2014 Greater Vernon RDF Annual Report

2014 Greater Vernon RDF Annual Report
REGIONAL DISTRICT
OF
NORTH OKANAGAN
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling
and Disposal Facility
Ministry of Environment Operational Certificate No. MR 15286
SUBMITTED TO:
Ministry of Environment, Penticton, B.C.
PREPARED BY:
Dale Danallanko, Recycling and Disposal Facilities Operations Manager
Nicole Kohnert, P.Eng., FEC, Manager Regional Engineering Services
Keiko Parker, Environmental Technician
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING:
Keiko Parker, Environmental Technician.
DATE:
February 2015
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 4
2.
BACKGROUND .................................................................................................................... 4
3.
FACILITY OPERATIONS: 2014............................................................................................ 5
3.1.
DISPOSAL METHOD ..................................................................................................... 5
3.2.
RECYCLING ................................................................................................................... 5
3.3.
QUANTITIES AND SITE LIFE ........................................................................................ 6
3.4.
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE EXPEDITURES .................................................... 7
4.
OPERATIONAL MONITORING/INSPECTIONS ................................................................... 7
5.
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING ....................................................................................... 7
5.1.
2014 ANNUAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING REPORT ........................................ 7
5.2.
GROUND AND SURFACE WATER MONITORING RECOMMENDATIONS ................ 7
5.3.
LANDFILL GAS MANAGEMENT ................................................................................... 7
5.4.
EROSION ..................................................................................................................... 10
5.5.
LITTER, DUST AND VECTOR CONTROL .................................................................. 10
5.6.
LEACHATE MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................ 10
5.7.
LEACHATE POND DAM OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE AND SURVEILLANCE..... 11
5.8.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY ....................................................................................... 11
5.9.
SOIL SAMPLING .......................................................................................................... 11
6.
REGIONAL YARD WASTE COMPOSTING FACILITY ...................................................... 13
7.
FINANCIAL ......................................................................................................................... 13
8.
OPERATING AND CLOSURE PLAN ................................................................................. 13
REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................... 14
ATTACHMENTS
ATTACHMENT A - 2014 Environmental Monitoring Report .................................................. 15
ATTACHMENT B - Regional District of North Okanagan Municipal Solid Waste
Management Bylaw No. 2614, 2013 ......................................................................................... 16
ATTACHMENT C - 2014 GVRDF Leachate Dam Inspection Records ................................... 17
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
TABLES
Table 1 Summary of CH4 Readings from Landfill Gas Monitoring Wells 2014 ..................... 8
Table 2 Macro and micronutrients in soil of irrigated and un-irrigated area of GVRDF site
in spring and fall 2014, and for comparison, pre-leachate soil values ................................ 12
FIGURES
Figure 1 Greater Vernon RDF Landfill Gas Monitoring Wells ................................................. 9
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
1. INTRODUCTION
The Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility (GVRDF) is located within the City of
Vernon in the Regional District of North Okanagan (RDNO) at 120 Birnie Road, approximately 5
km south of the city center.
The legal description of the property on which the GVRDF is situated is Lot A, Plan KAP83248,
Section 16, Township 9, Osoyoos Division Yale District. The site, owned by the RDNO, is
approximately 60 hectares and serves the communities of Vernon and Coldstream and the
surrounding Electoral Areas (B and C). The location plan is presented as part of the 2014
Environmental Monitoring Report.
The GVRDF was operated by SSG Holdings Ltd. under a contract with the RDNO during 2014.
The Scale Attendant and Inspector positions at the GVRDF were filled by RDNO staff.
The GVRDF has a maximum permitted filling rate of 45,000 tonnes per year. The works
authorized are a sanitary landfill, leachate control works, and related appurtenances.
2. BACKGROUND
The GVRDF operated under “Summer Hours” from March 1, 2014 to October 31, 2014. Under
Summer Hours, the facility was open Monday to Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. and
Saturday and Sunday from 8:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. “Winter Hours” were in effect from January 1,
2014 to February 28, 2014 and from November 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014. Under Winter
Hours, the facility was open Monday to Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. and Saturday 9:30
a.m. to 3:30 p.m.
The GVRDF entrance facilities include a lockable entrance gate, scale house, vehicle scales
(one for inbound traffic and one for outbound traffic), and electronic weighing and reporting
software (Auto Scale 2000). Customers using the facility, with the exception of customers
dropping off Blue Bag Recyclables only, are required to stop at the scale house and pay the
specified disposal fee based on the type and weight of material disposed. All site visitors,
suppliers, consultants and contractors are required to check in and out of the site at the scale
house to ensure they are familiar with the emergency, health and safety protocols and so that
they are all accounted for at the end of the day.
The Regional District of North Okanagan Municipal Solid Waste Management Bylaw No. 2572,
2013 establishes fees and sets standards for the use of recycling and disposal facilities owned
and operated by the regional district. The Bylaw was originally adopted in April 2010 and took
effect July 5, 2010. The bylaw has been amended on a number of occasions since 2010. A
copy of the version of the Bylaw that took effect on April 1, 2014 is provided as Attachment B.
Schedule A: Recycling and Disposal Fees was amended by Bylaw No. 2614, 2013. These
rates took effect April 1, 2014.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Prior to 2012, the RDNO solid waste management program operated on a 100 percent user pay
system, with no financial contribution from taxation. However, in 2012 the RDNO implemented
a region wide tax levy in the amount of $400,000 to fund solid waste management.
3. FACILITY OPERATIONS: 2014
This section describes on-site activities during 2014 including disposal methods and recycling
initiatives.
3.1. DISPOSAL METHOD
The filling method used at the GVRDF is area fill. The site has two tipping areas, one for
residential self haulers (transfer station area or Residential Drop Off Facility which was opened
in June 2008 and consists of 5 lock block bays with 40 cubic yard roll off containers) and one for
commercial haulers (landfill face). At the landfill face the GVRDF operator pushes the refuse
into small lifts and compacts the material according to RDNO operational requirements. The
operator uses a steel wheel compactor to push and compact the refuse on a daily basis
Since mid January 2012, the RDF Operations Contractor (SSG Holdings Ltd.) has used an
alternate daily cover system at the GVRDF. At the end of each operating day, after the days
refuse is compacted, large steel plates are placed over the active face. The steel plates take
the place of daily cover. The steel plate system, known as the ‘Revelstoke Iron Grizzly”, has
significantly decreased the need for cover soil at the GVRDF, has decreased the rate at which
airspace is being consumed and has increased operational efficiency.
Cover material for intermediate or side cover is readily available near the filling areas from
customers who bring in clean fill soil and hydrocarbon contaminated soil (less than Hazardous
Waste) to the facility. Soil is accepted at the GVRDF at nominal charge and managed
according to RDNO policy and procedures and the OC.
3.2. RECYCLING
The following commodities are segregated at the GVRDF and shipped off-site for recycling or
reused on-site:
•
•
•
•
•
Batteries: Sold to Canadian Energy to be refurbished or recycled.
Tires: Recycled under the Provincial Tire Recycling Program.
Yard and Garden Waste: Stockpiled and ground by AB Wood Grinding as required.
Ground yard and garden waste is composted at the RDNO Regional Yard Waste
Composting Facility.
Wood Waste: Stockpiled and ground by AB Wood Grinding as required. Ground wood
waste was used on-site.
Propane Tanks: Removed by Viper Fuels to be refurbished or recycled.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
White Goods and Other Metals: Refrigeration units are decommissioned and refrigerant
removed by a qualified contractor under contract. Metal sold to a recycling contractor.
Blue Bag Materials: Collected at a location adjacent to the scale house at a Recyclable
Materials Drop Center. From January to August, the drop center utilized two roll off
containers; one for office paper, newspaper, tin, aluminum and plastic and another for
cardboard (OCC). In August, a lock block bunker was established for blue Blue Bag
materials where customer could drop their blue bags. Roll off containers continued to be
used for OCC. Blue Bag materials and OCC are hauled by BFI Canada Inc. as directed
by the RDNO for reloading and processing as part of the RDNO Blue Bag Recycling
Program.
Drywall: Collected and shipped to a gypsum recycler.
Asphalt Shingles: Collected and shipped to Intercity Ventures (Vernon Paving) for
processing and recycling.
Fluorescent Bulbs & Tubes: Collected by Venture Training under and EPR program.
Concrete and other Crushable Material: this material is stockpiled on site and crushed
for onsite use when needed.
Styrofoam: waste Styrofoam is accepted from residents and businesses at a minimum
cost of $3.00 and densified using a RecycleTech XT-200. The ‘ingots’ (blocks of dense
Styrofoam) are shipped to market when there is a truck load quantity.
3.3. QUANTITIES AND SITE LIFE
The quantity of Municipal Solid Waste disposed at the GVRDF in 2014 was 27,633 tonnes,
representing a decrease of 5.3% from 2013. Disposed tonnage is down more than 25% since
2009. This decrease may be attributable to increased diversion of material such as wood and
metal as well as economic conditions.
According to 2011 census data the population in the service area for the GVRDF (Vernon,
Coldstream, Electoral Area B, Electoral Area C, and part of the Okanagan Indian Band lands) is
57,726. The per capita disposal rate in 2014 was 0.48 tonnes. The per capita disposal rate in
this area has been relatively stable for a number of years. When compared with the 1991 per
capita filling rate of 1.1 tonnes per capita per year it appears that waste reduction programs in
Greater Vernon are effective.
The remaining life of the GVRDF has been evaluated on a number of occasions. The most
recent evaluation was completed as part of the complete rewrite of the 2000 Operating and
Closure Plan (Dayton & Knight, 2000). In the updated Operating and Closure Plan, BGC
Engineering re-evaluated the parameters (compaction, cover ratio, etc.) and as of 2009, the life
of the facility is estimated to be 2034.
Recently the RDNO purchased a large parcel of land to the west and adjacent to the GVRDF for
future expansion of the landfill footprint. A preliminary design will be developed in the near
future in order to more clearly determine the increase in site life, the expansion costs, and begin
the OC and Solid Waste Management Plan amendment process.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
3.4. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE EXPEDITURES
Total operation and maintenance expenditures at the GVRDF during 2014 were $1,618,963.84.
4. OPERATIONAL MONITORING/INSPECTIONS
RDNO staff closely monitored all aspects of GVRDF operations during 2014 to ensure that
operations were carried out in compliance with all Ministry of Environment and Regional District
of North Okanagan requirements. Any operational issues noted were addressed as necessary
5. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING
5.1. 2014 ANNUAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING REPORT
The Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility, 2014 Annual Environmental Monitoring
Report, February 2015, prepared by Regional District of North Okanagan staff, is provided as
Attachment A. The monitoring program is described and monitoring results are provided
including the status of sampling points and recommendations for monitoring program
improvements, where necessary.
5.2. GROUND AND SURFACE WATER MONITORING RECOMMENDATIONS
a) Repeat sampling program as conducted in 2014 and assess trends of exceedances.
b) Evaluate potential trends in Ammonia, Arsenic, Boron, Cadmium, Chloride, Chromium,
Conductivity, Fluoride, Manganese, Nitrate, Nitrite, Selenium, Sodium, and Uranium in
2015.
c) Monitor MW10-01 for one more year to determine if some of the increased parameters
at this well show an increasing trend. If an increasing trend is apparent then a location
for a different background well to the southwest of MW10-01 will be explored.
i. Create a better sample site for SW06-1 in 2015.
5.3. LANDFILL GAS MANAGEMENT
For the quarterly sampling, landfill gas was detected in the two monitoring probes adjacent to
the old scale house/quonset building (MP11-3 and MP11-4) in March, June, and December
2014. In September 2014 all six monitoring probes in the landfill gas monitoring program
showed detectable levels of landfill gas. The detection of landfill gas in the other four wells
(MP11-1A, MP11-1B, MP11-4, and MP11-5) was a new occurrence in 2014 and will be closely
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
monitored in the future. Any potential migration into the buildings is monitored using gas
detection alarms inside the buildings. No odour complaints were received, nor were the alarms
set off in 2014.
The RDNO has received funding to install a landfill gas control system. Construction of the
system began in the summer of 2014 with commissioning of the system to take place in the
spring of 2015.
Table 1 Summary of CH4 Readings from Landfill Gas Monitoring Wells 2014
Monitoring Well ID
MP11-1A
MP11-1B
MP11-2
MP11-3
MP11-4
MP11-5
March 2014
CH4 (%)
0.0
0.0
0.0
14.1
49.8
0.0
June 2014
CH4 (%)
0.0
0.0
0.0
18.5
43.2
0.0
September 2014
CH4 (%)
0.1
0.1
0.2
8.1
25.2
0.2
December 2014
CH4 (%)
0.0
0.0
0.0
20.0
34.5
0.0
It is recommended that in 2015, quarterly sampling of the five landfill gas monitoring wells
continues to be performed.
8
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Kalamalka Lake
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? Landfill Gas Monitoring Well
Roads
RDNO Properties
Landfill Area
Creek
This map was compiled by RDNO, using data believed
to be accurate; however, a margin of error is inherent in all maps.
This product is distributed without warranties of any kind, either
express or implied, including but not limited to warranties of
sustainability
or
particular
purpose
or
use.
Plot Date: Feb 05, 2015
Figure 1-1
Site Location Plan for the Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Scale: 1:9,000
0
200
400
Meters
800
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
5.4. EROSION
No erosion was detected on-site in 2014.
5.5. LITTER, DUST AND VECTOR CONTROL
Dust was not a major problem at the facility in 2014 except when wood waste was ground. To
control dust from the wood grinding process, the wood grinding contractor used water from the
leachate pond. All gravel and dirt roads within the landfill footprint are watered by the Contractor
using a water truck filled with leachate pond water to control road dust.
Birds of many different species frequent the facility, but were not observed to be a hazard in
2014. Bald eagles are intermingled with crows, ravens, sea gulls and other species. The RDNO
does not have a bird management plan for this site.
Management of windblown litter at the GVRDF is an ongoing challenge given the facility is
located in a very windy area, and the fact that the adjacent Material Recovery Facility is not an
enclosed facility. Litter fencing is installed upwind of the filling areas and litter was collected as
necessary, especially after the wind events. The GVRDF operator is required to collect litter on
a regular and frequent basis.
5.6. LEACHATE MANAGEMENT
The leachate distribution system at the GVRDF was completely replaced in the spring of 2012.
A new 4 inch diameter aluminum irrigation main was installed on the south facing slope above
the GVRDF leachate pond. Three inch diameter lateral lines were installed in this area and
movable irrigation stand guns with impact sprinklers were deployed in this area. An additional 4
inch diameter aluminum leachate supply line was installed to convey leachate to the regional
yard waste compost facility. A small, self retracting irrigation gun was deployed at the compost
facility to apply leachate to the windrows to manage the moisture content in the windrows.
Between April 28th and October, a total of 14,885 m3 of leachate was applied to the south facing
slope above the leachate pond at the GVRDF.
Leachate was sampled as part of the GVRDF environmental monitoring program. As is typical
for MSW landfill leachate, the pond water exceeded the Aquatic Life (AL) Guidelines and
Drinking Water (DW) Guidelines for a number of parameters. A groundwater monitoring well
down gradient of the irrigation area is sampled regularly. In 2008, based on increasing
concentrations of a number of parameters analyzed in this well, the Consultant recommended
investigation of the irrigation application rates and other issues that may be pertinent to potential
contamination of groundwater flowing from this source area. The irrigation system was
upgraded and sprinklers set up farther to the west of the old area to ensure any over-irrigation
that flows into the garbage flows to the leachate storage pond. A new groundwater monitoring
well (MW10-02) was installed down-gradient from the irrigation area and from MW06-5. This
new well is closer to the property boundary and Hwy 97 and is included in the ongoing
monitoring program.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
5.7. LEACHATE POND DAM OPERATIONS, MAINTENANCE AND SURVEILLANCE
As per the Leachate Pond Dam Operations, Maintenance and Surveillance Manual, monthly
inspections (except August 2014) of the dam were performed by the RDNO’s Environmental
Technician and these inspections will continue in 2015 on a monthly basis. The 2014 GVRDF
dam inspection records are located in Attachment C.
5.8. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY
Over the past few years, a number of different aerial and ground surveys of the GVRDF have
been undertaken. In the summer of 2013, Aero Geometrics completed an aerial survey of the
GVRDF. Aero Geometrics also completed an aerial survey of the GVRDF in the spring of 2014.
Based on these two surveys, the airspace consumed between June 30, 2013 and May 14, 2014
was 42,604 m3. The actual airspace consumed by the landfilling of Municipal Solid Waste may
vary somewhat from this number as the aerial survey also calculates the volume of cover and in
some areas other commodities present at the facility at the time the aerial survey is completed
The RDNO plans to have Aero Geometrics undertake another aerial survey of the GVRDF in
the spring/summer of 2015.
5.9. SOIL SAMPLING
As recommended in 2012, soil sampling of the irrigated area of the GVRDF was performed in
2014 before and after irrigation (spring and fall). The 2014 results are consistent with the results
recorded in 2012 and 2013. As 2012 was the first year soil sampling was completed, we now
have three years of data for comparison. The 2014 plant available phosphorus data is
comparable to the low value noted in 2013 which indicates this is not a lab error. Further
monitoring will continue and close attention to this parameter will continue in the future.
A Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR) test was added to the standard list of analyses done on the
soil monitoring samples from this site in 2014 and it is recommended to continue with this test in
the future to determine a trend. It has been noticed on another RDNO site where leachate is
used for irrigation that the proportions of calcium, magnesium, and sodium change over time,
magnesium and sodium increase and calcium declines. There does not appear to be a sodium
problem now in the GVRDF soil but it is recommended to track any changes over time,
especially as the GVRDF leachate has significantly more sodium than calcium or magnesium.
This analysis will be performed on the Leachate Pond water samples as well.
It is recommended that in the future only samples from the fall irrigated area after irrigation
period are taken every second fall. There are now three years of information for the spring
irrigated sampling which gives good background information, which will help determine if
irrigation is negatively impacting the soil on site and be able to monitor changes over time
(McDougall, R., pers. comm. 2015). Due to the location of the irrigation area the un-irrigated
samples do not provide a very good control and should be discontinued (McDougall, R., pers.
comm. 2015).
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Table 2 Macro and micronutrients in soil of irrigated and un-irrigated area of
GVRDF site in spring and fall 2014, and for comparison, pre-leachate soil values
Parameter
Units
November
2012
pre- leachate
2
Quality Parameters
Conductivity (saturated paste)
pH
Sodium Adsorption Ratio
(SAR)
Nutrients (plant available)
Nitrate
Phosphorus (Bray P1)
Potassium (ammonium
acetate)
Calcium (plant available)
Magnesium (plant available)
Sodium (plant available)
Sulphur (as sulphate)
Micronutrients
Boron (hot water soluble)
Copper (plant available)
Iron (plant available)
Manganese (plant available)
Zinc (plant available)
Chloride
dS/m
pH units
1.35
7.9
Spring 2014
Fall 2014
Irrigated
area of site
Unirrigated
area of site
(Pre-irrigation
within irrigated
zone)
(within
irrigated zone)
(outside of
irrigation zone)
1.15
7.8
0.95
8.71
0.69
8.37
3.62
0.38
Irrigated
area of site 1
N/A
1
2
mg/kg
mg/kg
8.2
26.9
22.7
184
10.4
10.6
5.2
22.7
mg/kg
553
456
373
326
mg/kg
mg/kg
mg/kg
mg/kg
1080
19
<12
12
2970
920
88
6
2490
745
189
7
3630
730
25
6
mg/kg
mg/kg
mg/kg
mg/kg
mg/kg
mg/kg
3.2
2.0
21.4
1560
127
46
2.9
2.8
2.1
17
34
8
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
6. REGIONAL YARD WASTE COMPOSTING FACILITY
Construction of the regional yard waste composting facility was completed in the fall of 2011.
The initial windrows were formed from yard and garden waste ground in November 2011.
Additional windrows were formed in the spring, summer and fall of 2012 and in the spring,
summer and fall of 2013. The initial batch of finished compost was screened in the fall of 2013.
Additional material was screened in the spring of 2014. More than 15,000 m3 of Class A
compost has been produced since the facility opened.
The temperature of the windrows was monitored on a regular basis.
7. FINANCIAL
Approximately $8,658 was spent on environmental monitoring at the Greater Vernon Recycling
and Disposal Facility in 2014.
A Statutory Closure Reserve was established in 2010 for closure and post closure costs at all
RDNO Recycling and Disposal Facilities. The balance in the Statutory Closure Reserve at the
end of 2013 was approximately $2,018,563.
The contribution to the Statutory Closure Reserve during 2014 was $12/tonne of material
disposed at all RDNO Recycling and Disposal Facilities during the first three months of the year
and $13/tonne during the remainder of 2014. It is estimated that the annual contribution to the
Statutory Closure Reserve will be in excess of $500,000 in 2015 based on current and projected
disposed tonnages.
8. OPERATING AND CLOSURE PLAN
An updated Operations and Closure Plan for the Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal
Facility was completed by BGC Consultants in 2009. The document was provided to the
Ministry of Environment for review and comment. Comments received from the MOE included
adding more information on the Leachate Pond water balance and dam, run on water diversion
and landfill gas monitoring. The Plan can now be updated and resubmitted.
The Landfill Gas Management System installed in 2014 (to be commissioned in March 2015)
has impacted the filling plan for the site. The new filling plan will be incorporated into an
updated and resubmitted Operating and Closure Plan.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
REFERENCES
McDougall, Ruth. 2015. Personal Communications with Keiko Parker of RDNO on February 23
2015.
14
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
ATTACHMENT A - 2014 Environmental Monitoring Report
15
Regional District of North Okanagan
Attachment A
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
2014 Environmental Monitoring Report
Ministry of Environment Operational Certificate No. 15286
Date: February 2015
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 3
1.1.
SITE LOCATION ......................................................................................................... 3
1.2.
BACKGROUND .......................................................................................................... 3
1.3.
OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE ....................................................................................... 6
1.4.
CLIMATE .................................................................................................................... 6
1.5.
GEOLOGIC AND HYDROGEOLOGIC SETTING....................................................... 7
1.6.
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK .................................................................................. 7
2.
FIELD INVESTIGATION METHODS ................................................................................ 9
2.1.
MONITORING NETWORK ......................................................................................... 9
2.2.
MONITORING DATES ................................................................................................ 9
2.3.
SAMPLING METHODS ............................................................................................ 10
2.4.
SAMPLING PARAMETERS ...................................................................................... 11
2.5.
FIELD OBSERVATIONS .......................................................................................... 11
3.
MONITORING RESULTS ................................................................................................ 13
3.1.
FIELD OBSERVATIONS .......................................................................................... 13
3.2.
MONITORING WELL STATUS ................................................................................. 13
3.3.
WATER LEVELS ...................................................................................................... 13
3.4.
QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL ........................................................ 16
3.5.
EXCEEDANCE SUMMARY ...................................................................................... 17
3.6.
TREND ANALYSIS ................................................................................................... 22
4.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................................. 38
4.1.
CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................................ 38
4.2.
RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................. 39
REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................... 40
APPENDIX A – 2013 Well Details .............................................................................................. 42
APPENDIX B – Water Chemistry Database ............................................................................... 44
APPENDIX C – Analytical Laboratory Reports ........................................................................... 45
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1-1 Vernon North Climate Station ....................................................................................... 6
Table 2-1 Summary of Historic Sampling Dates ......................................................................... 10
Table 3-1 Water Level Measurements and Groundwater Elevations in 2013 ............................. 13
Table 3-2 Water Quality Guideline Exceedances from 2011 to 2013 ......................................... 17
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1 Site Location Map for the Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility ................ 5
Figure 3-1 Groundwater Elevations from 2008 to 2013 .............................................................. 15
Figure 3-2 Time Series Plot for Ammonia ................................................................................... 23
Figure 3-3 Time Series Plot for Arsenic ...................................................................................... 24
Figure 3-4 Time Series Plot for Boron ........................................................................................ 25
Figure 3-5 Time Series Plot for Cadmium ................................................................................... 26
Figure 3-6 Time Series Plot for Chloride ..................................................................................... 27
Figure 3-7 Time Series Plot for Chromium ................................................................................. 28
Figure 3-8 Time Series Plot for Conductivity .............................................................................. 29
Figure 3-9 Time Series Plot for Fluoride ..................................................................................... 30
Figure 3-10 Time Series Plot for Manganese ............................................................................. 31
Figure 3-11 Time Series Plot for Nitrate ..................................................................................... 32
Figure 3-12 Time Series Plot for Nitrite ....................................................................................... 33
Figure 3-13 Time Series Plot for Selenium ................................................................................. 34
Figure 3-14 Time Series Plot for Sodium .................................................................................... 35
Figure 3-15 Time Series Plot for Uranium .................................................................................. 36
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
1. INTRODUCTION
The Regional District of North Okanagan (RDNO) conducted the Environmental Monitoring
Program (the “Program”) at the Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility (GVRDF) in
2012, 2013, and 2014. This report summarizes the results of the 2014 Program. Summit
Environmental Consultants Inc. (Summit) previously reported on the 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
and 2012 Programs (Summit 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013). Prior to 2008, monitoring and
reporting was conducted by EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd. (EBA). From 2008 to 2011,
water quality samples were collected by Summit staff and analyzed by Caro Analytical Services
(Caro). From 2012 to 2014, water quality samples were collected by RDNO staff and analyzed
by AGAT Laboratories (AGAT).
1.1. SITE LOCATION
The GVRDF is located about 4 km south of Vernon west of Hwy 97N (Figure 1-1). The landfill is
in an eastern facing valley, between two bedrock hilltops. East of the landfill, the slope steepens
into a gully. The site ranges in elevation from approximately 600 metres above sea level (masl)
to 625 masl (currently). The GVRDF is approximately 14 hectares in size and the latitude and
longitude at the centre of the site are 50°13'15"N and 119°18'10" W. The closest water body is
Kalamalka Lake, which is about 1 km to the east and 200 m in elevation below the toe of the
landfill.
1.2. BACKGROUND
The GVRDF, which currently operates under Ministry of Environment (MoE) Operational
Certificate (OC) MR15284, began accepting municipal solid waste in the early 1980s. In 1991,
the RDNO signed a 20 year lease for the landfill site and in 1993 became co-permittee with
Giant Industries Corporation (GIC). The site ownership transferred from GIC to the RDNO on
March 15, 2007. The 2007 OC name change amendment application has yet to be approved by
MoE.
A leachate storage pond with an earth fill dam was constructed downgradient of the landfill to
capture leachate generated within the operating portion of the site (prior to 1990). A concrete
cut-off wall was installed in overburden materials from the uphill toe of the dam to bedrock in
1990. A clay liner was installed in the pond and on the uphill face of the dam in 1994. This
reportedly had some effect in restricting seepage through the overburden (Piteau, 2000), but it
is not known exactly how much leachate flow was prevented from seeping beneath the pond
and further downstream toward Hwy 97. Untreated leachate storage pond water is pumped
through a series of irrigation lines to a spray irrigation area north of the pond and also applied to
the Regional Yard Waste Compost Facility (RYWCF). Any run-off that may occur from both
areas is intended to be collected by the GVRDF leachate storage pond. To date, no surface
leachate run-off has been observed. The amount of leachate storage pond water irrigated and
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
used for compost watering is recorded and presented annually in the main monitoring report
submitted by RDNO.
Previous studies have been completed to assess sources of groundwater impacts that have
been observed downgradient of the GVRDF, including the landfill, the leachate storage pond,
and the old highways maintenance road salt storage facility which was located west of the scale
house (Figure 1-1). BGC Engineering Inc. (BGC) completed two reports, titled “Leachate Impact
Assessment Final Report November 26, 2007” and “Numerical Groundwater Flow and
Transport Assessment, December 18, 2007” (BGC 2007a and BGC 2007b). The most recent
report concluded that the high chloride concentrations in the monitoring wells downgradient of
the landfill were primarily a result of the former salt storage facility operated by Argo
Construction Inc (Argo) until 2007. The salt storage facility was removed in 2007, and a few
centimetres of soil from the surface was scraped off in the summer of 2007 (N.Kohnert, pers.
comm. 2009). The chloride concentrations in the monitoring wells along Kalamalka Lakeview
Drive (MW06-15S and MW06-15D) are reportedly from a third unidentified source, such as the
application of road salt to the highway (upgradient of the monitoring wells) (BGC 2007b).
In 2014 a landfill gas management system was designed by XCG Consultants Ltd and
tendered, and construction (Knappett Industries (2006) Ltd) started in summer 2014.
Commissioning is expected to occur in March 2015, and XCG will be available for one year to
assist with operation. Fortis BC has expressed interest in utilizing the gas in the future.
Currently, environmental monitoring is conducted at the site three times annually and consists of
groundwater sampling and analysis from eleven monitoring wells, one leachate storage pond,
and one surface water location.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Figure 1-1
Site Location Map for the Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
1.3. OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE
The objective of conducting the Program for the GVRDF is to provide consistent and accurate
long-term monitoring of potential environmental impacts from landfill operations at the site.
These monitoring and reporting activities were planned in accordance with OC MR15286 (MoE
1998a). In meeting these objectives, the RDNO’s scope of work included the following activities:
•
•
•
•
•
Water sampling performed by RDNO’s Environmental Technician, as scheduled for the
year
Tabulating the 2014 water quality data (prepared with the assistance of Wireless
WaterTM data management services)
Summarizing water quality guideline exceedances from the 2014 results
Analyzing temporal and spatial data trends
Preparing an annual Environmental Monitoring Report.
1.4. CLIMATE
Climate data is available for Vernon (Climate STN ID 1128583) and this data is used as an
approximation to the site as the station is located in the same geographic area (approximately
15 km to the north) with an elevation of 512 m. The average annual temperature and total
precipitation is 8.8°C and 487 mm/year respectively (Environment Canada 2014). Mean monthly
temperatures range from -2.8°C in January to 21.0°C in July. The mean monthly total
precipitation rates range from 25.2 mm in February to 57.5 mm in November. Values are based
on data from 1981 to 2010, and are shown in Table 1-1.
Table 1-1
Vernon North Climate Station
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
Mar
June July Aug Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
Yearly
-2.8
-0.2
4.2
9.4
13.9
17.4
21.0
20.5
15.3
7.9
1.8
-2.2
8.8
11.6 11.7 17.0 27.2 46.3
49.6
35.4
31.9
32.7
40.7 31.1
9.7
344.9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.9
26.5 47.3
142.1
52.2 25.2 28.7 29.0 46.3
49.6
35.4
31.9
32.7
41.5 57.5 57.0
487.0
Temperature
Daily
Average (°C)
Precipitation
Rainfall (mm)
Snowfall (cm) 40.5 13.5 11.7
Total
precipitation
(mm)
1.8
Source: National Climate Data and Information Archive (Environment Canada 2014).
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
1.5. GEOLOGIC AND HYDROGEOLOGIC SETTING
The following geologic and hydrogeologic setting was determined by BGC Engineering and was
reported in their document “Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility Leachate Impact
Assessment Final Report” November 26, 2007 (2007a).
Surficial geology is characterized by thin (0-12 m) sand and silt on top of rhyolite bedrock. BGC
divided the bedrock into two main units: an overburden/weathered bedrock unit from surface to
10 m below ground surface (bgs), with a permeability of 1 x 10-9 m/s to 1 x 10-3 m/s, and a less
fractured/less weathered bedrock unit from 10 m bgs to 50 m bgs, with a very low permeability
of 1 x 10-10 m/s to 1 x 10-7 m/s.
The conceptual model for the site (BGC 2007a) is that rain and snowmelt percolating through
the landfill flows from the north-northeast and southwest ridges towards the centre of the basin
(i.e. beneath the landfill footprint), and then southeast towards the leachate storage pond.
Downgradient of the leachate storage pond and within the gully, the groundwater flows to the
south. Downgradient of the area between the scale house and the leachate storage pond,
groundwater flows in a southeasterly direction. West of the scale house, groundwater appears
to flow in an easterly direction towards the overburden and fill material present below the scale
house. From these surface materials, groundwater flows in a southeasterly direction into the
gully downslope of the leachate storage pond (Figure 1-1).
It is likely that any seasonally or perennially saturated portions of the overburden and uppermost
weathered bedrock layers are discontinuous between the landfill and the lake, based on the
presence of several bedrock outcrops in the area. Due to these discontinuities, groundwater
travel would most likely occur through the deeper fractured bedrock media.
1.6. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
As per the requirements of the OC MR 15286 (MoE 1998a),
“landfills must be operated in a manner such that ground or surface water quality does
not decrease beyond that allowed by the Approved and Working Criteria for Water
Quality dated 1996 (updated August 2006) prepared by the Water Quality Branch of the
Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks at or beyond the landfill property boundary, if
excursions result to the specified water quality criteria, the Regional Waste Manager
may require that leachate management control measures or works be undertaken.”
The water quality data has been compared to the following drinking water, aquatic life, and
irrigation guidelines, due to the proximity of surface waters to the GVRDF:
•
•
•
•
British Columbia Approved Water Quality Guidelines for freshwater aquatic life
(BCAWQG AL)
British Columbia Working Water Quality Guidelines for freshwater aquatic life
(BCWWQG AL)
British Columbia Approved Water Quality Guidelines for drinking water (BCAWQG DW)
British Columbia Working Water Quality Guidelines for drinking water (BCWWQG DW)
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
•
•
•
British Columbia Working Water Quality Guidelines for irrigation (BCWWQG I)
Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality Maximum Acceptable Concentration
(health-based guideline) (GCDWQ MAC)
Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality Aesthetic Objective (based on aesthetic
considerations) (GCDWQ AO)
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
2. FIELD INVESTIGATION METHODS
2.1. MONITORING NETWORK
The 2014 Program consisted of sampling the following sample locations (Figure 1-1):
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Leachate Storage Pond
Surface water location SW06-1 (downgradient of the Leachate Storage Pond)
MW97-2 (downgradient of the Leachate Storage Pond)
MW05-05 (background well)
MW06-10s (downgradient)
MW06-13 (downgradient, close to Hwy 97)
MW06-15s (leachate plume monitoring (only monitored once/year))
MW06-17 (leachate plume monitoring)
MW06-18 (leachate plume monitoring)
MW07-19 (salt shed plume monitoring)
MW07-21 (leachate plume monitoring)
MW10-01 (background well)
MW10-02 (downgradient of MW05-03).
Monitoring well MW97-2 and the Leachate Storage Pond have been sampled since 2003.
Monitoring wells MW05-03 and MW05-05 were installed and first sampled in 2005. MW06-10s,
MW06-13, MW06-15s, MW06-17, MW06-18, and MW006-18 were installed and sampled
beginning in 2006. Surface water location SW06-1 was also added to the Program in 2006.
MW07-19 and MW07-21 were installed and sampled in 2007. MW10-01 and MW10-02 were
installed by Golder Associates in September 2010 at the request of the RDNO. MW10-01 was
installed to the northwest portion of the landfill boundary near MW05-4, which was previously
used as a background well. MW10-02 was installed south of the spray irrigation site, located
north of MW07-21. Several other monitoring locations are no longer part of the monitoring
program, but are shown on Figure 1-1.
A list of wells that are currently being used for the Program and wells that have been removed
from the Program over time is provided in Appendix A. Wells that are not to be sampled have a
strikethrough.
2.2. MONITORING DATES
In 2014, samples were collected in March/April, July, and November. Documented sampling has
occurred three times per year at the GVRDF since 2003, with the exception of 2007 and 2014 in
which sampling occurred in March, April, September, and November. All monitoring locations
are sampled during each event, with the exception of MW06-15S which is sampled once per
year during the third quarter sampling, as the recharge in the well is extremely slow and multiple
visits are required to collect a sample. Table 2-1 provides a summary of months in which
samples were collected since 2003.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Year
Jan
Feb
Table 2-1
Summary of Historic Sampling Dates
Mar
Apr
May June July Aug Sept
2003
X
2004
X
2005
X
2006
X
2007
X
X
Oct
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
2009
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
2014
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
2012
2013
X
X
X
2011
Dec
X
2008
2010
Nov
X denotes the month in which sampling took place.
2.3. SAMPLING METHODS
This year sampling was completed by Ms. Keiko Parker, an RDNO Environmental Technician.
The same sampling protocols have been completed by the RDNO technician since 2012. The
sampling protocols followed provincial standards (MoE 2003) and meet the intent of the OC.
Static groundwater levels were taken at all monitoring wells using a water-level meter. RDNO
sampling techniques utilize low flow methods, where possible, which included a peristaltic or
bladder pump, a bailer, waterra with a foot valve or running tap water from a domestic well. The
low flow method is used where possible to minimize disturbance and sample turbidity.
Dedicated or one time usage low density polyethylene (LDPE) tubing was used during
sampling. The pond leachate sample was obtained using a sampling arm.
The 2014 sampling procedure used to sample groundwater from monitoring wells involved
purging until consistent water chemistry (monitored and recorded field parameters; groundwater
level, Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, Dissolved Oxygen, and Temperature) was obtained or
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
until the well went dry. The depths to water measurements were recorded during the purging
process to ensure water was being drawn from the aquifer rather than the water column.
Groundwater samples were collected once the equilibrium of the field parameters stabilized or
at least three well volumes had been purged from the well. Samples were collected in
laboratory-supplied sampling bottles, preserved as required, stored in ice-filled coolers to
maintain the temperature below an average of 10°C to ensure sample integrity, and submitted
to AGAT Laboratories in Burnaby, B.C for analysis within the required holding times. Samples
collected for dissolved metals analysis were field-filtered using dedicated WaterraTM 0.45
micrometre (µm) in-line filters at the time of sampling.
Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) field measures were implemented during the
sampling event. QA/QC field measures include using site-specific field forms, wearing nitrile
gloves, and using either sampling supplies that are dedicated to the well or cleaning the
equipment with Liquinox and rinsing with de-ionized water thereafter, between wells. Properly
completed chain-of-custody forms accompanied each sample sent to the lab. In addition to field
QA/QC, an internal laboratory QA/QC program was followed which included analysis of
reference samples, blanks, matrix spikes and laboratory duplicates. AGAT Laboratories
performed analysis for the groundwater samples submitted for testing and they have achieved
certification by the Canadian Association for Laboratory Accreditation Inc. (CALA) for the
analyses conducted.
2.4. SAMPLING PARAMETERS
The 2014 analytical program included the following parameters:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Field parameters (pH, Conductivity (EC), Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen)
Routine laboratory parameters (pH, Conductivity (EC), Hardness, Total
Dissolved Solids (TDS), Turbidity)
Dissolved anions (Fluoride, Chloride)
Nutrients (Ammonia, Nitrate, Nitrite, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Total
Phosphorus)
Dissolved metals (groundwater samples only) and total metals (leachate only)
True Colour
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD).
This is the same suite of parameters analyzed during previous monitoring programs. TKN was
added as an additional parameter in November 2011 to all sampled locations, as requested by
MoE.
2.5. FIELD OBSERVATIONS
During field visits, vegetation around the GVRDF is observed for signs of stress and/or mortality.
Examples of such signs include discolouration and/or plant mortality. The area was also
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
observed for signs of erosion and/or liquid flowing from or along surfaces and slopes which
could indicate leachate breakout.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
3. MONITORING RESULTS
3.1. FIELD OBSERVATIONS
No indications of stressed vegetation or erosion on the landfill footprint were observed during
the 2014 site visits.
3.2. MONITORING WELL STATUS
All sample locations had sufficient recharge to sample in 2014. For select wells, odours and/or
turbid water was reported. The following list highlights observations in 2014:
•
•
•
•
•
Sulphur odours and black suspended solids (July) were noted in MW05-05 during
purging and sampling
A moderate sweet/garbage smell and moderately yellow water was observed during
purging and sampling in MW97-2
A slight yellow colour and chemical odour was observed during the April and July
sampling events for MW06-17
Some organic matter was noted in the November sample for MW06-13
A slight sweet smell was noted in MW06-18 during sampling in November.
3.3. WATER LEVELS
A survey of the top of casing elevations of the monitoring wells was conducted in 2012 by
Russell Shortt Land Surveyors. The 2012 survey results are accurate to within ± 2 cm. Prior to
2012, elevations had been estimated using a digital elevation model, and were only accurate to
within + 10 m (Summit 2012). Groundwater elevations were calculated by subtracting the field
measured depth to water from this elevation. Table 3-1 presents the top of casing elevation, the
measured depth to water, and the calculated groundwater elevation for wells sampled in 2014.
Figure 3-1 shows the change in groundwater elevation since 2008 to 2014. Note that historic
groundwater elevations have been re-calculated using the 2012 survey data. Data prior to 2008
was not included as it is not available electronically.
Groundwater levels appear to be stable over time, with minor seasonal fluctuations within wells,
(Figure 3-1).
Water levels observed in 2014 were consistent with water levels from the previous years, with
minor seasonal water level fluctuations.
Table 3-1
Water Level Measurements and Groundwater Elevations in 2014
Depth to Water (mbtop)
Groundwater Elevation (masl)
Monitoring Elevation
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Well
MW97-2
MW05-03
MW05-05
MW06-10s
MW06-13
MW06-15S
MW06-17
MW06-18
MW07-19
MW07-21
MW10-01
MW10-02
of Top of
Casing
(masl)
April
July
Nov
April
July
Nov
594.821
604.711
625.2762
560.411
558.661
486.481
582.191
566.331
598.4142
560.231
615.1792
537.1852
2.346
18.793
6.809
2.933
2.853
N/A
3.686
4.046
3.526
4.431
2.592
2.814
3.727
17.687
8.757
2.896
2.783
3.341
3.955
4.297
3.298
4.415
2.471
3.513
4.762
N/A
9.146
4.111
3.494
N/A
4.796
4.917
4.142
5.267
3.129
4.289
592.47
585.92
618.467
557.48
555.81
N/A
578.50
562.28
594.888
555.80
612.587
534.371
591.09
587.02
616.519
557.51
555.88
483.14
578.24
562.03
595.116
555.82
612.708
533.672
590.06
N/A
616.130
556.30
555.17
N/A
577.39
561.41
594.272
554.96
612.050
532.896
mbtop = metres below top of casing
1: Elevation of top of casing from EBA 2008
2: Elevation of top of casing surveyed in 2012 by Russell Shortt Land Surveyors
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Figure 3-1
Groundwater Elevations from 2008 to 2014
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
3.4. QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL
To assess the quality of the sampling and analytical results, field duplicates were analyzed for
the Program at a rate of approximately 10% of the total number of samples collected. A
duplicate sample is where a field sample of water is collected from the same location, split into
two equal parts, and submitted to the analytical laboratory under a separate label so the
laboratory has no knowledge of the site the sample came from. The collection and analysis of
the duplicate samples provided information on the combined (field and analytical) precision of
the sampling and analytical program. The individual analytical results in each of the samples of
the duplicate pair were compared and the relative percent difference (RPD) was calculated for
each analyte pair. RPDs were calculated using the following formula,
Where a and b are duplicate pair values in identical units.
An RPD of 25% or less is generally considered acceptable while an RPD of greater than the
25% limit may indicate a problem in either sampling or analysis (MoE 1998b). This limit may
vary somewhat depending on the analysis involved and the concentration of the analyte. The
RPD also tends to increase as the result approaches the detection limit. Therefore, use of this
threshold is restricted to values that are over five times their detection limit.
Caro Analytical Laboratories completed analysis on samples from 2008 to 2011. AGAT
Laboratories completed analysis on samples from 2012 to 2014.
Duplicate samples collected from the GVRDF were used to assess the quality of the sampling
and analytical results. For the GVRDF, a total of three samples were submitted for duplicate
analysis from MW010-02 (March and July) and MW06-13 (November). The calculated RPDs for
Silver (33.3%) in March and Nitrate (36.5%) in July had values greater than the 25% threshold.
The Silver values for the regular and duplicate sample are within the same magnitude and are
not exceeding guidelines; therefore, it is not a concern. The Nitrate sample is unfiltered and
sample heterogeneity is considered a possible cause of the high RPDs. None of the calculated
RPDs for November had values greater than the 25% threshold that were also greater than five
times the value’s detection limit. Two trip blanks (April and November) and one field blank (July)
were also submitted to AGAT for analysis in 2014. The results are within acceptable limits.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
3.5. EXCEEDANCE SUMMARY
The water quality results were compared with the guidelines and are presented in Appendix B.
The original laboratory reports are included in Appendix C.
Table 3-2 summarizes exceedances of the water quality guidelines from 2012 to 2014. An
explanation of each 2014 analyte exceedance is noted after Table 3-2. For guideline values,
result values and trend plots please see Section 3.6 Trend Analysis.
Table 3-2
Water Quality Guideline Exceedances from 2012 to 2014
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Ammonia. Ammonia exceeded a guideline in 2014 in the Leachate Pond (Table 3-2). This
parameter has exceeded the Aquatic Life Guideline repeatedly for the Leachate Pond (Figure 32). However, no monitoring wells exceeded guidelines in 2014. The exceeded guideline is for
aquatic life and due to no apparent aquatic habitat being influenced by the landfill this
exceedance is not a concern at this time.
Arsenic (Dissolved). MW10-01 exceeded guidelines for Arsenic in 2014 (Table 3-2). Arsenic
concentrations have exceeded the Maximum Acceptable Concentrations and Aquatic Life
Guidelines in MW10-01 since 2012 (Figure 3-3). Due to no apparent aquatic habitat being
influenced by the landfill this exceedance is not a concern at this time. The other exceeded
guideline is for drinking water and as there are no domestic supply uses down-gradient from this
well the Maximum Acceptable Concentrations Guideline can be disregarded. The Arsenic
concentration in this background well suggested naturally occurring concentrations or an off-site
source in previous years, but because the concentration in the other background well, MW0505, in 2014 is a magnitude less than MW10-01, this could suggest the arsenic concentration in
MW10-01 is not naturally occurring but more years of data are needed to establish this. A
location to the south of MW10-01 will be looked at to drill a new background well if exceedances
continue to occur in this well.
Arsenic (Total). Arsenic in the Leachate Pond in 2014 exceeded a guideline (Table 3-2).
Arsenic concentrations have exceeded the Aquatic Life Guideline in the Leachate Pond in 2011,
2013, and 2014. The exceeded guideline is for aquatic life and due to no apparent aquatic
habitat being influenced down-gradient of the Leachate Pond this exceedance is not a concern
at this time.
Cadmium (Dissolved). In 2014, Cadmium in MW05-05, MW06-13, and MW97-2 exceeded a
guideline (Table 3-2). Cadmium concentrations have exceeded the Aquatic Life Guideline in
MW06-13 consistently in previous years (Figure 3-5). Cadmium has also exceeded the Aquatic
Life Guideline in MW05-05 in 2012 and 2011 and MW10-01 in 2011. These exceedances in
background wells indicate that Cadmium is naturally occurring in the area.
Chloride. Chloride concentrations continued to exceed the Aquatic Life, Drinking Water, and
Aesthetic Objective Guidelines in most wells in 2014 (Table 3-2). These exceedances were
mainly limited to the wells downgradient of the Leachate Pond and the former salt storage shed
(Figure 3-6). As the concentrations in background wells, MW10-01 and MW05-05 met
applicable guidelines, the exceedances in the downgradient wells are assumed to be a result of
landfill activities and the former salt storage shed.
Chromium (Dissolved). In 2014, Chromium concentrations exceeded the Aquatic Life
Guideline at MW06-10S, MW06-13, MW06-18, MW06-15S, MW07-21, and MW10-02 (Table 32). MW07-21 also exceeded the Irrigation Guideline for Chromium concentrations. In previous
years, Chromium for MW97-2 has exceeded guidelines (Figure 3-7). As there is no correlation
between the exceedances in these wells it is assumed that Chromium is naturally occurring in
the area.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Chromium (Total). The Leachate Pond exceeded a guideline for Total Chromium in 2014
(Table 3-2). Total Chromium in the Leachate Pond consistently exceeds the Aquatic Life
Guideline. The exceeded guideline is for aquatic life and due to no apparent aquatic habitat
being influenced down-gradient of the Leachate Pond this exceedance is not a concern at this
time.
Colour. Colour exceeded guidelines at the Leachate Pond, MW97-2, MW06-10S, and MW0617 in 2014 (Table 3-2). The guidelines are for aesthetic objectives in drinking water and Drinking
Water Guidelines, and since there is currently no active drinking water wells located in the
surrounding areas, this parameter is not a contaminant of concern at this time.
Conductivity. Laboratory and field Conductivity results in all sample locations exceeded the
BCWWQG Irrigation Guideline of 700 µs/cm (Table 3-2). This is consistent with previous years
(Figure 3-8). As pond water is used for irrigating within the landfill footprint, and groundwater is
not used for irrigation downgradient of the landfill, this exceedance is not a concern at this time.
Dissolved Oxygen. Field measurements of Dissolved Oxygen exceeded the Aquatic Life
Guideline in most wells in 2014 (Table 3-2). This parameter is a field measured parameter and
is highly variable. The monitoring well exceedances were related to Aquatic Life Guidelines of 5
mg/L, which are designed for surface water bodies and not groundwater.
Iron (Total). The concentration of Iron in the Leachate Pond and SW06-1 exceeded guidelines
in 2014 for drinking water, however, only the aesthetic objective (Table 3-2). The Leachate
Pond also exceeded the Aquatic Life Guideline. This is consistent with previous years. Since the
pond water is not used for drinking purposes and due to no apparent aquatic habitat being
influenced down-gradient of the Leachate Pond, these exceedances are not a concern.
Manganese (Dissolved). In 2014, Manganese concentrations exceeded guidelines in MW0505, MW07-19, MW07-21, and MW97-2 (Table 3-2). This parameter only exceeded the Aesthetic
Objective and Irrigation Guidelines (Figure 3-10). This is consistent with previous years. There
does not appear to be any correlation between the well exceedances and as the background
well (MW05-05) is also showing exceedances it is assumed that Manganese is naturally
occurring in the area. There is no offsite downgradient groundwater use; therefore, these
exceedances are not a concern at this time.
Manganese (Total). The concentration of Total Manganese from the grab samples at the
Leachate Pond exceeded guidelines in 2014 (Table 3-2). This is consistent with previous years.
This parameter only exceeded the Aesthetic Objective and Irrigation Guidelines. The pond
water is used for irrigation within the landfill footprint and it is not used for drinking water,
therefore this exceedance is not a concern.
Mercury (Dissolved). The concentration of Mercury exceeded the Aquatic Life Guideline in
MW06-10S and MW06-18 for the first time in 2014. This exceedance will be closely monitored
in the future. Due to no apparent aquatic habitat being influenced down-gradient of these wells
this exceedance is not a concern.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Nitrate (as N). Nitrate concentrations in MW06-17, MW07-19, MW10-01, and SW06-1
exceeded guidelines in 2014 (Table 3-2). This parameter exceeded the Drinking Water and
Maximum Acceptable Concentration Guidelines (Figure 3-11). This is consistent with previous
years. As there is no offsite downgradient groundwater use for drinking water, these
exceedances likely pose no immediate risk to human health. Groundwater flow direction to the
northwest of the landfill and composting facility has not yet been established. Nitrate sources
could be from the old cattle watering pond and swampy area adjacent to the well and/or the
composting facility 20 m to the southeast.
Nitrite (as N). In 2014, Nitrite concentrations in MW06-13 exceeded guidelines for the first time.
This parameter exceeded Aquatic Life, Drinking Water, and Maximum Acceptable
Concentration Guidelines. This exceedance will be closely monitored in the future. Due to no
apparent aquatic habitat being influenced by the landfill and there being no offsite downgradient
groundwater use for drinking water, these exceedances are not a concern at this time.
Selenium (Dissolved). Selenium concentrations exceeded an Aquatic Life Guideline in eight of
the twelve monitoring wells in 2014 (Table 3-2). Dissolved Selenium concentrations exceeded
the Aquatic Life Guideline at the following wells: MW97-2, MW06-10S, MW06-13, MW06-15S,
MW06-17, MW06-18, MW07-19, MW10-01, and MW10-02 (Figure 3-13). This is consistent with
previous years. The Selenium exceedances are probably not caused by naturally occurring
concentrations in the area as MW05-05 (background well) is not showing any Selenium
exceedances. The Selenium exceedances are likely caused by landfill activities and will
continue to be monitored. Groundwater flow direction to the northwest of the landfill and
composting facility has not yet been established. Also, due to no apparent aquatic habitat being
influenced down-gradient of these wells these exceedances are not a concern
Selenium (Total). In 2014, Total Selenium concentrations exceed the Aquatic Life Guideline in
the Leachate Pond and SW06-1 (Table 3-2). The exceedance occurred in the spring and fall
sampling event for the Leachate Pond and it occurred in all sampling events for SW06-1. This
parameter has not exceeded the Aquatic Life Guideline since fall 2010. The exceeded guideline
is for aquatic life and due to no apparent aquatic habitat being influenced down-gradient of the
Leachate Pond this exceedance is not a concern.
Sodium (Dissolved). The concentration of Sodium exceeded the Aesthetic Objective Guideline
in the following wells in 2014: MW97-2, MW05-05, MW06-17, and MW07-19 (Table 3-2). This is
consistent with previous years (Figure 3-14). There is currently no active drinking water wells
located in the surrounding area; therefore, these exceedances are not a concern. The possible
source of the sodium impacts within these wells appeared to be the former salt shed (BGC
2007b) for all the wells except MW05-05 (background well). As the background well (MW05-05)
is also showing exceedances it is interpreted that Sodium is also naturally occurring in the area.
Sodium (Total). The concentration of Total Sodium from the grab samples at the Leachate
Pond exceeded guidelines in 2014 (Table 3-2). This is consistent with previous years. This
parameter only exceeded the Aesthetic Objective Guidelines. This pond water is not used for
drinking; therefore, this exceedance is not a concern.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Temperature (Field). In 2014, field measurements of Temperature exceeded guidelines in July
in the Leachate Pond and MW05-05 (Table 3-2). This parameter is a field measured parameter
and is highly variable. The monitoring well exceedances are related to Aesthetic Objective and
Drinking Water Guidelines. The Leachate Pond exceedances are related to Aesthetic Objective,
Aquatic Life, and Drinking Water Guidelines. The pond water and groundwater are not used for
drinking at or near the landfill, and there is no apparent aquatic habitat near the facility;
therefore, this exceedance is not a concern.
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). TDS concentrations exceeded the Aesthetic Objective and
Irrigation Guidelines at all sample sites in 2014 (Table 3-2). This is consistent with previous
years. These exceedances are not a concern at this time as there are no domestic or irrigation
wells in use downgradient.
Uranium (Dissolved). Dissolved Uranium concentrations exceeded the Irrigation Guideline
(Table 3-2) at the following wells: MW97-2, MW06-10S, MW06-13, MW06-15S, MW06-17,
MW06-18, MW07-19 and MW10-01 (Figure 3-15). MW06-17 exceeded guidelines for the first
time in 2014 (April and July). This exceedance will be closely monitored in the future. The other
well exceedances are consistent with previous years. These exceedances are not a concern at
this time as there are no domestic or irrigation wells in use downgradient. Also, concentrations
are known to be regionally elevated and as background concentrations were seen to be high
and with no strong spatial or temporal trends observed across the network, it appears that the
Dissolved Uranium concentrations are a natural property of the aquifer.
Uranium (Total). SW06-1 exceeded guidelines for Total Uranium concentrations in 2014 (Table
3-2). The exceeded guidelines were for Irrigation and Maximum Acceptable Concentrations in
drinking water. This exceedance is not a concern at this time as there are no domestic or
irrigation wells in use downgradient. Concentrations of Uranium are known to be regionally
elevated and as background concentrations were seen to be high and with no strong spatial or
temporal trends observed across the network, it appears that Uranium concentrations are a
natural property of the aquifer.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
3.6. TREND ANALYSIS
The potential for landfill leachate to affect groundwater is typically assessed by comparing the
concentrations of landfill leachate indicators relative to background groundwater concentrations.
Typical leachate indicators may include but are not limited to: Ammonia, Chloride, Alkalinity,
Sulphate, Manganese, Iron, Calcium, Magnesium and heavy metals including Cadmium,
Chromium, Copper, Nickel and Zinc (Christensen et al. 2001).
Graphs of selected leachate-associated parameters and parameters exceeding guidelines were
plotted to illustrate temporal and spatial trends (Figures 3-2 to 3-15). On these plots, results that
were below detection are circled and plotted as half the detection limit. The order of plots is not
significant.
22
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Figure 3-2
Source: Wireless Water
TM
The BCAWQG AL for Ammonia cannot be depicted on the figure as it is individually calculated
for each well based on water pH and temperature. The Leachate Pond exceeded this guideline
in 2014. The pH and temperature measured in 2014 in the Leachate Pond equates to a
guideline value ranging from 6.64 mg/L to 8.40 mg/L with a measured concentration ranging
from 19 mg/L to 39.0 mg/L for the three sample periods.
Consistent with previously observed trends, Ammonia remains above the guideline only in the
Leachate Pond. Ammonia concentrations in the Leachate Pond show high fluctuations between
monitoring events. The highest concentrations in groundwater in 2014 were found in MW97-2,
MW05-05 and MW06-17. For MW97-2 and MW05-05 this is consistent, this is the first year that
MW06-17 has shown an increase in concentration. However, none of the results in these three
wells exceeded guidelines.
23
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Figure 3-3
Source: Wireless Water
TM
MW10-01 has elevated concentrations of Arsenic in relation to the other monitoring wells, and a
possible moderately increasing trend has been observed. A trend cannot be established from
the previous three years of data until successive years are evaluated. The direction of
groundwater flow on this northwest corner of the landfill has not yet been determined. None of
the other monitoring wells show an increasing trend.
24
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Figure 3-4
Source: Wireless Water
TM
Boron concentrations have shown increasing trends in MW97-2, MW06-17, MW06-18, and
MW07-21 since monitoring began but are still below guidelines. The rate of increase in Boron
concentrations downgradient from the landfill footprint and leachate storage pond indicates
leaching of Boron from the waste (likely drywall) has occurred over time. Banning of drywall
from the landfill occurred in 2005, therefore it is possible that this trend may show a decrease
over the next few years. Although guidelines have not been exceeded, it is important to monitor
this parameter closely.
25
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Figure 3-5
Source: Wireless Water
TM
The BCWWQG AL for Cadmium cannot be depicted on the figure as it is individually calculated
for each well based on the water hardness (CaCO3). Dissolved Cadmium concentrations
exceed the BCWWQG AL guideline at MW05-05, MW06-13, and MW97-2. The hardness
measured in 2014 in these three wells equates to a guideline value ranging from 0.000027 mg/L
to 0.00035 mg/L with measured concentrations ranging from 0.00003 mg/L to 0.00105 mg/L for
the three sample periods.
Similar with the results of previous years, the highest concentrations were found in MW06-13
with an increasing trend observed since 2011. Values in MW07-19 have shown a decrease
since early 2011, while concentrations in most other wells have remained relatively stable.
MW10-01 and MW97-2 have shown spikes in Cadmium concentrations and are being closely
monitored.
26
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Figure 3-6
Source: Wireless Water
TM
Chloride concentrations have remained steady at most sample locations across the site with the
exception of MW07-19 (closest to the old salt storage shed), which has fluctuated over a range
of 1,500 mg/L since 2009. A moderate decreasing trend since 2008 was noted before 2014 in
MW07-19. MW07-19 showed an increase in concentration in 2014, which may be partially due
to the amount of precipitation recharging the area in a given year (the dry years are more
concentrated) (Environment Canada, 2015). Two more years of monitoring are required to
determine if this increase is a trend. MW06-13 and MW06-10S showed increases in
concentration since 2012 but more monitoring is required to determine if these increases are
trends. The elevated concentration of Chloride in MW06-15S is likely due to salt application on
the adjacent road. Concentrations in wells further downgradient may rise and then fall as the
plume from the former salt shed moves downgradient.
Continued monitoring will help assess the measured rate of migration and concentrations of the
plume. A detailed chloride assessment was previously conducted by BGC (BGC 2007b) at the
GVRDF site. BGC’s assessment concluded that the high concentrations of chloride are primarily
sourced from the former salt shed, and that the landfill leachate-impacted groundwater
concentrations are predicted to be no greater than 50 mg/L near Hwy 97. Continued monitoring
of chloride is recommended.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Figure 3-7
Source: Wireless Water
TM
Dissolved Chromium concentrations appear to have fluctuated over time in all wells, with
generally the highest concentrations occurring between early 2008 and fall 2010. No increasing
trends are apparent. A decreasing trend, since 2007, in MW06-15S has been noted. There was
a spike in Chromium concentration in several wells in the spring of 2014 but these elevated
concentrations decreased in the summer and fall sampling events. Concentrations across the
network generally display no consistent temporal or spatial trend, and therefore Dissolved
Chromium concentrations are believed to be either naturally occurring or unrelated to landfill
contamination.
28
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Figure 3-8
Source: Wireless Water
TM
MW07-19 had shown a moderate decreasing trend since 2009 but in 2014 this well showed an
increase in conductivity. More years of data are needed to determine if this increase is a trend.
MW06-10s and MW06-13 both showed an increase in 2013 but in 2014 stayed the same as
2013 concentrations. A trend cannot be established from the 2013 and 2014 data for these
wells until successive years are evaluated. At least one more year of data is needed to establish
if the 2013 increase was a trend or due to other factors. These trends are likely influenced by
the amount of precipitation in a given year as this will determine if the salts are washed through
the soils or not (Environment Canada 2015).
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Figure 3-9
Source: Wireless Water
TM
The BCAWQG AL for Fluoride cannot be depicted on the figure as it is individually calculated for
each well based on water hardness (CaCO3). Fluoride did not exceed any guidelines in 2014.
Fluoride is assumed to be naturally occurring in the area and not associated with the landfill
impacts, as MW05-05 (background well) has high concentrations of Fluoride and much lower
concentrations are found in the Leachate Pond. MW05-05 is showing a slight decreasing trend
since monitoring of this well began in 2005. There are no trends showing for any of the other
sample sites.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Figure 3-10
Source: Wireless Water
TM
The BCAWQG AL for Dissolved Manganese cannot be depicted on the figure as it is individually
calculated for each well based on water hardness (CaCO3). None of the sample sites exceeded
this guideline in 2014.
Concentrations of Manganese have been generally stable over the monitoring period, with the
exception of MW07-19, which spiked in early 2010 and has since declined steadily in the last
few years. Similar to MW07-19, MW10-01, and MW10-02 displayed high concentrations during
the initial sample event in 2011, followed by a decrease in concentrations. Manganese
concentrations in MW10-01 and MW10-02 have remained below guidelines since spring 2013.
Concentrations in MW05-05 showed an increasing trend since 2011. There was an increase
above the Aesthetic Objective Guideline in MW97-2 (summer and fall) sampling events in 2014.
More years of data are needed to determine if this increase is a trend.
.
31
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Figure 3-11
Source: Wireless Water
TM
In 2014, MW10-01 concentrations of Nitrate were lower than in 2012 and 2013. A possible
decreasing trend in Nitrate concentrations in MW10-01 is shown but continued monitoring is
required. The exceedance of the Aquatic Life Guideline was new in 2012 and 2013 but MW1001 did not exceed this guideline in 2014.
MW06-10S, MW06-13, MW06-18, and MW07-19 showed a slight increasing trend in Nitrate
concentrations since 2010 but in summer and fall 2014 all concentrations showed a sharp
decrease. More years of data are needed to determine if these decreases are a trend. The
transformation of ammonia to nitrate is a product of nitrification and oxidation in the groundwater
plume. This nitrate plume is at its highest concentrations at wells MW06-17 and MW06-18, near
the Leachate Pond. Peaks of nitrate concentrations at these downgradient locations appear to
generally track peaks in ammonia concentrations in the Leachate Pond by around six months.
Wells further downgradient show lower and more stable concentrations. These lower
concentrations can be associated with dilution or biological de-nitrification processes, which
convert nitrates to nitrogen gas. Nitrate levels in the next closest downgradient well MW06-10S
were showing a slight increasing trend in 2012 and 2013 but decreased in 2014.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Figure 3-12
Source: Wireless Water
TM
The BCAWQG AL for Nitrite cannot be depicted on the figure as it is individually calculated for
each well based on chloride. MW06-13 exceeded this guideline in 2014. The Nitrite measured in
2014 in MW06-13 equates to a guideline value of 0.60 mg/L with a measured concentration of
3.76 mg/L for the November sample period. No other sample sites exceeded this guideline in
2014.
The Leachate Pond is showing a decreasing trend in Nitrite concentration since 2011.
Concentrations in all wells were lower than those observed in the Leachate Storage Pond with
the exception of MW06-13 and MW06-17 in 2014. MW06-13 showed a sharp increase in Nitrite
concentrations in the fall sampling event. A much smaller spike in concentration was noted in
MW06-17 in the summer sampling event. These sites will be closely monitored in the future to
determine if this increase is a trend or a one time event.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Figure 3-13
Source: Wireless Water
TM
Dissolved Selenium concentrations in 2014 exceeded the BCAWQG AL at over half the wells.
The highest concentrations typically occur in MW06-13, but values in this well have been
relatively stable over time with a slight decreasing trend. Several wells showed a spike in
Selenium concentrations in the summer sampling event but levels returned to normal
concentrations in the fall sampling event. Slight increasing trends are observed in MW06-10S,
MW07-19, and MW10-02.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Figure 3-14
Source: Wireless Water
TM
Sodium impacts from landfill operations appear to be limited to well MW07-19. The possible
source of the sodium impacts within this well appear to continue to be the former salt shed.
Sodium trends have shown that the concentrations at MW07-19 had been declining since
peaking in 2008 but in 2014 these concentrations showed an increase. This will be closely
monitored in the future to determine if this increase is a trend. Concentrations within MW05-05
and MW97-2 appear to be increasing over time and MW97-2 exceeded the Aesthetic Objective
Guideline the last three years. MW05-05 showed a decrease in concentrations in 2014 and this
will be closely monitored in the future to determine if this decrease is a trend. A slight increasing
trend in Sodium concentration was observed in MW10-01 since 2011 but continued monitoring
is required to determine if this trend continues. The remaining wells were generally consistent
with background concentrations and are interpreted to be naturally occurring.
35
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Figure 3-15
Source: Wireless Water
TM
Uranium concentrations are known to be regionally elevated and there are some slight
increasing trends in some of the monitoring wells in the last three years. MW06-13 showed a
decreasing trend since monitoring of that well began in 2006. MW10-01 showed a decrease in
Uranium concentrations in the spring and summer sampling events but an increase in the fall
sampling event in 2014. Continued monitoring is required for at least one more year to establish
if the possible increasing trends noted in previous years continue.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Increases of some parameters were noted in MW10-01 in 2012 and 2013. These increases
indicated that MW10-01 might not be a good location for a background well. Most parameters
that were showing elevated concentrations compared to other monitoring wells in the Program
showed decreased concentrations in 2014. More years of data are needed to determine if the
concentrations at this well show an increasing trend or a decrease to normal background
concentrations. If an increasing trend is apparent then a location for a different background well
to the southwest of MW10-01 will be explored but at least one more year of data is needed to
determine this.
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2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1. CONCLUSIONS
The following conclusions have been drawn from the results of the 2014 Environmental
Monitoring Program at the GVRDF:
1.
Samples from the Leachate Pond exceeded the applicable guidelines for Ammonia,
Arsenic, Chloride, Chromium, Colour, Conductivity (Field), Conductivity (Lab),
Temperature (Field), Iron, Manganese, Selenium, Sodium, and Total Dissolved Solids
(TDS).
2.
SW06-1 was sampled in 2014. Samples from this site exceeded the applicable
guidelines for Chloride, Conductivity (Field), Conductivity (Lab), Iron, Nitrate, Selenium,
TDS, and Uranium.
3.
Consistent with the results of previous years, several of the monitored parameters
exceed the Aquatic Life, Irrigation, and Drinking Water Guidelines in one or more of the
sampling locations. Many of these exceedances are likely naturally occurring or not
attributed to landfill activities, including Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Manganese,
Nitrate (in the background well), Selenium, and Uranium.
4.
Some parameters exceeding guidelines are likely attributable to the former road salt
storage facility. These parameters include Chloride, TDS and Sodium. The road salt
storage facility plume was delineated by BGC in a previous report (BCG 2007b). The
potential presence of multiple sources makes interpretation of other parameters difficult
because of the overlapping plumes (landfill and former road salt storage facility).
5.
Consistent with the results of previous years, the groundwater downgradient of the
Leachate Pond continues to show elevated concentrations of some parameters,
suggesting that there may be leakage from either the pond itself or there may be
leachate flow beneath the pond through the fractured bedrock directly from the filling
area. Some parameters exceeding guidelines were likely attributed to landfill activities,
as per the following:
a)
Peaks of Nitrate in downgradient locations MW06-17 and MW06-18 appear to
generally track peaks in Ammonia concentrations in the Leachate Pond by around
six months, while wells further downgradient show lower and more stable
concentrations. The elevated Nitrate concentrations in MW06-17 and MW06-18
may reflect the conversion of Ammonia to Nitrate a product of nitrification and
oxidation in the groundwater plume.
b)
MW06-10S and MW06-13 showed slightly elevated concentrations of several
parameters (Cadmium, Chloride, and Conductivity) in 2013 compared to other
38
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
monitoring wells, but these concentrations stayed relatively the same or showed a
slight decrease in 2014. Further monitoring is required to determine if an increasing
or decreasing trend is apparent. The elevated concentrations may be noticed
offsite however the RDNO does own a portion of the property below the highway in
the groundwater flow direction but access to this property is an issue (see Point 7).
c)
Boron in MW97-2 has shown an increase since monitoring began. The rate of
increase in Boron concentrations downgradient from the landfill footprint indicates
leaching of Boron from the waste (likely drywall) has occurred over time. Banning
of drywall from the landfill occurred in 2005; therefore it is possible that this trend
may show a decrease over the next few years. Although guidelines have not been
exceeded, it is important to keep a watch on this parameter. Concentrations in
MW07-21 also showed a slight increase over the past few monitoring events,
which suggests the Boron contamination may be reaching these locations.
6.
Overlapping plumes are still apparent at wells downgradient of the former road salt
storage shed and Leachate Pond.
7.
The RDNO investigated a drill location for a monitoring well on the RDNO’s property
across the highway to the southeast of MW06-13 in 2014. A right of way or permission
from the property owner adjacent to the RDNO’s property must be obtained to drill and
allow continued access for monitoring the well in the future. As the terrain where a
monitoring well would be drilled has a very steep grade, getting equipment to the well
drilling location could present an obstacle.
8.
RDNO staff attempted to locate MW06-16S so it could be used in the future to
determine groundwater quality down-gradient of MW06-13 but they were unable to
locate it. The well has likely been paved over or covered with road fill material.
4.2. RECOMMENDATIONS
a) Repeat sampling program as conducted in 2014 and assess trends of exceedances.
b) Evaluate potential trends in Ammonia, Arsenic, Boron, Cadmium, Chloride, Chromium,
Conductivity, Fluoride, Manganese, Nitrate, Nitrite, Selenium, Sodium, and Uranium in
2015.
c) Monitor MW10-01 for one more year to determine if some of the increased parameters
at this well show an increasing trend. If an increasing trend is apparent then a location
for a different background well to the southwest of MW10-01 will be explored.
d) Create a better sample site for SW06-1 in 2015.
39
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
REFERENCES
American Public Health Association (APHA). 1998. Standard methods for the examination of
water and wastewater. Washington, DC, Environmental Federation.
BGC 2007a. Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility Leachate Impact Assessment
Final Report November 26, 2007. Prepared for RDNO.
BGC 2007b. Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility Numerical Groundwater Flow and
Transport Assessment, December 18, 2007 Prepared for RDNO.
British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MoE). 1998a. Operational
Certificate PR 15286. Issued January 20, 1998.
British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MoE). 1998b. Guidelines for
Interpreting Water Quality Data Version 1. Prepared for the Land Use Task Force
Resources
Inventory
Committee.
Accessed
on-line
at:
http://www.ilmb.gov.bc.ca/risc/pubs/aquatic/interp/index.htm
British Columbia Ministry of Environment (MoE). 2003. British Columbia Field Sampling Manual
for Continuous Monitoring and the Collection of Air, Air-Emission, Water, Wastewater, Soil,
Sediment,
and
Biological
Samples.
January
2003:
http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/air/wamr/labsys/field_man_03.html
British Columbia Ministry of Environment (MoE). 2014. On-line Water Resources Atlas.
Accessed
on-line
at:
http://webmaps.gov.bc.ca/imfx/imf.jsp?site=imapbc
http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wsd/data_searches/wrbc/. Last accessed September 24, 2014.
Danallanko, Dale. 2013. Personal Communications March 14, 2013.
EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd. (EBA). 2008. 2007 Annual Environmental Monitoring Report.
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility. Vernon, B.C.
Environment Canada. 2014. Climate Normals 1981-2010. Accessed September 24, 2014 at:
http://www.climate.weatheroffice.gc.ca/climate_normals/index_e.html
Environment Canada. 2015. Vernon Auto Station Climate Daily 2008-2013. Accessed February
24, 2015 at: http://climate.weather.gc.ca/climateData/dailydata_e.html?StationID=46987
Golder Associates. (Golder). 2011. Environmental Monitoring Program Expansion at Three
RDFS and Drainage Sampling at the Vernon Fire Training Center. March 10, 2011.
Prepared for RDNO.
Kohnert, N. 2009. Personal Communications March 2009.
Piteau 2000. Report for Dayton and Knight Ltd Project 2047. Preliminary Hydrogeological
Assessment for Closure Plan of Giant Industries Landfill Vernon, BC. March 2000.
40
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Regional District of North Okanagan (RDNO). 2014. 2013 Annual Environmental Monitoring
Report, Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility, Cherryville, B.C. Prepared by the
Regional District of North Okanagan, March, 2014.
Summit Environmental Consultants Inc. (Summit).
2009. 2008 Annual Environmental
Monitoring Report, Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility, Vernon, B.C.
Prepared for the Regional District of North Okanagan.
Summit Environmental Consultants Inc. (Summit). 2010. 2009 Annual Environmental Monitoring
Report, Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility, Vernon, B.C. Prepared for the
Regional District of North Okanagan.
Summit Environmental Consultants Inc. (Summit). 2011. 2010 Annual Environmental Monitoring
Report, Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility, Vernon, B.C. Prepared for the
Regional District of North Okanagan.
Summit Environmental Consultants Inc. (Summit). 2012. 2011 Annual Environmental Monitoring
Report, Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility, Vernon, B.C. Prepared for the
Regional District of North Okanagan.
Summit Environmental Consultants Inc. (Summit). 2013. 2012 Annual Environmental Monitoring
Report, Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility, Vernon, B.C. Prepared for the
Regional District of North Okanagan.
41
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
APPENDIX A – 2014 Well Details
42
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
Investigation Location
Sampling
Location Name
Leachate Pond
Frequency
MW97-2
3x/year
MW97-3 or
MW05-4
3x/year
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal
Facility
MW05-03
3x/year
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal
Facility
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal
Facility
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal
Facility
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal
Facility
MW05-05
3x/year
MW06-10s
3x/year
MW06-13
3x/year
MW06-15S
1x/year in
Q3
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal
Facility
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal
Facility
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal
Facility
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal
Facility
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal
Facility
MW06-17
3x/year
MW06-18
3x/year
MW07-19
3x/year
MW07-21
3x/year
MW07-37
1x/year
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal
Facility
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal
Facility
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal
Facility
MW10-01
3x/year
MW10-02
3x/year
SW06-1
3x/year
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal
Facility
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal
Facility
Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal
Facility
43
Comments/Rationale for Changes
3x/year
Replaced by MW10-01, MW97-3 or
MW05-4 are only to be sampled if new
well is dry.
Removed from sampling program in
2014 as well was consistently not
recharging enough to sample after
purging.
Only sampled in summer, due to low
recharge rates.
Destroyed during road construction in
2008. Removed from program in 2008
(redundant well used to track salt
plume, enough data is provided by
MW07-19 to track salt plume so no
need to replace with a new well).
Added in 2011 to replace dry wells
MW97-3 and MW05-4.
Added in 2011 to add to MW network
along eastern area (MW05-03 area).
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
APPENDIX B – Water Chemistry Database
44
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
APPENDIX C – Analytical Laboratory Reports
45
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
ATTACHMENT B - Regional District of North Okanagan Municipal
Solid Waste Management Bylaw No. 2614, 2013
16
REGIONAL DISTRICT OF NORTH OKANAGAN
BYLAW No. 2614
A bylaw to amend the Municipal Solid Waste Management Bylaw
WHEREAS Section 363 [Imposition of fees and charges] of the Local Government Act
provides that a Board of a Regional District may, by bylaw, impose a fee or charge
payable in respect of all or part of a service of the Regional District;
AND WHEREAS the Board has adopted "Municipal Solid Waste Management Bylaw
No. 2572, 2013;
AND WHEREAS the Board is desirous to amend the fees for recycling and disposal
facilities owned and operated by the Regional District of North Okanagan in keeping with
the Solid Waste Management Plan, environmental protection standards and to provide
for the enforcement of these standards;
NOW THEREFORE, the Board of the Regional District of North Okanagan, in open
meeting assembled, hereby ENACTS AS FOLLOWS:
CITATION
1.
This Bylaw shall be cited as the "Municipal Solid Waste Management
Amendment Bylaw No. 2614, 2013".
AMENDMENT
2.
That Bylaw 2572, 2013 being "Municipal Solid Waste Management Bylaw No.
2572, 2013" be hereby amended by:
a) deleting Schedule "A" attached to Bylaw 2572, 2013, and replacing it with
Schedule "A as attached hereto and forming part of this bylaw as Schedule "A".
EFFECTIVE DATE
3.
Municipal Solid Waste Management Amendment Bylaw No. 2614, 2013 shall take
effect on April 1, 2014.
Read a First, Second and THIRD Time
this
this
Chair
11th
day of
December, 2013.
December, 2013.
Municipal Solid Waste Management Amendment Bylaw No. 2614, 2013
Page 2 of 3
Schedule "A" attached to and forming
part
of
"Municipal
Solid
Waste
A men d ment B1y1aw
I
No. 261 4, 2013"
SCHEDULE"A"
Recycling and Disposal Fees
DESCRIPTION
PRICE
LEVEL
PRODUCT CODE
AT SCALE
UNITS
FEE
MIN.
FEE
Refuse
1
REFUSE
tonne
$93.00
$3.00
Controlled Waste
2
REFUSE
tonne
$168.00
$6.00
Refuse containing Regulated Material
(other than Drywall)- any quantity
3
REFUSE
tonne
$184.00
$6.00
Refuse containing Drywall (any quantity)
4
REFUSE
tonne
$279.00
$10.00
Refuse not specified in the Regional
District Solid Waste Management Plan
5
REFUSE
tonne
$168.00
$6.00
Refuse: Out of Region
6
REFUSE
tonne
$168.00
$6.00
Controlled Waste: Out of Region
7
REFUSE
tonne
$300.00
$12.00
8
REFUSE
tonne
$325.00
$12.00
9
REFUSE
tonne
$300.00
$12.00
Litter: pre-approved only
10
REFUSE
tonne
$41.00
$3.00
Mixed Residential Waste
12
REFUSE
tonne
$64.00
$3.00
Additional Handling
1
ADD HANDLING
tonne
$168.00
$10.00
Asphalt Roofing - Clean
1
tonne
$82.00
$10.00
Asphalt Roofing - Minor Contamination
~
tonne
$110.00
$13.00
Asphalt Roofing - Major Contamination
1
tonne
$180.00
$20.00
Batteries - Automotive
1
BATT -AUTO
unit
$1.00
$1.00
Batteries- Household, quantities (<20kg)
1
BATT- RES
unit
$0.10
$1.00
Batteries- Household, quantities (>20kg)
1
BATT- COMM
tonne
$3,300.00
$16.50
Chipped Yard and Garden Waste and
Wood Waste
1
WOOD- CHIPPED
tonne
$2.50
$3.00
Construction and Demolition Waste
1
C and D WASTE
tonne
$184.00
$6.00
Construction and Demolition Waste: Out
of Region
3
Cand DWASTE
tonne
$325.00
$12.00
Cover Material
1
COVER- SOIL
truck
$10.00
$10.00
Cover Material: Out of Region
2
COVER- SOIL
truck
$20.00
$20.00
Crushable Material for Aggregate
1
CRUSHALBLE
tonne
$10.00
$3.00
Drywall - Recyclable
1
DRYWALL - REC
tonne
$135.00
$5.00
Drywall - Recyclable: Out of Region
2
DRYWALL - REC
tonne
$325.00
$10.00
Refuse containing Regulated Material:
Out of Region
Refuse not specified in the Regional
District Solid Waste Management Plan:
Out of Region
I
ASPH ROOFING CLEAN
ASPH ROOFING MINOR
ASPH ROOFINGMAJOR
Page 3 of 3
Municipal Solid Waste Management Amendment Bylaw No. 2614, 2013
SCHEDULE "A"
Recycling and Disposal Fees
PRICE
LEVEL
PRODUCT CODE
Drywall - Non Recyclable
1
DRYWALL - NON REC
tonne
$140.00
$5.00
Drywall - Non Recyclable: Out of Region
2
DRYWALL- NON REC
tonne
$325.00
$10.00
E-Waste [accepted at the Kingfisher
(Hupel) and Cherryville RDFs only]
1
E-WASTE
unit
$5.00
$5.00
Fluorescent Tubes and Bulbs
1
FLUOR BULBS
unit
$0.50
$1.00
Hydrocarbon Impacted Cover Material
1
HYDC- SOIL
tonne
$10.00
$10.00
Hydrocarbon Impacted Cover Material:
Out of Region
2
HYDC- SOIL
tonne
$25.00
$25.00
Logs and Stumps - Clean and Grindable
1
tonne
$20.00
$3.00
Logs and Stumps - Large, Dirty or
Ungrindable
1
tonne
$75.00
$10.00
Mattresses I Box Springs
1
MATTRESSES
unit
$8.00
$8.00
Propane Tanks
1
PROPANE TANKS
unit
$0.00
$0.00
Refrigerated Appliances
1
REFRIG
unit
$15.00
$15.00
Scale For Movers
1
SCALE USE
unit
$10.00
$10.00
Scrap Metal
1
METAL
tonne
$10.00
$3.00
Styrofoam
1
STYROFOAM
tonne
$88.00
$3.00
Tires - Passenger and Light Truck with or
without rims
1
TIRES
unit
$5.00
$5.00
Tires - Medium Truck without rims
2
TIRES
unit
$10.00
$10.00
Tires- Medium Truck with rims
3
TIRES
unit
$35.00
$35.00
Unsecured Load
1
UNSECURED
tonne
$160.00
$10.00
Wood Waste - Clean
1
WOOD-CLEAN
tonne
$20.00
$3.00
Wood Waste - Dirty
1
WOOD- DIRTY
tonne
$20.00
$3.00
Yard and Garden Waste- Charge Days
1
YARD WASTE
tonne
$20.00
$3.00
Yard and Garden Waste- Free Days
2
YARD WASTE
tonne
$0.00
$0.00
DESCRIPTION
UNITS
AT SCALE
LOGS & STUMPSCLEAN
LOGS & STUMPSDIRTY
FEE
For RDFs without scales, the following conversion factors apply when determining
the tipping fee:
Refuse:
Wood Waste and Yard and Garden Waste:
0.40 tonnes/m 3
3
0.25 tonnes/m
MIN.
FEE
2014 Annual Report: Greater Vernon Recycling and Disposal Facility
ATTACHMENT C - 2014 GVRDF Leachate
Records
17
Dam Inspection
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