Zhone 6219-X1 Specifications

6219-X1 ADSL2+
4–Port Router
Users Guide
Document Part Number: 830-02072-02
February 2010
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Zhone Technologies, Inc.
@ Zhone Way
7001 Oakport Street
Oakland, CA 94621
USA
510.777.7000
www.zhone.com
info@zhone.com
COPYRIGHT ©2000-2010 Zhone Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved.
This publication is protected by copyright law. No part of this publication may be copied or
distributed, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any human or
computer language in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, magnetic, manual or
otherwise, or disclosed to third parties without the express written permission from Zhone
Technologies, Inc.
Bitstorm, EtherXtend, IMACS, MALC, MXK, Raptor, SLMS, Z-Edge, Zhone, ZMS, zNID and the
Zhone logo are trademarks of Zhone Technologies, Inc.
Zhone Technologies makes no representation or warranties with respect to the contents hereof
and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability, non infringement, or fitness
for a particular purpose. Further, Zhone Technologies reserves the right to revise this publication
and to make changes from time to time in the contents hereof without obligation of Zhone
Technologies to notify any person of such revision or changes.
This product may contain copyrighted software that is licensed under the GNU General Public
License (“GPL”), a copy of which is available at www.gnu.org/licenses. You may obtain a copy of
such software, in source code form, from Zhone for a period of three years after our last shipment
of the product by following the instructions at www.zhone.com/gplinfo.
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Important Safety Instructions
1. Read and follow all warning notices and instructions marked on the product or included in
the manual.
2. Slots and openings in the housing are provided for ventilation. To ensure reliable operation
of the product and to protect it from overheating, these slots and openings must not be
blocked or covered.
3. Do not allow anything to rest on the power cord and do not locate the product where
persons will walk on the power cord.
4. Do not attempt to service this product yourself, as opening or removing covers may expose
you to dangerous high voltage points or other risks. Refer all servicing to qualified service
personnel.
5. General purpose cables are used with this product for connection to the network. Special
cables, which may be required by the regulatory inspection authority for the installation site,
are the responsibility of the customer. Use a UL Listed, CSA certified, minimum No. 24
AWG line cord for connection to the Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) network.
6. When installed in the final configuration, the product must comply with the applicable Safety
Standards and regulatory requirements of the country in which it is installed. If necessary,
consult with the appropriate regulatory agencies and inspection authorities to ensure
compliance.
7. A rare phenomenon can create a voltage potential between the earth grounds of two or
more buildings. If products installed in separate buildings are interconnected, the voltage
potential may cause a hazardous condition. Consult a qualified electrical consultant to
determine whether or not this phenomenon exists and, if necessary, implement corrective
action prior to interconnecting the products.
8. Input power to this product must be provided by one of the following: (1) a UL Listed/CSA
certified power source with a Class 2 or Limited Power Source (LPS) output for use in
North America, or (2) a certified transformer, with a Safety Extra Low Voltage (SELV) output
having a maximum of 240 VA available, for use in the country of installation.
9. In addition, since the equipment is to be used with telecommunications circuits, take the
following precautions:
— Never install telephone wiring during a lightning storm.
— Never install telephone jacks in wet locations unless the jack is specifically designed for wet
locations.
— Never touch uninsulated telephone wires or terminals unless the telephone line has been
disconnected at the network interface.
— Use caution when installing or modifying telephone lines.
— Avoid using a telephone (other than a cordless type) during an electrical storm. There may
be a remote risk of electric shock from lightning.
— Do not use the telephone to report a gas leak which is in the vicinity of the leak.
CE Marking
When the product is marked with the CE mark on the equipment label, a supporting Declaration
of Conformity may be downloaded from the Zhone World Wide Web site at www.zhone.com.
FCC Part 15 Declaration
An FCC Declaration of Conformity may be downloaded from the Zhone World Wide Web site at
www.zhone.com.
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This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept
any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
The authority to operate this equipment is conditioned by the requirement that no modifications
will be made to the equipment unless the changes or modifications are expressly approved by the
responsible party.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can
radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions,
may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that
interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful
interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment
off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the
following measures:
— Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
— Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
— Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is
connected.
— Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Notice to Users of the United States Telephone Network
The following notice applies to versions of the modem that have been FCC Part 68 approved.
This equipment complies with Part 68 of the FCC rules and the requirements adopted by the
Administrative Council for Terminal Attachment (ACTA). On the bottom side of this equipment is a
label that contains, among other information, a product identifier in the format
US:AAAEQ##TXXXX. If requested, this number must be provided to the Telephone Company.
This equipment is intended to connect to the Public Switched Telephone Network through a
Universal Service Order Code (USOC) type RJ11C jack. A plug and jack used to connect this
equipment to the premises wiring and telephone network must comply with the applicable FCC
Part 68 rules and requirements adopted by the ACTA. A compliant telephone cord and modular
plug is provided with this product. It has been designed to be connected to a compatible modular
jack that is also compliant.
If the modem causes harm to the telephone network, the Telephone Company will notify you in
advance that temporary discontinuance of service may be required. But if advance notice is not
practical, the Telephone Company will notify the customer as soon as possible. Also, you will be
advised of your right to file a complaint with the FCC if you believe it is necessary.
The Telephone Company may make changes in its facilities, equipment, operations or
procedures that could affect the operation of the equipment. If this happens, the Telephone
Company will provide advance notice in order for you to make necessary modifications to
maintain uninterrupted service. If trouble is experienced with the modem, refer to the repair and
warranty information in this document.
If the equipment is causing harm to the telephone network, the Telephone Company may request
that you disconnect the equipment until the problem is resolved.
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The user may make no repairs to the equipment.
Connection to party line service is subject to state tariffs. Contact the state public utility
commission, public service commission or corporation commission for information.
If the site has specially wired alarm equipment connected to the telephone line, ensure the
installation of the modem does not disable the alarm equipment. If you have questions about
what will disable alarm equipment, consult your Telephone Company or a qualified installer.
Notice to Users of the Canadian Telephone Network
NOTICE: This equipment meets the applicable Industry Canada Terminal Equipment Technical
Specifications. This is confirmed by the registration number. The abbreviation IC before the
registration number signifies that registration was performed based on a Declaration of
Conformity indicating that Industry Canada technical specifications were met. It does not imply
that Industry Canada approved the equipment.
If your equipment is in need of repair, contact your local sales representative, service
representative, or distributor directly.
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!
CANADA - EMI NOTICE:
This Class B digital apparatus meets all requirements of the Canadian interference-causing
equipment regulations.
Cet appareil numérique de la classe B respecte toutes les exigences du règlement sur le matérial
brouilleur du Canada.
Japan Notices
This is a Class B product based on the standard of the Voluntary Control Council for
Interference from Information Technology Equipment (VCCI). If this is used near a
radio or television receiver in a domestic environment, it may cause radio
interference. Install and use the equipment according to the instruction manual.
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Table of Contents
Important Safety Instructions................................................................................................................................3
CE Marking ......................................................................................................................................................3
FCC Part 15 Declaration..................................................................................................................................3
About This Guide................................................................................................................................................11
Style and notation conventions ......................................................................................................................11
Typographical conventions ........................................................................................................................12
Acronyms .......................................................................................................................................................12
Contacting Global Service and Support.........................................................................................................14
Chapter 1
Introduction
15
System Requirements ........................................................................................................................................15
Package Contents ..............................................................................................................................................16
Safety Instructions..............................................................................................................................................16
Front Panel.........................................................................................................................................................17
Back Panel .........................................................................................................................................................18
Chapter 2
Hardware Installation and PC Setup
19
Overview ............................................................................................................................................................19
Connecting your hardware .................................................................................................................................19
Mounting the Router...........................................................................................................................................20
Standing the Router Vertically ............................................................................................................................20
Configuring Your Computer ................................................................................................................................21
Windows 2000 ...............................................................................................................................................21
Windows XP...................................................................................................................................................22
Chapter 3
The Web User Interface
23
Log in to the Router............................................................................................................................................23
Summary ............................................................................................................................................................24
WAN Info ............................................................................................................................................................25
LAN Statistics .....................................................................................................................................................25
WAN Statistics ....................................................................................................................................................26
ATM Interface Statistics......................................................................................................................................26
ADSL Statistics ...................................................................................................................................................27
ADSL BER Test ..................................................................................................................................................28
Route ..................................................................................................................................................................29
ARP ....................................................................................................................................................................29
DHCP .................................................................................................................................................................30
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Chapter 4
Advanced Setup
31
WAN ...................................................................................................................................................................31
Create a New WAN Connection — ATM PVC Configuration.........................................................................32
Connection Type | PPPoA .............................................................................................................................33
Connection Type | PPPoE .............................................................................................................................36
Connection Type | MAC Encapsulation Routing ............................................................................................39
Connection Type | IP over ATM......................................................................................................................42
Connection Type | Bridging............................................................................................................................44
Remove Function...........................................................................................................................................46
Finish Function...............................................................................................................................................47
LAN Local Area Network (LAN) Setup ...............................................................................................................48
Ethernet Mode....................................................................................................................................................50
NAT.....................................................................................................................................................................51
Virtual Servers................................................................................................................................................51
Port Triggering ...............................................................................................................................................53
DMZ Host .......................................................................................................................................................54
MAC Filtering .................................................................................................................................................55
Parental Control .............................................................................................................................................57
URL Filter ...........................................................................................................................................................58
Quality of Service ...............................................................................................................................................59
Queue Config .................................................................................................................................................59
QoS Classification..........................................................................................................................................60
Routing ...............................................................................................................................................................62
Default Gateway ............................................................................................................................................62
Static Route....................................................................................................................................................63
Policy Route ...................................................................................................................................................64
DSL.....................................................................................................................................................................65
Modulation Methods ..................................................................................................................................65
Capability ...................................................................................................................................................66
DSL Advanced Settings .................................................................................................................................66
Interface Group ..................................................................................................................................................68
IPSec ..................................................................................................................................................................70
Certificate ...........................................................................................................................................................72
Local...............................................................................................................................................................72
Trusted CA .....................................................................................................................................................74
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Chapter 5
Wireless
75
Basic ..............................................................................................................................................................75
Security ..........................................................................................................................................................77
MAC Filter ......................................................................................................................................................81
Wireless Bridge..............................................................................................................................................82
Advanced .......................................................................................................................................................84
Station Info .....................................................................................................................................................85
Diagnostics.........................................................................................................................................................86
Management ......................................................................................................................................................87
Settings ..........................................................................................................................................................87
Backup Settings.........................................................................................................................................87
Update or Restore User Settings...............................................................................................................88
Restore Default..........................................................................................................................................88
System Log ........................................................................................................................................................89
Configure System Log ...................................................................................................................................90
SNMP .................................................................................................................................................................91
TR-069 Client .....................................................................................................................................................91
Access Control ...................................................................................................................................................92
Services .........................................................................................................................................................92
IP Addresses ......................................................................................................................................................93
Passwords..........................................................................................................................................................94
Update Software.................................................................................................................................................95
Reboot Router ....................................................................................................................................................96
Chapter 6
Troubleshooting
97
The Router Is Not Functional .............................................................................................................................97
You Cannot Connect to the Router ....................................................................................................................97
LEDs Blink in a Sequential Pattern ....................................................................................................................97
The Status LED Continues to Blink ....................................................................................................................97
The Status LED is Always Off.............................................................................................................................98
Diagnosing Problems using IP Utilities ..............................................................................................................98
Ping ................................................................................................................................................................98
Nslookup ........................................................................................................................................................99
Appendix A – Glossary
101
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About This Guide
This guide is intended for use by installation technicians, system administrators, and network
administrators. It explains how to install the 1611-A3 router.
Style and notation conventions
The following conventions are used in this document to alert users to information that is
instructional, warns of potential damage to system equipment or data, and warns of potential
injury or death. Carefully read and follow the instructions included in this document.
Caution: A caution alerts users to conditions or actions that could damage equipment or data.
Note: A note provides important supplemental or amplified information.
Tip: A tip provides additional information that enables users to more readily complete their tasks.
WARNING! A warning alerts users to conditions or actions that could lead to injury or death.
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Typographical conventions
The following typographical styles are used in this guide to represent specific types of
information.
Bold
Used for names of buttons, dialog boxes, icons, menus,
profiles when placed in body text, and property pages (or
sheets). Also used for commands, options, parameters in
body text, and user input in body text.
Fixed
Used in code examples for computer output, file names, path
names, and the contents of online files or directories.
Fixed Bold
Used in code examples for text typed by users.
Fixed Bold
Italic
Used in code examples for variable text typed by users.
Italic
Used for book titles, chapter titles, file path names, notes in
body text requiring special attention, section titles,
emphasized terms, and variables.
PLAIN UPPER
CASE
Used for environment variables.
Command Syntax
Brackets [ ] indicate optional syntax.
Vertical bar | indicates the OR symbol.
Acronyms
The following acronyms are related to Zhone products and may appear throughout this manual:
Table 1: Acronyms and their descriptions
Acronym
Description
ADSL
Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line
AP
Access Point
ACS
Auto Configuration Server
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DSL
Digital Subscriber Line
EFM
Ethernet in the First Mile
MALC
Multi-Access Line Concentrator
MIB
Management Information Bases
NAT
Network Address Translation
NMS
Network Management System
PVC
Permanent Virtual Circuit
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RADIUS
Remote Authentication Dial In User Service
SHDSL
Symmetric High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line
SLMS
Single Line Multi-Service
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol
TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
VoIP
Voice over IP
VoWi-Fi
Voice-over-Wifi
VPN
Virtual Private Network
WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy
Wi-Fi
Wireless Fidelity (IEEE 802.11 wireless networking)
WMM
Wi-Fi Multimedia
WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access
ZMS
Zhone Management System
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Contacting Customer Service and Technical Support
Customer service and technical support for this Zhone device are provided by your Internet
Service Provider.
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Chapter 1
Introduction
The 6219-X1 ADSL 2+ 4 port WiFI is an easily installed router which delivers the performance
needed for multimedia applications
This User’s Guide will show you how to set up the router, and how to customize its configuration
to get the most out of this product.
The 6219-X1 provides the following features:
•
Built-in ADSL modem which offers G.dmt, G.lite, T1.413, ADSL2, Annex L, and
ADSL2+ to meet different linking speeds from your ISP
•
Four 10/100BaseT Ethernet ports to provide Internet connectivity to all computers on
your LAN
•
Wireless Access Point with 802.11b/g with 200mW antenna power for extended WiFi
reach and performance
•
Easy-to-use configuration program accessible through a standard web browser
This User Guide will show you how to connect your 6219-X1 and how to customize its
configuration to get the most out of your new product.
System Requirements
In order to use your 6219-X1 ADSL router for Internet access, you must have the following:
•
ADSL service subscription from your ISP
•
A PC with:
o An Ethernet 10/100BaseT network interface card
o A processor equivalent to or faster than a Pentium II 133 MHz
o 32 MB RAM or greater
o Windows 95b, 98, 98SE, 2000, ME, NT, or XP (Note: Windows 95 requires the
installation of the Winsock program, not included.)
•
(Optional) An Ethernet hub or switch, if you are connecting the device to several
computers on an Ethernet network.
•
For system monitoring or configuration using the supplied web interface, a web
browser such as Internet Explorer Version 6.0 or later. Netscape is not supported.
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Package Contents
In addition to this document, your package should arrive containing the following:
•
6219-X1 ADSL 2+ 4 port router
•
12V 1 A power adapter
•
RJ-11 telephone cable
•
RJ-45 Ethernet cable
•
User Manual / Quick Guide
Safety Instructions
Place your modem on a flat surface close to the cables in a location with sufficient ventilation.
To prevent overheating, do not obstruct the ventilation openings of the device.
Plug the device into a surge protector to reduce the risk of damage from power surges and
lightning strikes.
Operate this equipment only from an electrical outlet with the correct power source as indicated
on the adapter.
Do not open the cover of the device. Opening the cover will void any warranties on the
equipment.
Do not use another power adapter except for the one which accompanies the unit.
Unplug equipment first before cleaning. A damp cloth can be used to clean the equipment. Do not
use liquid / aerosol cleaners or magnetic / static cleaning devices.
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Front Panel
LED
Power
Alarm
LAN 1-4
WIFI
DSL
Internet
Mode
INDICATION
Solid
green
Boot-up successful
Solid red
Router is booting up or there is problem with internal Power On Self
Test (POST )diagnostic
No light
The router may not be turned on. Check if the power adapter is
connected to the modem and plugged in
Solid
DSL is not connected
No light
DSL is linked successfully
Solid on
green
Ethernet interface is successfully connected to a device through the
LAN port
Flashing
The router is sending or receiving data over Ethernet
Off
No LAN Link
Solid
Wireless access point option is enabled
No light
Wireless access point is disabled
Blinking
Wireless traffic activity
Solid
Connection established. The router is able to communicate with your
ISP via ADSL
Flashing
The router is attempting to connect to your ISP
Solid
ADSL is connected
No light
ADSL is not connected. The ALARM LED will be red
Blinking
The router is connected to the LAN
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Back Panel
NOTE: The below port descriptions are listed as they appear on the back panel from left to right.
Port
Description
Phone
RJ-11 cable connects to telephone (no external splitter necessary;
unit has internal splitter).
Line
RJ-11 cable connects between telephone and the LINE port using a
splitter (not included) if needed.
LAN1 – LAN4
RJ-45 connects the unit to an Ethernet device such as a PC or a
switch.
Reset / Default
Restart—press the button for less than 4 seconds.
Default settings—press the button for 4 seconds or longer.
Warning : pressing the RESET button may erase the
configuration your service provider has loaded in the
modem and may cause service disruption.
Power
Connects to a 12V 1A power adapter.
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Chapter 2
Hardware Installation and PC Setup
Overview
This chapter provides basic instructions for connecting the router to a computer or a LAN and to
the Internet using DSL. The first part provides instructions to set up the hardware, and the second
part describes how to prepare your PC for use with the router. Refer to Chapter 3, Using the Web
Interface for configuration instructions.
It is assumed that you have already subscribed to DSL service with your telephone company or
other Internet service provider (ISP).
Connecting your hardware
Shut down your PC before connecting the router. To connect your modem:
1.
Connect the ADSL Line and Telephone
Connect one end of an RJ-11 cable from your ADSL connection and the other end to the
LINE port of the modem.
Use a second RJ-11 cable to connect between a telephone and the PHONE port of the
modem.
2.
Connect the PC to the Router
To use the Ethernet connection, connect the Ethernet cable from the computer directly to the
router. Connect one end of the Ethernet cable to one of the four ports labelled LAN on the
back of the router and attach the other end to the Ethernet port of your computer.
3.
Connect the Power Adapter
Complete the process by connecting the AC power adapter to the POWER connector on the
back of the device and plug the adapter into a wall outlet or power strip. Then turn on and
boot up your PC and any LAN devices, such as hubs or switches, and any computers
connected to them.
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Mounting the Router
The router can be mounted on the wall with two screws. Mounting can be done on wall material
including concrete, wood, or drywall. Select an appropriate location free from obstructions or any
possible interference. Make sure the cables can be easily attached to the router without strain.
The illustration below shows how to mount the router horizontally on a wall.
Standing the Router Vertically
The router can be set vertically on the desktop or other surface. On the right side of the unit as it
sits horizontally is a foot which can be rotated.
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Configuring Your Computer
Prior to accessing the router through the LAN or the USB port, note the following necessary
configurations—
•
Your PC’s TCP/IP address: 192.168.1.__( the last number is any number between 2 and
254)
•
The router’s default IP address: 192.168.1.1
•
Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0
Below are the procedures for configuring your computer. Follow the instructions for the operating
system that you are using.
If you used the Ethernet cable to connect your router and PC, you do not need any specific driver
installation.
Windows 2000
1.
In the Windows taskbar, click the Start button and point to Settings, Control Panel, and
Network and Dial-up Connections (in that order).
2.
Click Local Area Connection. When you have the Local Area Connection Status window
open, click Properties.
3.
Listed in the window are the installed network components. If the list includes Internet
Protocol (TCP/IP), then the protocol has already been enabled, and you can skip to Step
10.
4.
If Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) does not appear as an installed component, then click Install.
5.
In the Select Network Component Type window, click on protocol and then the Add
button.
6.
Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) from the list and then click on OK.
7.
If prompted to restart your computer with the new settings, click OK.
8.
After your computer restarts, click the Network and Dial-up Connections icon again, and
right click on the Local Area Connection icon and then select Properties.
9.
In the Local Area Connection Properties dialog box, select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
and then click Properties.
10.
In the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box, click the radio button labelled Use
the following IP address and type 192.168.1.x (where x is any number between 2 and 254)
and 255.255.255.0 in the IP address field and Subnet Mask field.
11.
Click OK twice to save your changes and then close the Control Panel.
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Windows XP
1.
In the Windows taskbar, click the Start button and point to Settings and then click Network
Connections.
2.
In the Network Connections window, right click on the Local Area Connection icon and
click on Properties.
3.
Listed in the Local Area Connection window are the installed network components. Make
sure the box for Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is checked and then click Properties.
4.
In the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box, click the radio button labelled Use
the following IP address and type 192.168.1.x (where x is any number between 2 and 254)
and 255.255.255.0 in the IP address field and Subnet Mask field.
5.
Click OK twice to save your changes and then close the Control Panel.
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Chapter 3
The Web User Interface
The 6219-X1 combination modem/router has a Wide Area Network (WAN) connection which
connects to your phone line. This connects to your Internet Service Provider (ISP) via the phone
line. The four Local Area Network (LAN) connections are where you plug in your local computers
to the router. The 6219-X1 also has a wireless interface. The router is normally configured to
automatically provide all the PCs on your network with Internet addresses.
To set up your router with a basic configuration, from the top navigation bar, select Advanced
Setup from the left hand navigation bar. Setup has two main subsections underneath Advanced
Setup — WAN and LAN. Setup instructions are covered in Chapter 4, Advanced Setup.
If you connected a PC (rather than a hub or a switch) directly to the router, your LAN consists of
that PC. You may also create connections for various protocol options by creating new connections.
To configure your router you will first need to log in to the router.
Note: Before configuring your router, make sure you have followed the instructions in Chapter 2
Hardware Installation and PC Setup. You should have your PCs configured for DHCP mode (if
your router will be), and have proxies disabled on your browser. If you see a login redirection
screen when you access the web interface, verify that JavaScript support is enabled in your
browser. Also, if you do not get the screen shown below, you may need to delete your temporary
Internet files.
Log in to the Router
This section will explain how to log in to your router.
1.
Launch your web browser.
2.
Enter the URL http://192.168.1.1 in the address bar and press Enter.
A login screen like the one below will be displayed after you connect to the user interface.
3.
Enter your user name and password, and then click on OK to display the user interface.
The user name / password are admin / admin and both are case sensitive.
Note: There are two default user name and password combinations. The user / user name and
password combination can display device status, but cannot change or save configurations. The admin /
admin combination can perform all functions. Passwords can be changed at any time.
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Summary
Access the general information of the router by clicking Summary under Device Info. This
screen shows details of the router such as the version of the software, bootloader, LAN IP
address, etc. It also displays the current status of your DSL connection as shown below—
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WAN Info
Display the WAN status report from the router by clicking WAN under Device Info. The graphic
below shows the screen when a WAN connection is set up.
LAN Statistics
Display LAN statistics by clicking LAN under Statistics
The reset statistics button zeros out the counters so that you can more easily determine if the
errors are still occurring.
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WAN Statistics
Display WAN statistics by clicking WAN under Statistics.
The reset statistics button zeros out the counters so that you can more easily determine if the
errors are still occurring.
ATM Interface Statistics
Display ATM statistics by clicking ATM under Statistics.
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ADSL Statistics
Display ADSL statistics by clicking ADSL under Statistics. Information contained in this screen is
useful for troubleshooting and diagnostics of connection problems.
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ADSL BER Test
The ADSL Bit Error Rate (BER) test determines the quality of the ADSL connection. The test is
performed by transferring idle cells containing a known pattern and comparing the received data
with this known pattern to check for any errors The BER Test reflects the ratio of error bits to the
total number transmitted.
If you click on the ADSL BER Test button at the bottom of the ADSL Statistics page, the following
pop-up screen will appear allowing you to set the tested time and to begin the test.
To run a BER test:
1.
On the bottom of the ADSL statistics page, click ADSL BER Test
2.
In the Tested Time (sec) drop down, select the test duration, and then click Start.
3.
Check the results.
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Route
Access the routing status report from the router by clicking Route under Device Info.
ARP
Display the ARP status report by clicking ARP under Device Info.
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) maps the IP address to the physical address, labeled HW
Address (the MAC address) and identifies computers on the LAN.
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DHCP
Access the DHCP Leases screen by clicking DHCP under Statistics.
This page shows the computers, identified by the hostname and MAC address that have acquired
IP addresses by the DHCP server with the time that the lease for the IP address is up.
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Chapter 4
Advanced Setup
This section contains advanced setup settings.
WAN
Configure the WAN settings as provided by your ISP. For each type of WAN connection, you
create a new ATM Permanent Virtual Channel (PVC) identifier. The PVC is made up of a Virtual
Path Identifier (VPI) and Virtual Channel Identifier (VCI).
The default settings for the 6219-X1 has a bridge configured. If you are not going to use the
bridge, delete it before proceeding to configure a new WAN connection.
When you click Add you begin creating a new WAN connection. The command tree for creating a
WAN connection depends on the connection type selected.
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Create a New WAN Connection — ATM PVC Configuration
To add a new connection for the WAN interface, click Add.
The ATM PVC Configuration screen follows as seen below. The ATM PVC Configuration screen
allows you to configure an ATM PVC identifier (VPI and VCI) and select a service category.
Find out the following values from your ISP before you change them:
•
VPI : Virtual Path Identifier. The valid range is 0 to 255.
•
VCI : Virtual Channel Identifier. The valid range is 32 to 65535.
•
Service Category : Five classes of traffic:
o UBR Without PCR (Unspecified Bit Rate without Peak Cell Rate)—UBR service is
suitable for applications that can tolerate variable delays and some cell losses.
Applications suitable for UBR service include text/data/image transfer, messaging,
distribution, and retrieval and also for remote terminal applications such as
telecommuting.
o UBR With PCR (Unspecified Bit Rate with Peak Cell Rate)
o CBR (Constant Bit Rate)—used by applications that require a fixed data rate that is
continuously available during the connection time. It is commonly used for
uncompressed audio and video information such as videoconferencing, interactive
audio (telephony), audio / video distribution (e.g. television, distance learning, and payper-view), and audio / video retrieval (e.g. video-on-demand and audio library).
o Non Realtime VBR (Non-Real-time Variable Bit Rate)—can be used for data
transfers that have critical response-time requirements such as airline reservations,
banking transactions, and process monitoring.
o Realtime VBR (Real-time Variable Bit Rate)—used by time-sensitive applications
such as real-time video. Rt-VBR service allows the network more flexibility than CBR.
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Connection Type | PPPoA
Point to Point Protocol over ATM (PPPoA) Point-to-Point Protocol is a protocol for serial data
transmission that is used to carry IP data between your ISP and your computer. PPPoA
encapsulates PPP frames for ATM Adaption Layer 5 (AAL5). PPPoA offers authentication,
encryption and compression.
1.
Select the type of network protocol and encapsulation mode over the ATM PVC that your
ISP has instructed you to use, then click Next
2.
In the Connection Type page, select PPP over ATM (PPPoA), then click Next
3.
In the PPP Username and Password page, enter a username and password and change
other parameters as directed by your ISP, and then click Next.
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4.
In the Network Address Translation Settings page, make changes as directed by your
ISP, and then click Next.
When the settings are complete, the next screen shows a WAN Setup – Summary screen
displaying the WAN configurations made.
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5.
Make sure that the settings on the WAN Setup - Summary screen match the settings
provided by your ISP. If all settings are correct, click Save to save these settings; if not, click
Back to make any modifications. If you want to change any item after saving, click Edit to
make any modifications.
6.
Click Save to save the settings.
After the settings are saved, the below screen will follow displaying the WAN settings that
you made with the option to Add or Remove any of the connections that you have made.
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Connection Type | PPPoE
Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) encapsulates PPP frames in Ethernet frames.
1.
Select the type of network protocol and encapsulation mode over the ATM PVC that your
ISP has instructed you to use, then click Next
2.
In the Connection Type page, select PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE), then click Next
3.
In the PPP Username and Password page, enter a username and password and change
other parameters as directed by your ISP, and then click Next.
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4.
In the Network Address Translation Settings page, make changes as directed by your
ISP, and then click Next.
When the settings are complete, the next screen shows a WAN Setup – Summary screen
displaying the WAN configurations made.
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5.
Make sure that the settings on the WAN Setup - Summary screen match the settings
provided by your ISP. If all settings are correct, click Save to save these settings; if not, click
Back to make any modifications. If you want to change any item after saving, click Edit to
make any modifications.
6.
Click Save to save the settings.
After the settings are saved, the below screen will follow displaying the WAN settings that
you made with the option to Add or Remove any of the connections that you have made.
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Connection Type | MAC Encapsulation Routing
MAC Encapsulation Routing (MER) allows the router to have routing on the LAN, but have
bridging on the WAN connection to the ISP.
1.
Select the type of network protocol and encapsulation mode over the ATM PVC that your
ISP has instructed you to use, then click Next
2.
In the Connection Type page, select MAC Encapsulation Routing (MER), then click Next
3.
In the WAN IP Settings page, change parameters as directed by your ISP, and then click
Next.
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4.
In the Network Address Translation Settings page, make changes as directed by your
ISP, and then click Next.
When the settings are complete, the next screen shows a WAN Setup – Summary screen
displaying the WAN configurations made.
5.
Make sure that the settings on the WAN Setup - Summary screen match the settings
provided by your ISP. If all settings are correct, click Save to save these settings; if not, click
Back to make any modifications. If you want to change any item after saving, click Edit to
make any modifications.
6.
Click Save to save the settings.
After the settings are saved, the below screen will follow displaying the WAN settings that
you made with the option to Add or Remove any of the connections that you have made.
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Connection Type | IP over ATM
Internet Protocol over ATM (IPoA) supports extending across classic IP subnet boundaries using
IP routing and IP forwarding.
1.
Select the type of network protocol and encapsulation mode over the ATM PVC that your
ISP has instructed you to use, then click Next
2.
In the Connection Type page, select IP over ATM (IPoA), then click Next
3.
In the WAN IP Settings page, change parameters as directed by your ISP, and then click
Next.
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4.
In the Network Address Translation Settings page, make changes as directed by your
ISP, and then click Next.
When the settings are complete, the next screen shows a WAN Setup – Summary screen
displaying the WAN configurations made.
5.
Make sure that the settings on the WAN Setup - Summary screen match the settings
provided by your ISP. If all settings are correct, click Save to save these settings; if not, click
Back to make any modifications. If you want to change any item after saving, click Edit to
make any modifications.
6.
Click Save to save the settings.
After the settings are saved, the below screen will follow displaying the WAN settings that
you made with the option to Add or Remove any of the connections that you have made.
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Connection Type | Bridging
1.
Select the type of network protocol and encapsulation mode over the ATM PVC that your
ISP has instructed you to use, then click Next
2.
In the Connection Type page, select Bridging, then click Next
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The Bridge Service screen appears allowing you disable bridge service if desired.
3.
Check or uncheck Enable Bridge Service, and then click Next.
When the settings are complete, the next screen shows a WAN Setup – Summary screen
displaying the WAN configurations made.
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4.
Click Save to save the settings.
After the settings are saved, the below screen will follow displaying the WAN settings that
you made with the option to Add or Remove any of the connections that you have made.
Remove Function
If you want to delete a connection from the listed WAN setup, click the Remove check box next to
the item, then click Remove.
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Finish Function
When satisfied with the settings click Finish.
After selecting the Finish button, the DSL Router Reboot screen will appear. At this point, the
router will reboot to save the changes made.
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LAN Local Area Network (LAN) Setup
You can configure the DSL Router IP address and Subnet Mask for the LAN interface to
correspond to your LAN’s IP Subnet. If you want the DHCP server to automatically assign IP
addresses, then enable the DHCP server and enter the range of IP addresses that the DHCP
server can assign to your computers. Disable the DHCP server if you would like to manually
assign IP addresses.
The Save button only saves the LAN configuration data, but does not apply the configurations.
Select the Save/Reboot button to save the LAN configuration data and reboot the router and
apply the new configurations.
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The following DSL Router Reboot screen appears after Save / Reboot is clicked.
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Ethernet Mode
Ethernet mode allows you to select the speed of your Ethernet connection. Modes include—auto,
100 full, 100 half, 10 full and 10 half. If you select auto then the router will use the common
mode with which all the connected interfaces can operate.
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NAT
You can configure Virtual Servers, Port Triggering, and DMZ Host when NAT (Network Address
Translation) is enabled.
Virtual Servers
A virtual server allows you to direct incoming traffic from the WAN side to a specific IP address on
the LAN side. The following figure shows the screen that allows you to configure your virtual
server(s).
To direct incoming traffic from a service (or other server):
1.
Click Add to configure a virtual server.
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2.
Either select a service (by using the Select a Service dropdown) or select a custom server
(by entering the IP address of the server in the Custom Server text box).
You can select a Service or make a new one.
3.
Enter the IP address of the LAN side PC in the Server IP Address text box.
4.
Click Save / Apply to submit the configuration.
The NAT – Virtual Servers Setup screen appears after you save your selection. To add
additional virtual servers, click Add. If you need to remove any of the server names, select
the check box and click on the Remove button.
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Port Triggering
Click Add to add Port Triggering to your Internet application.
The NAT – Port Triggering screen appears when you click Add allowing you to select the
application that you want to set the port settings for. After a selection has been made, click Save /
Apply to save your settings.
The NAT – Port Triggering Setup screen appears after you save your selections. You will be
able to add or remove selections made by clicking on the Add and Remove buttons.
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DMZ Host
You can define the IP address of the DMZ Host on this screen. Enter the IP address and click
Save / Apply.
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MAC Filtering
MAC filtering can forward or block traffic by MAC address. You can change the policy or add
settings to the MAC filtering table in the MAC Filtering Setup screen.
If you click Change Policy, a confirmation dialog allows you to verify your change.
To add a setting to the MAC filtering table, enter the Source and Destination MAC address, and
select protocol type, frame direction, and WAN interface. Click Save/Apply to save the MAC
filter.
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When you Save / Apply the IP filter, the MAC Filtering Setup screen appears. The MAC
Filtering Setup screen lists the MAC filters, including filters which were added from the previous
screen.
You can view, add or delete MAC filters. The Remove button appears only when you have an
existing IP filter already set up.
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Parental Control
Use the Parental Control feature to restrict the days and times a particular device is allowed to
access the Internet.
To setup parental controls
1.
Click Add to set up the restrictions.
The Add Parental Control screen appears.
2.
Enter a User Name to identify the target of the restrictions.
3.
Enter the MAC address of the network adapter to be restricted, and, optionally, another MAC
address.
4.
Select the days of the week the restriction is in force.
5.
Specify the start and end times the restriction is in force. Use the form hh:mm, where 23:59,
for example, is one minute before midnight.
6.
Click Save / Apply to save the settings and to continue.
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URL Filter
Access to websites can be blocked by creating a URL filter. Two types of lists can be created,
either an exclude or include list.
1.
Click Add to continue to the next screen to enter the URL address.
2.
In URL Address enter the URL address; in Port Number enter the port number and click
Save / Apply.
If no port number is entered, the the default 80 port will be applied. Continue this process
until all the necessary websites are entered.
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Quality of Service
You can configure the Quality of Service to apply different priorities to traffic on the router.
Queue Config
In the Queue Config page you can enable a queue for a network interface. Each interface
associated with QoS is allocated three queues. Lower Queue Precedence values denote a higher
priority for the queue, so “1” has higher priority than “2.”
To associate an interface with QoS:
1.
From the Queue Config page, click Add.
2.
In the Add QoS Queue page enable the queue by selecting Enable from the Queue
Configuration Status drop down.
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3.
Select the interface from the Queue drop down.
4.
Set the priority for the queue from the Queue Precedence drop down
5.
Click Save/Apply.
QoS Classification
You can configure the Quality of Service to apply different priorities to traffic on the router.
The Add Network Traffic Class Rule screen allows you to add a network traffic class rule.
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To add a rule:
1.
In the Quality of Service—QoS Classification screen, click Add.
2.
In the Add Network Traffic Class Rule screen give a name to this traffic class.
3.
Assign a priority level—low, medium, and high—to this traffic class.
4.
Select an IP precedence from the 0-7 range.
5.
Enter an IP Type of Service from the following selections—
•
Normal Service
•
Minimize Cost
•
Maximize Reliability
•
Maximize Throughput
•
Minimize Delay
6.
Enter the traffic conditions for the class such as the protocol (TCP / UDP, TCP, UDP, or
ICMP) to be used.
7.
Click Save / Apply to save the settings.
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Routing
Under the Routing heading you assign a default gateway, create a routing table (in Static Route),
create routing policy rules, and activate Routing Information Protocol (RIP) on the device.
Default Gateway
You can enable automatic assigned default gateway on the Routing – Default Gateway screen.
By default, the Enable Automatic Assigned Default Gateway checkbox is checked.
To enable Automatic Assigned Default Gateway leave the checkbox checked. To disable
Automatic Assigned Default Gateway uncheck the checkbox.
If you change the automatic assigned default gateway address, you must reboot the router to be
assigned a new default gateway IP address.
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Static Route
To add a routing table use the Static Route page. A maximum of 32 entries can be configured.
Click Add.
Enter the route information and then save and apply your configurations.
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Policy Route
The policy routing feature allows the administrator to have more control over how packets should
flow through the modem and into their networks. The feature allows administrator to route IP
packets according to their Source Interface; Source/Destination IP address/subnets; IP Protocols;
Source/Destination Ports to specific Gateway address and/or Gateway Interfaces.
To add a policy routing rule:
1.
Click Add.
2.
Enter a unique name for the rule in the Rule Name text box.
3.
Select the interface to associate with the rule from the Source Interface drop down
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4.
Select the appropriate protocol and define other parameters for the routing rule:
•
Source and/or Destination address and/or Subnet Mask
•
UDP/TCP Source or Destination port.
•
Gateway address or Interface (These can be Active PVCs or Port Mapping Groups)
5.
Click Save/Apply.
DSL
The DSL settings page contains sections—modulation and capability—that should be specified
by your ISP. Consult with your ISP to select the correct settings for each.
Click Save / Apply if you are finished or click on Advanced Settings if you want to configure
more advanced settings.
Modulation Methods
The following modulation methods are supported by the 6219-X1 router:
•
G.dmt Enabled
•
G.lite Enabled
•
T1.413 Enabled
•
ADSL Enabled
•
Annex L Enabled
•
ADSL2+ Enabled.
Do not change this setting unless so directed by your ISP.
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Capability
The following are included under Capability:
•
Bitswap Enable
•
SRA Enable (Seamless Rate Adaptation)
Do not change these settings unless so directed by your ISP.
DSL Advanced Settings
Do not change the DSL Advanced Settings unless so directed by your ISP.
To view the DSL Advanced Settings screen, click Advanced Settings button on the DSL
Settings screen.
The test mode can be selected from the DSL Advanced Settings page. There are five test modes
between the router and your ISP:
•
Normal test: Puts the router in a test mode in which it only sends a Normal signal.
•
Reverb test: Puts the router in a test mode in which it only sends a Reverb signal.
•
Medley test: Puts the router in a test mode in which it only sends a Medley signal.
•
No Retrain: In this mode the router will try to establish a connection as in normal
mode, but once the connection is up it will not retrain if the signal is lost.
•
L3: Puts the router into the L3 power state.
To run a test:
1.
Select a test mode and click Apply.
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2.
Click Tone Selection.
The frequency band of ADSL is split up into 256 separate tones, each spaced 4.3125 kHz
apart. With each tone carrying separate data, the technique operates as if 256 separate
modems were running in parallel. The tone range is from 0 to 31 for upstream and from 32 to
255 for downstream. Do not change these settings unless directed by your ISP.
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Interface Group
The interface group feature allows you to open ports to allow certain Internet applications on the
WAN side to pass through the firewall and enter your LAN. To use this feature, mapping groups
should be created.
To create a new mapping group:
1.
Click Add button
If you need to edit an entry, then click Edit for that group.
After clicking the Add button, the Port Mapping Configuration screen appears
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2.
Enter a unique Group name.
3.
Select interfaces from the available interface list and add them to the grouped interface list
using the arrow buttons to create the required mapping of the ports.
4.
Click Save/Apply.
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IPSec
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) allows you to set up secure tunnel access between two IP
addresses. Encryption and key exchange make this a secure way to access remote networks.
Contact your ISP for the necessary information to correctly configure this connection.
Click Add New Connection to access the IPSec Settings screen to enter your configurations.
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The Show Advanced Settings button at the bottom of the screen provides additional encryption
settings.
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Certificate
Use the Certificate screen to add, view, or remove a certificate for use by a peer to verify your
identity. A maximum of four certificates can be stored. You can add a certificate either by creating
a new one or importing an existing one from a location where one is stored.
Note: Certificates are used with TR-069. Firmware that does not support TR-069 will not support
certificates..
Local
A local certificate identifies your device over the network.
To apply for a certificate:
1.
Click Create Certificate Request
If you have an existing certificate, click on Import Certificate to retrieve it.
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The Create new certificate request screen allows you to request a new certificate request.
2.
Follow the screens that appear to configure a new certificate.
3.
Click Apply to submit the request.
If you have a certificate already, you can simply import the certificate by pasting the certificate
content and private key into the space provided. Click Apply to submit the request to import the
certificate.
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Trusted CA
The trusted certificate authority (CA) allows you to verify the certificates of your peers.
The Trusted CA (Certificate Authority) Certificates screen also allows you to view certificates.
You can store up to 4 certificates.
To Import a certificate
1.
Click on Import Certificate
2.
Enter the certificate name in the Certificate text box.
3.
In the Certificate text window paste the content of the certificate.
4.
Click Apply.
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Chapter 5
Wireless
The router’s wireless feature can be configured to your needs. Sections covered under the
wireless section include
•
Basic
•
Security
•
MAC filter
•
Wireless bridge
•
Advanced
•
Quality of service and station info.
Basic
The Wireless – Basic screen allows you to enable or disable wireless functionality. You can also
hide the access point so others cannot see your ID on the network. If you enable wireless, be
sure to enter an SSID, your wireless network name and select the country that you are in.
If you select Wireless disabled is DSL link is down (which is disabled by default) when Enable
Wireless is selected, the wireless connection will automatically be disabled if the DSL WAN link
goes down.
Hide Access Point does not allow others to see your ID. The router is hidden from active scans.
With Clients Isolation selected wireless clients will be isolated from one another and are not
allowed to share information over the LAN.
With Disable WMM Advertise selected, the wireless router does not advertise for 802.11b/g
devices to connect for voice over WiFi services. When WMM (WiFi Multi-media) advertise is
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enabled (the selection is unchecked) the access point sends out WPA-PSK information for WiFi
handsets.
When you enable a wireless bridge, you can also see the other wireless bridges by SSID and
BSSID (MAC address).
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Security
The Wireless – Security screen allows you to select the network authentication method and to
enable or disable WEP encryption.
Note that depending on the network authentication that is selected, the screen will change
accordingly so additional fields can be configured for the specific authentication method.
Network authentication methods include the following—
•
Open — anyone can access the network. The default is a disabled WEP encryption setting
•
Shared — WEP encryption is enabled and encryption key strength of 64-bit or 128-bit
needs to be selected. Click on Set Encryption Keys to manually set the network encryption
keys. Up to 4 different keys can be set and you can come back to select which one to use
at anytime.
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•
802.1X — requires mutual authentication between a client station and the router by
including a RADIUS-based authentication server. Information about the RADIUS server
such as its IP address, port and key must be entered. WEP encryption is also enabled and
the encryption strength must also be selected.
•
WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) — usually used for the larger Enterprise environment, it
uses a RADIUS server and TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) encryption (instead of
WEP encryption which is disabled). TKIP uses128-bit dynamic session keys (per user, per
session, and per packet keys).
•
WPA-PSK (Wi-Fi Protected Access – Pre-Shared Key) — WPA for home and SOHO
environments also using the same strong TKIP encryption, per-packet key construction,
and key management that WPA provides in the enterprise environment. The main
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difference is that the password is entered manually. A group re-key interval time is also
required.
•
WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2) — second generation WPA which uses AES (Advanced
Encryption Standard) instead of TKIP as its encryption method. Network re-authorization
interval is the time in which another key needs to be dynamically issued.
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•
WPA2-PSK (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 – Pre-Shared Key) — suitable for home and SOHO
environments, it also uses AES encryption and requires you to enter a password and a rekey interval time.
•
Mixed WPA2 / WPA — useful during transitional times for upgrades in the enterprise
environment, this mixed authentication method allows “upgraded” and users not yet
“upgraded” to access the network via the router. RADIUS server information must be
entered for WPA and a as well as a group re-key interval time. Both TKIP and AES are
used.
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•
Mixed WPA2 / WPA-PSK — useful during transitional times for upgrades in the home or
SOHO environment, a pre-shared key must be entered along with the group re-key interval
time. Both TKIP and AES are also used.
MAC Filter
The MAC filter screen allows you to manage MAC address filters.
Add the MAC addresses that you want to manage and then select the mode that you want to use
to manage them. You can disable this feature or you can allow or deny access to the MAC
addresses that you add to the list.
To add a MAC Filter:
1.
In the Wireless — MAC Filter page, select the SSID for the
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2.
From one of the MAC Restrict Mode radio buttons, select Disabled, Allow or Deny.
3.
Click MAC Address to add the MAC address; enter the MAC address in the MAC Address
text box, then click Save/Apply.
Wireless Bridge
In the Wireless — Wireless Bridge screen, you can select the mode for the router, either access
point or wireless bridge. If you enable the bridge restrict option, then proceed to enter the MAC
addresses of the remote bridges.
To restrict a wireless bridge:
1.
In the Wireless — Wireless Bridge screen select the access point mode from the AP Mode
dropdown.
AP Mode options are
2.
•
Access Point
•
Wireless Bridge
From the Bridge Restrict dropdown select to enable, disable or refresh
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3.
If you have chosen to enable access point, in the Remote Bridges MAC Address text
box(es) MAC address(es) for the bridge(s).
4.
If you have chosen access point Refresh only allowed…
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Advanced
The Advanced page configures advanced features of the wireless LAN interface.
Advanced features include:
•
Band — a default setting at 2.4GHz – 802.11g
•
Channel — 802.11b and 802.11g use channels to limit interference from other devices. If
you are experiencing interference with another 2.4Ghz device such as a baby monitor,
security alarm, or cordless phone, then change the channel on your router.
•
Auto Channel Timer — a timer that rescans and finds the best available channel for use
on your wireless network.
•
54g Rate — rate at which information will be transmitted and received on your wireless
network.
•
Multicast Rate — the rate at which a message is sent to a specified group of recipients.
•
Basic Rate — the set of data transfer rates that all the stations will be capable of using to
receive frames from a wireless medium.
•
Fragmentation Threshold — used to fragment packets which help improve performance
in the presence of radio frequency (RF) interference.
•
RTS Threshold (Request to Send Threshold) — determines the packet size of a
transmission through the use of the router to help control traffic flow.
•
DTIM Interval — sets the Wake-up interval for clients in power-saving mode.
•
Beacon Interval — a packet of information that is sent from a connected device to all other
devices where it announces its availability and readiness. A beacon interval is a period of
time (sent with the beacon) before sending the beacon again. The beacon interval may be
adjusted in milliseconds (ms).
•
Xpress Technology — a technology that utilizes standards based on frame bursting to achieve
higher throughput. With Xpress Technology enabled, aggregate throughput (the sum of the
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individual throughput speeds of each client on the network) can improve by up to 25% in 802.11g
only networks and up to 75% in mixed networks comprised of 802.11g and 802.11b equipment.
•
54g Mode — 54g is a Broadcom Wi-Fi technology.
•
54g Protection — the 802.11g standards provide a protection method so 802.11g and
802.11b devices can co-exist in the same network without “speaking” at the same time. Do
not disable 54g Protection if there is a possibility that a 802.11b device may need to use
your wireless network. In Auto Mode, the wireless device will use RTS/CTS (Request to
Send / Clear to Send) to improve 802.11g performance in mixed 802.11g/802.11b
networks. Turn protection off to maximize 802.11g throughput under most conditions.
•
Preamble Type — this information relates to wireless communication based
•
Transmit Power — select from 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. The default value is
100% but can be changed.
•
WMM (Wi-Fi Multimedia) — prioritizes traffic from different applications such as voice,
audio and video applications under different environments and conditions.
•
WMM No Acknowledgement — the acknowledgement policy used on the MAC level.
Enabling no-acknowledgement can result in efficient throughput but higher error rates in a
noisy Radio Frequency (RF) environment.
•
WMM APSD — APSD (Automatic Power Save Delivery). APSD manages radio usage for
battery-powered devices to allow battery life in certain conditions. APSD allows a longer
beacon interval until an application—VoIP for example—requiring a short packet exchange
interval starts. Only if the wireless client supports APSD does APSD affect radio usage and
battery life.
Station Info
The Station Info page shows stations that have been authorized access to the router through its
wireless function.
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Diagnostics
The diagnostics screen allows you to run diagnostic tests to check your DSL connection. The
outcome will show test results of three connections—
•
Connection to your local network
•
Connection to your DSL service provider
•
Connection to your Internet service provider
There are two buttons at the bottom of the page—Test and Test with OAM F4—which allow you
to retest if necessary.
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Management
The Management section gives you access to certain setups for the purpose of maintaining the
system, including backing up the configurations, viewing system log, maintaining access control,
updating software, etc.
Settings
The page options under Settings provide you with the ability to save configurations to a file,
restore configurations from a file and to restore the factory default configuration.
Backup Settings
To save a copy of the configurations that you have made on your router:
1.
From the Settings – Backup page click Backup Settings.
The below pop-up screen will appear with a prompt to open or save the file to your
computer.
2.
Click Save.
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Update or Restore User Settings
To load a previously saved configuration file onto your router:
1.
From the Settings – Update Settings page, click Browse to find the file on your computer.
2.
Click Update Settings.
The router will restore settings and reboot to activate the restored settings.
Restore Default
Restore Default will delete all current settings and restore the router to factory default settings.
To restore the factory defaults:
1.
From the Settings – Restore Default Settings page click Restore Default Settings.
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2.
Click OK when the pop-up window appears confirming that you want to restore factory
default settings to your router.
The router will restore the default settings and reboot.
System Log
The System Log dialog allows you to view the System Log and configure the System Log options.
To view the System Log click View System Log to check the log file.
The System Log page shows the date and time of the recorded event, which facility captured the
event, the severity of the event and a message which describes the event.
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Configure System Log
If the log is enabled, the system will log selected events based on their level. The log levels are
•
Emergency
•
Alert
•
Critical
•
Error
•
Warning
•
Notice
•
Informational
•
Debugging.
All events above or equal to the selected log level will be logged and displayed.
If the selected mode is Remote or Both, events will be sent to the specified IP address and UDP
port of a remote system log server.
If the selected mode is Local or Both, events will be recorded in the local memory.
Select the desired values and click Save/Apply button to configure the system log.
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SNMP
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) provides a means to monitor status and
performance as well as set configuration parameters. It enables a management station to
configure, monitor and receive trap messages from network devices.
TR-069 Client
The router includes a TR-069 client WAN management protocol with default values configured.
To enable the TR-069 client protocol:
1.
Select Enable.
2.
Click on the Save/Reboot button for the change to take place.
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Access Control
You can enable or disable some services of your router by LAN or WAN. If no WAN connection is
defined, only the LAN side can be configured.
Services
Services that can be enabled or disabled on the LAN/WAN are
•
FTP
•
HTTP
•
ICMP
•
SNMP
•
SSH
•
Telnet
•
TFTP.
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IP Addresses
Web access to the router may be limited when Access Control Mode is enabled.
To add the IP address to the IP address list:
1.
Click Add.
2.
Select Enabled to enable Access Control Mode.
3.
To assign the IP address of the management station that is permitted to access the local
management services, enter the IP address in the IP Address text box.
4.
Enter the Subnet Mask.
5.
Click Save / Apply.
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Passwords
Access the Passwords screen under the Access Control section to change a password. Select
an account and enter the current password and the new password and then click on the Save /
Apply button.
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Update Software
If your ISP releases new software for your router, follow these steps to perform an upgrade:
1.
Obtain an updated software image file from your ISP.
2.
Enter the path to the image file location or click on the Browse button to locate the image
file.
3.
Click Update Software once (and only once) to upload the new image file.
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Reboot Router
Clicking Save/Reboot saves all the configurations you have made, then reboots the router using
the new configuration information.
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Chapter 6
Troubleshooting
The Router Is Not Functional
1.
Check to see that the power LED is green and the network cables are installed correctly.
Refer to the quick start guide for more details.
2.
Check to see that the LAN and Status LEDs are green.
3.
Check the settings on your PC. Again, refer to the quick start guide for more details
4.
Check the router's settings.
5.
From your PC, can you ping the router? Assuming that the router has DHCP enabled and
your PC is on the same subnet as the router, you should be able to ping the router.
6.
Can you ping the WAN? Your ISP should have provided the IP address of their server. If you
can ping the router and your protocols are configured correctly, you should be able to ping
the ISP's network. If you cannot ping the ISP's network, make sure you are using the correct
protocols with the correct VPI/VCI values.
7.
Make sure NAT is enabled if you are using private addresses on the LAN ports.
You Cannot Connect to the Router
1.
Check to see that the power LED is green and that the network cables are installed correctly.
2.
Make sure you are not connecting the USB and the Ethernet port to the same PC at the
same time.
3.
Make sure that your PC and the router are on the same network segment. The router's
default IP address is 192.168.1.1. If you are running a Windows-based PC, type ipconfig /all
(or winipcfg /all on Windows 95, 98, or ME) at a command prompt to determine the IP
address of your network adapter. Make sure that it is within the same 192.168.1.x subnet.
Your PC's subnet mask must match the router's subnet mask. The router has a default
subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.
4.
Make sure NAT is enabled if you are using private addresses on the LAN ports.
LEDs Blink in a Sequential Pattern
This typically means that either the kernel or flash file system is corrupted. Notify your service
representative.
The Status LED Continues to Blink
This means that the DSL line is trying to train but for some reason it cannot establish a valid
connection. The likely cause of this is that you are too far away from the central office. Contact
your DSL service provider for further assistance.
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The Status LED is Always Off
1.
Make sure you have DSL service. You should receive notification from your ISP that DSL
service is installed. You can usually tell if the service is installed by listening to the phone
line: you will hear some high-pitched noise. If you do not hear high-pitched noise, contact
your ISP.
2.
Verify that the phone line is connected directly to the wall and to the line input on the router.
If the phone line is connected to the phone side of the router or you have a splitter installed
on the phone line, the DSL light will not come on.
Diagnosing Problems using IP Utilities
Ping
Ping is a command you can use to check whether your PC can recognize other computers on
your network and the Internet. A ping command sends a message to the computer you specify. If
the computer receives the message, it sends messages in reply. To use it, you must know the IP
address of the computer with which you are trying to communicate.
On Windows-based computers, you can execute a ping command from the Start menu.
3.
Click the Start button, and then click Run. In the Open text box, type a statement such as
the following:
ping 192.168.1.1 or the IP address you have changed
4.
Click OK. You can substitute any private IP address on your LAN or a public IP address for
an Internet site, if known.
If the target computer receives the message, a Command Prompt window is displayed:
If the target computer cannot be located, you will receive the message “Request timed out.”
Using the ping command, you can test whether the path to the device is working (using the
preconfigured default LAN IP address 192.168.1.1) or another address you assigned.
You can also test whether access to the Internet is working by typing an external address, such
as that for www.yahoo.com (216.115.108.243). If you do not know the IP address of a particular
Internet location, you can use the nslookup command, as explained in the following section.
From most other IP-enabled operating systems, you can execute the same command at a
command prompt or through a system administration utility.
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Nslookup
You can use the nslookup command to determine the IP address associated with an Internet site
name. You specify the common name, and the nslookup command looks up the name in on your
DNS server (usually located with your ISP). If that name is not an entry in your ISP’s DNS table,
the request is then referred to another higher-level server, and so on, until the entry is found. The
server then returns the associated IP address.
On Windows-based computers, you can execute the nslookup command from the Start menu.
5.
Click the Start button, and then click Run. In the Open text box, type the following:
Nslookup
6.
Click OK. A Command Prompt window displays with a bracket prompt (>). At the prompt,
type the name of the Internet address that you are interested in, such as
www.microsoft.com.
The window will display the associate IP address, if known, as shown below:
There may be several addresses associated with an Internet name. This is common for web
sites that receive heavy traffic; they use multiple, redundant servers to carry the same
information.
7.
To exit from the nslookup utility, type exit and press [Enter] at the command prompt.
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Appendix A – Glossary
Term
Description
802.11
A family of specifications for wireless
LANs developed by a working group of the IEEE. This wireless Ethernet
protocol, often called Wi-Fi.
10BASE-T
A designation for the type of wiring used by Ethernet networks with a data
rate of 10 Mbps. Also known as Category 3 (CAT 3) wiring. See data rate,
Ethernet.
100BASE-T
A designation for the type of wiring used by Ethernet networks with a data
rate of 100 Mbps. Also known as Category 5 (CAT 5) wiring. See data
rate, Ethernet.
ADSL
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
The most commonly deployed “flavor” of DSL for home users is
asymmetrical DSL. The term asymmetrical refers to its unequal data rates
for downloading and uploading (the download rate is higher than the
upload rate). The asymmetrical rates benefit home users because they
typically download much more data from the Internet than they upload.
Analog
An analog signal is a signal that has had its frequency modified in some
way, such as by amplifying its strength or varying its frequency, in order to
add information to the signal. The voice component in DSL is an analog
signal. See digital.
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
A standard for high-speed transmission of data, text, voice, and video,
widely used within the Internet. ATM data rates range from 45 Mbps to 2.5
Gbps. See data rate.
Authenticate
To verify a user’s identity, such as by prompting for a password.
Binary
The “base two” system of numbers that uses only two digits, 0 and 1, to
represent all numbers. In binary, the number 1 is written as 1, 2 as 10, 3
as 11, 4 as 100, etc. Although expressed as decimal numbers for
convenience, IP addresses in actual use are binary numbers; e.g., the IP
address 209.191.4.240 is 11010001.10111111.00000100.11110000 in
binary. See bit, IP address, network mask.
Bit
Short for “binary digit,” a bit is a number that can have two values, 0 or 1.
See binary.
Bps
bits per second
Bridging
Passing data from your network to your ISP and vice versa using the
hardware addresses of the devices at each location. Bridging contrasts
with routing which can add more intelligence to data transfers by using
network addresses instead. The device can perform both routing and
bridging. Typically, when both functions are enabled, the device routes IP
data and bridges all other types of data. See routing.
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Broadband
A telecommunications technology that can send different types of data
over the same medium. DSL is a broadband technology.
Broadcast
To send data to all computers on a network.
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DHCP automates address assignment and management. When a
computer connects to the LAN, DHCP assigns it an IP address from a
shared pool of IP addresses; after a specified time limit, DHCP returns the
address to the pool.
DHCP relay
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol relay
A DHCP relay is a computer that forwards DHCP data between
computers that request IP addresses and the DHCP server that assigns
the addresses. Each of the device’s interfaces can be configured as a
DHCP relay. See DHCP.
DHCP server
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol server
A DHCP server is a computer that is responsible for assigning IP
addresses to the computers on a LAN. See DHCP.
Digital
Of data, having a form based on discrete values expressed as binary
numbers (0’s and 1’s). The data component in DSL is a digital signal. See
analog.
DNS
Domain Name System
The DNS maps domain names into IP addresses. DNS information is
distributed hierarchically throughout the Internet among computers called
DNS servers. For example, www.yahoo.com is the domain name
associated with IP address 216.115.108.243. When you start to access a
web site, a DNS server looks up the requested domain name to find its
corresponding IP address. If the DNS server cannot find the IP address, it
communicates with higher-level DNS servers to determine the IP address.
See domain name.
Domain name
A domain name is a user-friendly name used in place of its associated IP
address. Domain names must be unique; their assignment is controlled by
the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).
Domain names are a key element of URLs, which identify a specific file at
a web site. See DNS.
Download
To transfer data in the downstream direction, i.e., from the Internet to the
user.
DSL
Digital Subscriber Line
A technology that allows both digital data and analog voice signals to
travel over existing copper telephone lines.
Encryption keys
See network keys
Ethernet
The most commonly installed computer network technology, usually using
twisted pair wiring. Ethernet data rates are 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps. See
also 10BASE-T, 100BASE-T, twisted pair.
Firewall
A firewall is protection between the Internet and your local network. It acts
as the firewall in your car does, protecting the interior of the car from the
engine. Your car's firewall has very small opening that allow desired
connections from the engine into the cabin (gas pedal connection, etc),
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but if something happens to your engine, you are protected.
The firewall in the router is very similar. Only the connections that you
allow are passed through the firewall. These connections normally
originate from the local network, such as users web browsing, checking email, downloading files, and playing games. However, you can allow
incoming connections so that you can run programs like a web server.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
A program used to transfer files between computers connected to the
Internet. Common uses include uploading new or updated files to a web
server, and downloading files from a web server.
Gbps
Abbreviation of Gigabits per second, or one billion bits per second.
Internet data rates are often expressed in Gbps.
Host
A device (usually a computer) connected to a network.
HTTP
Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol
HTTP is the main protocol used to transfer data from web sites so that it
can be displayed by web browsers. See web browser, web site.
Hub
A hub is a place of convergence where data arrives from one or more
directions and is forwarded out in one or more directions. It connects an
Ethernet bridge/router to a group of PCs on a LAN and allows
communication to pass between the networked devices.
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol
An Internet protocol used to report errors and other network-related
information. The ping command makes use of ICMP.
IEEE
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is a technical
professional society that fosters the development of standards that often
become national and international standards.
Internet
The global collection of interconnected networks used for both private and
business communications.
Intranet
A private, company-internal network that looks like part of the Internet
(users access information using web browsers), but is accessible only by
employees.
IP
See TCP/IP.
IP address
Internet Protocol address
The address of a host (computer) on the Internet, consisting of four
numbers, each from 0 to 255, separated by periods, e.g., 209.191.4.240.
An IP address consists of a network ID that identifies the particular
network the host belongs to, and a host ID uniquely identifying the host
itself on that network. A network mask is used to define the network ID
and the host ID. Because IP addresses are difficult to remember, they
usually have an associated domain name that can be specified instead.
See domain name, network mask.
ISP
Internet Service Provider
A company that provides Internet access to its customers, usually for a
fee.
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LAN
Local Area Network.
A network limited to a small geographic area, such as a home or small
office.
LED
Light Emitting Diode
An electronic light-emitting device. The indicator lights on the front of the
device are LEDs.
MAC address
Media Access Control address
The permanent hardware address of a device, assigned by its
manufacturer. MAC addresses are expressed as six pairs of hex
characters, with each pair separated by colons. For example;
NN:NN:NN:NN:NN:NN.
Mask
See network mask.
Mbps
Abbreviation for Megabits per second, or one million bits per second.
Network data rates are often expressed in Mbps.
NAT
Network Address Translation
A service performed by many routers that translates your network’s
publicly known IP address into a private IP address for each computer on
your LAN. Only your router and your LAN know these addresses; the
outside world sees only the public IP address when talking to a computer
on your LAN.
Network
A group of computers that are connected together, allowing them to
communicate with each other and share resources, such as software,
files, etc. A network can be small, such as a LAN, or very large, such as
the Internet.
Network keys
(Also known as encryption keys.) 64-bit and 128-bit encryption keys used
in WEP wireless security schemes. The keys encrypt data over the
WLAN, and only wireless PCs configured with WEP keys that correspond
to the keys configured on the device can send/receive encrypted data.
Network mask
A network mask is a sequence of bits applied to an IP address to select
the network ID while ignoring the host ID. Bits set to 1 mean “select this
bit” while bits set to 0 mean “ignore this bit.” For example, if the network
mask 255.255.255.0 is applied to the IP address 100.10.50.1, the network
ID is 100.10.50, and the host ID is 1. See binary, IP address, subnet.
NIC
Network Interface Card
An adapter card that plugs into your computer and provides the physical
interface to your network cabling. For Ethernet NICs this is typically an
RJ-45 connector. See Ethernet, RJ-45.
Packet
Data transmitted on a network consists of units called packets. Each
packet contains a payload (the data), plus overhead information such as
where it came from (source address) and where it should go (destination
address).
Ping
Packet Internet (or Inter-Network) Groper
A program used to verify whether the host associated with an IP address
is online. It can also be used to reveal the IP address for a given domain
name.
Port
A physical access point to a device such as a computer or router, through
which data flows into and out of the device.
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PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol
A protocol for serial data transmission that is used to carry IP (and other
protocol) data between your ISP and your computer. The WAN interface
on the device uses two forms of PPP called PPPoA and PPPoE. See
PPPoA, PPPoE.
PPPoA
Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM
One of the two types of PPP interfaces you can define for a Virtual Circuit
(VC), the other type being PPPoE. You can define only one PPPoA
interface per VC.
PPPoE
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet
One of the two types of PPP interfaces you can define for a Virtual Circuit
(VC), the other type being PPPoA. You can define one or more PPPoE
interfaces per VC.
Protocol
A set of rules governing the transmission of data. In order for a data
transmission to work, both ends of the connection have to follow the rules
of the protocol.
Remote
In a physically separate location. For example, an employee away on
travel who logs in to the company’s intranet is a remote user.
RIP
Routing Information Protocol
The original TCP/IP routing protocol. There are two versions of RIP:
version I and version II.
RJ-11
Registered Jack Standard-11
The standard plug used to connect telephones, fax machines, modems,
etc. to a telephone port. It is a 6-pin connector usually containing four
wires.
RJ-45
Registered Jack Standard-45
The 8-pin plug used in transmitting data over phone lines. Ethernet
cabling usually uses this type of connector.
Routing
Forwarding data between your network and the Internet on the most
efficient route, based on the data’s destination IP address and current
network conditions. A device that performs routing is called a router.
SDNS
Secondary Domain Name System (server)
A DNS server that can be used if the primary DSN server is not available.
See DNS.
Subnet
A subnet is a portion of a network. The subnet is distinguished from the
larger network by a subnet mask that selects some of the computers of
the network and excludes all others. The subnet’s computers remain
physically connected to the rest of the parent network, but they are
treated as though they were on a separate network. See network mask.
Subnet mask
A mask that defines a subnet. See network mask.
TCP
See TCP/IP.
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
The basic protocols used on the Internet. TCP is responsible for dividing
data up into packets for delivery and reassembling them at the
destination, while IP is responsible for delivering the packets from source
to destination. When TCP and IP are bundled with higher-level
applications such as HTTP, FTP, Telnet, etc., TCP/IP refers to this whole
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suite of protocols.
Telnet
An interactive, character-based program used to access a remote
computer. While HTTP (the web protocol) and FTP only allow you to
download files from a remote computer, Telnet allows you to log into and
use a computer from a remote location.
TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
A protocol for file transfers, TFTP is easier to use than File Transfer
Protocol (FTP) but not as capable or secure.
TKIP
Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) provides WPA with a data
encryption function. It ensures that a unique master key is generated for
each packet, supports message integrity and sequencing rules and
supports re-keying mechanisms.
Triggers
Triggers are used to deal with application protocols that create separate
sessions. Some applications, such as NetMeeting, open secondary
connections during normal operations, for example, a connection to a
server is established using one port, but data transfers are performed on
a separate connection. A trigger tells the device to expect these
secondary sessions and how to handle them.
Once you set a trigger, the embedded IP address of each incoming
packet is replaced by the correct host address so that NAT can translate
packets to the correct destination. You can specify whether you want to
carry out address replacement, and if so, whether to replace addresses
on TCP packets only, UDP packets only, or both.
Twisted pair
The ordinary copper telephone wiring used by telephone companies. It
contains one or more wire pairs twisted together to reduce inductance and
noise. Each telephone line uses one pair. In homes, it is most often
installed with two pairs. For Ethernet LANs, a higher grade called
Category 3 (CAT 3) is used for 10BASE-T networks, and an even higher
grade called Category 5 (CAT 5) is used for 100BASE-T networks. See
10BASE-T, 100BASE-T, Ethernet.
Unnumbered interfaces
An unnumbered interface is an IP interface that does not have a local
subnet associated with it. Instead, it uses a router-id that serves as the
source and destination address of packets sent to and from the router.
Unlike the IP address of a normal interface, the router-id of an
unnumbered interface is allowed to be the same as the IP address of
another interface. For example, the WAN unnumbered interface of your
device uses the same IP address of the LAN interface (192.168.1.1).
The unnumbered interface is temporary – PPP or DHCP will assign a
‘real’ IP address automatically.
Upstream
The direction of data transmission from the user to the Internet.
VC
Virtual Circuit
A connection from your DSL router to your ISP.
VCI
Virtual Circuit Identifier
Together with the Virtual Path Identifier (VPI), the VCI uniquely identifies a
VC. Your ISP will tell you the VCI for each VC they provide. See VC.
VDSL
Very High Speed Digital Subscriber Line
It provides faster transmission rate and is capable of supporting high
bandwidth applications like IPTV and bandwidth consumed applications.
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VPI
Virtual Path Identifier
Together with the Virtual Circuit Identifier (VCI), the VPI uniquely identifies
a VC. Your ISP will tell you the VPI for each VC they provide. See VC.
WAN
Wide Area Network
Any network spread over a large geographical area, such as a country or
continent. With respect to the device, WAN refers to the Internet.
Web browser
A software program that uses Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to
download information from (and upload to) web sites, and displays the
information, which may consist of text, graphic images, audio, or video, to
the user. Web browsers use Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
Popular web browsers include Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet
Explorer. See HTTP, web site, WWW.
Web page
A web site file typically containing text, graphics and hyperlinks (crossreferences) to the other pages on that web site, as well as to pages on
other web sites. When a user accesses a web site, the first page that is
displayed is called the home page. See hyperlink, web site.
Web site
A computer on the Internet that distributes information to (and gets
information from) remote users through web browsers. A web site typically
consists of web pages that contain text, graphics, and hyperlinks. See
hyperlink, web page.
WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) encrypts data over WLANs. Data is
encrypted into blocks of either 64 bits length or 128 bits length. The
encrypted data can only be sent and received by users with access to a
private network key. Each PC on your wireless network must be manually
configured with the same key as your device in order to allow wireless
encrypted data transmissions. Eavesdroppers cannot access your
network if they do not know your private key. WEP is considered to be a
low security option.
Wireless
Wireless is a term used to describe telecommunications in which
electromagnetic waves (rather than some form of wire) carry the signal
over part or the entire communication path. See wireless LAN.
Wireless LAN
A wireless LAN (WLAN) is one in which a mobile user can connect to a
local area network (LAN) through a wireless (radio) connection. A
standard, IEEE 802.11, specifies the technologies for wireless LANs.
WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access
WPA is an initiative by the IEEE and Wi-Fi Alliance to address the security
limitations of WEP. WPA provides a stronger data encryption method
(called Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)). It runs in a special, easyto-set-up home mode called Pre-Shared Key (PSK) that allows you to
manually enter a pass phrase on all the devices in your wireless network.
WPA data encryption is based on a WPA master key. The master key is
derived from the pass phrase and the network name (SSID) of the device.
It provides improved data encryption and stronger user authentication.
The mode of WPA supported on your device is called Pre-Shared Key
(PSK), which allows you to manually enter a type of key called a pass
phrase.
WWW
World Wide Web
Also called (the) Web. Collective term for all web sites anywhere in the
world that can be accessed via the Internet.
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