917001manual mass flow pressure meters controllers

917001manual mass flow pressure meters controllers
Instruction manual
Mass Flow / Pressure
meters and controllers
for gases and liquids
Doc. no.: 9.17.001O Date: 14-05-2014
ATTENTION
Please read this instruction manual carefully before installing and operating the instrument.
Not following the guidelines could result in personal injury and/or damage to the equipment.
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
Even though care has been taken in the preparation and publication of
the contents of this manual, we do not assume legal or other liability
for any inaccuracy, mistake, mis-statement or any other error of
whatsoever nature contained herein. The material in this manual is for
information purposes only, and is subject to change without notice.
Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V.
June 2011
Warranty
The products of Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. are warranteed against
defects in material and workmanship for a period of three years from
the date of shipment, provided they are used in accordance with the
ordering specifications and the instructions in this manual and that
they are not subjected to abuse, physical damage or
contamination.Products that do not operated properly during this
period may be repaired or replaced at no charge. Repairs are normally
warranteed for one year or the balance of the original warranty,
whichever is the longer.
See also paragraph 9 of the Conditions of Sales.
The warranty includes all initial and latent defects, random failures,
and indeterminable internal causes.
It excludes failures and damage caused by the customer, such as
contamination, improper electrical hook-up, dropping etc.
Re-conditioning of products primarily returned for warranty service that
is partly or wholly judged non-warranty may be charged for.
Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. prepays outgoing freight charges when any
part of the service is performed under warranty, unless otherwise
agreed upon beforehand.
However, if the product has been returned collect to Bronkhorst HighTech B.V., these costs are added to the repair invoice. Import and/or
export charges, foreign shipping methods/carriers are paid for by the
customer.
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
Short-Form Operation Instruction
Before installing your Mass Flow or Pressure
Meter/ Controller it is important to read the attached
label and check:
- flow/pressure rate
- fluid to be metered
- up and downstream pressures
- input/output signal
Check the red-coloured sticker and make sure the
test pressure is in agreement with normal safety
factors for your application.
Check if the piping system is clean. For absolute
cleanliness always install filters to assure a clean
liquid stream or a moisture and oil-free gas stream.
Install the Meter/Controller in the line and tighten the
fittings according to the instructions of the supplier of
the fittings. Choose the mounting position according
to the directions given in this manual.
Check the system for leaks before applying fluid
pressure
Electrical connections must be made with a standard
cable or according to the hook - up diagram in the
back of this manual.
Apply power to the instrument and allow for approx.
30 minutes to warm-up and stabilize. This may be
done with or without fluid pressure, applied to the
system.
Your instrument is now ready for operation.
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.
Introduction
1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.4
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.5
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3
1.5.4
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.8.1
1.8.2
1.8.3
General description ..................................................................................................................... page 7
Gas flow ..................................................................................................................................... page 7
Liquid flow .................................................................................................................................. page 7
Pressure .....................................................................................................................................page 7
Housings ....................................................................................................................................page 7
EL-FLOW, EL-PRESS (Euro-style) ...........................................................................................page 7
Liquid flow meters / controllers ..................................................................................................page 7
Valves ........................................................................................................................................page 8
Laboratory style .........................................................................................................................page 8
Industrial style .............................................................................................................................page 8
Sensor principles .......................................................................................................................page 8
Gasflow sensors ........................................................................................................................page 8
Liquid flow sensors ....................................................................................................................page 8
Pressure sensor .........................................................................................................................page 9
Valve principles ..........................................................................................................................page 9
Solenoid valve ............................................................................................................................page 9
Vary-P valve ...............................................................................................................................page 9
Pilot operated valve ...................................................................................................................page 10
Bellows valve .............................................................................................................................page 10
Sensors and laminar flow devices .............................................................................................page 10
Electronics .................................................................................................................................page 11
Conversion factors .....................................................................................................................page 12
Gas conversion factors ..............................................................................................................page 12
Liquid conversion factors ...........................................................................................................page 14
Software for conversion factor calculation ..................................................................................page 14
2.
Installation
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13
2.14
2.14.1
Receipt of equipment .................................................................................................................page 15
Return shipment .........................................................................................................................page 15
Service .......................................................................................................................................page 15
Mounting ....................................................................................................................................page 15
In-line filter .................................................................................................................................page 16
Fluid connections .......................................................................................................................page 16
Piping .........................................................................................................................................page 16
Electrical connections ................................................................................................................page 17
Caution .......................................................................................................................................page 17
Supply pressure .........................................................................................................................page 17
System purging ..........................................................................................................................page 17
Seals ..........................................................................................................................................page 17
Equipment storage .....................................................................................................................page 17
Electromagnetical compatibility .................................................................................................page 18
Conditions for compliance with EMC requirements ....................................................................page 18
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
3.
Operation
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.6.1
3.6.2
General ......................................................................................................................................page 20
Power and warm-up ...................................................................................................................page 20
Zeroing .......................................................................................................................................page 20
Start-up ......................................................................................................................................page 20
Operating conditions ..................................................................................................................page 20
Instrument performance .............................................................................................................page 21
Sensors ......................................................................................................................................page 21
Controllers ..................................................................................................................................page 21
4.
Maintenance
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.7
4.7.1
4.7.2
4.8
4.9
General ......................................................................................................................................page 22
Gas flow sensor .........................................................................................................................page 22
Liquid flow sensor ......................................................................................................................page 22
Pressure sensor .........................................................................................................................page 22
Controllers ..................................................................................................................................page 22
Control valves ............................................................................................................................page 22
Solenoid valves ...........................................................................................................................page 22
Vary-P valve ................................................................................................................................page 23
Pilot operated valve ....................................................................................................................page 23
Bellows valve ..............................................................................................................................page 23
K v -value calculation ...................................................................................................................page 24
For gases ...................................................................................................................................page 24
For liquids ..................................................................................................................................page 24
Maximum pressure drop ............................................................................................................page 25
Calibration procedure .................................................................................................................page 26
5.
Troubleshooting
5.1
5.2
General ......................................................................................................................................page 27
Troubleshooting summary .........................................................................................................page 27
Appendices
1
2
Gasconversion table
Enclosures
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
1 Introduction
1.1 General description
1.1.1 Gas flow
The Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. series mass flow meter for gases is an accurate device for measuring gas
flows up to 700 bar depending on body rating, virtually independent of pressure and temperature changes.
The system can be completed with a control valve and flexible readout to measure and control gas flows
3
from 3 ml n /min up to several thousand m n /h, depending on the specific type of instrument.
For a limited flow range a metal sealed model is available.
1.1.2 Liquid flow
The Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. mass flow meter for liquids is an accurate device for measuring liquid flows
up to 400 bar, virtually independent of pressure and temperature changes. The system can be completed
with a control valve to measure and control liquid flows.
1.1.3 Pressure
The Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. pressure meter measures pressures from 100 mbar up to 400 bar depending
on body rating, either absolute pressure or gauge pressure and in the range 0 to 15 bar differential pressure
too. The pressure controller controls pressure with a very high accuracy and repeatability. The controller is
available in forward control (P-600 series) and backward control (P-700 series).
The flow going through the pressure controller depends on up and downstream pressures, the orifice
diameter of the valve and kind of fluid.
1.2 Housings
Each instrument housing style incorporates several provisions to comply with EMC requirements.
®
1.2.1 EL-FLOW , EL-PRESS (Euro-style)
The p.c.board is placed in a metalized plastic cover. For electrical connection
the instrument has a male 9-pin miniature sub-D connector. These instruments
are suited for indoor (dry) applications, like laboratories and in well protected
(OEM) housings.
1.2.2 Liquid flow meter / controller
The LIQUI-FLOW® models for up to 1000 g/h. This is a fully aluminium casted
instrument, which means that the instrument is formed by the housing.
This model has an IP-65 ingress protection class. For electrical connection a
round male 8-pin DIN connector is incorporated in the design.
The instrument is suited for light industrial (outdoor) use.
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
1.3 Valves
Two solenoid housing models can be distinguished. The basic mechanical design of both models is the
same. Valves are used as separate units, or integrated with a meter to form a complete control unit. The
solenoid versions are:
1.3.1 Laboratory style
The solenoids of these valves have an IP-50 ingress protection class.
This means that the valves are suited for indoor (dry) use.
1.3.2 Industrial style
The solenoids of these valves have an IP-65 ingress protection class. This
means that they are suited for light industrial (outdoor) use.
1.4 Sensor principles
1.4.1 Gas flow sensors
All gasflow sensors operate according to the same principle. They are operating on a principle of heat
transfer by sensing the delta-T along a heated section of a capillary tube. Part of the total flow is forced
through the capillary by means of a laminar flow device in the main stream generating a delta-p.
The design of the laminar flow device is such that flow conditions in both the capillary and laminar flow
device are comparable, thereby resulting in proportional flow rates through the meter. The delta-T sensed by
the upstream and downstream temperature sensors on the capillary depends on the amount of heat
absorbed by the gas flow.
The transfer function between gas mass flow and signal can be described by the equation:
Vsignal = K ⋅ c p ⋅ Φ m
V signal
cp
K
Φm
= output signal
= specific heat
= constant factor
= mass flow
The temperature sensors are part of a bridge circuit and the imbalance is linearised and amplified to the
desired signal level.
1.4.2 Liquid flow sensor
-
The LIQUI-FLOW mass flow meter for flow rates up to about 1000 g/h is basically a tube of stainless
steel without any built-in obstructions, internal diameter approx 1 mm. This tube is part of a completely
casted aluminium housing. An important part of the instrument is formed by two legs of tubing;
an upstream section and a downstream section.
On these two legs the heater/sensor arrangement of patented design is placed. The sensor measures the
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
temperature difference between the upstream and the downstream leg of the measuring tube by means
of a thermopile. The simplified transfer function can be described according to the following equation:
V signal =
V signal
K
cp
Φm
K ⋅ cp ⋅ Φm
= output signal
= constant factor
= specific heat
= mass flow
1.4.3 Pressure sensor
The EL-PRESS pressure sensor is formed by a piezoresistive bridge on the surface of a silicon crystal.
The sensor is mounted in a stainless steel construction and separated from the fluid by a thin metal
membrane. The chamber around the sensor is filled with oil to couple the pressure from the fluid to the
sensor.
1.5 Valve principles
Control valves are not designed to provide positive shut-off, although some models have excellent
capabilities for this purpose.
It is recommended to install a separate shut-off valve in the line if so required. Also pressure surges, as may
occur during system pressurisation must be avoided. The following models can be distinguished:
1.5.1 Solenoid valve
This is considered to be the standard (direct operated) control valve. In
general it is a normally closed solenoid valve. The plunger is lifted by
the force of the magnetic field of the coil. The orifice under the plunger
is removable for optimising the orifice diameter. Also a normally opened
solenoid valve is available.
flow control
valve
1.5.2 Vary-P valve
P1
P2
flow control
valve
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pressure
compensating
valve
For process conditions where up- and downstream pressures vary
much, a special type of valve, VARY-P has been designed. This valve
consists of two valves, a solenoid operated control valve and a fixed
adjusted pressure compensation valve.
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
1.5.3 Pilot operated valve
pilot valve
P1
For high flow rates the pilot operated valve has been designed. A
solenoid driven control valve controls the pressure difference
across a piston, which lifts the main plunger.
pressure
compensating
valve
P2
flow control valve
1.5.4 Bellows valve
This valve type is a direct driven, low power, solenoid operated control valve. A special design, incorporating
a metal bellows allows for a relatively large orifice opening to be controlled. The design is suited for low
pressure or vacuum applications.
Bronkhorst High-Tech strongly advises to mount the bellow valves in an upright position
1.6 Sensors and laminar flow devices
Flow devices are used to determine the total flow rate of a gas flow meter or controller.
Mind that liquid flow sensors and pressure sensors do not require a flow device.
Depending on the application the flow sensors have different removable capillaries, requiring a different
laminar flow device.
Furthermore for flow rates higher than 1250 l n /min the main laminar flow device is used in combination with a
capillary / flow device arrangement in order to compensate for the non ideal transfer function of the main
flow device.
In general 3 types of capillary tubes are available:
- Small bore (C-type)
The following notes apply to this type of sensor:
- These sensors have a pressure drop of approx. 35 mbar
- The laminar flow device consists of a stack of discs with precision etched flow channels.
Each flow channel represents approx. 10 ml n /min airflow at 35 mbar delta-P.
- In general instruments with these sensors may be mounted horizontal, as well as in a vertical
position, at low operating pressures. At high pressures (>10 bar) the instruments should be
mounted in a horizontal position.
- Large bore (D-type)
To this type of sensor the following remarks apply:
- These sensors are preferably used for reactive gases and at low pressure applications.
- The pressure drop is less than 0.5 mbar.
- The laminar flow device forms together with the main channel an annular channel. The dimensions
of this annular channel determine the flow capacity of the instrument.
- The instrument must always be mounted in a horizontal position.
- Medium bore (E-type)
This sensor is used in the “EL-FLOW series” and is used for increasing the flowrange of the “low deltaP
series”. The same remarks as the D-type apply to this sensor, only:
-The pressure drop is approx. 2.5 mbar .
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1.7 Electronics
Each electronic housing is designed to provide RFI and EMI protection.
The p.c.boards designed by BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V. are mainly provided with surface mounted
devices (SMD).
Each electronic p.c.board is set for one of the following output (and corresponding input) signals:
Signal
code
A
B
F
G
K
L
output (sensor)
signal
0…5 Vdc
0…10 Vdc
0…20 mA (sourcing)
4…20 mA (sourcing)
0…5 Vdc (cable compensation)
0…10 Vdc (cable compensation)
input (setpoint)
signal
n.a.
0…5 Vdc
0…10 Vdc
0…20 mA (sinking)
4…20 mA (sinking)
n.a.
For meters only
For meters only
Current output signals
Sinking
output
I
instrument
-
Sourcing
mA
0V common
+
output
power
supply
I
instrument
+
mA
0V common
-
For meters only the output signal is available.
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
1.8 Conversion factors
1.8.1 Gas conversion factors
The general formula for determining the relationship between signal and mass flow is:
Vsignal = K ⋅ c p ⋅ Φ m = K ⋅ c p ⋅ ρ ⋅ Φ v
in which:
V signal
K
ρ
cp
Φm
Φv
= output signal
= constant
= density
= specific heat
= mass flow
= volume flow
As soon as the c p value and density of the gas to be metered change, the signal must be corrected. The
conversion factor C is:
c p ⋅ ρ1
C= 1
c p2 ⋅ ρ 2
in which:
cp
ρn
= specific heat
= density at normal conditions
(1) gas calibrated
(2) gas to be measured
Note:
The c p value used for the calculation of the conversion factor must be taken at a temperature approx. 50°C.
higher than the required temperature.
This factor is called c p cal.
The conversion factors for commonly used gases related to N 2 at normal conditions are stated in the Gas
Conversion Table in the appendix 1.
Example:
Meter calibrated on N 2 (200 ml n /min).
Gas flow passing the meter is CO 2 .
Output signal reads 80.0%.
Actual CO 2 flow = 80.0 ⋅
so
0.74
= 59.2%
1.00
59.2
⋅ 200 = 118.4 ml n /min
100
*
n means normal conditions
At normal conditions volumes are converted to a temperature of 0°C and pressure of 1 atm
or 1013,25 mbar. (760 Torr)
Note:
Best accuracy is always achieved by performing calibration under operating conditions. Should this not be
possible or practical, then the use of a theoretical conversion factor is a means to determine the flow rate of
the instrument on the gas to be metered, however, it will introduce inaccuracies.
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The approximate accuracy of the conversion factors listed is:
typical for conversion factors;
2% x factor
2% / factor
>1
<1
However, as the accuracy of the factor also depends on viscosity, pressure and temperature, special
attention should be taken for gases in the gas/liquid state where specific heat, density and viscosity can vary
tremendously. Apply to factory for more detailed information.
For gas mixtures a good approach is the following simplified equation:
1
Cmix
C mix
Cn
Vn
=
V
V1 V2
+ ..... n
+
Cn
C1 C 2
= Conversion factor for gas mixture
= Conversion factor for gas n
= Volumetric part of gas n in the mixture
Example Gas mixture contains:
(1) 10% N 2
(2) 30% Ar
(3) 50% CH 4
(4) 10% He
C1 = 1,00
C2 = 1,40
C3 = 0,76
C4 = 1,41
1
010
0,30 0,50 010
,
,
=
+
+
+
= 1043
,
,
Cmix 100
140
0,76 141
,
,
C mix = 0,959
When the original meter has been calibrated on 500 ml n /min N 2 , 100% means:
500 ⋅
0,959
1,00
= 480 ml n /min mixture.
When the original meter has been calibrated on 500 ml n /min Argon, then 100% means:
500 ⋅
9.17.001
0,959
1,40
= 343 ml n /min gas mixture.
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
1.8.2 Liquid conversion factors
The general formula for determining the relationship between signal and mass flow reads:
Vsignal = k ⋅ c p ⋅ Φ m
in which:
Vsignal
k
cp
Φm
= output signal
= calibration constant
= heat capacity at constant pressure of the fluid
= mass flow
A conversion factor must be used if the liquid flow meter is not used on the calibrated liquid.
This conversion factor reads:
Φ m 2 = Cf ⋅ Φ m1
in which:
c p1
c p2
Cf =
c p1
c p2
= heat capacity of the calibration liquid
= heat capacity of the new liquid
For application of this formula consult Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V.
1.8.3 Software for conversion factor calculation
Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. gathered the physical properties of over 600 fluids in a database called
FLUIDAT.
Application software, such as FLUIDAT on the Net (FOTN), enable the user to calculate accurate
conversion factors, not only at 20°C/1 atm (as shown in the conversion table, App.1) but at any
temperature/pressure combination.
Apply to your distributor for more details of this software.
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
2 Installation
2.1 Receipt of equipment
Check the outside packing box for damage incurred during shipment. Should the packing box be damaged,
then the local carrier must be notified at once regarding his liability, if so required. At the same time a report
should be submitted to:
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
RUURLO HOLLAND
If applicable, otherwise contact your distributor.
Remove the envelope containing the packing list; carefully remove the equipment from the packing box.
Do not discard spare or replacement parts with the packing material and inspect the contents for damaged or
missing parts.
2.2 Return shipment
When returning material, always describe the problem and if possible the work to be done, in a covering
letter.
It is absolutely required to notify the factory if toxic or dangerous fluids have been metered with the
instrument!
This to enable the factory to take sufficient precautionary measures to safeguard the staff in their repair
department. Take proper care of packing, if possible use the original packing box; seal instrument in plastic
etc.
Contaminated instruments must be dispatched with a completely filled in 'declaration on
contamination form'.
Contaminated instruments without this declaration will not be accepted.
Note:
If the instruments have been used with toxic or dangerous fluids the customer should pre-clean the
instrument.
Important:
Clearly note, on top of the package, the customer clearance number of Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V., namely:
NL801989978B01
If applicable, otherwise contact your distributor for local arrangements.
2.3 Service
If the equipment is not properly serviced, serious personal injury and/or damage to the equipment could be
the result. It is therefore important that trained and qualified service personnel perform servicing.
Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. has a trained staff of servicemen available.
2.4 Mounting
The mounting position depends on the type of instrument. For flowmeters the preferred position is horizontal,
and at high pressures all meters should be mounted in this position (exception: COMBI-FLOW series to be
mounted vertically). Avoid installation in close proximity of mechanic vibration and/or heat sources.
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
2.5 In-line filter
Although fluids to be measured should be absolutely free of dirt, oil, moisture and other particles, it is
recommended to install an in-line filter upstream of the flowmeter / controller, and if backflow can occur, a
downstream filter is recommended too. Be aware of the pressure drop caused by the filter.
On the inlet of some instruments a screen is placed to prevent foreign matter from entering the instrument
and to maintain a good flowpattern. This device cannot be seen as a filter element.
Contact your distributor for further information.
2.6 Fluid connections
Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. meters / controllers are equipped with compression or face-seal-fittings. For
some instruments these fittings are orbitally welded to the body. For leak tight installation of compression
type fittings be sure that the tube is inserted to the shoulder in the fitting body and that no dirt or dust is
present on tube, ferrules or fittings. Tighten the nut fingertight; while holding the instrument, then tighten the
nut 1 turn. If applicable follow the guidelines of the supplier of the fittings. Special types of fittings are
available on request.
While tightening fittings, do not apply excessive force, in order to avoid damaging in/output thread or other
sensitive parts of your instruments.
* Note: Always check your system for leaks, before applying fluid pressure. Especially if toxic, explosive or
other dangerous fluids are used.
2.7 Piping
BE SURE THAT PIPING IS ABSOLUTELY CLEAN!
DO NOT install small diameter piping on high flowrates, because the inlet jetflow will affect the accuracy.
DO NOT mount abrupt angles direct on in- and outlet, especially not on high flowrates. We recommend at
least 10 pipe diameters distance between the angle and the instrument.
DO NOT mount pressure regulators direct on the inlet of gas flow meters/controllers, but allow some meters
of piping (at least 25 D). Special attention should be taken at high flow rates with flow controllers. An up- and
downstream buffer is needed with a volume calculated according to the following formula:
V≥
, d2
015
ρ
in which:
V = Volume in litres
d = orifice diameter in mm
ρ = density at normal conditions
d = 7,6
kv
Example:
Flow controller at 500 l n /min Air and orifice diameter d = 4 mm, needs for stable control a buffer volume of:
V ≥ 015
, ⋅ 4 2 : 129
, = 21
, litres
Also the capacity of the pressure regulator should be at least 2 times the flow controller, so in this case
2 ⋅ 500 = 1,000 l n /min.
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2.8 Electrical connections
Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. recommends to use their standard cables. These cables have the right
connectors and if loose ends are used, these will be marked to prevent wrong connection.
Hook-up diagrams are enclosed in the back of this manual.
2.9 Caution
Each meter/controller is pressure tested to at least 1.5 times the working pressure of the process
conditions stipulated by the customer, with a minimum of 8 bar.
For pressure meter/controllers. The test pressure depends on the range of the pressure transducer.
In general 2
x F.S. value for ranges 1 and 2 bar
1.5 x F.S. value for ranges up to 200 bar
1.25 x F.S. value for ranges up to 400 bar
The tested pressure is stated on the flow meter/controller with a RED COLOURED sticker. Check test
pressure before installing in the line.
If the sticker is not available or the test pressure is incorrect, the instrument should not be mounted in the
process line and be returned to the factory.
-9
Each instrument is helium leak tested to at least 2⋅10 mbar l/s Helium.
2.10 Supply pressure
Do not apply pressure until electrical connections are made. When applying pressure to the system, take
care to avoid pressure shocks in the system and increase pressure gradually, especially on high pressure
units incorporating a piston operated control valve.
2.11 System purging
If explosive gases are to be used, purge the process with inert dry gas like Nitrogen, Argon etc. for at
least 30 minutes.
In systems with corrosive or reactive fluids, purging with an inert gas is absolutely necessary, because if the
tubing has been exposed to air, introducing these fluids will tend to clog up or corrode the system due to a
chemical reaction with oxygen or moist air.
Complete purging is also required to remove such fluids from the system before exposing the system to air. It
is preferred not to expose the system to air, when working with these corrosive fluids.
2.12 Seals
Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. has gathered a material compatibility chart from a number of sources believed to
be reliable.
However, it is a general guide only. Operating conditions may substantially change the accuracy of this
guide. Therefore there is no liability for damages accruing from the use of this guide.
The customers’ application will demand its own specific design or test evaluation for optimum reliability.
So check if the seals like O-rings, plunger and packing gland of capillary are correct for the process.
2.13 Equipment storage
The equipment should be stored in its original packing in a cupboard warehouse or similar. Care should be
taken not to subject the equipment to excessive temperatures or humidity.
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
2.14 Electromagnetic compatibility
2.14.1 Conditions for compliance with EMC requirements
All instruments described in this manual carry the CE-mark.
Therefore they have to comply with the EMC requirements as are valid for these instruments.
However compliance with the EMC requirements is not possible without the use of proper cables and
connector/gland assemblies.
For good results Bronkhorst High-Tech B.V. can provide standard cables. Otherwise follow the guidelines as
stated below.
1. D-Connector assembly
Fold the shield of the cable back over the cable (the shield must be around the cable).
20 mm
Wind a copper tape around the shield
Solder a black wire on the tape and
connect to pin 9 of connector
8 mm
D-connector housing
metalized
other wires
copper tape
connector
shielded cable
e.g. LAPP LiYCY
black wire
(shield)
2. Cable gland assembly
shield
15 mm
35 mm
Fold the shield of the cable back over the cable (shield must be around the cable).
shielded cable
e.g. LAPP LiYCY
shield
metal cable gland
e.g. HUMMEL HSK-M-EMV
Mount the metal PG cable gland as shown in the drawing above
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9.17.001
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
3. Connector LIQUI-FLOW®
8 DIN CONNECTOR AMPHENOL
METAL RING
C091 31D008 200 2
TRANSPARANT TUBING
FOLD THE SHIELD OF THE CABLE BACK OVER
THE CABLE.(THE SHIELD MUST BE AROUND
THE CABLE)
SHIELD OF THE CABLE SHOULD BE
CONNECTED TO THE CONNECTORHOUSING
O-RING
5
2
4
3
1
7
6
8
solder-side
Amphenol 8-pin
DIN connector female
CABLE LIYCY 8x0.25mm
2.5
SHRINK SOLDERCONTACTS WITH SHRINKTUBING
BRE 160 BLACK OR EQ.
2
m
20 m
8 DIN CONNECTOR BINDER
SERIE 423 99.5672.19.08
BLACK TUBING
DETAIL
FOLD THE SHIELD OF THE CABLE BACK OVER
THE CABLE.(THE SHIELD MUST BE AROUND
THE CABLE)
SHIELD OF THE CABLE SHOULD BE
CONNECTED TO THE CONNECTORHOUSING
O-RING
5
2
4
DETAIL
3
1
7
6
8
solder-side
Binder 8-pin
DIN connector female
SHRINK SOLDERCONTACTS WITH SHRINKTUBING
BRE 160 BLACK OR EQ.
4.0
CABLE LIYCY 8x0.25mm
2
m
20 m
Note:
When connecting the system to other devices (e.g. to PLC), be sure that the integrity of the shielding is not
affected. Do not use unshielded wire terminals.
9.17.001
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
3 Operation
3.1 General
The Bronkhorst High-Tech instruments are designed in such a way that they will meet user process
requirements in the best possible way.
Flow / pressure meters and controllers are powered from a dc power source. When providing your own
power supply be sure that voltage and current rating are according to the specifications of the instrument(s)
and furthermore that the source is capable of delivering enough energy to the instrument(s).
Cable wire diameters should be sufficient to carry the supply current and voltage losses must be kept as low
as possible. When in doubt: consult factory.
3.2 Power and warm-up
Before switching on power check if all connections have been made according to the hook-up diagram,
which belongs to the instrument.
It is recommended to turn on power before applying pressure on the instrument and to switch off power after
removing pressure.
Check fluid connections and make sure there is no leakage. If needed purge the system with a proper fluid.
For a gas instrument only purging with gases is allowed. Liquid instruments may be purged with either a gas
or a liquid, whatever is needed for the purpose.
Turn on power and allow at least 30 minutes to warm up and stabilize. In cases where no electronics are
involved (valves only) warming up is not needed.
During warm-up period, fluid pressure may either be on or off.
3.3 Zeroing
In general the zero point of each instrument is factory adjusted. If so required the zero point of the instrument
may be re-adjusted.
Zero points must be adjusted to read approx. 0.2%. The circuit will cut off signals below zero to prevent
negative zero drift. When adjustment is required, first make sure that there is a positive deviation, and then
slowly adjust the readout to read approx. 0.2%. To be sure that there is no accidental flow or pressure level
other than zero, adjustment is done best when the instrument is not part of a system.
3.4 Start-up
Turn on fluid supply gently. Avoid pressure shocks, and bring the instrument gradually up to the level of the
actual operating conditions. Also switch off fluid supply gently. In case of liquid control be sure to remove all
trapped gas bubbles from the system. The purge connection on top of the control valve can be used for this
purpose.
3.5 Operating conditions
Each instrument has been calibrated and adjusted for customer process conditions.
Controllers or valves may not operate correctly, if process conditions vary too much, because of the
restriction of the orifice in the valve.
For flowmeters performance and accuracy may be affected tremendously if physical fluid properties such as
heat capacity and viscosity change due to changing process conditions.
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
3.6 Instrument performance
3.6.1 Sensors
Assuming that the transfer function of a system is an exponential shaped curve, the time constant is defined
as follows:
time constant = time for the signal to reach 63.2 % of its final output value. Approx. five time constants is the
time to reach the final value.
Each flow sensor has a time constant of 5…10 seconds, which can be electronically improved to approx.
1…3 seconds.
For gas flow meters factory standard adjustment is 3 seconds typical.
For liquid flow meters the actual response depends on model and flow rate.
Pressure sensors have a time constant of some milliseconds. However the actual response is determined by
the pneumatic response of the system which the pressure meter is part of.
3.6.2 Controllers
The dynamic response of a controller is factory set. Standard settling time is defined as the time to reach the
setpoint (and stay) within ± 2% of the initial setpoint.
The control mode is factory set in such a way that after a step change, there will be little overshoot.
Note:
In pressure control systems the system widely determines the response behaviour of the control loop. During
testing the customer system is simulated as closely as possible. In some cases however readjustment is
needed for optimum performance under actual conditions.
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
4 Maintenance
4.1 General
No routine maintenance is required to be performed on the meters or controllers. Units may be flushed with
clean, dry inert gas.
In case of severe contamination it may be required to clean the laminar flow device and the valve orifice
separately.
4.2 Gas flow sensor
The gasflow sensor is constructed in such a way that for a change in range, the laminar flow element can be
removed. It is not recommended for the user to disassemble the instrument other than for removing the
laminar flow element for inspection, or range changing only. After replacing the laminar flow element it
becomes necessary to recalibrate the flow meter. When doing so proceed according to a suitable calibration
procedure. Depending on the model number laminar flow elements can be ordered separately.
4.3 Liquid flow sensor
The user cannot change the flow range of a liquid flow sensor. The sensor is an integral part of the
instrument and cannot be removed from it. For occasional cleaning the instrument may be flushed with a
cleaning fluid.
4.4 Pressure sensor
It is not recommended for the user to disassemble the pressure sensor, because the thin metal membrane is
very delicate.
4.5 Controllers
All sensor types can be combined with a control valve to be operated together as a control loop. Controller
systems are either available as separate units; a sensor and a control valve, or as an integrated unit.
If applicable maintenance procedures are described under “control valves”
4.6 Control valves
Control valves cannot be used for shut-off and/or on-off applications. Pressure surges, as may occur during
system pressurisation or deflation must be avoided.
4.6.1 Solenoid valves
These are considered to be the direct operated control and pilot valves. They may be disassembled in the
field by the user for cleaning and servicing. The parts can be cleaned with a cleaning liquid, or in an
ultrasonic bath.
To disassemble the valve proceed as follows:
a)
disconnect the instrument connector (not necessary with separate valve)
b)
remove the hex nut on top of the valve assembly
c)
lift the cover (coil) assembly
d)
unscrew the flange
e)
lift valve assembly carefully from the base
f)
unscrew set screw for the orifice and subsequently loosen the orifice and the orifice holder
g)
remove the plunger assembly
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
Clean parts and carefully re-assemble in reverse order. It is recommended to replace the O-rings prior to reassembly.
After having re-assembled the control valve, it is recommended to check the control characteristics of the
valve. This can best be done by using a separate variable 15 Vdc power supply source.
Proceed as follows:
disconnect the valve leads and connect to supply source
apply gas pressure as per working conditions
apply power by gradually increasing voltage
the valve should open at 7 Vdc ± 3 Vdc
the fully opened position is reached at approx. 9 Vdc ± 1.5 Vdc.
In case the valve does not operate within the voltage levels stated, then it must be disassembled, and the
orifice must be adjusted to the proper position.
Re-assemble valve and repeat procedure if required.
4.6.2 Vary-P valve
The vary-P valve is designed to cope with extremely varying process conditions on either upstream or
downstream side of the valve or a combination of these. ∆p can vary over a wide range. The basic control
valve is a direct operated solenoid control valve.
The design has been patented.
For orifice selection and maintenance other than the pilot valve consult the factory.
4.6.3 Pilot operated valve
This control valve is an indirect control valve, consisting of a spring-loaded membrane/orifice system which is
positioned by a solenoid operated direct control (pilot valve). The two devices are integrated in one block.
Basically follow the same procedures for dis-assembly as stipulated under “Solenoid valves”
For cleaning purposes it may be required to dis-assemble further, i.e. also remove the membrane assembly.
Note:
When pressure testing a system incorporating a pilot operated control valve, a special procedure must be
followed in order to prevent damage to the valve. In such cases it is necessary to contact the factory prior to
do this.
4.6.4 Bellows valve
These valves are suited for low pressure or vacuum applications. Preferably the user should not disassemble
this model.
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
4.7 Kv-value calculation
This calculation method can be used to determine the K v -value of the main orifice of a control valve.
4.7.1 For gases
Determine desired ∆p across valve.
∆p must be at least 20% of supply pressure, or in closed loop systems, of total pressure difference in loop.
If ∆p is 20-50% of supply pressure, use formula:
Kv =
Φ vn
514
ρn ⋅ T
∆p ⋅ p 2
under critical
If ∆P is 50-100% of supply pressure, use formula:
Kv =
Units:
3
Φ vn = flow [m n /h]
p 1 = supply pressure [bara]
p 2 = downstream pressure [bara]
∆p = pressure difference (p 1 - p 2 ) [bard]
T
= temperature [K]
3
ρ n = density [kg/m n ]
The orifice diameter can be determined by:
Φ vn
257 ⋅ p1
ρn ⋅ T
d= 7.6
K v [mm]
4.7.2 For liquids
K v = Φv
ρ
∆p ⋅ 1000
overcritical
*
Units:
3
Φ v = volume flow [m /h]
3
ρ
= density at 20°C and 1 atm [kg/m ]
∆p = delta p [bard]
The orifice bore diameter can be determined by:
d = 7.6 K v [mm]
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9.17.001
BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
On LFC's only one type of normally closed valve is available. Diameter of orifice can be calculated or looked
up in the table.
Diameter [mm]
Kv
0,10
0,14
0,20
0,30
0,37
0,50
0,70
1,00
1,73 x 10
-4
3,39 x 10
-4
6,93 x 10
-3
1,56 x 10
-3
2,37 x 10
-3
4,33 x 10
-3
8,48 x 10
-2
1,73 x 10
Normally closed
∆p max. [bard]
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
-4
* For liquids having a dynamic viscosity: 15 cP < µ < 100 cP the K v value should be calculated according to:
Kv = Φv
ρ
⋅ µ
∆p ⋅ 1000
Units:
3
Φ v = volume flow [m /h]
3
ρ
= density at 20°C and 1 atm. [kg/m ]
∆p = delta p [bard]
µ
= dynamic viscosity [c p ]
For maximum possible viscosity apply to factory
4.8 Maximum pressure drop
For (pilot) solenoid operated control valves with small orifices the maximum allowable pressure drop for
gases is according to the table.
Diameter [mm]
Kv
0,05
0,07
0,10
0,14
0,20
0,30
0,37
0,50
0,70
1,00
1,30
1,50
1,70
2,00
4,33 x 10
-5
8,48 x 10
-4
1,73 x 10
-4
3,39 x 10
-4
6,93 x 10
-3
1,56 x 10
-3
2,37 x 10
-3
4,33 x 10
-3
8,48 x 10
-2
1,73 x 10
-2
2,93 x 10
-2
3,90 x 10
-2
5,00 x 10
-2
6,63 x 10
-5
Normally closed
∆p max. [bard]
40
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
24
12
8
6
5
3.6
Normally opened
∆p max. [bard]
30
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
15
8
5
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
For pilot operated valves the maximum pressure drop is limited to 20 bard. If the pressure drop during startup is higher, it is preferred to install a bypass valve. During start-up this valve should be opened. Also the
minimum pressure drop is limited. For exact figures consult factory or proceed according to the technical
data and/or additional instructions given by the sales office or department.
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
4.9 Calibration procedure
All instruments are factory calibrated. This procedure is for recalibration or range changing only.
Calibration of flow / pressure meters / controllers requires the use of accurate digital volt or current meters,
and an accurate calibration device.
General procedure:
a) Apply power to the system and allow approx. 30 minutes for the instrument to warm up and stabilize.
b) Check system on operation.
c) Remove cover during adjustment.
d) Connect digital meter to the output signal.
e) Adjust potmeter ‘L’ till 0% flow/pressure reads 0.010 Vdc output, while disconnecting fluid supply. In
case of an absolute pressure sensor, apply vacuum to the system during adjustment.
f)
Adjust potmeter ‘H’ till 100% flow/pressure reads 5.000 Vdc output.
g) Adjust potmeter ‘M’ till 50% flow reads 2.500 Vdc output (not applicable to pressure meters).
h) Repeat steps ‘e’ thru ‘g’ till the deviation between the adjusted and desired values are smaller than the
F.S. accuracy needed.
Notes:
a) In case of other F.S. signal levels, recalculate the 0.010, 2.500 and 5.000 Vdc levels belonging to the 0,
50 and 100% points.
b) Potmeters ‘H’ and ‘M’ can be adjusted without shifting the ‘L’ adjustment.
c) Adjusting potmeter ‘L’ automatically results in a corresponding shift in the positions of potmeters ‘H’ and
‘M’.
d) Potmeter ‘M’ can be adjusted without shifting the positions of potmeters ‘L’ and ‘H’.
e) For the positions of the potmeters consult the instrument specific enclosure.
page 26
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BRONKHORST HIGH-TECH B.V.
5 Troubleshooting
5.1 General
For a correct analysis of the proper operation of a flow/pressure meter or controller it is recommended to
remove the unit from the process line and check it without applying fluid supply pressure. In case the unit is
dirty, this can be ascertained immediately by loosening the compression type couplings and, if applicable the
flange on the inlet side.
Furthermore remove the cover and check if all connectors are fixed properly. Energizing or de-energizing of
the instrument of the instrument indicates whether there is an electronic failure.
After that, fluid pressure is to be applied in order to check behaviour.
If there should be suspicion of leakage in case of a gas unit, do not check for bubbles with a leak detection
liquid under the cover as this may lead to a short-circuit in the sensor or p.c.board.
5.2 Troubleshooting summary
Symptom
Possible cause
Action
No output signal
No power supply
1a) Check power supply
1b) Check cable
PCB failure
Valve blocked
1c) Return to factory
1d) Clean valve (qualified
personnel only)
Filter or screen blocked
1e) Clean filter or screen
Sensor failure
1f) Return to factory
PCB failure
2a) Return to factory
Sensor failure
2b) Return to factory
PCB failure
3a) Return to factory
Valve blocked
3b) Clean valve (qualified personnel only)
Stoppage
3c) Remove cause
Pressure not correct
3d) Check pressure
Signal lower than expected
System stoppage
4a) Remove cause
Flow is gradually decreasing
(Gas) Condensation
5a) Decrease supply pressure or increase
Maximum output signal
High setpoint vs. output offset
temperature
Oscillation
Valve adjustment has changed
5b) Check valve adjustment
Controller adjustment wrong
6a) Check controller setting
Input pressure wrong
6b) Adjust pressure
Valve damaged
6c) Check valve
Volume / tubing between controller and
6d) Improve situation
pressure controller too small/ short
Small flow occurs when valve is supposed
Valve is leaking
7a) Check valve
to be closed
9.17.001
page 27
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