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LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Low Power Quad Operational Amplifiers
General Description
Advantages
The LM124 series consists of four independent, high gain,
internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers
which were designed specifically to operate from a single
power supply over a wide range of voltages. Operation from
split power supplies is also possible and the low power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the
power supply voltage.
Application areas include transducer amplifiers, DC gain
blocks and all the conventional op amp circuits which now
can be more easily implemented in single power supply systems. For example, the LM124 series can be directly operated off of the standard +5V power supply voltage which is
used in digital systems and will easily provide the required
interface electronics without requiring the additional ± 15V
power supplies.
n Eliminates need for dual supplies
n Four internally compensated op amps in a single
package
n Allows directly sensing near GND and VOUT also goes
to GND
n Compatible with all forms of logic
n Power drain suitable for battery operation
Unique Characteristics
n In the linear mode the input common-mode voltage
range includes ground and the output voltage can also
swing to ground, even though operated from only a
single power supply voltage
n The unity gain cross frequency is temperature
compensated
n The input bias current is also temperature compensated
Features
n Internally frequency compensated for unity gain
n Large DC voltage gain 100 dB
n Wide bandwidth (unity gain) 1 MHz
(temperature compensated)
n Wide power supply range:
Single supply 3V to 32V
or dual supplies ± 1.5V to ± 16V
n Very low supply current drain (700 µA) — essentially
independent of supply voltage
n Low input biasing current 45 nA
(temperature compensated)
n Low input offset voltage 2 mV
and offset current: 5 nA
n Input common-mode voltage range includes ground
n Differential input voltage range equal to the power
supply voltage
n Large output voltage swing 0V to V+ − 1.5V
Connection Diagram
Dual-In-Line Package
DS009299-1
Top View
Order Number LM124J, LM124AJ, LM124J/883 (Note 2), LM124AJ/883 (Note 1), LM224J,
LM224AJ, LM324J, LM324M, LM324MX, LM324AM, LM324AMX, LM2902M, LM2902MX, LM324N, LM324AN,
LM324MT, LM324MTX or LM2902N LM124AJRQML and LM124AJRQMLV(Note 3)
See NS Package Number J14A, M14A or N14A
Note 1: LM124A available per JM38510/11006
Note 2: LM124 available per JM38510/11005
© 2000 National Semiconductor Corporation
DS009299
www.national.com
LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Low Power Quad Operational Amplifiers
August 2000
LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Connection Diagram
(Continued)
Note 3: See STD Mil DWG 5962R99504 for Radiation Tolerant Device
DS009299-33
Order Number LM124AW/883, LM124AWG/883, LM124W/883 or LM124WG/883
LM124AWRQML and LM124AWRQMLV(Note 3)
See NS Package Number W14B
LM124AWGRQML and LM124AWGRQMLV(Note 3)
See NS Package Number WG14A
Schematic Diagram
(Each Amplifier)
DS009299-2
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2
LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 12)
If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required,
please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/
Distributors for availability and specifications.
LM124/LM224/LM324
LM2902
LM124A/LM224A/LM324A
Supply Voltage, V+
32V
Differential Input Voltage
26V
32V
26V
−0.3V to +32V
−0.3V to +26V
50 mA
50 mA
Molded DIP
1130 mW
1130 mW
Cavity DIP
1260 mW
1260 mW
Small Outline Package
800 mW
800 mW
Input Voltage
Input Current
(VIN < −0.3V) (Note 6)
Power Dissipation (Note 4)
Output Short-Circuit to GND
(One Amplifier) (Note 5)
V+ ≤ 15V and TA = 25˚C
Continuous
Continuous
Operating Temperature Range
−40˚C to +85˚C
LM324/LM324A
0˚C to +70˚C
LM224/LM224A
−25˚C to +85˚C
LM124/LM124A
−55˚C to +125˚C
Storage Temperature Range
−65˚C to +150˚C
−65˚C to +150˚C
260˚C
260˚C
260˚C
260˚C
Vapor Phase (60 seconds)
215˚C
215˚C
Infrared (15 seconds)
220˚C
220˚C
Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 seconds)
Soldering Information
Dual-In-Line Package
Soldering (10 seconds)
Small Outline Package
See AN-450 “Surface Mounting Methods and Their Effect on Product Reliability” for other methods of soldering surface mount
devices.
ESD Tolerance (Note 13)
250V
250V
Electrical Characteristics
V+ = +5.0V, (Note 7), unless otherwise stated
Parameter
Input Offset Voltage
(Note 8) TA = 25˚C
Input Bias Current
IIN(+) or IIN(−), VCM = 0V,
(Note 9)
TA = 25˚C
Input Offset Current
LM124A
Conditions
Min
IIN(+) or IIN(−), VCM = 0V,
LM224A
Typ
Max
1
Min
LM324A
Typ
Max
2
1
20
50
2
10
Min
Units
Typ
Max
3
2
3
mV
40
80
45
100
nA
2
15
5
30
nA
V+−1.5
V
TA = 25˚C
Input Common-Mode
V+ = 30V, (LM2902, V+ = 26V),
Voltage Range (Note 10)
TA = 25˚C
Supply Current
V+−1.5
0
V+−1.5
0
0
Over Full Temperature Range
RL = ∞ On All Op Amps
mA
V+ = 30V (LM2902 V+ = 26V)
V+ = 5V
Large Signal
V+ = 15V, RL≥ 2kΩ,
Voltage Gain
(VO = 1V to 11V), TA = 25˚C
Common-Mode
DC, VCM = 0V to V+ − 1.5V,
Rejection Ratio
TA = 25˚C
3
1.5
3
0.7
1.2
1.5
3
0.7
1.2
1.5
3
0.7
1.2
50
100
50
100
25
100
V/mV
70
85
70
85
65
85
dB
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LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Electrical Characteristics
(Continued)
V+ = +5.0V, (Note 7), unless otherwise stated
Parameter
LM124A
Conditions
Power Supply
V+ = 5V to 30V
Rejection Ratio
(LM2902, V+ = 5V to 26V),
Min
Typ
65
100
LM224A
Max
Min
Typ
65
100
LM324A
Max
Max
Units
Min
Typ
65
100
dB
−120
dB
TA = 25˚C
Amplifier-to-Amplifier
f = 1 kHz to 20 kHz, TA = 25˚C
Coupling (Note 11)
(Input Referred)
Output Current
Source
−120
VIN+ = 1V, VIN− = 0V,
−120
20
40
20
40
20
40
10
20
10
20
10
20
12
50
12
50
12
50
V+ = 15V, VO = 2V, TA = 25˚C
Sink
mA
VIN− = 1V, VIN+ = 0V,
V+ = 15V, VO = 2V, TA = 25˚C
VIN− = 1V, VIN+ = 0V,
µA
V+ = 15V, VO = 200 mV, TA = 25˚C
Short Circuit to Ground
(Note 5) V+ = 15V, TA = 25˚C
Input Offset Voltage
(Note 8)
VOS Drift
RS = 0Ω
40
IIN(+) − IIN(−), VCM = 0V
IOS Drift
RS = 0Ω
Input Bias Current
IIN(+) or IIN(−)
Input Common-Mode
V+ = +30V
Voltage Range (Note 10)
(LM2902, V+ = 26V)
Large Signal
V+ = +15V (VOSwing = 1V to 11V)
Output Voltage
Swing
Output Current
60
7
20
10
200
40
7
20
10
200
40
100
V+−2
0
25
25
15
26
26
26
(LM2902, V+ = 26V)
RL = 10 kΩ
27
28
VIN+ = +1V,
10
20
V+ = 5V, RL = 10 kΩ
Source
VO = 2V
5
mV
7
30
µV/˚C
75
nA
10
300
pA/˚C
200
nA
V+−2
V
40
RL = 2 kΩ
27
28
10
20
20
5
V/mV
V
27
28
10
20
20
5
20
VIN− = 0V,
V+ = 15V
mV
mA
−
Sink
mA
5
0
V+ = 30V
VOL
60
30
100
V+−2
0
40
4
30
RL ≥ 2 kΩ
VOH
40
4
Input Offset Current
Voltage Gain
60
VIN = +1V,
10
15
5
8
5
8
VIN+ = 0V,
V+ = 15V
Electrical Characteristics
V+ = +5.0V, (Note 7), unless otherwise stated
Parameter
Input Offset Voltage
(Note 8) TA = 25˚C
Input Bias Current
IIN(+) or IIN(−), VCM = 0V,
(Note 9)
TA = 25˚C
Input Offset Current
LM124/LM224
Conditions
Min
IIN(+) or IIN(−), VCM = 0V,
Typ
Max
2
LM324
Min
LM2902
Typ
Max
5
2
45
150
3
30
Min
Units
Typ
Max
7
2
7
mV
45
250
45
250
nA
5
50
5
50
nA
V+−1.5
V
TA = 25˚C
Input Common-Mode
V+ = 30V, (LM2902, V+ = 26V),
Voltage Range (Note 10)
TA = 25˚C
Supply Current
V+−1.5
0
V+−1.5
0
0
Over Full Temperature Range
RL = ∞ On All Op Amps
mA
V+ = 30V (LM2902 V+ = 26V)
V+ = 5V
Large Signal
V+ = 15V, RL≥ 2kΩ,
Voltage Gain
(VO = 1V to 11V), TA = 25˚C
Common-Mode
DC, VCM = 0V to V+ − 1.5V,
Rejection Ratio
TA = 25˚C
Power Supply
V+ = 5V to 30V
Rejection Ratio
(LM2902, V+ = 5V to 26V),
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4
1.5
3
0.7
1.2
1.5
3
0.7
1.2
1.5
3
0.7
1.2
50
100
25
100
25
100
V/mV
70
85
65
85
50
70
dB
65
100
65
100
50
100
dB
(Continued)
V+ = +5.0V, (Note 7), unless otherwise stated
Parameter
LM124/LM224
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
LM324
Min
Typ
LM2902
Max
Min
Typ
Max
Units
TA = 25˚C
Amplifier-to-Amplifier
f = 1 kHz to 20 kHz, TA = 25˚C
Coupling (Note 11)
(Input Referred)
Output Current
Source
−120
VIN+ = 1V, VIN− = 0V,
−120
−120
20
40
20
40
20
40
10
20
10
20
10
20
12
50
12
50
12
50
dB
V+ = 15V, VO = 2V, TA = 25˚C
Sink
mA
VIN− = 1V, VIN+ = 0V,
V+ = 15V, VO = 2V, TA = 25˚C
VIN− = 1V, VIN+ = 0V,
µA
V+ = 15V, VO = 200 mV, TA = 25˚C
Short Circuit to Ground
(Note 5) V+ = 15V, TA = 25˚C
Input Offset Voltage
(Note 8)
VOS Drift
RS = 0Ω
40
IIN(+) − IIN(−), VCM = 0V
RS = 0Ω
Input Bias Current
IIN(+) or IIN(−)
Input Common-Mode
V+ = +30V
Voltage Range (Note 10)
(LM2902, V+ = 26V)
Large Signal
V+ = +15V (VOSwing = 1V to 11V)
Swing
Output Current
40
10
150
45
10
300
V+−2
500
V+−2
40
0
25
15
15
V+ = 30V
RL = 2 kΩ
26
26
22
(LM2902, V+ = 26V)
RL = 10 kΩ
27
28
VIN+ = +1V,
10
20
VOL
V+ = 5V, RL = 10 kΩ
Source
VO = 2V
5
27
28
10
20
20
5
200
nA
pA/˚C
500
nA
V+−2
V
V
24
10
20
5
100
VIN− = 0V,
V+ = 15V
Sink
mV
V/mV
23
20
mA
µV/˚C
10
40
0
60
7
100
0
40
7
10
RL ≥ 2 kΩ
VOH
60
9
7
IOS Drift
Output Voltage
40
7
Input Offset Current
Voltage Gain
60
mV
mA
−
VIN = +1V,
5
8
5
8
5
8
VIN+ = 0V,
V+ = 15V
Note 4: For operating at high temperatures, the LM324/LM324A/LM2902 must be derated based on a +125˚C maximum junction temperature and a thermal resistance of 88˚C/W which applies for the device soldered in a printed circuit board, operating in a still air ambient. The LM224/LM224A and LM124/LM124A can be derated based on a +150˚C maximum junction temperature. The dissipation is the total of all four amplifiers — use external resistors, where possible, to allow the amplifier to saturate of to reduce the power which is dissipated in the integrated circuit.
Note 5: Short circuits from the output to V+ can cause excessive heating and eventual destruction. When considering short circuits to ground, the maximum output
current is approximately 40 mA independent of the magnitude of V+. At values of supply voltage in excess of +15V, continuous short-circuits can exceed the power
dissipation ratings and cause eventual destruction. Destructive dissipation can result from simultaneous shorts on all amplifiers.
Note 6: This input current will only exist when the voltage at any of the input leads is driven negative. It is due to the collector-base junction of the input PNP transistors becoming forward biased and thereby acting as input diode clamps. In addition to this diode action, there is also lateral NPN parasitic transistor action on the
IC chip. This transistor action can cause the output voltages of the op amps to go to the V+voltage level (or to ground for a large overdrive) for the time duration that
an input is driven negative. This is not destructive and normal output states will re-establish when the input voltage, which was negative, again returns to a value
greater than −0.3V (at 25˚C).
Note 7: These specifications are limited to −55˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C for the LM124/LM124A. With the LM224/LM224A, all temperature specifications are limited to −25˚C
≤ TA ≤ +85˚C, the LM324/LM324A temperature specifications are limited to 0˚C ≤ TA ≤ +70˚C, and the LM2902 specifications are limited to −40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C.
Note 8: VO . 1.4V, RS = 0Ω with V+ from 5V to 30V; and over the full input common-mode range (0V to V+ − 1.5V) for LM2902, V+ from 5V to 26V.
Note 9: The direction of the input current is out of the IC due to the PNP input stage. This current is essentially constant, independent of the state of the output so
no loading change exists on the input lines.
Note 10: The input common-mode voltage of either input signal voltage should not be allowed to go negative by more than 0.3V (at 25˚C). The upper end of the
common-mode voltage range is V+ − 1.5V (at 25˚C), but either or both inputs can go to +32V without damage (+26V for LM2902), independent of the magnitude of
V+.
Note 11: Due to proximity of external components, insure that coupling is not originating via stray capacitance between these external parts. This typically can be
detected as this type of capacitance increases at higher frequencies.
Note 12: Refer to RETS124AX for LM124A military specifications and refer to RETS124X for LM124 military specifications.
Note 13: Human body model, 1.5 kΩ in series with 100 pF.
5
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LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Electrical Characteristics
LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Typical Performance Characteristics
Input Voltage Range
Input Current
DS009299-34
Supply Current
DS009299-35
Voltage Gain
DS009299-36
DS009299-37
Open Loop Frequency
Response
Common Mode Rejection
Ratio
DS009299-38
DS009299-39
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6
(Continued)
Voltage Follower Pulse
Response
Voltage Follower Pulse
Response (Small Signal)
DS009299-40
Large Signal Frequency
Response
LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Typical Performance Characteristics
DS009299-41
Output Characteristics
Current Sourcing
DS009299-42
Output Characteristics
Current Sinking
DS009299-43
Current Limiting
DS009299-45
DS009299-44
7
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LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Typical Performance Characteristics
(Continued)
Input Current (LM2902 only)
Voltage Gain (LM2902 only)
DS009299-46
DS009299-47
Application Hints
Where the load is directly coupled, as in dc applications,
there is no crossover distortion.
Capacitive loads which are applied directly to the output of
the amplifier reduce the loop stability margin. Values of
50 pF can be accommodated using the worst-case
non-inverting unity gain connection. Large closed loop gains
or resistive isolation should be used if larger load capacitance must be driven by the amplifier.
The bias network of the LM124 establishes a drain current
which is independent of the magnitude of the power supply
voltage over the range of from 3 VDC to 30 VDC.
Output short circuits either to ground or to the positive power
supply should be of short time duration. Units can be destroyed, not as a result of the short circuit current causing
metal fusing, but rather due to the large increase in IC chip
dissipation which will cause eventual failure due to excessive junction temperatures. Putting direct short-circuits on
more than one amplifier at a time will increase the total IC
power dissipation to destructive levels, if not properly protected with external dissipation limiting resistors in series
with the output leads of the amplifiers. The larger value of
output source current which is available at 25˚C provides a
larger output current capability at elevated temperatures
(see typical performance characteristics) than a standard IC
op amp.
The circuits presented in the section on typical applications
emphasize operation on only a single power supply voltage.
If complementary power supplies are available, all of the
standard op amp circuits can be used. In general, introducing a pseudo-ground (a bias voltage reference of V+/2) will
allow operation above and below this value in single power
supply systems. Many application circuits are shown which
take advantage of the wide input common-mode voltage
range which includes ground. In most cases, input biasing is
not required and input voltages which range to ground can
easily be accommodated.
The LM124 series are op amps which operate with only a
single power supply voltage, have true-differential inputs,
and remain in the linear mode with an input common-mode
voltage of 0 VDC. These amplifiers operate over a wide range
of power supply voltage with little change in performance
characteristics. At 25˚C amplifier operation is possible down
to a minimum supply voltage of 2.3 VDC.
The pinouts of the package have been designed to simplify
PC board layouts. Inverting inputs are adjacent to outputs for
all of the amplifiers and the outputs have also been placed at
the corners of the package (pins 1, 7, 8, and 14).
Precautions should be taken to insure that the power supply
for the integrated circuit never becomes reversed in polarity
or that the unit is not inadvertently installed backwards in a
test socket as an unlimited current surge through the resulting forward diode within the IC could cause fusing of the internal conductors and result in a destroyed unit.
Large differential input voltages can be easily accommodated and, as input differential voltage protection diodes are
not needed, no large input currents result from large differential input voltages. The differential input voltage may be
larger than V+ without damaging the device. Protection
should be provided to prevent the input voltages from going
negative more than −0.3 VDC (at 25˚C). An input clamp diode
with a resistor to the IC input terminal can be used.
To reduce the power supply drain, the amplifiers have a
class A output stage for small signal levels which converts to
class B in a large signal mode. This allows the amplifiers to
both source and sink large output currents. Therefore both
NPN and PNP external current boost transistors can be used
to extend the power capability of the basic amplifiers. The
output voltage needs to raise approximately 1 diode drop
above ground to bias the on-chip vertical PNP transistor for
output current sinking applications.
For ac applications, where the load is capacitively coupled to
the output of the amplifier, a resistor should be used, from
the output of the amplifier to ground to increase the class A
bias current and prevent crossover distortion.
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LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Typical Single-Supply Applications
(V+ = 5.0 VDC)
Non-Inverting DC Gain (0V Input = 0V Output)
DS009299-5
*R not needed due to temperature independent IIN
DC Summing Amplifier
(VIN’S ≥ 0 VDC and VO ≥ VDC)
Power Amplifier
DS009299-7
DS009299-6
Where: V0 = V1 + V2 − V3 − V4
(V1 + V2) ≥ (V3 + V4) to keep VO
V0 = 0 VDC for VIN = 0 VDC
AV = 10
> 0 VDC
9
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LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Typical Single-Supply Applications
(V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued)
LED Driver
“BI-QUAD” RC Active Bandpass Filter
DS009299-8
DS009299-9
fo = 1 kHz
Q = 50
AV = 100 (40 dB)
Fixed Current Sources
Lamp Driver
DS009299-11
DS009299-10
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10
LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Typical Single-Supply Applications
(V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued)
Current Monitor
Driving TTL
DS009299-13
DS009299-12
*(Increase R1 for IL small)
Voltage Follower
Pulse Generator
DS009299-14
DS009299-15
11
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LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Typical Single-Supply Applications
(V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued)
Squarewave Oscillator
Pulse Generator
DS009299-16
DS009299-17
High Compliance Current Sink
DS009299-18
IO = 1 amp/volt VIN
(Increase RE for Io small)
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LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Typical Single-Supply Applications
(V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued)
Low Drift Peak Detector
DS009299-19
Comparator with Hysteresis
Ground Referencing a Differential Input Signal
DS009299-20
DS009299-21
VO = VR
13
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LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Typical Single-Supply Applications
(V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued)
Voltage Controlled Oscillator Circuit
DS009299-22
*Wide control voltage range: 0 VDC ≤ VC ≤ 2 (V+ −1.5 VDC)
Photo Voltaic-Cell Amplifier
DS009299-23
AC Coupled Inverting Amplifier
DS009299-24
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14
LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Typical Single-Supply Applications
(V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued)
AC Coupled Non-Inverting Amplifier
DS009299-25
DC Coupled Low-Pass RC Active Filter
DS009299-26
fO = 1 kHz
Q=1
AV = 2
15
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LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Typical Single-Supply Applications
(V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued)
High Input Z, DC Differential Amplifier
DS009299-27
High Input Z Adjustable-Gain
DC Instrumentation Amplifier
DS009299-28
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16
LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Typical Single-Supply Applications
(V+ = 5.0 VDC) (Continued)
Using Symmetrical Amplifiers to
Reduce Input Current (General Concept)
Bridge Current Amplifier
DS009299-30
DS009299-29
Bandpass Active Filter
DS009299-31
fO = 1 kHz
Q = 25
17
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LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Physical Dimensions
inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted
Ceramic Dual-In-Line Package (J)
Order Number JL124ABCA, JL124BCA, JL124ASCA, JL124SCA, LM124J,
LM124AJ, LM124AJ/883, LM124J/883, LM224J, LM224AJ or LM324J
NS Package Number J14A
MX S.O. Package (M)
Order Number LM324M, LM324MX, LM324AM, LM324AMX, LM2902M or LM2902MX
NS Package Number M14A
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LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902
Physical Dimensions
inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued)
Molded Dual-In-Line Package (N)
Order Number LM324N, LM324AN or LM2902N
NS Package Number N14A
Ceramic Flatpak Package
Order Number JL124ABDA, JL124ABZA, JL124ASDA, JL124BDA, JL124BZA,
JL124SDA, LM124AW/883, LM124AWG/883, LM124W/883 or LM124WG/883
NS Package Number W14B
19
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LM124/LM224/LM324/LM2902 Low Power Quad Operational Amplifiers
Physical Dimensions
inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted (Continued)
14-Pin TSSOP
Order NumberLM324MT or LM324MTX
NS Package Number MTC14
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1. Life support devices or systems are devices or
systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant
into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and
whose failure to perform when properly used in
accordance with instructions for use provided in the
labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a
significant injury to the user.
National Semiconductor
Corporation
Americas
Tel: 1-800-272-9959
Fax: 1-800-737-7018
Email: [email protected]
www.national.com
National Semiconductor
Europe
Fax: +49 (0) 180-530 85 86
Email: [email protected]
Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 69 9508 6208
English Tel: +44 (0) 870 24 0 2171
Français Tel: +33 (0) 1 41 91 8790
2. A critical component is any component of a life
support device or system whose failure to perform
can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of
the life support device or system, or to affect its
safety or effectiveness.
National Semiconductor
Asia Pacific Customer
Response Group
Tel: 65-2544466
Fax: 65-2504466
Email: [email protected]
National Semiconductor
Japan Ltd.
Tel: 81-3-5639-7560
Fax: 81-3-5639-7507
National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.
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