XStream-PKG-E™ Ethernet RF Modem
XStream Ethernet RF Modem
System Setup
RF Modem Operation
RF Modem Configuration
RF Communication Modes
Appendices
Product Manual v5.x00
For XStream RF Modem Part Numbers
X09-001PK…-E…
X24-009PK…-E...
XH9-001PK…-E...
X09-009PK…-E…
X09-019PK…-E…
X24-019PK…-E…
XH9-009PK…-E…
XH9-019PK…-E…
900 MHz & 2.4 GHz Stand-alone RF Modems by MaxStream, Inc.
355 south, 520 west, suite 180
Lindon, UT 84042
Phone: (801) 765-9885
Fax: (801) 765-9895
rf-xperts@maxstream.net
M100110
www.maxstream.net (live chat support)
2006.02.24
XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] © 2006 MaxStream, Inc. All rights reserved
The contents of this manual may not be transmitted or reproduced in any form or by any means without the written permission of MaxStream, Inc. XStream™ and XStream‐PKG‐E™ are trademarks of MaxStream, Inc. XPort™ is a registered trademark of Lantronix. Ethernet™ is a registered trademark of XEROX. Technical Support:
Phone: (801) 765-9885
Live Chat: www.maxstream.net
E-Mail: rf-xperts@maxstream.net
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary ii XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] Contents 1. XStream Ethernet RF Modem
1.1. Features Overview
4
4
FCC Notices
6
7
2.1. Data Radio System Components
7
Restrictions
1-Year Warranty
8
2.2.2. Setup Com Port and IP Address
2.2.3. Assign Static IP Address
2.2.4. Change Com Port Number
Contact MaxStream
55
56
10
2.2.5. Test Communications (X-CTU)
2.3. Telnet Communications
55
55
Ordering Information
9
10
54
54
Appendix B: Additional Information
8
53
53
Europe (2.4 GHz) Approved Antenna List
IC (Industry Canada) Certification
7
2.2. Com Port Communications
2.2.1. Install Software
52
European Compliance (2.4 GHz only)
2. System Setup
2.1.1. System Description
51
51
FCC Approved Antennas
6
1.3.1. Front and Back Views
11
12
2.3.1. Test Communications (Telnet)
12
3. RF Modem Operation
13
3.1. Modes of Operation
13
13
3.1.2. Transmit Mode
3.1.3. Receive Mode
3.1.4. Sleep Mode
13
15
15
3.1.5. Command Mode
18
4. RF Modem Configuration
20
4.1. Hands-On Programming Examples
4.1.1. Configuration Setup Options
4.1.2. AT Command Examples
4.2. Command Reference Table
4.3. Command Descriptions
20
20
21
4.1.3. Binary Command Example
21
22
23
5. RF Communication Modes
5.1. Addressing
50
Antenna Usage
5
50
50
OEM Labeling Requirements
5
1.3. External Interface
3.1.1. Idle Mode
Appendix A: Agency Certifications
FCC Certification
1.1.1. Worldwide Acceptance
1.2. Product Overview
1.2.1. Specifications
4
38
39
5.1.1. Address Recognition
5.2. Basic Communications
39
40
5.2.1. Streaming Mode (Default)
5.2.2. Repeater Mode
40
41
5.3. Acknowledged Communications
5.3.1. Acknowledged Mode
5.3.2. Multi-Streaming Mode
44
44
46
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary iii XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 1. XStream Ethernet RF Modem XStream-PKG-E Ethernet RF Modems extend system performance and
flexibility by adding serial connectivity to Ethernet networks.
MaxStream RF Modems handle the complexities inherent to RF
communications (modulation, demodulation, frequency synthesizers,
amplifiers, filters, FCC approvals, etc.), so OEMs and integrators can
focus resources beyond the wireless portion of the data system.
1.1. Features Overview
Long Range at a Low Cost
9XStream-PKG-E (900 MHz) Range:
•
Indoor/Urban: up to 1500’ (450 m)
•
Outdoor line-of-sight: up to 7 miles (11 km)
w/2.1 dBm dipole antenna
•
Outdoor line-of-sight: up to 20 miles (32 km)
w/high gain antenna
24XStream-PKG-E (2.4 GHz) Range:
Easy-to-Use
Out-of-Box RF Experience no configuration required
No Master/Slave setup dependencies
Advanced configurations using
Windows software & AT Commands
7-28 VDC power supply
•
Indoor/Urban: up to 600’ (180 m)
Transparent Operation
•
Outdoor line-of-sight: up to 3 miles (5 km)
w/2.1 dBm dipole antenna
Support for multiple data formats
(parity and data bits)
•
Outdoor line-of-sight: up to 10 miles (16 km)
w/high gain antenna
Receiver sensitivity: -110 dBm (@ 900 MHz),
–105 dBm (@ 2.4 GHz)
Advanced Networking & Security
True Peer-to-Peer (no “master” required), Point-toPoint, Point-to-Multipoint & Multidrop
Retries and Acknowledgements
FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum)
7 hopping channels, each with over 65,000 unique
network addresses available
Portable (small form factor &
low power)
Software-selectable interfacing rates
Support for multiple data formats
XII™ Interference Immunity
Power-saving Sleep Modes
(as low as 230 mA)
Free & Unlimited
World Class Technical Support
1.1.1. Worldwide Acceptance
FCC Certified (USA) Refer to Appendix A for FCC Requirements.
Systems that contain XStream RF Modems automatically inherit MaxStream Certifications.
ISM (Industrial, Scientific & Medical) frequency band
Manufactured under ISO 9001:2000 registered standards
9XStream-PKG-E (900 MHz) RF Modems approved for use in US, Canada, Australia,
Israel (and more). 24XStream-PKG-E (2.4 GHz) adds Europe (EU) and other approvals.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 4 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 1.2. Product Overview
The XStream-PKG-E RF Modem comes configured to provide immediate wireless links between
devices; however, the RF modem can be configured for additional functionality through the use of
a simple AT command interface [Refer to the Command Mode [p18] & RF Modem Configuration
[p20] sections for programming options].
1.2.1. Specifications
Table 1‐01. XStream‐PKG‐E Ethernet RF Modem Specifications Specification
9XStream-PKG-E (900 MHz)
24XStream-PKG-E (2.4 GHz)
Indoor/Urban Range
Up to 1500’ (450 m)
Up to 600’ (180 m)
Outdoor LOS Range
Up to 7 miles (11 km) w/ 2.1 dBm dipole antenna
Up to 20 miles (32 km) w/ high-gain antenna
Up to 3 miles (5 km) w/ 2.1 dBm dipole antenna
Up to 10 miles (16 km) w/ high-gain antenna
Transmit Power Output
100 mW (20 dBm)
50 mW (17 dBm)
Interface Data Rate
Software selectable 125 – 65,000 bps
(Including non-standard baud rates)
Software selectable 125 – 65,000 bps
(Including non-standard baud rates)
Throughput Data Rate
Performance
9,600 bps
19,200 bps
9,600 bps
19,200 bps
RF Data Rate
10,000 bps
20,000 bps
10,000 bps
20,000 bps
Receiver Sensitivity
-110 dBm
-107 dBm
-105 dBm
-102 dBm
Power Requirements
Supply Voltage
7-28 VDC
7-28 VDC
Receive (RX) Current*
240 mA (@ 9V)
260 mA (@ 9V)
Transmit (TX) Current*
320 mA (@ 9V)
340 mA (@ 9V)
Power Down Current*
230 mA (@ 9V)
230 mA (@ 9V)
Frequency
902-928 MHz
2.4000-2.4835 GHz
Spread Spectrum
Frequency Hopping, Wide band FM modulator
Network Topology
Peer-to-Peer, Point-to-Point, Point-to-Multipoint, Multidrop
General
Supported Network Protocols ARP, UDP, TCP, ICMP, Telnet, TFTP, AutoIP, DHCP, HTTP and SNMP (read-only)
Channel Capacity
7 hop sequences share 25 frequencies
Data Connection
RJ-45 Female Ethernet Connection
Physical Properties
Enclosure
Extruded aluminum, black, anodized
Enclosure Size
2.750” x 5.500” x 1.125” (6.99cm x 13.97cm x 2.86cm)
Weight
7.1 oz. (200g)
Operating Temperature
0 to 70º C (commercial), -40 to 85º C (industrial)
Antenna
Type
½ wave dipole whip, 6.75” (17.1 cm), 2.1 dBi Gain
Connector
Reverse-polarity SMA (RPSMA)
Impedance
50 ohms unbalanced
Certifications
FCC Part 15.247
OUR9XSTREAM
OUR-24XSTREAM
Industry Canada (IC)
4214A-9XSTREAM
4214A 12008
Europe
N/A
ETSI, CE
* Divide by 2 for 18V supply (constant wattage from 7 to 28V) © 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 5 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 1.3. External Interface
1.3.1. Front and Back Views
1-01a. Power Switch
Move Power Switch to the ON (up) position to power the
XStream PKG-E Ethernet RF Modem.
Figure 1‐01. Front View 1-01b. I/O & Power LEDs
LEDs indicate modem activity as follows:
Yellow (top LED) =
Serial Data Out (to host)
Green (middle)
Serial Data In (from host)
=
Red (bottom)
= Power/TX Indicator (Red light is on
when powered and pulses off briefly during RF transmission)
1‐01d. RJ‐45 Port 1‐01c. RSSI LEDs (all green) 1‐01e. Power Connector*
1‐01b. I/O & Power LEDs 1-01c. RSSI LEDs
RSSI LEDs indicate the amount of fade margin present in an active
1‐01a. Power Switch * The Ethernet RF Modem does not support
Power-over-Ethernet (PoE). The device
cannot be powered directly from a PoE port
on a compatible hub.
However, it may be useful to send power on
the unused wires of the CAT-5 cable in
situation where the radio will be mounted in
a location that optimizes radio coverage but
may not have a power outlet nearby. There
are several third part devices available that
can inject the power onto the cable and then
remove it at the remote side.
wireless link. Fade margin is the difference between the incoming
signal strength and the modem’s receiver sensitivity.
3 LEDs ON
=
Very Strong Signal (> 30 dB fade margin)
2 LEDs ON
=
Strong Signal (> 20 dB fade margin)
1 LED ON
=
Moderate Signal (> 10 dB fade margin)
0 LED ON
=
Weak Signal (< 10 dB fade margin)
1-01d. RJ-45 Ethernet Port
Standard Female RJ-45 connector is used to connect unshielded
twisted-pair CAT5 cabling.
1-01e. Power Connector *
7-28 VDC Power Connector.
1-02a. Reset Switch
Reset Switch forces the RF Modem to reset (or re-boot).
Figure 1‐02. Back View 1-02b. Antenna Port
Antenna Port is a 50 Ω RF signal connector for connecting to an
external antenna. Connector type is Reverse Polarity (RPSMA)
female. The RPSMA has threads on the outside of a barrel and a
male center conductor.
1-02c. Config (Configuration) Switch
1‐02a. Reset Switch 1‐02c. Config Switch 1‐02b. Antenna Port
The Config Switch provides an alternate way to enter AT Command
Mode.
To enter Command Mode at the Modem’s default baud rate:
Simultaneously press the Reset [1-02a] and Config switches;
release the Reset Switch; then after 1 sec., release the Config
Switch. The RF Modem then enters AT Command Mode at the
modem’s default baud rate.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 6 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 2. System Setup 2.1. Data Radio System Components
XStream Radio Modems are designed to provide long range wireless links between devices of a
data system. The PKG-E Ethernet RF Modem connects serial modems to Ethernet networks.
The following devices will be used to describe a data system that includes the XStream-PKG-E
Ethernet RF Modem:
XStream-PKG-E Ethernet RF Modem (“PKG-E”): The Ethernet RF Modem is
an Ethernet-connected serial modem used for communication with other
MaxStream serial modems. The Ethernet RF Modem is not a wireless Ethernet
Bridge intended for Ethernet connectivity on both the remote and base sides of
a wireless link.
XStream-PKG-R RS-232/485 RF Modem (“PKG-R”): The RS-232/485 RF
Modem is a serial modem that can be identified by its DB-9 serial port and 6switch DIP Switch.
XStream OEM RF Module (“OEM RF Module”): The OEM RF Module is
mounted inside all XStream-PKG RF Modems and may be integrated into OEMdesigned products to transmit and receive data over-the-air.
2.1.1. System Description
The PKG-E Ethernet RF Modem can be used as an access point in a network of MaxStream RS232/RS-485 RF Modems (or other OEM RF Module Embedded Devices). XStream RF Modems
support point-to-point, peer-to-peer, point-to-multipoint and multidrop network topologies. Below
is an example of a typical point-to-multipoint application:
Figure 2‐01. XStream‐PKG‐E Ethernet RF Modem in a Point‐to‐Multipoint Data Radio System The Ethernet-connected RF modem supports com port and Telnet connection options:
•
Com Port Redirector Software enables legacy serial applications to communicate with the
Ethernet RF Modem by forwarding serial data over Ethernet.
•
Telnet communicates directly to the Ethernet RF Modem using port 14001. Refer to the
“Test Communications (Telnet)” section [p12] for an example that by-passes the com port.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 7 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 2.2. Com Port Communications
2.2.1. Install Software
The X-CTU and Com Port Redirector software facilitate communications through a PC’s com port.
Follow the instructions below to setup a com port for configuring and testing RF modems.
Installation #1: X-CTU Software (version 4.8.0 or higher*)
Use the X-CTU software to configure the Ethernet RF Modem and PC com port. The software
provides is divided into four tabs:
•
PC Settings tab - Setup PC serial com ports to interface with RF modem
•
Range Test tab – Test RF modem’s range under varying environments
•
Terminal tab – Test serial communications and set/read RF Modem parameters
•
Modem Configuration tab – Set/read RF Modem parameters
Figure 2‐02. Tabs of the X‐CTU Software * To verify X‐CTU version number, click on the icon located in the top‐left corner of the X‐CTU user interface and then select the “About X‐CTU…” menu item. To Install the X-CTU Software:
Double-click the “setup_X-CTU.exe” file then follow prompts of the installation screens. This file is
located on the MaxStream CD and under the ‘Downloads’ section of the following web page:
www.maxstream.net/support/.
Installation #2: Ethernet Com Port Redirector
MaxStream provides com port redirection software that creates a com port in the operating
system that will forward serial data to the IP address of the Ethernet-connected RF modem. The
Ethernet RF Modem can then be accessed by any com port enabled application.
The Ethernet Com Port Redirector must be installed separately to enable the “Ethernet Com
Ports” sub-tab of the X-CTU “PC Settings” tab. If this software is not installed, the features under
the “Ethernet Com Ports” section are grayed and cannot be used.
The “Ethernet Com Ports” sub-tab enables user to perform functions such as the following:
•
Discover Ethernet RF Modems on a network
•
Setup serial com ports for XStream-PKG-E Ethernet RF Modems
•
Identify, assign and modify Ethernet RF Modem IP addresses
To Install the Ethernet Com Port Redirector:
1.
Double-click the “setup_ComPortRedirector.exe” file then follow prompts of the installation
screens. This file is located in the “software” folder of the MaxStream CD.
2.
Re-boot the PC to complete installation.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 8 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 2.2.2. Setup Com Port and IP Address
The XStream-PKG-E Ethernet RF Modem supports DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
and Auto IP protocols. Both protocols automatically assign IP addresses to nodes of a network.
Ethernet RF Modem Discovery
The X-CTU Software provides an easy-to-use interface that searches a local network and then
displays Ethernet RF Modems found.
Discover Ethernet RF Modem, Map Com Port & Assign IP Address:
1.
Install both the X-CTU and the Ethernet Com Port Redirector software [Refer to “Install
Software” section on previous page]. Re-boot the PC if prompted to do so.
2.
Launch the X-CTU Software and select the PC Settings tab; then select the “Ethernet Com
Ports” sub-tab. [Figure 2-03]
Æ After the Com Port Redirector is installed (& PC is re-booted), a “Setup Com Port” dialog
box will appear the first time the “Ethernet Com Ports sub-tab is selected. For subsequent
uses of the sub-tab, select the ‘New IP Address’ button and proceed to step 4.
3.
Select the ‘OK’ button.
Æ All discovered PKG-E Ethernet RF Modems will be displayed in a new “Assign IP Address”
dialog box. [Figure 2-04]
4.
Highlight one of the discovered Ethernet RF Modems (Modem IP and Hardware Addresses are
listed in the “… discovered Ethernet Modem” section) [Figure 2-03]. If an Ethernet Modem is
not discovered, enter the IP address manually in the “Enter IP Address…” box.
5.
Select the ‘OK’ button.
Æ Newly assigned Ethernet Modem is listed under the “Ethernet Com Ports” sub-tab and the
first available com port is assigned to it. Note that its status is “Queued as new”.
6.
Select the ‘Apply’ button [located in the ‘Changes’ section of the “Ethernet Com Ports” subtab - Figure 2-03]. Even if an Ethernet RF Modem appears in the ‘Ethernet Com Port’ list, the
new com port cannot be used until changes are applied and the PC is re-booted.
7.
Re-boot the PC; then re-launch the X-CTU Software. The com port can now be used to
communicate with the RF Modem.
Figure 2‐03. Ethernet Com Ports sub‐tab (Ethernet Com Ports sub‐tab is enabled by installing the Ethernet Com Port Redirector Software.) Figure 2‐04. Assign IP Address dialog box If the Ethernet RF Modem is left in DHCP mode, it may become necessary to reconfigure a
mapped com port any time an IP address is re-assigned by the DHCP server. Dynamic addressing
is supported, but setting a static IP address can simplify the application.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 9 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 2.2.3. Assign Static IP Address
To assign a static IP address to the Ethernet RF Modem, follow the steps outlined below. A static
IP address may be necessary when:
•
The Ethernet RF Modem and the host PC are on different subnets
•
The Ethernet RF Modem IP address might be changed by a DHCP server
Configure a static IP address on a local network:
1.
Install both the X-CTU Software and the Ethernet Com Port Redirector software [Refer to
“Com Port Communications” section - p8]. Re-boot the PC if it has not been re-booted since
the installation of the Ethernet Com Port Redirector.
2.
Launch the X-CTU Software and select the “PC Settings” tab; then select the “Ethernet Com
Ports” sub-tab [Figure 2-03]
Æ After the Ethernet Com Port Redirector is installed (and PC is re-booted), a “Setup Com
Port” dialog box will appear the first time the “Ethernet Com Ports” sub-tab is selected. The
following steps are written under the assumption the sub-tab has already been selected at
least one time.
3.
Select the “Discover modems” button to display which modems are on-line and which are
not; then click the ‘OK’ button of the “Discover Ethernet Modems” dialog box.
4.
Click-on and highlight an Ethernet RF Modem from the ‘Ethernet Com Ports’ list.
5.
Select the ‘Com Port Properties’ button [Figure 2-03].
6.
Select the ‘Modify’ button of the “Properties” dialog box [Figure 2-05].
7.
Type a new IP address; then select the ‘OK’ button [Figure 2-05].
8.
Select the ‘OK’ button of the “Properties” dialog box.
9.
Select the ‘Apply’ button that is under the ‘Changes’ section of the “Ethernet Com Ports” subtab.
Æ XStream-PKG-E Ethernet RF Modem re-boots and the new IP Address is saved.
Figure 2‐05. Properties & Change IP dialog boxes 2.2.4. Change Com Port Number
During Com Port Redirector setup, one com port is automatically assigned. Additional com ports
are user-assigned. Use the following steps to manually change a com port number:
Change Ethernet RF Modem’s Com Port Number:
1.
Once the Ethernet RF Modem is recognized and displayed under the “Ethernet Com Ports”
sub-tab, select the ‘New Com Port’ button. Follow the steps outlined in the “Ethernet RF
Modem Discovery” section [p9].
2.
Type-in the IP Address of the Ethernet Modem and highlight a com port number; then select
the ‘OK’ button.
3.
Select the ‘Apply’ button; then re-boot the PC if prompted to do so.
4.
Go to the “Ethernet Com Ports” sub-tab of the X-CTU Software’s “PC Settings” tab.
5.
Highlight the old com port entry, select the ‘Delete Com Port’ button, then select the ‘Apply’
button.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 10 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 2.2.5. Test Communications (X-CTU)
When testing a wireless link, MaxStream suggests creating the link using the following
components:
•
XStream-PKG-E Ethernet RF Modem (connected to a local network)
•
XStream-PKG-R RS-232/485 RF Modem (w/ loopback adapter)
•
PC (connected to a local network)
•
Accessories (Loopback adapter, CAT5 UTP cable, power supplies and RPSMA antennas)
Hardware Setup for Loopback Test:
1.
Connect the XStream-PKG-E (Ethernet) RF Modem and a PC to active Ethernet ports of the
same local network using CAT5 cables (included w/ PKG-EA accessories package).
2.
Attach the serial loopback adapter to the DB-9 serial connector of the XStream-PKG-R (RS232) RF Modem. The serial loopback adapter configures the PKG-R RF Modem to function as
a repeater by looping serial data back into the modem for retransmission.
3.
Configure the PKG-R (RS-232) RF Modem for RS-232 operation using
the built-in DIP Switch. Dip Switch 1 should be ON (up) and the
remaining switches should be OFF (down).
4.
Attach RPSMA antennas to both RF Modems.
5.
Power both RF Modems with power supplies (included w/ accessories package).
Figure 2‐06. Hardware Setup for Testing a Wireless Link Test Wireless Link (X-CTU Method):
1.
Follow the steps in the “Ethernet RF Modem Discovery” section [p9].
2.
Setup hardware as shown in the “Hardware Setup…” steps above [Figure 2-06].
3.
Select the “PC Settings” tab of the X-CTU Software; then highlight the Com Port that is
forwarded to the PKG-E (Ethernet) RF Modem.
Æ Make sure PC com port settings (Baud rate, Parity, etc.) on the “PC Settings” tab match
those of the Ethernet RF Modem.
4.
Select the “Terminal” tab of the X-CTU Software.
5.
Begin typing characters into the terminal window.
Æ Characters typed in the terminal should be echoed back to the screen [Figure 2-07]. Sent
characters appear in blue and received characters in red. With each character typed, the
‘Data Out’ and ‘Data In’ LEDs should flash briefly on each of the RF Modems.
Æ To double-check the Wireless link, turn off the power going to the remote PKG-R (RS-232)
RF Modem and leave the PKG-E Modem turned on. Type characters into the Terminal Window
and note that characters are not echoed back.
Figure 2‐07. Terminal Tab of MaxStream’s X‐CTU Software © 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 11 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 2.3. Telnet Communications
In addition to com port communications, Telnet communications are also supported.
2.3.1. Test Communications (Telnet)
MaxStream Wireless links can be tested by connecting to the specific IP address and port
number.
Test a Wireless Link (Telnet Connection):
1.
Follow steps in the “Ethernet RF Modem Discovery” section [p9].
2.
Setup hardware as shown in the ‘Hardware Setup for Loopback Test’ section of previous page
[Figure 2-06].
3.
If using Windows: Select (Start Æ Run); then type “cmd” (without quotation marks) in the
text box of the “Run” dialog box. Then select the ‘OK’ button.
If using Linux or UNIX: Run a command shell.
If using Mac OS X: Run (Applications Æ Utilities Æ Terminal).
[Remaining steps are for Windows users]
4.
At the command prompt, type:
telnet xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx 14001 <CR>
(“xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx” is the IP address of the Ethernet RF Modem, “14001” is the port number
and “<CR>” stands for carriage return or ‘Enter’ key.) [Figure 2-08]
5.
Begin typing characters into the Telnet session window [Figure 2-09].
Æ Characters typed should be echoed back to the screen. With each character typed, the
“Data Out” and “Data In” LEDs should flash briefly on each of the PKG RF Modems.
The wireless link can be double-checked by turning off the XStream-PKG-R RS-232/485 RF
Modem (leaving the PKG-E Ethernet RF Modem on) and sending characters. When the PKG-R
is turned off, characters should not be echoed back.
Figure 2‐08. Telnet Interface (connect to PKG‐E having an IP address of 192.168.0.168) Figure 2‐09. Telnet Interface (Sent & Echoed back characters) © 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 12 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 3. RF Modem Operation 3.1. Modes of Operation
An on-board RF module enables the XStream RF Modem to send and receive data over-the-air.
The RF modem operates in five modes.
Figure 3‐01. RF Modem Modes of Operation The RF modem can only be in one mode at a time.
3.1.1. Idle Mode
When not receiving or transmitting data, the RF modem is in Idle Mode. The RF modem uses the
same amount of power in Idle Mode as it does in Receive Mode.
The modem shifts into the other modes of operation under the following conditions:
• Serial data is received in the DI Buffer (Transmit Mode)
• Valid RF data is received through the antenna (Receive Mode)
• Command Mode Sequence is issued (Command Mode)
• Sleep Mode condition is met (Sleep Mode)
After responding to any of the preceding conditions, the modem automatically transitions back
into Idle Mode.
3.1.2. Transmit Mode
When the first byte of serial data is received from the UART in the DI buffer, the modem
Note: RF reception must
complete before the
modem is able to enter
into Transmit Mode.
attempts to shift to Transmit Mode and initiate an RF connection with other modems. After
transmission is complete, the modem returns to Idle Mode.
RF transmission begins after either of the following criteria is met:
1.
RB bytes have been received in the DI buffer and are pending for RF transmission [refer to
RB (Packetization Threshold) command, p32].
The RB parameter may be set to any value between 1 and the RF packet size (PK), inclusive.
When RB = 0, the packetization threshold is ignored.
2.
At least one character has been received in the DI buffer (pending for RF transmission) and
RO time has been observed on the UART [refer to RO (Packetization Timeout) command].
The timeout can be disabled by setting RO to zero. In this case, transmission will begin after
RB bytes have been received in the DI buffer.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 13 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] Figure 3‐02. Data Transmission Sequence Æ After either RB or RO conditions are met,
the modem then initializes a
communications channel. [Channel
initialization is the process of sending an
RF initializer that synchronizes receiving
modems with the transmitting modem.
During channel initialization, incoming
serial data accumulates in the DI buffer.]
Serial data in the DI buffer is grouped
into RF packets [refer to PK (RF Packet
Size)]; converted to RF data; then
transmitted over-the-air until the DI
buffer is empty.
RF data, which includes the payload data, follows the RF initializer. The payload includes up to
the maximum packet size (PK Command) bytes. As the transmitting modem nears the end of the
transmission, it inspects the DI buffer to see if more data exists to be transmitted. This could be
the case if more than PK bytes were originally pending in the DI buffer or if more bytes arrived
from the UART after the transmission began. If more data is pending, the transmitting modem
assembles a subsequent packet for transmission.
RF Data Packet
The RF packet is the sequence of data used for communicating information between MaxStream
Modems. An RF Packet consists of an RF Initializer and RF Data.
Figure 3‐03. RF Data Packet Components * When streaming multiple RF packets,
the RF Initializer is only sent in front of the
first packet.
RF Initializer
An RF initializer is sent each time a new connection sequence begins. The RF initializer contains
channel information that notifies receiving modems of information such as the hopping pattern
used by the transmitting modem. The first transmission always sends an RF initializer.
An RF initializer can be of various lengths depending on the amount of time determined to be
required to prepare a receiving modem. For example, a wake-up initializer is a type of RF
initializer used to wake remote modems from Sleep Mode (Refer to the FH, LH, HT and SM
Commands for more information). The length of the wake-up initializer should be longer than the
length of time remote modems are in cyclic sleep.
Header
The header contains network addressing information that filters incoming RF data. The receiving
modem checks for a matching Hopping Channel (HP parameter), Vendor Identification Number
(ID parameter) and Destination Address (DT parameter). Data that does not pass through all
three network filter layers is discarded.
CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check)
To verify data integrity and provide built-in error checking, a 16-bit CRC (Cyclic Redundancy
Check) is computed for the transmitted data and attached to the end of each RF packet. On the
receiving end, the receiving modem computes the CRC on all incoming RF data. Received data
that has an invalid CRC is discarded [Refer to the Receive Mode section, next page].
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 14 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 3.1.3. Receive Mode
If a modem detects RF data while operating in Idle Mode, the modem transitions into Receive
Mode to start receiving RF packets.
Figure 3‐04. Reception of RF Data Æ After a packet is received, the modem checks the
CRC (cyclic redundancy check) to ensure that the
data was transmitted without error. If the CRC
data bits on the incoming packet are invalid, the
packet is discarded. If the CRC is valid, the packet
proceeds to the DO Buffer.
The modem returns to Idle Mode after valid RF
data is no longer detected or after an error is
detected in the received RF data. If serial data is
stored in the DI buffer while the modem is in
Receive Mode, the serial data will be transmitted
after the modem is finished receiving data and
returns to Idle Mode.
3.1.4. Sleep Mode
Sleep Modes enable the XStream Modem to operate at minimal power consumption when not in
use. Three Sleep Mode options are available:
•
Pin Sleep (Host Controlled)
•
Serial Port Sleep (Wake on Serial Port activity)
•
Cyclic Sleep (Wake on RF activity)
For the modem to transition into Sleep Mode, the modem must have a non-zero SM (Sleep Mode)
Parameter and one of the following must occur:
1.
The modem is idle (no data transmission or reception) for a user-defined period of time
[Refer to ST (Time before Sleep) Command].
2.
SLEEP pin is asserted (only for Pin Sleep option).
In Sleep Mode, the modem will not transmit or receive data until the modem first transitions to
Idle Mode. All Sleep Modes are enabled and disabled using SM Command. Transitions into and
out of Sleep Modes are triggered by various mechanisms as shown in the table below.
Table 3‐01. Summary of Sleep Mode Configurations Sleep Mode
Setting
Pin Sleep
(SM = 1)
Serial Port Sleep
(SM = 2)
Cyclic Sleep
(SM = 3-8)
Transition into
Sleep Mode
A microcontroller can shut down and wake modems by
asserting (high) SLEEP pin.
Note: The module will complete a transmission or
reception before activating Pin Sleep.
Automatic transition to Sleep Mode occurs after a userdefined period of inactivity (no transmitting or receiving
of data). The period of activity is defined using the ST
(Time before Sleep) Command.
Automatic transition to Sleep Mode occurs in cycles as
defined by the SM (Sleep Mode) Command.
Note: The cyclic sleep time interval must be shorter than
the “Wake-up Initializer Timer” (set by LH Command).
Transition out of
Sleep Mode
Related
Commands
De-assert SLEEP pin.
SM
When serial byte is
received on the DI pin.
SM, ST
After the cyclic sleep time
interval elapses.
SM, ST, HT, LH,
Note: Modem can be
forced into Idle Mode if PW PW
(Pin Wake-up) Command
is issued.
For more information about Sleep Modes, refer to the individual commands listed in “Related
Commands” column of the table.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 15 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] Pin Sleep (SM = 1)
Pin Sleep requires the least amount of power. In order to achieve this state, DI3 (SLEEP) pin
must be asserted (high). The modem remains in Pin Sleep until the DI3 pin is de-asserted.
After enabling Pin Sleep, the SLEEP pin controls whether the XStream Modem is active or in Sleep
Mode. When DI3 is de-asserted (low), the modem is fully operational. When DI3 is asserted
(high), the modem transitions to Sleep Mode and remains in its lowest power-consuming state
until the DI3 (SLEEP) pin is de-asserted. DI3 is only active if the modem is setup to operate in
this mode; otherwise the pin is ignored.
Once in Pin Sleep Mode, DO2 (
) is de-asserted (high), indicating that data should not be sent
to the modem. The PWR pin is also de-asserted (low) when the modem is in Pin Sleep Mode.
Note: The module will complete a transmission or reception before activating Pin Sleep.
Serial Port Sleep (SM = 2)
Serial Port Sleep is a Sleep Mode in which the XStream Modem runs in a low power state until
serial data is detected on the DI pin.
When Serial Port Sleep is enabled, the modem goes into Sleep Mode after a user-defined period
of inactivity (no transmitting or receiving of data). This period of time is determined by ST (Time
before Sleep) Command. Once a character is received through the DI pin, the modem returns to
Idle Mode and is fully operational.
Cyclic Sleep (SM = 3-8)
Cyclic Sleep is the Sleep Mode in which the XStream Modem enters into a low-power state and
awakens periodically to determine if any transmissions are being sent.
When Cyclic Sleep settings are enabled, the XStream Modem goes into Sleep Mode after a userdefined period of inactivity (no transmission or reception on the RF channel). The user-defined
period is determined by ST (Time before Sleep) Command.
While the modem is in Cyclic Sleep Mode, DO2 (
) is de-asserted (high) to indicate that data
should not be sent to the modem during this time. When the modem awakens to listen for data,
DO2 is asserted and any data received on the DI Pin is transmitted. The PWR pin is also deasserted (low) when the modem is in Cyclic Sleep Mode.
The modem remains in Sleep Mode for a user-defined period of time ranging from 0.5 seconds to
16 seconds (SM Parameters 3 through 8). After this interval of time, the modem returns to Idle
Mode and listens for a valid data packet for 100 ms. If the modem does not detect valid data (on
any frequency), the modem returns to Sleep Mode. If valid data is detected, the modem
transitions into Receive Mode and receives incoming RF packets. The modem then returns to
Sleep Mode after a Period of inactivity that is determined by ST “Time before Sleep” Command.
The modem can also be configured to wake from cyclic sleep when SLEEP/DI3 is de-asserted
(low). To configure a modem to operate in this manner, PW (Pin Wake-up) Command must be
issued. Once DI3 is de-asserted, the modem is forced into Idle Mode and can begin transmitting
or receiving data. It remains active until no data is detected for the period of time specified by
the ST Command, at which point it resumes its low-power cyclic state.
Note: The cyclic interval time defined by SM (Sleep Mode) Command must be shorter than the interval
time defined by LH (Wake-up Initializer Timer). [Refer to figures below.]
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 16 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] Cyclic Scanning. Each RF transmission consists of an RF Initializer and payload. The wake-up
initializer contains initialization information and all receiving modems must wake during the
wake-up initializer portion of data transmission in order to be synchronized with the transmitting
modem and receive the data.
Figure 3‐05. Correct Configuration (LH > SM) Length of the wake‐up initializer exceeds the time interval of Cyclic Sleep. The receiver is guaranteed to detect the wake‐up initializer and receive the accompanying payload data. Figure 3‐06. Incorrect Configuration (LH < SM) Length of wake‐up initializer is shorter than the time interval of Cyclic Sleep. This configuration is vulnerable to the receiver waking and missing the wake‐up initializer (and therefore also the accompanying payload data). © 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 17 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 3.1.5. Command Mode
To modify or read RF module parameters, the module must first enter into Command Mode - a
state in which incoming characters are interpreted as commands and parameters. Two command
types are available for programming the RF modem: AT Commands and Binary Commands.
IMPORTANT: For modified parameter values to persist in the RF modem’s registry, changes must be
saved to non-volatile memory using the WR (Write) Command. Otherwise, parameter values are
restored to previously saved values the next time the RF modem is powered off and then on again.
AT Commands
Enter AT Command Mode:
1.
Send the 3-character command sequence “+++” and observe guard times before and after
the command characters. [Refer to “Default AT Command Mode Sequence” below.] The
“Terminal” tab (or other serial communications software) of the X-CTU Software can be used
to enter the sequence.
[OR]
2.
Assert (low) the
pin and turn the power going to the RF modem off and back on. To
achieve this result, simultaneously press the Reset [Figure 1-02a] and Config [Figure 1-02c]
switches; release the Reset Switch; then after 1 sec., release the Config Switch. The RF
Modem then enters AT Command Mode at the modem’s default baud rate.
The AT Command Mode Sequence (default parameter values are shown in parenthesis):
•
Observe Guard Time Before (ATBT = 0x0A, no characters sent for one second)
•
Enter three copies of the Command Sequence Character (ATCC = 0x2B, ASCII “+++“)
•
Observe Guard Time After (ATAT = 0x0A, no characters sent for one second)
To Send AT Commands:
Send AT commands and parameters using the syntax shown below:
Figure 3‐07. Syntax for sending AT Commands NOTE: To read a parameter value stored in a register, leave the parameter field blank.
The preceding example would change the RF modem’s destination address to “1F”. To store the
new value to non-volatile (long term) memory, the Write (ATWR) Command must follow.
System Response. When a command is sent to the modem, the modem will parse and execute
the command. Upon successful execution of a command, the modem returns an “OK” message. If
execution of a command results in an error, the modem returns an “ERROR” message.
To Exit AT Command Mode:
1.
Send ATCN (Exit Command Mode) Command.
[OR]
2.
If no valid AT Commands are received within the time specified by CT (Command Mode
Timeout) Command, the Modem automatically returns to Idle Mode.
For examples that step through the programming the modem using AT Commands, refer to the
RF Modem Configuration [p20] chapter.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 18 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] Binary Commands
Sending and receiving parameter values using binary commands is the fastest way to change
operating parameters of the XStream RF Modem. Binary commands are used most often to
sample signal strength (RS parameter) and/or error counts; or change modem addresses and
channels for polling data systems. Since the sending and receiving of register values takes place
through the same serial data path as 'live' data (received RF payload), interference between the
two types of data can be a concern.
Common questions about using binary commands:
• What are the implications of asserting CMD while live data is being sent or received?
• After sending serial data, is there a minimum time delay before CMD can be asserted?
• Is a delay required after CMD is de-asserted before payload data can be sent?
• How does one discern between live data and data received in response to a command?
The CMD pin must be asserted in order to send binary commands to the RF modem. The CMD pin
can be asserted to recognize binary commands anytime during the transmission or reception of
data. The status of the CMD signal is only checked at the end of the stop bit as the byte is shifted
into the serial port. The application does not allow control over when data is received, except by
waiting for dead time between bursts of communication.
If the command is sent in the middle of a stream of payload data to be transmitted, the
command will essentially be executed in the order it is received. If the radio is continuously
receiving data, the radio will wait for a break in the received data before executing the command.
signal will frame the response coming from the binary command request [Figure 3-08].
The
A minimum time delay of 100 µs (after the stop bit of the command byte has been sent) must be
observed before the CMD pin can be de-asserted. The command executes after all parameters
associated with the command have been sent. If all parameters are not received within 0.5
seconds, the modem returns to Idle Mode.
Note: When parameters are sent, they are two bytes long with the least significant byte sent first.
Binary commands that return one parameter byte must be written with two parameter bytes.
Refer to p21 for a binary programming example.
Commands can be queried for their current value by sending the command logically ORed (bitwise) with the value 0x80 (hexadecimal) with CMD asserted. When the binary value is sent (with
no parameters), the current value of the command parameter is sent back through the DO pin.
Figure 3‐08. Binary Command Write then Read Signal #4 is CMD Signal #1 is the DIN signal to the radio Signal #2 is the DOUT signal from the radio Signal #3 is In this graph, a value was written to a register and then read out to verify it. While not in the middle of other (DO2 pin) signal received data, note that the outlines the data response out of the modem. IMPORTANT:
For the XStream Modem to
recognize a binary command, the RT (DI2 Configuration) parameter must be set to
one. If binary programming is not enabled (RT ≠ 1), the modem will not recognize
that the CMD pin is asserted and therefore will not recognize the data as binary
commands.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 19 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 4. RF Modem Configuration 4.1. Hands-On Programming Examples
For more information about entering Command Mode, sending
commands and exiting Command Mode, refer to the Command Mode
section [p18].
4.1.1. Configuration Setup Options
After installing the X-CTU and Com Port Redirector Software [refer to
p8] to a PC, use one of the connection options below to send
commands to the XStream-PKG-E Ethernet RF Modem.
Examples in this section cite the use of MaxStream’s X‐CTU Software for programming the RF modem. Other programs such as Telnet Software can also be used to program the modem.
Option #1 – Local Network Connection
Connect a PC and the Ethernet RF Modem to active Ethernet connections of the same local
network [as shown in the figure below].
Figure 4‐01. Local Network Connection Option #2 – Direct PC Connection
Connect the Ethernet RF Modem directly to the PC through the PC’s Ethernet port [as shown in
the figure below].
Figure 4‐02. Direct PC Connection Configuration Setup:
1.
Install both the X-CTU Software and the Ethernet Com Port Redirector [Refer to the ‘Install
Software’ [p8] section for more information].
2.
Connect the Ethernet RF Modem to a PC using either a Local Network [p20] or a Direct PC
[20] connection.
3.
Follow the steps outlined in the ‘Ethernet RF Modem Discovery’ section [p9] to identify the
com port that will be used to configure the RF modem.
4.
Launch the X-CTU Software on the PC and select the PC Settings tab.
5.
Make sure values shown in the fields of the ‘Com Port Setup’ section match those of the
Ethernet RF Modem.
[This example is continued on the following page]
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 20 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 4.1.2. AT Command Examples
Send AT Commands (Using the X-CTU Terminal Tab):
After following the steps outlined in the Configuration Setup section [previous page], the RF
modem is ready to be programmed. The following steps utilize the Terminal tab of the X-CTU
Software to read and write parameter values.
1.
Highlight the Com Port from the ‘Select Com Port’ list that is mapped to the Ethernet RF
Modem.
2.
Select the Terminal tab; then enter the following characters:
Sent AT Command
+++
ATDT <Enter>
ATDT1A0D <Enter>
ATWR <Enter>
ATCN <Enter>
System Response
OK <CR> (Enter RF modem into AT Command Mode)
0 <CR> (Read Current destination address)
OK <CR> (Change destination address to 0x1A0D)
OK <CR> (Write new value to non-volatile memory)
OK <CR> (Exit AT Command Mode)
NOTE: Multiple commands can be sent on one command line. The following command line entries
will yield the same results as above. Commands must be separated by a comma (“,”).
Sent AT Command
+++
ATDT <Enter>
ATDT1A0D, WR, CN <Enter>
System Response
OK <CR> (Enter RF modem into AT Command Mode)
0 <CR> (Read Current destination address)
OK <CR> (Execute multiple commands)
Both of the preceding examples change the RF modem destination address. If the RF modem is
to communicate with other RF modems, their destination addresses must match.
Send AT Commands (Using the X-CTU Modem Configuration Tab):
After following the steps outlined in the Configuration Setup section [previous page], the RF
modem is ready to be programmed. The following steps utilize the Modem Configuration tab of
the X-CTU Software to read currently stored parameter values; then restore the modem
parameters to their factory-default states.
1.
Highlight the Com Port from the ‘Select Com Port’ list that is mapped to the Ethernet RF
Modem.
2.
Select the Modem Configuration tab.
3.
Select the ‘Read’ button. (Currently stored parameter values are displayed.)
4.
Select the ‘Restore’ button. (Original default parameter values are restored and written to
the RF modem’s non-volatile memory.)
4.1.3. Binary Command Example
Send Binary Commands:
Example: Use binary commands to change the XStream Modem’s destination address to 0x1A0D
and save the new address to non-volatile memory.
1.
RT Command must be set to “1” in AT Command Mode to enable binary programming.
2.
Assert CMD (Pin is driven high).
3.
Send Bytes [Parameter bytes must be 2 bytes long]:
00
(Send DT (Destination Address) Command)
0D
(Least significant byte of parameter bytes)
1A
(Most significant byte of parameter bytes)
08
(Send WR (Write) Command)
4.
De-assert CMD (Pin is driven low).
(Enter Binary Command Mode)
(Exit Binary Command Mode)
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 21 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 4.2. Command Reference Table
Table 4‐01. XStream Commands (The RF modem expects numeric values in hexadecimal. ‘d’ denotes decimal equivalents.) AT
Command
AM v4.30*
AT
Binary
Command
0x3A (58d)
0x05 (5d)
AT Command Name
Range
Command Category
Auto-set MY
Guard Time After
0x02 – 0xFFFF [x 100 msec]
Standard baud rates: 0 – 6
(custom rates also supported)
0–1
0 - 0xFFFF [x 1 second]
0 – 0xFFFF [x 100 msec]
0x01 – 0xFFFF [x 100 msec]
0x20 – 0x7F
0–4
0 – 0xFFFF [x 10 msec]
0 – 0xFFFF
[read-only]
0–1
0 - 0xFFFF [x 1 second]
0–4
0x02 – 0xFFFF [x 100 msec]
0–4
0 – 0xFFFF
0 – 0xFFFF
0–1
0 – 0xFF [bytes]
0 – 0xFFFF
0–6
0 – 0xFFFF [x 100 msec]
User-settable: 0x10 - 0x7FFF
Read-only: 0x8000 – 0xFFFF
0 - 0xFFFF [x 100 msec]
0 – 0xFF [x 100 msec]
0–4
0 – 0xFFFF
0 – 0xFFFF
0–5
0–1
0 - 0x100 [bytes]
0–1
0 - 0x100 [bytes]
0 – 0xFF [slots]
0 – 0xFFFF [x 200 µsec]
0 - 0x7F [x 100 msec]
0 – 0xFF
0x06 – 0x36 [read-only]
0-2
[read-only]
0-1
0 – 0xFFFF [read-only]
0 – 0xFFFF [read-only]
0–8
0x10 – 0xFFFF [x 100 msec]
0 – 0xFF [x 100 msec]
0 - 0xFFFF (x 1 sec)
0 – 0xFFFF
0 – 0xFFFF [0 = disabled]
0 x 0xFFFF [read-only]
-
Networking & Security
Command Mode Options
# Bytes
Returned
2
BD v4.2B*
0x15 (21d)
Baud Rate
BK v4.30*
BO v4.30*
BT
CB v4.30*
CC
CD v4.2B*
CE v4.30*
CF v4.30*
CL v4.30*
CM v4.30*
CN
CO v4.30*
CS v4.27D*
CT
DC v4.30*
DR v4.30*
DT
E0
E1
ER
FH
FL
FT v4.27B*
GD
HP
HT
0x2E (46d)
0x30 (48d)
0x04 (4d)
0x33 (51d)
0x13 (19d)
0x28 (40d)
0x34 (52d)
0x35 (53d)
0x39 (57d)
0x38 (56d)
0x09 (9d)
0x2F (47d)
0x1F (31d)
0x06 (6d)
0x37 (55d)
0x2D (45d)
0x00 (0d)
0x0A (10d)
0x0B (11d)
0x0F (15d)
0x0D (13d)
0x07 (7d)
0x24 (36d)
0x10 (16d)
0x11 (17d)
0x03 (3d)
Serial Break Passing
Serial Break Timeout
Guard Time Before
Connection Duration Timeout
Command Sequence Character
DO3 Configuration
Connection Inactivity Timeout
Connection Failure Count
Last Connection Address
Connection Message
Exit AT Command Mode
DO3 Timeout
DO2 Configuration
Command Mode Timeout
Disconnect
DI3 Configuration
Destination Address
Echo Off
Echo On
Receive Error Count
Force Wake-up Initializer
Software Flow Control
Flow Control Threshold
Receive Good Count
Hopping Channel
Time before Wake-up Initializer
ID v4.2B*
0x27 (39d)
Modem VID
IU v4.30*
LH
MD v4.30*
MK
MY v4.30*
NB v4.30*
PC v4.22*
PK v4.30*
PW v4.22*
RB v4.30*
RE
RN v4.22*
RO v4.2A*
RP v4.2A*
RR v4.22*
RS v4.22*
RT
RZ v4.30*
SB v4.2B*
SH v4.27C*
SL v4.27C*
SM
ST
SY
TO v4.30*
TR v4.22*
TT v4.22*
VR
WR
0x3B (59d)
0x0C (12d)
0x32 (50d)
0x12 (18d)
0x2A (42d)
0x23 (35d)
0x1E (30d)
0x29 (41d)
0x1D (29d)
0x20 (32d)
0x0E (14d)
0x19 (25d)
0x21 (33d)
0x22 (34d)
0x18 (24d)
0x1C (28d)
0x16 (22d)
0x2C (44d)
0x36 (54d)
0x25 (37d)
0x26 (38d)
0x01 (1d)
0x02 (2d)
0x17 (23d)
0x31 (49d)
0x1B (27d)
0x1A (26d)
0x14 (20d)
0x08 (8d)
DI2, DI3 Update Timer
Wake-up Initializer Timer
RF Mode
Address Mask
Source Address
Parity
Power-up Mode
RF Packet Size
Pin Wake-up
Packetization Threshold
Restore Defaults
Delay Slots
Packetization Timeout
RSSI PWM Timer
Retries
RSSI
DI2 Configuration
DI Buffer Size
Stop Bits
Serial Number High
Serial Number Low
Sleep Mode
Time before Sleep
Time before Initialization
DO2 Timeout
Transmit Error Count
Streaming Limit
Firmware Version
Write
Serial Interfacing
2
Serial Interfacing
Serial Interfacing
Command Mode Options
Networking & Security
Command Mode Options
Serial Interfacing
Networking & Security
Networking & Security
Diagnostics
Networking & Security
Command Mode Options
Serial Interfacing
Serial Interfacing
Command Mode Options
Networking & Security
Serial Interfacing
Networking & Security
Command Mode Options
Command Mode Options
Diagnostics
Sleep (Low Power)
Serial Interfacing
Serial Interfacing
Diagnostics
Networking & Security
Sleep (Low Power)
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
Factory
Default
0x0A (10d)
factory-set
RF data rate
0
0
0x0A (10d)
0x28 (4d sec)
0x2B (“+”)
0
0x64 (1d sec)
0
0
0x03
0
0xC8 (200d)
0
0
0
0
varies
0
0
0xFFFF
Networking & Security
2
-
Serial Interfacing
Sleep (Low Power)
Networking & Security
Networking & Security
Networking & Security
Serial Interfacing
Command Mode Options
Serial Interfacing
Sleep (Low Power)
Serial Interfacing
(Special)
Networking & Security
Serial Interfacing
Diagnostics
Networking & Security
Diagnostics
Serial Interfacing
Diagnostics
Serial Interfacing
Diagnostics
Diagnostics
Sleep (Low Power)
Sleep (Low Power)
Networking & Security
Serial Interfacing
Diagnostics
Networking & Security
Diagnostics
(Special)
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
-
0x0A (10d)
0x01
0
0xFFFF
0xFFFF
0
0
0x40 (64d)
0
0x01
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0x64 (100d)
0 (disabled)
0x03
0
0xFFFF
-
* Firmware version in which the command and parameter options were first supported. © 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary NOTE: AT Commands issued without a parameter value will return the currently stored parameter. 22 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 4.3. Command Descriptions
Commands in this section are listed alphabetically. Command categories are designated between
the “< >” symbols that follow each command title. XStream Modems expect numerical values in
hexadecimal and those values are designated by a “0x” prefix.
AM (Auto-set MY) Command
<Networking & Security> AM Command is used
to automatically set the MY (Source Address)
AT Command: ATAM
Binary Command: 0x3A (58 decimal)
Minimum firmware version required: 4.40
parameter from the factory-set modem serial
number. The address is formed with bits 29, 28 and 13-0 of the serial number (in that order).
AT (Guard Time After) Command
<Command Mode Options> AT Command is
used to set the time-of-silence that follows the
command sequence character (CC Command).
By default, AT Command Mode will activate
after one second of silence.
Refer to the AT Command Mode section to view
the default AT Command Mode Sequence.
AT Command: ATAT
Binary Command: 0x05 (5 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0x02 – 0xFFFF
[x 100 milliseconds]
Number of bytes returned: 2
Default Parameter Value: 0x0A (10 decimal)
Related Commands: BT (Guard Time Before), CC
(Command Sequence Character)
BD (Interface Data Rate) Command
<Serial Interfacing> BD Command allows the
user to adjust the UART interface data rate and
thus modify the rate at which serial data is sent
to the RF modem. The new baud rate does not
take effect until the CN command is issued. The
RF data rate is unaffected by the BD parameter.
Most applications will require one of the seven
standard baud rates; however, non-standard
baud rates are also supported.
Note: If the serial data rate is set to exceed the
fixed RF data rate of the XStream modem,
flow control may need to be implemented as
described in the Flow Control sections.
Non-standard Interface Data Rates: When
values outside the range of standard baud rates
are sent, the closest rate represented by the
AT Command: ATBD
Binary Command: 0x15 (21 decimal)
Parameter Range (Standard baud rates): 0 – 6
(Non-standard baud rates): 0x7D – 0xFFFF
BAUD (bps)
Parameter
Configuration
0
1200
1
2400
2
4800
3
9600
4
19200
5
38400
6
57600
Number of bytes returned: 2
Default Parameter Value: Set to equal modem’s
factory-set RF data rate.
Minimum firmware version required: 4.2B
(Custom baud rates not previously supported)
number is stored in the BD register. For example,
a rate of 19200 bps can be set by sending the following command line: ATBD4B00. NOTE: When
using X-CTU Software, non-standard interface data rates can only be set and read using the XCTU ‘Terminal’ tab. Non-standard rates are not accessible through the ‘Modem Configuration’ tab.
When a non-standard interface data rate is sent, the UART will adjust to accommodate the
requested rate. In most cases, clock resolution will cause the stored BD parameter to vary from
the parameter that was sent (refer to the table below). Reading the BD command will return the
value that was actually stored to the BD register.
Table 4‐02. Parameter Sent vs. Parameter Stored BD Parameter Sent (HEX)
0
4
7
12C
1C200
Interface Data Rate (bps)
1200
19,200
115,200
300
115,200
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary BD Parameter Stored (HEX)
0
4
7
12B
1B207
23 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] BK (Serial Break Passing) Command
<Serial Interfacing> Pass a serial break condition
on the DI pin to the DO pin of another modem.
AT Command: ATBK
Binary Command: 0x2E (46 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 1
Parameter
Configuration
0
disable
1
enable
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Related Commands: BO (Serial Break Timeout)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.30
BO (Serial Break Timeout) Command
<Serial Interfacing> DO pin will return to default
AT Command: ATBO
after no serial break status information is
received during the timeout period.
Binary Command: 0x30 (48 decimal)
Use with BK parameter = 1.
Default Parameter Value: 0
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF [x 1 second]
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: BK (Serial Break Passing)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.30
BT (Guard Time Before) Command
<Command Mode Options> BT Command is used
AT Command: ATBT
to set the DI pin silence time that must precede
Binary Command: 0x04 (4 decimal)
the command sequence character (CC Command)
of the AT Command Mode Sequence.
Refer to the AT Command Mode section to view
the default AT Command Mode Sequence.
Parameter Range: 2 – 0xFFFF
[x 100 milliseconds]
Default Parameter Value: 0x0A (10 decimal)
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: AT (Guard Time After),
CC (Command Sequence Character)
CB (Connection Duration Timeout) Command
<Networking & Security> Set/Read the
AT Command: ATCB
maximum amount of time an exclusive
Binary Command: 0x33 (51 decimal)
connection between a base and remote modem
Parameter Range: 0x01 – 0xFFFF
[x 100 milliseconds]
in a point-to-multipoint network is sustained. The
remote modem will disconnect when this timeout
expires.
Default Parameter Value: 0x28 (4d seconds)
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: CE (Connection Inactivity
Timeout), DC (Disconnect), MD (RF Mode)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.30
CC (Command Sequence Character) Command
<Command Mode Options> The CC Command is
AT Command: ATCC
used to set the ASCII character used between
Binary Command: 0x13 (19 decimal)
Guard Times of the AT Command Mode Sequence
(BT + CC + AT). The AT Command Mode
Sequence activates AT Command Mode.
Refer to the AT Command Mode section to view
the default AT Command Mode Sequence.
Parameter Range: 0x20 – 0x7F
Default Parameter Value: 0x2B (ASCII “+” sign)
Number of bytes returned: 1
Related Commands: AT (Guard Time After), BT
(Guard Time Before)
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 24 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] CD (DO3 Configuration) Command
<Command Mode Options> CD Command is used
to redefine the behavior of the DO3/RX LED line.
AT Command: ATCD
Binary Command: 0x28 (40 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 2
Parameter
Configuration
0
RX LED
1
Default high
2
Default low
3
(reserved)
Assert only when packet
addressed to module sent
4
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.2B
CE (Connection Inactivity Timeout) Command
<Networking & Security> Set/Read the duration
of inactivity that will cause a break in a
connection between modems. The base modem
will disconnect when no payload has been
transferred for the time specified by the CE
parameter.
AT Command: ATCE
Binary Command: 0x34 (52 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF
[x 10 milliseconds]
Default Parameter Value: 0x64 (1d second)
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: CB ( Connection Duration
Timeout), DC (Disconnect), MD (RF Mode)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.30
CF (Connection Failure Count) Command
<Diagnostics> Set/Read the number of times the
base modem expired retries attempting to send a
Connection Grant Packet.
Set the parameter value to zero to clear the
register.
AT Command: ATCF
Binary Command: 0x35 (53 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 2
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.30
CL (Last Connection Address) Command
<Diagnostics/Networking & Security> Read the
address of the remote modem that last
connected to the base modem. A remote modem
will return its DT (Destination Address)
parameter.
AT Command: ATCL
Binary Command: 0x39 (57 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF [read-only]
Number of bytes returned: 2
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.30
CM (Connection Message) Command
sends connect messages to the host when a
AT Command: ATCM
Binary Command: 0x38 (56 decimal)
connection is established. When enabled, a
Parameter Range: 0 – 1
“CONNECTXXXX” string is sent to the host of the
Parameter
Configuration
0
enable
1
disable
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.30
<Networking & Security> Select whether base
base modem. “XXXX” is the MY (Source Address)
of the connected remote modem.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 25 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] CN (Exit AT Command Mode) Command
<Command Mode Options> CN Command is used
to explicitly exit AT Command Mode.
AT Command: ATCN
Binary Command: 0x09 (9 decimal)
CO (DO3 Timeout) Command
<Serial Interfacing> DO3 (Data Output 3) output
AT Command: ATCO
will return to default after no DI3 (Data Input 3)
Binary Command: 0x2F (47 decimal)
status information is received during the timeout
period.
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF [x 1 second]
Use with CD = 1 or 2, DR = 1.
Number of bytes returned: 2
Default Parameter Value: 3
Related Commands: CD (DO3 Configuration),
DR (DI3 Configuration)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.30
CS (DO2 Configuration) Command
select the behavior of the DO2 pin signal. This
AT Command: ATCS
Binary Command: 0x1F (31 decimal)
output can provide RS-232 flow control, control
Parameter Range: 0 – 4
<Serial Interfacing> CS Command is used to
Parameter
0
1
2
3
4
the TX enable signal (for RS-485 or RS-422
operations), or set the default level for the I/O
line passing function.
By default, DO2 provides RS-232
Send) flow control.
(Clear-to-
Configuration
flow control
RS-232
RS-485 TX enable low
high
RS-485 TX enable high
low
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Related Commands: RT (DI2 Configuration),
TO (DO2 Timeout)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.27D
CT (Command Mode Timeout) Command
<Command Mode Options> CT Command sets
the amount of time before AT Command Mode
terminates automatically. After a CT time of
AT Command: ATCT
Binary Command: 0x06 (6 decimal)
and returns to Idle Mode. AT Command Mode can
Parameter Range: 0x02 – 0xFFFF
[x 100 milliseconds]
also be exited manually using CN (Exit AT
Command Mode) Command.
Default Parameter Value: 0xC8 (200 decimal,
20 seconds)
inactivity, the modem exits AT Command Mode
Number of bytes returned: 2
DC (Disconnect) Command
<Networking & Security> DC Command is used
AT Command: ATDC
(when in Multi-Streaming Mode (MD = 1 or 2))
Binary Command: 0x37 (55 decimal)
to explicitly force the disconnection of an active
Related Commands: CB (Connection Duration
Timeout), CE (Connection Inactivity Timeout),
MD (RF Mode)
exclusive connection. If MD = 1, the base
modem will force the disconnection of an
exclusive connection. If MD = 2, the remote
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.30
modem will send a “Disconnect Request Packet”
to the base modem.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 26 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] DR (DI3 Configuration) Command
<Serial Interfacing> The DR Command is used to
AT Command: ATDR
configure the DI3 (Data Input 3 / SLEEP) line for
Binary Command: 0x2D (45 decimal)
I/O line passing (use with CD = 1 or 2 and CO)
or controlling connection status (use with MD = 1
or 2).
Parameter Range: 0 – 4
Parameter
Configuration
0
Disabled
1
DI3 I/O passing enabled
2
Connect on low
3
Disconnect on high
4
Connect and Disconnect
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Related Commands: CD (DO3 Configuration),
CO (DO3 Timeout), MD (RF Mode)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.30
DT (Destination Address) Command
<Networking> DT Command is used to set the
networking address of an XStream Modem.
XStream Modems uses three network layers –
Vendor Identification Number (ATID), Channels
(ATHP), and Destination Addresses (ATDT). DT
AT Command: ATDT
Binary Command: 0x00
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF
Default Parameter Value: 0
Command assigns an address to a modem that
Number of bytes returned: 2
enables it to communicate only with other
Related Commands: HP (Hopping Channel), ID
(Modem VID), MK (Address Mask)
modems having the same addresses. All modems
that share the same Destination Address can
communicate freely with each other. Modems in the same network with a different Destination
Address (than that of the transmitter) will listen to all transmissions to stay synchronized, but will
not send any of the data out their serial ports.
E0 (Echo Off) Command
<Command Mode Options> E0 Command turns
off character echo in AT Command Mode. By
default, echo is off.
AT Command: ATE0
Binary Command: 0x0A (10 decimal)
E1 (Echo On) Command
<Command Mode Options> E1 Command turns
on the echo in AT Command Mode. Each typed
character will be echoed back to the terminal
when ATE1 is active. E0 is the default.
AT Command: ATE1
Binary Command: 0x0B (11 decimal)
ER (Receive Error Count) Command
<Diagnostics> Set/Read the receive-error. The
error-count records the number of packets
partially received then aborted on a reception
error. This value returns to 0 after a reset and is
not non-volatile (Value does not persist in the
AT Command: ATER
Binary Command: 0x0F (15 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF
Default Parameter Value: 0
modem’s memory after a power-up sequence).
Number of bytes returned: 2
Once the “Receive Error Count” reaches its
Related Commands: GD (Receive Good Count)
maximum value (up to 0xFFFF), it remains at its
maximum count value until the maximum count value is explicitly changed or the modem is
reset.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 27 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] FH (Force Wake-up Initializer) Command
<Sleep (Low Power)> FH Command is used to
force a Wake-up Initializer to be sent on the next
transmit. WR (Write) Command does not need to
be issued with FH Command.
AT Command: ATFH
Binary Command: 0x0D (13 decimal)
Use only with cyclic sleep modes active on remote modems.
FL (Software Flow Control) Command
<Serial Interfacing> FL Command is used to
AT Command: ATFL
configure software flow control. Hardware flow
Binary Command: 0x07 (7 decimal)
control is implemented with the XStream Modem
as the DO2 pin (
), which regulates when
Parameter Range: 0 – 1
Parameter
serial data can be transferred to the modem. FL
0
Command can be used to allow software flow
control to also be enabled. XON character used is
0x11 (17 decimal). XOFF character used is 0x13
(19 decimal).
1
Configuration
Disable software
flow control
Enable software
flow control
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
FT (Flow Control Threshold) Command
<Serial Interfacing> Set/Read the flow control
threshold. When FT bytes have accumulated in
is de-asserted or the XOFF
the DI buffer,
software flow control character is transmitted.
AT Command: ATFT
Binary Command: 0x24 (36 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – (Receiving modem DO
buffer size minus 0x11 bytes)
Default Parameter Value: Receiving modem DO
Buffer size minus 0x11
Number of bytes returned: 2
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.27B
GD (Receive Good Count) Command
<Diagnostics> Set/Read the count of good
received RF packets. Parameter value is reset to
0 after every reset and is not non-volatile (Value
does not persist in the modem’s memory after a
power-up sequence). Once the “Receive Good
AT Command: ATGD
Binary Command: 0x10 (16 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF
Default Parameter Value: 0
Count” reaches its maximum value (up to
Number of bytes returned: 2
0xFFFF), it remains at its maximum count value
Related Commands: ER (Receive Error Count)
until the maximum count value is manually
changed or the modem is reset.
HP (Hopping Channel) Command
<Networking> HP Command is used to set the
modem’s hopping channel number. A channel is
one of three layers of addressing available to the
XStream modem. In order for modems to
communicate with each other, the modems must
AT Command: ATHP
Binary Command: 0x11 (17 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 6
Default Parameter Value: 0
have the same channel number since each
Number of bytes returned: 1
network uses a different hopping sequence.
Related Commands: DT (Destination Address),
ID (Modem VID), MK (Address Mask)
Different channels can be used to prevent
modems in one network from listening to
transmissions of another.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 28 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] HT (Time before Wake-up Initializer) Command
<Sleep (Low Power)> If any modems within
range are running in a “Cyclic Sleep” setting, a
wake-up initializer must be used by the
transmitting modem for sleeping modems to
remain awake [refer to the LH (“Wake-up
Initializer Timer”) Command]. When a receiving
modem in Cyclic Sleep wakes, it must detect the
wake-up initializer in order to remain awake and
receive data. The value of HT Parameter tells the
transmitter, “After a period of inactivity (no
transmitting or receiving) lasting HT amount of
AT Command: ATHT
Binary Command: 0x03 (3 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF
[x 100 milliseconds]
Default Parameter Value: 0xFFFF (means that
long wake-up initializer will not be sent)
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: LH (Wake-up Initializer
Timer), SM (Sleep Mode), ST (Time before
Sleep)
time, send a long wake-up initializer”. HT
Parameter should be set to match the inactivity timeout [specified by ST (Time before Sleep)
Command] used by the receiver(s).
From the receiving modem perspective, after HT time elapses and the inactivity timeout [ST
Command] is met, the receiver goes into cyclic sleep. In cyclic sleep, the receiver wakes once per
sleep interval to check for a wake-up initializer. When a wake-up initializer is detected, the
modem will stay awake to receive data. The wake-up initializer must be longer than the cyclic
sleep interval to ensure that sleeping modems detect incoming data. When HT time elapses, the
transmitter then knows that it needs to send a long Wake-up Initializer for all receivers to be able
to remain awake and receive the next transmission. Matching HT to the time specified by ST on
the receiving modem guarantees that all receivers will detect the next transmission.
ID (Modem VID) Command
<Networking> Read the modem’s VID. VID is a
MaxStream-specific acronym that stands for
“Vendor Identification Number”. This number is
factory-set and allows modems with matching
VIDs to communicate. Modems with nonmatching VIDs will not receive unintended data
transmission.
AT Command: ATID
Binary Command: 0x27 (39 decimal)
Parameter Range (user-settable):
0x10 - 0x7FFFF
(Factory-set and read-only) :
0x8000 – 0xFFFF
Number of bytes returned: 2
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.2B
(Previous versions did not support usersettable VIDs)
IU (DI2, DI3 Update Timer) Command
<Serial Interfacing> Set/Read the interval at
AT Command: ATIU
which the status of DI2, DI3 and Break is
Binary Command: 0x3B (59 decimal)
transmitted. Additionally, status is transmitted
Parameter Range: 0 - 0xFFFF [x 100 ms]
whenever there is a transition. A setting of “0”
disables periodic update. DI2 or DI3 passing
must be enabled for the update to take place.
Default Parameter Value: 0x0A (10 decimal)
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: BK (Serial Break Passing),
BO (Serial Break Timeout), CO (DO3 Timeout),
DR (Disconnect), RT (DI2 Configuration), TO
(DO2 Timeout)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.30
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 29 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] LH (Wake-up Initializer Timer) Command
<Sleep (Low Power)> LH Command adjusts the
duration of time for which the RF initializer is
sent. When receiving modems are put into Cyclic
Sleep Mode, they power-down after a period of
inactivity [specified by ST (Time before Sleep)
Command] and will periodically awaken and listen
AT Command: ATLH
Binary Command: 0x0C (12 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFF
[x 100 milliseconds]
Default Parameter Value: 1
for transmitted data. In order for the receiving
Number of bytes returned: 1
modems to remain awake, they must detect
~35ms of the wake-up initializer.
Related Commands: HT (Time before Wake-up
Initializer), SM (Sleep Mode), ST (Time before
Sleep)
LH Command must be used whenever a receiver
is operating in Cyclic Sleep Mode. This lengthens the Wake-up Initializer to a specific amount of
time (in tenths of a second). The Wake-up Initializer Time must be longer than the cyclic sleep
time that is determined by SM (Sleep Mode) Command. If the wake-up initializer time were less
than the Cyclic Sleep interval, the connection would be at risk of missing the wake-up initializer
transmission.
Refer to Figures 4-03 & 4-04 of the SM Command description to view diagrams of correct and
incorrect configurations. The images help visualize the importance that the value of LH be greater
than the value of SM.
MD (RF Mode) Command
<Networking & Security> The MD command is
AT Command: ATMD
used to select/read the RF Mode (Peer-to-peer,
Multi-Stream or Repeater Modes) of the modem.
Binary Command: 0x32 (50 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 4
Multi-Streaming Mode enables exclusive
connections in point-to-multipoint networks.
Refer to the Multi-Streaming Mode section [p46]
for more information regarding how these
parameter values affect other parameter values.
Repeater Mode enables longer range via an
intermediary modem. When MD=3, the modem
will act as a “store and forward” repeater. Any
packets not addressed to this node will be
repeated. A Repeater End Node (MD=4) handles
repeated messages, but will not forward the data
over-the-air. Refer to the Repeater Mode section
[p41] for more information.
Parameter
Configuration
0
Peer-to-Peer (Transparent)
1
Multi-Stream Base
2
Multi-Stream Remote
3
Repeater
4
Repeater End Node
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Related Commands: CB (Connection Duration
Timeout), CE (Connection Inactivity Timeout),
CM (Connection Message), DC (Disconnect)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.30
MK (Address Mask) Command
<Networking> MK Command is used to set/read
the Address Mask.
AT Command: ATMK
All data packets contain the Destination Address
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF
of the transmitting modem. When an RF data
packet is received, the transmitter’s Destination
Address is logically “ANDed” (bitwise) with the
Address Mask of the receiver. The resulting value
must match the Destination Address or the
Address Mask of the receiver for the packet to be
received and sent out the modem’s DO serial
port. If the “ANDed” value does not match either
the Destination Address or the Address Mask of
Binary Command: 0x12 (18 decimal)
Default Parameter Value: 0xFFFF
(Destination address (DT parameter) of the
transmitting modem must exactly match the
destination address of the receiving modem.)
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: DT (Destination Address),
HP (Hopping Channel), ID (Modem VID), MY
(Source Address)
the receiver, the packet is discarded. (All “0” values are treated as “irrelevant” values and are
ignored.)
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 30 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] MY (Source Address) Command
<Networking & Security> Set/Read the source
address of the modem.
AT Command: ATMY
Refer to the Addressing section [p39] of the RF
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF
Communication Modes chapter for more
information.
Binary Command: 0x2A (42 decimal)
Default Parameter Value: 0xFFFF (Disabled –
the DT (Destination Address) parameter serves
as both source and destination address.)
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: DT (Destination Address),
HP (Hopping Channel), ID (Modem VID), MK
(Address Mask), AM (Auto-set MY)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.30
NB (Parity) Command
<Serial Interfacing> Select/Read parity settings
for UART communications.
AT Command: ATNB
Binary Command: 0x23 (35 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 4
Parameter
Configuration
8-bit (no parity or
7-bit (any parity)
8-bit even
0
1
2
8-bit odd
3
8-bit mark
4
8-bit space
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.27B
PC (Power-up Mode) Command
<Command Mode Options> The PC Command
AT Command: ATPC
allows the modem to power-up directly into AT
Binary Command: 0x1E (30 decimal)
Command Mode from reset or power-on. If PC
Command is enabled with SM Parameter set to 1,
Parameter Range: 0 – 1
Parameter
Configuration
modem into AT Command Mode. When the DI3
0
pin is de-asserted (low), the modem will Wake-up
1
Power-up to Idle Mode
Power-up to
AT Command Mode
the DI3 Pin (SLEEP) can be used to enter the
into AT Command Mode. This behavior allows
modem DTR emulation.
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.22
PK (RF Packet Size) Command
<Serial Interfacing> Set/Read the maximum size
AT Command: ATPK
of the RF packets sent out a transmitting
Binary Command: 0x29 (41 decimal)
modem. The maximum packet size can be used
Parameter Range: 0 – 0x100 [Bytes]
along with the RB and RO parameters to
implicitly set the channel dwell time.
Default Parameter Value: 0x40 (64 decimal)
Number of bytes returned: 2
secondary effect on the RB (Packet Control
Related Commands: RB (Packetization
Threshold), RO (Packetization Timeout)
Characters) parameter. RB must always be less
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.30
Changes to this parameter may have a
than or equal to PK. If PK is changed to a value
less than the current value of RB, RB is automatically lowered to be equal to PK.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 31 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] PW (Pin Wake-up) Command
<Sleep (Low Power)> Under normal operation, a
AT Command: ATPW
modem in Cyclic Sleep Mode cycles from an
Binary Command: 0x1D (29 decimal)
active state to a low-power state at regular
intervals until data is ready to be received. If the
Parameter Range: 0 – 1
PW Parameter is set to 1, the SLEEP/DI3 Pin can
be used to awaken the modem from Cyclic Sleep.
If the SLEEP Pin is de-asserted (low), the modem
will be fully operational and will not go into Cyclic
Parameter
Configuration
0
Disabled
1
Enabled
Default Parameter Value: 0
Sleep. Once SLEEP is asserted, the modem will
Number of bytes returned: 1
remain active for the period of time specified by
ST (Time before Sleep) Command, and will return
Related Commands: SM (Sleep Mode), ST (Time
before Sleep)
to Cyclic Sleep Mode (if no data is ready to be
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.22
transmitted). PW Command is only valid if Cyclic
Sleep has been enabled.
RB (Packetization Threshold) Command
<Serial Interfacing> RF transmission will
commence when data is in the DI Buffer and
either of the following criteria are met:
• RO times out on the UART receive lines
(ignored if RO = 0)
• RB characters have been received by the
UART (ignored if RB = 0)
If PK is lowered below the value of RB; RB is
automatically lowered to match PK.
AT Command: ATRB
Binary Command: 0x20 (32 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0x100 [bytes]
(Maximum value equals the current value of PK
Parameter (up to 0x100 HEX (800 decimal))
Default Parameter Value: 1
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: PK (RF Packet Size), RO
(Packetization Timeout)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.30
Note: RB and RO criteria only apply to the first packet of a multi-packet transmission. If data
remains in the DI Buffer after the first packet, transmissions will continue in streaming manner
until there is no data left in the DI Buffer (UART receive buffer).
RE (Restore Defaults) Command
<Diagnostics> RE Command restores all
AT Command: ATRE
configurable parameters to factory default
Binary Command: 0x0E (14 decimal)
settings. However, RE Command will not write
the default values to non-volatile (persistent) memory. Unless the WR (Write) Command is issued
after the RE command, the default settings will not be saved in the event of modem reset or
power-down.
RN (Delay Slots) Command
<Networking> RN Command is only applicable if
AT Command: ATRN
retries have been enabled [RR (Retries)
Binary Command: 0x19 (25 decimal)
Command], or if forced delays will be inserted
into a transmission [see TT (Streaming Limit)
Command]. RN Command is used to adjust the
time delay that the transmitter inserts before
attempting to resend a packet. If the transmitter
fails to receive an acknowledgement after
sending a packet, it will insert a random number
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFF [slots]
Default Parameter Value: 0 (no delay slots
inserted)
Number of bytes returned: 1
Related Commands: RR (Retries), TT
(Streaming Limit)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.22
of delay slots (ranging from 0 to (RN minus 1))
before attempting to resend the packet. Each delay slot lasts for a period of 38ms.
If two modems attempted to transmit at the same time, the random time delay after packet
failure would allow one of the two modems to transmit the packet successfully, while the other
would wait until the channel opens up to begin transmission.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 32 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] RO (Packetization Timeout) Command
<Serial Interfacing> RO Command is used to
specify/read the time of silence (no bytes
received) after which transmission begins. After a
serial byte is received and if no other byte is
received before the RO timeout, the transmission
will start.
AT Command: ATRO
Binary Command: 0x21 (33 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF [x 200 µs]
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 2
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.2AA
RP (RSSI PWM Timer) Command
<Diagnostics> RP Command is used to enable a
PWM (“Pulse Width Modulation”) output on the
Config pin which is calibrated to show the level
the received RF signal is above the sensitivity
level of the modem. The PWM pulses vary from
zero to 95 percent. Zero percent means the
AT Command: ATRP
Binary Command: 0x22 (34 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 - 0x7F
[x 100 milliseconds]
Default Parameter Value: 0 (disabled)
received RF signal is at or below the published
Number of bytes returned: 1
sensitivity level of the modem. The following
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.2AA
table shows levels above sensitivity and PWM
values.
The total period of the PWM output is 8.32 ms. There are 40 steps in the PWM output and
therefore the minimum step size is 0.208 ms.
Table 4‐03. PWM Chart dBm above Sensitivity
PWM percentage (high period / total period)
10
47.5
20
62.5
30
77.5
A non-zero value defines the time that the PWM output will be active with the RSSI value of the
last received RF packet. After the set time when no RF packets are received, the PWM output will
be set low (0 percent PWM) until another RF packet is received. The PWM output will also be set
low at power-up. A parameter value of 0xFF permanently enables the PWM output and it will
always reflect the value of the last received RF packet.
PWM output shares the Config input pin. When the modem is powered, the Config pin will be an
input. During the power-up sequence, the Config pin will be read to determine whether the
modem is going into AT Command Mode. After this, if RP parameter is a non-zero value, the
Config pin will be configured as an output and set low until the first RF packet is received. With a
non-zero RP parameter, the Config pin will be an input for RP ms after power up.
RR (Retries) Command
Networking> RR Command specifies the number
of retries that can be sent for a given RF packet.
Once RR Command is enabled (set to a non-zero
value), RF packet acknowledgements and retries
are enabled. After transmitting a packet, the
AT Command: ATRR
Binary Command: 0x18 (24 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFF
Default Parameter Value: 0 (disabled)
transmitter will wait to receive an
Number of bytes returned: 1
acknowledgement from a receiver. If the
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.22
acknowledgement is not received in the period of
time specified by the RN (Delay Slots) Command, the transmitter will transmit the original packet
again. The packet will be transmitted repeatedly until an acknowledgement is received or until
the packet has been sent RR times.
Note: For retries to work correctly, all modems in the system must have retries enabled.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 33 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] RS (RSSI) Command
<Diagnostics> RS Command returns the signal
level of the last packet received. This reading is
useful for determining range characteristics of the
XStream Modems under various conditions of
noise and distance.
Once the command is issued, the modem will
AT Command: ATRS
Binary Command: 0x1C (28 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0x06 – 0x36 [Read-only]
Number of bytes returned: 1
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.22
return a value between 0x6 and 0x36 where 0x36 represents a very strong signal level and 0x4
indicates a low signal level.
RT (DI2 Configuration) Command
<Serial Interfacing> RT command is used to
dictate the behavior of the DI2/
/CMD line. RT
Command must be issued to enable
control or binary programming.
flow
AT Command: ATRT
Binary Command: 0x16 (22 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 2
Parameter
Configuration
0
disabled
1
Enable Binary Programming
2
Flow Control
Enable
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
RZ (DI Buffer Size) Command
<Diagnostics> The RZ command is used to read
the size of the DI buffer (UART RX (Receive)).
AT Command: ATRZ
Note: The DO buffer size can be determined by
multiplying the DI buffer size by 1.5.
Parameter Range: Read-only
Binary Command: 0x2C (44 decimal)
Number of bytes returned: 2
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.30
SB (Stop Bits) Command
<Serial Interfacing> SB Command is used to
AT Command: ATSB
set/read the number of stop bits in the data
packets.
Binary Command: 0x36 (54 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 1
Parameter
Configuration
0
1 stop bits
1
2 stop bits
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.2B
SH (Serial Number High) Command
<Diagnostics> Set/Read the serial number high
word of the modem.
AT Command: ATSH
Binary Command: 0x25 (37 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF [Read-only]
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: SL (Serial Number Low)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.27C
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 34 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] SL (Serial Number Low) Command
<Diagnostics> Set/Read the serial number low
word of the modem.
AT Command: ATSH
Binary Command: 0x26 (38 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF [Read-only]
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: SH (Serial Number High)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.27C
SM (Sleep Mode) Command
<Sleep Mode (Low Power)> SM Command is
AT Command: ATSM
used to adjust Sleep Mode settings. By default,
Binary Command: 0x01
Sleep Mode is disabled and the modem remains
continually active. SM Command allows the
Parameter Range: 0 – 8
Parameter
modem to run in a lower-power state and be
configured in one of eight settings.
Cyclic Sleep settings wake the modem after the
Configuration
0
Disabled
1
Pin Sleep
2
transmitter and start receiving data after the
4
Serial Port Sleep
Cyclic 0.5 second sleep
(Modem wakes every
0.5 seconds)
Cyclic 1.0 second sleep
wake-up initializer runs its duration. Otherwise, it
5
Cyclic 2.0 second sleep
returns to Sleep Mode and continue to cycle in
6
Cyclic 4.0 second sleep
and out of inactivity until the Wake-up Initializer
7
Cyclic 8.0 second sleep
8
Cyclic 16.0 second sleep
amount of time designated by SM Command. If
the modem detects a wake-up initializer during
3
the time it is awake, it will synchronize with the
is detected. If a Cyclic Sleep setting is chosen,
the ST, LH and HT parameters must also be set
as described in the “Sleep Mode” section of this
manual.
Refer to the Sleep Mode sections [p15] for more
information.
Default Parameter Value: 0
Number of bytes returned: 1
Related Commands:
For Pin Sleep – PC (Power-up Mode), PW (Pin
Wake-up)
For Serial Port Sleep – ST (Time before Sleep)
For Cyclic Sleep – ST (Time before Sleep), LH
(Wake-up Initializer Timer), HT (Time Before
Wake-up Initializer), PW (Pin Wake-up)
ST (Time before Sleep) Command
<Sleep Mode (Low Power)> ST Command sets
the period of time (in tenths of seconds) in which
the modem remains inactive before entering into
Sleep Mode. For example, if the ST Parameter is
set to 0x64 (100 decimal), the modem will enter
into Sleep mode after 10 seconds of inactivity (no
AT Command: ATST
Binary Command: 0x02
Parameter Range: 0x10 – 0xFFFF
[x 100 milliseconds]
Default Parameter Value: 0x64 (100 decimal)
transmitting or receiving). This command can
Number of bytes returned: 2
only be used if Cyclic Sleep or Serial Port Sleep
Related Commands: SM (Sleep Mode), LH
(Wake-up Initializer Timer), HT (Time before
Wake-up Initializer)
Mode settings have been selected using SM
(Sleep Mode) Command.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 35 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] SY (Time before Initialization) Command
<Networking> SY Command keeps a
communication channel open as long as modem
transmits or receives before the active connection
expires. It can be used to reduce latency in a
query/response sequence and should be set 100
ms longer than the delay between transmissions.
This command allows multiple XStream Modems
to share a hopping channel for a given amount of
time after receiving data. By default, all packets
AT Command: ATSY
Binary Command: 0x17 (23 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFF
[x 100 milliseconds]
Default Parameter Value: 0 (Disabled - channel
initialization information is sent with each RF
packet.)
Number of bytes returned: 1
include an RF initializer that contains channel information used to synchronize any listening
receivers to the transmitter’s hopping pattern. Once a new modem comes within range or is
powered on within range, it is able to instantly synchronize to the transmitter and start receiving
data. If no new modems are introduced into the system, the synchronization information
becomes redundant once modems have become synchronized.
SY Command allows the modems to remove this information from the RF Initializer after the
initial synchronization. For example, changing the SY Parameter to 0x14 (20 decimal) allows all
modems to remain in sync for 2 seconds after the last data packet was received. Synchronization
information is not re-sent unless transmission stops for more than 2 seconds. This command
allows significant savings in packet transmission time.
Warning:
Not recommended for use in an interference-prone environment. Interference can
break up the session and the communications channel will not be available again
until SY time expires.
With SY set to zero, the channel session is opened and closed with each transmission - resulting
in a more robust link with more latency.
TO (DO2 Timeout) Command
<Serial Interfacing>DO2 output will return to
AT Command: ATTO
default after no DI2 status information is
received during the timeout period.
Binary Command: 0x31 (49 decimal)
Use with CS = 2 or 4.
Default Parameter Value: 3
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF [x 1 second]
Number of bytes returned: 2
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.30
TR (Transmit Error Count) Command
<Diagnostics> TR Command records the number
of retransmit failures. This number is
incremented each time a packet is not
acknowledged within the number of retransmits
AT Command: ATTR
Binary Command: 0x1B (27 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF
specified by the RR (Retries) Command. It
Default Parameter Value: 0
therefore counts the number of packets that were
not successfully received and have been dropped.
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: RR (Retries)
The TR Parameter is not non-volatile and will
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.22
therefore be reset to zero each time the modem
is reset.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 36 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] TT (Streaming Limit) Command
<Networking> TT Command defines a limit on
the number of bytes that can be sent out before
a random delay is issued. TT Command is used to
simulate full-duplex behavior.
If a modem is sending a continuous stream of RF
data, a delay is inserted which stops its
transmission and allows other modems time to
transmit (once it sends number of bytes specified
by TT Command). Inserted random delay lasts
AT Command: ATTT
Binary Command: 0x1A (26 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF (0 = disabled)
Default Parameter Value: 0xFFFF (65535
decimal)
Number of bytes returned: 2
Related Commands: RN (Delay Slots)
Minimum Firmware Version Required: 4.22
between 1 & ‘RN + 1’ delay slots, where each
delay slot lasts 38ms.
VR (Firmware Version) Command
<Diagnostics> Read the Firmware Version of the
XStream Modem.
AT Command: ATVR
Binary Command: 0x14 (20 decimal)
Parameter Range: 0 – 0xFFFF [Read-only]
Number of bytes returned: 2
WR (Write) Command
<(Special)> WR Command writes configurable
parameters to the modem’s non-volatile memory
AT Command: ATWR
Binary Command: 0x08
(Parameter values remain in the modem’s
memory until overwritten by future use of WR Command).
If changes are made without writing them to non-volatile memory, the modem reverts back to
previously saved parameters the next time the modem is powered-on.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 37 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 5. RF Communication Modes Network configurations covered in this chapter are described in terms of the following:
• Network Topology (Point-to-Point, Point-to-Multipoint or Peer-to-Peer)
• RF Communication Type (Basic or Acknowledged)
• RF Mode (Streaming, Repeater, Acknowledged or Multi-Streaming)
The following table provides a summary of the network configurations supported.
Table 5‐01. Summary of network configurations supported by the XStream RF Modem Point-to-Point
Definition
An RF data link between two modems.
Sample Network Profile *
(Broadcast Communications)
Use default values for all modems.
Sample Network Profile *
(Acknowledged Communications)
All Modems: ATAM [auto-set MY (Source Address) parameter] **
ATDT FFFF [set Destination Address to 0xFFFF]
Basic Communication RF Modes
Streaming Mode [p40], Repeater Mode [p41]
Acknowledged Communication RF Mode
Acknowledged Mode [p44]
Definition
RF data links between one base and multiple remotes.
Point-to-Multipoint
Base:
ATMY 0 [set Source Address to 0x00]
ATDT FFFF [set Destination Address to 0xFFFF]
Remotes:
ATAM [auto-set MY (Source Address) parameter] **
ATDT 0 [set Destination Address to 0x00]
Base:
Sample Network Profile *
(Acknowledged Communications)
ATMY 0 [set Source Address to 0x00]
ATDT FFFF [set Destination Address to 0xFFFF]
ATRR 3 [set number of Retries to 3]
Remotes:
ATAM [auto-set MY (Source Address) parameter] **
ATDT 0 [set Destination Address to 0x00]
ATRR 3 [set number of Retries to 3]
Basic Communication RF Modes
Streaming Mode [p40], Repeater Mode [p41]
Acknowledged Communication RF Modes
Acknowledged Mode [p44], Multi-Streaming Mode [p46]
Definition
Modems remain synchronized without use of a master/server. Each
modem shares the roles of master and slave. MaxStream’s peer-topeer architecture features fast synch times (35ms to synchronize
modems) and fast cold start times (50ms before transmission).
Sample Network Profile *
(Basic Communications)
Use default values for all modems.
Sample Network Profile *
(Acknowledged Communications)
All Modems: ATAM [auto-set MY (Source Address) parameter] **
ATDT FFFF [set Destination Address to 0xFFFF]
ATRR 3 [set number of Retries to 3]
Basic Communication RF Mode
Streaming Mode [p40]
Acknowledged Communication RF Mode
Acknowledged Mode [p44]
Sample Network Profile *
(Basic Communications)
Peer-to-Peer
* Assume default values for parameters not listed. Profiles do not reflect addressing implementations. ** AM (Auto‐set MY) Command must be issued through a terminal program such as the one incorporated in the X‐CTU ‘Terminal’ tab. © 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 38 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 5.1. Addressing
Each RF packet contains addressing information that is used to filter incoming RF data. Receiving
modems inspect the Hopping Channel (HP parameter), Vendor Identification Number (ID
parameter) and Destination Address (DT parameter) contained in each RF packet. Data that does
not pass through all three network security layers is discarded.
Figure 5‐01. Filtration layers contained in the RF packet header 5.1.1. Address Recognition
Transmissions can be addressed to a specific modem or group of modems using the DT
(Destination Address) and MK (Address Mask) parameters. The transmitting modem dictates
whether the packet is intended for a specific modem (local address) or multiple modems (global
address) by comparing the packet’s DT parameter to its own MK parameter.
Figure 5‐02. Local Packets vs. Global Packets (Transmitting Modem) TX_DT = Transmitter Destination Address TX_MK = Transmitter Address Mask Note: When TX_DT = 0xFFFF (default), RF packets are global and are received by all modems within range. (Receivers do not send ACKs.) A receiving modem will only accept a packet if a packet is addressed to it (either as a global or
local packet). The RX modem makes this determination by inspecting the destination address of
the RF packet and comparing it to its own address and mask. The Destination Address of the TX
modem is logically “ANDed” with the Address Mask of the RX modem.
Figure 5‐03. Address Recognition (Receiving Modem) TX_DT = Transmitter Destination Address RX_DT = Receiver Destination Address RX_MY = Receiver Source Address NOTE: For more information regarding addressing and masks, refer to Application Note ‘XSTAN004b’. (Located on the MaxStream CD and on the web: www.maxstream.net)
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 39 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 5.2. Basic Communications
Basic Communications are accomplished through two sub-types:
• Broadcast - By default, XStream Modems communicate through Broadcast communications
and within a peer-to-peer network topology. When any modem transmits, all other modems
within range will receive the data and pass it directly to their host device.
• Addressed - If addressing parameters match, received RF data is forwarded to the DO (Data
Out) buffer; otherwise, the RF data is discarded.
When using Basic Communications, any functions such as acknowledgements are handled at the
application layer by the OEM/integrator. The Broadcast Modes provide transparent
communications, meaning that the RF link simply replaces a wired link.
5.2.1. Streaming Mode (Default)
Characteristics:
Highest data throughput
Lowest latency and jitter
Reduced immunity to interference
Transmissions never acknowledged (ACK) by receiving modem(s)
Required Parameter Values (TX Modem): RR (Retries) = 0
Related Commands: Networking (DT, MK, MY), Serial Interfacing (PK, RB, RO, TT)
Recommended Use: Mode is most appropriate for data systems more sensitive to latency
and/or jitter than to occasional packet loss. For example: streaming audio or video.
Streaming Mode Data Flow
Figure 5‐04. Streaming Mode State Diagram (TX Modem) Events and processes in this mode are common to all of the other RF
Communication Modes.
NOTE: When streaming data, RB and RO parameters are only observed on
the first packet.
After transmission begins, the TX event will continue uninterrupted until
the DI buffer is empty or the streaming limit (TT Command) is reached.
As with the first packet, the payload of each subsequent packet includes
up to the maximum packet size (PK Command).
The streaming limit (TT Command) is specified by the transmitting
modem as the maximum number of bytes the transmitting modem can
send in one transmission event. After the TT parameter threshold is
reached, the transmitting modem will force a random delay of 1 to RN
delay slots (exactly 1 delay slot if RN = 0).
Subsequent packets are sent without an RF initializer since receiving
modems stay synchronized with the transmitting modem for the
duration of the transmission event (from preceding packet information).
However, due to interference, some receiving modems may lose data
(and synchronization to the transmitting modem), particularly during
long transmission events.
Once the transmitting modem has sent all pending data or has reached
the TT limit, the transmission event ends. The transmitting modem will
not transmit again for exactly RN delay slots if the local (i.e.
transmitting modem’s) RN parameter is set to a non-zero value. The
receiving modem(s) will not transmit for a random number of delay
slots between 0 and (RN-1) if the local (i.e. receiving modem’s) RN
parameter is set to a non-zero value. These delays are intended to lessen congestion following
long bursts of packets from a single transmitting modem, during which several receiving modems
may have become ready to transmit.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 40 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 5.2.2. Repeater Mode
Characteristics:
Self-organizing - No route configuration is necessary
Self-healing / Fault-tolerant
Low power consumption and Minimized interference
Network throughput is determined by number of hops, not by number of
repeaters. Multiple repeaters within range of source node count as one hop.
Supports “transparent” multi-drop mode or addressed data filtering mode.
Duplicate RF packets are automatically filtered out.
All packets propagate to every node in the network (filtering rules apply).
Broadcast communications - each packet comes out every node exactly once.
Addressed communications - all radios see every packet. Only the modem
with a matching address will forward it to the DO buffer (UART IN).
Data entering the network on any modem is transmitted and forwarded
through every repeater modem until it reaches the ends of the network.
Each repeater will repeat a packet only once.
Constraints:
Requires that each modem have a unique MY (Source Address) parameter.
System must introduce just one packet at a time to the network for
transmission (256 bytes max).
Each hop (H) decreases network throughput by a factor of 1/(H+1).
Additional repeaters add network redundancy without decreasing throughput.
Required Parameter Values (TX Modem): MD = 3 or 4, MY = unique value (can be
accomplished by issuing the AM (Auto-set MY) and WR (Write) commands to all modems in the
network)
Related Commands: Networking (MD, DT, MY, AM), Serial Interfacing (RN, PK, RO, RB)
Recommended Use: Use in networks where intermediary nodes are needed to relay data to
modems that are beyond the transmission range of the base modem.
Theory of Operation
OEMs and integrators can extend the effective range and reliability of a data radio system by
forwarding traffic through one or more repeaters.
Instead of using routing tables and path discovery to establish dynamic paths through a network,
the repeater system uses a sophisticated algorithm to propagate each RF packet through the
entire network.
The network supports RF packets up to 256 bytes. The repeater network can operate using
broadcast or addressed communications for multi-drop networks and works well in many systems
with no special configuration.
When in Repeater Mode, the network repeats each message among all available nodes exactly
one time. This mechanism eliminates the need for configuring specific routes. The network is selforganizing and self-healing so that the system is able to receive transmissions in the event of a
modem going down.
Figure 5‐05. Sample Repeater Network Topology © 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 41 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] Repeater Network Configuration
A network may consist of End Nodes (EN), End/Repeater Nodes (ERN) and a Base Node (BN).
The base node initiates all communications.
The repeater network can be configured to operate using Basic Broadcast or Basic Addressed
communications. The addressing capabilities of the modems allow integrators to send a packet as
a global packet (DT = 0xFFFF) and shift out of every radio in the network (Basic Broadcast).
Alternatively, the packet can be sent with a specific DT (Destination Address) parameter so that it
is only accepted by a specific remote node (Basic Addressed).
Configuration Instruction (Basic Broadcast Communications)
Assign each radio modem a unique MY (source) address. (The AM (Auto-set MY) command will
configure a unique source address that is based on modem serial number.)
Enable Basic Broadcast Communications (DT = 0xFFFF) or Addressed Broadcast Communications
(ATDT specifies a specific destination)
Configure PK, RO and RB to ensure that RF packet aligns with protocol packet. (ex. PK=0x100,
RB=0x100, RO depends on baud rate).
Configure one or more repeaters in the system (ATMD = 3).
Configure remote nodes as destinations (MD = 4). This will ensure that the remote node waits for
the repeater traffic to subside before it transmits a response.
The configuration instructions above reflect configuration for a Basic Broadcast Repeater system.
To configure a Basic Addressed Repeater system, use the DT (Destination Address) parameter to
assign unique addresses to each modem in the network.
Algorithm details
• Packet ID (PID) is composed of transmitting modem MY address and packet serial number.
• Incoming packets with a PID already found in the PID buffer will be ignored.
• Each modem maintains a PID buffer 8 deep of previously received packets (managed as
FIFO).
Packets may be shifted out the serial port and/or repeated depending on the DT parameter
contained in the RF packet.
Table 5‐02. DT (Destination Address) parameter truth table Address Match
Send out serial port?
Repeat?
Global
Yes
Yes
Local
Yes
No
None
No
Yes
Repeat delay based on RSSI
A transmitted packet may be received by more that one repeater at the same time. In order to
reduce the probability that the repeaters will transmit at the same instant, resulting in a collision
and possible data loss; an algorithm has been developed that will allow a variable back-off prior
to retransmission of the packet by a repeater. The algorithm allows radios that receive the packet
with a stronger RF signal (RSSI) to have the first opportunity to retransmit the packet.
The RN (Delay Slots) parameter is used to configure this delay. Set RN=0 (no delays) for small
networks with few repeaters or repeaters that are not within range of each other. Set RN=1 for
systems with 2 to 5 repeaters that may be within range of each other.
The actual length of the delay is computed by the formula:
Delay (ms) = L * DS
DS = (-41-RSSI)/10*RN)+RandomInt(0,RN)
Where L is the length of the transmitted packet in milliseconds, DS is the number of delay slots
to wait, RSSI is the received signal strength in dBm, RN is the value of the RN register and
RandomInt(A,B) is a function that returns a random integer from A to B-0
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 42 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] Response packet delay
As a packet propagates through the repeater network, if any node receives the data and
generates a quick response, the response needs to be delayed so as not to collide with
subsequent retransmissions of the original packet. To reduce collisions, both repeater and end
node radios in a repeater network will delay transmission of data shifted in the serial port to allow
any repeaters within range to complete their retransmissions.
The time for this delay is computed by the formula:
Maximum Delay (ms) = L * DS
DS = ((-41-(-100))/10)*RN)+RN+1
Where L is the length of the transmitted packet in milliseconds, DS is the number of delay slots
to wait, RSSI is the received signal strength in dBm, and RN is the value of the RN register.
Use Case - Broadcast Repeater Network
Consider modems R1 through R10 each communicating to a PLC using the ModBus protocol and
spaced evenly in a line. All ten nodes are configured as ‘destinations & repeaters’ within the
scope of Basic Broadcast Communications (MD=3, AM, DT=0xFFFF, PK=0x100, RO=0x03,
RB=0x100, RN=1). The Base Host (BH) shifts payload that is destined for R10 to R1. R1
initializes RF communication and transmits payload to nodes R2 through R5 which are all within
range of R1. Modems R2 through R5 receive the RF packet and retransmit the packet
simultaneously. They also send the data out the serial ports, to the PLC's.
Table 5‐03. Commands used to configure repeater functions AT
Binary
AT Command Name
Command
Command
AM
0x3A (58d)
Auto-set MY
DT
0x00 (0d)
Destination Address
MD
0x3C (60d)
RF Mode
MY
0x2A (42d)
Source Address
RN
0x19 (25d)
Delay Slots
WR
0x08 (8d)
Write
Range
0 – 0xFFFF
3-4
0 – 0xFFFF
0 – 0xFF [slots]
-
# Bytes
Returned
2
1
2
1
-
Factory
Default
0
0
0xFFFF
0
-
Bandwidth Considerations
Using broadcast repeaters in a network reduces the overall network data throughput as each
repeater must buffer an entire packet before retransmitting it. For example: if the destination is
within range of the transmitter and the packet is 32 bytes long, the transmission will take 72ms
on a 9600 baud XStream modem (much faster modems are available). If that same packet has to
propagate through two repeaters, it will take 72ms to arrive at the first repeater, another 72 ms
to get to the second and a final 72ms to get to the destination for a total of 216ms. Taking into
account UART transfer times (~1ms/byte at 9600 baud), a server to send a 32 byte query and
receive a 32 byte response is ~200ms, allowing for 5 polls per second. With the two repeaters in
the path, the same query/response sequence would take about 500ms for 2 polls per second.
To summarize, this system is sending and receiving 64 bytes 5 times per second for a throughput
of 320 bytes per second with no repeaters and 128 bytes per second with 2 repeaters. Generally,
the network throughput will decrease by a factor of 1/(R+1), with R representing the number of
repeaters between the source and destination.
Note that these numbers are absolutely worst case to illustrate how the system would perform in
a typical, low bandwidth system. As a counter example the 115kbps 9XTend radio can transfer
the same 32 byte packet in 12 ms for a round trip with UART transfer times of ~30ms or 33 polls
per second (1066 bytes per second) with no repeaters. With two repeaters the time would be
~100ms round trip time for 10 polls per second or 320 bytes per second network throughput with
two repeaters.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 43 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 5.3. Acknowledged Communications
5.3.1. Acknowledged Mode
Characteristics:
Reliable delivery through positive acknowledgements for each packet
Throughput, latency and jitter vary depending on the quality of the channel
and the strength of the signal.
Recommended Use: Acknowledge Mode configuration is appropriate when reliable delivery is
required between modems. If messages are smaller than 256 bytes, use RB and RO commands
to align RF packets with application packets.
Required Parameter Values (TX Modem): RR (Retries) >= 1
Related Commands: Networking (DT, MK, RR), Serial Interfacing (PK, RN, TT, RO, RB)
Table 5‐04. Sample Network Profile Modem
Parameter Settings (assume default values for parameters not listed)
All
ATRR A
ATRN 5
[set number of Retries to 0x0A]
[set number of Delay Slots to 5]
Connection Sequence
Figure 5‐06. Acknowledged Mode State Diagram Æ After sending a packet while
in Acknowledged Mode, the
transmitting modem listens
for an ACK
(acknowledgement). If it
receives the ACK, it will either
send a subsequent packet (if
more transmit data is
pending), or will wait for
exactly RN random delay slots
before allowing another
transmission (if no more data
is pending for transmission).
If the transmitting modem
does not receive the ACK
within the allotted time, it will
retransmit the packet with a
new RF initializer following the
ACK slot. There is no delay
between the first ACK slot and
the first retransmission.
Subsequent retransmissions
incur a delay of a random
number of delay slots,
between 0 and RN. If RN is
set to 0 on the transmitting
modem, there are never any
back-off delays between
retransmissions. Note that
during back-off delays, the
transmitting modem will go
into Idle Mode and may
receive RF data. This can have
the effect of increasing the back-off delay, as the radio cannot return to RF transmit (or
retransmit) mode as long as it is receiving RF data.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 44 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] After receiving and acknowledging a packet, the receiving modem will move to the next
frequency and listen for either a retransmission or new data for a specific period of time. Even if
the transmitting modem has indicated that it has no more pending transmit data, it may have not
received the previous ACK, and so it may retransmit the packet (potentially with no delay after
the ACK slot). In this case, the receiving modem will always detect the immediate
retransmission, which will hold off the communications channel and thereby reduce collisions.
Receiving modems acknowledge each retransmission they receive, but they only pass the first
copy of a packet they receive out the UART.
RB and RO parameters are not applied to subsequent packets. This means that once transmission
has begun, it will continue uninterrupted until the DI buffer is empty or the streaming limit (TT)
has been reached. As with the first packet, the payload of each subsequent packet includes up to
the maximum packet size (PK parameter). The transmitting modem checks for more pending
data near the end of each packet.
The streaming limit (TT parameter) specifies the maximum number of bytes that the transmitting
modem will send in one transmission event, which may consist of many packets and retries. If
the TT parameter is reached, the transmitting modem will force a random delay of 1 to RN delay
slots (exactly 1 delay slot if RN is zero). Each packet is counted only once toward TT, no matter
how many times the packet is retransmitted.
Subsequent packets in acknowledged mode are similar to those in streaming mode, with the
addition of an acknowledgement between each packet, and the possibility of retransmissions.
Subsequent packets are sent without an RF initializer, as the receiving modems are already
synchronized to the transmitting modem from the preceding packet(s) and they remain
synchronized for the duration of the transmission event. Each retransmission of a packet includes
an RF initializer.
Once the transmitting modem has sent all pending data or has reached the TT limit, the
acknowledged transmission event is completed. The transmitting modem will not transmit again
for exactly RN delay slots, if the local RN parameter is set to a nonzero value. The receiving
modem will not transmit for a random number of delay slots between 0 and (RN-1), if the local
RN parameter is set to a nonzero value. These delays are intended to lessen congestion following
long bursts of packets from a single transmitting modem, during which several receiving modems
may have themselves become ready to transmit.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 45 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] 5.3.2. Multi-Streaming Mode
Characteristics:
definition]
Enables exclusive connections [refer to Theory of Operation section for
Supports the passing of large data streams (> 256 bytes) from multiple
remote modems to a base modem (If a complete data stream from a remote
modem is less than 256 bytes, data can be sent from several remotes to a
base location without enabling this mode and latencies will be much less.)
Transmissions never acknowledged (ACK) by receiving modem(s)
Required Parameter Values (TX Modem): MD = 1 (Base), MD = 2 (Remote), RN > 0, RR > 0,
MY ≠ 0xFFFF
Recommended Use: Use this mode in point-to-multipoint networks where remote modems
initiate communications and require exclusive (uninterrupted) connections to the base modem.
Table 5‐05. Sample Network Profile Modem
Parameter Settings (assume default values for parameters not listed)
Base
ATMD 1
[configure modem as Multi-Stream Base] *
Remotes
ATMD 2
[configure modem as Multi-Stream Remote] *
* When Multi‐Streaming is enabled, the following parameters are consequently modified (if they have not already been modified from their default states): RR, RN, MY, CD, AT and BT. [refer to Table 5‐06] Theory of Operation
When in Multi-Streaming Mode, all remote modems can initiate communications with the base
modem at the same time, but only one remote is granted an exclusive connection. After an
exclusive connection begins, data is transferred exclusively between two modems without
interruption from any other modems in the network.
An exclusive connection is a bi-directional connection that can only be established when in MultiStreaming Mode. An exclusive connection is immune to other remote modems interrupting the
connection and interleaving data (The interleaved data potentially renders the base modem
unable to discern from which remote modem the data was transmitted).
When an exclusive connection is granted to a single remote, the other remotes are notified that
the connection exists. The notification causes the remote modems to postpone transmissions
until the base modem sends notification that the exclusive connection has ended.
Figure 5‐07. Sample Connection Sequence Diagram CRP = Connection Request Packet
CGP = Connection Grant Packet DRP = Disconnect Request Packet (not shown in diagram – applicable when remote connection is disconnected using the pin sleep I/O line. DGP = Disconnect Grant Packet ACK = Acknowledgement of reception. Base modem = The central transmitting/receiving modem in a network of modems that maintains communications with remote modems. Remote modem = A modem in a network that sends data to and receives data from a base modem. Payload = Data contained inside the RF Data of the RF Packet that originates from a host to be transmitted over‐the‐air. In the connection sequence above, an exclusive connection is first granted to “Remote m”. The
CGP (Connection Grant Packet) is broadcast to all remote modems in the network to
communicate the base in engaged in an exclusive connection. Upon receipt of the CGP
notification, remote modems will wait for a DGP (Disconnect Grant Packet) before attempting
again to send data to the base modem.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 46 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] Initiating a Connection
Connection Guidelines:
• A remote modem can only request a connection with the base modem.
• The base modem may hold off or grant a connection request to another modem.
• A remote modem will not try to establish a connection if one already exists.
• A connection fails if no response is received after RR (Retries) CRP packets. After a failure,
whatever condition was causing a connection to be established is cleared. If the condition
was data to be sent, all data in the DI buffer will be flushed. If the condition was DI3
transition, then no connection will be attempted until another correct DI3 transition.
• A global connection cannot fail. [Definition is on next page.]
Once in Multi-Streaming Mode (MD > 0), several events can initiate an exclusive connection:
1.
Remote modem has payload to transmit. After a remote modem receives data from its host,
the modem will attempt to establish a connection with the base modem. The connection is
defined by the remote’s DT (Destination Address) parameter. If another remote has a
connection with the base, no connection will be established until the connection runs its
course. Any remotes requesting a connection will then arbitrate for the next connection. RR
(Retries) and RN (Random back-off) parameters control this arbitration.
2.
Base sets the DT (Destination Address) parameter. When the base modem sets the DT
(Destination Address) parameter, an exclusive connection is immediately initiated with the
remote modem that has a matching DT parameter. After the DT command is sent (If
ATCM=1), the base modem indicates a successful connection with a “CONNECT XXXX” string
where "XXXX" is the remote's address. An unsuccessful connection is indicated with an
“ERROR” string. If the connection is successful, the modem immediately exits AT Command
Mode and data can be sent to and received from the connected remote modem. If an error is
returned, the modem stays in AT Command Mode. If a base is connected to a remote when
the DT command is executed, the current connection is disconnected before a new
connection is created.
3.
DI3 pin (pin 2, SLEEP) is asserted (set low). Both base and remote modems can create a
connection (defined by the current DT (Destination Address) parameter) when the DI3 pin is
asserted (driven high). DR (DI3 Configuration) Command is used to establish this mode. If a
remote asserts DI3, a connection request will be sent when no connection is active. If the
base asserts DI3, a connection will immediately be established with the remote after any
connection.
Initiating a Disconnection
To disconnect, the base modem sends a DGP (disconnect grant packet). A remote modem can
only request a disconnect. The following conditions cause a disconnect:
1.
No over-the-air data sent or received for CE (Connection Inactivity Timeout) time. If no overthe-air data is successfully sent (no acknowledgement received) or received (any good
packet) for CE time, the connection will be dropped. Only a base modem can detect this
condition. Refer to CE Command.
2.
Absolute CB (Connection Duration Timeout). The CB parameter defines an absolute timeout.
A timer is started on the remote units when a connection is established. When the
connection has been active for CB time, the base will close the connection. A remote that
detects this condition will automatically disconnect (it will not send a DRP (disconnect
request packet)). Remotes that monitor a connection between the base and another remote
will disregard any connection after the CB time. Refer to CB Command.
3.
DI3 pin (pin 2, SLEEP) is de-asserted (set high). A base or remote modem can cause a
disconnect by setting the DI3 line high. If no connection is active, the de-assertion is
ignored. A remote will request a disconnect if DI3 is de-asserted and the remote is currently
connected the base. Refer to DR (DI3 Configuration) Command.
4.
A remote or a base modem receives the ATDC (Disconnect) Command.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 47 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] Configuration
AT Command Mode
AT command mode is used for all commands on base and remote modems. Binary command
mode is not available when MD = 1 or 2.
The base is in AT command mode when not engaged in an exclusive connection with a remote.
No AT Command Mode sequence is needed. When a base modem is connected to a remote
modem, the AT Command Mode sequence is used to enter AT command mode. The connection
with the remote is maintained. Care should be taken that the CE (Connection Inactivity) timeout
does not occur while in AT Command Mode.
The remote must use the AT command sequence to enter AT Command Mode. When a
connection exists with a base modem, the connection is maintained. Care must be taken that the
CB (Connection Duration) timeout does not occur while in AT Command Mode.
As of firmware version, 4.30, a faster method is available for entering AT Command Mode. If the
BT and AT parameters are set to 0, BT (Guard Time Before) and AT (Guard Time After) times are
set to 6 milliseconds.
Beware that this will also mean that AT Command Mode cannot be entered by manually typing
the AT command sequence (usually “+++”), because the AT time will occur faster than the
characters can be typed.
Auto Configuration
When enabling Multi-Streaming Modes (by setting the MD (RF Mode) parameter to 1 or 2), other
parameter values are automatically modified to support the mode. For example, when the MD
parameter is changed to 1 or 2, the RR parameter is changed to 0x0A (hex). The modification
only occurs if the RR parameter is 0 (its default) before the MD command was executed. If any
other value is found for the RR parameter, the RR parameter will not be changed. Auto
configuration occurs every time the modem is powered-up.
Table 5‐06. Auto Configurations Parameter changed
when MD = 1 or 2
Condition for modification
to take place (default values)
Resulting Parameter Value
RR (Retries)
If RR = 0
RR = 0x0A (10 decimal)
RN (Delay Slots)
If RN = 0
RN = 5
MY (Source Address)
If MY = 0xFFFF (& MD = 2)
Unique value based on serial number *
CD (DO3 Configuration)
If CD = 0
CD = 3
BT (Guard Time Before)
If BT = 0x0A
BT = 0
AT (Guard Time After)
If AT = 0x0A
AT = 0
* The system requires that each remote have a unique address. The automatic address is based on the serial number and is not guaranteed unique, although the chances for a duplicate address are 1 in 16,000. No method currently exists for detecting & reassigning duplicate remote addresses. Global Connection
The base modem can connect to all remote modems (to send a broadcast message) by
connecting with a DT address of 0xFFFF (hex). There will be no acknowledgements from the
remote radios and each packet from the base will be sent RR times. A remote cannot send
messages to a base during a global connect.
The CGP and DGP packets will be sent RR times to begin and end the global connection
respectively. The connection can be terminated by CE, CB timers, DI3 or ATDC Command as any
other connections.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 48 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] Sleep Modes and Connections
Cyclic sleep can be used with the remote modems to conserve power. ST “Time before Sleep”
Parameter defines how long after a disconnect a remote will stay awake. A modem is not allowed
to enter sleep mode when it is engaged in a connection. A modem will wake as defined by SM
parameter and check for an RF message. If a message is detected, the modem will stay awake
only if the message is a connect message from the base for this modem. DI3 (pin 2) wake-up can
be used to wake a remote modem. Usually the connection on DI3 should also be enabled so that
a connection is established on wake-up.
NOTE: The ST (Time Before Sleep) time must be set long enough to account for the time it could take
to make a connection if several remote modems get a connection before a remote’s ST times out.
Pin sleep can also be used with a remote modem. A modem will not be allowed into pin sleep
while a connection is active. Usually the connection on DI3 (DR = 4) should also be enabled so
that a connection is established on wakeup. Pin wake-up could also be used to scan for a
connection at an interval not defined by the cyclic sleep modes.
I/O Passing and Connections
I/O lines can be passed between a remote and base modem by enabling I/O line passing (see the
RT, DR, CD, CO, CS, BK, BO commands). When a connection is not active, the output lines on the
base and remote modems will be in their default state. When a connection is established, the
base and remote output line will be set to reflect the corresponding input lines.
Monitoring Connections
The DO3 pin (RX LED) can be used to show when a connection is active on both remote and base
modems. This is the default condition. This line will be asserted (high) during a connection and
de-asserted (low) when there is no connection.
A base modem can also be set to send the “CONNECT XXXX” string (where “XXXX” is the
connecting modem’s MY (Source Address) parameter) anytime a connection is established. Refer
to CM (Connection Message) Command.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 49 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] Appendix A: Agency Certifications FCC Certification
The XStream RF Modem complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules and regulations. Compliance with
the labeling requirements, FCC notices and antenna usage guidelines is required.
To fulfill the FCC Certification requirements, the OEM must comply with the following FCC
regulations:
1.
The system integrator must ensure that the text on the external label provided with this
device is placed on the outside of the final product [Figure A-01 for 900 MHz operations or
Figure A-02 for 2.4 GHz operations].
2.
The XStream RF Modem may be used only with Approved Antennas that have been tested
with this modem. [Table A-01 or Table A-02]
FCC Notices
IMPORTANT: The 9XStream (900 MHz) and 24XStream (2.4 GHz) RF Modems have been certified by
the FCC for use with other products without any further certification (as per FCC section 2.1091).
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by MaxStream could void the user’s authority to
operate the equipment.
IMPORTANT: OEMs must test their final product to comply with unintentional radiators (FCC section
15.107 and 15.109) before declaring compliance of their final product to Part 15 of the FCC Rules.
IMPORTANT: The XStream RF Modems have been certified for remote and base radio applications. If
the XStream will be used for portable applications, the device must undergo SAR testing.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses and can
radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions,
may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that
interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful
interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment
off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the
following measures:
•
Re-orient or relocate the receiving antenna.
•
Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
•
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver
is connected.
•
Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 50 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] OEM Labeling Requirements
Label Warning
WARNING
The Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) must ensure that FCC labeling
requirements are met. This includes a clearly visible label on the outside of the
final product enclosure that displays the contents shown in the figure below.
Figure A‐01. Required FCC Label for OEM products containing 9XStream (900 MHz) RF Modem Contains FCC ID: OUR9XSTREAM
The enclosed device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following
two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference and (2) this device must accept
any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
Figure A‐02. Required FCC Label for OEM products containing 24XStream (2.4 GHz) RF Modem Contains FCC ID: OUR-24XSTREAM
The enclosed device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following
two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference and (2) this device must accept
any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
Antenna Usage
Antenna Warning
WARNING:
This device has been tested with Reverse Polarity SMA connectors with the
antennas listed in Table A-01 & Table A-02 of Appendix A. When integrated in
OEM products, fixed antennas require installation preventing end-users from
replacing them with non-approved antennas. Antennas not listed in the tables
must be tested to comply with FCC Section 15.203 (unique antenna connectors)
and Section 15.247 (emissions).
RF Exposure
WARNING:
This equipment is approved only for mobile and base station transmitting devices,
separation distances of (i) 20 centimeters or more for antennas with gains < 6 dBi
or (ii) 2 meters or more for antennas with gains ≥ 6 dBi should be maintained
between the antenna of this device and nearby persons during operation. To
ensure compliance, operation at distances closer than this is not recommended.
The preceding statement must be included as a CAUTION statement in manuals for OEM products
to alert users of FCC RF Exposure compliance.
MaxStream radio modems are pre-FCC approved for use in fixed base station and mobile
applications. As long as the antenna is mounted at least 20 cm (8 in) from nearby persons, the
application is considered a mobile application. If the antenna will be mounted closer than 20 cm
to nearby persons, then the application is considered “portable” and requires an additional test
performed on the final product. This test is called the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) testing and
measures the emissions from the radio modem and how they affect the person.
Over 100 additional antennas have been tested and are approved for use with MaxStream 900
MHz Radio Modems (including “Mag Mount”, “Dome”, “Multi-path” and “Panel” antennas).
Because of the large number of approved antennas, MaxStream requests that you send specific
information about an antenna you would like to use with the modem and MaxStream will
evaluate whether the antenna is covered under our FCC filing.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 51 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] FCC Approved Antennas
Table A‐01. Antennas approved for use with 9XStream (900 MHz) RF Modems. Manufacturer
Part Number
Type
Gain
Application
Min. Separation Distance
*
*
MaxStream
*
*
MaxStream
MaxStream
MaxStream
MaxStream
*
*
MaxStream
MaxStream
MaxStream
MaxStream
*
*
A09-Y8
*
*
A09-Y11 (FCC pending)
A09-F2
A09-F5
A09-F8
*
*
A09-M7
A09-H
A09-HBMM-P5I
A09-QBMM-P5I
6.2 dBi
7.2 dBi
8.2 dBi
9.2 dBi
10.2 dBi
11.2 dBi
2.2 dBi
5.2 dBi
8.2 dBi
9.2 dBi
7.2 dBi
7.2 dBi
2.1 dBi
2.1 dBi
1.9 dBi
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
1 cm
1 cm
*
*
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Omni Direct.
Omni Direct.
Omni Direct.
Omni Direct.
Omni Direct.
Omni Direct.
1/2 wave antenna
1/2 wave antenna
1/4 wave antenna
1/4 wave integrated
wire antenna
1.9 dBi
Fixed/Mobile **
1 cm
Table A‐02. Antennas approved for use with 24XStream (2.4 GHz) RF Modems. Manufacturer
Part Number
Type
Gain
Application
Min. Separation Distance
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
MaxStream
MaxStream
*
*
*
MaxStream
MaxStream
MaxStream
MaxStream
MaxStream
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
A24-P8
A24-P13
*
*
*
A24-P19
A24-HABMM-P6I
A24-HBMM-P6I
A24-HABSM
A24-QABMM-P6I
A24-Q1
*
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Yagi
Omni Direct
Omni Direct
Omni Direct
Omni Direct
Omni Direct
Omni Direct
Omni Direct
Omni Direct
Omni Direct
Panel
Panel
Panel
Panel
Panel
Panel
Dipole
Dipole
Dipole
Monopole
Monopole
Monopole
6 dBi
8.8 dBi
9 dBi
10 dBi
11 dBi
12 dBi
12.5 dBi
13.5 dBi
15 dBi
2.1 dBi
3 dBi
5 dBi
7.2 dBi
8 dBi
9.5 dBi
10 dBi
12 dBi
15 dBi
8.5 dBi
13 dBi
14 dBi
15 dBi
16 dBi
19 dBi
2.1 dBi
2.1 dBi
2.1 dBi
1.9 dBi
1.9 dBi
1.9 dBi
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
Fixed/Mobile **
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
2m
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20 cm
20cm
* FCC‐approved antennas not inventoried by MaxStream – Contact MaxStream (866) 765‐9885 for information. ** Can be approved for portable applications if integrator gains approval through SAR testing © 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 52 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] European Compliance (2.4 GHz only)
The 24XStream has been certified for use in several European countries. For a complete list, refer
to http://www.maxstream.net.
If the 24XStream modems are incorporated into a product, the manufacturer must ensure
compliance of the final product to the European harmonized EMC and low-voltage/safety
standards. A Declaration of Conformity must be issued for each of these standards and kept on
file as described in Annex II of the R&TTE Directive. Furthermore, the manufacturer must
maintain a copy of the XStream user manual documentation and ensure the final product does
not exceed the specified power ratings, antenna specifications, and/or installation requirements
as specified in the user manual. If any of these specifications are exceeded in the final product, a
submission must be made to a notified body for compliance testing to all required standards.
OEM Labeling Requirements
The ‘CE’ marking must be affixed to a visible location on the OEM product.
Figure A‐03. CE Labeling Requirements >5
(Taller than 5 mm)
The CE mark shall consist of the initials “CE” taking the following form:
•
If the CE marking is reduced or enlarged, the proportions given in the above graduated
drawing must be respected.
•
The CE marking must have a height of at least 5mm except where this is not possible on
account of the nature of the apparatus.
•
The CE marking must be affixed visibly, legibly, and indelibly.
Furthermore, since the usage of the 2400 – 2483.5 MHz band is not harmonized throughout
Europe, the Restriction sign must be placed to the right of the ‘CE’ marking as shown below. See
the R&TTE Directive, Article 12 and Annex VII for more information
Figure A‐04. CE Label Required on OEM Equipment Restrictions
France – France imposes restrictions on the 2.4 GHz band. Go to www.art-telecom.Fr or contact
MaxStream for more information.
Norway – Norway prohibits operation near Ny-Alesund in Svalbard. More information can be
found at the Norway Posts and Telecommunications site (www.npt.no).
24XStream Declarations of Conformity
MaxStream has issued Declarations of Conformity for the 24XStream modems concerning
emissions, EMC and safety. Files are located in the ‘documentation’ folder of the MaxStream CD.
Important Note
MaxStream does not list the entire set of standards that must be met for each country.
MaxStream customers assume full responsibility for learning and meeting the required guidelines
for each country in their distribution market. For more information relating to European
compliance of an OEM product incorporating the 24XStream modem, contact MaxStream, or refer
to the following web sites:
CEPT ERC 70-03E – Technical Requirements, European restrictions and general requirements:
Available at www.ero.dk/
R&TTE Directive – Equipment requirements, placement on market: Available at www.ero.dk/
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 53 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] Notifications and Required Information
Since the 2.4 GHz band is not harmonized throughout Europe, a notification must be sent to each
country prior to shipping product according to Article 6.4 of the R&TTE Directive. A list of
national contacts for most European countries may be found at www.ero.dk/.
The following technical data (relating to the 24XStream) is often required in filling out a
notification form.
•
Frequency Band: 2400.0 – 2483.5 MHz
•
Modulation: Frequency Shift Keying
•
Channel Spacing: 400 kHz
•
ITU Classification: 400KF1D
•
Output Power: 100 mW EIRP
•
Notified Body Number: 0891
Contact MaxStream (801) 765-9885 if additional information is required.
Europe (2.4 GHz) Approved Antenna List
Table A‐03. Antennas approved for use with 24XStream (2.4 GHz) RF Modems in Europe Manufacturer
Part Number
Type
Gain
Application
Minimum Separation
Distance
MaxStream
A24-HABMM-P6I
Dipole
2.1 dBi
Fixed/Mobile *
20cm
MaxStream
A24-HBMM-P6I
Dipole
2.1 dBi
Fixed/Mobile *
20cm
MaxStream
A24-HABSM
Dipole
2.1 dBi
Fixed/Mobile *
20cm
MaxStream
A24-QABMM-P6I
Monopole
1.9 dBi
Fixed/Mobile *
20cm
MaxStream
A24-QBMM-P6I
Monopole
1.9 dBi
Fixed/Mobile *
20cm
MaxStream
A24-Q1
Monopole
1.9 dBi
Fixed/Mobile *
20cm
* Can be approved for portable applications if integrator gains approval through additional SAR testing IC (Industry Canada) Certification
Labeling requirements for Industry Canada are similar to those of the FCC. A clearly visible label
on the outside of the final product enclosure must display the following text:
Contains Model 9XStream Radio (900 MHz), IC: 4214A-9XSTREAM
Contains Model 24XStream Radio (2.4 GHz), IC: 4214A 12008
Integrator is responsible for its product to comply with IC ICES-003 & FCC Part 15, Sub. B Unintentional Radiators. ICES-003 is the same as FCC Part 15 Sub. B and Industry Canada
accepts FCC test report or CISPR 22 test report for compliance with ICES-003.
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 54 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] Appendix B: Additional Information 1-Year Warranty
XStream RF Modems from MaxStream, Inc. (the ʺProductʺ) are warranted against defects in materials and workmanship under normal use, for a period of 1‐year from the date of purchase. In the event of a product failure due to materials or workmanship, MaxStream will repair or replace the defective product. For warranty service, return the defective product to MaxStream, shipping prepaid, for prompt repair or replacement. The foregoing sets forth the full extent of MaxStreamʹs warranties regarding the Product. Repair or replacement at MaxStreamʹs option is the exclusive remedy. THIS WARRANTY IS GIVEN IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AND MAXSTREAM SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL MAXSTREAM, ITS SUPPLIERS OR LICENSORS BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES IN EXCESS OF THE PURCHASE PRICE OF THE PRODUCT, FOR ANY LOSS OF USE, LOSS OF TIME, INCONVENIENCE, COMMERCIAL LOSS, LOST PROFITS OR SAVINGS, OR OTHER INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PRODUCT, TO THE FULL EXTENT SUCH MAY BE DISCLAIMED BY LAW. SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES. THEREFOR, THE FOREGOING EXCLUSIONS MAY NOT APPLY IN ALL CASES. This warranty provides specific legal rights. Other rights which vary from state to state may also apply. Ordering Information
Figure B‐01. MaxStream RF Modem Part Numbers Key © 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 55 XStream‐PKG‐E™ Ethernet RF Modem – Product Manual v5.x00 [2006.02.24] Contact MaxStream
Free and unlimited technical support is included with every MaxStream Radio Modem sold.
Please use the following resources for additional support:
Documentation:
www.maxstream.net/support/downloads.php
Technical Support:
Phone.
Live Chat.
www.maxstream.net
E-Mail.
rf-xperts@maxstream.net
(866) 765-9885 toll-free U.S. & Canada
(801) 765-9885 Worldwide
MaxStream office hours are 8:00 am – 5:00 pm [U.S. Mountain Standard Time]
© 2006 MaxStream, Inc. Confidential and Proprietary 56