Volvo | D11F | Operator`s manual | Volvo D11F Operator`s manual

Volvo D11F Operator`s manual
OPERATOR'S MANUAL
VEHICLE MAINTENANCE
VN,VHD
Volvo d11f and d13f engines
Volvo Trucks. Driving Success.
R
USA22978.bk.book Page i Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Table of Contents
i
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Warning Label Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Information for the Owner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Exhaust and Noise Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Label Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Fuse and Relay Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Safety Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Proper Maintenance Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Injury Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Engine Damage Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Electric System Damage Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Reporting Safety Defects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
General Engine Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Engine Overview, D11F and D13F Left Side View . . . . . . 39
Engine Overview, D11F and D13F Right Side View . . . . . 40
Engine Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Engine Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Maintenance and Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Maintenance Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Engine Components, Service Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Engine Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Engine Air Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Diesel Particulate Filters (If Equipped) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Fan and Auxiliary Drive Belts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Turbocharger and Charge Air Cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Fuel System Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Transmission, Clutch and Rear Axle Maintenance . . . . . . . 73
Steering and Brakes Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Electrical System Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Tires, Wheels and Hub Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Chassis Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Cab Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Oil Capacity Tables and Viscosity Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
USA22978.bk.book Page ii Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
ii
Table of Contents
Service Check List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Preventive Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Service Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Scheduled Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Repair Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Tire Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Fuel and Oil Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Engine Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Service Assistance and Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
USA22978.bk.book Page 1 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Foreword
1
FOREWORD
DO NOT Remove this manual from the vehicle. It contains important
operational and safety information that is needed by all drivers and owners of
this vehicle.
This manual contains information concerning the safe operation of your
vehicle. It is extremely important that this information is read and understood
before the vehicle is operated. This manual also contains a considerable
amount of information concerning the vehicle, such as vehicle identification,
Preventive Maintenance recommendations and a log for your service records.
Please keep this in the vehicle at all times. Information from other component
manufacturers is supplied in separate manuals in the Owner's Package.
It is important that this manual stay with the vehicle when it is sold. Important
safety information must be passed on to the new customer. The service
information contained in this manual gives the owner important information
about maintaining the vehicle but is not intended as a substitute for the
Preventive Maintenance Service Manual and must not be regarded as such.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Volvo
Trucks North America should be informed immediately if you believe that the
vehicle has a defect that could cause a crash, injury or death.
Contact NHTSA by calling the Auto Safety Hotline at 1 (888) 327-4236, by
writing to NHTSA, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC
20590, by TTY at 1 (800) 424-9153, or visit their website at
www.nhtsa.dot.gov.
Volvo Trucks North America
Greensboro, NC USA
Order number: PV776-21012002
©2008 Volvo Trucks North America, Greensboro, NC USA
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in
retrieval system, or transmitted in any forms by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of Volvo Trucks North America.
USA22978.bk.book Page 2 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
2
Foreword
WARNING LABEL INFORMATION
IMPORTANT: Before driving this vehicle, be certain that you have read
and that you fully understand each and every step of the driving and
handling information in this Operator's Manual. Be certain that you fully
understand and follow all safety warnings. It is extremely important that
this information is read and understood before the vehicle is operated.
IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION
CONCERNING LABELS BE READ, UNDERSTOOD AND ALWAYS
FOLLOWED.
The following types of labels are used throughout this manual:
A note defines an operating procedure, practice, condition, etc., which is
essential to proper operation of the vehicle.
A danger label directs the operator's attention to unsafe practices which
could result in serious personal injury or death. The danger label is in white
type on a black background with a black border.
A warning label directs the operator's attention to unsafe practices which
could result in personal injury or severe damage to the vehicle. The
warning label is in black type on a gray background with a black border.
A caution label directs the operator's attention to unsafe practices where
personal injury is not likely but property damage could occur. The caution
label is in black type on a white background with a black border.
Warning and Advisory Labels
Advisory, Danger, Warning and Caution labels are placed in various locations
of the vehicle to alert drivers and service technicians about situations that may
lead to personal injury or equipment damage. In the event that a label is
damaged or missing the label must be replaced. Contact your authorized
Volvo Truck dealer for assistance regarding Warning and Advisory labels.
USA22978.bk.book Page 3 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
General Information
3
INFORMATION FOR THE OWNER
GENERAL INFORMATION
If there are questions on the maintenance and performance of your vehicle,
please discuss them with your Volvo Truck dealer. Your authorized dealer is
required to have trained mechanics, special tools and spare parts to fully
service your vehicle. If necessary, your dealer will contact Volvo Trucks North
America or other manufacturers for any assistance.
In addition to this Maintenance Manual, there may be additional instruction/
operator's manuals supplied by component manufacturers. These manuals are
placed in the Owner's Package and placed in the cab. Be sure to read all the
manuals thoroughly before operating the vehicle.
Also, various safety labels may be placed on components by the component
manufacturer. Be sure to read and follow these labels to prevent damage to the
vehicle, personal injury or even death.
Information in this manual refers to Volvo components and Volvo drivetrain.
There is also certain information regarding the Cummins engine. For detailed
information on the Cummins engine or non-Volvo engines and/or drivetrains
contact your nearest Volvo Truck dealer.
Establish a Preventive Maintenance Program with the help of your local Volvo
Truck dealer. A Preventive Maintenance Program makes it possible to
maximize the amount of time your vehicle is up and running, resulting in
longer component life. This makes for a safer vehicle by reducing any
mechanical failures due to poor maintenance practices.
Federal law requires manufacturers to notify owners of its products in the
event of a Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard or if a safety related defect
is discovered. If you are not the original owner of this vehicle, please notify us
about the change in ownership at the address below or through an authorized
Volvo Truck dealer. This is the only way we will be able to contact you if
necessary.
Volvo Trucks North America
P. O. Box 26115
Greensboro, NC 27402-6115
United States of America
USA22978.bk.book Page 4 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
4
General Information
This Maintenance Manual covers all Volvo vehicles manufactured by Volvo
Trucks North America, including the whole chassis and all Volvo
manufactured components. For specific maintenance information on vendor
components, manufactured by, for example: Cummins, Fuller, Meritor, etc.,
see the respective manufacturer's service and maintenance literature.
This manual, together with manuals for specific components (for example,
Volvo engine, Cummins engine, Eaton transmission, etc.) contain important
information to be able to operate this vehicle safely. They contain advice and
instructions which will enable you to get the operating economy and
performance that you expect from this quality vehicle.
All information, illustrations and specifications contained in this manual are
based upon the latest product information available at the time of publication.
If any questions arise concerning the current status of Federal or state laws,
the appropriate Federal or state agency should be contacted.
Illustrations are used for reference only and may differ slightly from the actual
vehicle, however, key components addressed in this manual are represented as
accurately as possible.
Volvo Trucks North America reserves the right to make changes at any time or
to change specifications or design without notice and without incurring
obligation.
USA22978.bk.book Page 5 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
General Information
5
EXHAUST AND NOISE EMISSIONS
General
USA
The Federal Clean Air Act, Section 203 (a) (3), states the following
concerning the removal of air pollution control devices or modification of a
certified engine to a non-certified configuration:
“The following acts and the causing thereof are prohibited:
(3) For any person to remove or render inoperative any device or element of
design installed on or in a motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine in
compliance with regulations under this part prior to its sale and delivery to the
ultimate purchaser, or for any manufacturer or dealer knowingly to remove or
render inoperative any such design after sale and delivery to the ultimate
purchaser.”
Specifically, please note that no person may make such changes prior to the
sale and delivery of the vehicle to the ultimate purchaser, and, in addition, no
manufacturer or dealer may take such action after sale and delivery of the
vehicle to the ultimate purchaser. The law provides a penalty of up to
$10,000 for each violation.
Canada
The same conditions that apply in the USA apply to Canada, with one
exception. After the vehicle is sold to a retail customer, that is, the end user,
the jurisdiction controlling the emission control devices becomes the province
in which the vehicle is licensed. No changes should be made that render any or
all of the devices inoperative.
Should the owner/operator wish to make any changes to the emission control
devices, check with the provincial authority before making any such changes.
Mexico
The same conditions that apply in the USA apply to Mexico. Refer to the
Mexican Federal Law for Emission Control which adheres to EPA regulations.
No changes should be made that render any or all of the emissions control
devices inoperative.
Should the owner/operator wish to make any changes to the emission control
devices, check with the state authority before making any such changes.
USA22978.bk.book Page 6 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
6
General Information
CALIFORNIA EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS WARRANTY
Warranty coverage is subject to change without notice. Contact your Volvo
Truck dealer for the current warranty statement.
The California Air Resources Board and Volvo Trucks North America
are pleased to explain the California emission control system warranty on
your new motor vehicle engine. In California, new motor vehicle engines must
be designed, built and equipped to meet the State’s stringent anti-smog
standards. Volvo Trucks North America must warrant the emission control
system on your engine for the period of time listed below provided there has
been no abuse, neglect, or improper maintenance of your engine.
Your emission control system may include parts such as the fuel-injection
system, turbocharger assembly, electronic control module and other
emission-related assemblies.
Where a warrantable condition exists, Volvo Trucks North America will repair
your engine at no cost to you including diagnosis, parts, and labor.
MANUFACTURER’S WARRANTY COVERAGE:
If an emission-related part of your engine is defective, the part will be repaired
or replaced by Volvo Trucks North America. This is your emission control
system DEFECTS WARRANTY.
OWNER’S WARRANTY RESPONSIBILITIES:
As the motor vehicle engine owner, you are responsible for the performance of
the required maintenance listed in this manual. Volvo Trucks North America
recommends that you retain all receipts covering maintenance of your vehicle,
but Volvo Trucks North America. cannot deny warranty solely for the lack of
receipts or for your failure to ensure the performance of all scheduled
maintenance listed in other manuals which were supplied with your vehicle.
You are responsible for presenting your motor vehicle engine to a VOLVO
dealer as soon as a problem exists. The warranty repairs should be completed
in a reasonable amount of time, not to exceed 30 days.
As the motor vehicle engine owner, you should also be aware that Volvo
Trucks North America may deny you warranty coverage if your vehicle or a
part has failed due to abuse, neglect, improper maintenance, or unapproved
modifications.
USA22978.bk.book Page 7 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
General Information
7
If you have any questions regarding your warranty rights and responsibilities,
you should contact the Volvo Trucks North America Warranty Department at
P. O. Box 26115, Greensboro, NC 27402-6115, or the California Air
Resources Board at 9480 Telstar Avenue, El Monte, California 91731.
(Applicable only to vehicles and/or engines certified for sale and
registered in the State of California)
Volvo Trucks North America warrants the Emission Control Systems on each
new VOLVO diesel engine in a new VOLVO truck to comply with all State of
California emissions regulations applicable at the time of manufacture of the
engine, and to be free from defects in material and workmanship under normal
use and service up to 60 months, or 100,000 miles, or 3,000 engine operating
hours, whichever occurs first, provided all Volvo Trucks North America
maintenance requirements are followed as described in this manual. All
warranty periods are calculated from the date-in-service of the new vehicle.
The repair or replacement of defective parts will be made without charge for
the cost of parts and, if repairs are made at an authorized Volvo Trucks North
America dealership, there will be no charge for labor.
Volvo Trucks North America’s obligation under this warranty is limited to the
repair or replacement, at Volvo Trucks North America's option, of any part(s)
of the Emission Control Systems of such engine and/or vehicle found to be
defective upon examination by Volvo Trucks North America and provided that
such part(s) were returned to Volvo Trucks North America or its nearest
authorized Dealer within a reasonable period of time.
Qualifications and Limitations:
Not covered by the Emissions Control Systems Warranty:
앫
Malfunctions caused by misuse, improper adjustments, modification,
alteration, tampering, disconnection, improper or inadequate maintenance
and use of improper diesel fuel.
앫
Damage resulting from accident, acts of nature or other events beyond the
control of Volvo Trucks North America.
앫
Inconvenience, loss of use of the vehicle, commercial loss of any kind
including, but not limited to, consequential, incidental damages.
앫
Any vehicle in which the odometer has been altered or damaged so that
mileage cannot be readily determined.
THIS WARRANTY IS EXPRESSLY IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER
WARRANTIES AND REPRESENTATIONS OR CONDITIONS,
STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, IMPLIED WARRANTY OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE.
USA22978.bk.book Page 8 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
8
General Information
PROCEDURES FOR HANDLING EMISSIONS CONTROL
SYSTEM WARRANTY
The following engine components are covered by the supplemental emissions
control system warranty policy as required by the California Code of
Regulations.
a.
Turbocharger Assembly
b.
VGT Actuator Control Valve
c.
Charge Air Cooler
d.
Unit Injectors
e.
Engine Wiring Harness
f.
Electronic Control Module
g.
EGR Mixer
h.
EGR Cooler
i.
EGR Control Valve
j.
Crankcase Breather
k.
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Assembly
l.
DPF Components:
m.
앫
Aftertreatment Fuel Injector (AFI)
앫
AFI Shutoff Valve
앫
Discharge Recirculation Valve
앫
Pre-Catalyst Temp. Sensor
앫
Post-Catalyst Temp. Sensor
앫
Downstream DPF Temp. Sensor
앫
Differential Pressure Sensor
Sensors:
앫
Engine Timing/Speed (flywheel)
앫
Engine Position (camshaft)
앫
Temperature — Coolant
앫
Temperature — Inlet Manifold Air
앫
Pressure — Boost Air
앫
Humidity
앫
EGR Temperature
앫
EGR Differential Pressure
USA22978.bk.book Page 9 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
General Information
9
The emission warranty for the diesel particulate filter covers defects in
workmanship only. Normal maintenance, such as cleaning ash from the filter
at regular maintenance intervals, is not covered by the emission warranty.
In response to customer requests, Volvo Trucks North America may build
vehicles with engines supplied by other manufacturers, including, but not
limited to, Cummins. In these cases, each engine manufacturer through its
service organization, is responsible for emission control systems warranty on
all parts of the engine assembly, as furnished.
Any unauthorized adjustments to the emission control components can cause
severe damage to the engine.
1.
Repairs by VOLVO Dealers, Sub-Dealers and Service Dealers
Repairs covered by the California Emission Control Systems Warranty
will be performed by any authorized VOLVO repair facility at his place
of business with no charge for parts and labor (including diagnosis),
using VOLVO parts for any part of the emission control systems covered
by this warranty and found defective.
2.
In an Emergency
In an emergency, where an authorized VOLVO facility is not available,
repairs may be performed at any available service establishment, or by
the owner, using any replacement part, within the limitations of
paragraphs 4 and 5 in this section. An emergency condition exists under
this section if, after 30 days, repairs have not been completed or parts
are not yet available. VOLVO will reimburse the owner for such repairs
that are covered under this warranty, including diagnosis, not to exceed
VOLVO’s suggested retail price for parts replaced and labor charges
based on VOLVO’s recommended time allowance and geographically
appropriate hourly labor rate. Replaced parts and paid invoices must be
presented at a VOLVO facility as a condition of reimbursement for
emergency repairs performed elsewhere.
USA22978.bk.book Page 10 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
10
General Information
In the event that damage results from unauthorized adjustments to any
emission control system components, as evidenced by settings other than as
specified, or broken fastener seals, the cost of repairing such damage WILL
NOT BE COVERED under warranty.
3.
Repairs by Non-VOLVO Facilities
Owners may elect to have maintenance, replacement, or repair of
emission control systems performed by any repair facility, and may elect
to use parts other than VOLVO parts without invalidating the warranty
on other components, but the cost of such service or parts will not be
covered by VOLVO under its warranty.
4.
Use of Non-VOLVO Parts
Use of replacement parts which are not the equivalent of VOLVO parts
may impair the effectiveness of emission control systems. If other than
VOLVO parts are used, the owner should obtain assurances that such
parts are warranted by their manufacturer to be the equivalent of
VOLVO parts in performance and durability. VOLVO assumes no
liability under this warranty with respect to parts other than VOLVO
parts; however, the use of non-VOLVO parts does not invalidate the
warranty on other components unless non-VOLVO parts cause damage
to warranted parts.
5.
Maintenance and Maintenance Records
The vehicle owner is responsible for the performance of all required
maintenance specified in this manual.
VOLVO will not deny a warranty claim solely because there is no record
of maintenance; however, VOLVO may deny a warranty claim if failure
to perform required maintenance results in the failure of a warranted
part. Receipts or other records covering the performance of scheduled
maintenance should be retained to answer questions that may arise
concerning maintenance. Maintenance records should be transferred to
subsequent owners if the vehicle is sold.
6.
Items Not Covered by the Emission Control Systems Warranty
— Malfunctions caused by misuse, improper adjustments,
modification, alteration, tampering, disconnection, improper or
inadequate maintenance.
— Damage resulting from accident, acts of nature or other events
beyond the control of VOLVO.
— Inconvenience, loss of use of the vehicle, or commercial loss.
— Any vehicle on which the odometer has been changed so that
mileage cannot be readily determined.
USA22978.bk.book Page 11 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
General Information
7.
11
Customer Assistance
Volvo Trucks North America wishes to assure that the California
Emission Control Systems Warranty is properly administered. In the
event that owners do not receive the warranty service to which they
believe they are entitled under the California Emission Control Systems
Warranty, they should contact Volvo Trucks North America Warranty
Administration, (336) 393-2000. The address and telephone number of
each Regional Office is in your vehicle owner's package. Owners in
need of additional assistance or information concerning the California
Emission Control Systems Warranty may also contact:
Volvo Trucks North America
Warranty Administration
(336) 393-2000
USA22978.bk.book Page 12 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
12
General Information
CALIFORNIA EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS SERVICE
RECORD
CALIFORNIA EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS SERVICE RECORD
DATE
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
__/__/__
KM\MILES
SERVICE PERFORMED
SERVICED BY
USA22978.bk.book Page 13 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
General Information
13
GASEOUS EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS WARRANTY
For emission control systems information on engines other than VOLVO, refer
to the engine vendor’s publications.
Volvo Trucks North America warrants the Emission Control Systems on each
new VOLVO diesel engine in a new VOLVO truck to comply with all United
States Federal and Canadian emissions regulations applicable at the time of
manufacture of the engine, and to be free from defects in material and
workmanship under normal use and service up to 60 months, or
100,000 miles, whichever occurs first, provided all Volvo Trucks North
America. maintenance requirements are followed as described in this manual.
All warranty periods are calculated from the data-in-service of the new
vehicle. The repair or replacement of defective parts will be made without
charge for the cost of parts and, if repairs are made at an authorized Volvo
Trucks North America. dealership, there will be no charge for labor.
Volvo Trucks North America's obligation under this warranty is limited to the
repair or replacement, at Volvo Trucks North America's option, of any part(s)
of the Emission Control Systems of such engine and/or vehicle found to be
defective upon examination by Volvo Trucks North America and provided that
such part(s) were returned to Volvo Trucks North America or its nearest
authorized Dealer within a reasonable period of time.
Qualifications and Limitations:
Not covered by the Emissions Control Systems Warranty:
앫
Malfunctions caused by misuse, improper adjustments, modification,
alteration, tampering, disconnection, improper or inadequate maintenance
and use of improper diesel fuel.
앫
Damage resulting from accident, acts of nature or other events beyond the
control of Volvo Trucks North America.
앫
Inconvenience, loss of use of the vehicle, commercial loss of any kind
including, but not limited to, consequential, incidental damages.
앫
Any vehicle in which the odometer has been altered or damaged so that
mileage cannot be readily determined.
THIS WARRANTY IS EXPRESSLY IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER
WARRANTIES AND REPRESENTATIONS OR CONDITIONS,
STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, IMPLIED WARRANTY OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
USA22978.bk.book Page 14 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
14
General Information
ENGINE GASEOUS EMISSIONS CONTROL SYSTEM
WARRANTY
FEDERAL EMISSION REQUIREMENTS
The following engine components are covered by the supplemental emissions
control system warranty policy as required by the Federal emissions
regulations.
a.
Turbocharger Assembly
b.
VGT Actuator Control Valve
c.
Charge Air Cooler
d.
Unit Injectors
e.
Engine Wiring Harness
f.
Electronic Control Module
g.
EGR Mixer
h.
EGR Cooler
i.
EGR Control Valve
j.
Crankcase Breather
k.
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Assembly
l.
DPF Components:
m.
앫
Aftertreatment Fuel Injector (AFI)
앫
AFI Shutoff Valve
앫
Discharge Recirculation Valve
앫
Pre-Catalyst Temp. Sensor
앫
Post-Catalyst Temp. Sensor
앫
Downstream DPF Temp. Sensor
앫
Differential Pressure Sensor
Sensors:
앫
Engine Timing/Speed (flywheel)
앫
Engine Position (camshaft)
앫
Temperature — Coolant
앫
Temperature — Inlet Manifold Air
앫
Pressure — Boost Air
앫
Humidity
앫
EGR Temperature
앫
EGR Differential Pressure
USA22978.bk.book Page 15 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
General Information
15
The emission warranty for the diesel particulate filter covers defects in
workmanship only. Normal maintenance, such as cleaning ash from the filter
at regular maintenance intervals, is not covered by the emission warranty.
In response to customer requests, Volvo Trucks North America may build
vehicles with engines supplied by other manufacturers, including, but not
limited to, Cummins. In these cases, each engine manufacturer through its
service organization, is responsible for emission control systems warranty on
all parts of the engine assembly, as furnished.
FEDERAL EMISSION REQUIREMENTS
This section covers the requirement of the United States Clean Air Act which
states:
“The manufacturer shall furnish with each new motor vehicle or motor vehicle
engine such written instructions for the maintenance and use of the vehicle or
engine by the ultimate purchaser as may be reasonable and necessary to assure
the proper functioning of emission control devices and systems.”
This section also covers the requirements of the emissions regulations
promulgated under the Motor Vehicle Safety Act in Canada.
TAMPERING WITH GASEOUS EMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS
PROHIBITED
The Federal Clean Air Act prohibits the removal or rendering inoperative of
any device or element of design installed on or in a motor vehicle or motor
vehicle engine in compliance with Federal Emission Regulations by:
1.
Any person prior to its sale and delivery to the ultimate purchaser, or
2.
Any manufacturer or distributor after its sale and delivery to the ultimate
purchaser, or
3.
Any person engaged in the business of repairing, servicing, selling,
leasing, or trading motor vehicles or motor vehicle engines following its
sale and delivery to the ultimate purchaser, or
4.
Any person who operates a fleet of motor vehicles following its sale and
delivery to the ultimate purchaser.
USA22978.bk.book Page 16 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
16
General Information
ENGINES OTHER THAN VOLVO
For specific information on engines other than VOLVO, refer to the
engine vendor’s publications.
Noise Emissions
Volvo Trucks North America warrants to the first person who purchases this
vehicle for purposes other than resale and to each subsequent purchaser, that
this vehicle as manufactured by Volvo Trucks North America was designed,
built and equipped to conform, at the time it left the control of Volvo Trucks
North America, with all applicable U.S. EPA Noise Control Regulations.
This warranty covers this vehicle as designed, built and equipped by Volvo
Trucks North America, and is not limited to any particular part, component or
system of the vehicle manufactured by Volvo Trucks North America Defects
in design, assembly or in any part, component or system of the vehicle as
manufactured by Volvo Trucks North America, which, at the time it left the
control of Volvo Trucks North America caused noise emissions to exceed
Federal standards, are covered by this warranty for the life of the vehicle.
Noise Control System, Operator Inspection and Maintenance
Requirements
A Noise Control System Maintenance Log is located in this manual. This log
should be used to document all Noise Control System related maintenance,
whether the maintenance results from a specific noise control system
inspection, or a deficiency identified during another general maintenance
event.
If additional log space is needed, further entries may be added on a separate
sheet of paper. Store these additions with the main log to preserve a
comprehensive record. It is recommended that copies of all noise emissions
related maintenance invoices be retained.
The following Noise Control System inspection and maintenance instructions
contain suggested maintenance intervals. These intervals may need adjustment
in order to best accommodate the specific vehicle usage. The following
instructions only concern Noise Emissions related items and do not address or
modify any general vehicle maintenance requirements.
The following elements make up the Noise Control System:
앫
Noise Shielding and Insulation Devices
앫
Cooling System
앫
Exhaust System/DPF System
앫
Air Intake/Air Induction System
앫
Engine Control, EGR and Fuel Systems
USA22978.bk.book Page 17 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
General Information
17
Tampering with Noise Control System
Federal law prohibits the following acts or the causing thereof:
(1) The removal or rendering inoperative by any person, other than for
purposes of maintenance, repair, or replacement, of any device or element of
design incorporated into any new vehicle for the purpose of noise control prior
to its sale or delivery to the ultimate purchaser or while it is in use;
or
(2) the use of the vehicle after such device or element of design has been
removed or rendered inoperative by any person.
Among the acts that constitute tampering are the acts listed below:
앫
Removal, or rendering inoperative, of any exhaust components, including
mufflers, heavy or double-wall exhaust tubing, flexible tubing or exhaust
pipe clamping.
앫
Removal, or rendering inoperative, of the temperature-modulated cooling
fan system.
앫
Removal of the cooling fan shroud.
앫
Removal, or rendering inoperative, of the air cleaner or air intake in-line
silencer.
앫
Removal of the sound deadening material from the hood or cab tunnel.
앫
Removal, or rendering inoperative, of the engine speed governor so as to
allow engine speed to exceed the manufacturer's specifications.
앫
Removal of splash shields located inside the wheel housings.
앫
Removal of engine block shields.
앫
Removal of engine crankcase shields or insulation.
앫
Removal of insulated rocker arm covers.
앫
Removal of transmission noise shields.
Noise Shielding and Insulation Devices
Maintenance
Ensure sound shielding and insulating devices are intact. Inspect components
for damage. Primary system components requiring noise related inspection
include the hood, engine compartment insulating materials (including hood
insulation, bulkhead insulation, doghouse insulation, etc.) splash shields, cab
skirts, fender shields, and body panels. Inspect all related fasteners, brackets,
and clamps for damage and tightness.
USA22978.bk.book Page 18 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
18
General Information
Regulatory Compliance
Acts that constitute tampering with the Noise Shielding and Insulation
Devices:
Removing or rendering inoperative the engine and/or transmission noise
deadening panels, shields or insulating materials.
Removing or rendering inoperative the cab-tunnel or hood noise insulating
materials.
Removing or rendering inoperative any vehicle body mounted sound
insulation components and/or shields (cab or fender shields, skirts, wheel
housing splash shields, etc.).
Cooling System
DO NOT work near the fan with the engine running or the ignition in the
ON position. The engine fan can engage at any time without warning.
Anyone near the fan when it turns on could be seriously injured.
Maintenance
Visually inspect cooling system components for damage, and/or
misalignment.
Primary system components requiring noise related inspection include fan
blades, fan clutch, fan shroud, fan ring, and recirculation shields. Check fan
blades, fan ring, fan shroud, belt tensioner and recirculation shields for any
damage. Verify that fan blades clear the fan ring. Inspect all related fasteners,
brackets, and clamps for damage and tightness. Confirm operation of
temperature modulated fan clutch.
Regulatory Compliance
Acts that constitute tampering with the Cooling System:
Removing or rendering inoperative cooling system components (such as the
temperature modulated fan clutch, fan shroud, fan ring, recirculation shields,
etc.).
USA22978.bk.book Page 19 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
General Information
19
Exhaust System
Hot engine! Avoid all movable parts or hot engine parts, exhaust gases,
and/or fluids. A hot engine, exhaust, and/or fluids can cause burns.
Maintenance
Make sure the exhaust system is intact. Inspect for damage, misalignment and/
or leakage. Primary system components requiring noise related inspection
include exhaust manifold, turbocharger, and all exhaust system (rigid and
flexible) piping. Closely check the system for exhaust leaks. Special attention
should be given to all welds, seams, gaskets, support points, clamps, couplings
and connections.
Inspect all exhaust system fasteners, brackets, and clamps for damage and
tightness.
Regulatory Compliance
Acts that constitute tampering with the Exhaust System:
Removing or rendering inoperative exhaust system components (such as the
pipes, clamps, etc.).
Air Intake/Air Induction System
Maintenance
Make sure the air intake system is intact. Inspect components for damage,
misalignment and/or leakage. Primary system components requiring noise
related inspection include the air cleaner housing, air cleaner element,
turbocharger, charge air cooler and intake manifold.
Also inspect all ducts, pipes, hoses, tubing and elbows used to interconnect the
system. Special attention should be given to all welds, seams, gaskets, support
points, clamps, couplings and connections.
Inspect all intake system fasteners, brackets, and clamps for damage and
tightness.
Regulatory Compliance
Acts that constitute tampering with the Air Intake/Air Induction System:
Removing or rendering inoperative air intake/induction system components
(filter, filter housings, ducts, etc.).
USA22978.bk.book Page 20 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
20
General Information
Engine Control, EGR and Fuel Systems
Acts that constitute tampering with Engine Control, EGR and Fuel Systems:
Removing rendering inoperative, or modifying the engine control system such
as the ECU, EGR system components, or fuel system components, in order to
allow the engine to operate outside of the manufacturer's specifications is not
allowed and violates both warranty and legislation.
Noise Control Log
NOISE CONTROL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE LOG
DATE
MILEAGE
MAINTENANCE
PERFORMED
MAINTENANCE
FACILITY
USA22978.bk.book Page 21 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
General Information
21
LABEL INFORMATION
VT Shown, VN and VHD Similar
1. Transmission Type and Gear
Pattern This information is
located in the visor.
2. VIN/GAWR Located in the
door frame “B” pillar.
3. VIN/Major Components
Located in the door frame “B”
pillar.
4. Vehicle Noise Emission
Located in the door frame “B”
pillar.
USA22978.bk.book Page 22 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
22
General Information
FUSE AND RELAY LOCATION
Always replace fuses and circuit breakers with the same current/
amperage. Increasing fuse or circuit breaker rating may result in
electrical circuit overheating and possible fire.
On sleeper models equipped with fluorescent lighting, there is a 3 AMP
maximum fuse located in the lighting fixture.
USA22978.bk.book Page 23 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
General Information
23
The fuse relay panel is located under the top cover of the dash board. The
vehicle has an electrical center located in the middle of the dash under the top
cover. Since the function of some fuses or relays may change for the vehicle
application, refer to the list of functions that is attached beneath each panel.
VN Fuse and Relay Center
VHD Fuse and Relay Center
USA22978.bk.book Page 24 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
24
Safety Information
PROPER MAINTENANCE PROCEDURE
SAFETY INFORMATION
Before working on a vehicle, set the parking brakes, place the transmission
in neutral, and chock the wheels. Failure to do so can result in unexpected
vehicle movement and can cause serious personal injury or death.
Exhaust gases contain carbon monoxide. Always run the engine outdoors or
use a properly vented exhaust hose. Prolonged or excessive exposure may
cause serious illness or death.
Never operate the engine in an area where hydrocarbon vapors (gasoline,
for example) are present or are suspected to be present. Hydrocarbon vapors
can enter the air intake and over speed the engine, causing severe engine
damage and/or an explosion and fire. Serious personal injury or death
could occur.
Never try to operate or work on this vehicle while under the influence of
alcohol. Your reflexes can be affected by even a small amount of alcohol.
Drinking and operating this vehicle can lead to an accident, causing serious
personal injury or death.
DO NOT attempt to repair or service this vehicle without having
sufficient training, correct service literature and the proper tools. Failure
to follow this could lead to personal injury or making your vehicle unsafe.
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the state
of California to cause cancer, birth defects and other reproductive harm.
USA22978.bk.book Page 25 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Safety Information
25
During Maintenance
Remove key from ignition while working on vehicle or engine.
DO NOT allow unauthorized personnel on, around or in the vehicle when
maintenance or repair is being performed.
앫
When operating the engine in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
앫
Before servicing your vehicle, apply the parking brakes and adequately
chock the wheels in order to prevent unintended vehicle movement. If the
service procedure requires the parking brakes to be released — recheck to
ensure that the wheels are adequately chocked to prevent any forward
and/or rearward movement.
앫
DO NOT use combustible substances in or around the engine either
during repair or maintenance or when running the engine.
앫
DO NOT wear loose clothing or jewelry that can catch or get snagged by
parts or moving components on the engine. Also wear all protective
equipment required by the job conditions, such as protective glasses,
hearing protection, etc.
앫
Make certain that all protective covers and guards are in place and
properly secured.
앫
Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers since glass containers
can break.
앫
Report all problems in a timely manner before they threaten the safety of
operating the vehicle.
앫
DO NOT work on the engine while it is running.
앫
Make sure protective locks and covers are in their proper place.
앫
DO NOT use high amperage electronic starting devices for jump-starting
the engine. Rely on conventional battery charging for charging the
batteries or jump-start with the help of a start battery.
앫
DO NOT attempt repairs you do not understand. If you do not have the
proper tools/knowledge to perform the repairs correctly, Volvo
recommends contacting your nearest Volvo Truck dealer for all necessary
repairs.
앫
When starting an engine after repairs have been made to the fuel or
injection system, prepare equipment for shutting off the engine intake air
and/or fuel supply (to stop the engine), in case there is an over speed on
start-up.
앫
Start the engine only from the driver seat. Never operate the starter motor
across the starter terminals or the batteries as this could bypass the engine
neutral-start system as well as causing damage to the electrical or
electronic systems.
USA22978.bk.book Page 26 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
26
Safety Information
Compressed Air and Water
Compressed air can cause serious personal injury. When using compressed
air for cleaning, wear a protective face shield, protective clothing and
protective shoes. Pressurized water could cause particles and/or hot water to
be sprayed in your direction and cause personal injury. The maximum air
pressure must be below 200 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Asbestos Information
The Volvo engine and replacement parts for it shipped from the factory are
asbestos free. Volvo recommends the use of only genuine Volvo spare parts.
Never use any parts that contain or are thought to contain asbestos. Exposure
to asbestos fibers can create serious health risks, including death.
Fluid Penetration
Always use a piece of paper or cardboard when checking for a leak.
Escaping fluid under high pressure, even a pin-hole sized leak, can
penetrate body tissue, causing serious injury or death. If fluid is injected
into your skin, immediate treatment must be administered by a doctor
familiar with this type of injury.
INJURY PREVENTION
Burn Prevention
Engine Parts
Hot engine. Keep yourself clear of all hot engine parts and/or fluids. A hot
engine and/or fluid can cause serious burns.
USA22978.bk.book Page 27 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Safety Information
27
DO NOT raise the engine hood if you see or hear steam or coolant
escaping from the engine compartment. Wait until steam or coolant
cannot be seen or heard any longer before raising the hood.
DO NOT remove the coolant fill cap if the coolant in the surge tank is
boiling. Also, do not remove the cap while the engine and radiator are still
hot. Scalding fluid and steam may be blown out under pressure if the cap
is taken off too soon, which can cause personal injury and damage to
engine components.
DO NOT touch any part of the engine while it is hot. Allow the engine to cool
before any repair or maintenance is performed on the engine.
Relieve all pressure in air, oil, fuel or cooling systems before any lines, fittings
or related items are disconnected or removed.
Coolant
Coolant may be combustible. Coolant leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces
or electrical components can cause a fire. Clean up coolant spills
immediately.
USA22978.bk.book Page 28 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
28
Safety Information
To prevent personal injury, do not climb up on the engine to remove the filler
cap. Use a suitable, properly positioned ladder to reach the cap. At normal
operating temperature, the engine coolant is very hot and under pressure. If
pressure is relieved rapidly in a hot cooling system, the hot coolant can turn
into steam. Any contact with hot coolant or steam can cause severe burns. The
radiator and all heating system and radiator lines and hoses contain hot
coolant.
Verify coolant level only by the markings on the expansion tank. Open the
filler cap only after the engine is stopped and cooled down. Remove the filler
cap slowly to relieve pressure.
Oils
Hot engine. Keep yourself clear of all hot engine parts and/or fluids. A hot
engine and/or fluid can cause serious burns.
Hot oil can cause severe burns. DO NOT allow hot oil to contact the skin.
When changing oil, wear protective gloves.
Batteries
Always wear eye protection when working around batteries to prevent
the risk of injury due to contact with sulfuric acid or an explosion.
Battery posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead and lead
compounds, chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer
and reproductive harm. Wash hands after handling.
Battery electrolyte contains acid and can cause injury. Avoid contact with the
skin and eyes. Wash hands after touching batteries and connectors. Use of
gloves is recommended. Always wear protective glasses when working with
batteries.
USA22978.bk.book Page 29 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Safety Information
29
Speed Restrictive Tires
Operating a vehicle equipped with speed restrictive tires in excess of their
stated rating may result in tread separation and/or blowout resulting in the
loss of steering control and possible collision. Serious personal injury or
death could occur. Always maintain proper air pressure and never exceed
the tire ratings.
When a vehicle is equipped with speed restrictive tires, DO NOT operate the
vehicle in excess of the indicated speeds. If your vehicle is equipped with such
tires, the speed restrictions will be stated on the sidewall of the tires. The
operator of this vehicle is urged to check the tires of the vehicle to determine if
there are any limitations.
Fire or Explosion Prevention
The diesel engine will operate on any fuel which enters the cylinder,
whether it is from the injectors or from the air intake system. Therefore, if
any solvent is used to flush out the air cleaner element, the engine may over
speed during start-up. Engine damage and severe injury and/or death from
burns or explosion can occur.
Excessive heat may cause the pressurized components of the air conditioned
system to explode. Some mixtures of R134a refrigerant can become
combustible at elevated pressures. Never weld, solder, steam clean or use a
gas torch near any part of the air conditioning system. Severe injury or
death may occur from an explosion.
USA22978.bk.book Page 30 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
30
Safety Information
DO NOT service any part of the fuel system while smoking or in the
presence of flames, sparks or hot surfaces. Failure to follow these
precautions can result in fire, which can cause serious injury or death.
DO NOT store fuel containers in the vehicle. They may leak, explode and
cause or feed a fire. Empty or full, they present a hazard that may lead to
burns in the event of a fire.
The engine should not be operated in an area where combustible gases are
suspected to be in the air. These could be drawn into the engine through the
engine air intake system and could cause the engine to over speed with
possible serious damage to the engine and bodily injury or property damage.
Make provisions for shutting off the engine intake air or fuel supply to stop the
engine if there is an over speed on start-up after performing repair or
maintenance on it.
Contact your nearest Volvo Truck dealer for any necessary air conditioning
testing or repairs.
All fuels, most lubricants and some coolant mixtures are flammable. Diesel
fuel is flammable. Gasoline is flammable. The mixture of diesel and gasoline
fumes is extremely explosive. DO NOT smoke while refueling or when in a
refueling area.
Keep all fuels and lubricants stored in properly marked containers and away
from all unauthorized personnel. Store oily rags or other flammable material
in a protective container, in a safe place.
Remove all flammable material such as fuel, oil and other substances before
they accumulate on the engine.
USA22978.bk.book Page 31 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Safety Information
31
DO NOT expose the engine to flames, driving over burning ground.
DO NOT weld or flame cut on or around pipes or tubes that contain
flammable fluids.
Exhaust heat shields may be installed to protect oil or fuel carrying lines and
pipes from hot exhaust parts. To protect from pipe or seal failure, install heat
shields correctly.
Provide adequate and proper waste oil disposal. Always dispose of waste
liquids according to Federal and local regulations. Oil and fuel filters should
be properly installed and housing covers tightened to the proper torque when
being changed.
Starting Aids
DO NOT use ether or other combustible starting aids on any engine
equipped with a preheater. If the engine is equipped with a preheater,
introduction of ether or similar starting aids could cause a fire or explosion
resulting in severe property damage, serious personal injury or death.
DO NOT use ether or other combustible starting aids on engines that
have a heater element or other heating devices installed in the intake
manifold for heating the intake air during cold-starts.
USA22978.bk.book Page 32 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
32
Safety Information
Fire Extinguisher
Anytime work is being done to the fuel system or any other area where
flammable substances are being used, have a fire extinguisher available and
know how to use it. Inspect and have it serviced as recommended on its
instruction label.
Respiratory Hazard Prevention
Exhaust gases contain carbon monoxide. Always run the engine outdoors or
use a properly vented exhaust hose. Prolonged or excessive exposure may
cause serious illness or death.
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents are known to the state
of California to cause cancer, birth defects and other reproductive harm.
Always work in a well ventilated space if the engine needs to be running and
use a hose to route the exhaust to the outside.
Poisonous Substances
Coolant is toxic; risk of poisoning.
DO NOT drink coolant. Use proper hand protection when handling. Keep
coolant out of reach of children and animals. Failure to follow these
precautions can cause serious illness or death.
Cooling system supplemental additive contains alkali. To prevent personal
injury, avoid contact with the skin and eyes.
DO NOT drink coolant of any concentration.
USA22978.bk.book Page 33 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Safety Information
33
Crushing or Cutting Prevention
Before working on a vehicle, set the parking brakes, place the transmission
in neutral and chock the wheels. Failure to do so can result in unexpected
vehicle movement and can cause serious personal injury or death.
DO NOT work near the fan with the engine running or the ignition in the
ON position. The engine fan can engage at any time without warning.
Anyone near the fan when it turns on could be seriously injured.
Never attempt adjustments or repairs while the engine is running, see your
authorized Volvo Truck dealer.
Inspect the fan blade assembly before service for cracks or loose mounting
before starting the engine. Never stand alongside a rotating fan assembly,
particularly at high fan speeds.
Wear protective glasses when striking objects to avoid injury to your eyes.
Chips or other debris can fly off objects that are struck. Make sure no one can
be injured by flying debris before striking any object.
USA22978.bk.book Page 34 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
34
Safety Information
Climbing Up and Down
Always have three limbs (one foot and two hands or two feet and one hand)
in contact with the vehicle at all times when entering or exiting the cab or
the area behind the cab. Failure to follow this warning can result in serious
personal injury or death.
DO NOT climb up on or jump off from the engine or stand on components
that cannot support your weight. Use an adequate ladder or scaffolding,
suitably situated.
DO NOT use top of engine or cowling ledge as foothold when reaching on top
of cab. Clean steps, handholds and areas of the vehicle on which you will be
working or are around. Refer to the Operator's Manual for proper entry and
exit procedures.
Always use a three-point stance (two hands and one foot or one hand and
two feet) whenever climbing up or down.
ENGINE DAMAGE PREVENTION
Before Starting the Engine
Before working on a vehicle, set the parking brakes, place the transmission
in neutral and chock the wheels. Failure to do so can result in unexpected
vehicle movement and can cause serious personal injury or death.
Inspect engine for potential hazards. Make sure all protective guards and
covers are properly installed if an engine needs to be started to make
adjustments or checks. To help prevent an accident by moving parts, work
carefully around them.
DO NOT disable or bypass automatic alarm/shutoff circuits. They are
provided to prevent personal injury and engine damage.
Only properly trained and authorized Volvo Service Technicians may attempt
repairs on this vehicle.
USA22978.bk.book Page 35 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Safety Information
35
Engine Starting
DO NOT start the engine or move any of the controls or disengage the parking
brake if the warning tag “DO NOT OPERATE” is attached to the ignition key
or located on the dash. Check with the person who attached the tag before
starting.
Make sure no one is working on or close to the engine or components driven
by the engine before starting it. Always make an inspection of the engine
before and after starting.
Diesel engine exhaust contains products of combustion which may be harmful
to your health. Always start and operate the engine in a well-ventilated area,
and if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the outside.
Start the engine only from the driver seat in the cab. Never start the engine by
shorting across the starter motor terminals or batteries to start the engine as
this could bypass the engine neutral-start system as well as damage the
electrical and electronic system. Always start the engine according to the
required engine starting procedure described in this operator's manual to
prevent major engine component damage and personal injury.
Starting Aids
DO NOT use ether or other combustible starting aids on any engine
equipped with a preheater. If the engine is equipped with a preheater,
introduction of ether or similar starting aids could cause a fire or explosion
resulting in severe property damage, serious personal injury or death.
USA22978.bk.book Page 36 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
36
Safety Information
ELECTRIC SYSTEM DAMAGE PREVENTION
Electric and Electronic Systems
Always wear eye protection when working around batteries to prevent
the risk of injury due to contact with sulfuric acid or an explosion.
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery circuit cable from the
battery when the charging unit is operating. A spark can cause the flammable
vapor mixture of hydrogen and oxygen to explode.
To prevent potential sparks from igniting combustible gases produced by some
batteries, attach the negative (—) terminal last when hooking up and remove
the negative terminal first after the engine has started. Check regularly around
the engine and engine compartment for loose or frayed wires. Have all loose
or frayed electrical wires tightened, repaired or replaced before operating the
vehicle.
Grounding Practices
Proper grounding for vehicle and engine electrical and electronic systems is
necessary for proper vehicle and engine performance and reliability. Improper
grounding will result in uncontrolled and unreliable electrical paths.
Uncontrolled engine electrical circuit paths can result in damage to main
bearings, crankshaft journals surfaces and aluminum components.
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can also cause electrical noise which may
degrade vehicle and radio performance.
Operating engines without the engine-to-frame ground strap installed can
cause damage to the engine. To prevent electrical discharge damage, check to
make sure the engine's electrical system has an engine-to-frame ground strap.
All ground connections should be tight and free of corrosion.
USA22978.bk.book Page 37 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Safety Information
37
Electronic Engine Control System
The engine uses high voltage to the electronic unit injectors.
DO NOT come in contact with the unit injector terminals while the engine is
running. An electric shock can cause an involuntary muscle spasm and
cause loss of balance and falls leading to severe personal injury or death.
Tampering with the electronic system installation can be dangerous and could
result in personal injury or death and/or engine damage. It is very important to
take the proper precautions with the electrical and electronic system when
charging the batteries, jump-starting or performing electric welding on the
vehicle. See the vehicle Operator's Manual for correct procedures.
This engine is equipped with monitoring features that may cause reduced
power or shutdown under certain conditions. The power output, monitoring
and idling features can only be programmed and/or changed with electronic
service tools and passwords.
Certain features, such as low oil pressure, high coolant temperature or low
coolant level could cause the engine power and/or vehicle speed to be limited
and the engine may also shut down. The shutdown will take approximately
30 seconds from the time the warning feature is activated. See the vehicle
Operator's Manual for more information.
USA22978.bk.book Page 38 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
38
Safety Information
REPORTING SAFETY DEFECTS
USA
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Volvo
Trucks North America should be informed immediately if you believe that the
vehicle has a defect that could cause a vehicle accident, injury or death.
Contact NHTSA by calling the Auto Safety Hotline at 1 (888) 327-4236, by
writing to NHTSA, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC
20590, by TTY at 1 (800) 424-9153, or visit their website at
www.nhtsa.dot.gov.
Canada
Refer customer complaints to Volvo Trucks Canada, Inc. or to Transport
Canada, Defect Investigations and Recalls.
Canadian customers who wish to report a safety-related defect to Transport
Canada, Defect Investigations and Recalls, may telephone the toll free hotline
1 (800) 333-0510 (within Canada only) or call 1 (613) 993-9851 (from Ottawa
region or outside Canada). Contact Transport Canada by mail at: Transport
Canada, ASFAD, Place de Ville Tower C, 330 Sparks Street, Ottawa
ON K1A 0N5.
For additional road safety information, please visit the Road Safety website at:
http://www.tc.gc.ca/roadsafety/menu.htm
Mexico
Volvo Trucks de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. should be informed immediately if you
believe the vehicle has a defect that could cause a vehicle accident, injury or
death. Contact Volvo Trucks de Mexico by calling: 01 (800) 90 94 900 (within
Mexico only) or 011-52-55-50-81-68-50, or by writing to: Volvo Trucks de
Mexico, S.A. de C.V., Prol. Paseo de la Reforma 600, 1er. Piso — 121, Col.
Santa Fe Peña Blanca, C.P. 01210, México, D.F.
For Roadside assistance information see “Service Assistance and Manuals” on
page 122.
USA22978.bk.book Page 39 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
General Engine Information
39
ENGINE OVERVIEW, D11F AND D13F LEFT SIDE VIEW
GENERAL ENGINE INFORMATION
D13F Engine Shown, D11F Engine Similar
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Breather Tube
Intake Manifold
Air Compressor
Power Steering Pump
Fuel Pump
Engine Electronic Control Unit
(EECU)
7. Fuel Filter
8. Fuel/Water Separator
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Fuel Filter
Hand-Priming Pump
Crankcase Ventilator
Alternator
AC Compressor
Alternator/AC Compressor Belt
Fan/Coolant Pump Belt
EGR Mixing Chamber
USA22978.bk.book Page 40 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
40
General Engine Information
ENGINE OVERVIEW, D11F AND D13F RIGHT SIDE
VIEW
D13F Engine Shown, D11F Engine Similar
17. Exhaust Manifold
18. Valve Cover
19. Engine Pre-Heater Element
(Optional)
20. Thermostat Housing
21. Belt Tensioner
22. Coolant Pump
23. Coolant Filter
ENGINE STORAGE
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
Venturi Pipe
Oil Filters
Oil Pan
EGR Cooler
Turbocharger
Starter Motor
EGR Valve
USA22978.bk.book Page 41 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Engine Storage
41
ENGINE STORAGE
If the vehicle must be parked for a period (more than 30 days), protect it as
follows:
1.
Drain the engine oil.
2.
Fill up to the proper level with oil of the recommended quality and
viscosity.
3.
Fill up the fuel tanks with the recommended grade of fuel.
4.
Run the engine for two minutes around 1000 rpm. Shut the engine down.
DO NOT drain the oil after this run.
5.
Check the coolant for proper levels of antifreeze and inhibitor (SCA)
protection. Service as necessary.
6.
Seal all engine openings using protective covers.
To return to service an engine preserved in this manner, remove previously
installed protective covers. Check all fluid levels and if necessary replace
engine oil contaminated by condensation.
MAINTENANCE AND SERVICE
USA22978.bk.book Page 42 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
42
Maintenance and Service
MAINTENANCE HAZARDS
Before working on or inspecting a vehicle, set the parking brakes, place the
transmission in neutral and chock the wheels. Failure to do so can result in
unexpected vehicle movement and can cause serious personal injury or
death.
DO NOT attempt to repair or service this vehicle without having sufficient
training, correct service literature and the proper tools. Failure to follow this
could lead to personal injury or death, or making your vehicle unsafe.
Read all safety information before working on the vehicle. Refer to “Proper
Maintenance Procedure” on page 24.
USA22978.bk.book Page 43 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
43
ENGINE COMPONENTS, SERVICE SCHEDULES
Component
Operation
Km (Miles)/Maximum Months/
Hours
Fuel Filter — All
Engine Models
Change
Each oil change*
Water Separator — All
Engine Models
Filter change
Each oil change*
Air Filter — US07
Change
Control lamp indication/24 months
Air Filter — Euro 4
Change
At maximum restriction as indicated
on gauge, or 12 months
Coolant (Standard —
All Engine Models
Change
400 000(250,000)/24/4,000
Coolant (ELC) — All
Engine Models
Change
1 000 000(600,000)/48/12,000
Coolant Filter — US07
Change
80 000(50,000) or 6 months
Coolant Conditioner —
Euro 4
Change
Traditional coolants requiring
Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA)
80 000(50,000) or 6 months
Coolant Filter (ELC) —
US07
Change
240 000(150,000)15/2,500
Coolant Filter (ELC) —
Euro 4
Change
No SCA requirement
240 000(150,000) or 12 months
Valves/Injectors — All
Engine Models**
Initial Adjust
200 000(125,000)/12/2,500
Valves/Injectors — All
Engine Models**
Adjust
400 000(250,000)/24/5,000
Drive Belts VN —
Euro 4 (Highway)
Change
500 000(300,000) or 36 months
Drive Belts VHD —
Euro 4 (Vocational)
Change
240 000(150,000) or 12 months
DPF Filter — (If
equipped)
Change
240 000(150,000) or 4,500 hours
AF Injector — (If
equipped)
Clean
240 000(150,000) or 4,500 hours
*
Under certain conditions (for example, irregular fuel quality), the fuel/
water separator filters may require more frequent replacement.
** Valves must be adjusted whenever the rocker shaft has been removed
and reinstalled for any reason.
USA22978.bk.book Page 44 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
44
Maintenance and Service
COOLING SYSTEM
General Coolant Information
Coolant is toxic; risk of poisoning. DO NOT drink coolant. Use proper hand
protection when handling. Keep coolant out of reach of children and
animals. Failure to follow these precautions can cause serious illness or
death.
DO NOT raise the engine hood if you see or hear steam or coolant
escaping from the engine compartment. Wait until steam or coolant
cannot be seen or heard before raising the hood.
DO NOT remove the coolant fill cap if the coolant in the surge tank is
boiling. Also, DO NOT remove the cap while the engine and radiator are
still hot. Scalding fluid and steam may be blown out under pressure if the
cap is taken off too soon and can cause personal injury.
Coolant may be combustible. Coolant leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces
or electrical components can cause a fire. Clean up coolant spills
immediately.
Volvo Trucks North America does not recommend using plain water in the
cooling system. Water alone is corrosive at engine operating temperatures and
does not provide adequate boiling protection. The engine may develop
corrosion and cavitation problems in the engine and radiator, and the boiling
point of the coolant is lowered compared to a proper antifreeze and water
mixture. Failure to follow Volvo Truck North America's cooling system care/
maintenance recommendations can render the warranty invalid.
The main purpose of coolant is to transport heat from the hot parts of the
engine to the radiator and to protect the cooling system from corrosion.
USA22978.bk.book Page 45 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
45
In addition to this, the coolant must:
앫
Protect against pitting and cavitation erosion damage of the water pump
and cylinder liners.
앫
Protect against freezing and boiling.
앫
Prevent formation of scale, sludge deposits and clogging.
앫
Be harmless to polymer materials and seals in the cooling system.
앫
Maintain its liquid properties in cold climates.
Many engine failures can be traced back to a problem in the cooling system. If
the coolant level is allowed to go below the bottom of the tank, there is the risk
of the engine shutting down. See the operator's manual for more information
on the warning functions.
Always dispose of coolant according to Federal or local regulations. Take all
used coolant to a recycling or waste collection center.
Coolant mixture consisting of an antifreeze solution in water should be used
year-round to provide freeze and boil-over protection as well as providing a
stable environment for seals and hoses.
USA22978.bk.book Page 46 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
46
Maintenance and Service
DO NOT use antifreeze formulated for automobile gasoline engines. These
have a very high silicate content that will clog the radiator and leave unwanted
deposits in the engine.
Freeze Protection Down To:
Percentage of Antifreeze in Mixture
-25° C (-13° F)
40%
-30° C (-22° F)
46%
-38° C (-36° F)
54%
-46° C (-51° F)
60%
A well functioning and maintained cooling system is as important to the
engine as performing regular oil changes or using good fuel. To get the best
result use quality products and service the system at the correct intervals.
Please read this section carefully.
Keep the radiator (including charge air cooler) and the frontal area free from
bugs, dirt, leaves, etc. (see “Cleaning Charge Air Cooler and Radiator
Package” on page 68 for cleaning information).
Check the coolant level in the tank regularly. Fill the tank as necessary with
the correct coolant.
Inspection of the whole cooling system is important. Check for swollen or
deteriorated heater and radiator hoses, loose hose clamps and connections, and
radiator leaks.
DO NOT work near the fan with the engine running. The engine fan can
engage at any time without warning. Anyone near the fan when it turns on
could be seriously injured. Before turning on the ignition, be sure that no
one is near the fan.
USA22978.bk.book Page 47 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
47
Never add coolant to a hot or overheated engine. Engine damage can result.
Allow the engine to cool first.
Additives
Additives help prevent rust, scale and mineral deposits from forming.
Additives also protect metals from corrosion, prevent water pump and
cylinder liner cavitation and contain anti-foaming agents. Additives are
depleted during normal engine operation and need to be replaced. For
non-extended life coolant mixture, this means the addition of Supplemental
Coolant Additives (SCA) at any time the additive goes below the
recommended level. For extended life coolant mixture, this means an extender
package added halfway through the coolant lifetime.
Regular Coolant Change Interval
Replace the coolant every 400 000 km (250,000 miles), 4,000 hours or every
two years, whichever comes first.
Coolant SCA level must be tested at least twice per year or whenever coolant
loss occurs. For maximum coolant system efficiency, test the system at every
engine oil change interval, every 1,000 hours or every 6 months (whichever
comes first). For proper SCA levels, consult Service Manual.
Regular Coolant Filter Change Intervals
Hot engine. Keep clear of all hot engine parts and fluids. A hot engine and
fluids can cause serious burns.
The charged coolant filter contains 8 units of SCA that are released slowly
over time to maintain the recommended level during operation. Consult
engine service manual for proper SCA level and change intervals.
Change the regular coolant filter every 80 500 km (50,000 miles).
USA22978.bk.book Page 48 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
48
Maintenance and Service
Extended Life Coolant Change Interval
Extended life coolant will test as out of additives (SCA), but SCA should not be
added. Shortened engine life may be the result of adding SCA.
Replace coolant every 960 000 km (600,000 miles), 12,000 hours or every
four years, whichever comes first.
An extender package must be added to the cooling system after 480 000 km
(300,000 miles), 6,000 hours or two years, whichever comes first.
DO NOT add supplement coolant additives (SCA) to extended life
coolant.
Should the extended life coolant system become contaminated with regular
coolant exceeding 10% of the system's total capacity or if SCA is added to
extended life coolant, drain the system and refill with new extended life
coolant or regular coolant.
Extended Lift Coolant Filter Change Interval
Hot engine. Keep clear of all hot engine parts and fluids. A hot engine and
fluids can cause serious burns.
DO NOT use a filter that contains SCA. Damage to components can result.
Replace the extended life coolant filter every 240 000 km (150,000 miles),
2,500 hours or 15 months, whichever comes first, to prevent external rust
damage to the filter walls.
USA22978.bk.book Page 49 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
49
FUEL SYSTEM
Fuel Safety Reminders
A diesel engine will operate on any fuel which enters the cylinder, whether it
is from the injectors or from the air intake system. Therefore, if any solvent
is used to flush out the air cleaner element, the engine may over speed
during start-up. Engine damage, severe personal injury or death from burns
or explosion may occur.
DO NOT mix gasoline or alcohol with diesel oil fuel. This mixture can
cause an explosion and result in severe personal injury or death.
DO NOT remove the fuel tank cap near an open flame. Diesel fumes are
combustible and can cause an explosion or fire resulting in severe personal
injury or death.
If a fuel leak is detected, stop the engine immediately. The vapors from
hot fuel are highly flammable which may result in a fire.
DO NOT store fuel containers in the vehicle. They may leak, explode and
cause or feed a fire. Empty or full, they present a hazard that may lead to
burns in the event of a fire.
USA22978.bk.book Page 50 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
50
Maintenance and Service
Diesel Fuel Specification
Quality
Diesel engines for 2007 and later model year vehicles are designed to operate
only with Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. Use of fuel other than ULSD
will reduce the efficiency and durability of the engine, permanently damage
the advanced emission control systems, reduce fuel economy and possibly
prevent the engine from running at all. Manufacturer's warranties are likely to
be rendered void by usage of improper or incorrect fuel, and usage of fuels
other than ULSD fuel in diesel-powered vehicles is illegal and punishable
with civil penalties. Use of fuel additives to compensate for the lower sulfur
content is NOT recommended by Volvo Trucks North America.
The proper selection of fuel is essential for good economy, performance and
engine life. No. 2D ULSD should be used when climatic conditions permit.
No. 1D ULSD can be used during cold weather conditions. Blends of No. 1D
and No. 2D ULSD fuels can be used to suit various climatic conditions.
The use of lighter fuels (grade No. 1-D) can reduce fuel economy.
Euro 4 Engines
Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel with a maximum sulfur content of
15 ppm is required to meet emission certification for Euro 4 emission engines.
Using approved diesel fuel with a maximum sulfur content of 500 ppm in
Euro 4 emission engines will meet all reliability standards.
The fuels used must be clean, completely distilled, stable and non-corrosive.
Always try to keep the fuel tank full. DO NOT put alcohol into the fuel tank.
Fill the tank after completing driving for the day.
USA22978.bk.book Page 51 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
51
Fuel Sulfur Content
Fuel sold for use in diesel-powered engines for 2007 and later model year
vehicles may only contain a maximum sulfur content of 0.0015% by weight.
This was done to reduce particle emissions in the exhaust.
The use of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel does not permit extension of engine oil
change intervals or oil filter changes.
Cetane Number
Direct injected diesel engines require a minimum cetane number of 43 under
normal starting conditions. Fuel with a higher cetane value may be required
for high-altitude or cold-weather operation.
Filtration
Fuel should be clean and free of contamination. Clean fuels should have no
more than 0.05% of sediment and water.
Fuel Additives
Fuel additives are generally not recommended or needed for fuels listed
earlier. Cetane improvers can be used as necessary. Biocides may be needed to
eliminate microorganism growth in storage tanks. In cold conditions,
treatment for water in the vehicle tanks may also be necessary.
Consult your fuel supplier about the use of additives to prevent
incompatibility among additives already in the fuel and the additives to be
used.
USA22978.bk.book Page 52 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
52
Maintenance and Service
Supplemental Fuel Enhancers
Supplemental additives are not recommended because of a high risk of
injection system problems or engine damage.
There are many aftermarket products available today which are intended to be
added by the customer. They generally increase operating cost without
providing benefits. Included are a variety of independently marketed products
which claim to be:
앫
Cetane improvers
앫
Emission control additives
앫
Detergents
앫
Combustion improvers
앫
Smoke suppressants
앫
Cold weather flow improvers
Repair expenses resulting from malfunctions in the fuel system or with engine
components when fuel enhancers have been used are not covered under
warranty.
Some fuel additives can be used to provide temporary relief, but they do not
replace good fuel handling practices. These products can be used:
앫
Isopropyl Alcohol — Use 1/2 liter per 450 liters (1 pint per 125 gallons)
of fuel for winter freeze-up protection.
앫
Biocide — For treatment of microbe growth or “black slime.” Follow
manufacturer's instruction for treatment.
USA22978.bk.book Page 53 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
53
Prohibited Additives
The addition of gasoline to diesel fuel will create a serious fire hazard.
Serious personal injury can result.
The following additives are specifically NOT allowed and must NOT be
mixed in with the vehicle diesel fuel:
앫
Gasoline — Adding gasoline to diesel fuel will reduce the cetane number
and increase combustion temperature. If a tank contains a diesel fuel/
gasoline mixture, it should be drained and cleaned as soon as possible.
앫
Used lubricating oil — Volvo Trucks North America does not recommend
the use of any type of used lubricating oil as an extender in the diesel fuel.
Used lubrication oil contains solids and acids from the combustion
process that can severely corrode parts of the injection system, resulting
in reduced power and higher maintenance cost over time.
Alternative Fuels
Alternative fuels can be of several different types. There are vegetable based
fuels, aviation fuel and recycled petroleum based fuels that are used in
combustion engines. These are in general not compatible with modern
heavy-duty over-the-road diesel engines.
The use of unauthorized fuels may compromise the levels of pollutants in the
exhaust to the point where the engine does not meet the emission
requirements. This would make the vehicle illegal to drive on public roads.
DO NOT use any kind of alternative fuel unless specifically authorized by
Volvo Trucks North America.
USA22978.bk.book Page 54 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
54
Maintenance and Service
Fuel Storage
If fuel is stored on site:
앫
Keep storage tank covered to prevent water entry.
앫
DO NOT use a tank made of galvanized metal or any galvanized piping
for diesel oil storage. Diesel will react with the zinc, forming solids that
can clog fuel filters and cause engine damage.
앫
Fuel stored for a long time may oxidize and form solids, causing filtering
problems.
앫
Keep the area around the fill cap clean. Tilt the tank slightly toward the
drain plug area so water and sediment can be easily drained.
Generally, fuel contamination occurs as the result of improper fuel handling.
The most common types of contamination are water, dirt and microbial
growth (“black slime”). The formation of varnishes and gums resulting from
poor fuel stability or long storage (“stale fuel”) also affects fuel quality. The
best treatment for contamination is prevention by maintaining a clean storage
system and choosing a reputable fuel supplier.
USA22978.bk.book Page 55 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
55
Fuel Filters
A primary fuel filter can be located on the engine or remote mounted on the
frame rail. This filter consists of a filter cartridge, a water separation bowl and
may have a fuel heater built in.
The secondary fuel filter is located on the left hand side, below the engine
electronic control unit (EECU). The filter is a spin-on filter.
D11F and D13F Engine-Mounted Fuel Filters (D13F shown, D11F similar)
1. Secondary Fuel Filter
2. Primary Fuel Filter with Water
Separator
USA22978.bk.book Page 56 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
56
Maintenance and Service
Chassis Mounted Primary Fuel Filter (Optional)
For priming the fuel system, see “Priming the Fuel System” on page 71.
Replacing Fuel Filters
When draining the fuel filters, collect the waste in a fuel-safe container.
Always dispose of fuel according to Federal or local regulations. Take the
drained fuel and water to a recycle or waste management center.
The filters are an important part of the fuel system. Always replace the filters
at the recommended intervals and use the recommended filter types for the
best engine operation and service life.
Change the fuel filters at every oil change. Drain the primary filter water trap
daily.
USA22978.bk.book Page 57 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
57
Maintenance
When draining the fuel tank, collect the waste in a fuel safe container. Take the
drained fuel and water to a recycle or waste management center.
Open the drain at the bottom of the fuel tank approximately every
50 000 km (30,000 miles) or 300 hours, to drain off any water and/or
sediment.
Yearly or at 200 000 km (120,000 miles), tighten all fuel tank mountings and
brackets. Check all hoses, pipes and lines to and from the fuel tank. At the
same time, inspect tank and connections for any signs of leakage. Make sure
that hoses and lines are not resting on or touching shafts, couplings, hot
surfaces or sharp areas. Since all machinery vibrates and moves to a certain
extent, clamps and ties can fatigue with age. Inspect fasteners frequently and
tighten or replace them as necessary.
ENGINE OIL
General
Keep the engine oil at the proper level and change it at the recommended
intervals. Always replace the oil filters at the same time as when the oil is
changed.
Oil Quality
Volvo Trucks North America recognizes engine oils that meet or exceed the
standards given by American Petroleum Institute (API) for the oil
classifications listed in this manual. Only oils licensed to carry the API
symbol should be used. Lubricants meeting API standards have provided
maximum engine life when used together with the recommended oil and oil
filter change intervals.
EO-O Premium Plus (or VDS-4) diesel engine oil is mandatory for use in all
2007 emission compliant Volvo engines. Chassis equipped with a 2007
emission compliant engine, which can be identified by the presence of a
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), also require the use of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel
(ULSD) fuel. EO-O Premium Plus oils exceed the new API service category
CJ-4.
USA22978.bk.book Page 58 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
58
Maintenance and Service
DO NOT add extra oil additives. Additives such as break-in oils, top oils,
graphitizers, and friction-reducing liquids are not necessary and can harm the
engine.
Oil Change Intervals
The length of time an engine can operate before an oil change depends on the
quality oil used, the type of fuel used, fuel consumption, engine oil
consumption, vehicle application, level of dust in the air, and fuel
consumption. The change intervals given in this manual are maximum
intervals. If the vehicle is operating in heavy-duty operation, dusty or off-road
conditions, etc., reduce the intervals for more frequent oil changes. For the
correct oil change interval, see “Oil Capacity Tables and Viscosity Charts” on
page 108.
For additional information about oil change intervals, see your Volvo Truck
dealer. Also, refer to Bulletin 175-60, Oil and Filters, Volvo Components.
For a complete list of approved oils, see your Volvo Truck dealer. Also, refer
to Bulletin 175-61, Approved Oils, Volvo Components.
Oil filters should always be changed when changing oil.
Oil Filters
There are three filters on the engine, one of which is a bypass filter. This
should be changed at the same time as the full-flow filter(s).
Volvo branded oil filters are designed to provide the proper level of filtration
and protection for Volvo engines. Filters that do not meet the same stringent
requirements may void engine warranty.
USA22978.bk.book Page 59 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
59
D11F and D13F Oil Filters (D13F shown, D11F similar)
Synthetic Lubrication
Synthetic oils are offered by some oil suppliers as an alternative to the
traditional, petroleum based oils for engines. These oils may be used in Volvo
engines, provided they meet the quality levels specified on the previous pages,
that is: both VDS-4 and EO-O Premium Plus.
The use of synthetic oils does not permit the extension of the
recommended oil change intervals.
Oil Viscosity
The viscosity grade defines the thickness of the oil. The oil must be thin
enough at low temperatures for easy cold starts and thick enough to protect at
high temperatures. An oil is not fully defined until both the API quality
classification and the viscosity grade are specified.
Choose the viscosity grade for the typical ambient temperature for the
application. Multigrade oils have a broad range that suit operation in changing
temperature.
USA22978.bk.book Page 60 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
60
Maintenance and Service
Volvo Trucks North America recommends the viscosities shown in the
viscosity/temperature table for Volvo engines.
Oil Additives
Extra oil additives must never be added to any engine oil used. Additives such
as break-in oils, top oils, graphitizers, and friction reducing liquids are not
necessary and may even harm the engine.
Using oils to the quality standards recommended in this manual makes the use
of extra oil additives unnecessary, as these oils already contain a balanced
treatment of additives.
Oil Consumption
Once the engine is stopped, check the oil level daily. If the engine has just
been stopped and it is warm, wait approximately five minutes to allow the oil
to drain back to the oil pan before checking. Add oil as necessary.
DO NOT overfill engine with oil.
USA22978.bk.book Page 61 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
61
All diesel engines are designed to consume some oil, so it is normal to add oil
periodically. An engine used in heavy-duty operation will consume more oil
than one in normal operation.
To assist you in measuring your oil usage please refer to the Fuel and Oil
Record on “Fuel and Oil Record” on page 120.
Oil Change
A hot engine or engine oil can be dangerous. Serious burns can result
from contact with a hot engine or oil. Take precautions when draining the
oil. Wear gloves or let the engine cool down before draining.
When draining the oil, use the proper tools and keep away as far as
possible. Raise the elbow so the forearm is parallel to the ground to
prevent oil running down the arm, causing burns.
Always dispose of all lubricants (motor oil, coolant, gear box oils, etc) and
filters according to Federal or local regulations. Used oil disposed of in
nature or waterways contaminates our drinking water and kills wildlife.
Prolonged contact with used engine oil may be harmful. Use rubber gloves
when handling used oil. Wash skin thoroughly if it comes in contact with used
oil.
For information on the type of oil recommended for your engine, see “Oil
Quality” on page 57 and “Oil Capacity Tables and Viscosity Charts” on
page 108 for quantities and viscosities, or refer to the engine manufacturer's
operator's manual.
USA22978.bk.book Page 62 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
62
Maintenance and Service
It is important to drain as much oil as possible. Try to change oil immediately
after driving, when the oil is warm. Always replace the oil filters when
changing oil.
Oil Filters Change
Hot oil can cause severe burns. DO NOT allow hot oil to contact the skin.
When changing oil, wear protective gloves.
Volvo-branded oil filters are designed to provide the proper level of filtration
and protection for Volvo engines. Filters that do not meet the same stringent
requirements may cause unsatisfactory results.
1.
Coat the filter gasket with oil.
2.
Install the filter and turn it by hand until the gasket makes contact with
the sealing surface.
3.
Manually turn the filter an additional 3/4 to one full turn.
Checking Oil Level
DO NOT let the oil level fall below the marking on the dipstick. DO NOT
overfill so the level is above the upper marking on the dipstick. This could lead
to excessive oil temperature and/or poor crankcase breather performance.
Ensure that the vehicle is parked on level ground before checking the oil level.
Wait five minutes after shutting off the engine, then proceed with checking oil.
USA22978.bk.book Page 63 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
63
ENGINE AIR FILTER
Continued operation with the gauge showing in the red may cause damage to
the engine. Operating the engine with a damaged filter allows dust to pass
directly into the engine, causing damage. Replace damaged or clogged filters.
The engine air filter is monitored by a pressure restriction gauge mounted on
the air filter housing. The gauge may be connected to the instrumentation to
give a telltale signal when the air filter needs to be changed; see the vehicle
Operator's Manual. A manual gauge needs to be inspected regularly. Replace
the filter according to the gauge or after a maximum of two years, whichever
comes first. Optional extra filter insert should be changed with every third
main air filter.
Pressure Restriction Gauge
USA22978.bk.book Page 64 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
64
Maintenance and Service
USA22978.bk.book Page 65 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
65
DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTERS (IF EQUIPPED)
This vehicle is equipped with a 2007 emission compliant engine and may be
equipped with an exhaust aftertreatment system which includes a Diesel
Particulate Filter (DPF). The DPF reduces soot and particulate emissions into
the atmosphere. Vehicles equipped with a DPF require the use of EO-O
Premium Plus (or VDS-4) specification high performance diesel engine oil
and Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel.
Use of diesel fuel other than ULSD and engine oils other than EO-O Premium
Plus (or VDS-4), will adversely affect performance, efficiency and durability
of the DPF system and the engine, to the point where the engine may not run
at all. Manufacturer's warranties can also be rendered void due to usage of
improper fuel. Unapproved fuel additives (including engine oil) are NOT
permitted. Blends of No. 1D and No. 2D grades of ULSD are recommended
and allowable for cold weather operations.
The diesel particulate filter takes the place of the standard muffler. Soot and
other particulate matter is collected by a filter where it is eventually oxidized
using a regeneration process.
During the regeneration process, the temperature of the exhaust will be
elevated. DO NOT park the vehicle with the exhaust outlet near flammable
objects such as trees, awnings, etc. that could be damaged by elevated exhaust
temperatures.
When regeneration occurs, an indicator lamp on the instrument panel will
illuminate to alert the operator. The vehicle operator can stop or start
regeneration. Certain conditions must be met before a regeneration can be
manually started. Refer to the applicable vehicle operator's manual for a
complete description of DPF indicator lamp and switch functions.
If the vehicle is in a location that may be hazardous when regeneration begins
(i.e., in close proximity to flammable materials or gases, inside tunnels,
parked under flammable objects, etc.), the regeneration should be stopped.
If regeneration is stopped by the vehicle operator, it should be initiated at a
later time when the vehicle is in a safe location. Regenerations that are
stopped and never restarted at a later time, however, will require that the
vehicle be taken to an authorized Volvo Truck dealer to have the regeneration
manually started.
USA22978.bk.book Page 66 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
66
Maintenance and Service
FAN AND AUXILIARY DRIVE BELTS
Hot engine. Keep yourself clear of all hot engine parts and/or fluids. A hot
engine can cause serious burns.
All engine belts should be checked at each service point. Inspect for cracked
or frayed material. All belts have automatic belt tensioners to keep the correct
tension without adjustment.
Drive Belts
USA22978.bk.book Page 67 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
A drive belt routing label is located on the vehicle frame rail.
Drive Belt Routing Label
Drive Belt Routing Label Location
67
USA22978.bk.book Page 68 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
68
Maintenance and Service
TURBOCHARGER AND CHARGE AIR COOLER
If oil leaks internally from the turbocharger to the engine intake, the oil acts
as a fuel. Watch for excessive exhaust smoke. DO NOT operate engine until
problem is corrected. There is no way to regulate the engine speed if it runs
on oil and it may over speed. Loss of control of vehicle may lead to an
accident causing severe personal injury or death.
DO NOT remove, attach, or tighten turbocharger air intake ducting while
the engine is operating, or operate the engine while the ducting is
removed. Working around the turbocharger with the ducting removed
may cause severe personal injury.
Visually inspect turbo mountings, intake and exhaust ducting and connections
for leaks on a daily basis. Check oil inlet and outlet for leaks or signs of
restrictions to oil flow. Check for unusual noise or vibration. If any faults are
detected, do not operate the engine until the cause is determined and repaired.
Cleaning Charge Air Cooler and Radiator Package
Always wear eye protection when cleaning radiator, charge-air cooler and
condenser. Failure to follow this recommendation may result in eye
injury.
Periodically inspect the front of the radiator/charge-air-cooler package for
buildup of dirt, mud, insects, etc. Over time, there may be a build-up of dirt,
mud, insects, etc., between the radiator and charge air cooler. Inspect for
build-up and contact your authorized Volvo Truck dealer, if necessary.
Over time, dirt and insects will accumulate between the fins of the radiator, air
conditioning condenser and charge-air-cooler. The reduced air flow reduces
the heat transfer from the components to the air. This increases the load on the
fan and air conditioning compressor and can result in engine overheating and
other performance related problems, such as high fuel consumption, etc.
USA22978.bk.book Page 69 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
69
When using a pressure washer to clean the vehicle, do not direct the spray at
electrical components in the engine compartment such as the alternator,
starter and compressors. Water spray from pressure washers can damage
electrical components.
The simplest method to clean the package is to use air pressure or a water
stream. This should be done from the back of the core. Air pressure should not
exceed 200 kPa (30 psi) for radiator and charge air cooler cores. The use of a
fin comb is also a good tool to loosen bugs and dirt from the fins. If dirt cannot
be cleaned off with this procedure, consult your Volvo Truck dealer.
Cleaning Charge Air Cooler and Radiator (typical radiator shown)
Inspect the charge air cooler for cracks at every inspection. DO NOT operate
the vehicle with a damaged or broken charge air cooler. To do so would void
the warranty and the engine will not meet emission regulation requirements.
USA22978.bk.book Page 70 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
70
Maintenance and Service
FUEL SYSTEM SERVICE
Changing the Primary Fuel Filter
To avoid potential fire hazard, DO NOT service any part of the fuel
system while smoking or in the presence of flames, sparks, or hot
surfaces, or when working on an operating engine. Failure to follow these
precautions can result in fire. To guard against burns from direct contact
with hot fuel, wear adequate protective clothing (face shield, heavy gloves
and apron, etc.) when working on a hot engine.
Never fill filter with fuel before installing. Contaminated fuel causes
accelerated wear to fuel system components.
It is very important to maintain high cleanliness when working in the fuel
system. If dirt is mixed in with the fuel after it is filtered, it will cause damage
to the injectors. Dirt can also cause air leakages that rob the engine of power.
Failure to change the primary fuel filter at the recommended intervals could
result in reduced power.
1.
Open the drain valve and drain off some fuel into a container. Remove
the filter cartridge together with the bowl.
2.
Separate the filter and the bowl. Clean and dry the bowl. Attach it to a
new filter. Use new seals at both the bowl and filter head joint. Install
both on the engine or vehicle.
3.
Purge air from the filter by operating the primer pump to draw fuel and
fill the filter. When using the hand primer, approximately 100 strokes
will be required.
4.
Start the engine and check for leaks. Correct any leaks with the engine
stopped.
USA22978.bk.book Page 71 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
71
Priming the Fuel System
The fuel system will need to be bled if:
앫
The vehicle has run out of fuel.
앫
The engine has not been running for an extended period of time.
앫
Service work has been done on the fuel system, (tank, fuel lines, filters,
valves, etc.) for example cleaning or replacing fuel filter elements.
앫
The engine is new or rebuilt.
When priming the system, movement of the primer pump should be as up and
down as possible. Avoid putting any side load on the pump or causing a
binding condition. Failure to follow these instructions could prematurely
damage the primer.
When the fuel system is empty, 200 or more pump strokes may be needed to
properly prime system. There are no bleed nipples to be opened to prime the
fuel system.
USA22978.bk.book Page 72 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
72
Maintenance and Service
D11F and D13F Primer Pump (D11F shown, D13F similar)
1.
Unlock the hand pump by turning the handle counterclockwise.
2.
Prime the system by moving the primer pump in an up and down
pumping motion. Avoid putting any side load on the pump or causing a
binding condition.
3.
Lock the hand primer pump by retracting it into the housing and turning
it clockwise.
4.
Start the engine and run it at an increased idle speed for approximately
5 minutes to remove any remaining air in the system.
5.
Check the fuel system for leaks.
USA22978.bk.book Page 73 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
73
Water In Fuel
You can only drain the water in the fuel when there is a high water level in the
fuel filter housing, the engine is not running, the vehicle is stationary and the
parking brake is applied. When the water in fuel indicator activates, the cluster
displays the water in fuel icon and the message “Water in Fuel, Drain at next
stop.”
When the operator chooses draining and the engine fulfils the conditions for
priming, the icon shown below is displayed in the status icon bar.
When the operator chooses draining and the engine fulfils the conditions for
draining, the icon shown below is displayed in the status icon bar.
TRANSMISSION, CLUTCH AND REAR AXLE
MAINTENANCE
Transmission
Always dispose of oil according to Federal or local regulations. Used oil
disposed of in nature or waterways contaminates our drinking water and kills
wildlife. Take all used oil to a recycling or waste collection center.
Transmissions should not be operated consistently at temperatures above
120° C (250° F). Operating temperatures above 120° C (250° F) increase the
lubricant's rate of oxidation and shorten its effective life.
USA22978.bk.book Page 74 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
74
Maintenance and Service
If the temperature reaches 140° C (285° F), stop the vehicle to let the
temperature go down. See the vehicle Operator's Manual for information on
the optional transmission temperature gauge.
If the transmission oil temperatures are consistently high, change oil more
often or install an oil cooler. With lengthy or continuous driving at altitudes of
more than 2 000 m (6,000 feet) above sea level, more frequent oil changes will
be necessary.
Clutch
Check the fluid level in the clutch fluid reservoir. The fluid level should be
between the level marks on the reservoir. If fluid needs to be added, use brake
fluid, DOT 4.
1. Clutch Fluid Reservoir
2. Windshield Washer Fluid Fill
3. Brake Valve
USA22978.bk.book Page 75 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
75
Driveshaft
If the driveshaft universal joints are not lubricated properly, they can be
damaged to the point of the driveshaft separating from the vehicle.
Driveshaft separation may cause loss of control of the vehicle resulting in
severe personal injury or death.
Periodic inspection, lubrication, and maintenance of the driveshaft may be
required. Contact your local authorized Volvo Truck dealer.
Rear Axle
Checking and Draining Differential Oil
Check the oil level through the top plug. The oil should be level with the hole.
Add oil if necessary.
Drain oil through the bottom plug. Oil should be drained immediately after
driving while it is still hot.
Also check the rear axle ventilation for blockage. A blockage can cause
overpressure in the axle and oil seal leakage.
Rear Axle
1. Check and Fill Plug
2. Drain Plug
USA22978.bk.book Page 76 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
76
Maintenance and Service
STEERING AND BRAKES MAINTENANCE
Steering System
Excessive play in the steering system is checked by turning the steering wheel
while the engine is stopped. With the front wheels pointing straight ahead,
turn the steering wheel until the front wheel starts moving. Then, turn the
steering wheel the other way until the front wheel moves. Play should not be
more than 25 mm (1 inch) at the rim of the steering wheel. If the steering play
is excessive, check the steering linkage for looseness, wear, etc. Make
necessary repairs before driving the vehicle.
USA22978.bk.book Page 77 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
77
Power Steering Fluid Reservoir
The power steering fluid reservoir is filled with Automatic Transmission Fluid
(ATF) Dexron® III for the power steering system. Change fluid every
240 000 km (150,000 miles). Change filter every year or more often if
necessary. If the fluid has darkened, it indicates that the power steering system
is running hotter than normal and the fluid is overheating. Take the vehicle to a
Volvo Truck dealer for troubleshooting the overheating and to have the fluid
changed.
1. Engine Oil Fill Tube
2. Engine Oil Dipstick
3. Power Steering Fluid Reservoir
USA22978.bk.book Page 78 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
78
Maintenance and Service
Brake System
DO NOT use replacement parts anywhere in the brake system unless it
conforms exactly to original specifications. A nonconforming part in your
vehicle's brake system could cause a malfunction, leading to loss of control
of the vehicle resulting in severe personal injury or death.
DO NOT release the parking brake or attempt to move the vehicle until
brake air pressure in both circuits is at least 690 kPa (100 psi). Failure to
follow this procedure may lead to uncontrolled vehicle movement and cause
severe personal injury or death.
Automatic slack adjusters MUST NOT be manually adjusted in an effort to
correct excessive push rod stroke, as this condition indicates that a problem
exists with the automatic adjuster, installation of the automatic slack
adjuster or problems related to components of the foundation brakes. These
conditions will not be corrected by manually adjusting the automatic slack
adjusters.
Manual adjustment of automatic slack adjusters is a dangerous practice
that could result in serious consequences. This practice gives the vehicle
operator a false sense of security about the effectiveness of the brakes, and
the brakes will likely soon be out of adjustment again.
The brake system is a critical vehicle safety system. For your safety and for
those around you, follow the recommended preventive maintenance checks. If
any problems occur, have them investigated immediately by an authorized
service facility.
USA22978.bk.book Page 79 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
79
Air Tanks
Drain the air system tanks at the recommended intervals. If condensation
accumulates, moisture can enter the brake system air valves, causing
corrosion or clogging. The safety of the brake system could be compromised,
leading to an accident causing severe personal injury or death.
When draining the air tanks, DO NOT look into the area of the draining
air. Dirt or sludge particles may be in the air stream that could cause eye
injury.
Air tanks should be drained daily. Make sure the drain cocks close properly
after draining. Empty moisture from air tanks by pulling the drain valve
lanyard or pull cord. The tanks should be checked for condensation fluid, even
if an automatic drain valve is installed.
It is very important that the air system is kept clean. If sludge or oil is found in
the drainage or an excessive amount of fluid is drained out of the tanks see
your authorized Volvo Truck dealer.
Air Dryers
Air dryers have a regeneration system that cleans out the accumulated
moisture but eventually the drying medium will be filled up. See your
authorized Volvo Truck dealer
Dryer manufacturers recommend changing the cartridge every 2 to 3 years but
the intervals need to be adjusted for vehicle application. In some climates, the
cartridge may have to be changed every year. See your authorized Volvo
dealer.
USA22978.bk.book Page 80 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
80
Maintenance and Service
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
Battery Care
Battery posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead and lead
compounds, chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer
and reproductive harm. Wash hands after handling.
Always wear eye protection when working around batteries to prevent
the risk of injury due to contact with sulfuric acid or an explosion.
Disconnecting battery cables when vehicle is equipped with power door locks
will result in automatic locking of doors.
When using a pressure washer to clean the vehicle, do not direct the spray at
electrical components in the engine compartment such as the alternator,
starter and compressors. Water spray from pressure washers can damage
electrical components.
USA22978.bk.book Page 81 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
81
The electrolyte level on maintenance free batteries cannot be checked.
Periodically, the condition and the state-of-charge of each battery should be
checked by a Volvo Truck dealer. Maintenance free batteries DO NOT require
any attention other than keeping them clean and firmly clamped in place in
their respective trays. Keep the cable connections clean and tight. Check the
battery state-of-charge indicators periodically to determine battery condition.
Check for worn cables at every major inspection. Replace worn cables. Check
battery terminals for cracks.
Battery Terminals
When disconnecting battery terminals, always disconnect the ground terminal
first. When reconnecting, always connect the ground terminal last.
Disconnecting battery cables may result in a loss of preset radio controls,
radio programming and require refreshing.
Lighting
Using incorrect bulbs or lamps may result in failures that could lead to a
fire or a vehicle accident caused by improper lighting.
Check all lights on the vehicle daily for proper function. Replace burned out
inserts and bulbs. Replace any broken or cracked side or rear reflectors.
Headlights should be checked for aim at least once per year.
USA22978.bk.book Page 82 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
82
Maintenance and Service
TIRES, WHEELS AND HUB MAINTENANCE
Wheel Safety Information
DO NOT attempt to repair wheels or tires unless you are trained and
equipped to do so. Wheel and tire assemblies cannot be worked on without
proper tools and equipment. Failure to follow this may lead to serious
personal injury or death.
Failure to properly torque-tighten the wheel nuts can result in the breakage
of wheel studs and the subsequent loss of wheels. Loss of vehicle control
and serious personal injury or death can occur.
DO NOT use oil or grease on studs or nuts. The tightening torque is affected
and can lead to incorrect clamping loads between the rim and hub. This
could lead to a loss of the wheel. Loss of vehicle control and serious
personal injury or death can occur.
DO NOT install regrooved, retreaded or repaired tires on the steering
axle(s). They could fail unexpectedly and cause the loss of vehicle control,
leading to serious personal injury or death.
DO NOT use mismatched wheel components. If they do not exactly match
the original design specifications, they may cause failure or separation
leading to blowout and an accident and personal injury or death.
USA22978.bk.book Page 83 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
83
DO NOT install tires with a load rating that is less than stated on the
Certification Label in the door frame. The tire could be unintentionally
overloaded, leading to an accident, causing serious personal injury or death.
DO NOT use mismatched tires on the same axle. Always use the same type
(radial or bias ply) or size. Mixing tires on the same axle will affect the
roadholding and can lead to an accident, and serious personal injury or
death.
Wheels
Before checking the wheels, set the parking brakes, place the transmission
in neutral and chock the wheels. Failure to do so can result in unexpected
vehicle movement and can cause serious personal injury or death.
Wheels must be serviced only by a qualified technician. DO NOT do this
work yourself. Inflated tires on wheels contain compressed air and if
suddenly released, do so with an explosive force, resulting in serious
personal injury or death.
Check wheels for signs of rust streaks around the wheel nuts. This indicates
looseness (steel rims). Inspect all types of rims for cracks. Cracks can appear
in many places but typically radiate out from where a load is applied. Inspect
closely around wheelnuts, handholes and inside circumference.
USA22978.bk.book Page 84 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
84
Maintenance and Service
Wheel Nut Tightening
Failure to properly torque-tighten the wheel nuts can result in the breakage
of wheel studs and the subsequent loss of wheels. This can lead to loss of
vehicle control and serious personal injury or death.
After the initial tightening, retightening must be made within the first
800 km (500 miles). After the first retightening, only normal inspection of nut
tightness is needed. Check front and rear wheel nut tightness with a torque
wrench. All disc wheels for Volvo vehicles have a tightening torque of
610 Nm (450 lb-ft). Tighten the nuts in the correct sequence. Inspect bolts and
nuts for signs of wear or cracks. Make sure that the bolts are not bent. This
tightening check is particularly important when rims or brake drums are newly
painted. Paint can flake off from these surfaces, causing the nuts to lose their
grip and the wheel to loosen.
10-Stud Wheel Nut Tightening Sequence
USA22978.bk.book Page 85 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
85
Tire Inflation and Wear
DO NOT operate the vehicle with under-inflated tires. Always keep your
tires inflated to the manufacturer's recommendation. Increased flexing in
the tire sidewall produces heat. The heat can build to the point of blowing
the tire out causing an accident.
Check tire pressure when the tire is cool. Never bleed the air from hot
tires. Increased tire pressure measured in a hot tire is normal. Low
pressures may cause side wall flexing, resulting in increased heat, leading
to tire failure and vehicle accident.
Remove stones lodged in ribs or in between double-mounted wheels. Check
the tire pressure and leak-test the valve stems.
Measure the tread depth. The depth should not be less than 4.8 mm
(6/32-inch) on front tires and not less than 1.6 mm (2/32-inch) on drive tires.
Most premium steer tires start with 14.2 mm (18/32-inch) tread depth when
new. Usually remove steer tires at 4.8 mm (6/32-inch). Drive tires should be
removed at not less than 1.58 mm (2/32-inch).
It is important to have the wheels correctly aligned. Check for uneven tire
wear frequently. Uneven tire wear is a sign of wheels out of alignment.
USA22978.bk.book Page 86 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
86
Maintenance and Service
Tire Hints
Hints on How to Avoid Unnecessary Tire Wear
앫
Maintain correct tire pressure
앫
Check the tire pressure when the tires are cold
앫
Check that valve caps are not missing
앫
Keep the wheels balanced
앫
Tire wear increases with speed
앫
Overloading not only decreases tire life but also creates a hazard
앫
Incorrect front end alignment causes increased wear
앫
Unnecessary tire rotation may cause excessive wear
A cold weather initial driving period will increase the life of new or retreaded
tires. Dual mounted wheels should always be of the same type and diameter
(maximal diameter difference allowed is 6 mm [1/4 in.]).
Volvo Trucks North America is committed to repair procedure 642 (RP 642),
American Tire Association (ATA) and The Maintenance Council (TMC).
Representatives from Volvo Trucks North America actively participated,
along with twenty-two companies, in developing recommended practice
642 entitled “Total Vehicle Alignment”: Recommendations for Maximizing
Tire and Alignment related Component Life.” Recommended Practice
642 (RP 642) is published by the Maintenance Council, American Trucking
Associations, Inc.
Companies that participated in the development of RP 642 are listed in the RP.
USA22978.bk.book Page 87 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
Typical Wear Patterns
Incorrect Air Pressure
A.
Air pressure too high gives rapid wear in the middle.
B.
Air pressure too low gives rapid shoulder wear.
Incorrect Camber
Incorrect camber gives abnormal wear on one half of the tire.
87
USA22978.bk.book Page 88 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
88
Maintenance and Service
Incorrect Toe and Axle Alignment
A. Incorrect toe-in
B. Incorrect toe-out
C. Out-of-line axle
D. Steering arm defect
Dual Wheel Mounting
A. Excessive road camber, different types of tire, different circumference
or off-center loading give faster wear on one tire.
B. Air pressure too low, mismatched rims for the tire type and dimension,
excess flexing in tire wall, or different types of tires in inner and outer
tires gives contact wear.
USA22978.bk.book Page 89 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
Incorrect Caster and Imbalance
A.
Caster angle
B.
Imbalance
Also rapidly wears the mechanical parts of steering linkage, kingpin and
wheel bearing.
Cuts in the Tire Tread
A.
Cuts
B.
Flaking cuts
C.
Rubber flaking
Cuts are due to poor roads, air pressure too high or incorrect tire type.
89
USA22978.bk.book Page 90 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
90
Maintenance and Service
Spot Wear
Sudden braking, locking brakes or out-of-round brake drums give spot wear.
Feathered Edges
Normal occurrence on non-driving wheels on good roads and high mileage.
USA22978.bk.book Page 91 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
91
Cupping
Cupping is a normal occurrence that depends on the tread pattern; the higher
the load, the greater the wear.
USA22978.bk.book Page 92 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
92
Maintenance and Service
Front Wheel Hubs
Failure to keep wheel bearings properly adjusted and lubricated may result
in accelerated tire wear, poor handling and, in extreme cases, wheel
separation from the hub or from the spindle resulting in loss of vehicle
control and serious personal injury or death.
The front wheel hubs can be filled with one of several types of oil. Motor oil
should be SAE 30 or 15W40. The oil can be either petroleum based or
synthetic (synthetic should not be used for the Volvo axle). Axle oil, API
GL-5, SAE 75W-90, can also be used. There are no set change intervals for
hub lubrication. The only requirement is that if the hub is opened, the
lubricant must be changed.
USA22978.bk.book Page 93 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
93
Unitized Front Hubs
The non-tapered axle hubs are sealed with lubricant inside the hub and do not
require lubrication.
Unitized Hubs, Non-Tapered Axle End
USA22978.bk.book Page 94 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
94
Maintenance and Service
Tapered Axle End
USA22978.bk.book Page 95 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
95
CHASSIS MAINTENANCE
Springs
This work is best performed by a Volvo Truck dealer or other service outlet
having the proper equipment.
The spring package is fastened to the axle beam with U-bolts. It is important
that the U-bolt nuts are properly tightened. The nuts may loosen up with time.
Severe roads and service will loosen them faster. Loose U-bolts can cause
springs to break, axle misalignment, hard steering and abnormal tire wear.
Inspect the chassis for broken springs, shocks, loose or broken axle U-bolts. If
any of these are found, contact your local Volvo dealer. The U-bolt nuts must
be retightened to the proper torque specifications after the first 24 000 km
(15,000 miles).
U-Bolt Nuts
USA22978.bk.book Page 96 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
96
Maintenance and Service
Spring Bushings
When lubricating the springs, lift the axle off of the floor, suspend the frame
with axle stands and lower the axle. The spring bushings are now in the
position where grease can be added to the contact surfaces. If the spring
bushings are greased without taking the load off, high wear and lower lifetime
will occur because grease is not able to reach the contact surfaces. If the
vehicle is being driven in severe climates with a lot of wet, slushy, highly
dusty roads, or in off-road service, increase the frequency of spring bushing
lubrication.
Grease Fittings
Rubber Bushings
Rubber bushings are used for extended service life. If your vehicle is equipped
with rubber bushings DO NOT lubricate them. Replace the leaf spring if it is
damaged or has premature or excessive wear.
USA22978.bk.book Page 97 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
97
CAB MAINTENANCE
Doors
The door lock mechanism should be greased annually using white grease.
Lubricate the door lock cylinder with liquid graphite annually, or more often
in climates with a lot of snow and salt on the roads. Coat the door stop arm
with white grease annually. On wet and salted roads, road spray can enter the
door lock key cylinder. Lubricate the cylinder with liquid graphite annually or
more often if necessary. The door hinge pins are treated at manufacturing and
then sealed. No lubrication is necessary. To keep the door rubber moldings and
seals around the windows in good working order and to prevent them from
freezing shut during the cold season, occasionally spray on a silicone
compound.
USA22978.bk.book Page 98 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
98
Maintenance and Service
Hood
The hood latch mechanism should be greased with white grease yearly. If the
mechanism is hard to work or binds, the latch should be cleaned before
greasing.
Rust Protection
The rust protection applied when the cab was produced is adequate for normal
use and service. If an extension of the cab rust protection is desired or if the
vehicle is used in a severe application, it is recommended that cavity wax is
re-applied every 3rd year.
USA22978.bk.book Page 99 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
99
Cab Air Filter
Air going into the cab passes a filter located on the right, front side of the cab.
Remove the filter and check it every 19 200 km (12,000 miles). The filter
should not be cleaned and reused. Replace with a new filter as necessary.
Change the filter more often if driving in dusty conditions. A clogged filter
decreases the efficiency of the air conditioning system.
If the vehicle is equipped with a sleeper heater-A/C system, there is a filter for
recirculating air. It is located behind the passenger seat on the bunk support.
The filter should be checked after 19 200 km (12,000 miles), more often in
dusty conditions. Replace the filter as necessary. To inspect or to change the
filter, open the luggage storage lid and pull out the filter.
Paint and Brightwork Care
Cab
When using a pressure washer to clean the vehicle, do not direct the spray at
electrical components in the engine compartment such as the alternator,
starter and compressors. Water spray from pressure washers can damage
electrical components.
Wash all exterior painted surfaces frequently to remove dirt. It is especially
important to wash off salt-laden snow and ice during the cold season. A mild
detergent approved for automotive cleaning can be used but avoid strong
detergents.
USA22978.bk.book Page 100 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
100
Maintenance and Service
DO NOT aim the water jet directly at door and window seals or door locks. If
locks are filled with water, use compressed air to clean the water out and then
apply liquid graphite. Be especially careful of leaving water in locks or around
seals during freezing weather.
Apply a coat of wax regularly. This will help the paint and other surfaces keep
their luster. If the surface gets dull, use a restoring cleaner specially designed
for this. Clean off all tar spots and tree sap before waxing.
Chassis
Keep the chassis free from buildup of dirt. Make sure the chassis is cleaned
before the maintenance inspections to help spotting leaks, etc. As salt can be
part of the road sludge during the cold season, remove buildup of snow and ice
so it does not promote corrosion. At the end of the cold season, thoroughly
flush away all collected dirt from the chassis.
Stainless Steel
Stainless steel will rust if exposed to salt for too long. Wash frequently,
especially during the cold season, to remove salt-laden snow and ice. If rust
appears, wash the surface and use a rubbing compound to remove the rust.
Apply a coat of wax as a finish (do not wax parts that get hot, such as exhaust
pipes, etc.).
Never use steel wool to clean stainless steel. Pieces of the steel wool break off
and can create rust stains on the surface.
Chrome
Chrome surfaces will rust if they are not cleaned and protected. This is
especially important during the cold season when roads are salted or in coastal
areas where the salt level in the air is high. Clean chrome surfaces with clean
water. If the surface has heavy dirt or tar spots, use a tar remover. To remove
rust spots, use a non-abrasive chrome cleaner and apply a coat of wax as a
finish (do not wax parts that get hot, such as exhaust pipes, etc.).
USA22978.bk.book Page 101 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
101
Never use steel wool to clean chrome. Pieces of the steel wool break off and
can create rust stains on the surface.
Aluminum
Unprotected aluminum surfaces will form an oxide layer if not maintained.
This is especially important during the cold season when roads are salted or in
coastal areas where the salt level in the air is high. Clean with steam or high
pressure water. Use a mild detergent if the dirt is heavy. Rinse well. Clean
aluminum surfaces with warm water. If the surface has heavy dirt or tar spots,
use a tar remover. To prevent spotting, wipe aluminum surfaces dry after
washing.
Upholstery
Clean vinyl and cloth upholstery with light brushing or vacuuming. If heavily
soiled and spots caused by oil, ice cream shoe polish, grease, etc., use a
clothing fabric stain remover.
Plastic
The plastic in the upholstery can be cleaned with a soft cloth and mild soap
solution.
Alcntera™ Suede-Like Material
Suede-like upholster can be cleaned with a soft cloth and mild soap solution.
Leather Care
Volvo's Leather upholstery is manufactured with a protectant to repel soiling.
Over time, sunlight, grease and dirt can break down the protection. Staining,
cracking, scuffing, and fading can result.
DO NOT use gasoline, naphtha or similar cleaning agents on the plastic or
leather since these can cause damage. Take extra care when removing stains
such as ink or lipstick since the coloring can spread. Use solvents sparingly.
Too much solvent can damage the seat padding. Start from the outside of the
stain and work toward the center. Sharp objects (e.g. pencils or pens in a
pocket) or Velcro fasteners on clothing may damage the textile upholstery.
USA22978.bk.book Page 102 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
102
Maintenance and Service
LUBRICATION
Chassis Lubrication
Before working on or servicing a vehicle, set the parking brakes, place the
transmission in neutral and chock the wheels. Failure to do so can result in
unexpected vehicle movement and can cause serious personal injury or
death.
General lubrication includes lubricating all the grease fittings in the drivetrain,
front and rear suspensions, power steering, and front axle, using a grease gun.
Grease the chassis every 24 000 km (15,000 miles). However, if the vehicle is
in a demanding application or running in a dirty or corrosive atmosphere,
adjust the lubrication intervals to reflect heavy-duty use. For example, if
driven in heavy stop-and-go traffic with a lot of maneuvering, the lubrication
intervals should be every 16 000 km (10,000 miles) or less. All lubricating
points are found on the chassis lubrication chart on the next page.
Lubricating Grease
Use grease with a lithium base with EP additives and a consistency of NLGI
No. 2. Care should be taken not to use any grease other than one with EP
additives for the driveshaft. DO NOT use any solid lubricants, such as
graphite, copper or molybdenum disulfide.
Lubrication Procedure
Make sure the grease fittings are cleaned off before greasing fill grease to the
point where old grease and contaminants are forced out from the part and only
new grease comes out. If new grease cannot be filled so old grease is flushed
out, the part needs to be checked for problems. If a fitting does not accept
lubrication due to damage or internal stoppage, replace it with a new fitting.
Think of greasing the same way as an oil change. All old grease should come
out and be replaced with new grease. Remove excess grease from fittings,
shackles and other surfaces.
USA22978.bk.book Page 103 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
103
Lubrication Chart
The numbers in the lubrication chart correspond with the numbered notes on
“Lubrication Chart Notes” on page 104. Read these notes before selecting a
lubricant.
USA22978.bk.book Page 104 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
104
*
Maintenance and Service
Grease
Automatic Transmission
Fluid
Hub Oil
Manual Transmission Oil
Engine Oil
Rear Axle Oil
Steering Fluid
Brake Fluid
Auxiliary Axle(s)
Coolant
Hydraulic Oil
Windshield Washer Fluid
Lubrication Chart Notes
1.
Spring hanger: Use a lithium-based grease with specification API NLGI
No. 2. When lubricating the left and right sides of the front springs, lift
the axle off of the floor, suspend the frame with axle stands and lower the
axle. The spring bushings are now in the position where grease can be
added to the contact surfaces.
2.
Slack adjuster and brake cam: Use a lithium-based grease with EP
additives to specification API NLGI No. 2.
If the brake cam seal does not purge, make sure the inner seal does not purge
into the brake drum and onto the brake linings.
3.
Steering gear: Use a lithium-based grease with specification API NLGI
No. 2. Only use a hand-operated grease gun. The high pressure from an
air-operated grease gun will damage the seal.
USA22978.bk.book Page 105 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
4.
Draglink and steering shaft: Use a lithium-based grease with
specification API NLGI No. 2.
5.
Kingpin, upper and lower: Use a lithium-based grease with
specification API NLGI No. 2.
105
Always grease a Volvo front axle with the wheels on the ground.
Non-Volvo axles are typically greased with the wheels on the ground. Consult
with the axle manufacturer for the latest recommendation.
6.
Tie-rod: Use a lithium-based grease with specification API NLGI No. 2.
Volvo axles may use a greased-for-life tie-rod. No provisions for adding
grease are available.
7.
Brake fluid and clutch reservoir: Check the fluid level in the reservoir.
Add brake fluid if necessary. Use only DOT 4 brake fluid in the clutch
release system. Mixing DOT 4 brake fluid with petroleum-based oil will
cause seal damage which will cause leakage.
8.
Clutch bearing linkage: Use a lithium-based grease with EP additives to
specification API NLGI No. 2.
Inspection cover removal is necessary. Lubricate according to Eaton's
lubrication document and reinstall the inspection cover.
9.
U-Joints: Use a lithium-based grease with EP additives to specification
API NLGI No. 2.
USA22978.bk.book Page 106 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
106
Maintenance and Service
Ensure that grease purges out of all four seals of the U-joints.
10. PTO/Hydraulic reservoir: If equipped, consult with the PTO
manufacturer for the latest recommendation.
11. T-Ride bogie beam (48k-70k suspension): If equipped, use a
lithium-based grease with EP additives to specification API NLGI No. 2.
Make sure the grease purges out of both the outer and inner seals. If
necessary, adjust the lubrication schedule to include greasing the bogie
bearing as often as daily, in applications where the bogie runs in corrosive
conditions or is submerged in water.
Some vehicles are equipped with newer versions of the T-Ride suspension that
use conical bushings. These vehicles do not require lubrication.
12. Coolant: Add coolant if necessary. Only use pre-mixed clean water and
antifreeze in a 50/50 mix. Add only the same type antifreeze: extended
life or standard.
13. Steering assist cylinder: If equipped, use a lithium-based grease with EP
additives to specification API NLGI No. 2 to grease both ball joints.
14. Power steering fluid: Check the fluid in the reservoir with the dipstick.
Add oil if necessary. Use ATF Dexron® III. Change fluid every
240 000 km (150,000 miles). Change filter every year.
15. Front oil-lubricated wheel bearings (if applicable): There is no set
change interval. Change the oil (or grease) only in connection with work
on the hub or if dirt is found in the lubrication. Use motor oil SAE 30.
Lubricate both the right and the left wheel bearings.
16. Engine oil and filter: For oil and filter change see “Oil Capacity Tables
and Viscosity Charts” on page 108.
17. Windshield washer fluid: Add fluid as necessary.
USA22978.bk.book Page 107 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
107
18. Automatic and manual transmission:
앫
Automatic transmission: Use Dexron® III automatic transmission
fluid. See the manufacturer's operator manual for intervals and
quantity.
앫
Manual transmission: Use a mineral or synthetic oil. Check oil level
periodically. Level should be to the bottom of the inspection hole.
19. Auxiliary axle(s): If equipped, use a lithium-based grease with
specification API NLGI No. 2. Also, lubricate the brake, cams, slack
adjuster and tie-rod ends.
20. Rear axle: Check the oil level in the differential by removing the fill/level
plug in the housing. The oil should be level with the bottom of the fill/
level plug hole. Add oil if necessary.
Most rear differentials have a large screw and nut protruding from the
housing. The screw and nut hold the thrust plate shoe against the ring gear
and are not to be confused with the fill/level plug.
21. Fifth wheel: The fifth wheel and slider assemblies should always be
re-lubricated after steam cleaning or at least every 24 000 km
(15,000 miles).
A heavy coating of grease is recommended on the fifth wheel plate by using
the grease fitting under the fifth wheel top plate or by direct application to the
top of the plate. The fifth wheel can be greased with the trailer connected, by
using the grease fittings under the top plate.
Grease the support brackets trunnions through the fittings over the bracket
pins.
Grease the fittings at the saddle plate (1 each side) and the saddle plate lock
pockets (1 each side).
See “Oil Capacity Tables and Viscosity Charts” on page 108 for oil types.
USA22978.bk.book Page 108 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
108
Maintenance and Service
OIL CAPACITY TABLES AND VISCOSITY CHARTS
Use the information in the table below to determine the operating condition
and usage applicable to your vehicle.
D11F and D13F Engine Oil and Filter Change Intervals
Medium
Heavy
Severe
Very
Severe
Fuel Consumption (mpg)
more
than 6.0
more
than 4.7
more
than 3.7
more
than 2.0
Fuel Consumption (L/100 KM)
less than
39
less than
50
less than
64
less than
120
Engine Oil and Filter Change
Interval, km (miles)
50 000
(31,000)
40 000
(25,000)
30 000
(18,000)
15 000
(9,000)
Engine Operating Condition
Clutch Hydraulic System
Clutch system fluid
DOT 4 brake fluid according to (SAE J 1703)
Replacement interval
Every 24 months
Eaton Fuller Transmission 9,10, 13, 15 and 18–speed
For oil quality and oil change intervals, see the manufacturer's operator's
manual.
Capacity
9-speed
12.0 liters (13.5 quarts)
10, 13, 15 and 18-speed
13.0 liters (14.0 quarts)
USA22978.bk.book Page 109 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Maintenance and Service
109
Meritor Single RS23, 25, 26 and 30, Meritor Tandem RT40, 44
and 46
For oil change intervals, see the manufacturer's operator's manual
Capacity
RS23-160
19 liters (20 quarts)
RS23-185
22.5 liters (23.5 quarts)
RT40-145/160, front tandem
14 liters (15 quarts)
RT40-145/160, rear tandem
12 liters (13 quarts)
RT 46–160 front RT 46–160 rear
approximately 18 liters (19 quarts)
approximately 16 liters (17 quarts)
Select viscosity from the table above. Temperatures refer to stable ambient
temperature readings. There is no upper limit to these outside temperatures, but
the axle sump temperature MUST NEVER EXCEED 120° C (250° F).
USA22978.bk.book Page 110 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
110
Maintenance and Service
Eaton Single 23080, 23105, 26105 and 30105Eaton Tandem
DS405, DD405, DDH44 and DS462
For oil change intervals, see the manufacturer's operator's manual
Capacity
23080
19 liters (20 quarts)
23105 and 26105
26.5 liters (28 quarts)
DD404, front tandem DD404, rear
tandem
14.5 liters (15.5 quarts) 13 liters
(14 quarts)
DS404, front tandem DS404, rear
tandem
14.5 liters (15.5 quarts) 13 liters
(14 quarts)
USA22978.bk.book Page 111 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Service Check List
111
Steering Hydraulic System
Fluid type
Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF)
Dexron® lll
Change interval
Every 240 000 km (150,000 miles) or
every 12 months
Hubs
Oil Type
Temperature
Motor oil API CD or CE, SAE 30,
15W40 or synthetic
Minimum: -25° C (-15° F) Maximum:
No limit
Gear oil API GL5, SAE 75W90
Minimum: -40° C (-40° F) Maximum:
No limit
SERVICE CHECK LIST
USA22978.bk.book Page 112 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
112
Service Check List
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
Once you determine the applicable operating condition for your vehicle, use
the information in the table below to perform preventive maintenance.
CHECK /
CHANGE
BASIC
(4 MONTHS)
CHECK /
CHANGE
ANNUAL
(12 MONTHS)
Check Warning and
Control Lamps
X
X
Check Fault Codes
displayed in the
vehicle Instrument
Cluster
X
X
Check Air
Compressor's
Function and
Condition
X
X
Check Hinges,
Doorstops, Locks
and Sealing Strips
X
X
Check External
Lamps
X
X
Check Rear View
Mirrors and
Reflectors
X
X
Function Check of
Wipers and Washers
X
X
Check Headlamps
X
X
Check Hood
Attachment and
Locking Devices
X
X
TYPE OF
OPERATION
ADDITIONAL
SERVICE
USA22978.bk.book Page 113 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Service Check List
CHECK /
CHANGE
BASIC
(4 MONTHS)
CHECK /
CHANGE
ANNUAL
(12 MONTHS)
Check Batteries-Dirt,
Leakage,
Attachment, Specific
Gravity of Battery
Acid, Fluid Level
Connections and
Battery Box
X
X
Check Fuel Tank,
Hoses, Pipes Venting
and Mounting
X
X
Check Fuel Water
Separator for the Fuel
system, Draining of
Condensation.
X
X
Check Tire Wear
X
X
Chassis Lubrication
X
X
Cab Lubrication
X
X
Check Oil Level in
hubs for Oil
Lubricated Wheel
Bearings
X
X
Check Oil in Front
Drive Axle
X
X
Check Exhaust
Leakage
X
X
Check Air Dryer
X
X
Check Steering
Linkage
X
X
Check Front Shock
Absorbers
X
X
Check Front Wheels
and Bearings
X
X
Check Rear Spring
Bolts
X
X
TYPE OF
OPERATION
113
ADDITIONAL
SERVICE
USA22978.bk.book Page 114 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
114
Service Check List
CHECK /
CHANGE
BASIC
(4 MONTHS)
CHECK /
CHANGE
ANNUAL
(12 MONTHS)
Check Mounting for
Front and Rear Axle
X
X
Check Chassis Frame
and Crossmembers
X
X
Check Rear Wheels
and Bearings
X
X
Check Brake Linings
X
X
Check Brake
Cylinders, Levers
and Forks
X
X
Check Oil Level in
Manual Transmission
(If Applicable)
X
X
Check Oil in
Retarder
X
X
Check Oil Level in
Power Steering
X
X
Check Air Cleaner
X
X
Check Fluid Level in
Clutch Fluid
Reservoir
X
X
Check Coolant Level
X
X
Check Fluid Levels
in Windshield Wiper
Reservoirs
X
X
Check Transmission
Oil Cooler hoses and
Connections for leaks
X
X
TYPE OF
OPERATION
ADDITIONAL
SERVICE
USA22978.bk.book Page 115 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Service Charts
TYPE OF
OPERATION
CHECK /
CHANGE
BASIC
(4 MONTHS)
Valve Adjustment
CHECK /
CHANGE
ANNUAL
(12 MONTHS)
X
Check Drive Belts
X
X
Check Radiator Fan,
Bearing Tolerance,
Bolt Unions, Fan
Cover and Fan Ring
with Rubber Seal
X
X
Check Turbocharger
X
X
Check Discharge
Lines and Hoses
X
X
SERVICE CHARTS
115
ADDITIONAL
SERVICE
REQUIRED:
Once a year, every
209 000 km
(130,000 miles)
or every
2,500 hours,
(whichever comes
first)
USA22978.bk.book Page 116 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
116
Service Charts
SCHEDULED SERVICES
The vehicle had a pre-delivery inspection before being delivered to you, the
customer. Regular maintenance inspections should be continued. The
maintenance program and lubrication intervals that are listed in this manual
may not suit your operation. Contact your nearest Volvo Truck dealer, who
can help with designing a maintenance program that works in your
application.
앫
For regular service or maintenance, call the dealer in advance and arrange
for a service appointment. This gives the dealer time to schedule the
correct equipment and provide a trained technician to service the vehicle.
앫
Setting an appointment can decrease vehicle downtime.
앫
When in for service at an authorized Volvo Truck dealer, ask for
outstanding safety related recalls that relate to the vehicle. This service is
available only at an authorized Volvo Truck dealership.
It is strongly recommended that you do not attempt to service, repair or
maintain the vehicle yourself unless you are fully trained and have the proper
tools, equipment and parts. Some procedures are better performed by a Volvo
Truck dealer who has the proper equipment and trained technicians.
USA22978.bk.book Page 117 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Service Charts
Scheduled
Service
Date
Preventive Maintenance (See local Volvo
Truck dealer for Service Information in
group 17, "Preventive Maintenance
Basic Service" and group 17,
"Preventive Maintenance Annual
Service”)
117
Work Completed
Date
Mileage
USA22978.bk.book Page 118 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
118
Service Charts
REPAIR RECORD
Keep track of repairs being made. This helps over the lifetime of the vehicle to
spot trends that can be used to alter maintenance schedules, for example.
Repair Record
Date
1/1/07
Mileage
24816
Work
Order or
Invoice
No.
XXX
Dealer
XXX
Notes
Basic Preventive Maintenance:
oil, filter and lube chassis
USA22978.bk.book Page 119 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Service Charts
119
TIRE RECORD
Tire Record
Date
1/1/07
Type
Front
Type Rear
Low pro
22.5 Mich
X2A
Low pro
22.5 Mich
XDA
Notes (Tire Pressure, Tread Depths)
All tires within 105 - 108 psi Tread
Depth, Front 12/32, Rear 10/32.
USA22978.bk.book Page 120 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
120
Service Charts
FUEL AND OIL RECORD
Keeping track of the fuel and oil consumption gives a record of what is normal
for the vehicle. This can be compared with other vehicles in the same service
application to indicate what is normal fuel and oil consumption for a certain
application. Keep a record of how much fuel was filled between oil fill up or
oil change.
Accumulated
Date
Mileage
1/1/07
24816
Fuel Qty.
(Gallon)
4166
Oil
Qty.
36
SAE
No.
15W 40
Notes
Low 2 quarts
USA22978.bk.book Page 121 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Literature
ENGINE DATA
Consult your authorized Volvo Truck dealer.
Fill in the blanks for future reference
Vehicle Identification Number (VIN)
Engine Model
Engine Serial Number
Engine Power Rating
Primary Fuel Filter Part Number
Secondary Fuel Filter Part Number
Oil Filter Part Number, Full Flow
Oil Filter Part Number, By-pass
Air Cleaner Element Part Number
Coolant Filter Part Number
Fan Drive Belt Part Number
Accessory Drive Belt Part Number
Diesel Particulate Filter Part Number (If Equipped)
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Part Number (If Equipped)
LITERATURE
121
USA22978.bk.book Page 122 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
122
Literature
SERVICE ASSISTANCE AND MANUALS
Your Volvo Truck dealer is trained and equipped to perform expert service on
your Volvo vehicle. Your dealer has direct access to Volvo Trucks North
America for technical help, parts or service information.
Volvo Action Service (VAS), provides on-call assistance. For help, contact
VAS directly: 24 hours a day at 1 (800) 528-6586 or 1 (800) 52-VOLVO. Also
on the internet: www.vas.Volvo.com.
VAS offers:
앫
Delivery Assurance — If you need roadside assistance, VAS can arrange
for load forwarding or equipment rental.
앫
Personal Assurance — Trained staff for handling any vehicle problems.
앫
Uptime Assurance — VAS will locate the nearest service provider and
guarantee payment so you can get on the road as soon as possible.
앫
Price Assurance — VAS audits service and parts billing to ensure
guaranteed labor rates and preferred parts pricing for Volvo components.
To order a single service manual or a service manual set for your vehicle,
contact your authorized Volvo Truck dealer.
In order to process the request correctly, please give the model, year and VIN
(last six digits of VIN). For VIN location, refer to “Label Information” on
page 21.
USA22978.bk.book Page 123 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Index
123
A
Air Dryer Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Air Filter, Cab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Air Filter, Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Air Tank Draining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Alternative Fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
B
Battery Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Burn Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
C
Canadian Consumer Complaints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Climbing Up or Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Coolant Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Coolant Change Interval, Extended . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Coolant Change Interval, Regular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Coolant System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Coolant Water Specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Crushing Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Cutting Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
D
Diesel Particulate Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Driveshaft Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
E
Electric Grounding Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Electric System, Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Electronic System Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Emissions Control Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Engine Air Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Engine Components, Service Schedules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Engine Damage Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Engine Data Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Engine Monitoring Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Engine Oil Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Engine Oil Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Engine Oil, General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
USA22978.bk.book Page 124 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
124
Index
Engine Overview, D11F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39, 40
Engine Overview, D13F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39, 40
Engine Shut-Down System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Engine Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Engine, Before Starting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
Ether Start. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31, 35
Explosion Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
F
Fan Drive Belts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Fire Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Fuel Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Fuel Cetane Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Fuel Enhancers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Fuel Filter Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Fuel Filter Replacement, Primary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
Fuel Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Fuel Quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Fuel Safety Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Fuel Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Fuel Sulfur Content. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Fuel System, Priming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Fuel, Alternative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Fuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
H
Hubs, Front . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
I
Injury Prevention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
L
Lubrication Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
M
Maintenance Hazards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Maintenance Safety Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
USA22978.bk.book Page 125 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
Index
125
N
Noise Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
O
Oil Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Oil Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Oil Change Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Oil Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Oil Filters Change, Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Oil Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Oil Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Oil, Synthetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Owner Information, General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Owner's Information Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
P
Power Steering Fluid Reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
R
Radiator Package, Cleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Relay Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Respiratory Hazard Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Roadside Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Rubber Bushings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
S
Safety Defects, Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Safety Information, Brakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Selling Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Service Assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Service Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Service Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Speed Restrictive Tires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Spring Bushings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Spring Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Steering System Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
USA22978.bk.book Page 126 Wednesday, July 9, 2008 9:09 AM
126
Index
T
Tires, Wheels and Hubs Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Transmission Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Turbocharger and Charge Air Cooler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
U
U-bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Unitized Front Hubs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
V
Vendor Component Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Volvo Action Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
W
Water In Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
1-800-52-VOLVO
Volvo Action Service (VAS)
Support Center
If you need assistance on the road or if you need
service repairs, contact the VAS support center.
VAS is available 24 hours per day, 7 days per
week at 1-800-528-6586.
Please report the specific nature of the service
problem to the Volvo Customer Support
Specialist, who will answer your questions and
arrange for the assistance you need.
Truck Model & Serial
Engine Model & Serial
Transmission Model & Serial
Rear Axle Model & Serial
Your Truck Was Delivered By:
Volvo Trucks North America
P.O. Box 26115 Greensboro, NC 27402-6115
Volvo Trucks Canada, Ltd.
5600A Cancross Court, Mississauga, Ontario L5R 3E9
http://www.volvotrucks.volvo.com
PV776-21012002 07.2008 © Volvo Group North America, Inc. 2008. All Rights Reserved.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising