Site Master
Model S251C
Antenna and
Cable Analyzer
User's Guide
Hand-Held Tester for Transmission Lines
and other RF Components
Color Front Cover only P/N: 00986-00045
WARRANTY
The Anritsu product(s) listed on the title page is (are) warranted against defects in
materials and workmanship for one year from the date of shipment.
Anritsu's obligation covers repairing or replacing products which prove to be defective during the warranty period. Buyers shall prepay transportation charges for
equipment returned to Anritsu for warranty repairs. Obligation is limited to the original purchaser. Anritsu is not liable for consequential damages.
LIMITATION OF WARRANTY
The foregoing warranty does not apply to Anritsu connectors that have failed due to
normal wear. Also, the warranty does not apply to defects resulting from improper or
inadequate maintenance by the Buyer, unauthorized modification or misuse, or operation outside the environmental specifications of the product. No other warranty is
expressed or implied, and the remedies provided herein are the Buyer's sole and
exclusive remedies.
TRADEMARK ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
MS-DOS, Windows, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows ME, and
Windows 2000 are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation.
Anritsu and Site Master are trademarks of Anritsu Company.
NOTICE
Anritsu Company has prepared this manual for use by Anritsu Company personnel
and customers as a guide for the proper installation, operation and maintenance of
Anritsu Company equipment and computer programs. The drawings, specifications,
and information contained herein are the property of Anritsu Company, and any unauthorized use or disclosure of these drawings, specifications, and information is
prohibited; they shall not be reproduced, copied, or used in whole or in part as the
basis for manufacture or sale of the equipment or software programs without the
prior written consent of Anritsu Company.
June 2002
Copyright ã 2001-2002 Anritsu Co.
10580-00065
Revision: B
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 - General Information
Introduction . . . . . . . .
Description . . . . . . . . .
Standard Accessories . . .
Options . . . . . . . . . . .
Optional Accessories. . . .
Performance Specifications
Preventive Maintenance . .
ESD Precautions . . . . . .
Annual Verification . . . .
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1-1
1-1
1-1
1-2
1-2
1-3
1-6
1-6
1-7
Chapter 2 - Functions and Operations
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Test Connector Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Front Panel Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Function Hard Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Keypad Hard Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Soft Keys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Power Monitor Menu (Option 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
RF Source Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15
Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Self Test Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Range Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Battery Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Charging a New Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Charging the Battery in the Site Master . . .
Charging the Battery in the Optional Charger
Battery Charge Indicator . . . . . . . . . . .
Battery Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Important Battery Information . . . . . . . .
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2-18
2-18
2-19
2-19
2-20
Chapter 3 - Getting Started
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . .
Power On Procedure . . . . . . .
Select the Frequency or Distance
Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . .
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3-1
3-1
3-2
3-2
Calibration Procedure - Single Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Calibration Procedure - Dual Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Setting the Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Auto Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Amplitude Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Save and Recall a Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
i
Saving a Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Recalling a Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Save and Recall a Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Saving a Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
Recalling a Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Set the Distance and Cable Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Changing the Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Changing the Display Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Printing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Printing a Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Printer Switch Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Using the Soft Carrying Case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Chapter 4 - Cable & Antenna Analysis
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
One Port Measurements . . . . . . . . .
Line Sweep Fundamentals . . . . . . . .
Information Required for a Line Sweep .
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4-1
4-1
4-1
4-2
Typical Line Sweep Test Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
System Return Loss Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Insertion Loss Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Distance-To-Fault (DTF) Transmission Line Test. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Antenna Subsystem Return Loss Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Two Port Measurements . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TMA Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Antenna to Antenna Isolation. . . . . . . . .
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Antenna-to-Antenna Isolation Measurement .
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4-12
4-12
4-13
4-19
4-19
4-20
Chapter 5 - Site Master Software Tools
Introduction . . . . .
Features . . . . . . .
System Requirements
Installation . . . . . .
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5-1
5-1
5-1
5-2
Communication Port Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Interface Cable Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Using Software Tools . . . . . . . . . . .
Downloading Traces from the Site Master
Plot Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plot Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trace Overlay or Plot Overlay .
Saving Traces . . . . . . . . .
Custom Cable List . . . . . . .
Creating a Database . . . . . .
Printing Formats . . . . . . . .
ii
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5-3
5-3
5-4
5-4
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5-5
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-7
Appendix A - Reference Data
Coaxial Cable Technical Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
Appendix B - Windowing
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
iii/iv
Chapter 1
General Information
Introduction
This chapter provides a description, performance specifications, optional accessories, preventive maintenance, and calibration requirements for the Site Master model S251C.
Throughout this manual, the term Site Master will refer to the S251C.
Model
Frequency Range
S251C
625 to 2500 MHz
Ports
2
Description
The Site Master is a hand held SWR/RL (standing wave ratio/return loss), transmission
gain/loss and Distance-To-Fault (DTF) measurement instrument that includes a built-in
synthesized signal source. The S251C includes a keypad to enter data and a VGA (640 ´
480) liquid crystal display (LCD) to provide graphic indications of SWR, RL (dB) over the
selected frequency range and distance. The Site Master is capable of up to 2.5 hours of continuous operation from a fully charged field-replaceable battery and can be operated from a
12.5 VDC source. Built-in energy conservation features can be used to extend battery life
over an eight-hour work day.
The Site Master is designed for measuring SWR, return loss, or one-port cable insertion
loss and fault locations of RF components in antenna systems. Power monitoring is available as an option. Site Master model S251C includes transmission gain or loss (S21) measurements and an optional built-in bias tee. The displayed trace can be scaled or enhanced
with frequency markers or a limit lines. A menu option provides for an audible “beep”
when the limit value is exceeded. To permit use in low-light environments, the LCD can be
back lit using a front panel key.
Standard Accessories
The Software Tools PC-based software program provides a database record for storing
measurement data. Site Master Software Tools can also convert the Site Master display to a
Microsoft Windowsä 95/98/2000/ME/NT workstation graphic. Measurements stored in the
Site Master internal memory can be downloaded to the PC, and vice versa, using the included null-modem serial cable. Once stored, the graphic trace can be displayed, scaled, or
enhanced with markers and limit lines. Historical graphs can be overlaid with current data,
and underlying data can be extracted and used in spreadsheets or for other analytical tasks.
The Site Master Software Tools program can display all of the measurements made with the
Site Master (SWR, return loss, cable loss, distance-to-fault) as well as providing other functions, such as converting display modes and Smith charts. Refer to Chapter 5, Software
Tools, for more information.
1-1
1
Chapter 1 General Information
The following items are supplied with the basic hardware.
·
Soft Carrying Case
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AC-DC Adapter
·
Automotive Cigarette Lighter 12 Volt DC Adapter,
·
CDROM disk containing the Software Tools program. This program contains Fault Location (DTF) and Smith Chart functions
·
Serial Interface Cable (null modem type)
·
One year Warranty (includes battery, firmware, and software)
·
User's Guide
Options
·
Option 5 — Add RF Wattmeter Power Monitor
·
Option 10A ¾ Add Bias Tee
Optional Accessories
·
Anritsu Precision N (m) Open/Short/Load, 42 dB, Part No. OSLN50LF
·
Anritsu Precision N (f) Open/Short/Load, 42 dB, Part No. OSLNF50LF
·
Anritsu Precision N (m) Short/Open, Part No. 22N50
·
Anritsu Precision N (f) Short/Open, Part No. 22NF50
·
Site Master Precision N (m) Load, 42 dB, Part No. SM/PL
·
Site Master Precision N (f) Load, 42 dB, Part No. SM/PLNF
·
7/16 (m) Precision Open/Short/Load, Part No. 2000-767
·
7/16 (f) Precision Open/Short/Load, Part No. 2000-768
·
Adapter, Precision N (m) to N (m), Part No. 34NN50A
·
Adapter, Precision N (f) to N (f), Part No. 34NFNF50
·
Adapter, 7/16 (f) to N (m), Part No. 510-90
·
Adapter, 7/16 (f) to N (f), Part No. 510-91
·
Adapter, 7/16 (m) to N (m), Part No. 510-92
·
Adapter, 7/16 (m) to N (f), Part No. 510-93
·
Adapter, 7/16 DIN (m) to 7/16 DIN (m), Part No. 510-96
·
Adapter, 7/16 DIN (f) to 7/16 DIN (f), Part No. 510-97
·
Armored Test Port Extension Cable, 1.5 meter, N (m) to
N (f), Part No. 15NNF50-1.5C
·
Armored Test Port Extension Cable, 3.0 meter, N (m) to
N (f), Part No. 15NNF50-3.0C
·
Armored Test Port Extension Cable, 5.0 meter, N (m) to
N (f), Part No. 15NNF50-5.0C
1-2
Chapter 1
General Information
·
Armored Test Port Extension Cable, 1.5 meter, N (m) to
N (m), Part No. 15NN50-1.5C
·
Armored Test Port Extension Cable, 3.0 meter, N (m) to
N (m), Part No. 15NN50-3.0C
·
Armored Test Port Extension Cable, 5.0 meter, N (m) to
N (m), Part No. 15NN50-5.0C
·
Armored Test Port Extension Cable, 1.5 meter, N (m) to
7/16 DIN (f), Part No. 15NDF50-1.5C
·
Armored Test Port Extension Cable, 1.5 meter, N (m) to
7/16 DIN (m), Part No. 15ND50-1.5C
·
RF Detector, 1 to 3000 MHz, N(m) input connector, 50 Ohms, Part No. 5400-71N50
·
RF Detector, 0.01 to 20 GHz, N(m) input connector, 50 Ohms, Part No. 560-7N50B
·
Transit Case for Site Master, Part No. 760-215A
·
HP Deskjet 350 Printer, Part No. 2000-766
·
Serial-to-Parallel Converter Cable (use with the HP 350 Printer), Part No. 2000-753
·
Seiko DPU-414 Thermal Printer, Part No. 2000-754 (U.S.) or
2000-761 (Europe)
·
US Adapter (use with the DPU-414 Printer),
Part No. 2000-1002
·
Europe Adapter (use with the DPU-414 Printer)
Part No. 2000-1003
·
Japan Adapter (use with the DPU-414 Printer)
Part number 2000-1194
·
Battery Pack (use with the DPU-414 Printer)
Part No. 2000-1004
·
Serial Interface Cable (use with the DPU-414 Printer),
Part No. 2000-10012
·
Thermal Paper (use with the DPU-411/DPU-414 Printer),
Part No. 2000-755
·
Rechargeable Battery, NiMH
Part No. 633-27
·
Battery Charger, NiMH only
Part No. 2000-1029
Performance Specifications
Performance specifications are provided in Table 1-1, on the following page.
1-3
Chapter 1 General Information
Table 1-1.
Performance Specifications (1 of 2)
Specifications are valid when the unit is calibrated at ambient temperature after a 5 minute
warmup.
Value
Description
Site Master:
Frequency Range:
S251C
625 to 2500 MHz
Frequency Accuracy (RF Source Mode):
£75 parts per million @ 25°C*
Frequency Resolution:
10 kHz
SWR:
Range
1.00 to 65.00
Resolution
0.01
Return Loss:
Range
0.00 to 54.00 dB
Resolution
0.01 dB
**Distance-To-Fault (DTF):
Range (in meters)
0 to (Resolution x (dp–1)) a maximum of
Resolution (in meters)
1000m (3281 ft.) with a maximum of 517 points
(Rectangular Windowing)
resolution, # of data pts. = 130, 259, 517
(1.5 ´ 108)(Vf )
DF
Where Vf is the relative propagation velocity of
the cable .
dp is the number of data points (130, 259,
517).
DF is F2 - F1 (in Hz.)
Insertion Loss/Gain
Range:
Resolution
RF Source
Frequency
Power Output (nominal)
RF Power Monitor:
Range
Offset Range
Resolution
Test Port, Type N
***Immunity to Interfering signals
up to the level of:
on-frequency
–90.00 to +50.00 dB
0.01 dB
625 to 2500 MHz @ 10 kHz step
selectable, – 30 dBm or + 6 dBm
–80.0 to +80 dBm or
10.0 pW to 100.0 kW
0 to +60.0 dB
0.1 dB or
0.1 xW
50 Ohms
RF out
RF in
RF out
+10 dBm, reflection
+30 dBc, transmission
+17 dBm, reflection
on-channel
Maximum Input (Damage Level):
Test Port, Type N
+22 dBm
RF Detector
+20 dBm
Measurement Accuracy:
Measurement accuracy depends on calibration components. Precision calibration load provides
a corrected directivity of 42 dB.
1-4
Chapter 1
Table 1-2.
General Information
Performance Specifications (2 of 2)
Cable Insertion Loss:
Range
Resolution
Bias Tee
input voltage:
output current:
General
Internal Memory:
Trace Memory
Instrument config.
RS-232
Electromagnetic Compatibility
Power Supply:
External DC Input
Temperature:
Storage
Operation
Weight:
Dimensions:
0.00 to 54.00 dB
0.01 dB
12.5 to 15.0 Vdc
270 ma maximum surge, 25 ms
240 ma maximum steady
200 maximum
10 setup locations with associated calibration
9 pin D-sub, three wire serial
Meets European Community requirements for
CE marking
+11 to +15 Vdc, 1250 mA max.
–20° C to 75° C
0° C to 50° C
1.82 kg (4.0 pounds)
25.4 x 17.8 x 6.1 cm
(10 x 7 x 2.4 inches)
* ±2 ppm/D°C from 25°C
** Fault location is accomplished by inverse Fourier Transformation of data taken with the Site Master. Resolution and
maximum range depend on the number of frequency data points, frequency sweep range and relative propagation velocity of the cable being tested.
*** Immunity measurement is made in CW mode with incoming interfering signal exactly at the same frequency (worst
case situation). Typical immunity is better when swept frequency is used.
1-5
Chapter 1 General Information
Preventive Maintenance
Site Master preventive maintenance consists of cleaning the unit and inspecting and cleaning the RF connectors on the instrument and all accessories.
Clean the Site Master with a soft, lint-free cloth dampened with water or water and a mild
cleaning solution.
CAUTION: To avoid damaging the display or case, do not use solvents or abrasive cleaners.
Clean the RF connectors and center pins with a cotton swab dampened with denatured alcohol. Visually inspect the connectors. The fingers of the N (f) connectors and the pins of the
N (m) connectors should be unbroken and uniform in appearance. If you are unsure whether
the connectors are good, gauge the connectors to confirm that the dimensions are correct.
Visually inspect the test port cable(s). The test port cable should be uniform in appearance,
not stretched, kinked, dented, or broken.
ESD Precautions
The Site Master, like other high performance instruments, is susceptible to ESD damage.
Very often, coaxial cables and antennas build up a static charge, which, if allowed to discharge by connecting to the Site Master, may damage the Site Master input circuitry. Site
Master operators should be aware of the potential for ESD damage and take all necessary
precautions. Operators should exercise practices outlined within industry standards like
JEDEC-625 (EIA-625), MIL-HDBK-263, and MIL-STD-1686, which pertain to ESD and
ESDS devices, equipment, and practices.
As these apply to the Site Master, it is recommended to dissipate any static charges that
may be present before connecting the coaxial cables or antennas to the Site Master. This
may be as simple as temporarily attaching a short or load device to the cable or antenna
prior to attaching to the Site Master. It is important to remember that the operator may also
carry a static charge that can cause damage. Following the practices outlined in the above
standards will insure a safe environment for both personnel and equipment.
1-6
Chapter 1
General Information
Annual Verification
Anritsu recommends an annual calibration and performance verification of the Site Master
and the OSL calibration components by local Anritsu service centers. Anritsu service centers are listed in Table 1-2 on the following page.
The Site Master itself is self-calibrating, meaning that there are no field-adjustable components. However, the OSL calibration components are crucial to the integrity of the calibration and therefore, must be verified periodically to ensure performance conformity. This is
especially important if the OSL calibration components have been accidentally dropped or
over-torqued.
1-7
Chapter 1 General Information
Table 1-2.
Anritsu Service Centers
UNITED STATES
GERMANY
SOUTH AFRICA
ANRITSU COMPANY
685 Jarvis Drive
Morgan Hill, CA 95037-2809
Telephone: (408) 776-8300
FAX: 408-776-1744
ANRITSU GmbH
Grafenberger Allee 54-56
D-40237 Dusseldorf
Germany
Telephone: 0211-968550
FAX: 0211-9685555
ETESCSA
12 Surrey Square Office Park
330 Surrey Avenue
Ferndale, Randburt, 2194
South Africa
Telephone: 011-27-11-787-7200
Fax: 011-27-11-787-0446
ANRITSU COMPANY
10 NewMaple Ave., Suite 305
Pine Brook, NJ 07058
Telephone: 973-227-8999
FAX: 973-575-0092
ANRITSU COMPANY
1155 E. Collins Blvd
Richardson, TX 75081
Telephone: 1-800-ANRITSU
FAX: 972-671-1877
AUSTRALIA
ANRITSU PTY. LTD.
Unit 3, 170 Foster Road
Mt Waverley, VIC 3149
Australia
Telephone: 03-9558-8177
FAX: 03-9558-8255
BRAZIL
ANRITSU ELECTRONICA LTDA.
Praia de Botafogo 440. Sala 2401
CEP22250-040,Rio de Janeiro,RJ,
Brasil
Telephone: 021-527-6922
FAX: 021-53-71-456
CANADA
ANRITSU INSTRUMENTS LTD.
700 Silver Seven Road, Suite 120
Kanata, Ontario K2V 1C3
Telephone: (613) 591-2003
FAX: (613) 591-1006
CHINA (SHANGHAI)
ANRITSU ELECTRONICS CO LTD
2F,Rm.B, 52 Section Factory Bldg.
NO 516 Fu Te Road (N)
Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone
Pudong, Shanghai 200131
PR CHINA
Telephone: 86-21-58680226
FAX: 86-21-58680588
FRANCE
ANRITSU S.A
9 Avenue du Quebec
Zone de Courtaboeuf
91951 Les Ulis Cedex
Telephone: 016-09-21-550
FAX: 016-44-61-065
1-8
INDIA
MEERA AGENCIES (P) LTD
A-23 Hauz Khas
New Delhi, India 110 016
Telephone: 011-685-3959
FAX: 011-686-6720
ISRAEL
TECH-CENT, LTD
4 Raul Valenberg St.
Tel-Aviv, Israel 69719
Telephone: 972-36-478563
FAX: 972-36-478334
ITALY
ANRITSU Sp.A
Rome Office
Via E. Vittorini, 129
00144 Roma EUR
Telephone: (06) 50-2299-711
FAX: 06-50-22-4252
JAPAN
ANRITSU CUSTOMER SERVICE LTD.
1800 Onna Atsugi—shi
Kanagawa-Prf. 243 Japan
Telephone: 0462-96-6688
FAX: 0462-25-8379
KOREA
ANRITSU SERVICE CENTER
8F Sanwon Bldg.
1329-8 Seocho-Dong
Seocho-Ku
Seoul, Korea 137-070
Telephone: 82-2-581-6603
FAX: 82-2-582-6603
SINGAPORE
ANRITSU (SINGAPORE) PTE LTD
10, Hoe Chiang Road
#07-01/02
Keppel Towers
Singapore 089315
Telephone:65-282-2400
FAX:65-282-2533
SWEDEN
ANRITSU AB
Botvid Center
Fittja Backe 13A
145 84
Stockholm, Sweden
Telephone: (08) 534-707-00
FAX: (08)534-707-30
TAIWAN
ANRITSU CO., LTD.
6F, No. 96, Section 3
Chien Kuo N. Road
Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Telephone: (02) 515-6050
FAX: (02) 509-5519
UNITED KINGDOM
ANRITSU LTD.
200 Capability Green
Luton, Bedfordshire
LU1 3LU, England
Telephone: 015-82-43-3200
FAX: 015-82-73-1303
Chapter 2
Functions and Operations
Introduction
This chapter provides a brief overview of the Site Master functions and operations, providing the user with a starting point for making basic measurements. For more detailed information, refer to Chapter 4, Measurements and Chapter 5, Software Tools.
The Site Master is designed specifically for field environments and applications requiring
mobility. As such, it is a lightweight, handheld, battery operated unit which can be easily
carried to any location, and is capable of up to 2.5 hours of continuous operation from a
fully charged battery. Built-in energy conservation features allow battery life to be extended
over an eight-hour workday. The Site Master can also be powered by a 12.5 VDC external
source. The external source can be either the Anritsu AC-DC Adapter (P/N 40-115) or 12.5
Vdc Automotive Cigarette Lighter Adapter (P/N 806-62). Both items are standard accessories.
Test Connector Panel
The connectors and indicators located on the test panel are listed and described below.
12.5-15VDC
(1100 mA)
12.5 to 15 Vdc @ 1100 mA input to power the unit or for battery charging.
WARNING
When using the AC-DC Adapter, always use a three-wire power cable connected
to a three-wire power line outlet. If power is supplied without grounding the equipment in this manner, there is a risk of receiving a severe or fatal electric shock.
Battery
Charging
Illuminates when the battery is being charged. The indicator automatically shuts
off when the battery is fully charged.
External
Power
Illuminates when the Site Master is being powered by the external charging unit.
Serial
Interface
RS232 DB9 interface to a COM port on a personal computer (for use with the
Anritsu Software Tools program) or to a supported printer.
RF Out
RF output, 50 W impedance, for reflection measurements.
RF In
RF input 50 W impedance for transmission loss or gain measurement.
RF Detector
RF detector input for the Power Monitor.
2-1
2
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
Front Panel Overview
The Site Master menu-driven user interface is easy to use and requires little training. Hard
keys on the front panel are used to initiate function-specific menus. There are four function
hard keys located below the display, Mode, Frequency/Distance, Amplitude and Sweep.
There are seventeen keypad hard keys located to the right of the display. Twelve of the keypad hard keys are dual purpose, depending on the current mode of operation. The dual purpose keys are labeled with one function in black, the other in blue.
There are also six soft keys that change function depending upon the current mode selection. The current soft key function is indicated in the active function block to the right of
the display. The locations of the different keys are illustrated in Figure 2-1.
Active
Function
Block
Soft Keys
Site Master S251C
1
2
START
CAL
AUTO
SCALE
SAVE
SETUP
RECALL
SETUP
3
5
LIMIT
7
SAVE
DISPLAY
9
ON
OFF
MODE
FREQ/DIST
AMPLITUDE
4
6
MARKER
8
RECALL
DISPLAY
0
.
SWEEP
Site Master Soft Keys
The following sections describe the various key functions.
2-2
ENTER
RUN
HOLD
+/-
PRINT
Function Hard Keys
Figure 2-1.
ESCAPE
CLEAR
SYS
Keypad
Hard
Keys
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
Function Hard Keys
MODE
Opens the mode selection box (below). Use the Up/Down arrow key to select a
mode. Press the ENTER key to implement.
MEASUREMENT MODE
FREQ -
SWR
RETURN LOSS
CABLE LOSS - ONE PORT
INSERTION LOSS (+6 dBm)
INSERTION GAIN (–30 dBm)
DTF -
SWR
RETURN LOSS
POWER MONITOR
RF SOURCE
Figure 2-2.
Mode Selection Box
FREQ/DIST
Displays the Frequency or Distance to Fault softkey menus depending on the
measurement mode.
AMPLITUDE
Displays the amplitude softkey menu for the current operating mode.
SWEEP
Displays the Sweep function softkey menu for the current operating mode.
2-3
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
Keypad Hard Keys
This section contains an alphabetical listing of the Site Master front panel keypad controls
along with a brief description of each. Where necessary, more detailed descriptions of the
major function keys follow.
The following keypad hard key functions are printed in black on the keypad keys.
0-9
These keys are used to enter numerical data as required to setup or perform measurements.
+/–
The plus/minus key is used to enter positive or negative values as required
to setup or perform measurements.
·
The decimal point is used to enter decimal values as required to set up or
perform measurements.
ESCAPE
CLEAR
Exits the present operation or clears the display. If a parameter is being
edited, pressing this key will clear the value currently being entered and
restore the last valid entry. Pressing this key again will close the parameter. During normal sweeping, pressing this key will move up one menu
level.
UP/DOWN
ARROWS
Increments or decrements a parameter value. The specific parameter value
affected typically appears in the message area of the LCD.
NOTE: At turn on, before any other keys are pressed, the Up/Down arrow key
may be used to adjust the display contrast. Press ENTER to return to normal operation.
ENTER
Implements the current action or parameter selection.
ON
OFF
Turns the Anritsu Site Master on or off. When turned on, the system state
at the last turn-off is restored. If the ESCAPE/CLEAR key is held down
while the ON/OFF key is pressed, the factory preset state will be restored.
SYS
Allows selection of display language and system setup parameters.
Choices are OPTIONS, CLOCK, SELF TEST, STATUS and LANGUAGE.
2-4
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
The following keypad hard key functions are printed in blue on the keypad keys.
Turns the liquid crystal display (LCD) back-lighting ON or OFF.
(Leaving back lighting off conserves battery power.)
LCD Contrast adjust. Use the Up/Down arrow key and ENTER to adjust
the display contrast.
AUTO
SCALE
Automatically scales the display for optimum resolution.
LIMIT
Displays the limit menu of the current operating mode.
MARKER
Displays the marker menu of the current operating mode.
PRINT
Prints the current display to the selected printer via the RS232 serial port.
RECALL
DISPLAY
Recalls a previously saved trace from memory. When the key is pressed, a
Recall Trace selection box appears on the display. Select a trace using the
Up/Down arrow key and press the ENTER key to implement.
To erase a saved trace, highlight the trace and select the DELETE TRACE
softkey. To erase all saved traces, select the DELETE ALL TRACES
softkey.
RECALL
SETUP
Recalls a previously saved setup from memory location 1 through 10.
When the key is pressed, a RECALL SETUP selection box appears on the
display. Select a setup using the Up/Down arrow key and press the
ENTER key to implement. Setup 0 recalls the factory preset state.
RUN
HOLD
When in the Run mode, this key starts the Site Master sweeping and provides a sweep measurement trigger; when in the Hold mode, it pauses the
sweep and the hold symbol (page 2-15) appears on the LCD. Hold mode
conserves battery power.
SAVE
DISPLAY
Saves up to 200 displayed traces to non-volatile memory. When the key is
pressed, TRACE NAME: appears in the lower left of the display. Save the
display with up to 16 alphanumeric characters for that trace name and
press the ENTER key to implement.
SAVE
SETUP
Saves the current system setup to 1 of 10 internal non-volatile memory locations. When the key is pressed, a SAVE SETUP selection box appears
on the display. Use the Up/Down arrow key to select a setup and press the
ENTER key to implement.
START
CAL
Starts the calibration in SWR, Return Loss, Cable Loss, or DTF measurement modes.
2-5
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
Soft Keys
Each function key opens a set of soft key selections. Each of the soft keys has a corresponding soft key label area on the display. The label identifies the function of the soft key for the
current Mode selection.
Figures 2-3 and 2-4 show the soft key labels for each Mode selection. Where necessary,
more detailed descriptions of the function keys follow.
MODE=FREQ:
SOFTKEYS:
FREQ/DIST
AMPLITUDE
SWEEP
F1
TOP
RESOLUTION
F2
BOTTOM
SINGLE
SWEEP
TRACE
MATH
TRACE
OVERLAY
ON/OFF
SELECT
TRACE
TOP
OF
LIST
PAGE UP
PAGE
DOWN
BOTTOM
OF
LIST
DELETE
TRACE
DELETE
ALL
TRACE
Figure 2-3.
2-6
Frequency Mode Soft Key Labels
BACK
130
259
517
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
MODE=DTF:
FREQ/DIST
AMPLITUDE
SWEEP
SOFTKEYS:
D1
TOP
RESOLUTION
D2
BOTTOM
SINGLE
SWEEP
TRACE
MATH
DTF AID
TRACE
OVERLAY
130
259
517
MORE
ON/OFF
LOSS
SELECT
TRACE
PROP
VEL
CABLE
WINDOW
TOP
OF
LIST
PAGE UP
BACK
PAGE
DOWN
BACK
BOTTOM
OF
LIST
DELETE
TRACE
DELETE
ALL
TRACE
Figure 2-4.
Distance to Fault Mode Soft Key Labels
2-7
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
FREQ/DIST
Displays the frequency and distance menu depending on the measurement mode.
Frequency
Menu
Provides for setting sweep frequency end points when FREQ mode is selected.
Selected frequency values may be changed using the keypad or Up/Down arrow
key.
q F1
— Opens the F1 parameter for data entry. This is the start value for the
frequency sweep. Press ENTER when data entry is complete.
q F2
— Opens the F2 parameter for data entry. This is the stop value for the
frequency sweep. Press ENTER when data entry is complete.
Distance
Menu
Provides for setting Distance to Fault parameters when a DTF mode is selected.
Choosing DIST causes the soft keys, below, to be displayed and the corresponding values to be shown in the message area. Selected distance values may be
changed using the keypad or Up/Down arrow key.
q D1
— Opens the start distance (D1) parameter for data entry. This is the start
value for the distance range (D1 default = 0). Press ENTER when data entry
is complete.
q D2
— Opens the end distance (D2) parameter for data entry. This is the end
value for the distance range. Press ENTER when data entry is complete.
q DTF AID
— Provides interactive help to optimize DTF set up parameters.
Use the Up/Down arrow key to select a parameter to edit. Press ENTER when
data entry is complete.
q MORE
Distance
Sub-Menu
— Selects the Distance Sub-Menu, detailed below.
Provides for setting the cable loss and relative propagation velocity of the coaxial cable. Selected values may be changed using the Up/Down arrow key or keypad.
q LOSS
— Opens the Cable Loss parameter for data entry. Enter the loss per
foot (or meter) for the type of transmission line being tested. Press ENTER
when data entry is complete. (Range is 0.000 to 5.000 dB/m, 1.524 dB/ft)
q PROP VEL
(relative propagation velocity) — Opens the Propagation Velocity parameter for data entry. Enter the propagation velocity for the type of
transmission line being tested. Press ENTER when data entry is complete.
(Range is 0.010 to 1.000)
q CABLE
— Opens a common coaxial cable folder and custom coaxial cable
folder. Select either folder and use the Up/Down arrow key and ENTER to
make a selection. This feature provides a rapid means of setting both cable
loss and propagation velocity. (Refer to Appendix A for a listing of common
coaxial cables showing values for Relative Propagation Velocity and Nominal Attenuation in dB/m @ 1000 MHz, 2000 MHz and 2500 MHz.) The custom cable folder can consist of up to 24 user-defined cable parameters
downloaded via the Site Master Software Tools program.
q WINDOW
— Opens a menu of FFT windowing types for the DTF calculation. Scroll the menu using the Up/Down arrow key and make a selection
with the ENTER key.
q BACK
2-8
— Returns to the Distance Menu.
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
AMPLITUDE
Displays the amplitude or scale menu depending on the measurement mode.
Amplitude
Menu
Provides for changing the display scale. Selected values may be changed using
the Up/Down arrow key or keypad.
Choosing AMPLITUDE in FREQ or DTF measurement modes causes the soft
keys, below, to be displayed and the corresponding values to be shown in the
message area.
q TOP
— Opens the top parameter for data entry and provides for setting the
top scale value. Press ENTER when data entry is complete.
q BOTTOM
— Opens the bottom parameter for data entry and provides for setting the bottom scale value. Press ENTER when data entry is complete.
SWEEP
Displays the Sweep function soft key menu for the current operating mode.
Sweep Menu
Provides for changing the display resolution, single or continuous sweep, and
access to the Trace Math functions.
Choosing SWEEP in FREQ or DTF measurement modes causes the soft keys
below to be displayed.
q RESOLUTION
— Opens the display to change the resolution. Choose 130,
259, or 517 data points. (In DTF mode, resolution can be adjusted through
the DTF-AID table.)
q SINGLE SWEEP
— Toggles the sweep between single sweep and continuous sweep. In single sweep mode, each sweep must be activated by the
RUN/HOLD button.
q TRACE MATH
— Opens up the Trace Math functions (trace-memory or
trace+memory) for comparison of the real time trace in the display with any
of the traces from memory. (Not available in DTF mode.)
q TRACE OVERLAY
— Opens up the Trace Overlay functions menu to allow
the current trace to be displayed at the same time as a trace in memory.
Choose ON or OFF and SELECT TRACE to select the trace from memory to
perform trace overlay.
2-9
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
Power Monitor Menu (Option 5)
Selecting POWER MONITOR from the Mode menu causes the soft keys, described below,
to be displayed and the corresponding values shown in the message area.
MODE=POWER MONITOR:
SOFTKEYS:
UNITS
REL
OFFSET
ZERO
Figure 2-5.
Power Monitor Mode Soft Key Labels
q UNITS
— Toggles between dBm and Watts.
q REL
— Turns relative mode OFF, if currently ON. If relative mode is currently OFF, turns it ON and causes the power level to be measured and saved
as the base level. Subsequent measurements are then displayed relative to this
saved value. With units of dBm, relative mode displays dBr; with units of
Watts, relative mode displays % (percent).
q OFFSET
— Turns Offset OFF, if currently ON. If Offset is currently OFF,
turns it ON and opens the Offset parameter for data entry. Press ENTER
when data entry is complete.
Offset is the attenuation (in dB) inserted in the line between the DUT and the
RF detector. The attenuation is added to the measured input level prior to display.
q ZERO
— Turns Zero OFF, if currently ON. If Zero is currently OFF, this
softkey turns it ON and initiates collection of a series of power level samples,
which are averaged and saved. This saved value is then subtracted from subsequent measurements prior to display.
2 - 10
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
RF Source Menu
RF Source mode provides an RF Out source that can be used, for example, in the alignment
of dish antennas. Selecting RF SOURCE from the Mode menu causes the soft keys, described below, to be displayed:
MODE=RF SOURCE:
SOFTKEYS:
FREQ
POWER
Figure .
RF Source Softkeys
q FREQ
— Allows setting of the RF source frequency. Use the keypad number
keys to enter a frequency, or use the Up/down arrow key to adjust the frequency in 10 kHz steps. Press ENTER to accept, or ESCAPE to restore the
previous value.
q POWER
— Selects the RF source output power level. Choose either +6.0
dBm or –30.0 dBm.
2 - 11
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
LIMIT
Pressing LIMIT on the data keypad activates a menu of limit related functions.
Use the corresponding softkey to select the desired limit function. Then use the
Up/Down arrow key to change its value, which is displayed in the message area
at the bottom of the display.
Choosing LIMIT causes the soft keys below to be displayed.
q SINGLE LIMIT
— Sets a single limit value in dBm. Menu choices are:
ON/OFF
EDIT
BACK
q MULTIPLE UPPER LIMITS
— Sets multiple user defined upper limits, and
can be used to create an upper limit mask for quick pass/fail measurements.
Menu choices are:
SEGMENT 1
SEGMENT 2
SEGMENT 3
SEGMENT 4
SEGMENT 5
BACK
q MULTIPLE LOWER LIMITS
— Set multiple user defined lower limits, and
can be used to create a lower limit mask for quick pass/fail measurements.
Menu choices are:
SEGMENT 1
SEGMENT 2
SEGMENT 3
SEGMENT 4
SEGMENT 5
BACK
q LIMIT BEEP
MARKER
— Turns the audible limit beep indicator on or off.
Choosing MARKER causes the soft keys, below, to be displayed and the corresponding values to be shown in the message area. Selected frequency marker or
distance marker values may be changed using the keypad or Up/Down arrow
key.
q M1
— Selects the M1 marker parameter and opens the M1 marker second
level menu.
q ON/OFF
q EDIT
— Turns the selected marker on or off.
— Opens the selected marker parameter for data entry. Press
ENTER when data entry is complete or ESCAPE to restore the previous
value.
q MARKER TO PEAK
— Places the selected marker at the frequency or
distance with the maximum amplitude value.
q MARKER TO VALLEY
— Places the selected marker at the frequency or
distance with the minimum amplitude value.
q BACK
— Returns to the Main Markers Menu.
q M2
through M4 — Selects the marker parameter and opens the marker second
level menu.
q ON/OFF
2 - 12
— Turns the selected marker on or off.
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
q EDIT
— Opens the selected marker parameter for data entry. Press
ENTER when data entry is complete or ESCAPE to restore the previous
value.
q DELTA (Mx-M1)
— Displays delta amplitude value as well as delta frequency or distance for the selected marker with respect to the M1 marker.
q MARKER TO PEAK
— Places the selected marker at the frequency or
distance with the maximum amplitude value.
q MARKER TO VALLEY
— Places the selected marker at the frequency or
distance with the minimum amplitude value.
q BACK
— Returns to the Main Markers Menu.
q M5
— Selects the M5 marker parameter and opens the M5 second level
menu.
q ON/OFF
q EDIT
— Turns the selected marker on or off.
— Opens the selected marker parameter for data entry. Press
ENTER when data entry is complete or ESCAPE to restore the previous
value.
q PEAK BETWEEN M1 & M2
— Places the selected marker at the frequency or distance with the maximum amplitude value between marker
M1 and marker M2.
q VALLEY BETWEEN M1 & M2
— Places the selected marker at the frequency or distance with the minimum amplitude value between marker
M1 and marker M2.
q BACK
— Returns to the Main Markers Menu.
q M6
— Selects the M6 marker parameter and opens the M6 second level
menu.
q ON/OFF
q EDIT
— Turns the selected marker on or off.
— Opens the selected marker parameter for data entry. Press
ENTER when data entry is complete or ESCAPE to restore the previous
value.
q PEAK BETWEEN M3 & M4
— Places the selected marker at the peak between marker M3 and marker M4.
q VALLEY BETWEEN M3 & M4
— Places the selected marker at the valley
between marker M3 and marker M4.
q BACK
— Returns to the Main Markers Menu.
Choosing LIMIT in FREQ or DTF measurement modes causes the soft keys below to be displayed.
q SINGLE LIMIT
— Sets a single limit value in dBm. Menu choices are:
ON/OFF
EDIT
BACK
q MULTIPLE LIMITS
— Sets multiple user defined limits, and can be used to
create a limit mask for quick pass/fail measurements. Menu choices are:
SEGMENT 1
SEGMENT 2
2 - 13
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
SEGMENT 3
SEGMENT 4
SEGMENT 5
BACK
q LIMIT BEEP
SYS
— Turns the audible limit beep indicator on or off.
Displays the System menu softkey selections.
q OPTIONS
q UNITS
— Displays a second level of functions:
— Select the unit of measurement (English or metric).
q PRINTER
— Displays a menu of supported printers. Use the Up/Down
arrow key and ENTER key to make the selection.
q FIXED CW
— Toggles the fixed CW function ON or OFF. When ON, F1
is set equal to F2 and a CW frequency is fixed at the selected value. When
OFF, a narrow band of frequencies centered on the selected frequency is
generated.
q CHANGE DATE FORMAT
— Toggles the date format between
MM/DD/YY, DD/MM/YY, and YY/MM/DD.
q BACK
q CLOCK
— Returns to the top-level SYS Menu.
— Displays a second level of functions:
q HOUR
— Enter the hour (0-23) using the Up/Down arrow key or the keypad. Press ENTER when data entry is complete or ESCAPE to restore the
previous value.
q MINUTE
— Enter the minute (0-59) using the Up/Down arrow key or the
keypad. Press ENTER when data entry is complete or ESCAPE to restore
the previous value.
q MONTH
— Enter the month (1-12) using the Up/Down arrow key or the
keypad. Press ENTER when data entry is complete or ESCAPE to restore
the previous value.
q DAY
— Enter the day using the Up/Down arrow key or the keypad. Press
ENTER when data entry is complete or ESCAPE to restore the previous
value.
q YEAR
— Enter the year (1997-2036) using the Up/Down arrow key or
the keypad. Press ENTER when data entry is complete or ESCAPE to restore the previous value.
q BACK
— Returns to the top-level SYS menu.
q SELF TEST
— Start an instrument self test.
q STATUS
— Displays the current instrument status, including calibration status, temperature, and battery charge state. Press ESCAPE to return to normal
operation.
q Language
— Pressing this soft key immediately changes the language used
to display messages on the Site Master display. Choices are English, French,
German, Spanish, Chinese, and Japanese. The default language is English.
2 - 14
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
Symbols
Table 2-1 provides a listing of the symbols used as condition indicators on the LCD display.
Table 2-1.
LCD Icon Symbols
Icon
HOLD
ò dx
T
Symbol
Site Master is in Hold for power conservation. To resume sweeping, press
the RUN/HOLD key. After 10 minutes without a key press, the Site Master
will automatically activate the power conservation mode.
Integrator Failure. Intermittent integrator failure may be caused by interference from another antenna. Persistent integrator failure indicates a need
to return the Site Master to the nearest Anritsu service center for repair.
Lock fail indication. Check battery. (If the Site Master fails to lock with a
fully charged battery, call your Anritsu Service Center.)
When calibration is performed, the Site Master stores the ambient temperature. If the temperature drifts outside the specified range, this indicator
will flash. A recalibration at the current temperature is recommended.
Indicates the remaining charge on the battery. The inner white rectangle
grows longer as the battery charge depletes.
6
Indicates internal data processing.
CAL ON
The Site Master has been calibrated.
CALL OFF
The Site Master has not been calibrated.
Self Test
At turn-on, the Site Master runs through a series of quick checks to ensure the system is
functioning properly. Note that the battery voltage and temperature are displayed in the
lower left corner below the self test message. If the battery is low, or if the ambient temperature is not within the specified operational range, Self Test will fail. If Self Test fails and
the battery is fully charged and the Site Master is within the specified operating temperature
range, call your Anritsu Service Center.
2 - 15
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
Error Codes
Self Test Errors
A listing of Self Test Error messages is given in Table 2-2.
Table 2-2.
Self Test Error Messages
Error Message
Description
BATTERY LOW
Battery voltage is less than 10 volts. Charge battery. If condition persists, call your Anritsu Service Center.
EXTERNAL
POWER LOW
External supply voltage is less than 10 volts. Call your Anritsu Service
Center
PLL FAILED
Phase-locked loops failed to lock. Charge battery. If condition persists
with a fully charged battery, call your Anritsu Service Center
INTEGRATOR
FAILED
Integration circuit could not charge to a valid level. Charge battery. If
condition persists with a fully charged battery, call your Anritsu Service Center.
EEPROM R/W
FAILED
Non-volatile memory system has failed. Call your Anritsu Service
Center.
OUT OF TEMP.
RANGE
Ambient temperature is not within the specified operating range. If the
temperature is within the specified operating range and the condition
persists, call your Anritsu Service Center.
RTC BATTERY
LOW
The internal real-time clock battery is low. A low or drained clock battery will affect the date stamp on saved traces. Contact your nearest
Anritsu Service Center.
POWER MONITOR
FAIL
Failure of the power monitor system board voltages. If condition persists, call your Anritsu Service Center.
BATTERY CAL
LOST
Battery communication failed. The indicated battery charge status may
be invalid. If condition persists, call your Anritsu Service Center.
MEMORY FAIL
The EEPROM test on the Site Master main board has failed. If condition persists, call your Anritsu Service Center.
Note: A listing of current Anritsu service centers is given in Table 1-2 , page 1-8.
2 - 16
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
Range Errors
A listing of Range Error messages is given in Table 2-3.
Table 2-3. Range Error Messages (1 of 2)
Description
Error Message
RANGE
ERROR:F1 > F2
The start (F1) frequency is greater than the stop (F2) frequency.
RANGE
ERROR:D1 > D2
The start (D1) distance is greater than the stop (D2) distance.
RANGE
ERROR:D2 >
DMax=xx.x ft (m)
The stop distance (D2) exceeds the maximum unaliased range. This
range is determined by the frequency span, number of points,
and relative propagation velocity:
(1.5 ´ 108) (dp - 1) (V f )
MaximumUnaliased Range =
F2 - F1
Where:
dp is the number of data points (130, 259, or 517)
Vf is the relative propagation velocity
F2 is the stop frequency in Hz
F1 is the start frequency in Hz
Maximum Unaliased Range is in meters
Refer to Figure -, page , for a plot of maximum range versus frequency span.
RANGE ERROR:
TOP<=BOTTOM
The SWR scale parameter top value is less than or equal to its bottom
value.
RANGE ERROR:
TOP>=BOTTOM
The RL scale parameter top value is greater than or equal to its bottom
value.
CAL
INCOMPLETE
A complete open, short, and load calibration must be performed before calibration can be turned on.
DIST REQUIRES
F1 < F2
Valid distance to fault plots require a non-zero frequency span.
DIST REQUIRES
CAL
Distance-to-fault measurements cannot be performed with CAL OFF.
USE OPTIONS
MENU TO
SELECT A
PRINTER
Attempting to print a display with no printer selected. Select a printer,
then retry.
CANNOT ZERO
NO DETECTOR
INSTALLED
Attempting to perform a Power Monitor zero adjust function with no
RF detector connected to the Site Master.
CANNOT ZERO
INPUT SIGNAL
TOO HIGH
Attempting to perform a Power Monitor zero adjust function with an
input of greater than –20 dBm.
POWER MONITOR
OPTION NOT
INSTALLED
Attempting to enter Power Monitor mode with no Option 5 installed.
2 - 17
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
Battery Information
Charging a New Battery
The NiMH battery supplied with the Site Master has already completed three charge and
discharge cycles at the factory and full battery performance should be realized after your
first charge.
NOTE: The battery will not charge if the battery temperature is above 45° C or
below 0° C.
Charging the Battery in the Site Master
The battery can be charged while installed in the Site Master.
Step 1. Turn the Site Master off.
Step 2. Connect the AC-DC adapter (Anritsu part number: 40-115) to the Site Master
charging port.
Step 3. Connect the AC adapter to a 120 VAC or 240 VAC power source as appropriate
for your application.
The green external power indicator on the Site Master will illuminate, indicating
the presence of external DC power and the battery will begin charging. The indicator will remain lit as long as the battery is charging. Once the battery is fully
charged, the battery indicator will turn off. If the battery fails to charge, contact
your nearest Anritsu service center.
Charging the Battery in the Optional Charger
Up to two batteries can be charged simultaneously in the optional battery charger.
Step 1. Remove the NiMH battery from your Site Master and place it in the optional
charger (Anritsu part number 2000-1029).
Step 2. Connect the lead from the AC-DC adapter to the charger.
Step 3. Connect the AC-DC adapter to a 120 VAC or 240 VAC power source as appropriate for your application.
Each battery holder in the optional charger has an LED charging status indicator. The LED
color changes as the battery is charged:
Red indicates the battery is charging
Green indicates the battery is fully charged
Yellow indicates the battery is in a waiting state (see below).
A yellow light may occur because the battery became too warm during the charge cycle.
The charger will allow the battery to cool off before continuing the charge. A yellow light
may also indicate that the charger is alternating charge to each of the two batteries.
A blinking red light indicates less than 13 VDC is being supplied to the charger stand.
Check that the correct AC charger adapter is connected to the charger stand. If the battery
fails to charge, contact your nearest Anritsu Service Center.
2 - 18
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
The NiMH battery will last longer and perform better if allowed to completely discharge
before recharging. For maximum battery life, it is recommended that the NiMH battery be
completely discharged and recharged once every three months.
Battery Charge Indicator
When the AC-DC adapter is unplugged from the Site Master, the battery indicator symbol
will be continuously displayed at the top left corner of the Site Master display (Figure ).
BATTERY INDICATOR
Figure .
Site Master Battery Indicator
A totally black bar indicates a fully charged battery. When LOW BATT replaces the battery
indicator bar at the top left corner, a couple of minutes of measurement time remains. If a
flashing LOW BATT is accompanied by an audio beep at the end of each trace, the battery
has approximately one minute of useable time remaining.
Once all the power has drained from the battery, the Site Master display will fade. At this
point, your Site Master will switch itself off and the battery will need to be recharged.
Battery Life
It is normal for NiMH batteries to self-discharge during storage, and to degrade to 80% of
original capacity after 12 months of continuous use.
Figure .
NiMH Battery Storage Characteristics
2 - 19
Chapter 2 Functions and Operations
The battery can be charged and discharged 300 to 500 times, but it will eventually wear out.
The battery may need to be replaced when the operating time between charging is noticeably shorter than normal.
Important Battery Information
·
With a new NiMH battery, full performance is achieved after three to five complete
charge and discharge cycles. The NiMH battery supplied with the Site Master has already
completed three charge and discharge cycles at the factory.
·
Recharge the battery only in the Site Master or in an Anritsu approved charger.
·
When the Site Master or the charger is not in use, disconnect it from the power source.
·
Do not charge batteries for longer than 24 hours; overcharging may shorten battery life.
·
If left unused a fully charged battery will discharge itself over time. Storing the battery in
extreme hot or cold places will reduce the capacity and lifetime of the battery. The battery will discharge faster at higher ambient temperatures.
·
Discharge an NiMH battery from time to time to improve battery performance and battery life.
·
The battery can be charged and discharged hundreds of times, but it will eventually wear
out.
·
The battery may need to be replaced when the operating time between charging is noticeably shorter than normal.
·
Do not short-circuit the battery terminals.
·
Do not drop, mutilate or attempt to disassemble the battery.
·
Never use a damaged or worn out charger or battery.
·
Always use the battery for its intended purpose only.
·
Temperature extremes will affect the ability of the battery to charge: allow the battery to
cool down or warm up as necessary before use or charging.
·
Batteries must be recycled or disposed of properly. Do not place batteries in garbage.
·
Do not dispose of batteries in a fire!
2 - 20
Chapter 3
Getting Started
Introduction
This chapter provides a brief overview of the Anritsu Site Master. The intent of this chapter
is to provide the user with a starting point for making basic measurements.
Power On Procedure
The Anritsu Site Master is capable of up to 2.5 hours of continuous operation from a fully
charged, field-replaceable battery. Built-in energy conservation features allow battery life to
be extended over an eight-hour workday.
The Site Master can also be operated from a 12.5 Vdc source (which will also simultaneously charge the battery). This can be achieved with either the Anritsu AC-DC Adapter
(P/N 40-115) or 12.5 Vdc Automotive Cigarette Lighter Adapter (P/N 806-62). Both items
are included as standard accessories (see Chapter 1).
3
To power on the Site Master:
Step 1. Press the ON/OFF front panel key (Figure 3-1).
Site Master S251C
1
2
START
CAL
AUTO
SCALE
SAVE
SETUP
RECALL
SETUP
3
5
LIMIT
7
SAVE
DISPLAY
9
ON
OFF
MODE
Figure 3-1.
FREQ/DIST
AMPLITUDE
ESCAPE
CLEAR
4
6
MARKER
8
RECALL
DISPLAY
0
ENTER
RUN
HOLD
ON/OFF
KEY
+/-
PRINT
.
SYS
SWEEP
Site Master On/Off Key
The screen displays the Anritsu logo, the Site Master model number, and the
firmware version. The Site Master then takes about five seconds to perform a series of self-diagnostic and adjustment routines, then displays:
Step 2. Press ENTER to continue.
If ENTER is not pressed, the Site Master will continue after a 10 second timeout. The Site Master is now ready for operation.
3-1
Chapter 3 Getting Started
Select the Frequency or Distance
Regardless of the calibration method used, the frequency range for the desired measurements must be set before calibrating the Site Master. The following procedure selects the
frequency range for the calibration.
Step 1. Press the FREQ/DIST key.
Step 2. Press the F1 soft key.
Step 3. Enter the desired frequency using the key pad or the Up/Down arrow key.
Step 4. Press ENTER to set F1 to the desired frequency.
Step 5. Press the F2 soft key.
Step 6. Enter the desired frequency using the keypad or the Up/Down arrow key.
Step 7. Press ENTER to set F2 to the desired frequency.
Check that the start and stop frequencies displayed match the desired measurement range..
Calibration
For accurate results, the Site Master must be calibrated at the ambient temperature before
making any measurements. The Site Master must be re-calibrated whenever the setup frequency changes, the temperature exceeds the initial calibration temperature or when the test
port extension cable is removed or replaced.
The Site Master may be calibrated manually with Open, Short, Load (OSL) calibration
components. Two port calibration requires two Load components.
If a Test Port Extension Cable is to be used, the Site Master must be calibrated with the
Test Port Extension Cable in place. The Test Port Extension Cable is a phase stable cable
and is used as an extension cable on the test port to ensure accurate and repeatable measurements. This phase stable cable can be moved and bent while making a measurement without causing errors in the measurement.
NOTE: The test port extension cable should have the appropriate connectors
for the measurement. Use of additional connector adapters after the test port
extension cable can contribute to measurement errors not compensated for
during calibration.
The following procedure explains the calibration methods. Refer to Figure 3-2 for a calibration setup diagram.
3-2
Chapter 3 Getting Started
Calibration Procedure - Single Port
Check that the “CAL OFF” message is displayed in the upper left corner of the display.
This indicates that the Site Master has not been calibrated. The following procedure details
how to perform the calibration.
OPEN
SHORT
CALIBRATION
LOAD
TEST PORT CABLE (OPTIONAL)
RFOUT/REFLECTION
TEST PORT
Site Master S332C
1
2
START
CAL
AUTO
SCALE
SAVE
SETUP
RECALL
SETUP
3
5
LIMIT
7
SAVE
DISPLAY
9
ON
OFF
MODE
Figure 3-2.
FREQ/DIST
AMPLITUDE
ESCAPE
CLEAR
4
6
MARKER
8
RECALL
DISPLAY
0
ENTER
RUN
HOLD
+/-
PRINT
.
SYS
SWEEP
Calibration Setup
Step 1. Select the appropriate frequency range, as described in the procedure on page
3-2.
Step 2. Press the START CAL key. The message CONNECT OPEN TO RF Out
PORT will appear in the display.
Step 3. Connect the calibrated Open and press the ENTER key. The messages Measuring OPEN and then CONNECT SHORT TO RF Out PORT will appear.
Step 4. Remove the Open, connect the calibrated Short and press the ENTER key. The
messages Measuring SHORT and then CONNECT TERMINATION TO RF
Out will appear.
Step 5. Verify that the calibration has been properly performed by checking that the
CAL ON message is now displayed in the upper left corner of the display.
3-3
Chapter 3 Getting Started
Calibration Procedure - Dual Port
Check that the “CAL OFF” message is displayed in the upper left corner of the display.
This indicates that the Site Master has not been calibrated. The following procedure details
how to perform the calibration. Two port calibration requires two Load components.
Step 1. Select the appropriate frequency range, as described in the procedure on page
3-2.
Step 2. Press the START CAL key. The message CONNECT OPEN TO RF Out
PORT will appear in the display.
Step 3. Connect the calibrated Open and press the ENTER key. The messages Measuring OPEN and then CONNECT SHORT TO RF Out PORT will appear.
Step 4. Remove the Open, connect the calibrated Short and press the ENTER key. The
messages Measuring SHORT and then CONNECT LOAD TO RF Out
PORT will appear.
Step 5. Remove the Short, connect the calibrated Load and press the ENTER key. The
messages Measuring LOAD and then CONNECT LOADS TO RF Out AND
RF In PORTS will appear.
Step 6. Connect the calibrated Loads to the RF Out and RF In ports and press the
ENTER key. The messages Measuring ISOLATION and then CONNECT RF
Out PORT TO RF In PORT will appear.
Step 7. Remove the Loads, connect the RF Out PORT extension cable to the RF In
PORT extension cable, using the proper adapter for the cable connector type,
and press the ENTER key. The message Measuring THRU will appear.
Step 8. Verify that the calibration has been properly performed by checking that the
CAL ON message is now displayed in the upper left corner of the display.
LOAD
OPEN
TEST PORT CABLE
(OPTIONAL)
SHORT
LOAD
TEST PORT CABLE
(OPTIONAL)
RF IN TEST PORT
RF OUT TEST PORT
Site Master S251C
1
2
START
CAL
AUTO
SCALE
SAVE
SETUP
RECALL
SETUP
3
5
LIMIT
7
SAVE
DISPLAY
9
ON
OFF
MODE
Figure 3-3.
3-4
FREQ/DIST
AMPLITUDE
SWEEP
Two-Port Measurement Calibration Setup
ESCAPE
CLEAR
4
6
MARKER
8
RECALL
DISPLAY
0
ENTER
RUN
HOLD
+/-
PRINT
.
SYS
Chapter 3 Getting Started
Setting the Scale
Auto Scale
The Site Master can automatically set the scales to the minimum and maximum values of
the measurement on the y-axis of the display. This function is particularly useful for measurements in SWR mode. To automatically set the scales:
Step 1. Press the AUTO SCALE key.
The Site Master will automatically set the top and bottom scales to the minimum
and maximum values of the measurement on the y-axis of the display.
Amplitude Scale
The following procedure sets the top and bottom scale display.
Step 2. Press the AMPLITUDE key to call up the Scale Menu.
Step 3. Press the TOP soft key and use the keypad or Up/Down arrow key to edit the top
scale value.
Step 4. Press the BOTTOM soft key and use the keypad or Up/Down arrow key to edit
the bottom scale value.
NOTE: Typically the y-axis scale of the display is 0-54 dB (return loss) but for
some measurements (for example, insertion loss) the scale should be changed
to 0-10 dB. If the scale is not changed, some measurement results may not be
easily displayed on the screen.
Save and Recall a Setup
Saving a Setup
Saving a setup configuration in memory will preserve the calibration information.
Step 1. To save the configuration in one of the 10 available user setup locations, press
SAVE SETUP .
Step 2. Use the key pad or the Up/Down arrow key to select a location (1 - 10).
Step 3. Press ENTER to save the setup.
Recalling a Setup
The following procedure recalls a setup from memory.
Step 1. Press the RECALL SETUP key.
Step 2. Select the desired setup using the Up/Down arrow key.
Step 3. Press ENTER to recall the setup.
Save and Recall a Display
Saving a Display
The following procedure saves a display to memory.
3-5
Chapter 3 Getting Started
Step 1. Press the SAVE DISPLAY key to activate the alphanumeric menu for trace storage.
Step 2. Use the soft keys to enter a label for the saved trace.
For example, to save a display with the name “TX1 RETURN LOSS” press the
soft key group that contains the letter “T” then press the “T” soft key. Press the
soft key group that contains the letter “X” then press the “X” soft key. Press the
number “1” key on the numeric keypad. Use the softkeys and keypad as necessary to enter the entire name, then press ENTER to complete the process.
NOTE: More than one trace can be saved using the same alphanumeric name,
as traces are stored chronologically, using the time/date stamp.
NOTE: Pressing the SAVE DISPLAY key will bring up the last saved trace name
on the input line. Pressing the BACK SPACE soft key will erase the last character in that trace name. This feature can be useful when naming traces sequentially, such as: Trace 1, Trace 2, etc.
Recalling a Display
The following procedure recalls a previously saved display from memory.
Step 1. Press the RECALL DISPLAY key.
Step 2. Select the desired display using the Up/Down arrow key.
Step 3. Press ENTER to recall the display.
3-6
Chapter 3 Getting Started
Set the Distance and Cable Type
In Distance-To-Fault (DTF) mode, the length of the transmission line (distance) and cable
type are selected. The cable type determines the velocity propagation and cable attenuation
factor. The following procedure can be used to set the distance and select the appropriate
cable type.
NOTE: Selecting the correct cable is very important for accurate measurements
and for identifying faults in the transmission line. Selecting the incorrect cable
type will allow the DTF trace to be shifted in vertical and horizontal displays and
make it difficult to accurately locate faults.
Step 1. Press the MODE key.
Step 2. Select DTF RETURN LOSS or DTF SWR mode. The Site Master automatically
sets D1 to zero.
Step 3. Press the D2 soft key.
Step 4. Enter the appropriate D2 value for the maximum length of the transmission line
and press the ENTER key to set the D2 value.
Step 5. Press the DTF AID soft key.
Step 6. Using the Up/Down arrow key, select CABLE TYPE. Standard cable types are
stored in the Site Master cable list. This standard list may not be edited. A custom cable list can also be created.
Step 7. Using the Up/Down arrow key, select the appropriate list and select the type of
cable. The selected cable type, PROP VEL and CABLE LOSS in dB/ft (or
dB/m) will be displayed.
Step 8. Press ENTER.
Changing the Units
By default, the Site Master displays information in metric units. Use the following procedure to change the display to English units.
Step 1. Press the SYS key.
Step 2. Select the OPTIONS soft key.
Step 3. Press UNITS to change from metric to English measurement units, or vice versa.
The current selection is displayed at the bottom left corner of the screen.
Changing the Display Language
By default, the Site Master displays messages in English. To change the display language:
Step 1. Press the SYS key.
Step 2. Select the Language soft key.
Step 3. Select the desired language. Choices are English, French, German, Spanish, Chinese, and Japanese. The default language is English.
3-7
Chapter 3 Getting Started
Printing
Printing is accomplished by selecting an available printer and pressing the print key as described below. Refer to the particular printer operating manual for specific printer settings.
Printing a Screen
Step 1. Connect the printer as shown in Figure 3-4.
SEIKO
PRINTER
Site Master S251C
1
2
START
CAL
AUTO
SCALE
SAVE
SETUP
RECALL
SETUP
3
6
5
LIMIT
MARKER
8
7
SAVE
DISPLAY
RECALL
DISPLAY
9
ON
OFF
MODE
FREQ/DIST
AMPLITUDE
SERIAL CABLE
2000-1012
ESCAPE
CLEAR
4
0
ENTER
HP 350
DESKJET
RUN
HOLD
+/-
PRINT
.
SYS
SWEEP
SERIAL-TO-PARALLEL
INTERFACE CABLE
2000-753
Figure 3-4-.
Site Master Printer Setup
Step 2. Obtain the desired measurement display
Step 3. Press the SYS key and the OPTIONS soft key (Figure 3-5) .
OPTIONS
Site Master S251C
1
2
ESCAPE
CLEAR
OPTIONS
START
CAL
AUTO
SCALE
SAVE
SETUP
RECALL
SETUP
5
6
3
CLOCK
SELF TEST
STATUS
LIMIT
MARKER
7
SAVE
DISPLAY
9
ON
OFF
MODE
Figure 3-5-.
3-8
FREQ/DIST
AMPLITUDE
SYS Key and OPTIONS Soft Key
SWEEP
4
8
RECALL
DISPLAY
0
ENTER
RUN
HOLD
+/-
PRINT
.
SYS
SYS
Chapter 3 Getting Started
Step 4. Press the PRINTER soft key and select from the displayed menu of supported
printers.
Step 5. Press the PRINT key. (Figure 3-6).
PRINTER
Site Master S251C
ESCAPE
CLEAR
2
1
PRINTER
START
CAL
AUTO
SCALE
SAVE
SETUP
RECALL
SETUP
3
CHANGE
DATE
4
6
5
LIMIT
MARKER
SAVE
DISPLAY
RECALL
DISPLAY
9
ON
OFF
MODE
Figure 3-6-.
FREQ/DIST
ENTER
8
7
0
PRINT
RUN
HOLD
+/-
PRINT
.
SYS
SWEEP
AMPLITUDE
PRINTER Soft Key and PRINT Key
Printer Switch Settings
Set the switches, SW1, SW2, and SW3, on the Seiko DPU-414 thermal printer as follows:
Switch
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SW1
OFF
ON
ON
ON
ON
OFF
ON
ON
SW2
ON
ON
ON
ON
ON
ON
ON
OFF
SW3
ON
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
ON
Set the switches on the serial-to-parallel interface cable to the HP Deskjet 350 ink jet
printer as follows:
SW1
SW2
SW3
SW4
SW5
SW6
SW7
SW8
OFF
ON
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
ON
OFF
3-9
Chapter 3 Getting Started
Using the Soft Carrying Case
The soft carrying case has been designed such that the strap can be unsnapped to allow the
case to be easily oriented horizontally; thus allowing the Anritsu controls to be more easily
accessed (Figure 3-7).
Figure 3--7.
3-10
Using the Site Master Soft Carrying Case
Chapter 4
Cable & Antenna
Analysis
Introduction
This chapter provides a description of cable and antenna measurements in one port and two
port modes. Measurements include line sweeping fundamentals and line sweeping measurement procedures, available when the Site Master is in frequency or DTF mode.
One Port Measurements
Line Sweep Fundamentals
In wireless communication, the transmit and receive antennas are connected to the radio
through a transmission line. This transmission line is usually a coaxial cable or waveguide.
This connection system is referred to as a transmission feed line system. Figure 4-1 shows
an example of a typical transmission feed line system.
4
Figure 4-1.
A Typical Transmission Feed Line System
4-1
Chapter 4 Measurements
The performance of a transmission feed line system may be affected by excessive signal reflection and cable loss. Signal reflection occurs when the RF signal reflects back due to an
impedance mismatch or change in impedance caused by excessive kinking or bending of
the transmission line. Cable loss is caused by attenuation of the signal as it passes through
the transmission line and connectors.
To verify the performance of the transmission feed line system and analyze these problems,
three types of line sweeps are required:
Return Loss Measurement¾Measures the reflected power of the system in decibels (dB).
This measurement can also be taken in the Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) mode,
which is the ratio of the transmitted power to the reflected power. However, the return loss
measurement is typically used for most field applications.
Insertion Loss Measurement¾Measures the energy absorbed, or lost, by the transmission
line in dB/ft or dB/meter. Different transmission lines have different losses, and the loss is
frequency and distance specific. The higher the frequency or longer the distance, the greater
the loss.
Distance-To-Fault (DTF) Measurement¾Reveals the precise fault location of components in the transmission line system. This test helps to identify specific problems in the
system, such as connector transitions, jumpers, kinks in the cable or moisture intrusion.
The different measurements are defined as:
Return Loss - System Sweep¾A measurement made when the antenna is connected at the
end of the transmission line. This measurement provides an analysis of how the various
components of the system are interacting and provides an aggregate return loss of the entire
system.
Distance To Fault - Load Sweep¾A measurement made with the antenna disconnected
and replaced with a 50W precision load at the end of the transmission line. This measurement allows analysis of the various components of the transmission feed line system in the
DTF mode.
Cable Loss - Insertion Loss Sweep¾A measurement made when a short is connected at
the end of the transmission line. This condition allows analysis of the signal loss through
the transmission line and identifies the problems in the system. High insertion loss in the
feed line or jumpers can contribute to poor system performance and loss of coverage.
This whole process of measurements and testing the transmission line system is called Line
Sweeping.
Information Required for a Line Sweep
The following information must be determined before attempting a line sweep measurement:
4-2
q
System Frequency Range, to set the sweep frequency
q
Cable Type, to set the cable characteristics for DTF measurements
q
Distance of the Cable Run, to set the distance for DTF measurements
Chapter 4 Measurements
Typical Line Sweep Test Procedures
This section provides typical line sweep measurements used to analyze the performance of
a transmission feed line system.
System Return Loss Measurement
System return loss measurement verifies the performance of the transmission feed line system with the antenna connected at the end of the transmission line. To measure the system
return loss:
Required Equipment
q
Site Master Model S251C
q
Precision Open/Short, Anritsu 22N50 or
Precision Open/Short/Load, Anritsu OSLN50LF
q
Precision Load, Anritsu SM/PL
q
Test Port Extension Cable, Anritsu 15NNF50-1.5C
q
Optional 510-90 Adapter, DC to 7.5 GHz, 50 ohm, 7/16 (F)-N (M)
Device Under Test
q
Transmission Feed Line with Antenna
Procedure
Step 1. Press the MODE key.
Step 2. Select FREQ-RETURN LOSS using the Up/Down arrow key and press
ENTER.
Step 3. Set the start and stop frequencies, F1 and F2, as described on page 3-2.
Step 4. Calibrate the Site Master as described on page 3-2.
Step 5. Connect the Device Under Test to the Site Master. A trace will be displayed on
the screen when the Site Master is in the sweep mode.
Step 6. Press SAVE DISPLAY (page 3-5) name the trace, and press ENTER.
NOTE: The antenna must be connected at the end of the transmission feed line
when conducting a System Return Loss measurement.
4-3
Chapter 4 Measurements
Figure 4-2 is an example of a typical system return loss trace:
Figure 4-2.
Typical System Return Loss Trace
NOTE: The system sweep trace should appear at an approximate return loss of
15 dB (±3 dB) on the display. In general, a 15 dB return loss is measured in the
passband of the antenna system.
If the TMA is in the transmission feed line system, switch off the TMA bypass switch, if
equipped. If the TMA does not have a bypass switch, disconnect the cables leading to and
from the TMA and connect the adapter between the antenna jumper and the TMA jumper.
4-4
Chapter 4 Measurements
Insertion Loss Measurement
The transmission feed line insertion loss test verifies the signal attenuation level of the cable system in reference to the specification. This test can be conducted with the Site Master
in either FREQ–CABLE LOSS or FREQ–RETURN LOSS mode. In Cable Loss mode, the
Site Master automatically considers the signal traveling in both directions when calculating
the insertion loss, making the measurement easier for the user in the field. Both methods are
explained below.
Required Equipment
q
Site Master Model S251C
q
Precision Open/Short, Anritsu 22N50 or
Precision Open/Short/Load, Anritsu OSLN50LF
q
Precision Load, Anritsu SM/PL
q
Test Port Extension Cable, Anritsu 15NNF50-1.5C
q
Optional 510-90 Adapter, DC to 7.5 GHz, 50 ohm, 7/16(F)-N(M)
Device Under Test
q
Transmission Feed Line with Short
Procedure - Cable Loss Mode
Step 1. Press the MODE key.
Step 2. Select FREQ-CABLE LOSS using the Up/Down arrow key and press ENTER.
Step 3. Set the start and stop frequencies, F1 and F2, as described on page 3-2.
Step 4. Connect the Test Port Extension cable to the RF Out port and calibrate the Site
Master as described on page 3-2.
Step 5. Save the calibration set up (page 3-5).
Step 6. Connect the Device Under Test to the Site Master phase stable Test Port Extension cable. A trace will be displayed on the screen as long as the Site Master is
in sweep mode.
Step 7. Press the AMPLITUDE key and set the TOP and BOTTOM values of the display. In the example below, the TOP is set to 2, and the BOTTOM is set to 5.
Step 8. Press the MARKER key.
Step 9. Set M1 to MARKER TO PEAK.
Step 10. Set M2 to MARKER TO VALLEY.
Step 11. Calculate the measured insertion loss by averaging M1 (marker to peak) and M2
(marker to valley) as follows:
Step 12. Insertion Loss = M1+ M2
2
Step 13. Press SAVE DISPLAY (page 3-5) name the trace, and press ENTER.
4-5
Chapter 4 Measurements
Step 14. Verify the measured insertion loss against the calculated insertion loss:
Type
Attenuation (dB/ft)
0.0325
First Jumper LDF4-50A
LDF5-50A
0.0186
Main Feeder
Top Jumper
LDF4-50A
0.0325
´ Length (ft)
= Loss (dB)
20
0.65
150
2.79
10
0.325
The number of connector pairs (3) times the loss per pair (in dB) equals the connector loss: 3 ´ 0.14 = 0.42.
The insertion loss of the transmission system is equal to:
First Jumper loss + Main Feeder Loss + Top Jumper Loss + Connector Loss = Insertion Loss
0.65
+
2.79
+
0.325
+
0.42
= 4.19 dB
Figure 4-3 is an example of a typical transmission line cable loss trace.
Figure 4-3.
4-6
Typical Transmission Line Cable Loss Trace
Chapter 4 Measurements
Procedure - Return Loss Mode
Step 1. Press the MODE key.
Step 2. Select FREQ-RETURN LOSS using the Up/Down arrow key and press
ENTER.
Step 3. Set the start and stop frequencies, F1 and F2, as described on page 3-2.
Step 4. Connect the Test Port Extension cable to the RF Out port and calibrate the Site
Master as described on page 3-2.
Step 5. Save the calibration set up (page 3-5).
Step 6. Connect the Device Under Test to the Site Master phase stable Test Port Extension cable. A trace will be displayed on the screen as long as the Site Master is
in sweep mode.
Step 7. Press the AMPLITUDE key and set TOP and BOTTOM values of the display.
In the example below, the TOP is set to 4, and the BOTTOM is set to 10.
Step 8. Press the MARKER key.
Step 9. Set M1 to MARKER TO PEAK.
Step 10. Set M2 to MARKER TO VALLEY.
Step 11. Calculate the insertion loss by averaging M1 (marker to peak) and M2 (marker
to valley) and dividing by two as follows:
Step 12.
Insertion Loss =
M1 + M2
2
2
=
Avg.
(where Avg. is one way loss)
2
Step 13. Press SAVE DISPLAY (page 3-5) name the trace, and press ENTER.
Figure 4-4 is an example of a typical insertion loss measurement in return loss mode.
Figure 4-4.
Typical Insertion Loss Measurement in Return Loss Mod
4-7
Chapter 4 Measurements
Distance-To-Fault (DTF) Transmission Line Test
The Distance-To-Fault transmission line test verifies the performance of the transmission
line assembly and its components and identifies the fault locations in the transmission line
system. This test determines the return loss value of each connector pair, cable component
and cable to identify the problem location. This test can be performed in the DTF–RETURN LOSS or DTF–SWR mode. Typically, for field applications, the DTF–RETURN
LOSS mode is used. To perform this test, disconnect the antenna and connect the load at the
end of the transmission line.
Required Equipment
q
Site Master Model S251C
q
Precision Open/Short, Anritsu 22N50 or
Precision Open/Short/Load, Anritsu OSLN50LF
q
Precision Load, Anritsu SM/PL
q
Test Port Extension Cable, Anritsu 15NNF50-1.5C
q
Optional 510-90 Adapter, DC to 7.5 GHz, 50 ohm, 7/16(F)-N(M)
Device Under Test
q
Transmission Feed Line with Load
Procedure - DTF-Return Loss Mode
The following steps explain how to make a DTF measurement in return loss mode.
Step 1. Press the MODE key.
Step 2. Select DTF-RETURN LOSS using the Up/Down arrow key and press ENTER.
Step 3. Set the start and stop frequencies, F1 and F2, as described on page 3-2.
Step 4. Connect the Test Port Extension cable to the RF Out port and calibrate the Site
Master as described on page 3-2.
Step 5. Save the calibration set up (page 3-5).
Step 6. Connect the Device Under Test to the Site Master phase stable Test Port Extension cable. A trace will be displayed on the screen as long as the Site Master is
in sweep mode.
Step 7. Press the FREQ/DIST key.
Step 8. Set the D1 and D2 values. The Site Master default for D1 is zero.
Step 9. Press the DTF AID soft key and select the appropriate CABLE TYPE to set the
correct propagation velocity and attenuation factor.
NOTE: Selecting the right propagation velocity, attenuation factor and distance
is very important for accurate measurements, otherwise the faults can not be
identified accurately and insertion loss will be incorrect.
Step 10. Press SAVE DISPLAY (page 3-5) name the trace, and press ENTER.
Step 11. Record the connector transitions.
4-8
Chapter 4 Measurements
Figure 4-5 shows an example of a typical DTF return loss trace.
Figure 4-5.
Typical DTF Return Loss Trace
In the above example:
q
Marker M1 marks the first connector, the end of the Site Master phase stable Test
Port Extension cable. (M1 = 38.42 dB, 3.2 ft.)
q
Marker M2 marks the first jumper cable. (M2 = 32.04 dB, 13.1 ft.)
q
Marker M3 marks the end of the main feeder cable. (M3 = 31.70 dB, 149.0 ft.)
q
Marker M4 is the load at the end of the entire transmission line. (M4 = 43.10 dB,
157.0 ft.)
Procedure - DTF-SWR Mode
The following steps explain how to measure DTF in SWR mode.
Step 1. Press the MODE key.
Step 2. Select the DTF-SWR using the Up/Down arrow key and press ENTER.
Step 3. Follow the same procedure as DTF-Return Loss Mode, above.
4-9
Chapter 4 Measurements
Antenna Subsystem Return Loss Test
Antenna Subsystem return loss measurement verifies the performance of the transmit and
receive antennas. This measurement can be used to analyze the performance of the antenna
before installation. The antenna can be tested for the entire frequency band, or tested to a
specific frequency range. Transmit and receive frequency measurements are conducted separately. The following steps explain how to measure the antenna loss in return loss mode.
Required Equipment
q
Site Master Model S251C
q
Precision Open/Short, Anritsu 22N50 or
Precision Open/Short/Load, Anritsu OSLN50LF
q
Precision Load, Anritsu SM/PL
q
Test Port Extension Cable, Anritsu 15NNF50-1.5C
q
Optional 510-90 Adapter, DC to 7.5 GHz, 50 ohm, 7/16(F)-N(M)
Device Under Test
q
Antenna Sub Assembly
Procedure
Step 1. Press the MODE key.
Step 2. Select FREQ-RETURN LOSS using the Up/Down arrow key and press
ENTER.
Step 3. Set the start and stop frequencies, F1 and F2, as described on page 3-2.
Step 4. Connect the Test Port Extension cable to the RF port and calibrate the Site Master as described on page 3-2.
Step 5. Press SAVE SETUP and save the calibration set up (page 3-5).
Step 6. Connect the Device Under Test to the Site Master phase stable Test Port Extension cable.
Step 7. Press the MARKER key.
Step 8. Set marker M1 to 750 MHz and M2 to 829 MHz.
Step 9. Record the lowest return loss over the specified frequency.
Step 10. Press SAVE DISPLAY (page 3-5) name the trace, and press ENTER.
4-10
Chapter 4 Measurements
The following trace is an example of an antenna return loss trace.
Figure 4-6.
Antenna Return Loss Trace
Calculate the threshold value and compare the recorded Lowest Return Loss to the calculated threshold value.
Maximum Return Loss =
-20 log (VSWR - 1)
(VSWR + 1)
NOTE: VSWR is the antenna manufacturer’s specified VSWR.
If the measured return loss is less than the calculated threshold value, the test fails and the
antenna must be replaced.
4-11
Chapter 4 Measurements
Two Port Measurements
Introduction
A Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA) can be used to amplify the received signal. There are
different types of TMA depending on the system requirements. Three commonly used types
are:
q
TMA-D¾A duplex tower mounted amplifier that combines transmit and receive
ports from the radio system and connects to a single antenna. This configuration is
specific to systems that use a single antenna configuration.
q
TMA-S¾A receive-only tower mounted amplifier is installed between the receiving
antenna and the radio to boost weak signals. This configuration is common on systems that implement separate antennas for transmitting and receiving.
q
TMA-DD¾A dual-duplex tower mounted amplifier used for radios systems with a
single transmission line connection for transmit and receive. These systems are commonly called transceivers.
TMA-D
TMA-S
TX
ANT
TMA-DD
RX
(Bias Tee)
S251C
RF OUT
S251C
RF IN
ANT
RX
ANT
RX/TX
(Bias Tee)
S251C
RF OUT
Figure 4-7.
S251C
RF IN
(Bias Tee)
S251C
RF OUT
S251C
RF IN
Types of Tower Mounted Amplifiers
During installation of the TMA, the following tests should be conducted:
q
Antenna Subsystem Return Loss Testing to verify antenna performance.
q
TMA performance testing to verify the tower mounted amplifier performance.
q
Insertion Loss Measurement Test to verify the transmission line performance before
TMA installation and connecting the antenna.
When troubleshooting TMA problems, the following test should be conducted:
4-12
q
Insertion Loss Measurement Test to verify the transmission line performance after
TMA insertion.
q
DTF-Return Loss with the TMA removed from the configuration.
Chapter 4 Measurements
TMA Measurements
Required Equipment
q
Site Master Model S251C
q
Option 10A, Bias Tee
q
External Power Supply 40-115
q
Test Port Extension Cable, Anritsu 15NNF50-1.5C
q
N (m) to 7 (m) Adapters
16
Device Under Test
q
TMA-S
Procedure
Step 1. Connect the External Power Supply (40-115) to the Site Master.
Step 2. Turn on the Site Master and press the MODE key.
Step 3. Select INSERTION GAIN (–30 dBm) using the Up/Down arrow key and press
ENTER.
Step 4. Press the FREQ/DIST key to set the frequency limits. For a TMA-S amplifier,
set F1 to 800 MHz and F2 to 925 MHz.
Step 5. Perform a two-port calibration of the Site Master (page 3-4).
Step 6. Connect the RF Out port of the Site Master to the ANT connector of the TMA.
Step 7. Connect the RF In port of the Site Master to the RX connector of the TMA.
TMA-S
RX
ANT
TEST PORT CABLE
(OPTIONAL)
TEST PORT CABLE
(OPTIONAL)
RF IN TEST PORT
RF OUT TEST PORT
(BIAS TEE)
EXTERNAL POWER
SUPPLY (40-115)
Site Master S251C
1
2
START
CAL
AUTO
SCALE
SAVE
SETUP
RECALL
SETUP
3
5
LIMIT
7
SAVE
DISPLAY
9
ON
OFF
MODE
Figure 4-8.
FREQ/DIST
AMPLITUDE
ESCAPE
CLEAR
4
6
MARKER
8
RECALL
DISPLAY
0
ENTER
RUN
HOLD
+/-
PRINT
.
SYS
SWEEP
TMA-S Measurement Setup
4-13
Chapter 4 Measurements
Step 8. Press the SYS key, then OPTIONS, then BIAS TEE to turn on the bias tee voltage. The gain is the level change before and after the bias tee voltage is turned
on.
Step 9. Press the AUTO SCALE key, or press the AMPLITUDE key to adjust the top and
bottom scale, to display the gain level.
Step 10. Press the MARKER key and set marker set M1 to 834 MHz and marker M2 to
883 MHz.
REFERENCE LEVEL
AFTER CALIBRATION
GAIN MEASURED WITH
BIAS TEE ACTIVATED
Gain/Insertion Loss
Gain/Insertion Loss
TMA
2-PORT CAL
M1: .01 dB @ 833.68 MHz
M2: .00 dB @ 882.99 MHz
20
15
M2: -.92 dB @ 882.99 MHz
10
0
10
Limit : 0.00
-10
-20
5
dB
dB
M1: 12.90 dB @ 833.68 MHz
-30
0
-40
Limit : 0.00
-50
-5
-60
M1
-70
M2
M1
-10
800
810
Resolution: 130
Date: 06/13/2001
Figure 4-9.
820
830
840
850
860
870
Frequency (800.0 - 906.0
880
890
M2
800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900
Frequency (800.0 - 906.0 MHz)
900
Resolution: 130
Date: 06/13/2001
CAL: ON(COAX)
Time: 15:52:43
CAL: ON(COAX)
Time: 15:38:07
TMA Gain Measurement After Calibration
Marker M1 set at 834 MHz indicates the receive band of the tower mounted amplifier. The
level above the 0 dB reference level is the gain of the TMA. Marker M2 set at 883 MHz indicates the transmit band of the amplifier where there is no gain.
Gain/Insertion Loss
Transmission (dB)
TMA-S CELLULAR
20
M1: 13.57 dB @ 836.82 MHz
10
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
M1
750
775
800
825
850
875
Frequency (750.0 - 925.0 MHz)
Figure 4-10.
4-14
TMA-S Gain Measurement
900
925
Chapter 4 Measurements
Device Under Test
q
TMA-DD
Procedure
Step 1. Connect the External Power Supply (40-115) to the Site Master.
Step 2. Turn on the Site Master and press the MODE key.
Step 3. Select INSERTION GAIN (–30 dBm) using the Up/Down arrow key and press
ENTER.
Step 4. Press the FREQ/DIST key to set the frequency limits. For a TMA-DD amplifier,
set F1 to 1800 MHz and F2 to 1990 MHz.
Step 5. Perform a two-port calibration of the Site Master (page 3-4).
Step 6. Connect the RF Out port of the Site Master to the ANT connector of the TMA.
Step 7. Connect the RF In port of the Site Master to the RX/TX connector of the TMA
TMA-DD
RX/TX
ANT
TEST PORT CABLE
(OPTIONAL)
TEST PORT CABLE
(OPTIONAL)
RF IN TEST PORT
RF OUT TEST PORT
(BIAS TEE)
EXTERNAL POWER
SUPPLY (40-115)
Site Master S251C
1
2
START
CAL
AUTO
SCALE
SAVE
SETUP
RECALL
SETUP
3
5
LIMIT
7
SAVE
DISPLAY
9
ON
OFF
MODE
Figure 4-11.
FREQ/DIST
AMPLITUDE
ESCAPE
CLEAR
4
6
MARKER
8
RECALL
DISPLAY
0
ENTER
RUN
HOLD
+/-
PRINT
.
SYS
SWEEP
TMA-DD Measurement Setup
Step 8. Press the MARKER key and set marker set M1 to 1849 MHz and marker M2 to
1891 MHz
Step 9. Press the SYS key, then OPTIONS, then BIAS TEE to turn on the bias tee voltage. The gain is the level change before and after the bias tee voltage is turned
on.
4-15
Chapter 4 Measurements
Marker M1 indicates the receive band of the tower mounted amplifier. The level above the
0 dB reference level is the gain of the TMA. Marker M2 indicates the transmit band of the
amplifier where there is no gain.
Gain/Insertion Loss
TMA-DD PCS
M1: 12.17 dB @ 1882.36 MHz
10
0
-10
dB
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
M1
-70
1825
1850
1875
1900
1925
1950
1975
Frequency (18250.0 - 2025.0 MHz)
Figure 4-12.
4-16
TMA-DD Gain Measurement
2000
2025
Chapter 4 Measurements
Device Under Test
q
TMA-D
Procedure
Step 1. Connect the External Power Supply (40-115) to the Site Master.
Step 2. Turn on the Site Master and press the MODE key.
Step 3. Select INSERTION GAIN (–30 dBm) using the Up/Down arrow key and press
ENTER.
Step 4. Press the FREQ/DIST key to set the frequency limits. For a TMA-D amplifier,
set F1 to 1800 MHz and F2 to 1990 MHz.
Step 5. Perform a two-port calibration of the Site Master (page 3-4).
Step 6. Connect the RF Out port of the Site Master to the ANT connector of the TMA.
Step 7. Connect the RF In port of the Site Master to the RX connector of the TMA
TMA-D
RX TX ANT
TEST PORT CABLE
(OPTIONAL)
TEST PORT CABLE
(OPTIONAL)
RF IN TEST PORT
RF OUT TEST PORT
(BIAS TEE)
EXTERNAL POWER
SUPPLY (40-115)
Site Master S251C
1
2
START
CAL
AUTO
SCALE
SAVE
SETUP
RECALL
SETUP
3
5
LIMIT
7
SAVE
DISPLAY
9
ON
OFF
MODE
Figure 4-13.
FREQ/DIST
AMPLITUDE
ESCAPE
CLEAR
4
6
MARKER
8
RECALL
DISPLAY
0
ENTER
RUN
HOLD
+/-
PRINT
.
SYS
SWEEP
TMA-D Measurement Setup
Step 8. Press the MARKER key and set marker set M1 to 1834 MHz and marker M2 to
1871 MHz
Step 9. Press the SYS key, then OPTIONS, then BIAS TEE to turn on the bias tee voltage. The gain is the level change before and after the bias tee voltage is turned
on.
4-17
Chapter 4 Measurements
Marker M1 indicates the receive band of the tower mounted amplifier. The level above the
0 dB reference level is the gain of the TMA. Marker M2 indicates the transmit band of the
amplifier where there is no gain.
Figure 4-14.
4-18
TMA-D Gain Measurement
Chapter 4 Measurements
Antenna to Antenna Isolation
Introduction
Measuring antenna-to-antenna isolation between adjacent systems is very important when
deploying multiple systems on the same tower. It helps to determine the potential threat of
interfering signals and maximizes the capacity of the base station.
An example of adjacent PCS systems is shown in Figure 4-15. Antenna 1 transmits a signal
in a specific direction, but some of the signal is received by Antenna 2. Any excessive signal level from System 1 can cause poor performance, loss of communication, and system
degradation in the adjacent System 2.
Figure 4-15.
System Isolation
Antenna-to-Antenna isolation, more commonly known, as system isolation, is the difference between the output level transmitted by System 1 and the signal level received by System 2.
System isolation is equivalent to the reduction in the signal level (attenuation) of Transmitter 1. Typical levels for isolation between systems can vary from 50 dB to 100 dB.
4-19
Chapter 4 Measurements
Antenna-to-Antenna Isolation Measurement
Antenna-to-Antenna isolation measurement is accomplished in Insertion Loss Mode. Insertion Loss Mode (+ 6 dBm) is used to drive the signal level large enough to be detected by
the second antenna system. The Insertion Gain Mode (–30 dBm level) does not output
enough power to provide an accurate measurement of Antenna-to-Antenna isolation .
Required Equipment
q
Site Master Model S251C
q
Test Port Extension Cable, Anritsu 15NNF50-1.5C (2 each)
q
Adapter, Anritsu 36NN50A
Procedure
Step 1. Press the MODE key.
Step 2. Select INSERTION LOSS (+6 dBm) using the Up/Down arrow key and press
ENTER.
Step 3. Set the frequency range for the antenna system. The table below indicates frequency settings for common systems.
Operation
Mode
Insertion Loss
(+6 dBm)
System
F1 - Start Frequency
(MHz)
F2 - Stop Frequency
(MHz)
CELLULAR
806
960
PCS
1850
1990
GSM
1800
1900
Step 4. Perform a full two port calibration of the Site Master (see page 3-4). The calibration will provide a 0 dB reference level as shown in Figure 4-16.
Figure 4-16.
4-20
Calibration Reference Level
Chapter 4 Measurements
Step 5. Disconnect the Tx (Transmit) coax from System 1 and connect it to the RF Out
port of the Site Master.
Step 6. Disconnect the Rx (Receive) coax from System 2 and connect it to the RF In
port of the Site Master.
Step 7. Adjust the scale, either manually or by using the AUTO SCALE key, to display
the isolation level in the center of the display.
Step 8. Press the MARKER key and set markers M1 and M2 to identify the receive band
of the amplifier.
Step 9. Press the LIMIT key and set the limit line to the estimated average signal level.
Figure 4-17 displays a typical antenna isolation measurement display.
Gain/Insertion Loss
Rx
R F In p u t
Tx
R F O u tp u t
A n ten n a
Is o latio n
L ev el
Site Master S251C
S ite Mas ter S 251C
Figure 4-17.
Rx
Typical Antenna Isolation Measurement Display
Typical antenna-to antenna isolation measurements are made between –50 dB and –100 dB
below the 0 dB reference line established by the 2-port calibration.
4-21/4-22
Chapter 5
Site Master Software Tools
Introduction
This chapter provides a description of the Site Master Software Tools provided with the
Site Master. Site Master Software Tools (SMST) is a Windows 95/98/NT4/2000/ME program for cable and antenna trace analysis. The program help function provides on screen
instructions on display modification, trace overlay, and multiple plot printing.
Features
Site Master Software Tools provides the following features:
q
Download traces saved in the Site Master memory to the PC for storage and analysis
q
DTF and Smith Chart analysis capability
q
Trace Overlay allows the viewing of two plots simultaneously
q
Ability to save captured plots as data files (.dat file format) or as records representing
site information in a database file
q
Ability to convert Return Loss measurements to Distance-To-Fault measurements
q
Ability to zoom in or out to analyze a particular region of the plot
q
Ability to modify Plot Properties
q
Ability to output plots to a printer for hard copy records
q
Capture of the current trace in the unit
System Requirements
The Site Master Software Tools program will run on most any computer running Windows
95/98/NT4/2000/ME. Minimum requirements and recommendations are:
q
Intel Pentium 100 MHz microprocessor (Pentium II 350 MHz or better recommended)
q
16 MB of RAM (64 MB or above recommended)
q
Hard disk drive with approximately 15 MB of available space (An additional 20 MB
free space for storage of captured plots is recommended.)
q
A serial (COM) port for communication with the Site Master
NOTE: It is recommended that Windows NT 4.0 users install NT 4.0 Service
Pack 3 (SP3) or above. In addition, Windows 2000 and Windows ME may require installation of the latest Service Pack. Please contact Microsoft Corporation for further information on obtaining and installing service packs.
5-1
5
Chapter 5 Software Tools Program
Installation
To install the Site Master Software Tools program:
Step 1. Insert the Anritsu Site Master Software Tools disk in the CDROM drive.
Step 2. From the Windows Start menu, select Run .
Step 3. Type: X:\Setup.exe where X is the drive letter of your CDROM drive.
Step 4. When prompted, press the Enter key to accept the default directory C:\Program
Files\Site Master Software Tools and the installation will begin.
Step 5. When the installation is complete, pres Enter to restart Windows.
The readme.doc file on the disk provides updated information about the program, and the
Help function provides detailed operating information.
Communication Port Setting
The Site Master Software Tools communicates with the Site Master through a standard serial COM port on the PC. Set the baud rate of the COM port to 115200.
Step 1. Select Start, Programs and select Site Master Software Tools.
Step 2. When the program has loaded, select Settings, Communication.
Step 3. Select the appropriate PC COM port and Transfer Baud Rate for your system,
and click OK.
Figure 5-1.
5-2
Communication Setting Dialog Box
Chapter 5 Software Tools Program
Interface Cable Installation
Communication between the Site Master and the PC is accomplished over a null modem serial cable provided with the Site Master (Anritsu part number 800-441).
Step 1. Install the null modem serial interface cable to the Serial Interface connector on
the Site Master Test Connector Panel.
Step 2. Connect the other end of the serial interface cable to the appropriate COM port
connector on the PC.
Step 3. Turn on both the Site Master and the PC.
SERIAL INTERFACE
Site Master S332C
1
2
START
CAL
AUTO
SCALE
SAVE
SETUP
RECALL
SETUP
3
5
LIMIT
7
SAVE
DISPLAY
9
ON
OFF
MODE
Figure 5-2.
FREQ/DIST
AMPLITUDE
ESCAPE
CLEAR
4
6
MARKER
8
RECALL
DISPLAY
0
ENTER
COM PORT
RUN
HOLD
+/-
PRINT
.
SYS
SWEEP
Serial Cable Connection
Using Software Tools
Select Start, Programs and select Site Master Software Tools.
When communication is established between the Site Master and the PC a “Remote” status
message will be displayed on the Site Master display.
Downloading Traces from the Site Master
Downloaded traces from the Site Master can be selected as a entire block or as individual
files. Files are categorized by measurement type:
q
Return Loss
q
VSWR
q
DTF (Distance-to-Fault)
q
Time/Date stamp
5-3
Chapter 5 Software Tools Program
Plot Capture
To open the plot capture menus, select the capture icon on the button bar, or select the Capture drop down menu from the menu bar.
Select Capture to Screen to download traces to the PC.
Highlight a folder, or highlight individual traces within a folder, to be downloaded to the
PC. The traces will appear on the PC display as they are downloaded.
Plot Properties
After downloading, certain plot properties and information can be modified. Select the Plot
Properties or Plot Information icon, or right click on the graph area of the trace.
Plot Properties that can be changed include:
Graph Titles
Display Mode
Scale/Limit
Markers
Misc.
Graph Titles
After downloading the plot, the Main Title can be changed to reflect the site name or other
descriptive information. The Sub Title field can be used to describe the specifics of the
measurement and configuration.
Display Mode
Display Mode allows changing the display type without having to retest. Plots can be
changed from Return Loss to VSWR with single click of mouse button.
Scale/Limit
The scale of the displayed plot can be modified to help analyze whether the plot meets
pass/fail criteria. The Scale/Limit sub menu activates options to manually enter the scale
limits, or to use the Auto Scale mode.
Manual adjustment sets the upper and lower limits of the display under the
Scale/Limit Submenu.
Auto Scale automatically adjusts the scale for maximum and minimum measurement readings.
Limit Line Off turns off all limit lines.
Single Limit Line can be activated to help identify faults. Typical antenna specifications require better than –15 dB return loss.
Multi-Segment Limit Lines can be activated to set different limits within the
same measurement display for specification requirements.
5-4
Chapter 5 Software Tools Program
Markers
Markers M1 through M6 can be activated from the Plot Properties menu.
The six active markers can be displayed on the plot to help identify faults from the line
sweep data.
Misc.
The Miscellaneous tab allows adjustment of the Plot/Limit Line Width and the setting of
the Plot Footer.
Plot/Limit Line Width can be used when preparing reports for the carrier, service providers, and network operators where the trace data must be visible and
legible for documentation. The line density of the trace can be set to Normal
(Thin Line) or Thick Line to make the data appear easily when copies are made.
Plot Footer allows selection of information to be displayed in the trace display.
Selections are:
q
Bias Tee
q
Impedance
q
Time/Date
q
Measurements
q
Model and Serial Number
q
DTF Parameters
q
Date Format
q
Overlay Indicator
Trace Overlay or Plot Overlay
Trace Overlay is activated by the Mouse Function icon. Single-click on the Mouse Function
icon to toggle. Toggling this icon switches the mouse function between Marker/Limit/Zoom
and Plot Overlaying.
To overlay two plots, click-and-drag from one plot to the other plot. The final display will
be the two plots superimposed on one another.
Refer to the SMST HELP function for more information on the steps necessary to perform a
trace overlay.
Saving Traces
Once the plots are captured to the PC they can be save as individual files, as a block of files
to a database, exported as a graphic Windows metafile (.wmf) or text data file (.txt).
Saving a Plot as a Windows Metafile or to a Spreadsheet
Plots can be saved as a Windows metafile (.wmf) or as a text file (.txt). The metafile may
be imported into graphic programs and the text file can be imported into spreadsheet.
To save a plot as a Windows metafile, click on the File menu and select Save as Metafile
from the pull down menu. Once the trace is saved as a metafile, it can be copied and transferred into other applications as a picture or graphic file.
To copy a metafile:
Step 1. Select the trace to be copied with the mouse cursor.
Step 2. Select Edit and then Copy. The file will copied to clipboard.
5-5
Chapter 5 Software Tools Program
Step 3. Exit the Site Master Software Tools program and open the target application
(Microsoft Word, etc.).
Step 4. Select Edit and then Paste. The file will be inserted as a low-resolution graphic
file or a bitmap.
Saving a Plot to a Spreadsheet
Plots can be saved as a text file (.txt) which can then be imported into a spreadsheet
program.
To save a plot as a text file:
Step 1. Select the trace to be copied with the mouse cursor.
Step 2. Click on the File menu and select Export to Text File for a Spreadsheet from
the pull down menu.
Step 3. Save the file to a local directory.
Step 4. Exit the Site Master Software Tools program and open the spreadsheet application.
Step 5. Import the .txt file into the spreadsheet program.
Custom Cable List
A custom cable list can be created in Site Master Software Tools and uploaded to the Site
Master. Some standard 1000 MHz, 2000 MHz, and 2500 MHz cables are stored in the Site
Master and are listed in Appendix A of this User’s Guide.
The cable list contains vital information such as propagation velocity (Vp) and insertion
loss (dB/m or dB/ft). These parameters are important when identifying faults and discontinuities of transmission lines.
NOTE: Values for the cable list are taken from manufacturers specifications and
are normalized for a sweep frequency setting of 1 GHz. Complex digital communications systems may require adjustment to attenuation values at the
higher frequencies. Contact the manufacturer for the appropriate cable losses.
The Cable Editor is specifically designed to provide contractors, service providers, and network operators with a list of cable types that are tailored to their use.
To open the Cable Editor, select the Tools menu and select Cable Editor.
To open an existing cable list file, select File and Open. Select the desired cable list and
press Enter.
Creating a Custom Cable List
To create a custom cable list:
Step 1. Select the File menu and select New.
Step 2. Type in or cut and paste the cable types and specifications for the desired cables.
5-6
Chapter 5 Software Tools Program
Uploading a Cable List
After custom cable list has be created in Site Master Software Tools it can upload it to the
Site Master. The serial communication null modem cable must be connected from the Site
Master to the PC.
In the Cable Editor, select Tools and Upload Cable List. The software will confirm the upload with a message " Upload Complete" when the operation is finished.
Querying the Site Master Cable List
Query Cable List allows the user to check and review the contents of the custom cable list
in the Site Master.
In the Cable Editor, select Tools and Query Cable List. The software will download the cable list from the Site Master to the PC.
Creating a Database
A single trace or a block of traces can be transferred from the Site Master to the PC. A separate database can be created for each cellular site. The site name can be used as the database name.
Step 1. Select the File menu and select the Database.
Step 2. Open an existing database or create a new database with a descriptive filename
that represents the site name.
Once the database has been created, files can be saved and site information can be added,
such as Plot Description, Date/Time, Operator, record/trace number and session description
(Transmitter type etc.)
Individual plots will be labeled with the Database Site Name. Each record has its own plot
description and measurement type (for example, Return Loss-antenna, Return Loss-cable,
and DTF-Return Loss).
Printing Formats
One to multiple plots per page can be set up under the print format in Site Master Software
Tools. Orientation of how the plots are printed on the page can be changed from vertical to
horizontal.
5-7/5-8
Appendix A
Reference Data
Coaxial Cable Technical Data
Table A-1 provides a standard listing of common coaxial cables along with their Relative
Propagation Velocity and Nominal Attenuation values in dB/m @1000, 2000, and
2500 MHz.
Table A-1.
Coaxial Cable Technical Data (1 of 3)
Manufacturer
Cable Type
Relative
Propagation
Velocity (Vf)
Andrew
FSJ1-50A
0.84
Nominal
Attenuation
dB/m @
1000 MHz
0.197
Nominal
Attenuation
dB/m @
2000 MHz
0.285
Nominal
Attenuation
dB/m @
2500 MHz
0.323
Andrew
FSJ2-50
0.83
0.134
0.196
0.224
Andrew
FSJ4-50B
0.81
0.119
0.176
0.202
Andrew
LDF4-50A
0.88
0.077
0.113
0.133
Andrew
LDF5-50A
0.89
0.043
0.064
0.077
Andrew
LDF6-50
0.89
0.032
0.048
0.056
Andrew
LDF7-50A
0.88
0.027
0.041
0.047
Andrew
LDF12-50
0.88
0.022
0.035
N/A
Andrew
HJ4-50
0.914
0.087
0.126
0.15
Andrew
HJ4.5-50
0.92
0.054
0.079
0.084
Andrew
HJ5-50
0.916
0.042
0.063
0.07
Andrew
HJ7-50A
0.921
0.023
0.034
0.04
Andrew
HJ12-50
0.931
0.019
0.029
N/A
Belden
RG8, 8A
0.659
0.262
N/A
N/A
Belden
RG9, 9A
0.659
0.289
N/A
N/A
Belden
RG17, 17A
0.659
0.18
N/A
N/A
Belden
RG55, 55A, 55B
0.659
0.541
N/A
N/A
Belden
RG58, 58B
0.659
0.558
N/A
N/A
Belden
RG58A, 58C
0.659
0.787
N/A
N/A
Belden
RG142
0.659
0.443
N/A
N/A
Belden
RG174
0.659
0.984
N/A
N/A
Belden
RG178B
0.659
1.509
N/A
N/A
Belden
RG188
0.659
1.017
N/A
N/A
Belden
RG213
0.659
0.292
N/A
N/A
A-1
Appendix A Reference Data
Table A-1.
Coaxial Cable Technical Data (2 of 3)
Manufacturer
Cable Type
Relative
Propagation
Velocity (Vf)
Belden
RG214
0.659
Nominal
Attenuation
dB/m @
1000 MHz
0.292
Belden
RG223
0.659
0.535
N/A
N/A
Cablewave
HCC12-50J
0.915
0.087
0.126
0.137
Cablewave
HCC78-50J
0.915
0.041
0.061
0.066
Cablewave
HCC158-50J
0.95
0.022
0.031
0.033
Cablewave
HCC300-50J
0.96
0.015
N/A
N/A
Cablewave
HCC312-50J
0.96
0.013
N/A
N/A
Cablewave
HF 4-1/8” Cu2Y
0.97
0.01
N/A
N/A
Cablewave
HF 5” Cu2Y
0.96
0.007
N/A
N/A
Cablewave
HF 6-1/8” Cu2Y
0.97
0.006
N/A
N/A
Cablewave
FLC 38-50J
0.88
0.115
0.169
0.19
Cablewave
FLC 12-50J
0.88
0.072
0.11
0.134
Cablewave
FLC 78-50J
0.88
0.041
0.061
0.072
Cablewave
FLC 114-50J
0.88
0.033
0.05
0.059
Cablewave
FLC158-50J
0.88
0.025
0.038
0.042
Comscope
CR50 540 PE
0.88
0.069
0.103
0.116
Comscope
CR50 1070PE
0.88
0.037
0.055
0.064
Comscope
CR50 1873PE
0.88
0.022
0.0344
0.04
NK Cables
RF ½” -50
0.88
0.0757
0.112
0.127
NK Cables
RF ½” -50 GHF
0.88
0.0757
0.112
0.127
NK Cables
RF ½” -50 BHF
0.88
0.0757
0.112
0.127
NK Cables
RF 5/8”-50
0.88
0.0518
0.0768
0.087
NK Cables
RF 5/8”-50
GHF”
0.88
0.0518
0.0768
0.087
NK Cables
RF 5/8”-50
BHF”
0.88
0.0518
0.0768
0.087
NK Cables
RF 7/8”-50
0.88
0.0413
0.062
0.07
NK Cables
RF 7/8”-50
GHF”
0.88
0.0413
0.062
0.07
NK Cables
RF 7/8”-50
BHF”
0.88
0.0413
0.062
0.07
NK Cables
RF 1 5/8” -50
0.88
0.0248
0.038
0.044
NK Cables
RF 1 5/8” -50
GHF”
0.88
0.0248
0.038
0.044
NK Cables
RF 1 5/8” -50
BHF”
0.88
0.0248
0.038
0.044
A-2
Nominal
Attenuation
dB/m @
2000 MHz
N/A
Nominal
Attenuation
dB/m @
2500 MHz
N/A
Appendix A Reference Data
Table A-1.
Coaxial Cable Technical Data (3 of 3)
Manufacturer
Cable Type
Relative
Propagation
Velocity (Vf)
NK Cables
RF 2 ¼” -50
0.88
Nominal
Attenuation
dB/m @
1000 MHz
0.021
Nominal
Attenuation
dB/m @
2000 MHz
0.034
Nominal
Attenuation
dB/m @
2500 MHz
N/A
NK Cables
RF 2 ¼” -50
GHF
0.88
0.021
0.034
N/A
NK Cables
RF 2 ¼” -50
BHF
0.88
0.021
0.034
N/A
NK Cables
RFF 3/8” -50
0.81
0.147
0.218
0.25
NK Cables
RFF 3/8” -50
GHF
0.81
0.147
0.218
0.25
NK Cables
RFF 3/8” -50
BHF
0.81
0.147
0.218
0.25
NK Cables
RFF ½” -50
0.82
0.112
0.167
0.19
NK Cables
RFF ½” -50
GHF
0.82
0.112
0.167
0.19
NK Cables
RFF ½” -50
BHF
0.82
0.112
0.167
0.19
NK Cables
RFF 7/8” -50
0.84
0.052
0.078
0.089
NK Cables
RFF 7/8” -50
GHF
0.84
0.052
0.078
0.089
NK Cables
RFF 7/8” -50
BHF
0.84
0.052
0.078
0.089
Times
LMR100
0.8
0.792
1.15
1.31
Times
LMR200
0.83
0.344
0.49
0.554
Times
LMR240
0.84
0.262
0.377
0.424
Times
LMR400
0.85
0.135
0.196
0.222
Times
LMR500
0.86
0.109
0.159
0.18
Times
LMR600
0.87
0.087
0.128
0.145
Times
LMR900
0.87
0.056
0.086
0.098
Times
LMR1200
0.88
0.044
0.065
0.074
Times
LMR1700
0.89
0.033
0.049
0.056
-
310801
0.821
0.115
N/A
N/A
-
311201
0.82
0.18
N/A
N/A
-
311501
0.8
0.23
N/A
N/A
-
311601
0.8
0.262
N/A
N/A
-
311901
0.8
0.377
N/A
N/A
-
352001
0.8
0.377
N/A
N/A
A-3/A-4
Appendix B
Windowing
Introduction
The Distance sub-menu (page 2-8) provides for setting the cable loss and relative propagation velocity of the coaxial cable. The WINDOW key opens a menu of FFT windowing
types for the DTF calculation.
The theoretical requirement for inverse FFT is for the data to extend from zero frequency to
infinity. Side lobes appear around a discontinuity due to the fact that the spectrum is cut off
at a finite frequency. Windowing reduces the side lobes by smoothing out the sharp transitions at the beginning and at the end of the frequency sweep. As the side lobes are reduced
the main lobe widens thereby reducing the resolution.
In situations where there may be a small discontinuity close to a large one, side lobe reduction windowing should be used. When distance resolution is critical windowing can be reduced.
Examples
The types of windowing in order of increasing side lobe reduction are: rectangular, nominal
side lobe, low side lobe, and minimum side lobe. Figures B-1 thru B-4 show examples of
the types of windowing.
D is ta n c e T o F a u lt
-5
-1 0
-1 5
-2 0
-2 5
R e tu rn L o s s (d B )
-3 0
-3 5
-4 0
-4 5
-5 0
5
1 0
1 5
2 0
2 5
3 0
3 5
4 0
4 5
5 0
5 5
6 0
F e e t
Figure B-1.
Rectangular Windowing Example
B-1
Appendix B Windowing
D is ta n c e T o F a u lt
-5
-1 0
-1 5
-2 0
-2 5
-3 0
R e tu rn L o s s (d B )
-3 5
-4 0
-4 5
-5 0
1 0
5
Figure B-2.
1 5
2 0
2 5
3 0
F e e t
3 5
4 0
4 5
5 0
5 5
6 0
4 0
4 5
5 0
5 5
6 0
Nominal Side Lobe Windowing Example
D is ta n c e T o F a u lt
-5
-1 0
-1 5
-2 0
-2 5
-3 0
R e tu rn L o s s (d B )
-3 5
-4 0
-4 5
-5 0
5
Figure B-3.
B-2
1 0
1 5
2 0
Low Side Lobe Windowing Example
2 5
3 0
3 5
F e e t
Appendix B Windowing
D is ta n c e T o F a u lt
-5
-1 0
-1 5
-2 0
-2 5
-3 0
R e tu rn L o s s (d B )
-3 5
-4 0
-4 5
-5 0
5
Figure B-4.
1 0
1 5
2 0
2 5
3 0
F e e t
3 5
4 0
4 5
5 0
5 5
6 0
Minimum Side Lobe Windowing Example
B-3/B-4