IICRC Commercial Carpet Maintenance Technician Course Manual

IICRC Commercial Carpet Maintenance Technician Course Manual
Carpet Maintenance
For the
Commercial Market
Bill Yeadon
Jon Don
400 Medinah Road
Roselle, Illinois 60172
317 201 7670
[email protected]
www.jondon.com
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
Table of Contents
Commercial versus residential_________________________________________ 3
Commercial markets_________________________________________________4
Qualities of a good maintenance technician_______________________________ 8
Timeline History of the Carpet Industry__________________________________9
Carpet Fibers ______________________________________________________10
Fiber ID___________________________________________________________16
Review #1 _________________________________________________________17
Yarn manufacturing__________________________________________________18
Dyeing____________________________________________________________19
Review #2 _________________________________________________________22
Carpet manufacturing ________________________________________________ 23
Carpet Cushion _____________________________________________________26
Installation_________________________________________________________27
Installation concerns _________________________________________________28
Review#3__________________________________________________________30
Soil_______________________________________________________________31
Classes of Soil ______________________________________________________33
Principles of cleaning ________________________________________________34
Review #4 _________________________________________________________40
Methods of cleaning _________________________________________________41
Safety Issues _______________________________________________________51
Review #5 _________________________________________________________53
Chemistry _________________________________________________________54
Required Chemicals__________________________________________________58
Review #6 _________________________________________________________ 60
Spotting for the Professional___________________________________________ 61
Spotting Chemicals__________________________________________________ 62
Spotting tools ______________________________________________________ 65
Spotting Chart _____________________________________________________ 69
Additional Chemicals ________________________________________________70
Review #7 _________________________________________________________73
Maintenance programs_ ______________________________________________74
Inspections________________________________________________________ 75
Maintenance recommendations ________________________________________ 76
Cleaning Procedures_________________________________________________ 77
Review #8_________________________________________________________ 80
IICRC Forms ______________________________________________________ 81
The IICRC reviews course manuals only to verify that each manual covers all of the test questions on the respective
course exam, and that the course manual otherwise meets the criteria in the IICRC Policy and Procedures Manual. The
IICRC does not otherwise review or approve course manuals for content or technical accuracy. The schools are
independent of the IICRC and the responsibility for course manual content and technical accuracy, except as to exam
question coverage, remains the responsibility of the respective schools and not the IICRC.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
2
How does commercial carpet maintenance differ from
residential carpet cleaning?
Commercial
Residential
Market Share
32%
68%
Fibers
Nylon, Olefin, Wool
All fibers
Style
More loop
More cutpile
Construction
Tufted, woven
Tufted
Dye system
Predyed
Post dyed
Backings
Standard, vinyl, unitary
Action Bac
Installation
Glue down
Stretch in
Standard
CRI 104
CRI 105
Maintenance
Interim
HWE
Daily maintenance Custodian
Consumer
Equipment Used Encap, pad, Walk Behind
TM, Portable
Frequency
Scheduled maintenance
Random
Time cleaned
Evenings, weekend
Daytime
Amount cleaned 1,000 – 100,000
Cash flow
30 – 90
300 – 2,000
C.O.D
Cleaning season January – December
March – December
Sales Generated Salesperson
Advertising
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3
Commercial Markets
In our industry when commercial cleaning is mentioned the thought of
apartment complexes and greasy restaurants at midnight comes to mind.
While these two categories can be cleaned profitably they are very difficult
markets. Newer cleaning companies tend to target these two categories
because of their abundance and because they always seem to be in need of
cleaning. Because of the number of cleaners bidding on apartments and
restaurants the price tends to be depressed. This market tends to be poor in
the loyalty category. Price fuels this market.
Remember this saying “what you sell it on, is what you will lose it on.”
What that means is if the customer chooses you on price, when they find a
better price (and there is always a better price) they will drop you. If you sell
on high quality and dependability you will keep the customer long term
unless your quality or dependability slips.
Looking at the comparison between residential and commercial cleaning,
you may wonder why you should pursue the commercial market. Thoughts
of greasy restaurants, slow pay, late nights and fighting with janitorial staffs
aren’t very attractive. Besides with 75% of the market why shouldn’t you
focus your efforts on the residential market? Good question.
Whether you are just starting your business or you are a 20-year industry
veteran you will someday want to sell your business. Businesses do not
generate big sale prices when the package includes old equipment, trucks
and a file cabinet of invoices. The new business owner is looking for a
guaranteed cash flow and that is where commercial business can play a huge
role. Signed maintenance contracts are money in the bank. Developing a
maintenance program will be covered later. Two big questions need to be
answered to effectively sell maintenance programs.
Why should a building owner or facility manager want a maintenance
contract?
Hard surface maintenance is much cheaper, why should you want
carpet?
1. Life cycle costing of the carpet can be drastically improved with a
maintenance program.
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4
2. Maintenance of hard surface in a school with light to medium traffic
can be 31% more costly than carpet over a 22 year period versus
carpet. In a heavy traffic situation this figure jumps up to 53%. In a
50,000 square foot school this results in a $55,000 savings per year in
cleaning expense. Source: Carpet & Rug Institute. http://www.carpetrug.org/studies.cfm
3. Carpet acts as the largest filter in the indoor environment. Proper
maintenance keeps the filter clean and provides a better learning
environment in schools. http://www.carpet-rug.com/studies.cfm
4. Carpet has many aesthetic benefits besides appearance.
a. Sound absorption
b. Insulation
c. Comfort
d. Reduced slip and fall hazard
e. Less fatigue
Markets for commercial cleaning:
Schools
 Advantages
o School not equipped with adequate maintenance equipment
o Janitorial staffs not qualified
o Studies prove benefits of maintained carpet
 Disadvantages
o Budgetary restrictions
o Limited time to clean – Summer & Holiday breaks
Offices
 Advantages
o Need to amortize expense of carpet
o Appearance important
o IAQ issues are important
 Disadvantages
o Downturn in economy effects maintenance budget
o Large buildings may have own staff
Health Care
 Advantages
o Cleanliness is critical to patient care
o Difficulty in replacing carpet means maintenance is needed
 Disadvantages
o May be 24 hour facility
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Retail
 Advantages
o Chain stores provide volume
o Normally first floor, easy access for truck mount
 Disadvantages
o Cheap prices due to consolidators
o Rarely maintenance usually restoration
Commercial Property Managers
 Advantages
o Need quality and flexibility in scheduling
o Normally vacant jobs
 Disadvantages
o Many high rise jobs require more time and different equipment
Funeral Parlors
 Advantages
o Appearance is top of needs
o Additional work is available (drapery and upholstery)
 Disadvantages
o Job may be rescheduled at last minute
Banks
 Advantages
o Appearance is important to banks clients
o Prime customer for maintenance programs – easily sold on lifecycle costing
o Security and dependability more important than price
 Disadvantages
o Security may require portable usage
Apartment Management
 Advantages
o Operationally efficient company with repair and dye skills may
be able to dominate the market and overcome normal pricing
difficulties
 Disadvantages
o Less than operationally efficient company will lose money
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Small manufacturing plants
 Advantages
o Competitors usually ignore these places. Normally there is a
carpeted office that is soiled by plant traffic.
 Disadvantages
o None
Churches
 Advantages
o Require high appearance levels
o Can be cleaned during workdays
o Usually more spots than traffic areas
 Disadvantages
o Usually needs financial board approval
Hospitality
 Advantages
o Hotels need to keep up appearances or business drops
o Full scale hotels have many opportunities
 Rooms
 Restaurants
 Lobbies
 Meeting facilities
o Hotel staff cannot handle large scale cleaning
 Disadvantages
o Scheduling is difficult due to occupancy rates
o Fast drying is critical
o High rise hotels are challenging
o Quantity of rooms can depress pricing
While there are many different commercial markets, specializing in one may
differentiate your company from the competition.
Commercial customers expect the carpet to look good continuously.
Residential customers expect the carpet to look good after the cleaning but
realize that they are responsible for the daily cleaning.
The volume of carpet and the idea of long-term maintenance forces the
commercial maintenance company to base prices on true costs and not as a
one time residential cleaning job. Due to the emphasis on cost control the
technician should be focused on productivity and safety as both affect
profitability. Hiring and training the right person can have a huge effect on
the retention of commercial customers.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Qualities of a good maintenance technician
Too often we confuse the role of a carpet specialist with the person who
empties the trash and cleans restrooms. While in a small company one
person may perform both functions, normally the carpet specialist is from an
outside source as opposed to an in-house staff. Commercial maintenance
requires a different mindset than residential cleaning.
Attitude – Commercial maintenance should always be considered a longterm process. The maintenance is usually done during the evening or on
weekends. If you are cheery in the morning but fade in the evenings this is
not the job for you. If you need constant supervision this is not the job for
you. Even though the building may be empty the use of radios and other
devices such as Walkman CD Players are not acceptable.
Your attitude and suggestions towards the profitability of the company
contributes to your continued employment. These areas can be profit drains:
1. Punctuality –be early. Confirm your schedule and have a
backup plan in case of trouble. Suggest ways to cut costs.
2. Communication – let your supervisor know of any problems
encountered before the client contacts your office. Call
immediately if there is a problem e.g a tripped breaker.
Additional work – let your supervisor know if the client needs
additional work. Do not do any work that you lack training in.
3. Completed paperwork – simplifies billing and future scheduling.
4. Failure to maintain equipment – failure to maintain equipment
can cost more than just a part if it fails on the job.
Appearance – Every Picture Tells a Story- Rod Stewart
1. Grooming – it doesn’t matter that you think purple hair is stylish,
it is what the customer thinks that is important.
2. Uniforms – a uniform projects professionalism and the illusion of
a large company regardless of your company’s size.
3. Clean shoes – if they are leather shine them. If they are tennis or
running shoes, be sure they are a solid color and clean.
4. ID badge – a picture ID reassures the client that they are working
with a trustworthy company.
Language – it is not just the words. Communicate in a positive and
professional manner. Verbal language is composed of three components:
 Body language 55%
 Tone 38%
 Words 7%
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Timeline History of the Carpet Industry in the US
1791 William Sprague starts first carpet mill in Philadelphia
1839 Erastus Bigelow invents power loom
1845 Alexander Smith builds carpet plant in NY
1849 Jacquard mechanism invented
1877 Bigelow creates first broadloom carpet.
1900 Catherine Whitener sells first chenille bedspread
1926 Karastan Rug Mills open
1930 First mechanized tufting machine created in Dalton
1947 Nylon introduced for carpet
1950 97 million yards, 10% tufted, 90% woven
2011 17.62 billion sq. ft. 90% tufted
Carpet retains 60% of the commercial flooring business.
Total fiber useage:
Nylon
55%
Polyester 28%
Olefin
17%
Wool
1%
Source: Carpet & Rug Institute, Dalton, Georgia & FCW
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Carpet Fibers
How a carpet fiber performs in an environment depends on many things: the
carpet construction, the yarn construction, the type of installation, the quality
and frequency of maintenance, the type of cushion used (when applicable)
and the type of fiber used. Each fiber has different characteristics that do not
change. A characteristic that may affect cleaning is how the fiber repels or
attracts various soils and stains.
Fibers are broken into two major categories:
Natural - derived from plants or animals.
 Protein – Wool, Silk – less than 1% commercial
 Cellulosic – Cotton, Jute – only used as backing yarn in woven goods
Synthetic – derived from petrochemicals or renewable sources.





Nylon – still the king with help from carpet tile
Olefin – declining in market share
Polyester – residential only
PTT – slowly entering market
Acrylic – may be blended with wool
Natural and synthetic fibers differ in their ability to absorb moisture.
Natural fibers have a high absorbency rate while synthetics have a low
absorbency factor. This affects how the fibers are dyed and how easily they
are stained. One additional concern is drying time. Natural fibers normally
take longer to dry.
Alkalinity issues
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Wool is obtained from the fleece of sheep.
Characteristics:








Oldest fiber used in carpet and
Naturally resilient due to fiber crimp
Good abrasion resistance
Dyes easily
Cleans well – clean between pH 4.5-8.5 ***
Natural soil resistance, releases soil easily
Natural protective membrane repels moisture
Natural fire resistance
Concerns:







pH above 8.5 can damage outer layer (epidermis)***
Silicones can cause resoiling
Chlorine bleach (sodium hypochlorite) dissolves wool
Stains are very difficult to remove
Bleeding and crocking are more of a concern
Aggressive agitation can damage epidermis
Expensive
Clean with
products tested
as safe for wool
Do not confuse wool Berber with olefin Berber
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Cellulosic – plant based
Cotton - used only in rugs and as a
backing yarn
Characteristics:
 Dyes easily
 Great hand (feels soft)
Concerns:
 Easily browns due to high
cellulosic content
 Shrinkage
 Stains easily
 Poor resilience
Jute – same concerns as cotton
Jute is one of the cheapest natural fibers and is second only to cotton in
amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibers are composed primarily of
the plant materials cellulose (major component of plant fiber) and lignin.
The only place jute is found in commercial woven goods as a backing yarn.
Synthetic fibers comprise over 95% of the fibers used in the
manufacture of carpet.
All synthetic fibers are manufactured the same way – fiber
extrusion. Polymer chips are blended and heated to a liquid form,
then forced or extruded through a piece of equipment known as
a spinneret. Spinnerets contain hundreds of tiny holes, which
determine the cross section of the fiber. The fibers are then cooled
in a cooling tower and become solid filaments. Each hole in
the spinneret produces a filament of fiber. The filaments are
then drawn, crimped and stretched and bulked, resulting in BCF –
bulked continuous filament, which is wound onto cones and
shipped to a yarn facility. The fibers can be cut into 6-8 inch lengths
after the drawing process and baled for shipment to a spinning mill.
This is referred to as staple fiber and staple is produced from the bales.
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Nylon – the most popular fiber used in carpet
Characteristics:
 Great resiliency (ability to spring back after compression)
 Accepts dyes better than other synthetics (mostly acid dyes)
 Cleans well
 Resists abrasion
 Dissolves in formic acid
Concerns:
 Attracted to acid dyes
Generations of nylon – first introduced in 1939 by Dupont
First: round fiber magnified soil
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Second: modified shape to trilobal
Third: added property to reduce or dissipate static charge
Fourth: added fluorochemical to resist soil and stains
Fifth: added acid-dye blockers to repel acid dyes
Does not
pertain to
commercial
.
- +++
_ acid
- +++
dye
blocker
Round Trilobal Antistat
Fluorochemical
Dye sites
Olefin (polypropylene) – popular in inexpensive direct glue installations.
Characteristics:






Must be solution dyed
Most stain resistant
Excellent fade resistance
Least water absorbent
Floats on water due to specific gravity less than water
Cleans well
Olefin glue down installations can be difficult to clean with HWE. Wicking
problems can be minimized with low-moisture systems such as
encapsulation. Dragging furniture can cause friction burns.
Concerns:
 Poor resilience
 Low melting point (watch those hot couplers)
 Attracted to oily soils causing yellowing
Polyester – should not be used in commercial applications.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Characteristics:
 Excellent stain and fade resistance
 Good color clarity
 Cleans well
 Dyed with disperse dyes, not attracted to acid dyes
Concerns:
 Poor resiliency
 Attracted to oily soils
 Poor choice for commercial carpet.
The most common polyester for fiber purposes is polyethylene terephthalate,
or simply PET. This is also the polymer used for many soft drink bottles and
it is becoming increasingly common to recycle them after use by remelting
the PET and extruding it as fiber.
Triexta: Poly Trimethylene Terephthalate
Characteristics:





Resilience and cleanability of nylon
Abrasion resilience equal to nylon
No static problems
Equal to polyester in repelling acid dye stains
SmartStrand exclusive to Mohawk for residential carpet
Acrylic – originally marketed as the synthetic wool because of its similar
characteristics. Frequently blended with wool for cost savings..
Characteristics:
 Always a staple fiber
 Usually solution dyed or stock dyed
Concerns:





Poor abrasion resistance
Poor soil hiding
Poor resilience
Fair cleaning
Shading
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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FIBER ID by Burn Testing
Fiber
Flame
Odor
Ash/Residue
cotton/jute
orange ember
burning paper
ash
rayon
orange
burning paper
no ash or bead
wool
orange/sputters
burning hair
black ash/crumbles
silk
orange
burning hair
black beads/crushes
nylon
blue base/orange tip plastic/celery
round,black bead
olefin/polypropylene blue base/orange tip asphalt
round,gray to brown bead
polyester
orange sputters black sweet/fruity
round, shiny, black bead
acrylic
white/orange/sputters acrid,burnt meat
black crust can be crushed
Use butane lighter to avoid sulfur smell of matches. Use a cup or ashtray.
Chemical tests:
Nylon – formic acid
Wool – sodium Hypochlorite
Olefin – floats on water
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Review #1
Fibers
1. Natural fibers are very ______________ which means they absorb
dye easily, stain easily, and take longer to ________.
2. The most popular synthetic fiber is _______________.
3. Olefin loves _______ and hates _______.
4. Wool and silk are examples of ____________ fibers.
5. Nylon can be dissolved by ________ acid.
6. Wool will not _______ and smells like a wet ____ when wet.
7. The ___________ of a wool fiber can be damaged by _________.
8. ____________ can dissolve a wool or silk fiber.
9. Polyester is not a good choice for a __________ building.
10. Olefin is always _________ dyed but ________ easily.
11. All synthetic fibers are __________ through a ________________.
12. The _____________ fiber is a synthetic substitute for wool.
13. Nylon is attracted to ______ dye stains and should be cleaned with a
pH under ______.
14. When a synthetic fiber is burned it leaves a hard ______ when a
natural fiber is burned it leaves an ____.
15. The two most popular fibers for commercial carpet are _________
and __________.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Yarn manufacturing
BCF yarn requires only two processes – twisting and heat setting.
Staple yarns are popular because they resemble wool a natural fiber. Staple
or spun yarns need additional processing:
 Blending insures that the product is as uniform as possible. This helps
to prevent dye streaking.
 Carding straightens the various fibers and creates a yarn sliver.
 Pin drafting continues to blend the fiber and get the fibers as parallel
as possible before twisting.
 Spinning is the actual formation of the yarn.
 Plying is the process where 2 or more yarns (2 ply)
are twisted together to form the final plied yarn for tufting. The
twisted yarn must be heat-set to maintain the twist and provide a yarn
memory.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Staple fiber due to its short length sheds throughout the life of the carpet but
especially when it is new. You or the end user may notice bunches of fiber
in your vacuum bag. This is not a defect. This is called shedding.
Dyeing – color is the visual effect that is caused by the spectral composition
of light emitted, transmitted or reflected by the object.
Primary colors – red, blue, yellow
Secondary colors are blends of primaries.
Methods of dyeing
Predyed:
 Solution – adding pigment to the polymer before extrusion.
Olefin must be solution dyed while all extruded fibers can be
solution dyed. All extruded fibers may be solution dyed.
 Stock – dyeing of fibers in staple form.
 Yarn – dyed in yarn form before the fabric stage.
Post Dyed:
 Continuous – a process in which the fabric or greige goods pass
through dyeing and subsequent operations without interruption.
 Beck or batch – a process in which separate pieces of fabric are
handled sequentially through dyeing and subsequent processes.
These 2 processes are referred to as piece dyeing and are the most
popular for residential goods.
 Print – application of the dye in a pattern applied through a screen or
rollers. Used frequently in hospitality and restaurants.
Color originates in light. Sunlight, as we perceive it, is colorless. In reality, a
rainbow is testimony to the fact that all the colors (the sun) to the object (the
apple), and finally to the detector (the eye and brain).
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Dye terminology:
 Pigment – an insoluble material used to dye fabrics especially
solution dyes.
 Dyes – substances that add color to textiles.
 Dye sites – area within the fiber that provides sites for chemical
bonding with the dye molecule.
Color Loss Concerns:
 Bleeding – loss of color by the fabric or yarn when contacted by
water, as a result of improper dyeing or the use of poor quality dyes.
High alkaline cleaners can increase the chance of bleeding. High
temperatures will accelerate the reaction. When bleeding is a concern
leave the carpet in an acid pH state.
 Crocking – the rubbing off of a dye from a fabric as a result of
insufficient dye penetration or fixation. Crocking can occur under wet
or dry conditions but requires agitation. A person sitting on a white
chair with new blue jeans may leave a blue tint on the chair.
 Fume fading – a shade change of a fabric caused by a chemical
reaction between dyes and acid gases from fuel combustion,
particularly oxides of nitrogen.
 Bleaching – products such as household bleach (sodium
hypochlorite), benzoyl peroxide, fertilizers.
 Pesticides – loss of color around room perimeters.
 Ozone fading – loss of color usually blue, NO2 causes red loss.
 Lighter color – if the color of the stain is lighter than the carpet, it is
a loss of color and will need to be redyed or resectioned.
Various Color Problems:
 Metamerism – variation of color under differing light sources. e.g.
sunlight versus fluorescent or incandescent. May look like spots.
 Pile Reversal – can be caused by traffic, shading, watermarking,
pooling or the installer turned the carpet 180° at the seam.
 Shading – an apparent change in color when the pile is bent and the
light reflects differently off the bent fibers.
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 Watermarking – an irreversible, localized
change in the orientation of the carpet.
Considered a characteristic not a defect.
 Wear – a loss of 10% face pile in the traffic
areas as opposed to the non trafficked areas.
 Side match – dye lots were not installed
sequentially.
 Soil shading – abrasion of plastic like fibers causing a difference in
the way the light reflects.
 pH indicator dye stains – imbalance of pH has caused a color
change. Adjusting the pH can restore the color.
 Dye lot variance – each dye lot may have a slight color difference
which may be noticeable at seams.
 Sun exposure – the UV in sunlight may cause a loss of color.
Backing – once the yarns have been spun it is time to turn them into a carpet
or rug. The yarns in a tufting machine are inserted into a primary backing.
At this stage the fabric is referred to as greige goods or an unfinished
(undyed) material. The greige goods are dyed and receive an application of
latex before being married to a secondary backing. The carpet is dried and
sheared if needed and it is ready to be shipped.
 Primary made from polypropylene or jute.
 Secondary made from polypropylene or jute.
 Applying the secondary strengthens the carpet and provides
dimensional stability (ability of a carpet to maintain its
shape).
 Synthetic backed carpets cannot shrink. Only woven carpets
with cellulosic yarns or jute backed tufted carpets can shrink.
 Structured backing may be used on carpet modules or six-foot
carpet. This is usually a hard backing such as vinyl.
 Unitary is a single backing with a rubber or resin laminated to the
bottom side. This backing does not have a secondary.
 Woven carpet has interwoven yarns (warp & weft) interlocked with a
face yarn. This is all held together with a light latex coating.
 Urethane has an organic compound that is applied in the finishing
process providing an additional cushion.

Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Review #2
Yarns & Dyeing
1. Synthetic fibers are created through a process called ____________.
2. Synthetic fibers can be either ___________ or cut into __________.
3. Loose ________ fiber is normal in a cut pile and called __________.
4. Olefin can be damaged by __________ couplers and ___________.
5. Olefin is attracted to __________ soils, this is referred to as being
______________.
6. Bulked continuous filaments are referred to as _ _ _.
7. When 2 or more yarns are twisted together they have been________.
8. A carpet that is dyed in a pattern is called a __________ carpet.
9. A carpet that has not been dyed is called ___________ goods.
10. Olefin fibers must be ____________ dyed.
11. Wool cannot be ________ dyed.
12. A pigment is _____________, a dye is ___________.
13. Optical brighteners can cause permanent _________ and void carpet
____________.
14. Pooling, watermarking, and ___________ are ___________ and are
not considered __________ by the carpet manufacturers.
15. Bleeding requires ___________ crocking requires ____________.
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Carpet Manufacturing
Weaving – method of interlacing two yarns of similar material so they cross
each other at right angles to produce woven fabric. Weaving is done on a
loom and is much slower than tufting, which makes it more expensive.
Woven carpet is distinguished by intricate patterns and is frequently
comprised of wool. Two sets of yarn are used; the warp or lengthwise and
the weft or filling yarn which is the crosswise yarn.
4 components of a woven carpet




Pile
Warp
Weft
Backcoat
Tufting – is the most popular form of manufacturing. Tufting machines
resemble a multi needle sewing machine that insert the pile yarns through a
primary backing and holds it in place as the needle is withdrawn.
Needle punching – the process of converting
webs of loose fibers into a nonwoven fabric.
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Fusion bonding– a thermoplastic process in which yarns are implanted in a
liquid vinyl compound in a sandwich configuration between two backing
materials. A knife splits the sandwich to create two cut pile carpets.
Carpet Styles:
Level loop– loops of the same pile height
Multi level loop- various pile height
Berber– fat loop with colored flecks originally wool but
now mostly olefin. Residential only.
Velvet/plush – pile yarns are only slightly twisted and very
dense and evenly sheared. Residential only.
Frieze– a very durable cut pile heat set carpet with a
kinked or curled yarn effect. Residential only.
Saxony– cut pile carpet, highly twisted, evenly sheared
medium length pile height. Most popular residential style.
Shag– loosely tufted carpet with long yarns with wide spacing.
Shag has overcome the bad press of the late 60’s when it was
made primarily of single polyester yarns. The yarns tended to
crush together creating a very ugly carpet. Today’s shags are made
primarily of a more resilient nylon. Most styles have a thick cable
yarn and a single accent yarn. Modern shags are stylish but very
difficult to vacuum and clean. Residential only.
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Carpet Tile/Modules is the fastest growing segment of the carpet
industry. It is the most durable of any carpet product. Easy to
install and easy to replace a damaged tile makes it popular. The
one caution is that the tiles tend to wick back spots easily. For this
reason interim maintenance methods such as encapsulation work
well.
Carpet Finishing
Once the carpet has been dyed it is ready to go through the coating process.
Latex is applied to the primary backing as well as the secondary backing.
The carpet is attached to the secondary via a marriage roller. The carpet then
goes through a dryer so the latex can cure.
The shearing process involves the removal of loose or projecting fibers and
surface lint from the face of the carpet.
The final step in the finishing process is the inspection. Before the carpet is
wrapped and sent to the distribution facility it is checked for any visible
manufacturing defects.
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Carpet cushion/pad
Proper cushion provides several benefits:






Extends the life of the carpet by preventing matting and crushing.
Improves the acoustical properties.
Provides better thermal insulation.
Vacuuming is easier.
Safety is enhanced.
Carpet feels more luxurious.
While the benefits listed above are valid, cushion is not installed as
frequently in commercial properties. Due to greater traffic counts many
carpets are glued directly to the floor which is referred to as direct gluedown.
Carpet cushion should be selected according to the carpet manufacturer’s
requirements for thickness and density. Cushion for commercial installations
should not exceed 3/8 inch. Cushion should be specified according to traffic
requirements. There is nothing worse than installing the wrong cushion in a
commercial building. Crushing, matting, wrinkling, buckling and separation
of the carpet backing or seams can develop causing permanent damage to a
carpet.
Certain styles of carpet may also have an attached cushion which is installed
as a direct-glue down. This style combines the ease of installation with the
benefit of a durable cushion.
Other styles may include carpet modules that includes an adhesive or
“tackifier” that is applied to the backing and is covered by a removable
plastic. During installation the plastic is removed and pressed to the floor.
With this type of installation the carpet can be easily peeled up without any
damage to the carpet or subfloor. These systems also eliminate odors.
For best carpet performance a chair protective
pad should be used under rolling chairs.
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Installation – Having a good knowledge of proper installation
techniques prevents paying unjustified claims.
Commercial Carpet
Standard for Installation Specification of Commercial Carpet, CRI 104 is
the definitive industry minimum commercial installation standard.
Residential Carpet
Standard for Installation of Residential Carpet, CRI 105 is a definitive
industry minimum residential installation standard.
These standards are available free of charge and may be downloaded at
www.carpet-rug.org
Installation methods
 Stretch in – Provides enhanced underfoot comfort,
acoustical properties (i.e., higher noise reduction
coefficients and higher impact noise ratings) when
installed with separate cushion.
 Direct-Glue – carpet is glued directly to the floor.
 Double Glue-down Installation - Combines the stability
of direct glue carpet with the cushioning benefits of a separate
cushion, stretch-in installation. Improper floor
prep or poor adhesive can cause failure.
Installation Tools
Power Stretcher– required for all stretch in over pad.
Knee Kicker– a positioning tool
Seam sealer – required on all cut seams
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Installation concerns
 Carpet rippling – caused by failure to power stretch the carpet. Alert
the consumer that the carpet should settle to precleaning levels once
the humidity has stabilized. This may be delamination.
 Commercial Carpet bubbles – improper use of solvents, improper
adhesive or inadequate amount of adhesive can cause bubbles.
 Seam separation – may be lack of seam sealer.
 Sprouting tufts – should be trimmed with napping shears.
 Pulled rows – can be repaired. Attend IICRC Repair class.
 Dye loss – recolor or resection.
 Delamination – separation of primary backing and face fiber from
secondary backing. Some causes of delamination are:
 Improper specification
 Improper latex formulation
 Improper use of solvents
 Wrong cushion
Strategies for Improving the Indoor Air Quality
1. Keep walkway and entries clean to eliminate tracking and debris.
2. Use mats to trap soil at entries to protect carpets and reduce the quantity
of particles that eventually becoming airborne.
3. Clean shoes at entries to reduce fine particles such as lead.
4. Use quality vacuum equipment. Check the Carpet and Rug Institute’s list
of vacuums that passed the Green Label Program at: www.carpet-rug.org.
5. Use high-efficiency vacuum filter bags. Small particles can pass through
inexpensive paper filter bags.
6. Vacuum frequently before soils become embedded in the carpet.
7. Use quality reusable electrostatic filters for HVAC systems. Remove and
flush them free of collected soils monthly.
8. Have the carpet cleaned professionally. To find a certified technician,
check with the IICRC at (800) 835-4624 or www.iicrc.org.
9. Clean upholstery, drapery, and other fabric surfaces.
10. Control moisture and humidity to keep down dust mites and mold.
Source: Institute of Inspection Cleaning and Restoration Certification
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Common factors that Affect Indoor Air Quality
People (exhalation, body odors, and diseases)
Activities (work such as cleaning, using correction fluids, carbonless paper,
pest control products, and personal activities such as wear fragrances and
smoking)
Technology (photocopiers and laser printers)
Furnishings (furniture, draperies, floor coverings)
Finishes (paint, varnish, vinyl wall coverings)
Building materials (caulking compounds, adhesives, wood laminates)
Outdoor air quality
Inadequate or contaminated air handling units
Inadequate cleaning practices Source: Carpet & Rug Institute
Don’t forget to offer your customers a green cleaning alternative. According
to a recent Harris Research survey nearly 60% of consumers would be
extremely likely, very likely, or likely to purchase cleaning products that are
specifically designed to be environmentally friendly.
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Review #3 Manufacturing& Styles
1. Woven carpet is made on a ________ and the yarns consist of a
________yarn a ___________ yarn and a __________ yarn.
2. A tufted carpet consists of a face _______stitched in to a___________
backing with latex bonding it to a _________ backing.
3. Most tufted carpet has a __________ backing but some woven carpet has
cotton or _______ yarns which can __________.
4. The number of tufting needles across the width of the tufting machine is
referred to as the ____________.
5. Glue down level loop carpet can be difficult to clean because of the
cleaning wand _________ and excess moisture and soil ___________.
6. An inexpensive cushion will cause the carpet to _________.
7. A few styles of commercial carpet have an ___________ cushion.
8. All stretched in carpet must be installed using a ______ stretcher.
9. The CRI Standard for installation of commercial carpet is called CRI____.
10. Tufted carpet must have enough__________ to hold the yarns in and can
be damaged by excessive use of ___________.
11. The separation of primary and secondary backing is called__________.
12. Seam sealer prevents the seams from ________________.
13. A stretch in carpet that ripples normally settles when _______.
14. Be careful with solvents on a _______ ________ carpet.
15. Download CRI installation standards from www.__________.
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1 micrometer is a unit of measurement =1/1,000,000 of a
meter
Most soil falls in the
2-4 microns size
Definition of Cleaning – IICRC S100-02
Cleaning is the traditional activity of removing contaminants, pollutants and
undesired substances from an environment or surface to reduce damage or
harm to human health or valuable materials. Cleaning is the process of
locating, identifying, containing, removing and properly disposing of
unwanted substances from an environment or material.
Soil is any unwanted matter on the surface of any
object that one desires to be clean. Cleanliness is
an unnatural condition, because all surfaces are
constantly being soiled. In order to clean a surface, it
is therefore necessary to work against nature and special care must be taken
to ensure that all soil is removed and not redeposited on the surface.
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Most soil is acidic in nature consisting of foods, soft drinks, bodily fluids,
acid rain and other materials. The majority of soil is brought in from the
outside by foot traffic. Materials such as sand and grit quickly work their
way to the bottom of the pile where they can become trapped by compacted
yarns. The majority of this tracked in soil accumulates at the entry points in
the home. Fine particles (0.1 microns) have a significant effect on visible
soiling. These particles, although by weight are minimal, actually are
responsible for the soiled look of the carpet. Large particles fall to the
bottom while fine particles may be trapped in the abrasions and
imperfections of the fibers.
 Real soil – actual amount of soil in the carpet that can be weighed and
measured.
 Visual soil – soil that changes the color and luster of the top third of
the carpet.
 Apparent soil –soil that cannot be removed due to shading and
abrasion. This is referred to as graying of the traffic lanes. This should
be explained to the customer beforehand.
Shading, pooling, watermarking, pile distortion as well as wear and abrasion
can make traffic lanes look darker even after proper cleaning.
New Fiber
Soiled Fiber
Clean but abraded
Crushing
 Usually occurs in heavy-traffic areas and sometimes referred to as
matting, magnified by sticky residue in the face yarn.
 In commercial office settings, carpet should be protected from
rolling chairs with chair mats. Cubicle spaces should be considered
as heavy-traffic areas.
 Be sure to remove and store the desk mats while carpet is drying.
Do not lean them against the desk.
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Classes of soils
Average adult sheds 300, 000
skin cells per day in addition to
300 hairs.
Insoluble –
sand, clay, quartz,
45%
animal fibers, skin
12%
cellulose, paper, grass
12%
gypsum, apatite
5%
limestone, dolomite
5%
79%
Water Soluble resins, gums, starches
10%
Dry solvent soluble fats, oils, rubber, tars
6%
moisture
3%
unknown
2%
100%
* Study performed by Hoover Vacuum Company 1953
Carpet filters soils, pollutants, gases, and animal dander. Like any filter it
needs to be cleaned.
Nearly 80% of the soil is insoluble which means that it does not dissolve in
water or solvents. The best and most thorough way to remove insoluble soil
is through vacuuming.
General odor from soil:
 Odor in commercial buildings can be traced to soiled, warm, 6886°dark, moist environments, with low air circulation where
biopollutants are most likely to grow and multiply.
 Malodors generally indicate a contamination problem that
generates complaints such as: Sick Building Syndrome. Including
complaints of odor, and eye and throat irritation.
 Keep the building CLEAN & DRY.
 “New Carpet odor, 4PC, has no known toxic effect on humans.” It
is primarily VOC emissions from the adhesives.
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Principles of Cleaning
The objective of carpet cleaning is soil removal. Cleaning can be
accomplished by several methods, but regardless of the method chosen, five
principles must be followed to achieve the best results.
Dry soil removal – use of a CRI Green Label vacuum with a high efficiency
filter is recommended.
HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) is
a filtering
efficiency specification for filters
developed by the
Atomic Energy Commission during World
War II to
effectively remove radioactive dust from
plant exhausts
without redistribution. A HEPA filter must
retain all
particles as small as 0.3 µm in size with an
efficiency rating
of 99.97%. The phrases "as small as" or
"at" mean that if
all particles were that small, it would still have that efficiency. This should
not be confused with the phrase "down to" which may mean a mixture of
particle sizes for the stated efficiency. Particles smaller than 7 µm are not
contained in low-efficiency bags and may become airborne.
Phases of vacuuming:
Prior to vacuuming if the carpet is matted or tangled in entries, pivot or hightraffic areas a brush or groomer should be used to separate the yarns. This
will improve the airflow and allow the vacuum to remove more soil.
 Overall – Plug into centrally located outlet and work away, moving
into open areas of carpet.
 Entries – Vacuum with at least 6 SLOW passes (15-25 feet into the
building). The push pass is the positioning pass and the pull is the soil
removal pass. Slow down on the pull pass.
 Edges – canister or back-pack vacuum to remove accumulation
 Removing soil when it is dry is a lot easier than removing mud.
 Empty the bag when it is 1/2 -2/3 full.
A truck mounted cleaning unit is not designed to remove dry soil regardless
of the power of the vacuum system. Most manufacturers do not recommend
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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the use of their systems for dry soil removal due to possible damage to the
blower. The most effective tool will always be the vacuum cleaner.
The importance of vacuuming with a high-filtration bag
Respirable particles
Particle Settling Rates 8 ft. ceiling
<1µm
Permanently suspended
1µm
8 1/2 hours
5µm
20 minutes
10µm
5 minutes
15µm
2 ¼ minutes
30µm
34 seconds
50µm
12 seconds
100µm
3 seconds
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This is what happens when you replace carpet with hard surface!
Soil Suspension
Soils that were not removed during the dry soil removal step are suspended
from the fiber during this step. This is accomplished through four
fundamentals known as the cleaning pie.
Time
Chemical
T
A
C
T
Agitation
Temperature
Time – soil that has accumulated over months or years cannot be suspended
in a manner of seconds. The preconditioner must dwell for a period of time
to be most effective. The longer the better, but it should not be allowed to
dry. On non-colorfast carpet the dwell time should be limited.
Agitation – provides uniform distribution of the preconditioner or detergent.
This may be accomplished manually with hand brushing or with mechanical
agitation, as long as adequate detergent lubrication is provided. The agitation
helps to lift matted fibers.
Chemical – Detergents, builders and or selected solvents must be used to
suspend, emulsify or saponify the various soils. Detergents used on stainresistant carpet must be anionic or nonionic with a pH not to exceed 10.
Detergents used on wool must be within a pH near neutral and should be
designed specifically for wool.
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Temperature – Increasing temperature reduces the surface tension of water,
while it accelerates most chemical reactions, thereby causing cleaning agents
to function more efficiently. Higher heat may reduce the quantity of cleaning
agent required, which may result in fewer residues.
When one part of the pie is decreased one or more of the others must be
increased.
T
less heat
T
A
C
T
A
more
agitation
C
In methods such as absorbent compound or
encapsulation heat is missing from the fundamentals. In
this case agitation has been increased by the brushing
action.
Soil Extraction
Once soils have been suspended they must be physically removed from the
carpet. Various cleaning methods accomplish extraction include absorption,
wet vacuuming, rinsing or vacuuming of dry detergent residues and
suspended soils.
Increased temperature during extraction improves cleaning agent efficiency.
Temperature during extraction should be limited to 140 F at the carpet on cut
pile wool, on noncolorfast carpet, and on velvet plush pile designs that might
be subject to distortion when extreme heat 160 F plus is combined with
high-pressure injection (over 300 psi).
Cleaning processes seek, as a minimum, to sanitize (clean to a generally
healthful state) those environments, insofar as possible.
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Substances extracted from carpets by any method must be disposed of in
accordance with all local, state and federal regulations.
Grooming
Grooming is recommended for appearance (removal of
wand marks), for uniform distribution of carpet protectors
and for proper drying.
Drying
The level of soiling, method of cleaning, humidity and airflow affect drying.
The goal of every technician should be to have the carpet dry in 6-8 hours,
but in a worst-case scenario in 24 hours.* The technician is responsible for
any overwetting problems. * IICRC S100
Carpets that exceed proper drying time could result in
slip and fall hazards, odors, and rapid resoiling.
Technicians should post warning signs where slip and
fall potential exists and alert customers.
Airflow is necessary to achieve drying. The
technician should provide air movers combined with
ventilation throughout the cleaning and drying
process. Wicking is the upward flow of moisture on
a surface and is improved by airflow.
Soils not removed during cleaning may wick to the
yarn tips during drying and create dark areas or streaks.
Is your equipment working as efficiently as you are?
Check out these items regularly:
 Vacuum hoses and hose cuffs
 T-jets
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





Vacuum blower or fan vacuums
Belts on blower
Dump valve
Lips of the wand
Filter bag
Are your pads or brushes in good shape
Finally, are you making a sufficient amount of drying passes?
The technician is responsible for the equipment as well as the technique.
That means if there is an overwetting problem the technician is the culprit.
The customer normally has one big question when they call for cleaning.
How long will it take to dry?
The next chapter discusses the various methods. As a trained, conscientious
technician you realize that each carpet is different due to fiber, construction,
installation, and soiling patterns. Analyze the carpet and the needs of the
occupants to select the ideal method for that carpet.
But first let’s review soiling and principles of cleaning.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Review #4
Soiling & Principles
1. Soil is normally _________ on the pH scale.
2. The highest percentage of soil is ____________.
3. The best way to remove dry soil is by ______________.
4. Soil shading is caused by _________ of plastic fibers.
5. The principle of ____ _______ _________ is frequently skipped.
6. The cleaning pie consists of T______ A_________ C_________
T___________.
7. The second principle is ________ suspension.
8. Extraction can include ____________.
9. Water soluble soils cannot be removed by ____________.
10. Hair, sand and skin are considered _______________.
11. Empty a vacuum bag when it is ____ to _____ full.
12. A micron or micrometer is 1 _____________ of a meter.
13. Fast drying prevents ________ and _______ hazards.
14. A carpet should be groomed to remove _______ ______ and help the
protector be _____________ evenly.
15. The _____________ is responsible for___ __________. Some of this
may be caused by lack of ___________ maintenance.
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Methods of Cleaning
As previously discussed, each method needs to adhere to the five principles
of cleaning to achieve maximum cleaning. All methods of cleaning use
detergents. The difference is in the carrier used (water, foam, compound) to
deliver the detergent. All methods can improve the effectiveness and
contribute to the effective removal of biocontaminants by increasing the
temperature of the chemical.
The first step in all methods is thorough dry soil removal using a vacuum
with a high efficiency filtration system. Rotating brush action is the most
aggressive method for agitating commercial carpet during vacuuming.
A pile lifter helps remove imbedded soils and groom the pile.
Backpack
Upright
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Absorbent/Adsorbent Compound
This method may incorporate the use of an organic or synthetic carrier that
contains detergents, solvents and a bit of moisture. The compound may or
may not be preceded by a preconditioner. The compound can be spread by
hand or a specially designed machine. Brushing is used to spread and agitate
the compound that absorbs/adsorbs the suspended soil and is then removed
by dry vacuuming.
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Dry Foam
Dense foam is produced by a dry foam machine through mechanical aeration
of a liquid detergent. A preconditioner may or may not be used prior to
application of the foam detergent. The foam is distributed and agitated via
mechanical brush action. Suspended soil and the foam are extracted by the
same machine or with a wet vacuum.
Figure 1 Dry Foam Machine
Figure 2 Rotating Brushes & Extraction
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Absorbent Pad (Bonnet /Oscillating Pad)
A preconditioner may or may not be used prior to cleaning. Detergent in
either a dry-solvent based or a carbonated or non-carbonated water-based
carrier is sprayed onto the pad and the carpet. The pads may be round or
square towels made of cotton, rayon, synthetics or a combination of fibers.
In place of spraying the pad they may be dipped into a bucket of cleaning
solution. During the agitation (spin buffing/oscillating) phase of soil
suspension, the bonnet (pad) attracts or absorbs suspended soils. Technicians
must monitor the rate of soil attraction to the pad and turn it over or replace
it as soil accumulates. When both sides of the pad are soil saturated, it must
be exchanged before continuing in order to assure maximum soil removal.
Different pads for
different situations
Shower fed or
spray with T-jet
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Shampoo
A preconditioner may or may not be used prior to shampooing. A highfoaming detergent is applied to the carpet nap through a shower or channelfeed, nylon bristled brush rotating at a speed recommended by the
equipment manufacturer that is safe for the carpet being cleaned. The
agitation of the brush creates the foam that suspends the soil. Depending on
the detergent used, either a wet vacuum extracts the suspended soils and
detergents or upon drying the suspended soils and detergents are dry
vacuumed. Brushes not properly lubricated with shampoo can cause textural
damage to the carpet.
A brush or floor pad may be
used depending on the carpet.
Use caution on cut pile carpet.
For extreme soiling a rotary
brush followed by Hot Water
Extraction is unbeatable.
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Encapsulation
The cleaning agent is brushed into the carpet using a cylindrical or rotary
brush machine. The encapsulation chemistry surrounds each soil particle and
crystallizes it so it can’t attract other soil. The encapsulated particles release
from the fiber and are removed through dry vacuuming. Encapsulation
works well to prevent spills from wicking following cleaning.
Encapsulation is ideally suited for commercial maintenance especially in
office, church, schools and other areas where high productivity, lower costs,
and fast dry time is critical.
Crystallized soil
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Hot Water Extraction (HWE)
A preconditioner is normally applied through a pump sprayer, in-line sprayer
or by using a rotary shampoo machine. The suspended soil along with the
preconditioner is flushed from the carpet with a HWE machine. Heavily
soiled carpets may need several flushing passes and followed up with several
overlapping extraction only passes.
Complete drying should be accomplished in 6-8 hours, but not to exceed 24
hours. Additional extraction passes; air movers and good ventilation will
expedite drying. Over wetting or prolonged drying are normally due to
operator error.
All extracted solutions must be disposed of according to local rules and
regulations. Wastewater should be disposed of into a sewer line leading to a
wastewater treatment station.
All methods should be followed by pile setting or grooming as necessary.
Nap setting must be accomplished for uniform distribution of all post
cleaning treatments.
Understanding the components of an extractor is important to the end result.
HWE can be broken into two main categories:
 Portables
box and wand
walk behind
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 Truck mounts
o van powered or direct drive
o slide in units (separate engine)
o electric
The major difference between the portables and truckmounts is productivity.
A few portables have direct water and waste hookups most truckmounts can
clean higher volumes of carpet due to greater heat, pressure and vacuum.
Vacuum is measured in two ways:
 Lift measured by inches of mercury (Hg) or water (H20) lift.
 Airflow CFM – cubic feet per minute.
Water pressure is measure in pounds per square inch “p.s.i.”
HWE cleaning strokes:
Single pass – apply solution on forward stroke and vacuum on
backstroke.
Double pass – apply solution on forward and backstroke shutting off
solution momentarily at end of stroke. Be sure to give additional
vacuum.
Chop stroke – apply solution in short continuous strokes. Be sure to
provide adequate vacuum passes when through. Use in heavily soiled
areas. Use caution on velvet styles and wool carpet.
Wastewater should be disposed in a manner consistent with local, state, and
federal laws. This usually means a sanitary sewer system.
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Tools for HWE:
The choice of tools has expanded over the last decade. Tools come in all
shapes and sizes from the original cleaning wand to several types of power
heads. A technician would be wise to try different tools to see which is
preferable before purchasing the tool.
Don’t forget to change those tee jets regularly.
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Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Safety Issues: It is the job of every tech to promote safety.
Truck mounts that are powered by the truck engine should always be parked so
that the exhaust faces away from the home. Fumes are easily drawn into the
structure.
1. Truck mounts that use propane heaters should have the propane tanks
mounted on the outside of the van. Be sure the valves have been shut off
before driving.
2. Replace any solution hoses that are worn to prevent a line rupture.
3. Replace any electrical plugs that are missing the ground plug.
4. Make sure all equipment including wands has been secured in the van
before driving. Be sure the back doors are closed before driving.
5. Have a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for every product on the truck
including any household type chemicals. These sheets need to be in a folder
accessible by the driver with his seatbelt fastened.
6. Every spray bottle and container must be labeled.
7. Carry and use goggles, gloves and respirators as necessary.
8. Use the proper gauge electrical cords with grounded wall outlets..
10. Drive safely and cautiously.
11. When mixing chemicals wear PPE and mix them in your facility or in
your van. Use a measuring cup.
12. Purchase chemicals from a reputable source and mix chemicals by label
directions.
13. Never leave samples of chemicals in unlabeled bottles.
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OSHA Laws Applicable to Cleaning
 Hazard Communication (HAZCOM) Law
 CFR 1910.1200 “Right to Know”
 Mandatory Sign – “Job Safety & Health” protection
MUST be posted
 First aid kit available in workplace & van
 1910.134 Respiratory Protection
 1910.1030 Blood borne Pathogens
 1910.132 Personal Protective Equipment
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Review #5
Methods
1. Regardless of the method chosen the ____________ must be followed.
2. The oldest method is ________________ ____________.
3. A very popular method for commercial maintenance is _____________
__________.
4. ______ _______ ______________ has the most chances of overwetting.
5. Systems using a granular detergent are called_________ ______.
6. A system using a foaming surfactant using a cylindrical brush is called
________ ________.
7. The method favored by many carpet manufacturers is __ __ __.
8. When using an absorbent pad the pad should be changed when it stops
___________ soil.
9. Systems using rotary action may cause ______ distortion.
10. Propane tanks should be mounted on the _______ of the van.
11. All trucks must carry _________, and a fire extinguisher.
12. Replace any plugs that are cut or missing the ___________.
13. Replace any solution hoses that are _________.
14. Park your van so that _________ faces away from the building.
15. Wicking is minimized in a commercial building with multiple spills when
using an ____________________ system.
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Chemistry
Many of us recoil in horror when we hear the word chemistry. It reminds us
of that horrible class we took in high school. We were expected to memorize
terms such as electrons, protons, valence and that terrible periodic table.
The difference between your high school chemistry class and learning
cleaning chemistry is tremendous. Back then chemistry was a subject you
felt you would never use. Today understanding a bit of detergent chemistry
can not only make our jobs easier but also increase our profitability. But just
like in school we need to learn some of the terms to really understand
cleaning chemistry
10,000,000
1,000,000
100,000
10,000
Acid
Alkaline
1,000
Neutral
100
10
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
.
pH - the relative acidity or alkalinity of a water-based solution. The pH chart
ranges from 0-14. Acids are below 7, neutral is 7, and everything above 7 is
alkaline. Each number as it moves from 7 in either direction increases by 10
times the previous number.
In addition to pH the strength of a cleaning solution is determined by the
concentration. This measures the amount of material in the solution. For
example 7% acetic acid means of the total weight 7% is acetic acid.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Seeking balance: pH
8
Blood
7.4
9
10
Sodium
Toothpaste
bicarbonate
neutral
0
HCL
Battery acid
alkaline
11
Milk of
Magnesia
12
13
Ammonia Bleach
14
Lye
Distilled
Water
1
2
3
4
5
6
Gastric
juices
Lemon juice
cola
Tomato
Juice
Coffee
milk
acid
Compound – a substance that contains two or more elements that have been
bonded together by a chemical reaction. Soap is a compound.
Mixture - a substance containing two or more different elements mixed
together, that can be separated easily but is not subject to a chemical
reaction. Dirt in your vacuum cleaner bag is a mixture.
Solubility/solvent/– a solid that dissolves in a liquid is called a solute and is
said to be soluble. The liquid that dissolves the solid is called a solvent and
the resulting mixture is called a solution. For example, sodium chloride (salt)
is soluble. It dissolves readily in water forming a colorless solution. Sand, on
the other hand, is insoluble; it does not dissolve in water or solvent.
Suspension - most insoluble solids settle to the bottom of a liquid, but some
split into tiny particles that spread throughout the liquid. This type of
mixture is called a suspension. Milk is a suspension of fat particles in water.
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Emulsifier– process of dispersing one liquid into another liquid with which
it is immiscible (do not mix such as oil and water). Emulsifiers are
important in cases where oily or fatty soils are encountered. The main
ingredient in emulsification is the surfactant, with a little help from the
builders.
Surfactant– (surface-active agent) chemical that when added to a liquid,
changes the properties of that liquid at the surface. It allows penetration into
the material being cleaned. It makes the water wetter. Surfactants are
classified as anionic (negative), nonionic (no charge), cationic (positive).
Anionics and nonionics are good cleaners. Biocides, antistats, bactericides
and disinfectants normally have cationic surfactants.
Builders– are materials that enhance or maintain the cleaning efficiency
of the surfactant by tying up the hard water minerals. It also supplies
additional alkalinity for neutralization of acid soils, aids in keeping soil from
redepositing on the carpet and emulsifies oily and greasy soils.
Saponification – The process of converting fat into soap by treating it with
an alkali. It comes in handy in greasy restaurants.
Hydrophilic – water loving, Hydrophobic – water hating, these are
opposite ends of the detergent molecule.
Water is used in most of our cleaning products. Water is attracted to other
water molecules and surrounds itself with these molecules. At the surface
these molecules are surrounded only on the water side. A tension is created
as the water molecules are pulled into the body of the water. This creates a
surface similar to the skin on a drum.
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During cleaning, this surface tension must be reduced so water can penetrate
the carpet. Chemicals that do this are called surfactants because they lower
or break the surface tension and allow the cleaning solution to penetrate and
begin cleaning.
Soaps have been around since ancient times. Soaps are made from fats and
oils, or their fatty acids, by treating them with a strong alkali. The pioneers
made soap by boiling animal fats with lye. Many rug-cleaning products were
made with coconut oils because of their good foaming qualities.
Unfortunately these shampoos also left a sticky residue behind which caused
rapid resoiling. Soaps did not work well in hard water and formed a curd
similar to the ring that develops in the bathtub.
Today we use synthetic detergents. Petrochemicals have replaced animal fats
in detergents. These products do not break down in hard water like the soaps
and do not leave a soil-attracting residue.
A properly formulated detergent has several ingredients:
Surfactants- helps to penetrate, lower the surface tension and wet out the
fabric. Anionic (-) cationic (+) nonionic (o)
Builders- help to provide alkalinity and soften the water and prevent
redeposition of the soil once it has been suspended. Soft water uses less
detergent.
Solvents – designed to emulsify oils.
Deodorizer– because if it smells clean it is clean
Soap and detergent molecules do have one thing in common. One end of the
molecule hates water (hydrophobic) and one end likes water (hydrophilic).
Think of a detergent molecule as resembling a tootsie roll pop. The head
(the tasty part) is the water loving part and the tail or stick is the water hating
part. If it is water hating that means it will go to anything that isn’t water
such as oils in the soil. The stick/tail attaches to the oily soil while the head
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is attracted to the water of the cleaning solution. Eventually the head pulls
into the water and the tail pulls the dirt off the fiber into solution. This is
normally happening during the preconditioning or soil suspension step.
Agitation during this step speeds up the process and a hot solution will help
to dissolve grease and oil on the carpet.
Chemicals required for cleaning:
1. Preconditioners – the workhorse of cleaning. Because most soil is acid
most preconditioners and detergents are alkaline. Soil suspension is
accomplished primarily with this step. These products can fall into several
categories.
 General - can be safely used on all synthetic fibers as long as
the product has a pH under 10 and is not cationic.
 Heavy duty – used on restaurants and greasy food facilities.
Normally the pH is 10-12 and may include enzymes.
 Neutral to acidic – mild products used on wool or any noncolorfast carpet.
2. Rinse detergents – added into cleaning solution. Some carpet
manufacturers may not approve of detergents in the tank.
 Alkaline – used on any synthetic including stain resistant carpet as
long as the product has a pH under 10 and is not cationic.
o Used when carpet is more than moderately soiled.
o Can be used on wool if pH is 8.5 or below.
o Can accelerate browning on cellulosic materials.
o Most preconditioners are alkaline due to acidic soil.
 Acid – used in place of an alkaline detergent when carpet is light to
moderately soiled.
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o Very effective in removing alkaline residue from previous
cleanings.
o Stabilizes dyes while preventing browning.
o Breaks down alkaline salts from old urine.
o Usually dries faster than alkaline detergents.
o pH 2-5
Most carpet responds well to a quality preconditioner and rinse and will
remove 90-95 of soil and spots.
Remember that most of all cleaning is being accomplished with two
products, your preconditioner and detergent or rinse. This is not the time to
look for the least expensive chemicals. Labor is the most expensive
component of your business. If you use cheaper chemicals your labor
expense will increase. Effective chemicals make the job easier and will
result in happier customers. That means repeat business.
Chemical dilutions
1 gallon =128 oz.
1 quart = 32 oz.
1 pint =16 oz.
1 cup = 8 oz.
1:4 means 1 part chemical to 4 parts water. 128/4 = 32 oz. chemical to 1
gallon water.
Always dissolve powders in hot water and stir thoroughly.
Improper mixing can lead to rapid resoiling.
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Review #6
Chemistry
1. The pH chart ranges from __ to __ with ___ being _________.
2. Any water based solution below 7 is ____ above 7 is ________.
3. A surfactant allows _______ into the fabric being cleaned.
4. A builder adds __________ and _________ water while ___________ oily
and greasy soils.
5. Hydrophilic loves ________ hydrophobic _______ water.
6. A surfactant resembles the candy _________ ____ ________.
7. Soaps do not work as well as detergents in ________ water.
8. The universal solvent which dissolves the most substances is ______.
9. The pH of toothpaste is on the _________ side of the pH scale.
10. The pH of a browning removal product is on the _______ side.
11. Rust is considered _______ so to remove use an _____ product.
12. Most disinfectants contain _________ surfactants.
13. Mixing a _________ surfactant with an _________ surfactant will make a
gooey mess.
14. A dilution rate of 1:4 means you add 1 part_________ to __ parts water.
15. Most preconditioners are ___________because most soil is_________.
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Spotting for the professional
Once the carpet has been preconditioned and rinsed a few spots may remain.
In many cases while 95% of the carpet may look great it may be these few
spots that really provoked the customer to call. One coffee spot in a long hall
ruins the appearance of the entire carpet. Spotting is critical. If you cannot
remove these spots the customer may feel that you failed.
The difference between a cleaner and a professional is getting those spots
out of the carpet. A word of caution, a few stains may not be removed. Learn
how to resection a carpet and you can guarantee 100% spot removal.
Definitions:
 Spot – substance added
 Gum, tar, food, ink
 Stain – color added
 Wine, red pop, mustard
 Discolorations – color removed
 Bleach, medicine,
 Damage – repair required
 Toilet bowl cleaner, burns
Identification: before you can remove a spot you need to identify the
category that it falls in. Knowing the fiber and backing type you are working
on will help determine how aggressive you can get. In other words there is a
big difference in taking red dyes out of wool versus olefin. Solvents are
much riskier on glue down installations than on stretch in installations.
This is not a
 Ask the customer
professional
 Location – copy machine
spotting kit
versus vending area
 Use your senses
 Sight
 Smell
 Touch
 Taste?
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Professional Spotting Kit
Using a professional spotting kit will instill confidence in the customer
that they chose the right company. The spotting kit should have a solid
bottom and a lid that can close. Ideally it will have preformed slots so
that a missing bottle is very evident before you leave the job site.
Chemicals required:
Solvents – normally water free and used to break up oily or non
water-soluble spots (nonpolar). When using solvents wear PPE and
provide plenty of ventilation. Solvents normally have a high flash
point (temperature at which a vapor will ignite). Solvents should be
used carefully to prevent delamination of the carpet backing.
 VDS - Volatile Dry Solvent (evaporates quickly) solvents are
only used for spotting, not total cleaning.
 NVDS/POG - Nonvolatile Dry Solvent –also referred to as
Paint Oil Grease remover – leaves a residue that needs to be
rinsed. Provides more dwell time than a volatile solvent.
 Citrus gels - same as POG except in a gel form which helps to
prevent delamination of carpet or adhesive.
Water-based – these spotters are used on water-soluble (polar)
spots. Many of these spots are easily removed with a quality
preconditioner and extraction.




NDS Neutral Detergent Spotter pH 6-8
ADS Alkaline Detergent Spotter pH 9-10
AS Acid/tannin spotter pH 4-6
Enzyme/digester pH 7 – designed to break down protein and
carbohydrate materials that have become insoluble. Must be
used with hot water 100-150° and at least 20-30 minute dwell
time. Some spots may require even longer dwell time. The spot
should be rinsed prior to application of the enzyme to provide a
neutral environment. Rinse as the final step.
 Rust remover pH 1-4 – neutralize and rinse after applying rust
remover.
 Dye remover – caution can also remove carpet dye.
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Oxidizers/Reducers - color removal by adding oxygen
Oxidizers are bleaching agents. Before you think that you are
going to damage all your carpet, you need to understand the
different types of bleaches. The sun is a very large oxidizing
agent. Ozone used in odor remediation is an oxidizer. A few
are great tools and others will get us in trouble.
 Sodium hypochlorite/ household bleach will dissolve
wool and silk and destroy the color in nylon. While it can be
safely used on 100% olefin it should only be
considered in a salvage situation
 Sodium perborate/percarbonate is a common
ingredient in many boosters or energizers used
in our industry.
 3% Hydrogen peroxide is a very safe yet slow
acting color remover. Effective on minor blood
spots. It is always found in a dark bottle and
should be kept in a cool dark place. Hydrogen
peroxide is self-neutralizing. Higher % hydrogen peroxide used
for hair bleaching may also bleach the
H
H
carpet.
H
H
 Oxidizers can be accelerated by heat and
O
O
light.
 A color made invisible by oxidizers is permanent.
Reducers/strippers perform a similar function (color removal)
to oxidizers by removing oxygen from the stain.
 Reducers are not as permanent as oxidizers because the
stain may absorb oxygen-containing moisture.
 Reducers are commonly found in coffee stain and
browning formulas as well as in Haitian cotton
cleaners.
 Accelerated by heat and acid. Careful!
 Sodium Bisulfite or metabisulfite are mild reducers.
 Sodium Hydrosulfite is much stronger with a terrible sulfur
smell. Suppliers have new formulated products that are
effective on mustard and furniture stains.
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Enzymes – are protein molecules that accelerate chemical reactions by
helping to break up other target molecules such as blood, eggs, milk and old
urine into smaller soluble pieces. Most cleaning or spotting enzymes are
proteolytic which means they break down protein.
Enzymes are not living organisms but biological catalysts and are highly
specific. They work similar to a key and lock.
Microorganism deodorizers are made up of specific strains of bacteria or
fungi, which are considered living, as compared to enzymes which are
nonliving.
Enzymes are easily deactivated by extremes of pH, temperature,
cationic surfactants and require water at all times.
Spotting tools required:
Always move equipment and chemicals not being used to a safe
place.
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pH paper
bone spatula
Tamping brush
napping shears
Trigger sprayer
Drip spout for spotting bottle
Inspection light
Gloves
UV light
Goggles
Respirator
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Steps of removal – remember that you did not cause the spot or stain.
Explain to the customer the options and the risks of each method. You do
not determine which method to use. The customer selects after you have
provided the information. If necessary have the customer sign a release. If
the stain cannot be removed it is because of the characteristics of the staining
material in relation to the fabric. It is not the weakness of the technician.
1. Always pretest your chemicals.
2. Wear appropriate PPE.
3. Follow the label directions.
 Remove the excess – blot, scrape, absorb.
 Check the solubility of the spot. When in doubt of the stains
components use a volatile (evaporates quickly) solvent on a
towel and blot. If it is solvent soluble it will transfer. If not it
evaporates quickly and you can switch to a water-based spotter.
 If the spot responds to your choice of spotter be sure to work on
the spot from the outside in to avoid spreading the spot.
 Patience! If you use the correct spotter most spots will dissolve
given adequate dwell time.
 Once the spot has been suspended rinse thoroughly.
 If the carpet has a pile, groom the pile.
 If you believe the spot may wick place absorbent paper
toweling on the spot and weight to it. Inform the customer to
remove the toweling in 12 –24 hours.
 Sugary residues cause rapid resoiling and should be rinsed.
Concerns:
 Using more of a spotter can leave more residue and cause
resoiling. More is not better. Additional dwell time, heat or
agitation will work more efficiently.
 Never rub a spot. Use the tamping brush or a bone spatula.
Wrapping a towel around the brush helps keep your brush clean
and absorbs the spot.
 If the spot is lighter than the carpet you probably have color
loss and the carpet needs to be redyed or resectioned.
 Urine spots and odor are difficult because the customer believes
there is only 1 spot while there may be multiple locations. Once
the residue has been removed there may be a color loss from
old urine. The customer needs to be informed before spotting is
attempted. More people are bringing their pets to work.
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Specialty spotting – certain spots may require specialty spotters and
techniques. Use caution and explain everything including risks to the
customer prior to attempting spotting.
Rust
Hydrofluoric acid has been the most effective rust remover for years.
Unfortunately it is the most dangerous. It desensitizes the nerve ending and
can cause serious burning. When using any acidic rust remover such as
hydrofluoric, oxalic, phosphoric or a specially formulated acid neutralize
with an alkaline material and thoroughly rinse the spot. If the spot should
turn a different color such as pink or purple use an alkaline spotter or
ammonia and the spot should return to the normal color. This is referred to
as an indicator dye stain and means the normal pH of the fabric has been
affected. Hydrofluoric acid can etch glass. Watch where you set the bottle.
Red dye
Specialized spotters have been developed for red and other synthetic
dye removal. Most use the heat transfer method. Apply the dye remover to
the spot then place a damp towel and place the iron or wallpaper steamer
over the spot. Check the towel after 15-30 seconds to see if there is a
transfer. As long as the dye of the carpet is not transferring to the towel it is
safe to continue.
Pictures courtesy of Referral Cleaners
MustardRemoving organic dyes such as mustard and furniture stain
requires a reducing agent. Mustard and furniture stains are
difficult to remove. For severe stains the chemical may need to
be covered in plastic and allowed to dwell for 8-24 hours.
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Coffee
Coffee contains a natural acid dye (tannin) plus it may be
hot when spilled which easily penetrates wool and nylon carpet.
Add a little cream and sugar and you have a mess. First choice
is a Tannin/acid spotter. If that doesn’t work try a reducing
agent such as sodium metabisulfite. Be sure to pretest for
colorfastness in an inconspicuous spot.
Persistent protein (milk, gravy, egg)
Remove excess material and rinse. Work enzyme digester into spot.
Cover with a hot wet towel. Place bucket of hot water on spot and wait 2030 minutes. Remove observe and rinse. Important do not use hot water on
protein spots.
Blood
Small amounts may be removed by a cool spotter or an
enzyme/digester. For larger amounts follow blood-borne
pathogen guidelines.
Benzoyl Peroxide
Is a bleaching agent (peroxide) present in
acne medicine and other cosmetics or medications.
It is activated by heat and moisture. Causes loss of
color and must be redyed or resectioned.
Copy Toner
Toner consists of tiny insoluble particles that must
be vacuumed out. Any remaining toner should be
lubricated and suspended with a VDS.
Floor Finish
Unfortunately the staff that strips the VCT may be
different from the carpet cleaners and leave a strip of floor
finish on the carpet. Use an alkaline prespray with heat, dwell time, acid
rinse
Gum
Freeze and chip or use a gel based POG allow it to dwell then extract.
Finally if the spot comes back you have wicking. Use a poultice.
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Spotting Chart
Volatile Dry Solvent
VDS
Non Volatile NVDS POG
Citrus Gel
Nail polish
Gum
Ink
Lipstick
Lipstick
Fresh paint
Glue
Glue
Grease
Dried paint
Can be used in place of NVDS
when delamination is possible.
Carbon
Shoe polish
Tar
Oil
Rinse for NVDS
VDS is for minor solvent soluble
spots if spot is heavy go to
NVDS.
NVDS should be rinsed with
VDS.
Gels must be rinsed. Gelling
agent can cause rapid resoiling.
Be careful of delamination.
Neutral Detergent NDS
Alkaline Detergent ADS
Acid/Tannin Spotter AS
Minor water soluble spots
Food
Tea
Soft drinks
Coffee
Rust remover neutralizer
Urine
Feces
Preconditioner will remove
same spots during cleaning.
Preconditioner will remove
same spots during cleaning.
Alkaline Neutralizer
Enzyme/Protein Spotter
Rust Remover
Oxidizer/Reducer
Old food
Rust
Dye stains
Browning
Blood
Wine
Old milk
Furniture Stain
Old urine
Mustard
Gravy
Vomit
Apply cool and allow plenty of
dwell time
Be sure to neutralize and rinse.
Can cause burns and etch
glass.
These products can also remove
carpet color. Use caution.
Remember to pretest your spotters and follow directions.
Experiment at home not in your customer’s building.
Use only enough spotting solution to suspend the spot.
Mixing chlorine bleach with ammonia forms toxic chlorine gas.
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Additional chemicals
Deodorizers – odors are triggers. Smells
may be experienced as negative, positive or
neutral. If we react negatively to an odor we
are provoked to a behavior that reduces or
removes the odor. A favorable scent leads us
to a positive or pleasant reaction.
In our industry we have a variety of
deodorizers.
 Scents are products that only add a perfume to the air and have
no other quality other than masking. This will not destroy a bad
odor. Once the scent has evaporated the malodor will return.
 Odor neutralizers contain essential oils that attract
malodorous molecules and neutralize them.
 Microorganisms are natural fungi or bacteria used to destroy
urine-based odors.
 Biocides/sanitizers/disinfectants kill specific bacteria or
sanitizes to a level of public acceptance.
 Oxidizers such as ozone, chlorine bleach, or hydrogen peroxide
burn up odors.
Principles of Deodorization
Regardless of the cause of the odor the following principles must be
followed or the smell will return.
1. Eliminate the source.
2. Clean all surfaces.
3. Recreate the conditions of penetration.
4. Seal materials that cannot be thoroughly treated or removed.
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Tools for odor detection
Moisture Sensor
UV Light
Sub Surface Extractor
Fogging
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Defoamers
Products designed to eliminate foaming problems in
hoses and extractors. It is available in powder or
liquid form. Due to silicone formula defoamers are
not designed to be applied directly to carpet. This
may cause resoiling. Add defoamer directly to
vacuum hose at the hose cuff nearest the wand. If using a portable
extractor add it to the recovery tank also.
Antistats
Most nylon fibers have a built in carbon core fiber that
reduces or dissipates the static charge.
 Static problems usually occur in times of low
humidity, normally winter.
 Antistatic products are available to spray on a
clean carpet to dissipate the static charge.
 Most antistats are silicone-based
Soil & Stain protectors
 Soil retardants – filled in crevices of the fibers
with Colorless particles to prevent soil from
attaching. Carpets became stiff.
 Silicones – great water repellency but not very
effective on oil or dry soil. Starting in 1986 voided
stain-resist warranties. Many silicones cause rapid resoiling.
 Fluorochemical – the 2 most recognized trade names are 3M
Scotchgard and Dupont Advanced Teflon. They improve stain and
soil resistance by lowering the surface energy of the fabric and
creating a barrier.
o Solvent – better oil and water repellency.
o Water – better dry soil repellency and durability.
 Factors effecting its performance
o Concentration of chemical applied.
o Surface of the material, the flatter the better.
o Grooming the carpet helps the penetration.
o Fabric should be residue free.
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Review #7
Chemicals & Spotting
1. The workhorse of cleaning products is the ___________________.
2. A(n) __________ detergent is used on soiled synthetic fabrics.
3. A(n) ________ _______ is the best choice for neutralizing a
preconditioner.
4. For all synthetic carpet the safest pH to use is under _____.
5. A ________________ repels all three types of soils.
6. A gallon contains ______ ounces.
7. A spot adds __________ to the carpet, a stain adds _________.
8. Asking the customer, noting the _____________, and using your
___________ help to identify the spot.
9. A(n) _________ adds oxygen to a spot a reducer ________ oxygen.
10. Use solvents that have a high_______ _______ and be sure to
__________ the area.
11. To remove a coffee spot use a ________ spotter.
12. When using rust removers __________ and ___________.
13. Acne medicines contain ________ ________ which can bleach
fabric.
14. _________ spotters need heat, ________ and longer dwell time.
15. Nail polish, lipstick or paint will need a _ _ _ to remove.
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Maintenance Programs
Designing and implementing a maintenance program accomplishes 6 goals.
1. The carpet always has a high appearance level.
2. Control and removal of pollutants should create a healthier
environment.
3. The life cycle costing of the carpet has been improved.
4. The client is happy.
5. You have removed the competition from bidding.
6. You have increased the value of your company.
When you are designing the maintenance program you must view the
building in a holistic manner. When you go to a doctor for back pain he may
examine your entire body to identify what is causing the back pain. The
carpeted floor is just one part of the entire building that can be affected by
the outside areas or the HVAC system. Your job is to stop the progressive
accumulation of soil and clean the areas before it reaches unacceptable
levels. This extends the carpet life and creates a cleaner, healthier
environment.
Is the carpet worth an investment in a maintenance program? Olefin glue
down with a 3-year life expectancy will not get the same consideration as a
solution-dyed nylon carpet module installation. The best time to establish a
plan is before or when the carpet is just installed.
The initial conversation with the facility manager will cover these questions:
1. What are the goals for the carpet – will the projected budget be
enough to attain the goals. How many years do they expect to get
from the carpet?
2. What type of fiber, dye system, construction and backing?
3. Was the carpet installed over cushion?
4. What type of installation?
5. What is the current condition of the carpet?
6. What is the current maintenance? How effective has it been?
7. What factors may affect the program?
a. 24 hour facility
b. special soiling problems
i. printing plant
ii. swimming pool
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Inspection
1. Start in the parking area. If the parking area is loaded with oil, grease
and antifreeze, it will eventually work its way onto the carpet.
2. How are the walkways and entryways? Are they swept or even better
ever power washed?
3. What is the matting program?
a. Outside mats
b. Interior mats (is it stationary)
c. Size and length
d. Maintenance of the mats
4. Hard surface floors at the entryway.
a. How is the maintenance of the hard surface?
b. Has finish splashed on the carpet?
5. What is the vacuuming program?
a. How often?
b. How many passes in high traffic areas?
c. Type of vacuums and maintenance of vacuums.
6. What is the spotting program?
a. How often?
b. Types of chemicals?
c. Who performs the spotting?
d. Are the chemicals rinsed?
7. Determining traffic areas
a. Low
b. Medium
c. High
d. Problem spotting areas
8. Identify funnel areas, elevator lobbies, stair case landings, pivot
points, vending machine areas, and cafeteria entries.
9. Identify residue or optical brightener damage. Residue from heavy
absorbent compound cleaning can be difficult to remove.
10.Identify any carpet problems
a. Seams
b. Yellowing
c. Rippling
d. Delamination
e. Color loss
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Maintenance recommendations
Once you have completed your thorough inspection of the entire building
inside and outside and reviewed the current and past maintenance you are
ready to give your plan. Ideally you can obtain a copy of the building
blueprints or you may design your own. Color-code the blueprint with the
cleaning frequencies. These frequencies are determined by the expectations
of the building management, traffic load, and the preventative maintenance
in place. Separate plans for vacuuming, interim maintenance and restorative
cleaning may be designed. Place a copy in your office, the tech should have
one and the building contact should have one. Every conversation with the
building contact should be recorded in the book and copies given to
everyone. Every problem begins with poor communication. Remember
every part of the program is important. Neglecting one part can affect the
whole building. High traffic areas without a maintenance program can
suffer from premature yarn distortion.
Your cleaning process will now be broken down into 3 areas:
1. Daily vacuuming, spotting
a. High traffic areas
b. Lobbies (protect marble or wood floors with drop cloths)
c. Entries
d. Track off from hard surfaces
e. Walk off mats
2. Interim maintenance – spotting, absorbent compound, bonnet, dry
foam, encapsulation
a. Fast,
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b. Low moisture –quick drying
c. Surface cleaning
3. Restorative cleaning – HWE, rotary shampoo
a. Deep cleaning, better appearance
b. More moisture – slower drying
c. Less residue – lengthens carpet life
The frequency of restorative cleaning is highly dependent on the
effectiveness of daily maintenance and interim cleaning processes, as
well as traffic, carpet color, carpet location, use and exposure to soiling.
Procedures for cleaning in a commercial building (restorative)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Check out power, water, security numbers and the HVAC system.
Set up wet floor signs.
Remove and store furniture pads if required.
Vacuum traffic areas with upright vacuum with high filtration bag.
Use a backpack vacuum in hard to reach areas. For heavily soil
compacted areas use a pile lifter.
5. Precondition areas and allow proper dwell time. Use a rotary scrubber
or counter rotating brush machine to provide additional agitation.
6. Use a portable, walk behind or truck mount extractor to rinse and
flush preconditioner, pollutants and old residue from carpet.
7. Apply post-cleaning treatments as required.
8. Groom or brush carpet as necessary.
9. Replace, tab and block furniture.
10.Set up airmovers and adjust HVAC for good ventilation.
11.Review areas cleaned for any concerns, replace furniture and replace
equipment in van.
12.Process paperwork and communicate with office concerning job.
Interim - Absorbent pad, Dry Foam, Absorbent compound
1. Check out power, water, security numbers and the HVAC system
2. Set up wet floor signs.
3. Open area cleaning does not require furniture or chair pad removal.
4. Vacuum traffic areas only.
5. Apply preconditioner if required.
6. If bonnet cleaning, change pad when it becomes soil saturated.
7. Absorbent compound - apply, agitate, allow dwell time, vacuum.
8. Dry foam – apply foam, agitate, extract.
9. Groom or brush carpet as necessary.
10.Review areas, process paperwork, communicate with office.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Problems and Solutions – a chance to show your skills
Browning
 Browning is caused by, overwetting, slow drying and cellulosic
material such as cotton and jute. It is accelerated by alkalinity. The
culprit causing the problem is lignin, a naturally occurring gum. In
the presence of moisture it breaks down and is transported to the
surface. Most of the backings that are used today on tufted carpets
are synthetic. The only way to have true cellulosic browning is to
have cellulosic materials involved. On the rare occasion that you
would encounter browning on a synthetic carpet it is much easier
to remove. Normally because browning is caused by alkalinity it is
cured by an acidic application. In the old days this was called
souring. Today we use formulated browning formulas, acid rinses,
mild reducers or hydrogen peroxide. Whichever product is chosen
it should be lightly misted or applied to the tips only of the carpet.
Wicking
 A common misconception is that wicking is browning. Wicking is
the upward migration of moisture in a fabric. The best analogy
is that of a kerosene lantern. The oil wicks the bottom to the top of
the wick and is lit. This process is referred to as capillary action.
The difference between wicking and cellulosic browning is the
absence of cellulose in synthetic carpet. The discoloration found on
the tips of synthetic carpets especially on olefin is soil. Due to the
lack of dry soil removal prior to wet extraction soil, wicking is a
major problem today. Overwetting and slow drying increase the
chances of wicking.
Wicking occurs in spotting situations when the residue of the
contaminant or the spotter wicks to the surface during drying. If
you suspect this may happen, the final step after rinsing is to apply
a poultice of absorbent material such as paper towels to the top of
the spot. Place a weight on top of ½ inch of paper towels and allow
it to dry. The moisture and residue will continue to wick into the
towels.
Yellowing - comes in many forms.
 BHT (butylated hydroxy toluene) is an antioxidant that has been
used primarily in carpet cushion. It was believed to have been the
cause of yellowing on carpet and its use has been discontinued in
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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the manufacturing of cushion. To remove dilute citric acid and
spray and agitate on the tips of the carpet. Citric acid may dry to a
harsh crystal and should be vacuumed and rinsed with an acid
rinse.
 Pesticides – applied to the perimeter of the carpet may attack a
primary color and cause a color change. This damage is permanent.
 Optical brighteners – reflect the blue-white part of light. Use of
OB’s on carpet may cause a permanent yellowing.
 Nitrogen Dioxide – loss of the blue or red dye from incomplete
combustion may cause permanent yellowing.
 Ozone – attacks the blue dye and may leave a permanent yellowing.
 Soiling – soil can cause yellowing especially on blue or gray carpet.
Cleaning using maximum soil suspension can remove yellowing.
 Tracked in oils from parking lots, warehouses etc.
Maximize soil suspension.
Soil Filtration
 The name aptly describes the problem. The microscopic particles of
soil that continuously float in the air are filtered by the fibers usually
along the perimeters of the room and under closed doors. Much of this
soil is carbon and other non-soluble forms of soil with an oily residue
that only complicates the removal. Removal will once again use the
principles in an aggressive manner. Staining may be permanent.
 Thorough vacuuming by hand.
 Specially designed chemical or aggressive preconditioner
heated if possible.
 Hand agitation or tamping brush.
 Hottest rinse extraction possible.
 Groom & dry.
Fume fading
 Loss of color in carpet due to atmospheric pollutants such as ozone
and NO2 passing through fibers. May not be apparent until soil
filtration is removed.
 Permanent damage
Streaking
 Clean or dirty streaks in carpet caused by:
 Improper wand stroking
 Blockage of vacuum slot or T-jets
 Wicking
 Improper preconditioning (clogged sprayer tip)
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Review #8
Maintenance Plans & Procedures
1. A maintenance program helps to extend the _______ of the carpet.
2. Mats should be used both __________ & _________ the building.
3. Elevator lobbies, stair case landings, pivot points, vending machine
areas are all considered to be_______ __________ areas.
4. ___________ one part of the building can affect the whole building.
5. A ___________ helps in designing your maintenance plan.
6. Identify the _______, medium and high _________ _________.
7. Make sure you know when the __ __ __ ___ system turns off.
8. Locate _________, __________ and security system before the job.
9. Before starting the job set up your _______ signs.
10. To set up a thorough maintenance program you must view the
building in a ____________ manner.
11. Maintenance programs include ____________ , interim and
_______________ programs.
12. 24 hour facilities may require _____ _________ methods.
13. Interim methods normally have higher ______________.
14. Mats require regular ________ or they become a soiling source.
15. If you have a power problem report it immediately to your
_____________.
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REVISED RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR IICRC
CERTIFICATIONS AVAILABLE BY EXAMINATION
 ACADEMIC: All course examinations must be passed with 75% or higher to achieve
certification.
CARPET CLEANING TECHNICIAN
(2 days)
(CCT)
RUG CLEANING TECHNICIAN
(2 days)
(RCT)
 Prerequisites: IICRC Certification in CCT or CCMT, and UFT
COMMERCIAL CARPET MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN
(2 days)
(CCMT)
Exam 201
FLOOR CARE TECHNICIAN
(2 days)
(FCT)
STONE, MASONRY & CERAMIC TILE CLEANING TECHNICIAN
(2 days)
(SMT)
RESILENT FLOOR MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN
(2 days)
(RFMT)
Exam 251
 Prerequisites: IICRC Certification in FCT
UPHOLSTERY & FABRIC CLEANING TECHNICIAN
(2 days)
(UFT)
LEATHER CLEANING TECHNICIAN
(2 days)
(LCT)
ODOR CONTROL TECHNICIAN
(1 day)
(OCT)
HEALTH AND SAFETY TECHNICIAN
(2 days)
(HST)
WATER DAMAGE RESTORATION TECHNICIAN
(3 days)
(WRT)
APPLIED STRUCTURAL DRYING TECHNICIAN
(3 days)
(ASD)
 Prerequisite: IICRC Certification in WRT
APPLIED MICROBIAL REMEDIATION TECHNICIAN
(4 days)
(AMRT)
Exam 521
 Prerequisite: IICRC Certification in WRT
APPLIED MICROBIAL REMEDIATION SPECIALIST
(AMRS)
 Prerequisites: AMRT: and HST or an OSHA 10 hour General Industry Health and Safety course, or
other suitable program subject to IICRC approval; and one year verifiable microbial remediation
experience after the date of issuance of the AMRT certification; and one of the following within one
calendar year immediately before AMRS qualification: 10 verifiable microbial remediation projects or
1000 hours verifiable microbial remediation experience. Verification is by written Witness Statement
under penalty of perjury plus an appropriate Project Sheet(s).
CARPET REPAIR & REINSTALLATION TECHNICIAN
(2 days)
(RRT)
COLOR REPAIR TECHNICIAN
(2 days)
(CRT)
 Prerequisites: IICRC Certification in CCT or CCMT
CARPET INSPECTOR
(5 days)
(SCI)
 Prerequisites: IICRC Certification in CCMT or CCT and RRT. During the first year after passing the
IICRC inspector exam, the individual is required to submit a minimum of ten (10) inspection reports
which will be reviewed by the Inspector Committee. Inspector status will not be awarded until such
time these reports are approved by committee.
INTRODUCTION TO SUBSTRATE SUBFLOOR INSPECTION
(3 days)
(ISSI)
MARBLE & STONE INSPECTOR
(3 days)
(MSI)
 Prerequisite: IICRC Certification in ISSI. During the first year after passing the IICRC inspector exam,
the individual is required to submit a minimum of ten (10) inspection reports which will be reviewed
by the Inspector Committee. Inspector status will not be awarded until such time these reports are
approved by committee.
RESILIENT FLOORING INSPECTOR
(4 days)
(RFI)
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Exam 101
Exam 141
Exam 231
Exam 241
Exam 301
Exam 311
Exam 401
Exam 451
Exam 501
Exam 511
Exam 601
Exam 701
Exam 801
Exam 811
Exam 821
Exam 831

Prerequisite: IICRC Certification in ISSI. During the first year after passing the IICRC inspector
exam, the individual is required to submit a minimum of ten (10) inspection reports which will be
reviewed by the Inspector Committee. Inspector status will not be awarded until such time these
reports are approved by committee.
CERAMIC TILE INSPECTOR
(4 days)
(CTI)
 Prerequisite: IICRC Certification in ISSI.
During the first year after passing the IICRC inspector
exam, the individual is required to submit a minimum of ten (10) inspection reports which will be
reviewed by the Inspector Committee. Inspector status will not be awarded until such time these
reports are approved by committee.
WOOD LAMINATE FLOORING INSPECTOR
(4 days)
(WLFI)
Exam 851 & 852
 Prerequisite: IICRC Certification in ISSI. During the first year after passing the IICRC inspector
exam, the individual is required to submit a minimum of ten (10) inspection reports which will be
reviewed by the Inspector Committee. Inspector status will not be awarded until such time these
reports are approved by committee.
FIRE & SMOKE RESTORATION TECHNICIAN
(2 days)
(FSRT)
ADVANCED DESIGNATIONS (NO EXAMINATION)
JOURNEYMAN TEXTILE CLEANER
(JTC)
Twelve (12) months active service in the industry after original certification date, plus attainment of
specific designations as listed below. Designation will automatically be awarded upon attainment of the
proper credits
 Certification in(CCT or CCMT) and UFT and either (OCT, CRT or RRT)
JOURNEYMAN FIRE & SMOKE RESTORER
(JSR)
Twelve (12) months active service in the industry after original certification date plus attainment of specific
categories as listed below.
 Certification in UFT, OCT and FSRT
JOURNEYMAN WATER RESTORER
(JWR)
Twelve (12) months active service in the industry after original certification date plus attainment of specific
categories as listed below.
 Certification in (CCT or CMT), WRT and RRT
MASTER TEXTILE CLEANER
(MTC)
A minimum of three (3) years after original certification date plus attainment of specific certifications as
listed below.
 Certification in (CCT or CCMT), UFT, OCT, (RRT or BRT) and CRT
MASTER FIRE & SMOKE RESTORER
(MSR)
A minimum of three (3) years after original certification date plus attainment of specific certifications as
listed below.
 Certification in (CCT or CCMT), UFT, OCT, FSRT and (HST or equivalent)
MASTER WATER RESTORER
(MWR)
A minimum of three (3) years after original certification date plus attainment of specific certifications as
listed below.
 Certification in (CCT or CCMT), RRT, WRT, ASD, AMRT/S and (HST or equivalent)
IICRC TESTING FEE STRUCTURE
All Technician Exams (excluding AMRT & Inspector):
AMRT and INSPECTOR:
Retest:
$65.00
$150.00
$25.00
RETESTING
If technician doesn’t pass an exam and wishes to retake, there will be a fee of $25. Only two retakes
are allowed. Exam must be retaken within 90 days of receiving test results otherwise re-attendance
will be required before testing can be done again.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
82
Exam 841
Exam 901
ANNUAL REGISTRATION FEE
After one (1) year, registrant will receive annual renewal billing. If certified in 1 or 2 categories, fee will be
$30 annually, 3 and 4 categories is $40 and 5 or more categories is $50 annually. Master status will be an
additional $10.00. Applied Microbial Remediation certification will be $60.00 annually. If registrant lets
certification lapse for a period of over twelve (12) months, he or she will be required to re-attend an
approved school, retake exam and pay appropriate fees. If registrant wishes to reinstate certification within
the twelve (12) month period, outstanding fees and fulfillment of continuing education credits will be
required. Registrants must follow the Code of Ethics or be subject to sanctions up to and including loss of
certification.
CERTIFIED INSPECTOR: Once the inspector has passed the probationary requirements, he or she may
choose to be listed as “Practicing” or “Credentialed”. Practicing inspectors will pay $80.00 annually for
fees with listing on the #800 IICRC Referral System and the web site, while Credentialed will pay $40.00
per year with no listing.
CERTIFIED FIRMS: A Certified Firm Application Request Form must be requested and returned to
IICRC with a nonrefundable $25.00 processing fee. Upon approval of the request form, the firm will be
sent Application for Certified Firm. The Application for Certified Firm must be forwarded to headquarters
with the annual fee of $125.00. This is a separate fee from the $25.00 processing fee and is also
nonrefundable. Once Certified Firm status is granted, the firm is immediately listed on the #800 IICRC
Referral System as well as the IICRC web site at www.iicrc.org. The Certified Firm is also eligible at this
time to use the registered trademark for advertising purposes.
THE IICRC RESERVES THE UNQUALIFIED RIGHT TO CHANGE AND REVISE THE
POLICIES, PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS.
You may review the Privacy Policy at www.iicrc.org/privacypolicy
Revised 03/08
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
83
Institute of Inspection, Cleaning
and Restoration Certification
2715 East Mill Plain Blvd
Vancouver, WA 98661
(360) 693-5675 fax (360) 693-4858
e-mail: [email protected]
CERTIFIED FIRM APPLICATION REQUEST FORM
Name:
Title:
Company Name:
Company Address:
City:
State/Prov:
Country:
E-Mail:
Phone:
Fax:
Zip/Postal Code:
If you know the names of IICRC Certified Technicians currently employed by the firm,
please list their names here:
Request for Certified Firm Application fee is $25.00 (U.S. Funds) and must accompany
this form. Fees are nonrefundable.

Check or Money Order enclosed or:
Please charge my:
 Visa
Account number:
 MasterCard
Expiration date:

American Express
V-Code:
Cardholder Name:
Signature:
Send fee along with this completed request form to:
IICRC
2715 East Mill Plain Blvd
Vancouver, Washington 98661
In addition to the application fee, the annual fee for Certified Firms status is $125 (U.S. funds) and must accompany
your final application.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
84
If the firm does not meet the requirements to become an
IICRC Certified Firm upon submission of this request, the
pending application will be held for six months.
Process for becoming an IICRC Certified Firm
Firms must first fill out a Certified Firm Application Request Form and submit to IICRC
headquarters with a non-refundable $25 application fee. The Certified Firm Application
Request Form is included with these instructions.
Once the request form is received and reviewed to make sure the Certified Technicians
are still with the firm and have a current registration, the firm will be sent a Certified
Firm Application and Code of Ethics.
The firm must sign and return a completed application and the IICRC Certified Firm
Code of Ethics, along with a copy of its business license (if applicable), proof of
insurance, and a non-refundable $125 for the first year’s registration fees.
If a firm does not meet the requirements to become an IICRC Certified Firm upon
submission of a Certified Firm application, the pending application will be held for up to
six months. During this period, the firm is allowed to take the necessary steps to meet the
requirements.
All Certified Firms will have a common anniversary date of December 1 of each year.
The first annual renewal bill will be prorated based on the acceptance date of the original
registration. For example, if the firm became registered on June 1of the year at which
time it paid the $125 annual registration, the annual renewal bill in November would be
$63.00. Thereafter, the annual renewal bill will be equal to the full annual renewal
amount set by the IICRC Board of Directors.
When a firm is 90 days delinquent on its fees, the firm will be dropped from the roster.
The firm may be reinstated when requirements are met and fees are paid.
Certified Firms are not eligible to order supplies or receive Certified Firm credentials
until such time they meet all requirements.
Only Certified Firms may display the registered trademark.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
86
Review #1
Fibers
1. Natural fibers are very absorbent which means they absorb dye
easily, stain easily, and take longer to dry.
2. The most popular synthetic fiber is nylon.
3. Olefin loves oil and hates water.
4. Wool and silk are examples of protein fibers.
5. Nylon can be dissolved by formic acid.
6. Wool will not burn and smells like a wet dog when wet.
7. The epidermis of a wool fiber can be damaged by alkalinity.
8. Bleach can dissolve a wool or silk fiber.
9. Polyester is not a good choice for a commercial building.
10. Olefin is always solution dyed but melts easily.
11. All synthetic fibers are extruded through a spinneret.
12. The acrylic fiber is a synthetic substitute for wool.
13. Nylon is attracted to acid dye stains and should be cleaned with a pH
under 10.
14. When a synthetic fiber is burned it leaves a hard bead when a natural
fiber is burned it leaves an ash.
15. The two most popular fibers for commercial carpet are nylon and
olefin.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Review #2
Yarns & Dyeing
1. Synthetic fibers are created through a process called extrusion..
2. Synthetic fibers can be either filament or cut into staple.
3. Loose staple fiber is normal in a cut pile and called shedding.
4. Olefin can be damaged by hot couplers and friction.
5. Olefin is attracted to oily soils, this is referred to as being oliophilic.
6. Bulked continuous filaments are referred to as BCF.
7. When 2 or more yarns are twisted together they have been plied.
8. A carpet that is dyed in a pattern is called a printed carpet.
9. A carpet that has not been dyed is called greige goods.
10. Olefin fibers must be solution dyed.
11. Wool cannot be solution dyed.
12. A pigment is insoluble, a dye is soluble.
13. Optical brighteners can cause permanent yellowing. and void carpet
warranties.
14. Pooling, watermarking, and shading are characteristics and are not
considered defects by the carpet manufacturers.
15. Bleeding requires water crocking requires agitation.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Review #3 Manufacturing& Styles
1. Woven carpet is made on a loom and the yarns consist of a warp yarn a
weft yarn and a face yarn.
2. A tufted carpet consists of a face yarn stitched in to a primary backing
with latex bonding it to a secondary backing.
3. Most tufted carpet has a synthetic backing but some woven carpet has
cotton or jute yarns which can shrink.
4. The number of tufting needles across the width of the tufting machine is
referred to as the gauge.
5. Glue down level loop carpet can be difficult to clean because of the
cleaning wand bouncing and excess moisture and soil wicking.
6. An inexpensive cushion will cause the carpet to crush.
7. A few styles of commercial carpet have an attached cushion.
8. All stretched in carpet must be installed using a power stretcher.
9. The CRI Standard for installation of commercial carpet is called CRI 104.
10. Tufted carpet must have enough latex to hold the yarns in and can be
damaged by excessive use of solvents.
11. The separation of primary and secondary backing is called delamination.
12. Seam sealer prevents the seams from separating.
13. A stretch in carpet that ripples normally settles when dry.
14. Be careful with solvents on direct-glue carpet.
15. Download CRI installation standards from www.carpet-rug.org
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Review #4
Soiling & Principles
1. Soil is normally acidic on the pH scale.
2. The highest percentage of soil is insoluble.
3. The best way to remove dry soil is by vacuuming.
4. Soil shading is caused by abrasion of plastic fibers.
5. The principle of dry soil removal is frequently skipped.
6. The cleaning pie consists of Time, Agitation, Chemical, and
Temperature.
7. The second principle is soil suspension.
8. Extraction can include vacuuming.
9. Water soluble soils cannot be removed by solvents.
10. Hair, sand and skin are considered insoluble.
11. Empty a vacuum bag when it is 1/2 to 2/3 full.
12. A micron or micrometer is 1 millionth of a meter.
13. Fast drying prevents slip and fall hazards.
14. A carpet should be groomed to remove wand marks and help the
protector be distributed evenly.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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15. The technician is responsible for over wetting. Some of this may be
caused by lack of equipment maintenance.
Review #5
Methods
1. Regardless of the method chosen the principles must be followed.
2. The oldest method is rotary shampoo.
3. A very popular method for commercial maintenance is absorbent pad.
4. Hot water extraction has the most chances of overwetting.
5. Systems using a granular detergent are called ab/adsorbent compounds.
6. A system using a foaming surfactant using a cylindrical brush is called dry
foam.
7. The method favored by many carpet manufacturers is HWE.
8. When using an absorbent pad the pad should be changed when it stops
absorbing soil.
9. Systems using rotary action may cause fiber distortion.
10. Propane tanks should be mounted on the outside of the van.
11. All trucks must carry MSDS, and a fire extinguisher.
12. Replace any plugs that are cut or missing the ground.
13. Replace any solution hoses that are worn.
14. Park your van so that exhaust faces away from the building.
15. Wicking is minimized in a commercial building with multiple spills when
using an encapsulation system.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
91
Review #6
Chemistry
1. The pH chart ranges from 0 to 14 with 7 being neutral.
2. Any water based solution below 7 is acid above 7 is alkaline.
3. A surfactant allows penetration into the fabric being cleaned.
4. A builder adds alkalinity and softens water while emulsifying oily and
greasy soils.
5. Hydrophilic loves water hydrophobic hates water.
6. A surfactant resembles the candy tootsie roll pop.
7. Soaps do not work as well as detergents in hard water.
8. The universal solvent which dissolves the most substances is water.
9. The pH of toothpaste is on the alkaline side of the pH scale.
10. The pH of a browning removal product is on the acidic side.
11. Rust is considered alkaline so to remove use an acidic product.
12. Most disinfectants contain cationic surfactants.
13. Mixing a cationic surfactant with an anionic surfactant will make a gooey
mess.
14. A dilution rate of 1:4 means you add 1 part chemical to 4 parts water.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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15. Most preconditioners are alkaline because most soil is acidic.
Review #7
Chemicals & Spotting
1. The workhorse of cleaning products is the preconditioner.
2. A(n) alkaline detergent is used on soiled synthetic fabrics.
3. A(n) acid rinse is the best choice for neutralizing a preconditioner.
4. For all synthetic carpet the safest pH to use is under 10.
5. A fluorochemical repels all three types of soils.
6. A gallon contains 128 ounces.
7. A spot adds substance to the carpet, a stain adds dye.
8. Asking the customer, noting the location, and using your senses help
to identify the spot.
9. A(n) oxidizer adds oxygen to a spot a reducer removes oxygen.
10. Use solvents that have a high flash point and be sure to ventilate the
area.
11. To remove a coffee spot use a tannin spotter.
12. When using rust removers neutralize and rinse.
13. Acne medicines contain benzoyl peroxide which can bleach fabric.
14. Enzyme spotters need heat, water and longer dwell time.
15. Nail polish, lipstick or paint will need a POG to remove.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
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Review #8
Maintenance Plans & Procedures
1. A maintenance program helps to extend the life of the carpet.
2. Mats should be used both outside & inside the building.
3. Elevator lobbies, stair case landings, pivot points, vending machine
areas are all considered to be high traffic areas.
4. Neglecting one part of the building can affect the whole building.
5. A blueprint helps in designing your maintenance plan.
6. Identify the low, medium and high traffic areas.
7. Make sure you know when the HVAC system turns off.
8. Locate water, electric, and security system before the job.
9. Before starting the job set up your warning signs.
10. To set up a thorough maintenance program you must view the
building in a holistic manner.
11. Maintenance programs include preventative, interim and restorative
programs.
12. 24 hour facilities may require low moisture methods.
13. Interim methods normally have higher productivity.
14. Mats require regular cleaning or they become a soiling source.
15. If you have a power problem report it immediately to your
supervisor.
Copyright © April 2013 Bill Yeadon
94
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