Project Description

Project Description

Atmosphere - Ocean Interaction

Project description

Strategic University Programme (SUP) proposal 2006-2010 from the Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen

Project manager: Professor Peter M. Haugan

2006-01-25

1. Objectives and summary

The overall scientific objectives of this strategic university programme (SUP) are to:

A Improve the understanding of key atmosphere-ocean interaction processes at a fundamental level, to provide a better basis for their representation in models, and to enhance the accuracy of air-sea flux estimations.

B Investigate the roles of atmosphere-ocean interaction versus horizontal atmospheric and oceanic mass and energy transports in determining interannual climate variability in the Atlantic-Arctic sector.

The SUP focuses on fundamental problems of atmosphere-ocean interaction, and provides the opportunity to conduct the following in-depth investigations, covering a 3-4 year time frame:

1. Fundamental studies of atmosphere-ocean flux processes

2. Interannual variability of surface fluxes and ocean heat storage

In order to make knowledge on these topics available to the scientific and broader community at local, national/regional and international levels we propose in addition the following activity:

3. Atmosphere-ocean interaction seminars and information exchange

The first subproject comprises theoretical and basic process modelling studies of the air-sea interface, and contributes primarily to objective A. Subproject 2 relates mainly to overall objective B using atmosphere-ocean data sets from the past 50 years.

The Geophysical Institute at the University of Bergen has long and proud traditions in meteorological and oceanographic research. In recent evaluation reports, the strong representation of both meteorology and oceanography at the Institute was recognised as a major asset, and it was recommended that steps were taken to improve the co-ordination between the two subject areas, with the strengthening of educational, training, and research activities within the field of air-sea interaction. Several steps in this direction have already been taken, with the establishment of permanent associate professor positions dedicated to (i) chemical oceanography, including the field of air-sea gas exchange, and (ii) atmosphere-iceocean coupled modelling. Significant work within these areas has already been performed, recent examples being studies of the ventilation of the deep ocean (Gascard et al., 2002), the effect of sea surface temperature and ice cover on the atmospheric circulation (Kvamstø et al.

2004), the development and application of a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model

(Furevik et al., 2003; Otterå et al., 2003, 2004; Bentsen et al., 2004; Sorteberg et al., 2005), non-local exchange models for shear turbulence (Cushman-Roisin & Jenkins, 2005) and atmosphere-ocean momentum and heat exchange (Jenkins & Ward, 2005), the effect of turbulence on swell waves (Ardhuin & Jenkins, 2005), air-sea drag at very high wind speeds

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(Bye & Jenkins, 2005), the use of different coordinate system formulations for wave-current interaction and air-sea momentum flux (Jenkins, 2004; Jenkins & Ardhuin, 2004) and new fundamental results on the effect of air-sea fluxes on the satellite imaging of ocean processes

(Kudryavtsev et al., 2005; Johannessen et al., 2005), in additional to historical review studies of air-sea interaction (Jenkins & Bye 2005).

The establishment of this SUP will further strengthen the research activity in the field of atmosphere-ocean interaction, which is fundamental for our understanding of the global and regional environment and climate. The SUP will be essential in continuing the development of the institute towards stronger integration between the fields of meteorology and oceanography, which is also vital for the growing activity of Operational Oceanography

(Johannessen et al., 2000; Ardhuin et al. 2005). Additional expertise in the fundamentals of air-sea interaction processes, are available with the appointment to the SUP of an experienced senior scientist leading subproject 1 and serving as co-adviser to the Ph.D. student funded by the programme.

The members of the scientific team behind the proposal are active in a number of large projects with many national and international collaborators. In addition to the scientific objectives of the program, an important aim of the SUP is the production of well qualified candidates who can become competent researchers in air-sea interaction processes and their application to boundary layer and climate change studies. There is still a shortage of such expertise in Norway, and important societal concerns indicate a growing need for this kind of expertise in the future. The Ph.D. student will be linked to the ongoing activities of the scientific team, and thereby well integrated in the research community. The seminar series planned as part of the SUP will be an important forum for providing in particular the new generation of Ph.D. students in operational oceanography and climate research with an opportunity to strengthen their fundamental competence in air-sea coupling.

This proposal will be related to the IGBP-project, Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study,

SOLAS-science and address particularly key questions 2 and 3 in the science plan.

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1. Fundamental studies of air-sea fluxes

2. Interannual flux variations

Understanding of:

fundamental processes

Improvement of:

regional and large-scale models

1. Fundamental studies of airsea fluxes

Climate research and prediction

Operational oceanography and meteorology

Fig. 1. Links between the subprojects of Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction. Results from fundamental studies of key air-sea processes and estimation of interannual flux variations will be used to improve and tune the parameterisation of these processes in regional and globalscale climate and operational models, with distribution of state-of-the-art information to the research community.

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2. The overall scientific problems

2.1 Fluxes through the air-sea interface

It is necessary for a proper understanding of the global atmosphere-ocean heat balance, and the spatial distribution and time evolution of greenhouse gases, to understand quantitatively and on a fundamental level the phenomena which influence air-sea fluxes of mass, momentum, and energy. In particular, it is necessary to consider as a whole the air-sea interface and the boundary layers on both sides of it, and formulate in a self-consistent way the dynamics, and other physical and biogeochemical processess, so that continuity is maintained in the system description as one moves through the lower atmosphere down into the ocean. In the high latitude regions considered within the SUP, high wind speeds are common, are likely to contribute in a major way to the fluxes, and the coupled system properties are not well understood under such conditions. Steep and breaking waves are always present when the wind is strong, and so it is necessary to perform studies that take them into account.

Although there has in recent years been considerable clarification of the role of different physical processes in the air-sea exchange of momentum, energy (including heat), and mass,

(including moisture, CO

2

and other climatically relevant substances) (e.g. Donelan et al.,

1993; Bock et al., 1999; Jansen, 1999; Banner et al., 2000, Fairall et al., 2000; Li et al., 2000;

Chen et al., 2001; Taylor & Yelland, 2001a; Bonekamp et al., 2002; Makin & Kudryavtsev

2002; Drennan et al., 2003; Makin, 2003, 2005; Smedman et al., 2003; Sjöblom & Smedman,

2003, 2004; Andreas, 2004; Edson et al., 2004; Garbe et al., 2004; Hara & Belcher, 2004;

Oost & Oost, 2004; Qiu et al, 2004; Ward et al., 2004a; Caniaux et al. 2005; Dietze &

Oschlies, 2005), much remains to be quantified and understood, particularly regarding the processes which occur at high latitudes and under conditions of strong wind. Many of the detailed air-sea flux studies which have hitherto been performed have been at low latitudes

(e.g. during TOGA-COARE, Lac et al., 2002): however, increasing effort is now being put into mid-latitude and high-latitude studies, such as AGASEX, ASGAMAGE (Oost, 1995,

Jacobs et al., 2000, Oost et al., 2000, 2002), Baltic Sea (Smedman et al. 2003; Sjöblom &

Smedman 2003, 2004) and Southern Ocean (Yelland et al. 1998; Chen et al. 2001) investigations. Under strong wind conditions, the effects of surface waves, and particularly of wave breaking, become increasingly important, as observations become correspondingly more difficult (Kraan et al., 1996; Powell et al. 2003; Makin, 2005; Kudryavtsev, 2005; Bye &

Jenkins, 2005).

The severe weather conditions and high winds experienced in the northern sea area covered by the SUP lead naturally to episodic events where air-sea fluxes are extremely high (reaching up to order 1000 W m -2 off the ice edge – Brummer et al., 1992; Brummer, 1996ab), and associated with an atmosphere-ocean interface which is very much disrupted by breaking wave crests and other violent dynamical phenomena. It is therefore very important for a proper understanding of the relevant processes to undertake careful fundamental theoretical and modelling studies, taking into account the field measurements and satellite observations which are available under the challenging environmental conditions which will inevitably be present.

2.2 Global and regional heat and mass balance

The global radiation balance requires poleward heat transports of order TW (10 12 W) to PW

(10 15 W). The relative contributions from the atmosphere and oceans to this transport vary

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with latitude, with ocean transports dominating in low latitudes and atmosphere transports closer to the poles (Trenberth and Caron, 2001). The dynamical mechanisms involved are quite different in the two media (Bryden & Imawaki, 2001). The mean, seasonally-varying and geographically-varying atmospheric heat and moisture transports to high northern latitudes can be quantified from data and model-assisted analyses, but the accuracy is limited

(Overland & Turet, 1994). Long-term mean estimates of oceanic heat transports through the ocean basins are also available (see e.g. Simonsen & Haugan, 1996, for net transport to the

Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean), but very little is known about its interannual variability.

Will perturbations in the oceanic heat transport be compensated by atmospheric heat transport as suggested by Bjerknes (1964)? Will perturbations instead be compensated by changing albedo or radiation temperature, e.g. via sea ice extent or cloudiness? In order to address these fundamental questions, which are crucial for regional climate and possibly also for global climate, a combination of insight into atmosphere and ocean dynamics as well as high latitude air-sea heat exchange is desirable.

In a pioneering study of North Atlantic climate, Bjerknes (1964) argued that short-term variability in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is governed primarily by the atmosphere, while longer-term variability is governed by oceanic processes. This notion has been followed up by a large number of investigators (e.g. Deser & Blackmon, 1993; Kushnir, 1994; Hansen &

Bezdek, 1996; Sutton & Allen, 1997; Marotzke & Pierce, 1997; Nilsson, 2000; Sutton &

Hodson, 2005). It is unclear whether there exists a useful demarcation time scale between oceanic and atmospheric dominance, but decadal variability in the state of the system, as expressed e.g. by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, is apparently associated with air-sea interaction (Bjerknes, 1964). The identification of modes of decadal variability in the

North Atlantic and the Arctic, and possible causes of varying contributions from such modes, is an important and presently very open field of active research.

It is also still largely an open question what the primary driving forces and rate-limiting factors are for large scale overturning circulation and associated meridional heat transport in the ocean. Low-latitude tidally driven vertical mixing (Munk & Wunsch, 1998) and wind forcing in the southern hemisphere (Toggweiler & Samuels, 1998) may be able to drive the circulation without much energy input from surface buoyancy forces. Equatorial transport processes may stabilise the thermohaline circulation (Latif et al, 2000) and influence decadal variability at high latitudes (Latif, 2001, Hoerling et al., 2001). However, high latitude air-sea interaction is also an integral part of the oceanic conveyor. The variable location of the northern terminus of the circulation and the strength of regional dense water formation

(Aagaard & Carmack, 1994; Dickson et al., 1996; Bentsen et al., 2004) are certainly affected by surface buoyancy fluxes and strongly linked to sea ice extent.

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3. Focus and approach of the SUP

3.1 Scientific focus

Many research groups around the world study various aspects of air-sea interaction, oceanic overturning circulation, etc., discussed in the previous section. Members of the present team are heavily involved in numerical global coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean climate modelling, process studies of dense water formation, space-time variability studies in the North Atlantic and Nordic Seas, and fundamental theoretical aspects of air-sea interface processes (see the

Appendix for an overview of related activities and linkages). In the present project we wish to contribute to understanding fundamental aspects of the large-scale heat transports and surface heat, momentum, and mass balance at high northern latitudes.

As a theoretical framework for the program, and to provide a basis for understanding the subject as a whole, we propose to perform the following investigation:

Fundamental studies of atmosphere-ocean flux processes (subproject 1): In high-latitude areas, strong winds and severe weather conditions are a common occurrence, and under such conditions, a major contribution to the air-sea flux of momentum, mass, and energy is made by breaking waves. We propose a study of the hydrodynamical and physical effects of wave breaking, using suitable theoretical and ad hoc numerical models. The most important of these effects will be incorporated into a one-dimensional coupled model for the sea surface and atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers. The results from the theoretical and model investigations will be used to improve air-sea flux parameterisations for momentum, energy, moisture, heat, and mass, in regional and large-scale three-dimensional coupled models, and to identify critical parameters to be measured during field investigations. A more detailed description is given in section 4.1.

With respect to large-scale regional coupled atmosphere-ocean phenomena, we propose to perform the following study:

Interannual variability of surface fluxes and ocean heat storage (subproject 2): A reliable quantification of mean seasonally and geographically varying total surface heat exchange in the Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean is difficult. But recent advances in modelling tools, the availability of in situ and remote sensing data, and the usefulness of just a slight improvement of present large error bars, make the effort worthwhile. With such a basis, interannual variability can be obtained, which in combination with regional oceanic heat storage estimated from hydrography, would give a new basis for understanding interannual variability and propagation of anomalies. The improvements in air-sea flux parameterisation from subproject 1 will also be of great value in providing better interannual flux variability estimates.

3.2 Implementation strategy

This project is intended as a strategic action to achieve certain research policy goals in addition to the specific scientific goals. When putting together the present proposal, we have attempted to strike a balance between building on existing expertise and entering new areas dictated by long term research policy goals, societal needs, and the opportunity of building expertise in new, exciting fields of research. In order to expedite the process of opening a new field of activity, a senior scientist with long experience in air-sea interaction research will be engaged. He will be responsible for a fundamental theoretical investigation (subproject 1) in order to provide a scientific framework for the program and provide a capability for a rapid

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advance in the state of knowledge in this important area. Subproject 2 will be conducted primarily by one Ph.D. student with supervision from the PIs, including the senior scientist.

When designing the Ph.D. subproject we have had several constraints in mind. First, the Ph.D.

project should be sufficiently well separated from ongoing research projects in our own group, collaborating groups and elsewhere, so that the Ph.D. student will not risk being burdened with short term project-related technical work. Second, the Ph.D. student should not start on too “hot topic” scientific problems, which other investigators, who can work more rapidly than a Ph.D. student, will tackle simultaneously. Rather, the Ph.D. student should be to some extent shielded from normal project related tasks and be given good working conditions to concentrate on fundamental problems. This strategy is based on long experience from working with Ph.D. students in soft-money project-based institutions. We believe that it should be possible to follow such a strategy when the profile of the SUP is fundamental science, aiming to obtain a deeper understanding, rather than project oriented science, where one tries to obtain in a rather limited time the best answers available from existing knowledge and tools

(e.g. IPCC-type projects).

For the Ph.D. position we have deliberately chosen not to name qualified candidates, because we believe that open competition is a sound principle and necessary to promote the normally very poor mobility in the Norwegian university system. A further step towards the promotion of mobility is that the senior scientist proposed as principal investigator for subproject 1, although he has long fundamental research experience, both at a Norwegian and

European/international level, is not at present an university employee, and will retain a parttime external position at Unifob/Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research (BCCR).

In the structure of our project, it is the task of the PIs to ensure connections to both external collaborators and institutions. It is a guiding principle that several PIs, both meteorologists and oceanographers, are involved as supervisors of the Ph.D. student. They will contribute with their special and complementary expertise as well as their external network. The SUP and its incorporated seminars (Subproject 3) will comprise activities that will serve to develop the links between different sub-disciplines and entrain other Ph.D. students, funded elsewhere.

Coupled numerical modelling has over time obtained a more prominent role in the national climate modelling project RegClim and the Bjerknes Collaboration in Bergen. The competence in coupled dynamics at the Geophysical Institute has been strengthened in recent years by new permanent staff (Tore Furevik in 2002 and Joachim Reuder in 2005) and by the coupled atmosphere-ocean modelling activities (Bergen Climate Model at a global scale, and coupled atmosphere-ocean modelling at mesoscale within the ProClim project funded by

NFR, 2003-2006).

We have listed the following formal external collaborators in the Research Council proposal form:

1. University of Miami: Dr. William Drennan will share data from direct turbulence flux measurements of momentum, heat, water vapour and CO

2

, together with surface waves and supporting meteorological and oceanic parameters;

2. National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan: Dr. Ryuichi

Nagaosa will provide results from direct numerical simulation (DNS) studies of the subsurface boundary layer.

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3. Fisheries and Oceans Canada - Bedford Institute of Oceanography: Drs. Charles Tang and

William Perrie will collaborate actively in areas of wave-current coupling and air-sea flux and ocean mixing parameterization.

4. Nansen International Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, St. Petersburg: Dr.

Vladimir Kudryavtsev will collaborate within the following areas: theoretical investigation of the impact of surface waves on the air-sea exchange of mass, momentum, energy, in high-latitude areas of the open ocean; and in application of the model results to improve the air-sea flux parameterizations for momentum, energy, and mass, and for large-scale three-dimensional coupled models.

In addition, we have, as explained in the appendix and in each subproject description, a number of close links to both national and international collaborators.

From the Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany, Professor Hans Burchard, originator of the GOTM turbulence model will will conduct complementary work in modelling atmospheric and ocean turbulent boundary layers. Close contact will be kept with the GOTM development community in developing the proposed one-dimensional coupled model.

Dr. Øyvind Sætra of the Norwegian Meteorological Institute will conduct complementary coupled model studies of the effect of surface waves on atmosphere-ocean fluxes. Professor

Jan Erik Weber, Institute of Geosciences, University of Oslo, will act as a scientific adviser to the project on wave dynamics and coupled air-sea interaction. Dr. Fabrice Ardhuin of the

French Naval Hydrographic Service has been collaborating closely with investigator Dr.

Alastair D. Jenkins on the theory and modelling of wave-current interaction under the

AURORA programme of scientific collaboration between France and Norway (see papers by

Ardhuin and Jenkins in the reference list), and this collaboration is planned to continue during the course of the project. Professor Helge Drange and his ice-ocean modelling group at the

Nansen Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center (NERSC) will collaborate by providing model results and implementing parameterisations within the proposed activity in interannual flux variability.

The Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center (NERSC) and the University Courses on Svalbard (UNIS) are particularly closely linked with the Geophysical Institute in programmes related to training of young scientists. Recent examples are the EU funded Marie

Curie Training Site on High-Latitude Climate Processes awarded to a consortium led by Peter

M. Haugan, the establishment of a research school in climate studies coordinated by the

Geophysical Institute, and concrete plans for summer schools in air-sea-ice interactions and general climate studies in collaboration with UNIS and a group from University of

Washington, Seattle. We have also tight collaboration with UNIS in several polar and sea ice related projects and have instituted two-way affiliate professorships. While the scope of the present project is too limited to include specific activities directed at sea ice or polar oceanography and meteorology, it is expected that the results will serve a community of Ph.D.

students and scientists including UNIS. In the present SUP we have active participation from senior scientists with primary affiliations at NERSC. The expertise at NERSC in utilisation of satellite remote sensing data from the North Atlantic and Arctic sector will be integrated in the programme. Common seminars and national/international research workshops for both meteorologists and oceanographers will be developed in conjunction with the SUP.

Complementary to the fundamental process studies described in Section 4.1 is the research activity at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (met.no) on air-sea interaction, in particular with respect to the influence of surface waves on the atmosphere and ocean, and funded by the

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European Commission via a Marie Curie network project on coupled wave-atmospheric modelling of air-sea fluxes of heat, moisture, momentum, and energy.

A common attribute of the major relevant Norwegian climate research programmes RegClim

(where Sigbjørn Grønås is member of the Scientific Steering Committee) and NOClim (where

Peter M. Haugan is project manager) is that studies of air-sea interaction were not prominently included in the initial phases of each project. We believe that this lack of emphasis was more due to a lack of strong research basis in the Norwegian scientific community for relevant aspects of air-sea interaction and coupled dynamics, than due to lack of importance of such processes. An underlying aim of the present SUP is to enable the next generation of

Norwegian climate research projects to have available both young and experienced scientists with skills to perform dynamical studies of coupled phenomena and to exploit the opportunities emerging from analyses of integrated atmosphere-ocean data sets as well as model tools.

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4. Subproject descriptions

4.1 Fundamental studies of atmosphere-ocean flux processes

Principal investigator: Dr. Alastair D. Jenkins

Co-investigators: Prof. Truls Johannessen, Dr. Richard Bellerby

Project period: 1 July 2006 - 30 June 2010

Personnel applied for: One Senior Scientist (75%)

Objectives

Main objective:

1. To provide a fundamental basis for the interpretation of measurements of air-sea fluxes of momentum, energy, heat, and mass;

2. To provide necessary algorithms and process modelling studies for the design and improvement of larger-scale coupled ocean-atmosphere and climate models.

Specific objectives:

Quantification of the contribution of surface waves to the air-sea exchange of mass, momentum, and energy, in high-latitude areas of the open ocean, using theoretical and

ad hoc numerical models.

Refinement of wave-induced mixing parameterisations in a one-dimensional model implementation of the coupled boundary layers and the sea surface.

Application of the theoretical and one-dimensional model results to improve the air-sea flux parameterisations for momentum, energy and mass, and for large-scale threedimensional coupled models, and to identify critical parameters to be measured during field investigations.

Scientific Background

The primary geographical target area of the investigations extends from the North Atlantic to the boundaries of the Arctic: a region that is subject to very energetic meteorological conditions. Although the northern part of the area has much ice cover, it is to be expected that the atmosphere-ocean fluxes of momentum, thermal and mechanical energy, and mass also occur to a great extent in the open-water parts of the area. Consequently, a program that aims to conduct basic research in atmosphere-ocean interaction in this area should have as a major focus the investigation, at a fundamental level, of basic processes that are involved in air-sea exchange. It will thus address key questions in the SOLAS science plan, particularly

Activities 2.1-2.3 on exchange across the air-sea interface and processes in the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers. This particular subproject aims to fulfil this function by conducting fundamental studies of some of the relevant physical processes, and will provide a framework on which the other subproject and related projects can build. The scientist who will conduct the work under this subproject, Dr. Alastair D. Jenkins, has many years' experience in theoretical and modelling studies of a number of different air-sea interaction phenomena, and has published significant and highly original work in the hydrodynamics of near-surface currents, wave generation and air-sea momentum flux, and wave breaking.

Although there have been considerable advances in our knowledge of the role of different physical processes in the air-sea exchange of mass (including moisture), momentum, and energy (including heat), much remains to be quantified, particularly regarding the processes which occur at high latitudes and under conditions of strong wind, where the effects of surface

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waves, and particularly of wave breaking, become increasingly important, as observations become correspondingly more difficult. Processes and phenomena of particular relevance include:

Generation of spray and bubbles by breaking waves (Andreas et al., 1995,

Wanninkhof et al., 1995, Asher et al., 1996, Andreas & DeCosmo, 1999, Georgescu et al., 2002, Melville and Matusov, 2002; Andreas, 2004; Kudryavtsev 2005; Bye &

Jenkins 2005);

The generation of spume by “tearing” of wave crests (Anguelova et al., 1999,

Andreas & DeCosmo, 2002);

Generation of turbulent jets and plumes (e.g. Jenkins, 1994; Eifler & Donlon, 2001;

Chirichella et al, 2002; Melville et al., 2002);

Surface cooling by sensible and latent heat flux (e.g. Soloviev & Schlüssel 1996,

Kepert et al., 1999);

Shear-generated and wave-generated turbulence (Craig & Banner, 1994; Craig,

1996; Nagaosa & Saito, 1996; Nagaosa, 1999, Terray et al., 1996, 1999; Burchard et al., 1999; Gemmrich & Farmer, 1999; Burchard, 2001; Melville et al., 2002;

Nagaosa & Handler, 2003; Enstad et al., 2003; Umlauf et al., 2003; Umlauf &

Burchard, 2003, 2005; Melsom & Sætra, 2004);

Over- and under-pressure of dissolved gas species (e.g. Farmer et al., 1993);

The generation and break-up of surface films (van den Tempel & van de Riet, 1965,

Gottifredi & Jameson, 1968, Weber & Førland, 1989, Hühnerfuss et al., 1987, Alpers

& Hühnerfuss, 1989, Weber & Sætra, 1995, Frew, 1997, Jenkins & Jacobs, 1997,

Spivak et al., 2002);

The effect of wind-generated current shear on the maximum wave steepness before wave breaking occurs (Banner & Phillips, 1974, Douglass, 1990, Jenkins, 2001);

Deep convection initiated by strong surface cooling (Gascard et al., 2002).

Specific phenomena to be studied

The air-sea interface is characterised by two properties which are not shared by internal interfaces within the atmosphere or the ocean, such as fronts, inversion layers, and thermoclines: (i) the density changes by three orders of magnitude; and (ii) it has a characteristic surface tension or surface energy, acting to prevent the breakup of the interface, which may also be modified by the presence of naturally-occurring surface-active substances.

Consequently, it acts as a barrier to mixing processes, and molecular diffusion and heat conduction play a more important role at the air-sea interface than elsewhere in the atmosphere or water column, where turbulent diffusion dominates.

When light or moderate winds blow over the sea surface, waves are generated, and it is usually the case that they grow steep enough that hydrodynamic instability near the wave crests will lead to the production of roll vortices (Longuet-Higgins, 1992) which will then cause a breakup of the laminar surface layer and lead to turbulent mixing.

When the winds become stronger, however, the breaking wave crests will eject mass in the form of jets which will subsequently impact the water surface again, generating violent mixing, or break up (Longuet-Higgins, 1995), forming droplets or spray. Air bubbles will then be formed in the water column from the impact of the jet or of spray with the water surface

(Farmer et al., 1993, Wanninkhof et al. 1995, Asher et al., 1996), and can contribute further to spray generation (Georgescu et al., 2002). These processes are very complex, and quantifying their effect on air-sea fluxes is obviously a difficult task. However, it may be possible to use general considerations of energy balance to find overall constraints on the processes, based on the theory of Newell & Zakharov (1992) that a continuous transition exists from unbroken fluid surfaces to surfaces with droplets, spray, and bubbles (cf. Goodridge et al., 1999).

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Proposed study

Theoretical investigations

In the high-latitude area of interest, strong wind conditions and high waves occur frequently, so the proposed research effort will cover the situation where surface waves have a significant effect on the dynamics, including cases where the sea surface is broken up and mass is being ejected from the wave crests. There have been many detailed experimental and theoretical studies of various aspects of the air-sea flux problem; however, in the proposed investigation we plan to concentrate on fluid dynamical aspects where we already have some expertise, and to keep in mind the overall picture, treating the atmosphere - sea surface - ocean system as a whole rather than considering each part in isolation. An important part of the problem consists of the flow of seawater from the water column, outwards through breaking wave jets, and then being recycled in mixing plumes and via spray droplets, or taking part in evaporation or condensation processes. An investigation of this process will involve the application of analytical and one-dimensional numerical models, the specific details of which will be determined during the course of the study. Particular mechanisms which should be evaluated include the following:

The momentum and energy balance in the wave field (Weber & Melsom, 1993ab;

Chen & Belcher, 2000; Lewis & Belcher, 2004; Melsom & Sætra, 2004;

McWilliams et al., 2004; Moon et al., 2004; Ardhuin, 2005; Ardhuin & Jenkins,

2005; Ardhuin et al., 2005, Polton et al., 2005) and in jets and plumes from breaking waves (Jenkins, 1994; Melville et al., 2004);

Breakup of the sea surface by wind and wave forcing (Newell & Zakharov, 1992,

Goodridge et al., 1999);

The effect of wind variability on vertical velocity shear and wave breaking (Baddour

& Song, 1998, Jenkins, 2001).

Process/1D modelling

As a tool to perform the necessary computations of the coupled atmosphere - surface - ocean coupled boundary-layer system, it is desirable to have available a state-of-the art numerical model which takes account of the relevant phenomena, in particular, the turbulent motions in the ocean and in the atmosphere, and which can be used to evaluate quantitatively the effects of the various relevant physical processes. Such a model should also be easy to extend to take account of new and modified mechanisms, the fluxes of additional substances, etc.

The General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) has been developed by Dr. Hans Burchard of the Baltic Sea Research Institute in Warnemünde, together with a core team of ocean modellers in different countries in Europe (Burchard et al., 1999, Burchard, 2001, Burchard &

Bolding, 2001; Umlauf et al., 2003; Umlauf & Burchard, 2003, 2005), and has been applied in connexion with a number of international research projects (CARTUM, PHASE, PROVESS,

KEYCOP). The model is available free of charge under the GPL licence from its home page http://www.gotm.net/, and is built in a modular form so that it is easy to modify as required.

Professor. Burchard is very interested in having the model applied in a new area, and has agreed to collaborate with the SUP.

GOTM employs the following parameterisations:

Boundary-layer turbulence determined by the turbulent kinetic energy, a turbulent length scale, and a stability function representing the effects of stratification and velocity shear;

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Alternative turbulence closure formulations, including the KPP non-local method;

Internal mixing, due to shear instability, breaking internal waves, parameterised using the Richardson number

The effect of breaking waves on the surface layer (Craig & Banner, 1994, Craig, 1996) is also taken into account, and recent improvements in the wave parameterisation have been applied

(Umlauf & Burchard, 2003; Umlauf et al., 2003). It will be necessary to add to the model to take account of the atmospheric boundary layer and the effect of surface waves on the atmospheric flow (Jansen, 1991, 1992, 1999; Jenkins, 1992, 1993; Janssen & Viterbo, 1996;

Makin & Kudryavtsev, 1999, Uz et al., 2002). The state variables of the model (horizontal velocity, temperature, salinity, suspended matter, buoyancy) can easily be extended to include other quantities such as the concentration of dissolved gases. The model is also designed to be embedded easily in a three-dimensional model.

The principal investigator has expertise in modelling near-surface currents, the wave field, and wave breaking (Jenkins, 1989, 1994), and we propose to concentrate on developing the aspects of the model that deal with these phenomena.

Interaction with observational and experimental programs

Detailed measurements of processes in the vicinity of the air-water interface are in general difficult. Nevertheless, there exists now a considerable amount of published literature within the subject area, which may repay a careful analysis. In particular, interpretation of measurements made from moving measurement platforms may, in combination with theoretical analysis and numerical modelling using surface-following coordinates, allow us to in effect increase the vertical resolution of mean fluxes and concentration profiles at distances from the sea surface which are considerably smaller than the wave height. Within the atmospheric boundary layer this may aid our interpretation of observed effects of surface waves and swell on the drag coefficient and its relation with the turbulent energy dissipation

(Jansen, 1999, 2001; Taylor & Yelland, 2001ab; Bonekamp et al., 2002; Sjöblom &

Smedman, 2003, 2004; Smedman et al., 2003). Below the sea surface we may obtain a better understanding of the behaviour of surface drift currents (Kraus, 1977; Huang, 1979; Tsahalis,

1979; Jenkins, 1984; Jakobsen et al., 2003; Tang et al., 2005) and the relation between wave energy dissipation, turbulent energy production, and air-sea momentum flux (Banner &

Peirson, 1995; Banner et al., 2000; Chen et al., 2001, Peirson & Banner, 2003; Melville et al.,

2002).

At the water surface itself, detailed information on the dynamics and transfer of heat and mass is available in a few fine-scale studies, from laboratory tanks (Nagaosa, 1999, Nagaosa &

Saito, 1996; Nagaosa & Handler, 2003; Pierson & Banner, 2003), by infrared imaging

(Haußecker & Jähne, 1994; Garbe et al., 2004) and by profiling instruments (Ward et al.,

2004ab). Analysis of the results of these published experimental studies will provide valuable information on the necessary interfacial boundary conditions for coupled atmosphere-ocean models. Since the centimetre-scale structure of the air-water interface has a significant effect on thermal infrared and passive and active microwave imaging of the ocean from satellites, a better representation of the dynamical and physical processes at the interfacial boundary will improve the interpretation of such remote sensing observations.

The proposed theoretical and model approaches are also linked to ongoing and growing activities in experimental boundary layer meteorology at GFI. A small unmanned airplane for measuring profiles of temperature and humidity up to 2 km above ground has been brought to

Bergen by Dr. Joachim Reuder in 2005 (e.g. Egger et al., 2005). In a related 4 year PhD

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projected starting in spring 2006 the system will be extended to onboard wind measurements, then enabling the use of the airplane for determing fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum by the profile-method based on flux-gradient relationships. In addition several projects in the field of boundary layer meteorology have been proposed with the aim to build up instrumental capacities for direct determination of fluxes of heat, moisture, momentum and CO

2

by the eddy-correlation method.

Field studies for atmosphere-ocean gas flux conducted by scientists at and associated with

GFI include:

● Carbon and oxygen fluxes in the Norwegian Atlantic Current and Nordic seas, and interannual fCO

2

variability (Skjelvan, 1999; Skjelvan et al., 1999, 2001; Skjelvan &

Watson, 2002);

Variation of dissolved inorganic carbon at Ocean Weather Station Mike (OWSM, 66°N, 2°

E - Drange et al., 2005, Fig. 7). At OWSM there are also performed long-term meteorological (including radiosonde) and hydrographic (CTD) observations.

Diurnal and inter-annual variability of air-sea CO

2

flux in the north Atlantic and elsewhere, its dependence on wind speed and observation using remote sensing techniques (Olsen et al., 2003, 2004ab);

Evaluation of the response of the surface ocean CO

2

system to climate change (Bellerby et al., 2005). Dr. Richard Bellerby, in the context of the EIFEX study on the effect of iron fertilisation on primary production and CO

2

transport, is collaborating with the Alfred

Wegener Institute (AWI) on the comparison of model results and in situ MSS turbulence closure parameterizations. The comparison is used to understand the controls of the mixing layer and mixed layer depth and K

z

, KPP, on carbon and nutrient injection from below. This is used to constrain the gas exchange and community production in the EIFEX eddy.

Dr. Bellerby has also initiated plans within the framework of the International Polar Year

2007-2008 (IPY), in the proposed international projects BIAC (for both Antarctic and

Arctic regions) and CARE (for the Arctic), to conduct experiments in the Barents Sea to study a cascade of processes from atmospheric boundary-layer processes through air-ocean exchange to mixed-layer studies in conjunction with gas exchange and biogeochemical budgeting. Related work has also been performed by Dr. Ilker Fer and Mr. Arild

Sundfjord, based on fieldwork in the Barents Sea and within the ProCLIM project.

The observed gas concentration/flux and other observations will provide valuable “air/sea truth” data for testing the proposed model system.

Relevant recent field studies conducted by scientists affiliated with GFI include under-ice boundary layer mixing and associated heat and salt fluxes (Miss Karolina Widell, Mr. Anders

Sirevaag and Dr. Ilker Fer) as well as oceanic boundary layer turbulence in the marginal ice zone of the Barents Sea (Dr. Ilker Fer and Mr. Arild Sundfjord). Fundamental aspects addressed in their studies are closely related to the proposed study and knowledge gained as well as the interaction between on-going and the proposed work will be an asset for both parties.

Parameterisation for large-scale modelling

The GOTM model is designed to be embedded easily in a three-dimensional model, and this has in fact been performed in the three-dimensional General Estuarine Transport Model

(GETM - http://www.bolding-burchard.com/html/GETM.htm

) for coastal waters, and the

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Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS - http://marine.rutgers.edu/po/index.php?model=roms ).

In any case, the results of the theoretical studies and one-dimensional model runs can be used to improve the flux parameterisations for the larger-scale coupled atmosphere - ice - ocean models, such as the Bergen Climate Model ( http://bcm.uib.no/ ) and the coupled MM5 and

WRF/ROMS mesoscale atmosphere-ocean/sea ice modelling system employed for Arctic shelf and fjord modelling studies in the ProCLIM project ( http://www.gfi.uib.no/ProClim/

).

Also, large-scale three-dimensional model results can be used to provide initial and boundary conditions for the smaller-scale one-dimensional process studies within this subproject. The process modelling results can also be applied in a statistical sense, with respect to possible chaotic/fractal behaviour of the time series and spatial patterns.

Work Plan

The study has been divided into eight tasks (A-H), comprising both theoretical and numerical modelling investigations. The modelling framework consists of implementations of the one

(vertical) dimension turbulence closure model code GOTM, available freely from http://www.gotm.net/ , and will be implemented with a suitable variable-resolution grid, on both sides of the air-sea interface. The extent of the domain will encompass the part of the atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers within the region of influence of surface waves (i.e., up to a few tens of metres), and the coordinate system will be nominally surface-following, in order that very fine scale resolution is available near the water surface. In Task A, we set up the model system and test it; in Task B we investigate in detail the consequences of using particular coordinate systems in the model formulation; in Tasks C, D, E, and F we study the behaviour of momentum, mass, heat, and moisture flux, respectively; and in Tasks G and H we make a synthesis of the results of the previous Tasks and make a final analysis and report.

Task A: Model setup and testing (2006-07 - 2007-06)

A current version of the GOTM model code will be installed on the computer system at GFI 1 .

The code will be amended where necessary to permit its operation in a coupled atmosphereocean boundary-layer system, and to allow the inclusion of the effect of surface waves and the turbulent diffusion of scalar quantities (heat, mass including moisture and dissolved gases and other substances). The model will be set up in such a way that the flux formulations for the different variables will in so far as possible be dynamically consistent and consistent with each other, and the coordinate system employed will be surface following, so that the grid scheme employed will be able to have a resolution near the air-water interface which is finer than the vertical displacement of the interface due to surface waves. The employment of surface-following coordinates and the inclusion of surface wave effects will benefit from existing and planned collaboration with Dr. Fabrice Ardhuin of the French Naval

Hydrographic Service (SHOM) in Brest (see Jenkins & Ardhuin, 2004; Ardhuin & Jenkins,

2005), Drs. Charles Tang and Will Perrie of Bedford Institute of Oceanography (Tang et al.,

2005), and Professor J.E. Weber and Dr. Ø. Saetra of the University of Oslo and the

Norwegian Meteorological Institute, respectively (Melsom & Sætra, 2004). The surface wave field will be incorporated by simple spectral algorithms and models, which account for the generally-observed behaviour of wind sea and swell. The wave model source terms for energy input from wind, and energy dissipation by wave breaking and turbulence, will be obtained from the published literature, particular care being taken to ensure the appropriate balance of wave energy, momentum, and wave action in all parts of the wavenumber spectrum including the high-frequency tail (Jenkins, 1989; Jenkins & Phillips, 2001;

Kudryavtsev et al., 1999). The numerical and physical behaviour of the model will be tested,

1 Senior Scientist Dr. A.D. Jenkins has experience with the GOTM model, having successfully installed it at the Research Institute for Aquaculture No. 3 in Nha Trang, Vietnam, in July 2005.

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employing standard test cases and published results, where appropriate (Umlauf & Burchard,

2005).

Task B: Evaluation of coordinate system formulations (2007-01 - 2007-12)

As stated above, it is necessary to employ a model coordinate system which moves with the sea surface in order to obtain the required vertical spatial resolution. There are a number of different ways of formulating the coordinate system: one may allow the coordinates to move only vertically (Mellor, 2003), or one may also permit horizontal movements, so that the coordinates become Lagrangian (Ünlüata & Mei, 1970; Weber, 1983; Jenkins, 1986, 1989), or obey the rules of the generalised Lagrangian mean (GLM) formulation (Andrews & McIntyre,

1978; Groeneweg & Klopman, 1998; Groeneweg & Battjes, 2003), in which the coordinate system is determined by the flow field. For the water column, a coordinate system based on

GLM but modified to become surface following, may be the most logical one to use (Jenkins

& Ardhuin, 2004; Ardhuin, 2005), and this approach is being applied by collaborating scientists Fabrice Ardhuin and Nicholas Rascle at SHOM. However, near-surface processes in the water column have been treated mathematically in a number of different coordinate system approaches, including those mentioned above and also fixed Cartesian (Eulerian) coordinates (e.g. McWilliams et al. 2004), and the domain perturbation method of Joseph

(1973), applied by Jacobs (1987). In the atmospheric boundary layer, since the mean flow may exceed the phase speed of wave components, the presence of critical layers where the mean flow velocity is equal to the wave phase speed gives rise to singularities in the GLM coordinate transformation, and more general coordinate systems must be used (Brooke

Benjamin, 1959; Jenkins, 1992).

In order to provide a consistent viewpoint for the flux of momentum, energy, and mass

(represented by passive tracers) under the influence of wave-induced motions in the atmospheric and ocean near-surface boundary layers, a study will be made by perturbation analysis including second-order effects of the wave motions on the mean variables, using a general coordinate formulation of the equations of motion in conservation-law form, which includes Cartesian, Lagrangian, sigma-coordinate (Mellor, 2003), and GLM coordinates as special cases, as outlined by Jenkins (1992). In this way, the representation of various terms in the resulting equations for the mean flow in the various specific formulations will be elucidated, including such effects as the Coriolis-Stokes and vortex forces (Lewis & Belcher,

2004; McWilliams et al. 2004), as well as the various contributions to the energy flux to and from the wave field (e.g., Janssen, 1991, 1992, 1999; Jenkins, 1992, 1993; Melville et al.,

2002). The results of the analysis will be incorporated into the code for the one-dimensional numerical model implemented in Task A.

Task C: Atmosphere-ocean momentum and mechanical energy flux (2007-07 - 2008-06)

The air-sea flux of momentum depends upon processes in the boundary layer and at the interface, including turbulence, stratification, the wave spectrum, wave breaking, the generation of spray and bubbles, and the presence of surface films. Recent advances in measurement techniques indicate that the effect of different surface wave conditions may indeed be significant (Smedman et al., 2003; Sjöblom & Smedman, 2003, 2004), and there are also indications that breakup of the sea surface at very high wind speeds, with the generation of substantial amounts of spray and air bubbles, has a substantial effect on the drag coefficient

(Powell et al., 2003; Donelan et al., 2004). The exchange of momentum and mechanical

(turbulent and wave) energy between the atmosphere and the ocean is also intimately related to the characteristics of the surface wave field, and how this momentum and energy flux is distributed amongst the various dynamical processes continues to be a subject of active research. The proposed model framework using GOTM and surface-following coordinates

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which include the effect of wave motions will provide a dynamically consistent framework in which to incorporate recent advances in theory, experimental measurement, and modelling.

The model framework as implemented in Tasks A and B will be applied to determine the airsea flux of momentum and the balance of turbulent and wave energy under a range of conditions of wind speed, wave spectrum (wave age) and atmospheric and ocean stability.

The results will be compared with published data from measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer and within the water column, and also with direct eddy simulations of turbulence near the free surface (Nagaosa, 1999, Nagaosa & Saito, 1996; Nagaosa & Handler,

2003; Enstad et al., 2003). The parameterisation found necessary in the model system will be made available for incorporation in larger, three-dimensional simulation models.

Drs. C. Tang and W. Perrie from the Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Fisheries and Oceans

Canada, will collaborate actively in the areas of wave-current coupling and air-sea flux and ocean mixing parameterization. Improved or new coupling schemes and parameterisation developed under the project would be tested using the spectral wave model WaveWatch3 and a three-dimensional ocean circulation model (Princeton Ocean Model) implemented for the

North Atlantic. Initial collaboration to investigate the impact of waves on surface currents has already started (Tang et al. 2005).

Dr. V. Kudryavtsev of the Nansen International Environmental and Remote Sensing Center,

St. Petersburg, will collaborate within the following areas: theoretical investigation of the impact of surface waves on the air-sea exchange of mass, momentum, energy, in high-latitude areas of the open ocean; and in application of the model results to improve the air-sea flux parameterizations for momentum, energy, and mass, and for large-scale three-dimensional coupled models.

Task D: Mass flux including gas species (2008-1 – 2008-12)

The atmosphere-ocean flux of gas species and other substances is restricted by the presence of the air-water interface rather more than that of momentum, since mass flux obviously cannot be supported by pressure forces at the interface. As a result, the substances must be transported through the diffusive boundary layer near the surface, hence the molecular diffusion coefficient (in non-dimensional terms, the Schmidt number) plays a dominant role.

At high wind speeds, in the presence of breaking waves with the formation of spray and bubbles, the effective surface area of the interface is increased considerably, and this effect is evident in the exchange coefficients (piston velocities) determined from field and laboratory measurements, which increase nonlinearly with wind speed, e.g., approximately as the second or third power (Wanninkhof, 1992; Wanninkhof & McGillis, 1999). As an alternative to a wind speed parameterisation, other formulae may be used, for example the mean-square surface slope (Bock et al., 1999). It is proposed in this study to account for physical processes specifically: the results of the model study and theoretical calculations may be used as input for marine biogeochemical and ecological model investigations.

The model framework as implemented in Tasks A and B, and refined in Task C with respect to momentum flux, will be applied to the flux of substances, in particular gas species such as

CO

2

, oxygen, and inert substances such as SF

6

, taking account of important physical processes such as molecular and turbulent diffusion, wave breaking and the generation of spray droplets and bubbles. The results will be compared with published data from measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer and within the water column (Skjelvan et al., 1999, 2001; Skjelvan & Watson, 2002; Olsen et al., 2003, 2004ab; Bellerby et al., 2005) including the fixed long-term monitoring station measurements from OWSM (Drange et al.,

2005) and proposed Arctic and Antarctic ship-based boundary-layer observations within the

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proposed CARE and BIAC projects. Account will be taken of the effect of making measurement averages from moving instrument platforms (Graber et al., 2000; Dupuis et al.,

2003; Mahrt et al., 2005), where appropriate. The results from the model study, including the necessary parameterisations, will be make available for incorporation in larger, threedimensional biogeochemical and marine ecological simulation models, such as those employed in the CARBOOCEAN FP6 Integrated Project to determine the ocean's role for

CO

2

uptake.

Task E: Heat flux (2008-07 – 2009-06)

The vertical heat transport in the boundary layers behaves in a similar way to that of trace substances, except that it is also affected by evaporation (latent heat flux) and radiative effects. In fact, temperature and heat flux are used as a proxies for gas concentration and gas flux in detailed imaging studies of the interfacial boundary layer (e.g., Haußecker & Jähne,

1994; Garbe et al., 2004). In addition, changes in the vertical temperature gradient also affect the stability and thus the dynamics of turbulence and internal wave motions. Such stability effects are taken into account in the proposed GOTM model framework, and the effects of waves, wave breaking and the generation of spray droplets and bubbles on the air-sea heat flux will also be investigated, compared with published data, and made available for mesoscale and large-scale three-dimensional model studies.

Task F: Moisture flux (2009-01 – 2009-12)

The flux of moisture is the combined effect of precipitation (provided as a boundary condition for the proposed model system), evaporation, and the formation of spray. These effects will be incorporated into the model framework, comparison with measurements and calculation of parameterisations for larger-scale models, along the same lines as the incorporation of mass and heat transport in Tasks D and E, except that the variability of humidity is entirely within the atmospheric part of the domain. It is conceivable that evaporation and precipitation will significantly affect oceanic salinity under certain circumstances, though in the high-latitude oceans in the absence of ice formation or melting it is not anticipated that the effect of changes in salinity will be very strong.

Task G: Synthesis of results (2009-08 – 2010-04)

The computation of fluxes of energy, momentum, heat, and mass using the model system described for Tasks A-F, for the numerous different physical processes involved, is a complex task and conveys a risk of producing confusing results. From the results obtained from the individual tasks we propose to construct a priority list of the processes that make the largest contributions to the various fluxes, under various different regimes (wind, temperature, stability, other conditions). Interactions between different processes will also be identified,

Important parameter regimes which are identified and which have not already been covered in the previous tasks will be used in additional model runs whose results will be compared with available measurements.

Task H: Final analysis and reporting (2010-02 – 2010-06)

In this task we will provide a systematic summary of the behaviour of the atmosphere-ocean fluxes of momentum, heat, and mass, under important parameter regimes relevant to the highlatitude open ocean. Emphasis will be placed on interactions between different processes, and also on the interpretation of measurement results, for example, averaging processes used from non-stationary platforms. Recommendations will be made on how to apply the results to larger-scale three-dimensional models, and in doing so a study will be made of the additional

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effect of lateral variability in the variables and the combined effect of lateral variability and vertical and horizontal mixing (Robbins et al., 2000).

Schedule and Costs

Schedule of Tasks A - H:

Year 2006 2007

Task A

Task B

Task C

Task D

Task E

Task F

Task G

Task H

2008

2009 2010

x x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x x

Personnel cost: Senior Scientist (Dr. Alastair D. Jenkins) 70% for four years.

Related Projects, Other Activities and Contacts

The subprogram will address key questions in the science plan of the IGBP Surface

Ocean - Lower Atmosphere Study (SOLAS), particularly Activities 2.1-2.3 on exchange across the air-sea interface and processes in the atmospheric an oceanic boundary layers.

Observations of the variation of dissolved inorganic carbon at Ocean Weather Station Mike

(OWSM, 66°N, 2°E - Drange et al., 2005, Fig. 7). At OWSM there are also performed long-term meteorological (including radiosonde) and hydrographic (CTD) observations.

Dr. Richard Bellerby is in the context of the EIFEX study, working on comparing a model from AWI, similar to GOTM, and in situ MSS turbulence closure parameterizations. The comparison is used to understand the controls of the mixing layer and mixed layer depth and K

z

, KPP, on carbon and nutrient injection from below. This is used to constrain the gas exchange and community production in the EIFEX eddy.

Dr. Bellerby has also initiated IPY plans in both BIAC and CARE to conduct experiments in the Barents Sea to study a cascade of processes from atmospheric boundary-layer processes through air-ocean exchange to mixed-layer studies in conjunction with gas exchange and biogeochemical budgeting.

Development and application of the GOTM ocean turbulence model (Professor. Hans

Burchard, Baltic Sea Research Institute, and colleagues). Professor Burchard is applying for funding for his contribution to the German part of SOLAS, in which one-dimensional modelling of the coupled atmosphere-ocean boundary layer system will be performed, in conjunction with observations to be made near the Cape Verde islands and in the central

Gotland Sea.

Professor Jan Erik Weber, Institute of Geophysics, University of Oslo, will act as a scientific adviser to the project on wave dynamics and coupled air-sea interaction processes.

The proposed theoretical and model approaches are also linked to ongoing and growing activities in experimental boundary layer meteorology at GFI. A small unmanned airplane for measuring profiles of temperature and humidity up to 2 km above ground has been brought to Bergen by Dr. Joachim Reuder in 2005 (e.g. Egger et al., 2005). In a related 4 year PhD projected starting in spring 2006 the system will be extended to onboard wind measurements, then enabling the use of the airplane for determing fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum by the profile-method based on flux-gradient relationships. In addition several projects in the field of boundary layer meteorology have been proposed with the

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• aim to build up instrumental capacities for direct determination of fluxes of heat, moisture, momentum and CO

2

by the eddy-correlation method.

Under ProClim (managed by Peter M. Haugan), profiles of oceanic TKE dissipation were collected at high latitudes in ice-free waters during a wide range of wind conditions (Dr.

Ilker Fer, BCCR/GFI). Although the upper 5-8 m is not resolved by such measurements, data will be useful for deep mixed layers. Similar measurements are planned in IPY- BIAC and CARE activities.

Complementary to the fundamental process studies described in this section is the research activity at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute (met.no), led by Dr. Øyvind Sætra, on air-sea interaction, in particular with respect to the influence of surface waves on the atmosphere and ocean, and funded by the European Commission via a Marie Curie network project on coupled wave-atmospheric modelling of air-sea fluxes of heat, moisture, momentum, and energy, and to study the effect of an improved representation of the fluxes on the development of polar lows.

Dr. Ryuichi Nagaosa of the Institute for Environmental Management Technology in

Tsukuba, Japan, is conducting eddy-resolving turbulence modelling near the water surface by means of direct numerical simulation.

Drs. C. Tang and W. Perrie from the Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Fisheries and

Oceans Canada, will collaborate actively in the areas of wave-current coupling and air-sea flux and ocean mixing parameterization. Improved or new coupling schemes and parameterisation developed under the project would be tested using the spectral wave model WaveWatch3 and a three-dimensional ocean circulation model (Princeton Ocean

Model) implemented for the North Atlantic. Initial collaboration to investigate the impact of waves on surface currents has already started (Tang et al. 2005).

Dr. V. Kudryavtsev of the Nansen International Environmental and Remote Sensing

Center, St. Petersburg, will collaborate within the following areas: theoretical investigation of the impact of surface waves on the air-sea exchange of mass, momentum, energy, in high-latitude areas of the open ocean; and in application of the model results to improve the air-sea flux parameterizations for momentum, energy, and mass, and for large-scale three-dimensional coupled models.

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4.2 Interannual variability of surface fluxes and ocean heat storage

Principal investigators: Assoc. Prof. T. Furevik, Prof. P.M. Haugan, Prof. J.A. Johannessen,

Assoc. Prof. N.G. Kvamstø, Dr. A.D. Jenkins

Project period: 1 January 2007 - 31 December 2009

Personnel applied for: One Ph.D. student

Objectives

To determine suitable parameterisations of surface fluxes of heat, momentum and water vapour over the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean.

To compute a climatology of the surface fluxes based on available in situ and remote sensing data.

To estimate interannual variability of surface heat exchange during the past 50 years and investigate links to available data describing the state of the atmosphere, ice and ocean during the same period.

Scientific Background

Observation based estimates of state variables in different compartments of the global climate system and of fluxes between them, are required in order to test theoretical ideas about how the coupled system is working and ultimately how it might respond to changes in forcing.

This project aims to provide one piece of the puzzle describing global climate mean state and variability, namely air-sea interaction in the Arctic Mediterranean comprising the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean. In this area strong gradients in surface conditions and surface heat exchanges exist between the Atlantic influence primarily in the southeast and Arctic influence in the northwest. Data sets for ocean temperature (heat content), ice extent and concentration, and various atmospheric parameters are available and have already been used in studies describing the mean and time varying state of each compartment during the past century, primarily the last 50 years. Here we will argue that it is now timely and fruitful to focus on quantification of air-sea heat flux, that the resulting estimates will be able to shed light on mechanisms behind variability in the atmosphere and oceans, and that the proposed project will provide a basis for investigations of seasonal to interannual predictability of the coupled system. The main focus is on heat exchange but the concurrent air-sea momentum flux (wind stress) and water vapour flux (evaporation and precipitation) will also be addressed.

A variable fraction of the radiative heat surplus of the tropical regions is carried towards high latitudes by ocean currents where it is released to the atmosphere (e.g. Trenberth & Caron,

2001; Stammer et al., 2003). The large-scale ocean circulation is believed to be primarily driven by a combination of the curl of wind stress, surface heat and freshwater flux and tidally generated mixing in a rotating basin with topographic constraints. The northern north Atlantic, the Nordic Seas and the approach to the Arctic, is an area strongly affected by oceanic heat advection via the North Atlantic Drift and the Norwegian Atlantic Current, by atmospheric heat advection via the westerlies and by cold air and ice from the Arctic. Strong interannual and decadal variability has been documented in this area in ocean temperature and salinity

(e.g. Furevik, 2001; Saloranta & Haugan, 2001; Blindheim & Østerhus, 2005; Hátún et al,

2005), sea ice extent (Bjørgo et al. 1997; Johannessen et al., 1999; Kvingedal, 2005), air temperature, precipitation and winds (e.g. Hanssen-Bauer & Førland, 2000; Furevik & Nilsen,

2005). Attempts at explaining the variability often revolve around correlation with atmospheric modes or indices, primarily the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Arctic

Oscillation (AO) (Dickson et al., 2000) but also other modes like the Barents Oscillation (BO)

(Skeie, 2000).

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The geographical distribution of surface heat loss within the Arctic Mediterranean is important for water mass formation and the northern terminus of the thermohaline circulation.

Mauritzen (1996a) suggested that surface heat loss in the pathways of the Atlantic Water is more important in setting the properties of various water masses than heat loss over areas dominated by cold surface water like the Greenland Sea. She sketched what she called a revised circulation scheme, in which pathways of warm water through the Barents Sea and the

Fram Strait produces distinct water masses returning towards the overflow region to the North

Atlantic as boundary currents. Mauritzen (1996b) subsequently set up a box model to quantify optimal circulation strengths from an initial guess and constraints from observations. The model also yielded surface heat loss in different regions consistent with the circulation scheme. These surface heat losses differ substantially in many important respects from those of Simonsen & Haugan (1996, hereafter called SH). In the analysis of SH the surface heat loss in the Barents Sea amounted to about 50 % of that of the entire Arctic Mediterranean, but it was rather small in Mauritzen (1996b). For the Iceland Sea, SH obtained very small surface heat loss, while Mauritzen (1996b) had larger values. It is clear that the scheme of Mauritzen

(1996a) is not compatible with the surface fluxes of SH96. The question arises whether the results of SH are flawed. If so, why is that so, and can they be substantially improved with new data and methods?

The work of SH can be considered as a precursor to the present proposal. SH produced a gridded sea surface heat budget for the Arctic Mediterranean by combining available atmospheric and ocean data sets with bulk parameterisations. Their primary motivation was to construct sea surface forcing data for use by regional ice-ocean circulation models. The parameterisations of radiative (shortwave and longwave) and turbulent (sensible and latent heat) fluxes were selected from an overall constraint based on estimates of annual mean heat exchange across the Greenland-Scotland sill as determined from oceanographic observations.

A range of different parameterisations for each heat flux component were tested with the available blended data set of the basic variables (in this case sea surface temperature, air temperature, humidity, wind and cloudiness) on a 50km grid with monthly resolution.

Applying in turn each of the parameterisations over the ice free portions of the Arctic

Mediterranean and making all possible combinations of the resulting integrated shortwave, longwave, sensible and latent heat fluxes, SH were able to select a preferred parameterisation for each. The geographical distribution of the resulting net heat loss could then be computed.

The availability of better data sets and methods since the time of the initial analysis of SH, now justifies a renewed systematic effort aimed at producing credible parameterisations and a credible climatology and from that to shed some light on interannual variability.

State-of-art in surface flux estimation

The Working Group on Air-Sea Fluxes (WGASF) set up jointly by the World Climate

Research Programme (WCRP) and the Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR) has recently delivered a comprehensive report (WGASF, 2000). It contains an overview of requirements, variability, data sources, observations and parameterisations of fluxes as well as a discussion of errors, methods of evaluating flux products and an evaluation of several recent products from in situ data, satellite data, re-analysis and operational numerical weather prediction models. The report contains a wealth of information and guidance to the work proposed here both in terms of properties of various data sets, theoretical basis and methodology. The strength of this project is the combined use of in situ, remotely sensed data and model produced fields to identify and quantify surface flux anomalies at interannual scales of relevance for decadal climate changes.

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Proposed

study

Parameterisation

In this task the candidate shall carry out a literature search on the definitions and characterisation of the physical basis for different flux components with emphasis on parameters that can best be estimated from satellite sensors or from in situ data. In so doing the typical problems and limitations encountered in high latitudes shall be identified and examined including the consistency and constancy of the flux coefficients based on different versions of the bulk formulae used for the surface flux estimation. The goal shall be to ensure that the flux estimation method used in this project for parameterisations of surface fluxes of heat, momentum, and water vapour over the Nordic Seas are consistent and based on the most recent estimation methods.

Climatology

When working in an area with sparse in situ data coverage, it is particularly tempting to try to exploit remote sensing data. The main limitation is of course that the time series are short.

However, uniformity of spatial coverage is extremely important in a heterogeneous region like the Arctic Mediterranean. A promising recent surface flux product based on remote sensing data is the Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data (HOAPS,

Jost et al., 2002). It contains all basic variables and fluxes except short wave radiation for the period 1987 to 1997 derived from the optical and microwave radiometers such as AVHRR and SSMI flown on the NOAA and DMSP satellites. In addition the IFREMER collocation data files of fluxes based on combinations of active and passive microwaves from SSMI ,

ERS, NSCAT and Quickscat will be explored. These existing compilations and the methods used there may be a good starting point (see evaluation in WGASF, 2000) for regional analyses, evaluation and testing against in situ data and coupled atmosphere-ocean model results.

In particular, testing of the basic variables as well as some of the fluxes resulting from these basic variables and the parameterisations will be carried out from a few well instrumented locations in the area, notably Ocean Weather Station Mike at 66°N, 2°E (Østerhus &

Gammelsrød, 2000). The fact that this site is still in operation gives a unique possibility to compare satellite-derived products with weather ship based point measurements. Similarly, the Russian database from the Nordic Seas, recently compiled at the Arctic and Antarctic

Research Institute, Department of Ocean/Atmosphere Interaction, St. Petersburg will be explored and compared to collocated atmospheric data. Intercomparison will then allow the quality of the parameterisation of the flux fields to be examined and evaluated.

Variability

Studies of seasonal, interannual and decadal variability of ocean temperature in various parts of the Nordic Seas have mainly been based on time series from repeat stations (Østerhus &

Gammelsrød, 2000) or repeat sections (Mork & Blindheim, 2000). Average temperatures over some depth interval from a repeat section have been used to produce indices of the regional state, notably examples are the Kola section in the Barents Sea (Ådlandsvik & Loeng, 1991), and the Sørkapp section (Dickson et al., 1996). When studying the sea northwest of Svalbard,

Saloranta & Haugan (2001) did not have the advantage of repeats in fixed locations, but showed that by a judicious use of bin averaging techniques and error estimation, synthetic time series of temperature and salinity representative of the Spitsbergen branch of Atlantic

Water inflow to the Arctic Ocean could be constructed. Gridded three-dimensional estimates of the time evolution of temperature and salinity in the Barents Sea are now being constructed at the Institute of Marine Research in Bergen (Ingvaldsen, pers. comm.). Among other applications these can provide the basis for regional estimates of time varying heat content. In

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recent years moored current meter arrays (Ingvaldsen et al., 2002, 2004ab; Ingvaldsen, 2005;

Orvik et al., 2001, Orvik & Skagseth, 2005; Hansen & Østerhus, 2000; Østerhus et al, 2005) have had sufficiently dense spacing to be able to produce quantitative estimates of oceanic heat advection across key sections. Against this background, direct estimates of surface heat exchange would form a very useful complementary data set which would allow testing of internal consistency of interpreted patterns of variability. Furthermore, the independence of the data sources would allow intercomparison and testing.

Admittedly, estimation of interannual variability in surface fluxes has demanding requirements for data coverage and parameterisations in order to obtain sufficient accuracy.

WGASF (2000) state that observation based estimates of interannual variability in monthly mean fluxes are possible in mid-latitudes but are difficult in tropical and high latitude regions.

The third objective aiming at variability of surface fluxes is therefore considered to be a very challenging one. However, the temporal and spatial variability will be examined. One aspect will be to compare areas usually covered with warm surface water of Atlantic origin versus areas dominated by fresh and colder water of Arctic origin, i.e. in relation to variability of the surface expression of the Arctic Front in the Greenland-Norwegian Sea. Correlations will be sought in anomalies between in situ data and anomalies in variables measured from satellites.

Work plan

The approach adopted to achieve the project objectives listed earlier, are briefly given as follows:

Task A1: Review and characterisation of flux parameterisation methods.

Task A2: Collocation, intercomparison and evaluation of data sets and parameterisations.

Task B: Testing and identification or ranking of best possible climatologies

Task C1: Production of fields for seasonal, interannual and decadal variabilities

Task C2: Comparison to time series observations and extrapolation with selected parameterisations

Task D: Completion of Ph.D. thesis.

Data to be used:

Satellite derived SST data, updated from da Silva et al. (1994) and available from http://ingrid.ldgo.columbia.edu/

GODAE high resolution SST pilot project http://www.ghrsst-pp.org

The Hamburg Ocean-Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite from 1987-1997

(Jost et al., 2002), available from http://www.hoaps.zmaw.de/

The satellite fields provided by the Eumetsat Ocean and Sea Ice Application Facility (OSI-

SAF) containing sea ice, incoming shortwave radiation, SST, and wind field data

( http://www.osi-saf.org

).

The IFREMER collocation data fields from 1990 available from http://www.ifremer.fr

Hydrographical data set for the Nordic Seas provided by the Marine Research Institute,

Iceland, the Institute of Marine Research, Norway, the Faeroese Fisheries Laboratory, and the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Russia, through the NISE project

Data from more than 20 Argo floats in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea

( http://www.coriolis.eu.org

).

Model based data (from Subproject 1 and from the modelling community in Bergen through Helge Drange, NERSC).

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Schedule and costs

Schedule of Tasks A - D:

A1

A2

B

Year 1 (2007)

1

x

2

x x

C1

C2

D

3

x

4

x x x x x

1

Year 2 (2008)

2

x

3

x

4

x

Year 3 (2009)

1 2

x x

3

x

Personnel cost: Ph.D. fellowship for three years. Qualified candidates will be available.

4

x

Related Projects

The subproject will benefit strongly from results of Subproject 1 dealing with smaller-scale processes that the present analysis will be unable to resolve. There will be two-way collaboration with the ice-ocean modelling group at NERSC led by Helge Drange, in terms of data sets and parameterisations for use in model forcing, and collaboration with the coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean modelling in the Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research on parameterisations for use in later versions of the model coupling.

The climate project RegClim deals, among other things, with coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean modelling that is also a key activity of the Bjerknes Collaboration with strong contributions from the Geophysical Institute (Furevik et al., 2003; Kvamstø et al. 2004). This modelling activity will benefit from the ability to compare with observation-based flux estimates. The modelling occurs on compatible time and space scales with the analysis proposed here.

Therefore the flux parameterisations will be relevant for use in the coupled models as well as for forcing of ice-ocean models. In fact, results from Simonsen & Haugan (1996), which is a predecessor of the present project, have been used for precisely this purpose. However

RegClim or other ongoing projects do not presently address the development of improved observation based climatologies or parameterisations of surface fluxes in the Arctic

Mediterranean.

The climate project NOClim deals, among other things, with observation based analysis of propagating anomalies in the North Atlantic Drift - Norwegian Atlantic Current system

(Melsom et al., see http://www.noclim.org). This activity can produce descriptions of signal propagation and interpretation in terms of dynamical mechanisms. The ongoing activity in

NOClim does however not aim to produce quantitative estimates of heat flux or heat advection anomalies. It may be envisaged that results of this part of NOClim will include cases for which further testing, quantification and verification can be sought by the present project.

The Climate and the Cryosphere (CliC) project, is concerned with high latitude air-sea interaction in particular involving sea ice. Data sets available at the CliC project office in

Tromsø will be of particular interest to the present project. The results should also be made available to and via CliC. The Climate Variability and Predictability project (CLIVAR) has partly overlapping interests with CliC concerning air-sea interaction and thermohaline circulation in connection with high latitude surface fluxes. The presently starting International

Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) project Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study

(SOLAS), will contain fundamental studies of physical surface fluxes. The project will therefore fit in a SOLAS umbrella as well.

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4.3 Seminars and information exchange

Principal investigator: Dr. Alastair D. Jenkins

Co-investigators: Assoc. Prof. Nils Gunnar Kvamstø, Prof. Johnny A. Johannessen

Project period: 1 September 2006 – 30 June 2010

Personnel applied for: Senior scientist (part time) and part-time lecturers for seminar series

Objectives

1. To train students and researchers and stimulate recruitment to the field of atmosphereocean interaction; and

2. To disseminate state-of-the-art knowledge and new developments in atmosphere-ocean interaction to the scientific and broader community at a national, regional, and international level.

Background

At present, in Bergen, Norway, Europe, and elsewhere there is considerable research being conducted in atmosphere-ocean interaction at an advanced level, as well as a large number of courses in individual topics. However, the courses are often conducted at an individual level, without treating the various different phenomena and processes in a unified manner. In order to enhance the overall knowledge of atmosphere-ocean interaction within the community of current and future research scientist we propose a regular series of seminars in Bergen, supplemented by larger workshops to which members of the community of national and international experts will be invited to contribute. The specific topics to be covered by the seminars and workshops will include:

● Atmosphere-ocean flux of momentum, mechanical energy, heat, moisture, gas species, and other substances;

Spatial variability of fluxes: global, regional, and mesoscale;

Temporal variability of fluxes: from multi-decadal to sub-diurnal

Field observational techniques;

Remote sensing, including air-sea-ice interaction processes determined by microwave techniques from satellites (covered by a course which is running at NERSC);

Modelling techniques;

Problems associated with coupled modelling;

The effect of surface waves, atmospheric and oceanic stability, and internal waves;

Mathematical problems and methods associated with relevant dynamical processes, modelling, and the interpretation of observations;

Statistical methods used in connexion with the analysis of observations and model results.

In addition, we propose to set up an internet site covering the above topics, which may be accessed internationally, on which will be placed course material from the seminar, and links to and reports from state-of-the art and new published work, and from international conferences and workshops on the subject.

Proposed work

The work in this subproject will be divided into five Tasks:

Task A: Seminar series

Task B: Seminar series report

Task C: Project workshops

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• Task D: Preparation of internet/WWW site

Task E: Dissemination/outreach

Task A: Seminar series

The seminars will be held on average every two weeks, for 1-2 hours during the university semester (August-December and January-June)

Task B: Seminar series report

A report summarising the material presented in the seminars, in the form of extended abstracts, will be prepared at the end of each semester (in December and June every year of the project).

Task C: Project workshops

Two project workshops will be held: one, with primarily national participation, after the first

12 months of the project, and one with international participation at the beginning of the final

12 months of the project.

Task D: Preparation of internet/WWW site

The project internet site will contain course material from the seminar series, and links to and reports from state-of-the art and new published work. It will also contain information on current and planned national and international conferences and workshops related to atmosphere-ocean interaction, and on current and planned experiments and research projects.

Users of the internet site will be invited to provide information which would be of interest to the air-sea interaction research community. The site will be updated at least monthly during the project period. The site will also contain information that is aimed at scientists in other disciplines, educational institutions at lower and upper secondary level, decision makers and the general public (see Task E).

Task E: Dissemination and outreach

The results of the project will be disseminated to users in the following categories: scientists in other disciplines, educational institutions at lower and upper secondary level, decision makers and the general public, by the following methods:

Periodical reports, every 12 months;

Information for the outreach activities of the University of Bergen;

Publication on the WWW site (see Task D);

Publication in the popular scientific literature, at national level, and, where relevant, at

European and/or international level.

Schedule and Costs

Schedule of Tasks A - D:

(R = report, W = workshop)

Year

Task A

Task B

Task C

Task D

Task E

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

R R R R R R R R

W W

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

x x x R x x x R x x x R x x x R

Personnel cost:

1. Senior Scientist (Dr. Alastair D. Jenkins) 5% during the 4-year period.

2. Seminar lecturers, total 5% full-time equivalent during the period.

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Weber, J.E. & A. Melsom, 1993a. Volume flux induced by wind and waves in a saturated sea. J. Geophys. Res.

98, 4739-4745.

Weber, J.E. & A. Melsom, 1993b. Transient ocean currents induced by wind and growing waves. J. Phys.

Oceanogr. 23, 193-206.

Weber, J.E. & Ø. Sætra, 1995. Effect of film elasticity on the drift velocity of capillary-gravity waves. Phys.

Fluids 7, 307-314.

Yelland, M. J., B. I. Moat, P. K. Taylor, R. W. Pascal, J. Hutchings & V. C. Cornell, 1998. Wind stress measurements from the open ocean corrected for air flow distortion by the ship. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28,

1511-1526.

Zhang, Xiangdong & Jing Zhang 2001. Heat and freshwater budgets and pathways in the Arctic Mediterranean in a coupled ocean/sea-ice model. J. of Oceanography, 57(2), 207-234

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Relevant Web sites:

Bergen Climate Model (BCM): http://bcm.uib.no/

Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research/Bjerknes Collaboration: http://www.bjerknes.uib.no/

Bjerknes Marie Curie Training Site on the role of ice-ocean-atmosphere processes in high latitude climate change: http://www.bjerknes.uib.no/ -> FORSKNING -> Role of ice-ocean-atmosphere processes in high-latitude climate change - Bjerknes MCTS

CARBOOCEAN Integrated Project: http://www.carboocean.org/

European Iron Fertilization Experiment (EIFEX): http://www.awi-bremerhaven.de/AWI/Presse/PM/pm04-1.hj/040402EIFEX-e.html

Climate and Cryosphere (CliC): http://clic.npolar.no/

Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR): http://www.clivar.org/

General Ocean Turbulence Model: http://www.gotm.net/

Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen: http://www.gfi.uib.no/

HOAPS data base: http://www.hoaps.zmaw.de/

International Polar Year project proposals:

Climate of the Arctic and its role for Europe/Arctic System Reanalysis

(CARE/APR): http://www.ipy.org/development/eoi/proposal-details.php?id=28

Bipolar Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation

(BIAC): http://www.ipy.org/development/eoi/proposal-details.php?id=23

Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center: http://www.nersc.no/

NASA air-sea fluxes from space: http://airsea-www.jpl.nasa.gov/seaflux/seaflux.html

NCEP/NCAR Global Reanalysis data set: http://noserc.met.no/DS/ncep.html

Norwegian Ocean Climate Project (NOClim): http://www.noclim.org/

Polar Ocean Climate Processes (ProCLIM): http://www.gfi.uib.no/ProClim/

Regional Climate Development Under Global Warming (RegClim): http://regclim.met.no/

SSMI data: http://www.ssmi.com/

Surface Ocean Lower Atmospere Study: http://www.solas-int.org/

University Courses on Svalbard: http://www.unis.no/

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Appendix. Related activities and linkages

The climate project RegClim (web addresses for this and other projects and activities are given above after the reference list) deals with, among other topics, coupled atmosphereocean modelling. This is also a key activity of the Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research with strong contributions from the Geophysical Institute in collaboration with the Nansen Center.

Nils Gunnar Kvamstø has for the past five years been leading a locus with funding from the

Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at the University to strengthen the coupled modelling activity. This modelling occurs on compatible time and space scales with the analysis proposed here. The flux parameterisations will be relevant for use in the coupled models as well as for forcing of ocean models. The present project is complementary to

RegClim and other ongoing projects which do not presently address the development of improved observation based climatologies or parameterisations of air-sea exchange.

The climate project NOClim deals, among other things, with observation and model based analysis of propagating anomalies in the North Atlantic Drift - Norwegian Atlantic Current system (Melsom et al.). This activity can produce descriptions of signal propagation and interpretation in terms of dynamical mechanisms. The ongoing activity in NOClim does however not aim to produce quantitative estimates of heat flux or heat advection anomalies.

However, results from parts of NOClim may include cases suitable for testing, quantification and verification by the present project.

The Climate and the Cryosphere (CliC) project is concerned with high latitude air-sea interaction. Data sets available at the CliC project office in Tromsø will be of particular interest to the present project. The results should also be made available to and via CliC.

The Climate Variability and Predictability project (CLIVAR) has partly overlapping interests with CliC concerning air-sea interaction and thermohaline circulation in connection with high latitude surface fluxes.

The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) project Surface Ocean Lower

Atmosphere Study (SOLAS) covers fundamental studies of physical surface fluxes. The project therefore fits in a SOLAS umbrella.

CARBOOCEAN is a FP6 Integrated Project (IP) with the main task to determine the ocean’s quantitative role for uptake of CO

2

, in order to assess the quantitative risk/uncertainty judgment on the expected consequences of rising atmospheric CO

2

concentrations. The

Project Coordinator is Professor Christoph Heinze at GFI.

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SUMMARY BUDGET

Per year

SUBPROJECT 1

Personnel

Senior Scientist

Other costs

696 000

Travel

Computing and consumables

Subproj. 1, other costs

Total subproject 1

SUBPROJECT 2

Personnel

Ph.D. student

International stipend:

592 000

3 months at

Other costs

Travel

Computing and consumables

Subproj. 2, other costs

Total subproject 2

SUBPROJECT 3

Personnel

Senior Scientist

Seminar lecturers

Other costs

Workshops

Consumables

Publication costs

Subproj. 3, other costs

Total subproject 3

696 000

696 000

TOTAL

Total personnel (pers.y, NOK)

Total other costs

21 500

Person-years

Total

NOK

2.80

1 948 800

105 000

45 000

150 000

2 098 800

3.00

1 776 000

64 500

50 000

38 000

88 000

1 928 500

0.20

139 200

0.20

139 200

225 000

32 000

65 000

322 000

600 400

4 627 700

6.00

3 928 500

699 200

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