OEM Integration guide

OEM Integration guide
OEM Board Integration Guide
Copyright 2012 © Embedded Artists AB
OEM Board
Integration Guide
Start Developing Your Application On Day 1!
EA2-USG-1006 Rev B
OEM Board Integration Guide
Page 2
Embedded Artists AB
Davidshallsgatan 16
SE-211 45 Malmö
Sweden
[email protected]
http://www.EmbeddedArtists.com
Copyright 2012 © Embedded Artists AB. All rights reserved.
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Embedded Artists AB.
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Embedded Artists AB makes no representation or warranties with respect to the contents hereof and
specifically disclaim any implied warranties or merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose.
Information in this publication is subject to change without notice and does not represent a
commitment on the part of Embedded Artists AB.
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comments to [email protected]
Trademarks
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trademarks, or registered service marks of their respective owners and should be treated as such.
Copyright 2012 © Embedded Artists AB
OEM Board Integration Guide
Page 3
Table of Contents
1 Document Revision History
4
2 Introduction
5
2.1
OEM Board Concept
5
2.2
Typical Development Process
5
3 Integration
7
3.1
7
3.1.1
Handling and Mounting SO-DIMM Boards
8
3.2
Power Supply
9
3.3
Reset
9
3.4
Ethernet
10
3.4.1
Magnetic
10
3.4.2
PCB Trace Routing and Controlled Impedance
10
3.4.3
ESD Protection
11
3.5
USB
11
3.5.1
External Circuits
11
3.5.2
PCB Trace Routing and Controlled Impedance
11
3.5.3
ESD Protection
11
3.6
External Memory Bus
12
3.6.1
LPC3141 and LPC3152
12
3.6.2
LPC3250 and LPC1788-16/32
12
3.6.3
LPC2478-16/32
12
3.7
Operating Conditions
12
3.8
ESD/EMI Protection and EMC Directive
12
3.8.1
ESD/EMI Protection
13
3.8.2
EMC Directive
13
3.9
Copyright 2012 © Embedded Artists AB
SO-DIMM Connector
Memories
13
3.9.1
NAND FLASH Bad Block
13
3.9.2
Brand of Memory Chips
13
OEM Board Integration Guide
Page 4
1 Document Revision History
Revision
Date
Description
A
2010-11-04
First version
PB1
2011-06-11
Added information about DDR2 SODIMM connectors
PB2
2012-05-03
Corrected Jedec number for SODIMM standard used (is MO-224)
Copyright 2012 © Embedded Artists AB
OEM Board Integration Guide
Page 5
2 Introduction
This manual describes the essential steps of integrating an Embedded Artists’ OEM Board into a
design. The advantages of using an OEM Board in a design are many:

Shorter design time – resulting in shorter time-to-market
The core part of the hardware is pre-designed and verified, thereby eliminating substantial
design issues and development risks.

Reduced development and production costs
Embedded Artists’ OEM boards have lower total cost for volumes up to 1-5K, when compared
to custom development.

Allow focus on real application
All resources can be allocated to the value adding application, as opposed to having to
allocate resources to also develop common hardware.
Embedded Artists’ OEM Boards can be deployed in a variety of embedded applications. They are
design to be general control platforms. The small SO-DIMM form factor makes the OEM Board easy to
integrate in a target system.
The OEM Boards come in different flavors;



2.1
Standard OEM Boards for lower volume applications, typically up to 2000 pieces
Cost optimized versions when 2000 pieces, or more, are needed.
Unique boards for specific application needs based on re-use of Embedded Artists’ proven
designs.
OEM Board Concept
An OEM Board integrates all core components around a specific NXP processor. OEM Boards have a
standardized form factor of 68 mm (wide) x 48-55 mm (height), based on the SO-DIMM standard. This
standard is well-known and a proven high-speed signal interface connector that is commonly used in
the industry (used for example in virtually all laptops for memory cards).
Pinning is not 100% compatible between different OEM Boards, but are quite similar in order to ease
switch between boards (for example to upgrade to a more powerful processor).
When integrating an OEM Board into a design an application specific base board must be developed.
The Developer’s Kit contains a flexible base board that can serve as reference implementation.
Another name for an application specific base board is a carrier board (for the OEM Board), but the
term base board is used throughout this document.
A design utilizes only exactly what is needed on an OEM Board. Only interfaces and signals needed
for a design need to be connected on the base board that is created. This flexibility makes it possible
to create a dense and (cost) optimized base board. There are multiple interfaces given by the core
processor that can be used, for example: Ethernet, USB, memory card, I2C, SPI, UART, memory bus
and more.
2.2
Typical Development Process
Embedded Artists have created Developer’s Kits for all OEM Boards. The kits make it easy to get
started immediately with evaluation and prototyping work. A Developer’s Kit contains a base board for
simple OEM Board integration and has typically multiple display options. The picture below shows an
example of the LPC3141 Developer’s Kit. This specific kit also includes headphones since the OEM
Board in the kit supports audio. Exact kit content varies from between kits.
Copyright 2012 © Embedded Artists AB
OEM Board Integration Guide
Page 6
Figure 1 – Typical Developer’s Kit Content
The typical development flow to integrate an OEM Board into a target system is as follows:
1. Start with a Developer’s Kit that contains both an OEM Board and a suitable base board. The
kit makes it possible to start working with the system very quickly, typically from day 1.
2. Prototype and develop the core application. Utilize the software sample applications that exist
for the Developer’s Kit. Embedded Artists offers support packages to further speedup
development.
3. When the specification for the new product is set, develop a base board for the specific endapplication. This document contains information about what to consider when designing the
specific base board.
Copyright 2012 © Embedded Artists AB
OEM Board Integration Guide
Page 7
3 Integration
This chapter addresses different interface and integration issues that must be addressed for an
application specific base board design. The list of subjects presented can be viewed as a checklist that
should be checked during design work.
3.1
SO-DIMM Connector
The OEM Board is based on the SO-DIMM form factor standard. A SO-DIMM connector is needed on
the base board and there are many different models and manufacturers to choose from.
More specifically it is the DDR2 SO-DIMM standard that is used. This is also called to have a 1.8V
keyed SO-DIMM board. The JEDEC standard defining the DDR2 SODIMM boards is called JEDEC
MO-224 and it is connectors supporting this standard that shall be used.
Note that there are also 2.5V keyed SO-DIMM boards and these are called DDR1 SO-DIMM boards.
These connectors cannot be used.
A typical DDR2 SO-DIMM socket specifications looks like below (with minor variations between
different models):







Durability : 25 Cycles
Voltage Rating: 25VAC
Current Rating: 0.5A
Contact Resistance: 50mΩ max.
Dielectric Withstanding Voltage: 250V AC/1 min.
Insulation Resistance: 50MΩ
Operating Temperature: -40℃ to +85℃
The table below lists some DDR2 SO-DIMM connectors from two manufacturers. The list is by no
means complete and is only an example of what can be found. For detailed information about specific
sockets, for example exact measures and recommended PCB layout, see the respective datasheet.
Part number
1565691-4
AS0A426-N4SN-7F
1473005-4
AS0A426-N2SN-7F
1717468-4
AS0A426-N6SN-7F
1827341-4
AS0A426-N8SN-7F
1612618-4
AS0A426-NASN-7F
Socket
height
4.0 mm
Distance between base board and SODIMM board
1.7 mm
Note that this is typically too small margin!
5.2 mm
2.9 mm
6,5mm
4.2 mm
8.0 mm
5.6 mm
9.2 mm
6.8 mm
Manufacturer
Tyco Electronics
Foxconn
Tyco Electronics
Foxconn
Tyco Electronics
Foxconn
Tyco Electronics
Foxconn
Tyco Electronics
Foxconn
Note that some connectors are sensitive during the soldering process. They can deform
slightly if soldering temperature is outside of specification for the respective connector. If this
happen, the connection to the SODIMM (OEM) board will be unreliable.
Copyright 2012 © Embedded Artists AB
OEM Board Integration Guide
Page 8
Always check height of components placed under the SO-DIMM socket on the base board and make
sure that there is enough clearance. At least 1 mm clearance is recommended.
Total clearance under the SO-DIMM connector will be (see tables above and below for exact
numbers):
‘Distance between base board and SO-DIMM board´- ‘Component height on bottom side’
OEM Board
Component height on top side
Component height on bottom side
LPC1788-16/32
1.5 mm
1.5 mm
LPC2478-16/32
2.0 mm
2.0 mm
LPC3141
1.4 mm
2.0 mm
LPC3152
2.1 mm
2.1 mm
LPC3250
2.6 mm
1.2 mm
Total height of SO-DIMM connector and OEM Board will be:
‘Distance between base board and SO-DIMM board´+ 1.0 mm + ‘Component height on top side’
3.1.1
Handling and Mounting SO-DIMM Boards
See picture below for instructions about how to mount/remove an OEM Board.
To install an OEM Board, align it to the socket (1). Push the board gently, and with even force between
the board edges, fully into the socket (2). Then push the board down in a rotating move (3) until it
snaps into place (4). The OEM Board shall lie flat and parallel to the base board.
To remove an OEM Board, spread the two arms of the SO-DIMM socket apart slightly. The board will
pop up (5). Gently rise the board in a rotating move (6) and then extract the board from the socket (7).
Apply even force between board edges when removing so that the board is removed parallel to the
locking arms.
Figure 2 – Instructions how to Mount/Remove an OEM Board
Do not forget to follow standard ESD precaution routines when mounting/unmounting an OEM Board.
Most signals exposed on the 200 edge contact fingers on the SO-DIMM board are unprotected.
Maintain the same electrical potential of the OEM Board (to be mounted) and the base board. Do not
Copyright 2012 © Embedded Artists AB
OEM Board Integration Guide
Page 9
touch the OEM Board edge connectors. Handle the OEM Board only by the three other edges. Also,
do not touch the components on the board.
3.2
Power Supply
The OEM Board needs a stable power supply. See the respective OEM Board datasheet for details
about power supply levels. Normally it is 3.3V nominal, but there are also OEM Boards that operate on
+5V nominal input voltage.
A linear power supply is recommended because of the lower noise ripple levels, but not strictly
needed. A switched supply is also possible but it must be well filtered. Noise ripple on the supply
voltage must be less than 50mV for frequency content up to 100 kHz. Above this frequency, ripple
should be below 10mV. Voltage dips below the minimum level (or above the maximum level) specified
in the OEM Board datasheet are not allowed and this includes noise ripple.
One 22uF low-ESR decoupling capacitor (tantal or ceramic) is recommended on the base board close
to the SO-DIMM connector pins (37/39) related to power supply.
Two 22uF low-ESR decoupling capacitors (tantal or ceramic) is also recommended on the base board
close to the SO-DIMM connector pins (165/199) related to power supply for buffers for memory bus
expansion.
The power supply shall be designed for the maximum current consumption of the OEM Board, and
should be able to deliver this at the maximum temperature for the system. The current consumption
very much depends on how the processor and memories on the OEM Board are used. Current
consumption is for example much higher when program executes from external SDRAM than from
internal SRAM. Usage of Ethernet, USB and NAND FLASH also affect current consumption. For
simplicity, the power supply can be designed for the maximum current consumption listed in the OEM
Board datasheet. For designs requiring a more optimized design, it is recommended to measure the
current consumption with the final application running. Then design the power supply with some
reasonable margin.
The VBAT supply can supply the OEM Board processor during low-power/idle mode. It is normally for
keeping a real-time clock running and keeping a small SRAM intact. Refer to the processor’s datasheet
for details about current consumption on VBAT and the valid voltage levels. Normally a small backup
battery (lithium button cell, or similar), a rechargeable battery cell or a super-capacitor is connected to
this supply. The duration requirements for the application determine what type of power supply to use.
3.3
Reset
The OEM Boards contains on-board reset generation on the supply voltage. There is no need from the
OEM Board perspective to generate a reset signal. If there is an additional external reset source, the
RESET_IN signal can be driven with an open-drain driver.
Copyright 2012 © Embedded Artists AB
OEM Board Integration Guide
3.4
Page 10
Ethernet
For OEM Boards with Ethernet interface, care must be observed when integrating this interface. Follow
the guidelines in this section for smoothest integration. The design supports both 10 and 100Mbps
Ethernet, i.e., IEEE 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX standards.
3.4.1
Magnetic
The magnetic is an important component for the overall IEEE and emission conformance.
Suggested magnetic modules (integrated in RJ45) that are used on Embedded Artists base boards in
Developer’s Kits are Bel Stewart SI-50170F and HanRun HY931168C.
These magnetics has not been tested to verify proper operation under all circumstances. They have
been evaluated by the content of the vendor supplied datasheet and legacy performance only. It can
be assumed, with some degree of confidence, that with proper PCB layout the suggested magnetic will
perform to high standards. For qualified magnetic (tested by the PHY vendor in order to verify proper
operation) please refer to the respective Ethernet-PHY vendor of the OEM Board used (check
schematics for details).
The picture below illustrated how to connect the SI-50170F connector (with integrated magnetic) from
Bel Stewart.
Figure 3 – Typical Ethernet Interface Design
3.4.2
PCB Trace Routing and Controlled Impedance
The transmit and receive data pairs shall be routed with 50 ohm impedance to ground and 100 ohm
differential (per data pair). The differential pairs shall maintain symmetry in length, shape and number
of vias. Vias shall be avoided as much as possible.
Controlled impedance for PCB traces are created by having a certain trace width and spacing between
data pairs. Affecting factors (for width and spacing) are dielectric relative permittivity, trace thickness
and distance to ground plane (i.e., dielectric height). Use an impedance calculator or consult a PCB
manufacturer for details how to create PCB traces with controlled impedance.
Copyright 2012 © Embedded Artists AB
OEM Board Integration Guide
Page 11
The transmit and receive data pairs shall also be isolated from nearby circuitry and signals. As a
general rule, no other tracks shall be within 10 times the trace width (or alternatively the distance
between the data pair tracks).
Consult the following application note from SMSC for detailed guidelines:
AN 18-6 SMSC Ethernet Physical Layer Layout Guidelines
http://www.smsc.com/media/Downloads/Application_Notes/an186.pdf
3.4.3
ESD Protection
Depending on application, special ESD protection of the Ethernet interface can be needed. There are
specific ESD protection diodes for Ethernet interfaces on the market, see for example the many
different ESD protection diodes from NXP.
3.5
USB
For OEM Boards with USB interface, care must be observed when integrating this high-speed
interface. Signal integrity is important to maintain.
3.5.1
External Circuits
Consult the Developer’s Kit base board schematic for reference designs around the USB interfaces.
3.5.2
PCB Trace Routing and Controlled Impedance
Below is a list of general routing guidelines that will help minimize signal quality problems and
maximize possibility for a successful design. The USB data pair (DP/DM) shall be routed with about
45-50 ohm impedance to ground and 90 ohm differential. This data pair traces are called the USB
differential traces below.







Route the USB differential traces with minimum trace lengths. Maintain maximum possible
distance between high-speed clocks/periodic signals to USB differential traces (at least 50 mil
distance). Low speed/non-periodic signal traces can be allowed somewhat closer to the data
pair, but a minimum of 20 mil distance should always be observed.
Route the USB differential traces using a minimum of vias and corners/turns, since this
reduce signal reflections and impedance discontinuities.
Avoid stubs on the USB differential traces since these will cause signal reflections and
negatively affect signal quality.
The USB differential traces shall maintain symmetry in length, shape and number of vias.
Route all USB differential traces over continuous GND plane with no interruptions.
Use 45° turns or an arc in order to reduce signal reflections and minimize impedance
discontinuities. A 90° turn is for example created by using two 45° turns.
The USB differential traces shall never be routed under crystals, oscillators, clock
synthesizers, magnetic devices or other components that use and/or duplicate clocks.
Controlled impedance for PCB traces are created by having a certain trace width and spacing between
data pairs. Affecting factors (for width and spacing) are dielectric relative permittivity, trace thickness
and distance to ground plane (i.e., dielectric height). Use an impedance calculator or consult a PCB
manufacturer for details how to create PCB traces with controlled impedance.
3.5.3
ESD Protection
Always add ESD protection diodes to an USB interface. See the base board design in Developer’s Kits
for recommended ESD protection design of the USB interfaces.
Copyright 2012 © Embedded Artists AB
OEM Board Integration Guide
3.6
Page 12
External Memory Bus
There are three different OEM Board principles how the buffers for external memory bus expansion are
controlled.
3.6.1
LPC3141 and LPC3152
Signal N_ABUF_EN shall be grounded to enable the address buffers. It is not recommended to gate
this signal with any logic. It should always be grounded when utilizing the external memory bus.
Signal N_DBUF_EN shall be driven by a logical XNOR (can be created with the 74LVC1G57 logic
chip) of signals B_N_STCS0 and B_N_STCS1. This way, the address space covered by signals
N_STCS0 and N_STCS1 is available for external expansion.
3.6.2
LPC3250 and LPC1788-16/32
The address buffers are always enabled; signal ABUF_EN is pulled low on the OEM Board to always
enable the address buffers.
The databus buffers are automatically controlled by logic on the OEM Board for the static memory
address ranges. For both LPC3250 and LPC1788 this covers CS0, CS1, CS2 and CS3.
Note that CS1 is used on the LPC1788 OEM Board for NAND flash chip select, so the address space
covered by CS1 cannot be used for external expansion.
3.6.3
LPC2478-16/32
Signal N_ABUF_EN shall be grounded to enable the address buffers. It is not recommended to gate
this signal with any logic. It should always be grounded when utilizing the external memory bus.
Signal DBUS_EN shall be driven by a logical AND of all external chip select (CS) signals that are used.
Note that both CS0 and CS1 are used on the LPC2478 OEM Board for NOR and NAND flash chip
selects, so the address space covered by CS0 and CS1 cannot be used for external expansion. CS2
and CS3 can however be used.
Note that there is no failsafe control of the data DBUS_EN buffer enable signal. If it is pulled low wrong
(i.e., enable the buffers) it will cause contention on the internal databus. In worst case it can damage
the internal circuits on the OEM Board.
3.7
Operating Conditions
The temperature range is specified in the OEM Board datasheet. Normally it is 0-70 degrees Celsius.
Extended temperature range is typically available on special request.
Note that self heating in an application can sometimes be significant (depending on ventilation and
cooling). Always measure the temperature the OEM Board operates in when the complete system
operates at its maximum temperature and make sure the maximum temperature limit is not exceeded.
Also make sure the relative humidity (RH) limits are met. The non-condensing requirement is important
to meet. This can be a problem if temperature in the system is varying rapidly.
3.8
ESD/EMI Protection and EMC Directive
Many nations and market areas require commercial electronic products to meet certain
electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards before they may be marketed and sold there. The
European Union (EU), and to a growing extension other regions as well, also require commercial
electronic products to meet certain electromagnetic interference (EMI) standards and electrostatic
discharge (ESD) standards.
Copyright 2012 © Embedded Artists AB
OEM Board Integration Guide
3.8.1
Page 13
ESD/EMI Protection
In general it is very important to protect a design for the effects of ESD and EMI. External signals
entering the base board, and eventually the OEM Board, must be properly protected from both ESD
and EMI. Exactly what type of protection that is needed is very application dependent. The different
standards must be consulted for details about needed protection.
3.8.2
EMC Directive
The goal of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is correct operation of a system (immunity of EMI) and
the avoidance of generating unwanted effects to other systems (emission of EMI).
Note that the EU EMC Directive concerns primarily the finished products. In applying the Directive to
components, the Guidelines [1] should be consulted to determine whether the component in question
has a “direct function”. Electric motors, power supply units or temperature controls represent examples
of such components with “direct function”. These types of components must be provided with a CE
marking.
Components which are integrated into a device (not by the end-user), such as an OEM Board, do not
have an independent function of their own. A given OEM Board may perform differing functions in
different devices. Consequently, OEM Boards must be considered components without “direct
function” which are not subject to the EMC Directive.
OEM Board shall not be labeled with a CE marking nor shall a declaration of conformity be issued
within the scope of the EMC Directive. The end product that an OEM Board is integration into is
however very likely to need CE marking and a declaration of conformity should be issued within the
scope of the EMC Directive.
The OEM Boards have been designed according to best practice for reducing electro-magnetic
emission with multilayer PCB, appropriate decoupling, component placement and trace routing.
Measurements must however be performed on the final products and the result very much depends on
the environment into which it is integrated to. Shielding around the product might be needed for
compliance.
[1] Guidelines (version dated February 8, 2010) for the Application of the Council Directive
2004/108/EC, see http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/electrical/emc/index_en.htm and
http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/electrical/documents/emc/guidance/index_en.htm
3.9
Memories
3.9.1
NAND FLASH Bad Block
Some OEM Boards have a NAND Flash memory. These chips may include invalid blocks when
shipped from factory. Additional invalid blocks may develop while being used. Invalid blocks are
defined as blocks that contain one or more bad bits. Do not erase or program factory-marked bad
blocks. Refer to technical notes from chip manufacturer for appropriate management of invalid blocks.
3.9.2
Brand of Memory Chips
There is no guarantee for a certain brand or version of memory chips mounted on OEM Boards;
serial/parallel NOR flash, parallel NAND flash and SDRAM. The lifetime of memory chips is limited and
availability can also be limited from time to time. Embedded Artists make every effort to mount the
original design chip on the board. In case that is impossible a compatible chip will instead be mounted
without any prior notice. There can be small programming differences between mounted brands. The
application program shall always read the chip id of flash devices to make certain which chip is actually
mounted on the board.
The support page contains datasheets to the different memory devices and information about mounted
devices on different board versions.
Copyright 2012 © Embedded Artists AB
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