MAINE REVENUE SERVICE SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION

MAINE REVENUE SERVICE SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
MAINE REVENUE SERVICE
SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
A REFERENCE GUIDE TO THE
SALES AND USE TAX LAW
Prepared by
Peter B. Beaulieu, Director
October 2010
13th Edition
The information contained in this booklet is intended solely as advice to assist persons in determining, and
complying with their obligations under Maine tax law. It is written in a less formal style and is aimed to
address issues commonly faced by businesses. It is not intended to be all inclusive.
Taxpayers are responsible for complying with all applicable tax statutes and rules, relevant portions of which
are set forth throughout this booklet. Although MRS guidance documents do not have the same legal force
and effect as rules, justifiable reliance upon the guidance documents will be considered in mitigation of any
penalties for any underpayment of tax due.
Requests for information on specific situations are encouraged. They should be in writing, contain full
information as to the transaction in question and be directed to:
MAINE REVENUE SERVICE
SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
P.O. BOX 1060
AUGUSTA, MAINE 04332-1060
TEL: (207) 624-9693
Printed under appropriation 010-18F-1065-072
Summary of Major Changes from 12th Edition
Fees imposed for disposal of tires are not part of the sale price of new tires
Page 20
Premiums on motor vehicle oil amended to include prepackaged motor vehicle oil
Page 22
E 9-1-1 Surcharge on Prepaid Wireless
Page 23
Certain fabrication services are exempt
Page 44
Sales of medical marijuana are taxable
Page 56
Park Model homes are camper trailers not manufactured housing
Pages 14 & 59
Certain items used in the commercial production of a silvicultural crop are exempt
Page 62
Antiseptics and cleaning agents used in commercial animal agriculture are exempt
Pages 62 & 63
Exemption for watercraft sold to nonresidents amended
Page 65
Small sales of wood pellets are presumed to meet the exemption for residential heating
Pages 69 & 70
Telefile now available
Pages 97 & 98
Rule 103 amended
Pages 100 & 101
New affidavit for use by persons claiming exemption from rental of living quarters
Page 106 & Sample Documents
Interest Rate for 2010 – 7%
Page 120
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Overview..............................................................................
1
Sale Price.............................................................................
11
Services................................................................................
25
Exemptions..........................................................................
49
Responsibilities of the Retailer......................................
89
Taxpayer Compliance................................................ ……
119
Manufacturing....................................................................
129
Appendix - Sample Documents
Index
Page 1
SALES AND USE
TAX HISTORY
On May 3, 1951, the Governor of the State of Maine approved legislation
imposing a sales and use tax at the rate of 2% on retail sales to be effective beginning
July 1, 1951. The legislature also provided approximately 22 exemptions and exclusions.
Since 1951 many new exemptions and exclusions have been enacted. In total
there are well over 100 different sales tax exemptions in addition to the items and
services that are excluded from the tax base.
The following chart summarizes the tax rate and major changes in the tax base
over the years:
Year
1957
1959
1963
1965
1967
1969
1977
1984
1986
1989
1990
1991
1993
1994
1995
1998
2000
2001
2004
July 1, 2005
Oct 1, 2005
Oct. 1, 2007
Aug. 1, 2008
Oct. 1, 2009
Jan. 1, 2010
July 1, 2010
Rate increased to:
3%
Tax Base broadened to include:
Rentals of living quarters
4%
Telephone and telegraph services
4.5%
5%
7% on rental of living quarters and short
term rentals of automobiles
10% on alcoholic drinks
6% general rate; 7% meals and drinks
Rentals of automobiles on short term basis
Cigarettes, liquor, extended cable tv
Fabrication services
Rentals of video tapes and video
equipment
Rentals of video games
Snack foods
Gross receipts tax on nursing homes and
restaurants (7%)
10% on short term rentals of automobiles
Long term rentals of automobiles
General rate decreased to 5.5%
General rate decreased to 5%
7% on all food prepared by retailer
Service Provider Tax
Private non-medical institution services
added
Casual rental of living quarters
Community support services
Day habilitation services
Personal support services
Residential training services
Extended satellite television service
Premiums on oil changes
Extended warranties on automobiles
Premiums on oil changes repealed and
replaced with premiums on bulk gasoline
and diesel engine oil
Premium on motor oil expanded to
prepackaged motor vehicle oil
E-9-1-1 surcharge of 37¢ per retail
transaction imposed on prepaid wireless
E-9-1-1 surcharge increases to 45¢
Page 2
As you can see by this historical summation, the sales and use tax law has been
constantly amended over the years. It is a major undertaking to administer a law that is
subject to change each year and educate the public in a timely manner to obtain
compliance.
SALES TAX
To summarize the sales tax law, one sentence could be quoted from the statute.
A tax is imposed on the value of all tangible personal property and
taxable services sold at retail in this State. §1811
This statement says it all provided one has a basic understanding of the terms
used. The Law contains many definitions to clarify the meanings of various terms found
within the statute.
The most important of these definitions are "tangible personal
property", "taxable services", "sale", and "retail sale".
TANGIBLE PERSONAL
PROPERTY
"Tangible personal property" is defined as follows:
...personal property that may be seen, weighed, measured, felt, touched
or in any other manner perceived by the senses, but does not include
rights and credits, insurance policies, bills of exchange, stocks and
bonds and similar evidences of indebtedness or ownership. "Tangible
personal property" includes electricity. "Tangible personal property"
includes any computer software that is not a custom computer software
program. §1752(17)
"Custom computer software program" means any computer software
that is written or prepared exclusively for a particular customer.
"Custom computer software program" does not include a "canned" or
prewritten program that is held or exists for a general or repeated sale,
lease or license, even if the program was initially developed on a
custom basis or for in-house use. An existing prewritten program that
has been modified to meet a particular customer's needs is a "custom
computer software program" to the extent of the modification, and to
the extent that the amount charged for the modification is separately
stated. § 1752(1-E)
Thus, sales and use tax applies to anything that can be seen, felt and touched.
This is easy to visualize in the case of vehicles, appliances, tables and chairs, our clothes,
etc. The gray area begins with tangible products that are generated as a result of a service
being performed for the purchaser. For instance, blueprints by a surveyor, financial
statements by an accountant, a will drawn up by a lawyer, etc. A discussion in the area of
services is provided later in this guide.
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TAXABLE
SERVICES
Sales of services in general are not taxable.
However, certain services are
specifically subject to sales tax as follows:
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Rental of living quarters in any hotel, rooming house, tourist or trailer camp;
Rental or lease of an automobile;
Transmission and distribution of electricity;
Extended Service contract on an automobile; and
Prepaid calling service.
§1752(17-B)
Other services that are subject to a service provider tax rather than a sales tax
include:
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Telecommunications service;
Installation, maintenance or repair of telecommunications equipment;
Ancillary services;
Extended cable and extended satellite television service;
Fabrication services;
Rental of video media and video equipment;
Rental of furniture, audio media and audio equipment pursuant to a rentalpurchase agreement as defined in Title 9-A, section 11-105.
§2552
Once again definitions in the statute play an important role in clarifying these
terms which are discussed in the “Taxable Services” and the “Service Provider Tax”
sections of this guide.
SALE
A sale is defined as:
...any transfer, exchange or barter, in any manner or by any means
whatsoever, for a consideration and includes leases and contracts
payable by rental or license fees for the right of possession and use, but
only when such leases and contracts are deemed by the State Tax
Assessor to be in lieu of purchase.
§ 1752(13)
In order for a sale to occur, two things must happen. An item or service must be
transferred to another party and that party must pay for it somehow. The most common
type of sale occurs by selling property in exchange for cash. However, two people could
agree to exchange property without any further cash payment or a person could agree to
transfer property in exchange for services rendered. In either case a sale still exists.
Installment and lay-away sales
Sometimes a sale occurs but the purchaser has the transaction financed. For
instance a person may obtain a loan from a bank to purchase an automobile or the person
presents a charge card to pay for the purchase. These transactions are sales and would be
reported as a sale in the month in which the transaction occurs. If the seller of the goods
Page 4
offers its customers the ability to pay over time, the sale would be reported in the month
in which the goods are transferred to the customer. For instance, on June 20th a hardware
store customer purchases a new circular saw, charges the amount to their “store account”
and walks away with the saw. The sale is recorded in June. With regards to lay-away
sales, however, the customer is paying over time but does not receive the goods until the
entire transaction has been paid in full. Lay-away payments should be considered as
“deposits” with the sale occurring in the month in which the final payment is made and
the goods are transferred to the customer. For instance, on September 10th a customer
places on lay-away 5 items to be used as Christmas gifts totaling $200.00 plus $10.00 tax,
and makes ten weekly payments of $21.00. On November 18th a final payment is
received and the goods are transferred to the customer. The sale would be booked in
November.
RETAIL SALE
Retail sale means:
...any sale of tangible personal property or a taxable service in the ordinary
course of business. §1752 (11)
Thus the sale of a refrigerator in an appliance store is a retail sale and subject to
tax since the refrigerator is tangible personal property and the sale is in the ordinary
business of the appliance store. The same applies to taxable services such as the rental of
a video tape in a video store. However, if the appliance store was to sell their office desk,
the desk is tangible but not an item they ordinarily sell in their store. The sale of the desk
is not a retail sale but rather a casual sale.
The definition of "retail sale" continues to specifically state situations included in
the term as follows:
(1) Conditional sales, installment lease sales and any other transfer of
tangible personal property when the title is retained as security for the
payment of the purchase price and is intended to be transferred later;
(2) Sale of products for internal human consumption to a person for
resale through vending machines when sold to a person more than
50% of whose gross receipts from the retail sale of tangible personal
property are derived through sales from vending machines. The tax
must be paid by the retailer to the State;
(3) A sale in the ordinary course of business by a retailer to a
purchaser who is not engaged in selling that kind of tangible personal
property or taxable service in the ordinary course of repeated and
successive transactions of like character; and
Page 5
(4) The sale or liquidation of a business or the sale of substantially all
of the assets of a business, to the extent that the seller purchased the
assets of the business for resale, lease or rental in the ordinary course
of business, except when:
(a) The sale is to an affiliated entity and the transferee, or
ultimate transferee in a series of transactions among affiliated
entities, purchases the assets for resale, lease or rental in the
ordinary course of business; or
(b) The sale is to a person that purchases the assets for resale,
lease or rental in the ordinary course of business or that
purchases the assets for transfer to an affiliate, directly or
through a series of transactions among affiliated entities, for
resale, lease or rental by the affiliate in the ordinary course of
business.
For purposes of this subparagraph, “affiliate” or “affiliated” includes
both direct and indirect affiliates.
In the first inclusion, a transaction that is financed is a retail sale even though the
title to the property does not pass to the purchaser until a later date. In the second
inclusion, sales to a person primarily engaged in making vending machine sales of food
products are retail sales. In the third inclusion, the sale by a retailer to a person of
property that that person does not ordinarily sell is a retail sale. And in the fourth
inclusion, the sale of goods that a business had purchased for resale is a retail sale even
when sold as part of a sale or liquidation of the business. In all cases, tax applies to the
sale unless it is otherwise exempt.
The definition of "retail sale" excludes the following:
(1) Any casual sale;
(2) Any sale by a personal representative in the settlement of an estate,
unless the sale is made through a retailer, or unless the sale is made in
the continuation or operation of a business;
(3) The sale, to a person engaged in the business of renting
automobiles, of automobiles, integral parts of automobiles or
accessories to automobiles, for rental or for use in an automobile
rented, on a short-term basis;
(4) The sale to a person engaged in the business of renting video media
and video equipment, of video media or video equipment for rental;
(5) The sale to a person engaged in the business of renting or leasing
automobiles, of automobiles for rental or lease for one year or more;
Page 6
(6) The sale, to a person engaged in the business of providing cable or
satellite television services, of associated equipment for rental or lease
to subscribers in conjunction with a sale of extended cable or extended
satellite television services;
(7) The sale to a person engaged in the business of renting furniture,
or audio media and audio equipment, of furniture, audio media or
audio equipment for rental pursuant to a rental-purchase agreement as
defined in Title 9-A, section 11-105;
(8) The sale of loaner vehicles to a new vehicle dealer licensed as such
pursuant to Title 29-A, section 953;
(9) The sale of automobile repair parts used in the performance of
repair services on an automobile pursuant to an extended service
contract sold on or after September 20, 2007 that entitles the purchaser
to specific benefits in the service of the automobile for a specific
duration;
(10) The sale, to a retailer that has been issued a resale certificate
pursuant to section 1754-B, subsection 2-B or 2-C, of tangible personal
property for resale in the form of tangible personal property, except
resale as a casual sale;
(11) The sale, to a retailer that has been issued a resale certificate
pursuant to section 1754-B, subsection 2-B or 2-C, of a taxable service
for resale, except resale as a casual sale;
(12) The sale, to a retailer that is not required to register under section
1754-B, of tangible personal property for resale outside the State in the
form of tangible personal property, except resale as a casual sale;
(13) The sale, to a retailer that is not required to register under section
1754-B, of a taxable service for resale outside the State, except resale
as a casual sale; or
(14) The sale of repair parts used in the performance of repair services
on telecommunications equipment as defined in section 2551,
subsection 19 pursuant to an extended service contract that entitles the
purchaser to specific benefits in the service of the telecommunications
equipment for a specific duration.
These exclusions have the effect of an exemption, since if they are excluded from
the definition of retail sale, they are not subject to tax. For instance:
¾ the sale of a person’s television to a neighbor is a casual sale and is not subject to tax;
(There are certain casual sales, discussed below, that are specifically taxed in the law.)
¾ the sale of items in an estate if sold by a personal representative who is not engaged
in business is not taxable;
Page 7
¾ Subsections 3 through 9 and 14 provide exclusions for items associated with
taxable transactions, such as auto rentals, video rentals, etc.
(This was
enacted to avoid paying tax on the purchase of the item as well as collect tax
on the rentals.)
¾ Subsections 10 through 13 provide exclusions for goods and services
purchased for resale by registered retailers and non-resident retailers. Note
that these exclusions do not apply if the resale of the item will be at casual
sale. For instance if an individual purchases a refrigerator, the individual is
not in the business of making sales of tangible personal property and cannot
escape paying tax by claiming the refrigerator will be resold to a friend, even
if that resale does in fact occur. With regards to the purchase of tangible
personal property for resale, these exclusions also state that the resale of the
item must also be in the form of tangible personal property. For instance, the
sale of lumber to a carpenter to build a house is a retail sale and cannot be
purchased exempt for resale since the sale of the finished product is a sale of
“real” property not personal property.
CASUAL SALES
Although the definition of "retail sale" excludes casual sales, the statute does
impose tax on certain casual sales as follows:
The tax imposed by chapters 211 to 225 shall be levied upon all casual
rentals of living quarters in a hotel, rooming house or tourist or trailer
camp and upon all casual sales involving the sale of trailers, truck
campers, motor vehicles, special mobile equipment except farm tractors
and lumber harvesting vehicles or loaders, watercraft or aircraft
except those sold for resale at retail sale or to a corporation,
partnership, limited liability company or limited liability partnership
when the seller is the owner of a majority of the common stock of the
corporation or of the ownership interests in the partnership, limited
liability company or limited liability partnership. This section does not
apply to the rental of living quarters rented for a total of fewer than 15
days in the calendar year, except that a person who owns and offers for
rental more than one property in the State during the calendar year is
liable for collecting sales tax with respect to the rental of each unit
regardless of the number of days for which it is rented. § 1764
You will note a similarity in these items in that most require some form of
registration with either Dept. of Motor Vehicles or Dept. of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife.
The statute further requires that tax must be paid as a prerequisite to registration.
Therefore, rather than the casual seller bearing the responsibility of collecting the tax on
such a sale, which would be administratively impractical, tax is collected by the
registering agency.
Page 8
More information on this topic can be found in the "EXEMPTIONS" section of
this book.
USE TAX
Each state that imposes a sales tax has a complementary use tax that simply
provides if a sales tax has not been paid on purchases for use within Maine, a use tax is
due. The statute reads in part:
A tax is imposed, at the respective rate provided in section 1811, on the
storage, use or other consumption in this State of tangible personal
property or a service, the sale of which would be subject to tax under
section 1764 or 1811......When tangible personal property purchased
for resale is withdrawn from inventory by the retailer for the retailer's
own use, use tax liability accrues at the date of withdrawal. §1861
"Storage" includes any keeping or retention in this State of tangible
personal property. §1752 (15)
"Storage" or "use" does not include keeping or retention or the
exercise of power over tangible personal property brought into
this State for the purpose of subsequently transporting it outside
the State for use by the purchaser thereafter solely outside the
State, or for the purpose of being processed, fabricated or
manufactured into, attached to or incorporated into, other
tangible personal property to be transported outside the State and
thereafter used by the purchaser solely outside the State.
§1752 (16)
"Use" includes the exercise in this State of any right or power over
tangible personal property incident to its ownership, including
the derivation of income, whether received in money or in the
form of other benefits, by a lessor from the rental of tangible
personal property located in this State. §1752 (21)
Use tax is a substitute for sales tax. All states that have a sales tax also impose a
use tax that is intended in part to minimize unfair competition between sales made instate
and those made out-of-state. The use tax rate is the same as the sales tax rate.
Use tax applies when sales tax has not been charged. Purchases made out-ofstate are the most common type of transactions subject to a use tax. For instance, if a
retailer purchases goods from a supplier located in Massachusetts, use tax applies. A
Maine resident or business does not escape sales tax by purchasing out-of-state. Some of
the more common taxable items are office supplies and equipment, computer hardware,
software and supplies, janitorial supplies, fax machines and supplies, photocopiers and
supplies and books. If a retailer removes goods from inventory that are being held for
resale, and makes use of them, use tax applies. Use tax, in this case, is based on the cost
of the item to the retailer, not on the retail selling price.
Page 9
Many of the exemptions that apply to sales tax also apply to use tax. Common
exempt goods are magazines and newspapers published at least quarterly and goods
purchased for resale. A retailer would report any use tax liabilities on the current month's
sales tax return. If purchases are made in a state that charges sales tax and the purchase
was taxed, no additional tax is due in Maine provided the tax was equal to or more than
Maine's rate. If the tax is less than Maine's rate, the retailer owes the difference. For
instance if another state's rate is 3% and Maine's rate is 5%, a Maine use tax of 2% is due.
Some out-of-state companies charge sales tax because they have a presence in
Maine that requires them to register, collect and remit sales tax. Others voluntarily
register. Use tax does not apply if a supplier has charged a Maine sales tax.
TAX RATES
A tax is imposed on the value of all tangible personal property and
taxable services sold at retail in this State. The rate of tax is 7% on the
value of liquor sold in licensed establishments as defined in Title 28-A,
section 2, subsection 15, in accordance with Title 28-A, chapter 43; 7%
on the value of rental of living quarters in any hotel, rooming house or
tourist or trailer camp; 10% on the value of rental for a period of less
than one year of an automobile, including a loaner vehicle that is
provided other than to a motor vehicle dealer’s service customers
pursuant to a manufacturer’s or dealer’s warranty; 7% on the value of
prepared food; and 5% on the value of all other tangible personal
property and taxable services. Value is measured by the sale price,
except as otherwise provided. The value of rental for a period of less
than one year of an automobile is the total rental charged to the lessee
and includes, but is not limited to, maintenance and service contracts,
drop-off or pick-up fees, airport surcharges, mileage fees and any
separately itemized charges on the rental agreement to recover the
owner’s estimated costs of the charges imposed by government
authority for title fees, inspection fees, local excise tax and agent fees
on all vehicles in its rental fleet registered in the State. All fees must be
disclosed when an estimated quote is provided to the lessee. §1811
To summarize § 1811, the rate of 5% applies to all sales of:
¾
¾
¾
¾
tangible personal property
rental or lease of an automobile for more than one year
prepaid calling arrangements
transmission and distribution of electricity
The rate of 7% applies to all sales of:
¾ prepared food
¾ alcoholic drinks sold from establishments which are licensed to sell
alcoholic drinks for on-premises consumption
¾ certain rentals of living quarters.
The rate of 10% applies to all:
¾ short-term rentals of automobiles.
Page 10
Use tax rates are applied the same way as sales tax.
The 5% Service Provider Tax imposed in §2552, and as explained later
in this document, applies to all:
¾ fabrication services
¾ telecommunications services
¾ installation, maintenance and repair of telecommunications
equipment
¾ ancillary services
¾ extended cable and extended satellite television services
¾ rental of video media, video games and video equipment
¾ rental of furniture, audio media, audio equipment and home electronics
¾ private nonmedical institution services
¾ community support services for persons with mental health diagnoses
¾ community support services for persons with mental retardation or autism
¾ home support services
LIABILITY FOR
PAYMENT OF TAX
The sales tax is a levy on the purchaser, not the seller.
The liability for, or the incidence of, the tax imposed by this Part is
declared to be a levy on the consumer. The retailer shall add the
amount of the tax to the sale price and may state the amount of the tax
separately from the sale price of tangible personal property or taxable
services on price display signs, sales or delivery slips, bills and
statements which advertise or indicate the sale price of that property or
those services. §1753
However, the seller is obligated to collect the tax from the purchaser.
Every retailer shall add the sales tax imposed by chapters 211 to 225, or
the average equivalent of that tax, to his sale price, except as otherwise
provided, and when added the tax shall constitute a part of the price,
shall be a debt of the purchaser to the retailer until paid and shall be
recoverable at law in the same manner as the purchase price. §1812
The taxes collected by a seller are considered to be held in trust for the State.
.... (t)he liability for the taxes or fees and the interest or penalty on
taxes or fees is enforceable by assessment and collection, in the
manner prescribed in this Part, against the person and against any
officer, director, member, agent or employee of that person who, in that
capacity, is responsible for the control or management of the funds or
finances of that person or is responsible for the payment of that
person's taxes. §177
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SALE PRICE
"Sale price" is defined as follows:
...the total amount of a retail sale valued in money, whether received in
money or otherwise. § 1752(14)
Pursuant to this definition, tax applies not only to cash sales, but also to credit
sales, and to transactions where the sale price is paid in part or in whole by barter,
rendition of services, or any other valuable consideration. "Sale price" includes the
following:
Sale price includes
certain services
# Any consideration for services that are a part of a retail sale; § 1752(14), sub-§A(1)
Sales tax applies to the full charge for the goods sold, including any charges for
services which are a part of the sale. For example, the charge by a caterer to prepare and
serve food for a reception not only covers the cost of the food, but also the cost of
preparation and service. Tax applies to the entire charge, since preparing and serving the
food are services which are part of the sale. Even though charges for preparation and
serving are separately stated, tax would still apply to these charges.
Alteration charges
When a merchant offers goods for sale, and undertakes to alter them to the
customer's requirements, the charges for such alterations are part of the sale price on
which tax is based, whether separately stated or not. For example, a customer selects a
coat. However, certain alterations are necessary before the coat is satisfactory as a piece
of wearing apparel for the customer.
The merchant or someone contracted by the
merchant performs the alterations and charges the customer an additional $10 alteration
fee. The alteration charges are considered a part of the sale price upon which tax is
based, even though such charges are separately stated.
Fabrication charges
Charges for production, fabrication or processing of tangible personal property
are included in sale price when performed on tangible personal property belonging to the
fabricator. Accordingly, the point at which title passes to the customer is of no relevance
in determining the taxability of such charges. For example, a customer enters into a
contract with a boat builder to construct a boat in accordance with certain plans and
specifications. The charges for the labor of building the boat would be taxable regardless
of whether title to the materials passes to the customer before or after the production
occurs. For services performed on tangible personal property furnished directly or
indirectly by the customer, see the Service Provider Tax explanation of fabrication
services.
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Assembly charges
Some types of furniture and equipment are sold either on a knocked down, or
unfinished, or on an assembled, or finished basis; the assembled or finished item being
priced correspondingly higher. Charges for assembling or finishing, in such cases, are
part of the taxable sale price, whether separately stated or not.
In all the above cases, the alteration, fabrication, assembly or finishing of the
article sold constitute "services which are a part of (the) sale" and are taxable whether
separately stated or not.
Sale price includes
more than cash sales
# All receipts, cash, credits and property of any kind or nature and
any amount for which credit is allowed by the seller to the purchaser,
without any deduction on account of the cost of the property sold, the
cost of the materials used, labor or service cost, interest paid, losses or
any other expenses. § 1752(14), sub-§A(2)
Tax applies not only to cash sales, but also to credit sales, and to transactions
where the sale price is paid in part or in whole by barter, rendition of services, or any
other valuable consideration. The total selling price of a product constitutes its sale price
regardless of the fact that the price may be broken down into components of cost of
materials, labor and services performed on the product prior to the sale.
Trade-ins
When property is sold, with an allowance being made for traded-in property, tax
applies to the entire sale price, including the allowance for trade-in.
Thus, if a
refrigerator is sold for $800, the customer paying $700 in cash and $100 by way of
allowance on a traded in refrigerator, tax is based on the full price of $800.
Allowable trade-in credits
However the law provides an exception to this rule.
When one or more items in one of the following categories are
traded in toward the sale price of another item in that same
category, the tax imposed by this Part must be levied only upon
the difference between the sale price of the purchased property
and the trade-in allowance of the property taken in trade. This
section does not apply to transactions between dealers
involving exchange of the property from inventory:
1.
3.
4.
6.
7.
8.
Motor vehicles;
Watercraft;
Aircraft;
Chain saws;
Special mobile equipment; or
Trailers and truck campers ;
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The trade-in credit allowed by this section is not available
unless the items traded are in the same category. The tax must
be levied only upon the difference between the sale price of the
purchased property and the trade-in allowance of the property
taken in trade. § 1765
Trailer. “Trailer” means a vehicle without motive power and
mounted on wheels that is designed to carry persons or
property and to be drawn by a motor vehicle and not operated
on tracks. “Trailer” includes a camper trailer as defined in
section 1481, subsection 1-A without restriction on length.
§ 1752(19-A)
Truck camper. " Truck camper" means a slide-in camper
designed to be mounted on a truck body to provide temporary
living quarters for recreational, camping, travel or other use.
§ 1752(20-A)
Motor vehicle. "Motor vehicle" means any self-propelled
vehicle designed for the conveyance of passengers or property
on the public highways. "Motor vehicle" includes an allterrain vehicle as defined in Title 12, section 7851 and a
snowmobile as defined in Title 12, section 7821. § 1752(7)
Special mobile equipment. "Special mobile equipment" means
any self-propelled vehicle not designed or used primarily for
the transportation of persons or property that may be operated
or moved only incidentally over the highways, including, but
not limited to, road construction or maintenance machinery,
farm tractors, lumber harvesting vehicles or loaders, ditchdigging apparatus, stone crushers, air compressors, power
shovels, cranes, graders, rollers, well drillers and wood sawing
equipment. § 1752(14-B)
Watercraft. "Watercraft" means any type of vessel, boat,
canoe or craft designed for use as a means of transportation on
water, other than a seaplane, including motors, electronic and
mechanical equipment and other machinery, whether
permanently or temporarily attached, which are customarily
used in the operations of the watercraft. § 1752(24)
Aircraft. "Aircraft" means any powered contrivance designed
for navigation in the air except a rocket or missile.
§ 1752(1-A)
Thus whenever one of the above items is traded against the same type of item,
the tax would be computed on the difference. For sales tax purposes, trade-in allowances
only apply to the above listed items. Retailers who sell any vehicles mentioned above are
advised to obtain the Bureau's Instruction Bulletin #24 which provides more detail in this
area.
Page 14
Effective for all sales occurring on or after September 12, 2009, park model
homes will no longer be recognized as manufactured housing and will be taxed in the
same manner as all other camper trailers. Trade-ins of any trailer, truck camper or
another park model home will be an allowable reduction in the taxable sale price of the
new park model home.
Core charges
Customers who purchase certain property that can be reconditioned and resold by
the seller are encouraged to bring their used property to the seller by being charged what
is often called a “core charge”. The core charge is usually refunded or credited to the
customer when the used property is brought to the seller. Core charges are considered
part of the selling price of the new property being purchased and are subject to tax. For
instance, an alternator may be sold for $80.00 with a core charge being stated in the
amount of $10.00. The total selling price subject to tax is $90.00. If a used alternator is
traded-in at the same time as the purchase of the new alternator, the selling price subject
to tax remains at $90.00 even though a $10.00 credit is allowed. If the used alternator is
returned to the seller at a later date and the customer is refunded the $10.00 core charge,
no refund of sales tax is allowed. The definition of "sale price" does not exclude an
allowance of this sort nor are core charges allowable as trade-in credits.
Sale price does not
include vendor discounts.
The definition continues to exclude the following charges:
# Discounts allowed and taken on sales; § 1752(14),¶B(1)
If a 2% allowance is made for payment within a stated time, and this allowance
or discount is actually taken by the customer, tax will apply to the stated price less the
discount, or the amount actually paid.
For example, two customers purchase $100 worth of taxable goods, with 2%
being allowed for prompt payment. Customer A pays promptly and thus takes the 2%
discount: tax is based upon a sale price of $98. Customer B does not pay promptly and
does not take the 2% discount: tax is based upon a sale price of $100.
On the other hand, if interest is charged on overdue accounts, tax does not apply
to the interest so charged.
Coupons and rebates are another form of discount although not always deductible
from the sale price. Coupons are issued by either a manufacturer of the product or by a
retailer. The application of sales tax in each case differs.
Page 15
Manufacturers'
coupons
When a retailer accepts a manufacturers' coupon, the retailer does not recognize
any loss in the profit made on the sale. The retailer is reimbursed for the face value of the
coupon by the manufacturer. In other words, the patron uses the coupon like cash and the
retailer receives the cash when the coupons are redeemed with the manufacturer. The
sale price on which tax is based is the total selling price before deducting the value of the
coupons.
Example: A customer, when purchasing laundry detergent, redeems a coupon
issued by the manufacturer of the detergent. The sale price of the detergent is $2.29 and
the face value of the coupon is $.25. The sales tax is computed on $2.29; the sale price
before deducting the value of the coupon.
Retailer's
coupons
When a retailer issues a store coupon, the retailer is reducing the price of the item
purchased with the coupon by an amount equal to the face value of the coupon. The
retailer reduces its profit on the sale and the value of the coupon is not recovered from
any other party. This type of coupon is a seller's discount that is deducted from the sale
price before computing the sales tax.
Example: A drug store publishes in an advertising flyer its own store coupon
offering $.50 off the purchase of a particular shampoo. The shampoo sells for $2.89. The
sales tax is computed on $2.39, the sale price after deducting the value of the coupon.
Rebates
Similarly, rebates are treated as a seller's discount if the retailer is the one
providing the rebate. However, rebates are more commonly provided by manufacturers
and for the same reason stated above, are not deducted from the sale price before
computing tax. This remains true even if the rebate is assigned by the purchaser to the
seller.
Gift certificates
When a customer purchases a gift certificate, they are simply exchanging cash for
another form of cash from the retailer. The purchase of a gift certificate is therefore not a
taxable transaction. It is not until the gift certificate is presented to pay for a purchase of
tangible personal property or service that the transaction is taxed, assuming that the goods
or services are taxable. The sale price of the purchased goods is not reduced by the
amount of the gift certificate before calculating the sales tax.
Page 16
Sales tax paid on goods returned
under warranty is refundable
# Allowances in cash or by credit made upon the return of
merchandise pursuant to warranty; § 1752(14),¶B(2)
When an adjustment of price is made by a retailer on the return of defective
merchandise that has been warranted, the adjustment, or allowance, is deductible on a
subsequent sales tax return of the retailer if the original sale was taxable and was so
reported by the retailer.
For example, a tire is sold with a 30-month warranty, adjustment being based
upon period of use. Assuming the tire was sold for $30.00 with an allowance of $1.00
per month for the period by which the tire fails to meet the warranty. If the tire is
returned for failure after 24 months, the allowance would be $6.00. The purchaser would
be entitled to refund of $6.00 plus sales tax on this amount; and the retailer would deduct
$6.00 on its next sales tax return. Usually such adjustments are made as the result of a
written warranty, as in the case of an automobile tire. It is not necessary that the
warranty be in writing, since there is a general unwritten warranty that goods are not
defective for the purpose for which they are intended.
While an adjustment of sales tax liability may be made for allowance by
warranty, whether written or not, an adjustment cannot be made where the merchandise is
returned as unsatisfactory, not because of written warranty or because it is defective and
so fails to meet an unwritten warranty; but because the purchaser finds it is not suited for
the purchaser’s purpose. In the latter case, unless the full purchase price is refunded, no
adjustment of sales tax can be made.
For example, a customer purchases a snow blower. After using it for a short time
the customer finds it is not powerful enough. There is neither failure to meet a written
warranty nor any defect in the machine. The customer returns it to the dealer and is
allowed 85% of the original purchase price. There is no adjustment permitted so far as
sales tax is concerned.
Sales tax paid on goods returned is
refundable if the full price is refunded
# The price of property returned by customers, when the full price is
refunded either in cash or by credit;
§ 1752(14), ¶B(3)
If merchandise is returned by the customer and the full purchase price is
refunded, either in cash or by credit toward other purchases, sales tax charged would be
refunded to the customer or included in the credit. The retailer would deduct the original
purchase price of the item on a subsequent sales tax return.
Page 17
If, in connection with such returned merchandise, the retailer makes a standard
service charge, the transaction will nevertheless be considered as a refund of the full
purchase price if the service charge is separately shown and so identified on the invoice
to the customer or in the records of the retailer. The customer would be entitled to a
refund of the entire sales tax paid on the original transaction. For example, a retailer
makes a standard service charge of $1.00 in all cases where merchandise is returned by
the customer for refund. The invoice or credit memo to the customer indicates "purchase
price refunded $30.00, less service charge $1.00 - net $29.00". The retailer should treat
this as a refund of the full purchase price and also refund the sales tax originally paid on
the $30.00 sale. Note, however, that except for deduction of a standard service charge,
the refund must be of the entire purchase price. For example, if an item has been used by
the customer and the retailer therefore refunds less than the full purchase price (the
transaction not involving an express or implied warranty), no adjustment of sales tax can
be made.
Installation and repair charges
may not be taxable
# The price received for labor or services used in installing or
applying or repairing the property sold, if separately charged or stated;
§ 1752(14), ¶B(4)
If an appliance store sells a dishwasher but also agrees to install it for a fee, the
installation labor charge would not be taxed if separately stated from the purchase price
of the dishwasher. If not separately stated, the total charge is subject to tax.
When repair parts or accessories are installed in an item owned by the customer,
and the charge for installation or repair labor is separately stated from the charge for the
parts or accessories, only the materials portion of the sale is subject to tax. If labor and
materials are not separately stated, but invoiced as one bundled price, the entire amount
charged to the customer is taxable.
(See Instructional Bulletin #53 for handling of
repairs under warranties, service contracts and maintenance agreements.)
Installation, maintenance and repair of telecommunications equipment is subject
to the service provider tax. A discussion of the taxation of telecommunications can be
found in this guide under the topic of “Services”.
Page 18
Tips are generally
not taxable
# Any amount charged or collected, in lieu of a gratuity or tip, as a
specifically stated service charge, when that amount is to be disbursed
by a hotel, restaurant or other eating establishment to its employees as
wages; § 1752(14),¶B(5)
An amount charged or collected in lieu of a gratuity or tip, as a specifically stated
service charge, when the amount so charged is to be disbursed by a hotel, motel,
restaurant or other eating establishment to its employees as wages is not part of the
taxable base. An amount or flat percentage charged or collected in lieu of a gratuity is
not part of the selling price provided the gratuity is disbursed by the seller to the
employee as wages. If not disbursed to the employee, the gratuity is part of the selling
price.
Certain excise taxes are not
subject to a sales tax
# The amount of any tax imposed by the United States on or with
respect to retail sales, whether imposed upon the retailer or the
consumer, except any manufacturers', importers', alcohol or tobacco
excise tax; § 1752(14), ¶B(6)
Examples of federal retailer's excise taxes are the 10% federal luxury tax and the
12% heavy vehicle tax.
Generally speaking, federal excise taxes imposed on
automobiles, tires, firearms, tobacco, liquor and sporting goods are manufacturers' excise
taxes and are taxable as part of the sale price. As a result, the total selling price of
cigarettes and beer, for instance, are taxable even though federal excise taxes are
embedded in the retail price.
Certain delivery charges
are taxable
# The cost of transportation from the retailer's place of business or
other point from which shipment is made directly to the purchaser,
provided that those charges are separately stated and the transportation
occurs by means of common carrier, contract carrier or the United
States mail; § 1752(14), ¶B(7)
Transportation charges are exempt from sales tax if all three of the above
requirements are met, namely:
1)
Shipment is made directly to the purchaser
It is not necessary that shipment be made directly from the location of
the seller, so transportation charges associated with a so-called "drop shipment"
may be exempt if the other requirements are met. The cost of transporting the
property sold to the location of the seller is always part of the taxable sale price
of the property, whether or not it is separately stated to the customer.
Page 19
Examples of situations in which transportation charges are subject to tax
because they are not for shipment directly to the location of the purchaser are:
i. "Home party" sales where the goods ordered at the party are shipped
to the representative and then delivered by the representative to the customers;
ii.
The cost of shipping property (such as inventory) from the
manufacturer to the retailer ("incoming freight"), even though that cost is
separately stated on the invoice to the customer;
iii. Catalog or special order sales made at a retail location where the
goods are shipped to the retailer and picked up by the customer at the retail
location.
2)
Charges are separately stated
Although advisable, it is not essential that the transportation charges be
separately stated on the invoice of the seller. Any verifiable record showing the
amount of the transportation charge as a separate item, such as a bill of lading, is
acceptable evidence to substantiate a deduction for transportation charges. In the
absence of a verifiable record, no deduction can be allowed. An estimate of the
cost of transportation, by either the seller or the purchaser, is not acceptable.
Shipping and handling
The cost of transportation is not separately stated when it is combined
with charges for other services as in the case of a "shipping and handling" charge.
A charge for delivery
by the seller is taxable
3)
Shipment is made by common or contract carrier
or the US Mail
Charges for delivery by the seller are part of the sale price for purposes
of computing the sales tax. There are no circumstances under which the seller of
tangible personal property can be a common or contract carrier with respect to
that property.
# The fee imposed by Title 10, section 1169, subsection 11;
§ 1752(14), ¶B(8)
This excludes the $1 lemon law arbitration fee from taxation
Lemon law fee is exempt
Page 20
Lead-acid battery
deposits are exempt
# The lead-acid battery deposit imposed by Title 38, section 1604,
subsection 2-B. § 1752(14), ¶B(10)
This excludes the $10 lead acid battery deposit from taxation. The lead-acid
battery deposit, required by 38 M.R.S.A., §1604, requires the retailer to charge a $10.00
deposit to the consumer if no used battery is presented at the time of sale.
Recycling assistance fees
# The fee imposed by section 4832, subsection 1;
§ 1752(14), ¶ B(9)
This excludes the recycling assistance fees from taxation.
The recycling
assistance fee is not to be confused with the lead-acid battery deposit. The recycling fee
is in addition to the $10.00 deposit and applies even though the deposit may not be
applicable.
Disposal charges for used tires
# Any amount charged for the disposal of used tires.
§ 1752(14), ¶ B(13)
This excludes the amount charged by a retailer for the disposal of used
tires from the taxable sale price of other products. For instance, when a customer
purchases a new tire a retailer may charge the customer a small fee to dispose of
the customer’s used tire.1 The disposal fee is not part of the selling price of the
new tire.
1
This exclusion was enacted on July 12, 2010. However, it is effective retroactively to January 1, 2009.
Page 21
OTHER FEES ADMINISTERED BY MAINE REVENUE
RECYLCING
ASSISTANCE FEES
A fee is imposed on the retail sale in this State of new tires and new
lead-acid batteries in the amount of $1 per tire or lead-acid battery. A
fee in the same amount is imposed on the storage, use or other
consumption in this State of tires and lead-acid batteries purchased
new in this State by the user or purchased outside the State by the user
the fee imposed by this section has been paid. § 4832(1)
A recycling assistance fee is imposed on the retail sale of new tires and new
lead-acid batteries at the rate of $1.00 each. Sales of used tires and batteries are not
subject to the fee. The fee applies to all items in each category whether used for
residential, commercial or industrial purposes unless specifically exempted. The fee is
applied in the same manner as sales and use tax. Any exclusion, exemption or credit
provided in the sales and use tax law also applies to the recycling assistance fee. Bulletin
48 provides more detail on this subject.
Lead-acid batteries
"Lead-acid battery" means a device designed and used for the storage
of electrical energy through chemical reactions involving lead and
acids. § 4831(2)
The law is specific in applying the fee to only batteries which involve lead and
acids. These are most commonly used to store electrical energy for motorized vehicles,
such as automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, etc. "Lead-acid batteries" include those sold for
security systems installed in real property. "Lead-acid batteries" do not include those sold
for motorized wheelchairs and tricarts.
Tires
"Tire" means the device made of rubber or any similar substance
which is intended to be attached to a motorized vehicle or trailer and is
designed to support the load of the motorized vehicle or trailer.
§ 4831(4)
"Motorized vehicle" means any self-propelled vehicle, including
motorcycles, construction and farm vehicles and other off-road
vehicles, not operating exclusively on tracks. § 4831(3)
Trailer" means any vehicle without motive power that is designed to be
drawn by a motorized vehicle.
§ 4831(5)
Only tires to be attached to a motorized vehicle or trailer are subject to the fee.
For purposes of this fee, retread tires are used tires and are not subject to the fee. "Tires"
include those sold for airplanes and lawn and garden tractors but do not include those
sold for motorized wheelchairs, tricarts and push-type lawn mowers.
Page 22
PREMIUMS ON MOTOR
VEHICLE OIL
In addition to any other tax or charge imposed under state or federal
law, a premium is imposed on bulk motor vehicle oil and prepackaged
motor vehicle oil sold or distributed in the State as provided in this
subsection. A motor vehicle oil dealer that makes the first sale or
distribution of bulk motor vehicle oil or prepackaged motor vehicle oil
in the State shall pay the premium. Gasoline engine bulk motor
vehicle oils are subject to a premium of $1.10 per gallon. Diesel engine
bulk motor vehicle oils are subject to a premium of 35¢ per gallon.
Prepackaged motor vehicle oils are subject to a premium of 35¢ per
gallon. All premiums must be paid to the State Tax Assessor and are
subject to the administrative provisions of Title 36, Parts 1 and 3, as
though they were a sales tax liability. By the 20th day of each month,
the State Tax Assessor shall notify the State Controller and the
Treasurer of State of the amount of revenue attributable to the
premium collected under this subsection in the previous month. When
notified by the State Tax Assessor, the State Controller shall transfer
that amount to the fund. The premium imposed on prepackaged motor
vehicle oil takes effect October 1, 2009. 10 MRSA, § 1020(6-A)
The definition of “sale price” excludes
The premium imposed on bulk motor vehicle oil and prepackaged
motor vehicle oil by Title 10, section 1020, subsection 6-A.
§ 1752(14)(B)(12)
A premium is imposed on bulk sales of motor vehicle oil and prepackaged
motor vehicle oil.2 The premium is $1.10 per gallon for gasoline engine bulk
motor vehicle oils, 35¢ per gallon for diesel engine bulk motor vehicle oils and 35
cents per gallon on prepackaged motor vehicle oil sold or distributed in the State.
The premiums are imposed on the “motor vehicle oil dealer that makes the first
sale or distribution of bulk motor vehicle oil in the State”. All premiums must be
paid monthly to the State Tax Assessor. The premium on prepackaged motor
vehicle oil not only applies to crankcase oil but also to transmission, gear box,
hydraulic and differential fluids/oils. The premium on bulk motor vehicle oil
applies only to crankcase motor oil.
The statute provides the following definitions:
“Bulk motor vehicle oil” means all motor vehicle oil other than
prepackaged motor vehicle oil. 10 MRSA, § 1020(1)(A-1)
2
From October 1, 2007 to July 31, 2008 a premium was imposed on all motor vehicle oil changes sold at retail in
this State in the amount of $1 per oil change (if the vehicle’s gross weight is under 10,000 lbs), $2 per oil change (if
the vehicle’s gross weight is 10,000 lbs to 25,999 lbs) and $3 per oil change (if the vehicle’s gross weight is 26,000
lbs or more). Effective August 1, 2008 the law was amended to apply the premium only to bulk sales. Effective
October 1, 2009 the law was further amended to add premiums on prepackaged oil.
Page 23
“Prepackaged motor vehicle oil” means motor vehicle oil sold in a
container with a volume not in excess of 5 gallons.
10 MRSA, § 1020(1)(H)
“Motor vehicle oil” means any lubricating oil that is reclaimable and
classified for use in an internal combustion engine or the transmission,
gear box, hydraulic reservoir or differential for a motor vehicle, including
but not limited to natural, synthetic, and rerefined motor oils, whether or
not in retail containers. 10 MRSA, § 1020(1)(F)
“Diesel engine bulk motor vehicle oil” means diesel engine bulk motor
vehicle oil meeting the performance requirements of American Petroleum
Institute CJ-4 standards and all preceding specifications under those
standards, inclusive of all viscosity grades. 10 MRSA, § 1020(1)(A-2)
“Gasoline engine bulk motor vehicle oil” means gasoline engine bulk
motor vehicle oil meeting the performance requirements of American
Petroleum Institute SM and International Lubricant Standardization and
Approval CommitteeGF-4 standards and all preceding specifications
under those standards, inclusive of all viscosity grades.
10 MRSA, § 1020(1)(C-1)
“Motor vehicle oil dealer” means any person, firm, or corporation
engaged in the business of producing, packaging, or otherwise preparing
motor vehicle oil for market, or selling, or distributing motor vehicle oil.
10 MRSA, § 1020(1)(G)
E-9-1-1 SURCHARGE
An E-9-1-1 surcharge at the rate of 45 cents3 is applied to purchases of
prepaid wireless service from a wireless service provider and also on any prepaid
wireless service sold by a retailer, such as in the form of a prepaid wireless card.
This is not to be confused with a prepaid calling card.
The prepaid wireless E-9-1-1 surcharge must be collected by the seller
from the prepaid wireless consumer with respect to each retail transaction
occurring in this State. A retail transaction that is effected in person by a prepaid
wireless consumer at the business location of the seller is treated as occurring in
this State if that business location is in this State. If the sale does not take place at
the retailer’s business location, the taxation of the sale is determined in the same
manner as prepaid calling service (that is, at the customer’s billing address).
The amount of the prepaid wireless E-9-1-1 surcharge must be separately
stated on an invoice, receipt or similar document that is provided to the prepaid
wireless consumer by the seller when practicable.
3
In circumstances in which
From January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2010, the rate was 37 cents.
Page 24
disclosure of the E-9-1-1 surcharge on an invoice, receipt or similar document is
not practicable, the seller must otherwise make information available to the
consumer regarding the amount of the E-9-1-1 prepaid surcharge.
Like sales tax, the surcharge is the liability of the consumer: however the
seller is responsible for its collection. The surcharge is to be remitted to the State
Tax Assessor in the same manner as sales tax. A seller who is not a prepaid
wireless telecommunications service provider may deduct and retain 3% of
prepaid wireless E-9-1-1 surcharges that are collected by the seller from
consumers. This 3% collection allowance should be deducted prior to entering
the amount on the sales tax return. Documentation to support the amount of
surcharge collected, as well as the allowance computation, must be retained in the
retailer’s records. The calculation of sales tax is not to include the surcharge.
Page 25
TAXABLE
SERVICES
The taxation of services is not new to Maine. In fact Maine has taxed services
since 1959 when it began to tax rentals of living quarters. In 1965, it was telephone and
telegraph services; in 1977 short term rentals of automobiles; in 1984 extended cable
television services; in 1986 fabrication services and custom computer programming; in
1989 rentals of video tapes; in 1995 long-term rentals of automobiles; in 1999 certain
rent-to-own transactions; in 2004 the creation of the service provider tax and in 2005 the
addition of extended satellite television services. In all of these situations, no sale of
tangible personal property exists. Rather a service is being rendered.
In determining if a service is taxable, some are clearly exempt and others are
clearly taxable. Only sales of services defined as taxable services by statute are taxable.
However, transactions do occur somewhere in the middle that make such a determination
more difficult.
Another distinction is whether a sale is treated as a sale of services, tangible
personal property, or intangible property. Historically the Bureau has regarded financial
reports, wills and blueprints as intangibles. The purchaser is obtaining the technical
services of the provider even though the provider, in turn, presents an instrument to
convey thoughts, ideas or research of the provider. The value of the transaction is in the
service being rendered.
On the other hand the Bureau is sometimes faced with
determining if a transaction is a service or is a sale of tangible personal property wherein
a service is provided but results in a transfer of tangible personal property. For instance
the production of such items as brochures and audio and video tapes, requires a high
degree of technical expertise. The cost of production is mainly creative time and labor
and the cost of materials used in the production is relatively small. However, the value of
this transaction is in the tangible personal property being produced and transferred.
As previously mentioned, sales of services in general are not taxable. However,
the statute identifies certain services that are specifically subject to sales tax.
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Rental of living quarters in any hotel, rooming house, tourist or trailer camp;
Rental or lease of an automobile;
Transmission and distribution of electricity; and.
Extended Service contract on an automobile; and
Prepaid calling service.
§ 1752(17-B)
Page 26
Certain other services are subject to the service provider tax rather than the sales
tax.
Explanation of these services is also included in this guide and can be found at the
end of this section.
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Telecommunications service;
Installation, maintenance and repair of telecommunications
equipment;
Ancillary services;
Extended cable and extended satellite television service;
Fabrication services;
Rental of video media and video equipment;
Rental of furniture, audio media and audio equipment
pursuant to a rental purchase agreement as defined in Title 9A, section 11-105.
§ 2552
TRANSIENT
RENTALS
# Rental of living quarters in any hotel, rooming house, tourist or
trailer camp;
§ 1752(17-B)
The following definitions found in the sales and use tax law provide the
foundation for determining the type of living quarters that are taxable.
Living quarters. "Living quarters" means sleeping rooms, sleeping or
housekeeping accommodations, and tent or trailer space. § 1752(6)
Hotel. "Hotel" means every building or other structure kept, used,
maintained, advertised as or held out to the public to be a place where
living quarters are supplied for pay to transient or permanent guests
and tenants. § 1752(4)
Rooming house. "Rooming house" means every house, cottage,
condominium unit, vacation home, boat, vehicle, motor court, trailer
court or other structure or any place or location kept, used,
maintained, advertised or held out to the public to be a place where
living quarters are supplied for pay to transient or permanent guests or
tenants, whether in one or adjoining buildings. § 1752(12)
Tourist camp. "Tourist camp" means a place where tents or tent
houses, or camp cottages or other structures are located and offered to
the public or any segment thereof for human habitation.
§ 1752(19)
Trailer camp. "Trailer camp" means a place with or without service
facilities where space is offered to the public for tenting or for the
parking and accommodation of camper trailers, motor homes or truck
campers used for living quarters. The rental price includes all service
charges paid to the lessor. § 1752(20)
Generally, the amount paid for occupancy of these rooms or spaces are subject to
the sales tax. There are situations, however, where a rental charge is not for the rental of
living quarters and would not be taxable or is a rental that is specifically exempt.
Page 27
Incidental charges
at hotels
) When a hotel offers separate facilities (such as a golf course or tennis courts) that are not
a part of the rental of living quarters, and where any charges for those facilities are in fact
extra and are paid only by persons who make use of the facilities and are shown as a separate
item on the bill, those charges are not subject to tax.
Tax does apply to the amount billed
for extra services that are a part of the rental of a room in a hotel or boarding house, whether
or not separately stated. Some examples of services that are considered a part of the rental
of living quarters include extra charges for use of a cot or crib or for use of cooking
facilities.
) Rental by a hotel of a dining room, assembly room or other area not intended for use as
Rental of
public rooms
living quarters is not taxable. When a hotel rents a room designed as living quarters, such as
a hospitality suite with bedrooms, the rental will be considered taxable regardless of the use
actually made of the room by the person renting it.
Rentals of video media
and video equipment
) The Maine service provider tax applies to rentals of video media, video games and video
equipment for noncommercial playback. A hotel that rents any of these items is liable for
the service provider tax on the rentals. Taxable rentals include not only rentals of VHS and
DVD movies and players, but also rentals of video equipment for use at business
conferences, seminars and the like. Purchases of video media and video equipment for
rental by a hotel are not taxable.
) The rental of space for the pitching of tents or the parking of motor homes, travel trailers
and camper trailers is taxable. The rental price includes all service charges paid to the
lessor, whether or not those charges are separately collected or stated. If the tents or trailers
themselves are rented, that rental is also taxable.
Tent and trailer
space
Page 28
Occupancy for 28 days
or more
) The law provides an exemption that reads:
Continuous residence; refunds and credits. Rental charged to any
person who resides continuously for 28 days or more at any one hotel,
rooming house, tourist camp or trailer camp if:
A. The person does not maintain a primary residence at some other
location; or
B. The person is residing away from that person's primary residence
in connection with employment or education.
Tax paid by such a person to the retailer under section 1812 during the
initial 28-day period must be refunded by the retailer. If the tax has
been reported and paid to the State by the retailer, it may be taken as a
credit by the retailer on the return filed by the retailer covering the
month in which the refund was made to the tenant.
§ 1760(20)
Rental charged to any person who resides continuously for 28 days or more in the
same hotel, rooming house, tourist camp or trailer camp is nontaxable if the living
quarters are the person's primary residence, or if the rental is in connection with
education or employment. This exemption applies, for instance, to apartment rentals (as
it is a person's primary residence), rentals to college students (as it is for education) and
rentals to such people as construction workers (as it is for employment reasons). If tax
has been paid by the person during the initial 28-day period, that tax should be refunded
by the retailer (lessor). If the retailer (lessor) has reported and paid the tax to the State,
the retailer should take a corresponding credit on the Sales and Use Tax Return filed for
the period in which the refund or credit occurred by adjusting the taxable rentals figure
shown on the return. A person claiming this exemption must provide a statement to the
retailer. See the Appendix for a sample copy of an affidavit to be used for this purpose.
Living quarters furnished
to employees
The law also provides another exemption that reads:
Certain meals and lodging. Meals or lodging provided to employees at
their place of employment when the value of those meals or that
lodging is allowed as a credit toward the wages of those employees.
§ 1760(75)
Page 29
Tax does not apply to rentals of living quarters that are furnished by an employer
to an employee, at premises controlled by the employer, and solely for the convenience of
the employer provided the charge is allowed as a credit toward the wages of the
employee.
) The sales and use tax law provides the following specific exemptions from tax:
Specific exemptions
Camps. Rental charged for living quarters, sleeping or
housekeeping accommodations at camps entitled to exemption
from property tax under section 652, subsection 1. § 1760(17)
Certain institutions. Rental charged for living or sleeping
quarters in an institution licensed by the State for the
hospitalization or nursing care of human beings. § 1760(18)
Schools. Rental charged for living quarters, sleeping or
housekeeping accommodations to any student necessitated by
attendance at a school as defined in subsection 16. § 1760(19)
"School" means a public or incorporated nonprofit primary,
secondary or postsecondary educational institution that has a
regular faculty, curriculum and organized body of pupils or
students in attendance throughout the usual school year and
that keeps and furnishes to students and others records
required and accepted for entrance to schools of secondary,
collegiate or graduate rank. § 1752(14-E)
Casual rentals
The tax imposed by chapters 211 to 225 must be levied upon all casual
rentals of living quarters in a hotel, rooming house or tourist or trailer
camp … This section does not apply to the rental of living quarters
rented for a total of fewer than 15 days in the calendar year, except
that a person who owns and offers for rental more than one property in
the State during the calendar year is liable for collecting sales tax with
respect to the rental of each unit regardless of the number of days for
which it is rented. § 1764
) A person who has only one room or a single camp for rent is required to register as a
retailer and collect the 7% sales tax unless rental is for fewer than 15 days each year.
Property that is placed in the hands of a real estate agent or other person engaged in the
business of renting or managing rentals of living quarters is not a casual rental but is
subject to sales tax in the same manner as that of a hotel.
Page 30
Forfeited room deposits
or cancellation fees
) The definition of “sale price” excludes the following:
(11) Any amount charged or collected by a person engaged in the
rental of living quarters as a forfeited room deposit or cancellation fee
if the prospective occupant of the living quarters cancels the
reservation on or before the scheduled date of arrival.
§ 1752(14), sub-§B(11)
When a patron rents a room, it is customary for the establishment to require a
deposit to hold the room. If the patron cancels or fails to show up on the date of arrival,
the deposit, or a portion of the deposit, is forfeited by the patron.
The statute
distinguishes between amounts which are deemed to be rentals of living quarters and
those amounts which are deemed cancellation fees.
If a patron cancels his or her reservation on or prior to the scheduled date of
arrival and the establishment retains a “cancellation fee”, the fee is not subject to Maine
sales tax. However, if the patron fails to show on the scheduled date of arrival, any
amount forfeited to the establishment is treated as rental of living quarters and is subject
to the 7% tax.
PREPAID CALLING
ARRANGEMENTS
# Prepaid calling service; § 1752(17-B)
"Prepaid calling service" is defined as:
... the right to access exclusively telecommunications services that must
be paid for in advance that enables the origination of calls using an
access number or authorization code or both, whether manually or
electronically dialed, and that is sold in predetermined units or dollars,
the number of which declines with use in a known amount. The sale
or recharge of the service is considered a sale within the State if the
transfer for consideration takes place at the vendor's place of business
in the State. If the sale or recharge of prepaid calling service does not
take place at the vendor's place of business, the sale or recharge is
deemed to take place at the customer's shipping address, or if there is
no item shipped, at the customer's billing address or the location
associated with the customer's mobile telephone number. The sale of
the service is deemed to occur on the date of the transfer for
consideration of the service. § 1752(8-B)
Prepaid calling cards and other calling arrangements are taxable at the time of sale. The
"sale price" is the card's or arrangement's full face value.
In the event the sale or
"recharge" does not occur at a vendor's place of business, the sale is deemed to take place
at the customer's billing address.
Page 31
# Transmission and distribution of electricity. § 1752(17-B)
TRANSMISSION AND
DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICITY
Electricity is provided by two separate companies; an electricity supplier, and a
transmission and distribution (T&D) company. The electricity supplier sells electricity to
consumers in a competitive market. The T&D company delivers the electricity over lines
which they maintain and service. The sale of electricity is a taxable sale of tangible
personal property. The charge for the transmission and distribution of the electricity is a
taxable service and is likewise subject to tax.
EXTENDED WARRANTY
ON AUTOMOBILE
# The sale of an extended service contract on an automobile that entitles the
purchaser to specific benefits in the service of the automobile for a specific
duration. § 1752(17-B)
# “Retail sale” does not include: The sale of automobile repair parts used in
the performance of repair services on an automobile pursuant to an
extended service contract sold on or after September 20, 2007 that entitles
the purchaser to specific benefits in the service of the automobile for a
specific duration. § 1752(11)(B-9)
# "Automobile" means a self-propelled 4-wheel motor vehicle designed
primarily to carry passengers and not designed to run on tracks.
"Automobile" includes a pickup truck or van with a registered gross
vehicle weight of 6,000 pounds or less. § 1752(1-B)
Effective September 20, 2007, sales tax applies to the sale of an extended service
contract on an automobile that entitles the purchaser to specific benefits in the service of
the automobile for a specific duration. The sale of the extended warranty is taxable,
while the parts used in subsequent repairs are exempt. Prior to this date, the sale of an
extended warranty was a nontaxable service and any parts associated with subsequent
repairs were taxable. Note that this change applies to the sale of extended warranties on
automobiles (including ATV’s) only. The sale of extended warranties on any other
property continues to be exempt.
# Rental or lease of an automobile. § 1752(17-B)
Since definitions play a crucial role in taxation, the term "automobile" has the
following definition:
"Automobile" means a self-propelled 4-wheel motor vehicle designed
primarily to carry passengers and not designed to run on tracks.
"Automobile" includes a pickup truck or van with a registered gross
vehicle weight of 6,000 pounds or less. § 1752(1-B)
RENTAL OR
LEASE OF AUTOS
Page 32
Automobiles include, but are not limited to, SUVs, so-called jeeps and scouts and
pick-up trucks. Passenger vans are also automobiles even if retrofitted for another use,
such as a service vehicle. Automobiles do not include those which have more than 4
wheels, such as dual rear wheel pick-ups, cargo vans and motor homes.
Rentals of automobiles fall into two categories:
short term and long term.
Within long term rentals, there could be a number of different types of transactions. The
tax consequences in each category differ.
Short term rentals
Rentals for less than 12 months to one person are deemed to be short-term rentals
and are subject to a 10% tax. Typically these are daily rental operations. Taxable rentals
include all charges for the rental of the automobile, including maintenance and service
contracts, drop-off or pick-up fees, airport surcharges, mileage fees and any separately
itemized charges on the rental agreement to recover the owner’s estimated costs of the
charges imposed by government authority for title fees, inspection fees, local excise tax
and agent fees on all vehicles in its rental fleet registered in the State. (§ 1811) Rentals
do not include cancellation charges or sales of gasoline.
All rental payments made pursuant to a rental executed in Maine are subject to
Maine tax whether the automobile is to be used exclusively in Maine or outside the state.
Alternatively, rental payments associated with a rental executed outside the state is not
subject to Maine's tax even if the automobile is used exclusively in Maine. Rentals to
agencies of government and to organizations that are exempt from sales tax are exempt
on the same basis as other retail sales.
As previously mentioned, the definition of "retail sale" excludes "(t)he sale, to a
person engaged in the business of renting automobiles, of automobiles, integral parts
of automobiles or accessories to automobiles, for rental or for use in an automobile
rented on a short-term basis". Automobiles purchased exclusively for short term rental
are purchased tax exempt. However, if any other use is made of the automobile, the
lessor becomes subject to a use tax based on the lessor's purchase price.
Long term rentals
Rentals or leases of automobiles for 12 months or more are long term leases.
With regards to automobiles only, the tax base for long term leases differ from any other
type of vehicle or equipment. The statute states:
"Rental or lease of an automobile for one year or more must be taxed
at the time of the lease or rental transaction at 5% of the following:
the total monthly lease payment multiplied by the number of payments
in the lease or rental, the amount of equity involved in any trade-in and
the value of any cash down payment. Collection and remittance of the
tax is the responsibility of the person that negotiates the lease
transaction with the lessee." § 1811, ¶ 3
Page 33
As a result, the statute provides that sales tax is computed on the total of three
categories:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
total lease payments
trade-in equity
cash down payment
Total lease payments
Total lease payments are arrived at by multiplying the lease payment by the
number of payments in the lease term.
If the lease indicates that the 36 monthly
payments of $300.00 are due on the 10th of each month, the tax base for this category is
$10,800.
Taxes, such as federal luxury tax, excise and sales taxes, are allowable
exclusions from the tax base. Ancillary services such as registration fees, life/disability
insurance, warranties and management services, are excluded only if separately stated
from the lease payment. For example, if the lease stated above is inclusive of ancillary
services, the tax base remains the same. It is immaterial that the $300 could be broken
down into a variety of charges. If on the other hand, the lessor bills the lessee $150 for
ancillary services in addition to the $300 each month, these services would not be
taxable.
Floating interest rates: Leases that have floating interest rates should use
the rate effective at the time the lease is executed in determining the total
lease payments. However, a reconciliation will be required at the end of
the term to determine if any tax adjustment is necessary. For example, at
the beginning of a lease it is determined that the lease payment is
$350.00 based on the current interest rate and the term is for 24 months.
The total lease payments which are part of the tax base and subject to tax
amounts to $8400.00. During the lease the interest rate fluctuates to a
degree that the actual total of the lease payments amounts to $9000.00.
A tax adjustment of $30.00 (presuming the rate is 5%) is necessary on
the last lease payment for the extra $600.00 in payments.
Trade-in equity
Trade-in equity is the value of any kind of trade-in which is a cost reduction to
the lease. For instance if a vehicle is taken in trade with a value assigned to it in the
amount of $3000.00 with no lien, the $3000.00 must be added to the tax base. If a lien
was involved and the customer owed $1000.00, the net amount, or $2000.00, is added to
the tax base. If the lien is greater than the trade-in value, no equity exists and no value is
added (or deducted) from the tax base.
Page 34
Cash Down Payment
Cash down represents any initial cash payment which is a cost reduction to the
lease. Cash down includes rebates applied to the lease. It does not include pre-payment
of lease payments or payments of sales tax, excise tax, registration fees and other
required "up front" costs that are disbursed by the lessor.
Special situations
Open-end leases
Open-end leases may or may not have a stated lease term. Thus total rental
payments may not be determinable in advance. If a term is determinable and the term is
12 months or more, such as a 12 month lease with monthly renewals thereafter, the lease
will be considered a long term lease. The tax base would be computed on the total of the
known lease payments. Monthly renewals would be taxed at the rate of 5% on each
payment as they accrue.
If a term is not determinable or the designated term is less than 12 months, the
lease will be considered a short-term lease. Each lease payment should be taxed as they
accrue at the short-term tax rate of 10%.
A Terminal Rental Adjustment Clause (TRAC) lease is an example of an openend lease. However, at the end of the lease, the final lease payment is adjusted either
upward or downward based upon the condition of the vehicle. Since this represents
additional rent due or credit for overpaid rentals, an adjustment to tax is necessary. If
there is an increase in the rental payment, additional tax is due. If there is a credit
adjustment, a tax credit is appropriate.
Lease extensions
In the event a lease is extended, tax is to be computed once again. The lease will
continue to be regarded as a long term lease even though the extension may be for a term
of less than 12 months. If the term is known, the tax base would include the payment
multiplied by the additional number of months. If the term is not determinable, tax
would be computed on each payment as they accrue.
Early Termination of Lease or removal from state
There is no provision in the sales and use tax law for the refund of any sales tax,
in the case where a lease on which tax has been collected is terminated prior to the end of
its term or where the property covered in a lease executed in Maine is subsequently
removed from the state.
Page 35
Leases to non-residents
Out-of-state residents that enter into a long term lease of an automobile with a
Maine dealer are exempt from Maine sales and use tax provided the automobile is
immediately removed from the state and the purchaser executes an “Immediate Removal
Affidavit”. (See § 1760, sub-§23-C)
LEASES
Although leases in general are not a “taxable service”, the area of leasing requires
a discussion of the different tax treatments of leases. There are generally four types of
lease transactions;
•
•
•
•
a true lease
a lease with option to purchase
a lease in lieu of purchase and
an open end lease.
True lease
In a true lease, the lessor enters into a lease agreement with a lessee for a stated
period of time and the property is to be returned to the lessor at the conclusion of the
lease term. The lessor is making a taxable use of the property through the derivation of
rental income. The lessor is liable for a use tax, due at the beginning of the lease, based
on the lessor's cost of the property. If the property is returned to the lessor and leased to
another party, no additional use tax is due. No sales tax is charged to the lessee nor are
lease payments subject to tax.
Lease with option
to purchase
In a lease with option to purchase, the same liability to the lessor exists as stated
in a true lease. However, at the end of the term, the lessee has the option to purchase the
property for a stated amount, fair market value or some other value. If the option is
exercised, a taxable sale occurs and sales tax would be charged at that time to the lessee
based on the option price, including any amounts previously paid as rentals and applied
to that price.
Lease in lieu of purchase
including automobiles
In a lease in lieu of purchase, the lessee will acquire title at the end of the lease
term. This type of lease is deemed a "sale" at the commencement of the lease. The
lessee would be charged sales tax up front based on the total lease payments. (Finance
charges which are separately stated may be excluded from the taxable base.) Leases with
nominal purchase options, such as $1.00, are considered leases in lieu of purchase. In
addition, TRAC leases may qualify as leases-in-lieu of purchase, depending on the
contractual terms.
Page 36
Trade-ins on
leased property
Trade-in credits are only allowed in transactions involving the "sale" of certain
vehicles. Trade-in credits are not allowed on leased property unless the lease is in lieu of
purchase and the leased property is of the type that allows trade-in credits.
Leases to exempt
organizations
Leases to exempt organizations are treated no differently than the leases
mentioned above with the following exceptions: rentals and leases of automobiles,
interim rentals and leases in lieu of purchase, being “sales”, are exempt when
rented/leased to a sales tax exempt organization. In the case of a lease with option to
purchase, the lease is taxable as previously described, while the sale that occurs when the
option is exercised is exempt.
Interim rentals
The Sales and Use Tax Law contains a special provision to cover situations
where tangible personal property that had been purchased for resale is rented as an
incident to holding the property for resale. This does not apply to situations where the
purchase of the property was for rental purposes and the ultimate sale of the property is
incidental only.
Nor does it apply to short-term or long-term rentals or leases of
automobiles.
The law permits the retailer in such cases to elect to collect and remit sales tax on
rental payments rather than pay a use tax on the purchase price. Sales tax on rentals is to
be passed on to the original and any subsequent lessees. If the property is rented to a
person for more than one year or the retailer makes other use of the property, other than
rental or sale, the election is void and the retailer is liable for use tax on the property.
Retailers must maintain supporting documentation of the rentals for audit
purposes.
Software licenses
Unlike a sale, a software license provides the user with the authorization to only
use the software without title to the software transferring to the user. A software license
is therefore treated as a lease. Software licenses that are issued and renewed annually are
taxable to the lessor based upon the purchase price. If the software lessor is also the
developer of the software, the cost of the product is based upon the lessor’s material
costs.
A software license will be considered a lease in lieu of purchase when the license
is perpetual or for 10 years or more with no annual renewals. In this situation, the lessor
would collect a sales tax from the lessee at the commencement of the lease based upon
the total amount of lease payments.
Page 37
SERVICE PROVIDER TAX
A 5% service provider tax applies to the following services:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Extended cable and extended satellite television service;
Fabrication services;
Rental of video media and video equipment;
Rental of furniture, audio media and audio equipment pursuant to
a rental-purchase agreement as defined in Title 9-A, section 11105.
Telecommunications service;
The installation, maintenance or repair of telecommunications
equipment;
Ancillary services;
Private non-medical institution services
Community support services for persons with mental health
diagnosis
Community support services for persons with mental retardation or
autism
Home support services
§ 2552(1)
Value is measured by the sale price. The liability for, or the incidence
of, the tax imposed by this section is declared to be a levy on the seller.
If a seller includes this tax on a customer's bill, it must be shown as a
separate line item and identified as a service provider tax. § 2552(2)
Unlike the sales tax, the service provider tax is imposed on the provider. The
provider can pass this cost on to the purchaser, and if this happens, the provider must
disclose the tax as a “service provider tax”. The value on which the tax is imposed is the
transaction’s “sale price”.
Sale price
“Sale price” means the total amount of consideration, including cash,
credit, property and services, for which personal property or services
are sold, leased or rented, valued in money, whether received in money
or otherwise, without any deduction for the cost of materials used,
labor or service cost, interest, losses and any other expense of the
seller. ”Sale price” includes any consideration for services that are a
part of a sale. “Sale price” does not include:
A. Discounts allowed and taken on sales;
B. Allowances in cash or by credit made upon the return of
services pursuant to warranty;
C. The price of services rejected by customers when the full
sale price is refunded either in cash or by credit;
D. The amount of any tax imposed by the United States or the
State on or with respect to the sale of a service, whether
imposed upon the seller or the consumer; or
Page 38
E. The cost of transportation from the service provider’s place
of business or other point from which shipment is made
directly to the purchaser, as long as those charges are separately stated and the transportation occurs by means of
common carrier, contract carrier or the United States Postal
Service. § 2551(15)
TELECOMMUNICATIONS
SERVICE
# Telecommunications service; § 2552(E)
"Telecommunications services" means the electronic
transmission, conveyance or routing of voice, data, audio,
video or any other information or signals to a point or between
or among points.
"Telecommunications services" includes transmission,
conveyance or routing in which computer processing
applications are used to act on the form, code or protocol of the
content for purposes of transmission, conveyance or routing
without regard to whether the service is referred to as "Voice
over Internet Protocol" services or is classified by the Federal
Communications Commission as enhanced or value added.
"Telecommunications services" does not include:
A.
Data processing and information services that allow
data to be generated, acquired, stored, processed or retrieved
and delivered by an electronic transmission to a purchaser
when the purchaser's primary purpose for the underlying
transaction is to obtain the processed data or information;
B.
Installation or maintenance of wiring or equipment on
a customer's premises;
C.
Tangible personal property;
D.
Advertising, including, but not limited to, directory
advertising;
E.
Billing and collection services provided to 3rd parties;
F.
Internet access service;
G.
Radio and television audio and video programming
services, regardless of the medium, including the furnishing of
transmission, conveyance and routing of those services by the
programming service provider. Radio and television audio and
video programming services include, but are not limited to,
cable service as defined in 47 United States Code, Section
522(6) and audio and video programming services delivered by
commercial mobile radio service providers as defined in 47
Code of Federal Regulations, Section 20.3;
H.
Ancillary services; or
I.
Digital products delivered electronically, including, but
not limited to, software, music, video, reading materials or
ringtones. § 2551, sub-§20A
Page 39
The following are exempt from the service provider tax:
# Sales of prepaid calling service; § 2557, sub-§32
# Sales of international telecommunications service; § 2557, sub-§33
"International
telecommunications
service"
means
a
telecommunications service that originates or terminates in the United
States and terminates or originates outside the United States,
respectively. For purposes of this subsection, "United States" includes
a territory or possession of the United States.
§ 2551, sub-§5-A
# Sales of interstate telecommunications service. § 2557, sub-§34
"Interstate telecommunications service" means a telecommunications
service that originates in one state, territory or possession of the United
States and terminates in a different state, territory or possession of the
United States. For purposes of this subsection, "state" includes the
District of Columbia. § 2551, sub-§5-B
“Telecommunications
service”
is
broadly
defined
to
include
all
telecommunications services and then provides a list of services that are excluded. Two
of the exclusions (installation, maintenance and repair of telecommunications equipment
and ancillary services) are subject to the service provider tax as a separately stated
service. Additionally, three exemptions are provided in the statute for prepaid calling
services (since these are taxable under the sales tax law), international calls and interstate
calls. As a result, telecommunications service includes calls made within Maine which
also terminate in Maine. The monthly charge for line service is taxable as well as long
distance calls within Maine, but calls that originate or terminate outside of Maine are
exempt.
“Telecommunications service” is not restricted to entities that provide telephone
line service. It also includes voice over internet protocol (VOIP).
For more information on “telecommunications services”, please refer to
Instructional Bulletin #56.
Installation, maintenance and repair
of telecommunications equipment
# The installation, maintenance or repair of telecommunications
equipment; § 2552(F)
“Telecommunications equipment" means any 2-way interactive
communications device, system or process for transmitting or receiving
signals and capable of exchanging audio, video, data or textual
information. “Telecommunications equipment” includes all
transmission media that are used or capable of being used in the
provision of 2-way interactive communications, including, without
limitation, copper wire, coaxial cable and optical fiber, except those
Page 40
transmission media designed and primarily used to transmit electricity.
"Telecommunications equipment" does not include computers, except
those components of a computer used primarily and directly as a 2-way
interactive communications device capable of exchanging audio, video,
data or textual information. § 2551, sub-§19
Labor charges for installation, maintenance or repair of telecommunications
equipment are subject to the service provider tax. "Telecommunications equipment" not
only includes the familiar telephone, but also cellular telephones, TDD's, two-way radios,
modems, fax machines, telephone switching equipment and telephone wiring, including
copper wire, coaxial cable and optical fiber.
The definition of telecommunications
equipment states that the equipment need only be capable of being used in the provision
of 2-way interactive communications. This tax applies to any person who installs or
repairs telecommunications equipment and could include electricians and contractors as
well as those ordinarily providing telecommunications services.
For instance, if an
electrician installs telephone wire and coaxial cable in a new home being constructed,
that electrician’s labor is subject to the service provider tax.
When telecommunications equipment is a component of another piece of
equipment (a fax as part of a copier or a modem as part of a computer), repair charges
allocable only to the telecommunications equipment is subject to tax.
Ancillary services
# Ancillary services; § 2552(L)
"Ancillary service" means a service that is associated with or
incidental to the provision of telecommunications services, including,
but not limited to, detailed telecommunications billing service, directory
assistance, vertical service and voice mail service.
"Detailed telecommunications billing service" means an ancillary
service of separately stating information pertaining to individual calls
on a customer's billing statement.
"Directory assistance" means an ancillary service of providing
telephone number information or address information or both.
"Vertical service" means an ancillary service that is offered in
connection with one or more telecommunications services and offers
advanced calling features that allow customers to identify callers and
to manage multiple calls and call connections. "Vertical service"
includes conference bridging service.
Page 41
"Conference bridging service" means an ancillary service that links 2
or more participants in an audio or video conference call and may
include the provision of a telephone number. "Conference bridging
service" does not include the telecommunications services used to
reach the conference bridge.
"Voice mail service" means an ancillary service that enables the
customer to store, send or receive recorded messages. "Voice mail
service" does not include a vertical service that the customer may be
required to have in order to use the voice mail service.
“Ancillary services” are additional charges associated with telecommunications
services. “Ancillary services” is a separately distinguished service subject to the service
provider tax. Examples of “ancillary services”, include, but are not limited to, charges
for billing services, directory assistance, caller-id, setting up conference calls, and voice
mail.
Mobile telecommunication
services
“Mobile telecommunications services” means commercial mobile radio
service as defined in 47 Code of Federal Regulations, Section 20.3 as
in effect on June 1, 1999. For purposes of sourcing, “mobile
telecommunications services” does not include air-ground
radiotelephone service as defined in 47 Code of Federal Regulations,
Section 22.99 as in effect on June 1, 1999. § 2551(6)
The definition of telecommunications service in Maine’s law is in conformity
with federal statute with regards to the sourcing of mobile telephone services.
In
summary, Maine can only apply its statute on calls associated with a customer whose
place of primary use is in Maine. “Place of primary use” is defined as:
… the street address representative of where a customer's use of mobile
telecommunications services primarily occurs, which must be either the
residential street address or the primary business street address of the
customer and must also be located within the licensed service area of
the home service provider. For purposes of determining the place of
primary use, "customer" means the person or entity that contracts with
the home service provider for mobile telecommunications services, or,
if the end user of such services is not the contracting party, the person
that is the end user of such services. The term "customer" does not
include a reseller of mobile telecommunications services, or a serving
carrier under an agreement to serve the customer outside the home
service provider's licensed service area. § 2551, sub-§8
Page 42
Special rules addressing the responsibilities of a home service provider have also been
enacted as follows:
1. Sourcing rule; identifying place of primary use. Mobile
telecommunications services provided to a customer whose place of
primary use is located in this State, the charges for which are billed by
or for the customer's home service provider, are deemed to be provided
at the customer's place of primary use. A home service provider is
responsible for obtaining and maintaining a record of a customer's
place of primary use. Subject to subsection 2 and if the home service
provider's reliance on the information provided by its customer is in
good faith, the home service provider:
A. May rely on the applicable residential or business street address
supplied by the home service provider's customer; and
B. May not be held liable for any additional taxes under this Part
based on a different determination of the place of primary use.
2. Correction of place of primary use; determination by
assessor. If the assessor determines that the address used by a home
service provider as a customer's place of primary use does not meet the
definition provided by section 2551, subsection 8, the assessor shall
notify the customer in writing of that determination and provide the
customer an opportunity to demonstrate that that address is the
customer's place of primary use. If the customer fails to demonstrate
to the assessor's satisfaction within 30 days from the time it receives
notice from the assessor, or within another time period as the assessor
may allow, that the address in question is the customer's place of
primary use, the assessor shall provide the home service provider with
the proper address to be used as the customer's place of primary use.
The home service provider shall begin using the address provided by
the assessor as the customer's place of primary use within 30 days from
the date it receives notice of the assessor's determination.
3. Hold harmless provision; use of electronic database or
enhanced zip code. A home service provider is entitled to the hold
harmless
protections
provided
by
the
federal
Mobile
Telecommunications Sourcing Act, Public Law 106-252, Section 1, 114
Stat. 2, 2000.
4. Bundled services. Notwithstanding any other provision of
this chapter, otherwise nontaxable charges that are aggregated with
and not separately stated from taxable mobile telecommunications
charges are subject to taxation unless the home service provider can, to
the satisfaction of the assessor, reasonably identify such charges from
books and records kept in the regular course of its business. A
customer may not rely upon the nontaxability of bundled services
unless the customer's home service provider separately states the
otherwise nontaxable services or the home service provider elects, after
receiving written notice from the customer in the form required by the
provider, to provide verifiable data based upon the home service
provider's books and records that are kept in the regular course of
business and that reasonably identify the nontaxable charges.
Page 43
5. Certain preexisting contracts. Subject to subsection 2, a
home service provider may treat the address used by it for purposes of
the tax imposed by this chapter for any customer under a service
contract or agreement in effect on July 28, 2002 as that customer's
place of primary use for the remaining term of the service contract or
agreement, excluding any extension or renewal period. § 2556
Additional questions and answers on the topic of Mobile Telecommunications can be
found in a special notice issued by MRS on July 1, 2002. (See Sample Document
section.)
EXTENDED CABLE & SATELLITE
TELEVISION SERVICES
# Extended cable and satellite television service; § 2552(A)
"Extended cable and satellite television service" is defined as:
... all cable and satellite television service that is in addition to the
minimum service which can be purchased from a cable and satellite
television supplier including the use of associated equipment for which
a charge is made. It does not include installation of the associated
equipment for which a separate charge is levied.
§ 2551, sub-§2
Cable and satellite television service is therefore taxed only on programming that
the subscriber may elect to receive over and above the basic service. For instance, if a
cable company offers a basic package of 18 channels, the charge for this "basic" service
is exempt. If the subscriber elects to purchase anything more than this, those charges
would be taxable. Examples of taxable charges are: 1) the purchase of an extended
package of additional channels, 2) movie or sports channels, 3) connections to additional
sets, 4) pay-per-view programs or 5) use of special equipment like remote controls or
converter boxes. Installation charges are not subject to tax, whether for basic or extended
service, provided the charge is separately stated.
Since the definition of "retail sale" in the sales tax law does not include "the sale,
to a person “engaged in the business of providing cable or satellite television services,
of associated equipment for rental or lease to subscribers in conjunction with a sale of
extended cable or extended satellite television services; ", the purchase of converter
boxes by the cable or satellite company is exempt from sales and use tax since the rental
of the box is taxable as "extended cable and satellite television service".
Page 44
FABRICATION
SERVICES
# Fabrication services; § 2552(1)(B)
"Fabrication services" as defined below are subject to the service provider tax as
a taxable service.
"Fabrication services" means the production of tangible personal
property for a consideration for a person who furnishes, either directly
or indirectly, the materials used in that production. § 2551, sub-§3
The tax imposed by this chapter does not apply to connection with:
Sales to a construction contractor or its subcontractor of fabrication
services that are to be physically incorporated in, and become a
permanent part of, real property for sale to any organization or
government agency provided exemption under this section, except as
otherwise provided by section 2560. § 2557(31)
"Fabrication services" are those that change materials provided to a fabricator
into a different form, character or composition.
Fabrication is very similar to
manufacturing except that the materials are already owned by the end user. The end user
contracts with the fabricator to convert the materials into something different.
For
instance, Mr. X has some antique floor boards and contracts with a carpenter to make a
table. The labor charge by the carpenter is a "fabrication service" that is subject to tax.
"Fabrication services" do not include the charge for attaching, affixing or
applying a completed item of tangible personal property to other tangible personal
property, or to real property. For example, having a painting mounted into a frame is not
fabrication.
The production of tangible personal property if a sale to the consumer
of that tangible personal property would be exempt or otherwise not
subject to tax under Part 3; and
§ 2557(35)
Fuel used at a manufacturing facility. Ninety-five percent of the sale
price of fabrication services for the production of fuel for use at a
manufacturing facility as defined in section 1752, subsection 6-A.
§ 2557(36)
If the product being fabricated is, under the sales tax law in Part 3, an exempt
item or the services are being performed for an exempt organization, the fabrication
services are exempt.
If the product being fabricated will be used as fuel at a
manufacturing facility, the fabrication services are 95% exempt. For more information
on “fabrication services”, please refer to Instructional Bulletin #46.
Page 45
# Rental of video media and video equipment; § 2552(1)(C)
RENTAL OF VIDEO
MEDIA AND GAMES
The statute defines "video media and video equipment" as follows:
"Video media" means prerecorded magnetic tapes used for
noncommercial playback of images and sound on video equipment,
and other electronic audio and video media that provide for
noncommercial interactive utilization by a person or persons, including
digital video discs. "Video equipment" means equipment used to play
video media, equipment used for recording images and sound for
subsequent noncommercial playback and equipment used for
noncommercial interactive utilization of electronic audio and video
media. § 2551, sub-§21
Rentals of video media and video games, as well as the equipment used to record
or playback video media and games are subject to tax. Late charges and movie passes,
since they represent payment for rentals, are also taxable.
The inclusion of the term "noncommercial" was intentional in order to not
subject rentals of movies by theaters to a tax. The typical daily rental of video media and
video games, such as Nintendo and Sega, along with the related equipment are the items
targeted for taxation.
As mentioned in the definition of "retail sale" in the sales tax law, a retail sale
does not include "the sale, to a person engaged in the business of renting audio or
video media and audio or video equipment, of audio or video media or audio or video
equipment for rental". Purchases of these items are not subject to sales or use tax since
the subsequent rentals are taxed.
RENTAL OF FURNITURE,
AUDIO MEDIA
AND EQUIPMENT
Rentals of furniture, audio media and audio equipment are taxable only in those
establishments that enter into rental-purchase agreements as defined in M.R.S.A., Title 9A, §11-105, sub-§7.
# Rental of furniture, audio media and audio equipment pursuant to a
rental-purchase agreement as defined in Title 9-A, section 11-105.
§ 2552(1)(D)
Page 46
Furniture is defined as:
...the following movable items that are intended to make a room or
establishment useful for human habitation.
A.
"Furniture" includes:
(1)
Living room furniture, including, but not
limited to, sofas, love seats, loungers, recliners, chairs, end
tables, coffee tables, curio cabinets, home entertainment
centers, book shelves and floor and table lamps;
(2)
Bedroom furniture, including, but not limited
to, headboards, footboards, bed frames, mattresses, box
springs, dressers, chests of drawers, mirrors, armoires,
nightstands, bunk beds, roll-away beds and chests;
(3)
Baby furniture, including, but not limited to,
cribs, dressers and changing tables;
(4)
Dining room furniture, including, but not
limited to, tables, chairs, dinette sets, hutches and dry sinks;
(5)
Patio and outdoor furniture, including, but not
limited to, tables, chairs, umbrellas, porch swings and gliders;
(6)
Office furniture including, but not limited to,
desks, chairs, tables, workstations, movable partitions,
shelving, file cabinets, coat racks and couches; and
(7)
Home electronic devices including home
appliances, home computers, televisions, stereos and radios.
B.
"Furniture" does not include:
(1)
Items that are affixed to real property such as
sinks, toilets, built-in cabinets or light fixtures; or
(2)
Furnishings
draperies or blinds.
§2551, sub-§4
such
as
carpeting,
artwork,
Rent-to-own establishments are liable for the service provider tax on rental
payments as they occur. As provided in the definition of “retail sale” in the sales tax law,
a retail sale does not include “the sale, to a person engaged in the business of renting
furniture, or audio media and audio equipment, of furniture, audio media or audio
equipment for rental pursuant to a rental-purchase agreement as defined in Title 9-A,
section 11-105.”. Purchases of the items listed in the definition of “furniture” as well as
audio and audio equipment are not subject to sales or use tax since the subsequent rentals
are taxed.
Page 47
EXEMPTIONS
A number of exemptions exist when services are provided to certain exempt
organizations. See § 2557. Services can be sold exempt when sold to another service
provider for resale.
When a service provider purchases a service subject to tax under this
chapter from another service provider using a resale certificate
approved by the assessor and claims that it will resell the service, and
then subsequently uses the service itself rather than reselling it, the
purchaser becomes liable for any unpaid tax on that service on the date
of such use. §2554(4)
If a provider subsequently uses the services that it purchased exempt for resale,
the provider becomes liable for the tax directly to the state on those services.
The following four services only pertain to those persons providing these services
under contract with the Department of Health and Human Services (“DHHS”).
Reimbursements from DHHS include the service provider tax. Maine Revenue Services
has limited information regarding these services outside of the definitions listed below
which are found in Title 36. Specific questions regarding what are included in these
services should be directed to DHHS.
PRIVATE NONMEDICAL
INSTITUTION SERVICES
"Private nonmedical institution services" means services, including
food, shelter and treatment, that are provided by a private nonmedical
institution. § 2551(11)
"Private nonmedical institution" means a person licensed by the
Department of Human Services or the Department of Behavioral and
Developmental Services to provide private nonmedical institution
services to 4 or more MaineCare-eligible and other residents in single
or multiple facilities under a written agreement with the Department of
Human Services or the Department of Behavioral and Developmental
Services. "Private nonmedical institution" does not include a health
insurance organization, hospital, nursing home or community health
care center. § 2551(10)
COMMUNITY SUPPORT SERVICES FOR
PERSONS WITH MENTAL HEALTH DIAGNOSES
"Community support services for persons with mental health
diagnoses" means rehabilitative services provided to adults at least 18
years of age or to emancipated children that are provided in the context
of a supportive relationship pursuant to an individual support plan that
promotes a person's recovery and integration of the person into the
community and that sustain the person in that person's current living
situation or another living situation of that person's choice.
Page 48
"Community support services for persons with mental health
diagnoses" includes only those services provided by a designated
community support services provider licensed by and operating under a
contract with the Department of Health and Human Services for such
services, whether the provider is reimbursed through participation in
the MaineCare program or with state grant funds. "Community
support services for persons with mental health diagnoses" includes
only those services provided to persons with mental health diagnoses.
§ 2551(1-A)
COMMUNITY SUPPORT SERVICES FOR
PERSONS WITH MENTAL RETARDATION OR AUTISM
"Community support services for persons with mental retardation or
autism" means services:
A. That are provided by community-based agencies to children
or adults with mental retardation or autism and include
assistance with the acquisition, retention or improvement of
self-help, socialization and adaptive living skills; and
B. That take place in a nonresidential setting separate from the
home or facility in which the child or adult resides, except
when a physician has ordered that such services be provided in
the child's or adult's home, and focus on enabling the child or
adult to attain or maintain maximum functional levels.
"Community support services for persons with mental retardation or
autism" includes only those services provided by designated agencies
under a contract with the Department of Health and Human Services.
§ 2551(1-B)
HOME SUPPORT
SERVICES
"Home support services" means services provided to adults with
mental retardation or autism, including direct assistance with eating,
bathing, dressing, personal hygiene and other activities of daily living.
These services include only those services provided by designated
agencies under a contract with the Department of Health and Human
Services and:
A. May include assistance with instrumental activities of daily
living such as assistance with the preparation of meals, but
does not include the cost of the meals themselves;
B. If specified in the adult's care plan, may include such
housekeeping chores as bed making, dusting and vacuuming
that are incidental to the care furnished, or are essential to the
health and welfare of the adult; and
C. May be provided by a provider unrelated to the adult or by
an adult relative other than an adult recipient's spouse, but
may not be provided in the same setting where residential
training is provided.
§ 2551(7-B)
Page 49
In addition to many exclusions found in the definitions already mentioned, the
sales and use tax law also provides numerous exemptions. In fact they could be grouped
in the following categories:
•
•
•
•
Exempt goods
Exempt services
Nonprofit organizations
Certain establishments
EXEMPT GOODS
This section has been categorized into sub groups for easier reference. These
groups are food items, medical items, printed items, building materials, commerce items,
agriculture and animals, vehicles, fuels and manufacturing.
FOOD ITEMS
Grocery staples
Grocery staples. "'Grocery staples' means food products ordinarily
consumed for human nourishment.
'Grocery staples' does not include spirituous, malt or vinous liquors;
soft drinks, iced tea, sodas or beverages such as are ordinarily
dispensed at bars or soda fountains or in connection with bars or soda
fountains; medicines, tonics, vitamins and preparations in liquid,
powdered, granular, tablet, capsule, lozenge or pill form, sold as
dietary supplements or adjuncts, except when sold on the prescription
of a physician; water, including mineral bottled and carbonated waters
and ice; dietary substitutes; candy and confections; and prepared food.
§ 1752(3-B)
Reference should be made to Instructional Bulletin #12 which provides a detailed
list of taxable and nontaxable items commonly sold in a grocery store.
Specific items that remain taxable regardless of where sold are: candy and
confections, including any bars covered in chocolate or primarily containing candy, such
as Twix® bars and Kudo® bars or any “jelly-like” substance primarily containing sugar
or corn syrup, such as Gummie Bears® and jelly beans; candied and glazed fruit;
chewing gum; breath mints; iced tea; soft drinks and other carbonated drinks.
Prepared food
Another important exclusion to the definition of “grocery staples” is “prepared
food” which is defined as follows:
"’Prepared food’ means:
A. Meals served on or off the premises of the retailer;
B. Food and drinks that are prepared by the retailer and ready for
consumption without further preparation; and
C. All food and drinks sold from an establishment whose sales of food
and drinks that are prepared by the retailer account for more than 75%
of the establishment's gross receipts.
‘Prepared food’ does not include bulk sales of grocery staples.”
§ 1752, sub-§8-A
Page 50
All “prepared food” is taxable at the rate of 7% regardless of where sold. The
following explains the different terms found in the definition of “prepared food”.
Meals served on or off
the premises of the retailer
This category includes any meal sold by any retailer whether served at the
retailer’s place of business or off site.
It includes all food or drink prepared for
consumption at tables, chairs or counters or from trays, glasses, dishes or other tableware
provided by the retailer.
Common retailers included in this category are restaurants, fast
food chains, cafeterias, caterers and other eateries providing sit down service.
Sandwiches requiring no further preparation and food heated by the retailer are
considered “meals”, whether prepared by the retailer or a third party, and regardless of
the type of retailer making the sale.
Food and drink prepared by the retailer
and ready for consumption
without further preparation
This category includes all food and drink that is prepared by any retailer and that
is ready to eat. “Prepared by the retailer” means:
Food prepared for sale in a heated state regardless of cooling which may have
occurred prior to the sale. Some examples are hot dogs, hamburgers, hot sandwiches,
pizza, chicken pieces and rotisserie chicken.
Mixing or combining two or more food ingredients for sale as a single item, such
as bakery items, sandwiches, deli platters, salads and desserts.
Food or drink prepared from syrups or mixes, such as soda fountain drinks,
slush-type drinks, soft-serve ice cream and milk shakes.
Food or drink sold with eating utensils provided by the retailer, including plates,
knives, forks, spoons, glasses, cups, napkins or straws.
Food that is prepared for sale in self-serve areas, such as salad bars and self-serve
food carts.
Example 1: A snack bar prepares hot dogs, hamburgers, sandwiches, fountain drinks,
slush-type drinks and soft serve ice cream. All these products are taxable at the rate of
7%.
Example 2: A grocery store prepares sandwiches, hot chicken, coleslaw, potato salad and
also prepares food for a salad bar where customers can create their own salads. All these
items are taxable at the rate of 7%, except those excluded as “bulk sales of grocery
staples” as explained below.
Example 3: A convenience store sells hot dogs, pizza slices, sandwiches, hot coffee,
fountain drinks, and slush-type drinks. All these items are taxable at 7%.
Page 51
Example 4: A bakery prepares and sells bread and bread products, doughnuts, muffins,
pastries, cakes, pies and hot coffee. All these items are “prepared by the retailer” and
taxable at 7%, except those excluded as “bulk sales of grocery staples” as explained
below.
Food and drink sold from an establishment
that is predominately in the business of selling
prepared food for immediate consumption
(75% rule)
This category attempts to identify those retailers who are similar in nature to a
restaurant rather than a grocery store. A retailer who falls under this category is required
to charge 7% tax on all of its sales of food and drinks requiring no further preparation,
whether prepared by the retailer or not. The two factors to compare are 1) sales of food
prepared by the retailer and 2) total sales. If dividing (1) by (2) generates a percentage of
more than 75%, the retailer is affected by this category.
“Sales of food prepared by the retailer” include all food that the retailer prepares,
including hot food, hot drinks, sandwiches, bakery items, soda fountain drinks, slush-type
drinks, ice cream served in a cup, cone or dish, and milkshakes. “Total sales” include all
receipts by the retailer, including grocery staples, prepared food, cigarettes, beer, wine,
soda, candy, gasoline, and periodicals; rental income from the rental of space at the
retailer’s site, such as space for vendors, room rentals and campsite rentals; and revenue
generated at the retailer’s site from other sources, such as admittance fees and equipment
rentals.
A retailer who meets the 75% rule must collect 7% tax on all sales of food or
drink requiring no further preparation, not just on food prepared by that retailer. (See
exception below for bulk sales of grocery staples.)
Sales of individually packaged
pastries, chips, cookies, etc. and drinks including soda, water, juice, milk, etc. and candy
would all be taxed at 7% along with the food prepared by the retailer.
A retailer who does not meet the 75% rule must collect 7% tax on only those
sales of food prepared by the retailer as mentioned in the prior section.
Sales of
otherwise taxable items, such as soda, beer, wine, candy, ice, cigarettes, etc. would
continue to be taxed at 5%. Sales of grocery staples, including snack items, milk, juice,
etc. would all be exempt.
Page 52
Example 1:
A convenience store prepares and sells sandwiches, pizzas, and soda
fountain drinks. In addition it sells convenience foods, a small line of grocery staples,
candy, beer, wine, cigarettes and gasoline. Its total sales for the year are $500,000. Sales
of “prepared food” (sandwiches, pizzas and soda fountain drinks) for the year are
$125,000. Because only 25% of its total sales are prepared food, this store would charge
7% tax only on its prepared food.
Example 2: A sandwich shop prepares and sells sandwiches, pizzas, pasta dishes, hot
dogs, hamburgers, and soda fountain drinks. In addition it sells chips, pastries, candy,
soda, water, beer, juices and milk. Its total sales for the year are $300,000.
Sales of
“prepared food” (sandwiches, pizzas, pasta dishes, hot dogs, hamburgers, and soda
fountain drinks) for the year are $240,000. Since more than 75% of its total sales are
prepared food (80%), this retailer would charge 7% tax on all its sales of food and drink
that do not require further preparation (chips, pastries, candy, soda, water, beer, juices
and milk).
Exclusion for bulk sales
of grocery staples
The definition of “prepared food” does provide one exclusion. “Bulk sales of
grocery staples” are exempt regardless of the location from which they are sold. Some
examples of food prepared by the retailer that qualify as bulk sales of grocery staples are:
•
pies, cakes, desserts and bread and bread products, except those packaged as
a single serving
•
donuts, muffins, pastries, cookies, etc. sold in quantities of 6 or more
•
products sold in the “deli case”, such as salads, luncheon meats and cheese,
except sandwiches and food prepared for sale in a heated state regardless of
cooling which may have occurred prior to the sale
•
ice cream packaged in quart or larger containers, maple syrup, jam, jellies,
pickles, honey, and spaghetti sauce
For retailers who meet the 75% rule, “bulk sales of grocery staples” also include:
•
a bag of coffee
•
salad dressing
•
drinks, including milk and juice, in quart or larger containers
•
potato chips, corn chips and similar items packaged in 6 ounce or larger
containers
•
packages of cookies, crackers, etc. except those packaged as a single serving
Page 53
Liquor sold in
licensed establishments
Liquor sold in establishments that are licensed for on-premises consumption of
liquor is subject to a 7% sales tax. "Liquor" includes spirits, wine and malt liquor.
Certain meals
Sales of meals:
A.
Served by public or private schools, school districts, student
organizations and parent-teacher associations to the students or
teachers of a school;
B.
To patients of institutions licensed by the Department of Health
and Human Services for the hospitalization or nursing care of human
beings, or to patients or residents of institutions licensed by the
Department of Health and Human Services under Title 22, Subtit1e 6
or Title 22, section 1781;
C.
By hospitals, schools, long-term care facilities, food contractors
and restaurants to incorporated nonprofit area agencies on aging for
the purpose of providing meals to the elderly;
D.
To residents of incorporated nonprofit church-affiliated
congregate housing facilities for the elderly in which at least 75% of
the units are available for leasing to eligible lower-income residents;
E.
Served by colleges to employees of the college when the meals
are purchased with debit cards issued by the colleges; and
F.
Served by youth camps licensed by the Department of Health
and Human Services and defined in Title 22, section 2491, subsection
16.
§ 1760(6)
School meals.
Sales of meals made in the school lunchroom during the normal
school day, or by a school or student organization at a school event where it is evident
that those in attendance are mainly students and teachers, will be considered exempt. If,
however, meals are served to students or teachers by a caterer or other person not
associated with the school, such sales are taxable.
Page 54
American Legion Auxiliary
Sales of meals and related items and services by a nonprofit auxiliary
organization of the American Legion in connection with a fund-raising
event sponsored by the auxiliary organization if the meals and related
items and services are provided in a room that is separate from the
lounge facilities, if any, of the American Legion and patrons are
prohibited from taking alcoholic beverages from the lounge facilities to
the separate room where the meals and related items and services are
provided. § 1760(84)
Food stamp purchases
Sales of items purchased with federal food stamps or Women, Infants
and Children, WIC, Special Supplemental Food Program food
instruments distributed by the Department of Human Services.
§ 1760(54)
Sales through
vending machines
Sales through vending machines. Sales of products for internal
human consumption when sold through vending machines by a person
more than 50% of whose gross receipts from the retail sale of tangible
personal property are derived from sales through vending machines.
§ 1760(34)
The status of products sold through vending machines depends upon the product
being sold and the type of business activity of the retailer. "Vending machines" do not
include "snack boxes" that require purchasers to be on their honor in paying for the
selected item.
This exemption only applies to products for internal human consumption by a
person who primarily is a vending company. Although the exemption exists for the sale,
the items are subject to tax based on the seller's cost.
"Products for internal human consumption" means:
"edible products sold for human nutrition or refreshment and
containers or utensils provided simultaneously for the consumption of
these products. It does not include spirituous, malt or vinous liquors,
medicines, tonics, vitamins, dietary supplements or cigarettes."
§ 1752(5-A)
Items that come within the scope of this definition are sandwiches, chips, ice
cream, candy, soft drinks and other food items. Also included within this definition are
the paper plates, cups, utensils and packaging materials for these items. Chewing gum is
not for "internal human consumption."
Items, other than those mentioned above, when sold through vending machines
are retail sales and subject to tax on the selling price. Examples of such items are
cigarettes, toys, gum, health and beauty aids, and other goods not for "internal human
consumption."
The retailer would purchase these items free of tax by presenting the
supplier with a resale certificate.
Page 55
A retailer may sell a combination of the items mentioned above. Or the retailer
may be engaged in other activities besides vending machines such as a lunch counter or a
cafeteria. The following discusses the two categories that a vending machine operator
would fall into and the tax consequences of each.
When More Than 50% of Retail Sales Are Through Vending Machines.
For retailers in this situation only, vending machine sales of products for internal
human consumption are not taxed on the selling price. However the products are taxed at
the retailer's cost. The Law allows the purchase of these items free of tax for resale if the
supplier is provided a resale certificate.
Purchases are then reported as "taxable
purchases" on the sales tax return. This exemption applies only to items for internal
human consumption. Other items sold through vending machines are taxed on their
selling price.
When 50% or Less of Retail Sales are Through Vending Machines.
Vending machine operators who receive 50% or less of their gross receipts from
retail sales through vending machines do not qualify for this exemption. Such retailers
must report their entire vending machine sales based on the selling price.
(Note: It is a given that the sale price of items sold through vending machines
includes the sales tax).
Residential water
Residential water. Sales of water purchased for use in buildings
designed and used for both human habitation and sleeping, with the
exception of hotels. § 1760(39)
Similar to coal, oil and wood, this exemption applies to all buildings designed for
human habitation and sleeping, but it specifically excludes hotels. All other commercial
uses are taxable. Sales of bottled water delivered by the seller is governed by who the
purchaser is.
This exemption does not apply to sales of bottled water in retail stores, such as
grocery stores, c-stores, department stores and the like. These sales are taxable since they
are governed by the definition of “grocery staple” which specifically excludes water.
Certain meals
and lodging
Meals or lodging provided to employees at their place of employment
when the value of those meals or that lodging is allowed as a credit
toward the wages of those employees. § 1760(75)
See also "Transient Rentals".
Page 56
MEDICAL ITEMS
Medicines
Sales of medicines for human beings sold on doctor's prescription.
This subsection does not apply to the sale of marijuana pursuant to
Title 22, chapter 558-C.
§ 1760(5)
"Medicines" means antibiotics, analgesics, antipyretics, stimulants, sedatives,
antitoxins, anesthetics, antipruritics, hormones, antihistamines, oxygen, vaccines and
other medications and drugs used in the prevention, diagnosis or treatment of disease or
injury.
"Sold on doctor's prescription" means that the medicine is dispensed or
administered by a medical professional authorized by law to prescribe medicines for
human beings or sold by a licensed pharmacist in accordance with a prescription issued
by a medical professional authorized to prescribe medicines for human beings.
Bandages, dressings, sutures, swabs, hypodermics, instruments and similar items
that may be used in the diagnosis and treatment of injury or disease, but which are not
medicines, are subject to tax whether sold to an individual or to a medical professional
for use in the medical practice. Sales to individuals of "over-the-counter" drugs without a
written prescription are also taxable, even if the drug is purchased on the advice or
recommendation of a physician. However, there is no tax on nonprescription medicines
purchased by a doctor for use in the doctor's medical practice.
Sales of medicines originally prescribed by a doctor on a refillable prescription
are exempt when the prescription is refilled. Sales of medical marijuana are taxable.4
Prosthetic devices
Sale of prosthetic aids, hearing aids or eyeglasses and artificial devices
designed for the use of a particular individual to correct or alleviate
physical incapacity; § 1760(5-A)
"Prosthetic aids" means devices surgically implanted in or worn by the patient as
a substitute for a functioning part of the human body. Artificial limbs and artificial eyes;
mammary prostheses and brassieres specifically designed to accommodate mammary
prostheses; ostomy appliances; enteral feeding devices; dentures, crowns, caps and
materials actually used in the repair or replacement of teeth such as dental amalgam and
cement; and cardiac pacemakers are examples of items that qualify for exemption as
prosthetic aids. Repair parts for items that meet the definition of "prosthetic aids" are
also exempt.
Items ordinarily worn for cosmetic purposes, such as wigs, false eyelashes and
makeup, are taxable whether or not the need for them results from a medical condition.
4
Law was amended effective July 12, 2010 to exclude sales of medical marijuana from the exemption in §1760(5).
Page 57
Orthopedic or therapeutic devices and appliances that do not replace a
functioning part of the human body are not prosthetic aids. Articles of this type are
taxable unless they constitute "artificial devices designed for the use of a particular
individual to correct or alleviate physical incapacity". In order to be exempt under this
provision, a device must be actually designed, constructed or altered for the use of a
particular individual. Sales of standardized or stock devices such as trusses, supports,
neck or back braces, orthopedic shoes, athletic supporters, support hosiery, arch
supporters, elastic bandages and similar items are taxable unless they are designed,
constructed or altered for the use of a particular individual to correct or alleviate physical
incapacity.
Sales of hearing aids and sales of batteries and repair parts for hearing aids are
exempt from tax as are sales of prescription eyeglasses and contact lenses, repair or
replacement parts and lenses for prescription eyeglasses.
Nonprescription sunglasses, opera glasses, magnifying glasses, platform
magnifiers and similar items are taxable. Cleaning solutions and supplies for contact
lenses and eyeglasses are taxable.
Diabetic supplies
All equipment and supplies, whether medical or otherwise, used in the
diagnosis or treatment of diabetes; § 1760(33)
Sales of insulin, antidiabetic drugs, testing supplies such as Clinitest®,
Clinistix® and Tes-Tape®, and other items used only in the treatment of diabetes are
exempt from tax. Sales of hypodermic syringes and needles to diabetic patients are
exempt.
Sales of items that are not used only in the diagnosis or treatment of diabetes, and
which are not prescription medicines, should be regarded as taxable unless the purchaser
has provided evidence such as a statement from a doctor that the patient has been
diagnosed as diabetic, and unless the purchaser states that the items being purchased are
to be used in the treatment of diabetes.
Crutches and
wheelchairs
Crutches and wheelchairs for the use of sick, injured or disabled
persons and not for rental. § 1760(5-A)
Crutches, canes, walkers and wheelchairs sold for the use of sick, injured or
disabled persons are exempt. Sales of crutches, canes, walkers and wheelchairs for rental
use are taxable.
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There is no exemption in the Sales and Use Tax Law for items other than
crutches, canes, walkers and wheelchairs purchased to alleviate or compensate for
impaired mobility. Some examples of items that are subject to tax are wheelchair lifts,
modifications to motor vehicles to make them operable by handicapped persons and
motor vehicles that have been so modified, and materials used in the construction of
wheelchair ramps or other alterations to real property to make it accessible to
handicapped persons.
PRINTED ITEMS
Publications
Sales of any publication regularly issued at average intervals not
exceeding 3 months. § 1760(14)
Generally, this exemption applies to newspapers and magazines issued at least on
a quarterly basis.
Self-help literature
on alcoholism
Sales of self-help literature relating to alcoholism to alcoholics
anonymous groups. § 1760(57)
Advertising and
promotional material
Sales of advertising or promotional materials printed on paper and
purchased for the purpose of subsequently transporting such materials
outside the State for use by the purchaser thereafter solely outside the
State. § 1760 (80)
If a retailer purchases printed advertising or promotional materials, like flyers,
pamphlets or brochures, for the purpose of mailing them directly out-of-state or for
inclusion as "stuffers" in goods being delivered out-of-state, the purchase is exempt from
tax. If the materials purchased are partially taxable and partially exempt (mailed in-state
and out-of-state), the retailer should pay tax on the entire purchase and apply to the
bureau for a refund on the exempt portion.
DONATED MERCHANDISE
Donations to non-profit
organizations
No use tax may be imposed on the donation of merchandise by a
retailer to an organization exempt from taxation under the United
States Internal Revenue Code, Section 501(c)(3), as amended, when the
merchandise has been returned to the retailer by the purchaser and the
retailer then gives to the purchaser an allowance in cash or by credit
pursuant to warranty or when the full price of the merchandise
returned is refunded, either in cash or by credit, to the purchaser.
§1863
A use tax is not imposed on the donation of merchandise by a retailer
from inventory to an organization if sales to that organization are
exempt from sales tax under section 1760. § 1864
Page 59
BUILDING MATERIALS
Manufactured housing
Sales of:
A. Used manufactured housing; and
B. New manufactured housing to the extent of all costs, other than
materials, included in the sale price, but the exemption may not exceed
50% of the sale price. § 1760(40)
"Manufactured housing" has the same meaning as defined in Title 10,
section 9002, subsection 7. § 1752(6-C)
This exemption does have a limitation however.
When new manufactured
housing is sold, the sales tax applies to either the portion of the sale price that represents
the cost of materials or 50% of the sale price, whichever is greater. No sales tax applies
to sales of manufactured housing that has been permanently incorporated into real
property by the seller, although the seller would be subject to a tax on its purchase of the
home. Sales of used manufactured housing are exempt.5
The tax imposed by this Part on the sale or use of manufactured
housing, except when the dealer has collected the tax in full, must be
paid by the purchaser to the State Tax Assessor. The assessor shall
provide a tax receipt to the purchaser. Upon request by the municipal
officials or the Maine Land Use Regulation Commission, the receipt
must be made available by the purchaser to certify that the tax has
been paid, pursuant to Title 30-A, section 4358, subsection 4 or Title
30-A, section 7060, subsection 1, paragraph C.
A valid bill of sale from a dealer showing that the tax has been
collected in full serves to certify that the tax has been paid, pursuant to
Title 30-A, section 4358, subsection 4, or Title 30-A, section 7060,
subsection 1, paragraph C, in lieu of a tax receipt provided by the
assessor. § 1952-B
The above section is used in conjunction with municipalities issuing building
permits. In effect a purchaser of manufactured housing must show proof that tax has
been paid as a prerequisite to obtaining a building permit.
Portable classrooms
Sales of tangible personal property to be physically incorporated in and
become a part of portable classrooms for lease to schools entitled to
exemption under subsection 16. If the portable classrooms are used for
an otherwise taxable use within 2 years from the date of the first use,
the lessor shall become liable for the use tax based on the original sale
price. § 1760(58)
5
Effective for all sales occurring on or after September 12, 2009, park model homes will no longer be recognized as
manufactured housing and will be taxed in the same manner as camper trailers.
Page 60
Construction contracts with
exempt organizations
Sales to a construction contractor or its subcontractor of tangible
personal property that is to be physically incorporated in, and become a
permanent part of, real property for sale to any organization or
government agency provided exemption under this section, except as
otherwise provided by section 1760-C. § 1760(61)
This exemption only applies to property that will become physically attached to
the realty of the exempt organization. It does not apply to supplies used by the contractor
nor to any machinery or equipment purchased by the contractor, even though the
equipment is being purchased specifically for the exempt job. For purposes of this
exemption, contractors also include sub-contractors.
If a contractor has an inventory of property on which tax has been paid and
subsequently uses the property on an exempt job, the contractor would be eligible for
refund provided the property meets the requirements stated above.
Railroad track
materials
Railroad track materials purchased and installed on railroad lines
located within the boundaries of the State. The track materials shall
include rail, ties, ballast, joint bars and associated materials, such as
bolts, nuts, tie plates, spikes, culverts, steel, concrete or stone, switch
stands, switch points, frogs, switch ties, bridge ties and bridge steel.
§ 1760(52)
COMMERCE ITEMS
Ships stores
Sale of cabin, deck, engine supplies and bunkering oil to ships engaged
in transporting cargo or passengers for hire in interstate or foreign
commerce. § 1760(4)
Bunkering oil in this exemption refers to any fuel used to propel the vessel as
opposed to used in the operation of any equipment, such as cranes, hoists and generators.
Packaging materials
Sales of containers, boxes, crates, bags, cores, twines, tapes, bindings,
wrappings, labels and other packing, packaging and shipping materials
to:
A.
Persons engaged in the business of packing, packaging,
shipping and transporting tangible personal property; or
B.
Persons for use in packing, packaging or shipping tangible
personal property sold by them or on which they have performed the
service of cleaning, pressing, dyeing, washing, repairing or
reconditioning in their regular course of business that are transferred
to the possession of the purchaser of that tangible personal property;
§ 1760(12-A)
Page 61
This exemption includes materials that are used to insure the delivery of the
contents in physically good condition. Examples include, but are not limited to, the
following items:
Bags
Bindings
Boxes
Containers
Cores
Crates
Dry ice
Ice
Labels
Paper
Sawdust
Styrofoam
Tapes
Twines
Wrappings
There is no distinction between non-returnable and returnable packaging
materials. The exemption applies to both. In addition the exemption does not apply
unless the materials pass into the possession of the customer of the shipper.
This exemption only applies when the purchaser uses the packaging materials to
package and ship goods being transported by the purchaser, to package or ship goods that
are being sold by the purchaser or on which a service of cleaning, pressing, dyeing,
washing, repairing or reconditioning has been performed by the purchaser. For example,
an individual contracts with a moving company to transport their household items to
another town. Or a gift shop sells a product to a customer and agrees to ship the product
to the customer's home. The box, stuffing, labels and tape used to package the item for
shipment are exempt from tax. Likewise, a dry cleaning business is exempt from paying
tax on hangers, plastic, twine and wrapping paper used to package the garments that have
been cleaned for a customer.
Packaging items used by a business to store goods are subject to tax.
Delivery out of state
Sales of tangible personal property when the seller delivers the property
to a location outside this State or to the United States Postal Service, a
common carrier or a contract carrier hired by the seller for delivery to
a location outside this State, regardless of whether the property is
purchased F.O.B. shipping point or other point in this State and
regardless of whether passage of title occurs in this State. This
exemption does not apply to any subsequent use of the property in this
State. § 1760 (82)
When a retailer makes a sale and delivers the product to the purchaser, the sale is
complete upon delivery. If the retailer delivers the product to a point outside Maine, the
sale is exempt from Maine sales tax. The delivery must be made with the retailer's own
vehicle or the retailer must contract with a common or contract carrier to make the
delivery.
Page 62
If the purchaser takes delivery within Maine, it is a taxable sale, even though the
purchaser immediately removes the property from the state.
However, there are
exceptions (explained below) for certain vehicles, watercraft, all-terrain vehicles and
snowmobiles purchased by nonresidents.
Catalog sales and
internet sales
A retailer that solicits sales through a catalog or internet web site must collect tax
on sales made to customers in Maine if the retailer has "nexus" (a substantial physical
presence) in Maine. Retailers registered in Maine selling goods to Maine residents must
collect Maine sales tax since the retailer has a presence in Maine and the sale occurs in
Maine. This is true regardless if the sale occurred in the retailer's store, if the goods are
ordered over the telephone or if the goods are ordered through the retailer's homepage.
If the retailer receives orders through mail-order or the internet from nonresidents and the goods are shipped out-of-state, the sale is not taxable in Maine. If the
retailer is not required to register in Maine, the sales are not subject to Maine's sales tax
but the purchaser is subject to Maine's use tax on such a purchase.
AGRICULTURE AND ANIMALS
Aquacultural
production and bait
Sales of feed, hormones, pesticides, antibiotics and medicine for use in
aquacultural production and sales of bait to commercial fishermen.
§ 1760(7-A)
Commercial agricultural and
silvicultural crop production
Sales of seed, fertilizers, defoliants and pesticides, including, but not
limited to, rodenticides, insecticides, fungicides and weed killers, for
use in the commercial production of an agricultural or silvicultural
crop. § 1760(7-B)
Animal agricultural
production
Sales of breeding stock, semen, embryos, feed, hormones, antibiotics,
medicine, pesticides and litter for use in animal agricultural production
and sales of antiseptics and cleaning agents used in commercial animal
agricultural production. Animal agricultural production includes the
raising and keeping of equines. § 1760(7-C)
Bedding material
Sales of organic bedding materials for farm animals and hay.
§ 1760(78)
It is important to note that these exemptions differ based on the use of the
products.
For instance, with regards to the production of an agricultural crop, the
products listed in §1760(7-B) are only exempt if sold to a person engaged in a
Page 63
commercial activity. As a result, vegetable seeds, seedlings and fertilizer used in home
gardens are taxable. This exemption does not apply to activities such as fertilizing lawns
and golf courses, or defoliating under power lines or telephone lines since an agricultural
crop is not being commercially produced.6
With regards to animal agricultural production, sales of breeding stock, semen,
embryos, feed, hormones, antibiotics, medicine, pesticides and litter are not restricted to
commercial activities and would apply to all agricultural animals, such as cows, pigs,
chickens, goats, llamas, alpaca, and sheep, whether raised as pets or as a commercial
venture. Animal agricultural production also includes the raising and keeping of equines.
Thus hay, bedding material and medicines for horses, whether used as a pet or for
commercial purposes, are exempt. Sales of antiseptics and cleaning agents are restricted
to commercial animal agricultural production, such as a dairy farmer.7
For more information on this topic, please refer to Instructional Bulletin #14.
Seedlings for commercial
forestry use.
Sales of tree seedlings for use in commercial forestry.
§ 1760(73)
Seeing eye dogs
Seeing eye dogs. Sales of tangible personal property and taxable
services essential for the care and maintenance of seeing eye dogs used
to aid any blind person. § 1760(35)
Commercial farming, fishing
and aquaculture
See the end of this section for a comprehensive discussion of the exemptions and
refunds available to those engaged in commercial agricultural production, commercial
fishing and commercial aquacultural production.
VEHICLES
Automobiles to
amputee veterans
Sales of automobiles to veterans who are granted free registration of
such vehicles by the Secretary of State under Title 29-A, section 523,
subsection 1. § 1760(22)
Loaner vehicles purchased
by new vehicle dealers
The use of a loaner vehicle provided by a new vehicle dealer, as defined
in Title 29-A, section 851, subsection 9, to a service customer pursuant
to a manufacturer’s or dealer’s warranty. §1760(21-A)
6
Since September 12, 2009, sales of products such as fertilizer, defoliants, pesticides and weed killers for use in
controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of the forests as a commercial crop have
been exempt from sales tax.
7
Effective July 12, 2010.
Page 64
"Loaner vehicle" means an automobile to be provided to a motor
vehicle dealer's service customers for short-term use free of charge
pursuant to the dealer's franchise, as defined in Title 10, section 1171,
subsection 6. §1752(5-C)
Certain vehicles purchased
by nonresidents
Sales or leases of the following vehicles to a person that is not a
resident of this State, if the vehicle is intended to be driven or
transported outside the State immediately upon delivery:
A. Motor vehicles, except
(1) Automobiles rented for a period of less than one
year; and
(2) All-terrain vehicles and snowmobiles as defined in
Title 12, section 13001;
B. Semitrailers;
C. Aircraft; and
E. Camper trailers, including truck campers.
If the vehicles are registered for use in the State within 12 months of
the date of purchase, the person seeking registration is liable for use
tax on the basis of the original purchase price. §1760(23-C)
Certain vehicles purchased or
leased by qualifying resident businesses.
The sale or lease of a motor vehicle, except an automobile rented for a
period of less than one year or an all-terrain vehicle or snowmobile as
defined in Title 12, section 13001, to a qualifying resident business if
the vehicle is intended to be driven or transported outside the State
immediately upon delivery and intended to be used exclusively in the
qualifying resident business’s out-of-state business activities.
For purposes of this subsection, “qualifying resident business”
includes any individual, association, society, club, general partnership,
limited partnership, limited liability company, trust, estate, corporation
or any other legal entity that:
A. Is organized under the laws of this State or has its principal place of
business in this State; and
B. Conducts business activities from a fixed location or locations
outside the State.
If the vehicle is not used exclusively in the qualifying resident
business’s out-of-state business activities or is registered for use in the
State within 12 months of the date of purchase, the person seeking
registration is liable for use tax on the basis of the original purchase
price. §1760(23-D)
Page 65
Watercraft sold to
nonresidents
Sales to or use by a person that is not a resident of this State of
watercraft or materials used in watercraft as specified in this
subsection.
A. The following are exempt when the sale is made in this
State to a person that is not a resident of this State and the
watercraft is sailed or transported outside the State within 30
days of delivery by the seller:
(1) A watercraft;
(2) Sales, under contract for the construction of a
watercraft, of materials to be incorporated in that
watercraft; and
(3) Sales of materials to be incorporated in the
watercraft for the repair, alteration, refitting,
reconstruction, overhaul or restoration of that
watercraft.
B. Notwithstanding subsection 45, paragraph A-1, the sale of a
watercraft is exempt if the watercraft is purchased and used by
the present owner outside the State if the watercraft is
registered outside the State by an owner who is an individual
and the watercraft is present in the State not more than 30 days
for a purpose other than temporary storage during the 12
months following its purchase.
C. If, for a purpose other than temporary storage, a watercraft
is present in the State for more than 30 days during the 12month period following its date of purchase, the exemption is
60% of the sale price of the watercraft or materials for the
construction, repair, alteration, refitting, reconstruction,
overhaul or restoration of the watercraft, as specified in
paragraph A. § 1760(25)
If a nonresident purchases a watercraft in Maine and removes the watercraft from
Maine within the first 30 days after delivery, the sale is exempt. If the nonresident
purchaser intends to use the watercraft in Maine for more than 30 days within the first 12
months after purchase, the nonresident purchaser qualifies for a 60% exemption of the
sale price.8 Nonresident purchasers making either claim must complete form ST-P-19AE
which can be found in the Appendix.
All-terrain vehicles
Sales of all-terrain vehicles, as defined in Title 12, section 13001,
purchased by an individual who is not a resident of this State;
§ 1760(25-A)
8
Effective for transactions occurring on or after August 1, 2010. Prior to this date, if the craft was present in Maine
for more than 30 days, the 5% use tax applied to the full purchase price.
Page 66
Snowmobiles purchased
by a nonresident
Sales of snowmobiles, as defined in Title 12, section 7821, subsection 5,
purchased by an individual who is not a resident of this State;
§ 1760(25-B)
Unlike certain vehicles and watercraft mentioned above, all-terrain vehicles and
snowmobiles sold to nonresidents do not need to be immediately removed from the state
in order to qualify for exemption.
Automobiles used in
driver education programs
Sales to automobile dealers, registered under section 1754-B, of
automobiles for the purpose of equipping the same with dual controls
and loaning or leasing the same to public or private secondary schools
without consideration or for a consideration of not more than $1 a
year, and used exclusively by such schools in driver education
programs. § 1760(21)
Aircraft
Sales or leases of aircraft that weigh over 6,000 pounds, that are
propelled by one or more turbine engines or that are in use by a
Federal Aviation Administration classified 135 operator. § 1760(88)
Certain vehicles used in interstate
or foreign commerce
Certain instrumentalities of interstate or foreign commerce. The sale
of a vehicle, railroad rolling stock, aircraft or watercraft that is placed
in use by the purchaser as an instrumentality of interstate or foreign
commerce within 30 days after that sale and that is used by the
purchaser not less than 80% of the time for the next 2 years as an
instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce. The State Tax
Assessor may for good cause extend for not more than 60 days the time
for placing the instrumentality in use in interstate or foreign
commerce. For purposes of this subsection, property is "placed in use
as an instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce" by its carrying
of, or providing the motive power for the carrying of, a bona fide
payload in interstate or foreign commerce, or by being dispatched to a
specific location at which it will be loaded upon arrival with, or will be
used as motive power for the carrying of, a payload in interstate or
foreign commerce. For purposes of this subsection, "bona fide
payload" means a cargo of persons or property transported by a
contract or common carrier for compensation that exceeds the direct
cost of carrying that cargo or pursuant to a legal obligation to provide
service as a public utility or a cargo of property transported in the
reasonable conduct of the purchaser's own nontransportation business
in interstate commerce.
B. For purposes of this subsection, personal property is not in
use as an instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce
when carrying only cargo that both originates and terminates
within the State.
Page 67
C. The exemption provided by this subsection is not limited to
instrumentalities otherwise required to be exempt under the United
States Constitution.
§ 1760(41)
In order to qualify for this exemption, three criteria must be met. The vehicle
must be:
•
•
•
placed in use by the purchaser
used within 30 days of purchase in interstate or foreign commerce
used in interstate or foreign commerce more than 80% of the time within the
next 2 years after purchase
A vehicle that is leased and used in interstate or foreign commerce is considered
to be used by the lessee, not the purchaser, as an instrumentality of interstate or foreign
commerce. Consequently, leased vehicles, including leased vehicles that are operated by
the lessor, do not qualify for this exemption.
Use of a vehicle in intrastate and local operations is not use as an instrumentality
of interstate or foreign commerce. Vehicles are considered to be used in intrastate or
local operations when they are carrying cargo that both originates and terminates within
the State of Maine.
Time means a day or portion of a day during which the vehicle is actually being
used to carry cargo or dispatched to a specific location for the purpose of being loaded
with cargo. For example, if a vehicle carried cargo or was on route to be loaded with
cargo during 500 days in the 2-year period following the date of purchase, it has met the
80% use requirement if during 400 of those days the cargo was in interstate or foreign
commerce.
The State Tax Assessor may for good cause extend by up to 60 days the time for
placing the vehicle in use as an instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce.
It is not necessary that the purchaser apply for the extension, but good cause must
be documented in the records of the purchaser. Good cause does not exist when the
extension is required because of the taxpayer's negligence or failure to make a good faith
effort to place the vehicle in use in interstate or foreign commerce within 30 days from
the date of purchase.
This exemption applies only to vehicles, railroad rolling stock, aircraft, and
watercraft. Repair parts, operating supplies and accessories are not exempt. Accessories
purchased as part of a vehicle are exempt from Maine sales or use tax if the vehicle
qualifies for exemption. Accessories purchased separately from the vehicle are taxable.
Page 68
So-called glider kits are considered repair parts rather than vehicles.
The
purchase of a glider kit is subject to tax whether or not the vehicle on which it will be
mounted is used by the purchaser as an instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce.
Certain property purchased
out-of-state
Sales of property purchased and used by the present owner outside the
State:
A. If the property is an automobile, as defined in Title 29-A, section
101, subsection 7, and if the owner is an individual who was, at the
time of purchase, a resident of the other;
A-1. If the property is a watercraft that is registered outside the State
by an owner who is an individual who was a resident of another state at
the time of purchase and the watercraft is present in the State not more
than 30 days during the 12 months following its purchase for a purpose
other than temporary storage;
A-2. If the property is a snowmobile or all-terrain vehicle as defined in
Title 12, section 13001 and the purchaser is an individual who is not a
resident of the State;
A-3. If the property is an aircraft not exempted under subsection 88
and the owner at the time of purchase was a resident of another state
or tax jurisdiction and the aircraft is present in this State not more
than 20 days during the 12 months following its purchase, exclusive of
days during which the aircraft is in this State for the purpose of
undergoing "major alterations," "major repairs" or "preventive
maintenance" as those terms are described in 14 Code of Federal
Regulations, Appendix A to Part 43, as in effect on January 1, 2005.
For the purposes of this paragraph, the location of an aircraft on the
ground in the State at any time during a day is considered presence in
the State for that entire day, and a day must be disregarded if at any
time during that day the aircraft is used to provide free emergency or
compassionate air transportation arranged by an incorporated
nonprofit organization providing free air transportation in private
aircraft by volunteer pilots so children and adults may access lifesaving medical care; or
B. For more than 12 months in all other cases.
Property, other than automobiles, watercraft, snowmobiles, all-terrain
vehicles and aircraft, that is required to be registered for use in this
State does not qualify for this exemption unless it was registered by its
present owner outside this State more than 12 months prior to its
registration in this State. If property required to be registered for use
in this State was not required to be registered for use outside this State,
the owner must be able to document actual use of the property outside
this State for more than 12 months prior to its registration in this State.
For purposes of this subsection, “use” does not include storage but
means actual use of the property for a purpose consistent with its
design. § 1760(45)
Page 69
Certain snow grooming
equipment
Sales to snowmobile clubs incorporated under the provisions of Title
13-B of snowmobiles and snowmobile trail grooming equipment used
directly and exclusively for the grooming of snowmobile trails.
§1760(90)
FUEL and UTILITIES
Certain motor fuels
Sales of:
A. Motor fuels upon which a tax at the maximum rate for
highway use has been paid pursuant to Part 5 or a comparable tax of
any other state or province;
B. Internal combustion engine fuel, as defined in section 2902,
bought and used for the purpose of propelling jet engine aircraft; and
D. Diesel internal combustion engine fuel bought and used
from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2008 for the purpose of operating or
propelling a commercial groundfishing boat.
§ 1760(8)
"Commercial groundfishing boat" means a boat that is federally
permitted to harvest northeast multispecies operated by a person who
holds a commercial fishing license issued by the State and used for
harvesting northeast multispecies. As used in this subsection,
"northeast multispecies" has the same meaning as in 50 Code of
Federal Regulations, Section 648.2 (2006). § 1752(1-H)
Whenever motor fuels are subject to the excise (road) tax, sales tax does not apply.
However, there are situations where the excise tax is refundable in the gasoline and
special fuel statutes, such as fuel used off the highways of this state. In those situations
the refund is adjusted to retain the use tax that would otherwise apply.
Fuel for burning
blueberry lands
Sales of all fuels used in burning blueberry fields. § 1760(9-A)
Coal, oil and wood
Coal, oil, wood and all other fuels, except gas and electricity, when
bought for cooking and heating in buildings designed and used for
both human habitation and sleeping. Kerosene or home heating oil
that is prepackaged or dispensed from a tank for retail sale in
containers with a capacity of 5 gallons or less is presumed to meet the
requirements of this subsection. A purchase of 200 pounds or less of
wood pellets or of any 100% compressed wood product intended for use
in a wood stove or fireplace is presumed to meet the requirements of
this subsection. § 1760(9)
Page 70
"Other buildings designed both for human habitation and sleeping" include
hotels, boarding homes, nursing homes, overnight cabins, orphanages, homes for the aged
and convalescent homes. Any other commercial use would be taxable. It is important to
point out that the exemption is for fuel when bought for cooking and heating “in”
buildings designed “and used” for both habitation and sleeping. This exemption would
not apply to fuel used in outside grills or fuel used in heating a garage or pool.
In situations where a heating system services both commercial and residential
space, such as a neighborhood store with connected apartments, a partial exemption
would be applicable based on the square footage of the residential area. See Bulletin #13
“Sales of Fuel and Utilities” for additional information.
Sales of kerosene or home heating oil in 5 gallon or less containers, whether they
are prepackaged or directly pumped from a retail station, are presumed to be for purposes
of residential cooking or heating and are exempt from sales tax. If a purchaser claims that
a retail purchase of greater than 5 gallons is for residential cooking or heating, the seller
must document the transaction with either an affidavit or a log. Likewise, sales of wood
pellets and other 100% compressed wood products are presumed to be for purposes of
residential cooking or heating and are exempt from sales tax when sold in quantities of
200 pounds or less. If a purchaser claims that an over-the-counter retail purchase of
greater than 200 pounds is for residential cooking or heating, the seller must document
the transaction with either an affidavit or a log.9
However, if a vendor delivers the
product directly to a person’s residence, an affidavit is not needed provided the vendor
documents the residential shipping address of the delivery.
Residential electricity
Sale and delivery of the first 750 kilowatt hours of residential electricity
per month. For purposes of this subsection, "residential electricity"
means electricity furnished to buildings designed and used for both
human habitation and sleeping, with the exception of hotels. Where
residential electricity is furnished through one meter to more than one
residential unit and where the transmission and distribution utility
applies its tariff on a per unit basis, the furnishing of electricity is
considered a separate sale for each unit to which the tariff applies. For
purposes of this subsection, "delivery" means transmission and
distribution. § 1760(9-B)
Unlike coal, oil and wood, this exemption only applies to the first 750 kWh sold
to homes, mobile homes, boarding homes and apartment houses. All commercial uses
are taxable, including hotels and nursing homes.
9
Effective July 12, 2010.
Page 71
In situations where an electrical system services both commercial and residential
space, such as a neighborhood store with connected apartments, a partial exemption
would be applicable based on the square footage of the residential area. See Bulletin #13
“Sales of Fuel and Utilities” for additional information.
Net energy
billing customers
Sale or delivery of kilowatt hours of electricity to net energy billing
customers as defined by the Public Utilities Commission for which no
money is paid to the electricity provider or to the transmission and
distribution utility. § 1760(80)
Residential gas
Sales of gas when bought for cooking and heating in buildings
designed and used for both human habitation and sleeping, with the
exception of hotels. § 1760(9-C)
Once again, this exemption is limited to those "residences" mentioned.
All
commercial uses are taxable.
In situations where gas services both commercial and residential space, such as a
neighborhood store with connected apartments, a partial exemption would be applicable
based on the square footage of the residential area. Note however that this exemption
does not apply to hotels. “Bed and Breakfast” facilities fall under the “hotel” category.
Areas dedicated to “Bed and Breakfast” guests are considered “commercial” use. See
Bulletin #13 “Sales of Fuel and Utilities” for additional information.
Fuel oil or coal
Fuel oil or coal, the by-products from the burning of which become an
ingredient or component part of tangible personal property for later
sale. § 1760(9-G)
Fuel and electricity used
at a manufacturing facility
Ninety-five percent of the sale price of all fuel and electricity
purchased for use at a manufacturing facility. § 1760(9-D)
See also the "Manufacturing" section on this issue.
Page 72
MANUFACTURING
Certain items used
in manufacturing
Production machinery and equipment, machinery and equipment used
in research, ingredients and items consumed and destroyed in the
manufacturing process. § 1760(31), (32) and (74)
See also the "Manufacturing” section on this issue.
PINE TREE DEVELOPMENT ZONES (“PTDZ”)
Sales of tangible personal
property to qualified
PTDZ business
Beginning July 1, 2005, sales of tangible personal property to a
qualified Pine Tree Development Zone business, as defined in Title 30A, section 5250-I, subsection 17, for use directly and primarily in one
or more qualified business activities, as defined in Title 30-A, section
5250-I, subsection 16. The exemption provided by this subsection is
limited for each qualified Pine Tree Development Zone business to
sales occurring within a period of 10 years from the date the business
is certified pursuant to Title 30-A, section 5250-O or until December
31, 2018, whichever occurs first. As used in this subsection,
"primarily" means more than 50% of the time during the period that
begins on the date on which the property is first placed in service by the
purchaser and ends 2 years from that date or at the time the property is
sold, scrapped, destroyed or otherwise permanently removed from
service by the purchaser, whichever occurs first. § 1760(87)
The PTDZ tax credits and benefits are available to certified businesses engaged
in qualified activity for tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2004. The sales tax
exemption began on July 1, 2005. To obtain certification, the business must apply to the
Department of Economic and Community Development (“DECD”) and meet the
requirements for qualified business activity.
In general, in order to be certified, a
business must be engaged in a targeted business sector (manufacturing, financial services,
selected technologies); must intend to expand the base level of employment with
qualified employees; and the qualified employees must be new fulltime employees who
are hired by a Pine Tree Development Zone business for work directly in one or more
qualified business activities. Instructional Bulletin #52 has been created to fully explain
this program. Also refer to the “Refunds and Credits” portion of this guide for refunds
available to those constructing realty for a Qualified PTDZ business.
Page 73
COMMUNITY WIND POWER GENERATORS
Sales of tangible personal property to
qualified community wind power generators
Beginning October 1, 2006, sales of tangible personal property to a
qualified community wind power generator, as defined in section 2017,
subsection 1, paragraph B, for use directly and primarily in the
generation of electricity in this State at a community wind power
generation facility, as defined in section 2017, subsection 1, paragraph
A-1.. The exemption provided by this subsection is limited to sales
occurring on or before December 31, 2011. § 1760(89)
Tax credits and benefits are available to certified businesses engaged as a qualified
community wind power generator. To obtain certification, the entity must apply to the
Public Utilities Commission and meet certain requirements. In general, in order to be
certified, the entity must construct a community wind power generator with a capacity of
not more than 10 megawatts that is powered entirely by wind energy and the entity will
own title or controlling interest in that generator. The entity must also demonstrate that
construction of this generator would not be possible but for the tax credits and benefits
available under this program.
Also refer to the “Refunds and Credits” portion of this
guide for refunds available to those constructing realty for a certified community wind
power business.
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Page 75
EXEMPT SERVICES
In addition to true services, there are limited exemptions provided in the statute
that deal with services in general and "taxable services". Most of them deal with rentals
of living quarters as previously discussed under "Transient Rentals".
Funeral services
Sales of funeral services. § 1760(24)
"Sales of funeral services" means sales of tangible personal property by a funeral
director insofar as such sales are a necessary part of the preparation of a human body for
burial, or a necessary part of the ceremony conducted by the funeral director prior to or in
connection with the burial of a human body. Sales by funeral directors of caskets, vaults,
boxes, clothing, crematory urns, or other similar items generally referred to as "funeral
furnishings", are exempt from tax whereas items sold as an accommodation rather than as
an integral part of the funeral service (or preparation therefore), such as sale of flowers,
or items of a similar character, are taxable.
Certain rentals
Camps. Rental charged for living quarters, sleeping or housekeeping
accommodations at camps entitled to exemption from property tax
under section 652, subsection 1. § 1760(17)
Certain institutions. Rental charged for living or sleeping quarters in
an institution licensed by the State for the hospitalization or nursing
care of human beings. § 1760(18)
Schools. Rental charged for living quarters, sleeping or housekeeping
accommodations to any student necessitated by attendance at a school.
§ 1760(19)
Continuous residence; refunds and credits. Rental charged to any
person who resides continuously for 28 days or more at any one hotel,
rooming house, tourist camp or trailer camp if:
A. The person does not maintain a primary residence at some
other location; or
B. The person is residing away from that person's primary
residence in connection with employment or education.
Tax paid by such person to the retailer under section 1812 during the
initial 28-day period must be refunded by the retailer. If the tax has
been reported and paid to the State by the retailer, it may be taken as a
credit by the retailer on the return filed by the retailer covering the
month in which the refund was made to that tenant.
§ 1760(20) See also "Transient Rentals".
Page 76
NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS
Exempt activities
The tax exemptions provided by section 1760 to a person based upon its
charitable, nonprofit or other public purposes apply only if the property
or service purchased is intended to be used by the person primarily in
the activity identified by the particular exemption. The tax exemptions
provided by section 1760 to a person based upon its charitable,
nonprofit or other public purposes do not apply where title is held or
taken by the person as security for any financing arrangement.
Exemption certificates issued by the State Tax Assessor pursuant to
section 1760 must identify the exempt activity and must state that the
certificate may be used by the holder only when purchasing property
or services intended to be used by the holder primarily in the exempt
activity. If the holder of an exemption certificate furnishes that
certificate to a person for use in purchasing tangible personal property
or taxable services that are physically incorporated in, and become a
permanent part of, real property that is not used by the holder of the
certificate primarily in the exempt activity, the State Tax Assessor may
assess the unpaid tax against the holder of the certificate as provided in
section 141. When an otherwise qualifying person is engaged in both
exempt and nonexempt activities, an exemption certificate may be
issued to the person only if the person has established to the
satisfaction of the assessor that the applicant has adequate accounting
controls to limit the use of the certificate to exempt purchases.
§ 1760-C
Maine does not provide a blanket sales and use tax exemption for nonprofit
organizations who have been granted a federal tax exemption, known as 501(c)
organizations. Every organization that seeks relief from sales and use tax must approach
the legislature with its proposal and seek the support of the legislature. As a result a wide
array of nonprofit organizations exist in the statute. Each of the following exemptions is
preceded with the language "incorporated nonprofit" and have been paraphrased.
Referring to the statute for the full exemption is recommended.
¾ Nursing homes licensed by the Department of Health and Human
Services § 1760(16-B)
¾ Residential care facilities licensed by the Department of Health and
Human Services
§ 1760(16-C)
¾ Assisted housing programs for the elderly licensed by the
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
Department of Health and Human Services § 1760(16-D)
Home health care agencies certified under the United States Social
Security Act of 1965, Title XVIII, as amended § 1760(16-E)
rural community health centers § 1760(16-F)
dental health centers § 1760(16-G)
medical clinics whose sole mission is to provide free medical care
to the indigent or uninsured § 1760(16-G-1)
organizations organized for the sole purpose of conducting medical
research § 1760(16-H)
Page 77
¾ organizations organized for the purpose of establishing and
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
maintaining laboratories for scientific study and investigation in
the field of biology or ecology § 1760(16-I)
institutions operating educational television or radio stations
§ 1760(16-J)
organizations or their affiliates whose purpose is to provide literacy
assistance or free clinical assistance to children with dyslexia
§ 1760(16-L)
private residential child caring institutions which are licensed by
the Department of Human Services as child caring institutions.
§ 1760(18-A)
fire departments and ambulance services § 1760(26)
memorial foundations that primarily provide cultural programs
free to the public § 1760(42)
historical societies and museums § 1760(42)
licensed nursery schools and day-care centers § 1760(43)
Sales to incorporated nonprofit organizations providing:
A. Temporary residential accommodations to pediatric patients
suffering from critical illness or disease such as cancer or who are
accident victims, to adult patients with cancer or to the families of
the patients; or
B. Temporary residential accommodations, or food, or both, to
hospital patients or to the families of hospital patients. § 1760(46)
Organizations that provide free temporary emergency shelter or
food for underprivileged individuals in this State § 1760(47)
child abuse and neglect councils § 1760(49)
Veterans' Memorial Cemetery Associations; § 1760(51)
Volunteer search and rescue organizations; § 1760(53)
hospice organizations which provide a program or care for the
physical and emotional needs of terminally ill patients; § 1760(55)
councils and local units of national scouting organizations;
§ 1760(56)
educational organizations that are receiving, or have received,
funding from the Department of Education, and that provide
educational programs specifically designed for teaching young
people how to make decisions about drugs, alcohol and
interpersonal relationships at a residential camp setting § 1760(59)
animal shelters (purchasing) tangible personal property used in the
operation and maintenance of those shelters or in the maintenance
and care of any animal, including wildlife, housed in those shelters
§ 1760(60)
local branches of international charitable organizations which
provide, on a loan basis and free of charge, medical supplies and
equipment to persons. § 1760(62)
organizations whose sole purpose is to fulfill the wishes of children
with life-threatening diseases when their family or guardian is
unable to otherwise financially fulfill those wishes § 1760(63)
monasteries and convents ... in their operation and maintenance.
For the purpose of this subsection, "monasteries" and "convents"
means the dwelling places of communities of religious persons;
§ 1760(65)
organizations engaged primarily in providing support systems for
single-parent families for the development of psychological and
economic self-sufficiency § 1760(66)
Page 78
¾ local branches of organizations whose purpose is to construct lowcost housing for low-income people; § 1760(67)
¾ organizations whose sole purpose is to create, maintain and update
a registry of Vietnam veterans; § 1760(69)
¾ organizations whose primary purposes are to promote public
understanding of hearing impairment and to assist hearingimpaired persons through the dissemination of information about
hearing impairment to the general public and referral to and
coordination of community resources available to hearingimpaired persons. § 1760(70)
Some of the organizations need only be incorporated or nonprofit.
¾ Incorporated hospitals; § 1760(16-A)
¾ Church affiliated nonprofit organization which operates, under a
¾
¾
¾
¾
charter granted by the Legislature, a residential home for adults;
§ 1760(44)
Nonprofit free public lending library which is funded in part or
wholly by the State or any political subdivision or the federal
government; § 1760(50)
Nonprofit youth organizations whose primary purpose is to provide
athletic instruction in a nonresidential setting; § 1760(56)
Nonprofit organizations whose primary purpose is to develop
housing for low-income people; § 1760(72)
Nonprofit organizations whose primary purpose is to obtain,
medically evaluate and distribute eyes for use in corneal
transplantation, research and education. § 1760(77)
CERTAIN ESTABLISHMENTS
Other entities also enjoy exemption from sales and use tax.
¾ Sales which this State is prohibited from taxing under the
Constitution or laws of the United States or under the Constitution
of this State. § 1760(1)
¾ The State or any political subdivision of the State, or to the Federal
Government, or to any unincorporated agency or instrumentality of
either of them or to any incorporated agency or instrumentality of
them wholly owned by them. This exemption does not apply to
corporations organized under Title IV, Part E of the Farm Credit
Act of 1971, 12 United States Code, Sections 2211 to 2214.
§ 1760(2)
In addition to the Federal Government, the State of Maine, and any county, city,
town or plantation in the State of Maine, this exemption covers sales to:
School Districts in Maine;
Water, Power, Parking and other Districts in Maine established by
legislative act as quasi-municipal corporations;
Village Corporation;
Maine Turnpike Authority.
Page 79
In the case of the above no evidence of exemption in the case of a sale at retail
will be required other than the invoice of the seller indicating sales to such exempt entity.
Sales to other states or foreign countries or their subdivisions are not exempt from Maine
sales tax.
Sales to employees
of exempt entities
Sales directly to and paid for by a sales tax exempt entity are exempt. However,
sales to employees of these organizations do not always meet this criteria. If a sale to an
employee of such an organization is paid for by that employee, either with cash, personal
check or personal credit card, the organization’s exemption does not apply unless the
employee presents a purchase order issued by the exempt organization that identifies the
specific item or items to be purchased.
This includes sales to state employees,
county/city/town employees and any employee of an organization mentioned in this
section as being exempt from sales tax. See Rule 302 for more information.
Federal
employees
The federal government issues credit cards for its employee purchases. The
majority of the cards are direct-billed to the federal government and thus are exempt from
tax. However, there are cards which are billed to the employee, for later reimbursement,
which are taxable sales. The following describes these cards and their tax status:
Fleet card - states "For Official Government Fleet Use Only"
Purchases are centrally billed and exempt from sales tax
Purchase card - states "For Official US Government Purchases Only US Government
Tax Exempt"
Purchases are centrally billed and exempt from sales tax
Travel Card - states "For Official Government Travel Only"
Purchases with cards which have a 0, 6, 7, 8 or 9 in the sixth digit are exempt. All others
are taxable sales.
Integrated card - states "For Official Government Use Only"
Fleet and purchase type transactions are exempt.
Travel purchases are exempt if sixth digit is a 0, 6, 7, 8 or 9.
To see what these SmartPay credit cards look like, go to www.gsa.gov and make
the following selections: What GSA Offers; Charge Card Services; GSA SmartPay;
Business Owners; Recognizing the GSA SmartPay card.
Page 80
¾ Schools – public or incorporated nonprofit primary, secondary or
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
postsecondary educational institutions; § 1760(16-K)
Regularly organized churches or houses of religious worship;
§ 1760(16-M)
Mental health facilities or mental retardation facilities which are:
A. Contractors under or receiving support under the Federal
Community Mental Health Centers Act, or its successors; or
B. Receiving support from the Department of Mental Health and
Mental Retardation pursuant to Title 34-B, section 3604, 5433 or
6204; § 1760(28)
Materials for the construction, repair or maintenance of an animal
waste storage facility certified by the Commissioner of Agriculture;
§ 1760(81)
Water pollution control facility, certified as such by the
Commissioner of Environmental Protection, and any part or
accessories thereof, or any materials for the construction, repair or
maintenance of a facility; § 1760(29) See also "Manufacturing"
Air pollution control facility, certified as such by the Commissioner
of Environmental Protection, and any part or accessories thereof,
or any materials for the construction, repair or maintenance
thereof; § 1760(30)
See also "Manufacturing"
Regional planning commissions and councils of government,
which are established in accordance with Title 30-A; § 1760(37)
Statewide organizations that advocate for children and that are
members of the Medicaid Advisory Committee; § 1760(49)
Community action agencies designated in accordance with Title 22,
section 5324, except sales, storage or use for activities that are
mainly commercial enterprises; § 1760(49)
Credit unions that are organized under the laws of this State. This
subsection shall remain in effect only for the time that federally
chartered credit unions are, by reason of federal law, exempt from
payment of state sales tax; § 1760(71)
Sales and leases to certain air ambulance services that are limited
liability companies; § 1760(26)
The next exemption has no place in the above categories. This exemption is
peculiar to all others in that it exempts the sales made by an organization.
School sales
Schools and school-sponsored organizations.
Sales of tangible
personal property and taxable services by public and private
elementary and secondary schools that otherwise qualify as schools
under subsection 16, and by student organizations sponsored by those
schools, including booster clubs and student or parent-teacher
organizations, as long as the profits from such sales are used to benefit
those schools or student organizations or are used for a charitable
purpose. § 1760(64)
Public and private elementary and secondary schools making sales of candy bars,
calendars, yearbooks, clothing, etc. are exempt from charging tax on such sales, provided
the profits are used to benefit the school or student organization or are used for a
charitable purpose.
Page 81
Casual sales
The definition of "retail sale", as previously mentioned, excludes "any casual sale".
Casual sales are therefore not subject to a sales or use tax. The statute defines a "casual
sale" as follows:
“Casual sale” means an isolated transaction in which tangible
personal property or a taxable service is sold other than in the ordinary
course of repeated and successive transactions of like character by the
person making the sale. “Casual sale” includes transactions at a
bazaar, fair, rummage sale, picnic or similar event by a civic, religious
or fraternal organization that is not a registered retailer. The sale by a
registered retailer of tangible personal property that that retailer has
used in the course of the retailer’s business is not a casual sale if that
property is of like character to that sold by the retailer in the ordinary
course of repeated and successive transactions. “Casual sale” does not
include any transaction in which a retailer sells tangible personal
property or a taxable service on behalf of the owner of that property or
the provider of that service.
§ 1752(1-D)
The definition is actually divided into four types of situations where a casual sale
exists. The first speaks to the majority of casual sales which affect all of us. These are
sales made by any individual when selling property that they have owned and used.
These individuals are not regularly engaged in the business of selling property and their
activity of selling will only occur that one day, or at most, a few times a year.
The next situation specifically involves sales by civic, religious or fraternal
organizations which are not registered retailers. Their sales at a bazaar, fair, rummage
sale, picnic or similar event, are "casual sales" no matter what the duration. The Bureau
also recognizes fund raising campaigns of limited duration involving the sale of such
items as candy, light bulbs, novelties or other tangible personal property, as casual sales
unless the organization is registered or required to be registered as a seller.
The definition of "retail sale" also states that purchases for resale are exempt,
unless the resale will be at casual sale. As a result, unless the organization has a sales tax
exemption for purchases they make, the organization will be required to pay sales or use
tax on the purchase of goods that they will resell.
The next area speaks about sales made by retailers of items that they have used in
their business. Most likely, such a sale would be casual in nature and be exempt.
However, if the item being sold is the same type of item regularly sold by the retailer,
then the sale is taxable. For instance, if an auto dealer decides to sell some of its office
furniture, the sale is exempt as a casual sale. However, if an office equipment business
sells furniture that it once had in inventory, but has been using for a time period, the sale
is taxable.
Page 82
The last area addresses the fact that casual sales do not include consignment
sales. These are sales where a person has left goods with a registered retailer to sell on
that person's behalf. Ultimate sales of these goods are retail sales even though the goods
do not belong to the retailer.
Some other examples of casual sales are:
ƒ
Sales made by a personal representative in the settlement of an
estate, unless those sales continue the operation of a retail business or are
made by a retailer.
ƒ The sale of an entire business by the owner, with the exception of
goods in inventory.
ƒ
Judicial sales, executions, etc., unless made by a registered retailer.
ƒ
Sales by a person engaged in a business or occupation such as
manufacturing or farming, of used machinery, fixtures, equipment or
similar items when the seller is not engaged in the business of selling
those items.
The following are examples of transactions which, although they may appear to
resemble casual sales, are deemed to be retail sales. Sales of the kinds listed below are
subject to sales or use tax in the same way as other retail sales.
ƒ Sales made in the ordinary course of business by a registered retailer
on behalf of the owner, even though the owner is not in the business of
making such sales. A retailer has the same duties when making sales of
property belonging to another as when selling the retailer's own goods.
ƒ
Retail sales by a manufacturer, wholesaler, processor or jobber of the
kinds of property ordinarily produced or sold by that business, even
though retail sales are infrequent and comprise only a small fraction of
the total sales of that business.
ƒ
Sales that are an integral part of a business, such as the sale of
repossessed personal property by a bank or finance company, even
though the sale of tangible personal property is not the primary activity
of that business.
ƒ
Sales by lessors of personal property previously rented or leased.
Page 83
Taxable casual sales
There are certain kinds of property which, by statute, are taxable even if sold at
casual sale. The statute reads:
The tax imposed by chapters 211 to 225 must be levied upon all casual
rentals of living quarters in a hotel, rooming house or tourist or trailer
camp and upon all casual sales involving the sale of trailers, truck
campers, motor vehicles, special mobile equipment except farm tractors
and lumber harvesting vehicles or loaders, watercraft or aircraft except
those sold for resale at retail sale or to a corporation, partnership,
limited liability company or limited liability partnership when the seller
is the owner of a majority of the common stock of the corporation or of
the ownership interests in the partnership, limited liability company or
limited liability partnership. This section does not apply to the rental of
living quarters rented for a total of fewer than 15 days in the calendar
year, except that a person who owns and offers for rental more than
one property in the State during the calendar year is liable for
collecting sales tax with respect to the rental of each unit regardless of
the number of days for which it is rented. § 1764
The following provides definitions for the kinds of property mentioned:
Trailer. “Trailer” means a vehicle without motive power and mounted
on wheels that is designed to carry persons or property and to be drawn
by a motor vehicle and not operated on tracks. “Trailer” includes a
camper trailer as defined in section 1481, subsection 1-A but without
restriction on length. § 1752(19-A)
Truck camper. "Truck camper" means a slide-in camper designed to
be mounted on a truck body to provide temporary living quarters for
recreational, camping, travel or other use. § 1752(20-A)
Motor vehicle. "Motor vehicle" means any self-propelled vehicle
designed for the conveyance of passengers or property on the public
highways. "Motor vehicle" includes an all-terrain vehicle as defined
in Title 12, section 7851 and a snowmobile as defined in Title 12,
section 7821. § 1752(7)
Special mobile equipment. "Special mobile equipment" means any
self-propelled vehicle not designed or used primarily for the
transportation of persons or property that may be operated or moved
only incidentally over the highways, including, but not limited to, road
construction or maintenance machinery, farm tractors, lumber
harvesting vehicles or loaders, ditch-digging apparatus, stone crushers,
air compressors, power shovels, cranes, graders, rollers, well drillers
and wood sawing equipment. § 1752(14-B)
Watercraft. "Watercraft" means any type of vessel, boat, canoe or
craft designed for use as a means of transportation on water, other
than a seaplane, including motors, electronic and mechanical
equipment and other machinery, whether permanently or temporarily
attached, which are customarily used in the operations of the
watercraft. § 1752(24)
Page 84
Aircraft. "Aircraft" means any powered contrivance designed for
navigation in the air except a rocket or missile. § 1752(1-A)
If any of these items are sold at casual sale and the seller does not report and pay
tax on the transaction, payment of use tax is due from the purchaser directly to the State.
The statute also makes it a prerequisite to pay the use tax before any of the above items,
except aircraft, are registered:
Payment of tax on vehicles and watercraft. The tax imposed by this
Part on the sale or use of any vehicle, snowmobile, all-terrain vehicle
or watercraft must, except where the dealer has collected the tax in full,
be paid by the purchaser or other person seeking registration of the
vehicle, snowmobile, all-terrain vehicle or watercraft at the time and
place of registration. In the case of vehicles, the tax must be collected
by the Secretary of State and transmitted to the Treasurer of State as
provided by Title 29-A, section 409. In the case of watercraft,
snowmobiles and all-terrain vehicles, the tax must be collected by the
Commissioner of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife and transmitted to the
Treasurer of State as provided by Title 12, sections 7793-A to 7793-E,
7824-A to 7824-F or 7854-A to 7854-E. § 1952-A
Yard sales
When individuals who are not in the business of selling goods dispose of their
own used household items by selling them at a yard sale or similar event, or by placing an
advertisement in the classified section of a newspaper, they are making casual sales. If
the property sold is a motor vehicle, aircraft, watercraft, camper trailer, livestock trailer
or special mobile equipment, the purchaser is responsible for payment of the tax directly
to the State as previously stated.
So-called yard sales that are operated on a continuing basis or include items
produced or acquired for resale by the seller are not casual sales. Persons who operate
businesses of this type are required to register as sellers under the Sales and Use Tax Law
and to collect, report and remit Maine sales tax in the same way as other retailers. If used
household items are intermingled with items produced or acquired for resale, all sales are
subject to tax.
Page 85
Commercial farmers
and fishermen
This section only applies to farmers and fishermen (including those engaged in
aquaculture) who are engaged in commercial activities.
Although this is a refund
provision, it does provide an exemption for purchases made after certification. Prior to
certification or in cases where the exemption card cannot be used to purchase a certain
item, the purchaser can seek a refund. Upon application to the Bureau, an exemption
card is issued to those persons who qualify. The exemption card can then be used to
purchase qualifying depreciable machinery and equipment, including repair parts for
such, free of tax.
See "Exempt sale documentation" for more information on what
records the retailer must obtain.
1. Definitions. As used in this section, unless the context otherwise
indicates, the following words have the following meanings.
A.
"Commercial agricultural production" means commercial
production of crops for human and animal consumption, including the
commercial production of sod, agricultural composting operation as
defined in Title 7, section 152, subsection 1, the commercial production
of seed to be used primarily to raise crops for nourishment of humans
or animals and production of livestock, including the removal and
storage of manure from that livestock.
A-1. "Commercial aquacultural production" means the commercial
production of cultured fish, shellfish, seaweed or other marine plants
for human and animal consumption, including:
(1) All cultivating activities occurring at hatcheries or
nurseries, from the egg, larval or spore stages to the transfer of
the product to a growing site; and
(2) All cultivating activities occurring on water, from the
receipt of fish, shellfish, seaweed or other marine plants from
onshore facilities to the delivery of harvested products to
onshore facilities for processing.
B. "Commercial fishing" means attempting to catch fish or any other
marine animals or organisms with the intent of disposing of them for
profit or trade in commercial channels and does not include
subsistence fishing for personal use, sport fishing or charter boat
fishing where the vessel is used for carrying sport anglers to available
fishing grounds.
C. "Depreciable machinery and equipment" means that part of the
following machinery and equipment for which depreciation is
allowable under the Code and repair parts for that machinery and
equipment:
Page 86
(1) New or used machinery and equipment for use directly and
primarily in commercial agricultural production, including
self-propelled vehicles, but excluding motor vehicles as defined
in section 1752, subsection 7; attachments and equipment for
the production of field and orchard crops; new or used
machinery and equipment for use directly and primarily in
production of milk, animal husbandry and production of
livestock, including poultry; and new or used machinery and
equipment not used directly and primarily in commercial
agricultural production, but used exclusively to transport
potatoes from a truck into a storage location;
(2) New or used watercraft, nets, traps, cables, tackle and
related equipment necessary to and used directly and primarily
in the operation of a commercial fishing venture, but excluding
motor vehicles as defined in section 1752, subsection 7; or
(3) New or used watercraft, machinery or equipment used
directly and primarily for aquacultural production, including,
but not limited to: nets; ropes; cables; anchors and anchor
weights; shackles and other hardware; buoys; fish tanks; fish
totes; oxygen tanks; pumping systems; generators; waterheating systems; boilers and related pumping systems; diving
equipment; feeders and related equipment; power-generating
equipment; tank water-level sensors; aboveground piping;
water-oxygenating systems; fish-grading equipment; safety
equipment; and sea cage systems, including walkways and
frames, lights, netting, buoys, shackles, ropes, cables, anchors
and anchor weights; but excluding motor vehicles as defined in
section 1752, subsection 7.
2. Refund authorized. Any person, association of persons, firm or corporation
that purchases electricity or that purchases or leases depreciable machinery or
equipment for use in commercial agricultural production, commercial fishing
or commercial aquacultural production must be refunded the amount of sales
tax paid upon presenting to the State Tax Assessor evidence that the purchase
is eligible for refund under this section.
Evidence required by the assessor may include a copy or copies of that
portion of the purchaser's or lessee's most recent filing under the United States
Internal Revenue Code that indicates that the purchaser or lessee is engaged in
commercial agricultural production, commercial fishing or commercial
aquacultural production and that the purchased machinery or equipment is
depreciable for those purposes or would be depreciable for those purposes if
owned by the lessee.
In the event that any piece of machinery or equipment is only partially
depreciable under the United States Internal Revenue Code, any
reimbursement of the sales tax must be prorated accordingly. In the event that
electricity is used in qualifying and nonqualifying activities, any
reimbursement of the sales tax must be prorated accordingly.
Application for refunds must be filed with the assessor within 36
months of the date of purchase or execution of the lease.
Page 87
3. Purchases made free of tax with certificate. Sales tax need not be
paid on the purchase of electricity or of a single item of machinery or
equipment if the purchaser has obtained a certificate from the assessor stating
that the purchaser is engaged in commercial agricultural production,
commercial fishing or commercial aquacultural production and authorizing
the purchaser to purchase electricity or depreciable machinery and equipment
without paying Maine sales tax. The seller is required to obtain a copy of the
certificate together with an affidavit as prescribed by the assessor, to be
maintained in the seller's records, attesting to the qualification of the purchase
for exemption pursuant to this section. In order to qualify for this exemption,
the electricity or depreciable machinery or equipment must be used directly in
commercial agricultural production, commercial fishing or commercial
aquacultural production. In order to qualify for this exemption, the electricity
must be used in qualifying activities, including support operations. § 2013
1. "Agricultural composting operation" means composting that takes
place on a farm. "Agricultural composting operation" does not include an
operation that involves nonorganic municipal solid waste or that composts
municipal sludge, septage, industrial solid waste or industrial sludge.
"Agricultural composting operation" does not include an operation that
composts materials with a moderate or high risk of contamination from heavy
metals, volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls
or dioxin. Title 7, § 152(1)
4. "Composting" means the controlled aerobic decomposition of
organic materials to produce a soil-like product beneficial to plant growth and
suitable for agronomic use. Title 7, § 152(4)
In order to qualify for this exemption, machinery or equipment must meet three
tests. Machinery or equipment must:
1. be used directly in commercial production; and
2. be used primarily in commercial production; and
3. be depreciable for Federal Income Tax purposes.
"Directly" means those activities or operations which constitute an integral
and essential part of commercial agricultural production or commercial
fishing as distinguished from those activities or operations which are simply
incidental, convenient or remote to commercial agricultural production or
commercial fishing. "Directly" does not include support operations such as
construction or repair facilities, machine shops, storage activities,
administration or any highway transportation. Rule 323
"Primarily" means more than 50% of the time. Rule 323
Page 88
Some of the more common items that would qualify for exemption are:
Commercial Farmers
Balers
Batteries
Carts
Combines
Conveyors
Cultivators
Feeders
Filters
Grading Tables
Harrows
Harvesters
Hay & Forge
Equipment
Manure Spreaders
Milking Equipment
Mowers
Pickers
Planters
Plows
Removable Stalls
Rotary Cutters
Roto Tillers
Seed Cutters
Seeders
Sprayers
Tires
Tractors
Wagons
Water Bowls
Hydraulics
Life Rafts
Life Equipment
Lights
Long Lines
Loran
Motors
Net Floats
Nets
Plotter
Pot Haulers
Pneumatic Controls
Radar Equipment
Rope
Scanners
Seine Nets
Tags
Trap Stock
Traps
Vents
Commercial Fishermen
Bait Bags
Batteries
Boats
Buoys
Bow Thruster
CB Radio
Chains
Color Sounder
Depth Sounder
Depth Finder
Draggers
Engines
Filters
Fire Extinguisher
Fish Scanner
Haulers
Hooks
Hoops
Commercial Aquaculture
aboveground piping
anchors and anchor weights
boilers and related pumping systems
buoys
cables
diving equipment
feeders and related equipment
fish tanks
fish totes
fish-grading equipment
generators
nets
oxygen tanks
power generating
equipment
pumping systems
ropes
safety equipment
sea cage systems
shackles and other
hardware
tank water-level sensors
water-heating systems
water-oxygenating
systems
The certificate of exemption may not be used to purchase any of the following items:
1.
Nonqualifying machinery and equipment;
2.
Motor vehicles, trailers, attachments for motor vehicles such as bulk bodies,
fertilizer bodies and motor vehicle repair parts, snowmobiles, and ATV's;
3.
Tools and Supplies, other than repair parts, such as lubricants, coolants, solvents,
cleaning supplies, personal apparel;
4.
Fuels;
5.
Items incorporated in real property such as fencing, storage buildings, silos,
special purpose buildings, heating or ventilation systems and construction materials;
6.
Items which are not 100% depreciable equipment;
7.
Items which are not commonly used in commercial agricultural production,
commercial fishing or commercial aquacultural production such as lawn and garden
tractors, lag tractors, backhoe tractors, fork lift trucks, grain bins, computers, office
equipment and scraper blades.
Page 89
"Retailer" means a person who makes retail sales or who is required to
register by section 1754-A or 1754-B or who is registered under section
1756. §1752, sub-§10
Persons engaged in selling tangible personal property and taxable services which
are subject to the sales and use tax are required to register with Maine Revenue Services
to facilitate the collection of tax. Once registered, periodic reporting and remittance of
the tax is required.
Registration
requirements
The statute identifies ten categories of sellers who must register for a seller's
certificate under the Sales and Use Tax laws.
Every seller of tangible personal property or taxable services, whether
or not at retail, that maintains in this State any office, manufacturing
facility, distribution facility, warehouse or storage facility, sales or
sample room or other place of business; § 1754-B(1A)
Every person that makes retail sales in this State of tangible personal
property or taxable services on behalf of the owner of that property or
the provider of those services. § 1754-B(1H)
Registration is required if a retailer makes retail sales within Maine, whether the
sales are of goods purchased by that retailer for resale or are goods consigned to the
retailer and sold on the owner’s behalf. Having any type of physical presence or nexus in
this State, such as operating or maintaining a store, warehouse, office or repair facility,
requires registration. If the retailer does no more than solicit sales by means of a catalog
mailed into the State and the goods are delivered by common or contract carrier or the US
mail, registration is not required.
Every seller of tangible personal property or taxable services that does
not maintain a place of business in this State but makes retail sales in
this State or solicits orders, by means of one or more salespeople within
this State, for retail sales within this State; § 1754-B(1B)
Every person that makes retail sales in this State of tangible personal
property or taxable services on behalf of a principal that is outside of
this State if the principal is not the holder of a valid registration
certificate; § 1754-B(1D)
Every agent, representative, salesperson, solicitor or distributor that
receives compensation by reason of sales of tangible personal property
or taxable services made outside this State by a principal for use,
storage or other consumption in this State; § 1754-B(1E)
Retailers could also be subject to registration requirements even if no real
property is maintained in this State. If an employee travels within the State, soliciting
sales, registration is required. Persons who act as representatives, solicitors, salespersons
or independent selling agents and receive commissions from sales made by the principal
Page 90
would be required to be registered if the principal is not. For instance, if an independent
selling agent promotes the retailer's product by conducting home parties or by using the
retailer's catalog to solicit sales, the agent would be held accountable for registration
unless the principal is registered. In these types of situations, it is recommended that the
out-of-state retailer be registered for ease in administration; not only for the Bureau, but
also for the agent and the retailer.
Every person that manages or operates in the regular course of
business or on a casual basis a hotel, rooming house or tourist or
trailer camp in this State or that collects or receives rents from a hotel,
rooming house or tourist or trailer camp in this State; § 1754-B(1F)
Every seller of tangible personal property or taxable services that has a
substantial physical presence in this State sufficient to satisfy the
requirements of the due process and commerce clauses of the United
States Constitution.
The following activities do not constitute a
substantial physical presence for the purpose of this paragraph:
(1) Solicitation of business in this State through catalogs, flyers,
telephone or electronic media when delivery of ordered goods is
effected by the United States mail or by an interstate 3rd-party common
carrier;
(2) Attending trade shows, seminars or conventions in this State;
(3) Holding a meeting of a corporate board of directors or shareholders
or holding a company retreat or recreational event in this State;
(4) Maintaining a bank account or banking relationship in this State;
or
(5) Using a vendor in this State for printing, drop shipping or
telemarketing services.
§ 1754-B(1G)
Retailers could also be subject to registration requirements even if an employee
within Maine is not soliciting sales. For instance, the retailer may only have employees
providing repair, installation or maintenance services within Maine or the retailer may be
delivering its goods to Maine with its own vehicle. Delivery of goods by a common or
contract carrier or the US mail does not constitute delivery by the retailer.
Every lessor engaged in the leasing of tangible personal property
located in this State that does not maintain a place of business in this
State but makes retail sales to purchasers from this State;
§ 1754-B(1C)
Page 91
If a business is engaged in the leasing of tangible personal property within Maine
and also makes retail sales to Maine customers, the business is required to register. A
lessor is engaged in making retail sales when the lessor executes a "lease in lieu of
purchase", accepts a lessee's option to purchase or sells previously rented property.
Every person not otherwise required to be registered that sells tangible
personal property to the State and is required to register as a condition
of doing business with the State pursuant to Title 5, section 1825-B.;
and; § 1754-B(1I)
Every person that holds a wine direct shipper license under Title 28-A,
section 1403-A. § 1754-B(1J)
If a business is required as a condition of doing business in this state, such as
when making sales to the State or when shipping wine direct to customer in Maine, the
business is required to register.
Voluntary registration
In addition, any seller who is not required to register by any of the above, may
voluntarily do so to collect our use tax.
Every seller of tangible personal property or taxable services that is not
required by section 1754-B to register may register upon those terms
that the assessor prescribes. Upon registration, the seller has the rights
and duties of a person required to be registered and is subject to the
same penalties, except that the seller's liability may be limited to tax
actually collected. The seller so registered may at any time surrender
the seller's registration certificate and request that the registration
certificate be canceled. Upon receipt of the certificate and request, the
assessor shall grant the cancellation, if it appears to the assessor that
the seller has satisfied all liability to the State and that the seller is not
required by law to register. Upon surrender of the certificate, the seller
must cease to collect sales or use taxes upon sales that occur on and
after the date of the surrender. § 1756
Rental of retail space
A person who rents or leases space to more than 4 persons at one
location for less than a 12-month period for the purpose of retail sales
shall register with the State Tax Assessor. The form for application for
registration and the registration certificates must be prescribed and
furnished free of charge by the assessor. For each location where
more than 4 persons rent or lease space for less than 12 months from
the same person, the assessor shall issue a registration certificate,
which must be conspicuously displayed at that location. By the 15th of
each month following any month in which rental or lease activity has
occurred, the person shall provide to the assessor the names, addresses
and sales tax registration certificate numbers of those persons who
have rented space during the previous month. Information returns
must be prescribed and furnished free of charge by the assessor.
Returns required under this section must be treated as returns filed
under this Title and are subject to section 187-B. § 1754-A
Page 92
Persons who rent out space at flea markets, craft shows or any other event where
retail sales are being made are also required to register with the Bureau and provide
information concerning those persons making sales.
The Bureau then verifies the
information and obtains compliance from those who are not registered.
Registration for use tax only
Businesses that have no sales but make purchases that are subject to use tax are
required to register for reporting purposes. Returns are due in the same manner as sales
tax returns, but only in those months where liability exists.
08. Use Tax Returns. Every person, not otherwise required to file sales
and use tax returns, who regularly makes purchases for business use
that are subject to Maine use tax must register with the State Tax
Assessor to file use tax returns. Every person so registered must file a
use tax return for each month in which taxable purchases were made.
Use tax returns need not be filed for months during which no taxable
purchases were made. Rule 304
Registration procedure
Application forms for sales tax registration certificates must be
prescribed and furnished free of charge by the assessor. The assessor
shall issue a registration certificate to each applicant that properly
completes and submits an application form. A separate application
must be completed and a separate registration certificate issued for
each place of business. A registration certificate issued pursuant to
this section is nontransferable and is not a license within the meaning
of that term in the Maine Administrative Procedure Act. Each
application for a registration certificate must contain a statement as to
the type or types of tangible personal property that the applicant
intends to purchase for resale and the type or types of taxable services
that the applicant intends to sell, and each retailer registered under this
section must inform the assessor in writing of any changes to the type
or types of tangible personal property that it purchases for resale or to
the type or types of taxable services that it sells.
If the retailer maintains a place of business in this State, the
registration certificate must be conspicuously displayed at that place of
business. If the retailer does not have a fixed place of business and
makes sales from one or more motor vehicles, each motor vehicle is
deemed to be a place of business. §1754-B(2)
Registration with Maine Revenue Services is accomplished by submitting an
application for registration, Form CR-1. This application is also the mechanism to
register for any other tax that the Bureau administers, such as withholding and fuel excise
taxes.
Once the application is processed, a Retailer’s Certificate is issued.
This
certificate must be displayed in a prominent place in the business. The certificate is valid
until canceled by the taxpayer or revoked by the Bureau and is not assignable to a new
owner. If the retailer operates more than one business, a separate certificate is necessary
for each location.
Page 93
Collection of taxes
The liability for, or the incidence of, the tax imposed by this Part is
declared to be a levy on the consumer. The retailer shall add the
amount of the tax to the sale price and may state the amount of the tax
separately from the sale price of tangible personal property or taxable
services on price display signs, sales or delivery slips, bills and
statements which advertise or indicate the sale price of that property or
those services. § 1753
Tax is part of sale price
Every retailer shall add the sales tax imposed by chapters 211 to 225, or
the average equivalent of that tax, to his sale price, except as otherwise
provided, and when added the tax shall constitute a part of the price,
shall be a debt of the purchaser to the retailer until paid and shall be
recoverable at law in the same manner as the purchase price. § 1812(1)
Unlawful to
advertise no tax
It shall be unlawful for any retailer to advertise or hold out or state to
the public or to any consumer, directly or indirectly, that the tax or any
part thereof imposed by chapters 211 to 225 will be assumed or
absorbed by the retailer, or that it will not be added to or included in
the selling price of the property sold, or if added or included that it or
any part thereof will be refunded. Any person violating any part of this
section shall be guilty of a Class E crime. § 1761
"Advertise" means to make a public announcement by any means
whatsoever, including a notice or announcement in a radio or televised
broadcast, newspaper, magazine, catalog, circular, handbill, sign,
placard or billboard. §1752(1)
Although the economic burden of the sales tax falls upon the purchaser, the legal
incidence of the tax rests squarely on the retailer. State v. Marcotte, 418 A.2d 1118 (Me.
1980) Every retailer is required to add sales tax to the selling price and, once added, the
tax becomes a debt of the purchaser to the seller. If the purchaser fails to pay the tax, the
debt is recoverable by the seller at law in the same way that the selling price would be.
Although the retailer can advertise that tax is included in the selling price, it is a crime
for the retailer to state that the sales tax will be assumed, absorbed, refunded or not
charged at all to the purchaser. Thus a seller cannot advertise that no sales tax will
be charged on otherwise taxable items or that no sales tax will be charged on a
certain day or period of time.
Payment of taxes
The taxes imposed by chapters 211 to 225 on sales of tangible personal
property and taxable services are due and payable at the time of the
sale. Upon such terms and conditions as the State Tax Assessor may
prescribe, the assessor may permit a postponement of payment to a date
not later than the date on which the sales so taxed are required to be
reported. §1952
Page 94
Tax returns due on 15th
Every retailer shall file with the State Tax Assessor, on or before the
15th day of each month, a return made under the penalties of perjury
on a form prescribed by the assessor. The return must report the total
sale price of all sales made during the preceding calendar month and
such other information as the assessor requires. The assessor may
permit the filing of returns other than monthly. The assessor, by rule,
may waive reporting nontaxable sales. Upon application of a retailer,
the assessor shall issue a classified permit establishing the percentage
of exempt sales. The classified permit may be amended or revoked if
the assessor determines that the percentage of exempt sales is
inaccurate. The assessor may for good cause extend for not more than
30 days the time for filing returns required under this Part. Every
person subject to the use tax shall file similar returns, at similar dates,
and pay the tax or furnish a receipt for the same from a registered
retailer.
§ 1951-A(1)
Alternative filing for
casual renters
A person whose only sales tax collection responsibility under this Title
is the collection of sales tax on casual rentals of living quarters
pursuant to section 1764 and whose sales tax liability in connection
with those rentals during the period of the individual’s income tax
return is expected to be less than $2,000 may report and pay that sales
tax on the person’s Maine individual income tax return for that year in
lieu of filing reports under subsection 1. If the person’s actual liability
for the year is $2,000 or more, the person must file reports as required
under subsection 1 during the succeeding year.10 § 1951-A(3)
Postmark is date of filing
If any document or payment required or permitted by this Title
to be filed or paid is transmitted by the United States Postal Service to
the person with whom or to whom the filing or payment is to be made,
the date of the United States Postal Service postmark stamped on the
envelope is deemed to be the date of filing or payment if that document
or payment was deposited in the mail, postage prepaid and properly
addressed to the person with whom or to whom the filing or payment is
to be made. If the document or payment is not received by that person
or if the postmark date is illegible, omitted or claimed to be erroneous,
the document or payment is deemed to have been filed or paid on the
mailing date if the sender establishes by competent evidence that the
document or payment was deposited with the United States Postal
Service, postage prepaid and properly addressed, and, in the case of
nonreceipt, files a duplicate document or makes payment, as the case
may be, within 15 days after receipt of written notification by the
addressee of the addressee's nonreceipt of the document or payment. A
record authenticated by the United States Postal Service of mailing by
registered mail, certified mail or certificate of mailing constitutes
competent evidence of such mailing. Any reference in this section to
the United States Postal Service is deemed to include a reference to any
delivery service designated by the United States Secretary of the
Treasury pursuant to section 7502(f)(2) of the Code, and any reference
10
A person who reports via their income tax return must nonetheless register for sales tax purposes.
Page 95
in this section to a postmark of the United States Postal Service is deemed
to include a reference to any date recorded or marked as described in
section 7502(f)(2)(C) of the Code by any such designated delivery service.
§ 153(1)
When due date is a
weekend or holiday
When the last day, including any extension of time, prescribed under this
Title for the performance of an act falls on Saturday, Sunday or a legal
holiday in this State, the performance of that act is timely if it occurs on
the next succeeding day which is not a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday
in this State. § 153(2)
Retailers are responsible for filing a sales tax return, form ST-7, on or before the
15th of the month. The information on the return reflects sales that occurred in the prior
month.
Submission of returns and
funds by electronic means
Returns; declaration covering perjury; submission of returns and
funds by electronic means
1. Declaration required. Any return, report or other document required
to be filed pursuant to this Title must contain a declaration, in a form
prescribed by the State Tax Assessor, that the statements contained in
the return, report or other document are true and are made under the
penalties of perjury. When a tax return is filed electronically by a
taxpayer or with the taxpayer’s permission, the filing of that return
constitutes a sworn statement by the taxpayer, made under the
penalties of perjury, that the tax liability shown on the return is correct.
2. Electronic filing. The State Tax Assessor, with the approval of the
Commissioner of Administrative and Financial Services may adopt a
rule allowing or requiring the filing of a return or document by
electronic data submission. The rule must establish thresholds or
phase-in periods to assist taxpayers and preparers in complying with
any electronic data submission requirement.
A. Unless otherwise provided by a rule adopted pursuant to this
subsection, in the case of an employer that submits returns in
accordance with section 5253 with respect to 100 or more
employees, whether the returns are submitted directly by the
employer or by a 3rd party on behalf of the employer, the assessor
may require that the returns be filed by electronic data submission.
B. Unless otherwise provided by a rule adopted pursuant to this
subsection, in the case of a payroll processor as defined in Title 10,
chapter 222 that submits returns pursuant to section 5253 or Title
26, chapter 13, subchapter 7 for 100 or more employers, the
assessor may require that the returns be filed by electronic data
submission.
Page 96
3. Payment by electronic funds transfer. The State Tax Assessor, with
the approval of the Commissioner of Administrative and Financial
Services, may adopt a rule allowing or requiring the payment of a tax
or the refund of a tax by electronic funds transfer. An electronic funds
transfer allowed or required by the assessor pursuant to this subsection
in payment of a tax obligation to the State is considered a return. For
the purposes of this subsection, "tax" includes Competitive Skills
Scholarship Fund contributions and unemployment insurance
contributions required to be paid to the State pursuant to Title 26.
A. Unless otherwise provided by a rule adopted pursuant to this
subsection, in the case of a person that is liable for $200,000 or
more per year pursuant to section 5253 or for $400,000 or more per
year in payments of any other single tax type, the assessor may
require payment or refund of that tax by electronic funds transfer.
B. Unless otherwise provided by a rule adopted pursuant to this
subsection, in the case of a payroll processor as defined in Title 10,
chapter 222, the assessor may require payment or refund of taxes
pursuant to section 5253 and payment or refund of Competitive
Skills Scholarship Fund contributions and unemployment
insurance contributions pursuant to Title 26, chapter 13,
subchapters 5 and 7, respectively, by electronic funds transfer.
4. Adoption of rules. Rules adopted pursuant to this section are routine
technical rules for the purposes of Title 5, chapter 375, subchapter 2-A.
§ 193
Payment mandates
3.
Effective January 1, 2010, any person with a combined tax
liability to the State of $25,000 or more for all tax types during the most
recent lookback periods ending during the prior calendar year is
required to remit all Maine tax payments electronically using either the
ACH credit method or ACH debit method.
4.
Effective January 1, 2011, any person with a combined tax
liability to the State of $18,000 or more for all tax types during the most
recent lookback periods ending during the prior calendar year is
required to remit all Maine tax payments electronically using either the
ACH credit method or ACH debit method.
5.
Effective January 1, 2012, any person with a combined tax
liability to the State of $16,000 or more for all tax types during the most
recent lookback periods ending during the prior calendar year is
required to remit all Maine tax payments electronically using either the
ACH credit method or ACH debit method.
Rule 102, section .02(A)
The statute allows for the creation of a rule mandating the payment of taxes
through electronic means. Per Rule 102, any person with a combined tax liability of the
thresholds mentioned above is required to pay either through ACH Credit or ACH Debit
methods. For instance, if a person has an annual liability of $20,000 in sales tax, $10,000
Page 97
in withholding and $5,000 in income tax, the person has exceed the combined threshold
of $25,000 for 2010 and would be required to file each of the taxes through electronic
methods. See the entire rule for thresholds for prior and later periods.
Filing mandates
C.
For returns filed on or after April 1, 2009, a person preparing
original Maine tax returns for sales, use or service provider tax that are
required to be filed monthly, must file all the original Maine tax returns
for sales, use or service provider tax by electronic data submission.
D. For returns filed in calendar year 2010, a person preparing original
Maine tax returns for sales, use or service provider tax that are required
to be filed quarterly, must file all the original Maine tax returns for sales,
use or service provider tax by electronic data submission.
E. For returns filed in calendar year 2011, a person preparing original
Maine tax returns for sales, use or service provider tax that are required
to be filed on a semi-annual basis, must file all the original Maine tax
returns for sales, use or service provider tax by electronic data
submission.
F.
For returns filed in calendar year 2012 or any subsequent
calendar year, a person preparing original Maine tax returns for sales,
use or service provider tax must file all the original Maine tax returns for
sales, use or service provider tax by electronic data submission.
Rule 104, section .03
The statute also allows for the creation of a rule mandating the filing of returns
through electronic means. Rule 104 provides a gradual implementation for requiring the
electronic data submission of tax returns. Monthly accounts were affected April 1, 2009
and quarterly accounts were added January 1, 2010. Semi-annual accounts will begin on
January 1, 2011 and annual accounts will be added in 2012.
Prior to each
implementation, Maine Revenue will notify all affected retailers of the requirements.
Rule 104 allows a retailer to request a waiver if the electronic filing
requirement causes undue hardship. The waiver request must be in writing and
contain an explanation of the hardship that will be caused by complying with the
electronic filing requirements.
Filing electronically
The Bureau provides the ability to file electronically through the use of a
computer and through the use of a telephone. Sales, use and service provider tax returns
can be filed through the internet by accessing http://www.maine.gov/revenue and
clicking on "Electronic Services". At the next screen select either "Sales/Use” or
“Service Provider”. Bookmarking this location will give you quicker access next time.
In order to register online, you will need your registration number and your
business code (both of which can be found at the top of your paper return) and a
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password which you will determine. (Note: your registration number must be seven
digits and your business code must be three digits. If either are not, you may need to add
a zero in front of these numbers.) After you have completed your return, you will be
given three options for payment; ACH Debit, ACH Credit or payment by check.
Sales tax returns can be filed through the use of a telephone by accessing our
Telefile system.
This system provides the ability for a retailer to file and pay
electronically in the event they do not have a computer or internet access. A retailer that
wishes to use this system must pre-register in order to receive more detailed information
including instructions.
As permitted by the statute, the Assessor has, by rule, set forth other guidelines
for the reporting and payment of sales and use tax. The first is permitting the filing of
returns on frequencies other than monthly.
Reporting
frequencies
.01 Except as otherwise provided below, every retailer must file
monthly sales and use tax returns. The State Tax Assessor will
periodically review the status of sales and use tax accounts and notify
retailers whose filing frequency has been changed pursuant to this
Rule. Upon application to the State Tax Assessor, a retailer may be
authorized to file returns more frequently than this Rule requires.
A. Every retailer whose average sales and use tax liability is at least $100
per month but less than $600 per month must file four returns each
year. The reporting periods are January through March, April through
June, July through September, and October through December. The
due date for filing the return and paying the tax is the fifteenth day of
the month following the end of each reporting period.
B. Every retailer whose average sales and use tax liability is at least $50
per year but less than $100 per month must file two returns each year.
The reporting periods are January through June and July through
December. The due date for filing the return and paying the tax is the
fifteenth day of the month following the end of each reporting period.
C. Every retailer whose average annual sales and use tax liability is less
than $50 must file one return each year. The reporting period is the
calendar year. The due date for filing the return and paying the tax is
the fifteenth day of the month following the end of the reporting
period.
D. The State Tax Assessor may temporarily require retailers to file using
unusual or more frequent reporting periods in order to administer
substantial changes in the sales and use tax law, such as rate changes.
.02 Seasonal Filing. A retailer whose business is completely closed
for one or more calendar months on a regular schedule each year may
register as a seasonal filer, indicating the months during which the
business is open. A retailer that is registered as a seasonal filer is not
required to file a sales and use tax return for any off-season reporting
period during which the retailer did not engage in business. Rule 304
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Extensions
Realizing that some businesses may not have ample time to gather all the
information necessary to complete the return, the rule authorizes permanent extensions
for filing, but not for paying.
Temporary or periodic exemptions are not granted.
03. Extension of Time for Filing. Upon application to the State Tax
Assessor, the time for filing sales and use tax returns may be extended
for 30 days for good cause. The extension remains in effect until
revoked in writing by the State Tax Assessor. The extension does not
extend the time for paying the tax. Rule 304
Reporting on
cash basis
Generally, the sales tax law assumes that most businesses practice an accrual
system of accounting. Sales tax is due in the month in which the sale occurred even
though payment for the sale has not been received. However, the Bureau's rule does
recognize the fact that businesses may be on a cash basis.
04. Basis of Accounting. Generally, retailers are required to file sales
and use tax returns on an accrual basis. However, a retailer that
properly files its federal income tax returns on a cash basis may elect to
file its sales and use tax returns on a cash basis. Rule 304
Thus, the retailer may report only the tax that has been collected in a given
month. A business cannot have an accounting system for sales tax purposes and a
separate system for income taxes.
Supplemental report
In addition to the sales tax return, vehicle dealers are required to file a
supplemental report listing each vehicle sale.
05. Supplemental Return. Every person who makes retail sales of
motor vehicles, watercraft, aircraft, manufactured housing, special
mobile equipment, trailers, camper trailers or truck campers must file,
in addition to the sales and use tax return, a supplemental return
reporting individually each sale of any of these kinds of property made
during the reporting period. Every person who rents or leases
automobiles for one year or more must file a supplemental return
reporting individually each lease or rental.
Rule 304
Consolidated filing
A seller who operates multiple places of business is allowed to file a consolidated
return covering sales at each location in lieu of multiple sales tax returns. A breakdown
of sales at each location must be provided if the seller operates businesses in various
cities or towns.
07. Consolidated Filing. Upon application to the State Tax Assessor, a
retailer that makes sales at more than one place of business may be
authorized to file a single consolidated return reporting the total
amount of sales made at all of the locations. The return must include a
schedule showing a breakdown of taxable sales made at each location.
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Failing to file any tax return or pay any tax due is subject to penalties as
discussed later on in the “Taxpayer Compliance” section of this guide.
Recordkeeping
requirements
Persons subject to tax under this Title shall maintain such records as
the State Tax Assessor determines necessary for the reasonable
administration of this Title. Records pertaining to taxes imposed by
chapters 371 and 575 and by Part 8 must be retained as long as is
required by applicable federal law and regulation. Records pertaining
to the special fuel tax user reports filed pursuant to section 3209,
subsection 2 and the International Fuel Tax Agreement pursuant to
section 3209, subsection 1-B must be retained for 4 years. Records
pertaining to all other taxes imposed by this Title must be retained for a
period of at least 6 years. The records must be kept in such a manner
as to ensure their security and accessibility for inspection by the
assessor or any designated agent engaged in the administration of this
Title. § 135(1)
Records kept by a retailer doing business in this State must include all
bills, receipts, cash register tapes, sales invoices, purchase invoices and
any other documentation supporting the entries made in the normal
books of account and ledgers maintained by the average prudent
business person, as well as all related reports produced from these
records. The records will also include all documents, schedules or work
papers used in connection with the preparation of tax returns filed by
the retailer.
The minimum information required of a retailer includes:
(1) Detailed records of all taxable sales of tangible personal
property made in Maine, including all components of the total
sales price of such sales.
(2) Detailed records of all taxable sales of taxable services
made in Maine, including all components of the total sale price
of such sales.
(3) Detailed records of all exempt sales of tangible personal
property or taxable services made in Maine, including all
components of the total sale price of such sales.
(4) Detailed records of all purchases of tangible personal
property and taxable services purchased for use or
consumption in Maine, including all components of the total
purchase price of such items. Rule 103(.02D)
The burden of proving that a transaction was not taxable is on the
person charged with tax liability. The presumption that a sale was not
for resale may be overcome during an audit or upon reconsideration if
the seller proves that the purchaser was the holder of a currently valid
resale certificate as provided in section 1754-B at the time of the sale or
proves through other means that the property purchased was
purchased for resale by the purchaser in the ordinary course of
business. Notwithstanding section 1752, subsection 11, paragraph B, if
the seller satisfies the seller's burden of proof, the sale is not
considered a retail sale. § 1763
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The burden of proving that a sale is exempt is upon the person making the sale.
In most instances, the seller is relieved of this burden if the seller obtains appropriate
documentation from the purchaser. Certificates issued by the Bureau would ordinarily be
accepted by the seller in good faith. The good faith of the seller would be questioned if
the seller had knowledge of facts which gave rise to a reasonable inference that the
purchaser is not the holder of the exemption certificate, that the merchandise is not to be
used exclusively by the exempt organization or will not be resold in the ordinary course
of business by a retailer. Some exemptions do not require statements from the purchaser,
e.g. grocery staples, while other commodities, since they can be used for a purpose
inconsistent with the exemption, need affidavits, e.g. vehicles used in interstate
commerce.
See Rule 103 for additional information on recordkeeping requirements.
Electronic retention
of records
Advancing technology in the area of record retention requires the bureau to
consider new standards of acceptability for such documentation. The bureau accepts
imaged documents stored in a digital format provided 1) the system meets accepted
industry standards for integrity and reliability, 2) the procedures used to capture and store
information is reliable and includes safeguards to guarantee authenticity, 3) detail is
captured and retained in order to efficiently conduct a sales/use tax review and 4)
adequate hardware/software is available to readily access records. The retention of
original hard-copy documents will depend upon the accuracy, integrity and authenticity
offered by the system. See Rule 103 for additional information on retention of records.
EXEMPT SALE DOCUMENTATION
The following is a summation of documents that the Bureau deems necessary for
the retailer to obtain and keep on file in order to support an exempt sale:
Resale certificate
Resale certificate
The assessor shall issue a provisional resale certificate to each
applicant for initial registration that states on its application that it
expects to make annual gross sales of $3,000 or more. A provisional
resale certificate issued between January 1st and September 30th is
effective for the duration of the calendar year in which it is issued and
the 2 subsequent years. A provisional resale certificate issued between
October 1st and December 31st is effective until the end of the 3rd
succeeding calendar year. Each certificate must contain the name and
address of the retailer, the expiration date of the certificate and the
certificate number. If a vendor has a true copy of a retailer's resale
certificate on file, that retailer need not present the certificate for each
subsequent transaction with that vendor during the period for which it
is valid. § 1754-B(2-B)
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The assessor shall periodically review the status of each retailer
registered under this section. On or before the date of expiration of a
resale certificate, the assessor shall issue to each registered retailer
with gross sales of $3,000 or more during the 12 months preceding the
assessor's review a resale certificate effective for the next 3 calendar
years. Any subsequent annual resale certificate issued is effective for
the next 5 calendar years. Each certificate must contain the name and
address of the retailer, the expiration date of the certificate and the
certificate number. If a vendor has a true copy of a retailer's resale
certificate on file, that retailer need not present the certificate for each
subsequent transaction with that vendor during the period for which it
is valid. § 1754-B(2-C)
A sale of tangible property for resale (except for resale as a casual sale) is not a
taxable transaction. However, the burden of proving that a sale of tangible personal
property is for resale is upon the person making the sale. The seller will be relieved of
this burden of proof only if a resale certificate in accordance with the provisions of Rule
301 is obtained from the purchaser. Where the sale is to a person who, by reason of
being a non-resident of the state not doing business within the state has no seller's
registration certificate, the seller should obtain sufficient evidence to sustain the burden
of proving the sale is actually for resale. If the purchaser cannot furnish such evidence,
the seller should, as a protection, collect the sales tax.
Maine Revenue Service issues resale certificates to all active retailers reporting
annual gross sales of $3,000 or more. The resale certificate is valid for a certain period of
time, generally 3 years. Prior to a certificate’s expiration, Maine Revenue will
automatically review the account and reissue the certificate provided the account is active
and has the prerequisite gross sales volume.
Out-of-state sellers, who are not required to be registered in Maine, may still buy
exempt if they provide a statement similar to our resale certificate to the seller preferably
on the purchaser's own letterhead. Alternatively, MRS has accepted the "Uniform Sales
& Use Tax Certificate - Multijurisdiction" form issued by the Multistate Tax Commission
as adequate documentation. This form contains the required language and the purchaser
indicates which states the purchaser is registered to do business. Not all states have
accepted this form, however. As a result, this form would not be acceptable if the out-ofstate purchaser is from a state not listed on this form. A copy of the MTC form is
available in the document section of this guide or it can be downloaded directly from
their website at www.mtc.gov (select “Uniform Sales and Use Certificate” under
Download).
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Since the burden of proof is on the seller, it is recommended that the seller
obtain whatever documentation will prove that the purchaser is engaged in selling in their
home state.
The resale certificate can be used either on a single purchase or to document the
continued purchasing of goods for resale by a retailer. If the resale certificate is used as
a blanket certificate, the seller is only required to retain one copy of the resale certificate
in the seller's files to support the exempt sale rather than obtain a copy for each
transaction.
However, each transaction supported by the resale certificate must be
documented as well with purchase invoices appropriately marked.
Exempt organizations
Exempt organization certificate, or other exempt letter, issued by
Maine Revenue Services, for purchases made by the
organization for their own use.
Not all organizations are exempt from sales tax. The certificate or letter must be
issued by Maine Revenue Services, Sales, Fuel and Special Tax Division and must be
unaltered. The State of Maine, the U S Government, Maine cities, towns and counties are
exempt from sales tax but, for administrative purposes, are not issued certificates. No
evidence of exemption is required for sales to these entities other than the invoice of the
seller showing the exempt organization.
Manufacturers
ST-P-70 - Industrial Users Blanket Certificate of Exemption.
This document is presented by a registered seller who is engaged in
manufacturing a product. This includes a wide range of entities, from crafters to paper
mills. It may be used to exempt all future purchases of qualifying items or for occasional
purchases. Items covered by this certificate are ingredients or component parts of the
item being produced, items that will be consumed and destroyed in the process,
machinery, equipment and repair parts used in manufacturing and fuel or electricity used
at the manufacturing facility.
Direct pay permits
ST-P-3 - Direct Pay Permit for use by certain manufacturers
Many manufacturers and utilities routinely acquire large quantities of
tangible personal property under circumstances that make it
impractical to determine, at the time of purchase, the manner in which
property will be used. It is impractical in these circumstances to
determine whether the purchase or use of the property will be taxable
or exempt. Holders of direct payment permits are authorized to
purchase most items of tangible personal property without payment of
the tax to their vendors, and may instead report and pay tax directly to
the State. Rule 308(1)
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Each holder of a direct payment permit must file a copy of the permit
with each of its vendors and ensure that the permit number is placed
on all purchase orders or contracts covering the purchase of tangible
personal property, in lieu of payment of tax to the retailer, except in
those transactions excluded in Section 4 below. The holder of direct
payment permits shall not authorize anyone to whom they have issued
a direct payment permit to file the direct payment permit or permit
number with a third party.
Sales tax registrations held by holders of direct payment permits will be
placed on an inactive basis and accrued sales and use tax liabilities will
be reported on sales and use tax returns which will be issued under the
direct payment permit number. Rule 308(3)
Some manufacturers are issued "direct pay permits" by the Bureau. This allows
them to purchase nearly everything exempt from tax and be accountable directly to the
Bureau on taxable items. This permit cannot be used for purchases of prepared food or
beverages at restaurants, lodging at hotels, telecommunication services, interim rentals
and short-term rentals of automobiles.
Commercial farmers
and fishermen
Exemption Card and ST-L-154 - Affidavit of Exemption for use by those
engaged in commercial farming and fishing
Those persons engaged in commercial agricultural production, commercial
fishing and commercial aquacultural production must provide the retailer with an
affidavit of exemption along with a copy of their exemption card issued by the Bureau.
This card may only be used to purchase depreciable machinery and equipment, including
repairs parts for same. It cannot be used to purchase items such as supplies, motor
vehicles and repair parts for motor vehicles.
Vehicles used in
interstate commerce
ST-MV-57a - Affidavit to document exempt vehicles for use in interstate or
foreign commerce.
It is important that the purchaser read the instructions as it provides a complete
description of the requirements of this exemption.
Retailers should not have the
purchaser sign without pointing out the instructions nor should the retailer misrepresent
the qualifications of the exemption.
Out-of-state
deliveries
ST-MV-36 - Affidavit to support out-of-state delivery by the seller.
This form documents the fact that the seller delivered the merchandise out-of-
state. It not only requires the signature of the person making the delivery but also
notarization.
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Certain sales to
non-residents
ST-MV-33 - Affidavit of Exemption for a sale to an out-of-state resident
for immediate removal from Maine of a motor vehicle, camper trailer,
semitrailer, aircraft.
The purchaser must be a non-resident individual or business entity and the
purchaser must be removing the property from Maine. If the retailer has any knowledge
that the purchaser is actually a resident of Maine or that the non-resident does not intend
to remove the property, this exemption does not apply.
ST-P-19AE - Affidavit of Exemption - Watercraft and/or Materials
Incorporated in Watercraft when Sold to a Resident of Another State
The purchaser must be a non-resident individual or business entity but does not
necessarily require the purchaser to remove the property from Maine. If the retailer has
any knowledge that the purchaser is actually a resident of Maine, this exemption does not
apply.
ST-P-39 - Affidavit of Exemption for a snowmobile or all-terrain vehicle
sold to an out-of-state resident
The purchaser in this case must be a non-resident individual. However, the
snowmobile or all-terrain vehicle in this situation does not need to be removed from
Maine in order to qualify for exemption.
Rental of
automobiles
ST-MV-63 - Certificate of Exemption to purchase an automobile for
lease or short-term rental.
Other certificates
and affidavits
ST-P-72 - Contractor’s Exempt Purchase Certificate
For use by a contractor or subcontractor when purchasing property that will be
incorporated into the realty of an exempt organization.
STR-PTDZ – Contractor’s Refund Application for Pine Tree Zones
For use by a contractor or subcontractor when purchasing property that will be
incorporated into the realty of a qualified Pine Tree Development Zone business.
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ST-L-155 - Products to be Incorporated into a Commercial Fishing
Vessel
For use by a person engaged in commercial fishing when purchasing property
that will be incorporated into the construction of a fishing vessel.
ST-P-73 - Resale Certificate for Packaging Materials
For use by a person, other than a retailer, when purchasing packaging materials
that qualify for exemption.
ST-P-71 - Affidavit for Out of state use of Promotional Materials
For use by a person when purchasing qualifying advertising or promotional
materials that will be used out-of-state.
ST-L-160 Affidavit of Exemption for 28 day Continuous Rental at a
Hotel, Rooming house, Tourist, or Trailer Camp
For use by a person claiming their stay beyond 28 days meets the requirements of
the sales tax exemption.
REFUNDS & CREDITS
Tax paid on purchases
for resale
A retailer registered under section 1754-B may claim a credit for sales
tax imposed by this Part if the retailer has paid the sales tax on tangible
personal property purchased for resale at retail sale. The credit may be
claimed only on the return that corresponds to the period in which the
tax was paid. The credit may not be claimed if the item has been
withdrawn from inventory by the retailer for the retailer’s own use
prior to its sale. If the retailer purchases an item for resale at retail
sale and pays tax to its vendor and if the retailer’s sales and use tax
liability for the tax period in question is less than the credit being
claimed, the retailer is entitled either to carry the credit forward or to
receive a refund of the tax paid. §1811-B
For those retailers that do not qualify to receive an annual resale certificate, a
refund or credit is available to the retailer for sales tax paid on goods actually purchased
for resale. This refund/credit is taken on the sales tax return in the period in which the
purchase is made.
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Excess collections
Whenever the tax collected by a retailer for any period exceeds that
provided by law, whether the excess is attributable to the collection of
tax on exempt or nontaxable transactions or erroneous computation,
the total amount collected, excluding only that portion of the excess
that has been returned or credited to the person or persons from whom
it was collected, constitutes a tax liability of the retailer that must be
reported and paid at the time and in the manner provided by sections
1951-A and 1952. § 1814(1)
The tax liability specified in subsection 1 shall be subject to assessment,
collection and enforcement by the State Tax Assessor in the manner
provided in chapters 7 and 211 to 225. § 1814(2)
Refunds
Any such amount which has been paid by or collected from a retailer
shall be refunded by the State Tax Assessor to the retailer in
accordance with section 2011 only upon submission of proof to the
satisfaction of the State Tax Assessor that the amount has been
returned or credited to the person or persons from whom it was
originally collected. In such cases, interest shall be paid by the State
Tax Assessor only upon proof that interest was included in the
repayment by the retailer to that person or persons. § 1814(3)
If the State Tax Assessor determines, upon written application by a
taxpayer or during the course of an audit, that any tax under this Part
has been paid more than once or has been erroneously or illegally
collected or computed, the assessor shall certify to the State Controller
the amount paid in excess of that legally due. That amount must be
credited by the assessor on any taxes then due from the taxpayer and
the balance refunded to the taxpayer or the taxpayer’s successor in
interest but no such credit or refund may be allowed unless within 3
years from the date of overpayment either a written petition stating the
grounds upon which the refund or credit is claimed is filed with the
assessor or the overpayment is discovered on audit. Interest at the rate
determined pursuant to section 186 must be paid on any balance
refunded pursuant to this chapter from the date the return listing the
overpayment was filed or the date the payment was made, whichever is
later, except that no interest may be paid with respect to the refunds
provided by section 2013 and, in cases of excessive or erroneous
collections, interest must be paid in accordance with section 1814,
subsection 3. At the election of the assessor, unless the taxpayer
specifically requests a cash refund, the refund may be credited to the
taxpayer's sales and use tax account, but, in the case of a credit, no
further interest may accrue from the date of that election. The
taxpayer may not apply for a refund of any amount assessed when
administrative and judicial review under section 151 has been
completed. § 2011
Reconsiderations
A taxpayer dissatisfied with the decision of the assessor, upon a written
request for refund filed under this section may request reconsideration
and appeal from the reconsideration to the Superior Court in the same
manner and under the same conditions as in the case of assessments
made under chapter 7. The decision of the assessor upon a written
request for refund becomes final as to law and fact in the same manner
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and under the same conditions as in the case of assessments made
under chapter 7. § 2011
Breakage
Breakage under this section shall be retained by the retailer as
compensation for the collection. § 1812(3)
Any retailer who knowingly charges or collects as the sales tax due on
the sale price of any property or service an amount in excess of that
provided by section 1812 commits a Class E crime. § 1813
With the exception of breakage, any tax collected by the retailer from the
purchaser must be remitted to the Bureau even if it represents an over-collection or
erroneous computation unless the tax has been refunded or credited to the purchaser.
"Breakage" is the excess collection provided by the bracket system when applying tax.
This most commonly occurs when there are multiple sales of minimal amounts. For
instance, assume a sales tax rate of 5% and three separate sales of 65 cents, 85 cents and
45 cents. The tax collected in each case is 4 cents, 5 cents and 3 cents, respectively.
Collectively, the total gross sales amounted to $1.95 and tax of 12 cents. When the
retailer reports the gross sales for the month, the retailer computes tax on $1.95 to arrive
at tax due of 10 cents. The extra collection of 2 cents is referred to as "breakage" and is
retained by the retailer.
Bad Debts charged off
The tax paid on sales represented by accounts charged off as worthless
may be credited against the tax due on a subsequent return filed within
3 years of the charge-off, but, if any such accounts are thereafter
collected by the retailer, a tax must be paid upon the amounts so
collected. § 1811-A
Note: This is not a refund provision. If a retailer has a bad debt which includes
sales tax, the tax may be credited to the retailer. The amount must be deducted on a sales
and use tax return filed within three years from the date the amount was actually charged
off on the books of the retailer. Credit for charge-offs cannot be taken later than the 15th
day of the 37th month after the uncollectible amount was charged off on the books of the
retailer.
The amount to be deducted must actually be charged off as uncollectible on the
books of the retailer. On audit, deductions for bad debts will be disallowed unless there
is evidence that this has been done. No deduction is allowable for expenses incurred in
attempting to collect any account receivable, or for that portion of a recovered amount
that is retained by or paid to a third party as compensation for services rendered in
collecting the account.
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The deduction may be made only with respect to taxable sales that were
originally reported as taxable by the retailer, and on which tax has been paid by the
retailer to the State. If the sales tax rate in effect at the time of the sale is different from
the rate in effect at the time that the credit is claimed, the deduction must be adjusted to
reflect the rate that was in effect when the sale was made.
In support of deductions for uncollectible accounts retailers must maintain
adequate and complete records showing:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
Date of the original sale.
Name and address of the purchaser.
Amount the purchaser contracted to pay.
Amount on which the retailer paid tax to the State.
All payments and other credits applied to the account of
the purchaser.
Evidence that the uncollectible amount on which tax was
paid to the State actually has been charged off.
If a retailer subsequently collects any account that has been charged off as
worthless, and for which credit has been taken, the amount collected must be included in
the return filed for the period in which the collection occurred. The tax on that amount
must be paid with that return, based on the tax rate that was in effect at the time of the
original sale. If the tax rate in effect at the time of collection is different from the tax rate
in effect at the time of the original sale, the amount of the collection and the date of the
original sale should be noted in the retailers records.
SPECIAL REFUNDS
In addition to the many exemptions within the law, there are also refund
provisions which, in effect, are exemptions; the major difference being that tax must be
paid on all purchases and refunds sought directly from Maine Revenue Services. The
only exception is with commercial farmers and fishermen.
Fish passage facilities
Taxes on the sale or use of materials used in the construction of fish
passage facilities in new, reconstructed or redeveloped dams, when the
fish passage facilities are built in accordance with plans and
specifications approved by the Department of Inland Fisheries and
Wildlife or the Department of Marine Resources, shall be refundable.
The State Tax Assessor shall refund sales or use tax paid on these
construction materials upon the submission by a person of the
following:
1. Certification concerning construction. A certification from the
Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife or the Department of
Marine Resources that the fish passage facilities were constructed in
accordance with approved plans and specifications; and
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2. Application for tax rebate. An application for a tax rebate which
shall state at a minimum the construction materials purchased, its
manufacturers, its cost, the use of which the purchaser has made of the
materials and the seller from whom the purchase was made, and shall
be accompanied by a copy of the purchase invoices. § 2014
Sales tax paid on materials used in the construction of fish passage facilities in
dams qualifies for refund provided the Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife or the
Department of Marine Resources has certified the construction.
Rental vehicle
excise tax reimbursement
1. Report. Annually, on or before September 1st, a vehicle owner or
rental company engaged in the business of renting automobiles for a
period of less than one year, in order to claim an excise tax
reimbursement, shall file a report with the State Tax Assessor. The
report must include the information required by the State Tax Assessor
to determine the taxpayer's excise tax reimbursement entitlement. The
State Tax Assessor may extend the September 1st filing deadline for a
period not to exceed one year for good cause.
2. Reimbursement. The State Tax Assessor shall determine the
reimbursement to be paid to a taxpayer filing a return pursuant to
subsection 1. The reimbursement is the amount that is the smaller of:
A. The amount determined by computing the total excise tax credit
entitlement during the most recently completed period from July 1st to
June 30th for which a taxpayer has filed a return pursuant to
subsection 1. An excise tax credit accrues for each vehicle excise tax
paid in the prior completed period for which the associated Maine
registration was surrendered prior to the expiration of the associated
12-month excise tax period, unless the excise tax was credited to
another registration, in which case the 12-month period continues to
run in association with the replacement registration. The amount of
the credit is equal to the amount of the excise tax paid in order to
register the original vehicle multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of
which is the number of complete months short of 12 months during
which the registration was surrendered and the denominator is 12; or
B. Three-tenths of the amount of tax paid to the State by the taxpayer
resulting from the tax on the rental of automobiles for a period of less
than one year during the most recently completed period from July 1st
to June 30th.
3.
Treasurer of State; notification. Upon the determination of the
reimbursement amount to be paid to a vehicle owner or rental
company, the State Tax Assessor shall inform the Treasurer of State of
the determination and the Treasurer of State shall make the
reimbursement. These reimbursements must be accounted for and
paid as sales and use tax refunds. Unless the reimbursement is paid
before November 1st of the year in which the report required in
subsection 1 is filed or within 60 days of the filing of that report,
whichever is later, interest at the rate provided in section 186 must be
paid for the period of time that transpires after the deadline before
payment is made. § 2015
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Those persons who are engaged in the business of renting automobiles on a short
term basis (less than one year) may be eligible for a sales tax refund if a vehicle's
registration is surrendered before the year has ended. The refund is the equivalent of the
unused portion of any excise tax paid on the automobile's surrendered registration. For
instance, if the excise tax paid on an automobile was $400 and the vehicle's registration
was surrendered after 9 months, the rentor may be eligible for a refund of $100 (25% of
$400).
Contractors of real property
for qualified Pine Tree
Zone business
Pine Tree Development Zone businesses; reimbursement of certain
taxes
1. Terms defined. As used in this section, the terms "qualified Pine
Tree Development Zone business" and "qualified business activity"
have the meanings given to them in Title 30-A, section 5250-I. For the
purposes of this section, "primarily" means more than 50% of the time
during the period that begins on the date on which the property is first
placed in service by the purchaser and ends 2 years from that date or at
the time the property is sold, destroyed or otherwise permanently
removed from service by the purchaser, whichever occurs first.
2. Reimbursement allowed. A reimbursement is allowed as provided in
this section for a tax paid pursuant to this Part with respect to the sale
or use of tangible personal property that is physically incorporated in
and becomes a permanent part of real property that is owned by or sold
to a qualified Pine Tree Development Zone business and that is used
directly and primarily by that business in one or more qualified
business activities.
3. Claim for reimbursement.
Claims under this section for
reimbursement of taxes are controlled by this subsection.
A. A claim for reimbursement under this section must be filed by the
contractor or subcontractor with the State Tax Assessor within 3 years
from the date on which the tangible personal property was
incorporated into real property. The reimbursement claim must be
submitted on a form prescribed by the assessor and must be
accompanied by a statement from a qualified Pine Tree Development
Zone business certifying, under penalties of perjury, that the personal
property with respect to which the tax was paid by the claimant has
been placed in use directly and primarily in a qualified business
activity. All records pertaining to such certification and to the
transactions in question must be retained for at least 6 years by the
contractor or subcontractor, by the qualified Pine Tree Development
Zone business and by the person, if any, that sold the real property in
question to that business. The reimbursement claim must be
accompanied by such additional information as the assessor may
require. If a sales or use tax is included in the contractor's or
subcontractor's contract price, the contractor or subcontractor shall
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file, at the request of the qualified Pine Tree Development Zone
business, a claim for reimbursement in accordance with this section
and pay the reimbursement to the qualified Pine Tree Development
Zone business.
B. If, by agreement between the contractor or subcontractor and the
qualified Pine Tree Development Zone business, the contractor or
subcontractor assigns its right to claim and receive reimbursement, the
qualified Pine Tree Development Zone business must file a claim for
reimbursement in accordance with this subsection. A reimbursement
may not be issued to a qualified Pine Tree Development Zone business
under this paragraph unless the contractor or subcontractor has
previously submitted to the bureau a certificate, signed by the
contractor or subcontractor, releasing the contractor's or
subcontractor's claim to the reimbursement. The certificate must be in
a format prescribed by the assessor.
4. Limitations. The following are the limitations on reimbursements
made pursuant to this section.
A. Reimbursements made by the assessor pursuant to this section are
limited to taxes paid in connection with sales of tangible personal
property that occur within a period of 10 years from the date the
qualified Pine Tree Development Zone business receiving the property
is certified pursuant to Title 30-A, section 5250-O or by December 31,
2018, whichever occurs first.
B. Reimbursement pursuant to this section of taxes paid in connection
with the sale of tangible personal property subsequently attached to
real property may not be made when those real property improvements:
(1) Are owned by more than one person prior to their acquisition by
the qualified Pine Tree Development Zone business whose certification
accompanies the reimbursement claim pursuant to subsection 3; or
(2) Have been used for a business purpose by a person other than the
qualified Pine Tree Development Zone business whose certification
accompanies the reimbursement claim pursuant to subsection 3.
5. Audit. The assessor has the authority to audit any claim filed under
this section. If the assessor determines that the amount of the claimed
reimbursement is incorrect, the assessor shall redetermine the claim
and notify the claimant in writing of the redetermination. If the
claimant has received reimbursement of an amount that the assessor
concludes should not have been reimbursed, the assessor may issue an
assessment for that amount within 3 years from the date the
reimbursement claim was filed or at any time if a fraudulent
reimbursement claim was filed. The claimant may seek
reconsideration, pursuant to section 151, of the redetermination or
assessment.
6. Payment of claims. The State Tax Assessor shall determine the
benefit for each claimant under this section and certify to the State
Controller the amount to be transferred from the Pine Tree
Development Zone Reserve Fund, established pursuant to Title 30-A,
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section 5250-J, subsection 4-B, to the Pine Tree Development Zone
reimbursement reserve account established, maintained and
administered by the State Controller from General Fund undedicated
revenue within the sales tax category. The assessor shall pay the
certified amounts to each approved applicant qualifying for the benefit
under this section within 30 days after receipt of a properly completed
claim. Interest is not allowed on any payment made to a claimant
pursuant to this section. § 2016
The PTDZ tax credits and benefits are available to certified businesses engaged
in qualified activity for tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2004. Effective July 1,
2005, contractors and sub-contractors are eligible for reimbursement of sales and use tax
paid on tangible personal property affixed to realty owned by or to be sold to a qualified
Pine Tree Development Zone business. To obtain certification, the business must apply
to the Department of Economic and Community Development (“DECD”) and meet the
requirements for qualified business activity.
In general, in order to be certified, a
business must be engaged in a targeted business sector (manufacturing, financial services,
selected technologies); must intend to expand the base level of employment with
qualified employees; and the qualified employees must be new fulltime employees who
are hired by a Pine Tree Development Zone business for work directly in one or more
qualified business activities. Contractors should refer to Instructional Bulletin #52 for
further information about this program and procedures to claim reimbursement.
Contractors of real property
for qualified community wind
power generators
Qualified community wind power generator; reimbursement of certain
taxes
1. Definitions. As used in this section, unless the context
otherwise indicates, the following terms have the following meanings.
A. "Primarily" means more than 50% of the time during the
period that begins on the date on which the property is first placed
in service by the purchaser and ends 2 years from that date or at
the time the property is sold, destroyed or otherwise permanently
removed from service by the purchaser, whichever occurs first.
A-1. "Community wind power generation facility" means an
electricity-generating facility at any one site with an instantaneous
generating nameplate capacity of not more than 10 megawatts that
is powered entirely by wind energy.
B. "Qualified community wind power generator" means a person
that has been certified as a community wind power generator by
the Public Utilities Commission pursuant to Title 35-A, section
3403, subsection 3.
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2. Reimbursement allowed. A reimbursement is allowed as
provided in this section for a tax paid pursuant to this Part with respect
to the sale or use of tangible personal property that is physically
incorporated in and becomes a permanent part of real property that is
owned by or sold to a qualified community wind power generator and
that is used directly and primarily in the generation of electricity at a
community wind power generation facility in this State..
3. Claim for reimbursement. Claims under this section for
reimbursement of taxes are controlled by this subsection.
A. A claim for reimbursement under this section must be filed by
the contractor or subcontractor with the State Tax Assessor within
3 years from the date on which the tangible personal property was
incorporated into real property. The reimbursement claim must be
submitted on a form prescribed by the assessor and must be
accompanied by a statement from a qualified community wind
power generator certifying, under penalties of perjury, that the
personal property with respect to which the tax was paid by the
claimant has been placed in use directly and primarily in the
generation of electricity in this State at a community wind power
generation facility. All records pertaining to such certification and
to the transactions in question must be retained for at least 6 years
by the contractor or subcontractor, by the qualified community
wind power generator and by the person, if any, that sold the real
property in question to the qualified community wind power
generator. The reimbursement claim must be accompanied by such
additional information as the assessor may require. If a sales or
use tax is included in the contractor's or subcontractor's contract
price, the contractor or subcontractor shall file, at the request of
the qualified community wind power generator, a claim for
reimbursement in accordance with this section and pay the
reimbursement to the qualified community wind power generator.
B. If, by agreement between the contractor or subcontractor and
the qualified community wind power generator, the contractor or
subcontractor assigns its right to claim and receive reimbursement,
the qualified community wind power generator must file a claim
for reimbursement in accordance with this subsection.
Reimbursement may not be issued to a qualified community wind
power generator under this paragraph unless the contractor or
subcontractor has previously submitted to the assessor a certificate,
signed by the contractor or subcontractor, releasing the
contractor's or subcontractor's claim to the reimbursement. The
certificate must be in a format prescribed by the assessor.
4. Limitations. Limitations on reimbursements made pursuant
to this section are governed by this subsection.
A. Reimbursements made by the State Tax Assessor pursuant to
this section are limited to taxes paid in connection with sales of
tangible personal property that occur within a period of 5 years
from the date the qualified community wind power generator
receiving the property is certified pursuant to Title 35-A, section
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3403, subsection 3 or by December 31, 2011, whichever occurs
first.
B. Reimbursement pursuant to this section of taxes paid in
connection with the sale of tangible personal property subsequently
attached to real property may not be made when those real property
improvements:
(1) Are owned by more than one person prior to their acquisition
by the qualified community wind power generator whose
certification accompanies the reimbursement claim pursuant to
subsection 3; or
(2) Have been used for a business purpose by a person other than
the qualified community wind power generator whose certification
accompanies the reimbursement claim pursuant to subsection 3.
5. Audit. The State Tax Assessor has the authority to audit any
claim filed under this section. If the assessor determines that the
amount of the claimed reimbursement is incorrect, the assessor shall
redetermine the claim and notify the claimant in writing of the
redetermination. If the claimant has received reimbursement of an
amount that the assessor concludes should not have been reimbursed,
the assessor may issue an assessment for that amount within 3 years
from the date the reimbursement claim was filed or at any time if a
fraudulent reimbursement claim was filed. The claimant may seek
reconsideration, pursuant to section 151, of the redetermination or
assessment.
6. Payment of claims. The State Tax Assessor shall determine
the benefit for each claimant under this section and certify to the State
Controller the amount to be transferred to the qualified community
wind power generator reimbursement reserve account established,
maintained and administered by the State Controller from General
Fund undedicated revenue within the sales tax category. The assessor
shall pay the certified amounts to each approved applicant qualifying
for the benefit under this section within 30 days after receipt of a
properly completed claim. Interest is not allowed on any payment made
to a claimant pursuant to this section. §2017
Beginning October 1, 2006, tax credits and benefits are available to certified
businesses engaged as a qualified community wind power generator. Contractors and
sub-contractors are eligible for reimbursement of sales and use tax paid on tangible
personal property affixed to realty owned by or to be sold to a certified wind power
generator.
To obtain certification, the entity must apply to the Public Utilities
Commission and meet certain requirements. In general, in order to be certified, the entity
must construct a community wind power generator with a capacity of not more than 10
megawatts that is powered entirely by wind energy and the entity will own title or
controlling interest in that generator. The entity must also demonstrate that construction
of this generator would not be possible but for the tax credits and benefits available under
this program. Contractors should contact Maine Revenue for further information about
this program and procedures to claim reimbursement.
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Advanced communications
technology infrastructure
in ConnectME zones
Reimbursement of certain taxes relating to advanced communications
technology infrastructure
1. Definitions. As used in this section, unless the context
otherwise indicates, the following terms have the following meanings.
A. "Advanced communications technology infrastructure" has the
same meaning as in Title 35-A, section 9202.
B. "Authority" has the same meaning as in Title 35-A, section
9202.
C. "Qualifying ConnectME zone" means a geographical area that
is eligible for tax reimbursement under this section because the
authority has determined that the area is an unserved or
underserved area.
2. Reimbursement allowed. Following final adoption of rules
under subsection 7, but in no event earlier than July 1, 2007, a
reimbursement is allowed as provided in this section for taxes paid
pursuant to this Part with respect to machinery and equipment
purchased for use by a person to develop an advanced communications
technology infrastructure in a qualifying ConnectME zone.
3. Claim for reimbursement. A claim for reimbursement
under this section must be filed with the assessor within 3 years from
the date on which the machinery and equipment was purchased. The
purchaser shall submit the reimbursement claim on a form prescribed
by the assessor and must include a statement from the authority
certifying that the machinery and equipment is being used primarily to
develop an advanced communications technology infrastructure in a
qualifying ConnectME zone. The purchaser and the authority shall
retain all records pertaining to such certification and to the purchases
in question for at least 6 years. The reimbursement claim must be
accompanied by such additional information as the assessor may
require.
4. Reimbursement limit. The authority may not certify for
reimbursement under this section a total amount in excess of $500,000
in any state fiscal year.
5. Audit. The assessor may audit any claim filed under this
section. If the assessor determines that the amount of the claimed
reimbursement is incorrect, the assessor shall redetermine the claim
and notify the claimant in writing of the redetermination. If the
claimant has received reimbursement of an amount that the assessor
concludes should not have been reimbursed, the assessor may issue an
assessment for that amount within 3 years from the date the
reimbursement claim was filed or at any time if a fraudulent
reimbursement claim was filed.
The claimant may seek
reconsideration pursuant to section 151 of the redetermination or
assessment.
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6. Payment of claims. Within 30 days after receipt of a
properly completed claim under this section, the assessor shall inform
the State Controller of the certified amounts that are to be reimbursed
to the claimant. The State Controller shall make the reimbursement
and shall account for and pay it as a sales and use tax refund. Interest
is not allowed on any payment made to a claimant pursuant to this
section.
7. Rulemaking. The authority in cooperation with the assessor
shall develop rules as necessary to administer this section. Rules
adopted pursuant to this section are major substantive rules as defined
in Title 5, chapter 375, subchapter 2-A.
8. Repeal. This section is repealed January 31, 2009.
§2017
A reimbursement is allowed for sales and use tax paid by a person with respect to
machinery and equipment purchased for use by that person to develop an advanced
communications technology infrastructure in a qualifying ConnectME zone. Since Rule
324 was adopted on June 19, 2007, the effective date of this provision was July 1, 2007.
Contact should be made with Maine Revenue for further information about this program
and procedures to claim reimbursement.
Certain supplies and equipment
used out-of-state
When a business which operates from fixed locations within and
without this State purchases supplies and equipment in this State,
places them in inventory in this State, and subsequently withdraws
them from inventory either for use at a location of the business in
another taxing jurisdiction or for fabrication, attachment or
incorporation into other tangible personal property for use at a
location of the business in another taxing jurisdiction, without having
made use other than storage or such fabrication, attachment or
incorporation within this State, it may request a refund of Maine sales
tax paid at the time of purchase, provided it maintains inventory
records by which the acquisition and disposition of such supplies and
equipment purchased can be traced. No refund shall be made where
the taxing jurisdiction to which the supplies and equipment are
removed levies a sales or use tax. Such refunds must be requested in
accordance with section 2011. § 2012
This section contains a number of qualifications in order to obtain a refund of tax
paid. To summarize, if a business has a fixed location in Maine and in New Hampshire
and purchases supplies and equipment in Maine, pays a tax and subsequently removes
them to their place of business in New Hampshire for use in New Hampshire, a refund
can be obtained.
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Sales and use taxes
are trust funds
All sales and use taxes collected by a person pursuant to Part 3, all
taxes collected by a person under color of Part 3 which have not been
properly returned or credited to the persons from whom they were
collected, all taxes collected by or imposed on a person pursuant to
chapter 451 or 459, all fees collected pursuant to chapter 719 and all
taxes collected by a person pursuant to chapter 827 constitute a special
fund in trust for the State Tax Assessor. The liability for the taxes or
fees and the interest or penalty on taxes or fees is enforceable by
assessment and collection, in the manner prescribed in this Part,
against the person and against any officer, director, member, agent or
employee of that person who, in that capacity, is responsible for the
control or management of the funds or finances of that person or is
responsible for the payment of that person's taxes. An assessment
against a responsible individual pursuant to this section must be made
within 6 years from the date on which the return on which the taxes
were required to be reported was filed. An assessment pursuant to this
section may be made at any time with respect to a time period for which
a return has become due but has not been filed. § 177(1)
Sales and use tax collected by the retailer is held in trust for the State Tax
Assessor. This money, therefore, is to be remitted to the Assessor and is not to be used
by the retailer for any other purpose. Collection of taxes that have not been paid is also
enforceable against any responsible individual of the business.
Section 177(6) also requires payment of the trust fund tax incurred, and interest
and penalties, at the time a business is purchased. Failure to do so will make the
purchaser personally liable for any outstanding trust fund debt, and interest and penalties,
unless the purchaser has obtained a receipt or certificate from the State Tax Assessor
stating that the taxes have been paid or that no trust fund taxes, interest or penalties are
due.
In an effort to maintain compliance, the statute provides for interest and penalties
to be imposed in various situations.
The statute provides powers to the State Tax
Assessor to conduct audits but it also provides rights to the taxpayer as well.
INTEREST
A person who fails to pay any tax, other than a tax imposed pursuant to
chapter 105, on or before the last date prescribed for payment is liable
for interest on the tax, calculated from that date and compounded
monthly. The rate of interest for any calendar year equals the highest
prime rate as published in the Wall Street Journal on the first day of
September of the preceding calendar year or, if the first day of
September falls on a weekend or holiday, on the next succeeding
business day, rounded up to the next whole percent plus 3 percentage
points. For purposes of this section, the last date prescribed for
payment of tax must be determined without regard to any extension of
time permitted for filing a return. A tax that is upheld on
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administrative or judicial review bears interest from the date on which
payment would have been due in the absence of review. Any amount
that has been erroneously refunded and is recoverable by the assessor
bears interest at the rate determined pursuant to this section from the
date of payment of the refund. A credit or reimbursement that has been
allowed or paid pursuant to this Title and is recoverable by the assessor
bears interest at the rate determined pursuant to this section from the
date it was allowed or paid. Interest accrues automatically, without
being assessed by the assessor, and is recoverable by the assessor in the
same manner as if it were a tax assessed under this Title. If the failure
to pay a tax when required is explained to the satisfaction of the
assessor, the assessor may abate or waive the payment of all or any part
of that interest.
Except as otherwise provided in this Title, and except for taxes imposed
pursuant to chapter 105, interest at the rate determined pursuant to this
section must be paid on overpayments of tax from the date the return
listing the overpayment was filed, or the date payment was made,
whichever is later. § 186
Each fall the assessor determines the interest rate for the upcoming calendar year.
Interest is compounded monthly. In order to stop interest from accruing, both the base
tax and interest must be paid. The following are the rates in effect for past years:
Calendar Year
Rate
1999 through 2001
9%
2002
8%
2003
7%
2004 (Jan-June)
6%
2004 (July – Dec)
7%
2005
8%
2006
10 %
2007 & 2008
12 %
2009
8%
2010 & 2011
7%
PENALTIES
Failure to file return
Any person who fails to make and file any return required under this
Title at or before the time the return becomes due is liable for one of
the following penalties if the person's tax liability shown on such
return or otherwise determined to be due is greater than $25.
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A. If the return is filed before or within 30 days after the taxpayer
receives from the assessor a formal demand that the return be filed, or
if the return is not filed but the tax due is assessed by the assessor
before the taxpayer receives from the assessor a formal demand that
the return be filed, the penalty is $25 or 10% of the tax due, whichever
is greater.
B. If the return is not filed within 30 days after the taxpayer receives
from the assessor a formal demand that the return be filed, the penalty
is 100% of the tax due. The 30-day period provided by this paragraph is
extended for up to 120 days if the taxpayer request an extension in
writing prior to the expiration of the 30-day period.
C. If the return is not filed and the assessor makes a determination of
jeopardy pursuant to section 145, the penalty is 100% of the tax due.
This subsection does not apply to any return required pursuant to
chapter 459 and administered pursuant to the International Fuel Tax
Agreement. § 187-B(1)
Failure to pay
The following penalties apply.
A. Any person who fails to pay, on or before the due date, any amount
shown as tax on any return required under this Title is liable for a
penalty of 1% of the unpaid tax for each month or fraction of a month
during which the failure continues, to a maximum in the aggregate of
25% of the unpaid tax.
A-1. Any person who fails to make and file any return required under
this Title at or before the time the return becomes due against whom
the assessor has made an assessment of tax pursuant to section 141
and who has not paid the tax on or before the date specified in that
assessment is liable for a penalty of 1% of the unpaid tax for each
month or fraction of a month during which the tax remains unpaid,
calculated retroactively from the original due date of the unfiled
return, to a maximum in the aggregate of 25% of the unpaid tax.
B. Any person who fails to pay a tax assessment for which no further
administrative or judicial review is available pursuant to section 151
and the Maine Administrative Procedure Act is liable for a penalty in
the amount of 25% of the amount of the tax due if the payment of the
tax is not made within 10 days of the person's receipt of notice of
demand for payment as provided by this Title. This penalty must be
explained in the notice of demand and is final when levied.
This subsection does not apply to taxes due pursuant to chapter 459
and administered pursuant to the terms of the International Fuel Tax
Agreement. § 187-B(2)
If an existing debt is liquidated by use of an acceptable and successful repayment
schedule that was initiated before or within the 10 days prescribed on the notice of
demand for payment, the additional 25% charge for failure to pay will not be invoked.
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Negligence and fraud
A person who files a return under this Title that results in an
underpayment of tax, any portion of which is attributable to negligence
or intentional disregard of this Title or rules adopted pursuant to this
Title, but is not attributable to fraud with intent to evade the tax, is
liable for a penalty in the amount of $25 or 25% of that portion of the
underpayment, whichever is greater. A person who files a return
under this Title that results in an underpayment of tax, any portion of
which is attributable to fraud with intent to evade the tax, is liable for a
penalty in the amount of $75 or 75% of that portion of the
underpayment, whichever is greater. For the purposes of this section,
"negligence" means any failure to make a reasonable attempt to
comply with the provisions of this Title. § 187-B(3-A)
Substantial understatement
A person who files a return under this Title that results in an
underpayment of tax, any portion of which is attributable to a
substantial understatement of tax, without negligence or intentional
disregard of this Title or rules adopted pursuant to this Title and
without fraud with intent to evade the tax, is liable for a penalty of $5
or 1% of that portion of the underpayment, whichever is greater, for
each month or fraction of a month during which the failure to pay that
portion of the underpayment continues, up to a maximum in the
aggregate of $25 or 25% of the underpayment, whichever is greater.
There is a substantial understatement of tax if the amount of the
understatement on the return or returns for the period covered by the
assessment exceeds 10% of the total tax required to be shown on the
return or returns for that period or $1,000, whichever is greater. For
purposes of determining whether an understatement is substantial and
calculating the amount of a substantial understatement that is subject
to penalty under this subsection, the amount of an understatement is
reduced by that portion of the understatement that is attributable to the
tax treatment of any item by the taxpayer if there is or was substantial
authority for that treatment. § 187-B(4-A)
Insufficient funds
Any person who makes payment of an amount due under this Title by
means of a check or electronic funds transfer that is returned unpaid
by the bank on which it is drawn because of insufficient funds or the
closing or nonexistence of the account on which it is drawn is liable for
a penalty of $20 or 1% of the payment amount, whichever is greater.
§ 187-B(5)
Penalties not exclusive
Each penalty provided under this section is in addition to any interest
and other penalties provided under this section and other law, except as
otherwise provided in this section. Interest may not accrue on the
penalty. This section does not apply to any filing or payment
responsibility pursuant to Part 2 except that this section does apply to a
filing or payment responsibility pursuant to the state tax on
telecommunications personal property imposed under section 457. The
penalties imposed under subsections 1 and 2 accrue automatically,
without being assessed by the State Tax Assessor. Each penalty
imposed under this section is recoverable by the assessor in the same
manner as if it were a tax assessed under this Title. § 187-B(6)
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Waiver or abatement
of penalties
For reasonable cause, the State Tax Assessor shall waive or abate any
penalty imposed by subsection 1; subsection 1-A; subsection 2;
subsections 4-A, 4-B, 5-A and 5-B; or by the terms of the International
Fuel Tax Agreement. Reasonable cause includes, but is not limited to,
the following:
A. The failure to file or pay resulted directly from erroneous
information provided by the Bureau of Revenue Services;
B. The failure to file or pay resulted directly from the death or
serious illness of the taxpayer or a member of the taxpayer's immediate
family;
C. The failure to file or pay resulted directly from a natural
disaster;
D. A return that was due monthly was filed and paid less than
one month late and all of the taxpayer's returns and payments during
the preceding 12 months were timely;
E. A return that was due other than monthly was filed and
paid less than one month late and all of the taxpayer's returns and
payments during the preceding 3 years were timely;
F. The taxpayer has supplied substantial authority justifying
the failure to file or pay; or
G. The amount subject to a penalty imposed by subsections 1,
2 and 4-A; and subsection 5-A is de minimis when considered in
relation to the amount otherwise properly paid, the reason for the
failure to file or pay and the taxpayer's compliance history.
The burden of establishing grounds for waiver or abatement is on
the taxpayer.
For purposes of this section, the term "person" includes an
individual, corporation or partnership or any officer or employee of a
corporation, including a dissolved corporation, or a member or
employee of a partnership who, as the officer, employee or member, is
under a duty to perform the act in respect of which a violation occurs.
§ 187-B(7)
Remedies not exclusive
Each remedy provided in this Title is not exclusive and is in addition to
all other remedies prescribed in this Title for the enforcement and
collection of any tax imposed by this Title. § 188
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AUDITS
Whenever necessary to the administration of this Title, the assessor
may make, or cause to be made by an employee, an examination or
investigation of the place of business, books and other documents and
any other relevant personal property of any person who the assessor
has reason to believe is liable for any tax imposed by this Title.
At the conclusion of an audit, the assessor or an agent shall conduct an
audit conference with the taxpayer and shall give the taxpayer a
written summary of the audit findings, including the legal basis for the
audit findings and adjustments, along with copies of relevant bureau
audit workpapers. § 112(4)
The assessor is authorized to name any of the assessor's employees as
agents to collect any tax imposed under this title. § 112(6)
SECTION 2. Recordkeeping requirements generally; for registered
retailers.
1. Every taxpayer, including every retailer required to be
registered under Title 36 Chapter 211 and every service provider
required to be registered under Title 35 Chapter 358, must maintain all
records that are necessary to determine the correct tax liability. All
required records must be made available on request by the State Tax
Assessor or the assessor's authorized representatives as required by
Title 36 Section 112(4).
2. A taxpayer that captures the required records in machinesensible format must maintain those records for as long as is required
by Title 36 section 135(1) and Section 9 of this rule. In the case of sales
tax, this means at least 6 years. These records must upon request be
made available to the assessor in machine-sensible format as described
in Section 5, including permitting the transfer of the records onto a
laptop or other computer in the possession and control of an agent of
the assessor. Rule 103
SECTION 3. Recordkeeping requirements — machine-sensible
records
A. Machine-sensible records used to establish tax compliance must
contain sufficient transaction-level detail information so that the
details underlying the machine-sensible records can be identified and
made available to the State Tax Assessor upon request. A taxpayer
may discard duplicated records and redundant information provided
that the taxpayer's responsibilities under this rule are met.
B. At the time of an audit, the retained records must be capable of
being retrieved and converted to a standard record format. Rule 103
SECTION 5. Access to machine-sensible records
Unless the taxpayer and the State Tax Assessor agree on other
means of providing access to machine-sensible records, upon the
assessor's request the taxpayer must provide the assessor, either
directly or through a third party, with all pertinent records in bulk and
in a media form acceptable to the assessor or standard record format
specified by the assessor, and with the transaction-level detail deemed
necessary by the assessor to determine the correct tax liability.
Rule 103
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ASSESSMENTS
Except as otherwise provided, an amount of tax that a person declares
on a return filed with the State Tax Assessor to be due to the State is
deemed to be assessed at the time the return is filed and is payable on
or before the date prescribed for filing the return, determined without
regard to an extension of time granted for filing the return. When a
return is filed, the assessor shall cause it to be examined and may
conduct audits or investigations to determine the correct tax liability. If
the assessor determines that the amount of tax shown on the return is
less than the correct amount, the assessor shall assess the tax due the
State. Except as provided in subsection 2, an assessment may not be
made after 3 years from the date the return was filed or 3 years from
the date the return was required to be filed, whichever is later. The
assessor may make a supplemental assessment within the assessment
period prescribed by this section for the same period, periods or partial
periods previously assessed if the assessor determines that a previous
assessment understates the tax due or otherwise is imperfect or
incomplete in any material respect. § 141(1)
Exceptions to statute
of limitations
A. An assessment may be made within 6 years from the date the return
was filed if the tax liability shown on the return, after adjustments
necessary to correct any mathematical errors apparent on the face of
the return, is less than ½ of the tax liability determined by the State Tax
Assessor. In determining whether the 50% threshold provided by this
paragraph is satisfied, the assessor may not consider any portion of the
understated tax liability for which the taxpayer has substantial
authority supporting its position.
B. An assessment may be made at any time with respect to a time
period for which a fraudulent return has been filed.
C. An assessment may be made at any time with respect to a time
period for which a return has become due but has not been filed. If
any person failing to file a return fails to produce, within 30 days after
notice, information that the State Tax Assessor believes necessary to
determine tax liability for the period involved, the State Tax Assessor
may assess an estimated tax liability based upon the best information
otherwise available. In any proceeding for the collection of tax for the
period involved, that estimate constitutes prima facie evidence of the
tax liability. The 30-day period provided by this paragraph is extended
for up to 90 days if the taxpayer requests an extension in writing prior
to the expiration of the 30-day period.
E. The time limitations for assessment specified in this section may be
extended to any later date to which the State Tax Assessor and person
liable for tax agree in writing. § 141(2)
If the State Tax Assessor determines that the collection of any tax will
be jeopardized by delay, the assessor, upon giving notice of this
determination to the person liable for the tax, may demand an
immediate return with respect to any period or immediate payment of
any tax declared to be in jeopardy, or both, and may terminate the
current reporting period and demand an immediate return and
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payment with respect to that period. Notwithstanding any other
provision of law, taxes declared to be in jeopardy are payable
immediately, and the assessor may proceed immediately to collect those
taxes by any collection method authorized by this Title. The person
liable for the tax may stay collection by requesting reconsideration of
the declaration of jeopardy in accordance with section 151 and
depositing with the assessor, within the time period specified in section
151, a bond or other security in the amount of the liability with respect
to which the stay of collection is sought. A determination of jeopardy
by the assessor is presumed to be correct, and the burden of showing
otherwise is on the taxpayer. §145
Taxpayer bill of rights
The assessor shall prepare a statement describing in simple and
nontechnical terms the rights of a taxpayer and the obligations of the
bureau during an audit. The statement must also explain the
procedures by which a taxpayer may appeal any adverse decision of the
assessor, including the informal conference and judicial appeals. This
statement must be distributed by the bureau to any taxpayer contacted
with respect to the determination or collection of any tax, excluding the
normal mailing of tax forms. This paragraph does not apply to
criminal tax investigations conducted by the assessor or by the Attorney
General. § 112(7-A)
Reconsiderations
Any person who is subject to an assessment by the State Tax Assessor
or entitled by law to receive notice of a determination of the assessor
and who is aggrieved as a result of that action may request in writing,
within 30 days after receipt of notice of the assessment or the
determination, reconsideration by the assessor of the assessment or the
determination. If a person receives notice of an assessment and does
not file a request for reconsideration within the specified time period,
the assessor may not reconsider the assessment pursuant to this section
and no review is available in Superior Court regardless of whether the
taxpayer subsequently makes payment and requests a refund.
If a request for reconsideration is filed within the specified time period,
the assessor shall reconsider the assessment or the determination. If
the petitioner has so requested in the petition, the assessor shall hold
an informal conference with the petitioner to receive additional
information and to hear arguments regarding the protested assessment
or determination. The assessor shall give the petitioner 10 working
days' notice of the time and place of the conference. The conference
may be held with less than 10 working days' notice if a mutually
convenient time and place can be arranged. The reconsideration, with
or without an informal conference, is not an "adjudicatory
proceeding" within the meaning of that term in the Maine
Administrative Procedure Act. If the requested reconsideration
involves a denial or deemed denial of a refund claim, a refund claim
with respect to which a conference has been requested under section
5280 or an assessment that is paid in full or part and the assessor fails
to mail to the taxpayer a decision on the reconsideration within 9
months after the reconsideration request was filed, the taxpayer may
elect but is not obligated to deem the request for reconsideration
denied. The taxpayer elects to deem the reconsideration denied by
filing in Superior Court a petition for review of the deemed denial. The
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deemed denial constitutes final agency action and is subject to court
review as otherwise provided in this section. The taxpayer may not
make the deemed denial election after either the assessor's
reconsideration decision has been received by the taxpayer or the
expiration of 9 years following the filing of the reconsideration request,
whichever occurs first. Notwithstanding any other provision of law,
any claim for credit or refund of any tax imposed under this Title is
deemed denied 10 years after it was filed if the claim has not previously
been allowed or denied as final agency action. A deemed denial
constitutes final agency action.
The assessor's decision on reconsideration must be mailed to
the taxpayer or the taxpayer's designated representative by certified or
registered mail and the decision must set forth briefly the assessor's
findings of fact and the basis of decision in each case decided in whole
or in part adversely to the taxpayer. The assessor's decision on
reconsideration constitutes final agency action that is subject to review
by the Superior Court in accordance with the Maine Administrative
Procedure Act, except that Title 5, sections 11006 and 11007 do not
apply. The Superior Court shall conduct a de novo hearing and make
a de novo determination of the merits of the case. It shall make its own
determination as to all questions of fact or law. The Superior Court
shall enter such orders and decrees as the case may require. The
burden of proof is on the taxpayer. § 151
Collection action
If any tax imposed by this Title is not paid on or before its due date and
no further administrative or judicial review of the assessment is
available under section 151, the assessor, within 3 years after
administrative and judicial review have been exhausted, may give the
taxpayer notice of the amount to be paid, specifically designating the
tax, interest and penalty due, and demand payment of that amount
within 10 days of that taxpayer's receipt of notice. The notice must
include a warning that, upon failure of that taxpayer to pay as
demanded, the assessor may proceed to collect the amount due by any
collection method authorized by this Title. The notice must describe
the procedures applicable to the levy and sale of property under section
176-A, the alternatives available to the taxpayer that could forestall
levy on property, including installment agreements, and the provisions
of this Title relating to redemption of property and the release of the
lien on property created by virtue of the levy. If the taxpayer has filed a
petition for relief under the United States Bankruptcy Code, the
running of the 3-year period of limitation imposed by this section is
stayed until the bankruptcy case is closed or a discharge is granted,
whichever occurs first. § 171, sub-§1
Service of the notice of demand for payment authorizes the State Tax Assessor to
take collection actions as provided by law. These actions may include denial, suspension
or revocation of certain licenses, liens, warrants to initiate court action, levies on wages,
bank accounts or rights to receive money and seizure of cash, personal property or real
estate. As previously stated in the §187-B(2), if the tax so "demanded" is not paid or a
successful repayment plan is not completed, an additional penalty of 25% is charged on
the unpaid tax.
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Production
... an operation or integrated series of operations engaged in as a
business or segment of a business that transforms or converts personal
property by physical, chemical or other means into a different form,
composition or character from that in which it originally existed.
“Production” includes film production.
"Production" includes manufacturing, processing, assembling and
fabricating operations that meet the definitional requisites, including
biological processes that are part of an integrated process of
manufacturing organisms or microorganic materials through the
application of biotechnology. § 1752(9-B)
The term “manufacturer” means an entity that is engaged in the production of
tangible personal property for later sale or lease. The question of exactly what is and
what is not “production” has great importance when considering the sales and use tax
exemptions available to manufacturers.
In summary, in order for “production” to exist, a business must be engaged, in
whole or in part, in the transformation of raw materials into a new and different product.
Some common examples are:
• A paper mill converting wood chips into paper.
• A wood crafter converting lumber into finished furniture.
• A seamstress converting cloth material into a dress.
Production begins..
Production commences with the movement of raw materials to the first
production machine after their receipt and storage at the production
site (after receipt if the raw materials are not stored)… Rule 303
The point at which production begins depends on whether or not the raw
materials used in the production process are stored.
If the materials are stored,
production begins with the movement of the materials from storage to the first production
machine. If the materials are not stored, production begins with the movement of the
materials from point of delivery to the first production machine.
For example, a manufacturer of furniture receives rough sawn lumber and stores
this lumber in a warehouse. The first production machine for this manufacturer will
likely be a planer. Production begins when the rough lumber is removed from storage
and brought to the planer. If this movement to the planer is accomplished mechanically,
the machine in question is considered to be used in production.
In another example, a manufacturer of plastic widgets stores its plastic pellets in
storage tanks. The first production machine is machinery that melts down the pellets into
a liquid form. Production begins when the plastic pellets move toward the melting
machine. If this is accomplished through a piping system, for instance, production begins
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when the pellets leave the storage tank and the piping system is considered part of
production.
Production ends ..
…and ends with the completion of the finished product, including any
“in-line” packaging operation. Rule 303
Production ends with the completion of the finished product before the product is
stored for later delivery. This may include packaging operations – but only those that are
part of a series of operations with the production line and the packaging is performed
before the product is stored. Packaging operations that occur after the product has been
placed in storage or that occur within the storage facility are not part of production.
For example, if a manufacturer of videotapes has within its production line a
machine that inserts the tapes into a cardboard sleeve and shrink-wraps each individual
tape, this packaging operation is part of production. In contrast, if the tapes are instead
sent to a storage room and later shrink-wrapped into packages of 10 and inserted into
cardboard boxes for shipping to customers, this later packaging operation is not part of
production.
Exclusions from production
The acquisition of raw materials, the transportation of raw materials or
goods in process between production sites, and administrative and
distributive operations do not constitute production. Rule 303
"Production" does not include biological processes except as otherwise
provided by this subsection, wood harvesting operations, the severance
of sand, gravel, oil, gas or other natural resources produced or severed
from the soil or water, or activities such as cooking or preparing
drinks, meals, food or food products by a retailer for retail sale.
§ 1752(9-B)
Machinery and equipment used in certain activities or operations is excluded
from the definition of “production” for purposes of the Sales and Use Tax Law and as a
result is taxable unless covered by a different exemption.
Items used primarily in the
following functions are not considered to be used in production and therefore generally
do not qualify for exemption:
Acquisition of raw materials. Machinery or equipment used in the acquisition of raw
materials, including wood-harvesting operations and severing sand, gravel, or other
natural resources from soil or water.
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Examples of taxable items: Cameras used by newspaper photographers
to record images on film for later selection and use in newspaper
production; chain saws used to harvest wood for subsequent milling;
excavation equipment used to extract clay from which bricks are later
formed.
Storage and handling (pre- and post-production). Machinery or equipment used in
the storage or handling of exempt material prior to the movement of the materials
between point of receipt or storage area and the first production operation, or after the
completion of any in-line packaging operation.
Examples of taxable items: A crane used primarily to unload logs from
trucks into storage piles, prior to movement of the logs to a debarker or
pulp grinder; an ice machine used primarily to keep fresh food cold
during delivery, rather than to chill or freeze food as a step in the
processing; a forklift used primarily to move palletized product from the
palletizer to a warehouse pending shipment.
Product transportation/distribution.
Machinery or equipment used in the
transportation of product on public ways between different production sites, or in the
distribution of product to customers.
Examples of taxable items: A truck used to carry packaged product to
customers.
Biological processes.
processes.
Machinery or equipment used in connection with biological
A biological process is a natural process that occurs with little or no
intervention from humans or machinery.
Examples of taxable items: Equipment used in the hatching of eggs or in
the growing of crops. (But see Part II, Section I for information on an
exception to this rule in the case of biotechnology.)
Activities by a retailer in connection with the preparation of food to be sold by the
retailer.
Machinery or equipment used by a retailer in the preparation of food to be
sold by the retailer.
Examples of taxable items: Refrigerators, ovens and blenders used by a
restaurant in the preparation of meals.
Administrative functions. Machinery or equipment used in administrative, personnel,
security, inventory control, administrative record keeping, ordering, billing, or similar
support functions.
Examples of taxable items: Computers used primarily for billing, payroll and
business correspondence; telephone systems; security cameras.
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Quality control. Machinery or equipment used for quality control purposes (other than
as described in Part II, section A(4)(g)).
Maintenance/cleaning. Machinery or equipment used to clean, repair, or maintain real
or personal property in the manufacturing facility (other than attachments to exempt
machinery and equipment described in Part II, section A(4)(e) below).
Examples of taxable items: A floor polishing machine; welding equipment used
to repair production piping; equipment used to sharpen the blades of saws used
at a lumber mill; brooms and other cleaning supplies.
Safety/fire protection.
Machinery or equipment used for fire protection or the
protection and safety of workers or other persons (unless the equipment is attached to or
incorporated into exempt machinery and equipment).
Examples of taxable items: A plexiglass screen (not attached to exempt
equipment) used to protect passing workers and visitors from flying debris; fire
extinguishers and fire sprinkler systems; an emergency shower and eyewash
station; security systems; standard safety clothing and other standard safety
items worn by employees.
Non-specialized environmental controls (lighting, HVAC, etc.).
General plant
lighting, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, or similar environmental control designed
for the comfort or convenience of employees. (See Part II, section A(4)(i) below
regarding specialized environmental control items essential to a particular production
process).
Examples of taxable items: A general building HVAC system used to cool and
ventilate a room where wood workers assemble furniture; an office humidifier;
thermostats used to control a boiler used primarily to heat a building.
Certain electrical equipment. Electrical equipment located prior to the last transformer
at the manufacturing facility that steps electricity up or down to the voltage at which the
electricity is primarily used by other exempt machinery and equipment, when the
electricity has been purchased from or supplied by another person, except as provided in
Part II, section (A)(4)(j) below.
Examples of taxable items: In a meat packing plant that receives 34.5KV
electricity from the grid and steps the electricity down with its own transformer
to 12KV, then transmits the electricity with its own wires to a second transformer
that reduces the voltage to 480 volts for use at that voltage by its production
machinery, the first transformer would be taxable (the second transformer would
be exempt).
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EXEMPTIONS
The Maine Sales and Use Tax Law provides the following categories of
exemptions to manufacturers:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
Machinery and Equipment Used in Production
Ingredients (Raw Materials)
Items that are Consumed or Destroyed
Fuel and electricity
Water Pollution Control Facilities
Air Pollution Control Facilities
Machinery and Equipment Used in Research
Machinery and equipment
Sales of machinery and equipment:
For use by the purchaser directly and primarily in the production of
tangible personal property intended to be sold or leased ultimately for
final use or consumption or in the production of tangible personal
property pursuant to a contract with the Federal Government or any
agency thereof, or, in the case of sales occurring after June 30, 2007,
in the generation of radio and television broadcast signals by broadcast
stations regulated under 47 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 73.
This exemption applies even if the purchaser sells the machinery or
equipment and leases it back in a sale and leaseback transaction. This
exemption also applies whether the purchaser agrees before or after
the purchase of the machinery or equipment to enter into the sale and
leaseback transaction and whether the purchaser's use of the
machinery or equipment in production commences before or after the
sale and leaseback transaction occurs; § 1760(31), ¶ A
"Machinery and equipment" means machinery, equipment and parts
and attachments for machinery and equipment, but excludes
foundations for machinery and equipment and special purpose
buildings used to house or support machinery and equipment.
§ 1752(7-B)
“Foundations”… includes permanent supports, such as those
composed of concrete. Metal supports which can be dismantled and
moved are considered part of the machinery or equipment which they
support and are therefore exempt if the machinery and equipment is
otherwise exempt.
Rule 303
The exemption for production machinery and equipment found in §1760(31) sets
forth a number of requirements. The item being purchased must fall within the statutory
definition of “machinery and equipment.” The machinery or equipment in question must
be (i) purchased for use by the purchaser; (ii) purchased for use primarily in production;
(iii) purchased for use directly in production; and (iv) purchased for use in producing
tangible personal property that is intended to be sold or leased ultimately for final use or
consumption.
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The term “machinery and equipment,” includes both new and used machinery
and equipment as well as parts and attachments for such machinery and equipment. (All
parts are included, including repair and replacement parts).
The statutory definition excludes foundations for machinery and equipment that
are permanent supports, such as most foundations composed of concrete. (Foundations
that can be dismantled and moved, such as many steel supports, are considered part of the
machinery and equipment that they support.)
Also excluded from “machinery and
equipment”, are so-called “special purpose buildings” used to house or support
machinery and equipment.
Examples of taxable items:
• Permanently affixed concrete pillars on which a piece of production
machinery sets do not qualify as exempt machinery and equipment.
• A kiln that houses machinery and equipment used in the drying of
finished lumber is a special purpose building and does ot qualify as
exempt machinery and equipment (in contrast to the piping, controls and
other equipment within the walls of the kiln, which does qualify as
exempt machinery and equipment).
Examples of exempt items:
• Angle iron used to construct a support frame is exempt, provided the
machinery or equipment it supports qualifies as production machinery or
equipment.
• A movable concrete base is exempt, provided the machinery or
equipment it supports qualifies as production machinery or equipment.
Use by the purchaser
The purchaser of the machinery and equipment must also be the user of
machinery and equipment in the production process in order to qualify for the exemption.
Lessors of machinery and equipment under a true lease are not entitled to an exemption
even though the lessee is using the machinery and equipment in production. The taxable
“use” by the purchaser/lessor in this situation is the derivation of income through the
leasing of the equipment.
(But see the exception for “sale/leaseback” transactions,
explained later in this section.)
In another example, if a subsidiary of the manufacturer purchases equipment and
allows the parent manufacturer to use it in the manufacturer’s own production, the
subsidiary does not enjoy the exemption since, as the purchaser, the subsidiary is not the
user of the equipment in production.
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Use primarily in production.
"Primarily," when used in relation to machinery or equipment used in
production, means more than 50% of the time during the period that
begins on the date on which the machinery or equipment is first placed
in service by the purchaser and ends 2 years from that date or at the
time that the machinery or equipment is sold, scrapped, destroyed or
otherwise permanently removed from service by the taxpayer,
whichever occurs first. § 1752(9-A)
If an item of machinery or equipment has multiple uses, it must be used in an
exempt activity more than 50% of its time in operation in order to qualify as exempt
production machinery. For instance, a forklift may be used not only to move work in
process between production machines, but also to load delivery vehicles, or to move raw
material from one storage location to another storage location. In this example, only the
time used in moving the “work in process” would qualify as “use in production.” The
amount of time in this function would need to exceed 50% of its total use in order for the
forklift to be exempt as “primarily” used in production.
Use directly in production.
"Directly," when used in relation to production of tangible personal
property, refers to those activities or operations which constitute an
integral and essential part of production, as contrasted with and
distinguished from those activities or operations which are simply
incidental, convenient or remote to production. § 1752(2-A)
"Directly" excludes support operations, such as machine shops in
which production equipment is maintained. Testing for quality control
is directly in production only insofar as those testing devices are
physically incorporated in machinery or equipment which is otherwise
exempt. Rule 303
“Directly” is as including operations that are “integral and essential to
production,” as contrasted with activities that are “simply incidental, convenient or
remote to production.” For instance, a wood planer in a furniture manufacturer’s facility
is clearly essential to the production of the finished furniture, while items in a machine
shop used to maintain and repair production machinery are only “incidental” to
production and are therefore not exempt. The term “directly” does not include support
operations. Machinery and equipment used in the following operations is therefore
taxable:
•
•
•
•
Administrative operations;
Storage and warehouse operations;
Maintenance operations (including not only those operations
occurring in an area devoted solely to maintenance, but also
maintenance activities occurring in the production area itself);
Receiving and shipping operations;
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• Heating and lighting, including in production areas (except as
provided in (i) below);
• Safety and fire protection (including those activities required by
state or federal agencies); and
• Transportation on public ways between production sites.
The following is a non-exclusive list of activities considered to be “directly” in
production:
Acting on raw materials. The processing of raw material at the production site, or the
holding of raw material as it is being processed.
Examples: A wood planer acting on rough lumber to plane and reduce
thickness; machinery that mixes raw materials before the raw material is
added to the production line; a printing press that acts upon paper and ink
in producing a printed product for sale; a rock crusher that crushes rock
which is then further processed in a kiln as a part of the manufacture of
cement for sale; a freezer used to flash-freeze vegetables in the
production of frozen vegetables for sale.
Processing or holding exempt materials. The processing of other exempt materials, or
holding of such materials as they are being processed, so that they or the materials
resulting from the processing can be used or reused in a production process or in
connection with the operation of exempt machinery or equipment. As used in this
Bulletin, “exempt materials” means work in process and materials the purchase of which
by the taxpayer would be exempt in whole or in part under 36 MRSA §1760(9-D) (fuel
and electricity used at a manufacturing facility), 36 MRSA §1760(9-G) (fuel oil or coal,
the by-products from the burning of which become an ingredient or component part of
tangible personal property for later sale), or 36 MRSA §1760(74) (property that becomes
an ingredient or component part of, or that is consumed or destroyed or loses its identity
in production of, tangible personal property) and may include without limitation raw
materials, electricity, fuel, water, ice, steam, air, oil, gas, chemicals, gases, catalysts,
grinding or blasting materials, reagents, lubricants, solvents, acids, printing plates, color
separations, tagging materials and other substances and materials used in connection with
the operation of exempt machinery and equipment.
Examples: A lime kiln that prepares chemicals for use in a kraft pulping
process at a paper manufacturing facility; equipment that deionizes or
demineralizes water for use by other exempt machinery and equipment; a
chipper for wood used to fuel a boiler used to supply steam or electricity
to saws and planers at a lumber mill.
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Handling or moving exempt materials.
The handling, moving or transmitting of
exempt materials from one production machine to another; or between a storage area (or
point of receipt if there is no storage) and the first production operation; or between a
production operation and a temporary holding area prior to further production operations.
(However, transportation of raw materials or work in process on public ways between
different production sites is not considered an activity “directly” in production.)
Examples: A forklift used to move lumber from planer to sanding
machine; a conveyor system that moves work in process from one
production machine to another, or from a storage pile at the point of
receipt to the first production machine; piping used to move oil from a
storage tank to a boiler used to generate electricity to power the other
exempt machinery and equipment at a potato processing plant; conveyors
used to move lime from storage at the point of receipt to a lime kiln used
to prepare chemicals for use in a kraft pulping process at a paper
manufacturing facility.
Protection or temporary holding of exempt materials or work in process. Machinery
and equipment that preserves, protects, or temporarily holds exempt materials (including
work in process) between different production operations or that is used to temporarily
hold exempt materials. “Temporary holding” as used in this Bulletin includes (1)
equipment or functions designed to avoid delays in production resulting from reasonably
anticipated fluctuations in rate of supply or use of the stored items, and (2) equipment
such as a tank, chest or tower used to hold exempt material previously processed and
awaiting delivery to other production equipment for further processing or use. An item
of equipment is presumed to be for “temporary holding” if it holds work in process or
exempt material only for periods of less than 24 hours.
Examples: Steel racks used in temporary holding of finished lumber
that is to be sized and cut; a holding tank used in temporary holding of
raw material between two production machines; racks or “skids” used by
a printer in the temporary holding of pages of printed material pending
printing of additional pages, inserts or covers needed to produce the final
product; bins used in sorting and temporary holding of yarns produced
by a fabric manufacturer for subsequent use in weaving fabric; a tank
used to hold a 12-hour supply of an exempt process chemical for use in
the event of an interruption of supply.
Removal of waste products from production machinery. Removal of waste or byproducts from the immediate vicinity of exempt machinery and equipment, for the
purpose of permitting that machinery and equipment to operate continuously.
Examples: A conveyor used to remove chips and sawdust from the
planer; an ash grate for a boiler used to produce steam and electricity to
power manufacturing equipment at the same facility; a blanket wash
application system for a printing press; a dryer hood and exhaust fan
used to remove excessive moisture from a production machine.
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Control of exempt production machinery. Manually or automatically controlling, or
monitoring for the purpose of manually or automatically adjusting or controlling, the
operation of exempt production machinery.
Examples: Process control computers, such as a computer that controls
the cuts of a band saw; a temperature gauge for a boiler that produces
steam or electricity used by other exempt equipment; a valve used to
control the flow of gas used in welding; a camera used to monitor the
shape of the plume of flame in a kiln used in a production operation to
ensure that the kiln is functioning properly.
Testing or monitoring. Testing or monitoring exempt materials (including work in
process) if the equipment used for this purpose is physically attached to exempt
machinery and equipment, or is used to test every item or batch of product or exempt
material.
Examples: A moisture meter that verifies the moisture content of 100%
of the lumber used in making furniture; a chart recorder used to monitor
the pH of water to be used in process or work in process held within a
tank; a color density meter used to determine whether each batch of
product meets color specifications for top grade product; a full volume
detector used to ensure that the product container is properly filled and
sealed.
In-line packaging operations (pre-storage). Packaging operations that are part of a
series of operations within the production line and that are performed before the final
product is stored. (As noted in section I-C above, packaging operations that occur after
the product has been placed in storage or that occur within a separate storage facility are
not part of production.)
Examples: Machinery and equipment used to insert a videotape into a
cardboard sleeve and shrink-wrap it; equipment used to sort and count
product for packaging; equipment used to box, bottle, can, or label
product.
Machinery and equipment that controls the production environment. Controlling
the production environment by means of specialized plant lighting, ventilation, air
purification or prevention of contamination, humidity or temperature regulation, or
similar environmental control essential to a particular production process.
Examples: Air handling equipment used for a “clean room” in a
computer chip manufacturing facility; equipment used to reduce
contamination or to control temperature and humidity in a clean room;
equipment used to monitor air quality in a clean room; air conditioning
equipment connected or otherwise directed to computers used to control
a manufacturing process; thermometers and humidity meters used to
monitor the environment for process control computers or exempt
electrical equipment.
Page 139
Certain electrical equipment. The last transformer at the manufacturing facility that
steps electricity up or down to the voltage at which the electricity is primarily used by
other exempt machinery and equipment, and wiring, switches and other electrical
equipment between that transformer and other exempt machinery and equipment; and
machinery and equipment used to avoid electrical damage to such transformer or other
exempt machinery and equipment or to ensure uninterrupted power supply to exempt
machinery and equipment, including by means of providing back-up or emergency power
or surge protection.
Examples: In a meat packing plant that receives 34.5KV electricity
from the grid and steps the electricity down with its own transformer to
12KV, then transmits the electricity with its own wires to a second
transformer that reduces the voltage to 480 volts for use at that voltage
by its production machinery, the second transformer would be exempt.
Tangible personal property
intended for sale or lease.
... personal property which may be seen, weighed, measured, felt,
touched or in any other manner perceived by the senses, but does not
include rights and credits, insurance policies, bills of exchange, stocks
and bonds and similar evidences of indebtedness or ownership.
"Tangible personal property" includes electricity. § 1752(17)
To be eligible for exemption, machinery or equipment must be used in the
production of tangible personal property that is intended to be sold or leased ultimately
for final use or consumption.
The product being produced must also be sold or leased as tangible personal
property. Machinery and equipment used to produce property that will be sold as real
property, or that will be used by the producer rather than sold, does not qualify for
exemption.
(For more on this topic, see Instructional Bulletin No. 28, “Installing
Tangible Personal Property in Real Property.”)
Examples:
• A cabinetmaker who produces and installs kitchen cabinets and passes
title to the cabinets after installation, is selling real property, not tangible
personal property. The cabinetmaker’s purchase of machinery and
equipment thus does not qualify for exemption.
• A cabinetmaker who produces and installs kitchen cabinets and passes
title to the cabinets before installation is engaged in selling tangible
personal property. The cabinetmaker’s purchase of machinery and
equipment would therefore qualify for exemption.
• A retailer that manufactures free-standing shelving units for its own use
is not selling the shelves. The retailer’s purchase of machinery and
equipment to build the shelves does not qualify for exemption.
Page 140
Ingredients or component parts
Sales of tangible personal property that becomes an ingredient or
component part of tangible personal property for later sale or lease,
other than lease for use in this State, or that becomes an ingredient or
component part of tangible personal property produced pursuant to a
contract with the Federal Government or any agency of the Federal
Government. § 1760(74-A)
An exemption is provided for tangible personal property that becomes an
ingredient or component part of the item being produced. This category includes all raw
materials that get physically converted into, or physically attached to the finished
product, including tags and labels.
Items that are consumed or destroyed
Sales of tangible personal property, other than fuel or electricity, that is
consumed or destroyed or loses its identity directly and primarily in the
production of tangible personal property for later sale or lease, other
than lease for use in this State, or that is consumed or destroyed or
loses its identity directly and primarily in the production of tangible
personal property the production of tangible personal property
produced pursuant to a contract with the Federal Government or any
agency of the Federal Government.
For purposes of this subsection, tangible personal property is
"consumed or destroyed" or "loses its identity" in production if it has
a normal physical life expectancy of less than one year as a usable item
in the use to which it is applied. § 1760(74-B)
1. Tangible personal property that has a normal physical life
expectancy of less than one year is exempt if it falls within one of the
following categories:
A. Items that are integrated with and essential to the
operation of exempt production machinery and
equipment. Items under this category will normally
include but not be limited to such items as abrasives,
coolants, lubricants, filtering materials, etc.
B. Items that come in contact with, or are added to, the
raw product during production, but that are later
extracted or dissipated and do not become a component
part of the tangible personal property produced.
Items under this category will normally include but not
be limited to such items as catalysts, chemicals,
solvents, liquids, etc.
C. Items that come in contact with the products
produced and that are an integral and essential part of
production. Items under this category will normally
include but not be limited to abrasives, polishing
agents, stencil materials, tagging materials, etc.
Page 141
2. Tangible personal property that is consumed and destroyed is
taxable if it falls within one of the following categories:
A. Items consumed or destroyed prior to the commencement of the
production process or after production has ended as provided in
§1752(9-B) of the law and Section 1(1) of this rule.
B. Items consumed or destroyed in the course of contact with
machinery and equipment that is not "directly" in production as
provided in §1752(2-A) of the law and Section 1(3) of this rule.
Items under this category will normally include but not be limited to
the following:
(1) Cleaning supplies, including floor sweeping compounds,
soaps, etc., regardless of where used;
(2) Steam used to heat buildings, including the production
area;
(3) Personal apparel used by employees, including aprons,
gloves, hair nets, ear plugs, face shields or masks, etc;
(4) Light bulbs, flash lights and batteries, used for lighting;
(5) Chemicals or supplies of any kind used in quality control
and research laboratories; and
(6) Supplies used in maintenance of production machinery and
equipment, including abrasives, files, grinding oil, etc.
Rule 303
An exemption also applies to tangible personal property, other than fuel or
electricity, that is consumed or destroyed or loses its identity in the production process.
These are items that have a normal life expectancy of less than one (1) year in the use to
which they are applied. "Life expectancy" means physical life expectancy without regard
to obsolescence. An item that is obsolete only over a longer period of time is not
considered “consumed or destroyed.”
Examples of items that are consumed or destroyed in the production process:
• Items that are essential to the operation of production machinery and
equipment, such as lubricants;
• Items that come in contact with raw material but does not become part of the
finished product, such as solvents.
• Items that come in contact with raw material and are no longer of use
afterwards, such as sandpaper.
Page 142
Examples of items that are not consumed or destroyed in the production process:
• Items that are consumed or destroyed before production begins, such as
lubricants for a chain saw used to harvest trees to be manufactured into lumber;
• Items that are consumed or destroyed after production ends, such as lubricants
for a forklift used primarily to move finished product from storage to trucks for
shipment to customers.
• Items that are not used “directly” in production.
Fuel and electricity
Ninety-five percent of the sale price of all fuel and electricity
purchased for use at a manufacturing facility. § 1760(9-D)
"Manufacturing facility" means a site at which are located machinery
and equipment used directly and primarily in either the production of
tangible personal property intended to be sold or leased ultimately for
final use or consumption or the production of tangible personal
property pursuant to a contract with the Federal Government or any
agency thereof. It includes the machinery and equipment and all
machinery, equipment, structures and facilities located at the site and
used in support of production or associated with the production.
"Manufacturing facility" does not include a site at which a retailer is
primarily engaged in making retail sales of tangible personal property
not produced by the retailer. § 1752(6-A)
95% of the cost of the fuel and electricity is exempt when purchased for use at a
“manufacturing facility”, while the remaining 5% is subject to the general sales tax rate.
A manufacturing facility is a site where production machinery is located. This
includes not only the machinery and equipment used directly in production, but all
machinery, equipment, structures and facilities located at the site and used in support of
production or associated with the production. Separate electric meters, fuel tanks or
heating systems need not be maintained for the purpose of separating production areas
from non-production areas.
A manufacturing facility does not include a site at which a retailer is primarily
engaged in making retail sales of items that it does not produce itself. Thus, for example,
a hardware store is not a “manufacturing facility,” and is not entitled to the 95% energy
exemption, merely because it has a key cutting machine on the premises.
This partial sales tax exemption applies to all types of fuel, including #2 heating
fuel, diesel fuel, oxygen, acetylene, and wood chips.
Page 143
Water pollution
control facility
Sales of water pollution control facilities, certified as such by the
Commissioner of Environmental Protection, and sales of parts or
accessories of a certified facility, materials for the construction, repair
or maintenance of a certified facility and chemicals or supplies that are
integral to the effectiveness of a certified facility.
As used in this subsection, unless the context otherwise indicates, the
following terms have the following meanings.
A. ”Disposal system” means any system used primarily for disposing of
or isolating industrial or other waste and includes thickeners,
incinerators, pipelines or conduits, pumping stations, force mains and
all other constructions, devices, appurtenances and facilities used for
collecting or conducting water borne industrial or other waste to a
point of disposal, treatment or isolation, except that which is necessary
to the manufacture of products.
B. ”Facility” means any disposal system or any treatment works,
appliance, equipment, machinery, installation or structures installed,
acquired or placed in operation primarily for the purpose of reducing,
controlling or eliminating water pollution caused by industrial or other
waste, except septic tanks and the pipelines and leach fields connected
or appurtenant thereto.
C. ”Industrial waste” means any liquid, gaseous or solid waste
substance capable of polluting the waters of the State and resulting
from any process, or the development of any process, of industry or
manufacture.
D. ”Treatment works” means any plant, pumping station, reservoir or
other works used primarily for the purpose of treating, stabilizing,
isolating or holding industrial or other waste. § 1760(29)
In order to qualify for this exemption, a facility must be certified by the
Commissioner of the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) as a facility that is
engaged in disposing, isolating or treating of water-borne industrial or other waste. Once
a facility has been certified by DEP, an exemption is allowed for any materials used in
the construction, repair or maintenance of the facility, as well as for any machinery and
equipment used primarily for reducing, controlling or eliminating water pollution. This
includes, but is not limited to, thickeners, incinerators, pipelines or conduits, pumping
stations, force mains and all other constructions, devices, appurtenances and facilities
used for collecting or conducting water borne industrial or other waste. It does not
include supplies other than maintenance materials and pollution control chemicals. It
also does not include septic tanks and the pipelines and leach fields connected to septic
tanks.
Page 144
Air pollution
control facility
Sales of air pollution control facilities, certified as such by the Commissioner
of Environmental Protection, and sales of parts or accessories of a certified
facility, materials for the construction, repair or maintenance of a certified
facility and chemicals or supplies that are integral to the effectiveness of a
certified facility.
As used in this subsection, unless the context otherwise indicates, the following
terms have the following meanings.
A. ”Facility” means any appliance, equipment, machinery, installation or
structures installed, acquired or placed in operation primarily for the purpose
of reducing, controlling, eliminating or disposing of industrial or other air
pollutants.
Facilities such as air conditioners, dust collectors, fans and similar facilities
designed, constructed or installed solely for the benefit of the person for whom
installed or the personnel of such person, and facilities designed or installed
for the reduction or control of automobile exhaust emissions shall not be
deemed air pollution control facilities for purposes of this subsection.
§ 1760(30)
In order to qualify for this exemption, a facility must be certified by the
Commissioner of Environmental Protection (DEP) as a facility that is engaged in
reducing, controlling, eliminating or disposing of industrial or other air pollutants. Once
a facility has been certified by DEP, an exemption is allowed for any materials used in
the construction, repair or maintenance of the facility as well as for any machinery and
equipment used primarily for reducing, controlling or eliminating air pollutants. This
does not include machinery or equipment installed for the benefit of people, such as air
conditioners, dust collectors, fans and similar items; nor does it include facilities designed
or installed for the reduction or control of automobile exhaust emissions.
Research and development
Sales of machinery and equipment for use by the purchaser directly and
exclusively in research and development in the experimental and laboratory
sense … "Research and development" does not include the ordinary testing
or inspecting of materials or products for quality control, efficiency surveys,
management studies, consumer surveys, advertising, promotions or research in
connection with literary, historical or similar projects. § 1760(32)
As with the exemption for production machinery, this exemption has several
requirements that must be satisfied:
•
•
•
•
The item being purchased must be machinery and equipment;
It must be used by the purchaser in research and development;
It must be used directly in research and development; and
The machinery or equipment must be used exclusively in research and
development.
Page 145
“Research and development” for the purposes of this exemption is limited to the
experimental and laboratory sense of that term. It does not include the ordinary testing or
inspecting of materials or products for quality control, efficiency surveys, management
studies, consumer surveys, advertising, or promotions. It also does not include research
done in connection with literary, historical or similar projects.
Contracts with U.S. Government
Sales of machinery and equipment:
For use by the purchaser directly and primarily … in the production of
tangible personal property pursuant to a contract with the Federal
Government or any agency thereof …. § 1760(31), ¶ A
The exemptions mentioned in this section also apply to those entities engaged in
the production of tangible personal property pursuant to a contract with the United States
Government or any agency thereof.
Biotechnology
"Production" includes manufacturing, processing, assembling and
fabricating operations that meet the definitional requisites, including
biological processes that are part of an integrated process of
manufacturing organisms or microorganic materials through the
application of biotechnology. § 1752(9-B)
Although the term “production” as defined in §1752(9-B) excludes biological
processes generally, it does include “biological processes that are part of an integrated
process of manufacturing organisms or microorganic materials through the application of
biotechnology.” As a result, the exemptions mentioned above also apply to entities
engaged in biotechnological applications.
These applications include recombinant DNA techniques, biochemistry,
molecular and cellular biology, immunology, genetics and genetic engineering, biological
cell fusion techniques and new bioprocesses using living organisms or parts of organisms
to produce or modify products, improve plants or animals, develop microorganisms for
specific uses, identify targets for small-molecule pharmaceutical development, transform
biological systems and useful processes and products or to develop microorganisms for
specific uses.
… sales of machinery, equipment, instruments and supplies for use by
the purchaser directly and primarily in biotechnology applications,
including the application of technologies such as recombinant DNA
techniques, biochemistry, molecular and cellular biology, immunology,
genetics and genetic engineering, biological cell fusion techniques and
new bioprocesses using living organisms or parts of organisms to
produce or modify products, improve plants or animals, develop
Page 146
microorganisms for specific uses, identify targets for small-molecule
pharmaceutical development, transform biological systems and useful
processes and products or to develop microorganisms for specific uses.
Equipment and supplies used for biotechnology include but are not
limited to microscopes, diagnostic testing materials, glasswares,
chemical reagents, computer software and technical books and
manuals.
"Research and development" includes testing and
evaluation for the purposes of approval and compliance with
regulatory standards for biotechnological products or materials.
"Research and development" does not include the ordinary testing or
inspecting of materials or products for quality control, efficiency
surveys, management studies, consumer surveys, advertising,
promotions or research in connection with literary, historical or similar
projects. § 1760(32)
With respect to research and development in biotechnological applications, the
exemption is not limited to machinery and equipment. It also includes instruments and
supplies, such as microscopes and diagnostic testing materials.
Fuel oil and coal
Fuel oil or coal, the by-products from the burning of which become an
ingredient or component part of tangible personal property for later
sale. § 1760(9-G)
This exemption is for the use of fuel oil or coal in those situations where the byproducts that result from the burning of the fuel or coal becomes an ingredient of tangible
personal property being produced for sale.
OTHER ISSUES INVOLVING MANUFACTURERS
Leasing machinery
and equipment
Generally speaking, the exemption for production machinery and equipment does
not apply to machinery and equipment being leased. The exemption provided to a
manufacturer does not extend to the lessor of equipment even though the equipment will
be used in production. Furthermore, the lessor is generally liable for use tax on the cost
of the equipment being leased.
The following are exceptions to this general application:
Sale/leaseback transactions
A. ....This exemption applies even if the purchaser sells the machinery
or equipment and leases it back in a sale and leaseback transaction.
This exemption also applies whether the purchaser agrees before or
after the purchase of the machinery or equipment to enter into the sale
and leaseback transaction and whether the purchaser's use of the
machinery or equipment in production commences before or after the
sale and leaseback transaction occurs; and
Page 147
B. To a bank, leasing company or other person as part of a sale and
leaseback transaction, by a person that uses the machinery or
equipment as described in paragraph A, whether the original
purchaser's use of the machinery or equipment in production
commences before or after the sale and leaseback transaction occurs.
§ 1760(31)
If machinery and equipment that qualifies for exemption is purchased by a
manufacturer and subsequently sold to and leased back from a lessor, the sales/use tax
exemption still applies. It is immaterial whether the original purchase and subsequent
sale/leaseback transaction occur simultaneously or at some time in the future. It is also
immaterial whether or not actual use of the machinery and equipment is made by the
manufacturer before the sale/leaseback transaction occurs.
Lease “in lieu of purchase.” A lease that is determined by the State Tax
Assessor to be a lease “in lieu of purchase” is a “sale” as defined in § 1752(13). As a
sale, machinery and equipment being purchased pursuant to a lease in lieu of purchase
meets the requirement of “purchase by the user” and would be exempt provided it meets
the other requirements of exemption.
For more on this topic, see Maine Revenue
Services Instructional Bulletin #20 (“Lease & Rental Transactions in Maine”).
Interim Rentals. Machinery and equipment being rented under the “interim
rental” provision of the statute (§ 1758) is treated as a sale, with the lessor being the
retailer, the rental payment being the sale price and lessee being the purchaser/consumer.
An interim rental, therefore, meets the requirement of “purchase by the user” and is
exempt provided it meets the other applicable requirements of the law.
Transportation
As noted above, machinery and equipment must be used “directly” in production
in order to qualify for exemption. Thus transporting work in process between production
machines is a qualifying activity.
However, transportation of raw material to the
production site, transportation of work in process on public ways between production
sites and transportation of finished products to customers are all non-qualifying activities.
Certain vehicles used in interstate or foreign commerce may be exempt pursuant
to § 1760(41), depending upon the circumstances. For more information on this subject,
see the “Exemptions” section of this guide and Maine Revenue Services Rule 318.
Page 148
By-products and
recovered raw materials
The manufacturing process generally results in a certain amount of waste. In
many situations this waste must be disposed of, but in certain manufacturing
environments it can be recycled, sold as a by-product or used as an ingredient of another
product.
Removing waste from a production machine is an activity that is considered
“directly” in production. Machinery and equipment that handles or processes the product
after that point may or may not qualify for exemption.
Examples of exempt activities involving by-products and recovered raw
materials:
• Re-cycling the by-product or recovered raw material back into
production. This activity is “directly” in production and machinery and
equipment used primarily for this purpose is exempt.
• Using the by-product or recovered raw material as an ingredient in the
production of another product. This activity is also considered “directly”
in production and machinery and equipment used primarily for this
purpose is exempt.
Example of a taxable activity involving by-products:
• Selling the by-product “as is.” In this case, removing the waste from
the production machine is “directly” used in production, but machinery
and equipment used after this point is not used directly in production
since nothing more is done to the by-product to change its form,
character, or composition.
Tangible personal property
vs. real property
The purchase by a construction contractor of materials for the construction of real
property (buildings, fixtures attached to buildings, etc.) or for incorporation into real
property does not qualify for the machinery and equipment exemption.
Examples of such items are:
• Wires, conduits, outlets and other electrical items installed to
facilitate the use of the building as a building rather than for
purposes of a particular production process;
• Heating and air conditioning units (including ductwork)
installed to facilitate the use of the building as a building, rather
than for purposes of a particular production process such as that
described in Part II, section A(4)(i);
• Special purpose buildings;
• Permanent foundations composed of concrete.
If machinery and equipment is purchased as tangible personal property before
being incorporated into realty and, as tangible personal property, meets all of the other
requirements of exemption, the machinery and equipment would qualify for exemption.
Page 149
Since this type of arrangement between the contractor and the purchaser is the exception,
rather than the norm, manufacturers are cautioned that proper contractual terms are
necessary for correct application of the exemption. For more information on this topic,
see Instructional Bulletin No. 28 (“Installing Tangible Personal Property in Real
Property”).
Exempt purchase documentation
A manufacturer claiming that the purchase of tangible personal property qualifies
for exemption must provide its vendor with a “Blanket Certificate of Exemption.” (See
Sample Documents.) The manufacturer should indicate on this certificate the grounds for
exemption by checking off the appropriate category. The vendor should retain this
certificate in its file to document the exempt sale. If multiple purchases are made from
one vendor, the certificate may act as a “blanket” certificate, covering all subsequent
purchases of like items. Remember that it is the responsibility of the purchaser to
understand all requirements of the law before claiming any exemption. If your business
is audited, Maine Revenue Services need not prove that a purchase does not qualify for
exemption; you must prove that it does.
Direct pay permit
Pursuant to Rule 308, certain manufacturers and utilities that commonly acquire a
substantial amount of tangible personal property under circumstances making it
impractical to determine at the time of purchase whether the use will be taxable or
exempt, may qualify for a “direct payment permit” issued by Maine Revenue Services.
This permit allows the manufacturer to purchase most items of tangible personal property
without paying tax -- but the purchaser then becomes accountable directly to the State for
payment of appropriate use tax. The direct pay permit must be provided to the vendor at
the time of purchase to document the exempt sale and, as with the blanket certificate of
exemption, need only be provided once to cover subsequent purchases of like items. See
Rule 308 for more information and qualifications.
Page 150
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Sample Document Index
Page
A-1
Retailer Certificate
A-2
Resale Certificate
A-3
ST-2
Permanent Exemption Certificate
A-4
ST-P-3
Direct Pay Permit
A-5
A-6
ST-7
ST-7C
Sales and Use Tax Return - Long Form
Instructions and Taxpayer Copy to ST-7
A-7
A-8
ST-7S
ST-7SC
Sales and Use Tax Return - Short Form
Instructions and Taxpayer Copy to ST-7S
A-9
A-10
SPT 1
SPT-1C
Service Provider Tax Return
Instructions and Taxpayer Copy to SPT 1
A-11
A-12
ST-7U
ST-7UC
Use Tax Return
Instructions and Taxpayer Copy to ST-7U
A-13
MTC Form Uniform Sales & Use Tax Certificate - Multijurisdiction
A-14
ST-P-73
Resale Certificate for Packaging Materials
A-15
ST-P-70
Blanket Certificate of Exemption
A-16
ST-L-154
Affidavit of Exemption - Commercial Farmers/Fishermen
A-17
ST-MV-63
Certificate of Exemption - Auto for Short-term Rental
A-18
ST-P-72
Contractor’s Exempt Purchase Certificate
A-19
ST-MV-33
Affidavit of Exemption - Certain vehicles sold to nonresidents
A-20
ST-P-19AE
Affidavit of Exemption - Watercraft sold to nonresidents
A-21
ST-P-39
Affidavit of Exemption – Snowmobiles & ATVs sold to
nonresidents
A-22
ST-MV-36
Affidavit of Exemption - Out-of-state delivery
A-23
ST-P-71
Affidavit for Out of State Use of Promotional Material
A-24
ST-MV-57A Affidavit - Vehicles used in interstate commerce
A-25
Special notice to Sellers of Mobile Telecommunications
A-26
ST-R-46A
Application for Refund of Sales or Use Tax
A-27
STR-PTDZ
Application for Refund – Contract with Pine Tree Zone Business
A-28
ST-L-160
Affidavit of Exemption for 28-day Continuous Rental
A-29
Listing of Sales and Use Tax Bulletins
A-30
Listing of Sales, Use and Service Provider Tax Rules
SAMPLE RETAILER CERTIFICATE
Page A – 1
SAMPLE RESALE CERTIFICATE
Page A – 2
SAMPLE EXEMPTION CERTIFICATE
SAMPLE COPY - NOT FOR USE
SAMPLE COPY - NOT FOR USE
MAINE REVENUE SERVICE
SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
DIRECT PAY PERMIT
No.______________
It having been determined that the conduct of the business of the taxpayer noted below is
such that it would be impractical for it to pay sales and use taxes separately under the Maine
Sales and Use Tax Law on purchases made by it, that payment of sales and use taxes to the State
would not be jeopardized by permitting the taxpayer to report and pay sales and use taxes
directly, and the taxpayer having obligated itself to report and pay sales and use taxes directly,
retailers selling to the taxpayer named below are hereby relieved of collecting sales and use taxes
from it.
Except as noted below, the taxpayer shall file a copy of this permit with each retailer and
shall place the direct payment permit number on all purchase orders and contracts covering the
purchase of tangible personal property; which shall be sufficient evidence to retailers to relieve
them from collecting sales or use taxes thereon.
Name of Taxpayer ______________________________________________________________
SAMPLE COPY - NOT FOR USE
Address of Taxpayer ____________________________________________________________
Date ________________________
SAMPLE COPY - NOT FOR USE
__________________________________________
Director, Sales & Use Tax Section
Copies of this permit or the permit number shall not be used in connection with:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
The purchase of tangible personal property by other than the holder of this permit.
The purchase of prepared food or beverages.
The purchase of occupancy at hotels, motels, etc.
The purchase of telephone or telegraph service.
Rentals or leases, other than leases in lieu of purchase, of tangible personal
property.
The purchase of tangible personal property which will become incorporated into
the real estate of the permit holder prior to passage of title.
Form ST-P-3
Page A – 4
Page A – 5
Page A – 6
Page A – 7
Page A – 8
Page A – 9
Page A – 10
Page A – 11
Page A – 12
UNIFORM SALES & USE TAX CERTIFICATE—MULTIJURISDICTION
The below-listed states have indicated that this form of certificate is acceptable, subject to the notes on pages 2-4. The issuer and the
recipient have the responsibility of determining the proper use of this certificate under applicable laws in each state, as these may
change from time to time.
Issued to Seller:________________________________________________________________________________________
Address: _____________________________________________________________________________________________
I certify that:
Name of Firm (Buyer): ________________________________
Address: ___________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
is engaged as a registered
F Wholesaler
F Retailer
F Manufacturer
F Seller (California)
F Lessor (see notes on pages 2-4)
F Other (Specify)_____________
__________________________________________________________
and is registered with the below listed states and cities within which your firm would deliver purchases to us and that any such purchases are for
wholesale, resale, ingredients or components of a new product or service1 to be resold, leased, or rented in the normal course of business. We are in
the business of wholesaling, retailing, manufacturing, leasing (renting) the following:
Description of Business: ______________________________________________________________________________________________
General description of tangible property or taxable services to be purchased from the seller: ________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
State
AL1
AR
AZ2
CA3
CO4
CT5
DC6
FL7
GA8
HI4,9
ID
IL4,10
IA
KS
KY11
ME12
MD13
MI14
MN15
State Registration, Seller’s Permit, or ID
Number of Purchaser
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
____________________________________
State
MO16
NE17
NV
NJ
NM4,18
NC19
ND
OH20
OK21
PA22
RI23
SC
SD24
TN
TX25
UT
VT
WA26
WI27
State Registration, Seller’s Permit, or ID
Number of Purchaser
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
I further certify that if any property or service so purchased tax free is used or consumed by the firm as to make it subject to a Sales or use Tax we
will pay the tax due directly to the proper taxing authority when state law so provides or inform the seller for added tax billing. This certificate shall
be a part of each order which we may hereafter give to you, unless otherwise specified, and shall be valid until canceled by us in writing or revoked
by the city or state.
Under penalties of perjury, I swear or affirm that the information on this form is true and correct as to every material matter.
Authorized Signature: ________________________________________________________________
(Owner, Partner or Corporate Officer)
Title: _____________________________________________________________________________
Date: _____________________________________________________________________________
Page A – 13
Revised 10/22/2009
Page 1 of 4
INSTRUCTIONS REGARDING UNIFORM SALES & USE TAX CERTIFCATE
To Seller’s Customers:
In order to comply with the majority of state and local sales tax law requirements, the seller must have in its files a properly executed
exemption certificate from all of its customers who claim a sales tax exemption. If the seller does not have this certificate, it is obliged
to collect the tax for the state in which the property or service is delivered.
If the buyer is entitled to sales tax exemption, the buyer should complete the certificate and send it to the seller at its earliest
convenience. If the buyer purchases tax free for a reason for which this form does not provide, the buyer should send the seller its
special certificate or statement.
Caution to Seller:
In order for the certificate to be accepted in good faith by the seller, seller must exercise care that the property or service being sold is
of a type normally sold wholesale, resold, leased, rented or incorporated as a ingredient or component part of a product manufactured
by buyer and then resold in the usual course of its business. A seller failing to exercise due care could be held liable for the sales tax
due in some states or cities. Misuse of this certificate by seller, lessee, or the representative thereof may be punishable by fine,
imprisonment or loss of right to issue certificate in some states or cities.
_______________________________
Notes:
1.
Alabama: Each retailer shall be responsible for determining the validity of a purchaser’s claim for exemption.
2.
Arizona: This certificate may be used only when making purchases of tangible personal property for resale in the ordinary
course of business, and not for any other statutory deduction or exemption. It is valid as a resale certificate only if it contains
the purchaser’s name, address, signature, and Arizona transaction privilege tax (or other state sales tax) license number, as
required by Arizona Revised Statutes § 42-5022, Burden of proving sales not at retail.
3.
California:
4.
The state of Colorado, Hawaii, Illinois, and New Mexico do not permit the use of this certificate to claim a resale exemption for
the purchase of a taxable service for resale.
5
Connecticut: This certificate is not valid as an exemption certificate. Its use is limited to use as a resale certificate subject to
Conn. Gen. State §§12-410(5) and 12-411(14) and an regulations and administrative pronouncements pertaining to resale
certificates.
6.
District of Columbia: This certificate is not valid as an exemption certificate. It is not valid as a resale certificate unless it
contains the purchaser’s D.C. sales and use tax registration number.
7.
Florida: The Department will allow purchasers to use the Multistate Tax Commission’s Uniform Sales and Use Tax
Certificate-Multijurisdiction. However, the use of this uniform certificate must be used in conjunction with the telephonic or
electronic authorization number method described in paragraph (3)(b) or (c) of rule SUT FAC 12A-1.039..
8.
Georgia: the purchaser’s state of registration number will be accepted in lieu of Georgia’s registration number when the
purchaser is located outside Georgia, does not have nexus with Georgia, and the tangible personal property is delivered by drop
shipment to the purchaser’s customer located in Georgia.
A. This certificate is not valid as an exemption certificate. Its use is limited to use as a resale certificate subject
to the provisions of Title 18, California Code of Regulations, Section 1668 (Sales and Use Tax Regulation
1668, Resale Certificate).
B. By use of this certificate, the purchaser certifies that the property is purchased for resale in the regular course
of business in the form of tangible personal property, which includes property incorporated as an ingredient
or component part of an item manufactured for resale in the regular course of business.
C. When the applicable tax would be sales tax, it is the seller who owes that tax unless the seller takes a timely
and valid resale certificate in good faith.
D. A valid resale certificate is effective until the issuer revokes the certificate.
Page A – 13
9.
Hawaii allows this certificate to be used by the seller to claim a lower general excise tax rate or no general excise tax, rather
than the buyer claiming an exemption. The no tax situation occurs when the purchaser of imported goods certifies to the seller,
who originally imported the goods into Hawaii, that the purchaser will resell the imported goods at wholesale. If the lower rate
or no tax does not in fact apply to the sale, the purchaser is liable to pay the seller the additional tax imposed. See Hawaii Dept.
of Taxation Tax Information Release No. 93-5, November 10, 1993, and Tax Information Release No. 98-8, October 30, 1998.
10.
Use of this certificate in Illinois is subject to the provisions of 86 Ill. Adm. Code Ch.I, Sec. 130.1405. Illinois does not have an
exemption on sales of property for subsequent ease or rental, nor does the use of this certificate for claiming resale purchases of
services have any application in Illinois.
The registration number to be supplied next to Illinois on page 1 of this certificate must be the Illinois registration or resale
number; no other state’s registration number is acceptable.
“Good faith” is not the standard of care to be exercised by a retailer in Illinois. A retailer in Illinois is not required to determine
if the purchaser actually intends to resell the item. Instead, a retailer must confirm that the purchaser has a valid registration or
resale number at the time of purchase. If a purchaser fails to provide a certificate of resale at the time of sale in Illinois, the
seller must charge the purchaser tax.
While there is no statutory requirement that blanket certificates of resale be renewed at certain intervals, blanket certificates
should be updated periodically, and no less frequently than every three years.
11.
Kentucky: 1. Kentucky does not permit the use of this certificate to claim a resale exclusion for the purchase of a taxable
service.
2. This certificate is not valid as an exemption certificate. Its use is limited to use as a resale certificate subject to the
provisions of Kentucky Revised Statute 139.270 (Good Faith).
3. The use of this certificate by the purchaser constitutes the issuance of a blanket certificate in accordance with
Kentucky Administrative Regulation 103 KAR 31:111.
12.
Maine does not have an exemption on sales of property for subsequent lease or rental.
13.
Maryland: This certificate is not valid as an exemption certificate. However, vendors may accept resale certificates that bear the
exemption number issued to a religious organization. Exemption certifications issued to religious organizations consist of 8
digits, the first two of which are always “29”. Maryland registration, exemption and direct pay numbers may be verified on the
website of the Comptroller of the Treasury at www.marylandtaxes.com.
14
Michigan: Effective for a period of three years unless a lesser period is mutually agreed t and stated on this certificate. Covers
all exempt transfers when accepted by the seller in “good faith” as defined by Michigan statute.
15.
Minnesota:
A.
B.
Does not allow a resale certificate for purchases of taxable services for resale in most situations.
Allows an exemption for items used only once during production and not used again.
16.
Missouri:
A.
Purchases who improperly purchase property or services sales tax free using this certificate may be
required to pay the tax, interest, additions to tax or penalty.
B.
Even if property is delivered outside Missouri, facts and circumstances may subject it to Missouri tax,
contrary to the second sentence of the first paragraph of the above instructions.
17.
Nebraska:
A blanket certificate is valid 3 years from the date of issuance.
18.
New Mexico: For transactions occurring on or after July 1, 1998, New Mexico will accept this certificate in lieu of a New
Mexico nontaxable transaction certificate and as evidence of the deductibility of a sale tangible personal property provided:
a) this certificate was not issued by the State of New Mexico;
b) the buyer is not required to be registered in New Mexico; and
c) the buyer is purchasing tangible personal property for resale or incorporations as an ingredient or component part into a
manufactured product.
Page A – 13
Revised 10/22/2009
Page 3 of 4
19. North Carolina: This certificate is not valid as an exemption certificate or if signed by a person such as a contractor who
intends to use the property. Its use is subject to G.S. 105-164.28 and any administrative rules or directives pertaining to resale
certificates.
20.
Ohio:
A. The buyer must specify which one of the reasons for exemption on the certificate applies. This may be done by
circling or underlining the appropriate reason or writing it on the form above the state registration section.
Failure to specify the exemption reason will, on audit, result in disallowance of the certificate.
B. In order to be valid, the buyer must sign and deliver the certificate to the seller before or during the period for
filing the return.
21.
Oklahoma would allow this certificate in lieu of a copy of the purchaser’s sales tax permit as one of the elements of “properly
completed documents” which is one of the three requirements which must be met prior to the vendor being relieved of liability.
The other tow requirements are that the vendor must have the certificate in his possession at the time the sale is made and must
accept the documentation in good faith. The specific documentation required under OAC 710-:65-7-6 is:
A) Sales tax permit information may consist of:
(i) A copy of the purchaser’s sales tax permit; or
(ii) In lieu of a copy of the permit, obtain the following:
(I) Sales tax permit number; and
(II) The name and address of the purchaser;
B) A statement that the purchaser is engaged in the business of reselling the articles purchased;
C) A statement that the articles purchased are purchased for resale;
D) The signature of the purchaser or a person authorized to legally bind the purchaser; and
E) Certification on the face of the invoice, bill or sales slip or on separate letter that said purchaser is engaged in reselling the
articles purchased.
Absent strict compliance with these requirements, Oklahoma holds a seller liable for sales tax due on sales where the claimed
exemption is found to be invalid, for whatever reason, unless the Tax Commission determines that purchaser should be pursued
for collection of the tax resulting from improper presentation of a certificate.
22.
Pennsylvania: This certificate is not valid as an exemption certificate. It is valid as a resale certificate only if it contains the
purchaser’s Pennsylvania Sales and Use Tax eight-digit license number, subject to the provisions of 61 PA
Code §32.3.
23.
Rhode Island allows this certificate to be used to claim a resale exemption only when the item will be resold in the same form.
They do not permit this certificate to be used to claim any other type of exemption.
24.
South Dakota: Services which are purchased by a service provider and delivered to a current customer in conjunction with the
services contracted to be provided to the customer are claimed to be for resale. Receipts from the sale of a service for resale by
the purchaser are not subject to sales tax if the purchaser furnishes a resale certificate which the seller accepts in good faith. In
order for the transaction to be a sale for resale, the following conditions must be present:
(1) The service is purchased for or on behalf of a current customer;
(2) The purchaser of the service does not use the service in any manner; and
(3) The service is delivered or resold to the customer without any alteration or change.
25.
Texas: Items purchased for resale must be for resale within the geographical limits of the United States, its territories and
possessions.
26.
Washington: Resale certificates will be replaced by reseller permits issued by Department of Revenue, effective January 1,
2010.
27.
Wisconsin allows this certificate to be used to claim a resale exemption only. It does not permit this certificate to be used to
claim any other type of exemption.
Page A – 13
MAINE REVENUE SERVICES
SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
Resale Certificate for Packaging Materials
I hereby certify that I am engaged in the business of
and; that the packaging materials which I shall purchase from
will be used by me:
‰
For packing, packaging, shipping and transporting tangible personal property
‰
For use in packing, packaging or shipping tangible personal property sold by me
‰
For use in packing, packaging or shipping tangible personal property on which I have
performed the service of cleaning, pressing, dyeing, washing, repairing or
reconditioning
Description of property to be purchased:
Purchaser
Address
Signature
Title
Date
ST-P-73
1/24/00
Page A – 14
MAINE REVENUE SERVICE
SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
INDUSTRIAL USERS
BLANKET CERTIFICATE OF EXEMPTION
For purchases of Tangible Personal Property for Use in Production
Under Section 1760, subsection 9-D, 31, 32 and 74 of the Maine Sales and Use Tax Law.
I hereby certify that I hold valid Seller's Registration Certificate No._______________________ issued pursuant to the Sales and Use
Tax Law, that I am engaged in the production of ___________________________________ and that tangible personal property to be
purchased from ____________________________________________ is exempt for the reason(s) indicated below:
[ ]a.
To become an ingredient or component part of tangible personal property either in the production of tangible
personal property for later sale or for lease outside the state or in the production of tangible personal property
pursuant to a contract with the United States Government or any agency thereof. (1760.74)
[ ]b.
To be consumed or destroyed or to lose its identity directly and primarily either in the production of tangible
personal property for later sale or for lease outside the state or in the production of tangible personal property
pursuant to a contract with the United States Government or any agency thereof. (1760.74)
[ ]c.
Constitutes machinery and equipment, or repair or replacement parts, to be used by me directly and primarily in
either the production of tangible personal property for sale or lease or the production of tangible personal property
pursuant to a contract with the United States Government or any agency thereof. (1760.31)
[ ]d.
Constitutes machinery and equipment, or repair or replacement parts, to be used by me directly and exclusively in
research and development in the experimental and laboratory sense. (1760.32)
[ ]e.
Is fuel or electricity for use at a manufacturing facility (95% of the sale price taxable at a reduced rate)
Meter/Account Number(s) _______________________. (1760.9-D)
[ ]f.
To be used as part of or for the construction, repair or maintenance of a water or air pollution control facility,
certified as such by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection. (1760.29-30)
I further certify that I assume full liability for payment to the State of Maine of any use taxes, together with penalties and
interest, that may later be determined to be due on any purchases covered by this certificate because of a taxable use of the property.
________________________________
NAME OF COMPANY
________________________________
SIGNATURE
_______________________________________
DATE
_______________________________________
TITLE
NOTICE TO RETAILERS: Retailers making exempt sales covered by this certificate must appropriately mark or stamp all invoices to indicate they
are exempt sales. For items a through d above, the words "Maine Sales Tax Exempt" will satisfy this requirement. For item e above, the words
"Fuel/electricity used at a manufacturing facility" will satisfy this requirement.
The certificate may also be used for occasional exempt purchases rather than blanket use by filling out as far as applicable, striking out the
word "Blanket" and listing on the reverse side the date of order and the quantity and description of the tangible personal property ordered; or by
incorporating the purchase order by reference to this certificate, as by listing date and order number.
ST-P-70
rev. 10/27/99
Page A – 15
MAINE REVENUE SERVICES
SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
AFFIDAVIT OF EXEMPTION
For purchases of electricity or depreciable machinery or equipment for use in commercial
agricultural production, commercial fishing or commercial aquacultural production pursuant to
Section 2013 of the Maine Sales and Use Tax Law.
I hereby certify that I hold a valid exemption certificate No.______________________________
issued pursuant to Section 2013 of the Sales and Use Tax Law, that I am engaged in commercial agricultural production
of_________________________or in the commercial fishing of______________ or commercial aquacultural production
of ________________________________and that the electricity or depreciable machinery or equipment to be purchased
from___________________________is exempt for the reason(s) indicated below:
( ) a. Depreciable machinery or equipment used directly and primarily in commercial agricultural
production;
( ) b. Depreciable machinery or equipment used directly and primarily in commercial fishing;
( ) c. Depreciable machinery or equipment used directly and primarily in commercial aquacultural production;
( ) d. Repair parts for depreciable machinery or equipment qualifying for exemption under (a) (b) or (c) above.
( ) e. Electricity for use in commercial agriculture, commercial fishing or commercial aquaculture.
Account No._________________
Utility
I also certify that the depreciable machinery or equipment purchased through this affidavit will be used by me
directly and primarily in commercial agricultural production, commercial fishing or commercial aqua-cultural production
and is 100% depreciable for Federal Income Tax purposes or that the electricity purchased will be used in qualifying
activities or support operations.
I further certify that I assume full liability for payment to the State of Maine of any use taxes, together
with penalties and interest, that may later be determined to be due on any purchases covered by this affidavit because of a
taxable use of the property.
__________________________________________
Name of Individual or Corporation
________________________________
Business Name (if different)
____________________________________________________________________________________
Signature
Title
Date
SEE NEXT PAGE FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
ST-L-154
Page A – 16
GENERAL RESTRICTIONS FOR USE OF THIS AFFIDAVIT OF EXEMPTION
This affidavit is to be retained in the records of the seller to document the qualification of exemption of any sale claimed
exempt under 36 M.R.S.A. § 2013(3). It must be accompanied by a copy of the purchaser's Certificate of Exemption issued by
Maine Revenue Services, valid at the time of sale. A copy of the Certificate and Affidavit need to be obtained by the seller on each
subsequent purchase. However, if the purchaser indicates that a certain purchase is exempt pursuant to this affidavit, the invoice must
be appropriately marked to indicate the exempt sale. The words "Commercial Agricultural Exemption", "Commercial Fishing
Exemption" or "Commercial Aquacultural Exemption" will satisfy this requirement.
This affidavit must be taken in good faith by the seller. The good faith of the seller will be questioned if the seller knows, or
has reason to know, that the person making the purchase is not the holder of the Certificate of Exemption, or that the machinery or
equipment purchased will not be used by the purchaser directly and primarily in commercial agricultural production, commercial
fishing or commercial aquacultural production or that the electricity purchased will not be used by the purchaser for qualifying
activities or support operations.
This affidavit is valid only for purchases of depreciable machinery or equipment, including repair parts for qualifying
machinery or equipment, used directly and primarily in commercial agricultural production, commercial fishing or commercial
aquacultural production. This affidavit is not to be used for the purchase of the following items:
(1) Machinery or equipment not 100% depreciable for Federal Income Tax purposes.
(2) Items not commonly used in commercial agricultural production, commercial fishing or commercial aquacultural
production, such as lawn and garden tractors, fork lift trucks, lag tractors, backhoe tractors, computers etc.
(3) Motor vehicles including all terrain vehicles (ATVs) and snowmobiles.
(4) Attachments for motor vehicles such as fertilizer bodies and potato bulk bodies.
(5) Trailers.
(6) Materials to be incorporated into real property such as building materials, heating systems and ventilating systems.
(7) Silos.
Misuse of Affidavit of Exemption
Purchasers who avoid payment of tax through deliberate misuse of this affidavit of exemption will be subject to prosecution.
Additional Information
Please refer to Sales Tax Section Instruction Bulletin No. 45 (Commercial Agricultural Production), Bulletin No. 44
(Commercial Fishing) or Bulletin No. 49 (Commercial Aquacultural Production) for further details regarding qualifications and
requirements. Requests for information on specific situations should be in writing, should contain full information as to the situation
in question and should be directed to:
MAINE REVENUE SERVICES
SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
P.O. BOX 1065
AUGUSTA, MAINE 04332-1065
TEL. NO. (207) 624-9693
Or visit our website at: www.state.me.us/revenue
Rev. 1/01
Page A - 16
MAINE REVENUE SERVICE
SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
CERTIFICATE OF EXEMPTION
TO PURCHASE AN AUTOMOBILE FOR LEASE OR FOR SHORT-TERM RENTAL
I hereby certify that I hold valid Seller's Registration Certificate No. ________________
issued pursuant to the Maine Sales and Use Tax Law, that I am engaged in the business of renting automobiles
for less than a year or leasing automobiles for a year or more, and that I will report the tax based on the lease or
rental on my Maine Sales and Use Tax Return. The property described below which I shall purchase
from__________________________________________ will be used for (check one):
____ rental for less than a year; integral parts or accessories are exempt when used in an automobile
which is rented on a short-term basis.
____ lease for a year or more; integral parts and accessories are not exempt when used in an
automobile being leased for a year or more.
When the automobile (or part or accessory) is used for any other purpose it is understood that I am
required by the Maine Sales and Use Tax Law to report and pay tax based on the purchase price of such
property.
Description of property:
______________________________________________________
Purchaser
_______________________________________________________
Address
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
Date
_______________________________________________________
STMV 63
Rev. 1-1-95
Page A – 17
MAINE REVENUE SERVICES
SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
Contractor’s Exempt Purchase Certificate
I hereby certify:
That I am engaged in the performance of a construction contract with the following
exempt organization or government agency:
Full name of agency or organization
Address of agency or organization
Location and nature of project
That the above organization either holds exemption certificate no.
issued by Maine
Revenue Services, Sales Tax Division or is to the best of my knowledge and belief exempt from the sales and
use tax because it is an agency of the federal government, the State of Maine or a political subdivision of the
State of Maine;
That this certificate is issued to cover purchases of materials that will be permanently incorporated into
the real property belonging to the exempt organization or government agency indicated above.
Seller’s Certificate Number of contractor, if applicable
Date
Contractor’s Name
By
Address
ST-P-72
8/28/00
Page A - 18
MAINE REVENUE SERVICES
SALES/EXCISE TAX DIVISION
AFFIDAVIT OF EXEMPTION FOR IMMEDIATE REMOVAL
For a Motor Vehicle (excluding all-terrain vehicles and snowmobiles),
Camper trailer (including a slide-in truck camper), Aircraft or Semitrailer
Sold to a Legal Resident of another State or to a Resident business with fixed locations outside the State
I certify that this sale is exempt from sales tax, pursuant to 36 MRSA §1760(23) of the Maine Sales and Use Tax Law.
Make
Model
Year
VIN
Date of Sale
Sale Price $
Trade-in: Type of Vehicle
$
Purchaser’s Name – (please print) last name
first
middle
Purchaser’s Address – (please print) street address, PO Box number, etc.
city
State
The purchaser has stated to me at the time of sale that the purchaser is a legal resident of another state or a resident business with fixed locations
outside the state and intends to remove the vehicle from Maine immediately upon delivery. If any information available to me indicates otherwise, I
have retained evidence in addition to this affidavit which indicates that the purchaser has established legal residence in another state, such as records
of permanent home, employment, tax registrations, federal identification number or driver’s license from another state.
I declare under the penalties of perjury that all statements made by me herein are true, to the best of my knowledge and belief, and hereby authorize
Maine Revenue Services to furnish a copy of this affidavit to the state which the purchaser declares herein to be their residence and/or to the state to
which the vehicle is being removed.
Dealer’s Name
Sales Tax #
Signature
____ I am a non-resident
I *________________________ hereby certify that my legal residence** or commercial domicile is in the state of ___________________
and that I will remove the vehicle to the state of ____________________ immediately upon delivery.
I do not claim Maine residency on any current income tax returns, homestead property exemptions or licenses; to verify this my social
security number or EIN is _____________________ and my date of birth or date of incorporation is ___________________.
____ I am a resident business
I hereby certify that I am organized under the laws of the State of Maine with EIN _________________ or have my principle place of
business in the State of Maine and that I also conduct business activity from a fixed location or locations outside this state. The address of
the sole or primary fixed business location outside of Maine is _________________________________________.
I will remove the vehicle to the state of ________________________ immediately upon delivery and will use the vehicle exclusively in
business activities outside of the State of Maine.
I make this statement to allow the sale of the above described vehicle to me without payment of the Maine sales tax, otherwise applicable. If I
register the vehicle in Maine within 12 months of the date of purchase (or in the case of a resident business, I use the vehicle in Maine within 12
months of purchase), I will pay the Maine use tax at the time of registration based on the original purchase price. If I am a resident business and the
vehicle in question is I declare under the penalties of perjury that the statements made herein are true to the best of my knowledge and belief and
hereby authorize Maine Revenue Services to furnish a copy of this affidavit to the state of my legal residence and/or to the state to which the vehicle
is being removed.
_________________________________________________ _________________________________Date _______________________________
Signature of Purchaser
Title
* Name of Business, if other than an individual
** An individual’s fixed permanent home (domicile)
Enclose affidavit with the Maine Sales and Use Tax Return, and the Dealer’s and Lessor’s Supplemental Report
ST-MV-33 Rev. 7/08
Page A – 19
MAINE REVENUE SERVICES
SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
AFFIDAVIT OF EXEMPTION
Watercraft and/or Materials Incorporated in Watercraft when Sold to a Resident of Another State
□
□
(check one box)
Sale of Watercraft
Repairs to Watercraft
I certify this sale is exempt or partially exempt from sales tax pursuant to 36 MRSA §1760(25) of the Maine Sales and Use Tax Law.
Make
Model
Year
Date of Sale
Sale Price $
Trade-in: Model
VIN
$
Purchaser’s Name – (please print) last name
first
middle
Purchaser’s Address – (please print) street address, PO Box number, etc.
City
State
The purchaser has stated to me at the time of sale that the purchaser is a legal resident of another state, and (check one box)
[ ] will remove the watercraft from Maine within 30 days of delivery thus qualifying for 100% exemption or
[ ] will keep the watercraft in Maine (for a purpose other than temporary storage) for more than 30 days during the 12-month period following
the date of sale listed above thus qualifying for 60% exemption.
If any information available to me indicates that the purchaser may be a Maine resident, I have retained evidence in addition to this affidavit that
indicates that the purchaser has established legal residence in another state, such as records of permanent home, employment, tax registrations,
federal identification number or driver’s license from another state.
I declare under the penalties of perjury that all statements made by me herein are true, to the best of my knowledge and belief, and hereby authorize
Maine Revenue Services to furnish a copy of this affidavit to the state that the purchaser declares herein to be the purchaser’s residence and/or to the
state to which the vehicle is being removed.
Dealer’s Name
Sales Tax #
I*,
Signature
, hereby certify that my legal residence**
state of
or state of incorporation is in the
, and that: (check one box)
within 30 days of delivery to me or
[ ] I will remove the watercraft to the state of
[ ] I will keep the watercraft in Maine for more than 30 days during the 12-month period following the date of sale listed above.
I do not claim Maine residency on any current income tax returns, homestead property tax exemptions, or licenses; to verify this, my Social Security
Number or EIN is
, and my date of birth or date of incorporation is
.
If I have indicated above that I will remove the watercraft from Maine within 30 days of delivery, I make this statement to allow the sale to me of the
above-described watercraft and/or of any materials incorporated into the watercraft by the above named seller without payment of the Maine sales
tax. If the watercraft is subsequently present in Maine (for a purpose other than temporary storage) for more than 30 days during the 12-month period
following its purchase, or is registered in Maine without also being registered in another state, or is documented with the U.S. Coast Guard with a
location in Maine within 12 months of its purchase, I will make payment of use tax to the State of Maine based on 40% of the original purchase price.
I declare under the penalties of perjury that the statements made herein are true to the best of my knowledge and belief and hereby authorize Maine
Revenue Services to furnish a copy of this affidavit to the state of my legal residence and/or to the state to which the watercraft is being removed.
Date
Signature of Purchaser
Title
*Name of Business, if other than an individual
**One’s fixed permanent home or state of “domicile”
Enclose this affidavit with the Maine Sales and Use Tax Return, and the Dealer’s and Lessor’s Supplemental Report.
ST-P-19AE Rev. 8/10
Page A-20
MAINE REVENUE SERVICES
SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
AFFIDAVIT OF EXEMPTION
For Snowmobiles and ATV’s
Sold to a Legal Resident of Another State
I certify this sale is exempt from sales tax, pursuant to 36 MRSA §1760(25-A, 25-B) of the Maine Sales and Use Tax
Law.
Make _________________ Model __________________ Year __________ VIN _____________________________________
Date of Sale ___________ Sale Price $_________________ Trade-in: Kind of Vehicle _________________ $_______________
____________________________________________/______________________________/_____________________________
Purchaser's Name - (please print) last name
first
middle
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Purchaser's Address - (please print) street address, PO Box number, etc.
city
state
The purchaser states to me at the time of sale that he/she is a legal resident of another state. If any information available to me
indicates otherwise, I have retained evidence in addition to this affidavit which indicates he/she has established legal residence in
another state, such as records of his/her permanent home, employment, registration to vote, resident tax returns, or a driver's license
from another state.
I declare under the penalties of perjury that all statements made by me herein are true, to the best of my knowledge and belief and
hereby authorize Maine Revenue Services to furnish a copy of this affidavit to the state which the purchaser declares herein to be
his/her legal residence and/or to the state to which the vehicle is being removed.
Dealer's Name ______________________________ Sales Tax # _____________________ Signature ______________________
I, ________________________________________________________, hereby certify that my legal residence (my one, true,
fixed, and permanent home) is in the state of _________________________ .
I do not claim Maine residency on any income current tax returns, homestead property tax exemptions, or licenses; to verify this,
my Social Security Number is ______________________________, and my date of birth is ______/______/______ .
month
day
year
I make this statement to allow the sale of the above described vehicle to me without payment of the Maine sales tax, otherwise
applicable. I declare under the penalties of perjury that the statements made herein are true to the best of my knowledge and belief
and hereby authorize Maine Revenue Services to furnish a copy of this affidavit to the state of my legal residence and/or to the state to
which the vehicle is being removed.
Signature of Purchaser ____________________________________________________________________ Date _________________________
Enclose this affidavit with the Maine Sales and Use Tax Return, and the Dealer's and Lessor's Supplemental Report.
ST-P-39 Rev. 6/05
Page A – 21
MAINE REVENUE SERVICE
SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
AFFIDAVIT OF EXEMPTION
(To support out-of-state delivery)
The undersigned hereby certifies that the item described below is sold exempt from Maine sales tax because it was
delivered to the purchaser outside the State of Maine by contract or common carrier or the by seller.
Type of Property ______________________________________________________________________________
mobile home, motor vehicle, boat, etc.
Make____________________________ Year__________________ Model No. ____________________________
Serial No.___________________ Sales Price $______________________ Trade in $________________________
Date of Sale______________________________ Date of Delivery_______________________________________
The property described above was delivered to: Name of Purchaser_______________________________________
Legal Address of Purchaser_______________________________________________________________________
Street
City
State
Place of Delivery * _____________________________________________________________________________
Street
City
State
I hereby authorize the Maine Revenue Service to furnish a copy of this affidavit to the state in which the purchaser
declares herein as his legal address and/or to the state in which delivery was made.
Name of Seller_____________________________________ Sales Tax Cert. No.__________________________
Address______________________________________________________________________________________
Signature of Seller _____________________________________________________________________________
Signature of Person Making Delivery ______________________________________________________________
The person shown above as seller or making delivery__________________________________________________
Name of person
personally came to me, who being duly sworn, did depose and say that the statements contained herein are true and
correct.
Signed:______________________________________
_________________________________________
Justice of the Peace-Notary Public
Date: ______________________________________
My commission expires:_______________________
INSTRUCTIONS: This form, when completed, is to be forwarded by the dealer to the Sales Tax Section with the dealer's monthly sales tax report on which this sale is claimed to be exempt.
*If delivery was by common or contract carrier employed by dealer, or was delivered directly form the factory to a point outside Maine by someone other than the dealer, please explain manner
of delivery, giving name and address of delivery carrier, on back of this sheet. In such cases the dealer should retain in his files documentary evidence of such delivery.
ST-MV-36
12/10/63 Rev. 6/84
Page A – 22
MAINE REVENUE SERVICES
SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
Affidavit for Out of State Use of Promotional Materials
The undersigned hereby certifies that the advertising or promotional materials printed on paper, being
purchased from
are being purchased, in whole or in
part, solely for subsequent use outside the State of Maine. In the event that the property is used for any purpose
other than solely outside the State of Maine, it is understood that the undersigned is required by Sales and Use
Tax Law to report and pay tax, measured by the purchase price of such property.
If only a portion of the materials being purchased qualify for exemption under the above provision, it is certified
that
* of the materials will be solely for subsequent use outside the State of Maine. The
undersigned will pay the appropriate Maine State Sales Tax on the remaining taxable portion of the transaction
directly to the vendor listed above.
Purchaser
__________________________________
Address
__________________________________
__________________________________
Signature
__________________________________
Date
__________________________________
*This blank must be completed with a specific quantity, percentage or dollar value
ST-P-71
12/20/99
Page A - 23
MAINE REVENUE SERVICES
SALES, FUEL AND SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
INTERSTATE COMMERCE EXEMPTION AFFIDAVIT
For purchasers & retailers of vehicles, railroad rolling stock, aircraft & watercraft
INSTRUCTIONS TO RETAILER: This form requires the signature of both the retailer (Part
purchaser (Part B on page 2). It is very important that the retailer understand the qualifications
exemption as indicated on page 2 so as not to misinform the purchaser. This form, when completed,
forwarded by the retailer with the monthly sales tax report on which the sale is claimed to be exempt.
of this affidavit should also be provided to the purchaser.
A) and
for this
is to be
A copy
PART A – STATEMENT BY RETAILER
The undersigned hereby certifies that the vehicle described below is sold exempt from the Maine sales
and use tax as an instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce in accordance with 36 MRSA, Section 1760,
subsection 41.
( ) Motor Vehicle
Make
( ) Trailer
( ) Railroad Rolling Stock
Year
Model No.
( ) Aircraft
V.I.N.
The property checked above was purchased from
of
Name of seller
Street Address
, on
City
Purchase Amount
( ) Watercraft
State
.
Purchase Date
Trade-in Credit
Net Purchase Amount
The purchaser stated to me at the time of sale that this property will be placed in use by the purchaser as an
instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce within 30 days (90 days with good cause) after the date of the sale and that it
will be used by the purchaser as an instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce not less than 80% of the time for the
next 2 years.
I declare under the penalties of perjury that all statements made by me herein are true to the best
of my knowledge and belief.
Name of Seller
Sales Tax Registration No.
Address
By
Title
Date
(See page 2 for Part B, Statement by Purchaser)
Page A - 24
PAGE 2
INSTRUCTIONS TO PURCHASER: This statement is your certification that you qualify for the exemption mentioned on page 1
of this form. Please read and understand the following requirements of this exemption. Your signature on this affidavit will
acknowledge that you have read this form in its entirety.
1.
The property must be used by the purchaser in interstate or foreign commerce. If the purchaser is using the Federal Motor
Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Interstate Operating Authority of another person, this exemption does not
apply. A lessor of property used by the lessee as an instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce does not qualify
for exemption.
2.
The property must be placed in use in interstate or foreign commerce within 30 days (90 days with good cause) from the date
of purchase. Good cause does not exist when the extension is required because of the taxpayer’s negligence or failure to
make a good faith effort to place the vehicle in interstate or foreign commerce within 30 days.
3.
The property must be used not less than 80% of the time in interstate or foreign commerce for two years from the date of
purchase.
4.
If the property is withdrawn from interstate or foreign commerce within two years so that it will not be used 80% of
the time in interstate or foreign commerce for the 2-year period, the purchaser is required to report and pay the use
tax to Maine Revenue Services, based on the original purchase price.
5.
Failure to return this affidavit properly completed will subject the purchaser to the Maine use tax. Purchasers who avoid
payment of tax through deliberate misuse of the exemption certificate may be subject to prosecution.
6.
The use of this vehicle is subject to audit by Maine Revenue Services. The audit would be to review the records of the owner
with regard to the eligibility for exemption. The owner must maintain adequate records so that an accurate review is
possible. Unless the owner is able to adequately document the claim for exemption, use tax along with appropriate interest
and penalties will be assessed.
PART B – STATEMENT BY PURCHASER
Name of Owner (Individual, Partners’ Names, or Corporate Name)
Telephone No.
Business Address
Street
City
State
I hereby certify that I will place in use, as an instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce, the above-described property
within 30 days (90 days with good cause) from the date of purchase, and that I will use it not less than 80% of the time as an
instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce for the next 2 years.
I understand that I make this statement to allow the purchase in Maine of the above-described property without payment of
the Maine sales tax otherwise applicable, and I declare under the penalties of perjury that these statements are true to the best of my
knowledge and belief.
I further certify that, if I do not use this property as an instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce within 30 days (90
days with good cause) and for not less than 80% of the time for the next two years, I assume full responsibility for reporting and
paying use tax to Maine Revenue Services, based on the original purchase price of the property.
Please check applicable statement:
( ) FMCSA Interstate Operating Authority No.
has been issued to me.
( ) I only haul
which are exempt from FMCSA licensing requirements.
( ) I only haul
which are products sold by me in my business.
Date
Signature of Purchaser
Title
(Owner, Partner, or Officer of Corporation)
STMV57A
Rev. 7/2008
Page A – 24
Special Notice to Sellers of Mobile Telecommunication Services
Change in law effective August 1, 2002
This notice is being sent to all sellers of telecommunication services as coded in our
database.
Disregard this notice if you do not sell mobile telecommunication services.
Two years ago, an act entitled the “Mobile Telecommunications Sourcing Act” was passed in Congress.
That act required every state to amend their statutes and conform by August 1, 2002 to standardized
sourcing rules. Those rules, which have now been enacted by the Maine Legislature, impose Maine’s 5%
sales tax on those mobile telephone services provided to a customer whose place of primary use is in
Maine. As a reference to the terms used in this notice, language from the statute pertaining to this topic
can be found at the end of this document.
The effect of this legislation could be summarized as follows:
9 Prior to August 1, 2002, all calls that originate and terminate in Maine by any customer were
taxable.
9 Effective for customer bills issued on or after August 1, 2002, all calls that originate and
terminate in any state by a Maine customer are subject to Maine sales tax.
Will Maine sales tax only apply to Maine customers? Yes. A Maine customer is one who has, as a
“place of primary use”, a residential street address or primary business street address located in Maine
and within the home service provider’s licensed service area.
What determines “place of primary use”? A “place of primary use” is the residential street address or
primary business street address of the person contracting for the service. If the contracting party is not the
user of the service, the address of the end user is considered the “place of primary use”. Under no
circumstance would a post office box or other mail delivery service be recognized as a residential or
business address.
Example 1: A mother contracts for a cell phone for her daughter. The daughter
is attending college in Connecticut. The contracting party (the mother) is not the end user
of the service. Any taxes associated with this transaction are sourced to Connecticut
since that is the state in which the “place of primary use” exists.
Example 2: A business located in Portland contracts for ten (10) cell phones for
its salespersons. One salesperson resides in Vermont, another in Massachusetts and the
rest in Maine. The “place of primary use” of one is Vermont, of another is Massachusetts
and is Maine for the other eight.
Example 3: A business located in Sanford contracts for three (3) cell phones for
its executives. The “place of primary use” is Maine since the primary business street
address is in Sanford. The “place of primary use” is not affected by the fact that the
executives travel in and out of Maine on a daily basis.
How is Maine sales tax applied? Maine sales tax applies to all two-way interactive mobile
telecommunications services to the extent those services are associated with transmissions that originate
and terminate within Maine or within any other state.
Example 1: A Maine-based customer originates calls from within Maine to
various points in Maine and outside of Maine. Only those calls that terminate in Maine
are taxable in Maine. (See the rule below regarding bundling for an exception to this.)
Example 2: A Maine-based customer travels along the entire East coast.
Most calls are to Maine locations, but while in New Jersey, the customer calls a
New Jersey account. The New Jersey “intrastate” call is taxable in Maine.
Page A – 25
What if the amount charged for mobile services contain both interstate and intrastate components?
If multiple services are bundled into one price, the entire amount is taxable unless the provider can, to the
satisfaction of the State Tax Assessor, reasonably identify the exempt from taxable charges in their books
and records.
Example: A Maine customer is billed $50.00 for last month’s service. This
entire amount is taxable, unless the provider separates inter- from intra- state calls on the
invoice or can separately identify in their books and records the inter- and intra- state
calls.
What if the address provided by a customer is incorrect? A home service provider can rely on the
address provided by the customer as long as it is received in good faith. The home service provider may
not be held liable for additional taxes if subsequently it is determined that the address was incorrect. The
good faith of the home service provider would be questioned if the provider has knowledge of facts which
give rise to a reasonable inference that the true place of primary use is a different address.
Example 1: A customer contracts for service and provides their residential street
address as 11111 Any Street, Augusta, ME 04333. All documentation given to provider
indicates this as the street address. The provider accepts this address in good faith.
Example 2: A customer contracts for service and provides their business address
as 11111 Any Street, Somersworth, NH. The business address on their check, however,
indicates Route 1, Kittery, ME. The good faith of the provider would be questioned in
this case. Without further documentation to support NH as the place of primary use,
additional taxes would be the liability of the provider.
What if customer’s address is later found to be incorrect? If the provider has accepted the address in
good faith, but the Assessor questions its accuracy, it is the responsibility of the Assessor to follow up
with the customer. If it is ultimately determined that the address was incorrect, the Assessor will notify
the provider of the correct address to apply from that point forward.
Will a provider need to contact all customers prior to August 1, 2002? No. During this transition, a
provider can rely on the address used by it for any contract in effect on July 28, 2002 as the customer’s
“place of primary use”. This address, however, can only be effective for that particular contract. A
provider must determine that the address represents the correct “place of primary use” for any extension,
renewal or new contract entered into on or after July 28, 2002.
Can a provider rely on third party databases or enhanced zip codes to correctly source to Maine?
The statute does hold harmless a provider relying on approved electronic databases or enhanced zip codes
for sourcing. Since Maine does not impose any local option taxes and this service is subject to only one
rate statewide, such reliance should not be necessary.
Additional information:
The information in this notice addresses some of the more common questions that have recently
surfaced regarding the application of Maine sales and use tax to mobile telecommunications services.
This notice is not all-inclusive and will be updated periodically. Requests for information on specific
situations should be in writing, should contain full information as to the transaction in question and
should be directed to the:
MAINE REVENUE SERVICES
SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
P.O. BOX 1065
AUGUSTA, ME 04332-1065
TEL: (207) 624-9693
TTY: (207) 287-4477
Page A – 25
JOHN ELIAS BALDACCI
GOVERNOR
ADMINISTRATIVE & FINANCIAL SERVICES
STATE OF MAINE
MAINE REVENUE SERVICES
P.O. BOX 1065
AUGUSTA, MAINE
04332-1065
REBECCA M. WYKE
COMMISSIONER
JEROME D. GERARD
ACTING EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
MAINE REVENUE SERVICES
SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
REQUEST FOR SALES TAX REFUND
To ensure prompt processing of this application, please fill in all applicable lines and attach all pertinent information.
Name________________________________________ Social Security #_________________________
Address ______________________________________ Federal ID #_____________________________
City/State/Zip___________________________________ Contact Person ___________________________
Telephone # ________________
AMOUNT OF REFUND REQUEST $_______________________
(Additional information may be required)
WHAT SHOULD BE INCLUDED WITH THE APPLICATION?
1 If tax was paid to a retailer and not directly to Maine Revenue Services, the refund(s) should be obtained from the retailer. If
the retailer refuses to issue the refund, documentation indicating such from the retailer must be included with this
application.
2. Cover letter explaining the reason for the refund request.
3. Proof tax was paid. (copies of invoices, etc.)
4. Any other pertinent information.
5. If the refund is for tax paid on a motor vehicle, boat or other vehicle please send a copy of the registration, including: Year; Make;
Model; VIN number; Plate number; Place and Date of registration.
.
* Refunds are disallowed when an application is received more than 3 years after the date of over payment.
* This refund request is considered incomplete until all requested additional information has been timely received.
* Failure to provide additional information could result in a denial of your request.
I certify under the pains and penalty of perjury that the statements made in this application and any attachments thereto are true, accurate and complete to the best of my
knowledge and belief.
Signature _______________________________ Date _______________________________
Print Name _____________________________ Title _______________________________
Mail Application & Documentation to:
Maine Revenue Services
Sales, Fuel & Special Tax Division
P.O. Box 1065
Augusta, ME 04332-1065
STR-46-A Rev. 11/07
Page A - 26
Phone: (207) 624-9693
Fax: (207) 287-6628
[email protected]
MAINE REVENUE SERVICES
SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
APPLICATION FOR REFUND OF SALES OR USE TAX
Construction of Realty for Pine Tree Development Zone Business
To ensure prompt processing of this application, please fill in all applicable lines and attach all
pertinent information.
Name and address:
_____________________________________
Social Security #________________________
_____________________________________
Federal ID #___________________________
_____________________________________
Contact Person ________________________
Telephone # _________________________
AMOUNT OF REFUND REQUEST $___________________
Note: If the Pine Tree Development Zone business will have both qualifying and nonqualifying employees working in the facility you have constructed, your refund request
may be pro-rated accordingly.
WHAT SHOULD BE INCLUDED WITH THE APPLICATION?
1.
2.
Form STR-PTDZ-Supp.
Schedule of purchases to support claim.
Refunds disallowed when an application is received more than 3 years after the materials are
incorporated into
the realty of the PTDZ business!
3.
4.
5.
Copy of exemption certificate issued by Maine Revenue to PTDZ business.
Description of construction project.
Any other pertinent information to support claim.
I certify under the pains and penalty of perjury that the materials on which tax was paid
were incorporated into real property that has been placed into use directly and primarily in a
qualified Pine Tree Development Zone business activity and that the statements made in this
application and any attachments thereto are true, accurate and complete to the best of my
knowledge and belief.
Signature _______________________________
Date _______________________________
Print Name _____________________________
Title _______________________________
STR-PTDZ
6/2005
Page A – 27
Additional Information to Support Application for Refund
Construction of Realty for Pine Tree Development Zone Business
(attach to Form STR-PTDZ)
This claim is being made by: ___Contractor
___ Pine Tree Development Zone Business
If claim is being made by the PTDZ business, has the contractor submitted to Maine Revenue
Service a certificate releasing their claim to this refund? _____
If no, please explain: ______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PART A: TO BE COMPLETED BY CONTRACTOR
Contractor Information: Name and address:
______________________________________________
SSN:___________________
______________________________________________
EIN:___________________
______________________________________________
Zone location of constructed realty: ______________________________________________
(street and city)
Date project started: ______________________ Date completed: ____________________
Is a schedule attached listing all the purchases that are part of this refund request? Y N
If no, please explain:
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(See reverse side for Pine Tree Business information)
Page A – 27
PART B: TO BE COMPLETED BY PINE TREE BUSINESS
Pine Tree Development Zone Business Information: Name and address:
______________________________________________
SSN:__________________
______________________________________________
EIN:__________________
______________________________________________
This contract was for the construction of a:
____ New facility in Zone ____ Improvements to facility already existing in Zone
Number of qualified Pine Tree Zone employees11 working in this facility _____
Are non-qualified employees12 working in this facility? Y N
If yes, how many? __________
_____________________________ ____________________________
Authorized Signature of
Print Name
Date
Pine Tree Zone Business
__________________
__________________
Telephone #
11
Qualified Pine Tree Development Zone employees" means new, full-time employees hired in this State by a
qualified Pine Tree Development Zone business for work directly in one or more qualified business activities for
whom a retirement program subject to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, 29 United States
Code, Sections 101 to 1461, as amended, and group health insurance are provided and whose income derived from
employment within the Pine Tree Development Zone, calculated on a calendar year basis, is greater than the most
recent annual per capita personal income in the county in which the qualified employee is employed. "Qualified Pine
Tree Development Zone employees" does not include employees shifted to a qualified business activity from a
nonqualified activity of the qualified Pine Tree Development Zone business or an affiliated business. The
commissioner shall determine whether a shifting of employees has occurred.
12
Partially-Qualified Pine Tree Development Zone Employees” means new, full-time employees hired in this State
by a qualified Pine Tree Development Zone business who do not meet the income and/or benefit standards for fullyqualified Pine Tree Development Zone employees but who do work directly in one or more qualified business
activities. The term does not include employees shifted to a qualified business activity from a nonqualified activity
of the qualified Pine Tree Development Zone business or an affiliated business.
STR-PTDZ-Supp Revised February 24 2006
Page A – 27
MAINE REVENUE SERVICES
SALES, FUEL & SPECIAL TAX DIVISION
AFFIDAVIT OF EXEMPTION FOR 28 DAY CONTINUOUS RENTAL
AT A HOTEL, ROOMING HOUSE, TOURIST, OR TRAILER CAMP
36 MRSA §1760(20) of the Maine Sales and Use Tax Law provides a sales tax exemption for:
Rental charged to any person who resides continuously for 28 days or more at any one hotel, rooming house, tourist camp or trailer camp if:
A. The person does not maintain a primary residence at some other location; or
B. The person is residing away from that person's primary residence in
connection with employment or education.
Tax paid by such a person to the retailer under section 1812 during the initial 28-day period must be refunded by the retailer. If the tax has been
reported and paid to the State by the retailer, it may be taken as a credit by the retailer on the return filed by the retailer covering the month in
which the refund was made to the tenant.
This section to be completed by the tenant
I,
, hereby certify that my primary residence is
,
_______________________________ and that my rental of living quarters is exempt from sales tax for the following reason:
 Rental of living quarters constitutes my primary residence
("Primary residence" means the residence maintained at the location in which
the individual is domiciled. "Domicile" is the place where an individual has his or her true, fixed and permanent home, which is the location where an
individual has the most legal ties, i.e. driver's license, voting registration, vehicle registration, ownership of real property, enrollment of children in
school systems, etc.)
Tenant: Please complete the following questionnaire:
My previous address was _________________________________________________________________________
Date that I left previous address ____________________________________________________________________
Current mailing address __________________________________________________________________________
Drivers License Number ___________________________
Vehicle Plate Number _________________________
Current Telephone Number ________________________________________________________________________
Social Security Number ____________________________
Date of Birth__________________________________
 Rental is in connection with Education
("In connection with education" means in connection with education from an accredited secondary
school or college at which the person is enrolled in a diploma or degree program.)
Tenant: Please provide the facility with a statement from the school that you are enrolled in such a program.
 Rental is in connection with employment
Tenant: Please provide the facility with a statement from the employer that the travel is necessitated by the your employment and the purpose of
your employment.
I make this statement to allow the renting of the living quarters to me without payment of the Maine sales tax, otherwise applicable. I declare under
the penalties of perjury that the statements made herein are true to the best of my knowledge and belief.
Date
Signature of Tenant
This section to be completed by the facility
(Note: Any break in the rental period will result in a new stay. A new affidavit must be completed for each stay that a tenant claims a sales tax exemption.)
First Day of current rental period (mm/dd/yy)
__ / __
/____
Tenant states to me at the time of sale that the rental of living quarters at this facility constitutes one of the following:
 Tenant’s primary residence
 Rental is in connection with Education
Tenants Name – (please print)
last name
middle
 Rental is in connection with employment
___________________________________
first
The tenant has provided documentation, as outlined above, verifying the reason for the exemption from sales tax. I declare under the penalties of
perjury that all statements made by me herein are true, to the best of my knowledge and belief.
Signature ____________________________________________________
Title ________________________________________
(Hotel Employee)
Page A – 28
LISTING OF SALES AND USE TAX BULLETINS
Bulletin #
Title
Last Revision Date
38
Advertising Agencies and Graphic Designers
July 1, 1990
15
Auctioneers
September 1, 1997
11
Barbers and Beauticians
December 1, 1990
9
Casual and Infrequent Sales
October 29. 2007
33
Children's Summer Camps
February 11, 1991
4
Contractors and Subcontractors
January 19, 1991
25
Coupons and Gifts
September 1, 1997
29
Deduction for Bad Debts
January 28, 1991
44
Depreciable Machinery and Equipment - Fishing
July 1. 2002
45
Depreciable Machinery and Equipment - Farmers
July 1, 2002
49
Depreciable Machinery and Equipment - Aquaculture
July 1, 2002
36
Exempt Organizations
October 4, 2007
46
Fabrication Services
September 12, 2006
16
Financial Institutions
April 1, 1991
21
Florists
February 1, 1989
2
Funeral Directors
January 8, 2009
12
Grocers
April 1, 2006
Installing Tangible Personal Property in Real Property
September 1, 1997
28
20
Lease and Rental Transactions
March 1, 2008
22
Manufacturers
October 15, 2000
41
Medicines, Medical Equipment and Prosthetic Devices
July 1, 1990
35
Nonresident Woods Operators (also available in French) February 1, 2002
42
Original Registration of Vehicles
July 16, 2008
Original Registration of Watercraft, Snow. and ATV's
July 16, 2008
47
23
Packing, Packaging and Shipping Materials
September 1, 1997
3
Photographers and Photofinishers
July 28, 2008
52
Pine Tree Development Zones
November 23, 2005
17
Printers, Engravers and Bookbinders
November 1, 2000
10
Radio and Television Repair
December 1, 1990
48
Recycling Assistance Fee
January 8, 2009
43
Registration of Out-of-State Sellers
July 1, 1997
32
Rentals of Living Quarters
October 29, 2007
54
Resale Certificates
January 12, 2009
27
Sales of Prepared Food
October 1, 2001
13
Sales of Fuel and Utilities
August 5, 2008
31
Sales of Mobile and Modular Homes
September 1, 1997
39
"Sale Price" Upon Which Tax is Based
October 29, 2007
14
Seed, Feed, Fertilizer, etc.
April 1, 2006
55
Service Provider Tax
July 30, 2008
1
Service Stations and Auto Repair Shops
January 8, 2009
5
Shoe Repair
November 19, 1990
Small Sales and Sales by Coin Operated Vending Machines August 1, 1991
8
18
Stonecutters and Monument Dealers
November 29, 1990
Page A – 29
56
30
24
51
53
6
Telecommunications Services
Transportation Charges
Vehicle Dealers
Veterinarians
June 16, 2009
February 11, 1991
July 1, 2008
May 10, 2005
Warranties, Service Contract and Maintenance Agreements January 8, 2009
Watch and Jewelry Repair
November 27, 1990
LISTING OF SALES AND USE TAX RULES
Rule
Number
Title
Last Revision Date
101
Calculation of Interest
January 16, 2008
102
Electronic Funds Transfer
January 7, 2008
103
Record Keeping and Retention
March 30, 2008
104
Electronic Filing of Maine Tax Returns
March 11, 2008
301
Sales for Resale and Sales of Packaging Materials
January 29, 2007
302
Government Agencies, Exempt Organizations and Sales
Thereto
January 9, 2007
303
Sales to Industrial Users
January 29, 2007
304
Sales Tax Returns and Payments
July 23, 2002
308
Direct Payment Permits
January 29, 2007
313
Classified Permits
January 29, 2007
318
Instrumentalities of Interstate or Foreign Commerce
November 12, 2006
321
Meals Provided in the Wild
November 12, 2006
323
Commercial Agricultural Production and
Commercial Fishing
January 29, 2007
324
ConnectME Tax Reimbursements
June 19, 2007
401
Service Provider Tax – Return and Payment of Tax
November 26, 2006
Page A – 30
INDEX
A
C
E
Advertising
no tax · 93
Advertising materials · 58
Agricultural products · 62
Agriculture
animal production · 62
crop production · 62
Air Pollution Control Facility ·
144
Aircraft
sales of · 66
Alcoholism
self help literature · 58
Alteration Charges · 11
Aquaculture
production · 62, 85
Assembly Charges · 12
Assessments · 125
Audits · 124
Automobiles
amputee veterans · 63
driver ed programs · 66
Automobiles, rental of
affidavits · 105
Casual Renters of living quarters ·
94
Casual Sales · 81
defined · 7
taxable · 83
yard sales · 84
Catalog Sales · 62
Collection Action · 127
Commerce items · 60
Commercial Fishing
fishing vessel affidavit · 106
Community Support Services · 47,
48
Community Wind Power
Generators
purchases by · 73
Community Wind
PowerGenerator
reimbursements to contractors ·
113
ConnectME Zones
refunds · 116
Construction contracts
with Community Wind Power
Generators · 113
with exempt organizations · 60
with Pine Tree Zone businesses ·
111
Consumed or destroyed · 140
Continuous residence
refunds/credits · 28
Contractor's Certificate · 105
Core charges · 14
Coupons
manufacturer's · 15
retailer's · 15
Crutches · 57
E-9-1-1 Surcharge · 23
Electricity
net energy billing · 71
residential · 70
transmission & distribution · 31
used in manufacturing · 71
Equines · 62
Establishments
exemptions · 78
Excess Collections · 107
Excise taxes · 18
Exempt activities · 76
Exempt Organization Certificates
· 103
Extended cable & satellite
television service · 43
Extended warranty on automobile
· 31
B
Bad Debts · 108
Bait · 62
Bedding material
farm animals · 62
Biotechnology · 145
Breakage · 108
Building materials · 59
D
Deliveries
out of state affidavits · 104
Delivery charges · 18
Diabetic supplies · 57
Direct Pay Permits · 103
Directly
defined · 135
Discounts
vendor · 14
Donated Items · 58
F
Fabrication Charges · 11
Fabrication services · 44
Farmers
affidavits · 104
commercial · 85
Federal Employees
sales to · 79
Fees
Premiums on bulk motor oil · 22
recycling assistance fees · 21
Fish Passage Facilities · 109
Fishermen
affidavits · 104
commercial · 85
Fishing bait · 62
Food items
exemptions · 49
Food stamp purchases · 54
Fuel
burning blueberry land · 69
certain motor fuels · 69
coal, oil and wood · 69
in groundfishing boats · 69
in manufacturing · 71
oil and coal · 71
Fuel and electricity
used in production · 142
Fuel oil and coal
manufacturing · 146
Funeral services · 75
G
M
P
Gas
residential · 71
Gift Certificates · 15
Grocery staples · 49
Machinery and equipment
contracts with US Government ·
145
manufacturing · 133
Mandates
filing returns · 97
payments · 96
Manufactured housing · 59
Manufacturers' certificates · 103
Manufacturing
direct pay permit · 103
Meals · 49
exempt · 53
Meals and lodging
to certain employees · 55
Medical items
exemptions · 56
Medical Marijuana · 56
Medicines · 56
Mobile Telecommunications
Service · 41
Motor oil premiums · 22
Packaging materials · 60
Packaging Materials
non-retailer certificate · 106
Penalties · 120
failure to file · 120
failure to pay · 121
insufficient funds · 122
negligence and fraud · 122
not exclusive · 122
substantial understatement · 122
waiver or abatements · 123
Pine Tree Development Zone
purchases by PTDZ business ·
72
reimbursements to contractors ·
111
Portable classrooms · 59
Postmarks
date of filing · 94
Premiums on bulk motor oil · 22
Prepaid calling arrangements · 30
Prepared food · 49
Primarily
defined · 135
Printed items
exemptions · 58
Private Nonmedical Institution
Services · 47
Production
begins · 129
consumed or destroyed · 140
defined · 129
directly · 135
ends · 130
exclusions from · 130
fuel and electricity · 142
primarily · 135
sale/leasebacks · 146
Promotional Materials · 58
affidavit · 106
Prosthetic devices · 56
Publications · 58
Purchases, out-of-state
use in Maine · 68
H
Hay · 62
History · 1
Home Support Services · 48
Hotels · 26
I
Installation charges · 17
Installment and lay-away sales · 3
Interest · 119
Internet Filing · 97
Internet Sales · 62
Interstate commerce
affidavits · 104
vehicles used in · 66
L
Lead-acid battery deposits · 20
Leases
and trade-ins · 36
automobiles · 31
driver ed autos · 66
generally · 35
in lieu of purchase · 35
portable classrooms · 59
to exempt organization · 36
true · 35
with option · 35
Lemon law fee · 19
Liability of seller · 10
N
Nonprofit organizations · 76
Nonresidents, sales to
ATV's · 65
snowmobiles · 66
watercraft · 65
Non-residents, sales to
affidavits · 105
O
Out of state sales · 61
INDEX
R
S
U
Railroad track materials · 60
Rebates · 15
Reconsiderations · 107, 126
Recordkeeping · 100
Recycling assistance fees · 20, 21
Refunds · 106
bad debt charge offs · 108
certain supplies used out-of state
· 117
excess collections · 107
excise tax on rentals · 110
fish passage facilities · 109
returned sales · 16
tax paid on purchases for resale ·
106
Registration
procedure · 92
rental of retail space · 91
requirements · 89
voluntary · 91
Rental of living quarters · 26
Rentals
automobiles · 31
casual · 29
interim · 36
living quarter exemptions · 75
of retail space · 91
rent-to-own furniture · 45
video media and games · 45
Repair labor · 17
Reporting
cash basis · 99
consolidated filing · 99
extensions · 99
frequencies · 98
supplemental reports · 99
Resale Certificate · 101
Research and Development
manufacturing · 144
Residential water · 55
Retail Sale
defined · 4
Retailer
collection of taxes · 93
defined · 89
Retention of records
electronic · 101
Returned sales
full refund · 16
warranty · 16
Returns
due date · 94, 95
internet filing · 97
Rooming House · 26
Sale
defined · 3
non cash sale · 12
Sale Price
defined · 11
tax is part of · 93
Sales tax · 2
Schools
sales by · 80
Seedlings, tree
commercial forestry · 63
Seeing eye dogs · 63
Service Provider Tax · 37
Community Support Services ·
47, 48
Home Support Services · 48
Private Nonmedical Institution
Services · 47
Services
exempt · 75
part of sale price · 11
Shipping and handling · 19
Ships stores · 60
Silviculture
Crop Production · 62
Snow Grooming Equipment · 69
Statute of limitations
exceptions · 125
Submission of returns and funds
by electronic menas · 95
Use Tax
defined · 8
purchases out of state · 68
T
Tangible Personal Property
defined · 2, 139
Tax
part of sale price · 93
trust funds · 119
Tax Rates · 9
Taxable Services · 25
defined · 3
Taxpayer Bill of Rights · 126
Telecommunications service · 38
Mobile · 41
Tips · 18
Tire Disposal Fees · 20
Tourist camp · 26
Trade-ins
allowable · 12
part of sale price · 12
Trailer camp · 26
Transient Rentals · 26
forfeited deposits · 30
Transportation charges · 18
V
Vehicles
loaner vehicles · 63
non-resident purchases · 64
purchased by resident business ·
64
Vending machines
sales through · 54
Veterans
automobiles · 63
W
Warranty
returned sales · 16
Water Pollution Control Facility ·
143
Wheelchairs · 57
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