English - SEBU9075
SEBU9075 (en-us)
December 2015
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
404F-E22T and 404F-E22TA Industrial
Engines
ER (Engine)
EQ (Engine)
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.
When replacement parts are required for this
product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
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SEBU9075
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Engine Stopping .............................................. 47
Foreword ........................................................... 4
Maintenance Section
Safety Section
Refill Capacities............................................... 48
Safety Messages............................................... 5
General Hazard Information.............................. 8
Maintenance Recommendations .................... 60
Maintenance Interval Schedule....................... 63
Burn Prevention................................................11
Warranty Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention...... 13
Warranty Information....................................... 86
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention.. 15
Reference Information Section
Mounting and Dismounting ............................. 15
Reference Materials ........................................ 87
High Pressure Fuel Lines ................................ 15
Index Section
Before Starting Engine .................................... 17
Index................................................................ 88
Engine Starting................................................ 17
Engine Stopping .............................................. 18
Electrical System............................................. 18
Engine Electronics........................................... 19
Product Information Section
General Information ........................................ 20
Product Identification Information ................... 25
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage .......................................... 27
Features and Controls..................................... 29
Engine Diagnostics ......................................... 35
Engine Starting................................................ 37
Engine Operation ............................................ 40
Aftertreatment Operation................................. 42
Cold Weather Operation ................................. 43
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SEBU9075
Foreword
Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This
manual should be stored in or near the engine area in
a literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Perkins
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have been
removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for the latest available information.
Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions. In
addition, this section identifies hazardous, warning
situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.
Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance
intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are
referenced to detailed instructions that follow.
Recommended service should be performed at the
appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe, dusty,
wet or freezing cold operating conditions, more
frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for a
preventive maintenance management program. If the
preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.
Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of the
original requirement. We recommend that the
maintenance schedules be reproduced and
displayed near the engine as a convenient reminder.
We also recommend that a maintenance record be
maintained as part of the engine's permanent record.
Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor can assist you in adjusting your
maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
operating environment.
Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual except for the
interval and the maintenance items in that interval.
Major repairs should only be carried out by Perkins
authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor offers a variety of options
regarding overhaul programs. If you experience a
major engine failure, there are also numerous after
failure overhaul options available. Consult with your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding these options.
California Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery
posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead
and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.
5
SEBU9075
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Safety Section
i06276550
Safety Messages
There may be several specific warning signs on your
engine. The exact location and a description of the
warning signs are reviewed in this section. Become
familiar with all warning signs.
Ensure that all the warning signs are legible. Clean
the warning signs or replace the warning signs if the
words cannot be read or if the illustrations are not
visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean the
warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or
other harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh
chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the
warning signs. The warning signs that are loosened
could drop off the engine.
Replace any warning sign that is damaged or
missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the
engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on
the replacement part. Your Perkins distributor can
provide new warning signs.
(1) Universal Warning
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless
you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or
heed the warnings could result in serious injury
or death.
Illustration 1
g01154807
Typical example
The Universal Warning label (1) is on the side of the
valve mechanism cover. Refer to illustration 2 .
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SEBU9075
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Illustration 2
g03881406
(2) Hand (High Pressure)
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
Illustration 3
Typical example
g02382677
SEBU9075
7
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Illustration 4
The warning label for the Hand (High Pressure) (2) is
a wrap around label that is installed on the highpressure fuel line.
Ether Warning
An ether warning label should be installed on the air
cleaner or close to the air cleaner. The location will
depend on the application.
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless
you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or
heed the warnings could result in serious injury
or death.
g03881407
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SEBU9075
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
• When work is performed around an engine that is
operating, wear protective devices for ears in
order to help prevent damage to hearing.
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can
snag on controls or on other parts of the engine.
• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers
are secured in place on the engine.
• Never put maintenance fluids into glass
containers. Glass containers can break.
Illustration 5
g01154809
• Use all cleaning solutions with care.
i06276621
• Report all necessary repairs.
General Hazard Information
Unless other instructions are provided, perform the
maintenance under the following conditions:
• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine
cannot be started.
• The protective locks or the controls are in the
applied position.
• Engage the secondary brakes or parking brakes.
• Block the vehicle or restrain the vehicle before
maintenance or repairs are performed.
• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance is
performed or when the electrical system is
serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks. If
equipped, allow the diesel exhaust fluid to be
purged before disconnecting the battery.
Illustration 6
g00104545
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before the engine is serviced or before the engine is
repaired. Attach the warning tags to the engine and
to each operator control station. When appropriate,
disconnect the starting controls.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the engine,
or around the engine when the engine is being
serviced.
• Tampering with the engine installation or
tampering with the OEM supplied wiring can be
dangerous. Personal injury, death and/or engine
damage could result.
• Vent the engine exhaust to the outside when the
engine is operated in an enclosed area.
• If the engine is not running, do not release the
secondary brake or the parking brake systems
unless the vehicle is blocked or unless the vehicle
is restrained.
• If equipped, disconnect the connectors for the unit
injectors that are located on the valve cover base.
This action will help prevent personal injury from
the high voltage to the unit injectors. Do not come
in contact with the unit injector terminals while the
engine is operating.
• Do not attempt any repairs or any adjustments to
the engine while the engine is operating.
• Do not attempt any repairs that are not
understood. Use the proper tools. Replace any
equipment that is damaged or repair the
equipment.
• For initial start-up of a new engine or for starting
an engine that has been serviced, make
provisions to stop the engine if an overspeed
occurs. The stopping of the engine may be
accomplished by shutting off the fuel supply and/
or the air supply to the engine. Ensure that only
the fuel supply line is shut off. Ensure that the fuel
return line is open.
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SEBU9075
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
• Start the engine from the operators station (cab).
Never short across the starting motor terminals or
the batteries. This action could bypass the engine
neutral start system and/or the electrical system
could be damaged.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is in an enclosed area, vent the
engine exhaust to the outside.
Cautiously remove the following parts. To help
prevent spraying or splashing of pressurized fluids,
hold a rag over the part that is being removed.
• Filler caps
• Grease fittings
• Pressure taps
• Use all cleaning solutions with care.
• Report all necessary repairs.
Unless other instructions are provided, perform
the maintenance under the following conditions:
• The engine is stopped. Ensure that the engine
cannot be started.
• Disconnect the batteries when maintenance is
performed or when the electrical system is
serviced. Disconnect the battery ground leads.
Tape the leads in order to help prevent sparks.
• Do not attempt any repairs that are not
understood. Use the proper tools. Replace any
equipment that is damaged or repair the
equipment.
Pressurized Air and Water
• Breathers
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris and/or
hot water to be blown out. This action could result in
personal injury.
• Drain plugs
Use caution when cover plates are removed.
Gradually loosen, but do not remove the last two
bolts or nuts that are located at opposite ends of the
cover plate or the device. Before removing the last
two bolts or nuts, pry the cover loose in order to
relieve any spring pressure or other pressure.
When pressurized air and/or pressurized water is
used for cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective
shoes, and eye protection. Eye protection includes
goggles or a protective face shield.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum
water pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).
Fluid Penetration
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved
correctly.
Illustration 7
g00702020
• Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
• When work is performed around an engine that is
operating, wear protective devices for ears in
order to help prevent damage to hearing.
• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can
snag on controls or on other parts of the engine.
• Ensure that all protective guards and all covers
are secured in place on the engine.
• Never put maintenance fluids into glass
containers. Glass containers can break.
Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts
until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
information for any procedures that are required to
relieve the hydraulic pressure.
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SEBU9075
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
Avoid static electricity risk when fueling. Ultralow sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD fuel) poses a greater
static ignition hazard than earlier diesel formulations with a higher sulfur contents. Avoid death
or serious injury from fire or explosion. Consult
with your fuel or fuel system supplier to ensure
the delivery system is in compliance with fueling
standards for proper grounding and bonding
practices.
Inhalation
Illustration 8
g00687600
Always use a board or cardboard when you check for
a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
Containing Fluid Spillage
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are
contained during performance of inspection,
maintenance, testing, adjusting, and repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or
disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations
and mandates.
Static Electricity Hazard when
Fueling with Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel
Fuel
The removal of sulfur and other compounds in ultralow sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD fuel) decreases the
conductivity of ULSD and increases the ability of
ULSD to store static charge. Refineries may have
treated the fuel with a static dissipating additive.
Many factors can reduce the effectiveness of the
additive over time. Static charges can build up in
ULSD fuel while the fuel is flowing through fuel
delivery systems. Static electricity discharge when
combustible vapors are present could result in a fire
or explosion. Ensure that the entire system used to
refuel your machine (fuel supply tank, transfer pump,
transfer hose, nozzle, and others) is properly
grounded and bonded. Consult with your fuel or fuel
system supplier to ensure that the delivery system
complies with fueling standards for proper grounding
and bonding.
Illustration 9
g00702022
Exhaust
Use caution. Exhaust fumes can be hazardous to
health. If you operate the equipment in an enclosed
area, adequate ventilation is necessary.
Asbestos Information
Perkins equipment and replacement parts that are
shipped from Perkins engine company limited are
asbestos free. Perkins recommends the use of only
genuine Perkins replacement parts. Use the following
guidelines when you handle any replacement parts
that contain asbestos or when you handle asbestos
debris.
Use caution. Avoid inhaling dust that might be
generated when you handle components that contain
asbestos fibers. Inhaling this dust can be hazardous
to your health. The components that may contain
asbestos fibers are brake pads, brake bands, lining
material, clutch plates, and some gaskets. The
asbestos that is used in these components is usually
bound in a resin or sealed in some way. Normal
handling is not hazardous unless airborne dust that
contains asbestos is generated.
If dust that may contain asbestos is present, there
are several guidelines that should be followed:
• Never use compressed air for cleaning.
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SEBU9075
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
• Avoid brushing materials that contain asbestos.
• Avoid grinding materials that contain asbestos.
Always use leakproof containers when you drain
fluids. Do not pour waste onto the ground, down a
drain, or into any source of water.
• Use a wet method in order to clean up asbestos
materials.
• A vacuum cleaner that is equipped with a high
efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) can also be
used.
• Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machining
jobs.
• Wear an approved respirator if there is no other
way to control the dust.
• Comply with applicable rules and regulations for
the work place. In the United States, use
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) requirements. These OSHA requirements
can be found in “29 CFR 1910.1001”.
• Obey environmental regulations for the disposal of
asbestos.
• Stay away from areas that might have asbestos
particles in the air.
i06276622
Burn Prevention
Do not touch any part of an operating engine system.
The engine, the exhaust, and the engine
aftertreatment system can reach temperatures as
high as 650° C (1202° F) under normal operating
conditions.
Allow the engine system to cool before any
maintenance is performed. Relieve all pressure in the
air system, hydraulic system, lubrication system, fuel
system, and the cooling system before the related
items are disconnected.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
Dispose of Waste Properly
After the engine has stopped, wait for 10 minutes in
order to allow the fuel pressure to be purged from the
high-pressure fuel lines before any service or repair
is performed on the engine fuel lines. The 10 minute
wait will also allow static charge to dissipate from the
low-pressure fuel system.
Allow the pressure to be purged in the air system, in
the hydraulic system, in the lubrication system, or in
the cooling system before any lines, fittings, or
related items are disconnected.
Illustration 10
g00706404
Improperly disposing of waste can threaten the
environment. Potentially harmful fluids should be
disposed of according to local regulations.
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SEBU9075
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
Induction System
Sulfuric Acid Burn Hazard may cause serious
personal injury or death.
The exhaust gas cooler may contain a small
amount of sulfuric acid. The use of fuel with sulfur levels greater than 15 ppm may increase the
amount of sulfuric acid formed. The sulfuric acid
may spill from the cooler during service of the engine. The sulfuric acid will burn the eyes, skin
and clothing on contact. Always wear the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) that
is noted on a material safety data sheet (MSDS)
for sulfuric acid. Always follow the directions for
first aid that are noted on a material safety data
sheet (MSDS) for sulfuric acid.
Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters,
aftertreatment system or to the engine contain hot
coolant.
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
Check that the coolant level after the engine has
stopped and the engine has been allowed to cool.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
Oils
Skin may be irritated following repeated or prolonged
exposure to mineral and synthetic base oils. Refer to
your suppliers Material Safety Data Sheets for
detailed information. Hot oil and lubricating
components can cause personal injury. Do not allow
hot oil to contact the skin. Appropriate personal
protective equipment should be used.
Diesel Fuel
Diesel may be irritating to the eyes, respiratory
system, and skin. Prolonged exposure to diesel may
cause various skin conditions. Appropriate personal
protective equipment should be used. Refer to
supplier Material safety Data sheets for detailed
information.
Batteries
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for
servicing batteries. Wash hands after touching the
batteries and connectors. Use of gloves is
recommended.
Aftertreatment System
Allow the aftertreatment to cool down before any
maintenance or repair is performed.
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SEBU9075
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
i05670934
Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. Ensure that all
electrical wires are correctly installed and securely
attached. Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any
wires that are loose or frayed before you operate the
engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten
all electrical connections.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or
unnecessary. Do not use any wires or cables that are
smaller than the recommended gauge. Do not
bypass any fuses and/or circuit breakers.
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and correctly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Illustration 11
g00704000
All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
are flammable.
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause a
fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
After the emergency stop button is operated, ensure
that you allow 15 minutes, before the engine covers
are removed.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.
If the application involves the presence of
combustible gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/
or your Perkins distributor for additional information
about suitable protection devices.
Remove all flammable combustible materials or
conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris
from the engine. Do not allow any flammable
combustible materials or conductive materials to
accumulate on the engine.
Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in case of a line, a
tube, or a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be
installed correctly.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 10
minutes in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high-pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel
lines. The 10 minute wait will also allow static charge
to dissipate from the low-pressure fuel system.
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Inspect all lines
and hoses for wear or for deterioration. Ensure that
the hoses are correctly routed. The lines and hoses
must have adequate support and secure clamps.
Oil filters and fuel filters must be correctly installed.
The filter housings must be tightened to the correct
torque. Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly
manual for more information.
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SEBU9075
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
Illustration 12
g00704059
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do
not smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
Avoid static electricity risk when fueling. Ultra-low
Sulfur Diesel fuel (ULSD fuel) poses a greater static
ignition hazard than earlier diesel formulations with a
higher sulfur content. Avoid death or serious injury
from fire or explosion. Consult your fuel or fuel
system supplier to ensure that the delivery system is
in compliance with fueling standards for proper
grounding and bonding practices.
Illustration 13
g00704135
Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or a
hydrometer.
Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause an
explosion that can result in injury. Refer to the
Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
Do not charge a frozen battery. A frozen battery may
cause an explosion.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers (if
equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.
Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations
on the instruction plate.
Ether
Ether is flammable and poisonous.
Do not smoke while you are replacing an ether
cylinder or while you are using an ether spray.
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SEBU9075
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention
Do not store ether cylinders in living areas or in the
engine compartment. Do not store ether cylinders in
direct sunlight or in temperatures above 49° C
(120° F). Keep ether cylinders away from open
flames or sparks.
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses
Mounting and Dismounting
Do not bend high-pressure lines. Do not strike highpressure lines. Do not install any lines that are
damaged.
i05768982
Leaks can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer or
your Perkins distributor for replacement parts.
Do not climb on the engine or the engine
aftertreatment system. The engine and
aftertreatment system have not been designed with
mounting or dismounting locations.
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:
Refer to the OEM for the location of foot and hand
holds for your specific application.
• High-pressure fuel line or lines are removed.
i06287683
High Pressure Fuel Lines
• End fittings are damaged or leaking.
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
• Wires are exposed.
• Outer coverings are ballooning.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
• Flexible parts of the hoses are kinked.
• Outer covers have embedded armoring.
• End fittings are displaced.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly. During engine operation,
correct installation will help to prevent vibration,
rubbing against other parts, and excessive heat.
i02143194
Crushing Prevention and
Cutting Prevention
Support the component correctly when work beneath
the component is performed.
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving parts.
Leave the guards in place until maintenance is
performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
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SEBU9075
Safety Section
High Pressure Fuel Lines
Illustration 14
(1) High-pressure line
(2) High-pressure line
(3) High-pressure line
g03886691
(4) High-pressure line
(5) High-pressure fuel manifold (rail)
(6) High-pressure line
The high-pressure fuel lines are the fuel lines that are
between the high-pressure fuel pump and the highpressure fuel manifold and the fuel lines that are
between the fuel manifold and cylinder head. These
fuel lines are different from fuel lines on other fuel
systems.
The different is because of the following items:
• The high-pressure fuel lines are constantly
charged with high pressure.
• The internal pressures of the high-pressure fuel
lines are higher than other types of fuel system.
• The high-pressure fuel lines are formed to shape
and then strengthened by a special process.
Do not step on the high-pressure fuel lines. Do not
deflect the high-pressure fuel lines. Do not bend or
strike the high-pressure fuel lines. Deformation or
damage of the high-pressure fuel lines may cause a
point of weakness and potential failure.
(7) Fuel transfer line that is high pressure
Do not check the high-pressure fuel lines with the
engine or the starting motor in operation. After the
engine has stopped, you must wait for 10 minutes in
order to allow the fuel pressure to be purged from the
high-pressure fuel lines before any service or repair
is performed on the engine fuel lines. The 10 minute
wait will also allow static charge to dissipate from the
low-pressure fuel system.
Do not loosen the high-pressure fuel lines in order to
remove air from the fuel system. This procedure is
not required.
Visually inspect the high-pressure fuel lines before
the engine is started. This inspection should be each
day.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
• Inspect the high-pressure fuel lines for damage,
deformation, a nick, a cut, a crease, or a dent.
17
SEBU9075
Safety Section
Before Starting Engine
• Do not operate the engine with a fuel leak. If there
is a leak, do not tighten the connection in order to
stop the leak. The connection must only be
tightened to the recommended torque. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “Fuel injection lines Remove and Fuel injection lines - Install”.
• If the high-pressure fuel lines are torqued correctly
and the high-pressure fuel lines are leaking, the
high-pressure fuel lines must be replaced.
• Ensure that all clips on the high-pressure fuel lines
are in place. Do not operate the engine with clips
that are damaged, missing, or loose.
• Do not attach any other item to the high-pressure
fuel lines.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order to
perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
See the Service Manual for repairs and for
adjustments.
i03996487
Engine Starting
• Loosened high-pressure fuel lines must be
replaced. Also removed high-pressure fuel lines
must be replaced. Refer to Disassembly and
assembly manual, “ Fuel Injection Lines - Install”.
i03560601
Before Starting Engine
NOTICE
For initial start-up of a new or rebuilt engine, and for
start-up of an engine that has been serviced, make
provision to shut the engine off should an overspeed
occur. This may be accomplished by shutting off the
air and/or fuel supply to the engine.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch,
or to the controls DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order to
perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Start the engine from the operators compartment or
from the engine start switch.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always
start and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust
to the outside.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
Do not start the engine or move any of the controls if
there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or similar
warning tag attached to the start switch or to the
controls.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work properly, if equipped.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing that the correct procedure will help
to prevent major damage to the engine components.
Knowing that the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working
correctly, check the water temperature gauge. Also,
check the oil temperature gauge during the heater
operation.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area,
vent the engine exhaust to the outside.
18
SEBU9075
Safety Section
Engine Stopping
Note: The engine is equipped with a device for cold
starting. If the engine will be operated in very cold
conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may be
required. Normally, the engine will be equipped with
the correct type of starting aid for your region of
operation.
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are
loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical
connections before the engine is started. Repair all
frayed electrical wires before the engine is started.
See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for
specific starting instructions.
These engines are equipped with a glow plug starting
aid in each individual cylinder that heats the intake air
in order to improve starting. Some Perkins engines
may have a cold starting system that is controlled by
the ECM that allows a controlled flow of ether into the
engine. The ECM will disconnect the glow plugs
before the ether is introduced. This system would be
installed at the factory.
Grounding Practices
i02234873
Engine Stopping
Stop the engine according to the procedure in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Stopping (Operation Section)” in order to avoid
overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of
the engine components.
Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY
in an emergency situation. Do not use the
Emergency Stop Button for normal engine stopping.
After an emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine
until the problem that caused the emergency stop
has been corrected.
Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs
during the initial start-up of a new engine or an
engine that has been overhauled.
Illustration 15
g03881462
Typical example
Ground to battery
To stop an electronically controlled engine, cut the
power to the engine and/or shutting off the air supply
to the engine.
i06276654
Electrical System
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit
is operating. A spark can cause the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative “−” cable should be connected last from the
external power source to the primary position for
grounding.
Illustration 16
Typical example
Alternate ground to battery
g03881463
19
SEBU9075
Safety Section
Engine Electronics
Correct grounding for the engine electrical system is
necessary for optimum engine performance and
reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in
damage to the crankshaft bearing journal surfaces
and to aluminum components.
• Derate
• Shutdown
The following monitored engine operating conditions
and components have the ability to limit engine
speed and/or the engine power:
• Engine Coolant Temperature
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge.
• Engine Oil Pressure
To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical
systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame
ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be
used. This path may be provided by way of a direct
engine ground to the frame.
• Intake Manifold Air Pressure
The connections for the grounds should be tight and
free of corrosion. The engine alternator must be
grounded to the negative “-” battery terminal with a
wire that is adequate to handle the full charging
current of the alternator.
• Aftertreatment Temperature Sensors (if installed)
The power supply connections and the ground
connections for the engine electronics should always
be from the isolator to the battery.
• Supply Voltage to Sensors
i06276686
Engine Electronics
• Intake Manifold Air Temperature
• Engine Speed Sensors
• Fuel Temperature
• Electronic Unit Injectors
• Engine Intake Throttle Valve (if installed)
• Fuel Pressure in Manifold (Rail)
• NOx Reduction System
• Engine Aftertreatment System
The Engine Monitoring package can vary for different
engine models and different engine applications.
However, the monitoring system and the engine
monitoring control will be similar for all engines.
Tampering with the electronic system installation
or the OEM wiring installation can be dangerous
and could result in personal injury or death and/
or engine damage.
Electrical Shock Hazard. The electronic unit injectors use DC voltage. The ECM sends this voltage
to the electronic unit injectors. Do not come in
contact with the harness connector for the electronic unit injectors while the engine is operating.
Failure to follow this instruction could result in
personal injury or death.
This engine has a comprehensive, programmable
Engine Monitoring System. The Electronic Control
Module (ECM) will monitor the engine operating
conditions. If any of the engine parameters extend
outside an allowable range, the ECM will initiate an
immediate action.
The following actions are available for engine
monitoring control:
• Warning
Note: Many of the engine control systems and
display modules that are available for Perkins
Engines will work in unison with the Engine
Monitoring System. Together, the two controls will
provide the engine monitoring function for the specific
engine application. Refer to the Troubleshooting for
more information on the Engine Monitoring System.
20
SEBU9075
Product Information Section
General Information
Product Information
Section
General Information
i06276690
Model View Illustrations
The following model views show typical features of
the engine and the aftertreatment system. Due to
individual applications, your engine, and your
aftertreatment may appear different from the
illustrations.
21
SEBU9075
Product Information Section
Model View Illustrations
Illustration 17
g03881488
Typical example
(1) Electronic unit injector
(2) Rear lifting eye
(3) Top oil fill cap
(4) Front lifting eye
(5) Fan
(6) Alternator and fan belt
(7) Fuel manifold (Fuel rail)
(8) Lower oil filler cap
(9) High-pressure fuel pump
(10) Oil gauge (Dipstick)
(11) Oil drain plug
(12) Oil filter
(13) Primary fuel filter/water separator
(14) Electric fuel priming pump
(15) Secondary fuel filter
(16) Breather
22
SEBU9075
Product Information Section
Product Description
Illustration 18
g03881489
Typical example
(17) Water temperature regulator
(18) NOx Reduction System Valve (NRS)
(19) Throttle valve
(20) Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC)
(21) Flywheel
(22) Flywheel housing
(23) Starting motor
(24) Turbocharger
The items primary fuel filter (13) fuel priming pump
(14) and the ECM (26) are supplied loose.
(25) NRS cooler
(26) Electronic Control Module (ECM)
(27) Alternator
i06277472
Product Description
Two variants of Perkins 404F-E22T and 404F-E22TA
industrial engine are available, the turbocharged
engine and the turbocharged charge cooled engine.
Both engine variants have a Diesel Oxidation
Catalyst (DOC) aftertreatment system. The DOC
aftertreatment system does not require a service
interval. Both engine variants are electronically
governed.
23
SEBU9075
Product Information Section
Product Description
The 404F-E22T and 404F-E22TA industrial engines
have the following characteristics.
Electronic Engine Features
The engine operating conditions are monitored. The
Electronic Control Module (ECM) controls the
response of the engine to these conditions and to the
demands of the operator. These conditions and
operator demands determine the precise control of
fuel injection by the ECM. The electronic engine
control system provides the following features:
• In-line 4 cylinder
• 4 stroke cycle
• Two valves per cylinder
• DOC aftertreatment
• Engine monitoring
• Engine speed governing
• Injection timing control
• System diagnostics
Engine Diagnostics
Illustration 19
g00296424
(A) Exhaust valves
(B) Inlet valves
The 404F-E22T and 404F-E22TA engines may be
supplied with a throttle control valve and
temperatures sensors in the DOC or without these
components installed. The difference will be due to
the evolution of engine design.
Table 1
404F-E22T and 404F-E22TA Industrial Engines
Bore
84 mm (3.307 inch)
Stroke
100 mm (3.937 inch)
Displacement
2.216 L (135.22861 cubic inch)
Compression Ratio
18: 1
Aspiration
Turbocharged and Turbocharged charge/air cooled
Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)
0.20 mm (0.008 inch)
Valve Lash Setting (Exhaust)
0.20 mm (0.008 inch)
Firing Order
1-3-4-2
Rotation (flywheel end)
Counterclockwise
The engine has built-in diagnostics to ensure that the
engine systems are functioning correctly. The
operator will be alerted to the condition by a "Stop or
Warning" lamp. Under certain conditions, the engine
horsepower and the vehicle speed may be limited.
The electronic service tool may be used to display
the diagnostic codes.
There are four types of diagnostic codes: Active
Diagnostic Code, Logged Diagnostic Code, Active
Event Code and logged Event Code.
The ECM provides an electronic governor that
controls the injector output to maintain the desired
engine rpm.
Service Life
Engine efficiency and maximum utilization of engine
performance depend on the adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations. In
addition, use recommended fuels, coolants, and
lubricants. Use the Operation and Maintenance
Manual as a guide for required engine maintenance.
Expectedengine life is generally predicted by the
average power that is demanded. The average
power that is demanded is based on fuel
consumption of the engine over a period of time.
Reduced hours of operation at full throttle and/or
operating at reduced throttle settings result in a lower
average power demand. Reduced hours of operation
will increase the length of operating time before an
engine overhaul is required.
24
Product Information Section
Product Description
The aftertreatment system can be expected to
function properly for the useful life of the engine
(emissions durability period), as defined by
regulation, subject to prescribed maintenance
requirements being followed.
Aftermarket Products and Perkins
Engines
Perkins does not warrant the quality or performance
of non-Perkins fluids and filters.
When auxiliary devices, accessories, or
consumables (filters, additives, catalysts, ) which are
made by other manufacturers are used on Perkins
products, the Perkins warranty is not affected simply
because of such use.
However, failures that result from the installation
or use of other manufacturers devices,
accessories, or consumables are NOT Perkins
defects. Therefore, the defects are NOT covered
under the Perkins warranty.
SEBU9075
25
SEBU9075
Product Information Section
Product Identification Information
Product Identification
Information
Perkins Plate
i06279352
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
Serial Number Plate
Illustration 21
g01094203
Typical example
i02959144
Emissions Certification Film
Illustration 20
g03882431
The engine serial plate (1) is located on the left side
of the engine to the rear of the engine cylinder block.
Perkins distributors need all the numbers on the plate
in order to determine the components that were
included with the engine. This information permits
accurate identification of replacement part numbers.
Illustration 22
Typical example
g01478138
26
SEBU9075
Product Information Section
Reference Information
Air Cleaner Element
Drive Belt
Illustration 23
g01476654
Typical example
Perkins Shibaura Engines Limited will supply the fuel
label with every engine. Refer to illustration 23 . The
equipment manufacturer must install the label to the
equipment. This is recommended by Perkins
Shibaura Engines Limited. The label must be
attached to the equipment near the fuel inlet. This will
comply with the EPA regulations. The equipment
manufacturer may install another fuel label. If another
fuel label is used, the equipment manufacturer must
send a drawing or a photo of the label to Perkins
Shibaura Engines Limited through the Perkins
Distributor. This will ensure compliance of the label.
i06280422
Reference Information
Information for the following items may be needed to
order parts. Locate the information for your engine.
Record the information in the appropriate space.
Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the
information for future reference.
Record for Reference
Engine Model
Engine Serial number
Engine Low Idle rpm
Engine Full Load rpm
Primary Fuel Filter
Secondary Fuel Filter Element
Lubrication Oil Filter Element
Auxiliary Oil Filter Element (if Equipped)
Total Lubrication System Capacity
Total Cooling System Capacity
27
SEBU9075
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage
Operation Section
i06279447
Product Storage
(Engine and Aftertreatment)
Lifting and Storage
i06279362
Product Lifting
NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the
angle between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use an
adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
Perkins are not responsible for damage which may
occur when an engine is in storage after a period in
service.
Your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor can
assist in preparing the engine for extended storage
periods.
Condition for Storage
The engine must be stored in a water proof building.
The building must be kept at a constant temperature.
Engines that are filled with Perkins ELC will have
coolant protection to an ambient temperature of
−36° C (−32.8° F). The engine must not be subjected
to extreme variations in temperature and humidity.
Storage Period
An engine can be stored for up to 6 months provided
all the recommendation are adhered to.
Storage Procedure
Keep a record of the procedure that has been
completed on the engine.
Note: Do not store an engine that has biodiesel in the
fuel system.
1. Ensure that the engine is clean and dry.
a. If the engine has been operated using
biodiesel, the system must be drained and
new filters installed. The fuel tank will require
flushing.
b. Fill the fuel system with an ultra low sulfur fuel.
For more information on acceptable fuels refer
to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid recommendations”. Operate the engine
for 15 minutes in order to remove all biodiesel
from the system.
Illustration 24
Typical example
(1) Front and rear lifting eyes
g03882471
2. Drain any water from the primary filter water
separator. Ensure that the fuel tank is full.
3. The engine oil will not need to be drained in order
to store the engine. Provided the correct
specification of engine oil is used the engine can
be stored for up to 6 months. For the correct
specification of engine oil refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
recommendations”.
28
Operation Section
Engine and Aftertreatment
4. Remove the drive belts from the engine.
Sealed Coolant System
Ensure that the cooling system is filled with Perkins
ELC, or an antifreeze that meets “ASTM D6210”
specification.
Open Cooling System
Ensure that all cooling drain plugs have been
opened. Allow the coolant to drain. Install the drain
plugs. Place a vapor phase inhibitor into the system.
The coolant system must be sealed once the vapor
phase inhibitor has been introduced. The effect of the
vapor phase inhibitor will be lost if the cooling system
is open to the atmosphere.
For maintenance procedures ref to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Aftertreatment
No special procedures are required. The exhaust
outlet of the aftertreatment should be capped. Before
storing, the engine and the aftertreatment must be
enclosed in a cover.
Monthly Checks
The crankshaft must be rotated in order to change
the spring loading on the valve train. Rotate the
crankshaft more than 180 degrees. Visibly check for
damage or corrosion to the engine and
aftertreatment.
Ensure that the engine and aftertreatment are
covered completely before storage. Log the
procedure in the record for the engine.
Removal from Storage
1. Install the drive belt, refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Alternator and Fan Belts Inspect/Adjust” for the tension of the belt.
2. Ensure that the engine oil level is correct. Ensure
that the coolant level is correct. Ensure that the
fuel system is full and the fuel system is primed.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fuel system - Prime ” for more information.
3. Turn the power ON and check the operation of the
warning lamps. Start engine, refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Starting the Engine” for
more information.
SEBU9075
29
SEBU9075
Operation Section
Features and Controls
Features and Controls
Engine oil pressure – The engine oil pressure
switch indicates when oil pressure drops below rated
system pressure, at a set engine speed.
i06280389
Alarms and Shutoffs
Coolant temperature – The coolant temperature
sensor indicates high jacket water coolant
temperature.
Shutoffs
i06541814
The shutoffs are electrically operated or mechanically
operated. The electrically operated shutoffs are
controlled by the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
Gauges and Indicators
Shutoffs are set at critical levels for the following
items:
Your engine may not have the same gauges or all the
gauges that are described. For more information
about the gauge package, see the OEM information.
• Coolant operating temperature
• Oil operating pressure
The particular shutoff may need to be reset before
the engine will start.
NOTICE
Always determine the cause of the engine shutdown.
Make necessary repairs before attempting to restart
the engine.
Be familiar with the following items:
• Types and locations of shutoff
• Conditions which cause each shutoff to function
• The resetting procedure that is required to restart
the engine
Alarms
NOTICE
When an alarm is activated, corrective measures
must be taken before the situation becomes an emergency in order to avoid possible engine damage.
The alarms are electrically operated. The operations
of the alarms are controlled by the ECM.
The alarm is operated by a sensor or by a switch.
When the sensor or the switch is activated, a signal is
sent to the ECM. An event code is created by the
ECM. The ECM will send a signal to illuminate the
lamp.
Your engine may be equipped with the following
sensors or switches:
Fuel rail pressure – The fuel rail pressure sensor
measures the high pressure or low pressure in the
fuel rail. The ECM will Check the pressure.
Gauges provide indications of engine performance.
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.
Determine the normal operating range by observing
the gauges over a period of time.
Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may
also be indicated by gauge readings that change
even if the readings are within specifications.
Determine and correct the cause of any significant
change in the readings. Consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
NOTICE
If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. If
maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOP
the engine. Engine damage can result.
Engine Oil Pressure – The oil pressure
should be greatest after a cold engine is
started. The typical engine oil pressure
with SAE10W30 is 207 kPa to 413 kPa
(30 psi to 60 psi) at rated rpm.
A lower oil pressure is normal at low idle. If the load is
stable and the gauge reading changes, perform the
following procedure:
1. Remove the load.
2. Reduce engine speed to low idle.
3. Check and maintain the oil level.
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –
Typical temperature range is 82° to 96°C
(147.6° to 172.8°F). The maximum
allowable temperature with the pressurized
cooling system at 90 kPa (13 psi) is 112° C
(233.6° F). Higher temperatures may occur under
certain conditions. The water temperature
reading may vary according to load. The reading
should never exceed the boiling point for the
pressurized system that is being used.
30
SEBU9075
Operation Section
Gauges and Indicators
If the engine is operating above the normal range
and steam becomes apparent, perform the following
procedure:
1. Reduce the load and the engine rpm.
2. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
3. Determine if the engine must be shutdown
immediately or if the engine can be cooled by
reducing the load.
Tachometer – This gauge indicates
engine speed (rpm). When the throttle
control lever is moved to the full throttle
position without load, the engine is running at
high idle. The engine is running at the full load
rpm when the throttle control lever is at the full
throttle position with maximum rated load.
NOTICE
To help prevent engine damage, never exceed the
high idle rpm. Overspeeding can result in serious
damage to the engine. The engine can be operated
at high idle without damage, but should never be allowed to exceed high idle rpm.
Ammeter – This gauge indicates the
amount of charge or discharge in the
battery charging circuit. Operation of
the indicator should be to the right side of “ 0””
(zero).
Fuel Level – This gauge indicates the
fuel level in the fuel tank. The fuel level
gauge operates when the “ START/STOP””
switch is in the “ ON”” position.
Service Hour Meter – The gauge
indicates operating time of the engine.
31
SEBU9075
Operation Section
Monitoring System
i06280431
Monitoring System
(Engine Warning Indicators)
Table 2
Table for Warning Indicators
Shutdown
Warning Indicator Indicator
Indicator State
ON
Indicator Check
ON
Description of the
Indication
Engine Status
Operator Action
Keyswitch in the ON position all Indicators should illuminate for 0.5 of a
second.
Power ON, Indicator
check
Engine is not
operating.
If any of the Indicators will
not illuminate during the
Indicator check, the fault
must be investigated
immediately.
If any Indicator stays illuminated or flash, the fault
must be investigated
immediately.
OFF
OFF
No Fault
-
Engine operating
normally.
None
Level 1
ON (Solid)
OFF
Level 1
An active diagnostic code The engine is operat- As soon as possible the
is present.
ing, but one or more
diagnostic code should be
diagnostic codes are investigated.
present.
Level 2
Flashing
OFF
Level 2
The ECM has detected an If enabled, the engine Stop the engine.
abnormal condition.
will be derated.
Investigate the fault.
Level 3
Flashing
ON
Level 3
Engine condition is
abnormal.
i06542459
Monitoring System
The engine will auto- Stop engine immediately.
matically shutdown.
Investigate the fault.
If shutdown is not enabled, the engine can
operate but may
course damage .
NOTICE
The Engine Monitoring System is not a guarantee
against catastrophic failures. Programmed delays
and derate schedules are designed to minimize false
alarms and provide time for the operator to stop the
engine.
The following parameters are monitored:
If the Shutdown mode has been selected and the
warning indicator activates, engine shutdown
may take as little as 20 seconds from the time the
warning indicator is activated. Depending on the
application, special precautions should be taken
to avoid personal injury. The engine can be restarted following shutdown for emergency maneuvers, if necessary.
• Engine speed/timing
• Engine temperature and pressures sensors
• Atmospheric pressure (Barometric pressure)
• Fuel temperature
• Battery voltage
32
SEBU9075
Operation Section
Overspeed
Programmable Options and
Systems Operation
For more information or assistance for repairs,
consult your Perkins distributor.
i06280455
Overspeed
If the Warning/Derate/Shutdown mode has been
selected and the warning indicator activates,
bring the engine to a stop whenever possible. Depending on the application, special precautions
should be taken to avoid personal injury.
The engine can be programmed to the following
modes:
The overspeed is plus 700 Revolution Per Minute
(RPM) above the given speed for engines shown.
• 404F-E22T
2800 RPM
• 404F-E22TA
2800 RPM
“ Warning””
The orange “Warning” lamp will turn “ON” and the
warning signal is activated continuously to alert the
operator that one or more of the engine parameters is
not within normal operating range.
“ Derate””
The orange “Warning” lamp will be “Flashing” . After
the warning, the engine power will be derated. The
warning lamp will begin to flash when the derating
occurs.
The engine will be derated if the engine exceeds
preset operational limits. The engine derate is
achieved by restricting the amount of fuel that is
available for each injection. The fuel reduction
dependents on the severity of the fault that has
caused the engine derate, typically up to a limit of
50%. This reduction in fuel results in a predetermined
reduction in engine power.
“ Shutdown””
The orange warning will be “Flashing” . After the
warning, the engine power will be derated. The
engine will continue at the rpm of the set derate until
a shutdown of the engine occurs. After shutdown the
red stop lamp will illuminate. The engine can be
restarted after a shutdown for use in an emergency.
A shutdown of the engine after been triggered is
immediate. The engine can be restarted after a
shutdown for use in an emergency. However, the
cause of the initial shutdown may still exist.
If there is a signal for high coolant temperature, there
will be a 2 second delay to verify the condition.
If there is a signal for low oil pressure, there will be a
2 second delay to verify the condition.
i06280458
Sensors and Electrical
Components
The illustration within the section shows the typical
locations of the sensors and other electrical
components on the Industrial engine. Specific
engines may appear different due to the application.
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SEBU9075
Operation Section
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 25
g06013009
Typical example
(1) Inlet manifold pressure (Boost) sensor
(2) Electronic unit injector
(3) Glow plug
(4) Fuel Pressure Sensor (Fuel Rail
Pressure Sensor)
(5) Fuel Temperature Sensor
(6) Fuel Metering Solenoid for the HighPressure Fuel Pump
(7) Crankshaft speed/timing sensor
(8) Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) outlet
temperature sensor
(9) DOC inlet temperature sensor
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SEBU9075
Operation Section
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 26
g06013027
Typical example
(10) Oil pressure switch
(11) Throttle control valve
(12) NRS control vale
(13) Starting motor
(14) Alternator
(15) Low-pressure fuel pump/ priming pump
(16) Electronic control module
(17) Vent for atmospheric pressure sensor
Note: Some components may not be installed on
some applications. The DOC may not be equipped
with temperature sensors. The throttle valve may not
be installed.
(18) Camshaft speed/timing sensor
(19) Coolant temperature sensor
35
SEBU9075
Operation Section
Engine Diagnostics
Engine Diagnostics
i05142509
i06542464
Self-Diagnostics
Perkins electronic engines can perform a selfdiagnostics test. When the system detects an active
problem, a diagnostic lamp is activated. Diagnostic
codes will be stored in permanent memory in the
Electronic Control Module (ECM). The diagnostic
codes can be retrieved by using the electronic
service tool. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Electronic
Service Tools” for further information.
Some installations have electronic displays that
provide direct readouts of the engine diagnostic
codes. Refer to the manual that is provided by the
OEM for more information on retrieving engine
diagnostic codes. Alternatively refer to
Troubleshooting, “Indicator Lamps” for further
information.
Active codes represent problems that currently exist.
These problems should be investigated first.
Logged codes represent the following items:
• Intermittent problems
• Recorded events
• Performance history
A maximum of 6 codes can be stored at one time.
If 6 codes are already present, then the engine will
still react to another fault, but the fault will not be
logged by the ECM.
The problems may have been repaired since the
logging of the code. These codes do not indicate that
a repair is needed. The codes are guides or signals
when a situation exists. Codes may be helpful to
troubleshoot problems.
When the problems have been corrected, the
corresponding logged fault codes should be cleared.
Fault Logging
The system provides the capability of Fault Logging.
When the Electronic Control Module (ECM)
generates an active diagnostic code, the code will be
logged in the memory of the ECM. The codes that
have been logged by the ECM can be identified by
the electronic service tool. The active codes that
have been logged will be cleared when the fault has
been rectified or the fault is no longer active.
i05182507
Engine Operation with Active
Diagnostic Codes
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation, the system has identified a situation that is
not within the specification. Use electronic service
tools to check the active diagnostic codes.
Note: The power will be limited until the problem is
corrected. If the oil pressure is within the normal
range, the engine may be operated at the rated
speed and load. However, maintenance should be
performed as soon as possible.
The active diagnostic code should be investigated.
The cause of the problem should be corrected as
soon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnostic
code is repaired and there is only one active
diagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off.
Operation of the engine and performance of the
engine can be limited as a result of the active
diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration rates
may be significantly slower. Refer to the
Troubleshooting Guide for more information on the
relationship between these active diagnostic codes
and engine performance.
i04053849
Engine Operation with
Intermittent Diagnostic Codes
i04053182
Diagnostic Lamp
A diagnostic lamp is used to indicate the existence of
an active fault. Refer to Troubleshooting , “Indicator
Lamps” for more information. A fault diagnostic code
will remain active until the problem is repaired. The
diagnostic code may be retrieved by using the
electronic service tool. Refer to Troubleshooting ,
“Electronic Service Tools” for more information.
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation and the diagnostic lamp shuts off, an
intermittent fault may have occurred. If a fault has
occurred, the fault will be logged into the memory of
the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
36
SEBU9075
Operation Section
Configuration Parameters
In most cases, stopping the engine will not be
necessary because of an intermittent code. However,
the operator should retrieve the logged fault codes
and the operator should reference the appropriate
information. in order to identify the nature of the
event. The operator should log any observation that
could have caused the lamp to light.
• Low power
• Limits of the engine speed
• Engine vibration or engine noise
This information can be useful to help troubleshoot
the situation. The information can also be used for
future reference. For more information on diagnostic
codes, refer to the Troubleshooting Guide for this
engine.
i05142533
Configuration Parameters
System configuration parameters affect the
emissions of the engine or the power of the engine.
System configuration parameters are programmed at
the factory. Normally, system configuration
parameters would never change through the life of
the engine. System configuration parameters must
be reprogrammed if an Electronic Control Module
(ECM) is replaced. System configuration parameters
are not reprogrammed if the ECM software is
changed.
For more information, refer to Troubleshooting,
“System Configuration Parameters”.
37
SEBU9075
Operation Section
Engine Starting
Engine Starting
i06281977
Cold Weather Starting
i04053911
Before Starting Engine
Perform the required daily maintenance and other
periodic maintenance before the engine is started.
Inspect the engine compartment. This inspection can
help prevent major repairs at a later date. Refer to
the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Interval Schedule” for more
information.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
• Ensure that the engine has an adequate fuel
supply.
When Group 2 diesel fuel is used, the following items
provide a means of minimizing starting problems and
fuel problems in cold weather: Engine oil pan
heaters, jacket water heaters, fuel heaters and fuel
line insulation.
• Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped).
If the engine has not been started for several weeks,
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air may
have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel filters
have been changed, some air pockets will be trapped
in the engine. In these instances, prime the fuel
system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information
on priming the fuel system. Also, check that the fuel
specification is correct and that the fuel condition is
correct. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel Recommendations”.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always
start and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust
to the outside.
The ability to start the engine will be improved at
temperatures below −18 °C (0 °F) from the use of a
jacket water heater or extra battery capacity.
Use the procedure that follows for cold weather
starting.
Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during
start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will
control the engine speed during start-up.
1. Disengage any driven equipment.
Note: During key ON, the indicator lamps will be
illuminated for 2 seconds in order to check the lamp
operation. If any of the indicator lamps do not
illuminate check the bulb. If any indicator lamps stay
illuminated or flash, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Indicator Lamp Circuit - Test”.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning
light for the glow plugs is extinguished.
• Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls.
3. When the warning light for the glow plugs is
extinguished, turn the keyswitch to the START
position in order to engage the electric starting
motor and crank the engine.
• Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components.
Note: The operating period of the warning light for
the glow plugs will change due to the ambient air
temperature.
• Ensure that any driven equipment has been
disengaged. Minimize electrical loads or remove
any electrical loads.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to
allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position
after the engine starts.
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SEBU9075
Operation Section
Starting the Engine
5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails to
start.
Note: The engine should not be “raced” in order to
speed up the warm-up process.
6. Allow the engine to idle for 3 to 5 minutes, or allow
the engine to idle until the water temperature
indicator begins to rise. When idling after the
engine has started in cold weather, increase the
engine rpm from 1000 to 1200 rpm. This operation
will warm up the engine more quickly. Maintaining
an elevated low idle speed for extended periods
will be easier with the installation of a hand
throttle.
7. Operate the engine at low load until all systems
reach operating temperature. Check the gauges
during the warm-up period.
8. Constant speed engines could be allowed to reach
operating speed with no load. Operate engine for
2 minutes before applying load.
i06283179
Starting the Engine
3. When the warning light for the glow plugs has
been extinguished turn the keyswitch to the
START position. The starter motor will then crank
the engine.
Note: The operating period of the warning light for
the glow plugs will change due to the ambient air
temperature.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to
allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position
after the engine starts.
5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails to
start.
6. Constant speed engines should be allowed to
reach operating speed with no load. Operate
engine for 2 minutes before applying load.
i06092747
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during
start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will
control the engine speed during start-up.
Starting with Jump Start
Cables
(Do Not Use This Procedure in
Hazardous Locations that have
Explosive Atmospheres)
Starting the Engine
1. Disengage any equipment that is driven by the
engine.
Note: During key ON, the indicator lamps will be
illuminated for 0.5 of a second to check the lamp
operation. If any of the indicator lamps do not
illuminate check the bulb. If any indicator lamps stay
illuminated or flash, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Indicator Lamp Circuit - Test”.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning
light for the glow plugs is extinguished.
The connection of battery cables to a battery and
the disconnection of battery cables from a battery
may cause an explosion which may result in injury or death. The connection and the disconnection of other electrical equipment may also cause
an explosion which may result in injury or death.
The procedures for the connection and the disconnection of battery cables and other electrical
equipment should only be performed in a nonexplosive atmosphere.
39
SEBU9075
Operation Section
After Starting Engine
Improper jump start cable connections can cause
an explosion resulting in personal injury.
Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could
cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start
cable ends to contact each other or the engine.
Note: If possible, first diagnose the reason for the
starting failure. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine
Will Not Crank and Engine Cranks But Will Not Start”
for further information. Make any necessary repairs.
If the engine will not start only due to the condition of
the battery, either charge the battery, or start the
engine by using another battery with jump-start
cables. The condition of the battery can be
rechecked after the engine has been switched OFF.
5. Immediately after the engine is started, disconnect
the jump-start cables in reverse order.
After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to
recharge fully batteries that are severely discharged.
The batteries must be replaced or charged to the
proper voltage with a battery charger after the engine
is stopped. Many batteries which are considered
unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Battery - Replace” and
Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Battery - Test”.
i06288297
After Starting Engine
After starting, the engine may be held at low speed
for up to 30 seconds to allow engine systems to
stabilize. The duration will depend on ambient
temperature, time since last run and other factors.
NOTICE
Using a battery source with the same voltage as the
electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for
jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage
the electrical system.
Note: In ambient temperatures from 0° to 48°C
(0° to 86.4°F), the warm-up time is approximately 3
minutes. In temperatures below 0°C (32°F),
additional warm-up time may be required.
Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can
be damaged. Attach ground cable last and remove
first.
When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the
following conditions:
Turn all electrical accessories OFF before attaching
the jump start cables.
Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF position before attaching the jump start cables to the engine being started.
Do not check the high-pressure fuel lines with the
engine or the starting motor in operation. If you
inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
1. Turn the start switch on the stalled engine to the
OFF position. Turn off all the engines accessories.
• Check for fluid and air leaks at idle rpm, and at
one-half full rpm (no load on the engine) before
operating the engine under load. This check may
not possible in some applications.
2. Connect one positive end of the jump-start cable to
the positive cable terminal of the discharged
battery. Connect the other positive end of the
jump-start cable to the positive cable terminal of
the electrical source.
• Allow the engine to idle for 3 to 5 minutes, or allow
the engine to idle until the water temperature
indicator begins to rise. Check all gauges during
the warm-up period.
3. Connect one negative end of the jump-start cable
to the negative cable terminal of the electrical
source. Connect the other negative end of the
jump-start cable to the engine block or to the
chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent
potential sparks from igniting the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries.
Note: The engine ECM must be powered before the
starting motor is operated or damage can occur.
4. Start the engine in the normal operating
procedure. Refer to this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Starting the Engine”.
Constant speed engines should be allowed to
operate at low idle for 3 minutes before used at
operational speed. If the low idle option is not
available, then operate the engine at operational
speed with no load for 2 minutes.
Note: Gauge readings should be observed and the
data should be recorded frequently whilst the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will help
to determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
40
SEBU9075
Operation Section
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
i06288395
Engine Operation
Correct operation and maintenance are key factors in
obtaining the maximum life and economy of the
engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
Variable Speed Engine
The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after
the engine reaches operating temperature. The
engine will reach normal operating temperature
sooner during a low engine speed (rpm) and during a
low-power demand. This procedure is more effective
than idling the engine at no load. The engine should
reach operating temperature in a few minutes.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine is
operating. Comparing the data over time will help to
determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
Constant Speed Engine
Allow the engine to warn up before applying load.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine is
operating. Comparing the data over time will help to
determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
Reduction of Particulate Emissions
The engine is equipped with an aftertreatment
system in order to meet emissions regulations. The
system uses a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) in
order to meet emissions regulations. The system is
passive and will not require any operation by the
engine user. The DOC will not require a service
interval in order to operate correctly.
i06283233
Fuel Conservation Practices
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. The design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in
all applications. Always ensure that genuine filters
are used. Follow the recommended procedures in
order to attain optimum performance for the life of the
engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel.
Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.
• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
Use only the recommended fuels. Refer to the
Operations and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel
Recommendations”for further information.
• Avoid unnecessary idling.
Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of
time.
• Observe the service indicator frequently. Keep the
air cleaner elements clean.
• Ensure that the turbocharger is operating correctly
so that the proper air/fuel ratio is maintained.
Clean exhaust indicates proper functioning.
• Maintain a good electrical system.
One faulty battery cell will overwork the alternator
and can consume excess power and excess fuel.
• Ensure that the belts are properly adjusted. The
belts should be in good condition. Refer to the
Specifications manual for further information.
SEBU9075
41
Operation Section
Fuel Conservation Practices
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
tight. The connections should not leak.
• Ensure that the driven equipment is in good
working order.
• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat
from the jacket water system and the exhaust
system, when possible. Keep cooling system
components clean and keep cooling system
components in good repair. Never operate the
engine without water temperature regulators. All of
these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.
42
SEBU9075
Operation Section
Aftertreatment Operation
Aftertreatment Operation
i06287597
Diesel Particulate Filter
Regeneration
The 404F-E22 family of engines do not have a Diesel
Particulate Filter (DPF) installed within the
aftertreatment system.
The 404F-E22 family of engines use a different
technology called, the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
(DOC). This DOC system does not require any
scheduled maintenance, and will not be included in
the Maintenance Interval Schedule.
In order for the 404F-E22 family of engines to meet
emissions regulations the exhaust gases are passed
through the DOC. There the gases react with the
catalyst. The aftertreatment system can be expected
to function properly for the lifetime of the engine
(emissions durability period). However for the
aftertreatment system to function properly, prescribed
maintenance requirements and schedules must be
followed.
43
SEBU9075
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
• Achieving operating temperature will help prevent
the intake valves and exhaust valves from
sticking.
i06283245
Cold Weather Operation
Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in
cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and
the operation of the diesel engine depends the
following items:
• The type of fuel that is used
• The viscosity of the engine oil
• The operation of the glow plugs
• Optional Cold starting aid
• Battery condition
• Ambient air temperature and altitude
• Parasitic load of the application
• Application hydraulic and transmission oil
viscosities
This section will cover the following information:
• Potential problems that are caused by coldweather operation
• Suggest steps which can be taken to minimize
starting problems and operating problems when
the ambient air temperature is between
0° to−40 °C (32° to 40 °F).
The operation and maintenance of an engine in
freezing temperatures is complex . This complexity is
because of the following conditions:
• Weather conditions
• The cooling system and the lubrication system for
the engine do not lose heat immediately upon
shutdown. This means that an engine can be
shutdown for a period and the retained heat within
the engine will allow the engine readily start.
• Install the correct specification of engine lubricant
before the beginning of cold weather. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for the recommended
viscosity of oil.
• Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts,)
weekly.
• Check all electrical wiring and connections for any
fraying or damaged insulation.
• Keep all batteries fully charged and warm by
ensuring that the engine is allowed correct
operation at normal operating temperature.
• Fill the fuel tank at the end of each shift.
• Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.
Check the air intake more often when you operate
in snow.
• Ensure that the glow plugs are in working order.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Glow Plug Starting AidTest”.
Personal injury or property damage can result
from alcohol or starting fluids.
Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable
and toxic and if improperly stored could result in
injury or property damage.
• Engine applications
Recommendations from your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor are based on past proven
practices. The information that is contained in this
section provides guidelines for cold-weather
operation.
Hints for Cold-Weather Operation
• After starting the engine, the engine speed will be
governed for up to a maximum of 30 seconds.
After this period, the engine should be operated at
low loads until a minimum coolant operating
temperature of 80° C (176° F) is achieved.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
44
SEBU9075
Operation Section
Cold Weather Operation
• For jump starting with cables in cold weather, refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Starting with Jump-Start Cables.” for instructions.
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication
Oil
Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity
affects lubrication properties and the wear protection
that the oil provides for the engine. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for the recommended viscosity of
oil.
At temperatures below −10° C (14° F) damage to
engine components can occur if the engine is
allowed to operate at high load and speed
immediately after starting.
Recommendations for the Coolant
Provide cooling system protection for the lowest
expected outside temperature. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for the recommended coolant
mixture.
Whilst the engine is idling, the application of a light
load (parasitic load) will help in achieving the
minimum operating temperature. The minimum
coolant operating temperature is 80° C (176° F).
Recommendations for Coolant
Warm Up
Warm up an engine that has cooled below normal
operating temperatures due to inactivity. This warm
-up should be performed before the engine is
returned to full operation. During operationin very
cold temperature conditions, damage to engine valve
mechanisms can result from engine operation for
short intervals. This damage can happen if the
engine is started and the engine is stopped many
times without being operated to warmup completely.
When the engine is operated below normal operating
temperatures, fuel and oil are not burned completely
in the combustion chamber. This fuel and oil causes
soft carbon deposits to form on the valve stems.
Generally, the deposits do not cause problems and
the deposits are burned off during operation at
normal engine operating temperatures.
In cold weather, check the coolant often for the
correct glycol concentration to ensure adequate
freeze protection.
When starting and stopping an engine many times
without being operated to warmup completely, the
carbon deposits become thicker. This starting and
stopping can cause the following problems:
Engine Block Heaters
• Free operation of the valves is prevented.
Engine block heaters (if equipped) heat the engine
jacket water that surrounds the combustion
chambers. This heat provides the following functions:
• Valves become stuck.
• Startability is improved.
• Other damage to valve train components can
result.
• Warm up time is reduced.
For these reasons, when the engine is started, the
engine must be operated until the coolant
temperature is 80° C (176° F) minimum. Carbon
deposits on the valve stem will be kept at a minimum.
The free operation of the valves and the valve
components will be maintained.
An electric block heater can be activated once the
engine is stopped. A block heater can be 110 V dc or
240 V dc. The output can be 750/1000W. Consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
more information.
Idling the Engine
After starting the engine, the engine speed will be
governed for a maximum period of 30 seconds.
When idling after the engine is started in cold
weather, increase the engine rpm from 1000 rpm to
1200 rpm. This idling will warmup the engine more
quickly. Maintaining an elevated low idle speed for
extended periods will be easier with the installation of
a hand throttle. The engine should not be “raced” to
speed up the warmup process.
• Pushrods may become bent.
The engine must be warmed thoroughly to keep
other engine parts in better condition. The service life
of the engine will generally be extended. Lubrication
will be improved. There will be less acid and less
sludge in the oil. This condition will provide longer
service life for the engine bearings, the piston rings,
and other parts. However, limit unnecessary idle time
to 10 minutes to reduce wear and unnecessary fuel
consumption.
45
SEBU9075
Operation Section
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather
The Water Temperature Regulator and
Insulated Heater Lines
Recommendation for Crankcase
Breather Protection
The engine is equipped with a water temperature
regulator. When the engine coolant is below the
correct operating temperature, jacket water circulates
through the engine cylinder block and into the engine
cylinder head. The coolant then returns to the
cylinder block via an internal passage that bypasses
the valve of the coolant temperature regulator. This
return ensures that coolant flows around the engine
under cold operating conditions. The water
temperature regulator begins to open when the
engine jacket water has reached the correct
minimum operating temperature. As the jacket water
coolant temperature rises above the minimum
operating temperature, the water temperature
regulator opens further allowing more coolant
through the radiator to dissipate excess heat.
Crankcase ventilation gases contain a large quantity
of water vapor. This water vapor can freeze in cold
ambient conditions and can plug or damage the
crankcase ventilation system. If the engine is
operated in temperatures of −18° C (−0.4° F) or
lower , measures must be taken to prevent freezing
and plugging of the breather system. Insulated hoses
and an insulated canister assembly should be
installed. A heater unit must also be installed into the
breather system. Both measures are required to
protect the engine when working in temperatures of
−18° C (−0.4° F) or lower.
The progressive opening of the water temperature
regulator operates the progressive closing of the
bypass passage between the cylinder block and
head. This action ensures maximum coolant flow to
the radiator to achieve maximum heat dissipation.
Note: Do not restrict the air flow. Restriction of the air
flow can damage the fuel system. Perkins
discourages the use of all air flow restriction devices
such as radiator shutters. Restriction of the air flow
can result in the following: high exhaust
temperatures, power loss, excessive fan usage, and
reduction in fuel economy.
A cab heater is beneficial in very cold weather. The
feed from the engine and the return lines from the
cab should be insulated to reduce heat loss to the
outside air.
i05849931
Fuel and the Effect from Cold
Weather
Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended
by Perkins. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
Properties of the diesel fuel can have a significant
effect on the engine cold start capability. It is critical
that the low temperature properties of diesel fuel are
acceptable for the minimum ambient temperature the
engine is expected to see in the operation.
Following properties are used to define fuels low
temperature capability:
• Cloud point
• Pour point
• Cold Filter Plugging Point (CFPP)
The cloud point of the fuel is the temperature at
which waxes naturally found in the diesel fuel begin
to form crystals. The cloud point of the fuel must be
below lowest ambient temperature to prevent filters
from plugging.
Cold Filter Plugging Point is a temperature at which a
particular fuel will pass through a standardized
filtration device. This CFPP gives an estimate of the
lower operability temperature of fuel
Pour point is the last temperature before the fuel flow
stops and waxing of the fuel will start.
Be aware of these properties when diesel fuel is
purchased. Consider the average ambient air
temperature for the engines application. Engines that
are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the
engines are shipped to colder climate. Problems can
result due to changes in temperature.
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing
46
SEBU9075
Operation Section
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather
The following components can provide a means of
minimizing fuel waxing problems in cold weather:
• Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option
• Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option
Winter and arctic grades of diesel fuel are available in
the countries and territories with severe winters. For
more information refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel For Cold Weather
Operation”
Another important fuel property which can affect cold
start and operation of diesel engine is Cetane
number. Detail and requirements of this property are
given in this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid Recommendations”.
i05359588
Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather
Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.
Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
tank at the following intervals: weekly, service
intervals and refueling of the fuel tank. Draining will
help prevent water and/or sediment from being
pumped from the fuel storage tank and into the
engine fuel tank.
Fuel Filters
After you change the fuel filter, always prime the fuel
system in order to remove air bubbles from the fuel
system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual in the Maintenance Section for more
information on priming the fuel system.
The micron rating and the location of a primary fuel
filter is important in cold-weather operation. The Inline filter, primary fuel filter, and the fuel supply line
are the most common components that are affected
by cold fuel.
Fuel Heaters
Note: The OEM may equip the application with fuel
heaters. If so, the temperature of the fuel must not
exceed 73 °C (163 °F) at the fuel transfer pump. The
fuel heater should be installed before the electric lift
pump.
For more information about fuel heaters (if equipped),
refer to the OEM information.
47
SEBU9075
Operation Section
Engine Stopping
Engine Stopping
i03756631
After Stopping Engine
i02334873
Stopping the Engine
Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not
operate the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to
allow the engine oil to return to the oil pan.
NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been
working under load, can result in overheating and accelerated wear of the engine components.
• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil
level between the “MIN” mark and the “MAX” mark
on the engine oil level gauge.
Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it
down.
• If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair
any leaks and tighten any loose bolts.
Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and bearing life.
• If the engine is equipped with a service hour
meter, note the reading. Perform the maintenance
that is in the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
Note: Individual applications will have different
control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures
are understood. Use the following general guidelines
in order to stop the engine.
1. Remove the load from the engine. Reduce the
engine speed (rpm) to low idle. Allow the engine to
idle for five minutes in order to cool the engine.
2. Stop the engine after the cool down period
according to the shutoff system on the engine and
turn the ignition key switch to the OFF position. If
necessary, refer to the instructions that are
provided by the OEM.
i01903586
Emergency Stopping
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY
use ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices
or controls for normal stopping procedure.
The OEM may have equipped the application with an
emergency stop button. For more information about
the emergency stop button, refer to the OEM
information.
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.
• Fill the fuel tank in order to help prevent
accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill
the fuel tank.
NOTICE
Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended
in the Refill Capacities and Recommendations topic
that is in this Operation and Maintenance Manual.
Failure to do so can cause engine damage.
• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
• If freezing temperatures are expected, check the
coolant for correct antifreeze protection. The
cooling system must be protected against freezing
to the lowest expected outside temperature. Add
the correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
the instructions from the OEM.
48
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Maintenance Section
Table 4
404F-E22T and 404F-E22TAEngines
Refill Capacities
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Engine Only
i06288449
Lubrication System
(2)
The refill capacities for the engine crankcase reflect
the approximate capacity of the crankcase or sump
plus standard oil filters. Auxiliary oil filter systems will
require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications
for the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Section” for more information on Lubricant
Specifications.
Table 3
Minimum
Maximum
8.9 L
(9.4 qt)
10.6 L
(11.2 qt)
Total Lubrication System(2)
(2)
4.13
The External System includes a radiator or an expansion tank
with the following components: heat exchanger and piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the capacity
of the External System in this row.
The Total Cooling System capacity includes the capacity for the
Engine plus the External System. Enter the value for the capacity of the Total Cooling System in this row.
i06288553
Fluid Recommendations
General Coolant Information
404F-E22T and 404F-E22TAEngines
Refill Capacities
(1)
3.91
Total Cooling System(2)
(1)
Crankcase Oil Sump(1)
Quarts
External System Per OEM(1)
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Liters
More than one style of sump may be used on these engines.
Use these values to estimate the refill capacity. Use the engine
oil level gauge to fill the engine to the correct oil level. Record
the result in this table. These values are the approximate capacities for the Crankcase Oil Sump which includes the standard factory installed oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters
will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for
the capacity of the auxiliary oil filter.
The Total Lubrication System includes the capacity for the
Crankcase Oil Sump plus the capacity of factory installed oil filters and other filters added to the lubrication system. Enter the
value for the capacity of the Total Lubrication System in this
row.
Cooling System
To maintain the cooling system, the Total Cooling
System capacity must be known. The approximate
capacity is for the engine cooling system. External
System capacities will vary among applications.
Refer to the OEM specifications for the External
System capacity. This capacity information will be
needed in order to determine the amount of coolant
that is required for the Total Cooling System.
NOTICE
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely to prevent damage.
NOTICE
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant
for proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.
Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:
• Contamination of the cooling system
• Overheating of the engine
• Foaming of the coolant
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature
regulators.
Many engine failures are related to the cooling
system. The following problems are related to cooling
system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water
pump and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.
49
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Fluid Recommendations
These failures can be avoided with correct cooling
system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
oil.
Many additives are depleted during engine operation.
These additives must be replaced periodically.
Additives must be added at the correct concentration.
Over concentration of additives can cause the
inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can
enable the following problems to occur:
Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
Water, additives and glycol.
• Formation of gel compounds
Water
• Reduction of heat transfer
• Leakage of the water pump seal
Water is used in the cooling system in order to
transfer heat.
• Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages
Distilled water or deionized water is
recommended for use in engine cooling systems.
Glycol
DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling
systems: Hard water, softened water that has been
conditioned with salt and sea water.
Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection
against the following conditions:
If distilled water or deionized water is not available,
use water with the properties that are listed in Table 5
.
Table 5
• Boiling
• Freezing
• Cavitation of the water pump
Acceptable Water
Property
Maximum Limit
Chloride (Cl)
40 mg/L
Sulfate (SO4)
100 mg/L
Total Hardness
170 mg/L
Total Solids
340 mg/L
Acidity
pH of 5.5 to 9.0
For a water analysis, consult one of the following
sources:
• Local water utility company
• Agricultural agent
For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a
1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.
Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection
against the lowest ambient temperature.
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
temperature of −13 °C (8.6 °F).
Most conventional antifreezes use ethylene glycol.
Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture
with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide
similar protection against freezing and boiling. Refer
to Table 6 and refer to table 7 .
Table 6
Ethylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze Protection
• Independent laboratory
50 Percent
−36 °C (−33 °F)
Additives
60 Percent
−51 °C (−60 °F)
Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of the
cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or
insufficient amounts of additives enable the following
conditions to occur:
• Corrosion
NOTICE
Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that
exceed 50 percent glycol because of the reduced
heat transfer capability of propylene glycol. Use ethylene glycol in conditions that require additional protection against boiling or freezing.
• Formation of mineral deposits
• Rust
• Scale
• Foaming of the coolant
Table 7
Propylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze Protection
50 Percent
−29 °C (−20 °F)
50
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Fluid Recommendations
To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,
measure the specific gravity of the coolant.
Coolant Recommendations
• ELC
Extended Life Coolant
• SCA
Supplement Coolant Additive
• ASTM
Materials
American Society for Testing and
The following two coolants are used in Perkins diesel
engines:
Preferred – Perkins ELC
Acceptable – A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze
that meets “ASTM D6210 ” specifications
NOTICE
The Perkins industrial engines must be operated
with a 1:1 mixture of water and glycol. This concentration allows the NOx reduction system to
operate correctly at high ambient temperatures.
ELC
Perkins provides ELC for use in the following
applications:
• Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines
• Heavy-duty diesel engines
• Automotive applications
The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from
the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC is
an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC
contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam
agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC has
been formulated with the correct amount of these
additives in order to provide superior corrosion
protection for all metals in engine cooling systems.
ELC is available in a premixed cooling solution with
distilled water. ELC is a 1:1 mixture. The Premixed
ELC provides freeze protection to −36 °C (−33 °F).
The Premixed ELC is recommended for the initial fill
of the cooling system. The Premixed ELC is also
recommended for topping off the cooling system.
Containers of several sizes are available. Consult
your Perkins distributor for the part numbers.
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only
meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light automotive
applications.
ELC Cooling System Maintenance
Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
optimum heavy-duty performance as an antifreeze.
This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if
extra freezing protection is required.
NOTICE
Use only Perkins products for pre-mixed or concentrated coolants.
A mixture of SCA inhibitor and water is acceptable
but will not give the same level of corrosion, boiling
and, freezing protection as ELC. Perkins
recommends a 6 percent to 8 percent concentration
of SCA in those cooling systems. Distilled water or
deionized water is preferred.
Table 8
Coolant Service Life
Coolant Type
Service Life (1)
Perkins ELC
6,000 Service Hours or Three
Years
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze that meets “ASTM
D6210”
3000 Service Hours or Two Year
Commercial SCA inhibitor and
3000 Service Hours or One Year
Water
(1)
Use the interval that occurs first. The cooling system must also
be flushed out at this time.
Correct additions to the Extended Life
Coolant
Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products reduces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure
to follow the recommendations can reduce cooling
system components life unless appropriate corrective
action is performed.
In order to maintain the correct balance between the
antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain the
recommended concentration of ELC. Lowering the
proportion of antifreeze lowers the proportion of
additive. Lowering the ability of the coolant to protect
the system will form pitting, from cavitation, from
erosion, and from deposits.
NOTICE
Do not use a conventional coolant to top-off a cooling
system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant
(ELC).
Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive
(SCA).
When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA's
or SCA filters.
51
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Fluid Recommendations
ELC Cooling System Cleaning
Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC,
cleaning agents are not required to be used at the
specified coolant change interval. Cleaning agents
are only required if the system has been
contaminated by the addition of some other type of
coolant or by cooling system damage.
Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is
required when ELC is drained from the cooling
system.
Before the cooling system is filled, the heater control
(if equipped) must be set to the HOT position. Refer
to the OEM in order to set the heater control. After
the cooling system is drained and the cooling system
is refilled, operate the engine until the coolant level
reaches the normal operating temperature and until
the coolant level stabilizes. As needed, add the
coolant mixture in order to fill the system to the
specified level.
Changing to Perkins ELC
To change from heavy-duty antifreeze to the Perkins
ELC, perform the following steps:
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that all fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and the repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations
and mandates.
1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.
2. Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations.
3. Fill the cooling system with a 33 percent solution of
Perkins ELC and operate the engine, ensure that
the thermostat opens. Stop the engine and allow
the engine to cool. Drain the coolant.
Note: Use distilled or deionized water in the solution.
4. Again, fill the cooling system with a 33 percent
solution of Perkins ELC and operate the engine
ensure that the thermostat opens. Stop the engine
and allow to cool.
5. Drain the drain the cooling system.
NOTICE
Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal
components.
6. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed
ELC. Operate the engine. Ensure that all coolant
valves open then stop the engine. When cool
check the coolant level.
ELC Cooling System Contamination
NOTICE
Mixing ELC with other products reduces the effectiveness of the ELC and shortens the ELC service life.
Use only Perkins Products for premixed or concentrate coolants. Failure to follow these recommendations can result in shortened cooling system
component life.
ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to
a maximum of 10 percent of conventional heavy-duty
antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination exceeds 10
percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of
the following procedures:
• Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.
Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations. Flush the system with a 5 to 10
percent solution of Perkins ELC. Fill the system
with the Perkins ELC.
• Drain a portion of the cooling system into a
suitable container according to local regulations.
Then, fill the cooling system with premixed ELC.
This procedure should lower the contamination to
less than 10 percent.
• Maintain the system as a conventional HeavyDuty Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA.
Change the coolant at the interval that is
recommended for the conventional Heavy-Duty
Coolant.
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze and
SCA
NOTICE
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant which contains
Amine as part of the corrosion protection system
must not be used.
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
correct operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature
regulators.
Check the antifreeze (glycol concentration) in order
to ensure adequate protection against boiling or
freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a
refractometer for checking the glycol concentration. A
hydrometer should not be used.
52
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Fluid Recommendations
Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested at
500 hour intervals for the concentration of SCA.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour
intervals.
Table 12 is an example for using the equation that is
in Table 11 .
Table 12
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To The HeavyDuty Coolant For Maintenance
Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant
at the Initial Fill
Total Volume of the
Cooling System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required
(X)
Use the equation that is in Table 9 to determine the
amount of SCA that is required when the cooling
system is initially filled.
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.014
0.2 L (7 oz)
Table 9
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant At
The Initial Fill
V × 0.045 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze
• Clean the cooling system after used coolant is
drained or before the cooling system is filled with
new coolant.
• Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is
contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 10 is an example for using the equation that is
in Table 9 .
Table 10
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To The HeavyDuty Coolant At The Initial Fill
Total Volume of the
Cooling System (V)
15 L (4 US gal)
Multiplication
Factor
× 0.045
Amount of SCA
that is Required
(X)
0.7 L (24 oz)
Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
Heavy-duty antifreeze of all types REQUIRE periodic
additions of an SCA.
Test the antifreeze periodically for the concentration
of SCA. For the interval, refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” (Maintenance Section). Cooling System
Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) Test/Add.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
The size of the cooling system determines the
amount of SCA that is needed.
i06541877
Fluid Recommendations
(General Fuel Information)
• Glossary
• ISO
• ASTM
Materials
International Standards Organization
American Society for Testing and
• HFRR
High Frequency Reciprocating Rig
for Lubricity testing of diesel fuels
• FAME
• CFR
• ULSD
Fatty Acid Methyl Esters
Co-ordinating Fuel Research
Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel
• RME
Rape Methyl Ester
• SME
Soy Methyl Ester
Use the equation that is in Table 11 to determine the
amount of SCA that is required, if necessary:
• EPA
Environmental Protection Agency of
the United States
Table 11
• PPM
Parts Per Million
• DPF
Diesel Particulate Filter
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant
For Maintenance
V × 0.014 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
53
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
General Fuel Information
General Information
NOTICE
Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up-todate information. By use of this document you agree
that Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible for errors or omissions.
NOTICE
These recommendations are subject to change without notice. Contact your local Perkins distributor for
the most up-to-date recommendations.
Diesel Fuel Requirements
Perkins is not in a position to continuously evaluate
and monitor all worldwide distillate diesel fuel
specifications that are published by governments and
technological societies.
The Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel
provides a known reliable baseline to judge the
expected performance of distillate diesel fuels that is
derived from conventional sources.
Satisfactory engine performance depends on the use
of a good quality fuel. The use of a good quality fuel
will give the following results: long engine life and
acceptable exhaust emissions levels. The fuel must
meet the minimum requirements that are stated in
the table 13 .
NOTICE
The footnotes are of the key part Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel Table. Read ALL of the
footnotes.
Table 13
Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel(1)
Property
UNITS
Requirements
“ASTM”Test
“ISO”Test
Aromatics
%Volume
35% maximum
D1319
“ISO”3837
Ash
%Weight
0.01% maximum
D482
“ISO”6245
Carbon Residue on 10%
Bottoms
%Weight
0.35% maximum
D524
“ISO”4262
Cetane Number (2)
-
40 minimum
D613/D6890
“ISO”5165
Cloud Point
°C
D2500
The cloud point must not
exceed the lowest expected
ambient temperature.
“ISO”3015
Copper Strip Corrosion
-
No. 3 maximum
D130
“ISO”2160
801 minimum and 876
maximum
No equivalent test
“ISO 3675”“ISO 12185”
Density at 15 °C (59 °F) (3) kg/m3
(continued)
54
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
General Fuel Information
(Table 13, contd)
Distillation
°C
10% at 282 °C (539.6 °F)
maximum
90% at 360 °C (680 °F)
maximum
D86
“ISO”3405
Flash Point
°C
legal limit
D93
“ISO”2719
Thermal Stability
-
D6468
Minimum of 80% reflectance after aging for 180 minutes at 150 °C (302 °F)
No equivalent test
Pour Point
°C
6 °C (42.8 °F) minimum be- D97
low ambient temperature
“ISO”3016
Sulfur (1)
%mass
0.0015
“ISO 20846”“ISO 20884”
Kinematic Viscosity (4)
mm2/s (cSt)
The viscosity of the fuel that D445
is delivered to the fuel injection pump. “1.4 minimum/
4.5 maximum”
“ISO”3405
Water and sediment
% weight
0.1% maximum
D1796
“ISO”3734
Water
% weight
0.1% maximum
D1744
No equivalent test
% weight
0.05% maximum
D473
“ISO”3735
mg/100mL
10 mg per 100 mL
maximum
D381
“ISO”6246
mm
0.52 maximum
D6079
“ISO”12156-1
Sediment
Gums and Resins
(5)
Lubricity correctedwear
scar diameter at 60 °C
(140 °F). (6)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
D5453/D26222
This specification includes the requirements for Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD). ULSD fuel will have ≤ 15 ppm (0.0015%) sulfur. Refer to
“ASTM D5453”, “ASTM D2622”, or “ISO 20846, ISO 20884” test methods.
A fuel with a higher cetane number is recommended to operate at a higher altitude or in cold weather.
“Via standards tables, the equivalent API gravity for the minimum density of 801 kg / m3 (kilograms per cubic meter) is 45 and for the maximum density of 876 kg / m3 is 30”.
The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. Fuel should also meet the minimum viscosity requirement and the fuel should meet the maximum viscosity requirements at 40 °C (104 °F) of either the “ASTM D445” test method or
the “ISO 3104” test method. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain “1.4 cSt”or greater viscosity
at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters to lower the viscosity to “1.4 cSt” at the fuel injection pump.
Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
The lubricity of a fuel is a concern with ultra low sulfur fuel. To determine the lubricity of the fuel, use the “ISO 12156-1 or ASTM D6079 High
Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR)” test. If the lubricity of a fuel does not meet the minimum requirements, consult your fuel supplier. Do
not treat the fuel without consulting the fuel supplier. Some additives are not compatible. These additives can cause problems in the fuel
system.
Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are
certified with the fuel that is prescribed by the United
States Environmental Protection Agency. Engines
that are manufactured by Perkins are certified with
the fuel that is prescribed by the European
Certification. Perkins does not certify diesel engines
on any other fuel.
Note: The owner and the operator of the engine has
the responsibility of using the fuel that is prescribed
by the EPA and other appropriate regulatory
agencies.
NOTICE
Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins recommendations can cause the following effects: Starting difficulty, reduced fuel filter service life, poor
combustion, deposits in the fuel injectors, significantly reduce service life of the fuel system, deposits
in the combustion chamber and reduced service life
of the engine.
NOTICE
The Perkins 404F-E22F diesel engine must be operated using Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel. The sulphur content of this fuel must be lower than 15 PPM. This fuel
complies with the emissions regulations that are prescribed by the Environmental Protection Agency of
the United States.
55
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
General Fuel Information
Illustration 27
g02157153
Illustration 27 is a representation of the label that will
be installed next to the fuel filler cap on the fuel tank
of the application.
The fuel specifications that are listed in the table 14
are released as acceptable to use on all 404F-E22F
engine.
Table 14
Acceptable Fuel Specification for the404F-E22F Engines(1)
Fuel Specification
Comments
EN590
European Automotive Diesel Fuel (DERV)
“ASTM D975 GRADE 1D S15”
“North American Light Distillate Diesel fuel with less than 15 PPM sulfur level”
“ASTM D975 GRADE 2D S15”
“North American Middle Distillate general-purpose Diesel fuel with less
than 15 PPM sulfur level”
“JIS K2204”
“Japanese Diesel Fuel” Must meet the requirements that are stated in
the section “Lubricity”.
“BS 2869: 2010 CLASS A2 or EU equivalent”
“EU Off-Road Diesel fuel. Acceptable from 2011 MUST have less than
10 PPM sulfur level”
(1)
All the fuels must comply with the specification in the table for the Perkins Specification Distillate Diesel Fuel.
Diesel Fuel Characteristics
Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root cause
of problems during a cold start.
Cetane Number
Fuel that has a high cetane number will give a shorter
ignition delay. A high cetane number will produce a
better ignition quality. Cetane numbers are derived
for fuels against proportions of cetane and
heptamethylnonane in the standard CFR engine.
Refer to “ISO 5165” for the test method.
Cetane numbers more than 45 are normally expected
from current diesel fuel. However, a cetane number
of 40 may be experienced in some territories. The
United States of America is one of the territories that
can have a low cetane value. A minimum cetane
value of 40 is required during average starting
conditions. A fuel with higher cetane number is
recommended for operations at high altitudes or in
cold-weather operations.
Viscosity
Viscosity is the property of a liquid of offering
resistance to shear or flow. Viscosity decreases with
increasing temperature. This decrease in viscosity
follows a logarithmic relationship for normal fossil
fuel. The common reference is to kinematic viscosity.
Kinematic viscosity is the quotient of the dynamic
viscosity that is divided by the density. The
determination of kinematic viscosity is normally by
readings from gravity flow viscometers at standard
temperatures. Refer to “ISO 3104” for the test
method.
56
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
General Fuel Information
The viscosity of the fuel is significant because fuel
serves as a lubricant for the fuel system components.
Fuel must have sufficient viscosity to lubricate the
fuel system in both extremely cold temperatures and
extremely hot temperatures. If the kinematic viscosity
of the fuel is lower than “1.4 cSt” at the fuel injection
pump, damage to the fuel injection pump can occur.
This damage can be excessive scuffing and seizure.
Low viscosity may lead to difficult hot restarting,
stalling, and loss of performance. High viscosity may
result in seizure of the pump.
Perkins recommends kinematic viscosities of 1.4 and
4.5 mm2/sec that is delivered to the fuel injection
pump. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of
the fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or
greater viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with
a high viscosity might require fuel heaters to lower
the viscosity to 4.5 cSt at the fuel injection pump.
Density
Density is the mass of the fuel per unit volume at a
specific temperature. This parameter has a direct
influence on engine performance and a direct
influence on emissions. This influence determines
from a heat output given injected volume of fuel. This
parameter is quoted in the following kg/m3 at 15 °C
(59 °F).
Perkins recommends a density of 841 kg/m 3 to
obtain the correct power output. Lighter fuels are
acceptable but these fuels will not produce the rated
power.
Sulfur
The level of sulfur is governed by emissions
legislations. Regional regulation, national
regulations, or international regulations can require a
fuel with a specific sulfur limit. The sulfur content of
the fuel and the fuel quality must comply with all
existing local regulations for emissions.
Perkins 404F-E22F diesel engines have been
designed to operate only with ULSD. By using the
test methods “ASTM D5453, ASTM D2622, or ISO
20846 ISO 20884”, the content of sulfur in ULSD fuel
must be below 15 PPM (mg/kg) or 0.0015% mass.
NOTICE
Use of diesel fuel with higher than 15 PPM sulphur
limit in these engines will harm or permanently damage emissions control systems and/or shorten their
service interval.
Lubricity
Lubricity is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump
wear. The fluids lubricity describes the ability of the
fluid to reduce the friction between surfaces that are
under load. This ability reduces the damage that is
caused by friction. Fuel injection systems rely on the
lubricating properties of the fuel. Until fuel sulfur limits
were mandated, the fuels lubricity was generally
believed to be a function of fuel viscosity.
The lubricity has particular significance to the current
ultra low sulfur fuel, and low aromatic fossil fuels.
These fuels are made to meet stringent exhaust
emissions.
The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed wear
scar diameter of 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch). The fuel
lubricity test must be performed on an HFRR,
operated at 60 °C (140 °F). Refer to “ISO 12156-1”.
NOTICE
The fuels system has been qualified with fuel having
lubricity up to 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch) wear scar diameter as tested by “ISO 12156-1”. Fuel with higher
wear scar diameter than 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch) will
lead to reduced service life and premature failure of
the fuel system.
Fuel additives can enhance the lubricity of a fuel.
Contact your fuel supplier for those circumstances
when fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier
can make recommendations for additives to use, and
for the proper level of treatment.
Distillation
Distillation is an indication of the mixture of different
hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of lightweight
hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of
combustion.
Recommendation for Biodiesel and
Using B20
Biodiesel is a fuel that can be defined as mono-alkyl
esters of fatty acids. Biodiesel is a fuel that can be
made from various feedstocks. The most commonly
available biodiesel in Europe is Rape Methyl Ester
(RME). This biodiesel is derived from rapeseed oil.
Soy Methyl Ester (SME) is the most common
biodiesel in the United States. This biodiesel is
derived from soybean oil. Soybean oil or rapeseed oil
are the primary feedstocks. These fuels are together
known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME).
57
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
General Fuel Information
Raw pressed vegetable oils are NOT acceptable for
use as a fuel in any concentration in compression
engines. Without esterification, these oils solidify in
the crankcase and the fuel tank. These fuels may not
be compatible with many of the elastomers that are
used in engines that are manufactured today. In
original forms, these oils are not suitable for use as a
fuel in compression engines. Alternate base stocks
for biodiesel may include animal tallow, waste
cooking oils, or various other feedstocks. To use any
of the products that are listed as fuel, the oil must be
esterified.
Fuel made of 100 percent FAME is generally referred
to as B100 biodiesel or neat biodiesel.
Biodiesel can be blended with distillate diesel fuel.
The blends can be used as fuel. The most commonly
available biodiesel blends are B5, which is 5 percent
biodiesel and 95 percent distillate diesel fuel. B20,
which is 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent distillate
diesel fuel.
Note: The percentages given are volume-based.
The U.S. distillate diesel fuel specification “ASTM
D975-09a” includes up to B5 (5 percent) biodiesel.
European distillate diesel fuel specification EN590:
2010 includes up B7 (7 percent) biodiesel.
Note: Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are
certified by use of the prescribed Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and European Certification
fuels. Perkins does not certify engines on any other
fuel. The user of the engine has the responsibility of
using the correct fuel that is recommended by the
manufacturer and allowed by the EPA and other
appropriate regulatory agencies.
Specification Requirements
The neat biodiesel must conform to the latest
“EN14214 or ASTM D6751” (in the USA). The
biodiesel can only be blended in mixture of up to 20%
by volume in acceptable mineral diesel fuel meeting
latest edition of “EN590 or ASTM D975 S15”
designation.
In United States Biodiesel blends of B6 to B20 must
meet the requirements listed in the latest edition of
“ASTM D7467” (B6 to B20) and must be of an API
gravity of 30-45.
In North America biodiesel and biodiesel blends must
be purchased from the BQ-9000 accredited
producers and BQ-9000 certified distributors.
In other areas of the world, the use of biodiesel that is
BQ-9000 accredited and certified, or that is
accredited and certified by a comparable biodiesel
quality body to meet similar biodiesel quality
standards is required.
Engine Service Requirements
Aggressive properties of biodiesel fuel may cause
debris in the fuel tank and fuel lines. The aggressive
properties of biodiesel will clean the fuel tank and fuel
lines. This cleaning of the fuel system can
prematurely block of the fuel filters. Perkins
recommend that after the initial usage of B20
biodiesel blended fuel the fuel filters must be
replaced at 50 hours.
Glycerides present in biodiesel fuel will also cause
fuel filters to become blocked more quickly. Therefore
the regular service interval should be reduced to 250
hours.
When biodiesel fuel is used, crank case oil and
aftertreatment systems may be influenced. This
influence is due to the chemical composition and
characteristics of biodiesel fuel, such as density and
volatility, and to chemical contaminants that can be
present in this fuel, such as alkali and alkaline metals
(sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium).
• Crankcase oil fuel dilution can be higher when
biodiesel or biodiesel blends are used. This
increased level of fuel dilution when using
biodiesel or biodiesel blends is related to the
typically lower volatility of biodiesel. In-cylinder
emissions control strategies utilized in many of the
industrial latest engine designs may lead to a
higher level of biodiesel concentration in the
sump. The long-term effect of biodiesel
concentration in crankcase oil is currently
unknown.
• Perkins recommend the use of oil analysis to
check the quality of the engine oil if biodiesel fuel
is used. Ensure that the level of biodiesel in the
fuel is noted when the oil sample is taken.
Performance Related Issues
Due to the lower energy content than the standard
distillate fuel B20 will cause a power loss in order of 2
to 4 percent. In addition, over time the power may
deteriorate further due to deposits in the fuel
injectors.
Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are known to cause
an increase in fuel system deposits, most significant
of which are deposits within the fuel injector. These
deposits can cause a loss in power due to restricted
or modified fuel injection or cause other functional
issues associated with these deposits.
Note: Perkins T40-0012 Fuel Cleaner is most
effective in cleaning and preventing the formation of
deposits. Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner helps to
limit deposit issues by improving the stability of
biodiesel and biodiesel blends. For more information
refer to “Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner, and
Perkins”.
58
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
General Fuel Information
Biodiesel fuel contains metal contaminants (sodium,
potassium, calcium, and/or magnesium) that form
ash products upon combustion in the diesel engine.
The ash can have an impact on the life and
performance of aftertreatment emissions control
devices and can accumulate in DPF. The ash
accumulation may cause the need for more frequent
ash service intervals and cause loss of performance
General Requirements
Biodiesel has poor oxidation stability, which can
result in long-term problems in the storage of
biodiesel. Biodiesel fuel should be used within 6
months of manufacture. Equipment should not be
stored with the B20 biodiesel blends in the fuel
system for longer than 3 months.
Due to poor oxidation stability and other potential
issues, it is strongly recommended that engines with
limited operational time either not use B20 biodiesel
blends or, whilst accepting some risk, limit biodiesel
blend to a maximum of B5. Examples of applications
that should limit the use of biodiesel are the following:
Standby Generator sets and certain emergency
vehicles.
Perkins strongly recommended that seasonally
operated engines have the fuel systems, including
fuel tanks, flashed with conventional diesel fuel
before prolonged shutdown periods. An example of
an application that should seasonally flush the fuel
system is a combine harvester.
Microbial contamination and growth can cause
corrosion in the fuel system and premature plugging
of the fuel filter. Consult your supplier of fuel for
assistance in selecting appropriate anti-microbial
additive.
Water accelerates microbial contamination and
growth. When biodiesel is compared to distillate
fuels, water is naturally more likely to exist in the
biodiesel. It is therefore essential to check frequently
and if necessary, drain the water separator.
Materials such as brass, bronze, copper, lead, tin,
and zinc accelerate the oxidation process of the
biodiesel fuel. The oxidation process can cause
deposits formation therefore these materials must not
be used for fuel tanks and fuel lines.
Fuel for Cold-Weather Operation
The European standard “EN590” contains climate
dependant requirements and a range of options. The
options can be applied differently in each country.
There are five classes that are given to arctic
climates and severe winter climates. 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Fuel that complies with “EN590” CLASS 4 can be
used at temperatures as low as −44 °C (−47.2 °F).
Refer to “EN590” for a detailed discretion of the
physical properties of the fuel.
The diesel fuel “ASTM D975 1-D” used in the United
States of America may be used in very cold
temperatures that are below −18 °C (−0.4 °F).
Aftermarket Fuel Additives
Supplemental diesel fuel additives are not generally
recommended. This recommendation is due to
potential damage to the fuel system or the engine.
Your fuel supplier or the fuel manufacturer will add
the appropriate supplemental diesel fuel additives.
Perkins recognizes the fact that additives may be
required in some special circumstances.
Note: Some anti-corrosion additives can lead to
injector fouling, this fouling can cause the injector to
operate incorrectly.
Contact your fuel supplier for those circumstances
when fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier
can recommend the appropriate fuel additive and the
correct level of treatment.
Note: For the best results, your fuel supplier should
treat the fuel when additives are required. The
treated fuel must meet the requirements that are
stated in table 13 .
Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner
Perkins T40-0012 Fuel Cleaner is the only fuel
cleaner that is recommended by Perkins.
If biodiesel or biodiesel blends of fuel are to be used,
Perkins require the use of Perkins fuel cleaner. The
use of the fuel is to remove deposits within the fuel
system that is created with the use of biodiesel. For
more information on the use of biodiesel and
biodiesel blends refer to “Recommendation for
Biodiesel and Using B20”.
Perkins fuel cleaner will remove deposits that can
form in the fuel system with the use of biodiesel and
biodiesel blends. These deposits can create a loss of
power and engine performance.
Once the fuel cleaner has been added to the fuel, the
deposits within the fuel system are removed after 30
hours of engine operation. For maximum results,
continue to use the fuel cleaner for up to 80 hours.
Perkins fuel cleaner can be used on an on-going
basis with no adverse impact on engine or fuel
system durability.
Details instruction on the rate of which the fuel
cleaner must be use are on the container.
SEBU9075
59
Maintenance Section
General Fuel Information
Note: Perkins fuel cleaner is compatible with existing
and U.S. EPA Tier 4 nonroad certified diesel engine
emission control catalysts and particulate filters.
Perkins fuel system cleaner contains less than 15
ppm of sulfur and is acceptable for use with ULSD
fuel.
Fuel Cleaner and the 404F-E22
Industrial Engines
Perkins recommends the T40-0012 Fuel Cleaner
for the diesel fuel must be used at 3000 hours of
engine operation. Using T40-0012 Fuel Cleaner will
remove built up deposits and maintain engine power
output.
Due to regional fuel variations and different usage
cycles deposits may build up in shorter periods.
Perkins recommends using the cleaner as required, if
a power reduction is observed.
60
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Recommendations
Maintenance
Recommendations
2. Wait for 10 minutes.
Do not loosen the high pressure fuel lines in order to
remove air from the fuel system.
i03648938
System Pressure Release
Engine Oil
To relieve pressure from the lubricating system, turn
off the engine.
Coolant System
i06296009
Welding on Engines with
Electronic Controls
Pressurized system: Hot coolant can cause serious burn. To open cap, stop engine, wait until radiator is cool. Then loosen cap slowly to relieve
the pressure.
The engine can have the ability to auto start. Ensure
that the power supply is isolated before any service
or repair is performed.
To relieve the pressure from the coolant system, turn
off the engine. Allow the cooling system pressure cap
to cool. Remove the cooling system pressure cap
slowly in order to relieve pressure.
Fuel System
To relieve the pressure from the fuel system, turn off
the engine.
High Pressure Fuel Lines
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
The high pressure fuel lines are the fuel lines that are
between the high pressure fuel pump and the high
pressure fuel manifold and the fuel lines that are
between the fuel manifold and cylinder head. These
fuel lines are different from fuel lines on other fuel
systems.
This is because of the following differences:
• The high pressure fuel lines are constantly
charged with high pressure.
• The internal pressures of the high pressure fuel
lines are higher than other types of fuel system.
Before any service or repair is performed on the
engine fuel lines, perform the following tasks:
1. Stop the engine.
NOTICE
Because the strength of the frame may decrease,
some manufacturers do not recommend welding onto
a chassis frame or rail. Consult the OEM of the equipment or your Perkins dealer regarding welding on a
chassis frame or rail.
Proper welding procedures are necessary in order to
avoid damage to the engines ECM, sensors, and
associated components. When possible, remove the
component from the unit and then weld the
component. If removal of the component is not
possible, the following procedure must be followed
when you weld on a unit equipped with an Electronic
Engine. The following procedure is considered to be
the safest procedure to weld on a component. This
procedure should provide a minimum risk of damage
to electronic components.
NOTICE
Do not ground the welder to electrical components
such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding
can cause damage to the drive train bearings, hydraulic components, electrical components, and other components.
Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the component that will be welded. Place the clamp as close
as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the possibility of damage.
Note: Perform the welding in areas that are free from
explosive hazards.
1. Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to the
OFF position.
2. Ensure that the fuel supply to the engine is turned
off.
3. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
battery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided,
open the switch.
61
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls
4. Disconnect all electronic components from the
wiring harnesses. Include the following
components:
• Electronic components for the driven
equipment
• ECM
• Sensors
• Electric operated fuel pump
• Electronically controlled valves
• Relays
NOTICE
Do not use electrical components (ECM or ECM sensors) or electronic component grounding points for
grounding the welder.
Illustration 28
g01075639
Use the example above. The current flow from the
welder to the ground clamp of the welder will not
damage any associated components.
(1) Engine
(2) Welding electrode
(3) Keyswitch in the OFF position
(4) Battery disconnect switch in the open position
(5) Disconnected battery cables
(6) Battery
(7) Electrical/Electronic component
(8) Minimum distance between the component that is being
welded and any electrical/electronic component
(9) The component that is being welded
(10) Current path of the welder
(11) Ground clamp for the welder
5. Connect the welding ground cable directly to the
part that will be welded. Place the ground cable as
close as possible to the weld in order to reduce the
possibility of welding current damage to the
following components. Bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and ground
straps.
Note: If electrical/electronic components are used as
a ground for the welder, or electrical/electronic
components are located between the welder ground
and the weld, current flow from the welder could
severely damage the component.
6. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris and
spatter.
62
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Severe Service Application
7. Use standard welding practices to weld the
materials.
i05196263
Severe Service Application
Quality of the air – The engine may be exposed to
extended operation in an environment that is dirty or
dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned regularly.
Mud, dirt, and dust can encase components.
Maintenance can be very difficult. The buildup can
contain corrosive chemicals.
Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals, and salt can damage some components.
Severe service is the application of an engine that
exceeds the current published standards for that
engine. Perkins maintains standards for the following
engine parameters:
• Performance such as power range, speed range,
and fuel consumption
• Fuel quality
• Operational Altitude
• Maintenance intervals
• Oil selection and maintenance
• Coolant type and maintenance
Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine is
operated at altitudes that are higher than the
intended settings for that application. Necessary
adjustments should be made.
Incorrect Operating Procedures
• Extended operation at low idle
• Frequent hot shutdowns
• Operating at excessive loads
• Operating at excessive speeds
• Operating outside the intended application
• Environmental qualities
• Installation
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures
• The temperature of the fluid in the engine
• Extending the maintenance intervals
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor in order to
determine if the engine is operating within the defined
parameters.
• Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants, and
coolant/antifreeze
Severe service operation can accelerate component
wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full service life.
Due to individual applications, it is not possible to
identify all of the factors which can contribute to
severe service operation. Consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor for the unique
maintenance that is necessary for the engine.
The operating environment, incorrect operating
procedures, and incorrect maintenance procedures
can be factors which contribute to a severe service
application.
Environmental Factors
Ambient temperatures – The engine may be
exposed to extended operation in extremely cold
environments or hot environments. Valve
components can be damaged by carbon buildup if
the engine is frequently started and stopped in very
cold temperatures. Extremely hot intake air reduces
engine performance.
63
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Interval Schedule
i06283325
“ Engine Valve Lash - Check” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Maintenance Interval Schedule
“ Turbocharger - Inspect” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Every 1500 Service Hours
When Required
“ Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace”. . . . . . 71
“ Battery - Replace” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Every 2000 Service Hours
“ Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect” . . . . . . . . . 66
“ Engine - Clean” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
“ Fuel System - Prime” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Daily
“ Coolant Level - Check” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
“ Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect” . . 73
“ Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean” . . . . . . . . . 74
“ Engine Oil Level - Check” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
“ Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
“ Alternator - Inspect” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
“ Engine Mounts - Inspect” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
“ Starting Motor - Inspect” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Every 3000 Service Hours
“ Coolant Temperature Regulator - Replace” . . . . . 70
“ Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve - Clean ” . . . . . 76
“ Water Pump - Inspect”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2
Years
“ Fuel System Secondary Filter/Water Separator Drain” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
“ Coolant (DEAC) - Change” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
“Walk-Around Inspection” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Every 4000 Service Hours
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly
“ Aftercooler Core - Inspect” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
“ Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain” . . . . . . . . 81
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3
Years
Every 500 Service Hours
“ Belts - Inspect/Adjust” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
“ Engine Air Cleaner Element - Replace” . . . . . . . . 73
“ Fan Clearance - Check” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
“ Battery Electrolyte Level - Check” . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
“ Engine Oil and Filter - Change”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
“ Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
“ Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace”. . . . . . . 80
“ Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace”. . . . . . . . . 82
“ Radiator - Clean” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Every 1000 Service Hours
“ Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace” . . . . . . . . . . . 64
“ Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6
Years
“ Coolant (ELC) - Change”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Commissioning
“ Fan Clearance - Check” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
64
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Aftercooler Core - Inspect
i03632416
Aftercooler Core - Inspect
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the aftercooler for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil and other
debris. Clean the aftercooler, if necessary.
For air-to-air aftercoolers, use the same methods that
are used for cleaning radiators.
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
correct operation. If the batteries are correctly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. When the
engine is not run for long periods of time or if the
engine is run for short periods, the batteries may not
fully charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze
more easily than a battery with a full charge.
i02166560
Alternator and Fan Belts Replace
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate the
engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the removal
of debris and drying of the core. Stop the engine. Use
a light bulb behind the core in order to inspect the
core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, if
necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”.
Note: If parts of the aftercooler system are repaired
or replaced, a leak test is highly recommended.
Inspect these items for good condition: Welds,
mounting brackets, air lines, connections, clamps
and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
i02322311
Alternator - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and correct battery charging. Check the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure correct battery performance and/or
correct performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Illustration 29
g01091158
Typical example
(1) Adjusting bolt
(2) Mounting bolts
For applications that require multiple drive belts,
replace the belts in matched sets. Replacing only one
belt of a matched set will cause the new belt to carry
more load because the older belt is stretched. The
additional load on the new belt could cause the new
belt to break.
Note: When new belts are installed, check the belt
tension again after 20 hours of engine operation.
Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual for
the installation procedure and the removal procedure
for the belt.
65
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Battery - Replace
i02322315
Battery - Replace
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible
gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal
injury or death.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove all
electrical loads.
2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any
battery chargers.
3. The NEGATIVE “-” cable connects the NEGATIVE
“-” battery terminal to the NEGATIVE “-” terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
4. The POSITIVE “+” cable connects the POSITIVE
“+” battery terminal to the POSITIVE “+” terminal
on the starting motor. Disconnect the cable from
the POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Dispose of used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
5. Remove the used battery.
6. Install the new battery.
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that
the engine start switch is OFF.
7. Connect the cable from the starting motor to the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
8. Connect the NEGATIVE “-” cable to the
NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
i02747977
Battery Electrolyte Level Check
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries
are correctly charged, the ammeter reading should
be very near zero, when the engine is in operation.
All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a
face shield and protective clothing when working
on or near batteries.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with a
suitable battery tester.
3. Install the caps.
4. Keep the batteries clean.
Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
• Use a solution of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) baking soda
and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water.
• Use a solution of ammonium hydroxide.
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean
water.
66
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect
i02323088
Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect
If the belt is too loose, vibration causes unnecessary
wear on the belt and pulleys. A loose belt may slip
enough to cause overheating.
The correct tension for a new belt is 400 N (90 lb) to
489 N (110 lb). The correct tension for a used belt
that has been in operation for 30 minutes or more at
the rated speed is 267 N (60 lb) to 356 N (80 lb).
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
The belt tension should be checked at the center
point of the belt between the pulleys.
Adjust
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensure
that the cable cannot contact the terminal. When
four 12 volt batteries are involved, two negative
connection must be disconnected.
3. Remove the positive connection.
4. Clean all disconnected connection and battery
terminals.
5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal
of material can cause the clamps to not fit
correctly. Coat the clamps and the terminals with a
suitable silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly.
Illustration 30
g03886616
Typical example
1. Loosen bolt (1) and loosen bolt (3).
2. Loose nut and bolt (4).
6. Tape the cable connections in order to help
prevent accidental starting.
3. Move the alternator (2) in order to adjust the belt
(4) to the required tension.
7. Proceed with necessary system repairs.
8. In order to connect the battery, connect the
positive connection before the negative connector.
4. Tighten bolt (1) and bolt (3) to a torque of 22 N·m
(194 lb in). Tighten nut and bolt (4) to a torque of
22 N·m (194 lb in).
i06287591
Belts - Inspect/Adjust
i06296031
Coolant (DEAC) - Change
Inspection
• DEAC
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the
belt for wear and for cracking. Replace a belt that is
worn or damaged.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
Diesel Engine Antifreeze Coolant
• The engine overheats frequently.
67
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Coolant (DEAC) - Change
• Foaming is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed, the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. Level ground
will allow you to check accurately the coolant level.
This procedure will also help in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock into the coolant system.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This inspection is a good opportunity
to replace the water pump, the water temperature
regulator, and the hoses, if necessary.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“General Hazard Information” for information on
Containing Fluid Spillage.
Illustration 31
g03890108
Typical example
2. Remove drain plug (1) on the engine. Open the
drain cock or remove the drain plug on the
radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain into a suitable container.
3. Properly dispose of the drained material. Obey
local regulations for the disposal of the material.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water and a
suitable cleaning agent in order to remove any
debris. Refer to your Perkins dealer or distributor
for suitable cleaning agents.
2. Install connection hose. Clean the drain plugs.
Install the drain plugs. Tighten drain plug securely.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water and install
the cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle for a minimum
of 30 minutes. The coolant temperature should be
at least 82 °C (180 °F).
68
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Coolant (ELC) - Change
NOTICE
Improper or incomplete rinsing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal
components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure to
completely flush the cooling system with clear water.
Continue to flush the system until all signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Remove the connection hose or
remove the cooling system drain plugs. Allow the
water to drain. Flush the cooling system with clean
water. Install the connection hose. Install all drain
plugs and tighten securely.
Fill
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
1. Fill the cooling system with the coolant/antifreeze.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Refill Capacities and Recommendations” topic
(Maintenance Section) for more information on
cooling system specifications. Do not install the
cooling system filler cap.
5. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for the correct operating temperature.
i06296557
Coolant (ELC) - Change
NOTICE
Perkins ELC must be using with an extender in order
to achieve 12000 hours operation. For more information on a suitable extender contact your Perkins
distributor.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and
replaced.
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. Replace the water pump, the water
temperature regulator, and the hoses, if necessary.
2. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Operate the engine in
order to open the engine thermostat. This
operation will allow any air in the system to be
purged. Decrease the engine speed to low idle.
Stop the engine.
NOTICE
Service or repair of the engine cooling system must
be performed on level ground. The engine must be
level in order to check the coolant level. The engine
must be level in order to avoid the risk of introducing
an air lock into the coolant system.
3. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application.
Drain
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is
damaged, discard the old cooling system filler cap
and install a new cooling system filler cap. If the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is not
damaged, perform a pressure test. If the cooling
system filler cap does not retain the correct
pressure, install a new cooling system filler cap.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
69
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Remove the cooling system
drain plugs. Allow the water to drain. Flush the
cooling system with clean water. Install the cooling
system drain plugs and tighten securely.
Fill
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
Illustration 32
g03890108
2. Remove drain plug(1) on the engine. Open the
drain cock or remove the drain plug on the
radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins dealer
or Perkins distributor.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with distilled or deionized
water in order to remove any debris.
2. Install the connection hose. Clean the drain plugs
and install the drain plugs. Tighten the drain plugs
securely.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with distilled or deionized
water. Install the cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
1. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life Coolant
(ELC). Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Refill Capacities ” topic (Maintenance
Section) for more information on cooling system
specifications. Do not install the cooling system
filler cap.
2. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Operate the engine in
order to open the engine thermostat. An open
thermostat will allow any air in the system to be
purged. Decrease the engine speed to low idle.
Stop the engine.
3. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application.
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap. If
the gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is
damaged, discard the old cooling system filler cap
and install a new cooling system filler cap. If the
gasket that is on the cooling system filler cap is not
damaged, pressure test the cooling system filler
cap. The correct pressure for the cooling system
filler cap is stamped on the face of the cooling
system filler cap. If the cooling system filler cap
does not retain the correct pressure, install a new
cooling system filler cap.
5. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for proper operating temperature.
i05197396
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add
In order for Perkins ELC to achieve 12000 hours an
extender must be added at 6000 hours. For a
suitable extender, contact your Perkins dealer or
Perkins distributor.
70
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Coolant Level - Check
i06296582
Coolant Level - Check
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and check the
condition of the filler cap gaskets. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the filler cap gaskets are
damaged. Reinstall the cooling system filler cap.
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed, the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. This procedure will allow you to check accurately the coolant
level. This procedure will also help in avoiding the risk
of introducing an air lock into the coolant system.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
2. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the correct level in the sight glass.
i06296588
Coolant Temperature
Regulator - Replace
Replace the water temperature regulator before the
water temperature regulator fails. This is a
recommended preventive maintenance practice.
Replacing the water temperature regulator reduces
the chances for unscheduled downtime.
A water temperature regulator that fails in a partially
opened position can cause overheating or
overcooling of the engine.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the closed
position can cause excessive overheating. Excessive
overheating could result in cracking of the cylinder
head or piston seizure problems.
A water temperature regulator that fails in the open
position will cause the engine operating temperature
to be too low during partial load operation. Low
engine operating temperatures during partial loads
could cause an excessive carbon buildup inside the
cylinders. This excessive carbon buildup could result
in an accelerated wear of the piston rings and wear of
the cylinder liner.
NOTICE
Failure to replace your water temperature regulator
on a regularly scheduled basis could cause severe
engine damage.
Perkins engines incorporate a shunt design cooling
system and require operating the engine with a water
temperature regulator installed.
If the water temperature regulator is installed incorrectly, the engine may overheat, causing cylinder
head damage. Ensure that the new water temperature regulator is installed in the original position. Ensure that the water temperature regulator vent hole is
open.
Do not use liquid gasket material on the gasket or cylinder head surface.
Illustration 33
Typical filler cap gaskets
g02590196
Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual,
“Water Temperature Regulator - Remove and Install”
for the replacement procedure of the water
temperature regulator, or consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor.
71
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace
Note: If only the water temperature regulators are
replaced, drain the coolant from the cooling system
to a level that is below the water temperature
regulator housing.
i05199993
Crankcase Breather (Canister)
- Replace
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
The crankcase breather is a very important
component in order to keep your engine emissions
compliant.
• The filter element within the crankcase breather
must be serviced at the prescribed service
interval.
• The correct filter element must be installed before
the engine is operated.
• The installation of the filter element is very
important.
• The quality of the filter element that is installed is
very important.
• The filter element protects the engine from
excessive quantities of oil from entering the
induction system. The filter element also protects
the engine aftertreatment system.
Note: Excessive quantities of oil that enter the
induction system of the engine can rapidly increase
the engine speed without control.
Illustration 34
g03331718
Typical example
1. Ensure that dirt cannot enter the breather
assembly. Ensure that the outside body of the
breather assembly is clean and free from damage.
Place a container under the breather assembly.
2. Remove clip (3) and remove hose (4) from cap (2).
Remove cap (2) from the main body (1).
72
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Engine - Clean
i03991933
Engine - Clean
Personal injury or death can result from high
voltage.
Moisture can
conductivity.
create
paths
of
electrical
Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock
out the starting controls and tag the controls “ DO
NOT OPERATE”” .
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and
fluid spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on the engine.
Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended.
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits:
Illustration 35
g03331704
Typical example
3. Remove filter element (5) and remove O ring seal
(6) and discard.
Note: Ensure that all parts are clean and free from
dirt.
4. Install a new O ring seal (6) onto the cap (2) and
install a new filter element (5) into the cap (2).
5. Install cap assembly into the main body (1).
Tighten the cap assembly to 10 N·m (7 lb ft).
6. Install hose (4) and clip (3). Remove the container
and clean away any split fluid.
• Easy detection of fluid leaks
• Maximum heat transfer characteristics
• Ease of maintenance
Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent
electrical components from being damaged by
excessive water when the engine is cleaned.
Pressure washers and steam cleaners should not be
directed at any electrical connectors or the junction of
cables into the rear of the connectors. Avoid
electrical components such as the alternator, the
starter, and the ECM. Protect the fuel injection pump
from fluids in order to wash the engine.
73
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Cleaner Element - Replace
Aftertreatment
During the engine cleaning process, ensure that
water or cleaning fluids cannot enter the
aftertreatment system. If cleaning fluids enters the
aftertreatment system, damage could occur.
i06304431
Engine Air Cleaner Element Replace
The engine air cleaner may be supplied by the
Original Equipment manufacturer (OEM), follow the
OEM instructions for removing and installing the air
filter element.
Typical Example of an Air Cleaner
Note: If equipped, the air cleaner service indicator
must be checked and reset.
i02335405
Engine Air Cleaner Service
Indicator - Inspect
Some engines may be equipped with a different
service indicator.
Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge
for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element and
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.
The service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner element or in a remote location.
Illustration 36
g03896344
Typical example
1. Ensure that the body of the air cleaner is clean
before removing the filter element.
2. Remove the end cover (1) from body (3). Remove
the air cleaner element from body (3) and discard
the filter element.
3. Ensure that inner body of air cleaner is clean and
free from dirt. Install new filter element.
4. Ensure that end cover (1) and valve (2) are clean
and free from dirt. Install the end cover. When
installed, ensure that the valve (2) is in the
vertically down position.
Illustration 37
g00103777
Typical service indicator
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
should be replaced when one of the following
conditions occur:
• The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone.
• The red piston locks in the visible position.
Test the Service Indicator
Service indicators are important instruments.
• Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator
should reset in less than three pushes.
• Check the movement of the yellow core when the
engine is accelerated to the engine rated speed.
The yellow core should latch at the greatest
vacuum that is attained.
74
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean
If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the
yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
the service indicator should be replaced. If the new
service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service
indicator may be restricted.
The service indicator may need to be replaced
frequently in environments that are severely dusty.
• Deterioration of the engine mounts
• Loose engine mounts
Any engine mount that shows deterioration should be
replaced. Refer to the OEM information for the
recommended torques.
i02153660
i02927289
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/
Clean
Engine Oil Level - Check
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Illustration 39
g00110310
(Y) “ADD” mark. (X) “FULL” mark.
Illustration 38
g01453058
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
Typical engine air precleaner
(1) Wing nut
(2) Cover
(3) Body
Remove wing nut (1) and cover (2). Check for an
accumulation of dirt and debris in body (3). Clean the
body, if necessary.
After cleaning the precleaner, install cover (2) and
wing nut (1).
Note: When the engine is operated in dusty
applications, more frequent cleaning is required.
i02323089
Engine Mounts - Inspect
1. Maintain the oil level between “ADD” mark (Y) and
“FULL” mark (X) on oil level gauge (1). Do not fill
the crankcase above “FULL” mark (X).
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
“FULL” mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into
the oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft
dipping into the oil reduces the oil's lubricating characteristics and could result in the loss of power.
2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.
Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.
i06298377
Note: The engine mounts may not have been
supplied by Perkins. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on the engine mounts and the
correct bolt torque.
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
correct bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
by the following conditions:
• Incorrect mounting of the engine
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
75
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product.
Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations
and mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Do not drain the oil when the engine is cold. As the oil
cools, suspended waste particles settle on the
bottom of the oil pan. The waste particles are not
removed with the draining cold oil. Drain the
crankcase with the engine stopped. Drain the
crankcase with the oil warm. This draining method
allows the waste particles that are suspended in the
oil to be drained correctly.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
Drain the Engine Oil
After the engine has been run at the normal
operating temperature, stop the engine. Use one of
the following methods to drain the engine crankcase
oil:
• If the engine is equipped with a drain valve, turn
the drain valve knob counterclockwise to drain the
oil. After the oil has drained, turn the drain valve
knob clockwise to close the drain valve.
• If the engine is not equipped with a drain valve,
remove the oil drain plug to allow the oil to drain.
After the oil has drained, the oil drain plug should
be cleaned and installed.
Replace the Oil Filter
NOTICE
Perkins oil filters are built to Perkins specifications.
Use of an oil filter not recommended by Perkins could
result in severe engine damage to the engine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of the larger waste
particles from unfiltered oil entering the engine lubricating system. Only use oil filters recommended by
Perkins.
1. Remove the oil filter with a suitable tool.
2. Clean the sealing surface of the oil cooler (1).
Illustration 40
g03890458
3. Apply clean engine oil to the new oil filter seal (2).
NOTICE
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear
to engine components or engine damage.
4. Install the oil filter (3). Tighten the oil filter by hand.
Do not overtighten the oil filter.
Fill the Engine Crankcase
1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual for more information on
lubricant specifications. Fill the crankcase with the
correct amount of oil. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual for more information on refill
capacities.
NOTICE
If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system or a remote oil filter system, follow the OEM or filter manufacturer's recommendations. Under filling or
overfilling the crankcase with oil can cause engine
damage.
NOTICE
To prevent crankshaft bearing damage, crank the engine with the fuel OFF. This will fill the oil filters before
starting the engine. Do not crank the engine for more
than 30 seconds.
76
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Engine Valve Lash - Check
2. Start the engine and run the engine at “LOW IDLE”
for 2 minutes. Perform this procedure to ensure
that the lubrication system has oil and that the oil
filters are filled. Inspect the oil filter for oil leaks.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
“Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust” for the correct
sequence of adjustment.
i06298493
3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to
the sump for a minimum of 10 minutes.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation
Valve - Clean
At 3000 hours the warning lamp will operate and a
diagnostic code 5838-31 will be active, perform the
exhaust gas recirculation valve Clean. If the service
is not performed within approximately 100 hours, the
engine will be derated.
Illustration 41
g00986928
Typical example
The exhaust gas recirculation valve connecting pipe
and cooler will need to be removed and cleaned in
order for the engine to function correctly.
4. Remove the oil level gauge to check the oil level.
Maintain the oil level between the “MIN” and
“MAX” marks on the oil level gauge.
i06299296
Engine Valve Lash - Check
Ensure that the engine can not be started while
this maintenance is being performed. To help prevent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.
Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow
additional time for the engine to cool before
measuring/adjusting valve lash clearance.
NOTICE
Only qualified service personnel should perform this
maintenance.
Operation of the engines with incorrect valve lash
can reduce engine efficiency, and also reduce engine
component life.
This maintenance is recommended as part of a
lubrication and preventive maintenance schedule in
order to help provide maximum engine life. The
maintenance for the valve lash is important in order
to keep the engine compliant.
Ensure that the engine is stopped before measuring
the valve lash. The engine valve lash can be
inspected and adjusted when the engine is cold.
• Inlet valve
0.20 mm (0.8 inch)
• Exhaust valve
0.20 mm (0.8 inch)
Illustration 42
g03890559
(1) Exhaust gas recirculation valve
(2) Connecting pipe
(3) Cooler
With the exhaust gas recirculation valve, connecting
pipe and the cooler removed use a neutral cleaner in
order to clean the components. All components must
be dried before installation.
Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly manual for
information on removing and installing the
components.
The electronic service tool will need to be connected
in order to reset the timer after the exhaust gas
recirculation valve has been cleaned. and installed.
77
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Fan Clearance - Check
i05153591
Fan Clearance - Check
i06299308
Fuel System - Prime
Note: Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and
Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
Ensure that all adjustments and repairs are
performed by authorized personnel that have had the
correct training.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
If air enters the fuel system, the air must be purged
from the fuel system before the engine can be
started. Air can enter the fuel system when the
following events occur:
• The fuel tank is empty or the fuel tank has been
partially drained.
• The low-pressure fuel lines are disconnected.
• A leak exists in the low-pressure fuel system.
• The fuel filter has been replaced.
Illustration 43
g03309719
Typical example
Use the following procedures to remove air from the
fuel system:
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Ensure that the
battery disconnect switch is in the OFF position.
Ensure that the cooling system is full.
The clearance between the cover (2) and the fan (1)
will require checking. The gap between the edge of
the cover and the tip of the fan blade (A) must be
checked in four equally spaced positions.
• (A) equals 5 mm (0.19685 inch) for the three
cylinder engine and the four cylinder naturally
aspirated engine.
• (A) equals 10 mm (0.39370 inch) for the
turbocharged engine.
Note: The cover is not adjustable.
Illustration 44
g03891128
Typical example
1. Ensure that the fuel tank is full and any fuel valve
(if equipped) is in the “ON” position.
78
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace
2. If the application has a gravity feed fuel system,
then loosen vent screw (1) and allow fuel to flow.
When fuel free from air comes from the vent
screw, tighten the vent screw (1) by hand . If the
fuel system is not a gravity feed fuel system, then
go to Step 3.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 10
minutes to allow the fuel pressure to be purged from
the high-pressure fuel lines before any service or
repair is performed on the engine fuel lines. The 10
minute wait will also allow static charge to dissipate
from the low-pressure fuel system. If necessary,
perform minor adjustments. Repair any leaks from
the low-pressure fuel system and from the cooling,
lubrication, or air systems. Replace any highpressure fuel line that has leaked. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Fuel Injection
Lines - Install”.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
If the engine will not start, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Engine Cranks but will not Start”.
i06299386
Fuel System Primary Filter
(Water Separator) Element Replace
Illustration 45
g03891159
Typical example
3. Loosen the vent screw (2) on the secondary fuel
filter. Turn the keyswitch to the “RUN” position.
4. The keyswitch will allow the electric priming pump
to operate. When fuel free from air comes from the
vent screw (2), tighten the vent screw to a torque
of 24 N·m (212. lb in). Then, operate the electric
priming pump for 2 minutes.
5. Turn the keyswitch to the “OFF” position. The fuel
system should now be primed and the engine
should be able to start.
6. Operate the engine starter and crank the engine.
After the engine has started, operate the engine at
low idle for a minimum of 5 minutes. For constant
speed engines do not apply load for 5 minutes.
Note: Operating the engine for this period will help
ensure that the fuel system is free of air.DO NOT
loosen the high-pressure fuel lines to purge air
from the fuel system. This procedure is not
required.
7. Ensure that the fuel system is free from leaks.
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
Note: Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and
Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
Remove the Element
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position before performing this maintenance.
2. Place a suitable container under the water
separator in order to catch any fuel that might spill.
Clean up any spilled fuel. Clean the outside body
of the filter assembly.
79
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain
10. The secondary filter element must be replaced at
the same time as the primary filter element. Refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual , “Fuel
System Filter - Replace”.
i06541327
Fuel System Primary Filter/
Water Separator - Drain
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
The water separator is not a filter. The water separator separates water from the fuel. The engine should
never be allowed to run with the water separator
more than half full. Engine damage may result.
Illustration 46
g03891253
3. Open drain valve (6) and open vent screw (1) and
drain the filter. Close drain screw and close vent
screw. Use only hand pressure in order to tighten
the drain screw and the vent screw.
4. Remove filter bowl (5) from filter (2) and remove
filter element (3) from filter (2). Discard filter
element (3).
5. Remove O ring seal (4) and discard O rind seal (4).
6. Ensure that all components are clean and dry.
7. Install new O ring seal (4) and install new filter
element (3).
8. Install filter bowl (5) to filter (2) and tighten the filter
bowl to a torque of 10 N·m (88 lb in).
9. If necessary, open the fuel supply valve. Remove
the container and dispose of the fuel in a safe
place.
Illustration 47
g01316965
Typical example
1. Open drain (1). Catch the draining fluid in a
suitable container. Dispose of the drained fluid
correctly.
2. Close drain (1) use hand pressure only.
80
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace
Also, drain water from the secondary fuel filter. Refer
to this “Operation and Maintenance Manual”Fuel
System Secondary Filter/Water Separator-Drain for
more information.
NOTICE
The water separator is under suction during normal
engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is tightened securely to help prevent air from entering the
fuel system.
i06300070
Fuel System Secondary Filter Replace
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and
Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
Remove the Filter Element
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position before performing this maintenance.
2. Place a suitable container under the fuel filter to
catch any fuel that might spill. Clean up any spilled
fuel. Clean the outside body of the filter assembly.
Illustration 48
g03891817
3. Open the drain valve (6) and if necessary, open
vent screw (1). Allow the fuel to drain from the
filter. Tighten vent screw (1) securely and close
drain valve (6).
4. Use a suitable strap wrench remove the filter bowl
(5) from filter base (2).
5. Remove the filter element (3) and discard the
element. Remove the O ring seal (4) from filter
bowl (5). Discard the old O ring seal.
6. Ensure the filter bowl (5) is clean and free from dirt.
Install the Filter Element
1. Install filter element (3) into filter base (2).
2. Install a new O ring seal (4) to filter bowl (5) and
install filter bowl (5) to filter base (2). Do not use a
tool to install the filter assembly. Use hand
pressure only to tighten filter bowl.
3. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the ON
position
81
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Fuel System Secondary Filter/Water Separator - Drain
4. The primary fuel filter the secondary fuel filter must
be replaced at the same time. Prime the fuel
system, refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime"”.
i02348492
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment
- Drain
i06541262
Fuel System Secondary Filter/
Water Separator - Drain
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product.
Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations
and mandates.
Fuel Tank
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system.
Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the
fuel tank is being filled.
Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling
of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes
through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the
fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining
fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water
in the fuel.
Drain the Water and the Sediment
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
Illustration 49
g06014499
Typical example
1. Place a suitable container below filter. Open drain
valve (1) and allow fluid to drain.
2. When necessary, close drain valve (1) with hand
pressure only.
The procedure must be performed with primary fuel
filter drain. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator
- Drain for more information.
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank in
order to drain the water and the sediment. Close the
drain valve.
Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the fuel
tank has been filled before draining water and
sediment from the fuel tank.
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in order to
drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The fuel
expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
82
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If the
engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
Fuel Storage Tanks
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank at the following intervals:
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place
of any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
clamp.
• Weekly
• Service intervals
• Refill of the tank
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
tank.
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
harden. Hardening of the hoses will cause hose
clamps to loosen. This can result in leaks. A constant
torque hose clamp will help to prevent loose hose
clamps.
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:
• Type of hose
• Type of fitting material
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
i02518232
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/
Replace
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
fittings
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
Refer to the OEM information for further information
on removing and replacing fuel hoses (if equipped).
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions:
• Cracking
• Softness
• Loose clamps
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
loose clamps.
Check for the following conditions:
The following text describes a typical method of
replacing coolant hoses. Refer to the OEM
information for further information on the coolant
system and the hoses for the coolant system.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
container. The coolant can be reused.
83
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Radiator - Clean
3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a
level that is below the hose that is being replaced.
4. Remove the hose clamps.
5. Disconnect the old hose.
6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench.
Note: For the correct coolant, see this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
8. Refill the cooling system. Refer to the OEM
information for further information on refilling the
cooling system.
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
cooling system filler cap's seals. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the seals are damaged.
Install the cooling system filler cap.
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
i02335774
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning.
The maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes
must be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized
water in order to soften mud. Clean the core from
both sides.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
If the radiator is blocked internally, refer to the OEM
Manual for information regarding flushing the cooling
system.
After cleaning the radiator, start the engine. Allow the
engine to operate at low idle speed for three to five
minutes. Accelerate the engine to high idle. This will
help in the removal of debris and the drying of the
core. Slowly reduce the engine speed to low idle and
then stop the engine. Use a light bulb behind the core
in order to inspect the core for cleanliness. Repeat
the cleaning, if necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”. Inspect these items for good condition:
Welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections,
clamps and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
Radiator - Clean
The radiator is not usually supplied by Perkins. The
following text describes a typical cleaning procedure
for the radiator. Refer to the OEM information for
further information on cleaning the radiator.
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the radiator for these items: Damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.
i02177969
Starting Motor - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the engine
may not start in an emergency situation.
Check the starting motor for correct operation. Check
the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting Manual, “Electric Starting System Test” for more information on the checking procedure
and for specifications or consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
i06510382
Turbocharger - Inspect
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction to
the fan's air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately
6 mm (0.25 inch) away from the radiator fins. Slowly
move the air nozzle in a direction that is parallel with
the radiator tube assembly. This will remove debris
that is between the tubes.
A regular visual inspection of the turbocharger is
recommended. Any fumes from the crankcase are
filtered through the air inlet system. Therefore,
byproducts from oil and from combustion can collect
in the turbocharger compressor housing. Over time,
this buildup can contribute to loss of engine power,
increased black smoke and overall loss of engine
efficiency.
84
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Walk-Around Inspection
If the turbocharger fails during engine operation,
damage to the turbocharger compressor wheel and/
or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
turbocharger compressor wheel can cause damageto
the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder head.
Refer to Systems Operation Testing and Adjusting,
Air Inlet and Exhaust System - Inspect and
Wastegate - Test for more information.
i06510405
Walk-Around Inspection
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need to
replace the water pump. Remove the water pump.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, “Water Pump Remove and Install”.
• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
pan, the oil filters, and the rocker cover.
• Inspect the piping for the air intake system and the
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure
that hoses and tubes are not contacting other
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses.
• Ensure that the areas around the rotating parts are
clear.
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
for Loose Connections
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or
coolant leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose
connections, and trash buildup. Make repairs, as
needed:
• The guards must be in the correct place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
serviced to reduce the chance of system
contamination.
NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up
the fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and
correct the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels more often than recommended until the leak
is found or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is
proved to be unwarranted.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Remove the accumulated grease and oil. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine - Clean” for more information.
• Ensure that the cooling system hoses are correctly
clamped and that the cooling system hoses are
tight. Check for leaks. Check the condition of all
pipes.
• Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks.
• Inspect the alternator belts and any accessory
drive belts for cracks, breaks, or other damage.
• Inspect the wiring harness for damage.
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
High-Pressure Fuel Lines
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
After the engine has stopped, wait 10 minutes in
order to allow the fuel pressure to be purged from the
high-pressure fuel lines before any service or repair
is performed. The 10 minute wait will also allow static
charge to dissipate from the low-pressure fuel
system. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low-pressure fuel system
and from the cooling, lubrication, or air systems.
Replace any high-pressure fuel line that has leaked.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Fuel
Injection Lines - Install”.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
Visually inspect the high-pressure fuel lines for
damage or signs of fuel leakage. Replace any
damaged high-pressure fuel lines or high-pressure
fuel lines that have leaked.
Ensure that all clips on the high-pressure fuel lines
are in place and that the clips are not loose.
85
SEBU9075
Maintenance Section
Water Pump - Inspect
• Inspect the rest of the fuel system for leaks. Look
for loose fuel line clamps.
• Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
tank on a daily basis.
• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires. Check for any loose tie-wraps or missing
tie-wraps.
• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection
and for good condition.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte
level of the batteries, unless the engine is
equipped with a maintenance free battery.
• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that
cannot be calibrated.
Engine Aftertreatment
Check that all clamps, clips, and tie-wraps are secure
and in good condition.
i01907756
Water Pump - Inspect
A failed water pump may cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the
following conditions:
• Cracks in the cylinder head
• A piston seizure
• Other potential damage to the engine
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and parts contract.
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks. Renew the
water pump seal or the water pump if there is an
excessive leakage of coolant. Refer to the
Disassembly and Assembly Manual, “Water Pump Remove and Install” for the disassembly and
assembly procedure.
86
SEBU9075
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
Warranty Section
The aftertreatment system can be expected to
function properly for the lifetime of the engine
(emissions durability period) subject to prescribed
maintenance requirements being followed.
Warranty Information
i05680169
Emissions Warranty
Information
The certifying engine manufacturer warrants to the
ultimate purchaser and each subsequent purchaser
that:
1. New non-road diesel engines and stationary diesel
engines less than 10 L per cylinder (including Tier
1 and Tier 2 marine engines < 37 kW, but
excluding locomotive and other marine engines)
operated and serviced in the United States and
Canada, including all parts of their emission
control systems (“emission related components”),
are:
a.
Designed, built, and equipped so as to
conform, at the time of sale, with applicable
emission standards prescribed by the United
States Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) by way of regulation.
b.
Free from defects in materials and
workmanship in emission-related components
that can cause the engine to fail to conform to
applicable emission standards for the warranty
period.
2. New non-road diesel engines (including Tier 1 and
Tier 2 marine propulsion engines < 37 kW and Tier
1 through Tier 4 marine auxiliary engines < 37 kW,
but excluding locomotive and other marine
engines) operated and serviced in the state of
California, including all parts of their emission
control systems (“emission related components”),
are:
a.
Designed, built, and equipped so as to
conform, at the time of sale, to all applicable
regulations adopted by the California Air
Resources Board (ARB).
b.
Free from defects in materials and
workmanship which cause the failure of an
emission-related component to be identical in
all material respects to the component as
described in the engine manufacturer's
application for certification for the warranty
period.
A detailed explanation of the Emission Control
Warranty is available to view on Perkins. com service
and support.
87
SEBU9075
Reference Information Section
Reference Materials
Reference Information
Section
www.perkins.com
NOTICE
Dependant upon engine type and application.
Reference Materials
i04224089
Engine Protection Plans
(Extended Service Contract)
Extended Service Contracts-purchased in minutes,
protected for years.
Extended Service Contracts (ESC) protect you from
the stress that unexpected repair work brings to your
life by covering the cost of getting your engine up and
running again. Unlike other extended warranties,
Perkins Platinum ESC protects you against all
component part failures.
Purchase peace of mind from only £0.03 / $0.05 /
euro 0.04 a day and let an ESC make your dreams a
reality.
Why buy an Extended Service Contract?
1. No surprises - total protection from unexpected
repair cost (parts, labor, and travel).
2. Enjoy longer lasting product support from Perkins
global network.
3. Genuine Perkins parts ensure continued engine
performance.
4. Highly trained technicians carry out all repairs.
5. Transferable coverage should you sell your
machine.
Flexible coverage provides the right level of
protection for your Perkins Engine. Coverage can be
extended to 2 years/ 1,000 hours right up to 10 year/
40,000
You can buy an ESC at any time during standard
warranty - even the last day!
Each Perkins Distributor has highly trained and
experienced Perkins Product Support Service
Technicians. The Support Service are equipped, and
available around the clock to get your engine running
again with the minimum of downtime. Buying an ESC
means that you get all this for free.
To purchase an Extended Service Contract, is quick
and simple! Contact your local Perkins Distributor
now and the distributor can provide you with a quote
in minutes. You can locate your nearest Perkins
Distributor by visiting:
88
SEBU9075
Index Section
Index
A
After Starting Engine ....................................... 39
After Stopping Engine ..................................... 47
Aftercooler Core - Inspect ............................... 64
Aftertreatment Operation................................. 42
Alarms and Shutoffs ........................................ 29
Alarms.......................................................... 29
Shutoffs........................................................ 29
Alternator - Inspect .......................................... 64
Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace ................. 64
B
Battery - Replace............................................. 65
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .................... 65
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect............. 66
Before Starting Engine .............................. 17, 37
Belts - Inspect/Adjust....................................... 66
Adjust ........................................................... 66
Inspection .................................................... 66
Burn Prevention................................................11
Aftertreatment System................................. 12
Batteries....................................................... 12
Coolant ........................................................ 12
Diesel Fuel ................................................... 12
Induction System ......................................... 12
Oils............................................................... 12
C
Cold Weather Operation ................................. 43
Hints for Cold-Weather Operation ............... 43
Idling the Engine .......................................... 44
Recommendations for Coolant Warm Up.... 44
Recommendations for the Coolant.............. 44
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication Oil ........ 44
Cold Weather Starting ..................................... 37
Configuration Parameters ............................... 36
Coolant (DEAC) - Change............................... 66
Drain ............................................................ 67
Fill ................................................................ 68
Flush ............................................................ 67
Coolant (ELC) - Change.................................. 68
Drain ............................................................ 68
Fill ................................................................ 69
Flush ............................................................ 69
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add ........................ 69
Coolant Level - Check ..................................... 70
Coolant Temperature Regulator - Replace ..... 70
Crankcase Breather (Canister) - Replace....... 71
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention.. 15
D
Diagnostic Lamp.............................................. 35
Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration ............ 42
E
Electrical System............................................. 18
Grounding Practices .................................... 18
Emergency Stopping....................................... 47
Emissions Certification Film ............................ 25
Emissions Warranty Information ..................... 86
Engine - Clean................................................. 72
Aftertreatment .............................................. 73
Engine Air Cleaner Element - Replace ........... 73
Typical Example of an Air Cleaner .............. 73
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator Inspect ........................................................... 73
Test the Service Indicator ............................ 73
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean ............. 74
Engine Diagnostics ......................................... 35
Engine Electronics........................................... 19
Engine Mounts - Inspect.................................. 74
Engine Oil and Filter - Change ........................ 74
Drain the Engine Oil..................................... 75
Fill the Engine Crankcase............................ 75
Replace the Oil Filter ................................... 75
Engine Oil Level - Check................................. 74
Engine Operation ............................................ 40
Reduction of Particulate Emissions............. 40
Variable Speed Engine ................................ 40
Engine Operation with Active Diagnostic
Codes ............................................................ 35
Engine Operation with Intermittent
Diagnostic Codes .......................................... 35
Engine Protection Plans (Extended Service
Contract)........................................................ 87
Engine Starting.......................................... 17, 37
Engine Stopping ........................................ 18, 47
Engine Valve Lash - Check ............................. 76
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve - Clean ....... 76
F
Fan Clearance - Check ................................... 77
Fault Logging................................................... 35
Features and Controls..................................... 29
89
SEBU9075
Index Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention...... 13
Ether ............................................................ 14
Fire Extinguisher.......................................... 14
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses ............................. 15
Fluid Recommendations ................................. 48
ELC Cooling System Maintenance.............. 50
General Coolant Information ....................... 48
Fluid Recommendations (General Fuel
Information) ................................................... 52
Diesel Fuel Characteristics.......................... 55
Diesel Fuel Requirements ........................... 53
Fuel Cleaner and the 404F-E22 Industrial
Engines ...................................................... 59
General Information..................................... 53
Foreword ........................................................... 4
California Proposition 65 Warning ................. 4
Literature Information .................................... 4
Maintenance .................................................. 4
Maintenance Intervals ................................... 4
Operation ....................................................... 4
Overhaul ........................................................ 4
Safety............................................................. 4
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather ........... 45
Fuel Conservation Practices ........................... 40
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather ... 46
Fuel Filters ................................................... 46
Fuel Heaters ................................................ 46
Fuel Tanks ................................................... 46
Fuel System - Prime ........................................ 77
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water
Separator) Element - Replace....................... 78
Remove the Element ................................... 78
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water
Separator - Drain ........................................... 79
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ........ 80
Remove the Filter Element .......................... 80
Fuel System Secondary Filter/Water
Separator - Drain ........................................... 81
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain ........... 81
Drain the Water and the Sediment .............. 81
Fuel Storage Tanks...................................... 82
Fuel Tank ..................................................... 81
Static Electricity Hazard when Fueling with
Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel Fuel ....................... 10
General Information ........................................ 20
H
High Pressure Fuel Lines ................................ 15
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace............. 82
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps ............ 82
I
Important Safety Information............................. 2
L
Lifting and Storage .......................................... 27
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule....................... 63
Commissioning ............................................ 63
Daily ............................................................. 63
Every 1000 Service Hours........................... 63
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years....... 63
Every 1500 Service Hours........................... 63
Every 2000 Service Hours........................... 63
Every 3000 Service Hours........................... 63
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2 Years ......... 63
Every 4000 Service Hours........................... 63
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly.............. 63
Every 500 Service Hours ............................. 63
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year ............. 63
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3 Years ......... 63
When Required............................................ 63
Maintenance Recommendations .................... 60
Maintenance Section....................................... 48
Model View Illustrations .................................. 20
Monitoring System........................................... 31
Programmable Options and Systems
Operation ................................................... 32
Monitoring System (Engine Warning
Indicators)...................................................... 31
Mounting and Dismounting ............................. 15
G
Gauges and Indicators .................................... 29
General Hazard Information.............................. 8
Containing Fluid Spillage............................. 10
Dispose of Waste Properly ...........................11
Fluid Penetration ........................................... 9
Inhalation ..................................................... 10
Pressurized Air and Water............................. 9
O
Operation Section............................................ 27
Overspeed....................................................... 32
P
Plate Locations and Film Locations ................ 25
90
SEBU9075
Index Section
Serial Number Plate..................................... 25
Product Description ......................................... 22
Aftermarket Products and Perkins
Engines ...................................................... 24
Electronic Engine Features ......................... 23
Engine Diagnostics...................................... 23
Service Life .................................................. 23
Product Identification Information ................... 25
Product Information Section............................ 20
Product Lifting ................................................. 27
Product Storage (Engine and
Aftertreatment) .............................................. 27
Condition for Storage................................... 27
R
Radiator - Clean .............................................. 83
Reference Information..................................... 26
Record for Reference .................................. 26
Reference Information Section ....................... 87
Reference Materials ........................................ 87
Refill Capacities............................................... 48
Cooling System............................................ 48
Lubrication System ...................................... 48
S
Safety Messages............................................... 5
(1) Universal Warning .................................... 5
(2) Hand (High Pressure) .............................. 6
Ether Warning ................................................ 7
Safety Section ................................................... 5
Self-Diagnostics .............................................. 35
Sensors and Electrical Components............... 32
Severe Service Application ............................. 62
Environmental Factors................................. 62
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures ............. 62
Incorrect Operating Procedures .................. 62
Starting Motor - Inspect ................................... 83
Starting the Engine.......................................... 38
Starting the Engine ...................................... 38
Starting with Jump Start Cables (Do Not
Use This Procedure in Hazardous
Locations that have Explosive
Atmospheres) ................................................ 38
Stopping the Engine ........................................ 47
System Pressure Release............................... 60
Coolant System ........................................... 60
Engine Oil .................................................... 60
Fuel System................................................. 60
T
Table of Contents .............................................. 3
Turbocharger - Inspect .................................... 83
W
Walk-Around Inspection .................................. 84
High-Pressure Fuel Lines ............................ 84
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections ............................................... 84
Warranty Information....................................... 86
Warranty Section ............................................. 86
Water Pump - Inspect...................................... 85
Welding on Engines with Electronic
Controls ......................................................... 60
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification Information” in the Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Delivery Date:
Product Information
Model:
Product Identification Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Transmission Serial Number:
Generator Serial Number:
Attachment Serial Numbers:
Attachment Information:
Customer Equipment Number:
Dealer Equipment Number:
Dealer Information
Name:
Branch:
Address:
Dealer Contact
Sales:
Parts:
Service:
Phone Number
Hours
SEBU9075
©2015 Perkins Engines Company Limited
All Rights Reserved
92
December 2015
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