GET
Reads a record from a data file.
KILL
Deletes a specified file from the memory.
OPEN
Opens a data file for I/O activities.
PUT
Writes a record from a field variable to a data file.
Functions
LOC
Returns the current position within a specified file.
LOF
Returns the length of a specified file.
SEARCH
Searches a specified data file for specified data,
and then returns the record number where the
search data is found.
Communicating with communications devices
Statements
CLOSE
Closes file(s).
INPUT #
Reads data from a device I/O file into specified
variables.
LINE INPUT #
Reads data from a device I/O file into a string variable.
OPEN "COM:"
Opens a communications device file.
PRINT #
Outputs data to a communications device file.
XFILE
Transmits a designated file according to the specified communications protocol.
556
Appendices
Functions
BCC$
Returns a block check character (BCC) of a data
block.
EOF
Tests whether the end of a device I/O file has been
reached.
ETX$
Modifies the value of a terminator (ETX) for the
BHT-protocol; also returns the current value of a
terminator.
INPUT$
Returns a specified number of characters read
from the keyboard or from a device file.
LOC
Returns the current position within a specified file.
LOF
Returns the length of a specified file.
SOH$
Modifies the value of a header (SOH) for the BHTprotocol; also returns the current value of a header.
STX$
Modifies the value of a header (STX) for the BHTprotocol; also returns the current value of a header.
Commenting a program
Statements
REM
Declares the rest of a program line to be remarks
or comments.
Manipulating numeric data
Functions
ABS
Returns the absolute value of a numeric expression.
INT
Returns the largest whole number less than or
equal to the value of a given numeric expression.
557
Manipulating string data
Functions
ASC
Returns the ASCII code value of a given character.
CHR$
Returns the character corresponding to a given
ASCII code.
HEX$
Converts a decimal number into the equivalent
hexadecimal string.
INSTR
Searches a specified target string for a specified
search string, and then returns the position where
the search string is found.
LEFT$
Returns the specified number of leftmost characters from a given string expression.
LEN
Returns the length (number of bytes) of a given
string.
MID$
Returns a portion of a given string expression from
anywhere in the string.
RIGHT$
Returns the specified number of rightmost characters from a given string expression.
STR$
Converts the value of a numeric expression into a
string.
VAL
Converts a string into a numeric value.
Creating user-defined functions
Statements
DEF FN
Names and defines a user-defined function.
DEF FN...END DEF
Names and defines a user-defined function.
FUNCTION...END FUNCTION
Names and defines user-defined function FUNCTION.
SUB...END SUB
Names and defines user-defined function SUB.
Specifying included files
Statements
$INCLUDE
Specifies an included file.
REM $INCLUDE
Specifies an included file.
558
Appendices
Appendix K
Unsupported Statements and Functions
BHT-BASIC does not support the following MS-BASIC statements and functions:
- For handling sequential data files
CVD
CVI
CVS
LSET
MKD$
MKI$
MKS$
PRINT#
PRINT# USING
RSET
WRITE#
- For RS-232C interface operation
PRINT# USING
WRITE#
- For interrupt handling
COM OFF
COM ON
COM STOP
ON STCOM GOSUB
ON STOP GOSUB
STOP OFF
STOP ON
- For graphics and color control
CIRCLE
COLOR
CONSOLE
CSRLIN
DRAW
LINE
POINT
PSET
WIDTH
WINDOW
- For I/O control
DEFUSR
PEEK
POKE
VARPTR
- For mathematical functions and trigonometric functions
ATN
COS
EXP
LOG
SCNG
SIN
SQR
TAN
FIX
IF GOTO
LPOS
OCT$
OPTION BASE
RANDOMIZE
RND
SGN
STRING$
SWAP
TAB
WRITE
- For others
CDBL
CINT
CLEAR
COPY
DEF DBL
DEF SNG
DEFINT
559
Index
ASCII code 276, 284, 339, 346, 527, 558
Symbols
auto-off mode 138, 154, 265, 266, 267
auto-repeat 110
, (comma) 15, 33, 55, 58, 63, 64, 109, 203,
204, 228, 229, 248, 249, 250, 294,
295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 302
B
’ (single quotation, single quote, apostrophe) 16, 54, 57, 310, 334
backlight iii, 165, 166, 167, 234, 235, 236,
390, 535, 538
_ (underline, underscore) 15, 33, 55, 56, 58,
78, 262, 295, 297, 298, 299, 504,
506
backlight function on/off key 166, 233, 234,
235, 236, 238, 553, 554
$INCLUDE 51, 310, 334, 526, 558
backlightkeynumber 233, 234, 236
12-dot font 89
bar code device file 138, 154, 231, 251, 262,
263, 264, 265, 266, 285, 289, 362,
369, 371, 421, 514, 537, 548, 555
16-dot font 89
bar code device, barcode device 126, 133,
134, 137, 353, 555
A
BCC vi, 329, 330, 340, 526, 557
ACK 161, 346
BEEP 111, 147, 174, 175, 176, 526, 554
address-source list 30, 32, 33, 36, 39, 42,
355
beeper ii, iii, 111, 131, 138, 139, 154, 158,
174, 175, 208, 264, 267, 276, 283,
531, 534, 536, 538, 554, 555
alternate switching mode 138, 154, 265,
266, 267
BHT-BASIC i, ii, iii, iv, v, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 13,
14, 15, 16, 17, 50, 54, 65, 67, 69, 77,
78, 79, 84, 111, 126, 143, 146, 227,
327, 346, 374, 388, 422, 436, 465,
467, 526, 529, 535, 559
AND iv, 55, 69, 70, 78, 82, 83, 112, 138,
325, 526
APLOAD 97, 104, 107, 169, 170, 171, 181,
182, 190, 246, 526, 527, 553
BHT-BASIC 3.0 6, 18, 19
application program i, ii, iii, 3, 4, 5, 6, 156,
208, 388, 430, 451, 466, 475, 479
BHT-BASIC Compiler v, 6, 8, 12, 13, 15, 17,
18, 19, 29, 32, 33, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41,
43, 459
arithmetic operation 77, 78
arithmetic operator 69, 70, 77, 78, 80, 81
BHT-BASIC Extension Library 3, 178
array integer type, array integer variable 34,
66, 169, 170, 171, 187, 242, 243,
244
BHT-BASIC Interpreter v, 3
BHT-Ir protocol 128, 141, 142, 143, 144,
329, 331, 332, 392, 531, 534, 536,
538
array real type, array real variable 34, 66,
187
BHT-protocol 128, 142, 143, 144, 329, 331,
357, 380, 382, 531, 536, 557
array register variable 203
array string type, array string variable, arraystringvariable 16, 34,
65, 172, 187, 202, 203, 207, 209,
245, 303
block check character vi, 330, 340, 557
block-format user-defined function 49
560
COMMON 50, 54, 65, 67, 71, 75, 170, 171,
block-structured statement 16, 47, 48, 49,
193, 195, 196, 199, 200, 213, 215,
217, 223, 226, 258, 261, 320, 322,
323, 327
173, 178, 181, 182, 187, 188, 209,
243, 244, 246, 336, 526, 552
common variable 30, 34, 35, 39, 50, 67, 75,
187, 209, 210, 336, 519, 521, 523,
524, 542, 552
build 6, 8, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 26, 35,
36, 38
communications device 126, 141, 421, 424,
425, 426, 431, 433, 434, 436, 441,
490, 556
C
communications device file 154, 231, 251,
262, 263, 265, 286, 287, 289, 292,
297, 298, 332, 346, 353, 362, 369,
371, 421, 491, 492, 514, 516, 556
CALL 6, 177, 178, 179, 321, 322, 324, 388,
390,
425,
475,
487,
494,
506,
551
394,
426,
479,
488,
498,
508,
395,
427,
481,
489,
499,
509,
396,
471,
482,
490,
500,
510,
422,
472,
483,
491,
501,
511,
423,
473,
485,
492,
502,
513,
424,
474,
486,
493,
503,
526,
communications parameter 141
communications protocol 142, 329, 333,
392, 451, 531, 534, 536, 538, 543,
556
CHAIN 50, 163, 169, 170, 181, 187, 188,
compilation error 51, 334, 517
243, 349, 526, 551
compiler v, 5, 6, 8, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19,
29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40,
41, 43, 51, 56, 149, 181, 203, 207,
459
chain, chaining, chained ii, 50, 67, 163, 169,
170, 181, 187, 243, 349
character attribute, charaattribute
90, 186, 294, 315, 316, 317, 408,
409, 534, 553
compiling option 17, 30, 36, 37, 38, 39
character code 85, 144, 169, 170, 234, 242,
339, 340, 346, 360
concatenate ii, 77, 84
character enlargement 88, 100, 117, 190,
229, 249, 315, 316, 317, 362, 532,
534, 553
constant ii, 6, 7, 57, 63, 64, 77, 177, 189,
191, 192, 193, 194, 196, 200, 204,
206, 207, 214, 216, 221, 222, 228,
229, 520, 552
CONST 6, 189, 522, 552
check digit 4, 133, 134, 135, 138, 273, 274,
275, 281, 282, 283, 284, 342, 555
continuous reading mode 138, 154, 265,
266, 267
CLFILE 58, 130, 132, 183, 184, 211, 241,
526, 556
control code 56, 57, 63, 233, 234, 294, 298,
346, 362, 553, 554
CLOSE 126, 130, 132, 184, 185, 186, 211,
232, 241, 252, 263, 333, 421, 436,
526, 555, 556
close 5, 17, 126, 130, 132,
240, 265, 266, 292,
436, 441, 451, 452,
484, 489, 494, 495,
507, 515, 523, 529,
555, 556
181,
332,
467,
497,
533,
185,
419,
470,
500,
537,
count 67, 176, 385
counter 292, 293
208,
421,
476,
505,
548,
countrycode, country code 348, 349,
528, 553
CRC-16 340
cross reference 5, 30, 32, 34, 39, 42, 51,
334, 517, 518
CLS 16, 100, 101, 102, 186, 294, 383, 526,
CU v, vi, 11, 141, 144, 160, 161, 162, 388,
389, 393, 394, 396, 397, 398, 411,
413, 414, 442, 490, 491, 492, 493,
516, 530, 534, 539
553
cluster 358, 392, 542
code mark 137, 372
comment 16, 53, 54, 57, 310, 334, 557
561
CURSOR iv, 190, 229, 249, 360, 363, 526,
direct-connect interface 11, 141, 265, 286,
287, 288, 289, 391, 392, 533
553
cursor 97, 107, 169, 170, 171, 186, 190,
229, 242, 243, 244, 249, 253, 254,
294, 295, 302, 330, 350, 360, 376,
553
directory, directories 27, 37, 41, 42, 43, 129,
130, 183, 240, 459, 467, 495, 496,
497, 501, 502, 503, 506, 508, 509
double-touch reading 133, 134
cursor shape 97, 107, 190, 229, 249, 253,
362, 553
double-width 88, 90, 97, 101, 104, 117, 170,
171, 190, 229, 243, 245, 249, 254,
316, 362, 376, 408, 409, 532
cursorswitch 170, 253
drivers 3
D
dummy argument 34, 68
dummy character 343, 344, 345
DATA 54, 111, 178, 191, 308, 309, 311,
dummy parameter 179, 201, 217
390, 394, 395, 423, 424, 425, 426,
493, 494, 503, 513, 522, 526, 552
data file ii, 44, 61, 126, 127, 128, 129,
131, 142, 143, 144, 154, 183,
210, 211, 219, 220, 240, 262,
265, 306, 307, 329, 331, 332,
353, 354, 357, 358, 363, 369,
378, 379, 380, 381, 382, 459,
503, 504, 506, 514, 542, 543,
556, 559
dummy parameter, dummyparameter
179, 196, 201, 217, 321, 322, 323,
376
130,
185,
263,
333,
371,
462,
544,
E
END 45, 150, 151, 156, 163, 185, 208, 223,
319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 513,
522, 526, 534, 547, 551
debug information 14, 30, 31, 39, 41, 517
ENQ 331, 346
declarative statement 50, 54, 187, 189, 191,
192, 202, 221, 303, 310
environmental variable 40
ER 286
DECLARE 6, 7, 48, 179, 180, 192, 193, 216,
218, 324, 552
ERASE 67, 170, 207, 209, 243, 526, 552
DEF FN 47, 48, 57, 60, 68, 84, 194, 195,
error trapping 80, 146, 149, 257, 552
196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 225,
513, 521, 558
error-/event-handling routine 47, 49, 146,
151, 193, 195, 199, 215, 238, 260,
314, 322, 551, 554
DEF FN...END DEF 47, 48, 84, 193, 195,
198, 199, 200, 213, 215, 223, 226,
227, 258, 261, 320, 322, 327, 521,
558
error-handling routine 47, 146, 149, 150,
257, 312, 313, 322, 356, 513, 552
defragmentation 131, 536, 539
ERRORLEVEL 29, 40
DEFREG 16, 54, 65, 67, 170, 171, 173, 178,
event polling ii, 145, 146, 147, 148
202, 203, 204, 205, 207, 209, 222,
243, 244, 246, 303, 304, 305, 336,
526, 552
event trapping 146, 151
event-handling routine 151
execution program 45, 50, 208, 394
delimiter 54, 94, 459, 461, 462, 464, 466,
503, 504, 506, 508
expression, generalexpression ii, 57,
69, 70, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83,
85, 194, 195, 196, 198, 200, 214,
216, 226, 247, 258, 259, 299, 300,
301, 302, 319, 320, 327, 376, 513,
517, 519, 520, 551
device I/O file 126, 185, 231, 232, 251, 252,
353, 555, 556, 557
DIM 16, 65, 67, 170, 171, 173, 178, 205,
206, 207, 209, 222, 243, 244, 246,
304, 305, 522, 526, 552
562
FUNCTION...END FUNCTION 47, 48, 84,
extended function 2, 3, 178, 387, 388
193, 195, 199, 213, 215, 216, 327
extension library, extension libraries 2, 3,
177, 178, 431, 432, 434, 435, 436,
445, 446, 459, 461, 466, 503
G
extension program 3, 44, 178
generative polynomial 340
F
GET 131, 132, 211, 219, 220, 307, 369, 370,
FIELD 55, 58, 128, 129, 130, 184, 210,
GLOBAL 6, 7, 71, 72, 73, 215, 221, 222,
371, 379, 514, 526, 556
211, 219, 220, 306, 307, 333, 370,
378, 379, 514, 526, 556
304, 305, 322, 522, 552
global variable 6, 7, 33, 71, 72, 73, 179, 195,
199, 200, 216, 322
field 128, 130, 210, 231, 301, 329, 330, 332,
378, 392, 462, 467, 503, 505, 543,
544, 545, 546
GOSUB iv, 47, 48, 147, 151, 223, 224, 258,
259, 260, 261, 310, 314, 513, 526,
551
field length, field width, fieldwidth 129,
130, 142, 210, 211, 306, 462, 467,
495, 504, 514
GOTO 16, 47, 49, 53, 147, 223, 225, 258,
259, 310, 526, 551
field variable, fieldvariable 210, 219,
306, 378, 556
H
file number, filenumber 58, 69, 70, 126,
183, 185, 210, 211, 219, 220, 231,
232, 251, 252, 262, 263, 264, 285,
286, 287, 289, 297, 298, 306, 307,
353, 354, 362, 363, 369, 370, 371,
378, 379, 421, 433, 436, 513, 514,
548
header 32, 33, 142, 143, 144, 330, 333, 380,
382, 514, 557
heading text 380
I
file type 31, 126, 183, 211, 220, 232, 252,
263, 298, 307, 333, 353, 354, 363,
369, 371, 379, 505, 513, 514
I/O ports 131, 162, 164, 267, 290, 529
flash ROM 2
icon v, 17
font size 88, 89, 91, 100, 190, 229, 244, 249,
315, 317, 350, 362, 376, 396, 532,
534, 553
identifier 60, 61, 65, 66, 189, 468, 469, 471,
472, 473, 475, 476, 479, 480, 481,
482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488,
489, 494, 515
FOR...NEXT 47, 48, 49, 193, 195, 199, 212,
IF...THEN...ELSE...END IF 47, 193, 195,
213, 215, 327, 521
199, 213, 215, 327
frequency 111, 174, 175, 378
illumination LED iii, 139, 154, 158, 264, 265,
266, 270
FTP client iii, 388, 430, 459, 460, 461, 462,
463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 495, 498,
499, 500, 501, 502, 503, 506, 509,
510, 511, 515
include file 335, 518
indicator LED 112, 138, 139, 264, 267, 276,
283, 534, 535, 537, 555
FTP library 420, 495
INPUT v, 58, 152, 190, 228, 229, 234, 238,
FTP server 388, 430, 459, 467, 495, 496,
498, 499, 501, 502, 503, 506, 508,
509, 511, 515
248, 250, 252, 363, 371, 522, 526
INPUT # 131, 136, 231, 232, 251, 252,
354, 555, 556
function operation 78
input port 288, 325, 361, 529, 533, 555
function operator 77, 84
563
integer constant, integerconstant 63,
177, 192, 193, 194, 196, 200, 202,
203, 204, 206, 207, 214, 216, 221,
222, 262, 263, 304, 323, 520
local variable 6, 7, 33, 71, 73, 195, 199, 215,
303, 304, 322, 552
LOCATE 97, 100, 101, 107, 170, 190, 229,
230, 249, 250, 253, 256, 294, 296,
333, 350, 360, 362, 363, 376, 526,
553
interpreter v, 3, 5, 8, 14, 35, 36, 45, 50, 54,
67, 68, 69, 70, 129, 138, 146, 149,
170, 212, 223, 238, 243, 257, 260,
273, 274, 281, 282, 284, 290, 358,
385
logical operation 70, 82
logical operator 77, 82
LSB 106
interrupt 47, 146, 149, 151, 152, 154, 163,
164, 260, 314, 441, 537, 551, 554,
559
M
IR interface port 11
IrDA interface 141, 265, 285, 286, 287, 288,
289, 391, 392, 421, 426
M1 key 236, 390
M2 key 390
Ir-Transfer Utility C 12, 13, 14, 44, 144
magic key 109, 110, 112, 113, 138, 233,
235, 264, 265, 266, 531, 533, 553,
554
K
main routine 47, 48, 49, 149, 150, 151
KEY 138, 151, 166, 167, 181, 233, 234, 235,
mantissa 64
236, 237, 238, 239, 261, 526, 538,
553, 554
mapfile 31, 35, 36, 39, 42
KEY OFF 237, 238, 260, 261, 360, 554
maximum length of a record 128
KEY ON 151, 237, 238, 260, 261, 360, 554
maximum number of registrable records
129, 263, 306
keyboard buffer 112, 113, 234, 529
memory area 5, 68, 128, 129, 183, 203, 358,
541
keystroke trapping, event (of keystroke)
trapping ii, 47, 146, 151, 152, 238,
260, 360, 362, 554
memory space 66, 127, 180, 182, 188, 197,
201, 207, 213, 217, 222, 224, 259,
261, 263, 305, 307, 324, 333, 505,
513, 542
KILL 130, 132, 240, 241, 526, 556
KPLOAD 97, 104, 107, 173, 181, 182, 190,
242, 243, 246, 526, 553
MOD-10 281, 284, 342
MOD-16 273, 282, 342
L
MOD-43 274, 282, 342
modulo arithmetic 78, 80, 342
label ii, iv, 5, 6, 15, 31, 34, 41, 53, 59, 60, 61,
149, 150, 151, 189, 223, 225, 257,
258, 259, 260, 261, 310, 311, 312,
314, 336, 355, 390, 517, 519, 521,
522, 526, 551, 552
momentary switching mode 138, 154, 265,
267
MSB 106
multilink protocol, Multilink Protocol System
329, 332
LET 247, 526, 552
LINE INPUT 152, 190, 230, 234, 238, 248,
multiple code reading 137
249, 250, 363, 371, 554
multi-statement 54
LINE INPUT # 131, 136, 147, 232, 251,
252, 354, 556
564
OPEN 58, 61, 126, 129, 130, 132, 184, 185,
210, 211, 219, 220, 262, 263, 266,
267, 276, 283, 286, 287, 288, 298,
306, 307, 333, 370, 371, 379, 420,
514, 526, 556
N
national character 107, 348, 349, 527, 528,
553
non-array real type, non-array real variable
34, 66, 187, 192, 194, 214, 321
open 17, 19, 21, 22, 24, 29, 40, 126, 131,
132, 133, 134, 240, 262, 263, 264,
265, 285, 286, 287, 289, 333, 419,
421, 425, 426, 433, 441, 467, 491,
492, 495, 496, 498, 499, 505, 507,
514, 516, 523, 525, 548, 555, 556
non-array register variable 67
OPEN "BAR" 113, 133, 134, 135, 138, 139,
non-array integer type, non-array integer
variable 34, 66, 187, 192, 194, 214,
321
147, 154, 231, 232, 251, 252, 263,
264, 265, 267, 273, 274, 275, 280,
281, 282, 283, 284, 345, 354, 363,
537, 555
non-array string type, non-array string variable, non-arraystringvariable 16, 34, 65, 66, 187, 192, 194,
202, 203, 207, 209, 210, 214, 303,
321, 378
OPEN "COM" 141, 154, 232, 252, 263, 286,
287, 332, 333, 354, 357, 363, 371,
380, 382, 420, 421, 433, 441, 533,
556
NOT 69, 70, 78, 82, 147, 526
null character, null character string 67
number of written records 129, 130, 219,
371
optimizing drive 467
OR 16, 55, 69, 70, 78, 82, 83, 526
numeric constant, numericconstant
63, 202, 203, 303
OUT 105, 106, 112, 131, 138, 139, 143, 154,
162, 166, 167, 175, 267, 290, 291,
326, 361, 384, 465, 467, 526, 535,
537, 538, 539, 555
numeric expression 77, 130, 169, 174, 177,
183, 185, 206, 210, 212, 219, 221,
226, 231, 233, 236, 238, 242, 251,
253, 258, 260, 262, 264, 286, 290,
292, 297, 304, 306, 315, 325, 338,
340, 346, 353, 358, 359, 361, 362,
364, 366, 367, 369, 371, 374, 377,
378, 381, 385, 557, 558
output port 138, 139, 290, 535, 538, 555
P
parity 141, 286, 287, 288, 329, 330, 333,
391, 392
O
object program v, 3, 5, 6, 13, 14, 18, 31, 33,
41, 50, 181
port number, port No., portnumber 105,
113, 143, 162, 164, 290, 291, 325,
326, 361, 475, 483, 485, 495, 510,
529, 533, 535, 538, 547
offduration 174, 175
POWER 45, 156, 163, 292, 293, 526, 534,
547, 555
ON ERROR GOTO 59, 150, 181, 257, 313,
primary station 142, 143
355, 356, 552
PRINT iv, 15, 48, 54, 55, 56, 68, 84, 85,
ON KEY...GOSUB 59, 151, 237, 238, 239,
100, 101, 102, 111, 147, 150, 169,
173, 197, 201, 218, 227, 242, 246,
294, 295, 302, 308, 309, 320, 324,
333, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 366,
368, 374, 381, 383, 386, 526, 553
260, 261, 314, 554
ON...GOSUB, ON...GOTO 227, 258, 551
onduration iv, 174, 175, 233, 234, 235
PRINT USING 15, 55, 57, 58, 296, 299,
300, 301, 302, 553, 559
565
PRINT# 15, 55, 131, 297, 298, 346, 526,
resume function ii, 45, 155, 156, 163, 293,
392, 441
556, 559
PRIVATE 6, 7, 71, 73, 215, 222, 303, 304,
RETURN 47, 48, 147, 151, 223, 224, 260,
322, 522, 552
314, 513, 526, 551
program file 18, 27, 32, 43, 126, 144, 183,
193, 203, 240, 333, 358, 459, 460,
461, 466, 504, 505, 506, 514, 556
roaming 419, 434
RS 286
RS/CS 286, 287, 288, 533
program file name, programfilename
42, 181, 182, 547
RS-232C vi, 11, 559
protocol function 142, 143, 144, 357, 380,
382
S
PUT 129, 131, 132, 211, 220, 263, 306, 307,
370, 379, 514, 526, 556
SCREEN 100, 101, 102, 173, 246, 296, 315,
316, 347, 350, 376, 526, 553
R
screen mode 88, 89, 91, 100, 117, 190, 229,
249, 253, 315, 317, 350, 362, 376,
532, 534, 553
READ iv, 111, 191, 308, 309, 311, 513, 526,
secondary station 142, 143
552
SELECT...CASE...END SELECT 47, 48,
real argument, realparameter 68, 177,
179, 194, 195, 196, 198, 200, 201,
214, 215, 216, 217, 321, 322, 323
193, 195, 199, 213, 215, 223, 226,
227, 258, 259, 261, 319, 320, 322,
327, 521, 551
real constant 63, 64
shift JIS code 242, 347
receive buffer 112, 113, 353, 369, 371, 468,
473, 475, 476, 478, 479, 486, 529
record 43, 128, 129, 130, 164,
211, 219, 220, 263, 306,
371, 378, 459, 460, 461,
464, 467, 503, 505, 508,
523, 532, 537, 556
183,
333,
462,
514,
single-byte ANK mode 91, 94, 97, 104, 107,
169, 170, 190, 229, 249, 253, 350,
362, 376, 553
210,
369,
463,
522,
sizes of variables 30, 42
sleep timer 112, 154, 535, 537
small-size font, small-size 88, 89, 93, 96,
99, 100, 102, 104, 117, 190, 229,
244, 249, 253, 315, 317, 350, 362,
376, 407, 408, 532
register variable 6, 30, 34, 35, 36, 39, 57,
67, 154, 156, 202, 203, 204, 209,
210, 221, 303, 336, 519, 521, 524,
542, 552
socket API 437, 451, 469, 470, 471, 472,
473, 474, 475, 479, 481, 482, 483,
485, 486, 487, 488, 489
relational operation 78
relational operator 57, 77, 81, 82, 85
socket application program interface iii, 388,
430, 451
REM 16, 51, 54, 191, 310, 334, 526, 557,
558
socket library 420, 433, 468
remote wakeup iii, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164,
531, 532, 534, 536, 537, 539
software keyboard 108, 114, 121, 122, 123,
124, 233, 235, 238, 530, 535, 553,
554
re-read prevention, re-read prevention enabled time 530, 533, 535, 538
source program v, 5, 6, 8, 13, 14, 15, 18, 27,
31, 32, 33, 41, 42, 50, 51, 179, 187,
189, 191, 193, 195, 199, 203, 206,
208, 216, 223, 334
reserved word iv, 59, 60, 61, 310, 519, 526
RESTORE 191, 309, 311, 522, 526, 552
RESUME 47, 59, 149, 150, 257, 312, 313,
355, 356, 441, 513, 526, 552
special character 107, 276, 283
566
System Mode 3, 45, 50, 110, 142, 143, 144,
156, 163, 164, 208, 273, 281, 284,
348, 389, 390, 391, 394, 395, 431,
432, 527, 528, 533, 535, 543, 546,
547
spread spectrum v, 388, 417, 418, 419, 420,
421, 422, 424, 425, 426, 428, 430,
431, 433, 434, 436, 439, 441, 447,
457, 458, 467, 490, 516
standard-size font, standard-size 88, 89, 92,
95, 98, 100, 102, 117, 119, 171, 190,
229, 244, 249, 253, 315, 317, 350,
362, 376, 407, 408, 532
system program 2, 3, 45
system status 496
start character, start/stop character, stop
character 133, 134, 135, 276, 283,
284
T
statement block 47, 48, 49
tag-jump function, tag jump 27
stop bit 141, 287, 288, 391
terminator 142, 143, 144, 330, 357, 557
string 178
text control character 330, 357, 380, 382
string constant, stringconstant 57,
63, 189, 191, 202, 203, 228, 229,
248, 250, 252, 303
timeout 111, 162, 286, 288, 331, 332, 392,
427, 434, 481, 494, 514, 534, 539
string expression 77, 177,
214, 233, 240, 262,
319, 321, 329, 340,
357, 364, 367, 374,
382, 383, 386, 558
181,
264,
342,
377,
189,
294,
348,
378,
timer ii, 111, 112, 148, 154, 385, 473, 486,
494, 535, 537, 554
194,
297,
351,
380,
Transfer Utility 12, 13, 14, 44, 142, 144
transmission speed, baud 141, 162, 163,
286, 287, 534, 539
trap ii, 47, 80, 150, 151, 181, 238, 257, 260,
314
string operation 57, 78, 358
string operator 77, 84
string variable 16, 58, 65, 66, 67, 136,
177, 178, 180, 187, 188, 192,
203, 204, 206, 207, 209, 210,
228, 231, 245, 247, 248, 251,
321, 374, 378, 468, 475, 479,
542, 552, 554, 556
trigger switch 45, 112, 113, 138, 154, 166,
233, 235, 236, 238, 264, 265, 266,
292, 390, 529, 533, 553, 554
172,
194,
214,
308,
495,
two-byte Kanji mode 88, 92, 95, 98, 104,
107, 190, 229, 242, 243, 249, 253,
317, 350, 362, 376, 553
type conversion 69, 70, 82, 247
SUB...END SUB 6, 7, 47, 48, 84, 179, 180,
193, 195, 199, 213, 215, 223, 226,
258, 261, 320, 321, 322, 323, 327,
522, 558
U
subroutine 47, 48, 49, 149, 193, 195, 199,
215, 223, 225, 314, 322, 334, 551
UDP 437, 451, 452, 468, 469, 484, 485, 488
subscript 57, 65, 66, 169, 172, 187, 202,
204, 206, 207, 209, 221, 242, 245,
303, 304, 513
user datagram protocol 437, 451, 452
unoccupied area 371
user program v, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 11, 12, 13, 14,
17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 26, 35, 36, 37,
38, 41, 43, 44, 45, 50, 51, 67, 108,
127, 131, 139, 146, 149, 154, 156,
159, 160, 163, 164, 169, 170, 181,
183, 187, 190, 203, 234, 243, 311,
325, 326, 391, 392, 418, 419, 431,
432, 437, 459, 466, 503, 505, 529,
533, 534, 535, 537, 542, 547, 552
SUM 340
supplemental code 135, 280
symbol table 14, 30, 32, 33, 34, 39, 42, 523
synchronization 419, 422, 427, 434
567
user-defined font 47, 48, 57, 68, 84, 104,
169, 181, 192, 214, 243, 321, 527,
553
user-defined function 7, 31, 33, 34, 36, 48,
49, 57, 58, 68, 77, 149, 179, 180,
193, 195, 196, 199, 200, 201, 215,
216, 217, 322, 323, 334, 358
V
variable iv, 5, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 39, 41,
42, 43, 50, 53, 54, 57, 60, 61, 65, 66,
67, 69, 70, 77, 154, 156, 169, 170,
171, 177, 178, 179, 181, 182, 187,
188, 191, 192, 194, 195, 196, 199,
200, 201, 203, 204, 206, 207, 209,
210, 212, 213, 214, 215, 217, 221,
222, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 242,
243, 244, 247, 248, 250, 251, 304,
305, 306, 308, 309, 310, 321, 322,
323, 334, 468, 475, 479, 483, 485,
495, 517, 519, 520, 521, 522, 523,
524, 526, 542, 552, 554, 555, 556
VRAM vi, 105, 530, 533, 535, 538
W
WAIT 111, 113, 136, 138, 147, 162, 291,
325, 326, 526, 529, 555
wakeup iii, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164,
383, 384, 530, 531, 532, 533, 534,
535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 554
WHILE...WEND 47, 48, 193, 195, 199, 213,
215, 223, 226, 227, 258, 261, 320,
322, 327, 328, 521, 551
wireless block 417, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426,
427, 433, 434, 436
work variable 6, 30, 34, 35, 39, 67, 187, 221,
303, 336, 358, 519, 524, 552
X
XFILE 129, 132, 142, 143, 144, 329, 330,
331, 332, 333, 357, 380, 382, 526,
534, 538, 543, 546, 556
XOR 69, 70, 78, 82, 83, 340, 526
568
BHT-BASIC
(BHT-100 series)
Programmer’s Manual
First Edition, October 2001
DENSO WAVE INCORPORATED
The purpose of this manual is to provide accurate information in the development of application
programs in BHT-BASIC. Please feel free to send your comments regarding any errors or
omissions you may have found, or any suggestions you may have for generally improving the
manual.
In no event will DENSO WAVE be liable for any direct or indirect damages resulting from the
application of the information in this manual.