20 NT S RI M -P RM RE & A P F T EF R FO 12 Concise Catalogue Precise Frequency & Time Control Products Quartzlock !$ISTRIBUTION!MPLIFIER New Active & Passive Hydrogen Masers Ultra Low Noise Signal Stability Analyser New Ultra Low Noise Distribution Ampliﬁers New Very Low Noise Sub-Miniature Rubidium Oscillators & Instruments New range of Miniature Rubidium Components and Instruments Very Low Noise GPS Time & Frequency References Active Noise Filters Timing Module www.quartzlock.com Business values Team Very skilled and experienced people in R&D, production, production test, calibration, QA, QC and business management. Our component suppliers, specialist sub-contractors, assembly services, software experts plus many others who make running Quartzlock a pleasure and make an important contribution to the highest quality and performance electronic products we design and build. IPR Quartzlock’s Intellectual Property is in our designs, technology and techniques. We invest a large percentage of our revenue on R&D to keep ahead of our few competitors. Quartzlock’s list of standard solutions to frequency control and active noise ﬁltering, DDS, DPLL, synthesizers and other low noise “tools” such as our new CPT physics package, optics, laser and light modulation techniques enable us to meet demanding requests for even higher performance, in smaller, lighter, lower power products. Brand Some 50 years of close to market R&D, high quality manufacturing and test, has painted the Quartzlock brand with an excellent reputation for reliability and high performance. Active and Passive Hydrogen Maser Laboratory Quartzlock’s maser based laboratory, commercially unique in the EU, and with very few exceptions elsewhere in the world, give our team the tools needed to do the measurement science essential for the high level of performance our products, R&D and production test require. Product Line Quartzlock specializes in Precise Time and Frequency Control. Quartzlock has the widest range of highest speciﬁcation Hydrogen Masers, to the lowest cost Rubidium and GPS Disciplined Oscillators. Continuous improvement Our product specialization means that stability (AVAR), drift, spurii and phase noise will all be improved in current and future products. Quartzlock products outperform our competitors. More than a third of the products in this catalogue are new. Warranties Quartzlock have a standard three year warranty on Rubidium products (E10-MRX/A10-MRO have two years until end 2012 then change to three years). This level of conﬁdence in reliability / MTBF is unique to Quartzlock. Future Tomorrows products will be even more stable and with lower power and phase noise characteristics at lower cost. Larger market sectors will be entered. Export sales increased. Customer deﬁned products will sit alongside our “industry standard’s”. 2 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com Index Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillators A3-60C Low Noise SC Overtone CO-08 Cased OCXO ..................................................................................................... 7 Time and Frequency Distribution A5-8 E5000 E5-X Ultra Low Noise, High Isolation Primary Reference 8 Output Distribution Ampliﬁer 1U 19" Rack ......................... 8 Low Noise 1U 19” Rack Mount 12 Output Distribution Ampliﬁer (low cost) ..................................................... 10 Desktop Low Noise 6 Output Distribution Ampliﬁer (low cost) .......................................................................... 12 OEM Timing Products and Signal ‘Clean-up’ (Board level) A6-1PPS A6-CPS 1PPS Disciplined Timing Module ....................................................................................................................... 14 Digital Phase Locked Clean-up Loop ................................................................................................................ 20 Active Noise Filter A6-ANF Primary Reference Active Noise Filter 2U Rack .................................................................................................. 24 Test and Measurement A7-MX Signal Stability Analyser .................................................................................................................................. 28 GPS Time and Frequency References E8-X E8-X OEM E8-Y E8-Y OEM E8000 E8010 Desktop GPS Disciplined TCXO Time and Frequency Reference (low cost) ........................................................ OEM GPS Disciplined TCXO Time and Frequency Reference (PCB only) ............................................................. Desk Top GPS Disciplined Low Noise OCXO Time and Frequency Reference ..................................................... OEM GPS Disciplined Low Noise OCXO Time and Frequency Reference (PCB only)............................................ GPS Disciplined Low Noise OCXO Time and Frequency Reference 1U Rack ....................................................... GPS Disciplined Rubidium Time and Frequency Reference 1U Rack ................................................................... 38 38 40 40 42 44 OEM Rubidium Oscillators E10-MRX E10-LN A10-LPRO A10-Y E10-MRO E10-GPS Sub Miniature Atomic Clock OCXO sized Rubidium Oscillator 51 x 51 x 25mm................................................. Very Low Noise Rubidium Oscillator Module (PCB only) 91 x 55 x 30mm .......................................................... Low Proﬁle Rubidium Oscillator ....................................................................................................................... Ultra Low Noise Rubidium Oscillator ................................................................................................................ Miniature Rubidium Oscillator .......................................................................................................................... GPS Disciplined Miniature Rubidium Oscillator .................................................................................................. 46 48 50 52 54 56 Atomic Time and Frequency References A10-M (A10-MX) A1000 E1000 E10-P E10-X E10-Y series CH1-75A CH1-76A Rubidium Frequency Reference ........................................................................................................................ 58 1U 19” Rack Mount Rubidium Frequency Reference .........................................................................................60 Low Noise 1U 19” Rack Mount Rubidium Frequency Reference ....................................................................... 62 Portable Desktop Rubidium Frequency Reference ............................................................................................. 64 Compact Desktop Rubidium Frequency Reference ........................................................................................... 66 Low Noise 4/8 Output Desktop Rubidium Frequency Reference ........................................................................ 68 Active Hydrogen Maser Primary Time and Frequency Reference ........................................................................70 Passive Hydrogen Maser Primary Time and Frequency Reference ...................................................................... 74 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 3 New Products CH1-75A Active Hydrogen Maser page 70 CH1-76A Passive Hydrogen Maser page 74 A7-MX using A10-MX as reference A10-MX Rubidium Frequency Reference page 54 A5-8 Ultra Low Noise, High Isolation Primary Reference Distribution Ampliﬁer page 8 E10-Y Series Desktop Rubidium Frequency Reference page 68 4 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com E10-MRX Sub Miniature Atomic Clock OCXO sized Rubidium Oscillator page 60 Actual size E10-LN Very Low Noise Rubidium Oscillator Module – 91 x 55mm page 48 E1000 Low Noise 1U 19” Rack Mount Rubidium Frequency Reference page 58 E8000 GPS Disciplined Low Noise OCXO Time and Frequency Reference page 42 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 5 Quartzlock’s Journey 1964 Saw the ﬁrst Clive Green & Roger Davis production-run products in RF & microwave frequency “down convertors” and RF VHF sources. These were followed by CW & AM radio transmitters, 600 Watt HF SSB Passive Grid Linear Ampliﬁers with exceptionally low, cross and inter-modulation products. 1970 High power VHF & UHF RF sources for MoD plasma research. RF Test equipment. An SSB, AM, CW TX 1000W single box test solution with SSB power measurement. 1980 True RMS RF power meter with dynamic range from 10mW to 1000W (linear scale), Worlds First TTL Synthesized Signal Generator (Peter Broadbent) helped keep UK Sonar ahead. A 100MHz Synthesized Signal Generator (Toby Holland under PB) Manual & Automatic modulation meters with phase mod capability. The most compact single portable 230V / 12V dc radiotelephone test set (John Lake, John Bloice, PB, CRG, Peter Ward and others) 1990 Exploited early LF Off Air Frequency Standard design with rapid R&D to an industry standard product selling low 1,000’s (PB… Colin Desborough…Graham McCloud/Dr Cosmo Little) 2000 Consolidating Rubidium Technology and joined the Hydrogen Maser radio-technology originators and world leaders IEM Kvarz. Subsequently sold some 50 Active & Passive H Masers around the world with Quartzlock’s own A5 Ultra Low Noise Distribution Ampliﬁers & A6 Frequency Convertors. The Quartzlock A7-MX Signal Stability Analyzer production began (CL, WK) A5, A6, A7 early A10 Rb, A5000, A8 GPS line followed (Dr Wolfgang Klisch, Hadwin Kramer). 2010 New A5000, E1000, E8000, E8010, E8-X, E8-Y, include new A6-CPS technology for low noise & clean technology. 1PPS timing module introduced. 2012 The introduction of completely new sub-miniature Rb components & Rb instruments with Ultra Low Noise versions available. The E10-MRX Rb is lowest cost & power, OCXO size with 150g mass. A NMI level E5 Signal Distribution Ampliﬁer (replaces E5) is introduced. Radio telephone test set 1980 10mW–1000W RMS Power Meter Modulation meter 1975 World’s ﬁrst TTL synthesized signal generator 1970s Contact Quartzlock For all enquiries please contact us via any of the methods below: Head Ofﬁce & Maser Lab: Quartzlock UK Ltd ‘Gothic’ Plymouth Road Totnes, Devon TQ9 5LH England Or visit our website Telephone: +44 (0)1803 862062 Facsimile: +44 (0)1803 867962 Email: [email protected] www.quartzlock.com The Quartzlock logo is a registered trademark. Quartzlock continous improvement policy: speciﬁcations subject to change without notice and not part of any contract. All IPR and design rights are protected. E&OE. © Quartzlock 2012 6 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A3-60SC SC Cut Oven-controlled Quartz Oscillator Q Q Q Q Phase noise -110dBc/Hz @ 1Hz (10MHz) Phase noise -123dBc/Hz @ 1Hz (5MHz) Stability 2x10-12/s (8x10-13/s in benign environment) (10MHz) Stability 5x10-13/s (5MHz) Speciﬁcation Frequency 5 & 10MHz, other frequencies in range 4–20MHz by request Output Sine wave 7dBm (±2dBm) Frequency Ageing Rate per day, at dispatch <5x10-10 Projected Ageing Rate per year <5x10-8 Operating Temperature Range Standard -20°C to +70°C, (other options possible from -40°C) Temperature Stability <1x10-8 over -20°C to +70°C Stability With Supply Voltage <1x10-9 for 10% change Stability With Load Change <1x10-9 for 10% change from 50ohms Short Term Stability (1 sec) <2x10-12 Phase Noise (data for 10MHz quoted) s)MPROVESCONSIDERABLY instrument noise and stability speciﬁcations s4HEBASICINTERNAL quartz reference Offset 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz 10kHz 50kHz Warm-Up Error ±1x10-8 of ﬁnal frequency after <8 minutes at 25°C Applications Frequency Adjustment (electrical only) +0.5 to +7.0V, stabilised output provided. Suitable for 10+ years life, 15 years typical ±0.5ppm minimum, positive slope Power Supply +12V DC standard. +15 & +18V options Power Consumption 5W max. at switch on. Typically 1.2W when stabilised at +25°C Harmonics <-30dB wrt carrier Dimensions (max) 36.1mm long, 27.2mm wide Features s6ERYLOWPHASENOISE s(IGHSTABILITY!6!2 Beneﬁts s/NEOFTHEKEY components in Quartzlock’s Very Low Noise instruments 10MHz Typical values <-110dBc/Hz <-125dBc/Hz <-135dBc/Hz <-150dBc/Hz <-155dBc/Hz <-160dBc/Hz 5MHz Typical values <-123dBc/Hz <-140dBc/Hz <-145dBc/Hz <-150dBc/Hz <-155dBc/Hz <-163dBc/Hz 19.4mm high Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Shock IEC 68-2-27 Test Ea, 50G for 11mS Vibration IEC 68-2-06 Test Fc, 10-55Hz, 1.5mm , 55-500Hz, 10G Storage Temperature -40 to +90°C Humidity >90% non-condensing, solder sealed package Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 7 A5-8 1...100MHz Distribution Ampliﬁer Q Exhibits low 1/f AM & PM noise The Quartzlock A5-8 Distribution Ampliﬁer is a precision distribution ampliﬁer for use with Frequency Standards or other signals where a need for multiple outputs from a single generator is required. Available in 8 outputs. The A5-8 replaces previous A5 models; the speciﬁcation has improved isolation and other parametrics. NB This speciﬁcation is provisional at time of going to press, ﬁnal speciﬁcation due June 2012, ask Quartzlock. Features Beneﬁts s(IGH)SOLATIONBETWEENINPUTSANDOUTPUTS s5LTRALOWPHASENOISE s5LTRAHIGHSTABILITY s6ERYLOWHARMONICDISTORTION s"IPOLAR*UNCTION!MPLIlERS6DC""5OR 240Vac operation s(YDROGEN-ASERCOMPATIBLEPERFORMANCE s2ETAINSORIGINALINPUTSIGNALCHARACTERISTICS sOUTPUTS s-AYBESUPPLIEDWITHTWOORTHREECHANNELINPUTS s.OCROSSCHANNELINTERFERENCEBETWEENOUTPUTSFOR mission critical applications Applications s&REQUENCY$ISTRIBUTIONWHERETHEHIGHESTLEVELSOFSTABILITYANDLOWESTLEVELSOFPHASENOISEAREREQUIRED s.ATIONAL3TANDARDS,ABORATORIES s#ALIBRATION,ABORATORIES s2ESEARCHAND$EVELOPMENT s0RODUCTION4EST 8 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A5-8 Typical Characteristics * Measurement Results * No of outputs 8 No of inputs 1 to 4 (Note mixed frequencies are permitted in one unit) Input characteristics Impedance: Level: Level max: 50 ohm +13dBm, 1V RMS 1.2VRMS, 5MHz 50 Ohm nominal 0dBm to +13dBm adjustable, sine wave <1.2:1 at 10MHz <1.5:1 at 100MHz Output characteristics Impedance: Level: Maximum: 50 ohm 1V into 50 Ohms (RMS) 1.1V into 50 Ohms 50 Ohm nominal 13dBm nominal into 50 Ohms (1 volt RMS) <1.2:1 d) Maximum Output: 17dBm at 10MHz typical Frequency Response 800kHz – 100MHz ± 1dB Harmonics 5MHz source harmonics less than -60dBc Input characteristics Impedance: Level: Input SWR: Output Characteristics Impedance: Level: Output SWR: Frequency Response 2MHz to 100 MHz +/-1.5dB 500kHz to 100MHz+/-3dB Harmonics (at nominal output, 10MHz) (Source harmonics less than -60dBc) Second Harmonic <-50dBc Third Harmonic <-40dBc Isolation a) Output to output: c) Input to input (crosstalk): >90dB(adjacent outputs) at 10MHz 130dB at 5MHz (non adjacent outputs) typ. >70dB (adjacent outputs) at 100MHz Typically >110dB at 10MHz and >90dBm at 100MHz >110dB at 10MHz >90dB at 100 MHz >90dB at 5MHz >80dB at 10MHz >55dB at 100MHz Phase Noise @ 10MHz 1Hz 10Hz >100Hz dBc/Hz -140 -150 -165 Short term stability @ 10MHz 1s 10s 100s <10-13 <3x10-14 <10-14 Spurious Outputs < -110dBc (above 1MHz) (typically <-120dBc) b) Output to input: Isolation Output to output: Non-adjacent o/p typ @ 5MHz: Output to Input: >110dB 5–60MHz 130dB >70dB 70–100MHz Stability AVAR 1s tba Phase noise (5MHz) offset 1Hz 10Hz 1kHz Noise Floor -170dBc Phase stability 10ps/°C (5MHz) Supply 90 ... 240Vac &/or 24Vdc BBU Battery Input Size International 2U Rack Mount Warranty 1 year (ask Quartzlock about low cost extended warranty) * Provisional Speciﬁcation (Final spec due June 2012, contact Quartzlock) (Spurious outputs are exclusively from the switch mode power supply) Broadband Noise <-148dBm/Hz Delay match between outputs <2ns (within group of 4 outputs <0.3ns) Temp stability of delay 10ps/deg C Phase change at output Due to open or short at any other output (Calculated from isolation): 0.5ps (at 10MHz) Output Failure Alarm LED on each output + common active low logic output Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 9 E5000 A Fully Speciﬁed, 1–20MHz Low Cost Distribution Ampliﬁer Comprehensive Speciﬁcation Q Excellent Short Term Stability & Phase Noise Q 1MHz – 20MHz Bandwidth Q Quartzlock !$ISTRIBUTION!MPLIFIER The E5000 Distribution Ampliﬁer is a 1U Rack Mount unit. The E5000 allows a cost and space efﬁcient way to distribute reference frequencies throughout a system or lab with virtually no signal degradation. The standard E5000 accepts input frequencies of 1MHz to 20MHz and provides twelve outputs of the same frequency. Features Beneﬁts s#OMPACTDESIGN sD"C(Z (ZPHASENOISE sD" -(Z)SOLATION s5NITY'AIN sD"MTOD"MINPUT s(IGH3TABILITY s(IGH)SOLATION s,OW$ISTORTION Applications s)NDUSTRIAL#ALIBRATION,ABORATORIES s4ELECOMS s4EST3OLUTIONS s2&4EST"ENCH s0RODUCTION4EST 10 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com E5000 Speciﬁcation Delay match between outputs < 1 ns Delay input to output < 6ns Supply 85 ... 240V ac Size 1U 19” 44 x 483 x 240mm No of Outputs 12 No of Inputs 1 Input characteristics Impedance Level Input SWR 50 ohm nominal +10dBm nominal <1.2 :1 at 10 MHz Impedance Rated output 50 ohm nominal at 10MHz 12dBm into 50 ohms (@ +13dBm max, distortion will occur) -80 Output SWR <1.2:1 -90 Maximum output 13dBm into 50 ohms at 10MHz typical Output characteristics Frequency response 1MHz to 20MHz +/-1.0dB Harmonics (at rated output,10MHz) (source harmonics less than -60dBc) Second harmonic < -50dBc Third harmonic < -50dBc Isolation Output to output (adjacent outputs) >60dB at 10 MHz Output to output (non adjacent) >70dB at 10MHz Output to input >90db at 10MHz -13 Short term stability (at 10MHz) 2 x 10 tau=1sec 2 x 10-14 tau=10sec 5 x 10-15 tau=100sec Phase Noise (10 MHz) Offset 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz 10kHz & Noise ﬂoor Phase Noise Agilent E5500 Carrier: 10E+6 Hz 06 Jun 2011 08:25:52 - 08:27:32 -100 -110 -120 -130 -140 -150 -160 -170 -180 1 10 100 1K 100K 1M 10M Typical Output to Output Stability Measured in 200Hz bandwidth Typical phase noise,dBc/Hz -132 -145 -152 -158 -160 Tau 1ms Allan Variance 5x10-11 10ms 8x10-12 100ms 8x10-13 1s 2x10-13 5s 2x10-14 10s 1.5x10-14 100s 3x10-15 Spurious outputs < -100dBc 1,000s 1x10-15 Broadband noise < -155 dBc/Hz 10,000s x10-16 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 10K L(f) [ dBc / Hz ] vs f [ Hz ] Ask Quartzlock for plots Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 11 E5-X Fully Speciﬁed, Low Cost, Desktop Distribution Ampliﬁer Compact Desktop Q 1MHz–20MHz Bandwidth Q Comprehensive Speciﬁcation Q Excellent Short Term Stability & Phase Noise Q Approx actual size Features Beneﬁts s6ERY,OW#OST6ERY3MALL3IZE s-(Zn-(Z"ANDWIDTH s#OMPREHENSIVE3PECIlCATION s%XCELLENT3HORT4ERM3TABILITY0HASE.OISE sOUTPUTS sD"M/UTPUT,EVEL sD"MTOD"M s(IGH3TABILITY s,OW$ISTORTION s(IGH)SOLATION Applications s)NDUSTRIAL#ALIBRATION,ABORATORIES s4ELECOMS s4EST3OLUTIONS s2&4EST"ENCH s0RODUCTION4EST 12 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com E5-X Speciﬁcations No of outputs 6 No of inputs 1 Input characteristics Impedance 50 ohm nominal Level +10dBm nominal +6 dBm to +12 dBm Input SWR <1.2 :1 at 10 MHz Impedance 50 ohm nominal Output characteristics Rated output at 10MHz 12dBm into 50 ohms (@ +13dBm max, distortion will occur) < 6ns Supply 12V dc. E5-X6 is supplied with 85... 240V ac supply Size 105 x 30 x 125mm Phase Noise -80 Agilent E5500 Carrier: 10E+6 Hz 06 Jun 2011 08:25:52 - 08:27:32 -90 -100 Output SWR <1.2:1 Maximum output Delay input to output 13dBm into 50 ohms at 10MHz typical Frequency response 1MHz to 20MHz +/-1.0dB Harmonics (at rated output,10MHz) (source harmonics less than -60dBc) -110 -120 -130 -140 Second harmonic < -50dBc Third harmonic < -50dBc -150 -160 -170 -180 Isolation Short term stability (at 10MHz) Phase noise (10MHz) Output to output (adjacent outputs) >50dB at 10 MHz typically >60dB Output to output (non adjacent) Ask Quartzlock Output to input >90db at 10MHz 2 x 10-13 tau=1sec 2 x 10-14 tau=10sec 5 x 10-15 tau=100sec Offset Typical phase noise, dBc/Hz 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz 10kHz 100kHz -132 -145 -152 -158 -160 -160 1 10 100 1K 10K 1M 10M Typical Output to Output Stability Measured in 200Hz bandwidth Tau 1ms Allan Variance 5x10-11 10ms 8x10-12 100ms 8x10-13 1s 2x10-13 5s 2x10-14 10s 1.5x10-14 100s 3x10-15 1,000s 1x10-15 10,000s 8x10-16 Spurious outputs < -100dBc Output to Output Stability Broadband noise < -155 dBc/Hz Ask Quartzlock for plots. Typically x10-14/s Delay match between outputs < 1ns Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 100K L(f) [ dBc / Hz ] vs f [ Hz ] Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 13 A6-1PPS OEM 1PPS Timing Module Q Q Q Compact form factor License available Very fast lock to GPS STOP PRESS Now available as a complete instrument This is a PCB level product to control an OCXO or Rubidium oscillator from an external 1PPS. The A6-1PPS uses a 3 state Kalman ﬁlter algorithm to measure & correct the frequency offset of the oscillator with respect to the 1PPS input. Time-tagged 1PPS to 200ps resolution & <1ns jitter. Features Beneﬁts s003OUTPUT s-(ZOUTPUT s3ELFCALIBRATINGINTERNALCLOCKANALOGUEINTERPOLATOR s003TIMETAGRESOLUTIONOFPS sNSRMSJITTER s(OLDOVERMODEISINITIATEDBYFAILUREOFTHE003INPUT s2EDUCED003JITTER s&ASTLOCKTOHIGHACCURACYFROMRAW'03003 Applications s$EFENCETIMING s7I-!8"ASESTATIONS s'"ASESTATIONS7#$-!#$-! s,4%' s$IGITAL6IDEO"ROADCAST s'ENERAL4IMINGAND3YNCHRONIZATION 14 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A6-1PPS A locking module for timing This module is designed to lock a 10MHz stable oscillator, either OCXO or rubidium, to the 1PPS time mark signal generated from a GPS receiver. The module can be programmed for a wide range of controlled oscillator parameters, and GPS receivers. The controlled oscillator can be either on or off the board. A stable 1PPS time mark is generated from the controlled oscillator. This can be adjusted to any offset from the GPS 1PPS in 1ns steps. The control algorithm used is designed to give optimum control results and the fastest possible acquisition from switch on. Design strategy This module is designed to lock a 10MHz stable oscillator, either an OCXO or a rubidium, to the 1PPS time mark signal generated from a GPS receiver. There are a number of challenging problems involved in this, as the data rate by deﬁnition is only one measurement per second. In order to get sufﬁcient frequency resolution to correct the oscillator, a very long averaging time would be required. Because the 1PPS time mark is a fast rise time logic signal, the only measurement that is feasible is to time tag the incoming 1PPS edge relative to a local clock driven by the controlled oscillator. By calculating the rate of change of the arrival time over a suitable averaging period, the frequency offset of the controlled oscillator can be calculated. An alternative strategy would be to set the time of the ﬁrst 1PPS arrival as the zero phase of a phase detector with a range of +/- 0.5s. This is equivalent to +/- Pi radians. A phase lock loop would then provide a very slow control of the oscillator. In both systems the timing accuracy and resolution of the incoming 1PPS is important. Modern GPS receivers provide a 1PPS output jitter of between 1us RMS for a navigation receiver, to less than 7ns RMS for a special timing receiver operating in position hold mode. It is desirable that the timing resolution of the module should be better than this, as otherwise quantization noise would enter the averaging process and degrade the performance of the system. It would only be possible to compensate for this by increasing the averaging time. A suitable speciﬁcation for time resolution is +/- 1ns. To achieve this directly would need a 1GHz clock. A much more Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 suitable method is an analog time interval expander. This device has been used in many designs of frequency counter starting with the Racal 1992. The principle is that an error pulse is generated which has a width equal to the time between the incoming edge to be timed, and the next clock pulse. For example, with a 100ns clock, the error pulse will have a width of between 0 and 100ns. This error pulse is then used to charge a capacitor or integrator. The capacitor or integrator is then discharges at a much slower rate, say 1/1000 of the rate. The resulting stretched pulse is then measured using the available clock pulses. The improvement in resolution equals the ratio of the discharge to charge rate. For the example above the resolution will be 100ps. The next thing to consider is the choice of the control algorithm. This must provide an appropriate control bandwidth so the short term stability of the controlled oscillator (Allen variance) is optimised over a wide range. The ideal bandwidth will vary considerably between a low cost OCXO, and a rubidium. One option is to use a simple phase lock loop. This would be a type 2 second order loop ( ie with an integrator in the loop ﬁlter) with a zero to give suitable phase margins for optimum dynamic performance. However one problem with a phase lock loop is that it must reduce the initial phase error to zero by changing the frequency of the VCO. With the very long loop time constant necessary to remove the effect of the GPS time jitter, the eventual settling of the loop could take several days. It is also difﬁcult to extract measures of performance from the loop, for example it is difﬁcult to estimate the current frequency error of the VCO. It was felt that a frequency control loop would settle quicker. For a frequency standard we do not mind operating with a ﬁxed phase offset, and there is no need to reduce this to zero. Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com ´ 15 A6-1PPS One possible method of extracting frequency offset from phase data is a quadratic least squares ﬁt on a block of data. This is a standard method for extracting phase offset, frequency offset, and frequency drift from phase difference information. Having extracted the offset frequency, we can then make a correction to the controlled oscillator to remove the offset. If the control constant was known exactly, there would be no under or overshoot. The problem with this method is that we do not know how large to make the block of data that we analyse. The reliability of the ﬁt is given by the correlation coefﬁcient, and ideally this should be monitored on a continuous basis. What is required is a continuous least squares process. This is of course, a Kalman ﬁlter, and this was the eventual method selected for implementing the control algorithm. ´ The Kalman ﬁlter will be brieﬂy described in general in a (hopefully) simple way, and then the speciﬁc implementation for our problem will be described in more detail. A block diagram of a Kalman ﬁlter is given in ﬁgure 1. It is basically a recursive estimation, based on noisy measurements, of the future “state” of a system . The system is deﬁned as a “state vector” and a “state transition matrix”. The system in our case would be the controlled oscillator that we wish to predict, and the state vector would contain the phase offset, frequency offset, and frequency drift variables. The “state transition matrix” deﬁnes the differential &IG+ALMANlLTER relationship that exists between the state variables over one time increment. The concept of a system driven by noise processes is important here. If our Rb had absolutely constant drift, its output phase would be known for all time once the initial drift , frequency offset and phase offset had been determined. Data gathered a year ago would have as much validity as data an hour old. If the Kalman ﬁlter is given this model of the Rb, the results are identical to the least squares ﬁt of all the data. Of course the quadratic least squares ﬁt assumes that the Rb can be modelled by three constants. A more realistic physical model would allow the drift to vary. If this varied in a deterministic way, we should add a further term to the state vector to reﬂect this deterministic process. However if the variation was random, we can tell the Kalman ﬁlter that this is so. Note that the ﬁlter is only optimum for white gaussian noise processes. However in our case we can model the noise of the Rb oscillator more accurately by adding white gaussian noise to each term in the state vector. If we add some uncorrelated noise to each term in the state vector, we end up with white phase noise, white FM noise, and random walk FM noise due to the single and double integration in the model. This is shown in ﬁgure 2. The measurements are also assumed to be contaminated with gaussian white noise. In our case we only have one measurement, that is phase offset. We do not know that the main contributer to measurement noise, the GPS receiver, is either white or gaussian. However this is a limitation of the simple Kalman ﬁlter that we intend to use. If we are sure of the characteristics of the measurement noise, we can include this knowledge by adding more terms to the state vector. We are then essentially including the known aspects of the measurement in the system model. As well as the state vector, the Kalman ﬁlter maintains a matrix that gives the current variances (mean square error) of the quantities in the state vector. These give us current estimates of the likely errors in the state vector, in our case variances of phase offset, frequency offset, and frequency drift. These will be very useful for display to the user. They also have another use, which will be demonstrated later. In effect they control the “bandwidth” of the ﬁlter. As more data comes in, the variances decrease, and the ﬁlter gives more weight to the current estimate( which represents the complete history of the data), and less to the current measurement. The measurement variance, which we have to tell the ﬁlter, also affects the “bandwidth”. If we tell the ﬁlter that the measurement is noisy, it reduces the bandwidth. So far we have considered the Kalman ﬁlter as a device for analysing the incoming data in an optimum way. However we need to control the Rb oscillator, and reduce the frequency offset to zero. An elementary method would be to write periodic corrections to the Rb control DAC, and wait for the Kalman ﬁlter to track out the resulting discontinuity in the measurements.However there is a much better way. If we adjust the frequency offset term in the state vector at the same time that we correct the Rb , the ﬁlter will ignore the correction, and no extra settling time will be required. In effect we are deﬁning the model of the Rb to have a frequency discontinuity at 16 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A6-1PPS a particular time, and provided the real Rb has that discontinuity, the Kalman ﬁlter will see no difference between the model, and what the measurements are telling it about the real system. Using this technique, we can correct the Rb as often as we like. However if we are uncertain as to the exact value of the control constant, then the correction will undershoot or overshoot the model. Another trick that can be useful is if we know that there is a measurement discontinuity, but we do not know how large it is. An example would be if the GPS signal disappears for any reason. When satellites were reacquired, there could be a phase discontinuity between the GPS 1PPS and the locking module internal clock. Although we cannot tell the ﬁlter the amount or direction of the discontinuity, we can tell it that its current estimate of phase is completely unreliable. We do this by adding a large number to the appropriate term of the error covariance matrix. The ﬁlter then gives maximum weight to the measurements to reacquire the phase as quickly as possible, however as it thinks its frequency is still accurate, it does not give excessive weight to the rate of change of phase measurement, and the frequency covariance hardly rises. The Kalman ﬁlter can predict ahead if measurement data fails. In this case both the state vector and the error covariance matrix will be updated. The previously estimated value of drift will update the frequency offset automatically. Frequency corrections can be made in the usual way.The error covariances will rise to reﬂect the lower conﬁdence in the predictions as time passes. When measurements resume, the ﬁlter will automatically recover and the error covariances will start to fall. Thus the user is always aware of the reliability of the frequency output. If an unknown phase step is expected on resumption of measurements, then the phase variance should be augmented as previously described. Technical details of design The design is based around a PIC18F6723 microcontroller. This is a high end controller with 5 capture/compare modules and 4 timer/ counters. The time interval expander is tightly integrated with the processor internal peripherals to produce an economical design. The basic timing resolution is 400ns (one processor cycle at a 10MHz clock frequency). The time interval expander extends the resolution by 2000 times. In order to avoid the problems of expanding a pulse of zero width, one cycle of the 10MHz clock (100ns) is added to the time error pulse. This gives an unexpanded pulse width of 100ns to 500ns. After expansion, the pulse is 200us to 1ms. This is timed by the 400ns clock to give a basic +/-200ps resolution. A time interval expander must be calibrated as otherwise a glitch will be produced when the time error pulse rolls over from 500ns to 100ns, and vice versa. This is caused by the expansion ratio not being exactly the expected 2000 times. The expansion ratio may drift with time and temperature. As the incoming 1PPS only needs measuring once per second, the dead time is used to calibrate the time expander. The hardware Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 generates exact pulses of 100ns and 500ns by gating from the 10MHz clock. These are expanded and measured. The calculated end points of the expanded pulse are used to correct the real measurement of the incoming 1PPS. This auto calibration operates continuously. The control of the OCXO or other controlled oscillator uses a precision tuning voltage derived from DtoA convertors . Two 16 bit DACs are used, with the output of the ﬁne tune DAC divided by 256 and added to the output of the coarse tune DAC. This gives effectively 24 bit resolution with an overlap between the coarse and ﬁne tune DACs. A software normalisation process ensures that the ﬁne tune DAC is used for tuning most of the time. Only when the controlled oscillator has drifted out of range of the ﬁne tune DAC would the coarse tune DAC need adjusting, with the chance of a very small glitch in the tuning voltage. A precision, low noise, voltage reference is used to supply the DACs. The microcontroller is provided with an RS232 interface. A simple set of control codes enable monitoring and set up of the controlled oscillator parameters to accomodate a wide range of controlled oscillators. A Windows front end program will use the control codes to enable the operation of the PLL to be monitored with real time graphs of performance measures. Software design In normal operation the auto calibration performs calibration cycles every 20ms. The approximate time of arrival of the next 1PPS input pulse is known, so the calibration cycles are paused while the 1PPS is measured. The raw measurement of the arrival time is corrected for the actual expansion ratio and is scaled to lie in the range -500.000000 to +499999999 ns relative to the internal clock. The ﬁrst valid 1PPS edge to arrive after reset is used to zero the internal clock. This makes the arrival time initially close to zero, and avoids problems with lack of precision in the ﬂoating point calculations which follow. The corrected time tag is sent to the Kalman ﬁlter routine which runs once every second. The estimate of the controlled oscillator phase, fractional frequency offset, and drift (the state variables) is updated by the new measurement. Also updated is the error covariance matrix which provides an indication of the accuracy of the estimate of the state variables. After update of the ﬁlter, the frequency correction for the controlled oscillator is calculated. This is done by scaling the Kalman frequency offset estimate by the known ( programmed) tuning slope of the oscillator. The correction is then added to the frequency control register of the oscillator. The tuning voltage is divided between the coarse and ﬁne tune DACs as follows: When normalisation is performed, the ﬁne tune DAC most signiﬁcant 8 bits are set to mid point ( 80h). The least signiﬁcant 8 bits of the ﬁne tune DAC are set to the least signiﬁcant Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com ´ 17 A6-1PPS 8 bits of the tuning word. The coarse tune DAC is then set to provide the ﬁnal tuning voltage. During all subsequent tuning, only the ﬁne tune DAC is used over its 16 bit range. If the range is exceeded, the normalisation procedure is repeated. ´ A state machine provides control of locking. After reset the last value of the frequency control register, which has been stored in EEPROM on a regular basis, is restored. This will retune the controlled oscillator to very nearly the correct frequency. The Kalman update is disabled and the software waits for the following all to occur (state 0): a) Rubidium reference warm up input to go low or OCXO supply current to drop below a threshold showing the Rubidium/OCXO has warmed up b) A 1PPS input capture has occured The sofware then requests a reset of the internal clock (state 1). This will normally occur on the next 1PPS to be received. Once a clock reset has occured, the Kalman ﬁlter tracking is started, however frequency corrections are not made to the controlled oscillator. (state 2) Each capture must be within 50us of the ﬁrst capture, otherwise the reset state is reentered. After 100 successful captures, state3 is entered provided the performance monitor, MEANFREQERROR is below a threshold. falls below a second threshold. At this point the lock indicator is switched off. (state 4) The following parameters set up the Kalman ﬁlter to match the controlled oscillator: a) Oscillator noise parameters: S1 variance of random walk FM noise S2 variance of white FM noise S3 variance of white phase noise OC1 oscillator tuning constant in fractional frequency/volt OC2 maximum oscillator tuning voltage in volts, assuming 0V minimum b) 1PPS noise root variance (a function of the GPS receiver used) R measurement noise root variance in seconds These parameters are programmed over the RS232 interface, and are stored in non volatile memory. The oscillator noise parameters may be obtained from a measured Allen variance curve using a MathCad modelling program. The performance monitor, MEANFREQERROR is calculated as follows: The mean of the Kalman frequency offset estimate is calculated by means of a 5th order exponential ﬁlter. ( In the pre lock state the mean may not be near zero, ie there may be a constant offset between the controlled oscillator and GPS time) &IG.OISEMODELOFOSCILLATOR After each iteration of the Kalman ﬁlter, the current deviation is calculated by subtracting the current frequency offset estimate from the running mean. This value is squared, and divided by the predicted variance from the error covariance matrix that is maintained by the ﬁlter. This normalises the actual deviation that is seen by the predicted deviation from the ﬁlter. (The predicted deviation only depends upon the system and measurement noise parameters NOT on the actual behaviour of the system.) The normalised deviation in then ﬁltered in a 4th order exponential ﬁlter. During warmup the performance measure will be high, indicating that the controlled oscillator is still drifting fast, relative to its predicted steady state performance. When the controlled oscillator is stable, and the Kalman ﬁlter has settled, the performance measure will drop below a threshold. At this point frequency corrections will be started. (state 3) In state 3 corrections are made to the controlled oscillator. The ﬁlter and oscillator will continue to settle, until the performance monitor 18 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A6-1PPS Speciﬁcation Speciﬁcation Frequency 10MHz Input Level 100mv Pp to 5Vpp (Oscillator off board) 1PPS Input Impedance: 500 Ohms Output Level 13+/-2 dBm (Oscillator on board) 1PPS Input Level 5V TTL/Cmos positive edge Width 10us Minimum Input Impedance 1000 Ohms 1PPS Output Level 5V TTL/Cmos positive edge Width 10ms Preset Offset Of 1PPS Output -500000000 To +499999999 Ns in 1ns Steps Timing Baseline Selectable between ﬁxed (minimum jitter) or kalman phase estimate (maximum accuracy) External Tune Voltage 0 to span, where span is software adjustable between 5.8V and 10V Lock Indicator On Not Locked Off Locked, Low Phase Error Short Flash Every Second Locked, High Phase Error Interface See separate document Interface Codes See separate document Performance The control performance depends very much on the quality of the controlled oscillator and the source of the 1PPS synchronizing signal. For these reasons it is difﬁcult to quote absolute performance ﬁgures. Power Supply 14 to 30V (On board OCXO is used) An external OCXO or Rubidium may be used. 12 To 30V (No on-board OCXO) The Following Cases Are Typical Controlled Oscillator: Rubidium 1PPS Source Passive Hydrogen Maser (Essentially no 1PPS Jitter) Result: Allen Variance 100s 1000s 10,000s Controlled Oscillator: Rubidium 1PPS Source Quartzlock E8-Y/E8000 GPS Receiver in Position Hold Mode Result: Allen Variance 100s 1000s 10,000s 1x10-12 1x10-12 8x10-13 Current Consumption 150mA Typical (On-board OCXO) Size 25 x 25 x 5mm (Without OCXO) The Quartzlock A3 series of SC cut OCXO’s are ideal for use on the A6-1PPS design-in board product. The oscillator performance deﬁnes the 1PPS accuracy. A3 speciﬁcation is typically: Short term stability AVAR 8x10-13/second Phase noise Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 1x10-12 3x10-13 1x10-13 PN -110dBc/Hz @ 1Hz -110dBc/Hz @ 1Hz offset Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 19 A6-CPS DPLL, DDS Active Noise Filter Q Q Q 1MHz to 40MHz output frequency 4mHz to 500mHz PLL bandwidths Compact OEM board for a wide range of applications The A6-CPS digital phase locked loop (PLL) provides an low noise, very high short term stability ﬁltered output which can be customised to a speciﬁc application. The A6-CPS digital PLL may be ﬁtted into the Quartzlock A6 frequency convertor with BVA OCXO, rubidium, GPS or other options. Features Beneﬁts s23MONITORANDCONTROL s0REDElNEDUSERBANDWIDTHS s7IDERANGEOF/#8/SUPPORTED s)MPROVEDPHASENOISE s)MPROVEDSHORTTERMSTABILITY s,OWCOSTSOLUTIONTOUPGRADEEXISTINGDESIGNSAND references s1UICKANDSIMPLETOUSEANDINTEGRATE Applications s4IMEANDFREQUENCYREFERENCEFORSATELLITECOMMUNICATIONGROUNDSTATIONS#$-!,4%$46$!" s&REQUENCYREFERENCINGOFINTERCEPTIONANDMONITORINGRECEIVERS s7IREDAND7IRELESSNETWORKSYNCHRONIZATION s3ECURECOMMUNICATIONS#DEFENCEAND2$ s2ADARNAVIGATIONSYSTEMS s(IGHERDElNITIONIN-2)IMAGINGSYSTEMS 20 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A6-CPS Technical Description This module is designed to overcome the disadvantages of narrow band width analog phase lock loops used to lock relatively stable oscillators together, or to generate arbitrary frequencies from a 10MHz reference with good phase noise, freedom from non harmonically related spurii, and good short term stability. When locking a low noise OCXO to a rubidium reference, for example, the ideal PLL bandwidth will be very much less than 1Hz, probably in the region of 10 to 100mHz. An analog loop will have a very long time constant integrator, leading to thermal drift, capacitor dielectric absorption, and operational ampliﬁer offset drift. In addition, acquisition time of the loop will be very long, and if there is any frequency error, acquisition may not occur at all. There is also a problem of providing an effective “in lock” indicator to the user, or for use with associated equipment. The digital loop overcomes all these problems. The long time constant integrator is replaced by a digital integrator that does not drift at all. A combination of an analog phase detector for low noise, and an extended range phase/frequency detector for certain acquisition can be used. The loop bandwidth can be set to maximum for acquisition, followed by glitch free reduction to the working bandwidth when the phase error becomes small. In addition performance measures related to the phase error in the loop, and the frequency error can easily be derived and used to indicate lock and bandwidth control. As an additional beneﬁt a hold over mode that keeps the controlled oscillator tuning voltage constant if there should be a reference failure can be easily provided. In order to generate arbitrary frequencies from a 10MHz reference, a DDS synthesiser is used. This has 36 bit resolution and is clocked at 10MHz from the reference. Output frequencies of 1.8MHz to 3.6MHz are available as the reference input to the digital PLL. This enables the controlled oscillator (OCXO) to have a frequency range of 1.8MHz to 28.8MHz. The resolution at 10MHz output will be 1.45x10-11. Technical details of design The design uses mixer type phase detectors operating at frequencies between 1.8MHz and 10MHz. A dual phase detector is used with quadrature square wave inputs from the controlled oscillator. The main input , which is split between the quadrature phase detectors, is a sine wave input at a level between 0 and 13dBm, and is link Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 selected to either come from the 10MHz reference input, or the output of the DDS synthesiser. The sine wave signal from the controlled oscillator is converted to a square wave using a fast comparator. It is then divided by 2, 4 or 8 using digital dividers. A link selects direct, 2,4, or 8 divided signals. The output from the dividers forms the “Q” reference signal to the Q phase detector. A quadrature “I” reference is generated by passing the Q signal through a programmable delay line, which may be set to delays from 10ns to 137ns, in steps of 0.5ns. This enables quadrature references to be generated for phase detector frequencies between 1.8MHz and 25MHz. The outputs from the phase detectors are ﬁltered and ampliﬁed by DC ampliﬁers with gain control using digital potentiometers. The gain is controlled by a software AGC system which tries to keep the input to the ADCs at optimum levels. The phase detector outputs are sampled by two channels of the 10bit AtoD convertor internal to the PIC 16F689 microcontroller. All other functions of the PLL are carried out by software. The control of the OCXO or other controlled oscillator uses a precision tuning voltage derived from DtoA convertors . Two 16 bit DACs are used, with the output of the ﬁne tune DAC divided by 256 and added to the output of the coarse tune DAC. This gives effectively 24 bit resolution with an overlap between the coarse and ﬁne tune DACs. A software normalisation process ensures that the ﬁne tune DAC is used for tuning most of the time. Only when the controlled oscillator has drifted out of range of the ﬁne tune DAC would the coarse tune DAC need adjusting, with the chance of a very small glitch in the tuning voltage. A precision, low noise, voltage reference is used to supply the DACs. The microcontroller is provided with an RS232 interface. A simple set of control codes enable monitoring and set up of the digital PLL parameters to accomodate a wide range of controlled oscillators. A Windows front end program will use the control codes to enable the operation of the PLL to be monitored with real time graphs of performance measures. ´ Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 21 A6-CPS Software design ´ The input to the software is the sampled I and Q signals from the phase detectors. These are sampled at a 1kHz rate. As the ﬁnal bandwidth of the PLL will be less than 1Hz, this oversampling enables preﬁltering to be used which extends the resolution and reduces noise in the 10bit AtoD convertor internal to the microcontroller. Single pole digital ﬁlters are used on both the I and Q channels. These are implemented as exponential ﬁlters which have a 3dB band width which is a function of the “order” of the ﬁlter. Filter orders between 0 ( no ﬁlter) and 15 are provided. This gives bandwidths between 114Hz for order 1, and 4.8mHz for order 15. The ﬁlter order is varied as the user selected PLL bandwidth is varied. After preﬁltering, the I and Q channels, now at 16 bit resolution, are subsampled at a rate between 15.625 s/s, and 1.953 s/s depending on the user bandwidth and lock state of the PLL. The “Q” sample is now divided by the ”I” sample ( after checking that I>Q) to give a binary fraction. This is used to look up the phase value in a TAN-1 look up table. The look up table is used to synthesise two types of phase detector: a) A phase detector with 16 bit resolution between Pi/2 and -Pi/2. b) A phase/ frequency detector with 16 bit resolution between 2Pi and -2Pi. This phase detector is equivalent to the well known digital phase/frequency detector. This rolls over between 2Pi and 0 for positive cycle slips, and between -2Pi and 0 for negative cycle slips, and will always provide reliable lock if there is a initial frequency error. The output of the selected phase detector now has digital gain applied, selectable between 1/256 and 128. After digital gain, the phase value is added into the integrator, which is 32 bits wide. In order to make the loop stable, by providing a phase lead, the phase value has proportional term gain applied, also selectable between 1/256 and 128. This value is added to the upper 3 bytes of the integrator to give the tuning voltage (24 bits) The tuning voltage is divided between the coarse and ﬁne tune DACs as follows: When normalisation is performed, the ﬁne tune DAC most signiﬁcant 8 bits are set to mid point ( 80h). The least signiﬁcant 8 bits of the ﬁne tune DAC are set to the least signiﬁcant 8 bits of the tuning word. The coarse tune DAC is then set to provide the ﬁnal tuning voltage. During all subsequent tuning, only the ﬁne tune DAC is used over its 16 bit range. If the range is exceeded, the normalisation procedure is repeated. A state machine provides control of locking. After reset the last value of the integrator, which has been stored in EEPROM on a regular basis, is restored. This will retune the controlled oscillator to very nearly the correct frequency. The loop is then opened and the software waits for the following all to occur (state 0): 22 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 a) Rubidium reference warm up input to go high. b) OCXO supply current to drop below a threshold showing the OCXO has warmed up c) A measure |I|+|Q| which is an approximate measure of the signal level at the phase detector to rise above a threshold. When these conditions are fulﬁlled, the software attempts to lock the loop (state 1) by selecting the phase frequency detector, maximum bandwidth, and maximum subsample rate. It then closes the loop and waits for another measure, which is |phaseresult|, to drop below a threshold. The measure |phaseresult| is the modulus of each phase calculation ﬁltered in an 8th order exponential ﬁlter, the bandwidth of which, for the 15.625 s/s subsample rate, equals 9.7mHz. Once the lock threshold for |phaseresult| is reached, the lock state ( state 2) is entered. The bandwidth is switched to the users selected bandwidth, which has been maintained in EEPROM, and the phase detector is switched over to the narrow band phase detector (Pi/2 to -Pi/2). All the time during normal operation , |phaseresult| is being compared to a lower threshold than the lock threshold. If it exceeds this threshold, state 3 is entered which provides a brief ﬂash of the lock LED to warn the user that the selected bandwidth may be too narrow for the PLL to track the drift of the controlled oscillator fast enough. This low threshold is currently set at 480ps maximum phase error. In extreme cases the lock threshold (4.8ns phase error) may be exceeded, in which case the software assumes lock is lost and reenters state 1. A further performance measure is calculated, which is available over the interface. This is the ﬁrst difference of the phase error, ﬁltered in an 8th order exponential ﬁlter. It is corrected for subsample rate, and has a constant sensitivity of 5.8x10-15 per bit. ( at 10MHz phase detector frequency) This performance measure gives the mean fractional frequency difference between the controlled oscillator and the reference, and is useful for setting up the optimum bandwidth of the PLL. The band width and damping of the PLL is controlled by 4 parameters, integrator digital gain, proportional digital gain, preﬁlter order, and subsample rate. These are preset for 8 values of user selected bandwidth, and can only be changed by modifying the software. It is possible to temporarily adjust the four individual parameters as part of a test procedure carried out over the RS232 interface. The selection of the 4 parameters has been optimised using a mathematical model of the PLL modelled as a MATHCAD spreadsheet. This could be made available to customers who wished to readjust the PLL parameters. Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A6-CPS Speciﬁcation Reference Input Frequency 10MHz 1MHz to 10 MHz 100mVPP to 5VPP 1VPP to 5VPP 1000 OHMs (DDS used) (no DDS) (DDS used) (no DDS) (no DDS) (DDS used) Stability Allan Variance Input Impediance 1MHz to 40MHz 1.8MHz to 28.8MHz 100mVPP to 5VPP High end options -130dBc/Hz @ 1Hz offset -178dBc/Hz @ 10kHz offset 8x10-14/s 500 Ohms External Tune Voltage 0 to SPAN, where SPAN is software adjustable between 5.8V and 10V Level Input Impediance Controlled Oscillator Frequency Level (external oscillator) Phase Noise Typical option -110dBc/Hz -160dBc/Hz x10-13/s Notes: a) If DDS is not used, controlled oscillator must be k times higher frequency than refeence, where k is link adjusted to 1,2,4,8 b) Either reference or controlled oscillator must be 10MHz to provide microcontroller clock Power Supply 14 to 30V 12 to 30V on board OCXO is used no on board OCXO Current Consumption 150mA typical 50mA on board OCXO typical (no on board OCXO) PLL Bandwidths 4mHz to 500mHz typical in 8 binary increments Frequency Pull in Up to 7Hz initial frequency error Lock Indicator On Off Short flash every second Long flash, short flash Interface 9.6kbaud, RS232, PC compatible, Windows front end program or USB Interface Codes Ask Quartzlock for separate document PCB Size 94 x 75mm (may be substantially reduced in customised version). OCXO may mount off PCB. Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Not locked Locked, low phase error Locked, high phase error No processor clock Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 23 A6-ANF Active Noise Filter Atomic Clock Clean up Oscillator Q Q Q 1MHz to 40MHz output frequency 4mHz to 500mHz PLL bandwidths Primary reference compatible The A6-ANF Active Noise Filter has an Ultra Low Noise SC OCXO oven-controlled quartz oscillator which is used in Quartzlock’s Active Noise Filter Clean Technology to ﬁlter input reference signals. The A6-ANF provides an ultra low noise, very high short term stability ﬁltered output to make a signiﬁcant improvement in Rubidium or Ceasium frequency reference. Features Beneﬁts s2353"MONITORANDCONTROL s0REDElNEDUSERBANDWIDTHS s#OMPREHENSIVERANGEOFPHASENOISEAND343OPTIONS s)MPROVEDPHASENOISE s)MPROVEDSHORTTERMSTABILITY s,OWCOSTSOLUTIONTOUPGRADEEXISTINGREFERENCES s1UICKANDSIMPLETOUSEANDINSTALL Applications s)MPROVEDPRIMARYREFERENCEPHASENOISE s)MPROVEDPRIMARYREFERENCESHORTTERMSTABILITY 24 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A6-ANF Technical Description This module is designed to overcome the disadvantages of narrow band width analog phase lock loops used to lock relatively stable oscillators together, or to generate arbitrary frequencies from a 10MHz reference with good phase noise, freedom from non harmonically related spurii, and good short term stability. When locking a low noise OCXO to a rubidium reference, for example, the ideal PLL bandwidth will be very much less than 1Hz, probably in the region of 10 to 100mHz. is a sine wave input at a level between 0 and 13dBm, and is link selected to either come from the 10MHz reference input, or the output of the DDS synthesiser. An analog loop will have a very long time constant integrator, leading to thermal drift, capacitor dielectric absorption, and operational ampliﬁer offset drift. In addition, acquisition time of the loop will be very long, and if there is any frequency error, acquisition may not occur at all. There is also a problem of providing an effective “in lock” indicator to the user, or for use with associated equipment. The sine wave signal from the controlled oscillator is converted to a square wave using a fast comparator. It is then divided by 2, 4 or 8 using digital dividers. A link selects direct, 2,4, or 8 divided signals. The digital loop overcomes all these problems. The long time constant integrator is replaced by a digital integrator that does not drift at all. A combination of an analog phase detector for low noise, and an extended range phase/frequency detector for certain acquisition can be used. The loop bandwidth can be set to maximum for acquisition, followed by glitch free reduction to the working bandwidth when the phase error becomes small. In addition performance measures related to the phase error in the loop, and the frequency error can easily be derived and used to indicate lock and bandwidth control. As an additional beneﬁt a hold over mode that keeps the controlled oscillator tuning voltage constant if there should be a reference failure can be easily provided. In order to generate arbitrary frequencies from a 10MHz reference, a DDS synthesiser is used. This has 36 bit resolution and is clocked at 10MHz from the reference. Output frequencies of 1.8MHz to 3.6MHz are available as the reference input to the digital PLL. This enables the controlled oscillator (OCXO) to have a frequency range of 1.8MHz to 28.8MHz. The resolution at 10MHz output will be 1.45x10-11. Technical details of design The design uses mixer type phase detectors operating at frequencies between 1.8MHz and 10MHz. A dual phase detector is used with quadrature square wave inputs from the controlled oscillator. The main input , which is split between the quadrature phase detectors, Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 The output from the dividers forms the “Q” reference signal to the Q phase detector. A quadrature “I” reference is generated by passing the Q signal through a programmable delay line, which may be set to delays from 10ns to 137ns, in steps of 0.5ns. This enables quadrature references to be generated for phase detector frequencies between 1.8MHz and 25MHz. The outputs from the phase detectors are ﬁltered and ampliﬁed by DC ampliﬁers with gain control using digital potentiometers. The gain is controlled by a software AGC system which tries to keep the input to the ADCs at optimum levels. The phase detector outputs are sampled by two channels of the 10bit AtoD convertor internal to the PIC 16F689 microcontroller. All other functions of the PLL are carried out by software. The control of the OCXO or other controlled oscillator uses a precision tuning voltage derived from DtoA convertors . Two 16 bit DACs are used, with the output of the ﬁne tune DAC divided by 256 and added to the output of the coarse tune DAC. This gives effectively 24 bit resolution with an overlap between the coarse and ﬁne tune DACs. A software normalisation process ensures that the ﬁne tune DAC is used for tuning most of the time. Only when the controlled oscillator has drifted out of range of the ﬁne tune DAC would the coarse tune DAC need adjusting, with the chance of a very small glitch in the tuning voltage. A precision, low noise, voltage reference is used to supply the DACs. The microcontroller is provided with an RS232/USB interface. A simple set of control codes enable monitoring and set up of the digital PLL parameters to accomodate a wide range of controlled oscillators. A Windows front end program will use the control codes to enable the operation of the PLL to be monitored with real time graphs of performance measures. Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com ´ 25 A6-ANF Software design ´ The input to the software is the sampled I and Q signals from the phase detectors. These are sampled at a 1kHz rate. As the ﬁnal bandwidth of the PLL will be less than 1Hz, this oversampling enables preﬁltering to be used which extends the resolution and reduces noise in the 10bit AtoD convertor internal to the microcontroller. Single pole digital ﬁlters are used on both the I and Q channels. These are implemented as exponential ﬁlters which have a 3dB band width which is a function of the “order” of the ﬁlter. Filter orders between 0 ( no ﬁlter) and 15 are provided. This gives bandwidths between 114Hz for order 1, and 4.8mHz for order 15. The ﬁlter order is varied as the user selected PLL bandwidth is varied. After preﬁltering, the I and Q channels, now at 16 bit resolution, are subsampled at a rate between 15.625 s/s, and 1.953 s/s depending on the user bandwidth and lock state of the PLL. The “Q” sample is now divided by the ”I” sample ( after checking that I>Q) to give a binary fraction. This is used to look up the phase value in a TAN-1 look up table. The look up table is used to synthesise two types of phase detector: a) A phase detector with 16 bit resolution between Pi/2 and -Pi/2. b) A phase/ frequency detector with 16 bit resolution between 2Pi and -2Pi. This phase detector is equivalent to the well known digital phase/frequency detector. This rolls over between 2Pi and 0 for positive cycle slips, and between -2Pi and 0 for negative cycle slips, and will always provide reliable lock if there is a initial frequency error. The output of the selected phase detector now has digital gain applied, selectable between 1/256 and 128. After digital gain, the phase value is added into the integrator, which is 32 bits wide. In order to make the loop stable, by providing a phase lead, the phase value has proportional term gain applied, also selectable between 1/256 and 128. This value is added to the upper 3 bytes of the integrator to give the tuning voltage (24 bits) The tuning voltage is divided between the coarse and ﬁne tune DACs as follows: When normalisation is performed, the ﬁne tune DAC most signiﬁcant 8 bits are set to mid point ( 80h). The least signiﬁcant 8 bits of the ﬁne tune DAC are set to the least signiﬁcant 8 bits of the tuning word. The coarse tune DAC is then set to provide the ﬁnal tuning voltage. During all subsequent tuning, only the ﬁne tune DAC is used over its 16 bit range. If the range is exceeded, the normalisation procedure is repeated. A state machine provides control of locking. After reset the last value of the integrator, which has been stored in EEPROM on a regular basis, is restored. This will retune the controlled oscillator to very nearly the correct frequency. The loop is then opened and the software waits for the following all to occur (state 0): 26 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 a) Rubidium reference warm up input to go high. b) OCXO supply current to drop below a threshold showing the OCXO has warmed up c) A measure |I|+|Q| which is an approximate measure of the signal level at the phase detector to rise above a threshold. When these conditions are fulﬁlled, the software attempts to lock the loop (state 1) by selecting the phase frequency detector, maximum bandwidth, and maximum subsample rate. It then closes the loop and waits for another measure, which is |phaseresult|, to drop below a threshold. The measure |phaseresult| is the modulus of each phase calculation ﬁltered in an 8th order exponential ﬁlter, the bandwidth of which, for the 15.625 s/s subsample rate, equals 9.7mHz. Once the lock threshold for |phaseresult| is reached, the lock state ( state 2) is entered. The bandwidth is switched to the users selected bandwidth, which has been maintained in EEPROM, and the phase detector is switched over to the narrow band phase detector (Pi/2 to -Pi/2). All the time during normal operation, |phaseresult| is being compared to a lower threshold than the lock threshold. If it exceeds this threshold, state 3 is entered which provides a brief ﬂash of the lock LED to warn the user that the selected bandwidth may be too narrow for the PLL to track the drift of the controlled oscillator fast enough. This low threshold is currently set at 480ps maximum phase error. In extreme cases the lock threshold (4.8ns phase error) may be exceeded, in which case the software assumes lock is lost and reenters state 1. A further performance measure is calculated, which is available over the interface. This is the ﬁrst difference of the phase error, ﬁltered in an 8th order exponential ﬁlter. It is corrected for subsample rate, and has a constant sensitivity of 5.8x10-15 per bit. (at 10MHz phase detector frequency) This performance measure gives the mean fractional frequency difference between the controlled oscillator and the reference, and is useful for setting up the optimum bandwidth of the PLL. The band width and damping of the PLL is controlled by 4 parameters, integrator digital gain, proportional digital gain, preﬁlter order, and subsample rate. These are preset for 8 values of user selected bandwidth, and can only be changed by modifying the software. It is possible to temporarily adjust the four individual parameters as part of a test procedure carried out over the RS232 interface. The selection of the 4 parameters has been optimised using a mathematical model of the PLL modelled as a MATHCAD spreadsheet. This could be made available to customers who wished to readjust the PLL parameters. Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A6-ANF A6-ANF Typical Stability, Phase Noise and Spurii Frequency Stability 1 to 30s 100s 1 hour 1day 5 or 10MHz outputs 5x10-13 (options available from 1 ... 2.5x10-13) 4x10-13 5x10-13 x10-12 Long Term Stability 1 day 1 month 1 year 5 or 10MHz outputs 5x10-13 4x10-11 4x10-10 Phase Noise dBc/Hz in 1Hz BW 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz 10kHz 10MHz output -115 -146 -156 -163 -168 Harmonics <40dBc Spurious ULN option -122 -137 -143 -145 -145 5MHz output -123 -145 -150 -155 -158 Typical Characteristics ULN option -130 -145 -153 -156 -156 Input signals 2.048, 5MHz, 10MHz, 100MHz: 0.5Vrms sine, 501 Output signals 5MHz, 10MHz or 100MHz, 0.5Vrms sine, 501 Holdover performance Long term stability: 2x10-11/day, 4x10-9/year (4x10-10/year option); Temperature stability <2x10-10 (-5C to +55C) Management RS-232C or USB Environmental Characteristics Operational: -5C to +55C Storage: -40C to +85C Humidity: 95% non-condensing <80dBc -9 Warm Time to 1x10 Reference Input Frequency Level Input Impedance Controlled Oscillator Frequency Level (external oscillator) External Tune Voltage 5min Power Supply 100–240Vac battery back-up option 10MHz (DDS used) 1MHz to 10MHz (no DDS) 100mVpp to 5Vpp (DDS used) 1VPP to 5Vpp (no DDS) 1000 OHMs Physical Dimensions H x W x D (mm): 89 x 483 x 280 (3.5”x19”x11”) Options External Battery Back-up Ultra Low Noise Distribution Ampliﬁer (E5) Choice of input and output frequencies 1MHz to 40MHz (no DDS) 1.8MHz to 28.8MHz (DDS used) 100mVPP to 5Vpp 0 to SPAN, where SPAN is software adjustable between 5.8V and 10V Notes: a) If DDS is not used, controlled oscillator must be k/m times higher frequency than reference, where k is link adjusted to 1,2,4,8 (where k is link adjusted to 1,2,4,8 and m adjusted to 2. This allows 5MHz reference. b) Either reference or controlled oscillator must be 10MHz to provide microcontroller clock PLL Bandwidths 4mHz to 500mHz typical in 8 binary increments Frequency Pull-in Up to 7Hz initial frequency error Lock Indicator on off short ﬂash every second long flash, short flash Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 not locked locked, low phase error locked, high phase error no processor clock Example of ‘clean’ performance (2010) Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 27 A7-MX Signal Stability Analyzer Q Q Q Q Very high resolution: <50fs single shot (5 and 10MHz) Very low noise ﬂoor: <5x10-14 @ 1s Selectable ﬁlters, resolutions and tau Ultra-fast measurement time A7-MX Option 27 (A10-MX) The A7-MX is a bench or rack mount instrument which interfaces with most notebook or desktop PCs, using an RS232 or USB interface on the computer. The instrument includes a differential multiply and mix chain, and a 2 channel digital phase comparator. An analog meter shows frequency offset or phase difference. The A7-MX has a close-in phase noise personality 500mHz to 500Hz. 28 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A7-MX Features Beneﬁts s"ROADBANDK(Zn-(ZINPUTWITHHIGHRESOLUTION 5 or 10MHz input s,ARGEDIGITALDISPLAYOFPHASERELATIVEABSOLUTEFREQUENCY s"LOCKSTORAGEOFDATAlLESENABLESOFmINEANALYSIS sDATAPOINTSTORAGE s#RASHPROOFWITH6DC"ATTERY"ACK5P s/NSCREEN!LLANVARIANCEANDPHASENOISEPLOTSINREALTIME s-EASUREMENTERRORFULLYSPECIlED s0LOTPRINTANDSAVEFUNCTIONS s5NSKILLEDOPERATION s5NEQUALLEDPERFORMANCE s%XTERNAL0#ENABLESLOWCOSTYEARUPGRADES s&LEXIBLEANDEASYTOUSE s3AVESUPTOOFOSCILLATOR2$TIME Applications s3TABILITYANALYSISOFOSCILLATORS s#LOSEIN0HASENOISEANALYSIS s!TOMICFREQUENCYSTANDARDCALIBRATION s!CTIVEPASSIVECOMPONENTPHASESTABILITY measurement s!$%6-ODIlED!$%646!2-4)%ETCWITHSTABLE s4EMPERATURE0HASETESTING s2ELATIVE!BSOLUTECOUNTERDISPLAYOF&REQUENCY Phase difference s0RECISIONPRODUCTCHARACTERISATION sh.ATIONAL-EASUREMENTvLEVELMETROLOGYANALYSIS Outstanding Features The A7-MX is invaluable in the design of low noise oscillators, atomic frequency standards and passive devices where close in phase noise, freedom from spurii, and phase stability are essential design objectives. The A7-MX is unique in its ability to measure time domain stability at averaging times from 1ms to weeks, and phase noise from mHz to 500Hz. Discrete spurii can be measured close to the carrier at levels down to -120dBc. The high resolution input operates at 5 or 10MHz. The reference is also at 5 or 10MHz. A lower resolution input is provided which will measure at frequencies between 50kHz and 65MHz. The A7-MX is not limited to research and development. The real time digital display of fractional frequency offset combined with the high resolution analogue meter makes the production setting of all types of frequency standard a simple and rapid operation. Absolute Frequency Fractional Frequency Difference 0HASE$IFFERENCEFSsPSsNSsμSsMSsS 3TATISTICS-AXs-INs-EANs3TANDARD$EVIATION ´ Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 29 A7-MX Narrowband / High Resolution Mode Inputs a) Reference b) Measurement (3 measurement inputs - see non standard options = A7-MY) c) Input levels: d) Max Freq difference (Filter off): Connectors 5 or 10MHz sine wave 5 or 10MHz sine wave +0dBm to +13dBm into 501 Low multiplier High multiplier N Type, Front Panel Outputs a) Counter A channel b) Counter B channel c) Counter external reference 100kHz square wave CMOS/TTL (frequency mode) 10us pulse CMOS/TTL (phase difference mode) 10us pulse CMOS/TTL (phase difference mode) 10MHz CMOS/TTL Filter Nominal 3dB Bandwidths Selectable bandwidth IF ﬁlter reduces measurement noise 200Hz, 60Hz, 10Hz ´ Fractional frequency multiplication Selectable Measurement resolution Relative frequency difference mode RMS resolution (ﬁlter 200Hz) Measured resolution High multiplier Low multiplier Analogue Meter Resolution manually selected from 6 ranges Full scale ranges (decade steps) Time constant (linked to range) Time constant multiplier Displayed Noise Zero drift Phase difference mode (High resolution, Filter 200Hz) RMS resolution (single measurement) Analogue Meter Full scale ranges (decade steps) Displayed noise Zero drift ±5x10-5 ±5x10-5 ±1x10-5 ±1x10-7 High multiplier 105 Low multiplier 103 A7-MX Using internal phase/freq. meter (TIC) and Windows software Digits/second 1x10-13/gate time 1x10-12/gate time ±1x10-7 to ±1x10-12 20ms to 10s x1, x3, x10 <2x10-13 peak <2x10-13/hour 50fs (See note 1) ±10us to ±100ps <1ps peak <1ps/hour Note 1: Measured as the standard deviation of 1024 phase difference measurements/1.024s Short-term stability (noise ﬂoor) Sampling interval – gate time Drift Hour Day Temperature 30 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Tau 1ms 10ms 100ms Allan variance <5x10-11 <5x10-12 <5x10-13 1s 10s 100s 1,000s 10,000s <5x10-14 <1x10-14 <2x10-15 <5x10-16 <1x10-16 1ms to 2000s 1, 2, 5 Steps <1ps typical at constant ambient temp <5ps typical at constant ambient temp <2ps/°C Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A7-MX Measurement Error Input referred self generated spurii 103 multiplication 105 multiplication Corresponding peak phase modulation 103 multiplication 105 multiplication Allan Variance Error (due to each spur) 103 multiplication 105 multiplication <-90dBc <-100dBc <1ps <0.3ps Note: phase modulation spurii will be present at multiples of the input frequency difference. 10-12 divided by averaging interval (tau) 3x10-13 divided by averaging interval (tau) Phase Spectral Density Speciﬁcation (Close-In Phase Noise) Applications Speciﬁcations Maximum offset frequency Close-in Phase Noise ﬂoor Phase noise measurement at very small frequency offsets Identiﬁcation of spurious components in the data which can distort an Allan variance plot 500Hz (at 1ks/s) typically: -100dBc/Hz @ 10mHz offset (0.01Hz offset) -115dBc/Hz @ 100mHz offset (0.1Hz offset) -130dBc/Hz @ 1Hz offset -150dBc/Hz @ 100Hz offset -160dBc/Hz @ 500Hz offset Broadband Mode Note: 5 or 10MHz reference must be present at reference (front panel) input of A7-MX Input 50kHz to 65MHz 50kHz to 1MHz 1MHz to 50MHz 50MHz to 65MHz Connector Type BNC, rear panel Impedance 1Mohm Input levels 224mV rms (0dBm) to 2V rms (+19dBm) 70.7mV rms (-10dBm) to 2V rms (+19dBm) 224mV rms (0dBm) to 2V rms (+19dBm) BNC rear panel Resolution (nominal) Broad- and Narrowband 11 digits /second of gate time (averaging on) Noise Floor (allan variance) (measured at 10MHz, 10dBm input) Averaging off All gate times Averaging on Averaging factor 10 100 1000 Allan variance < 2x10-9 < 2x10-10 < 2x10-11 (Averaging factor = < 2x10-11 < 6x10-12 < 2x10-12 tau 100ms 1s 10s gate time/1ms) 1s 1s 1s General Speciﬁcation Virtual Front Panel Absolute or relative (normalised) frequency display User entered normalisation frequency Allan Variance graph Frequency data graph Data storage of phase or frequency data Temperature Range Operating: 10C to 35C (± 5C within this range during measurement) Storage: -10C to 60C Mechanical 2U 19” rack unit WxHxD(max) 450(483)x88(96)x345(370) <9kg Power Supply 120/ 240V AC line 50W max 24V DC battery backup with automatic switching. Current consumption 1Amp max. With option 1 add 1Amp Supplemental Performance Data (SPD) Please contact Quartzlock for SPD and applications note. Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com ´ 31 A7-MX Typical Narrowband Performance (PSD) ´ A7-MX Phase Noise Floor (10MHz) – Narrowband high resolution mode. 500MHz to 500Hz offset A7-MX Phase Noise Floor (10MHz) – Narrowband high resolution mode. 300uHz to 500Hz offset 32 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A7-MX Typical Narrowband Performance Graphs (AVAR) A7-MX Allan Variance (10MHz) – Narrowband high resolution mode. 10-3s t0 10s (red plot is predicted) A7-MX Allan Variance (10MHz) – Narrowband high resolution mode. 10-1s t0 8x10-4s (red plot is predicted) Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com ´ 33 A7-MX Typical Broadband Performance Graphs (PSD & AVAR) ´ Broadband Phase Noise Floor 300MHz to 500Hz offset Broadband Allan Variance Noise Floor. 1000s to 1000Hz offset (red plot is predicted) 34 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A7-MX Operational Description There are two inputs on the front panel. One of these is for the phase/ frequency reference which will often be an atomic frequency standard. The reference frequency can be 5 or 10MHz with automatic switching. The other input is for the measurement signal, also 5 or 10MHz, also with automatic switching. There are pushbutton controls for phase/frequency mode, multiplier ratio , ﬁlter selection, sampling rate (tau) and phase reset. There are also a number of controls which adjust the analog meter function. There are indicator lights to conﬁrm that the reference and measurement inputs are at the required level, and that the internal phase locked multipliers are locked. The analog meter shows fractional frequency difference with full scale ranges from +/-1x10-7 to +/-1x10-12, and phase differences with full scale ranges from +/10us to +/-100ps. When the instrument is connected to a PC, the control positions are read by the PC and displayed on the virtual control panel On the rear panel is the broadband frequency input which can be between 50kHz and 65MHz. Also on the rear panel are outputs to an external timer/counter, and a switch which adjusts the analogue meter time constant. The instrument has two main modes, narrowband, high resolution, and broadband. The selection between these modes is made on the PC virtual control panel. In narrowband, high resolution mode, the measured signal must be at 5 or 10MHz. In this mode the instrument uses multiply and mix techniques to increase the fractional frequency difference ( or phase difference) between the measured input and the reference. This improves the resolution of the digital phase comparator, and results in a theoretical phase resolution of 0.125fs. The actual resolution is noise limited to about 50fs. The corresponding fractional frequency resolution is 1x10-13 in one second of measurement time. In broadband mode the multiply and mix is not used. The digital phase comparator makes direct phase measurements with a resolution of 12.5ps. This is comparable to the fastest frequency counters and gives a fractional frequency resolution of 3x10-11 in one second of measurement time, or 2x10-12 with averaging switched on. When connected to a PC, the software provides 4 scalable windows. One of these is the virtual panel and digital display. The other 3 are data plot, Allan variance plot, and phase spectral density (phase noise) plot. The virtual panel provides control of measurement rate (tau), and mode (narrowband, high resolution, or broadband). Repeater indicators are provided to show the settings of controls on the physical instrument. It is possible to store blocks of measurements up to 32768 measurements into a computer ﬁle. Once a measurement is started, the instrument will store the complete measurement block internally, provide power is maintained. This makes certain that data is never lost, even if the computer crashes and has to be restarted. In Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 order to make sure that a long measurement run is not interrupted by a power failure, the instrument may be powed from a battery supply of 24V. This will automatically be used if line power should fail. The digital display shows phase or fractional frequency offset depending upon mode. The units and number of signiﬁcant digits is adjustable. Averaging mode may be selected from this window. If averaging is off, the digital phase comparator makes single measurements at the selected sampling rate. If averaging is on, the comparator operates at the maximum sampling rate of 1ks/s. A block average reduces the data rate to the slected sampling rate. Dither mode may be selected from this window. Dither is a technique which reduces unavoidable internally generated spurii to below the noise ﬂoor, at the expense of an increase in noise ﬂoor. For further details see operating manual. The data window shows real time accumulation of the data as a graph. The last 8 to 32768 data points may be shown on the graph. A statistics display shows max, min mean, and standard deviation for the data shown on the graph. The scaling of the y axis may be auto, manual, or max/min. The Allan variance window shows calculated Allan variance for all data accumulated since the start of a run. If averaging is off, single phase measurements are made at the requested sampling rate and the statistic is true Allan variance. If averaging mode is on, the statistic becomes modiﬁed Allan varaince. The graph title correctly indicates this. The Phase Spectral Density (PSD) window shows phase noise as a graph of L(f) in units of dBc against offset frequency on a log scale. Various window functions and averaging modes are provided. The routines are identical to those used in the Industry standard software “Stable32”. The user can select the basic length of the FFT, and also the degree of overlap. As data is accumulated, new FFTs are performed on a mix of old and new data depending on the overlap parameter. Each FFT result can either replace the last graph, be added to a block average, or be used in a continous or exponential average. All FFTs are correctly normalised for bin bandwidth, window ENBW, window coherent gain, and nominal frequency. Frequency data always has a ﬁxed offset removed before being used for the FFT calculation. Phase data has a ﬁxed slope ramp removed by linear regression. This avoids a large component in the lower frequency bins which will distort the result, even when windowing is used. A mode is provided for the measurement of discrete components (spurii). In this mode the scale is changed from L(f), dBc/Hz to Power,dBc. Corrections for bin bandwidth and window ENBW are removed. A ﬂat top window is provided for measurement of discretes, with scallop loss of only 0.01dB. Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com ´ 35 A7-MX Technical Description ´ The principle behind the A7-MX is to increase the resolution of a digital phase meter. This is achieved by multiplying the frequency to be measured to a higher frequency, and then mixing it down to a lower frequency using a local oscillator derived from the frequency reference. The principle is illustrated in Figure 1, and has been made the basis of a number of instruments in the past. The relationship is shown for signals down the mix/multiply chain for an input signal with a difference of delta f from the reference, and also for a signal with no frequency difference, but with a phase difference of delta t. (An important clariﬁcation is that “phase” difference beteween two signals can either be measured either in time units or angle units. A measurement in time units does not specify or imply the frequency of the signals. A measurement in angle units (radians) needs a prior knowledge of the frequency. Throughout this description, phase will be measured in time units) It should be noted that a frequency multiplication multiplies a frequency difference but leaves a phase difference unchanged. Conversely, a mixing process leaves a frequency difference unchanged, but multiplies a phase difference. When the frequency differences are converted to fractional frequency differences by dividing by the nominal frequency, it will be seen that the multiplication factors for frequency and phase are the same. The big disadvantage in the simple approach shown in Figure 1 is that phase drift with temperature will be excessive. As rate of phase drift is equal to the fractional frequency difference, the measurement of the frequency of an unknown device will be in error. For example, a drift rate of 10ps per second in the ﬁrst multiplier in the Figure 1 diagram will be multiplied to 1ns per second at the output. This is equivalent to a 1 x 10-12 frequency error due to drift. Phase drift may occur in mixers and multipliers, but more especially in multipliers. If harmonic multipliers are used, drift will occur in the analogue ﬁlters that are used to separate the wanted harmonic from the subharmonics and unwanted mixer products. If phase lock multipliers are used, phase drift will occur in the digital dividers. To overcome the drift problem, the multiplier/mixer chain is made differential, ie the reference signal is processed in an identical way to the unknown. When the two channels are subtracted, any drift in the multipliers will cancel. The method of doing this can be seen from the functional block diagram of the A7-MX, ﬁgure 2. The ﬁrst stage of the processing for both the reference and measurement channels is a multiplication by 10 (20 for 5MHz inputs). The multipliers are phase locked loops with a VCXO of 100MHz locked to the input by dividing by 10 (20 for 5MHz inputs). The phase detectors used are double balanced diode mixer type phase detectors. These exhibit the lowest phase drift with temperature. The dividers used are ECL types with very small propagation delays. The outputs of the dividers are reclocked using a D type ﬂipﬂop clocked by the 100MHz VCXO signal. In this way the divider delay is made equal to the propagation delay of one D type, approx 500ps. As a further reﬁnement, the reclocking D types for the reference and measurement channels are closely thermally coupled. As the divider propagation delays are equal to the reclocking ﬂipﬂop delays, the tracking between the reference and measurement channels is exceptionally good. The VCXO signals at 100MHz also drive double balanced FET mixers for the ﬁrst down conversion to 1MHz. The 99MHz LO is common to both the reference and measurement channels, and is obtained from a 2 way passive inductive type power splitter. The output from the mixers is ﬁltered by diplexer type ﬁlters to remove the image at 199MHz and the signal and LO feed through at 100MHz and 99MHz respectively. The wanted IFs at 1MHz are passed without further processing to the second multipliers. The avoidance of IF ampliﬁers at this point avoids drift which could be substantial as the propagation delay of the IF ampliﬁer could be several 100 nanoseconds. IF ampliﬁers are used for the ﬁrst IF take off points to the IF processing board. The ﬁrst IFs are used when a multiplication of 103 is selected. The second multipliers are nearly identical to the ﬁrst multipliers with the difference that the phase lock loop dividers divide by 100. This multiplies the ﬁrst IF of 1MHz to the second VCXO frequency of 100MHz. The second downconvert is identical to the ﬁrst, with the second IFs being passed to the IF processing board. The ﬁrst and second multipliers/mixers for the reference and measurement channels are built symmetrically on one PCB (Printed Circuit Board). In order to ensure the best possible temperature tracking beween the channels, the PCB is in good thermal contact with a thick metal baseplate. This minimises rapid temperature changes between the channels. The two pairs of IF signals (sine wave) are passed to the IF processing PCB. The two pairs are the outputs from the ﬁrst and second downconvertors. They correspond to ﬁnal multiplication factors of 103 and 105. Also on the IF processing board is the 99MHz LO generation and phase lock. A 10MHz unmultiplied signal is passed to the IF processing board from the reference channel on the Multiplier board. The 1MHz IFs could be divided down and measured directly by the frequency counter, which would make a time difference measurement between the measurement and reference IF signals. In this way the difference between the channels would be measured and any drift would cancel. Although this would work for a phase measurement, there 36 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 would be no way of making a conventional frequency measurement. The IFs cannot be directly subtracted in a mixer as they are both nominally 1MHz, and the nominal difference frequency would be zero. In order to avoid this problem, the multiplied reference IF is frequency shifted to 900kHz using an LO of 100kHz derived from the unmultiplied reference. The 900kHz is then mixed with the 1MHz measurement channel IF to give a ﬁnal IF of 100kHz. This ﬁnal IF contains the multiplied frequency difference, but drift in the multipliers and phase noise in the common 99MHz LO will have been canceled out. The detailed process is as follows: The 10MHz reference from the multiplier board (this is derived from the reference input without multiplication) is divided by 25 to 400kHz. The 400kHz is then divided by 4 to give two quadrature signals at 100kHz. These signals are ﬁltered using low pass ﬁlters to give 100kHz quadrature sine waves. The 1MHz multiplied reference IF (after limiting) is delayed by 250ns to give quadrature square waves. These operate dual switching mixers with the 100kHz quadrature sine waves as the linear inputs. The outputs are combined to form an image reject mixer, with the wanted sideband at 900kHz and the unwanted sideband at 1.1MHz. The 900kHz sideband is ﬁltered in an LC bandpass ﬁlter to further remove the unwanted sideband and the 1MHz feed through. This output is used as the linear input to a further switching mixer which downconverts the 1MHz multiplied measurement IF (after limiting) to the ﬁnal IF of 100kHz. The ﬁnal IF is ﬁltered in an LC bandpass ﬁlter to remove the unwanted sideband at 1.9MHz and any other mixer products. The measurement and reference channels have now been combined into a single IF of 100kHz with the drift and LO instabilities removed. This IF is now further processed to provide the counter outputs as will be described in the next paragraphs. The measurement bandwidth of the system has been deﬁned up to this point by the loop bandwidths of the phase lock multipliers and the bandwidth of the 100kHz LC ﬁlter. The 3dB bandwidth is about 8kHz. This means that fourier frequencies further displaced from the carrier of greater than 5kHz will be attenuated. The phase measurement process essentially samples the phase of the unknown signal relative to the reference at a rate determined by the selected tau (selectable from 1ms to 2000sec). As with any sampling process, aliasing of higher frequency noise into the baseband will occur. Thus further band limiting of the 100kHz IF is desirable before measurement takes place. The A7-MX has a crystal ﬁlter following the LC ﬁlter with selectable bandwidths of nominally 10Hz, 60Hz, and 200Hz. For most Allan variance plots at least the 200Hz ﬁlter should be used. The use of a ﬁlter will reduce the noise ﬂoor of the instrument which is desirable when measuring very stable active sources and most passive devices. After the crystal ﬁlter the 100kHz IF is limited to a square wave by a zero crossing detector. This output is made available to the counter A channel when frequency mode is selected. Both the 100kHz IF containing the multiplied frequency difference information and the 100kHz unmultiplied reference are divided in identical divider chains down to 1kHz to 1mHz in selectable decade steps. The output of the dividers trigger digital (clocked) monostables to generate 10us pulses which are routed to the counter A and B channels when phase mode is selected. When the internal digital phase comparator is in use, the phase of both the 100kHz reference and the 100kHz multiplied IFs are measured relative to the unmultiplied 10MHz reference. The digital phase comparator then calculates the resulting phase difference or fractional frequency offset depending upon the selected mode. The digital phase meter also applies averaging if selected. It has internal storage sufﬁcient for 32768 measurements. The RS232 interface to the computer uses full handshaking to prevent data loss. The internal phase comparator has a resolution of 12.5ps, obtained by using an analogue pulse expander circuit. The meter circuit also uses the 100kHz IF and 100kHz reference. The basis of the circuit is a differential frequency to voltage convertor. However in order to increase the resolution of this circuit, a further stage of multiplication and mixing is employed. The 100kHz reference is divided down to 500Hz. This frequency is then multiplied to 4.9995MHz using a phase lock loop with a divider of 9999. The 100kHz measurement IF is multiplied to 5MHz also using a phase lock loop. Finally the 5MHz signal and the 4.9995MHz signal are mixed together to give an IF of 500Hz. An additional fractional frequency multiplication of 104 results. On the least sensitive meter range this 500Hz IF varies in frequency from 0Hz to 1kHz. The 500Hz measurement IF and the 500Hz reference both trigger digital monostables which produce very accurate ﬁxed width pulses . These pulses are used to gate an accurate positive and negative current into a chopper stabilised summing ampliﬁer. The output of the summing ampliﬁer is a voltage which drives the moving coil centre zero meter. The meter circuit has four decade ranges which in conjunction with the two multiplication factors of the main comparator results in 6 meter ranges with full scale deﬂections of 10-7 to 10-12. The meter time constants are linked to the meter range, however may be increased if desired using a switch mounted on the rear panel. Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A7-MX A7-MX Block Diagram Figure 1 Figure 2 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 37 E8-X / E8-X OEM GPS Timing & Frequency Reference Q Q Q Q Accurate to 25ns RMS UTC No Drift High Stability Internationally Traceable Standard Approx actual size The Quartzlock E8-X represents a breakthrough in exceptionally low cost, tracable, calibration-free “GPS” frequency & time standards. These very low cost references maintain the high frequency & time accuracy required for demanding applications. This product is available as a PCB level component. Features Beneﬁts sX-12 accuracy s#HANNEL'032ECEIVERWITH42!)s-(Z/UTPUT s003/UTPUT s.OCALIBRATIONREQUIRED s#HANNEL'032ECEIVERPROVIDESHIGHACCURACY54#4IME&REQUENCY2EFERENCE s6ERYCOSTEFFECTIVE sYEARWARRANTY s#OMPACTFORMFACTOR Applications s0RODUCTION4EST&REQUENCY2EFERENCE s4IME&REQUENCYSTANDARDFORCALIBRATION2&,ABORATORIES s&REQUENCY3TANDARDFORCOUNTERSSIGNALGENERATORS3PECTRUM.ETWORK!NALYSERS s4IME&REQUENCY2EFERENCEFORSATELLITECOMMUNICATIONSGROUNDSTATIONS#$-!,4%$46$!" 38 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com E8-X / E8-X OEM Speciﬁcation Outputs a) Sinewave Harmonics Spurii b) TTL 3.3VCMOS 10MHz, 12dBm +/- 2dBm into 50 Ohms <-50dBc <-75dBc 1pulse per second 4ns standard deviation Warm Time <15 minutes to specified accuracy Power Supply Antenna 15V dc (ac psu provided) Active GPS antenna supplied (5m lead). High gain antenna option with 20m lead. Current Consumption 250mA typical Size E8-X 105 x 30 x 125mm desktop module 100 x 120mm Frequency Accuracy 1x10-12 Long Term Short Term Stability tau 1s 10s 100s 1000s 10000s Allan Variance (typ) <2x10-10 <4x10-10 <5x10-11 <2x10-11 <5x10-12 USB Option Ask Quartzlock Option 43 (E8-X or Y) PCB version Option 46 Antenna & PSU (5m antenna lead) (for the E8-X OEM) 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz 10kHz -60 dBc -90 dBc -115 dBc -130 dBc -140 dBc Option 47 High gain antenna & PSU (20m antenna lead) Phase Noise (typ) Option 43 Lock Indicator On - Not Locked Off - Locked, Low Phase Error Short flash every second Locked, High Phase Error GPS Indicator Green - Indicates number of satellites used in time solution Amber - Indicates number of satellites tracked but not used in time solution E8X-OEM (Option 43) Survey, Satellite Azimuth & Elevation, Navigation, Timing & Signal Quality Monitoring These software packages will find educational survey and GNSS applications. Demonstration of the location, timing and navigation functions are provided. Quartzlock GPS instruments have been designed to work with various external software packages such as WinOncore. These programmes enable the main parameters of the GPS signals to be easily verified, particularly input signal level and satellites in view. WinOncore12 has been designed for use as an evaluation and testing tool in conjunction with Motorola’s GT, UT and M12 Oncore GPS receivers. This utility will aid the user in initializing and operating the Oncore receiver, displaying, plotting and printing data from the receiver, and recording and replaying data files. Other Oncore receivers such as the VP, Basic or XT Oncore may also be used with WinOncore12; however, not all of the input and output (I/O) messages are defined. If you are using a receiver which supports I/O messages not defined in WinOncore12, you may customize support for each desired message in the Command Manager. WinOncore12 supports both NMEA and Motorola Binary protocol, and thus may be used to record live data or playback previously recorded data from a NMEA (*.GPS) file or Motorola Binary (*.bin) file. WinOncore12 will run under Windows 95/98/2000 and NT. Quartzlock accept no responsibility for accuracy or performance of these external programs. Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 39 E8-Y / E8-Y OEM GPS Time & Frequency Reference Q Q Q Q -110dBc/Hz @ 1Hz offset Phase Noise Internationally Traceable Standard Accurate to 25ns RMS UTC No Drift The E8-Y GPS provides low noise, traceable, calibration free Time & Frequency Reference. These time and frequency standards maintain high time & frequency accuracy required for demanding applications. The E8-Y may be considered as a primary reference clock. Features Beneﬁts s-(Z/UTPUT s003/UTPUT sX-12 accuracy s23#ONNECTION53"OPTION s#HANNEL'032ECEIVERWITH42!)s%XCELLENT(OLDOVERPERFORMANCE s.O#ALIBRATIONREQUIRED s'034RACEABLE2EFERENCE s#HANNEL'03RECEIVERPROVIDESHIGHACCURACY UTC time & frequency reference sYEARWARRANTY s.40OPTIONINPLACEOF'036IEW Applications s4IME&REQUENCY2EFERENCEFOR3ATELLITECOMMUNICATIONGROUNDSTATIONS#$-!,4%$46$!" s0RODUCTIONTESTFREQUENCYSTANDARD s4IME&REQUENCYSTANDARDFORCALIBRATION2&LABORATORIES s&REQUENCYREFERENCEFORCOUNTERSSIGNALGENERATORSSPECTRUMNETWORKANALYSERS s7IREDWIRELESSNETWORKSYNCHRONIZATION 40 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com E8-Y / E8-Y OEM Speciﬁcation Outputs a) Sinewave Harmonics Spurii b) TTL 3.3VCMOS 10MHz, 12dBm +/2dBm into 50 Ohms <-50dBc <-75dBc Warm Time <30 minutes to specified accuracy Power Supply Antenna 15V dc (ac psu provided) Active GPS antenna supplied (5m lead). High gain antenna option with 20m lead. 1pulse per second Jitter 7ns standard deviation Current Consumption 250m A typical Size E8-Y Frequency Accuracy 1 x10-12 Long Term Hold over 100us per day Short Term Stability tau 1s 10s 100s 1000s Allan Variance (typ) 2x10-12 <4x10-13 <5x10-12 <2x10-12 Phase Noise (typ) 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz 10kHz -110 dBc -136 dBc -145 dBc -155 dBc -157 dBc Lock Indicator On - Not Locked Off - Locked, Low Phase Error Short flash every second Locked, High Phase Error GPS Indicator Green - Indicates number of satellites used in time solution Amber - Indicates number of satellites tracked but not used in time solution Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 E8-Y PCB OEM E8-Y MIL 105 x 30 x 125mm desktop module 100 x 120mm CNC machined microwave housing Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 41 E8000 GPS Master Clock Very Low Noise Frequency & Timing Primary Reference Source Q Q Q Phase Noise is -110dBc/[email protected] offset as standard Stability (AVAR) is 8x10-13/s typically Accuracy 25us, 100us/day holdover The Quartzlock E8000 represents a breakthrough in very low noise, traceable, calibration-free GPS frequency & time standards. These very cost effective references maintain the high frequency and time accuracy required for demanding applications. Low distortion 10MHz Sine & 1PPS outputs. Ultra low noise options are available. Considerably enhanced surveillance, wired and wireless communications are possible with E8000’s much lower noise levels Features Beneﬁts sX-12 accuracy s.O$RIFT s(IGHEST3TABILITYAVAILABLE s9EAR7ARRANTY s,OWEST#OST!VAILABLE s6ERYLONGPRODUCTIONLIFESUPPORT s.OCALIBRATIONREQUIRED s4RACEABLE2EFERENCENATIONALLYINTERNATIONALLY s%XTERNAL)NTERNAL""5OPTIONS s-ANYOPTIONSAVAILABLEINCLUDING.40#LOCK2EFERENCE/UTPUT s5,.OPTIONSD"C(Z (ZOFFSETD"C(Z K(Z 5MHz option has -123dBc/Hz @ 1Hz offset Phase Noise 5x10-13/s AVAR short term stability Applications s&REQUENCY2EFERENCEFOR3ATELLITE#OMMUNICATION'ROUND3TATIONS6(&5(&0-248#$-!4ETRA$46$!" Wired & Wireless network synch s.ETWORK4IME0ROTOCOLUSEIN&INANCIAL5TILITIES3ECURITY#OMMUNICATIONS4IMING s/%s&REQUENCY3TANDARDFOR#ALIBRATION,ABS2ADIO7ORKSHOPS2&,ABS0RODUCTION4EST s#ALIBRATIONOF#OUNTERS&REQUENCY-ETERS3PECTRUM.ETWORK6.!!NALYSERS3YNTHESIZERS & Communication Analysers 42 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com E8000 Speciﬁcation E8000 VERY LOW NOISE 10MHz Outputs a) Sinewave E8000 ULTRA LOW NOISE 5MHz OPTION Harmonics Spurii 10MHz, 12dBm +/- 2dBm into 50 Ohms < -30dBc <-80dBc b) TTL 3.3VCMOS 1pulse per second (4ns std dev) Outputs a) Sinewave Harmonics Spurii 10MHz, 12dBm +/- 2dBm into 50 Ohms < -30dBc <-80dBc b) TTL 3.3VCMOS 1pulse per second (4ns std dev) Frequency Accuracy 1x10-12 Long Term Frequency Accuracy 1x10-12 Long Term Hold over 100 us/24hrs Hold over 100 us/24hrs Short Term Stability tau 1s 10s 100s 1000s 10,000s Allan Variance <2x10-12 <4x10-13 <5x10-12 <2x10-12 <8x10-13 Short Term Stability tau 1s 10s 100s 1000s 10,000s Allan Variance <5x10-13 <4x10-13 <5x10-13 <2x10-12 <8x10-13 Phase Noise (typ) 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz 10kHz -110 dBc/Hz -136 dBc/Hz -145 dBc/Hz -155 dBc/Hz -157 dBc/Hz Phase Noise (typ) 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz 10kHz -123 dBc/Hz -140 dBc/Hz -150 dBc/Hz -155 dBc/Hz -158 dBc/Hz Lock Indicator On - Not Locked Off - Locked, Low Phase Error Short flash every second Locked, High Phase Error Lock Indicator On - Not Locked Off - Locked, Low Phase Error Short flash every second Locked, High Phase Error GPS Indicator Green - Indicates number of satellites used in time solution Amber - Indicates number of satellites tracked but not used in time solution GPS Indicator Green - Indicates number of satellites used in time solution Amber - Indicates number of satellites tracked but not used in time solution Warm Time <30 minutes to specified accuracy Warm Time <30 minutes to specified accuracy Power Supply 100 ... 240V ac (External 12Vdc Battery Back Up seamless switching option) Power Supply 100 ... 240V ac (External 12Vdc Battery Back Up seamless switching option) (Internal 12Vdc Lithium Ion battery with charger > 1 hour holdover option) Current Consumption 250mA typical ¾ (Internal 12Vdc Lithium Ion battery with charger > 1 hour holdover option) Current Consumption 250mA typical Size 19” x 1 ” 1U Rack Mount 483 x 44 x 230mm excl connectors 560 x 340 x 100mm packed Size 19” x 1¾” 1U Rack Mount 483 x 44 x 230mm excl connectors 560 x 340 x 100mm packed GPS Antenna 5m cable and connector supplied GPS Antenna Supplied with 5m cable and connector Option High gain antenna with 20m cable Option High gain antenna with 20m cable Interface GPS 9.6kbaud, Motorola binary format RS232 PC compatible (8bits no parity, no handshake) or NTP Clock Reference Output option DPLL Tracking 5mHz to 500mHz typical in 8 binary Bandwidths increments default 20mHz Option 9 See Quartzlock E5-X Speciﬁcation on page 12 Outputs: 6 x10MHz low distortion, sinewave, isolated, +13dBm 1V rms 50 Ohms Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com ´ 43 E8010 GPS Disciplined Rubidium Time & Frequency Reference Q Q Q Q No drift Internationally traceable standard 110dBc/Hz @ 1Hz phase noise option Accurate to 25 Nanoseconds RMS UTC The E8010 provides a stable and accurate calibration free GPS time and frequency reference with multiple output signal formats in an easy to install 1U rack mountable chassis. These references maintain high time and frequency accuracy required for demanding applications. Features Beneﬁts s s s s s s s s s s -(Z/UTPUT 003OUTPUTS .ETWORK4IME3ERVER.40/PTION %XCELLENTHOLDOVERPERFORMANCEUSDAY #HANNEL'032ECEIVERWITH42!)X-12/s AVAR option .OCALIBRATIONREQUIRED '03TRACEABLEREFERENCE #AESIUMREPLACEMENT CHANNEL'03RECEIVERPROVIDESHIGHACCURACY54# time and frequency reference Applications s 4IMEANDFREQUENCYREFERENCEFORSATELLITECOMMUNICATIONGROUNDSTATIONS#$-!,4%$46$!" s 0RODUCTIONTESTFREQUENCYSTANDARD s 4IMEANDFREQUENCYSTANDARDFORCALIBRATIONANDRFLABORATORIES s &REQUENCYSTANDARDFORCOUNTERSSIGNALGENERATORSSPECTRUMANDNETWORKANALYSERS s 7IREDAND7IRELESSNETWORKSYNCHRONIZATION s 3TRATUMPRIMARYREFERENCECLOCK 44 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com E8010 Speciﬁcation Outputs Size 19” x 1.75” 1U rack mount Harmonics Spurii 10MHz, 12dBm +/2dBm into 50 Ohms <-50dBc <-75dBc Antenna Supplied with cable & connectors Interface Shared between DPLL and GPS receiver b) TTL 3.3VCMOS Accuracy 1pulse per second 4ns standard deviation DPLL 9.6kbaud, RS232, PC compatible (8bits no parity, no handshake) GPS 9.6kbaud, Motorola binary format (8bits no parity, no handshake) DPLL Tracking 5mHz to 500mHz typical in 8 binary bandwidths increments default 20mHz Option 9 See Quartzlock E5-X a) Sinewave Frequency Accuracy x10-13 Long Term Hold over 1us per day Short Term Stability tau 1s 10s 100s 1000s 10000s 1 hour Allan Variance (typ) 3x10-12 2x10-12 8x10-13 5x10-13 5x10-13 x10-13 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz 10kHz -70 dBc -100 dBc -120 dBc -140 dBc -145 dBc Phase Noise (typ) (see low noise options) Hold-over Exceeds telecom stratum 1 requirements Lock Indicator On - Not Locked Off - Locked, Low Phase Error Short flash every second Locked, High Phase Error GPS Indicator Green - Indicates number of satellites used in time solution Amber - Indicates number of satellites tracked but not used in time solution Warm Time <15 minutes to specified accuracy Power Supply 85 ... 240V ac (BBU option) Current Consumption 250m A typical Quartzlock GPS instruments have been designed to work with various external software packages such as WinOncore. We accept no responsibility for accuracy or performance of these external programs. These programmes enable the main parameters of the GPS signals to be easily verified, particularly input signal level and satellites in view. WinOncore12 has been designed for use as an evaluation and testing tool in conjunction with Motorola’s GT, UT and M12 Oncore GPS receivers. This utility will aid the user in initializing and operating the Oncore receiver, displaying, plotting and printing data from the receiver, and recording and replaying data files. Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Outputs 6 x10MHz low distortion, sinewave, isolated, +13dBm 1V rms 50 Ohms Option 48 Ultra Low Noise (contact Quartzlock) Option 0 24V dc BBU (Battery Back-Up switch) Option 1 4 Outputs – see model E5 spec. For use with ULN option only. Option 43 OEM Open Frame version Other Oncore receivers such as the VP, Basic or XT Oncore may also be used with WinOncore12; however, not all of the input and output (I/O) messages are defined. If you are using a receiver which supports I/O messages not defined in WinOncore12, you may customize support for each desired message in the Command Manager. WinOncore12 supports both NMEA and Motorola Binary protocol, and thus may be used to record live data or playback previously recorded data from a NMEA (*.GPS) file or Motorola Binary (*.bin) file. WinOncore12 will run under Windows 95/98/2000 and NT. See screenshot image on E8000, page 40 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 45 E10-MRX Rubidium Oscillator – Sub Miniature Atomic Clock (SMAC) Q Q Q Q Compact rubidium oscillator for a wide range of applications OCXO form factor and pin out Low power operation Ageing 5x10-10/year Actual size The E10-MRX rubidium oscillator is a sub miniature atomic clock exhibits normal rubidium oscillator performance in a 65cc OCXO style package. This rubidium oscillator has 100x less drift than OCXO’s. With short term stability of 8x10-12/s @ 100s this rubidium oscillator provides signiﬁcant improvements in performance over. Features Beneﬁts s s s s s s !TOMICACCURACY s ,OWPOWERCONSUMPTION s XLESSDRIFTTHAN/#8/S -(ZOUTPUT vXvXvFORMFACTOR D"C(Z (Z X-11 accuracy X-12/s @100s Applications s 3TANDALONEFREERUNSTABLEFREQUENCYSOURCEFOR5-43AND,4% s %XTENDEDHOLDOVERFOR#$-!7I-!8AND,4%BASESTATIONS s 3TABILITYFORVARIOUSOTHERCOMMUNICATIONANDTRANSMISSIONAPPLICATIONS 46 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com E10-MRX Speciﬁcation Outputs 10MHz Sine, 7~13dBm (HCOMS option) Harmonics <-40dBc Accuracy ±5x10-11 at shipment @ 25C Short Term Stability (AVAR) 1s 10s 100s 8x10-11 3x10-11 8x10-12 Drift Day Month 5x10-12 5x10-11 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz -67dBc/Hz -95dBc/Hz -127dBc/Hz -140dBc/Hz Phase to Noise (SSB) Connector Interface 5 Pins match standard OCXO conﬁgurations Pin 1: Input frequency control Pin 2: Lock monitor Pin 3: Output signal Pin 4: Ground (signal & supply) Pin 5: Input supply (+) Environmental Speciﬁcation Operating Temp Range -20°C~+50°C Typical: -30~+65°C Base Plate Temp -30°C~+85°C Case Temperature <45°C (after 1 hour, ambient temp 25°C. No ventilation Input Power 6W at 12V @ 25°C, Max 1.2A Temperature Coefﬁcient (ambient) 5x10-10 (0~50°C) Input Voltage Range +12V~+18Vdc Storage Temp -55°C~+85°C Warm Time 5 minutes to lock @ 25C MTBF 100,000 hours Retrace )±2x10-11 Magnetic ﬁeld sensitivity, dc (±2 GAUSS) Environmental health RoHS <±4x10-11/GAUSS Shock / Vibration GR-CORE-63, 4.5.2/4, locked to 1.0g Frequency Control >5x10-9 (External trim range: 0V~5V) EMI Compliant to FCC Part 15 Class B External Trim Range *5x10-9 (0V~5V) Outline Dimensions Size 50.8~50.8~25 (mm3) (65cc) Weight <150gm Warranty 24/36 months Magnetic Field Sensitivity Atmospheric Pressure Approx MTBF, Stationary Mechanical <2x10-11/Gauss -60m ~ 4000m <1x10-13/mbar 100,000 hours 51 x 51 x 25mm (2 x 2 x 1”) Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 47 E10-LN Very Low Noise Miniature Rubidium Oscillator Module Q Q Q Very low phase noise -110dBc/Hz @ 1Hz Low power operation Ageing 5x10-10/year Actual size The E10-LN Very Low Noise Rubidium Oscillator Module is a sub miniature atomic clock with Quartzlock’s A6-CPS ‘active noise ﬁlter’ technology. This rubidium oscillator has 100x less drift than OCXO’s. With short term stability of 2x10-12/s @ 100s this rubidium oscillator provides signiﬁcant improvements in performance over other rubidium components. Ultra Low Noise 100MHz versions for radar and millimetre wave applications Features Beneﬁts s s s s s s s s s -(ZOUTPUT XXMMFORMFACTOR D"C(Z (ZPHASENOISE X-11 accuracy X-12/s @100s 6ERYLOWNOISEANDHIGHERSTABILITYINCUSTOMERSPRODUCT !TOMICACCURACY ,OWPOWERCONSUMPTION XLESSDRIFTTHAN/#8/S Applications s [email protected]LLATORWILLENABLENEWAPPLICATIONS s ,4% s %XTENDEDHOLDOVERFOR#$-!7I-!8AND,4%BASESTATIONS s (IGHERSTABILITYANDLOWERPHASENOISECOMMUNICATIONANDSURVEILLANCEAPPLICATIONS 48 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com E10-LN Speciﬁcation Options to 100MHz Outputs See options 10MHz, +7dBm into 501, 0.5VRMS Adjustment Mechanical Range Electrical Range Control Voltage Factory Setting 2x10-9 min 2x10-9 min 0 ~ 5V ±5x10-11 Frequency Stability AVAR 1s 10s 100s 1 hour 2x10-12 5x10-12 4x10-13 6x10-12 Ageing 1 day 1 month 1 year 5x10-12 5x10-11 4x10-10 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz 10kHz dBc/Hz -110 -140 -145 -155 -157 Phase Noise dBc/Hz in 1Hz BW Harmonics <30dBc Spurious <80dBc Warm Time to 1 x 10-9 5 minutes Retrace after 24h off & 1h on, same temp <3x10-13 Power Supply Power at steady state at 25C s-(Z -182dBc/Hz Noise Floor 6W at 15V @ 25°C, Max 1.2A Frequency Offset over output voltage range <2x10-11 Temperature Operating Storage Freq offset over operating temp range -20C ~ +50C -40C ~ +70C <3x10-10 Magnetic Field Sensitivity Atmospheric Pressure Approx MTBF, Stationary <2x10-11/Gauss -60m ~ 4000m <1x10-13/mbar 100,000 hours Mechanical 91 x 55 x 30mm PCB component CNC Machined Defence Housing Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 49 A10-LPRO Low Proﬁle Rubidium Oscillator Q Q Q Q High Performance Reference Three year warranty 24V dc 13W Excellent stability & drift out to 1hr & 1day The A10-LPRO is a compact cost effective OEM Low Proﬁle Rubidium Oscillator Frequency Standard that maintains the high time & frequency accuracy demanded in applications such as telecoms, aviation, nautical and precision test & measurement. Ideal for mission critical applications. A current production replacement for earlier products. These references maintain high time and frequency accuracy required for demanding applications. Features Beneﬁts s s s s s 3IMPLEINTEGRATIONINTOSYSTEMS s &ITS5CASE s ,OW&AILURERISK -(Z/UTPUT 3TABILITYX-12/100s !GEINGX-10/year D"C(Z (ZPHASENOISE Applications s 4ELECOM.ETWORK3YNCHRONISATION s &REQUENCY#ALIBRATION s "ROADCAST s #ELLULAR7IRELESS"ASE3TATIONS s $ESIGNINFREQUENCYREFERENCE 50 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A10-LPRO Pin Connections Standard Speciﬁcation Output 10MHz, +7dBm into 507 OHMS, 5V RMS Adjustment Mechanical range Electrical range Control range Factory setting 2x10-9 min 2x10-9 min 0–5V ±5x10-11 1s 10s 100s 1 day 3x10-11 1 day 1 month 1 year 3x10-12 Phase noise 10Hz 100Hz 1000Hz 10000Hz 100dBc 120dBc 140dBc 145dBc Harmonics <40dBc Frequency Stability Aging Spurious Warm time to 1x10 1x10-11 3x10-12 1x10-11 4x10-11 5x10-10 C1: ‘D’ 9 Pin Male C2: SMA RF Output 1. Lock Monitor (BIT) 2. DC Return 3. Case 4. N/C 5. Ext ‘C’ Field Voltage (0–5V) 6. N/C 7. DC Power (+24V) 8. VCXO CV Monitor 9. Lamp (Light) Monitor Dimensions <80dBc -9 5 minutes Retrace after 24h off and 1h on, same temp <3x10-11 Power Supply Power at steady state at 25°C Freq offset over output voltage range 13W @ 24V (22–30Vdc) @ 25°C, Max 2A <2x10-11 Temperature Operating Storage Freq offset over operating temperature range Magnetic Field Sensitivity Atmospheric Pressure Approx MTBF, Stationary Mechanical Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 -20°C – +50°C -40°C – +70°C STS <3x10-10 <2x10-11/Gauss -60m – 4000m <1x10-13/mbar 100,000Hrs 38 (40 RS232 version) x 94 x 127mm, 650g max 1.5" (1.57" RS232 version) x 3.7 x 5", 23oz max Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 51 A10-Y Ultra Low Noise Rubidium Oscillator Q Q Q Q 10MHz standard version has -110dBc/Hz @ 1Hz phase noise Uses Quartzlock Digital PLL DDS Clean-up Loop technology 5MHz option has -123dBc/Hz @ 1Hz offset 100MHz option has -180dBc/Hz noise ﬂoor Features Beneﬁts s!GEINGX-10/year s4HREE9EAR7ARRANTY s3HORT4ERM3TABILITYX-12/100s sX-11 accuracy The use of ULN-Rb Oscillators enables: s7EAK3IGNAL$ETECTION s,OW%RROR2ATES s(IGHER2ADAR3ENSITIVITY s(IGHER$ElNITIONIN-2))MAGING3YSTEMS Applications s3ECURITY s,OW.OISE)NSTRUMENTATION2EFERENCE s2ADAR s.AVIGATION s2&-ICROWAVE4EST3OLUTION2EFERENCE s3ECURE#OMMUNICATIONS 52 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A10-Y Speciﬁcations Output (100MHz ULN option) 10MHz, +7dBm into 501, 0.5VRMS 1MHz to 40MHz output. Option 5MHz output (not using DDS). Adjustment Mechanical Range Electrical Range Control Voltage Factory Setting Frequency Stability (10MHz) 1s 10s 100s 1 hour 10MHz <5x10-12 <5x10-12 <3x10-12 <6x10-12 2x10-9 min 2x10-9 min 0 ~ 5V ±5x10-11 1x10-12 4x10-11 5x10-10 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz 10kHz 10MHz dBc/Hz <-110 <-140 <-145 <-150 <-155 <2x10-11/Gauss -60m ~ 4000m <1x10-13/mbar Approx MTBF, Stationary 40 x 94x 206mm, 1000g approx 1.6”x 3.7”x8.1”, 35oz approx 5MHz <5x10-13 Lock Indicator On - Not Locked Off - Locked, Low Phase Error Short flash every second Locked, High Phase Error <6x10-12 Interface 9.6kbaud, RS232, PC compatible Interface Codes See separate document Option 42 1MHz to 40MHz output. 5MHz output (not using DDS). Outline Drawing Phase Noise dBc/Hz 5MHz Opt dBc/Hz <-123 <-140 typ <-145 typ <-150 typ <-156 typ Harmonics <30dBc Spurious <80dBc Warm time to 1x10-9 5 minutes Retrace <3x10-11 after 24h off & 1h on, same temp Power Supply Power at steady state at 25°C: 13W @ 24V (22~30Vdc) @ 25°C, Max 2A Freq offset over output voltage range: <2x10-11 Temperature Sensitivity Atmospheric Pressure Approx MTBF, Stationary Mechanical Aging 1 day 1 month 1 year Magnetic Field Operating Storage Freq offset over operating temperature range Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 -20°C ~ +50°C -40°C ~ +70°C <3x10-10 Pin Connections C1: ‘D’ 9 Pin Male C2: SMA RF Output 1. Lock 2. GND 3. GND 4. Rx 5. EXT control 6. TX 7. +24V 8. VCXO monitor 9. Lamp monitor Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 53 E10-MRO Miniature Rubidium Oscillator 1PPS Discipline I/0 Sync Q 12V dc 8W Q High Performance Reference, exhibits excellent drift per hour and per day Q The E10-MRO is a compact cost effective Miniature Rubidium Oscillator Frequency Standard that maintains the high time and frequency accuracy demanded in applications such as telecoms, aviation, nautical and precision test and measurement. Features Beneﬁts s23)NTERFACE s,OW0HASE.OISETOD"C(ZOPTION s!GEINGX-10/year s3TABILITYX-12/100s s-(Z/UTPUT s3IMPLEINTEGRATIONINTOSYSTEMS s&ITS5CASE s,OW&AILURERISK sYEAR7ARRANTY Applications s4ELECOM.ETWORK3YNCHRONISATION s&REQUENCY#ALIBRATION s"ROADCAST s#ELLULAR7IRELESS"ASE3TATIONS 54 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com E10-MRO Dimensions Speciﬁcation Output 10MHz Optional Outputs Consult factory Accuracy ±5x10-11 at shipment @25°C Aging 5x10-12/day 5x10-11/month Retrace )±3x10-11 Short Term Stability 1s 10s 100s 5x10-11 1.6x10-11 5x10-12 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz dBc/Hz -85dBc -125dBc -140dBc Phase Noise Input Power 8W at [email protected]°C, Max 2.5A Input Voltage Range 12 ±0.5Vdc Warm-up 5 minutes to lock @ 25°C Frequency Control Connector Interface Internal trim range (trimpot) External trim range -9 *2x10 *2x10-9 (0V~5V) -20°C to +50°C 2x10-10 (-20°C to 50°C) -55°C to +85°C Temperature Operating Temperature Coefﬁcient (ambient) Storage MTBF 100,000 hours Connector DB-9 Connector, SMA Size 89 × 76 × 28 (mm3) (190cc) Weight 0.25kg max Warranty 2 years Low Noise Option This high performance version exhibits lower phase noise and higher short term stability. A 1PPS locking module is included (see A6-1PPS). Customers may specify lower phase noise than above. E10-MRO LN Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 J1: SMA, RF OUTPUT J2: DB-9 1: lock monitor(bit) 2&4: dc return/ground 3: locking signal 5: ext C-ﬁeld (0~5V) 6, 8 & 9: NC (Used for RS232 option) 7: +12V Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 55 E10-GPS GPS Disciplined Rubidium Oscillator Low Phase Noise Q High Short Term Stability Q RS232C Digital Monitor & Control Q The E10-GPS Disciplined Rubidium Oscillator is the most cost effective way to maintain the high time & frequency accuracy required for demanding applications for the OEM manufacturer. This Rubidium Oscillator provides the precision synchronization required by base stations, optical network nodes, and high-speed digital networks. Features Beneﬁts s6DCOPERATION s,OW$ISTORTION sMINUTESTOLOCK s-(Z/UTPUT s003/UTPUT s#OSTEFFECTIVE'03$ISCIPLINED2UBIDIUM sYEARWARRANTY s'034RACEABLE3TANDARD s#ALIBRATIONFREE s1UICKSIMPLETOINSTALL Applications s)NTERNAL&REQUENCY2EFERENCE s4ELECOM.ETWORK3YNCHRONISATION s#ELLULAR7IRELESS"ASE3TATIONS 56 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com E10-GPS Speciﬁcation Accuracy Disciplined to GPS or to EXT. 1PPS Holdover (no GPS) -12 Time )1x10 (after disciplined for one day, 24 hours average, 25°C) ±100ns (relative to GPS or Ext. input, 25°C) Frequency Time )5x10-12/day )1μs/24 hours Frequency Short Term Stability )[email protected] )[email protected] )[email protected] Phase Noise < [email protected] < [email protected] < [email protected] Harmonics <-40dBc Spurious <-80dBc Temperature Coefﬁcient ±3x10-10 over -20°C ~+50C Time to Lock (@25°C) <7 min Earth Magnetic Field Sensitivity )2x10-11 Retrace )2x10-11 Output 1×10MHz Sine wave (7~13)dBm/501 SMA 1×1PPS TTL/501 SMA PC channel (RS232) for Time & Locality & Other Data and Frequency Control Input GPS Antenna/501 SMA Ext. 1PPS/501 BNC Mode of Operations A. Disciplined to GPS B. Disciplined to external 1PPS C. Auto Select: ﬁrst priority to external 1PPS and second to internal GPS receiver. Remote Setting Via Serial Port Software for PC J1 (SMA):10MHz output J2 (SMA): 1PPS output J3 (9 PIN D-SUB): Pin1 +12V Pin2 GND Pin3 Lock Signal Pin4 1PPS_Ext Pin5 GND Pin6 TxD Pin7 Lock TAG Pin8 1PPS OUT_GPS Pin9 RxD J4 (SMA): GPS Antenna Export UTC time. Export the location of the local place, including longitude, latitude and length. Export the model of the Atomic Oscillator. Export the version number of the software. Adjust the accuracy of 10MHz. Power Supply Input Voltage Power Dissipation 12VDC [email protected] Warm-up, [email protected] Steady (25°C) Dimensions )127±0.5×94±0.5×38±0.5 Weight <0.6kg Operating Temperature -40°C ~ +60°C Storage Temperature -40°C ~ +70°C Humidity )90% MTBF *100000h Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Mechanical & Electrical Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 57 A10-M (A10-MX) Rubidium Frequency Reference Low Phase Noise Q Ageing <5x10-10/year Q High Precision Atomic Clock Q A7-MX using A10-MX as reference A7-MX A10-MX The Quartzlock A10-M rubidium frequency reference is a 10 MHz, high-stability Rubidium frequency standard with ﬂexible output options and very low cost of ownership primarily for production test of quartz oscillators and RF instrumentation frequency referencing. The A10-MX incorporates the latest high stability and low drift designs. It may also have both 5MHz and 10MHz outputs presented on the front panel to align with A7-MX Signal Stability Analyzer reference input. Features Beneﬁts s-ULTIPLE/UTPUTOPTIONS sYEAR7ARRANTY s#USTOM&REQUENCYOUTPUTS s,OW.OISE&LOOR s&RONTPANELOUTPUTS!-8 s%XCEPTIONALLYLOWDRIFTAGEINGANDHIGHSTABILITY per hour/day s3TABILITYTOX-14/s @ 5MHz s-(Z3TANDARD/UTPUT s-(ZOPTIONAL s-(ZOPTIOND"C(Z.& s-(ZOPTIOND"C(Z (Z s4HE!-CANACCOMMODATEMANYOPTIONSINCLUDING customized requirements. Applications s&REQUENCY#ALIBRATION s4ELECOM.ETWORK3YNCHRONISATION s"ROADCAST2ADIO463ATELLITE#OMMUNICATIONS s($46 s0RODUCTION4EST2EFERENCEFORINSTRUMENTATION s-ICROWAVE4EST"ENCHOR4EST3OLUTION 58 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A10-M (A10-MX) Options Speciﬁcation Output s-ULTIPLE/UTPUTS s-(Z Output Frequency s5LTRA,OW.OISE 50 .... 100MHz Outputs (-180dBc Noise Floor) s6DC"ATTERY"ACKUP Input 10MHz, +7dBm into 501, 0.5VRMS -see options Adjustment Mechanical Range Electrical Range Control Voltage Factory Setting 2x10-9 min 2x10-9 min 0 ~ 5V ±5x10-11 Frequency Stability typical A10-M A10-MX 1s 10s 100s STD 3x10-12 2x10-12 8x10-13 LN 2x10-12 5x10-12 4x10-13 ULN 5MHz 5x10-13 2x10-13 4x10-13 ULN2 10MHz 1–30s from 1x10-13 to 2.5x10-13 ULN3 5MHz 1s 8x10-14 3 to 30s 1.3x10-13 Aging 1 day 1 month 1 year 3x10-12 4x10-11 5x10-10 1x10-12 4x10-11 4x10-10 5x10-12 4x10-11 4x10-10 5x10-12 4x10-11 4x10-10 5x10-12 4x10-11 4x10-10 Please contact Quartzlock about your application. We can help you choose the most cost effective low noise solution. Phase Noise dBc/Hz in 1Hz BW 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz 10kHz STD -90 -120 -135 -145 -150 LN -110 -139 -152 -154 -154 ULN1 5MHz -123 -148 -158 -165 -168 ULN2 10MHz -122 -137 -143 -145 -145 ULN3 5MHz -123 -140 -145 -150 -155 The Quartzlock A10-M or A10-MX ﬁnd applications in standards laboratories, as low noise frequency references and as calibrators. Harmonics <30dBc <30dBc <40dBc <40dBc <40dBc <80dBc <80dBc <80dBc <70dBc <70dBc Spurious Warm time to 1x10 -9 1 5 minutes Retrace after 24h off & 1h on, same temp <3x10-11 Power Supply Power at steady state at 25°C 90 .... 245V ac Battery Back Up option 13W @ 24V (22~30Vdc) @ 25°C, Max 2A Freq offset over output voltage range <2x10-11 Temperature Operating Storage Freq offset over operating temperature range Magnetic Field Sensitivity Atmospheric Pressure Approx MTBF, Stationary -20°C ~ +50°C -40°C ~ +70°C <3x10-10 <2x10-11/Gauss -60m ~ 4000m <1x10-13/mbar Approx MTBF, Stationary Mechanical 88mm (3.5”) 2U x 19” rack mounted Option Calibrator outputs can be provided additionally as options. Sinewave +13dBm 50 Ohm 1Vrms Output frequencies:1MHz, 5MHz, 10MHz, 100MHz, 1GHz Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 A10-MX Uses Quartzlock DPPL-DDS Clean Up Loop Technology Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 59 A1000 Rubidium Time & Frequency Reference Q Q Q Low phase noise Ageing <4x10-10/year High Precision Atomic Clock The A1000 exhibits extraordinarily low ageing/drift and very high stability per hour and per day. These characteristics along with our three year warranty make the A1000 suitable for mission critical applications. The A1000 can be highly customised with multiple outputs and frequencies. Features Beneﬁts s-ULTIPLE/UTPUTOPTIONS sYEARWARRANTY s#USTOM&REQUENCYOUTPUTS sD"C(Z (ZPHASENOISE s3TABILITYTOX-13/s s-(Z3TANDARD/UTPUT sn-(ZOPTIONAL s-(ZOPTIOND"C(Z.& s-(ZOPTIOND"C(Z (Z Applications s&REQUENCY#ALIBRATION s4ELECOM.ETWORK3YNCHRONISATION s"ROADCASTn2ADIO463ATELLITE#OMMUNICATIONS s($46 s0RODUCTION4EST2EFERENCEFORINSTRUMENTATION s-ICROWAVE2ADAR4EST"ENCHOR4EST3OLUTION 60 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com A1000 Speciﬁcation Outputs See options Adjustment Mechanical Range Electrical Range Control Voltage Factory Setting 10MHz, +7dBm into 501, 0.5VRMS 2x10-9 min 2x10-9 min 0 ~ 5V ±5x10-11 1x10-11 Mechanical Frequency Stability Options 1s 10s 100s 1day 3x10-11 1x10-11 3x10-12 8x10-12 1 day 1 month 1 year 3x10-12 4x10-11 5x10-10 dBc/Hz in 1Hz BW Standard -70 -100 -120 -140 -145 Ageing Phase Noise 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz 10kHz Harmonics <40dBc Spurious <80dBc Warm Time to 1 x 10-9 Retrace after 24h off & 1h on, same temp Power Supply Power at steady state at 25C Frequency Offset over output voltage range Temperature Operating Storage Freq offset over operating temperature range Magnetic Field Sensitivity Atmospheric Pressure Approx MTBF, Stationary 5 minutes <3x10-13 <2x10-11/Gauss -60m ~ 4000m <1x10-13/mbar Approx MTBF, Stationary 88mm (3.5”) 2U x 19” rack mounted 0 1 Seamless Battery Back-up Switch High Performance Distribution Card 1 Input 4 Outputs 2 E1 Output 3 T1 Output 4 13MHz Output 5 TTL Output 7 10.24MHz Output 8 10.23MHz Output 9 Add 6 Output Distribution Card (not available with option 48 – ULN) 18 Add Additional 1–5 Years Warranty (18.1 = 1 Year … 18.5 = 5 Years) 40 Reduced Harmonic (<-50dBc) and Spurii 48 ULN Ultra Low Noise Outputs 5MHz -123dBc/Hz @ 1Hz offset 10MHz -115dBc/Hz @ 1Hz 100MHz -135dBC/Hz @ 100Hz -162dBc/Hz @ 1kHz -180dBc/Hz @ 100kHz 90 .... 245V ac Battery Back Up option 13W @ 24V (22–30Vdc) @ 25C, Max 2A <2x10-11 -20C ~ +50C -40C ~ +70C <3x10-10 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 61 E1000 Rubidium Frequency Reference Q Q Q Stability Low phase noise Drift (AVAR) 8x10-13/s typically 110dBc/Hz offset as standard 5x10-10/year Features Beneﬁts s5LTRA(IGH0ERFORMANCE2EFERENCE s-ULTIPLE/UTPUT/PTIONS s#USTOM&REQUENCY/UTPUTS s.OISE&LOORnD"C(Z s!GEINGX-10/year s3TABILITYTOX-13/s s-(Z3TANDARD/UTPUT sn-(ZOPTIONAL s-(ZOPTIOND"C(Z.& s-(ZOPTIOND"C(Z (Z s%USES1UARTZLOCK!CTIVE.OISE&ILTER Clean Technology Applications s&REQUENCY#ALIBRATION s4ELECOM.ETWORK3YNCHRONISATION s"ROADCASTn2ADIO46($46 s3ATELLITECOMMUNICATIONS s0RODUCTION4EST2EFERENCEFORINSTRUMENTATION s-ICROWAVE2ADAR4EST"ENCHOR4EST3OLUTION 62 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com E1000 Speciﬁcation Outputs See options Adjustment Mechanical Range Electrical Range Control Voltage Factory Setting Frequency Stability 1s 10s 100s 1 hour 1day Ageing 1 day 1 month 1 year 10MHz, +7dBm into 501, 0.5VRMS 2x10-9 min 2x10-9 min 0 ~ 5V ±5x10-11 1x10-11 Mechanical Standard spec 2x10-12 5x10-12 4x10-13 ULN option 5x10-13 2x10-13 4x10-13 1x10-12 1x10-12 3x10-12 4x10-11 5x10-10 3x10-12 4x10-11 5x10-10 Phase Noise Standard -110 -140 -145 -155 -157 ULN option -115 -146 -156 -163 -164 -167 Harmonics <30dBc <30dBc Spurious <80dBc dBc/Hz in 1Hz BW 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz 10kHz 100kHz Warm Time to 1 x 10-9 Retrace after 24h off & 1h on, same temp Power Supply Power at steady state at 25C Frequency Offset over output voltage range Temperature Operating Storage Freq offset over operating temperature range Magnetic Field Sensitivity Atmospheric Pressure Approx MTBF, Stationary <2x10-11/Gauss -60m ~ 4000m <1x10-13/mbar Approx MTBF, Stationary 88mm (3.5”) 2U x 19” rack mounted Options 0 1 Seamless Battery Back-up Switch High Performance Distribution Card 1 Input 4 Outputs 2 E1 Output 3 T1 Output 4 13MHz Output 5 TTL Output 7 10.24MHz Output 8 10.23MHz Output 9 Add 6 Output Distribution Card (with option 48 a ULN card is ﬁtted) 18 Add additional 1–5 Years Warranty (18.1 = 1 Year … 18.5 = 5 Years) 40 Reduced Harmonic (<-50dBc) and Spurii 48 ULN Ultra Low Noise Outputs 5MHz -123dBc/Hz @ 1Hz offset 10MHz -115dBc/Hz @ 1Hz 100MHz -135dBc/Hz @ 100Hz -162dBc/Hz @ 1kHz -180dBc/Hz @ 100kHz 5 minutes <3x10-13 90 .... 245V ac Battery Back Up option 13W @ 24V (22–30Vdc) @ 25C, Max 2A <2x10-11 -20C ~ +50C -40C ~ +70C <3x10-10 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 E1000 with 10MHz ULN Option. Typical Phase Noise Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 63 E10-P Compact Portable Rubidium Frequency Reference Q Q Q Q Greater than 2 hours battery operation Operates from car 12vdc output Less than 3 minute warm up Compact form factor 103x55x122mm <500g for a wide range of applications Actual size This portable Rubidium frequency standard will operate from an External 12Vdc Supply or its Internal Batteries. For remote site operation i.e. cellular BTS the E10-P may run from the cigarette lighter socket to arrive fully charged and warm. The E10-P Portable Rubidium frequency reference beneﬁts from Quartzlock’s SMAC Rubidium Oscillator technology and state-of-the-art internal high capacity batteries. Features Beneﬁts s s s s s s s s s s -(Z/UTPUT !GEINGX-10/year D"C(Z (Z X-11 accuracy X-12/s @ 100s !TOMICACCURACY .OANTENNA 1UICKANDSIMPLEUSEANDINSTALLATION ,OWDRIFT (ANDHELD Applications s 2EMOTESITEFREQUENCYREFERENCEFORCELLULAR"43SATELLITECOMMUNICATIONGROUNDSTATIONS s &IELDSERVICEPRODUCTIONTESTFREQUENCYREFERENCE s &REQUENCYSTANDARDFORCOUNTERSSIGNALGENERATORSSPECTRUMANDNETWORKANALYSERS 64 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com E10-P Speciﬁcations Output 10MHz Sine, 10dBm, ±3dBm Harmonics <-40dBc Accuracy ±5x10-11 at shipment @25°C Short Term Stability (AVAR) 1s 8x10-11 10s 3x10-11 100s 8x10-12 1 day 5x10-12 1 month 5x10-11 10Hz -95dBc 100Hz -125dBc 1kHz -135dBc Drift Phase to Noise (SSB) Input Power 6W at 12V @ 25°C, Max 1.2A Input Voltage Range 90...245V ac or +12V dc Run Time Battery 2 hours Charge Time Battery 4 hours Warm Up 5 minutes to lock @ 25°C Retrace )±2x10-11 Magnetic ﬁeld sensitivity, dc (±2 GAUSS) <±4x10-11/Gauss External Trim Range Environmental Speciﬁcations Operating Temp Range -20°C~+50°C Typical: -30~+65°C Temperature Coefﬁcient (ambient) 2x10-10 (0~50°C) *5x10-9 (0V~5V) option Storage Temperature -55°C~+85°C Size 103 x 55 x 122 mm MTBF 100,000 hours Weight 500gm approx Environmental health RoHS Warranty 24 months EMI Compliant to FCC Part 15 Class B Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 65 E10-X Compact Desktop Rubidium Frequency Reference Compact light weight portable for a wide range of applications Q Fast warm time Q Low power operation Q 12V dc operation (ac plug top adaptor supplied) Q Actual size Compact simple to install atomic frequency reference for use as a general purpose 10MHz rubidium frequency standard. This frequency standard beneﬁts from having Quartzlock’s SMAC (Sub Miniature Atomic Clock) technology built in. Features Beneﬁts s-(Z/UTPUT s!GEINGX-10/year sD"C(Z (Z sX-11 accuracy sX-12/s @ 100s s!TOMICACCURACY s.OANTENNA s1UICKANDSIMPLEUSEANDINSTALL s4RANSFERSTANDARD Applications s0RODUCTIONTESTFREQUENCYSTANDARD s4IMEANDFREQUENCYSTANDARDFORCALIBRATIONAND2&LABORATORIES s&REQUENCYSTANDARDFORCOUNTERSSIGNALGENERATORSSPECTRUMANDNETWORKANALYSERS s7IREDAND7IRELESSNETWORKSYNCHRONIZATION 66 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com E10-X Speciﬁcations Output 10MHz Sine, 10dBm, ±3dBm Harmonics <-40dBc Accuracy ±5x10-11 at shipment @25°C Short Term Stability (AVAR) 1s 10s 100s 8x10-11 3x10-11 8x10-12 Drift 1 day 1 month 5x10-12 5x10-11 Phase to Noise (SSB) 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz -95dBc -125dBc -135dBc Input Power 6W at 12V @ 25°C, Max 1.2A Input Voltage Range 90...245V ac or +12V dc Warm Up 5 minutes to lock @ 25°C Retrace )±2x10-11 Magnetic ﬁeld sensitivity, dc (±2 GAUSS) <±4x10-11/GAUSS Size 103 x 55 x 122 mm Weight 500gm approx Warranty 24 months Environmental Speciﬁcations Operating Temp Range -20°C~+50°C Typical: -30~+65°C Temperature Coefﬁcient (ambient) 2x10-10 (0~50°C) Storage Temperature -55°C~+85°C MTBF 100,000 hours Environmental health RoHS EMI Compliant to FCC Part 15 Class B Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 67 E10-Y4 & E10-Y8 Rubidium Frequency Reference Low Noise Multiple Outputs Eight outputs Q -110dBc/Hz @ 1Hz phase noise Q Compact light weight portable for a wide range of applications Q Low drift 5x10-12/day Q Approx actual size Compact simple to install low noise multi-output atomic frequency reference for use as a general purpose 10MHz rubidium frequency standard. This very low noise rubidium frequency reference will enable up to eight separate instruments to be referenced. This frequency standard beneﬁts from having Quartzlock’s SMAC (Sub Miniature Atomic Clock), and very low noise distribution ampliﬁer technology built in. Features Beneﬁts s-(ZMULTIPLEOUTPUTS s!GEINGX-10/year sX-11 accuracy sX-12/s @ 100s s!TOMICACCURACY s1UICKANDSIMPLETOUSEANDINSTALL s(IGHERSENSITIVITY s%NABLESNARROWERBANDWIDTHlLTERING s)MPROVEDINSTRUMENTFREQUENCYACCURACYPHASENOISE Applications s&REQUENCYREFERENCINGOFINTERCEPTIONANDMONITORINGRECEIVERS sTime and frequency standard for calibration and external referencing of all quartz-based instrumentation in RF and microwave laboratories to signiﬁcantly reduce noise levels and improve accuracy s&REQUENCYREFERENCEFORCOUNTERSSIGNALGENERATORSSPECTRUM$3/6.!3!ANDNETWORKANALYSERS s3ECURECOMMUNICATIONS#DEFENCEAND2$ 68 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com E10-Y4 & E10-Y8 Speciﬁcation Outputs – 4 or 8 Output Connectors Adjustment Mechanical Range Electrical Range Control Voltage Factory Setting 4 (E10-Y4) or 8 (E10-Y8) 10MHz, 13dBm ±1db into 501, 0.5VRMS SMA 2x10-9 min 2x10-9 min 0 ~ 5V ±5x10-11 1x10-11 Magnetic Field Sensitivity Atmospheric Pressure Approx MTBF, Stationary <2x10-11/Gauss -60m ~ 4000m <1x10-13/mbar Approx MTBF, Stationary Size 103 x 55 x 122 mm Weight 500gm approx Warranty 24 months Frequency Stability 0.2s 1s 10s 100s 1 hour 1 day 4x10-12 2x10-12 5x10-12 4x10-13 1 day 1 month 1 year 1x10-12 4x10-11 4x10-10 1x10-12 Ageing Options The E10-Y series is a new product range introduced in 2012. A few options will be available to meet customer requirements – please discuss with Quartzlock. Cable set: 8 x SMA to BNC cables 1.5m long can be supplied. Phase Noise dBc/Hz in 1Hz BW 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz 10kHz Harmonics <30dBc Spurious <80dBc Warm Time to 1 x 10-9 Retrace after 24h off & 1h on, same temp Power Supply Power at steady state at 25C Frequency Offset over output voltage range Temperature Operating Storage Freq offset over operating temperature range -46dB Standard -110 -140 -145 -155 -157 -36dB 5 minutes <3x10-13 90 .... 245V ac Battery Back Up option 15Vdc @ 500mA 7.5W (1.5A warm-up 22.5W) @ 25C, Max 2A <2x10-11 -22C ~ +30C max -40C ~ +70C <3x10-10 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 69 CH1-75A Active Hydrogen Maser Q Q Q Q <5x10-13 frequency accuracy -100dBc/Hz @ 1Hz Autonomous automatic cavity tuning (without a second H-Maser) 1.5x10-13 @ 1s short term stability The CH1-75A Active Hydrogen Maser is designed to operate as a high stability, precision spectrally pure 5 and 100MHz signal source and provides time scale signals of 1s period. The AHM has similar lifetime cost to Cs. Features Beneﬁts sX-15/day ageing sX-12/year accuracy s-(ZOUTPUT s003 sX14/°C temperature coefﬁcient s,OWCOSTOFOWNERSHIP s0RIMARYFREQUENCYREFERENCE s9EARLIFETIME Applications s.ATIONALTIMEANDFREQUENCYSERVICES s'ROUNDCONTROL s3URVEILLANCE s2ADIONAVIGATIONSYSTEMS s2ADIOINTERFEROMETERSWITHAVERYLONGBASELINE 70 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com CH1-75A Speciﬁcation Frequency Outputs 5MHz,10 MHz and 100 MHz (sine), 1±0.2 V rms into 50 Ohm Timing Output 1Hz (1PPS) Amplitude >2.5V into 50 Ohm Width 10–20ms Rise time <15ns Jitter <0.1ns Frequency stability Frequency stability (Allan Deviation) (Allan Deviation) 1s 10s 100s 1 hour 1 day )2×10–13 )3×10–14 )7×10–15 )2×10–15 )7×10–16 (Although this is a rugged instrument which operates within +10°C to +35 °C ambient, the quoted specifications for 100 s, 1 hour and 1 day apply while the instrument is confined to a ±1°C ambient temperature change). Temperature sensitivity 1.5x10–15/C Magnetic ﬁeld sensitivity <1x10–14/Gauss Drift (aging) 2×10-15 /day at delivery 5×10-16 /day after 1 year operation Frequency trim range 1x10–10 Setting resolution 1x10–15 Phase noise Offset from carrier SSB phase noise, dBc/Hz 10Hz 100Hz 1kHz 10kHz –130 –140 –150 –150 Harmonic distortion < 30dB (for 5 MHz output) Non-harmonic distortion < –100dB in the range from 10Hz to 10kHz Power 100, 120, 220 V±10 %, 240 V+5–10 %, 47–63 Hz or 22–30 V dc At power line failure the Instrument automatically switches to an external 22–30V dc power supply Power consumption 150 VA ac, 100 W dc Operating temperature +10°C to +35°C Storage temperature –50°C to +50°C Humidity up to 80% at 25°C Size (H ×W ×D) 70.8 × 48.0 × 59.5 cm Weight 90 kg Service Life 15 years before service See Quartzlock Hydrogen Maser compatible instrumentation A5-8 Distribution Ampliﬁer – see page 8 A6 Frequency Converter – see page 20 A7-MX Signal Stability Analyzer – see page 28 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 ´ Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 71 CH1-75A ´ CH1-75A Active Hydrogen Maser 1 second 1,5x10-13 1 day 7x10-16 Temperature sensitivity 1,5x10-15/C KVARZ has been developing and manufacturing H-Masers over 40 years and has a great experience in this ﬁeld.This model is the third H-Masers generation. During this period of time, more than 500 units have been built. It ﬁve times exceeds the number of hydrogen masers produced by all other maser manufactures in the world. The performance speciﬁcations of the CH1-75A Active Hydrogen Maser exceed those available from any other unit manufactured world-wide. The CH1-75A mechanical architecture is focussed on modular construction in a tough transportable package. A lightweight tubular aluminium space frame is used in transport and for mobile applications. Frequency Stability (Allan Deviation) Frequency Stability (Hadamar Deviation) CH1-75A Hydrogen Maser Block Diagram 72 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com CH1-75A CH1-75A Active Hydrogen Maser Physics Package Schematic Very efﬁcient beam optics including quadrapole magnet and unique multipath collimator. It allows to reduce hydrogen usage to 0.01 mole per annum thus simplifying its vacuum pumping. Autonomous Cavity Auto Tuning – Long-term Stability The most recent development to improved performance of the Active Hydrogen Maser is an advanced Cavity Auto Tuning System, which insures the Maser remains centered on the hydrogen line over the long term. The advantages of the cavity auto tuning in the CH1-75A are as follows: sAMODULATIONFREQUENCYOF(ZISAPPROXIMATELYTHREETIMESHIGHER than that in other auto-tuning systems. As a result, very low spurious components at frequency modulation of 87Hz are achieved. It is especially important where the Maser is used for VLBI. sVERYLOWTEMPERATURESENSITIVITYOFTHE-ASEROF^X-15/ C. Hydrogen pumping is performed by a very efﬁcient getter pump, having extended lifetime (over 15 years). The advantages of such a pump are: sNOPOWERSUPPLYDURINGOPERATIONISREQUIRED sHIGHRELIABILITY sSMALLSIZEANDWEIGHTKG Very efﬁcient magnetic shielding. Magnetic sensitivity of the Maser is less than 1x10-14/Oersted. This is achieved thanks to a ﬁve-layer magnetic shield made of permalloy with initial magnetic permeability of more than 100,000. High temperature frequency stability of the Maser The hydrogen maser frequency is linearly dependent on the cavity frequency: In order to reduce temperature inﬂuence on the cavity frequency, it is manufactured of a unique glass material, which exhibits virtually zero temperature coefﬁcient (~1–2x10-7 /°C). Temperature stabilization of such a cavity with an accuracy of 0.001˚ C allows a decrease in the Maser temperature sensitivity to 5x10-15/C even without auto-tuning. Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 73 CH1-76A Passive Hydrogen Maser Q Q Q Q <8x10-13/s @ 1s short term stability -100dBc/Hz @ 1Hz Small size and weight 15 year life time The CH1-76A Passive Hydrogen Maser is designed to operate as a high-stability frequency source with precise, spectrally pure 5 MHz output. The CH1-76A is the ﬁrst in the world Time and Frequency Hydrogen Maser of a passive type. This maser is the ideal, much higher performance alternative to caesium atomic clocks at less than half the lifetime cost of Cs. Features Beneﬁts sX-15/day aging. 5x10-15/day stability AVAR. sX-12/year accuracy s-(ZOUTPUT s003PS*ITTER sX-14/C temperature coefﬁcient sX-14 /1000s AVAR s,OWCOSTOFOWNERSHIP s3ECONDMOSTSTABLETIMEFREQUENCYSTANDARDAVAILABLE s.OEXPENSIVEWEAROUTTHROWAWAY#STUBE Applications s.ATIONALTIMEANDFREQUENCYSERVICES s'ROUNDCONTROLFOR'.33 s3URVEILLANCE s2ADIONAVIGATIONSYSTEMS s4&LABORATORYREFERENCE 74 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com CH1-76A Speciﬁcation Frequency Outputs 5MHz (sine), 1±0.2V rms into 50 Ohm Timing Output 1Hz (pulse) Amplitude *2.5V into 50 Ohm Width 10–20μs Rise time <30ns Jitter <0.1n ʍ;ʏͿ Frequency stability AVAR Averaging time Speciﬁcations Typical Values 1s 10s 102s 103s 1h 1 day <_1.5x10–12 <_5x10–13 <_2x10–13 <_5x10–14 <_3x10–14 <_1x10–14 )4.8×10-13 )1.5×10–13 )4.5×10–14 )1.5×10–14 )8.5×10–15 )4×10–15 Drift (Ageing) <3x10–15/day Accuracy ±1.5x10–12/year Temperature sensitivity <_2x10–14/C Magnetic ﬁeld sensitivity ±2x10–14/Gauss Frequency trim range 1x10–10 Setting resolution 1x10–14 Steps Phase noise Offset from carrier SSB phase noise, dBc/Hz 1Hz 10Hz 100Hz 10kHz –110 –125 –150 –150 Harmonic distortion < 30dB Non-harmonic distortion < 100dB Power 220±22V, 50±1Hz, 220±11V, 115±6V, 400Hz At power line failure the instrument automatically switches to an external 22–30V DC power supply Power consumption 140VA, 90W Operating temperature 5–40°C Storage temperature –50 – +50°C Humidity up to 80% at 25°C Size (HxWxD) 28 x 48 x 55.5cm Weight 51 kg Service Life 12 years before service See Quartzlock Hydrogen Maser compatible instrumentation A5-8 Distribution Ampliﬁer – see page 8 A6 Frequency Converter – see page 20 A7-MX Signal Stability Analyzer – see page 28 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 ´ Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 75 CH1-76A ´ CH1-76A Passive Hydrogen Maser The size and weight of the active hydrogen maser in some cases hinder its application, especially in the ﬁeld conditions. The problem of reducing the active hydrogen maser size is connected with reduction of microwave cavity size, which results in reduction of its Q-factor. Reduction of cavity Q-factor leads to the failure of the maser generation conditions, and it goes into amplifying mode, so called “passive” mode. Due to this factor, an idea of creation of a passive hydrogen maser was realised. In 1988 KVARZ created the ﬁrst industrial Passive Hydrogen Maser in the world (the CH1-76); at the present time KVARZ produces its improved version, the CH1-76A. Schematic Picture of a Passive Hydrogen Maser Physics Package Passive Hydrogen Maser Features A hydrogen atom generation system and a vacuum system of a passive maser are the same as those of an active maser. Their service life is 15 years. KVARZ realised the so called “magnetron” cavity construction which is very rigid and insures a passive hydrogen maser suitability for ﬁeld and space applications. In this instrument, one 12.5 kHz modulation frequency and a freerunning local oscillator are used. 76 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com CH1-76A Atomic Clock Comparisons As for a frequency stability, a passive maser holds a middle position between an active hydrogen maser and a cesium frequency standard. Its stability for measurement time from 1 sec to 100.000 sec is a factor of 10 better than the best cesium standard – 5071A Primary Frequency Standard (High Performance Cesium Beam Tube). Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 77 Special Products Air Interface Simulator Radio Path Modelling System This is one example of a customer deﬁned special product designed by Quartzlock. This AIS simulated the air interface between a number of mobile and BTS with interfering mobile and BTS facilities. To discuss your special product requirement please call Quartzlock. 78 Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com Tel +44 (0)1803 862062 Fax +44 (0)1803 867962 984 ( $% (%!# @4 $')!,'0 %') 984 @4 984 984 '0 $/$( 984 $-#) 984 (%!# 9848 #)-' 984 !)' $/$( 984 $/'$! (%!# ( $% $/$( @4 (%!# >48394981 ( $% 984 9 $-#) 988 14981 @4 >4:8<@ 1 9 $-#) 9 >4 : $-#) *.$(!)' '&-#0 ( $%(%!# 94?> ((. 94?= *. 0'$#(' $#.'($# 9 $-#) $/$( 9888 @898 9 $-#) (%!#--" : $-#) )'$!$0'$'"# 9 $-#) 9888 9 $-#) (%!# @888 --" '&-#0)#'( 9 9 $ #$-! )!( $ !#% $$% >4 "# @-)%-)( [email protected] '$'"# ()'-*$# =4 ( $% -!( =4 ( $% >-)%-)( =888 9 $-#) -!( =888 9 $-#) 9:-)%-)( )#' <888 /) '&-#05( #!0(( ?4 -##0 (-'"#) 9:? 9:= ;:3= ,#-)$'( > = = < ; : 9 8 '($#$-(#( 5'$/. # $-#) *. $$% ;84;88 #)##( Product Family Tree Email [email protected] www.quartzlock.com 79 For all enquiries please contact us via any of the methods below: Head Ofﬁce & Maser Lab: Quartzlock UK Ltd ‘Gothic’ Plymouth Road Totnes, Devon TQ9 5LH England Telephone: +44 (0)1803 862062 Facsimile: +44 (0)1803 867962 Email: [email protected] Or visit our website www.quartzlock.com Quartzlock’s new observatory building for our Maser Laboratory The Quartzlock logo is a registered trademark. Quartzlock continous improvement policy: speciﬁcations subject to change without notice and not part of any contract. All IPR and design rights are protected. E&OE © Quartzlock 2012 Registered in England: 2634800. VAT Registration no. 585 675 582

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