Marathon SuperCap 3000VA Specifications
Shell Eco-marathon
Official Rules 2011
CHAPTER I
FOREWORD
These Official Rules are designed to enable safe, technically sound and fair competitions.
They intentionally leave many design parameters, technologies and tactics unspecified in
order to stimulate creativity and allow for a competition of novel ideas and solutions.
The Shell Eco-marathon has been challenging students from around the world to design
and build energy efficient vehicle for many years, with the ultimate goal to drive them at the
annual events in the Americas, Europe and as of 2010, in Asia.
In line with our long standing tradition of keeping the Shell Eco-marathon competition
challenging and relevant to current automotive and energy trends, the Organisers will allow
‘Battery Only’ powered vehicles to participate in both the Prototype and the UrbanConcept
category from the 2011 season onwards. This ‘Battery Only’ energy option, commonly
referred to as ‘Plug-In’ will complement the already existing Electric Mobility categories of
‘Solar’ and ‘H2 Fuel Cell’. Further details on this latest addition can be found in Article 81.
We strongly encourage all competitors to read these Official Rules thoroughly and
completely. Although we have made every effort to highlight significant changes to last
year’s rules in Blue, some of the existing regulations are often overlooked, causing
disappointment during the events.
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 - ORGANISATION
5 Article 1: Acceptance
5 Article 2: Entries
5 Article 3: Track Access Conditions
5 Article 4: Identification
6 Article 5: Compliance
6 Article 6: Timekeeping
6 Article 7: Protests
7 Article 8: Disputes
7 Article 9: Penalties
7 2 - SAFETY
8 Article 10: Safety Rules
8 Article 11: Driving Knowledge and Test
8 Article 12: Driving under the Influence of Alcohol / Illegal Substances 8 Article 13: Briefing
9 Article 14: Access to the Track and Test Lap
9 Article 15: Pushing the Vehicle
9 Article 16: Competition Direction
9 Article 17: Radio Communication
9 Article 18: Overtaking
9 Article 19: Breakdowns and Other Incidents
9 Article 20: Off-track vehicle movements
10 Article 21: Driver Weight
10 Article 22: Helmets
10 Article 23: Driver Clothing
10 Article 23A: Driver Comfort
11 Article 24: Equipment and Materials
11 3 – VEHICLE DESIGN
12 3A – Prototype Group
12 Article 25: Vehicle Design
12 Article 26: Dimensions
12 Article 27: Chassis / Monocoque Solidity
12 Article 28: Visibility
13 Article 29: Safety Belts
13 Article 30: Vehicle Access
13 Article 31: Driver Position
13 Article 32: Cockpit - Ventilation
13 Article 33: Engine and Fuel System Isolation from the Driver
14 Article 34: Horn
14 Article 35: On-board Fire Extinguisher
14 Article 36: Clutch and Transmission
14 Article 37: Wheels, Axles and Wheel Hubs
15 Article 38: Turning Radius
15 Article 39: Vehicle Steering and Handling
15 Article 40: Braking
15 Article 41: Exhaust System
16 Article 42: Sound Level
16 Article 43: Emergency Shut-down mechanism
16 Article 44: Additional Inspections
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
3B - UrbanConcept Group
Article 45: Definition
Article 46: deleted
Article 47: Vehicle Design
Article 48: Dimensions
Article 49: Vehicle Body
Article 50: Chassis / Monocoque Solidity
Article 51: Engine and Fuel System Isolation from the Driver
Article 52: Fire Extinguisher
Article 53: Visibility
Article 54: Safety Belts
Article 55: Vehicle Access
Article 56: Vehicle Steering / Handling and Turning Radius
Article 57: Wheels
Article 58: Tyres
Article 59: Lighting
Article 60: Horn
Article 61: Driver Position
Article 62: Braking
Article 63: Clutch and Transmission
Article 64: Exhaust System
Article 65: Sound Level
Article 66: Emergency Shut-down mechanism
Article 67: Additional Inspections
4 – ENERGY SOURCES
Article 68: General
Article 69: Authorised Fuels
Article 70: Engine Lubricants
Article 71: On-Board Electrical Energy
4A – Internal Combustion Engines
Article 72: Propulsion
Article 73: Other on-board energy sources
Article 74: Fuel Tanks (with the exception of Hydrogen)
Article 75: Fuel System
Article 76: deleted
Article 77: Vehicles using hybrid technology
Article 78: Starter
4B – Electric Motors
Article 79: Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles
Article 80: Solar Powered Vehicles
Article 81: ‘Battery Only’ Powered Vehicles (‘Plug-In’s’)
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16 16 16 16 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 23 23 23 25 25 25 25 26 27 27 27 28 28 30 31 Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
1 - ORGANISATION
Article 1:
Acceptance
The entry forms must be sent completed, with all necessary documents, to the
Organisers who will accept Teams based on the quality of the proposed entry
packet. All decisions by the Organisers regarding the acceptance of Teams are
final.
By fact of their entry, participants accept all the provisions of the present Official
Rules and agree to abide by all decisions made by the Shell Eco-marathon
Organisers. The Organisers reserve the right to modify, delete or add any
article of the present Official Rules. In such an event, the Teams will be notified.
The Organisers are solely empowered to pronounce on cases not provided for
in the present Official Rules.
The Organisers reserve the right to modify, delay or even cancel the
competition in the event of unforeseen circumstances, notably rain, high winds
or excessive heat. No claims for compensation will be accepted.
By entering the Shell Eco-marathon, all participants recognise the right of
the Organisers, Shell, and more generally the companies of the Shell
Group to use their images for publicity or other promotional material.
Article 2:
Entries
For each entry, a Team Manager, a Driver and a Reserve Driver must be
designated.
The Team Manager can only be responsible for one vehicle. He/she may also
be a Driver for that vehicle, but only for that vehicle.
The Team Manager is the Team's sole official liaison with the Organisers. All
information will be addressed to him/her. For the purposes of the project,
he/she will be responsible for the Team, must speak on behalf of the Team and
must be able to understand and speak English.
The eligibility criteria for Drivers are detailed in the relevant section of Chapter
II. The Driver for one vehicle cannot be the Driver or Reserve Driver for another
vehicle.
A Reserve Driver may be assigned to two vehicles. However, once he/she has
driven one of those vehicles (during practice or in competition), he/she may no
longer drive the other vehicle.
Each interested Team must apply to compete in the regional Shell Ecomarathon event closest to their home country. The attendance at another Shell
Eco-marathon event outside its home region is subject to decision of the
relevant regional organising committee.
Article 3:
Track Access Conditions
During both the practice runs and the competition, all vehicles must comply with
the technical and safety rules of the event. Whenever the track is entered, the
vehicle body must be in place and bear all the competition numbers, partner
streamers and Shell logos required by the Official Rules. Organisers will supply
these numbers and logos upon entry confirmation.
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
Article 4:
Identification
Logos, official partner streamers and racing numbers must be fixed to the
vehicle body in accordance with the diagram provided (see Chapter II) such
that they can be clearly read during any public presentation, in promotional
films and on all photographs for team use, school use, press or promotional
material.
Under no circumstances may the Shell logos, the partner streamers or racing
numbers be modified, either on the vehicle or on any other documentation. It is
prohibited to cut the stickers supplied by the Organisers. Their dimensions are
as follow:
•
•
•
For each side and for the front of the vehicle: a Shell logo, 20 x 20cm.
For each side and for the front of the vehicle: racing numbers (stickers),
with a different colour for each energy class, 20 x 26cm.
For each side, on the lower part of the body: a partner streamer, 90 x 6cm.
A mandatory 10cm space must be left free on all four sides of the Shell logo.
Any other sponsor names / logos must be smaller than the Shell logo. The
sponsor stickers must fit within a surface of 400 cm2 (empty space included)
In the event of a breach of this rule, the Organisers reserve the right to remove
any sponsor logos.
Furthermore, the trademarks or logos of other energy companies, direct
competitors of event partners, tobacco companies and alcoholic drinks
producers are prohibited.
All vehicles are subject to the Organisers’ approval concerning these
provisions.
Article 5:
Compliance
Only those vehicles that comply with the present Official Rules are allowed to
participate. No vehicle will be allowed on the track for practice or competition
until the Organisers have approved it. The decisions of the Organisers are final
in all matters concerning the compliance of vehicle design and construction with
the present Official Rules.
The Organisers reserve the right to rescind vehicle approval upon further or
more detailed checks. The Organisers must be notified of any modifications to
the vehicle after inspection. Non-compliance with this rule will lead to vehicle
disqualification.
Vehicles complying with all safety rules but not with some of the other technical
rules will not qualify for the competition, however may be allowed on the track
for practice or demonstration.
Article 6:
Timekeeping
For details see Chapter II of the ‘Official Rules’ for the relevant Region (i.e.
Americas, Europe, Asia)
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
----------- PROTESTS AND DISPUTES ------------------
Article 7:
Protests
The Team Manager is the only person authorised to lodge protests. Protests
must be brought to the attention of the Technical Manager via the results desk.
Depending on the nature protests must be lodged within the following times:
•
Vehicles: before track closure on the current day
•
Team and Driver behaviour: within 30 minutes following the end of the
attempt.
•
Results: within 1 hour after the result of an attempt has been posted.
Article 8:
Disputes
In the event of any disputes, all decisions made by the Race Director are
binding and final.
Article 9:
Penalties
Non-compliance with the driving rules will result in a warning, invalidation of the
attempt or disqualification of the Team, depending on the severity of the
breach.
The Organisers will exclude, disqualify or otherwise penalise any competitor
who, in the judgement of the Race Director, has gained an unfair advantage as
a result of any breach of these Official Rules, hindrance of other participants,
departure from the normal course, or any act or omission capable of
misrepresenting performance, especially with regard to fuel consumption or
method of propulsion.
During the competition, the Driver or the Team Manager must report to the
Organisers any movement made or attempted by means other than the
vehicle’s own motive power. In such an event, the attempt in question will not
be taken into account. If this type of incident is not reported, all the Team’s
attempts will be invalidated.
The Organisers will apply the following penalties for the following infractions:
•
Non-use of the horn prior to overtaking.
•
Non-compliance with safety or driving rules (unsafe or unwise behaviour).
1st infraction:
2nd infraction:
3rd infraction:
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Formal warning
Best overall attempt invalidated at the end of the competition
Immediate Team disqualification.
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
2 - SAFETY
Article 10:
Safety Rules
As with any Motorsport activity there should be an understanding that certain
inherent risks will be present. Recognising and controlling these risks are vital
for the well being of people and local surroundings. Safety is an essential
consideration for the event Organisers. These Rules are to protect all
individuals and surrounding areas and are in no way intended to curtail the
spirit of the competition. Any activity deemed unsafe or outside of the spirit of
the event will be met with appropriate action by the event Organisers.
Therefore, compliance with safe driving and sporting rules, as well as any
instructions given by Track Marshals is mandatory for everyone. All Team
members must comply with the safety measures and must notify Organisers
about any anomalies or incidents. In the event that dangerous conditions are
present leave the area immediately. During the event the Pit areas will be
monitored by the Organisers to assist Teams to comply with safe practices.
Non-compliance with any of the Official Rules may lead to disqualification
from the competition at the sole and absolute discretion of the
Organisers.
---------------- DRIVING RULES-----------------------
Article 11:
•
•
•
Article 12:
Driving Knowledge and Test
Only the registered Driver and the Reserve Driver will be authorised to drive
the vehicle.
During vehicle inspection, Drivers may be questioned to test their knowledge
of the driving regulations. The Organisers reserve the right to deny track
access to a driver with insufficient knowledge of the Official Rules.
Driving on-track: In the interest of safety it is important that Drivers learn and
apply smooth and predictable driving techniques, e.g. thinking well ahead,
avoiding sudden directional changes, and being fully aware of other
competitors around them.
Driving under the Influence of Alcohol / Illegal Substances
Driving under the influence of any alcohol and or illegal substance(s) is
forbidden. This applies to all Drivers and Reserve Drivers entering the track.
Procedures for alcohol or substance testing are detailed in Chapter II.
Any breach will be penalized in line with Article 9 and the following additional
penalties:
•
Any alcohol and / or substance related breach of the rules will be treated
at least as ‘2nd infraction’ of the Team, even if no prior violation has
occurred.
•
In addition, the affected Driver is immediately banned from access to the
track as long as he /she is under the Influence. The Reserve Driver may
substitute the Driver if he/she is eligible to drive.
•
Any second alcohol and / or substance related infraction will lead to the
immediate disqualification of the entire Team.
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
Article 13:
Briefing
The attendance of any briefing sessions by the Organiser is mandatory for
Team Managers and Drivers. Scheduled briefings will be posted at the track.
Article 14:
Access to the Track and Test Lap
Vehicles must pass a safety inspection prior to accessing the track for practice
runs. A safety sticker will be clearly affixed once the vehicle has passed the
inspection.
For practice runs, only vehicles with a safety sticker will be allowed on the track.
For the competition, only vehicles with safety and technical inspection stickers
will be allowed to compete.
The Organisers will allow sufficient time for Team Managers and Drivers to
inspect the track on foot or by bicycle, i.e. before any vehicles are allowed on
the track. Each cyclist must wear a cycling helmet and appropriate footwear, i.e.
no sandals, flip-flops, etc.
Article 15:
Pushing the Vehicle
At no time on the race track, drivers are allowed to push their vehicle or have it
pushed, including to start the run or to cross the finish line
Article 16:
Competition Direction
It is forbidden to drive in reverse gear or to drive against the race direction.
Article 17:
Radio Communication
The use of hand-held communications is forbidden in the vehicle. However, the
use of a “hands-free” kit is allowed as long as both hands of the driver remain
on the steering system.
Article 18:
Overtaking
Drivers are required to give clear passage for other competitors wishing to
overtake.
•
The Driver in the overtaking vehicle must sound their horn and pass with
caution. Attention: The Driver of the overtaking vehicle is responsible for
the safety of the manoeuvre.
•
The Driver of the vehicle being overtaken will use his/her rear – and sideview mirrors and must not change course suddenly.
•
On the track, overtaking is authorised on both the right and the left, as long
as the above-mentioned safety rules are followed
Article 19:
Breakdowns and Other Incidents
Intentional stopping on the track is forbidden unless it is required by the
competition, e.g. for Urban Concept vehicles or for driver changes in Asia.
If a vehicle breaks down or is involved in a disabling accident on the track, the
Driver must immediately make every attempt to drive the vehicle to the shoulder
of the track.
The Driver is allowed 30 seconds to attempt to re-start the vehicle from within
its driving position.
If unsuccessful, the Driver must get out of the car and wait in a safe place off
the track for the Track Marshals to arrive and recover him/her and the vehicle.
It is forbidden to carry out repairs on the track. In the event of a flat tyre, even
when near the starting line, a new start will not be granted for the attempt in
question.
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
Article 20:
Off-track vehicle movements
All vehicles must be parked inside the designated paddock area or directly in
front of it. When off the track, vehicles must be moved without the use of the
engine. They must be pushed or pulled. Test-driving in the paddock area is
forbidden.
Race Marshals will notify the Race Director of any breaches and any unsafe or unfair
behaviour.
---------------- DRIVER EQUIPMENT -----------------------
Article 21:
•
•
•
Driver Weight
Drivers of Prototype vehicles must weigh at least 50 kg in full driving gear,
including communication devices. Ballast must be fitted to the vehicle in the
event the minimum weight requirement is not met. This ballast must be
provided by the Team, and must be effectively tied down and secured to the
vehicle to ensure no danger for the Driver in the event of collision or rollover. It must be readily detachable for weighing.
Drivers of Urban Concept vehicles must weigh at least 70 kg in full driving
gear, including communication devices and luggage item. Ballast must be
fitted in the luggage compartment of the vehicle in the event the minimum
weight requirement is not met. This ballast must be provided by the Team,
and must be effectively tied down and secured to the vehicle to ensure no
danger for the Driver in the event of collision or roll-over. It must be easily
detachable for weighing.
The Driver (in full driving gear, including communication devices) and the
ballast may be weighed before or after each official attempt.
Article 22:
Helmets
For practice and competition, Drivers must wear Motorcycle or Motorsport style
helmets that comply with the safety standards specified in Chapter II of the
Official Rules of each Shell Eco-marathon event (bicycle/riding/skating type
helmets are not permitted). The helmet labels must be clearly readable.
Helmets worn by both the Driver and Reserve Driver will be subject to
inspection.
Only full-face or three quarter helmets are permitted. Generally, the full-face
and three quarter style helmets can be affixed with face shields which are
highly recommended. If a face shield is not utilised, safety goggles are required.
The helmets must correctly fit the Drivers; otherwise they will not be approved
for the event.
Article 23:
Driver Clothing
All Drivers must wear a racing suit as the outermost layer of clothing (fire
retardant highly recommended). Casual clothing and street wear are not
permitted. Chapter II provides further guidelines regarding the racing suit
specifications and availability. Wearing synthetic outer clothes or underwear is
strictly forbidden for Drivers when seated in their vehicle.
Gloves and shoes are required and must be provided by the team; bare feet or
socks only are prohibited.
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
Article 23A: Driver Comfort
Please note that in the event of hot weather conditions high temperatures could
be attained inside the vehicle, potentially affecting Driver comfort and / or
causing heat stress.
• It is recommended to properly ventilate the inside of the vehicle to
provide cooling to the Driver.
• It is recommended to provide sufficient drinking liquids to the driver for
the duration of an attempt. If fluid containers are provided to the driver(s),
these containers must be hands free, e.g. camel-back style or bottles
secured inside drivers compartment with flexible feed straw.
• It is recommended to equip the vehicle with an effective sunscreen.
• The Organisers reserve the right to restrict individual driving time by any
means at their sole discretion, e.g. shortening the distance, requesting
driver change (pit stop), limit maximum number of attempts per driver per
day, etc.
---------------- TEAM SAFETY EQUIPMENT -----------------------
Article 24:
Equipment and Materials
Teams are required to provide and use the following at the event:
•
Gloves for general work: leather or canvas material.
•
Gloves for fuel or motor oil handling: Chemical resistant.
•
Safety glasses for all Team members. (Disposable types are permitted).
•
Hearing protection for all Team members. (Approved Earplugs or muffs).
•
Duct tape to secure any cords or cables lying on the pit floor.
•
Lift stands or appropriate raised platform for vehicle tuning and repairs.
•
Own tools and materials.
•
Each Team must provide an operational 6 kg dry-chemical (powder) (10
lb. Unit for US application) extinguisher suitable for “ABC” class of fires.
The extinguisher must be accessible in the Team’s specific pit area in the
garage. The extinguisher must be full, and have a certificate of validity
bearing the manufacturer's number, the date of manufacture, and the
expiry date.
-------------------------- ATTENTION ------------------------
Review all sections of the Official Rules as they may contain further safety matters
specific to the topic.
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
3 – VEHICLE DESIGN
3A – Prototype Group
Article 25:
Vehicle Design
During vehicle design, construction and competition planning, participating
Teams must pay particular attention to all aspects of safety, i.e. Driver safety,
the safety of other Team members and spectator safety.
• Vehicles must have three or four running wheels, which under normal
running conditions must be all in continuous contact with the road.
• Aerodynamic appendages, which adjust or are prone to changing shape
due to wind whilst the vehicle is in motion, are forbidden.
• Vehicle bodies must not include any external appendages that might be
dangerous to other Team members; e.g. sharp points must have a radius of
5cm or greater, alternatively they should be made of foam or similar
deformable material.
• The vehicle interior must not contain any objects that might injure the Driver
during a collision.
• Windows must not be made of any material which may shatter into sharp
shards. Recommended material: Polycarbonate (e.g. Lexan)
Article 26:
Dimensions
The maximum height must be less than 100 cm
The maximum height measured at the top of the Driver's compartment
must be less than 1.25 times the maximum track width between the two
outermost wheels.
The track width must be at least 50cm, measured between the midpoints
where the tyres touch the ground.
The wheelbase must be at least 100cm.
The maximum total vehicle width must not exceed 130cm.
The maximum total length must not exceed 350cm.
The maximum vehicle weight, without the Driver, is 140kg.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Article 27:
•
•
•
•
•
Chassis / Monocoque Solidity
Teams must ensure that the vehicle chassis or monocoque is solid.
A monocoque is a construction that supports structural load by
using an object's external skin as opposed to using a frame.
The vehicle chassis must be equipped with an effective roll bar that
extends 5cm around the driver’s helmet when seated in normal driving
position with the safety belts fastened.
This roll bar must extend in width beyond the driver’s shoulders when
seated in normal driving position with the safety belts fastened.
It is permissible to either use a tubular or panel type roll bar. If
a ‘tubular roll bar’ is used, it must be made of metal. A panel
roll bar is the rigid partition separating the cockpit from the
engine compartment. Such a panel roll bar must be an integral
part of the vehicle chassis or integrated in a monocoque.
Any roll bar must be capable of withstanding a static load of 700N (~ 70 kg)
applied in a vertical, horizontal or perpendicular direction, without
deforming (i.e.in any direction).
The vehicle chassis or monocoque must be wide and long enough to
protect the driver’s body in case of a frontal or lateral collision.
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
Article 28:
Visibility
The Driver must have access to a direct arc of visibility (ahead, and to) 90° on
each side of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. This field of vision must be
achieved without aid of any optical (or electronic) devices such as mirrors,
prisms, periscopes, etc. Movement of the Driver’s head within the confines of
the vehicle body to achieve a complete arc of vision is allowed.
The vehicle must be equipped with a rear-view mirror on each side of the
vehicle, each with a minimum surface area of 25cm2 (e.g. 5cm x 5cm). The
visibility provided by these mirrors, and their proper attachment, will be subject
to inspection. An electronic device must not replace a rear-view mirror.
An Inspector will check visibility in each of the vehicles in order to assess ontrack safety. This Inspector will check good visibility with seven 60cm high
blocks spread out every 30° in a half-circle, with a 5m radius in front of the
vehicle.
Article 29:
Safety Belts
The Driver's seat must be fitted with an effective safety harness having at least
five mounting points to maintain the Driver in his/her seat.
• The mounting point(s) for the crotch strap(s) must be below the Driver’s
torso to prevent the Driver from slipping forward.
• The 5 independent belts must be firmly attached to the vehicle's main
structure and be fitted into a single buckle, specifically designed for this
purpose.
• The safety harness must be worn and fastened at all times when the
vehicle is in motion.
• The fitness for purpose of the harness and its fitting will be evaluated
during technical inspection by raising the vehicle with the Driver on board
using the safety harness for suspension.
• The safety harness must withstand a force of at least 1.5 times the Driver’s
weight.
• The safety harness must be worn and fastened at all times when the
vehicle is in motion.
Article 30:
Vehicle Access
It is imperative for Drivers, fully harnessed, to be able to vacate their vehicles at
any time without assistance in less than 10 seconds. Vehicles with closed
bodywork must be equipped with a sufficiently large opening for the cockpit.
The driving position must be designed so that emergency services can easily
extract the Driver from his/her vehicle, if necessary.
The said opening may be enclosed wholly or partly by means of hinged,
detachable and/or folding doors, provided that a release mechanism is easily
operable from inside and that the method of opening from the outside is clearly
marked by a red arrow and does not require any tools.
It is forbidden to use adhesive tape to securely close the Driver’s opening from
the outside.
Article 31:
Driver Position
For safety reasons, the head-first driving position is prohibited.
Article 32:
Cockpit - Ventilation
No specification – please review considerations in Article 23A
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
Article 33:
•
•
•
•
•
Engine and Fuel System Isolation from the Driver
A permanent Bulkhead must completely separate the vehicle’s
propulsion and energy storage systems from the driver’s
compartment.
This means engines, fuel cells, fuel tanks, batteries, hydrogen
cylinders, super capacitors, etc. must be placed outside the driver’s
compartment behind the bulk head. The purpose of this bulkhead is
that in the event of a fuel leak or fire, it prevents liquids and / or
flames and / or smoke reaching the driver. Therefore, it is necessary
to pay particular attention to avoid any gaps and holes between the
body and the bulk head. It is recommend to seal gaps with materials
such as metal / aluminium sheeting or aluminium tape.
This bulkhead must be of fire retardant material and construction.
In closed-top vehicles the bulkhead must effectively seal the driver’s
compartment from the propulsion and fuel system.
In open vehicles the bulkhead must extend at least 5cm above the highest
point of the propulsion and fuel system or the driver’s shoulders – whichever
is the highest.
The bulkhead must prevent manual access to the engine / energy
compartment by the driver.
Article 34:
Horn
Each vehicle must be equipped with the authorised horn that can be purchased
from the organiser.
Article 35:
On-board Fire Extinguisher
Each vehicle must be fitted with a fire extinguisher (ABC or BC type). All
Drivers must be trained in the use of said fire extinguisher. This extinguisher
must have a minimum extinguishant capacity of 1kg (2lb for US application),
equivalent size extinguishers are not permitted. It must be full and have a
certificate of validity bearing the manufacturer's number, the date of
manufacture, and the expiry date.
Plumbed-in extinguishers may be located in the engine compartment and
must discharge into the engine compartment. Triggering systems must be
located within the cockpit and be operable by the Driver in his/her normal
driving position.
Hand held extinguishers must be located within the cockpit and be
accessible to the Driver once they have vacated the vehicle. These should
be securely mounted to prevent movement while driving/braking. In the
event of a fire, Drivers should first exit the vehicle and then if possible,
remove the extinguisher and attempt to extinguish the fire if safe to do so.
The on-board fire extinguisher does not replace the need for an adequate
fire extinguisher for the teams garage area.
•
•
•
•
Article 36:
Clutch and Transmission
Vehicles with internal combustion engines must be equipped with a clutch
system, so that during inspection and fuelling operations the vehicle
remains stationary with the engine running.
All Clutch systems used prior to 2011 must be reviewed with respect
to whether the clutch system remains not engaged at engine start up.
(This means: The vehicle wheels must NOT turn when the engine is
started with brakes not applied)
• The starter motor speed must always be below the engagement speed
of the clutch.
• The installation of an effective transmission chain or belt guard(s) is
mandatory.
•
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
This is required to protect driver or technician when working on the
car in the event of the chain or belt breaking. It must be made of
metal or composite material rigid enough to withstand a break.
Article 37:
•
•
•
•
Wheels, Axles and Wheel Hubs
All types of wheels are allowed.
Any type of wheel rim may be used. Rims must be compatible with the
dimensions of the selected tyres in order to satisfy safety standards.
Teams must take into account the fact that bicycle wheels are not
generally designed to support substantial lateral cornering forces,
such as may be found in Shell Eco-marathon vehicles at certain
speeds.
The wheel axles must be designed for cantilever loads (like in wheel
chairs) rather than for load distributed equally on both sides (like in
bicycles).
Wheels located inside the vehicle body must be isolated from the Driver by a
bulkhead.
Any handling or manipulation of wheels by the Driver is forbidden from the
moment the vehicle is at the starting line until it crosses the finish line.
Article 38:
Turning Radius
The turning radius must be sufficient to enable safe overtaking as well as
negotiating the curvature of the track. If Race Marshals observe that the turning
radius of a vehicle is insufficient, the vehicle will be removed from the track for
technical inspection.
Article 39:
Vehicle Steering and Handling
A vehicle handling course may be set up in order to verify the following when
the vehicle is in motion: driver skills, sufficient turning radius and steering
precision. In particular, Inspectors will verify that steering is precise, with no
excessive play or undue delay.
Indirect steering is permitted as long as adequate fail safe and backup
measures are in place.
Article 40:
Braking
Vehicles must be equipped with two independently activated brakes or
braking systems; each system comprising of a single command control
(lever or foot pedal), command transmission (cables or hoses) and
activators (callipers or shoes).
Indirect and / or electronic braking systems are not permitted.
One system has to act on the front wheel(s), the other on the rear wheel(s).
When braking on two wheels at the front or the rear of the vehicles, two
activators (callipers or shoes) have to be used (one on each wheel)
commanded by only one command control. In addition, the right and left
brakes must be properly balanced. Foot control operation is recommended.
It must be possible to activate the two braking systems at the same time
without taking either hand of the steering system. For single handed steering
systems incorporating one braking system, the second system must be foot
operated.
The effectiveness of the two braking devices will be tested during vehicle
inspection. The vehicle will be placed on an incline with a 20 percent slope.
The brakes will be activated each in turn. Each system alone must keep the
vehicle immobile.
The use of a hydraulically controlled braking system is highly recommended.
Cable operated systems are allowed as long as they are effective
and pass the brake test.
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Article 41:
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•
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Exhaust System
The exhaust gases must be evacuated outside the vehicle body.
Exhaust pipes must not extend beyond the rear of the vehicle body.
All vehicles are expected to comply with reasonable environmental
standards, e.g. amount of smoke and odour emitted.
Article 42:
Sound Level
The sound level for a Prototype vehicle must not exceed 90dB when measured
4 metres away from the vehicle.
Maximum sound levels will be measured and recorded at the start
line and teams exceeding the permissible level will be notified with a
request for correction within a reasonable timeframe.
Article 43:
Emergency Shut-down mechanism
An emergency shutdown mechanism, accessible from the exterior, must be
permanently installed on all vehicles (not part of the detachable bodywork used
to allow driver access). A red arrow at least 10cm long and 3cm wide at the
widest point must be positioned on the vehicle body to indicate clearly the
position of this emergency shutdown mechanism from the exterior. This system
must stop the engine and isolate the battery.
Article 44:
Additional Inspections
After passing the technical inspection, the replacement and / or alteration of
engine or vehicle part must be re-approved by the Technical Inspectors.
After any significant incident on the track the vehicle will be subject to a reinspection as well
At any time, the Organisers may perform unannounced inspections on the
vehicles.
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3B - UrbanConcept Group
Article 45:
Article 46:
Article 47:
Definition
Under the name “UrbanConcept”, Shell offers an opportunity to design and
build fuel-economy vehicles that are close in appearance to today’s production
type passenger cars. UrbanConcept vehicles must comply with the specific rule
of the Shell Eco-marathon for this group. One particular feature of this group is
that vehicles competing in this group will require “stop & go” driving.
deleted
Vehicle Design
During vehicle design, construction and competition planning, competitors must
pay particular attention to all aspects of safety, i.e. Driver safety and the safety
of other participants and spectators.
• UrbanConcept vehicles must have exactly four wheels, which under
normal running conditions must be all in continuous contact with the road. A
fifth wheel for any purpose is forbidden.
• Aerodynamic appendages, which adjust or are prone to changing shape
due to wind whilst the vehicle is in motion, are forbidden (e.g. no shrink
wrap allowed).
• Vehicle bodies must not include any external appendages that might be
dangerous to other Team members; e.g. sharp points must have a radius of
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Article 48:
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Article 49:
5cm or greater, alternatively they should be made of foam or similar
deformable material.
This means for example exposed corners of solar panels, pointed
parts of the vehicle body, etc.
The vehicle interior must not contain any objects that might injure the Driver
during a collision.
Windows must not be made of any material which may shatter into sharp
shards. Recommended material: Polycarbonate (e.g. Lexan)
Dimensions
The total vehicle height must be between 100cm and 130cm.
The total vehicle width must be between 120cm and 130 cm.
The total vehicle length must be between 220cm and 350cm.
The track width must be at least 100cm for the front axle and 80cm for the
rear axle, measured between the midpoints where the tyres touch the
ground.
The wheelbase must be at least 120cm.
The Driver’s compartment must have a minimum height of 88cm and a
minimum width of 70cm at the Driver’s shoulders.
The ground clearance must be at least 10cm.
The maximum vehicle weight (excluding the Driver) must be 205kg.
Vehicle Body
Teams are requested to submit technical drawings, photographs or
animations of their entire vehicle design to the organisers for approval at
their earliest opportunity.
This is strongly recommended to avoid upsets by failing the
technical inspection at the event on grounds of design noncompliance.
• The body must cover all mechanical parts excluding wheels and
suspension, whether the vehicle is viewed from the front, the rear, the
sides or from above.
• The wheels and suspension must be fully covered by the body when
seen from above and up to the axle centre line when seen from front or
rear.
• It is prohibited to use any commercially available vehicle body parts (e.g.
mini-car).
• Access to the vehicle by the Driver must be as easy and practical as
typically found in production type passenger cars.
• Any access opening mechanisms (e.g. doors) must be firmly attached to the
vehicle body (e.g. by means of hinges, sliding rails, etc.) Adhesive tape,
Velcro, etc. are not permitted for this purpose.
• The vehicle must have a roof covering the Driver’s compartment.
• A windscreen is mandatory.
• Luggage space must be available for a suitcase-like object with dimensions
of 50 x 40 x 20cm (LxHxW). This space must be easily accessible from the
outside and must include a floor and sidewalls to hold the luggage in place
when the vehicle is moving. A competitor supplied suitcase-like object must
be placed in this space during any competition. For drivers requiring ballast
this suitcase-like object must contain the ballast.
• Vehicle bodies must not include any external appendages that might be
dangerous to other Team members; e.g. sharp points must have a radius of
5cm or greater, alternatively they should be made of foam or similar
deformable material.
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•
A towing hook or ring is mandatory on the front of the vehicle, so that it can
be towed with a cable by another vehicle. This hook or ring must resist a
traction force of 2000N (~200 kg).
Article 50:
Chassis / Monocoque Solidity
• Teams must ensure that the vehicle chassis or monocoque is solid.
A monocoque is a construction that supports structural load by
using an object's external skin as opposed to using a frame.
• The vehicle must be equipped with an effective roll bar that extends 5cm
around the driver’s helmet when seated in normal driving position with the
safety belts fastened.
• This roll bar must extend in width beyond the driver’s shoulders when seated
in normal driving position with the safety belts fastened.
It is permissible to either use a tubular or panel type roll bar. If
a ‘tubular roll bar’ is used, it must be made of metal. A panel
roll bar is the rigid partition separating the cockpit from the
engine compartment. Such a panel roll bar must be an integral
part of the vehicle chassis or integrated in a monocoque.
• Any roll bar must be capable of withstanding a static load of 700N (~ 70 kg)
applied in a vertical, horizontal or perpendicular direction, without deforming
(i.e.in any direction).
• The vehicle chassis or monocoque must be wide and long enough to protect
the drivers body in case of a frontal or lateral collision.
Article 51:
Engine and Fuel System Isolation from the Driver
A permanent Bulkhead must completely separate the vehicle’s
propulsion and energy storage systems from the driver’s
compartment.
This means engines, fuel cells, fuel tanks, batteries, hydrogen
cylinders, super capacitors, etc. must be placed outside the driver’s
compartment behind the bulk head. The purpose of this bulkhead is
that in the event of a fuel leak or fire, it prevents liquids and / or
flames and / or smoke reaching the driver. Therefore, it is necessary
to pay particular attention to avoid any gaps and holes between the
body and the bulk head. It is recommend to seal gaps with materials
such as metal/aluminium sheeting or aluminium tape.
This bulkhead must be of fire retardant material and construction.
In closed-top vehicles the bulkhead must effectively seal the driver’s
compartment from the propulsion and fuel system.
In open vehicles the bulkhead must extend at least 5cm above the highest
point of the propulsion and fuel system or the driver’s shoulders – whichever
is the highest.
The bulkhead must prevent manual access to the engine / energy
compartment by the driver.
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Article 52:
Fire Extinguisher
Each vehicle must be fitted with a fire extinguisher (ABC or BC type). All
Drivers must be trained in the use of said fire extinguisher. This extinguisher
must have a minimum extinguishant capacity of 1kg (2lb for US application),
equivalent size extinguishers are not permitted. It must be full and have a
certificate of validity bearing the manufacturer's number, the date of
manufacture, and the expiry date.
Plumbed-in extinguishers may be located in the engine compartment and must
discharge into the engine compartment. Triggering systems must be located
within the cockpit and be operable by the Driver in his normal driving position.
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Hand held extinguishers must be located within the cockpit and be accessible
to the Driver once they have vacated the vehicle. These should be securely
mounted to prevent movement while driving/braking. In the event of a fire,
Drivers should first exit the vehicle and then if possible, remove the extinguisher
and attempt to extinguish the fire if safe to do so.
Article 53:
Visibility
The Driver must have access to a direct arc of visibility (ahead, and to) 90° on
each side of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. This field of vision must be
achieved without aid of any optical (or electronic) devices such as mirrors,
prisms, periscopes, etc. Movement of the Driver’s head within the confines of
the vehicle body to achieve a complete arc of vision is allowed.
The vehicle must be equipped with a rear-view mirror on each side of the
vehicle, each with a minimum surface area of 25cm2 (e.g. 5cm x 5cm). The
visibility provided by these mirrors, and their proper attachment, will be subject
to inspection. An electronic device must not replace rear-view mirror.
An Inspector will check visibility in each of the vehicles in order to assess ontrack safety. This Inspector will check good visibility with seven 60cm high
blocks spread out every 30° in a half-circle, with a 5m radius in front of the
vehicle.
Article 54:
Safety Belts
The Driver's seat must be fitted with an effective safety harness having at least
five mounting points to maintain the Driver in his/her seat.
• The mounting point(s) for the crotch strap(s) must be below the Driver’s
torso to prevent the Driver from slipping forward.
• The 5 independent belts must be firmly attached to the vehicle's main
structure and be fitted into a single buckle, specifically designed for this
purpose.
• The safety belt must be worn and fastened at all times when the vehicle is in
motion.
• The fitness for purpose of the harness and its fitting will be evaluated during
technical inspection.
• The harness must be propriety.
This means the safety harness must be specifically manufactured for
motorsport use. (e.g. certified or compliant with FIA standards)
• The safety harness must be worn and fastened at all times when the vehicle
is in motion.
Article 55:
Vehicle Access
It is imperative for Drivers, fully harnessed, to be able to vacate their vehicles at
any time without assistance in less than 10 seconds.
The opening release mechanism must be easily operable from the inside. The
method of opening from the outside must be clearly marked by a red arrow and
must not require any tools.
It is forbidden to use adhesive tape to securely close the Driver’s opening from
the outside.
Article 56:
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•
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Vehicle Steering / Handling and Turning Radius
Vehicle steering must be achieved by one system operated with both hands
using a turning motion. It must be precise, with no excessive play.
Steering must be achieved using a steering wheel or sections of a wheel.
Steering bars, tillers, joysticks, indirect or electric systems are not permitted.
The turning radius must be less than 6m.
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•
Article 57:
•
•
A vehicle handling course may be set up in order to verify the following when
the vehicle is in motion: driver skills, turning radius and steering precision. In
particular, Inspectors will verify that steering is precise, with no excessive
play.
Wheels
The rims must be between 13 to 17 inches in diameter.
The wheels located inside the vehicle body must be made inaccessible to
the Driver by a bulkhead. Any handling or manipulation of the wheels is
forbidden from the moment the vehicle arrives at the starting line until it
crosses the finish line.
Article 58:
Tyres
All tyre types are allowed as long as they are fitted on the type and size of rims
recommended by their manufacturers. The tyre / rim assembly must have a
minimum width of 80mm, measured from sidewall to sidewall. The width is
measured with the tyre fitted on its rim at its rated pressure.
Caution: the manufacturer’s size indications should not be taken as
measure, as the width of the rim directly impacts the width of the
rim/tyre assembly.
Article 59:
Lighting
The vehicle must have a functional external lighting system, including:
• Two front headlights
• Two front turn indicators
• Two rear turn indicators
• Two red brake lights in the rear
• Two red rear lights (may be combined with the brake lights)
• The centre of each headlight unit must be located at an equal distance and
at least 30cm from the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.
• The mandatory red indicator light for the self starter operation must be
separate from any of the above (Article 78)
Article 60:
Horn
Each vehicle must be equipped with the authorised horn that can be purchased
from the Organisers.
Article 61:
Driver Position
For safety reasons, the head-first driving position is prohibited.
Article 62:
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Braking
The vehicle must be equipped with a four-disc hydraulic brake system, with
a brake pedal, which has a minimum surface area of 25cm2 .
The brakes must operate independently on the front and rear axles or in an
X pattern (i.e. right front wheel with left rear wheel, and left front wheel with
right rear wheel).
A single master cylinder may be used, provided that it has a dual circuit (two
pistons and dual tank).
The effectiveness of the braking system will be tested during vehicle
inspection for both Drivers. The vehicle must remain immobile when it is
placed on a 20 percent incline with the main brake in place. Moreover, a
dynamic inspection may be performed on the vehicle-handling course.
Race Inspectors may check the brakes again just prior to the start.
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Article 63:
Clutch and Transmission
• Vehicles with internal combustion engines must be equipped with a clutch
system, so that during inspection and fuelling operations the vehicle
remains stationary with the engine running.
All Clutch systems used prior to 2011 must be reviewed with respect
to whether the clutch system remains not engaged at engine start up.
(This means: The vehicle wheels must NOT turn when the engine is
started with brakes not applied)
• The starter motor speed must always be below the engagement speed
of the clutch.
• The installation of an effective transmission chain or belt guard(s) is
mandatory.
This is required to protect driver or technician when working on the
car in the event of the chain or belt breaking. It must be made of
metal or composite material rigid enough to withstand a break.
Article 64:
Exhaust System
The exhaust gases must be evacuated outside the vehicle body.
Exhaust pipes must not extend beyond the rear of the vehicle body.
All vehicles are expected to comply with reasonable environmental
standards, e.g. amount of smoke and odour emitted.
•
•
•
Article 65:
Sound Level
The sound level for an UrbanConcept vehicle must not exceed 90dB when
measured 4 metres away from the vehicle.
Maximum sound levels will be measured and recorded at the pit stop
locations during a race and teams exceeding the permissible level will
be notified with a request for correction within a reasonable
timeframe.
Article 66:
Emergency Shut-down mechanism
An emergency shutdown mechanism, accessible from the exterior, must be
installed on all vehicles. A red arrow at least 10cm long and 3cm wide at the
widest point must be positioned on the vehicle body to indicate clearly the
position of this emergency shutdown mechanism from the exterior. This system
must stop the engine and isolate the battery.
Article 67:
Additional Inspections
After passing the technical inspection, the replacement and / or alteration of
engine or vehicle part must be re-approved by the Technical Inspectors.
After any significant incident on the track the vehicle will be subject to a reinspection as well
At any time, the Organisers may perform unannounced inspections on the
vehicles.
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4 – ENERGY SOURCES
Article 68:
General
The vehicles may only use the following fuels:
Internal Combustion:
•
Shell FuelSave Unleaded 95 (Europe and Asia) / Shell Regular 87 (US)
Petrol / Gasoline. **
•
Shell FuelSave Diesel (Europe) / Shell Diesel (Asia and US). **
•
Shell Gas to Liquid (100% GTL).
•
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (100% FAME).
•
Ethanol E100 (100% Ethanol).
** The gasoline and diesel provided by the Organisers are the Shell fuels
prevalent in the local markets where the events take place. For testing
and tuning purposes in the team’s home countries where Shell FuelSave
Unleaded 95 and Shell FuelSave Diesel are not available it is
recommended to use the locally available Shell Unleaded 95 or Shell
Diesel instead.
Electric Mobility:
•
Hydrogen.
•
Solar.
•
‘Plug-In’ Electricity.
Results for the Internal Combustion Category will be expressed in kilometres
per litre (km/l) (i.e. theoretical distance covered using energy of Shell FuelSave
Unleaded 95 (Europe and Asia) / Shell Regular 87 (US) Petrol / Gasoline
equivalent) corrected to a temperature of 15°C.
Regardless of the fuel used, the ranking will be determined from this equivalent
consumption of Shell FuelSave Unleaded 95 (Europe and Asia) / Shell Regular
87 (US) Petrol / Gasoline. This calculation will be performed using the net
calorific value (NCV), which represents the quantity of energy released per unit
mass or volume of fuel during complete combustion yielding steam and carbon
dioxide.
Typical NCV values (mass basis) for different fuels are given in the table below.
The NCV values (vol.) at 15ºC are calculated on the day of competition by
multiplying the actual mass-based NCV by the fuel density at 15ºC.
For example, if a distance of 1,000km is covered with one litre of Shell Diesel,
whose corresponding energy is 35,663kJ (if we assume a fuel density of
0.83716kg/l at 15ºC), this represents 0.0280km covered per kJ. Since the
energy from one litre of Shell FuelSave Unleaded 95 (Europe and Asia) / Shell
Regular 87 (US) Petrol / Gasoline is 32,010kJ (if we assume a fuel density of
0.74616kg/l at 15ºC), this corresponds to a corrected distance of 896km
(rounded to the nearest unit). The final result for a vehicle having covered
1,000km with one litre of diesel fuel (at the reference temperature of 15ºC) will
thus be 896km for the equivalent of 1 litre of Shell FuelSave Unleaded 95
(Europe and Asia) / Shell Regular 87 (US) Petrol / Gasoline (also at the
reference temperature of 15ºC).
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Results for the Electric Mobility Category (hydrogen fuel cell, solar, ‘Plug-In’electricity) will be expressed in kilometres per kilowatt hour (km/kWh).
Fuel Cell vehicles will use a flow meter to measure the H2 consumed. The
result will be calculated using the NCV of H2 listed below
The results of Solar and ‘Battery-Only’ vehicles will be determined by using
joulemeters which are supplier by the Organisers.
The results for hybrid vehicles will be expressed based on the primary energy
used.
No additives, catalysts, water injection, or fuel treatment devices are allowed.
Article 69:
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Article 70:
Article 71:
Internal Combustion Fuel
NCV by
mass (kJ/kg)
Shell FuelSave Unleaded 95 (Europe and Asia)
Shell Regular 87 (US) Petrol / Gasoline
Shell FuelSave Diesel (Europe)
Shell Diesel (Asia and US)
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester
Gas to Liquid
Ethanol E100
Hydrogen
42,900
42,600
37,700
44,000
26,900
119,930
Authorised Fuels
Only the fuels listed in Article 68, as provided to the participants by the
Organisers during the event, are authorised for use during practice and
competition.
Supplies adequate for practice and competition will be available by the
officials in charge of measuring fuel consumption.
No additives may be added to the fuel. Only the power derived from the
combustion of the fuel in the presence of air alone within the engine system
may be used for forward propulsion. No other material that could serve as
engine fuel may be used at any time during the event.
Any participant handling fuel must wear safety glasses and chemically
resistant gloves.
Weather conditions will vary throughout the event and solar competitors
need to take this effect into account during the competition.
Engine Lubricants
The Organisers will provide the engine oils for use by the competitors.
On-Board Electrical Energy
For safety reasons, the maximum voltage on board of any vehicle must
not exceed 48 Volts (this includes on-board batteries, external
batteries, super capacitors, fuel cell stack, etc).
• Only one battery per vehicle is allowed.
A ‘battery’ is defined as a source of electrical energy, which has
exactly two connectors and comes as a single unit. This single unit
may contain more than one sub-unit.
• This on-board battery must operate all safety devices (e.g. horn, hydrogen
sensor) for the duration of the competition may also operate the starter
motor, the ignition, the instrumentation and electronic management
systems. All other additional sources of electricity are forbidden.
•
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Competitors are required to provide the main characteristics of the battery
in their technical documentation: maximum voltage that can be supplied,
capacity in ampere-hours (i.e. the quantity of electricity that the battery can
theoretically provide when new), dimensions and weight. The on-board
battery is not allowed to power compressors, blowers, engine cooling
systems, motors, etc. It may however be used to power a ventilation/cooling
fan for the driver.
Competitors must provide the Organisers with a precise description and
technical drawing of the vehicle’s electrical circuitry.
The Organisers reserve the right to request additional information
from Teams using high-capacity batteries.
The Organisers reserve the right to request Teams to install one joulemeter,
intended to measure the quantity of energy provided by the battery. If this
amount of energy exceeds the power typically required to operate the
starter motor, horn and safety devices the competitor will be disqualified.
Batteries must be installed outside of the driver’s compartment behind a
bulk head.
The following devices may be powered by additional batteries provided they
use built-in batteries: radio communication system, GPS system, data
loggers excluding engine management units, driver ventilators.
If a Lithium Polymer battery is used, a Battery Monitoring System (BMS)
must be installed to control and protect the battery against risk of fire.
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4A – Internal Combustion Engines
Article 72:
Propulsion
The type or design of the internal combustion engines is not restricted, however
they must run only on the fuel provided by the Organisers and must not
consume any engine oil.
Article 73:
Other on-board energy sources
For all fuel categories, stored electrical or pneumatic energy not replaced
during the competition by the engine may only be used for the self-starter,
the ignition, the injector, the instrumentation, the horn and electronic
management systems.
Fuel pumps are permitted for all fuels provided they are mechanically driven
by the engine only.
It is permitted to pressurise the liquid fuel tanks, in order to feed the engine,
only under the following conditions:
Pressurisation is done by means of a translucent compressed air bottle fitted
with a safety valve set to 5 bars maximum. It must include a standard valve
as used for car tyres in order to enable verification/control of the pressure
setting for the safety valve. The said pressurisation is done in the starting
area by means of an air pump. The Driver must not modify the pressure
during the competition.
Auxiliary energy sources (chemical, latent energy from phase changes, etc.)
are not permitted.
If the engine temperature is regulated, the said regulation should be limited
to the use of pure, un-pressurised water as coolant. The external regulation
temperature of the engine (for engines thus equipped) is limited to 100°C.
It is forbidden to use a battery-powered electrical pump to ensure oil or water
circulation in the engine, except in cases where this pump is only used when
the engine is being started.
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Comment: For 2012 the use of electric fuel pumps creating higher
injection pressures is under consideration. They will only be allowed if
the entire system (tank, fuel lines, pump, injector) can be easily and
safely removed from the vehicle for weighing purposes.
Article 74:
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Fuel Tanks (with the exception of Hydrogen)
The vehicle must be equipped with only one of the following approved fuel
tanks supplied by the Organisers:
Tank capacities:
Prototype: 30, 100 or 250cc
UrbanConcept: 30, 100, 250 or 350cc
Only tanks bearing a clearly visible stamp proving its "APAVE"* certification
compliance can be used for pressurised systems.
APAVE: This organisation tests fuel tanks and certifies their
ability to withstand a pressure of 5 bar (72.4 psi).
The fuel tank has to be mounted in an accessible and zero degree vertical
position which allows in-situ filling with a burette of approx 1 metre height.
The fuel tank must be mounted in a way that its top is at least 5cm below
the roll bar.
The fuel tank cap, whether it is leak proof or not (drilled), must be in place at
all times during the competition.
Note that for gravity fed systems a small (<3mm) hole should be
drilled in the centre of the cap to allow air to enter the tank, hence
allow fuel out!
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Article 75:
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Fuel return lines must be fed into the fuel feed line below the fuel
tank.
Competitors must only use hoses for the fuel system as supplied by the
Organisers.
It is permissible for each team to provide and install suitable
connectors for these fuel lines.
For pressurised fuel systems the hoses connecting the pressure bottle with
the fuel tank cap must be flexible (do not need to be Rilsan / Nylon type) to
allow easy connection and in order to prevent side loading to the tank
necks.
Fuel System
The participants must provide a description and a precise technical drawing
of the fuel supply system from the tank to engine.
This system must be designed in such a way that it can be completely
drained and refilled before the competition.
The fuel line between the tank and the engine must not include any
additional elements (no additional filters or valves).
For diesel engines, a cut-off solenoid valve is required.
Any fuel system including a float chamber (carburettor) must be fitted with a
drain valve at the bottom of the carburettor enabling Inspectors to partially
drain the chamber and to ensure that the fuel level goes down in the tank.
The air intake manifolds must not contain any fuel or blowby gas when the
vehicle is on the starting line prior to departure. Blowby gas must not be
recycled during the competition but needs to be collected in a specific
canister for environmental protection.
Blowby gas: gas inside the engine (in particular, oil vapours, unburnt
gas or gas in the combustion chamber that has not been evacuated
in the exhaust). This gas is usually recovered at the intake manifold.
This is known as blowby gas re-circulation.
The fuel system must be easily accessible for inspection and
measurements.
It must be possible to set the fuel supply system to atmospheric pressure
for measurement of the fuel level. The pressurisation system must be
equipped with a pressure gauge and normal running pressure must be
clearly marked on the gauge.
The standard fuel consumption measurement method for liquid fuels is by
volumetric replacement of the fuel consumed and temperature corrected
fuel (including temperature correction).
The fuel consumption of gasoline and ethanol powered vehicles capable of
achieving 1500km/l (3528 mpg) or more will be measured gravimetrically. At
the Start a Technical Inspector will fill the fuel system and then the entire
fuel system (including tank, injector, pipes, carburettor) will be weighed on a
precision balance. All these components must be compact and easily
detachable for weighing purposes. After completion of a successful run, the
entire fuel system will be deinstalled and weighed again on the same
balance. This handling of the fuel system, including mounting to and
dismounting from the vehicle and transporting it to the weighing room must
be performed by a competent team member with has the a valid garage
access pass. The entire process of handling the fuel system will be
supervised by a Technical Inspector. The weighing will also be performed
by a Technical Inspector and needs to be witnessed by a Team Member.
Fuel is a volatile product. Therefore, it is not allowed to artificially increase
the fuel system temperature, which would lead to the formation of vapour
locks. Conversely, cooling or refrigeration of the fuel below ambient
temperature is also prohibited.
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
Article 76:
deleted
Article 77:
Vehicles using hybrid technology
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Article 78:
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The use of a Super Capacitor to store recovered electric energy is
mandatory.
This capacitor must be the only source of energy for the electric motor
driving the vehicle.
Two connectors must be installed outside the vehicle to allow the voltage
measurement on the starting line.
The state of charge of the Super Capacitor will be checked before and after
each run by measuring its voltage. The voltage registered after the run must
be at least equal to the voltage registered before the run. In the event of the
contrary, the Super Capacitor must be re-charged by running the engine
until their voltage is equal to the voltage registered before the run. The time
required to recharge the super capacitor by running the engine after the
competition is added to the recorded time of the relevant run.
As per Article 71, a battery can be used to power the self-starter, the ignition,
the injector, the instrumentation, the horn and electronic management
systems.
The entire electric circuitry must be correctly fused to prevent overloading
any of its parts. This fuse needs to be clearly identified in the technical
drawings and easily visible and accessible for technical inspection.
Starter
An electric starter may be used during the competition, provided that it can
operate only when the ignition and fuel systems are activated.
It must be clearly established that the starter is never capable of providing
any forward propulsion to the vehicle. (see also Article 36 and 63
respectively)
Starter light: A clearly visible red indicator light, equivalent in its
luminescence to a 21W light bulb, must be installed on the rear of the
vehicle and must be clearly visible from both sides of the track in order to
signal any operation of the started motor.
In the event that Track Marshals report the repeated or intensive use of the
electric starter by a Team, the Organisers reserve the right to order an
immediate inspection of the vehicle. If any non-compliance is observed, the
Team will be penalised accordingly.
At the start, the starter and hence the starter light must be extinguished
by the time the rear wheel of the vehicle crosses the start line. Failing to
comply will invalidate the run and count towards the maximum number of
attempts.
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
4B – Electric Motors
Article 79:
Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles
Fuel system
• The competitors must provide a description and a precise technical drawing
of the fuel supply system.
• The fuel system must be easily accessible for inspection and
measurements.
Hydrogen cylinders
FC-powered vehicle must use a compressed hydrogen cylinder, referred to
hereafter as a cylinder, as provided by the Organisers during the entire event.
Only one cylinder may be fitted to a vehicle at any time.
Cartridges and any other means of H2 storage are not permitted.
For Prototypes vehicles, the following cylinders will be provided:
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Europe:
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Americas:
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Asia:
B04 cylinder, 0.4 litre of hydrogen at 200 bar.
(7cm / 33cm) 1.4kg
Exchange cylinder 7” X 16” (18cm x 41 cm) weighing 15 lbs.
(7 kg) at ~ 140 bar.
Catalina MD cylinder, 2.9 litre of [email protected],
(11.1cm x 42.4cm), 2.4kg
For UrbanConcept vehicles, the following cylinders will be provided:
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Europe:
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Americas:
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Asia:
B1 cylinder, 1 litre of hydrogen at 200 bar.
(10cm x 35cm), 2.57kg
Exchange cylinder, 7” X 16” (18cm x 41 cm) weighing 15 lbs.
(7 kg) at ~ 140 bar.
Catalina MD cylinder, 2.9 litre of [email protected],
(11.1cm x 42.4cm), 2.4kg
Cylinders must be installed on the vehicle under the supervision of a Fuel
Marshal. Participants are not allowed to keep any cylinders in their possession
over night. Upon arrival at the circuit, Team Managers must contact the Fuel
Marshal, who will organise all relevant logistics.
Ventilation
The vehicle body must allow for ventilation at the highest point of the fuel cell
compartment, providing an orifice with a minimum opening of 5 cm2. Another
5 cm2 opening must be provided at the highest point of the driver compartment.
Hydrogen detector
A hydrogen sensor must be installed in the fuel cell compartment, near the
main ventilation orifice mentioned above. This hydrogen sensor must drive the
emergency shutdown valve and relay mentioned below. The trip level of the
hydrogen sensor must be tuned to 25% of the LEL (Lower Explosive Limit) of
hydrogen, i.e. 1% of hydrogen in air. A test will be carried out during the
technical inspection.
For commercial Fuel Cells with integrated H2 detector it is still
required to fit a H2 sensor as described above.
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
The reset of the hydrogen detector, i.e., the hydrogen sensor and its
electronics, must be done manually via a switch located in the fuel cell
compartment. This switch must not be accessible by the pilot from the cockpit.
Emergency shutdown valve and relay
The hydrogen supply circuit must be equipped with a solenoid emergency
shutdown valve. This valve must be normally closed in the absence of
electricity.
This valve must be located immediately after the pressure regulator. The
pressure regulator must be connected directly to the H2 cylinder.
The power supply to the motor must be automatically cut off at the same time
as the above emergency shutdown valve is activated. This is to be achieved by
a suitable fail-safe relay.
This valve and relay must be activated by any of the following three scenarios:
• Through hydrogen detection as explained above
• Through the emergency push-button located on the outside of the vehicle.
A red arrow at least 10 cm long and 3 cm wide must be positioned on the
vehicle body to clearly indicate the place of this emergency push-button.
(Note: It must not be part of the detachable bodywork used to allow driver
access)
• Through another emergency push-button, accessible by the pilot in driving
position.
In case of activation by one of these three scenarios, the valve and relay must
act simultaneously.
These three scenarios will be tested during the technical inspection and before
each attempt.
Pipes and connections of the hydrogen circuit
In all cases, piping and connectors of the hydrogen circuit must be designed for
hydrogen use. The Team Manager must be able to present during the technical
inspection the technical data sheets from the manufacturer of these piping and
connectors to show that they are suitable for hydrogen use.
If the pressure in the hydrogen circuit is higher than 1.5 bar absolute (=0.5 bar
above atmospheric pressure) piping must be made of steel and connectors
must be screw type.
If the pressure in the hydrogen circuit is lower than 1.5 bar absolute (=0.5 bar
above atmospheric pressure) flexible piping and unscrewed connectors are
accepted.
PTFE (Teflon) sealing tape must not be used.
Purge pipe
If a purge pipe is needed, its end must be located outside the vehicle.
Measurements and Equivalencies
The consumption of hydrogen is measured by an embedded flow meter. The
flow meter will be checked / calibrated by the Organisers before technical
inspections.
The flow meter has to be purchased from the Organisers.
The volume of hydrogen consumed is posted in normal litres. The display of the
flow meter must be easy to read from outside the vehicle, when the vehicle
body is closed. It must be inaccessible by the pilot in normal driving position.
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
Oxygen and air reserves
The use of non-replaced oxygen or compressed air reserves is forbidden.
Super capacitors
If an embedded electric storage device is part of the power-train, it must be of
capacitor type, referred to hereafter as ‘Super Capacitor’. Other types of
embedded electric storage device (Pb, NiMh, etc. batteries) are forbidden.
• The state of charge of the super-capacitor will be checked before and after
each run by measuring the super-capacitor voltage.
• The voltage registered after the run must be at least equal to the voltage
registered before the run. In the event of the contrary, the super-capacitor
must be re-charged by running the fuel cell until their voltage is equal to the
voltage registered before the run. The additional time required to recharge
the super capacitor by running the fuel cell after the competition is added to
the recorded time of the relevant run
• The maximum super capacitor voltage must not exceed 48V.
External starter battery
• An external battery can be used on the starting line to start the fuel cell
system. As soon as the vehicle starts to move, this battery must be
unplugged.
• If an external battery is used, two connectors must be installed outside the
vehicle to allow a quick connection and fuel cell system start on the starting
line.
• As mentioned in Article 71 (bullet 4, batteries) it is mandatory to power the
hydrogen detector and the horn using the on board battery. This battery
must also power the emergency shutdown valve, relay and lighting system
for UrbanConcept vehicles.
Electrical circuit / Electronics
• All electrical / electronic cases must be made of transparent material or at
least have a transparent top.
• A fuse must be installed on the positive terminal of the fuel cell stack. Its
melting current (expressed in Amps) must be less than the active area
(expressed in square centimetres) of one cell of the stack. For instance, if
the active surface of one cell of a 20 cell stack is 60 cm², the melting current
of the fuse must not exceed 60A.
• On the super-capacitor, a fuse must be installed on the positive terminal of
the super-capacitors pack. Its melting current must be less than the electric
current that corresponds to an electric power of 300 W for prototypes and
1000 W for Urban Concept vehicles, assuming that the super-capacitors are
completely charged. For instance, on a prototype, if the super-capacitor pack
has a maximum voltage of 15 V, the fuse set point must not exceed
300W/15V = 20 A.
Other equipment
Compressors, fans and coolers for the fuel cell system must be powered by the
fuel cell or super capacitor (not by the onboard battery).
Article 80:
Solar Powered Vehicles
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Shell Eco-marathon ®
All vehicles must be equipped with two joulemeters, one to measure the
electric motor energy consumption, the other one the solar panel energy
production. Stickers, “SOLAR PANEL” and “MOTOR” must identify the
two joulemeters.
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
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The Organisers provide these joulemeters for the duration of the event. A
security deposit may be required for the joulemeters.
The joulemeters must be positioned so that their display can be easily
read from outside the vehicle.
The joulemeters must be inaccessible to the Driver in his or her normal
driving position.
In line with the technical specification of the joulemeters, the electric
currents must not exceed 50 amperes permanent and 150 amperes peak.
Any types of batteries or Super Capacitor are permitted, subject to the
maximum voltage of 48 Volts.
If a Lithium Polymer battery is used, the vehicle must be equipped with a
Battery Monitoring System (BMS) to control and protect the battery against
risk of fire.
Batteries or Super Capacitor must be placed outside the drivers
compartment behind the bulkhead.
The vehicles will go to the starting line with their batteries charged.
On the starting line, Fuel Marshals will reset to zero the two joulemeters,
and then the vehicles will have access to the track to start their attempt
under the same distance and time conditions as specified for their
respective vehicle class.
At the finish line, Fuel Marshals will read the two joulemeter displays.
All Solar vehicles which complete a successful run will be classified.
Teams with a positive energy balance (i.e. more produced than
consumed) will be classified first, in order of ascending energy
consumption, followed by all vehicles with a negative energy consumption
(i.e. more consumed than produced), again in order of ascending energy
consumption.
An additional on-board battery as defined in Article 71 is permitted. It must
not be connected to the electric circuit(s) involving any power train
components and must only be used to power safety related components
and those mentioned specifically in Article 71.
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Article 81:
‘Battery Only’ Powered Vehicles (‘Plug-In’s’)
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The ‘Battery Only’ energy category is a new addition for the 2011 season.
Competitors will be able to participate with both Prototype and
UrbanConcept vehicles in the new category.
The drive train in the ‘Battery Only’ category is restricted to a maximum of
one electric storage device, electric motor(s), one control unit and the
required connections.
Only Super Capacitors and Lithium Polymer batteries are permitted as
electric storage devices.
If a Lithium Polymer battery is used, the vehicle must be equipped with a
Battery Monitoring System (BMS) to control and protect the battery against
risk of fire.
Any type of electric storage device and on-board system is subject to the
maximum voltage of 48 Volts.
The competitors must provide a description and a precise technical
drawing of their electrical drive train with the application.
The entire drive train must be easily accessible for inspection and
measurements.
Batteries or Super Capacitor must be placed outside the drivers
compartment behind the bulkhead.
All electrical / electronic cases must be made of transparent material or at
least have a transparent top.
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
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All vehicles must be equipped with one joulemeter to measure the electric
motor energy consumption.
The Organisers will provide this joulemeter for the duration of the event. A
security deposit may be required for the joulemeter.
The joulemeter must be positioned so that its display can be easily read
from outside the vehicle.
The joulemeter must be inaccessible to the Driver in his or her normal
driving position.
In line with the technical specification of the joulemeter, the electric current
must not exceed 50 amperes permanent and 150 amperes peak.
The entire installation must be adequately fused.
The vehicles will go to the starting line with their batteries charged.
On the starting line, Fuel Marshals will reset the joulemeter to zero, and
then the vehicles will have access to the track to start their attempt under
the same distance and time conditions as specified for their respective
vehicle class.
At the finish line, Fuel Marshals will read the joulemeter display.
All ‘Battery Only’ powered vehicles which complete a successful run will be
classified in ascending order of energy consumed, expressed in km/kWh.
An additional on-board battery as defined in Article 71 is permitted. It must
not be connected to the electric circuit(s) involving any power train
components and must only be used to power safety related components
and those mentioned specifically in Article 71.
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Official Rules 2011 – Chapter 1
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