Quartzlock Product Catalogue
20
NT S
RI M
-P RM
RE & A
P F
T
EF
R
FO
12
Concise Catalogue
Precise Frequency & Time
Control Products
Quartzlock !$ISTRIBUTION!MPLIFIER
New Active & Passive Hydrogen Masers
Ultra Low Noise Signal Stability Analyser
New Ultra Low Noise Distribution Amplifiers
New Very Low Noise Sub-Miniature Rubidium Oscillators & Instruments
New range of Miniature Rubidium Components and Instruments
Very Low Noise GPS Time & Frequency References
Active Noise Filters
Timing Module
www.quartzlock.com
Business values
Team
Very skilled and experienced people in R&D, production, production test, calibration, QA, QC and business management.
Our component suppliers, specialist sub-contractors, assembly services, software experts plus many others who make
running Quartzlock a pleasure and make an important contribution to the highest quality and performance electronic
products we design and build.
IPR
Quartzlock’s Intellectual Property is in our designs, technology and techniques. We invest a large percentage of our
revenue on R&D to keep ahead of our few competitors. Quartzlock’s list of standard solutions to frequency control and
active noise filtering, DDS, DPLL, synthesizers and other low noise “tools” such as our new CPT physics package, optics,
laser and light modulation techniques enable us to meet demanding requests for even higher performance, in smaller,
lighter, lower power products.
Brand
Some 50 years of close to market R&D, high quality manufacturing and test, has painted the Quartzlock brand with an
excellent reputation for reliability and high performance.
Active and Passive Hydrogen Maser Laboratory
Quartzlock’s maser based laboratory, commercially unique in the EU, and with very few exceptions elsewhere in the world,
give our team the tools needed to do the measurement science essential for the high level of performance our products,
R&D and production test require.
Product Line
Quartzlock specializes in Precise Time and Frequency Control. Quartzlock has the widest range of highest specification
Hydrogen Masers, to the lowest cost Rubidium and GPS Disciplined Oscillators.
Continuous improvement
Our product specialization means that stability (AVAR), drift, spurii and phase noise will all be improved in current and
future products. Quartzlock products outperform our competitors. More than a third of the products in this catalogue are
new.
Warranties
Quartzlock have a standard three year warranty on Rubidium products (E10-MRX/A10-MRO have two years until end
2012 then change to three years). This level of confidence in reliability / MTBF is unique to Quartzlock.
Future
Tomorrows products will be even more stable and with lower power and phase noise characteristics at lower cost. Larger
market sectors will be entered. Export sales increased. Customer defined products will sit alongside our
“industry standard’s”.
2
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Index
Oven Controlled Crystal Oscillators
A3-60C
Low Noise SC Overtone CO-08 Cased OCXO ..................................................................................................... 7
Time and Frequency Distribution
A5-8
E5000
E5-X
Ultra Low Noise, High Isolation Primary Reference 8 Output Distribution Amplifier 1U 19" Rack ......................... 8
Low Noise 1U 19” Rack Mount 12 Output Distribution Amplifier (low cost) ..................................................... 10
Desktop Low Noise 6 Output Distribution Amplifier (low cost) .......................................................................... 12
OEM Timing Products and Signal ‘Clean-up’ (Board level)
A6-1PPS
A6-CPS
1PPS Disciplined Timing Module ....................................................................................................................... 14
Digital Phase Locked Clean-up Loop ................................................................................................................ 20
Active Noise Filter
A6-ANF
Primary Reference Active Noise Filter 2U Rack .................................................................................................. 24
Test and Measurement
A7-MX
Signal Stability Analyser .................................................................................................................................. 28
GPS Time and Frequency References
E8-X
E8-X OEM
E8-Y
E8-Y OEM
E8000
E8010
Desktop GPS Disciplined TCXO Time and Frequency Reference (low cost) ........................................................
OEM GPS Disciplined TCXO Time and Frequency Reference (PCB only) .............................................................
Desk Top GPS Disciplined Low Noise OCXO Time and Frequency Reference .....................................................
OEM GPS Disciplined Low Noise OCXO Time and Frequency Reference (PCB only)............................................
GPS Disciplined Low Noise OCXO Time and Frequency Reference 1U Rack .......................................................
GPS Disciplined Rubidium Time and Frequency Reference 1U Rack ...................................................................
38
38
40
40
42
44
OEM Rubidium Oscillators
E10-MRX
E10-LN
A10-LPRO
A10-Y
E10-MRO
E10-GPS
Sub Miniature Atomic Clock OCXO sized Rubidium Oscillator 51 x 51 x 25mm.................................................
Very Low Noise Rubidium Oscillator Module (PCB only) 91 x 55 x 30mm ..........................................................
Low Profile Rubidium Oscillator .......................................................................................................................
Ultra Low Noise Rubidium Oscillator ................................................................................................................
Miniature Rubidium Oscillator ..........................................................................................................................
GPS Disciplined Miniature Rubidium Oscillator ..................................................................................................
46
48
50
52
54
56
Atomic Time and Frequency References
A10-M (A10-MX)
A1000
E1000
E10-P
E10-X
E10-Y series
CH1-75A
CH1-76A
Rubidium Frequency Reference ........................................................................................................................ 58
1U 19” Rack Mount Rubidium Frequency Reference .........................................................................................60
Low Noise 1U 19” Rack Mount Rubidium Frequency Reference ....................................................................... 62
Portable Desktop Rubidium Frequency Reference ............................................................................................. 64
Compact Desktop Rubidium Frequency Reference ........................................................................................... 66
Low Noise 4/8 Output Desktop Rubidium Frequency Reference ........................................................................ 68
Active Hydrogen Maser Primary Time and Frequency Reference ........................................................................70
Passive Hydrogen Maser Primary Time and Frequency Reference ...................................................................... 74
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
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Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
3
New Products
CH1-75A
Active Hydrogen Maser page 70
CH1-76A
Passive Hydrogen Maser page 74
A7-MX using A10-MX as reference
A10-MX Rubidium Frequency Reference page 54
A5-8 Ultra Low Noise, High Isolation Primary Reference Distribution Amplifier page 8
E10-Y Series Desktop Rubidium Frequency Reference page 68
4
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E10-MRX Sub Miniature Atomic Clock OCXO sized Rubidium Oscillator page 60
Actual size
E10-LN Very Low Noise Rubidium Oscillator Module – 91 x 55mm page 48
E1000 Low Noise 1U 19” Rack Mount Rubidium Frequency Reference page 58
E8000 GPS Disciplined Low Noise OCXO Time and Frequency Reference page 42
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5
Quartzlock’s Journey
1964 Saw the first Clive Green & Roger Davis production-run products in RF & microwave frequency “down convertors” and RF VHF
sources. These were followed by CW & AM radio transmitters, 600 Watt HF SSB Passive Grid Linear Amplifiers with exceptionally low,
cross and inter-modulation products.
1970 High power VHF & UHF RF sources for MoD plasma research. RF Test equipment. An SSB, AM, CW TX 1000W single box test
solution with SSB power measurement.
1980 True RMS RF power meter with dynamic range from 10mW to 1000W (linear scale), Worlds First TTL Synthesized Signal
Generator (Peter Broadbent) helped keep UK Sonar ahead. A 100MHz Synthesized Signal Generator (Toby Holland under PB) Manual
& Automatic modulation meters with phase mod capability. The most compact single portable 230V / 12V dc radiotelephone test set
(John Lake, John Bloice, PB, CRG, Peter Ward and others)
1990 Exploited early LF Off Air Frequency Standard design with rapid R&D to an industry standard product selling low 1,000’s (PB…
Colin Desborough…Graham McCloud/Dr Cosmo Little)
2000 Consolidating Rubidium Technology and joined the Hydrogen Maser radio-technology originators and world leaders IEM
Kvarz. Subsequently sold some 50 Active & Passive H Masers around the world with Quartzlock’s own A5 Ultra Low Noise Distribution
Amplifiers & A6 Frequency Convertors. The Quartzlock A7-MX Signal Stability Analyzer production began (CL, WK) A5, A6, A7 early
A10 Rb, A5000, A8 GPS line followed (Dr Wolfgang Klisch, Hadwin Kramer).
2010 New A5000, E1000, E8000, E8010, E8-X, E8-Y, include new A6-CPS technology for low noise & clean technology. 1PPS timing
module introduced.
2012 The introduction of completely new sub-miniature Rb components & Rb instruments with Ultra Low Noise versions available. The
E10-MRX Rb is lowest cost & power, OCXO size with 150g mass. A NMI level E5 Signal Distribution Amplifier (replaces E5) is introduced.
Radio telephone test set
1980
10mW–1000W RMS Power Meter
Modulation meter
1975
World’s first TTL synthesized signal generator
1970s
Contact Quartzlock
For all enquiries please contact us via any of the methods below:
Head Office & Maser Lab:
Quartzlock UK Ltd
‘Gothic’
Plymouth Road
Totnes, Devon
TQ9 5LH England
Or visit our website
Telephone:
+44 (0)1803 862062
Facsimile:
+44 (0)1803 867962
Email:
[email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
The Quartzlock logo is a registered trademark. Quartzlock continous improvement policy: specifications subject to
change without notice and not part of any contract. All IPR and design rights are protected. E&OE. © Quartzlock 2012
6
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A3-60SC
SC Cut Oven-controlled
Quartz Oscillator
Q
Q
Q
Q
Phase noise -110dBc/Hz @ 1Hz (10MHz)
Phase noise -123dBc/Hz @ 1Hz (5MHz)
Stability 2x10-12/s (8x10-13/s in benign environment) (10MHz)
Stability 5x10-13/s (5MHz)
Specification
Frequency
5 & 10MHz, other frequencies in range 4–20MHz by request
Output
Sine wave 7dBm (±2dBm)
Frequency Ageing
Rate per day, at dispatch <5x10-10
Projected Ageing
Rate per year <5x10-8
Operating Temperature
Range
Standard -20°C to +70°C, (other options possible
from -40°C)
Temperature Stability
<1x10-8 over -20°C to +70°C
Stability With Supply Voltage
<1x10-9 for 10% change
Stability With Load Change
<1x10-9 for 10% change from 50ohms
Short Term Stability (1 sec)
<2x10-12
Phase Noise
(data for 10MHz quoted)
s)MPROVESCONSIDERABLY
instrument noise and
stability specifications
s4HEBASICINTERNAL
quartz reference
Offset
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz
50kHz
Warm-Up Error
±1x10-8 of final frequency after <8 minutes at 25°C
Applications
Frequency Adjustment
(electrical only)
+0.5 to +7.0V, stabilised output provided. Suitable for 10+ years
life, 15 years typical ±0.5ppm minimum, positive slope
Power Supply
+12V DC standard. +15 & +18V options
Power Consumption
5W max. at switch on. Typically 1.2W when stabilised at +25°C
Harmonics
<-30dB wrt carrier
Dimensions (max)
36.1mm long, 27.2mm wide
Features
s6ERYLOWPHASENOISE
s(IGHSTABILITY!6!2
Benefits
s/NEOFTHEKEY
components in
Quartzlock’s Very Low
Noise instruments
10MHz Typical values
<-110dBc/Hz
<-125dBc/Hz
<-135dBc/Hz
<-150dBc/Hz
<-155dBc/Hz
<-160dBc/Hz
5MHz Typical values
<-123dBc/Hz
<-140dBc/Hz
<-145dBc/Hz
<-150dBc/Hz
<-155dBc/Hz
<-163dBc/Hz
19.4mm high
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Shock
IEC 68-2-27 Test Ea, 50G for 11mS
Vibration
IEC 68-2-06 Test Fc, 10-55Hz, 1.5mm , 55-500Hz, 10G
Storage Temperature
-40 to +90°C
Humidity
>90% non-condensing, solder sealed package
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
7
A5-8
1...100MHz
Distribution Amplifier
Q
Exhibits low 1/f AM & PM noise
The Quartzlock A5-8 Distribution Amplifier is a precision distribution amplifier for use with Frequency
Standards or other signals where a need for multiple outputs from a single generator is required.
Available in 8 outputs. The A5-8 replaces previous A5 models; the specification has improved
isolation and other parametrics. NB This specification is provisional at time of going to press, final
specification due June 2012, ask Quartzlock.
Features
Benefits
s(IGH)SOLATIONBETWEENINPUTSANDOUTPUTS
s5LTRALOWPHASENOISE
s5LTRAHIGHSTABILITY
s6ERYLOWHARMONICDISTORTION
s"IPOLAR*UNCTION!MPLIlERS6DC""5OR
240Vac operation
s(YDROGEN-ASERCOMPATIBLEPERFORMANCE
s2ETAINSORIGINALINPUTSIGNALCHARACTERISTICS
sOUTPUTS
s-AYBESUPPLIEDWITHTWOORTHREECHANNELINPUTS
s.OCROSSCHANNELINTERFERENCEBETWEENOUTPUTSFOR
mission critical applications
Applications
s&REQUENCY$ISTRIBUTIONWHERETHEHIGHESTLEVELSOFSTABILITYANDLOWESTLEVELSOFPHASENOISEAREREQUIRED
s.ATIONAL3TANDARDS,ABORATORIES
s#ALIBRATION,ABORATORIES
s2ESEARCHAND$EVELOPMENT
s0RODUCTION4EST
8
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A5-8
Typical Characteristics *
Measurement Results *
No of outputs
8
No of inputs
1 to 4 (Note mixed frequencies are permitted in
one unit)
Input characteristics
Impedance:
Level:
Level max:
50 ohm
+13dBm, 1V RMS
1.2VRMS, 5MHz
50 Ohm nominal
0dBm to +13dBm adjustable, sine wave
<1.2:1 at 10MHz <1.5:1 at 100MHz
Output characteristics
Impedance:
Level:
Maximum:
50 ohm
1V into 50 Ohms (RMS)
1.1V into 50 Ohms
50 Ohm nominal
13dBm nominal into 50 Ohms (1 volt RMS)
<1.2:1 d) Maximum Output: 17dBm at
10MHz typical
Frequency Response
800kHz – 100MHz ± 1dB
Harmonics
5MHz source harmonics
less than -60dBc
Input characteristics
Impedance:
Level:
Input SWR:
Output Characteristics
Impedance:
Level:
Output SWR:
Frequency Response
2MHz to 100 MHz +/-1.5dB 500kHz to
100MHz+/-3dB
Harmonics
(at nominal output, 10MHz) (Source
harmonics less than -60dBc)
Second Harmonic <-50dBc
Third Harmonic <-40dBc
Isolation
a) Output to output:
c) Input to input (crosstalk):
>90dB(adjacent outputs) at 10MHz 130dB
at 5MHz (non adjacent outputs) typ. >70dB
(adjacent outputs) at 100MHz Typically
>110dB at 10MHz and >90dBm at 100MHz
>110dB at 10MHz >90dB at 100 MHz >90dB
at 5MHz >80dB at 10MHz
>55dB at 100MHz
Phase Noise @ 10MHz
1Hz
10Hz
>100Hz
dBc/Hz
-140
-150
-165
Short term stability
@ 10MHz
1s
10s
100s
<10-13
<3x10-14
<10-14
Spurious Outputs
< -110dBc (above 1MHz) (typically <-120dBc)
b) Output to input:
Isolation
Output to output:
Non-adjacent o/p typ @
5MHz:
Output to Input:
>110dB 5–60MHz
130dB
>70dB 70–100MHz
Stability AVAR
1s tba
Phase noise (5MHz)
offset
1Hz
10Hz
1kHz
Noise Floor
-170dBc
Phase stability
10ps/°C (5MHz)
Supply
90 ... 240Vac &/or 24Vdc
BBU Battery Input
Size
International 2U Rack
Mount
Warranty
1 year (ask Quartzlock
about low cost extended
warranty)
* Provisional Specification
(Final spec due June 2012, contact Quartzlock)
(Spurious outputs are exclusively from the switch mode power supply)
Broadband Noise
<-148dBm/Hz
Delay match between outputs
<2ns (within group of 4 outputs <0.3ns)
Temp stability of delay
10ps/deg C
Phase change at output
Due to open or short at any other output
(Calculated from isolation): 0.5ps (at 10MHz)
Output Failure Alarm
LED on each output + common active low
logic output
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9
E5000
A Fully Specified, 1–20MHz
Low Cost Distribution Amplifier
Comprehensive Specification
Q Excellent Short Term Stability & Phase Noise
Q 1MHz – 20MHz Bandwidth
Q
Quartzlock !$ISTRIBUTION!MPLIFIER
The E5000 Distribution Amplifier is a 1U Rack Mount unit. The E5000 allows a cost and space
efficient way to distribute reference frequencies throughout a system or lab with virtually no signal
degradation. The standard E5000 accepts input frequencies of 1MHz to 20MHz and provides twelve
outputs of the same frequency.
Features
Benefits
s#OMPACTDESIGN
sD"C(Z (ZPHASENOISE
sD" -(Z)SOLATION
s5NITY'AIN
sD"MTOD"MINPUT
s(IGH3TABILITY
s(IGH)SOLATION
s,OW$ISTORTION
Applications
s)NDUSTRIAL#ALIBRATION,ABORATORIES
s4ELECOMS
s4EST3OLUTIONS
s2&4EST"ENCH
s0RODUCTION4EST
10
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E5000
Specification
Delay match
between outputs
< 1 ns
Delay
input to output
< 6ns
Supply
85 ... 240V ac
Size
1U 19” 44 x 483 x 240mm
No of Outputs
12
No of Inputs
1
Input
characteristics
Impedance
Level
Input SWR
50 ohm nominal
+10dBm nominal
<1.2 :1 at 10 MHz
Impedance
Rated output
50 ohm nominal
at 10MHz 12dBm
into 50 ohms
(@ +13dBm max,
distortion will
occur)
-80
Output SWR
<1.2:1
-90
Maximum
output
13dBm into 50
ohms
at 10MHz typical
Output
characteristics
Frequency response
1MHz to 20MHz +/-1.0dB
Harmonics
(at rated output,10MHz)
(source harmonics less than -60dBc)
Second harmonic < -50dBc
Third harmonic < -50dBc
Isolation
Output to output
(adjacent outputs) >60dB at 10 MHz
Output to output
(non adjacent)
>70dB at 10MHz
Output to input
>90db at 10MHz
-13
Short term stability
(at 10MHz)
2 x 10 tau=1sec
2 x 10-14 tau=10sec
5 x 10-15 tau=100sec
Phase Noise
(10 MHz)
Offset
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz & Noise floor
Phase Noise
Agilent E5500
Carrier: 10E+6 Hz
06 Jun 2011 08:25:52 - 08:27:32
-100
-110
-120
-130
-140
-150
-160
-170
-180
1
10
100
1K
100K
1M
10M
Typical Output to Output Stability
Measured in 200Hz bandwidth
Typical phase
noise,dBc/Hz
-132
-145
-152
-158
-160
Tau
1ms
Allan Variance
5x10-11
10ms
8x10-12
100ms
8x10-13
1s
2x10-13
5s
2x10-14
10s
1.5x10-14
100s
3x10-15
Spurious outputs
< -100dBc
1,000s
1x10-15
Broadband noise
< -155 dBc/Hz
10,000s
x10-16
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10K
L(f) [ dBc / Hz ] vs f [ Hz ]
Ask Quartzlock for plots
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
11
E5-X
Fully Specified, Low Cost, Desktop
Distribution Amplifier
Compact Desktop
Q 1MHz–20MHz Bandwidth
Q Comprehensive Specification
Q Excellent Short Term Stability & Phase Noise
Q
Approx actual size
Features
Benefits
s6ERY,OW#OST6ERY3MALL3IZE
s-(Zn-(Z"ANDWIDTH
s#OMPREHENSIVE3PECIlCATION
s%XCELLENT3HORT4ERM3TABILITY0HASE.OISE
sOUTPUTS
sD"M/UTPUT,EVEL
sD"MTOD"M
s(IGH3TABILITY
s,OW$ISTORTION
s(IGH)SOLATION
Applications
s)NDUSTRIAL#ALIBRATION,ABORATORIES
s4ELECOMS
s4EST3OLUTIONS
s2&4EST"ENCH
s0RODUCTION4EST
12
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E5-X
Specifications
No of outputs
6
No of inputs
1
Input characteristics
Impedance
50 ohm nominal
Level
+10dBm nominal
+6 dBm to +12 dBm
Input SWR
<1.2 :1 at 10 MHz
Impedance
50 ohm nominal
Output
characteristics
Rated output at 10MHz 12dBm into
50 ohms
(@ +13dBm max,
distortion will occur)
< 6ns
Supply
12V dc. E5-X6 is supplied with 85...
240V ac supply
Size
105 x 30 x 125mm
Phase Noise
-80
Agilent E5500
Carrier: 10E+6 Hz
06 Jun 2011 08:25:52 - 08:27:32
-90
-100
Output SWR <1.2:1
Maximum
output
Delay
input to output
13dBm into 50 ohms
at 10MHz typical
Frequency response
1MHz to 20MHz +/-1.0dB
Harmonics
(at rated output,10MHz) (source
harmonics less than -60dBc)
-110
-120
-130
-140
Second harmonic
< -50dBc
Third harmonic
< -50dBc
-150
-160
-170
-180
Isolation
Short term stability
(at 10MHz)
Phase noise
(10MHz)
Output to output
(adjacent outputs)
>50dB at 10 MHz
typically >60dB
Output to output
(non adjacent)
Ask Quartzlock
Output to input
>90db at 10MHz
2 x 10-13 tau=1sec
2 x 10-14 tau=10sec
5 x 10-15 tau=100sec
Offset
Typical phase noise,
dBc/Hz
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz
100kHz
-132
-145
-152
-158
-160
-160
1
10
100
1K
10K
1M
10M
Typical Output to Output Stability
Measured in 200Hz bandwidth
Tau
1ms
Allan Variance
5x10-11
10ms
8x10-12
100ms
8x10-13
1s
2x10-13
5s
2x10-14
10s
1.5x10-14
100s
3x10-15
1,000s
1x10-15
10,000s
8x10-16
Spurious outputs
< -100dBc
Output to Output Stability
Broadband noise
< -155 dBc/Hz
Ask Quartzlock for plots. Typically x10-14/s
Delay match
between outputs
< 1ns
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100K
L(f) [ dBc / Hz ] vs f [ Hz ]
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
13
A6-1PPS
OEM 1PPS Timing Module
Q
Q
Q
Compact form factor
License available
Very fast lock to GPS
STOP PRESS Now available as a complete instrument
This is a PCB level product to control an OCXO or Rubidium oscillator from an external 1PPS.
The A6-1PPS uses a 3 state Kalman filter algorithm to measure & correct the frequency offset of the
oscillator with respect to the 1PPS input. Time-tagged 1PPS to 200ps resolution & <1ns jitter.
Features
Benefits
s003OUTPUT
s-(ZOUTPUT
s3ELFCALIBRATINGINTERNALCLOCKANALOGUEINTERPOLATOR
s003TIMETAGRESOLUTIONOFPS
sNSRMSJITTER
s(OLDOVERMODEISINITIATEDBYFAILUREOFTHE003INPUT
s2EDUCED003JITTER
s&ASTLOCKTOHIGHACCURACYFROMRAW'03003
Applications
s$EFENCETIMING
s7I-!8"ASESTATIONS
s'"ASESTATIONS7#$-!#$-!
s,4%'
s$IGITAL6IDEO"ROADCAST
s'ENERAL4IMINGAND3YNCHRONIZATION
14
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A6-1PPS
A locking module for timing
This module is designed to lock a 10MHz stable oscillator, either OCXO or rubidium, to the 1PPS time mark
signal generated from a GPS receiver. The module can be programmed for a wide range of controlled oscillator
parameters, and GPS receivers. The controlled oscillator can be either on or off the board. A stable 1PPS time
mark is generated from the controlled oscillator. This can be adjusted to any offset from the GPS 1PPS in 1ns steps.
The control algorithm used is designed to give optimum control results and the fastest possible acquisition
from switch on.
Design strategy
This module is designed to lock a 10MHz stable oscillator, either
an OCXO or a rubidium, to the 1PPS time mark signal generated from
a GPS receiver.
There are a number of challenging problems involved in this, as
the data rate by definition is only one measurement per second. In
order to get sufficient frequency resolution to correct the oscillator, a
very long averaging time would be required.
Because the 1PPS time mark is a fast rise time logic signal, the
only measurement that is feasible is to time tag the incoming
1PPS edge relative to a local clock driven by the controlled
oscillator. By calculating the rate of change of the arrival time over
a suitable averaging period, the frequency offset of the controlled
oscillator can be calculated. An alternative strategy would be to set
the time of the first 1PPS arrival as the zero phase of a phase detector
with a range of +/- 0.5s. This is equivalent to +/- Pi radians. A phase
lock loop would then provide a very slow control of the oscillator.
In both systems the timing accuracy and resolution of the
incoming 1PPS is important. Modern GPS receivers provide a 1PPS
output jitter of between 1us RMS for a navigation receiver, to less
than 7ns RMS for a special timing receiver operating in position hold
mode. It is desirable that the timing resolution of the module should
be better than this, as otherwise quantization noise would enter
the averaging process and degrade the performance of the system.
It would only be possible to compensate for this by increasing the
averaging time. A suitable specification for time resolution is +/- 1ns.
To achieve this directly would need a 1GHz clock. A much more
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suitable method is an analog time interval expander. This device has
been used in many designs of frequency counter starting with the
Racal 1992. The principle is that an error pulse is generated which
has a width equal to the time between the incoming edge to be
timed, and the next clock pulse. For example, with a 100ns clock,
the error pulse will have a width of between 0 and 100ns. This error
pulse is then used to charge a capacitor or integrator. The capacitor
or integrator is then discharges at a much slower rate, say 1/1000
of the rate. The resulting stretched pulse is then measured using the
available clock pulses. The improvement in resolution equals the ratio
of the discharge to charge rate. For the example above the resolution
will be 100ps.
The next thing to consider is the choice of the control
algorithm. This must provide an appropriate control bandwidth so
the short term stability of the controlled oscillator (Allen variance)
is optimised over a wide range. The ideal bandwidth will vary
considerably between a low cost OCXO, and a rubidium.
One option is to use a simple phase lock loop. This would be
a type 2 second order loop ( ie with an integrator in the loop filter)
with a zero to give suitable phase margins for optimum dynamic
performance. However one problem with a phase lock loop is that it
must reduce the initial phase error to zero by changing the frequency
of the VCO. With the very long loop time constant necessary to
remove the effect of the GPS time jitter, the eventual settling of the
loop could take several days. It is also difficult to extract measures of
performance from the loop, for example it is difficult to estimate the
current frequency error of the VCO. It was felt that a frequency
control loop would settle quicker. For a frequency standard we do
not mind operating with a fixed phase offset, and there is no need to
reduce this to zero.
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15
A6-1PPS
One possible method of extracting frequency offset from
phase data is a quadratic least squares fit on a block of data.
This is a standard method for extracting phase offset, frequency
offset, and frequency drift from phase difference information. Having
extracted the offset frequency, we can then make a correction to the
controlled oscillator to remove the offset. If the control constant was
known exactly, there would be no under or overshoot. The problem
with this method is that we do not know how large to make the
block of data that we analyse. The reliability of the fit is given by
the correlation coefficient, and ideally this should be monitored on
a continuous basis. What is required is a continuous least squares
process. This is of course, a Kalman filter, and this was the eventual
method selected for implementing the control algorithm.
´
The Kalman filter will be briefly described in general in a (hopefully)
simple way, and then the specific implementation for our problem
will be described in more detail.
A block diagram of a Kalman filter is given in figure 1. It is basically
a recursive estimation, based on noisy measurements, of the future
“state” of a system . The system is defined as a “state vector” and
a “state transition matrix”. The system in our case would be the
controlled oscillator that we wish to predict, and the state vector
would contain the phase offset, frequency offset, and frequency
drift variables. The “state transition matrix” defines the differential
&IG+ALMANlLTER
relationship that exists between the state variables over one time
increment. The concept of a system driven by noise processes is
important here. If our Rb had absolutely constant drift, its output
phase would be known for all time once the initial drift , frequency
offset and phase offset had been determined. Data gathered a year
ago would have as much validity as data an hour old. If the Kalman
filter is given this model of the Rb, the results are identical to the
least squares fit of all the data. Of course the quadratic least squares
fit assumes that the Rb can be modelled by three constants.
A more realistic physical model would allow the drift to vary.
If this varied in a deterministic way, we should add a further term
to the state vector to reflect this deterministic process. However if
the variation was random, we can tell the Kalman filter that this
is so. Note that the filter is only optimum for white gaussian noise
processes. However in our case we can model the noise of the Rb
oscillator more accurately by adding white gaussian noise to each
term in the state vector. If we add some uncorrelated noise to each
term in the state vector, we end up with white phase noise, white
FM noise, and random walk FM noise due to the single and double
integration in the model. This is shown in figure 2.
The measurements are also assumed to be contaminated with
gaussian white noise. In our case we only have one measurement,
that is phase offset. We do not know that the main contributer to
measurement noise, the GPS receiver, is either white or gaussian.
However this is a limitation of the simple Kalman filter that we intend
to use. If we are sure of the characteristics of the measurement noise,
we can include this knowledge by adding more terms to the state
vector. We are then essentially including the known aspects of the
measurement in the system model.
As well as the state vector, the Kalman filter maintains a
matrix that gives the current variances (mean square error) of
the quantities in the state vector. These give us current estimates
of the likely errors in the state vector, in our case variances of phase
offset, frequency offset, and frequency drift. These will be very useful
for display to the user. They also have another use, which will be
demonstrated later. In effect they control the “bandwidth” of the
filter. As more data comes in, the variances decrease, and the filter
gives more weight to the current estimate( which represents the
complete history of the data), and less to the current measurement.
The measurement variance, which we have to tell the filter, also
affects the “bandwidth”. If we tell the filter that the measurement is
noisy, it reduces the bandwidth.
So far we have considered the Kalman filter as a device for analysing
the incoming data in an optimum way. However we need to
control the Rb oscillator, and reduce the frequency offset to
zero. An elementary method would be to write periodic corrections
to the Rb control DAC, and wait for the Kalman filter to track out the
resulting discontinuity in the measurements.However there is a much
better way. If we adjust the frequency offset term in the state vector
at the same time that we correct the Rb , the filter will ignore the
correction, and no extra settling time will be required. In effect we
are defining the model of the Rb to have a frequency discontinuity at
16
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A6-1PPS
a particular time, and provided the real Rb has that discontinuity, the
Kalman filter will see no difference between the model, and what the
measurements are telling it about the real system.
Using this technique, we can correct the Rb as often as we
like. However if we are uncertain as to the exact value of the
control constant, then the correction will undershoot or overshoot
the model. Another trick that can be useful is if we know that there
is a measurement discontinuity, but we do not know how large
it is. An example would be if the GPS signal disappears for any
reason. When satellites were reacquired, there could be a phase
discontinuity between the GPS 1PPS and the locking module internal
clock. Although we cannot tell the filter the amount or direction of
the discontinuity, we can tell it that its current estimate of phase is
completely unreliable. We do this by adding a large number to the
appropriate term of the error covariance matrix. The filter then gives
maximum weight to the measurements to reacquire the phase as
quickly as possible, however as it thinks its frequency is still accurate,
it does not give excessive weight to the rate of change of phase
measurement, and the frequency covariance hardly rises.
The Kalman filter can predict ahead if measurement data fails.
In this case both the state vector and the error covariance matrix will
be updated. The previously estimated value of drift will update the
frequency offset automatically. Frequency corrections can be made
in the usual way.The error covariances will rise to reflect the lower
confidence in the predictions as time passes. When measurements
resume, the filter will automatically recover and the error covariances
will start to fall. Thus the user is always aware of the reliability of
the frequency output. If an unknown phase step is expected on
resumption of measurements, then the phase variance should be
augmented as previously described.
Technical details of design
The design is based around a PIC18F6723 microcontroller. This is a
high end controller with 5 capture/compare modules and 4 timer/
counters. The time interval expander is tightly integrated with the
processor internal peripherals to produce an economical design. The
basic timing resolution is 400ns (one processor cycle at a 10MHz
clock frequency). The time interval expander extends the resolution
by 2000 times. In order to avoid the problems of expanding a pulse
of zero width, one cycle of the 10MHz clock (100ns) is added to the
time error pulse. This gives an unexpanded pulse width of 100ns to
500ns. After expansion, the pulse is 200us to 1ms. This is timed by
the 400ns clock to give a basic +/-200ps resolution.
A time interval expander must be calibrated as otherwise a glitch
will be produced when the time error pulse rolls over from 500ns to
100ns, and vice versa. This is caused by the expansion ratio not being
exactly the expected 2000 times. The expansion ratio may drift with
time and temperature.
As the incoming 1PPS only needs measuring once per second, the
dead time is used to calibrate the time expander. The hardware
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generates exact pulses of 100ns and 500ns by gating from the
10MHz clock. These are expanded and measured. The calculated
end points of the expanded pulse are used to correct the real
measurement of the incoming 1PPS. This auto calibration operates
continuously.
The control of the OCXO or other controlled oscillator uses a
precision tuning voltage derived from DtoA convertors . Two 16
bit DACs are used, with the output of the fine tune DAC divided
by 256 and added to the output of the coarse tune DAC. This gives
effectively 24 bit resolution with an overlap between the coarse and
fine tune DACs. A software normalisation process ensures that the
fine tune DAC is used for tuning most of the time. Only when the
controlled oscillator has drifted out of range of the fine tune DAC
would the coarse tune DAC need adjusting, with the chance of a
very small glitch in the tuning voltage. A precision, low noise, voltage
reference is used to supply the DACs.
The microcontroller is provided with an RS232 interface. A simple
set of control codes enable monitoring and set up of the controlled
oscillator parameters to accomodate a wide range of controlled
oscillators. A Windows front end program will use the control codes
to enable the operation of the PLL to be monitored with real time
graphs of performance measures.
Software design
In normal operation the auto calibration performs calibration cycles
every 20ms. The approximate time of arrival of the next 1PPS input
pulse is known, so the calibration cycles are paused while the 1PPS is
measured. The raw measurement of the arrival time is corrected for
the actual expansion ratio and is scaled to lie in the range -500.000000
to +499999999 ns relative to the internal clock.
The first valid 1PPS edge to arrive after reset is used to zero the internal
clock. This makes the arrival time initially close to zero, and avoids
problems with lack of precision in the floating point calculations
which follow.
The corrected time tag is sent to the Kalman filter routine
which runs once every second. The estimate of the controlled
oscillator phase, fractional frequency offset, and drift (the state
variables) is updated by the new measurement. Also updated is the
error covariance matrix which provides an indication of the accuracy
of the estimate of the state variables.
After update of the filter, the frequency correction for the controlled
oscillator is calculated. This is done by scaling the Kalman frequency
offset estimate by the known ( programmed) tuning slope of the
oscillator. The correction is then added to the frequency control
register of the oscillator.
The tuning voltage is divided between the coarse and fine tune
DACs as follows: When normalisation is performed, the fine tune
DAC most significant 8 bits are set to mid point ( 80h). The least
significant 8 bits of the fine tune DAC are set to the least significant
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17
A6-1PPS
8 bits of the tuning word. The coarse tune DAC is then set to provide
the final tuning voltage. During all subsequent tuning, only the fine
tune DAC is used over its 16 bit range. If the range is exceeded, the
normalisation procedure is repeated.
´
A state machine provides control of locking. After reset the last
value of the frequency control register, which has been stored in
EEPROM on a regular basis, is restored. This will retune the controlled
oscillator to very nearly the correct frequency. The Kalman update is
disabled and the software waits for the following all to occur (state
0):
a) Rubidium reference warm up input to go low or OCXO supply
current to drop below a threshold showing the Rubidium/OCXO has
warmed up
b) A 1PPS input capture has occured
The sofware then requests a reset of the internal clock (state 1). This
will normally occur on the next 1PPS to be received.
Once a clock reset has occured, the Kalman filter tracking
is started, however frequency corrections are not made to the
controlled oscillator. (state 2) Each capture must be within 50us of
the first capture, otherwise the reset state is reentered. After 100
successful captures, state3 is entered provided the performance
monitor, MEANFREQERROR is below a threshold.
falls below a second threshold. At this point the lock indicator is
switched off. (state 4)
The following parameters set up the Kalman filter to match the
controlled oscillator:
a) Oscillator noise parameters:
S1 variance of random walk FM noise
S2 variance of white FM noise
S3 variance of white phase noise
OC1
oscillator tuning constant in fractional frequency/volt
OC2
maximum oscillator tuning voltage in volts, assuming 0V
minimum
b) 1PPS noise root variance (a function of the GPS receiver used)
R measurement noise root variance in seconds
These parameters are programmed over the RS232 interface, and are
stored in non volatile memory.
The oscillator noise parameters may be obtained from a measured
Allen variance curve using a MathCad modelling program.
The performance monitor, MEANFREQERROR is calculated as follows:
The mean of the Kalman frequency offset estimate is calculated
by means of a 5th order exponential filter. ( In the pre lock state
the mean may not be near zero, ie there may be a constant offset
between the controlled oscillator and GPS time)
&IG.OISEMODELOFOSCILLATOR
After each iteration of the Kalman filter, the current deviation is
calculated by subtracting the current frequency offset estimate from
the running mean. This value is squared, and divided by the predicted
variance from the error covariance matrix that is maintained by the
filter. This normalises the actual deviation that is seen by the predicted
deviation from the filter. (The predicted deviation only depends upon
the system and measurement noise parameters NOT on the actual
behaviour of the system.)
The normalised deviation in then filtered in a 4th order exponential
filter. During warmup the performance measure will be high, indicating
that the controlled oscillator is still drifting fast, relative to its predicted
steady state performance. When the controlled oscillator is stable, and
the Kalman filter has settled, the performance measure will drop below
a threshold. At this point frequency corrections will be started. (state 3)
In state 3 corrections are made to the controlled oscillator. The filter
and oscillator will continue to settle, until the performance monitor
18
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A6-1PPS
Specification
Specification
Frequency
10MHz
Input Level
100mv Pp to 5Vpp
(Oscillator off board)
1PPS Input
Impedance:
500 Ohms
Output Level
13+/-2 dBm
(Oscillator on board)
1PPS Input Level
5V TTL/Cmos positive edge
Width
10us Minimum
Input Impedance
1000 Ohms
1PPS Output Level
5V TTL/Cmos positive edge
Width
10ms
Preset Offset Of
1PPS Output
-500000000 To +499999999 Ns
in 1ns Steps
Timing Baseline
Selectable between fixed
(minimum jitter) or kalman phase
estimate (maximum accuracy)
External Tune
Voltage
0 to span, where span is software
adjustable between 5.8V and 10V
Lock Indicator
On Not Locked
Off Locked, Low Phase Error
Short Flash Every Second Locked,
High Phase Error
Interface
See separate document
Interface Codes
See separate document
Performance
The control performance depends very
much on the quality of the controlled
oscillator and the source of the
1PPS synchronizing signal. For these
reasons it is difficult to quote absolute
performance figures.
Power Supply
14 to 30V (On board OCXO is used)
An external OCXO or Rubidium may
be used.
12 To 30V (No on-board OCXO)
The Following Cases Are Typical
Controlled Oscillator: Rubidium
1PPS Source
Passive Hydrogen Maser
(Essentially no 1PPS Jitter)
Result: Allen Variance
100s
1000s
10,000s
Controlled Oscillator: Rubidium
1PPS Source
Quartzlock E8-Y/E8000 GPS Receiver
in Position Hold Mode
Result: Allen Variance
100s
1000s
10,000s
1x10-12
1x10-12
8x10-13
Current
Consumption
150mA Typical (On-board OCXO)
Size
25 x 25 x 5mm (Without OCXO)
The Quartzlock A3 series of SC cut OCXO’s are ideal for use on the
A6-1PPS design-in board product. The oscillator performance defines
the 1PPS accuracy.
A3 specification is typically:
Short term stability AVAR 8x10-13/second
Phase noise
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1x10-12
3x10-13
1x10-13
PN -110dBc/Hz @ 1Hz
-110dBc/Hz @ 1Hz offset
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19
A6-CPS
DPLL, DDS Active Noise Filter
Q
Q
Q
1MHz to 40MHz output frequency
4mHz to 500mHz PLL bandwidths
Compact OEM board for a wide range of applications
The A6-CPS digital phase locked loop (PLL) provides an low noise, very high short term stability
filtered output which can be customised to a specific application.
The A6-CPS digital PLL may be fitted into the Quartzlock A6 frequency convertor with BVA OCXO,
rubidium, GPS or other options.
Features
Benefits
s23MONITORANDCONTROL
s0REDElNEDUSERBANDWIDTHS
s7IDERANGEOF/#8/SUPPORTED
s)MPROVEDPHASENOISE
s)MPROVEDSHORTTERMSTABILITY
s,OWCOSTSOLUTIONTOUPGRADEEXISTINGDESIGNSAND
references
s1UICKANDSIMPLETOUSEANDINTEGRATE
Applications
s4IMEANDFREQUENCYREFERENCEFORSATELLITECOMMUNICATIONGROUNDSTATIONS#$-!,4%$46$!"
s&REQUENCYREFERENCINGOFINTERCEPTIONANDMONITORINGRECEIVERS
s7IREDAND7IRELESSNETWORKSYNCHRONIZATION
s3ECURECOMMUNICATIONS#DEFENCEAND2$
s2ADARNAVIGATIONSYSTEMS
s(IGHERDElNITIONIN-2)IMAGINGSYSTEMS
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A6-CPS
Technical Description
This module is designed to overcome the disadvantages of narrow band width analog phase lock loops used to
lock relatively stable oscillators together, or to generate arbitrary frequencies from a 10MHz reference with good
phase noise, freedom from non harmonically related spurii, and good short term stability.
When locking a low noise OCXO to a rubidium reference, for
example, the ideal PLL bandwidth will be very much less than 1Hz,
probably in the region of 10 to 100mHz.
An analog loop will have a very long time constant integrator, leading
to thermal drift, capacitor dielectric absorption, and operational
amplifier offset drift. In addition, acquisition time of the loop will be
very long, and if there is any frequency error, acquisition may not
occur at all. There is also a problem of providing an effective “in lock”
indicator to the user, or for use with associated equipment.
The digital loop overcomes all these problems. The long time constant
integrator is replaced by a digital integrator that does not drift at all.
A combination of an analog phase detector for low noise, and an
extended range phase/frequency detector for certain acquisition can
be used. The loop bandwidth can be set to maximum for acquisition,
followed by glitch free reduction to the working bandwidth when
the phase error becomes small. In addition performance measures
related to the phase error in the loop, and the frequency error can
easily be derived and used to indicate lock and bandwidth control.
As an additional benefit a hold over mode that keeps the controlled
oscillator tuning voltage constant if there should be a reference failure
can be easily provided.
In order to generate arbitrary frequencies from a 10MHz reference,
a DDS synthesiser is used. This has 36 bit resolution and is clocked at
10MHz from the reference. Output frequencies of 1.8MHz to 3.6MHz
are available
as the reference input to the digital PLL. This enables the controlled
oscillator (OCXO) to have a frequency range of 1.8MHz to 28.8MHz.
The resolution at 10MHz output will be 1.45x10-11.
Technical details of design
The design uses mixer type phase detectors operating at frequencies
between 1.8MHz and 10MHz. A dual phase detector is used with
quadrature square wave inputs from the controlled oscillator. The
main input , which is split between the quadrature phase detectors,
is a sine wave input at a level between 0 and 13dBm, and is link
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selected to either come from the 10MHz reference input, or the
output of the DDS synthesiser.
The sine wave signal from the controlled oscillator is converted to a
square wave using a fast comparator. It is then divided by 2, 4 or 8
using digital dividers. A link selects direct, 2,4, or 8 divided signals.
The output from the dividers forms the “Q” reference signal to the Q
phase detector. A quadrature “I” reference is generated by passing
the Q signal through a programmable delay line, which may be set to
delays from 10ns to 137ns, in steps of 0.5ns. This enables quadrature
references to be generated for phase detector frequencies between
1.8MHz and 25MHz.
The outputs from the phase detectors are filtered and amplified by
DC amplifiers with gain control using digital potentiometers. The
gain is controlled by a software AGC system which tries to keep the
input to the ADCs at optimum levels. The phase detector outputs are
sampled by two channels of the 10bit AtoD convertor internal to the
PIC 16F689 microcontroller. All other functions of the PLL are carried
out by software.
The control of the OCXO or other controlled oscillator uses a
precision tuning voltage derived from DtoA convertors . Two 16 bit
DACs are used, with the output of the fine tune DAC divided by
256 and added to the output of the coarse tune DAC. This gives
effectively 24 bit resolution with an overlap between the coarse and
fine tune DACs. A software normalisation process ensures that the
fine tune DAC is used for tuning most of the time. Only when the
controlled oscillator has drifted out of range of the fine tune DAC
would the coarse tune DAC need adjusting, with the chance of a
very small glitch in the tuning voltage. A precision, low noise, voltage
reference is used to supply the DACs.
The microcontroller is provided with an RS232 interface. A simple
set of control codes enable monitoring and set up of the digital PLL
parameters to accomodate a wide range of controlled oscillators.
A Windows front end program will use the control codes to enable
the operation of the PLL to be monitored with real time graphs of
performance measures.
´
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A6-CPS
Software design
´
The input to the software is the sampled I and Q signals from the
phase detectors. These are sampled at a 1kHz rate. As the final
bandwidth of the PLL will be less than 1Hz, this oversampling enables
prefiltering to be used which extends the resolution and reduces
noise in the 10bit AtoD convertor internal to the microcontroller.
Single pole digital filters are used on both the I and Q channels. These
are implemented as exponential filters which have a 3dB band width
which is a function of the “order” of the filter. Filter orders between
0 ( no filter) and 15 are provided. This gives bandwidths between
114Hz for order 1, and 4.8mHz for order 15. The filter order is varied
as the user selected PLL bandwidth is varied.
After prefiltering, the I and Q channels, now at 16 bit resolution, are
subsampled at a rate between 15.625 s/s, and 1.953 s/s depending
on the user bandwidth and lock state of the PLL. The “Q” sample
is now divided by the ”I” sample ( after checking that I>Q) to give
a binary fraction. This is used to look up the phase value in a TAN-1
look up table. The look up table is used to synthesise two types of
phase detector:
a) A phase detector with 16 bit resolution between Pi/2 and -Pi/2.
b) A phase/ frequency detector with 16 bit resolution between 2Pi
and -2Pi. This phase detector is equivalent to the well known
digital phase/frequency detector. This rolls over between 2Pi and
0 for positive cycle slips, and between -2Pi and 0 for negative
cycle slips, and will always provide reliable lock if there is a initial
frequency error.
The output of the selected phase detector now has digital gain
applied, selectable between 1/256 and 128. After digital gain, the
phase value is added into the integrator, which is 32 bits wide.
In order to make the loop stable, by providing a phase lead, the phase
value has proportional term gain applied, also selectable between
1/256 and 128. This value is added to the upper 3 bytes of the
integrator to give the tuning voltage (24 bits)
The tuning voltage is divided between the coarse and fine tune
DACs as follows: When normalisation is performed, the fine tune
DAC most significant 8 bits are set to mid point ( 80h). The least
significant 8 bits of the fine tune DAC are set to the least significant
8 bits of the tuning word. The coarse tune DAC is then set to provide
the final tuning voltage. During all subsequent tuning, only the fine
tune DAC is used over its 16 bit range. If the range is exceeded, the
normalisation procedure is repeated. A state machine provides control
of locking. After reset the last value of the integrator, which has been
stored in EEPROM on a regular basis, is restored. This will retune the
controlled oscillator to very nearly the correct frequency. The loop is
then opened and the software waits for the following all to occur
(state 0):
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a) Rubidium reference warm up input to go high.
b) OCXO supply current to drop below a threshold showing the
OCXO has warmed up
c) A measure |I|+|Q| which is an approximate measure of the signal
level at the phase detector to rise above a threshold.
When these conditions are fulfilled, the software attempts to lock the
loop (state 1) by selecting the phase frequency detector, maximum
bandwidth, and maximum subsample rate. It then closes the loop
and waits for another measure, which is |phaseresult|, to drop below
a threshold. The measure |phaseresult| is the modulus of each phase
calculation filtered in an 8th order exponential filter, the bandwidth of
which, for the 15.625 s/s subsample rate, equals 9.7mHz.
Once the lock threshold for |phaseresult| is reached, the lock state (
state 2) is entered. The bandwidth is switched to the users selected
bandwidth, which has been maintained in EEPROM, and the phase
detector is switched over to the narrow band phase detector (Pi/2 to
-Pi/2). All the time during normal operation , |phaseresult| is being
compared to a lower threshold than the lock threshold. If it exceeds
this threshold, state 3 is entered which provides a brief flash of the
lock LED to warn the user that the selected bandwidth may be too
narrow for the PLL to track the drift of the controlled oscillator fast
enough. This low threshold is currently set at 480ps maximum phase
error.
In extreme cases the lock threshold (4.8ns phase error) may be
exceeded, in which case the software assumes lock is lost and reenters state 1. A further performance measure is calculated, which
is available over the interface. This is the first difference of the phase
error, filtered in an 8th order exponential filter. It is corrected for
subsample rate, and has a constant sensitivity of 5.8x10-15 per bit. (
at 10MHz phase detector frequency)
This performance measure gives the mean fractional frequency
difference between the controlled oscillator and the reference, and is
useful for setting up the optimum bandwidth of the PLL.
The band width and damping of the PLL is controlled by 4
parameters, integrator digital gain, proportional digital gain, prefilter
order, and subsample rate. These are preset for 8 values of user
selected bandwidth, and can only be changed by modifying the
software. It is possible to temporarily adjust the four individual
parameters as part of a test procedure carried out over the RS232
interface. The selection of the 4 parameters has been optimised
using a mathematical model of the PLL modelled as a MATHCAD
spreadsheet. This could be made available to customers who wished
to readjust the PLL parameters.
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A6-CPS
Specification
Reference Input
Frequency
10MHz
1MHz to 10 MHz
100mVPP to 5VPP
1VPP to 5VPP
1000 OHMs
(DDS used)
(no DDS)
(DDS used)
(no DDS)
(no DDS)
(DDS used)
Stability Allan Variance
Input Impediance
1MHz to 40MHz
1.8MHz to 28.8MHz
100mVPP to 5VPP
High end options
-130dBc/Hz @ 1Hz offset
-178dBc/Hz @ 10kHz offset
8x10-14/s
500 Ohms
External Tune Voltage
0 to SPAN, where SPAN is software adjustable between 5.8V and 10V
Level
Input Impediance
Controlled Oscillator
Frequency
Level (external oscillator)
Phase Noise
Typical option
-110dBc/Hz
-160dBc/Hz
x10-13/s
Notes: a) If DDS is not used, controlled oscillator must be k times higher frequency than refeence,
where k is link adjusted to 1,2,4,8
b) Either reference or controlled oscillator must be 10MHz to provide microcontroller clock
Power Supply
14 to 30V
12 to 30V
on board OCXO is used
no on board OCXO
Current Consumption
150mA typical
50mA
on board OCXO
typical (no on board OCXO)
PLL Bandwidths
4mHz to 500mHz typical in 8 binary increments
Frequency Pull in
Up to 7Hz initial frequency error
Lock Indicator
On
Off
Short flash every second
Long flash, short flash
Interface
9.6kbaud, RS232, PC compatible, Windows front end program or USB
Interface Codes
Ask Quartzlock for separate document
PCB Size
94 x 75mm (may be substantially reduced in customised version). OCXO may mount off PCB.
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Not locked
Locked, low phase error
Locked, high phase error
No processor clock
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23
A6-ANF
Active Noise Filter
Atomic Clock Clean up Oscillator
Q
Q
Q
1MHz to 40MHz output frequency
4mHz to 500mHz PLL bandwidths
Primary reference compatible
The A6-ANF Active Noise Filter has an Ultra Low Noise SC OCXO oven-controlled quartz oscillator
which is used in Quartzlock’s Active Noise Filter Clean Technology to filter input reference signals.
The A6-ANF provides an ultra low noise, very high short term stability filtered output to make a
significant improvement in Rubidium or Ceasium frequency reference.
Features
Benefits
s2353"MONITORANDCONTROL
s0REDElNEDUSERBANDWIDTHS
s#OMPREHENSIVERANGEOFPHASENOISEAND343OPTIONS
s)MPROVEDPHASENOISE
s)MPROVEDSHORTTERMSTABILITY
s,OWCOSTSOLUTIONTOUPGRADEEXISTINGREFERENCES
s1UICKANDSIMPLETOUSEANDINSTALL
Applications
s)MPROVEDPRIMARYREFERENCEPHASENOISE
s)MPROVEDPRIMARYREFERENCESHORTTERMSTABILITY
24
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A6-ANF
Technical Description
This module is designed to overcome the disadvantages of narrow band width analog phase lock loops used to
lock relatively stable oscillators together, or to generate arbitrary frequencies from a 10MHz reference with good
phase noise, freedom from non harmonically related spurii, and good short term stability.
When locking a low noise OCXO to a rubidium reference, for
example, the ideal PLL bandwidth will be very much less than 1Hz,
probably in the region of 10 to 100mHz.
is a sine wave input at a level between 0 and 13dBm, and is link
selected to either come from the 10MHz reference input, or the
output of the DDS synthesiser.
An analog loop will have a very long time constant integrator,
leading to thermal drift, capacitor dielectric absorption, and
operational amplifier offset drift. In addition, acquisition time of the
loop will be very long, and if there is any frequency error,
acquisition may not occur at all. There is also a problem of
providing an effective “in lock” indicator to the user, or for use
with associated equipment.
The sine wave signal from the controlled oscillator is converted
to a square wave using a fast comparator. It is then divided by 2, 4
or 8 using digital dividers. A link selects direct, 2,4, or 8 divided
signals.
The digital loop overcomes all these problems. The long time constant
integrator is replaced by a digital integrator that does not drift at all.
A combination of an analog phase detector for low noise, and an
extended range phase/frequency detector for certain acquisition can
be used. The loop bandwidth can be set to maximum for acquisition,
followed by glitch free reduction to the working bandwidth when
the phase error becomes small. In addition performance measures
related to the phase error in the loop, and the frequency error can
easily be derived and used to indicate lock and bandwidth control.
As an additional benefit a hold over mode that keeps the controlled
oscillator tuning voltage constant if there should be a reference failure
can be easily provided.
In order to generate arbitrary frequencies from a 10MHz reference,
a DDS synthesiser is used. This has 36 bit resolution and is clocked at
10MHz from the reference. Output frequencies of 1.8MHz to 3.6MHz
are available
as the reference input to the digital PLL. This enables the controlled
oscillator (OCXO) to have a frequency range of 1.8MHz to 28.8MHz.
The resolution at 10MHz output will be 1.45x10-11.
Technical details of design
The design uses mixer type phase detectors operating at frequencies
between 1.8MHz and 10MHz. A dual phase detector is used with
quadrature square wave inputs from the controlled oscillator. The
main input , which is split between the quadrature phase detectors,
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The output from the dividers forms the “Q” reference signal to the Q
phase detector. A quadrature “I” reference is generated by passing
the Q signal through a programmable delay line, which may be set to
delays from 10ns to 137ns, in steps of 0.5ns. This enables quadrature
references to be generated for phase detector frequencies between
1.8MHz and 25MHz.
The outputs from the phase detectors are filtered and amplified by
DC amplifiers with gain control using digital potentiometers. The
gain is controlled by a software AGC system which tries to keep the
input to the ADCs at optimum levels. The phase detector outputs are
sampled by two channels of the 10bit AtoD convertor internal to the
PIC 16F689 microcontroller. All other functions of the PLL are carried
out by software.
The control of the OCXO or other controlled oscillator uses a
precision tuning voltage derived from DtoA convertors . Two 16 bit
DACs are used, with the output of the fine tune DAC divided by
256 and added to the output of the coarse tune DAC. This gives
effectively 24 bit resolution with an overlap between the coarse and
fine tune DACs. A software normalisation process ensures that the
fine tune DAC is used for tuning most of the time. Only when the
controlled oscillator has drifted out of range of the fine tune DAC
would the coarse tune DAC need adjusting, with the chance of a
very small glitch in the tuning voltage. A precision, low noise, voltage
reference is used to supply the DACs.
The microcontroller is provided with an RS232/USB interface. A simple
set of control codes enable monitoring and set up of the digital PLL
parameters to accomodate a wide range of controlled oscillators.
A Windows front end program will use the control codes to enable
the operation of the PLL to be monitored with real time graphs of
performance measures.
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´
25
A6-ANF
Software design
´
The input to the software is the sampled I and Q signals from the
phase detectors. These are sampled at a 1kHz rate. As the final
bandwidth of the PLL will be less than 1Hz, this oversampling enables
prefiltering to be used which extends the resolution and reduces
noise in the 10bit AtoD convertor internal to the microcontroller.
Single pole digital filters are used on both the I and Q channels. These
are implemented as exponential filters which have a 3dB band width
which is a function of the “order” of the filter. Filter orders between
0 ( no filter) and 15 are provided. This gives bandwidths between
114Hz for order 1, and 4.8mHz for order 15. The filter order is varied
as the user selected PLL bandwidth is varied.
After prefiltering, the I and Q channels, now at 16 bit resolution, are
subsampled at a rate between 15.625 s/s, and 1.953 s/s depending
on the user bandwidth and lock state of the PLL. The “Q” sample
is now divided by the ”I” sample ( after checking that I>Q) to give
a binary fraction. This is used to look up the phase value in a TAN-1
look up table. The look up table is used to synthesise two types of
phase detector:
a) A phase detector with 16 bit resolution between Pi/2 and -Pi/2.
b) A phase/ frequency detector with 16 bit resolution between 2Pi
and -2Pi. This phase detector is equivalent to the well known
digital phase/frequency detector. This rolls over between 2Pi and
0 for positive cycle slips, and between -2Pi and 0 for negative
cycle slips, and will always provide reliable lock if there is a initial
frequency error.
The output of the selected phase detector now has digital gain
applied, selectable between 1/256 and 128. After digital gain, the
phase value is added into the integrator, which is 32 bits wide.
In order to make the loop stable, by providing a phase lead, the phase
value has proportional term gain applied, also selectable between
1/256 and 128. This value is added to the upper 3 bytes of the
integrator to give the tuning voltage (24 bits)
The tuning voltage is divided between the coarse and fine tune
DACs as follows: When normalisation is performed, the fine tune
DAC most significant 8 bits are set to mid point ( 80h). The least
significant 8 bits of the fine tune DAC are set to the least significant
8 bits of the tuning word. The coarse tune DAC is then set to provide
the final tuning voltage. During all subsequent tuning, only the fine
tune DAC is used over its 16 bit range. If the range is exceeded, the
normalisation procedure is repeated. A state machine provides control
of locking. After reset the last value of the integrator, which has been
stored in EEPROM on a regular basis, is restored. This will retune the
controlled oscillator to very nearly the correct frequency. The loop is
then opened and the software waits for the following all to occur
(state 0):
26
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a) Rubidium reference warm up input to go high.
b) OCXO supply current to drop below a threshold showing the
OCXO has warmed up
c) A measure |I|+|Q| which is an approximate measure of the signal
level at the phase detector to rise above a threshold.
When these conditions are fulfilled, the software attempts to lock the
loop (state 1) by selecting the phase frequency detector, maximum
bandwidth, and maximum subsample rate. It then closes the loop
and waits for another measure, which is |phaseresult|, to drop below
a threshold. The measure |phaseresult| is the modulus of each phase
calculation filtered in an 8th order exponential filter, the bandwidth of
which, for the 15.625 s/s subsample rate, equals 9.7mHz.
Once the lock threshold for |phaseresult| is reached, the lock state (
state 2) is entered. The bandwidth is switched to the users selected
bandwidth, which has been maintained in EEPROM, and the phase
detector is switched over to the narrow band phase detector (Pi/2
to -Pi/2). All the time during normal operation, |phaseresult| is being
compared to a lower threshold than the lock threshold. If it exceeds
this threshold, state 3 is entered which provides a brief flash of the
lock LED to warn the user that the selected bandwidth may be too
narrow for the PLL to track the drift of the controlled oscillator fast
enough. This low threshold is currently set at 480ps maximum phase
error.
In extreme cases the lock threshold (4.8ns phase error) may be
exceeded, in which case the software assumes lock is lost and reenters state 1. A further performance measure is calculated, which
is available over the interface. This is the first difference of the phase
error, filtered in an 8th order exponential filter. It is corrected for
subsample rate, and has a constant sensitivity of 5.8x10-15 per bit.
(at 10MHz phase detector frequency)
This performance measure gives the mean fractional frequency
difference between the controlled oscillator and the reference, and is
useful for setting up the optimum bandwidth of the PLL.
The band width and damping of the PLL is controlled by 4
parameters, integrator digital gain, proportional digital gain, prefilter
order, and subsample rate. These are preset for 8 values of user
selected bandwidth, and can only be changed by modifying the
software. It is possible to temporarily adjust the four individual
parameters as part of a test procedure carried out over the RS232
interface. The selection of the 4 parameters has been optimised
using a mathematical model of the PLL modelled as a MATHCAD
spreadsheet. This could be made available to customers who wished
to readjust the PLL parameters.
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A6-ANF
A6-ANF Typical Stability, Phase Noise and Spurii
Frequency Stability
1 to 30s
100s
1 hour
1day
5 or 10MHz outputs
5x10-13 (options available from 1 ... 2.5x10-13)
4x10-13
5x10-13
x10-12
Long Term Stability
1 day
1 month
1 year
5 or 10MHz outputs
5x10-13
4x10-11
4x10-10
Phase Noise dBc/Hz in
1Hz BW
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz
10MHz output
-115
-146
-156
-163
-168
Harmonics
<40dBc
Spurious
ULN
option
-122
-137
-143
-145
-145
5MHz
output
-123
-145
-150
-155
-158
Typical Characteristics
ULN
option
-130
-145
-153
-156
-156
Input signals
2.048, 5MHz, 10MHz,
100MHz: 0.5Vrms sine,
501
Output signals
5MHz, 10MHz or
100MHz, 0.5Vrms sine,
501
Holdover
performance
Long term stability:
2x10-11/day, 4x10-9/year
(4x10-10/year option);
Temperature
stability
<2x10-10 (-5C to +55C)
Management
RS-232C or USB
Environmental
Characteristics
Operational:
-5C to +55C
Storage: -40C to +85C
Humidity: 95%
non-condensing
<80dBc
-9
Warm Time to 1x10
Reference Input
Frequency
Level
Input Impedance
Controlled Oscillator
Frequency
Level (external oscillator)
External Tune Voltage
5min
Power Supply
100–240Vac battery
back-up option
10MHz (DDS used)
1MHz to 10MHz (no DDS)
100mVpp to 5Vpp (DDS used)
1VPP to 5Vpp (no DDS)
1000 OHMs
Physical
Dimensions
H x W x D (mm):
89 x 483 x 280
(3.5”x19”x11”)
Options
External Battery Back-up
Ultra Low Noise
Distribution Amplifier (E5)
Choice of input and
output frequencies
1MHz to 40MHz (no DDS)
1.8MHz to 28.8MHz (DDS used)
100mVPP to 5Vpp
0 to SPAN, where SPAN is software adjustable
between
5.8V and 10V
Notes: a) If DDS is not used, controlled oscillator must be k/m times higher
frequency than reference, where k is link adjusted to 1,2,4,8 (where k is
link adjusted to 1,2,4,8 and m adjusted to 2. This allows 5MHz reference.
b) Either reference or controlled oscillator must be 10MHz to provide
microcontroller clock
PLL Bandwidths
4mHz to 500mHz typical in 8 binary increments
Frequency Pull-in
Up to 7Hz initial frequency error
Lock Indicator
on
off
short flash every second
long flash, short flash
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not locked
locked, low phase error
locked, high phase error
no processor clock
Example of ‘clean’ performance (2010)
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27
A7-MX
Signal Stability Analyzer
Q
Q
Q
Q
Very high resolution: <50fs single shot (5 and 10MHz)
Very low noise floor: <5x10-14 @ 1s
Selectable filters, resolutions and tau
Ultra-fast measurement time
A7-MX Option 27 (A10-MX)
The A7-MX is a bench or rack mount instrument which interfaces with most notebook or desktop PCs,
using an RS232 or USB interface on the computer.
The instrument includes a differential multiply and mix chain, and a 2 channel digital phase
comparator. An analog meter shows frequency offset or phase difference. The A7-MX has a close-in
phase noise personality 500mHz to 500Hz.
28
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A7-MX
Features
Benefits
s"ROADBANDK(Zn-(ZINPUTWITHHIGHRESOLUTION
5 or 10MHz input
s,ARGEDIGITALDISPLAYOFPHASERELATIVEABSOLUTEFREQUENCY
s"LOCKSTORAGEOFDATAlLESENABLESOFmINEANALYSIS
sDATAPOINTSTORAGE
s#RASHPROOFWITH6DC"ATTERY"ACK5P
s/NSCREEN!LLANVARIANCEANDPHASENOISEPLOTSINREALTIME
s-EASUREMENTERRORFULLYSPECIlED
s0LOTPRINTANDSAVEFUNCTIONS
s5NSKILLEDOPERATION
s5NEQUALLEDPERFORMANCE
s%XTERNAL0#ENABLESLOWCOSTYEARUPGRADES
s&LEXIBLEANDEASYTOUSE
s3AVESUPTOOFOSCILLATOR2$TIME
Applications
s3TABILITYANALYSISOFOSCILLATORS
s#LOSEIN0HASENOISEANALYSIS
s!TOMICFREQUENCYSTANDARDCALIBRATION
s!CTIVEPASSIVECOMPONENTPHASESTABILITY
measurement
s!$%6-ODIlED!$%646!2-4)%ETCWITHSTABLE
s4EMPERATURE0HASETESTING
s2ELATIVE!BSOLUTECOUNTERDISPLAYOF&REQUENCY
Phase difference
s0RECISIONPRODUCTCHARACTERISATION
sh.ATIONAL-EASUREMENTvLEVELMETROLOGYANALYSIS
Outstanding Features
The A7-MX is invaluable in the design of low noise oscillators, atomic frequency standards and passive devices where close in phase noise,
freedom from spurii, and phase stability are essential design objectives. The A7-MX is unique in its ability to measure time domain stability at
averaging times from 1ms to weeks, and phase noise from mHz to 500Hz. Discrete spurii can be measured close to the carrier at levels down to
-120dBc. The high resolution input operates at 5 or 10MHz. The reference is also at 5 or 10MHz.
A lower resolution input is provided which will measure at frequencies between 50kHz and 65MHz. The A7-MX is not limited to research
and development. The real time digital display of fractional frequency offset combined with the high resolution analogue meter makes the
production setting of all types of frequency standard a simple and rapid operation.
Absolute Frequency
Fractional Frequency Difference
0HASE$IFFERENCEFSsPSsNSsμSsMSsS
3TATISTICS-AXs-INs-EANs3TANDARD$EVIATION
´
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29
A7-MX
Narrowband / High Resolution Mode
Inputs
a) Reference
b) Measurement (3 measurement inputs - see
non standard options = A7-MY)
c) Input levels:
d) Max Freq difference (Filter off):
Connectors
5 or 10MHz sine wave
5 or 10MHz sine wave
+0dBm to +13dBm into 501
Low multiplier
High multiplier
N Type, Front Panel
Outputs
a) Counter A channel
b) Counter B channel
c) Counter external reference
100kHz square wave CMOS/TTL (frequency mode)
10us pulse CMOS/TTL (phase difference mode)
10us pulse CMOS/TTL (phase difference mode)
10MHz CMOS/TTL
Filter
Nominal 3dB Bandwidths
Selectable bandwidth IF filter reduces measurement noise
200Hz, 60Hz, 10Hz
´
Fractional frequency multiplication
Selectable
Measurement resolution
Relative frequency difference mode
RMS resolution (filter 200Hz)
Measured resolution
High multiplier
Low multiplier
Analogue Meter Resolution manually selected from 6 ranges
Full scale ranges (decade steps)
Time constant (linked to range)
Time constant multiplier
Displayed Noise
Zero drift
Phase difference mode
(High resolution, Filter 200Hz)
RMS resolution (single measurement)
Analogue Meter
Full scale ranges (decade steps)
Displayed noise
Zero drift
±5x10-5
±5x10-5
±1x10-5
±1x10-7
High multiplier 105
Low multiplier 103
A7-MX
Using internal phase/freq. meter (TIC) and Windows software
Digits/second
1x10-13/gate time
1x10-12/gate time
±1x10-7 to ±1x10-12
20ms to 10s
x1, x3, x10
<2x10-13 peak
<2x10-13/hour
50fs (See note 1)
±10us to ±100ps
<1ps peak
<1ps/hour
Note 1: Measured as the standard deviation of 1024 phase difference measurements/1.024s
Short-term stability (noise floor)
Sampling interval – gate time
Drift
Hour
Day
Temperature
30
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Tau
1ms
10ms
100ms
Allan variance
<5x10-11
<5x10-12
<5x10-13
1s
10s
100s
1,000s
10,000s
<5x10-14
<1x10-14
<2x10-15
<5x10-16
<1x10-16
1ms to 2000s
1, 2, 5 Steps
<1ps typical at constant ambient temp
<5ps typical at constant ambient temp
<2ps/°C
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A7-MX
Measurement Error
Input referred self generated spurii
103 multiplication
105 multiplication
Corresponding peak phase modulation
103 multiplication
105 multiplication
Allan Variance Error (due to each spur)
103 multiplication
105 multiplication
<-90dBc
<-100dBc
<1ps
<0.3ps
Note: phase modulation spurii
will be present at multiples of
the input frequency difference.
10-12 divided by averaging interval (tau)
3x10-13 divided by averaging interval (tau)
Phase Spectral Density Specification (Close-In Phase Noise)
Applications
Specifications
Maximum offset frequency
Close-in Phase Noise floor
Phase noise measurement at very small frequency offsets Identification of
spurious components in the data which can distort an Allan variance plot
500Hz (at 1ks/s)
typically: -100dBc/Hz @ 10mHz offset (0.01Hz offset)
-115dBc/Hz @ 100mHz offset (0.1Hz offset)
-130dBc/Hz @ 1Hz offset
-150dBc/Hz @ 100Hz offset
-160dBc/Hz @ 500Hz offset
Broadband Mode Note: 5 or 10MHz reference must be present at reference (front panel) input of A7-MX
Input 50kHz to 65MHz
50kHz to 1MHz
1MHz to 50MHz
50MHz to 65MHz
Connector
Type
BNC, rear panel
Impedance
1Mohm
Input levels
224mV rms (0dBm) to 2V rms (+19dBm)
70.7mV rms (-10dBm) to 2V rms (+19dBm)
224mV rms (0dBm) to 2V rms (+19dBm)
BNC rear panel
Resolution (nominal) Broad- and Narrowband
11 digits /second of gate time (averaging on)
Noise Floor (allan variance) (measured at
10MHz, 10dBm input)
Averaging off
All gate times
Averaging on
Averaging factor
10
100
1000
Allan variance
< 2x10-9
< 2x10-10
< 2x10-11
(Averaging factor =
< 2x10-11
< 6x10-12
< 2x10-12
tau
100ms
1s
10s
gate time/1ms)
1s
1s
1s
General Specification
Virtual Front Panel
Absolute or relative (normalised) frequency display
User entered normalisation frequency
Allan Variance graph
Frequency data graph
Data storage of phase or frequency data
Temperature Range
Operating: 10C to 35C (± 5C within this range during measurement)
Storage: -10C to 60C
Mechanical
2U 19” rack unit WxHxD(max) 450(483)x88(96)x345(370) <9kg
Power Supply
120/ 240V AC line 50W max 24V DC battery backup with automatic
switching. Current consumption 1Amp max. With option 1 add 1Amp
Supplemental Performance Data (SPD)
Please contact Quartzlock for SPD and applications note.
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´
31
A7-MX
Typical Narrowband Performance (PSD)
´
A7-MX Phase Noise
Floor (10MHz) –
Narrowband high
resolution mode.
500MHz to 500Hz
offset
A7-MX Phase Noise
Floor (10MHz) –
Narrowband high
resolution mode.
300uHz to 500Hz offset
32
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A7-MX
Typical Narrowband Performance Graphs (AVAR)
A7-MX Allan Variance
(10MHz) – Narrowband
high resolution mode.
10-3s t0 10s (red plot is
predicted)
A7-MX Allan Variance
(10MHz) – Narrowband
high resolution mode.
10-1s t0 8x10-4s (red plot
is predicted)
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33
A7-MX
Typical Broadband Performance Graphs (PSD & AVAR)
´
Broadband Phase
Noise Floor 300MHz to
500Hz offset
Broadband Allan
Variance Noise Floor.
1000s to 1000Hz offset
(red plot is predicted)
34
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A7-MX
Operational Description
There are two inputs on the front panel. One of these is for the
phase/ frequency reference which will often be an atomic frequency
standard. The reference frequency can be 5 or 10MHz with automatic
switching. The other input is for the measurement signal, also 5 or
10MHz, also with automatic switching.
There are pushbutton controls for phase/frequency mode, multiplier
ratio , filter selection, sampling rate (tau) and phase reset. There are also
a number of controls which adjust the analog meter function. There are
indicator lights to confirm that the reference and measurement inputs
are at the required level, and that the internal phase locked multipliers
are locked. The analog meter shows fractional frequency difference with
full scale ranges from +/-1x10-7 to +/-1x10-12, and phase differences
with full scale ranges from +/10us to +/-100ps.
When the instrument is connected to a PC, the control positions are
read by the PC and displayed on the virtual control panel
On the rear panel is the broadband frequency input which can be
between 50kHz and 65MHz. Also on the rear panel are outputs to
an external timer/counter, and a switch which adjusts the analogue
meter time constant.
The instrument has two main modes, narrowband, high resolution,
and broadband. The selection between these modes is made on the
PC virtual control panel.
In narrowband, high resolution mode, the measured signal must be
at 5 or 10MHz. In this mode the instrument uses multiply and mix
techniques to increase the fractional frequency difference ( or phase
difference) between the measured input and the reference. This
improves the resolution of the digital phase comparator, and results
in a theoretical phase resolution of 0.125fs. The actual resolution is
noise limited to about 50fs. The corresponding fractional frequency
resolution is 1x10-13 in one second of measurement time.
In broadband mode the multiply and mix is not used. The digital phase
comparator makes direct phase measurements with a resolution of
12.5ps. This is comparable to the fastest frequency counters and
gives a fractional frequency resolution of 3x10-11 in one second of
measurement time, or 2x10-12 with averaging switched on.
When connected to a PC, the software provides 4 scalable windows.
One of these is the virtual panel and digital display. The other 3 are data
plot, Allan variance plot, and phase spectral density (phase noise) plot.
The virtual panel provides control of measurement rate (tau), and
mode (narrowband, high resolution, or broadband). Repeater
indicators are provided to show the settings of controls on the
physical instrument. It is possible to store blocks of measurements up
to 32768 measurements into a computer file. Once a measurement
is started, the instrument will store the complete measurement block
internally, provide power is maintained. This makes certain that data
is never lost, even if the computer crashes and has to be restarted. In
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order to make sure that a long measurement run is not interrupted by
a power failure, the instrument may be powed from a battery supply
of 24V. This will automatically be used if line power should fail.
The digital display shows phase or fractional frequency offset depending
upon mode. The units and number of significant digits is adjustable.
Averaging mode may be selected from this window. If averaging is
off, the digital phase comparator makes single measurements at the
selected sampling rate. If averaging is on, the comparator operates
at the maximum sampling rate of 1ks/s. A block average reduces the
data rate to the slected sampling rate.
Dither mode may be selected from this window. Dither is a technique
which reduces unavoidable internally generated spurii to below the
noise floor, at the expense of an increase in noise floor. For further
details see operating manual.
The data window shows real time accumulation of the data as a
graph. The last 8 to 32768 data points may be shown on the graph.
A statistics display shows max, min mean, and standard deviation for
the data shown on the graph. The scaling of the y axis may be auto,
manual, or max/min.
The Allan variance window shows calculated Allan variance for all data
accumulated since the start of a run. If averaging is off, single phase
measurements are made at the requested sampling rate and the statistic
is true Allan variance. If averaging mode is on, the statistic becomes
modified Allan varaince. The graph title correctly indicates this.
The Phase Spectral Density (PSD) window shows phase noise as a
graph of L(f) in units of dBc against offset frequency on a log scale.
Various window functions and averaging modes are provided. The
routines are identical to those used in the Industry standard software
“Stable32”.
The user can select the basic length of the FFT, and also the degree of
overlap. As data is accumulated, new FFTs are performed on a mix of
old and new data depending on the overlap parameter.
Each FFT result can either replace the last graph, be added to a block
average, or be used in a continous or exponential average.
All FFTs are correctly normalised for bin bandwidth, window ENBW,
window coherent gain, and nominal frequency.
Frequency data always has a fixed offset removed before being used for
the FFT calculation. Phase data has a fixed slope ramp removed by linear
regression. This avoids a large component in the lower frequency bins
which will distort the result, even when windowing is used.
A mode is provided for the measurement of discrete components
(spurii). In this mode the scale is changed from L(f), dBc/Hz to
Power,dBc. Corrections for bin bandwidth and window ENBW are
removed. A flat top window is provided for measurement of discretes,
with scallop loss of only 0.01dB.
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
´
35
A7-MX
Technical Description
´
The principle behind the A7-MX is to increase the resolution of a digital phase
meter. This is achieved by multiplying the frequency to be measured to a higher frequency,
and then mixing it down to a lower frequency using a local oscillator derived from the
frequency reference. The principle is illustrated in Figure 1, and has been made the basis
of a number of instruments in the past. The relationship is shown for signals down the
mix/multiply chain for an input signal with a difference of delta f from the reference, and
also for a signal with no frequency difference, but with a phase difference of delta t. (An
important clarification is that “phase” difference beteween two signals can either be
measured either in time units or angle units. A measurement in time units does not specify
or imply the frequency of the signals. A measurement in angle units (radians) needs a prior
knowledge of the frequency. Throughout this description, phase will be measured in time
units) It should be noted that a frequency multiplication multiplies a frequency difference
but leaves a phase difference unchanged. Conversely, a mixing process leaves a frequency
difference unchanged, but multiplies a phase difference. When the frequency differences
are converted to fractional frequency differences by dividing by the nominal frequency, it
will be seen that the multiplication factors for frequency and phase are the same.
The big disadvantage in the simple approach shown in Figure 1 is that phase drift with
temperature will be excessive. As rate of phase drift is equal to the fractional frequency
difference, the measurement of the frequency of an unknown device will be in error. For
example, a drift rate of 10ps per second in the first multiplier in the Figure 1 diagram will
be multiplied to 1ns per second at the output. This is equivalent to a 1 x 10-12 frequency
error due to drift. Phase drift may occur in mixers and multipliers, but more especially in
multipliers. If harmonic multipliers are used, drift will occur in the analogue filters that
are used to separate the wanted harmonic from the subharmonics and unwanted mixer
products. If phase lock multipliers are used, phase drift will occur in the digital dividers.
To overcome the drift problem, the multiplier/mixer chain is made differential,
ie the reference signal is processed in an identical way to the unknown. When the two
channels are subtracted, any drift in the multipliers will cancel. The method of doing this
can be seen from the functional block diagram of the A7-MX, figure 2. The first stage of
the processing for both the reference and measurement channels is a multiplication by
10 (20 for 5MHz inputs). The multipliers are phase locked loops with a VCXO of 100MHz
locked to the input by dividing by 10 (20 for 5MHz inputs). The phase detectors used are
double balanced diode mixer type phase detectors. These exhibit the lowest phase drift
with temperature. The dividers used are ECL types with very small propagation delays.
The outputs of the dividers are reclocked using a D type flipflop clocked by the 100MHz
VCXO signal. In this way the divider delay is made equal to the propagation delay of one
D type, approx 500ps. As a further refinement, the reclocking D types for the reference
and measurement channels are closely thermally coupled. As the divider propagation
delays are equal to the reclocking flipflop delays, the tracking between the reference and
measurement channels is exceptionally good.
The VCXO signals at 100MHz also drive double balanced FET mixers for the first down
conversion to 1MHz. The 99MHz LO is common to both the reference and measurement
channels, and is obtained from a 2 way passive inductive type power splitter. The output
from the mixers is filtered by diplexer type filters to remove the image at 199MHz and
the signal and LO feed through at 100MHz and 99MHz respectively. The wanted IFs at
1MHz are passed without further processing to the second multipliers. The avoidance of IF
amplifiers at this point avoids drift which could be substantial as the propagation delay of
the IF amplifier could be several 100 nanoseconds. IF amplifiers are used for the first IF take
off points to the IF processing board. The first IFs are used when a multiplication of 103 is
selected.
The second multipliers are nearly identical to the first multipliers with the difference that
the phase lock loop dividers divide by 100. This multiplies the first IF of 1MHz to the second
VCXO frequency of 100MHz. The second downconvert is identical to the first, with the
second IFs being passed to the IF processing board.
The first and second multipliers/mixers for the reference and measurement channels are
built symmetrically on one PCB (Printed Circuit Board). In order to ensure the best possible
temperature tracking beween the channels, the PCB is in good thermal contact with a thick
metal baseplate. This minimises rapid temperature changes between the channels.
The two pairs of IF signals (sine wave) are passed to the IF processing PCB. The two pairs
are the outputs from the first and second downconvertors. They correspond to final
multiplication factors of 103 and 105. Also on the IF processing board is the 99MHz LO
generation and phase lock. A 10MHz unmultiplied signal is passed to the IF processing
board from the reference channel on the Multiplier board.
The 1MHz IFs could be divided down and measured directly by the frequency counter,
which would make a time difference measurement between the measurement and
reference IF signals. In this way the difference between the channels would be measured
and any drift would cancel. Although this would work for a phase measurement, there
36
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would be no way of making a conventional frequency measurement. The IFs cannot be
directly subtracted in a mixer as they are both nominally 1MHz, and the nominal difference
frequency would be zero. In order to avoid this problem, the multiplied reference IF
is frequency shifted to 900kHz using an LO of 100kHz derived from the unmultiplied
reference. The 900kHz is then mixed with the 1MHz measurement channel IF to give a
final IF of 100kHz. This final IF contains the multiplied frequency difference, but drift in the
multipliers and phase noise in the common 99MHz LO will have been canceled out.
The detailed process is as follows:
The 10MHz reference from the multiplier board (this is derived from the reference input
without multiplication) is divided by 25 to 400kHz. The 400kHz is then divided by 4 to give
two quadrature signals at 100kHz. These signals are filtered using low pass filters to give
100kHz quadrature sine waves. The 1MHz multiplied reference IF (after limiting) is delayed
by 250ns to give quadrature square waves. These operate dual switching mixers with the
100kHz quadrature sine waves as the linear inputs. The outputs are combined to form an
image reject mixer, with the wanted sideband at 900kHz and the unwanted sideband at
1.1MHz. The 900kHz sideband is filtered in an LC bandpass filter to further remove the
unwanted sideband and the 1MHz feed through. This output is used as the linear input to
a further switching mixer which downconverts the 1MHz multiplied measurement IF (after
limiting) to the final IF of 100kHz. The final IF is filtered in an LC bandpass filter to remove
the unwanted sideband at 1.9MHz and any other mixer products. The measurement and
reference channels have now been combined into a single IF of 100kHz with the drift and
LO instabilities removed. This IF is now further processed to provide the counter outputs as
will be described in the next paragraphs.
The measurement bandwidth of the system has been defined up to this point by the
loop bandwidths of the phase lock multipliers and the bandwidth of the 100kHz LC filter.
The 3dB bandwidth is about 8kHz. This means that fourier frequencies further displaced
from the carrier of greater than 5kHz will be attenuated. The phase measurement process
essentially samples the phase of the unknown signal relative to the reference at a rate
determined by the selected tau (selectable from 1ms to 2000sec). As with any sampling
process, aliasing of higher frequency noise into the baseband will occur. Thus further band
limiting of the 100kHz IF is desirable before measurement takes place. The A7-MX has a
crystal filter following the LC filter with selectable bandwidths of nominally 10Hz, 60Hz,
and 200Hz. For most Allan variance plots at least the 200Hz filter should be used. The use
of a filter will reduce the noise floor of the instrument which is desirable when measuring
very stable active sources and most passive devices.
After the crystal filter the 100kHz IF is limited to a square wave by a zero crossing
detector. This output is made available to the counter A channel when frequency mode is
selected. Both the 100kHz IF containing the multiplied frequency difference information
and the 100kHz unmultiplied reference are divided in identical divider chains down to 1kHz
to 1mHz in selectable decade steps. The output of the dividers trigger digital (clocked)
monostables to generate 10us pulses which are routed to the counter A and B channels
when phase mode is selected.
When the internal digital phase comparator is in use, the phase of both the 100kHz
reference and the 100kHz multiplied IFs are measured relative to the unmultiplied 10MHz
reference. The digital phase comparator then calculates the resulting phase difference
or fractional frequency offset depending upon the selected mode. The digital phase
meter also applies averaging if selected. It has internal storage sufficient for 32768
measurements. The RS232 interface to the computer uses full handshaking to prevent
data loss. The internal phase comparator has a resolution of 12.5ps, obtained by using an
analogue pulse expander circuit.
The meter circuit also uses the 100kHz IF and 100kHz reference. The basis of the circuit
is a differential frequency to voltage convertor. However in order to increase the resolution
of this circuit, a further stage of multiplication and mixing is employed. The 100kHz
reference is divided down to 500Hz. This frequency is then multiplied to 4.9995MHz using
a phase lock loop with a divider of 9999. The 100kHz measurement IF is multiplied to
5MHz also using a phase lock loop. Finally the 5MHz signal and the 4.9995MHz signal are
mixed together to give an IF of 500Hz. An additional fractional frequency multiplication
of 104 results. On the least sensitive meter range this 500Hz IF varies in frequency from
0Hz to 1kHz. The 500Hz measurement IF and the 500Hz reference both trigger digital
monostables which produce very accurate fixed width pulses . These pulses are used to
gate an accurate positive and negative current into a chopper stabilised summing amplifier.
The output of the summing amplifier is a voltage which drives the moving coil centre
zero meter. The meter circuit has four decade ranges which in conjunction with the two
multiplication factors of the main comparator results in 6 meter ranges with full scale
deflections of 10-7 to 10-12.
The meter time constants are linked to the meter range, however may be increased if
desired using a switch mounted on the rear panel.
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
A7-MX
A7-MX Block Diagram
Figure 1
Figure 2
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
37
E8-X / E8-X OEM
GPS Timing & Frequency Reference
Q
Q
Q
Q
Accurate to 25ns RMS UTC
No Drift
High Stability
Internationally Traceable Standard
Approx actual size
The Quartzlock E8-X represents a breakthrough in exceptionally low cost, tracable, calibration-free
“GPS” frequency & time standards. These very low cost references maintain the high frequency & time
accuracy required for demanding applications. This product is available as a PCB level component.
Features
Benefits
sX-12 accuracy
s#HANNEL'032ECEIVERWITH42!)s-(Z/UTPUT
s003/UTPUT
s.OCALIBRATIONREQUIRED
s#HANNEL'032ECEIVERPROVIDESHIGHACCURACY54#4IME&REQUENCY2EFERENCE
s6ERYCOSTEFFECTIVE
sYEARWARRANTY
s#OMPACTFORMFACTOR
Applications
s0RODUCTION4EST&REQUENCY2EFERENCE
s4IME&REQUENCYSTANDARDFORCALIBRATION2&,ABORATORIES
s&REQUENCY3TANDARDFORCOUNTERSSIGNALGENERATORS3PECTRUM.ETWORK!NALYSERS
s4IME&REQUENCY2EFERENCEFORSATELLITECOMMUNICATIONSGROUNDSTATIONS#$-!,4%$46$!"
38
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
E8-X / E8-X OEM
Specification
Outputs
a) Sinewave
Harmonics
Spurii
b) TTL
3.3VCMOS
10MHz, 12dBm
+/- 2dBm into 50
Ohms
<-50dBc
<-75dBc
1pulse per second
4ns standard
deviation
Warm Time
<15 minutes to specified accuracy
Power Supply
Antenna
15V dc (ac psu provided) Active GPS
antenna supplied (5m lead). High
gain antenna option with 20m lead.
Current
Consumption
250mA typical
Size
E8-X
105 x 30 x 125mm
desktop module
100 x 120mm
Frequency Accuracy
1x10-12 Long Term
Short Term Stability
tau
1s
10s
100s
1000s
10000s
Allan Variance (typ)
<2x10-10
<4x10-10
<5x10-11
<2x10-11
<5x10-12
USB Option
Ask Quartzlock
Option 43 (E8-X or Y)
PCB version
Option 46
Antenna & PSU (5m antenna lead)
(for the E8-X OEM)
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz
-60 dBc
-90 dBc
-115 dBc
-130 dBc
-140 dBc
Option 47
High gain antenna & PSU
(20m antenna lead)
Phase Noise (typ)
Option 43
Lock Indicator
On - Not Locked
Off - Locked, Low Phase Error
Short flash every second Locked, High Phase Error
GPS Indicator
Green - Indicates number of satellites
used in time solution
Amber - Indicates number of satellites
tracked but not used in time solution
E8X-OEM (Option 43)
Survey, Satellite Azimuth & Elevation, Navigation, Timing & Signal Quality Monitoring
These software packages will find educational survey
and GNSS applications. Demonstration of the location,
timing and navigation functions are provided.
Quartzlock GPS instruments have been designed to work with various
external software packages such as WinOncore.
These programmes enable the main parameters of the GPS
signals to be easily verified, particularly input signal level and
satellites in view.
WinOncore12 has been designed for use as an evaluation and testing
tool in conjunction with Motorola’s GT, UT and M12 Oncore GPS
receivers. This utility will aid the user in initializing and operating
the Oncore receiver, displaying, plotting and printing data from the
receiver, and recording and replaying data files.
Other Oncore receivers such as the VP, Basic or XT Oncore may also be
used with WinOncore12; however, not all of the input and output (I/O)
messages are defined. If you are using a receiver which supports I/O
messages not defined in WinOncore12, you may customize support
for each desired message in the Command Manager.
WinOncore12 supports both NMEA and Motorola Binary protocol, and
thus may be used to record live data or playback previously recorded
data from a NMEA (*.GPS) file or Motorola Binary (*.bin) file.
WinOncore12 will run under Windows 95/98/2000 and NT.
Quartzlock accept no responsibility for accuracy or performance
of these external programs.
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
39
E8-Y / E8-Y OEM
GPS Time & Frequency Reference
Q
Q
Q
Q
-110dBc/Hz @ 1Hz offset Phase Noise
Internationally Traceable Standard
Accurate to 25ns RMS UTC
No Drift
The E8-Y GPS provides low noise, traceable, calibration free Time & Frequency Reference. These
time and frequency standards maintain high time & frequency accuracy required for demanding
applications. The E8-Y may be considered as a primary reference clock.
Features
Benefits
s-(Z/UTPUT
s003/UTPUT
sX-12 accuracy
s23#ONNECTION53"OPTION
s#HANNEL'032ECEIVERWITH42!)s%XCELLENT(OLDOVERPERFORMANCE
s.O#ALIBRATIONREQUIRED
s'034RACEABLE2EFERENCE
s#HANNEL'03RECEIVERPROVIDESHIGHACCURACY
UTC time & frequency reference
sYEARWARRANTY
s.40OPTIONINPLACEOF'036IEW
Applications
s4IME&REQUENCY2EFERENCEFOR3ATELLITECOMMUNICATIONGROUNDSTATIONS#$-!,4%$46$!"
s0RODUCTIONTESTFREQUENCYSTANDARD
s4IME&REQUENCYSTANDARDFORCALIBRATION2&LABORATORIES
s&REQUENCYREFERENCEFORCOUNTERSSIGNALGENERATORSSPECTRUMNETWORKANALYSERS
s7IREDWIRELESSNETWORKSYNCHRONIZATION
40
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
E8-Y / E8-Y OEM
Specification
Outputs
a) Sinewave
Harmonics
Spurii
b) TTL
3.3VCMOS
10MHz, 12dBm +/2dBm into 50 Ohms
<-50dBc
<-75dBc
Warm Time
<30 minutes to specified accuracy
Power Supply
Antenna
15V dc (ac psu provided) Active GPS
antenna supplied (5m lead). High gain
antenna option with 20m lead.
1pulse per second
Jitter 7ns standard
deviation
Current
Consumption
250m A typical
Size
E8-Y
Frequency Accuracy
1 x10-12 Long Term
Hold over
100us per day
Short Term Stability
tau
1s
10s
100s
1000s
Allan Variance (typ)
2x10-12
<4x10-13
<5x10-12
<2x10-12
Phase Noise (typ)
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz
-110 dBc
-136 dBc
-145 dBc
-155 dBc
-157 dBc
Lock Indicator
On - Not Locked
Off - Locked, Low Phase Error
Short flash every second Locked, High Phase Error
GPS Indicator
Green - Indicates number of satellites used
in time solution
Amber - Indicates number of satellites
tracked but not used in time solution
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
E8-Y PCB OEM
E8-Y MIL
105 x 30 x 125mm
desktop module
100 x 120mm
CNC machined
microwave housing
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
41
E8000
GPS Master Clock
Very Low Noise
Frequency & Timing Primary Reference Source
Q
Q
Q
Phase Noise is -110dBc/[email protected] offset as standard
Stability (AVAR) is 8x10-13/s typically
Accuracy 25us, 100us/day holdover
The Quartzlock E8000 represents a breakthrough in very low noise, traceable, calibration-free GPS
frequency & time standards. These very cost effective references maintain the high frequency and
time accuracy required for demanding applications. Low distortion 10MHz Sine & 1PPS outputs. Ultra
low noise options are available.
Considerably enhanced surveillance, wired and wireless communications are possible with E8000’s
much lower noise levels
Features
Benefits
sX-12 accuracy
s.O$RIFT
s(IGHEST3TABILITYAVAILABLE
s9EAR7ARRANTY
s,OWEST#OST!VAILABLE
s6ERYLONGPRODUCTIONLIFESUPPORT
s.OCALIBRATIONREQUIRED
s4RACEABLE2EFERENCENATIONALLYINTERNATIONALLY
s%XTERNAL)NTERNAL""5OPTIONS
s-ANYOPTIONSAVAILABLEINCLUDING.40#LOCK2EFERENCE/UTPUT
s5,.OPTIONSD"C(Z (ZOFFSETD"C(Z K(Z
5MHz option has -123dBc/Hz @ 1Hz offset Phase Noise
5x10-13/s AVAR short term stability
Applications
s&REQUENCY2EFERENCEFOR3ATELLITE#OMMUNICATION'ROUND3TATIONS6(&5(&0-248#$-!4ETRA$46$!"
Wired & Wireless network synch
s.ETWORK4IME0ROTOCOLUSEIN&INANCIAL5TILITIES3ECURITY#OMMUNICATIONS4IMING
s/%s&REQUENCY3TANDARDFOR#ALIBRATION,ABS2ADIO7ORKSHOPS2&,ABS0RODUCTION4EST
s#ALIBRATIONOF#OUNTERS&REQUENCY-ETERS3PECTRUM.ETWORK6.!!NALYSERS3YNTHESIZERS
& Communication Analysers
42
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
E8000
Specification
E8000 VERY LOW NOISE 10MHz
Outputs
a) Sinewave
E8000 ULTRA LOW NOISE 5MHz OPTION
Harmonics
Spurii
10MHz, 12dBm
+/- 2dBm into 50
Ohms
< -30dBc
<-80dBc
b) TTL
3.3VCMOS
1pulse per second
(4ns std dev)
Outputs
a) Sinewave
Harmonics
Spurii
10MHz, 12dBm
+/- 2dBm into 50
Ohms
< -30dBc
<-80dBc
b) TTL
3.3VCMOS
1pulse per second
(4ns std dev)
Frequency Accuracy
1x10-12 Long Term
Frequency Accuracy
1x10-12 Long Term
Hold over
100 us/24hrs
Hold over
100 us/24hrs
Short Term Stability
tau
1s
10s
100s
1000s
10,000s
Allan Variance
<2x10-12
<4x10-13
<5x10-12
<2x10-12
<8x10-13
Short Term Stability
tau
1s
10s
100s
1000s
10,000s
Allan Variance
<5x10-13
<4x10-13
<5x10-13
<2x10-12
<8x10-13
Phase Noise (typ)
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz
-110 dBc/Hz
-136 dBc/Hz
-145 dBc/Hz
-155 dBc/Hz
-157 dBc/Hz
Phase Noise (typ)
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz
-123 dBc/Hz
-140 dBc/Hz
-150 dBc/Hz
-155 dBc/Hz
-158 dBc/Hz
Lock Indicator
On - Not Locked
Off - Locked, Low Phase Error
Short flash every second Locked, High Phase Error
Lock Indicator
On - Not Locked
Off - Locked, Low Phase Error
Short flash every second Locked, High Phase Error
GPS Indicator
Green - Indicates number of satellites
used in time solution
Amber - Indicates number of satellites
tracked but not used in time solution
GPS Indicator
Green - Indicates number of satellites
used in time solution
Amber - Indicates number of satellites
tracked but not used in time solution
Warm Time
<30 minutes to specified accuracy
Warm Time
<30 minutes to specified accuracy
Power Supply
100 ... 240V ac (External 12Vdc Battery
Back Up seamless switching option)
Power Supply
100 ... 240V ac (External 12Vdc Battery
Back Up seamless switching option)
(Internal 12Vdc Lithium Ion battery with
charger > 1 hour holdover option)
Current Consumption
250mA typical
¾
(Internal 12Vdc Lithium Ion battery with
charger > 1 hour holdover option)
Current Consumption
250mA typical
Size
19” x 1 ” 1U Rack Mount
483 x 44 x 230mm excl connectors
560 x 340 x 100mm packed
Size
19” x 1¾” 1U Rack Mount
483 x 44 x 230mm excl connectors
560 x 340 x 100mm packed
GPS Antenna
5m cable and connector supplied
GPS Antenna
Supplied with 5m cable and connector
Option
High gain antenna with 20m cable
Option
High gain antenna with 20m cable
Interface
GPS
9.6kbaud, Motorola binary format RS232 PC compatible (8bits no parity, no handshake) or NTP Clock Reference Output option
DPLL Tracking
5mHz to 500mHz typical in 8 binary Bandwidths increments default 20mHz
Option 9
See Quartzlock E5-X Specification on page 12
Outputs: 6 x10MHz low distortion, sinewave, isolated, +13dBm 1V rms 50 Ohms
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
´
43
E8010
GPS Disciplined Rubidium
Time & Frequency Reference
Q
Q
Q
Q
No drift
Internationally traceable standard
110dBc/Hz @ 1Hz phase noise option
Accurate to 25 Nanoseconds RMS UTC
The E8010 provides a stable and accurate calibration free GPS time and frequency reference with
multiple output signal formats in an easy to install 1U rack mountable chassis.
These references maintain high time and frequency accuracy required for demanding applications.
Features
Benefits
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
-(Z/UTPUT
003OUTPUTS
.ETWORK4IME3ERVER.40/PTION
%XCELLENTHOLDOVERPERFORMANCEUSDAY
#HANNEL'032ECEIVERWITH42!)X-12/s AVAR option
.OCALIBRATIONREQUIRED
'03TRACEABLEREFERENCE
#AESIUMREPLACEMENT
CHANNEL'03RECEIVERPROVIDESHIGHACCURACY54#
time and frequency reference
Applications
s 4IMEANDFREQUENCYREFERENCEFORSATELLITECOMMUNICATIONGROUNDSTATIONS#$-!,4%$46$!"
s 0RODUCTIONTESTFREQUENCYSTANDARD
s 4IMEANDFREQUENCYSTANDARDFORCALIBRATIONANDRFLABORATORIES
s &REQUENCYSTANDARDFORCOUNTERSSIGNALGENERATORSSPECTRUMANDNETWORKANALYSERS
s 7IREDAND7IRELESSNETWORKSYNCHRONIZATION
s 3TRATUMPRIMARYREFERENCECLOCK
44
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
E8010
Specification
Outputs
Size
19” x 1.75” 1U rack mount
Harmonics
Spurii
10MHz, 12dBm +/2dBm into 50 Ohms
<-50dBc
<-75dBc
Antenna
Supplied with cable & connectors
Interface
Shared between DPLL and GPS receiver
b) TTL
3.3VCMOS
Accuracy
1pulse per second
4ns standard deviation
DPLL
9.6kbaud, RS232, PC compatible
(8bits no parity, no handshake)
GPS
9.6kbaud, Motorola binary format
(8bits no parity, no handshake)
DPLL Tracking
5mHz to 500mHz typical
in 8 binary bandwidths
increments default 20mHz
Option 9
See Quartzlock E5-X
a) Sinewave
Frequency Accuracy
x10-13 Long Term
Hold over
1us per day
Short Term Stability
tau
1s
10s
100s
1000s
10000s
1 hour
Allan Variance (typ)
3x10-12
2x10-12
8x10-13
5x10-13
5x10-13
x10-13
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz
-70 dBc
-100 dBc
-120 dBc
-140 dBc
-145 dBc
Phase Noise (typ)
(see low noise
options)
Hold-over
Exceeds telecom stratum 1 requirements
Lock Indicator
On - Not Locked
Off - Locked, Low Phase Error
Short flash every second Locked, High Phase Error
GPS Indicator
Green - Indicates number of satellites used
in time solution
Amber - Indicates number of satellites
tracked but not used in time solution
Warm Time
<15 minutes to specified accuracy
Power Supply
85 ... 240V ac (BBU option)
Current
Consumption
250m A typical
Quartzlock GPS instruments have been designed to work with various
external software packages such as WinOncore. We accept no
responsibility for accuracy or performance of these external programs.
These programmes enable the main parameters of the GPS signals to
be easily verified, particularly input signal level and satellites in view.
WinOncore12 has been designed for use as an evaluation and testing
tool in conjunction with Motorola’s GT, UT and M12 Oncore GPS
receivers. This utility will aid the user in initializing and operating the
Oncore receiver, displaying, plotting and printing data from the receiver,
and recording and replaying data files.
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Outputs
6 x10MHz low distortion, sinewave,
isolated, +13dBm 1V rms 50 Ohms
Option 48
Ultra Low Noise (contact Quartzlock)
Option 0
24V dc BBU (Battery Back-Up switch)
Option 1
4 Outputs – see model E5 spec.
For use with ULN option only.
Option 43
OEM Open Frame version
Other Oncore receivers such as the VP, Basic or XT Oncore may also be
used with WinOncore12; however, not all of the input and output (I/O)
messages are defined. If you are using a receiver which supports I/O
messages not defined in WinOncore12, you may customize support for
each desired message in the Command Manager.
WinOncore12 supports both NMEA and Motorola Binary protocol, and
thus may be used to record live data or playback previously recorded
data from a NMEA (*.GPS) file or Motorola Binary (*.bin) file.
WinOncore12 will run under Windows 95/98/2000 and NT.
See screenshot image on E8000, page 40
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
45
E10-MRX
Rubidium Oscillator –
Sub Miniature Atomic Clock (SMAC)
Q
Q
Q
Q
Compact rubidium oscillator for a wide range of applications
OCXO form factor and pin out
Low power operation
Ageing 5x10-10/year
Actual size
The E10-MRX rubidium oscillator is a sub miniature atomic clock exhibits normal rubidium oscillator
performance in a 65cc OCXO style package.
This rubidium oscillator has 100x less drift than OCXO’s.
With short term stability of 8x10-12/s @ 100s this rubidium oscillator provides significant improvements
in performance over.
Features
Benefits
s
s
s
s
s
s !TOMICACCURACY
s ,OWPOWERCONSUMPTION
s XLESSDRIFTTHAN/#8/S
-(ZOUTPUT
vXvXvFORMFACTOR
D"C(Z (Z
X-11 accuracy
X-12/s @100s
Applications
s 3TANDALONEFREERUNSTABLEFREQUENCYSOURCEFOR5-43AND,4%
s %XTENDEDHOLDOVERFOR#$-!7I-!8AND,4%BASESTATIONS
s 3TABILITYFORVARIOUSOTHERCOMMUNICATIONANDTRANSMISSIONAPPLICATIONS
46
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
E10-MRX
Specification
Outputs
10MHz Sine, 7~13dBm
(HCOMS option)
Harmonics
<-40dBc
Accuracy
±5x10-11 at shipment @ 25C
Short Term Stability
(AVAR)
1s
10s
100s
8x10-11
3x10-11
8x10-12
Drift
Day
Month
5x10-12
5x10-11
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
-67dBc/Hz
-95dBc/Hz
-127dBc/Hz
-140dBc/Hz
Phase to Noise (SSB)
Connector Interface
5 Pins match standard OCXO
configurations
Pin 1:
Input frequency control
Pin 2:
Lock monitor
Pin 3:
Output signal
Pin 4:
Ground (signal & supply)
Pin 5:
Input supply (+)
Environmental Specification
Operating Temp
Range
-20°C~+50°C Typical: -30~+65°C
Base Plate Temp
-30°C~+85°C
Case Temperature
<45°C (after 1 hour, ambient temp
25°C. No ventilation
Input Power
6W at 12V @ 25°C, Max 1.2A
Temperature
Coefficient (ambient)
5x10-10 (0~50°C)
Input Voltage Range
+12V~+18Vdc
Storage Temp
-55°C~+85°C
Warm Time
5 minutes to lock @ 25C
MTBF
100,000 hours
Retrace
)±2x10-11
Magnetic field
sensitivity,
dc (±2 GAUSS)
Environmental
health
RoHS
<±4x10-11/GAUSS
Shock / Vibration
GR-CORE-63, 4.5.2/4, locked to 1.0g
Frequency Control
>5x10-9 (External trim range: 0V~5V)
EMI
Compliant to FCC Part 15 Class B
External Trim Range
*5x10-9 (0V~5V)
Outline Dimensions
Size
50.8~50.8~25 (mm3) (65cc)
Weight
<150gm
Warranty
24/36 months
Magnetic Field
Sensitivity
Atmospheric
Pressure
Approx MTBF,
Stationary
Mechanical
<2x10-11/Gauss
-60m ~ 4000m <1x10-13/mbar
100,000 hours
51 x 51 x 25mm (2 x 2 x 1”)
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
47
E10-LN
Very Low Noise Miniature
Rubidium Oscillator Module
Q
Q
Q
Very low phase noise -110dBc/Hz @ 1Hz
Low power operation
Ageing 5x10-10/year
Actual size
The E10-LN Very Low Noise Rubidium Oscillator Module is a sub miniature atomic clock with
Quartzlock’s A6-CPS ‘active noise filter’ technology. This rubidium oscillator has 100x less drift than
OCXO’s. With short term stability of 2x10-12/s @ 100s this rubidium oscillator provides significant
improvements in performance over other rubidium components.
Ultra Low Noise 100MHz versions for radar and millimetre wave applications
Features
Benefits
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
-(ZOUTPUT
XXMMFORMFACTOR
D"C(Z (ZPHASENOISE
X-11 accuracy
X-12/s @100s
6ERYLOWNOISEANDHIGHERSTABILITYINCUSTOMERSPRODUCT
!TOMICACCURACY
,OWPOWERCONSUMPTION
XLESSDRIFTTHAN/#8/S
Applications
s [email protected]LLATORWILLENABLENEWAPPLICATIONS
s ,4%
s %XTENDEDHOLDOVERFOR#$-!7I-!8AND,4%BASESTATIONS
s (IGHERSTABILITYANDLOWERPHASENOISECOMMUNICATIONANDSURVEILLANCEAPPLICATIONS
48
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
E10-LN
Specification
Options to 100MHz
Outputs See options
10MHz, +7dBm into 501, 0.5VRMS
Adjustment
Mechanical Range
Electrical Range
Control Voltage
Factory Setting
2x10-9 min
2x10-9 min
0 ~ 5V
±5x10-11
Frequency Stability AVAR
1s
10s
100s
1 hour
2x10-12
5x10-12
4x10-13
6x10-12
Ageing
1 day
1 month
1 year
5x10-12
5x10-11
4x10-10
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz
dBc/Hz
-110
-140
-145
-155
-157
Phase Noise dBc/Hz in 1Hz BW
Harmonics
<30dBc
Spurious
<80dBc
Warm Time to 1 x 10-9
5 minutes
Retrace after 24h off & 1h on, same temp
<3x10-13
Power Supply
Power at steady state at 25C
s-(Z
-182dBc/Hz Noise Floor
6W at 15V @ 25°C, Max 1.2A
Frequency Offset over output voltage range
<2x10-11
Temperature
Operating
Storage
Freq offset over operating temp range
-20C ~ +50C
-40C ~ +70C
<3x10-10
Magnetic Field
Sensitivity
Atmospheric Pressure
Approx MTBF, Stationary
<2x10-11/Gauss
-60m ~ 4000m <1x10-13/mbar
100,000 hours
Mechanical
91 x 55 x 30mm PCB component
CNC Machined Defence Housing
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
49
A10-LPRO
Low Profile Rubidium Oscillator
Q
Q
Q
Q
High Performance Reference
Three year warranty
24V dc 13W
Excellent stability & drift out to 1hr & 1day
The A10-LPRO is a compact cost effective OEM Low Profile Rubidium Oscillator Frequency Standard
that maintains the high time & frequency accuracy demanded in applications such as telecoms,
aviation, nautical and precision test & measurement. Ideal for mission critical applications. A current
production replacement for earlier products. These references maintain high time and frequency
accuracy required for demanding applications.
Features
Benefits
s
s
s
s
s 3IMPLEINTEGRATIONINTOSYSTEMS
s &ITS5CASE
s ,OW&AILURERISK
-(Z/UTPUT
3TABILITYX-12/100s
!GEINGX-10/year
D"C(Z (ZPHASENOISE
Applications
s 4ELECOM.ETWORK3YNCHRONISATION
s &REQUENCY#ALIBRATION
s "ROADCAST
s #ELLULAR7IRELESS"ASE3TATIONS
s $ESIGNINFREQUENCYREFERENCE
50
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
A10-LPRO
Pin Connections
Standard Specification
Output
10MHz, +7dBm into 507 OHMS, 5V RMS
Adjustment
Mechanical range
Electrical range
Control range
Factory setting
2x10-9 min
2x10-9 min
0–5V
±5x10-11
1s
10s
100s
1 day
3x10-11
1 day
1 month
1 year
3x10-12
Phase noise
10Hz
100Hz
1000Hz
10000Hz
100dBc
120dBc
140dBc
145dBc
Harmonics
<40dBc
Frequency Stability
Aging
Spurious
Warm time to 1x10
1x10-11
3x10-12
1x10-11
4x10-11
5x10-10
C1: ‘D’ 9 Pin Male
C2: SMA RF Output
1. Lock Monitor (BIT)
2. DC Return
3. Case
4. N/C
5. Ext ‘C’ Field Voltage (0–5V)
6. N/C
7. DC Power (+24V)
8. VCXO CV Monitor
9. Lamp (Light) Monitor
Dimensions
<80dBc
-9
5 minutes
Retrace
after 24h off and 1h on,
same temp
<3x10-11
Power Supply
Power at steady state at 25°C
Freq offset over output voltage
range
13W @ 24V (22–30Vdc) @ 25°C, Max 2A
<2x10-11
Temperature
Operating
Storage
Freq offset over operating
temperature range
Magnetic Field
Sensitivity
Atmospheric Pressure
Approx MTBF, Stationary
Mechanical
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
-20°C – +50°C
-40°C – +70°C
STS
<3x10-10
<2x10-11/Gauss
-60m – 4000m <1x10-13/mbar
100,000Hrs
38 (40 RS232 version) x 94 x 127mm, 650g max
1.5" (1.57" RS232 version) x 3.7 x 5", 23oz max
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
51
A10-Y
Ultra Low Noise Rubidium Oscillator
Q
Q
Q
Q
10MHz standard version has -110dBc/Hz @ 1Hz phase noise
Uses Quartzlock Digital PLL DDS Clean-up Loop technology
5MHz option has -123dBc/Hz @ 1Hz offset
100MHz option has -180dBc/Hz noise floor
Features
Benefits
s!GEINGX-10/year
s4HREE9EAR7ARRANTY
s3HORT4ERM3TABILITYX-12/100s
sX-11 accuracy
The use of ULN-Rb Oscillators enables:
s7EAK3IGNAL$ETECTION
s,OW%RROR2ATES
s(IGHER2ADAR3ENSITIVITY
s(IGHER$ElNITIONIN-2))MAGING3YSTEMS
Applications
s3ECURITY
s,OW.OISE)NSTRUMENTATION2EFERENCE
s2ADAR
s.AVIGATION
s2&-ICROWAVE4EST3OLUTION2EFERENCE
s3ECURE#OMMUNICATIONS
52
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
A10-Y
Specifications
Output
(100MHz ULN option)
10MHz, +7dBm into 501, 0.5VRMS
1MHz to 40MHz output. Option
5MHz output (not using DDS).
Adjustment
Mechanical Range
Electrical Range
Control Voltage
Factory Setting
Frequency Stability
(10MHz)
1s
10s
100s
1 hour
10MHz
<5x10-12
<5x10-12
<3x10-12
<6x10-12
2x10-9 min
2x10-9 min
0 ~ 5V
±5x10-11
1x10-12
4x10-11
5x10-10
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz
10MHz
dBc/Hz
<-110
<-140
<-145
<-150
<-155
<2x10-11/Gauss
-60m ~ 4000m
<1x10-13/mbar
Approx MTBF,
Stationary
40 x 94x 206mm, 1000g approx
1.6”x 3.7”x8.1”, 35oz approx
5MHz
<5x10-13
Lock Indicator
On - Not Locked
Off - Locked, Low Phase Error
Short flash every second Locked, High Phase Error
<6x10-12
Interface
9.6kbaud, RS232, PC compatible
Interface Codes
See separate document
Option 42
1MHz to 40MHz output.
5MHz output (not using DDS).
Outline Drawing
Phase Noise dBc/Hz
5MHz Opt
dBc/Hz
<-123
<-140 typ
<-145 typ
<-150 typ
<-156 typ
Harmonics
<30dBc
Spurious
<80dBc
Warm time to 1x10-9
5 minutes
Retrace
<3x10-11
after 24h off & 1h on, same temp
Power Supply
Power at steady state at 25°C:
13W @ 24V (22~30Vdc) @ 25°C,
Max 2A
Freq offset over output voltage range:
<2x10-11
Temperature
Sensitivity
Atmospheric
Pressure
Approx MTBF,
Stationary
Mechanical
Aging
1 day
1 month
1 year
Magnetic Field
Operating
Storage
Freq offset over
operating
temperature range
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
-20°C ~ +50°C
-40°C ~ +70°C
<3x10-10
Pin Connections
C1: ‘D’ 9 Pin Male C2: SMA RF Output
1. Lock
2. GND
3. GND
4. Rx
5. EXT control
6. TX
7. +24V
8. VCXO monitor
9. Lamp monitor
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
53
E10-MRO
Miniature Rubidium Oscillator
1PPS Discipline I/0 Sync
Q 12V dc 8W
Q High Performance Reference, exhibits excellent drift
per hour and per day
Q
The E10-MRO is a compact cost effective Miniature Rubidium Oscillator Frequency Standard that
maintains the high time and frequency accuracy demanded in applications such as telecoms,
aviation, nautical and precision test and measurement.
Features
Benefits
s23)NTERFACE
s,OW0HASE.OISETOD"C(ZOPTION
s!GEINGX-10/year
s3TABILITYX-12/100s
s-(Z/UTPUT
s3IMPLEINTEGRATIONINTOSYSTEMS
s&ITS5CASE
s,OW&AILURERISK
sYEAR7ARRANTY
Applications
s4ELECOM.ETWORK3YNCHRONISATION
s&REQUENCY#ALIBRATION
s"ROADCAST
s#ELLULAR7IRELESS"ASE3TATIONS
54
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
E10-MRO
Dimensions
Specification
Output
10MHz
Optional Outputs
Consult factory
Accuracy
±5x10-11 at shipment @25°C
Aging
5x10-12/day
5x10-11/month
Retrace
)±3x10-11
Short Term Stability
1s
10s
100s
5x10-11
1.6x10-11
5x10-12
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
dBc/Hz
-85dBc
-125dBc
-140dBc
Phase Noise
Input Power
8W at [email protected]°C, Max 2.5A
Input Voltage
Range
12 ±0.5Vdc
Warm-up
5 minutes to lock @ 25°C
Frequency Control
Connector Interface
Internal trim range
(trimpot)
External trim range
-9
*2x10
*2x10-9
(0V~5V)
-20°C to +50°C
2x10-10
(-20°C to 50°C)
-55°C to +85°C
Temperature
Operating
Temperature
Coefficient (ambient)
Storage
MTBF
100,000 hours
Connector
DB-9 Connector, SMA
Size
89 × 76 × 28 (mm3) (190cc)
Weight
0.25kg max
Warranty
2 years
Low Noise Option
This high performance version exhibits
lower phase noise and higher short term
stability. A 1PPS locking module is included
(see A6-1PPS). Customers may specify
lower phase noise than above.
E10-MRO LN
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
J1: SMA, RF OUTPUT
J2: DB-9
1: lock monitor(bit)
2&4: dc return/ground
3: locking signal
5: ext C-field (0~5V)
6, 8 & 9: NC (Used for RS232 option)
7: +12V
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
55
E10-GPS
GPS Disciplined Rubidium Oscillator
Low Phase Noise
Q High Short Term Stability
Q RS232C Digital Monitor & Control
Q
The E10-GPS Disciplined Rubidium Oscillator is the most cost effective way to maintain the high
time & frequency accuracy required for demanding applications for the OEM manufacturer.
This Rubidium Oscillator provides the precision synchronization required by base stations,
optical network nodes, and high-speed digital networks.
Features
Benefits
s6DCOPERATION
s,OW$ISTORTION
sMINUTESTOLOCK
s-(Z/UTPUT
s003/UTPUT
s#OSTEFFECTIVE'03$ISCIPLINED2UBIDIUM
sYEARWARRANTY
s'034RACEABLE3TANDARD
s#ALIBRATIONFREE
s1UICKSIMPLETOINSTALL
Applications
s)NTERNAL&REQUENCY2EFERENCE
s4ELECOM.ETWORK3YNCHRONISATION
s#ELLULAR7IRELESS"ASE3TATIONS
56
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
E10-GPS
Specification
Accuracy
Disciplined to GPS
or to EXT. 1PPS
Holdover (no GPS)
-12
Time
)1x10 (after disciplined for
one day, 24 hours average,
25°C)
±100ns (relative to GPS or
Ext. input, 25°C)
Frequency
Time
)5x10-12/day
)1μs/24 hours
Frequency
Short Term Stability
)[email protected]
)[email protected]
)[email protected]
Phase Noise
< [email protected]
< [email protected]
< [email protected]
Harmonics
<-40dBc
Spurious
<-80dBc
Temperature Coefficient
±3x10-10 over -20°C ~+50C
Time to Lock (@25°C)
<7 min
Earth Magnetic Field Sensitivity
)2x10-11
Retrace
)2x10-11
Output
1×10MHz Sine wave (7~13)dBm/501 SMA
1×1PPS TTL/501 SMA
PC channel (RS232) for Time & Locality & Other Data and
Frequency Control
Input
GPS Antenna/501 SMA
Ext. 1PPS/501 BNC
Mode of Operations
A. Disciplined to GPS
B. Disciplined to external 1PPS
C. Auto Select: first priority to external 1PPS and second to
internal GPS receiver.
Remote Setting
Via Serial Port Software for PC
J1 (SMA):10MHz output
J2 (SMA): 1PPS output
J3 (9 PIN D-SUB):
Pin1 +12V
Pin2 GND
Pin3 Lock Signal
Pin4 1PPS_Ext
Pin5 GND
Pin6 TxD
Pin7 Lock TAG
Pin8 1PPS OUT_GPS
Pin9 RxD
J4 (SMA): GPS Antenna
Export UTC time.
Export the location of the local place, including longitude,
latitude and length.
Export the model of the Atomic Oscillator.
Export the version number of the software.
Adjust the accuracy of 10MHz.
Power Supply
Input Voltage
Power Dissipation
12VDC
[email protected] Warm-up, [email protected] Steady (25°C)
Dimensions
)127±0.5×94±0.5×38±0.5
Weight
<0.6kg
Operating Temperature
-40°C ~ +60°C
Storage Temperature
-40°C ~ +70°C
Humidity
)90%
MTBF
*100000h
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Mechanical
& Electrical
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
57
A10-M (A10-MX)
Rubidium Frequency Reference
Low Phase Noise
Q Ageing <5x10-10/year
Q High Precision Atomic Clock
Q
A7-MX using A10-MX as reference
A7-MX
A10-MX
The Quartzlock A10-M rubidium frequency reference is a 10 MHz, high-stability Rubidium
frequency standard with flexible output options and very low cost of ownership primarily for
production test of quartz oscillators and RF instrumentation frequency referencing.
The A10-MX incorporates the latest high stability and low drift designs. It may also have both
5MHz and 10MHz outputs presented on the front panel to align with A7-MX Signal Stability
Analyzer reference input.
Features
Benefits
s-ULTIPLE/UTPUTOPTIONS
sYEAR7ARRANTY
s#USTOM&REQUENCYOUTPUTS
s,OW.OISE&LOOR
s&RONTPANELOUTPUTS!-8
s%XCEPTIONALLYLOWDRIFTAGEINGANDHIGHSTABILITY
per hour/day
s3TABILITYTOX-14/s @ 5MHz
s-(Z3TANDARD/UTPUT
s-(ZOPTIONAL
s-(ZOPTIOND"C(Z.&
s-(ZOPTIOND"C(Z (Z
s4HE!-CANACCOMMODATEMANYOPTIONSINCLUDING
customized requirements.
Applications
s&REQUENCY#ALIBRATION
s4ELECOM.ETWORK3YNCHRONISATION
s"ROADCAST2ADIO463ATELLITE#OMMUNICATIONS
s($46
s0RODUCTION4EST2EFERENCEFORINSTRUMENTATION
s-ICROWAVE4EST"ENCHOR4EST3OLUTION
58
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
A10-M (A10-MX)
Options
Specification
Output
s-ULTIPLE/UTPUTS
s-(Z
Output Frequency
s5LTRA,OW.OISE
50 .... 100MHz
Outputs (-180dBc Noise
Floor)
s6DC"ATTERY"ACKUP
Input
10MHz, +7dBm into 501, 0.5VRMS
-see options
Adjustment
Mechanical Range
Electrical Range
Control Voltage
Factory Setting
2x10-9 min
2x10-9 min
0 ~ 5V
±5x10-11
Frequency Stability typical
A10-M
A10-MX
1s
10s
100s
STD
3x10-12
2x10-12
8x10-13
LN
2x10-12
5x10-12
4x10-13
ULN 5MHz
5x10-13
2x10-13
4x10-13
ULN2 10MHz
1–30s from
1x10-13 to
2.5x10-13
ULN3 5MHz
1s 8x10-14
3 to 30s
1.3x10-13
Aging
1 day
1 month
1 year
3x10-12
4x10-11
5x10-10
1x10-12
4x10-11
4x10-10
5x10-12
4x10-11
4x10-10
5x10-12
4x10-11
4x10-10
5x10-12
4x10-11
4x10-10
Please contact
Quartzlock about your
application. We can help
you choose the most
cost effective low noise
solution.
Phase Noise dBc/Hz in 1Hz BW
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz
STD
-90
-120
-135
-145
-150
LN
-110
-139
-152
-154
-154
ULN1 5MHz
-123
-148
-158
-165
-168
ULN2 10MHz
-122
-137
-143
-145
-145
ULN3 5MHz
-123
-140
-145
-150
-155
The Quartzlock A10-M or
A10-MX find applications
in standards laboratories,
as low noise frequency
references and as
calibrators.
Harmonics
<30dBc
<30dBc
<40dBc
<40dBc
<40dBc
<80dBc
<80dBc
<80dBc
<70dBc
<70dBc
Spurious
Warm time to 1x10
-9
1
5 minutes
Retrace after 24h off & 1h on,
same temp
<3x10-11
Power Supply Power at steady
state at 25°C
90 .... 245V ac Battery Back Up option 13W @ 24V (22~30Vdc)
@ 25°C, Max 2A
Freq offset over output
voltage range
<2x10-11
Temperature
Operating
Storage
Freq offset over operating
temperature range
Magnetic Field
Sensitivity
Atmospheric Pressure
Approx MTBF, Stationary
-20°C ~ +50°C
-40°C ~ +70°C
<3x10-10
<2x10-11/Gauss
-60m ~ 4000m <1x10-13/mbar
Approx MTBF, Stationary
Mechanical
88mm (3.5”) 2U x 19” rack mounted
Option
Calibrator outputs can be provided additionally as options.
Sinewave +13dBm 50 Ohm 1Vrms
Output frequencies:1MHz, 5MHz, 10MHz, 100MHz, 1GHz
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
A10-MX Uses Quartzlock
DPPL-DDS Clean Up Loop
Technology
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
59
A1000
Rubidium Time & Frequency Reference
Q
Q
Q
Low phase noise
Ageing <4x10-10/year
High Precision Atomic Clock
The A1000 exhibits extraordinarily low ageing/drift and very high stability per hour and per day.
These characteristics along with our three year warranty make the A1000 suitable for mission
critical applications. The A1000 can be highly customised with multiple outputs and frequencies.
Features
Benefits
s-ULTIPLE/UTPUTOPTIONS
sYEARWARRANTY
s#USTOM&REQUENCYOUTPUTS
sD"C(Z (ZPHASENOISE
s3TABILITYTOX-13/s
s-(Z3TANDARD/UTPUT
sn-(ZOPTIONAL
s-(ZOPTIOND"C(Z.&
s-(ZOPTIOND"C(Z (Z
Applications
s&REQUENCY#ALIBRATION
s4ELECOM.ETWORK3YNCHRONISATION
s"ROADCASTn2ADIO463ATELLITE#OMMUNICATIONS
s($46
s0RODUCTION4EST2EFERENCEFORINSTRUMENTATION
s-ICROWAVE2ADAR4EST"ENCHOR4EST3OLUTION
60
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
A1000
Specification
Outputs See options
Adjustment
Mechanical Range
Electrical Range
Control Voltage
Factory Setting
10MHz, +7dBm into 501, 0.5VRMS
2x10-9 min
2x10-9 min
0 ~ 5V
±5x10-11
1x10-11
Mechanical
Frequency Stability
Options
1s
10s
100s
1day
3x10-11
1x10-11
3x10-12
8x10-12
1 day
1 month
1 year
3x10-12
4x10-11
5x10-10
dBc/Hz in 1Hz BW
Standard
-70
-100
-120
-140
-145
Ageing
Phase Noise
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz
Harmonics
<40dBc
Spurious
<80dBc
Warm Time
to 1 x 10-9
Retrace after 24h off &
1h on, same temp
Power Supply
Power at steady state
at 25C
Frequency Offset
over output voltage range
Temperature
Operating
Storage
Freq offset
over operating
temperature range
Magnetic Field
Sensitivity
Atmospheric
Pressure
Approx MTBF,
Stationary
5 minutes
<3x10-13
<2x10-11/Gauss
-60m ~ 4000m <1x10-13/mbar
Approx MTBF, Stationary
88mm (3.5”) 2U x 19” rack mounted
0
1
Seamless Battery Back-up Switch
High Performance Distribution
Card 1 Input 4 Outputs
2 E1 Output
3 T1 Output
4 13MHz Output
5 TTL Output
7 10.24MHz Output
8 10.23MHz Output
9 Add 6 Output Distribution Card
(not available with option 48 –
ULN)
18 Add Additional 1–5 Years
Warranty (18.1 = 1 Year … 18.5 =
5 Years)
40 Reduced Harmonic (<-50dBc)
and Spurii
48 ULN Ultra Low Noise Outputs
5MHz -123dBc/Hz @ 1Hz offset
10MHz -115dBc/Hz @ 1Hz
100MHz -135dBC/Hz @ 100Hz
-162dBc/Hz @ 1kHz
-180dBc/Hz @ 100kHz
90 .... 245V ac
Battery Back Up option 13W @ 24V
(22–30Vdc) @ 25C, Max 2A
<2x10-11
-20C ~ +50C
-40C ~ +70C
<3x10-10
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
61
E1000
Rubidium Frequency Reference
Q
Q
Q
Stability
Low phase noise
Drift
(AVAR) 8x10-13/s typically
110dBc/Hz offset as standard
5x10-10/year
Features
Benefits
s5LTRA(IGH0ERFORMANCE2EFERENCE
s-ULTIPLE/UTPUT/PTIONS
s#USTOM&REQUENCY/UTPUTS
s.OISE&LOORnD"C(Z
s!GEINGX-10/year
s3TABILITYTOX-13/s
s-(Z3TANDARD/UTPUT
sn-(ZOPTIONAL
s-(ZOPTIOND"C(Z.&
s-(ZOPTIOND"C(Z (Z
s%USES1UARTZLOCK!CTIVE.OISE&ILTER
Clean Technology
Applications
s&REQUENCY#ALIBRATION
s4ELECOM.ETWORK3YNCHRONISATION
s"ROADCASTn2ADIO46($46
s3ATELLITECOMMUNICATIONS
s0RODUCTION4EST2EFERENCEFORINSTRUMENTATION
s-ICROWAVE2ADAR4EST"ENCHOR4EST3OLUTION
62
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
E1000
Specification
Outputs See options
Adjustment
Mechanical Range
Electrical Range
Control Voltage
Factory Setting
Frequency Stability
1s
10s
100s
1 hour
1day
Ageing
1 day
1 month
1 year
10MHz, +7dBm into 501, 0.5VRMS
2x10-9 min
2x10-9 min
0 ~ 5V
±5x10-11
1x10-11
Mechanical
Standard spec
2x10-12
5x10-12
4x10-13
ULN option
5x10-13
2x10-13
4x10-13
1x10-12
1x10-12
3x10-12
4x10-11
5x10-10
3x10-12
4x10-11
5x10-10
Phase Noise
Standard
-110
-140
-145
-155
-157
ULN option
-115
-146
-156
-163
-164
-167
Harmonics
<30dBc
<30dBc
Spurious
<80dBc
dBc/Hz in 1Hz BW
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz
100kHz
Warm Time
to 1 x 10-9
Retrace after 24h off &
1h on, same temp
Power Supply
Power at steady state
at 25C
Frequency Offset
over output voltage range
Temperature
Operating
Storage
Freq offset
over operating
temperature range
Magnetic Field
Sensitivity
Atmospheric
Pressure
Approx MTBF,
Stationary
<2x10-11/Gauss
-60m ~ 4000m <1x10-13/mbar
Approx MTBF, Stationary
88mm (3.5”) 2U x 19” rack mounted
Options
0
1
Seamless Battery Back-up Switch
High Performance Distribution
Card 1 Input 4 Outputs
2 E1 Output
3 T1 Output
4 13MHz Output
5 TTL Output
7 10.24MHz Output
8 10.23MHz Output
9 Add 6 Output Distribution Card
(with option 48 a ULN card is fitted)
18 Add additional 1–5 Years
Warranty (18.1 = 1 Year …
18.5 = 5 Years)
40 Reduced Harmonic (<-50dBc)
and Spurii
48 ULN Ultra Low Noise Outputs
5MHz -123dBc/Hz @ 1Hz offset
10MHz -115dBc/Hz @ 1Hz
100MHz -135dBc/Hz @ 100Hz
-162dBc/Hz @ 1kHz
-180dBc/Hz @ 100kHz
5 minutes
<3x10-13
90 .... 245V ac
Battery Back Up option 13W @ 24V
(22–30Vdc) @ 25C, Max 2A
<2x10-11
-20C ~ +50C
-40C ~ +70C
<3x10-10
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
E1000 with 10MHz ULN Option. Typical Phase Noise
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
63
E10-P
Compact Portable
Rubidium Frequency Reference
Q
Q
Q
Q
Greater than 2 hours battery operation
Operates from car 12vdc output
Less than 3 minute warm up
Compact form factor 103x55x122mm <500g for a
wide range of applications
Actual size
This portable Rubidium frequency standard will operate from an External 12Vdc Supply or its
Internal Batteries.
For remote site operation i.e. cellular BTS the E10-P may run from the cigarette lighter socket to
arrive fully charged and warm.
The E10-P Portable Rubidium frequency reference benefits from Quartzlock’s SMAC Rubidium
Oscillator technology and state-of-the-art internal high capacity batteries.
Features
Benefits
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
s
-(Z/UTPUT
!GEINGX-10/year
D"C(Z (Z
X-11 accuracy
X-12/s @ 100s
!TOMICACCURACY
.OANTENNA
1UICKANDSIMPLEUSEANDINSTALLATION
,OWDRIFT
(ANDHELD
Applications
s 2EMOTESITEFREQUENCYREFERENCEFORCELLULAR"43SATELLITECOMMUNICATIONGROUNDSTATIONS
s &IELDSERVICEPRODUCTIONTESTFREQUENCYREFERENCE
s &REQUENCYSTANDARDFORCOUNTERSSIGNALGENERATORSSPECTRUMANDNETWORKANALYSERS
64
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
E10-P
Specifications
Output
10MHz Sine, 10dBm, ±3dBm
Harmonics
<-40dBc
Accuracy
±5x10-11 at shipment @25°C
Short Term Stability
(AVAR)
1s
8x10-11
10s
3x10-11
100s
8x10-12
1 day
5x10-12
1 month
5x10-11
10Hz
-95dBc
100Hz
-125dBc
1kHz
-135dBc
Drift
Phase to Noise (SSB)
Input Power
6W at 12V @ 25°C, Max 1.2A
Input Voltage
Range
90...245V ac or +12V dc
Run Time
Battery
2 hours
Charge Time
Battery
4 hours
Warm Up
5 minutes to lock @ 25°C
Retrace
)±2x10-11
Magnetic field
sensitivity,
dc (±2 GAUSS)
<±4x10-11/Gauss
External Trim Range
Environmental Specifications
Operating Temp Range
-20°C~+50°C Typical: -30~+65°C
Temperature
Coefficient (ambient)
2x10-10 (0~50°C)
*5x10-9 (0V~5V) option
Storage Temperature
-55°C~+85°C
Size
103 x 55 x 122 mm
MTBF
100,000 hours
Weight
500gm approx
Environmental health
RoHS
Warranty
24 months
EMI
Compliant to FCC Part 15 Class B
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
65
E10-X
Compact Desktop
Rubidium Frequency Reference
Compact light weight portable for a wide range of applications
Q Fast warm time
Q Low power operation
Q 12V dc operation (ac plug top adaptor supplied)
Q
Actual size
Compact simple to install atomic frequency reference for use as a general purpose 10MHz
rubidium frequency standard.
This frequency standard benefits from having Quartzlock’s SMAC (Sub Miniature Atomic Clock)
technology built in.
Features
Benefits
s-(Z/UTPUT
s!GEINGX-10/year
sD"C(Z (Z
sX-11 accuracy
sX-12/s @ 100s
s!TOMICACCURACY
s.OANTENNA
s1UICKANDSIMPLEUSEANDINSTALL
s4RANSFERSTANDARD
Applications
s0RODUCTIONTESTFREQUENCYSTANDARD
s4IMEANDFREQUENCYSTANDARDFORCALIBRATIONAND2&LABORATORIES
s&REQUENCYSTANDARDFORCOUNTERSSIGNALGENERATORSSPECTRUMANDNETWORKANALYSERS
s7IREDAND7IRELESSNETWORKSYNCHRONIZATION
66
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
E10-X
Specifications
Output
10MHz Sine, 10dBm, ±3dBm
Harmonics
<-40dBc
Accuracy
±5x10-11 at shipment @25°C
Short Term Stability
(AVAR)
1s
10s
100s
8x10-11
3x10-11
8x10-12
Drift
1 day
1 month
5x10-12
5x10-11
Phase to Noise (SSB)
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
-95dBc
-125dBc
-135dBc
Input Power
6W at 12V @ 25°C, Max 1.2A
Input Voltage
Range
90...245V ac or +12V dc
Warm Up
5 minutes to lock @ 25°C
Retrace
)±2x10-11
Magnetic field
sensitivity,
dc (±2 GAUSS)
<±4x10-11/GAUSS
Size
103 x 55 x 122 mm
Weight
500gm approx
Warranty
24 months
Environmental Specifications
Operating Temp Range
-20°C~+50°C Typical: -30~+65°C
Temperature
Coefficient (ambient)
2x10-10 (0~50°C)
Storage Temperature
-55°C~+85°C
MTBF
100,000 hours
Environmental health
RoHS
EMI
Compliant to FCC Part 15 Class B
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
67
E10-Y4 & E10-Y8
Rubidium Frequency Reference
Low Noise Multiple Outputs
Eight outputs
Q -110dBc/Hz @ 1Hz phase noise
Q Compact light weight portable for a wide range of applications
Q Low drift 5x10-12/day
Q
Approx actual size
Compact simple to install low noise multi-output atomic frequency reference for use as a
general purpose 10MHz rubidium frequency standard.
This very low noise rubidium frequency reference will enable up to eight separate instruments
to be referenced.
This frequency standard benefits from having Quartzlock’s SMAC (Sub Miniature Atomic Clock),
and very low noise distribution amplifier technology built in.
Features
Benefits
s-(ZMULTIPLEOUTPUTS
s!GEINGX-10/year
sX-11 accuracy
sX-12/s @ 100s
s!TOMICACCURACY
s1UICKANDSIMPLETOUSEANDINSTALL
s(IGHERSENSITIVITY
s%NABLESNARROWERBANDWIDTHlLTERING
s)MPROVEDINSTRUMENTFREQUENCYACCURACYPHASENOISE
Applications
s&REQUENCYREFERENCINGOFINTERCEPTIONANDMONITORINGRECEIVERS
sTime and frequency standard for calibration and external referencing of all quartz-based instrumentation
in RF and microwave laboratories to significantly reduce noise levels and improve accuracy
s&REQUENCYREFERENCEFORCOUNTERSSIGNALGENERATORSSPECTRUM$3/6.!3!ANDNETWORKANALYSERS
s3ECURECOMMUNICATIONS#DEFENCEAND2$
68
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
E10-Y4 & E10-Y8
Specification
Outputs – 4 or 8
Output Connectors
Adjustment
Mechanical Range
Electrical Range
Control Voltage
Factory Setting
4 (E10-Y4) or 8 (E10-Y8)
10MHz, 13dBm ±1db into 501,
0.5VRMS
SMA
2x10-9 min
2x10-9 min
0 ~ 5V
±5x10-11
1x10-11
Magnetic Field
Sensitivity
Atmospheric
Pressure
Approx MTBF,
Stationary
<2x10-11/Gauss
-60m ~ 4000m <1x10-13/mbar
Approx MTBF, Stationary
Size
103 x 55 x 122 mm
Weight
500gm approx
Warranty
24 months
Frequency Stability
0.2s
1s
10s
100s
1 hour
1 day
4x10-12
2x10-12
5x10-12
4x10-13
1 day
1 month
1 year
1x10-12
4x10-11
4x10-10
1x10-12
Ageing
Options
The E10-Y series is a new product range introduced in 2012.
A few options will be available to meet customer requirements –
please discuss with Quartzlock.
Cable set: 8 x SMA to BNC cables 1.5m long can be supplied.
Phase Noise
dBc/Hz in 1Hz BW
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz
Harmonics
<30dBc
Spurious
<80dBc
Warm Time
to 1 x 10-9
Retrace after 24h off &
1h on, same temp
Power Supply
Power at steady state
at 25C
Frequency Offset
over output voltage range
Temperature
Operating
Storage
Freq offset
over operating
temperature range
-46dB
Standard
-110
-140
-145
-155
-157
-36dB
5 minutes
<3x10-13
90 .... 245V ac
Battery Back Up option 15Vdc @
500mA 7.5W (1.5A warm-up 22.5W)
@ 25C, Max 2A
<2x10-11
-22C ~ +30C max
-40C ~ +70C
<3x10-10
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
69
CH1-75A
Active Hydrogen Maser
Q
Q
Q
Q
<5x10-13 frequency accuracy
-100dBc/Hz @ 1Hz
Autonomous automatic cavity tuning (without a second H-Maser)
1.5x10-13 @ 1s short term stability
The CH1-75A Active Hydrogen Maser is designed to operate as a high stability, precision
spectrally pure 5 and 100MHz signal source and provides time scale signals of 1s period.
The AHM has similar lifetime cost to Cs.
Features
Benefits
sX-15/day ageing
sX-12/year accuracy
s-(ZOUTPUT
s003
sX14/°C temperature coefficient
s,OWCOSTOFOWNERSHIP
s0RIMARYFREQUENCYREFERENCE
s9EARLIFETIME
Applications
s.ATIONALTIMEANDFREQUENCYSERVICES
s'ROUNDCONTROL
s3URVEILLANCE
s2ADIONAVIGATIONSYSTEMS
s2ADIOINTERFEROMETERSWITHAVERYLONGBASELINE
70
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
CH1-75A
Specification
Frequency Outputs
5MHz,10 MHz and 100 MHz (sine), 1±0.2 V rms
into 50 Ohm
Timing Output
1Hz (1PPS)
Amplitude
>2.5V into 50 Ohm
Width
10–20ms
Rise time
<15ns
Jitter
<0.1ns
Frequency stability
Frequency stability
(Allan Deviation)
(Allan Deviation)
1s
10s
100s
1 hour
1 day
)2×10–13
)3×10–14
)7×10–15
)2×10–15
)7×10–16
(Although this is a rugged instrument which operates within +10°C to +35 °C ambient, the quoted specifications for
100 s, 1 hour and 1 day apply while the instrument is confined to a ±1°C ambient temperature change).
Temperature sensitivity
1.5x10–15/C
Magnetic field sensitivity
<1x10–14/Gauss
Drift (aging)
2×10-15 /day at delivery
5×10-16 /day after 1 year operation
Frequency trim range
1x10–10
Setting resolution
1x10–15
Phase noise
Offset from carrier
SSB phase noise, dBc/Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz
–130
–140
–150
–150
Harmonic distortion
< 30dB (for 5 MHz output)
Non-harmonic distortion
< –100dB in the range from 10Hz to 10kHz
Power
100, 120, 220 V±10 %, 240 V+5–10 %,
47–63 Hz or 22–30 V dc
At power line failure the Instrument automatically
switches to an external 22–30V dc power supply
Power consumption
150 VA ac, 100 W dc
Operating temperature
+10°C to +35°C
Storage temperature
–50°C to +50°C
Humidity
up to 80% at 25°C
Size
(H ×W ×D) 70.8 × 48.0 × 59.5 cm
Weight
90 kg
Service Life
15 years before service
See Quartzlock Hydrogen Maser compatible instrumentation
A5-8 Distribution Amplifier – see page 8
A6 Frequency Converter – see page 20
A7-MX Signal Stability Analyzer – see page 28
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
´
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
71
CH1-75A
´
CH1-75A Active Hydrogen Maser
1 second ” 1,5x10-13
1 day ” 7x10-16
Temperature sensitivity ”1,5x10-15/C
KVARZ has been developing and manufacturing H-Masers over 40
years and has a great experience in this field.This model is the third
H-Masers generation.
During this period of time, more than 500 units have been built.
It five times exceeds the number of hydrogen masers produced by all
other maser manufactures in the world.
The performance specifications of the CH1-75A Active Hydrogen
Maser exceed those available from any other unit manufactured
world-wide.
The CH1-75A mechanical architecture is focussed on modular
construction in a tough transportable package. A lightweight
tubular aluminium space frame is used in transport and for
mobile applications.
Frequency Stability (Allan Deviation)
Frequency Stability (Hadamar Deviation)
CH1-75A Hydrogen
Maser Block Diagram
72
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
CH1-75A
CH1-75A Active Hydrogen Maser Physics Package Schematic
Very efficient beam optics including quadrapole magnet and unique
multipath collimator.
It allows to reduce hydrogen usage to 0.01 mole per annum thus
simplifying its vacuum pumping.
Autonomous Cavity Auto Tuning – Long-term Stability
The most recent development to improved performance of the Active
Hydrogen Maser is an advanced Cavity Auto Tuning System, which insures
the Maser remains centered on the hydrogen line over the long term.
The advantages of the cavity auto tuning in the CH1-75A are as follows:
sAMODULATIONFREQUENCYOF(ZISAPPROXIMATELYTHREETIMESHIGHER
than that in other auto-tuning systems. As a result, very low spurious
components at frequency modulation of 87Hz are achieved. It is especially
important where the Maser is used for VLBI.
sVERYLOWTEMPERATURESENSITIVITYOFTHE-ASEROF^X-15/ C.
Hydrogen pumping is performed by a very efficient getter
pump, having extended lifetime (over 15 years). The
advantages of such a pump are:
sNOPOWERSUPPLYDURINGOPERATIONISREQUIRED
sHIGHRELIABILITY
sSMALLSIZEANDWEIGHTKG
Very efficient magnetic shielding. Magnetic sensitivity of the Maser is less
than 1x10-14/Oersted. This is achieved thanks to a five-layer magnetic shield
made of permalloy with initial magnetic permeability of more than 100,000.
High temperature frequency stability of the Maser
The hydrogen maser frequency is linearly dependent on the cavity frequency:
In order to reduce temperature influence on the cavity frequency, it is
manufactured of a unique glass material, which exhibits virtually zero
temperature coefficient (~1–2x10-7 /°C).
Temperature stabilization of such a cavity with an accuracy of 0.001˚ C
allows a decrease in the Maser temperature sensitivity to 5x10-15/C even
without auto-tuning.
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
73
CH1-76A
Passive Hydrogen Maser
Q
Q
Q
Q
<8x10-13/s @ 1s short term stability
-100dBc/Hz @ 1Hz
Small size and weight
15 year life time
The CH1-76A Passive Hydrogen Maser is designed to operate as a high-stability frequency source
with precise, spectrally pure 5 MHz output. The CH1-76A is the first in the world Time and
Frequency Hydrogen Maser of a passive type. This maser is the ideal, much higher performance
alternative to caesium atomic clocks at less than half the lifetime cost of Cs.
Features
Benefits
sX-15/day aging. 5x10-15/day stability AVAR.
sX-12/year accuracy
s-(ZOUTPUT
s003PS*ITTER
sX-14/C temperature coefficient
sX-14 /1000s AVAR
s,OWCOSTOFOWNERSHIP
s3ECONDMOSTSTABLETIMEFREQUENCYSTANDARDAVAILABLE
s.OEXPENSIVEWEAROUTTHROWAWAY#STUBE
Applications
s.ATIONALTIMEANDFREQUENCYSERVICES
s'ROUNDCONTROLFOR'.33
s3URVEILLANCE
s2ADIONAVIGATIONSYSTEMS
s4&LABORATORYREFERENCE
74
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
CH1-76A
Specification
Frequency Outputs
5MHz (sine), 1±0.2V rms
into 50 Ohm
Timing Output
1Hz (pulse)
Amplitude
*2.5V into 50 Ohm
Width
10–20μs
Rise time
<30ns
Jitter
<0.1n
ʍ;ʏͿ
Frequency stability AVAR
Averaging time
Specifications
Typical Values
1s
10s
102s
103s
1h
1 day
<_1.5x10–12
<_5x10–13
<_2x10–13
<_5x10–14
<_3x10–14
<_1x10–14
)4.8×10-13
)1.5×10–13
)4.5×10–14
)1.5×10–14
)8.5×10–15
)4×10–15
Drift (Ageing)
<3x10–15/day
Accuracy
±1.5x10–12/year
Temperature sensitivity
<_2x10–14/C
Magnetic field sensitivity
±2x10–14/Gauss
Frequency trim range
1x10–10
Setting resolution
1x10–14 Steps
Phase noise
Offset from carrier
SSB phase noise, dBc/Hz
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
10kHz
–110
–125
–150
–150
Harmonic distortion
< 30dB
Non-harmonic distortion
< 100dB
Power
220±22V, 50±1Hz, 220±11V, 115±6V, 400Hz
At power line failure the instrument automatically switches to an
external 22–30V DC power supply
Power consumption
140VA, 90W
Operating temperature
5–40°C
Storage temperature
–50 – +50°C
Humidity
up to 80% at 25°C
Size
(HxWxD) 28 x 48 x 55.5cm
Weight
51 kg
Service Life
12 years before service
See Quartzlock Hydrogen Maser compatible instrumentation
A5-8 Distribution Amplifier – see page 8
A6 Frequency Converter – see page 20
A7-MX Signal Stability Analyzer – see page 28
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
´
Email [email protected]
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75
CH1-76A
´
CH1-76A Passive Hydrogen Maser
The size and weight of the active hydrogen maser in some cases
hinder its application, especially in the field conditions.
The problem of reducing the active hydrogen maser size is
connected with reduction of microwave cavity size, which results in
reduction of its Q-factor.
Reduction of cavity Q-factor leads to the failure of the maser
generation conditions, and it goes into amplifying mode, so called
“passive” mode. Due to this factor, an idea of creation of a passive
hydrogen maser was realised.
In 1988 KVARZ created the first industrial Passive Hydrogen Maser
in the world (the CH1-76); at the present time KVARZ produces its
improved version, the CH1-76A.
Schematic Picture of a Passive Hydrogen Maser Physics Package
Passive Hydrogen Maser Features
A hydrogen atom generation system and a vacuum system of a
passive maser are the same as those of an active maser. Their service
life is 15 years.
KVARZ realised the so called “magnetron” cavity construction
which is very rigid and insures a passive hydrogen maser suitability
for field and space applications.
In this instrument, one 12.5 kHz modulation frequency and a freerunning local oscillator are used.
76
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
CH1-76A
Atomic Clock Comparisons
As for a frequency stability, a passive maser holds a middle position between an active hydrogen maser
and a cesium frequency standard.
Its stability for measurement time from 1 sec to 100.000 sec is a factor of 10 better than the best
cesium standard – 5071A Primary Frequency Standard (High Performance Cesium Beam Tube).
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
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77
Special Products
Air Interface Simulator
Radio Path Modelling System
This is one example of a customer defined special product designed by Quartzlock.
This AIS simulated the air interface between a number of mobile and BTS with interfering
mobile and BTS facilities.
To discuss your special product requirement please call Quartzlock.
78
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
Tel +44 (0)1803 862062
Fax +44 (0)1803 867962
984
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Product Family Tree
Email [email protected]
www.quartzlock.com
79
For all enquiries please contact us via any of the methods below:
Head Office & Maser Lab:
Quartzlock UK Ltd
‘Gothic’
Plymouth Road
Totnes, Devon
TQ9 5LH England
Telephone:
+44 (0)1803 862062
Facsimile:
+44 (0)1803 867962
Email:
[email protected]
Or visit our website
www.quartzlock.com
Quartzlock’s new observatory building for our Maser Laboratory
The Quartzlock logo is a registered trademark. Quartzlock continous improvement policy: specifications subject to change without notice
and not part of any contract. All IPR and design rights are protected. E&OE © Quartzlock 2012
Registered in England: 2634800. VAT Registration no. 585 675 582
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