BR1202-G
Linear Motors
and Stages
Linear Motors and Stages
Linear Motor Solutions
Baldor provides industry with the widest range of linear motors, linear stages and controls. Being a leader
in linear motor design and manufacturing, Baldor continually develops advanced products and innovations
to meet a variety of linear motion applications.
Linear motors provide unique speed and positioning performance advantages. Linear motors provide direct-coupled
motion and eliminate mechanical transmission devices. The rugged mechanical design provides accurate motion
and precision positioning for hundreds of millions of cycles. Baldor linear motors and stages are used in thousands
of successful applications worldwide.
Some advantages of linear products include, higher linear velocities, non-wearing moving part, and direct linear
motion without mechanical linkages, therefore no backlash. Other advantages are:
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High repeatability – resolution to 0.1 microns [0.000004 inch] – all parts produced are identical
Highly accurate – to 2.5 micron/300 mm [0.0001 inch/ft] – provides precision in the operation
No backlash – direct drive has no backlash - this improves accuracy of the part or operation
Faster acceleration – from 1 to over 10 g’s – this leads to shortened cycle times and improved productivity.
Higher velocities – speeds to over 8 meters/sec [300 inches/sec] – to position the payload faster
Long term reliability – only two parts with only one moving part – this leads to simplicity and improves
the applications reliability
› No wear or maintenance – no contacting parts, thus reducing component friction and wear
› Ease of Installation – linear motors are designed to allow for alignment tolerances.
Misalignment produces no degradation of performance.
› Clean Room compatibility – can be customized to meet most clean rooms
Page 8
Page 11
High performance linear motor
High performance linear motor
Cog-free Brushless
Iron-Core Brushless
Page 15 & 19 Page 22
Single & DualAxis Steppers
Open loop stepper motor
AC Induction Motor
High performance linear
induction motor
3
Typical Applications:
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Baggage Handling
Bottle Labeling
Coordinate Measurement
Diagnostic Probe
Disk Certifier
Electronic Assembly
Food Processing
Inspection Equipment
Laser Cutting Machines
Laser Surgery Machine
Machine Tool
Mail Sorting
Material Handling
Medical
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MRI & X Ray Equip
Packaging Machinery
Part Transfer Systems
PCB Assembly/Inspection
PCB Drilling
Pick & Place Systems
Precision Grinding
Printing Application
Robotic Applications
Semiconductor
Sorting Machines
Surface Mount Assembly
Wafer Etch Machines
Vision Inspection
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Page 29
Other linear motor technology
High performance linear stages
Linear Motors
Linear Stages
Page 33
Engineering Information
Linear Motors and Stages
What is a Linear Motor
Imaginary process of unrolling a rotary motor
The same electromagnetic force that produces torque in a
rotary motor also produces direct force in a linear motor. For
example, a permanent magnet DC linear motor is similar to a
permanent magnet DC rotary motor and an AC induction linear
N S
motor is similar to a squirrel cage induction motor.
Take a rotary motor, split it radially along its axis of rotation
TORQUE
N
and flatten it out. The result is a flat linear motor that produces
direct linear force instead of torque. It follows that linear motors
utilize the same controls as rotary motors. And similar to a
rotary motor with rotary encoders, linear motor positioning is
N
S
provided by a linear encoder.
Variety of Linear Motor Technologies
As there are a variety of motor technologies available in the
rotary world, there are a variety of technologies in the linear
world. These include brushless, cog-free, permanent magnet,
brush-type, induction and steppers. There are also custom
linear products such as polynoids, moving magnets and moving
coils. Each technology brings advantages to the application.
Linear Motors and Stages
Linear motors consist of two parts – a stationary track or
“platen” and a moving “forcer”. They can be provided as a
stand-alone linear motor assembly or as a complete stage
– built with a housing or enclosure with linear bearings, limit
switches, cable track/carrier, protective bellows and linear
encoder in a wide variety of lengths.
Selecting the Correct Drive
Linear motors typically produce a peak force three times
continuous force. Some drives are rated at only two times so
this must be taken into consideration when sizing the drive for
the motor.
Baldor produces the widest range of linear motors and stages.
Contact us and let Baldor assist you in selecting the linear
motor technology best suited for your application, to deliver
optimum machine performance in your application. Baldor also
has drives and motion controllers for powering and positioning
of linear motors.
Tubular non-commutated DC Linear Motor
S
FORCE
The Benefits of Linear Motors
Over Traditional Technologies
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Direct drive, zero backlash for higher accuracy
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High acceleration and velocity reduces cycle times
5
Non-contact, non-wearing for enhanced reliability
Simplicity, no mechanical linkages provides
faster installation
High accuracy and repeatability provides better
quality control
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Low maintenance and long life lowers cost
of ownership
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Longer lengths with no performance degradation
Linear Motor > Higher Through Put > Higher Productivity
Material Comparison Between Linear Motors and Ballscrews/Timing Belts
Closed loop
Ballscrew with
Rotary Motor
Open loop
Linear Motor
Timing Belt with
Rotary Stepper
Linear Motor
Rotary to Linear Mechanism




Motor Mount




Nut Mount




Coupling




End Bearing




Motor




Encoder (linear)




Rails (+ Bearings)




1 [38]
10+ [400+]
2.5 [100]
10+ [400+]
20 m/s2 (2g)
98+ m/s2 (10+g)
20 m/s2 (2g)
98+ m/s2 (10+g)
50(0.002)*
1 (0.00004)**
250 [0.001]
10 [0.0004]
 Required  Not Required
> Performance comparison
Max. Speed m/s [ips]
Max. Accel.
Repeatability µm (inch)
* Dependent on ball screw pitch, resolution and feedback
** Dependent on encoder specification
Linear Motors and Stages
> Linear Motor Characteristics Overview
Page 8
Motor Series
Page 11
Page 15
Page 19
Page 22
Cog-free
Brushless LMCF
Iron Core
Brushless LMIC
Single Axis
Stepper LMSS (7)
Dual Axis
Stepper LMDS (7)
AC Induction
LMAC
Continuous
Force
N
Lbs
5.3 - 771
1.2 - 173
80 - 5179
18 - 1164
10 - 240
2.2 - 65 (5)
15 - 134
3.3 - 30 (5)
62 - 445
14 - 100
Peak Force @
10% Duty
N
Lbs
16 - 2300
3.6 - 517
213 - 13813
48 - 3105
10 - 240
2.2 - 65 (6)
15 - 134
3.3 - 30 (6)
311 - 2224
(15% Duty)
70 - 500
Acceleration
(3) m/s2
g’s
98
10
98
10
9.8
1
9.8
1
9.8
1
Maximum
Speed
m/s
in/sec
10
400
8
328
2
80
1.5
60
6.8 [270] @ 60 Hz
50.8 [2000] @
40 Hz
Maximum
Stroke
m
in
Unlimited
Unlimited
Unlimited
1.0 x 2.7
42 x 106
Unlimited
Accuracy
(1) μm/
300mm
(4) in/ft
5
0.0002
5
0.0002
25
0.001
25
0.001
2.5
0.0001
Repeatability
(1) μm
(4) in
1
0.00004
1
0.00004
10
0.0004
5.08
0.0002
1
0.00004 (2)
Positioning Type
Closed Loop
Closed Loop
Open or Closed
Loop
Open Loop
Open or Closed
Loop
Drive/Control
3-Phase
Brushless Control
3-Phase
Brushless Control
Stepper Motor
Drive
Stepper Motor
Drive
Single or 3
Phase AC Line or
Adjustable Speed
Load Support
Customer
Supplied Bearing
Customer
Supplied Bearing
Roller or Air
Bearing
Air Bearing
Customer
Supplied
Bearings
Notes: All specifications are for reference only.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Encoder dependent
Vector control required. Encoder dependent
Acceleration is dependent on amount of mass attached
Accuracy and repeatability are referenced against a laser interferometer.
Tighter tolerances are available.
(5) Force @ 1 m/sec (40 in/sec)
(6) Static force
(7) Continuous and Peak Force
for Steppers are the same
7
Motor Series
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Page 27
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Page 27
NonCommucated
DC LMNM
NonCommucated
DC LMNC
DC Brushed
Linear Servo
LMBR
Polynoid Linear
Motor LMPY
HyCore Linear
Motor LMHS
Continuous
Force
N
Lbs
3 - 223
0.5 - 50
3 - 41
0.625 - 9
18.7 - 244.8
4.2 - 55
4 - 90
1 - 20
53 - 465
12 - 105
Peak Force @
10% Duty
N
Lbs
7 - 668
1.5 - 150
9 - 121
1.875 - 27
57.9 - 761.0
13 - 171
22 - 240
5 - 54
95 - 800
21 - 180
Acceleration
(3) m/s2
g’s
98
10
98
10
49
5
9.8
1
29.4
3
Maximum
Speed
m/s
in/sec
1
40
0.5
20
1.9
75
2.3
90
1.5
60
Maximum
Stroke
m
in
0.05
2.0
0.013
0.5
3.2
11
Limited
by end stops
and support
Limited
by end stops
and support
Accuracy
(1) μm/
300mm
(4) in/ft
2.5
0.0001
5
0.0002
5.0
0.0002
N/A
5
0.0002
Repeatability
(1) μm
(4) in
1
0.00004
1
0.00004
1
0.00004
N/A
1
0.00004
Positioning Type
Open or Closed
Loop
Open or Closed
Loop
Closed Loop
Open or Closed
Loop
Closed Loop
Drive/Control
DC Servo Drive
DC Servo Drive
PWM Brushed
Servo Drive
Direct Online or
Inverter
3-Phase
Brushless Control
Hall-Less Commutation
Load Support
Jewel Sapphire or
Ball Bushing
N/A
Customer
Supplied Bearing
Integral Rulon
Bearing
Customer
Supplied Bearing
Linear Motors and Stages
Cog-free Brushless Servo Motors
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Standard and custom magnetic track lengths
Peak forces from 16N [3.6 Lbs] to 2300 N [517 Lbs]
High acceleration to 98m/s2 [10g’s]
High speeds to 10m/s [400 in/sec] with encoder resolutions
≥1 micron
Speeds to 2.5m/s [100 in/sec] with encoder resolutions
≤ 1 micron
High accuracy 2.5μm/300m [±0.0001 in/ft] (encoder
dependent)
High repeatability 1μm [0.00004 in] (encoder dependent)
Unlimited stroke length
Independent multiple coil operation with overlapping
trajectories
No metal-to-metal contact, virtually maintenance free
Modular magnet tracks
The cog free motor is designed for unlimited stroke servo
applications that require smooth operation without magnetic force
variation or “cogging”. A large range of motors are available to suit
different applications. These motors are supplied in kit form to be
integrated into your machine. They are used in closed loop servo
systems and provide optimum performance.
For higher continuous forces, air and water cooling options are
available.
Baldor’s cog free motors are ideally suited for applications
requiring high accuracy (with resolutions down to 0.1µm)
and smooth movement.
The motors can be controlled from any of Baldor’s 3 phase
brushless drive family, including MicroFlex, FlexDrive-II, Flex+Drive-II
and MintDrive-II. The motors are also compatible with the NextMove
range of motion controllers for multi-axis position control.
Baldor’s cog free linear motors are nickel plated meeting ROHS
compliance.
Baldor provides standard magnetic track lengths to optimize
pricing for customers. These standards include: LTCF-C24,
LTCF-E24, LTCF-F24; and LTCF-C40, LTCF-E40, LTCF-F40.
Other track lengths are available as custom.
››Ordering Information
Primary (Forcer)
L
M
C
Secondary (Magnet Track)
F
L
T
C
F
WINDING
Blank = Standard
P = Parallel
NO. OF POLES
02, 04...18
TERMINATION
O = Flying Leads (3m/10 ft. Std.)
SIZE CODE mm [inch]
A = 40 [1.6]
B = 53.6 [2.11]
C = 57.2 [2.25]
D = 86.4 [3.4]
E = 114.3 [4.5]
F = 152.4 [6.0]
COOLING TYPE
C = Convection
A = Air Cooling
W = Water
HALLS
H = Hall Effect Sensors
N = No Effect Sensors
SIZE CODE mm [inch]
A = 40.7 [1.6]
B = 53.6 [2.11]
* C = 57.2 [2.25]
D = 86.4 [3.4]
* E = 114.3 [4.5]
* F = 152.4 [6.0]
* Indicates standard size and length
CODE FOR LENGTH
OF MODULAR TRACK mm [inch]
04 = 121.9 [4.8]
07 = 182.9 [7.2]
09 = 243.8 [9.6]
12 = 304.8 [12]
* 24 = 609.6 [24]
* 40 = 1036 [40.8]
Cog-free Brushless Technical Data
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››Technical Data
Catalog Numbers
Continuous Force
(1) - (2) - (3)
Continuous
Current
Peak Force @
10% Duty
Peak
Current @
10% Duty
Back-EMF Constant Kemf
(ph-ph)
N
Lbs
Amps
N
Lbs
Amps
V/m/sec
V/in/sec
LMCF02A-HCO
5.3
1.2
1.7
16
3.6
5.1
3.1
0.08
LMCF02B-HCO
13.8
3.1
2.1
41.8
9.4
6.3
6.7
0.17
LMCF04B-HCO
27.8
6.2
2.1
83.3
18.7
6.3
13.2
0.34
(4) LMCF02C-HCO
29
6.5
1.9
86.8
19.5
5.7
15.2
0.39
(4) LMCF04C-HCO
58
13
1.9
173
39
5.7
30.4
0.77
(4) LMCF06C-HCO
87
19.5
1.9
260
58
5.7
45.6
1.16
(4) LMCF08C-HCO
116
26
1.9
347
78
5.7
60.9
1.55
LMCF02D-HCO
36.8
8.3
1.5
110
24
4.4
24.8
0.63
LMCF04D-HCO
73.6
16.5
1.5
220
49
4.4
49.6
1.26
LMCF06D-HCO
110
24.8
1.5
330
74
4.4
74.4
1.89
LMCF08D-HCO
147
33
1.5
440
99
4.4
99.3
2.52
LMCF10D-HCO
184
41.3
3.0
550
123
8.9
61.8
1.57
LMCF12D-HCO
220
49.6
3.0
660
148
8.9
74.2
1.88
(4) LMCF04E-HCO
124
28
1.6
372
84
4.7
79.9
2.03
(4) LMCF06E-HCO
185
42
3.1
556
125
9.2
59.7
1.52
(4) LMCF08E-HCO
251
56
3.1
753
169
9.2
82.0
2.08
(4) LMCF10E-HCO
314
70
3.1
942
212
9.2
102.5
2.60
(4) LMCF12E-HCO
377
85
3.1
1132
254
9.2
123.0
3.12
(4) LMCF14E-HCO
440
99
3.1
1318
294
9.2
143.5
3.64
(4) LMCF04F-HCO
191
43
2.6
578
130
7.8
74.4
1.89
LMCF08F-HCO
387
87
2.6
1152
256
7.8
148.4
3.78
(4) LMCF12F-HCO
578
130
3.9
1726
338
11.6
148.4
3.77
(4) LMCF16F-HCO
771
173
5.2
2300
517
15.6
148.0
3.76
(4)
Notes: All specifications are for reference only.
Technical data at 750C rise over 250C ambient.
(1) Addition of 254 x 254 x 25.4 mm [10 x 10 x 1 in] aluminum heat sink increases continuous force capability by 20% (along with 20% more current).
(2) Addition of forced air cooling increases continuous force 12% (and 12% more current).
(3) Liquid cooling option increases continuous forces by 25% and power dissipation by 50%. Available only on motors with D, E and F “size codes.”
(4) Standard Motor
Linear Motors and Stages
Cog-free Brushless Motors Dimensions
60.9mm
(2.4”)
COIL ASSEMBLY
(FORCER)
OPTIONAL HALL LEADS
MOTOR LEADS
D = 122mm (4.80”) + N * 61mm (2.4”) (N = 0,1,2...)
or multiples of 30.5mm (1.2") for non-standard tracks
W
0.65”
Max
(OPTIONAL
HALL MODULE)
A
TRACK ASSEMBLY
H1
Track assemblies can be stacked for additional stroke lengths.
Secondary (Track) - LTCF
Forcer/Primary (Coil Assembly) - LMCF
Catalog Number
A
W
H1
Weight
Standard cog-free tracks include:
mm
in
mm
in
mm
in
Kg
Lbs
73.7
2.90
20.8
0.82
40.64
1.60
0.08
0.17
LMCFO2B-HCO
73.7
2.90
20.83
0.82
53.59
2.11
0.11
0.25
LMCFO4B-HCO
134.6
5.30
20.83
0.82
53.59
2.11
0.22
0.49
LMCFO2C-HCO
73.7
2.90
30.48
1.20
57.15
2.25
0.18
0.39
LMCFO4C-HCO
134.6
5.30
30.48
1.20
57.15
2.25
0.32
0.70
LMCFO6C-HCO
195.6
7.70
30.48
1.20
57.15
2.25
0.57
1.25
LMCFO8C-HCO
256.5
10.10
30.48
1.20
57.15
2.25
0.75
1.64
LMCFO2D-HCO
73.7
2.90
34.29
1.35
86.31
3.40
0.35
0.76
LMCFO4D-HCO
134.6
5.30
34.29
1.35
86.31
3.40
0.6
1.4
LMCFO6D-HCO
195.6
7.70
34.29
1.35
86.31
3.40
0.9
2.0
LMCFO8D-HCO
256.5
10.10
34.29
1.35
86.31
3.40
1.2
2.6
LMCF10D-HCO
317.5
12.50
34.29
1.35
86.31
3.40
1.5
3.2
LMCF12D-HCO
378.5
14.90
34.29
1.35
86.31
3.40
1.8
3.9
Size A
LMCFO2A-HCO
Size B
Size C
Size D
Size E
610 mm (24inch)
1036 mm (40.8 inch)
LTCF-C24
LTCF-C40
LTCF-E24
LTCF-E40
LTCF-F24
LTCF-F40
Other track lengths are available as custom
Catalog Number
D
mm
in
LTCF-X04
122
4.8
LTCF-X07
183
7.2
LTCF-X09
244
9.6
LTCF-X12
305
12.0
LTCF-X24
610
24.0
LTCF-X40
1036
40.8
Catalog Number
Weight
Kg/m
Lb/in
LTCF-AXX
3.6
0.20
LMCFO4E-HCO
134.6
5.30
39.37
1.55
114.3
4.50
0.77
1.7
LTCF-BXX
5.5
0.31
LMCFO6E-HCO
195.6
7.70
39.37
1.55
114.3
4.50
1.1
2.5
LTCF-CXX
8.1
0.45
LMCFO8E-HCO
256.5
10.10
39.37
1.55
114.3
4.50
1.5
3.2
LTCF-DXX
11.6
0.65
LMCF10E-HCO
317.5
12.50
39.37
1.55
114.3
4.50
1.8
4.0
LTCF-EXX
17.2
0.96
LMCF12E-HCO
378.5
14.90
39.37
1.55
114.3
4.50
2.2
4.8
LTCF-FXX
34
1.90
LMCF14E-HCO
439.4
17.30
39.37
1.55
114.3
4.50
2.5
5.6
LMCFO4F-HCO
156.2
5.30
44.0
1.73
152.4
6.00
1.65
3.6
LMCFO8F-HCO
256.5
10.10
44.0
1.73
152.4
6.00
3.1
6.8
LMCF12F-HCO
378.5
14.90
44.0
1.73
152.4
6.00
4.5
9.9
Size F
NOTE: Min track length recommended = “A”
dimension + 0.65 inch [1.65mm] +
stroke [min 3 inch (76.2mm)]
Iron Core Brushless Servo Motor
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11
Standard and custom magnetic track lengths
High peak force to 13813 N [3105 Lbs]
High continuous force to 5179 N [1164 Lbs]
High acceleration to over 10 g’s
High speed to 8 m/s [320 in/sec] with encoder
resolution ≥ 1 micron
High speed to 4 m/s [160 in/sec] with encoder
resolution ≥ 1 micron
High accuracy ± 0.0001 2.5μm/300mm [in/ft]
encoder dependent
High repeatability ± 1μm [0.00004 in] encoder
dependent
Unlimited travel stroke length
Payloads to 100 Kg (220 Lbs)
Multiple coil independent operation with
overlapping trajectories
Non-contact, virtually maintenance free
Linear Iron Core Brushless Servo Motors are designed
laminated steel assembly encapsulated in thermally conductive
for unlimited travel stroke positioning applications with high
epoxy. Hall effect sensors are used to provide feedback. Custom
thrust force, high speed and acceleration, with optimal static
designs with other sensors are also available.
and dynamic performance. The motors are designed to integrate
easily with equipment, providing closed–loop servo with a high
The motors can be controlled from any of Baldor’s 3
degree of positioning accuracy and repeatability.
phase brushless drive family, including MicroFlex, FlexDrive-II,
Flex+Drive-II and MintDrive-II. The motors are also compatible
Linear iron core brushless servomotors consist of a magnet
with the NextMove range of motion controllers for multi-axis
track and a coil assembly supported by customer-supplied
position control.
bearing system. For higher continuous forces, air and water
Baldor provides standard magnetic track lengths to optimize
cooling options are available.
pricing for customers. These standard tracks include: LTIC-A24,
The magnet track is comprised of multi-pole alternating polarity
LTIC-C24, LTIC-E24; and LTIC-A40, LTIC-C40, LTIC-E40. Other track
permanent magnets bonded on a nickel cold-rolled steel plate.
lengths are available as custom.
The coil assembly consists of a high magnetic property
› Ordering Information
Primary (Forcer)
L
M
I
Secondary (Magnet Track)
L
C
T
I
C
WINDING TYPE
A = Winding Type A
B = Winding Type B
C = Winding Type C
D = Custom
SERIES NO.
(1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7)
TERMINATION
SIZE CODE FOR WIDTH OF
COIL ASSEMBLY mm [inch]
0 = Flying Leads (3m/10 ft. Std.)
COOLING TYPE
A = 63.5 [2.5]; B = 89 [3.5]; C = 114 [4.5];
D = 140 [5.5]; E = 165 [6.5]; F = 191 [7.5];
G = 216 [8.5]; H = 241 [9.5]; I = 26.7 [10.5]
C = Convection
A = Air Cooling
W = Water Cooling
HALLS
H = Hall Effect Sensors
N = No Effect Sensors
SIZE CODE FOR TRACK WIDTH
(MATCH WITH TO COIL
ASSEMBLY) mm [inch]
*A = 63.5 [2.5]; B = 89 [3.5]; * C = 114 [4.5];
D = 140 [5.5]; * E = 165 [6.5]; F = 191 [7.5];
G = 216 [8.5]; H = 241 [9.5]; I = 267 [10.5]
* Indicates standard size and length
LENGTH OF TRACK
1 Inch = 25.4mm
(In inches, rounded down to the nearest inch)
05 = 137.1 (5.4)
08 = 205.7 (8.1)
* 24 = 617.2 (24.3)
* 40 = 1029 (40.5)
Linear Motors and Stages
Iron Core Brushless Technical Data
››Technical Data
Catalog Number
Continuous Force
(1) - (2) - (3)
Continuous
Current
Peak Force @
10% Duty
Peak
Current @
10% Duty
Attractive Force
Back-EMF Constant
Kemf (ph-ph)
N
Lbs
Amps
N
Lbs
Amps
N
Lbs
V/m/sec
V/in/sec
(4)
LMIC1A-S-HC0A
80
18
4
213
48
12
894
201
20
0.5
(4)
LMIC1A-S-HC0B
80
18
8
213
48
24
894
201
10
0.25
(4)
LMIC1C-S-HC0A
244
55
4
654
147
12
2682
603
61
1.6
(4)
LMIC1C-S-HC0B
244
55
8
654
147
24
2682
603
30.5
0.8
LMIC2B-S-HC0A
329
74
4
877
194
12
3579
804
82
2.1
LMIC2B-S-HC0B
329
74
8
877
197
24
3579
804
41
1.0
(4)
LMIC2C-S-HC0A
489
110
4
1305
293
12
5364
1206
122
3.1
(4)
LMIC2C-S-HC0B
489
110
8
1305
293
24
5364
1206
61
1.6
(4)
LMIC2E-S-HC0A
818
184
4
2183
490
12
8941
2010
205
5.2
(4)
LMIC2E-S-HC0B
818
184
8
2183
490
24
8941
2010
102
2.6
LMIC3D-S-HC0A
983
221
4
2622
589
12
10729
2412
246
6.2
LMIC3D-S-HC0B
983
221
8
2622
589
24
10729
2412
123
3.1
LMIC3D-S-HC0C
983
221
16
2622
589
48
10729
2412
61
1.6
(4)
LMIC3E-S-HC0A
1232
277
4
3286
739
12
13411
3015
308
7.8
(4)
LMIC3E-S-HC0B
1232
277
8
3286
739
24
13411
3015
154
3.9
(4)
LMIC3E-S-HC0C
1232
277
16
3286
739
48
13411
3015
77
2.0
(4)
LMIC4E-S-HC0A
1641
369
4
4377
984
12
17882
4020
410
10.4
(4)
LMIC4E-S-HC0B
1641
369
8
4377
984
24
17882
4020
205
5.2
(4)
LMIC4E-S-HC0C
1641
369
16
4377
984
48
17882
4020
102
2.6
LMIC5F-S-HC0A
2465
554
4
6574
1478
12
26823
6030
616
15.6
LMIC5F-S-HC0B
2465
554
8
6574
1478
24
26823
6030
308
7.8
LMIC5F-S-HC0C
2465
554
16
6574
1478
48
26823
6030
154
3.9
LMIC6G-S-HC0A
3451
776
4
9203
2069
12
37552
8442
864
21.9
LMIC6G-S-HC0B
3451
776
8
9203
2069
24
37552
8442
432
12.0
LMIC6G-S-HC0C
3451
776
16
9203
2069
48
37552
8442
216
6.0
LMIC6I-S-HC0A
4439
998
4
11838
2661
12
48281
10854
1100
28.2
LMIC6I-S-HC0B
4439
998
8
11838
2661
24
48281
10854
555
14.1
LMIC6I-S-HC0C
4439
998
16
11838
2661
48
48281
10854
277
7.0
LMIC7I-S-HC0A
5179
1164
4
13813
3105
12
56326
12663
1294
32.9
LMIC7I-S-HC0B
5179
1164
8
13813
3105
24
56326
12663
647
16.4
LMIC7I-S-HC0C
5179
1164
16
13813
3105
48
56326
12663
324
8.2
Notes: All specifications are for reference only.
Technical data at 750C rise over 250C ambient.
(1) Addition of 254 x 254 x 25.4 mm [10 x 10 x 1 in] aluminum heat sink increases continuous force capability by 20% (along with 20% more current).
(2) Addition of forced air cooling increases continuous force 12% (and 12% more current).
(3) Liquid cooling option increases continuous forces by 25% and power dissipation by 50%. Available only on motors with D, E and F “size codes.”
(4) Standard Motor
Iron Core Brushless
Motor Performance Curves
% Force - % Line Current
% Force - Duty Cycle
160
200
160
120
% Force
120
% Force
13
80
80
40
40
0
0
0
20
40
60
80
0
100
40
80
% Line Current
% Duty Cycle
160
Figure 2: % Force versus % Line Current
Figure 1: % Force versus % Duty Cycle
Force vs. Velocity
% Force - Airgap
100
140
90
120
80
100
70
% Force
60
50
% Force
120
40
30
80
60
40
20
20
10
0
0
0
1
2
3
4
Velocity (m/s)
5
6
Figure 3: % Output Force versus Velocity
7
8
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
Airgap (Inches)
Figure 4: % Output Force versus Airgap
0.14
0.16
Linear Motors and Stages
Iron Core Brushless Motor Dimensions
Motor (Forcer)
Magnet Track
D
W
C
54.58mm [2.15in]
34.2mm
(1.35”)
A
Secondary (Magnetic Track) - LTIC
Track assemblies can be stacked for longer stroke lengths
Standard tracks include:
617 mm (24.3 inch)
1029 mm (40.5 inch)
LTIC-AS24
LTIC-AS40
LTIC-CS24
LTIC-CS40
LTIC-ES24
LTIC-ES40
Other tracks available as custom
Forcer/Primary (Coil Assembly)
A
W
Weight
C
D
mm
in
mm
in
Kg
lbs
Catalog
Number
mm
in
mm
in
LMIC1A-S-HCOx
162.6
6.4
63.5
2.5
1.2
2.7
LTIC-AS05
63.5
2.5
137.2
5.4
LMIC1C-S-HCOx
162.6
6.4
114
4.5
3.4
7.4
LTIC-AS08
63.5
2.5
205.7
8.1
63.5
2.4
617.2
24.3
63.5
2.4
1010.9
39.8
Catalog Number
LMIC2B-S-HCOx
299.7
11.8
89
3.5
4.5
10.0
LTIC-AS24
LMIC2C-S-HCOx
299.7
11.8
114
4.5
6.7
14.7
LTIC-AS40
LMIC2E-S-HCOx
299.7
11.8
165
6.5
11.2
24.7
LTIC-BS05
89
3.5
137.2
5.4
LTIC-BS08
89
3.5
205.7
8.1
24.3
LMIC3D-S-HCOx
436.9
17.2
140
5.5
13.6
30
LMIC3E-S-HCOx
436.9
17.2
165
6.5
16.8
37
LMIC4E-S-HCOxx
574.0
22.6
165
6.5
22.4
49
LMIC5F-S-HCOx
711.2
28.0
191
7.5
33.3
73
LMIC6G-S-HCOx
848.4
33.4
267
10.5
46.8
103
LMIC7I-S-HCOx
985.2
38.8
267
10.5
72
158
Secondary (Magnetic Track)
Catalog Number
Weight
Kg/m
LTIC-BS24
89
3.5
617.2
LTIC-CS05
114
4.5
137.2
5.4
LTIC-CS08
114
4.5
205.7
8.1
LTIC-CS24
114
4.5
617.2
24.3
LTIC-CS40
114
4.5
1010.9
39.8
LTIC-DS05
140
5.5
137.2
5.4
LTIC-DS08
140
5.5
205.7
8.1
24.3
LTIC-DS24
140
5.5
617.2
LTIC-ES05
165
6.5
137.2
5.4
LTIC-ES08
165
6.5
205.7
8.1
LTIC-ES24
165
6.5
617.2
24.3
LTIC-ES40
165
6.5
1010.9
39.8
lb/in
LTIC-FS05
191
7.5
137.2
5.4
191
7.5
205.7
8.1
191
7.5
617.2
24.3
LTIC-AXX
6.3
0.4
LTIC-FS08
LTIC-BXX
10.7
0.6
LTIC-FS24
LTIC-CXX
15.2
0.9
LTIC-DXX
18.8
1.1
LTIC-EXX
22.4
1.3
LTIC-FXX
26
1.5
LTIC-GXX
30.4
1.7
LTIC-HXX
36.7
2.1
LTIC-IXX
43
2.4
NOTE: A lower profile motor is also available.
Please contact Baldor for details.
LTIC-GS05
216
8.5
137.2
5.4
LTIC-GS08
216
8.5
205.7
8.1
24.3
LTIC-GS24
216
8.5
617.2
LTIC-IS05
267
10.5
137.2
5.4
LTIC-IS08
267
10.5
205.7
8.1
LTIC-IS24
267
10.5
617.2
24.3
NOTE: Min track length recommended = “A”
Dimension + Stroke [min 2 inches (50.8 mm)]
Single-Axis Stepper Motor
15
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
Cost effective linear motion
Open loop - no tuning or encoder are necessary
Use with microstepping drive
Multiple forcers with overlapping trajectories on a single
platen
Ceiling or wall mountable
9.8 m/s2 [1g] typical accelerations @ 1 m/s [40 lps]
Acceleration up to 59 m/s2 [6g] under 0.25 m/s [10 lps]
Forces to 222.4N [50 Lbs.]
High repeatability 10 μm [0.0004 in]
Unlimited travel
Rapid settling times
Roller bearings on 0600 and 1300 series. High stiffness air
bearings on 2000 and 2500 series
The open-loop linear stepper motor provides the most economical
The platen has a photo-chemically etched teeth on a steel bar filled
linear motor positioning package. It is possible to stack the single
with epoxy, ground and nickel plated. Standard mounting holes
axis linear stepper to provide multiple axes. Packages are made up
are provided on forcer and platen. Upon special request platens
of two components: a moving forcer (with bearings) and a stationary
can be stacked end-to-end for unlimited lengths. The magnetic-
platen.
attractive force between the forcer and platen is used as a preload
The forcer is made of two laminated steel cores precisely slotted
with teeth and a single permanent magnet. The coil is inserted
into the laminated assembly with leads provided at the beginnings
and ends of the coils. Two interconnected coils result in a 2-phase
for the bearing system. The magnetic - attractive force enables the
motor to be run in an inverted position. The platen to forcer air gap
is maintained by the integral bearing system. The customer must
bring power to the forcer with an umbilical cable.
motor, and four interconnected coils result in a 4-phase motor. The
laminated assembly is encapsulated in an aluminum housing. The
forcer is available in different sizes, depending on the application’s
force requirements.
› Ordering Information
Primary (Forcer)
L
M
S
Secondary (Track)
L
S
T
S
S
TERMINATION
0 = Flying Leads
(24" Std) (610mm)
1 = DB9 Connectors
2 = Other
CODE FOR STACK WIDTH
06, 13, 20, 25
NO. OF STACKS
SIDE GUIDANCE
BEARINGS
A = Air
W = Wheel
NUMBER OF PHASES
2 or 4
SURFACE BEARINGS
A = Air
W = Wheel
LENGTH
CODE FOR STACK WIDTH
06 = 0600 Series Forcers
13 = 1300 Series Forcers
20 = 2000 Series Forcers
25 = 2500 Series Forcers
TYPE OF FORCER
A = Air Bearing Forcers
W = Wheel Bearing Forcers
(In Inches) ①
Per Customer Spec
TYPE OF PLATEN
T = Tube Platen (2000 and 2500 Series only)
B = Bar Platen (All Series)
Linear Motors and Stages
Single-Axis Stepper Motor Technical Data
Performance Curve for 13 Series
Performance Curve for 06 Series
100
25.0
15.0
orce
60
0602 Voltage
0602 F
10.0
50
40
orce
30
5.0
20
Force in Newtons
70
4F
orc
40
100
e
g
olta
2V
130
e
80
oltage
304 V
30
1302
20
60
1
Force
40
Voltage
Force in Newtons
80
06
060
130
4F
Voltage
20
10
10
0
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
0
0
2
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
Speed in meters per second
1
1.25
1.5
1.75
2
2.25
Speed in meters per second
Performance Curve for 20 Series Single Axis Forcer
Performance Curve for 25 Series Single Axis Forcer
100
100
125
200
For
ce
60
60
40
20
20
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
1.25
1.5
8F
1.75
2
160
ge
olta
04 V
orc
e
100
25
oltage
2508 V
120
2504
80
Force
50
25
40
0
0
2.25
75
Voltage
40
0
250
80
e
tag
Vol
Force in Newtons
80
Voltage
Force in Newtons
Performance Curves
20.0
50
90
e
g
olta
04 V
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
1.25
1.5
1.75
1.6
2
0
2.25
Speed in meters per second
Speed in meters per second
››Technical Data
2-phase Single Axis Forcers
Catalog Number
LMSS0602-2WW0
No. of
phases
2
Static
Force
Force @ 40
inches/sec
Inductance
(Coil)
Resistance
Amps/
Phase
Weight
Bearing
Type
Air Bearing
Requirement
Attractive
Force
N
Lbs
N
Lbs
mH
Ohms
Amps
Kg
Lbs
-
CFM
L/min
N
Lbs
10
2.2
5
1.2
1.2
1.5
1.5
0.18
0.4
Wheel
NA
NA
72
16
LMSS0604-2WW0
2
20
4.4
11
2.4
2.3
3.0
1.5
0.27
0.6
Wheel
NA
NA
140
32
LMSS1302-2WW1
2
23
5.1
12
2.8
2.6
2.2
2
0.36
.08
Wheel
NA
NA
200
45
LMSS1304-2AW1
2
50
11.3
28
6.2
1.3
1.1
4
0.41
0.9
Air
7
0.25
400
90
LMSS2004-2AW1
2
80
18.0
44
9.9
1.6
1.6
4
0.50
1.1
Air
25
0.90
665
150
LMSS2504-2AW1
2
100
22.5
55
12.4
2.2
2.2
4
0.55
1.2
Air
8
0.30
845
190
LMSS2508-2AW1
2
200
45.0
110
24.8
4.0
3.7
8
1.09
2.4
Air
10
0.35
1690
380
NOTES:
(1) Four phase is available with the same force ratings and physical size except LMSS0602 and LMSS1302
(2) Air bearing units use a side ball bearing for lateral guidance as standard. Side air bearings are optional and requires using a tube platen. Repeatability = 10um (+0.0004 in). Resolution= 2.5um (+0.0001 in), Cyclic error= ±0.0002 in ±5μm (±0.0002 in) *dependent on drive electronics and system implementation Wheel Bearing Airgap= 0.0015 in (38μm), Air Bearing Airgap= 0.0008 in (20μm), Air Pressure= 60-80 psi (4.1-5.5 bar) with a 3 micron filter.
All specifications are for reference only
Single-Axis Stepper Forcer Dimensions
17
Model 0602
Model 0604
Model 1302
Model 1304
Model 2504
Model 2508
Model 2004
Linear Motors and Stages
Single Axis Stepper
Motor Platen Dimensions
SERIES
2000
SERIES
0600 and 1300
SERIES
2000 and 2500
A
A
A
L (1)
L (1)
L (1)
T
T
T
BAR PLATEN
BAR PLATEN
TUBE PLATEN
LTSS Series Platen Dimensions
Series
A
Catalog Number
T
Weight
mm
in
mm
in
kg/m
Lbs/in
0600 Bar
LTSS06WB-XXX
30.7
1.21
8.9
0.35
2.11
0.118
1300 Bar
LTSS13XB-XXX
49.8
1.96
11.9
0.468
4.72
0.264
2000 Bar
LTSS20XB-XXX
49.8
1.96
11.9
0.468
4.72
0.264
2000 Tube
LTSS20XT-XXX
49.8
1.96
24.4
1.035
3.94
0.193
2500 Bar
LTSS25XB-XXX
76.2
3.0
24.4
0.96
12.15
0.680
2500 Tube
LTSS25XT-XXX
76.2
3.0
24.4
1.035
5.06
0.283
NOTE:
(1) Platen will be cut to length (L) per customer specification.
(2) Bottom mounting holes pattern is as shown.
(3) Bar platen is parallel to less than 0.0005 inch/12 ft
to attain this flatness the bar must be mounted
to a flat customer supplied surface
(4) XXX = Length in inches (1 inch = 25.4 mm)
Dual-Axis Stepper HoneyComb Series
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
19
Two-axis motion in a single plane - provides lowest cost dual-axis
positioning stage
Acceleration to 49 m/s2 [5g]
High repeatability 2 μm [0.0001 in]
Flatness = 14 μm/300 mm [0.0005 in/ft]
Resolution = Full Step / Number of micro-steps
2-phase min. 5 μm [0.0002 in]
4-phase min. 2.5 μm [0.0001 in]
Platens up to 750 x 1500 mm (29.5 x 59 in)
Lighter weight – 70% Lighter than comparable models
High speed capability – Up to 1.5 m/s (60 in/s)
Multiple forcers with overlapping trajectories on a single platen
High stiffness air bearings
Mount face up or inverted.
linear motor positioning package. The compact dual-axis stepper
The platen consists of new composite material to maximize
strength and stiffness. Standard mounting holes are provided and
motor provides travel along two axes in a single plane. The dual
the platen is available in usable sizes up to 0.75 x 1.5 m [29.5 x
axis package is comprised of two components: a moving forcer
59]. Preload for the bearing system is provided by the magnetic-
(with air bearings) and a stationary platen.
attractive force between the forcer and the platen. The customer
The open-loop linear stepper motor provides the most economical
The forcer is made of four single-axis coil assemblies. Two of the
forcer assemblies are mounted in series to provide a thrust in the
must bring power to the forcer with a cable, and provide the
bearing air supply.
X direction and the other two are mounted orthogonal (at 90 deg.
to the first two assemblies) to provide thrust in the Y direction. The
forcer assemblies are encapsulated in a hard anodized aluminum
housing. The motor’s surface is lapped to provide a flat surface
for the air bearing with the floating height of the air bearing being
less than 25 µm [0.0008 in]. The forcer is available in eight sizes,
depending on the application’s force requirements.
› Ordering Information
Primary (Forcer)
L
M
D
S
Secondary (Platen)
X
X
X
X
X
A
L
X
T
D
S
X
X
X
FEATURES
TERMINATION
S = Standard
C = Custom
0 = 24 Inch Flying Leads
BASE CODE
CODE FOR FORGER SIZE
H = HoneyComb
S = Steel
06, 13, 20, 25
SIZE
AIR BEARINGS
NUMBER OF PHASES/FORCER
2 or 4
D = Double
L = Long
F = Full
H = Half
T = 3/4
S = 1/6
E = 1/8
Linear Motors and Stages
Dual-Axis Stepper Motor Technical Data
> Performance Curves
Performance Curve for 0602 Dual Axis Forcer
ltag
Vo
70
60
For
ce
30
20
5
0
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
1.25
1.5
1.75
130
4F
60
orc
1
e
50
40
1302
30
1304
60
40
20
0
0
0
0.25
0
olt
2V
120
e
oltag
004 V
80
2
40
40
20
0
0
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
1.25
1.5
2
200
140
200
Force
1.75
Performance Curve for 2504 Series Dual Axis Forcer
1.75
2
Force in Newtons
2002
1.5
175
age
Volt
For
120
150
ce
100
125
80
100
60
75
40
50
20
25
0
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
1.25
1.5
1.75
2
Voltage
60
1.25
1
160
Voltage
Force in Newtons
80
0.75
0.5
Speed in meters per second
age
rce
80
Force
10
160
Fo
Vo
10
Performance Curve for 20 Series Dual Axis Forcer
04
100
ltage
20
2
120
20
120
30
Speed in meters per second
100
140
ge
a
olt
2V
Voltage
40
10
Voltage
50
Force in Newtons
15
160
80
70
e
Force in Newtons
Performance Curve for 13 Series Dual Axis Forcer
80
20
0
Speed in meters per second
Speed in meters per second
››Technical Data
2-phase Dual Axis Forcers
Catalog Number
No. of
phases
(1)
Static Force
Force @ 40
inches/sec
Inductance
(Coil)
Resistance/
Phase
Amps/
Phase
Weight
Air Bearing
Requirement
Attractive
Force
N
Lbs
N
Lbs
mH
ohms
Amps
kg
Lbs
L/min
CFM
N
Lbs
LMDS0602-2A0
2
15
3.3
7
1.5
3.3
3.1
2
0.36
0.8
6
0.20
160
36
LMDS1302-2A0
2
33
7.4
15
3.4
5.2
4.2
2
0.50
1.1
8
0.27
400
90
LMDS2002-2A0
2(1)
54
12.1
25
5.5
1.7
1.7
2
0.73
1.6
12
0.42
710
160
LMDS1304-2A0
2(1)
67
15.0
30
6.8
2.9
2.2
4
1.45
3.2
18
0.64
890
200
LMDS2004-2A0
2(1)
110
24.5
48
10.8
3.3
3.2
4
2.05
4.5
22
0.78
1420
320
LMDS2504-2A0
2(1)
134
30.0
60
13.5
4.4
3.8
4
2.32
5.1
25
0.90
1780
400
NOTES:
(1) Four phase is available with the same force ratings and physical size. Typically, a 4-phase motor has twice the resolution as a 2-phase. The maximum 4-phase
resolution is about ±2 μm.
> Bi-directional repeatability = ±5 μm (±0.0002 in). Unidirectional repeatability better than .0001 inch.
> Resolution = 2.5 μm (0.0002 in), Cyclic error = ±5 μm (±0.0002 in) independent on drive electronics and system implementation
> Standard Pitch 1.016 mm (0.04 in), Optional Pitch 0.508 mm (0.02 in)
> Air Bearing Airgap = 20 μm (0.0008 in), Air Pressure= 4-5.5 bar (60-80 psi) with a 5 micron filter.
> All specifications are for reference only.
Dual-Axis Stepper Motor Dimensions
21
PLATEN
FORCER
Air Inlet
B
A
A
“L1” “L2” “L3”
A
A
DB-9, 15, 25 or
37-way connector
Forcer
“W1”
BALDOR
Dual-Axis Forcer
(Bottom view)
“H”
“W2”
“W3”
FORCER
A
Catalog Number
B
Weight
mm
in
mm
in
Kg
Lbs
LMDS - 0602
80.0
3.15
28
1.1
0.36
0.8
LMDS - 1302
96.5
3.80
30
1.2
0.50
1.1
LMDS - 2002
120.7
4.75
30
1.2
0.73
1.6
LMDS - 1304
149.4
5.88
30
1.2
1.45
3.2
LMDS - 2004
165.1
6.50
30
1.2
2.05
4.5
LMDS - 2504
177.8
7.0
36.8
1.45
2.32
5.1
PLATEN
Catalog Number
LTDS-EH-S
LTDS-SH-S
LTDS-TH-S
LTDS-HH-S
LTDS-FH-S
LTDS-LH-S
Usable Width
“W1”
mm
375
375
500
750
750
750
LTDS-DH-S
750
inch
14.8
14.8
19.7
29.5
29.5
29.5
29.5
Usable Length
“L1”
mm
375
500
750
750
1000
1125
1500
inch
14.8
19.7
29.5
29.5
39.4
44.3
59.0
Width
“W2”
mm
410
410
535
785
785
785
785
inch
16.1
16.1
21.1
30.9
30.9
30.9
30.9
Length
“L2”
mm
410
535
785
785
1035
1160
1535
inch
16.1
21.1
30.9
30.9
40.7
45.7
60.4
Overall Width
“W3”
mm
445
445
570
820
820
820
820
inch
17.5
17.5
22.4
32.3
32.3
32.3
32.3
Overall Length
“L3”
mm
445
570
820
820
1070
1195
1570
inch
17.5
22.4
32.3
32.3
42.1
47.0
61.8
Height
mm
28.4
28.4
28.4
28.4
28.4
46.2
46.2
inch
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.8
1.8
Kilo
9.5
12.2
22.2
31.7
41.2
47.1
61.8
Lbs
21.0
26.8
48.9
69.9
90.9
104.0
136.3
Total Platen
mass / weight
NOTES:
(1) RoHS compliant
(2) Flatness: Top: 14 microns/300mm (± 0.0005 inch/foot typical)
Linear Motors and Stages
AC Linear Induction Motor
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
High forces to 2,225 N [500 Lbs.] at 15% duty cycle
Acceleration to 9.8 m/s2 [1g ]
Speeds to 6.85 m/s [270 in/sec] at 60 Hz
Higher speeds at higher frequencies
Moving primary or secondary available
Non-contact, virtually maintenance free
Heavy payloads
Unlimited stroke length
Use with: Single or three-phase AC line voltage, 50 or 60 Hz.
Single-phase requires use of external capacitor
Positioning possible with feedback system
The Linear Induction Motor is designed for high force, long-stroke
cold rolled steel. The aluminum faces the coil assembly. The width
applications, such as material handling, people movers, conveyors
of a reaction plate must be equal to the width of the coil assembly.
and sliding gates.
A customer supplied bearing system is used to maintain the 3.2
mm (1/8 inch) air gap between the coil and reaction plate over the
The single sided Linear Induction Motor consists of a primary
length of the stroke. Forced cooling can be used to increase the
coil assembly and a secondary called a reaction plate. The coil
continuous rating of the motor.
assembly is comprised of steel laminations and phase windings
with a thermal sensor encapsulated in epoxy. The customer
The linear induction motor can be controlled direct on line or using
supplied reaction plate is made of 3.2 mm (1/8 inch) thick
a inverter or vector drive such as Baldor’s range of H2 drives.
aluminum or copper plate bonded to a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) thick
› Ordering Information
Primary (Forcer)
L
M
A
C
DUTY CYCLE
00 < 1%
50 = 50%
99 = 100%
COIL ASSEMBLY LENGTH
In Inches: 16, 32
(1 In = 25.4mm)
VOLTAGE CODE OPTION
COIL ASSY WIDTH
07, 08...16
COOLING
C = Convection
W = Water
LEAD TYPE
1 = Strain Relief
2 = Flying Leads (36" Std)
(914mm)
A = 115 VAC
B = 230 VAC
C = 380 VAC
D = 460/480 VAC
E = 550 VAC
F = 600 VAC
NO. PHASES
1 = Single-phase
3 = Three-phase
AC Linear Induction
Motor Technical Data
23
››Technical Data
Catalog Number
Force Continuous
(@100% Duty Cycle)
Current Continuous
460VAC 3Ph
Weight
N
Lbs
Amps
Kg
Lbs
LMAC1607C23D99
62
14
2.3
20
44
LMAC1608C23D99
80
18
2.9
25
55
LMAC1609C23D99
106
24
3.7
31
68
LMAC1610C23D99
124
28
4.2
36.2
80
LMAC1611C23D99
142
32
5.0
41.6
92
LMAC1612C23D99
169
38
5.7
47.5
105
LMAC1613C23D99
186
42
6.1
52.9
117
LMAC1614C23D99
204
46
7.3
57.9
128
LMAC1615C23D99
231
52
7.6
63.3
140
LMAC1616C23D99
258
58
8.0
68.8
152
LMAC3207C23D99
124
28
4.4
39.8
88
LMAC3208C23D99
160
36
5.6
49.8
110
LMAC3209C23D99
195
44
6.8
61.5
136
LMAC3210C23D99
231
52
8.0
72.4
160
LMAC3211C23D99
275
62
9.5
83.3
184
LMAC3212C23D99
320
72
11.0
95.0
210
LMAC3213C23D99
347
78
11.5
105.9
234
LMAC3214C23D99
400
90
13.5
115.8
256
LMAC3215C23D99
427
96
14.1
126.7
280
LMAC3216C23D99
445
100
14.7
137.6
304
Linear Motors and Stages
AC Linear Induction Motor Technical Data
››Technical Data
Catalog Number
Force
@ 15% Duty Cycle
Current
@ 15% Duty Cycle
460VAC 3Ph
Weight
N
Lbs
Amps
Kg
Lbs
LMAC1607C23D15
311
70
11.5
20
44
LMAC1608C23D15
400
90
14.5
25
55
LMAC1609C23D15
534
120
18.5
31
68
LMAC1610C23D15
622
140
21
36.2
80
LMAC1611C23D15
711
160
25
41.6
92
LMAC1612C23D15
845
190
28.5
47.5
105
LMAC1613C23D15
934
210
30.5
52.9
117
LMAC1614C23D15
1023
230
36.5
57.9
128
LMAC1615C23D15
1156
260
38
63.3
140
LMAC1616C23D15
1289
290
40
68.8
152
LMAC3207C23D15
622
140
22
39.8
88
LMAC3208C23D15
800
180
28
49.8
110
LMAC3209C23D15
978
220
34
61.5
136
LMAC3210C23D15
1156
260
40
72.4
160
LMAC3211C23D15
1378
310
47.5
83.3
184
LMAC3212C23D15
1600
360
55
95.0
210
LMAC3213C23D15
1434
390
57.5
105.9
234
LMAC3214C23D15
2000
450
67.5
115.8
256
LMAC3215C23D15
2135
480
70.5
126.7
280
LMAC3216C23D15
2224
500
73.5
137.6
304
AC Linear Induction Motor Curves
25
120
1.6
% AMPS
1.4
“K”
FACTOR
100
80
1.2
0
1.0
0
1/8
1/4
3/8
AIRGAP INCHES
.8
Figure 3
.4
Provides the % motor current versus the motor airgap in inches.
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
% DUTY CYCLE
Figure 1
The force and current ratings shown in the performance
table are based on 460VAC, three phase, 60 Hz input at a 15%
duty cycle and a 1/8 inch (3.175 mm) airgap. To select a motor
% AMPS
at other duty cycles, divide the required force by the duty cycle
K factor rating on the curve corresponding to the required duty
cycle. Select the closest equivalent or next higher rating
% VELOCITY
from the performance table.
Figure 4
Provides the % motor current vs. % motor speed.
120
100
%
FORCE
1/2
80
60
% FORCE
40
20
0
0
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
% VELOCITY
AIRGAP INCHES
Figure 2
Figure 5
Provides the % force output versus the motor airgap in inches
Plots % thrust (force) vs. % velocity.
Linear Motors and Stages
AC Linear Induction Motor Dimensions
Inches (mm)
N EQUAL SPACES OF 6.00 (152.4mm)
D
3.10 (78.8mm)
GAP .125
(3.2 mm)
D
C
B
A
Ø 11/32 THRU MOUNTING HOLES
POWER & OVERLOAD LEADS
D = TO BE DETERMINED
N = TO BE DETERMINED
ALUMINUM PLATE .125 (3.2mm) THICK
(CUSTOMER SUPPLIED)
STEEL PLATE .250 (6.4mm) THICK
(CUSTOMER SUPPLIED)
Coil Assembly Dimensions
Catalog Number
Catalog Number
LMAC1607CXXXXX
A
B
C
mm
in
mm
in
mm
in
LMAC3207CXXXXX
165
6.5
178
7
127
5
LMAC1608CXXXXX
LMAC3208CXXXXX
191
7.5
203
8
152
6
LMAC1609CXXXXX
LMAC3209CXXXXX
216
8.5
229
9
178
7
LMAC1610CXXXXX
LMAC3210CXXXXX
241
9.5
254
10
203
8
LMAC1611CXXXXX
LMAC3211CXXXXX
267
10.5
279
11
229
9
LMAC1612CXXXXX
LMAC3212CXXXXX
292
11.5
305
12
254
10
LMAC1613CXXXXX
LMAC3213CXXXXX
318
12.5
330
13
279
11
LMAC1614CXXXXX
LMAC3214CXXXXX
343
13.5
356
14
305
12
LMAC1615CXXXXX
LMAC3215CXXXXX
368
14.5
381
15
330
13
LMAC1616CXXXXX
LMAC3216CXXXXX
394
15.5
406
16
356
14
Catalog Number
D
E
N
mm
in
mm
in
-
LMAC16XXCXXXXX
54
2.13
400
15.8
2
LMAC32XXCXXXXX
25.4
1.0
800
31.5
5
NOTE: All specifications are for reference only.
XXXX = refer to ordering information p22.
Non-Commutated DC Linear Servo Motors
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
27
For closed or open loop systems
Moving coil or moving magnet versions
Constant and reversible forces to 667 N [150 Lbs]
Acceleration to 98 m/s2 [10 g’s]
High accuracy 2.5μm/300m [±0.0001 in/ft] (encoder dependent)
High repeatability in 1μm [±0.00004] (encoder dependent)
No commutation required
Highly compact design
MOVING MAGNET
For closed or open loop systems
MOVING COIL
Linear recirculating, jewel sapphire, or bronze bearings
Non-commutated DC linear motors operate at very high speeds
The Moving Magnet model is like a piston moving within a cylinder.
without cogging or force ripple and with infinite resolution. For closed
The piston consists of permanent magnets with steel pole pieces
loop operation, the motor is coupled with an appropriate feedback
and a shaft that passes axially through its center. Endcaps with
device, motor control and motion controller.
bearings on both ends of the cylinder support the shaft. The cylinder
The Moving Coil model consists of a cylindrical coil that moves
contains a bobbin to support the coil and an outside steel tube for
containing the magnetic flux. DC voltage applied to the coil causes
within an annular air gap of the magnet assembly, made of rare
the assembly to move and when the polarity is reversed the direction
earth magnets. When DC voltage is applied, the coil moves
of travel is reversed.
with constant force and when polarity is reversed, the direction
of travel is reversed. Magnetic-attractive forces and hysteresis
loss are eliminated.
DC Brushed Linear Servo Motors
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
High forces to 1070 N [171 Lbs]
High acceleration to 49 m/s2 [5g’s]
High speeds to 3.8 m/s [75 in/sec]
High accuracy 8.3 μm/m [±0.0001 in/ft] (encoder dependent)
High repeatability in 1 μm [0.00004] (encoder dependent)
Stroke lengths to. 3.2 m [11 ft]
Multiple moving magnet assemblies with overlapping trajectories
Self-commutation enables the use of low-cost brush-type amplifiers.
The permanent magnet brush commutated DC linear motor
secondary can be used as a magnetic preload for the bearing
consists of a stationary primary and a moving secondary. The
system.
stationary primary is a steel laminated core, with multiple coils
The brush linear motor is available in different cross sections to
inserted into insulated slots. The ends of each coil are connected
to a commutator bar that is mounted on an aluminum angle.
The moving secondary features multiple permanent magnets and
brushes for commutation. A cable supplies power to the moving
secondary. The magnetic-attractive force between the primary and
meet different force requirements. Mounting holes are located on
both the primary and secondary.
Linear Motors and Stages
Polynoid Linear Motors
›› Forces to 445 N [100 Lbs]
›› Acceleration to 9.8 m/s2 [1g]
›› Speeds to 2.3 m/s [90 in/sec]
›› Optional built-in electronic brake (holding coil) for end holding
›› Integral rulon bearings
›› Low cost, powered by AC line voltage or adjustable speed with an inverter
›› Provides long stroke with uniform force
›› Stroke limited by end stops on moving rod
›› Limited duty cycle applications
›› Virtually maintenance free
›› Not for positioning applications
The AC Polynoid provides a constant force for the entire length
of its stroke. Its direction of travel is reversible by switching
leads. Switching requires the swapping of any two of three motor
leads in three-phase units while single-phase reversing is done
by the swapping of one line lead to the opposite side of the
capacitor lead. Electrical force reversal can be used for dynamic
braking. Equal force is provided in either direction of movement.
A polynoid is comprised of two basic parts, a rod and a stator.
The rod is copper clad steel, the end of which can feature a
tapped mounting hole. An optional holding coil is available
for end holding at one or both ends. The rod can be of infinite
length when provided with proper support. The stator is a series
of coils wound on bobbins. Coils are interconnected. The stator
is housed in a smooth cold rolled steel assembly. It is also
available with fins for improved heat dissipation.
HyCore10 Hybrid Core Linear Motor
›› Velocities to 1.5 m/s (60 ips)
›› Accelerations to 3g
›› Peak forces to 800 N (180 lbs)
›› Continuous force to 465 N (105 lbs)
›› Unlimited travels > 100m (4000 inch)
›› Highly efficient - provides higher forces
with an overall smaller electrical load
›› Stationary “platen” without magnets
- no attraction of loose metal particles
›› Compact package - allows designers
to work with smaller footprints
Baldor has redefined linear motors with a technological
breakthrough. Baldor’s new HyCore™ motor combines
the best features and performance of traditional high speed,
high force, closed loop brushless linear servo motors, with the
cost advantages of open loop linear stepper motor technology.
HyCore™ includes benefits which linear motors bring to an
application: zero backlash; high efficiency; unlimited travel;
fast velocities and high accelerations.
Custom Linear Products
Baldor manufactures a wide variety of custom linear motors and stages. Whether the requirement is for single axis, dual axis or X-Y-Z
positioning, Baldor has the linear product for the application. Using linear technology, a linear stage gantry will speed up and simplify
the building of equipment needing high throughput and precise positioning.
›› Forces to 750N [169 lbs] at 10% DC
›› Acceleration to 19.6 m/s2 [2 g’s] on x-axis and 44.1 m/s2 [4.5 g’s] on y & z-axis
›› Accuracy of 12 um/300 mm [+/-0.0005 in/ft]
›› Speeds up to 3 m/s [90 in/sec] based on 1 um encoder
›› Strokes up to 2000 x 1500 mm [78 x 60 in]
Using linear motor technology, a linear stage gantry is more compact than conventional gantry systems and is ideal for applications
where space is at a premium. Each axis features linear brushless cog-free motors.
Linear Stages
29
A linear motor positioning stage is defined as a single or
multiple-axis mechanical system, that positions a payload.
It includes a linear motor, bearings, encoder, limit switches,
cable carrier and bellows.
A linear motor provides direct linear motion without
mechanical transmission devices. Linear motor positioning
stages can move the payload vertically or horizontally
at varying rates of speed and acceleration. Linear motor
positioning stages have a lower profile and can fit into smaller
spaces than conventional positioning stages. Because linear
motor positioning stages have fewer components, they
are very reliable.
Advantages of Linear Stages
››
››
››
››
››
››
››
Types of Linear Stages
High speeds – 10 m/s [400 in/s] with encoder
resolution > 1 micron
Baldor offers many types of linear motor positioning
stages to meet a variety of application requirements.
High accelerations – up to 98 m/s2 [10 g’s]
››
››
››
››
Accuracy – typically ±5 μm/300 mm [±0.0002 in/ft]
Small, compact footprint – fits into smaller spaces
Reliability – non-contact operation reduces
component wear and maintenance
High linear motor stiffness – provides excellent
dynamic and settling time performance
Single Bearing Positioning Stage
Extruded Positioning Stage
Enclosed Positioning Stage
Cross Roller Positioning Stage
No backlash from gears or slippage from belts
– provides smooth operation
Feature
Description
Complete enclosure
Linear motor, bearings, encoder, limit switches, cable carrier and bellows
Bearings
Recirculating ball, cross roller, air bearings
Reliability
Non-contact operation without component wear or maintenance
Stiffness
Excellent dynamic response and rapid settling time
Orientation
Horizontal or vertical (with proper safety)
Resolution
Feedback encoders available from 10 mm to 0.1 μm
Linear Motors and Stages
> Linear Stage Product Characteristics Overview
Page 31
Page 31
Page 32
Page 32
Single Bearing
Cross Roller Bearing
Enclosed
Extruded
LSS
LSC
LSE
LSX
N
13 - 400
90 - 270
85 - 1020
44 - 356
Lbs
3 - 99
20 - 60
20 - 240
10 - 80
N
39 - 750
270 - 667
270 - 3200
134 - 1065
Lbs
9 - 169
60 - 150
60 - 720
30 - 240
m/s2
44.1
49
44.1
44.1
g’s
4.5
5
4.5
4.5
m/s
5
0.75
5
2
in/sec
200
30
200
78
m
2.4
0.3
3.3
3
in
96
12
130
120
µm/300mm
5
5
5
5
in/ft
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
0.0002
µm
1
1
1
1
in
0.00004
0.00004
0.00004
0.00004
Positioning Type
-
closed loop
closed loop
closed loop
closed loop
Control Type
-
Brushless Control
Brushless Control
Brushless Control
Brushless Control
Load Support
-
Linear Recirculating
Bearing
Cross-Roller Bearing
Linear Recirculating
Bearing
Linear Recirculating
Bearing
Motor Series
Continuous Force
Peak Force
Acceleration] (1)
Speed (2)
Maximum Stroke
Accuracy (3)
Repeatability (3)
NOTES:
All specifications are for reference only.
(1) Limited by bearing type.
(2) Dependent upon motor
(3) Accuracy and repeatability are referenced against a laser interferometer. Tighter tolerances are available.
Single Bearing Positioning Stage (LSS)
› Single-axis stage with cog-free linear motor, linear bearing, linear
31
encoder, limit switches, and cable carrier
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
High forces up to 750 N [169 Lbs.]
High accelerations to 44 m/s2 [4.5 g]
Speeds to 2.5 m/s [100 in/s] with encoder resolution ≤ 1 micron
High speeds to 5 m/s [200 in/s] with encoder resolutions > 1 micron
Payloads to 23 Kg [50 Lbs.]
Stroke length to 2.44 m [96 in]
Linear encoder feedback of 5 micron resolution standard
Turnkey positioning system
High stiffness linear recirculating bearings
High reliability
Low maintenance
Use with Trapezoidal or sinusoidal 3-phase brushless control
and single-axis motion controller to close the position loop
The small cross section single bearing positioning stage features a
moving coil 3-phase cog-free brushless motor with single rail, two
integral linear bearings and encoder. The stage features lightweight
moving parts for higher acceleration of light loads. An open linear
scale is available to meet customer requirements. Resolutions
available are 1 and 5 micron.
settling time performance is a result of the superior stiffness
of brushless motors.
Single bearing positioning stages can be stacked on top of each
other to provide a multiple axis positioning system. Typically,
a wider cross section is used as the base axis for stability
and stages with smaller cross sections stacked on top.
The cog-free brushless linear motor provides smooth, high reliability,
non-contact operation without backlash. Excellent dynamic and
Cross Roller Positioning Stage (LSC)
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
›
Cross roller bearings for heavy payloads to 90 Kg [200 Lbs]
High forces to 667 N [150 Lbs.]
Acceleration to 49m/s2 [5 g]
Speeds to 0.75 m/s [30 in/sec]
Strokes to 0.3 m [12 in]
Linear encoder feedback with 1 micron resolution standard
Housing made of steel or aluminum
Single-axis stage with linear motor, linear bearings, linear encoder, limit
switches, cable carrier, and bellows
› Available with brushless iron core linear motors, cog-free brushless
linear motors, brush linear motors, and AC induction linear motors
›
›
›
›
Hard stops
Low profile, smaller cross section
Brushless motor for high reliability and low maintenance
Use with Trapezoidal or sinusoidal 3 phase brushless control and
single-axis motion controller to close the position loop.
The low-profile positioning stage features a moving coil 3
phase brushless motor with integral linear bearing and encoder. The
stage features heavy duty construction with lightweight slide and
moving parts for higher acceleration.
Abbe error is minimized by centering the linear motor and encoder
between two parallel rails. Two cross roller bearing assemblies
support the payload, moving coil and encoder
head. An enclosed or open linear scale is available to meet
customer requirements.
The brushless linear motor provides high reliability,
non-contact operation without backlash or component wear.
Optimal dynamic and settling time performance is a result
of the superior stiffness of brushless motors.
Cross roller bearing positioning stages can be stacked on top
of each other as shown in picture above to provide a multiple
axis positioning system. Typically, a wider cross section is used
as the base axis for stability and stages with smaller cross
sections stacked on top.
Linear Motors and Stages
Enclosed Positioning Stage (LSE)
›› Single-axis stage with linear motor, linear bearings, linear encoder, limit
switches, cable carrier, spring loaded hard stops and bellows
›› Available with brushless iron core linear motors, cog-free brushless linear
motors, brush linear motors, and AC induction linear motors
›› High forces to 3,200 N [720 Lbs.] with Linear Brushless Iron Core motors
›› High acceleration to 44 m/s2 [4.5 g] [
›› High speeds to 5 m/s [200 in/sec] with encoder resolution > 1 micron
›› Payloads to 227 Kg [500 Lbs.]
›› Strokes to 2.44 m [96 in]
›› Available in three different widths
›› High stiffness linear recirculating bearings
›› Highest load capacity of all the positioning stages with multiple bearings
›› Multiple moving tables with independent operation For vertical applications, an optional constant force spring counteracts gravity
›› Failsafe braking with optional spring loaded pneumatic cylinder for vertical applications
›› Base and table made of aluminum as standard - steel optional
›› Use with Trapezoidal or sinusoidal 3 phase brushless control and single-axis motion controller to close the position loop
The enclosed stage features a moving coil 3 phase brushless
The brushless linear motor provides high reliability, non-contact
motor with integral recirculating linear bearing and encoder. It
operation with backlash or component wear. Dynamic performance
features heavy duty construction with lightweight moving parts for
with low settling times is provided by the stiffness of the linear
higher acceleration.
brushless motor.
Abbe error is minimized by centering the linear motor and encoder
Enclosed stages can be stacked on top of each other to provide a
between two parallel rails. Multiple bearings support the payload,
multiple axis positioning system. Typically, the wider unit is used as
moving coil and encoder head. An enclosed or open linear scale
the base axis for stability and stages with smaller cross sections
is available to meet customer requirements. Standard 5 micron
stacked on top.
resolution is provided.
Extruded Positioning Stage (LSX)
›› Linear brushless iron core motor with peak force ratings
to 1065 N [240 Lbs]
›› Speeds to 2 m/s [78 in/s] with standard 5 micron
encoder resolution
›› Strokes to 3 m [120 in] standard, longer travels
available as custom
›› 5 micron linear magnetic encoder scale standard with other resolutions available as custom
›› Single-axis stage – Modular aluminum construction with integral brushless linear motor, linear encoder, limit switches, cable carrier, linear bearings and bellows
›› Turnkey operation
›› Internal linear motor cable carrier
›› High stiffness linear recirculating ball bearings with low friction seals
›› Use with Trapezoidal or sinusoidal 3-phase brushless
control and single-axis motion controller to close the position loop
The extruded positioning stage is a cost-effective solution for those
Dynamic performance with low settling times is provided by the
applications requiring less stringent positioning requirements. It
brushless motor stiffness. Its essentially square shape and integral
features lightweight moving parts for high acceleration of light
cable carrier allows mounting multiple stages close together. These
loads. The brushless linear motor provides smooth, highly reliable
stages can also be stacked to provide multi-axis positioning.
non-contact operation with no backlash or component wear.
33
Engineering
Information
> Calculating Linear Motor Requirements
> Linear Motor Requirement Sheet
> Linear Stepper Motor Description
> Linear Stage Components
> Frequently Asked Questions
> Conversion Tables
Linear Motors and Stages
Calculating Motor Requirements
In order to determine the correct motor for particular application it is necessary to be familiar with the following relations.
Equations Of Motion
Basic kinematic equations:
vt = vo + at
xt = vot + at2/2
vt2 = vo2 + 2ax
a = acceleration (m/s2 [g’s])
x = stroke (m [inch])
t = time (seconds)
vo = initial velocity (m/sec2 [in/sec2])
vt = velocity at time t (m/sec2 [in/sec2])
g = gravitational acceleration (= 9.81 m/sec2 [386 in/sec2]
A trapezoidal velocity profile is common with linear motors and the basic kinematic equations
can be manipulated to yield results based on what is known.
Metric
English
When time and stroke are known:
velocity
vt
a=
2x
a=
t1
2
2x
386 t12
When time and velocity are known
a=
vt
a=
t1
vt
386 t1
When velocity and stroke are known:
time
distance
t1
x
a=
vt2
a=
(2x)
vt2
386 (2x)
Example: Calculate the acceleration required to get to 0.508 m/sec [200 in/sec] in 0.050 sec.
Metric
0.508
a=
0.050
a = 10.16 m/s2
English
a=
200
386 x 0.050
a = 1.04 g’s
Another common velocity profile associated with linear motors is the triangular velocity profile. As before,
the basic kinematic equations can be manipulated to solve for this case. This is usually the case investigated
when applications need to move a full stroke in a given time.
When time and stroke are known
velocity
Metric
a=
t2 time
x distance
English
4x
t22
a=
4x
386 t22
Calculating Motor Requirements
35
Example: Calculate the acceleration required to get to move 0.0254 m [1 in] in 0.050 sec.
Metric
a=
English
4 x 0.0254
a=
386 x (0.050)2
a = 4.14 g’s
(0.050)2
40.64 m/s2
a=
4x1
Newton’s Second Law
Newton’s Second Law provides a simple method of converting between forces, playloads, and accelerations.
Metric
English
where
F = Force
m = payload
a = acceleration
g = gravitational constant
F = ma
F = ma
N
Kg
m/s2
9.81 m/s2
Lbf
Lbm
g’s
386 in/sec2
Example: Calculate the force required to accelerate a 1.45 kg [3.2 Lbm] payload horizontally at 12.75 m/s2 [1.3 g’s]
Metric
F = 1.45 x 12.75
F = 18.5 N
English
F = 3.2 x 1.3
F = 4.16 Lbs
Duty Cycle for Open Loop Systems
The duty cycle of a motor is defined as the time the motor receives power during a cycle divided by the total time of the
cycle. When a linear motor receives power for more than thirty (30) seconds, it is operating at a duty cycle of 100%.
Duty Cycle = time on
x 100%
time on + time off
Example: During one cycle of operation a motor is on for 1 sec and off for 3 sec.
What is the duty cycle of the motor for these conditions?
Duty Cycle = 1
x 100% = 25%
1+3
Because duty cycles less than 100% allow time for the motor to cool, a lower duty cycle allows all linear motors, except
steppers, to be run up to three times their continuous current rating for a short period of time. Since force is proportional
to current, motors operating at lower duty cycles can produce higher forces than when run continuously.
Linear Motors and Stages
Calculating Motor Requirements
Effective Continuous Force
The relation between the rated continuous force a motor can deliver and the effective continuous force it is capable
of providing at a lower duty cycle is:
FDC = FC
√
Where
Fc = continuous force
FD.C. = force at specified duty cycle
D.C. = duty cycle
100
D.C.
Metric
English
N
kg
%
Lbf
Lbf
%
Example: A motor has a continuous force capability of 108 lbs (480N) calculate the force
which this motor can deliver at a 30% duty cycle.
Metric
English
FDC = 480
FDC = 108
100 = 877 N
100 = 197 lbs
30
30
√
√
Linear Motor Selection Process
Following is an example in the selection process for an application that requires a cog-free brushless
linear motor. The second section provides the calculations that are necessary to make the motor selection.
That last section demonstrates the effect of reducing duty cycles and application on motor selection.
Example Customer Requirements
Stroke
Payload
Resolution
1.52m (60 in in)
18.1 kg (40 Lbm)
3 micron customer-supplied encoder
Load Support
Customer-supplied bearings
Motion Profile
Low force ripple required. Payload must move
full stroke in 0.90 sec. The duty cycle is 30%.
Calculating Motor Requirements
37
Acceleration is determined by:
English
Metric
4x
a=
a=
=
t
2
4 x 1.52
(0.90)
4x
a=
2
a=
7.5 m/s2
386 t
2
=
4 x 60
386 x (0.90)2
0 .77 g’s
Force is determined by:
F = ma = 18.1 X 7.5
F = ma = 40 X 0.77
F = 136 N
F = 30.8 lbf
Force required by an application with a 30% duty cycle in determined by:
√
FDC = FC
FC =
100
DC
136
√
100
30
Re-arranging:
FC =
FDC
√
100
DC
= 75 N
FC =
30.8
√
100
30
= 16.8 lbf
As the customer’s requirement in for low ripple, the optimum product selection is a cog free motor.
The motor which delivers this force is the LMIC06C (87N; 19.5 lbs)
Linear Motor Sizing
Baldor’s LIMOS (LInear MOtor Sizing) program is a Windows-based appliation to help you size your linear motor.
LIMOS includes a simple wizard interface asking a series of questions about your application. Once the motor
type is selected, a move profile can be created. LIMOS will then calculate the motor size for you.
Download from www.baldormotion.com/support or contact Baldor to receive this program.
Linear Motors and Stages
Linear Motor Requirement Sheet
Company
Date
Contact
Email
Title
Phone
Address
Fax
Address
Industry
City
District Office
State, Zip
Salesperson
Describe the application and what you are trying to accomplish:
Motor Type Preferred
Mounting
q Don’t Know
q Horizontal - Table
q Horizontal - Wall
q Vertical with
Servo - Closed loop
q Brushless Cog-free
q Brushless Iron-core
q Brush type
% Counterbalance
q Angled at Stepper - Open Loop
q
q
q
q
Single Axis
Position Resolution
Dual Axis w/Air Bearing
q
q
q
q
q
q
AC Induction
Stage
Voltage Available
q
q
q
q
q
115 VAC Single Phase
Degrees
None Required
10 Micron = 0.0004 inch
5 Micron = 0.002 inch
1 Micron = 0.00004 inch
Other
Stepper Repeatability of
230 VAC Single Phase
230 VAC Three Phase
Quote Additional
460 VAC Three Phase
q Drive (Amplifier)
q Position Controller
q Linear Encoder
DC:
Environment
q
q
q Dusty
q Gritty
q
q
w/resolution from above
Degrees F
q Motor Power & Hall
Degrees C
* Not available on all motor types
Cable Length
Cooling Available
q Convection - standard
q Forced Air *
q Water *
Linear Stepper Motors
39
The open loop linear stepper motor provides the most economical linear motor positioning solution.
There are two types of linear stepper motors, a single-axis linear stepper motor that can be stacked
to provide multiple axes and the compact dual-axis linear stepper motor that provides travel along
two axes in a single plane. Linear stepper motors incorporate the motor, positioning system
and bearings into two components, a moving forcer and a stationary platen.
Single Axis Linear Stepper
2. FORCER
4. UMBILICAL CABLE WITH POWER
AND AIR HOSE (FOR AIR BEARINGS)
1. PLATEN
3. MECHANICAL OR AIR BEARINGS
TO GUIDE AND SUPPORT FORCER
1. Platen
The platen on the single-axis stepper motor has a nickel plated photo-chemically etched teeth on a steel bar
or tube that is filled with epoxy (RoHS compliant). A tube type platen is required for unsupported applications.
The platen of a dual-axis linear stepper motor is a waffle or checkerboard arrangement of teeth etched
onto a steel plate in a grid pattern. The magnetic-attractive force between the forcer and platen provides
a preload for the bearing system. The integral bearing system maintains the required air gap.
2. Forcer
The single-axis linear stepper motor’s moving primary (forcer) is made of multiple laminated steel cores
precisely slotted with teeth and permanent magnets. The coils are inserted into the laminated core assemblies,
which are encapsulated in an aluminum housing. The dual-axis linear stepper motor’s moving primary (forcer)
is made of four single-axis assemblies. Two of the forcer assemblies are mounted in series to provide thrust
along the X-axis and the other two are mounted orthogonal to the first two assemblies to provide thrust along
the Y-axis. Lamination assemblies are encapsulated with epoxy in a hard-anodized aluminum housing.
The motor face is lapped to provide a flat air-bearing surface. Multiple forcers that move independently
are available on single-axis and dual-axis linear stepper motors.
Linear Motors and Stages
Dual Axis Linear Stepper
4. UMBILICAL CABLE WITH POWER
AND AIR HOSE (FOR AIR BEARINGS)
2. FORCER
1. PLATEN
3. AIR BEARINGS TO GUIDE
AND SUPPORT FORCER
3. Mechanical Or Air Bearings To Guide And Support Forcer
The single-axis stepper is available with mechanical or air bearings. The dual-axis stepper is available only
with air bearings.
4. Umbilical Cable With Power And Air Hose (For Air Bearings)
Customer must supply power and dry filtered air for air bearings.
Linear Stepper Motor Operation
Linear stepper motors divide linear distances into discrete incremental moves called steps. The size of each
step is determined by the spacing of the steel teeth in the platen and how the coils are energized. Baldor 2phase motors travel 0.254mm (0.010 inches) in a single full step yielding 100 steps per inch (25.4 mm). Baldor
4-phase motors travel 0.127mm (0.005 inches) in a step. When the coils are energized in a predetermined
pattern the forcer will walk its way down the platen. Reversing the pattern will reverse the direction of travel.
The frequency at which the microsteps are generated determine the velocity of the forcer. Linear stepper
motors produce their maximum force at zero speed. As speed increases the ability to switch winding current
decreases due to motor inductance and back EMF. This results in lower forces at higher speeds.
Linear Stage Components
41
1. LONG STATIONARY BASE
2. SHORT MOVING TABLE ASSEMBLY
4. LINEAR MOTOR MOVES
THE TABLE
3. LINEAR BEARINGS TO MOVE
AND SUPPORT THE TABLE
7. CABLE CARRIER TO GUIDE
AND SUPPORT CABLES
5. ENCODER FOR POSITION, VELOCITY
AND ACCELERATION CONTROL
6. HOME AND LIMIT SWITCHES
1. Stationery Base
The linear motor driven positioning stage is built on a stationary base that provides a stable, precise and flat
platform. Typically, the base is made from an aluminum, steel, ceramic or granite plate. All stationary parts of
the positioning components are attached to the base. The base of the stage is attached to the host system with
mounting screws.
2. Moving Table
The moving parts of the various positioning components are attached to the moving table. The moving table is
made of a lightweight material, such as aluminum, that allows maximum acceleration. Mounting holes on the
moving table secure the payload to the table.
3. Linear Bearings
Precise lateral and vertical guidance of the moving table is provided by mounting one or more linear bearing rails
attached to the base plate with one or more linear recirculating ball bearings or air bearings on each rail.
4. Linear Motor
The moving table is driven with an AC or DC linear motor. The type of linear motor, [AC induction, DC brush, iron
core brushless or cog-free (ironless core) brushless linear motor] is determined by the application require-ments.
All of the brushless motors provide non-contact operation with non-wearing parts and provide higher forces in a
smaller package.
The AC induction linear motor is typically used for heavy loads in open loop systems or a vector control can be
utilized for closed position loop operation.
The brush DC linear motor provides an economical linear motor solution. Key features of the brush linear motor
include its low cost per pound of thrust compared to brushless linear motors, self commutation that enables the
use of low-cost brush type amplifiers and lightweight moving secondary that enables high acceleration.
Linear Motors and Stages
Linear Stage Components
Brushless iron core linear motors provide the most economical brushless iron core linear motor solution. Key
features of the brushless linear motor include the lowest cost per pound of thrust, a preload for the bearing
system provided by the magnetic-attractive force between coil and the skewed magnet track. Various coil
features and skewed magnets reduce cogging.
High force brushless linear motors provide the highest force linear motor solution. Key features of high force
brushless linear motors include a preload for the bearing system provided by the magnetic attractive force
between primary and secondary, skewed magnets and various coil features that reduce cogging.
Cog-free (ironless core) brushless linear motors provide the greatest precision for profiling and contouring
applications. Key features include cogfree operation with low velocity ripple and no magnetic-attractive force
between the coil and the magnet track. It is the best brushless solution for light loads and high acceleration
with low mass.
The AC Linear Induction Motor (LIM) is a low cost solution for moving heavy loads, such as material handling
and people movers. Key features include availability in any width or length and operation from AC line voltage.
Typically, the LIM is used for open loop position applications, however it can be used with a vector control for
position control or an inverter for velocity control.
5. Position Feedback
Closed loop servo systems require a positioning feedback device, usually a non-contact device, such as a
glass scale or magnetic linear encoder. The encoder allows precise control of the stage’s position, velocity and
acceleration. Attached to the moving table, the encoder’s head is guided by the linear bearings on the stage.
6. Home and Limit Switches
Non-contact limit switches are built into the stage or encoder head to provide initial homing and over travel
protection for the stage.
7. Cable Carriers
A cable carrier couples the moving table to the stationary connector box at the end of the stage and routes the
high flex cables from the motor and encoder to the base.
8. Operation
Motion is achieved by connecting the motor to an appropriate amplifier and, in a closed loop system, the
position loop is closed with a motion controller.
Frequently Asked Questions
About Linear Motors
Q. What performance improvements can be expected with linear motors?
A. In most applications, repeatability and accuracy will be increased. Move times
and settling time will be decreased. Baldor’s sizing program will assist you in
determining a linear motor for you application by calculating move times, speeds,
and acceleration.
Q. How accurate are linear motors?
A. By eliminating the conversion of rotary to linear motion, a major source of
positioning error is removed. This results in high performance and accuracy is
ultimately determined by the linear encoder feedback accuracy. Repeatability will
be within a few encoder counts.
Q. How fast can linear motors go?
A. There are several factors that limit speed of the linear motor. The control must
provide sufficient bus voltage to support the speed requirements. The encoder
itself must be able to respond to that speed and its out put frequency must be
within the controllers capability: for example, with a 0.5 micron encoder and a
speed of 200 ips, the controller must handle 10MHz. Finally the speed rating of the
stage’s bearing system must not be exceeded: for example, in a recirculating ball
bearing, the balls start to skid (rather than roll)at about 200 ips.
Q. What happens if the system loses power or velocity feedback?
A. If a power loss occurs, the system loses all stiffness. So, if the payload is moving,
it will continue to move until it hits a stop or until friction brings it to a stop. If the
system is already stopped, it will not be affected. If the feedback loop is lost, it may
lead to a runaway situation. This condition can be avoided with the use of soft and
hard stops as well as braking systems.
Q. Do magnets ever lose their magnetism over time?
A. Baldor’s linear motors use rare earth magnets, which maintain their strength
over time. However, when operating at high temperatures (>1500C), rare earth
magnets can lose strength.
Q. What is cogging?
A. Cogging is a tendency of some linear motors to move in discrete distances rather
than infinitely variable distances. The effect is a result of varying magnetic forces
along the length of motor travel.
Q. Will linear motors produce enough force for my application?
A. Baldor’s smallest linear motor will produce 2`N [0.5 lbs] of continuous force. The
largest can provide 16100N [3700 lbs] of peak force at 10% duty cycle.
Q. Are linear motors difficult to integrate into a machine?
A. Not difficult, different. The drive train is simpler to install, as the linear motor
replaces the ball screw, nut, end bearings, motor mount, couplings and rotary
motor. Alignment with a Baldor motor is not critical (even for high performance
packages) and consists of mainly ensuring clearances for the moving coil is
maintained over the travel. Baldor will assist with selection of suitable components.
43
Linear Motors and Stages
Frequently Asked Questions
About Linear Motors
Q. What is duty cycle?
A. . Duty cycle is defined as (time on) / (time on + time off) per cycle. A lower duty
cycle allows the motor to be run with as much as three times its continuous
current rating for a short time period to produce higher forces than if the motor
runs continuously.
Q. Do standard rotary motor electronics work with linear motors?
A. Baldor’s linear motors are designed to operate with most off-the-shelf motor
controls and drives. Basically, linear motors use the same electric circuit as rotary
motors. This applies to stepper, brush, brushless, and AC linear motors alike.
Q. Can a linear motor be mounted vertically or upside-down?
A. Yes, a linear motor provides the same performance when mounted vertically,
upsidedown, or horizontally. However, a vertically mounted linear motor must be
counterbalanced.
Q. Can more than one stepper motor forcer be mounted on a stepper motor platen?
A. Yes, multiple forcers that move independently may be mounted on one platen, as
longas they do not physically interfere with each other.
Q. Can more than one brushless linear motor moving coil (primary) assembly be
used with a single magnet track (secondary)?
A. Yes, more than one coil assembly can be used in conjunction with a single
magnet assembly as long as the coil assemblies do not physically interfere with
each other.
Q. Does Baldor make specialty motors for waterproof, vacuum or clean
room environments?
A. . Yes, linear motors can be built for a variety of operating environments. To
determine if a linear motor is suitable for a specific application, an applications
engineer must review the specifications.
Q. What are the advantages of a linear motor over a lead screw?
A. The advantages of linear motors include higher velocities [>80 in/sec (>2 m/s)],
non-wear moving part, free movement when power is off, no backlash because
there are no mechanical linkages.
Conversion Tables
(To convert from A to B, multiply by value in table)
Linear Velocity
B
in/sec
feet/sec
mm/sec
cm/sec
meter/sec
inch/min
feet/min
meter/min
km/hour
miles/hour
1
0.083
25.4
2.54
25.4 x 10-2
60
5
1.524
0.091
5.7 x 10-2
feet/sec
12
1
304.8
304.8
0.3048
720
60
18.29
1.09
0.682
mm/sec
3.937 x
10-2
3.3 x 10-3.
1
0.1
0.001
2.36
0.197
0.059
3.6 x 10-3
2.24 x 10-3
cm/sec
0.3937
3.28 x 10-2
10
1
0.01
23.62
1.97
0.59
3.6 x 10-2
2.24 x 10-2
meter/sec
39.37
3.281
1000
100
1
2362.2
197
3.6
2.24
inch/min
0.0167
1.39 x 10
0.42
0.042
4.2 x 10
1
8.33 x 10
2.54 x 10
1.52 x 10
9.5 x 10-4
feet/min
0.2
0.0167
5.08
0.508
5.08 x 10-3
12
1
0.3048
1.8 x 10-2
1.14 x 10-2
meter/min
0.656
5.46 x 10-2
16.667
1.67
1.67 x 10-2
39.4
3.28
1
5.9 x 10-2
0.37
km/hour
10.936
0.911
277.8
27.78
0.2778
656
54.67
16.67
1
0.62
miles/hour
17.59
1.47
447
44.7
0.447
1056
88
26.8
1.609
1
A
in/sec
-3
-4
60
-2
-2
-3
45
Length
B
Inch
Feet
Micro Inch
Micron
Millimeter
Centimeter
Meter
Inch
1
8.33 x 10-2
1.0 x 106
2.54 x 104
25.4
2.54
2.54 x 10-2
Feet
12
1
1.2 x107
3.05 x 105
305
A
Micro-Inch
30.5
0.305
1.0 x 10
1.2 x 10
1
2.54 x 10
2.54 x 10
2.54 x 10
2.54 x 10-8
Micron
3.937 x 10-5
3.28 x 10-6
39.37
1
0.001
1.0 x 10-4
1.0 x 10-6
Millimeter
3.937 x 10-2
3.28 x 10-3
3.937 x 104
1000
1
0.1
0.001
Centimeter
0.3937
3.28 x 10-2
3.937 x 105
1 x 104
10
1
0.01
Meter
39.37
3.28
3.937 x 104
1 x 106
1000
100
1
Watts
Kilowatts
ft.lb/sec2
in-lb/sec
Hp
1
1 x 10
0.74
8.85
1.33 x 10-3
Kilowatts
1000
1
738
8850
1.33
ft-lb/sec
1.35
1.36 x 10-3
1
12
1.81 x 10-3
in-lb/sec
0.113
1.13 x 10-4
8.3 x 10-2
1
750
0.750
553
6636
-6
4
-2
-5
-6
Power
A
B
Watts
Hp
-3
oz/in3 lb/in3 gm/cm3
Aluminum 1.57 0.098 2.72
Brass 4.96 0.31
8.6
1.53 x 10-4
Bronze
4.72 0.295
8.17
1
Copper 5.15 0.322
8.91
Plastic 0.64 0.04
1.11
Steel 4.48 0.28 7.75
Force
B
OZ-f
Lb-f
Newtons
gm-f
Kg-f
OZ-f
1
6.25 x 10-2
0.278
28.35
2.835 x 10-2
Lb-f
16
1
4.448
453.6
0.4535
3.596
0.225
1
101.9
0.1019
gm-f
3.59 x 10-2
2.205 x 10-3
9.81 x 10-3
1
Kg-f
35.3
2.205
9.81
1000
A
Newtons
B
ozm
lbm
gm
kg
ozm
1
6.25 x 10-2
28.35
2.835 x 10-2
lbm
16
1
453.6
0.453
gm
3.53 x 10-2
2.205 x 10-3
1
0.001
kg
35.274
2.205
1000
1
Temperature
ºF = (1.8x ºC) + 32
ºC = .555 (ºF - 32)
Mechanism Efficiencies
Acme Screw (Bronze Nut) 0.4
Acme Screw (Plastic Nut) 0.5
Ball Screw 0.9
0.001
Helical Gear 0.7
1
Spur Gear 0.6
Timing Belt/Pulley 0.9
Mass
A
Material Densities
Friction Coefficients
(Sliding) μ
Steel on Steel
0.58
Steel on Steel (Greased)
0.15
Aluminum on Steel
0.45
Copper on Steel
0.36
Brass on Steel 0.40
(Acceleration Constant)
Plastic on Steel 0.20
g = 386 in/s2 = 32.2 ft/s2 = 9.8 m/s2
Linear Bearings 0.001
Gravity
Linear Motors and Stages
Servo Drive Solutions
Whether you are looking for a simple servo drive or a fully programmable drive, Baldor
has the answer. Baldor servo drives have been at the heart of automation for over 20 years
and have been used in thousands of applications across the world. Our latest drives build
on the reputation of quality and ease of use and are ideally matched to Baldor’s range
of NextMove motion controllers, rotary servo motors and linear servo motors. Commissioning
and setup use the same acclaimed Mint® WorkBench Windows tool as the NextMove
controllers, reducing the learning curve and improving productivity.
MicroFlex®
Refer to catalog BR1202-D for full information.
Baldor’s MicroFlex is a compact brushless servo drive capable of powering either
rotary or linear motors, and is available in single phase 110-230VAC 50/60Hz or 3
phase 230VAC operation in current ratings of 3, 6 and 9 amps. Feedback is software
programmable, accepting encoder, SSI (Synchronous Serial Interface) or Hall-effect
sensors. Resolver feedback is available as an option. The new MicroFlex e100 offers a
fully digital solution utilizing ETHERNET Powerlink to reduce wiring between the drive and
motion controller (NextMove e100), increasing reliability and improving set-up time.
FlexDrive-II, Flex+Drive®-II and MintDrive®-II
Refer to catalog BR1202-D for full information.
Baldor’s Series-II servo drives offer high performance control of both rotary and linear brushless servo motors.
This fully featured drive family offer different feedback options (resolver, incremental and absolute multi-turn encoders)
and fieldbusses (CANopen, DeviceNet and Profibus-DP). Models are available with single phase 115/230VAC (2.5 to 7.5A)
or universal three phase 180-460 VAC (2.5 to 27.5A) inputs.
The FlexDrive-II is a servo drive for connection to a motion controller or PLC accepting the industry standard ±10V analog
interface. The Flex+Drive-II is a versatile indexing drive. In addition to setting position or speeds within a simple Windows
front end, Flex+Drive-II is programmable in a single tasking version of Baldor’s motion language, Mint®. The MintDrive-II
provides the ultimate solution for single axis applications. Support the acclaimed multitasking version of Mint, MintDrive-II
is ideally suited for following type applications requiring cam profiles, flying shears or positional offsets.
VS1SD Drives
Refer to catalog BR702 for full information.
Baldor’s new series incorporates an easy to use keypad for setup,
auto-tuning and operation. The keypad’s graphical alphanumeric display provides
full parameter names to simplify setup and operation, 14 keys provide tactile feel.
Includes auto-tuning. Optional field installable expansion boards extend capability
to suit application needs Models include internal power supply and are available
in three phase ratings from 180-264 VAC (3 to 130A) and three phase 340-528 VAC
(3 to 124A). Vector, encoderless vector and inverter drives are also available.
Motor Solutions
For over 20 years, Baldor has been manufacturing and supplying high reliability servo motor solutions to
worldwide applications. Baldor’s servo motors are designed for industrial applications, superior durability
and proven reliability. Our range of rotary motors are available as a high performance, low inertia family, or
as a higher inertia family for more cost effective applications. Baldor’s new stainless steel motors lead the
way in solutions for harsh and washdown environments.
With the widest range of linear motors and stages on the market today, Baldor’s linear motors lead
the way and are ideally suited to applications requiring higher speeds or improved accuracy.
BSM Series Servo Motors
Refer to catalog BR1202-E for full information.
BSM motors are hard at work, increasing productivity, improving part quality, providing precision and
reducing costs in many applications. These motors are available in two models, the BSM N-Series and the
BSM C-Series. The N-Series motors provide low inertia for the highest performance. The C-Series motors
have a higher inertia, with a cost effective design. All the motors are available with different feedback
options including resolver, incremental and absolute encoders with continous stall torques from 0.4 Nm (4
lb.-in) through to 134 Nm (1185 lb.-in).
Both motor families are available in a stainless steel configuration, offering the best protection for harsh
environment. These motors are ideally suited for pharmaceutical and food applications.
Motion Control Solutions
With today’s automation applications demanding increasing speed and flexibility to stay ahead, finding a control solution
to meet those demands can be difficult. Baldor has the answer. Utilizing a high performance, state of the art processor
core and coupled with the power, flexibility and ease of use of Baldor’s Mint programming language, the NextMove range
of motion controllers can take on the most demanding of multi-axis applications.
›
A Flexible Solution
Baldor’s motion controllers have been at the heart of automation machines for nearly two
decades. The NextMove motion controller family is synonymous with power, flexibility
and versatility. Operating around the world, NextMove has met the demands of a
rapidly developing automation world, providing increased productivity,
reliability and flexibility.
NextMove controllers are available in a number
of configurations including stand-alone with
RS232/485, USB and Ethernet interfaces and PCIbus. Controllers are available for controlling 1 through
to 16 axes of closely coordinated motion, all programmed
using Baldor's acclaimed Mint programming language
47
Baldor's Motion Solutions Catalogs
BR1202-A Motion Control Solutions
BR1202-B Mint® Software and Applications
BR1202-C NextMove Multi-Axis Motion Controllers
BR1202-D AC Servo Drives
BR1202-E AC Servo Motors
BR1202-F DC Servo Motors and Drives
BR1202-G Linear Motors and Stages
BR1202-H Motion Product Accessories
BR1202-I
Real-Time Ethernet Motion Solutions
World Headquarters (U.S.A.)
Baldor Electric Company
Tel: +1 479 646-4711
Fax: +1 479 648-5792
E-mail: [email protected]
Australia
Tel: +61 2 9674 5455
Fax: +61 2 9674 2495
E-mail: [email protected]
China
Phone: +86-21-64473060
Fax: +86-21-64078620
E-mail: [email protected]
Germany
Tel: +49 89 905 08-0
Fax: +49 89 905 08-490
E-mail: [email protected]
India
Tel: +91 20 25 45 27 17/18
Fax: +91 20 25 45 27 19
E-mail: [email protected]
Mexico
Tel: +52 477 761 2030
Fax: +52 477 761 2010
E-mail: [email protected]
Italy
Tel: +41 91 640 9950
Fax: +41 91 630 2633
E-mail: [email protected]
Singapore
Tel: +65 744 2572
Fax: +65 747 1708
E-mail: [email protected]
Japan
Tel: +81 45-412-4506
Fax: +81 45-412-4507
E-mail: [email protected]
Switzerland
Tel: +41 52 647 4700
Fax: +41 52 659 2394
E-mail: [email protected]
Korea
Tel: +(82-32) 508 3252
Fax: +(82-32) 508 3253
E-mail: [email protected]
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 1454 850000
Fax: +44 1454 859001
E-mail: [email protected]
Copyright © Baldor 2005. All trademarks recognized. Specifications subject to change without notice.
For additional office locations visit
www.baldor.com
Local Distributor:
BR1202-G
10,000 TCP
06/09
U.S.A.
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