Perkins L4 Workshop Manual
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Perkins Engines Limited
Peterborough
England
Grams 'Phone: Peterborough 3241
Cables: Perkoil Peterborough Telex
Publication No. 5675
Re-issued November 1966
PRICE : 20/-
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PRiNTED IN ENGLAND
Fale IJl
DATA
ENGINE
AND
ENGINE
THE
FINDING
Section
A
B
C
D
E
SETTINGS
GENERAL INFORMAnON
ENGINE DESCRIPTION AND PHOTOGRAPHS
DO AND DO NOT
STARTING
PageV
FAULT
FOREWORD
MAINTENANCE
POST DELIVERY
...
PRECAUTIONS
FROST
FILTERS
F
F
F
F
G
PROCEDURE
ATTENTIONS
UP ENGINE
PERIODICAL
LAID
CHECKOVER
-..,
ENGINE OVERHAUL
RODS
CONNECTING
HEAD
LINERS
AND
CYLINDER
PISTONS
CYLINDER
...
...
L4 MARINE
TOLERANCES
..,..
...
AND
HOUSING
...
ADJUSTMENT
YWHEEL
SYSTEM
FL
SYSTEM
GOVERNOR
CLEARANCES
...
..
..
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
ENGINES
LUBRICATING OIL DATA
PERKINS DRIVE R'S CLUB
FILM LIBRARY
APPROVED SERVICE TOOLS
(APPENDIX)
PERPETUITY SCHEME
FACILInES
SERVICE INSTRUCTION
SERVICE
1
OF
AND
DYNAMO
PUMP
INJECTION
YWHEEL
LUBRICATING
WATER
FAN
FUEL
MECHANICAL
FL
SCHEDULE
AND
CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARII'-GS
CAMSHAFT AND DRIVE
...
...
TIMING
...
...
H
J
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M
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PageIV
I
All threads used on the L4 Engine, except on proprietary
equipmentand the crankshaftare Unified Series,andAmerican
Pipe Series.The crankshaft and starting dog nut are threaded
1 AmericanNationalFine, 14 T.P.1.
ff
Unified threads are not interchangeablewith B.S.F. and
althooghB.S.W. havethe samenomber of threads per inch
as Unified CoarseSeries,interchangingis not recommended,
doe to a differencein the thread form.
The enginenumber is stamped on the top rear, light hand
side of the cylinder block, as shown in the diagram below.
Tbis number should be quoted when requesting information
or ordering Palts.
This publication ~ produced by the Technical Publications Department
of the Perkins Senice Division and every en~vour is made to ensure
that the information contained in this mannal ~ correct at the date of
pubti:cation but doe to continuous developments.the manufacturers
reservethe right to make alterationswithout notice.
Diagram showing position of Engine No. 6012625
;=1
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Page V
FOREWORD
"f
The Diesel Engine closely resembles lts petrol
counterpart inasmuch as the mechanismis essentially the same. lts cylinders are arranged above
its closed crankcase.its crankshaft is ODeof the
same general type as that of a petrol engine; it
bas the same sort of valves. camshaft. pistons.
connecting roos and lubrication system.
. It follows, therefore. that to a great extent, it
requires the same treatment as that which any
intelligent and careful operator would accord to a
petrol engine and that gross negligencesuch as
running the engine short of oil, with sludged Dil,
or with the water boiling will have the same
expensiveconsequences.
Where the Diesel Engine does differ from the
petrol motor, however, is in th~ method of handling and firing its fuel. Carburetter and ignition
systemsare doDeaway with and in their place is
a single component-the Fuel Pump-which perfarms the functions of both. This confers upon
the Diesel a quite exceptionalreliability, since the
chancesof breakdown are halved. In tact it may
be axiomat'ically stated that a Diesel Engine never
bas an involuntary stop (other than ODecaused
through mechanicaldamagedue to abuse),unIess
there is a shortageof fuel.
The fuel pump. though very simple in principle.
must necessarilybe a piece of precision engineering. Many yearsof experienceand many hundreds
of thousandsof miles of running ensure that the
fuel pump fitted to Perkins engines will, given
ordinarily decent treatment, continue to function
faultlessly. It must however be regarded in the
samelight as a magneto,inasmuchas it shouldnot
be interfered with and that its repair, should it
Deedattention, is definitely beyond the skill of any
but specially trained workmen. Like the magneto
it is built as a unit. So that in the rare event of
failure it cao be replaceden bloc.
Unremitting care and attention at the Perkins
factory have resulted in an engine capable of
hundreds of hours of profitable service. WHAT
THE MANUFACTURERCANNOT HOWEVER
CONTROL
IS THE
TREATMENT
THA T HlS PRODUCT WILL RECEIVE IN
SERVICE. That part restswith you.
This manual is designedto be a guide to the
Distributors of. and Dealers in equipment fitted
with the Perkins L4 Diesel engine and to others
who are concernedwith the sale and subsequent
maintenanceof such engines.
Perkins Engines Ltd.. are at one with all these
Distributors and Dealers in the desire to ensure
that the Perkins Diesel engines in the hands of
usersshall give completesatisfaction.
An essential factor in the attainment of that
object is efficient servicing. The Company provides a number of facilities with that end in view;
one of them is this manual. In presenting it to
responsible Distributors and Dealers the Company are in effect inviting their co-operation and
at the time providing an effective aid to that
co-operation.
Immediately this manual is received, hand it
over to the foreman who will be responsiblefor
carrying out the maintenance operations which
are describedtherein. Do not, please,file it in the
office.
The issue of this manuaI bas been descrihed
above as being ODeof the many aids which PerkiDs Engines Ltd. provide in order to ensure
efficient servicefor the enginesthey market. Two
of the others may appropriately he mentioned
here.
Servicelnstruction is provided at Peterborough
where the mechanics employed by Distributors.
Dealers and users are given instruction OD the
specialcharacteristicsof the engine.
Then there is the Perkins Perpetuity Plan which
is, in fact, an engineexchangeschemeof peculiar
description having numerous special advantages.
A booklet describing this can be obtained on
request.
In conclusion we recommend Dealers, Distributors and usersto communicatewith the Service
Division of Perkins EnginesLtd.. Peterboroughin
case of Deed.
1
Page Al
J
-,
Perkins L4 Dieselenginesare vertical four-stroke
Power Units. They are entirely of British design
and manufacture and embody the results of
experiencegained in the production of Diesel
engines over a period of many years.
The materials and workmanship throughout are
of the highest class. Most parts are guaranteed
interchangeable,jigs being used everywherein the
courseof manufacture,and all parts passthrough
a system of thorough inspection where they are
checked to the closest limits. Each engine is
subjected to stringent tests before leaving the
Works.
Crankshaft and Main Bearings.
The crankshaft is made from an alloy steel
stamping, with hardened main and crankpin
journais. The crankshaftruns in threepre-finished
replaceableshell hearings, which are lead bronze
lined and indium flashed.
ConnectingRods.
The connecting rods are of alloy steel ., H "
section stampingswith replaceablesteel shell big
end bearings, which are lead bronze lined and
indium flashed.
Pistons.
General.
The Perkins lA Diesel, with which tbis manuaI
is concerned, is a Cour cylinder unit. having a
bore and stroke of 4* in. (107.95mm) and 4i In.
(120.65mm) respectively.
The pistons are flat topped. They are of light
aluminium alloy with ample metal in the crown to
carry off the heat of combustion. Three com.
pression rings of which ODe is of laminated steel,
and ODe scraper ring are fitted above the gudgeon
pin. There is ODe scraper ring below that pin.
The gudgeon pins are of the fully floating type.
Cylinder Block.
The cylinder block and
one-piece high duty alloy
fugal cast iron wet liners
flanged at the top end and
at the lower end.
crankcase comprise a
iron casting. Centriare fitted, which are
fitted with sealing rings
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-,
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...,
Cylinder Head.
The cylinder head is an alloy iron casting,
securedto the cylinder block by a large number
of weU spaced through studs. The overhead
valves are operated by push rods from flat faced
tappets in the cylinder block, the rocker assembly
being mounted on top of the cylinder head. The
whole assemblyis enclosedin a light alloy die cast
cover. All valves are of special alloy steel, the
inlet being larger to ensure maximum volumetric
efficiency. The spherical combustion chamber is
formed half in the head and half by a detachable
steel cap.
Camshaft.
The low level camshaftis situated in the offside
of the cylinder block and is supported by three
hearings.
Timing Drive.
The camshaft and fuel pump are gear driven,
the timing case being a separate casting secured
to the front end of the cylinder block. Provision
is made for mounting a gear drive on the timing
case meshing with the timing gear train, for driving
a hydraulic pump or uther low power auxiliary.
Lubrication.
l
Lubrication is high pressureforce reed thrOUghout the engine. The pump, a gear type, is secured
to the cylinder block and is driven by spiral gears
from the camshaft. It is fully capable of maintaining an adequatepressureat all running speeds.
FoeI Injection Equipment.
The unit type fuel pump is fiange mounted
on the timing case.
The atomisers are two hole type fitted in an
accessibleposition on top of the cylinder head ;
ODespray is directedinto the combustionchamber
and the other into the cylinder, ensuring easy
starting.
Page A2
Cooling.
The cooling water is pump circulated by a centrifugal pump which is mounted on the front end of
the cylinder block. ft is driven, together with the
dynamo, bya Vee belt from the engine crankshaft.
The internal water passagesare arranged to give
a brisk circulation of water around the combustion
chamber and atomiser seating. The fan is mounted
on the forward end of the water pump.
Air Intake.
A large air cleaner is fitted through which must
passalI air drawn into the engine. Harmful dust
is thus excludedand the lire of the cylinderscorres- .
pondinglyprolonged. The air cleaneris connected
to the venturi inlet which houses the butterfly
throttle valve control.
Engine Description-continued
Cold Starting Equipment.
Comprisesa hand pump, atomiser,priming tank,
piping, induction heater and starter and heater
switches. The induction heater is not in contact
with the burning gasesin the cylinder. It is located
in the inlet venturi and is in use only during
starting under very cold conditions.
Electric Starting Equipment.
A 12-volt starter is flange mounted on the
flywheel housing.
Dynamo.
12-Volt ; earth return type completewith control
box and fuse box. It is mounted on the off side
of the cylinder block and is belt driven by a Vee.
belt from the crankshaft.
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INDEX TG ENGINE PHOTOGRAPHS
I. Breather Pipe.
2. Fuel Filter.
3. Pipe from Pneumatic Uovernor to Air
Intake.
4. Inlet to Fuel Injection Pump.
5. Fuel Pump Stop Control Lever.
6 Cylinder Block Water Drain Coc\{.
7. Lubricating Dil Filter
8. Sump.
9. Fan Belt.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
.
Main Leak-off Pipe.
Timing Case.
Fuel Injection Pump.
Water Pump.
Fan.
Water Dutlet to Radiator
Atomiser Leak-off Pipe.
Fuel Injection Pipe.
Atomiser.
Cylinder Head Cover
Exhaust Manifold.
Air Intake.
Butterfly Control Lever.
Dynamo.
Lubricating Dil Filler.
Starter Motor.
Front Engine Support
Facing for Alternative Front Engine Support
Fuel Lift Pump.
Hand Primer for Fuel Lift Pump.
Mechanical Governor.
Mechanical Governor Dperating Lever
Inlet to Fuel Lift Pump
Dipstick.
Sump Drain Plug.
DecompressorLever.
Dil Bath Air Cleaner.
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Page BI
SETTNGS AND DATA
-
Bore
...
4:lin.orI07.95mm
Stroke ...
.,.
...,.
4i in. or 120.6 mm
Numbelofcylinders
..
4
Swept volume
,
4.42 litres (270 cu.in)
Compression ratio
17.5 : I
Firing order
I, 3, 4, 2
Horsepower
...
See below
Maximum torque
182lbs./ft. (25.17 kg/m) at 1,000 r.p.m.
Pistons..
.
..
Light Alloy
Spil I timing
21 degrees B.T.C.
Atomiser Body
BKB 35S87 or BKB32S630
Atomiser Nozzle
BDL IIOS6116
Injection piessure..
See page TIl
Valve lift
..
...
.465 in. or 11.811 mm
Valve Face and Seat Angle ..
.
.
..
..
450
Dil Pressure at max. engine speed and normal working temperature
25/50 Ibs: per sq: in: (1,76/3,52kg/sq: cm)
Valve clearance.
.
.
.010 in. or .254 mm
When checking and adjusting valve clearances the engine should be
tumed to bring the respective pistons to T.D.C. on compression.
TorqueTensions
CylinderHead Nuts
'
,
Con. Rod Setscrews
Main Bearing Setscrews
...,
-,
...,
100/105(13.82-14.51)
125/130(17.29-18.00)
FlywheelSetscrews
.
...
SUMP CAPACITIES
Massey-Harris-FergusonCombines
Massey-Harris-Ferguson
745 Tractor
75 (10.37)
2 gallons (9.08litres)
2 gallons (9.08litres)
FordsonMajor Tractor
:ol
Claas Combine.
lndustrial
.
2 gallons (9.08litres)
3 .eallons3 pints (15.31litres)
...
Combine
Claas
Industrial
gallons6 pints(12.49litres)
POWER
Massey-Harris-Ferguson Combines.
Massey-Harris-Ferguson 745 Tractor
FordsonMajor Tractor
~
Lbs./Ft. «kg/m)
80/85(11.06-11.75)
With referenceto the Cylinder Head Nuts, these should be re-checked
with the engine hot.
It will be appreciatedthat after overhaul or rectification work bas been
carried out, there will be a settling period which will allowaslight
variation on the figures quoted. This is not detrimental to the performanceof the engineand there is no necessityto interfere with the settings.
On no account should attempts be made to increasethe torque already
quoted by re-tightening with a torque spanner.
HORSE
~
(B)
...
56 b.h.p. at 1,940r.p.m.
50 b.h.p. at 1,500r.p.m.
45 b.h.p. at 1,500r.p.m
62 b.h.p. at 2,000r.p.m.
Up to 59 b.h.p. at 2.000r.D.m.
Page B2
Settingsand Data-continued
Details of Industrial engine ratings caD be obtained upon request,from
the plant manufacturers or engine manufacturers.
In the case of queries on other types of application, apply to Service
Division quoting the engine number.
De-rating for Altitude : Where enginesare called upon to operate in
rarefied atmospheresoccasioned by altitude, such engines should be
de-rated. For details regarding engine de-rating for altitude apply to
Service Division, Perkins Engines Ltd., Peterborough, or to those
OverseasCompanies listed on Page 11.
IMPORTANT NOTE : ALL Screw Threads used on the L4 engine,
except on proprietary equipm~nt and the crankshaft, are Unified Series
and American Pipe Series.
The crankshaft and starting dog nut are threaded 1 inch American
National Fine 14 T.P.I.
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Page Cl
PREPARAnON
FOR STARnNG
Check the radiator water level.
Check the enginesump oil level.
Seethat there is tuel oil in the tank.
Where a pneumatic govemor is fitted. make
quite sure that the connections on the pipe
trom the butterfly valve to the govemor on the
tuel pump are light.
Check that the starter battery is tully charged
and that all electrical connections are properly
madeand all circuits in order.
Priming the Foei System.
In the caseof a new engineor an enginewhich
bas been la:id up it is important that the fuel
systemis "bIed" as follows :-
The engineis now ready for starting.
Move the speed control lever to full open
position.
COLD STARnNG EQUIPMENT
Method of Operation.
The small hand pump (see Fig. C.I) is constructedwith inlet and outlet ports. On the upward
stroke of the pump fuel is drawn through a copper
pipe trom the supply tank into the pump body.
On the downward stroke tuel is pressure ted
through the outlet port and a copper pipe to an
atomiser fitted in the venturi. A swirl in the
atomiser causesthe fuel to be sprayed into the
venturi.
PressureFed Systems.
Slackensmall plug on tbe top of tbe final fuel
filter and operate tbe band primer on tbe fuellifl
pump ontil fuel tree trom air bubblesissuestrom
the plug hole. Tighten the plug.
Fig. C.l.
The spray is directed on to a heater plug (see
Fig. C2) which is also fitted into the veoturi.
Slacken the bleed screw on the top of the tue!
pump.
Again operate the hand primer on the fuel lift
pump until fuel issuestrom the bleed screw and
all signs of air have disappeared.
The resistaocewire 00 the heater plug is heated
by an electric current when the heater button is
pressedon the "Heater-Starter" switch.
Tighten the bleed screw securely and give the
primer a tew more strokes in order to deliver the
fuel through the relief valve on the tue! filter.
clearing this part of the systemof air.
As the pistons travel down 00 the suction stroke
the fuel spray, which bas been fired by the hot
resistaoce wire on the plug, is drawn into the
cylinder bare to assistin easystarting.
Gravity Fed Systems.
Slacken smalI plug on the top of tbe final fuel
filter and turn on fuel tank supply until fuel tree
trom air issuestrom tbe plug hole. Tighten the
plug.
Slacken the bleed screw on tbe top of the fuel
pump and allow fuel to run until no trace of air
remains.
Tighten tbe bleed screw securely whilst fuel is
still issuing.
The wiring diagram (see Fig. C3) shows all
necessarydetails of the "Heater.Starter" switch
and Heater plug coonections.
Use of Equipment.
The hand pump is usedin conjunction with the
induction heater and "Heater-Starter" switch for
starting in cold weather.
Excessiveuse of the hand pump is to he deprecated as it is liable to he harmful to the engine
and could damage the piston rings.
Starting the Engfne-cantinued
Page C2
With someapplicatiou~,in addition to the hand
pump, two electric push button switches,marked
.. Heater" and .. Starter" respectivly,are mounted
on the instrumentpanel or somewhereconveniently
near to the enginecontrols. Theseare for starting
the engine.
an other applications, a starter engaging lever
is provided insteadof the button switch previously
mentioned.
In warm weatheror if the engine bas been only
recently stopped,open up the throttle and engage
the starter motor.
If the battery is sufficiently charged to turn the
starter motor quickly, the engine should start.
Cold Starting Equipment.
In cold weather,if the enginebasbeenstanding,
the cold starting equipment should be used.
See that there is fuel oil in the reservoir tank
(if fitted).
Turn on the supply tap to the hand pump
lTnscrew the pump plunger and give it one
stroke of about half an inch.
Press the "Heater" switch for about half a
minute (count forty fairly slowly). Then with
the "Heater" switch still pressed,and the throttle
fully opened, cngage the starter motor, at the
same time giving short strokes on the hand
pump.
The engineshould then start.
If it doesnot, wait half a minute and try again.
If the engine doesnot start at the third attempt,
somefault is presentand an examinationshould be
made.
NOTE : Always be sure that the starter 'pinion
bas stopped revolving before re-engaging the
starter motor, otherwise the starter ring or pinion
may be damaged.
Af ter using the hand pump, always make sure
that the plunger is screwed down and the reed
tap turned off, otherwise a leakage may occur
with damaging results.
Main Tank Supply.
In certain fuel systemsno separatetank is fitted.
lnstead the hand pump draws fuel from thc
final fuel filter.
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Fig. C2.
Plug Heater
Fig. C3. Wiring Diagram
1
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...,
..,
Storting the Engine-continued
In this casethe procedureis as laid down above
exceptthat the tap provided on the filter should
be turned on before using the equipment.
Af ter use be sure to turn olf the tap and screw
down the hand pump otherwise fuel may drain
from the main tank into the engine.
Maintenanceof Equipment.
Use fuel oil in the system.
Check unions, pipes, and supply tank fOTleaks.
Inspect every 1,000hours to make sure that all
connectionsand terminals are tight on .. HeaterStarter" switch and Heater plug.
If any difficulty is found in operating the pump
especially on the downward pressure stroke,
inspectthe atomiser swirl and jet hole.
Hand Starting.
Engines not provided with electric starting
equipment are fitted with a decompressorshaft
in the valve cover.
The decompressorlever is positioned on the
front of the valve cover. When the lever is raised,
Page C3
the exhaust valves are opened, thereby relieving
the compressionto facilitate easy turning.
To start, put the decompressorlever in \he
vertical position, turn the engineover smartly 8nd
drop the decompressorlever.
It should be noted that where a decompressor
shaft is fitted, loss of compressionin ODeor more
cylinders may be causedby this shaft fouling one
or more of the rocker levers, thus preventing
closure of a valve or valves. The remedy is a
ney.' cylinder head cover joint.
If the engine is particularly cold lift the decompressorlever and turn the engine over a few
time~ before attempting to start.
To Stop the Engine
A spring loaded stop control is located near the
normal engine controls and functions by cutting
off the fuel oil at the fuel injection pump.
To operate, pull the knob and hold in this
position until the engineceasesto. rotate. Ensure
that the control returns to the run position otherwise difficulty may be experiencedin restarting
the engine.
1
Pagp Dl
DIFFICULT STARnNG
No Foei at Atomisers:(a) No fuel in tank.
(b) Fuel lift pump not working (Pressurered
systemonly).
Cc) Slack connections in tbe fuel system.
'(rl) Air in the fuel system(Trace from suction
side).
Go over the whole of tbe above and make sure
that the atomisers are fully primed and tbat the
.. pinging tt or ., squeakingtt noise is heard from
each atomiser when the engine is turned over by
hand.
Enginenot being turned over quickly enough.
(Particularly in cold weather)
(a) Lubricating oil too thick. (Sec Appendix).
(b) Battery not fully charged. Fit fully charged
battery.
(c) Engine "gummy" due to standing in tbe
cold.
Use thc cold starting equipment(if fitted). (See
Section C).
Low Compression.
This may be due to dry cylinders and piston
rings, worn piston rings, worn cylinders, or leaky
valves.
AtomisersFaulty.
Test atomisers for ., ping"
or "squeak"
as
already mentioned. Ir any atomiser rails to give
this " pinging" or .. squeaking" noise when that
cylinder is pulled smartly over compressionand it
bas been made certain that the atomiser is fully
primed, then the atomiser should he tested by
removingit from the cylinder head(SeeSectionS).
Disconnect pipes on other atomisers while
making this test.
Sticking Valves.
Trouble witb sticking valves may be due to
overbeating,tbe result of cboked atomisers,or tbe
use of unsuitable lubricating oil.
Test the atomisersaf, recommendedin SectionS
and clean them if necessary.
The lubricating oil usedshould be of an approved
type. (SeeAppendix).
Sticking Rocker.
Ir tbe rockers stick the causemay be : tbe use
of unsuitable oil, sbortage of oil, or sludging.
Use only oil of an approvedtype. (SecAppendix).
Ir tbere is a sbortageof lubricant, tbe passagesand
pipes to tbe rockers sbould be cbecked.
Fuel Oll.
It is essential to use clean fuel Dil fret from
water, dirt, or sand. The recommendedspecification for fuel Dil is given in SectionS. Providing
clean fuel is used,no trouble should he experienced
witb the fuel systembut dirty Dil willlead to trouble
due to choked filters, damaged fuel pump and
atomisers. If the engine tends to run weIl for a
short period and then to die awayor stop altogether,
tbe fuel system should immediately be suspected.
Tbe trouble may be due to the lift pump not
working properly, to a loost pipe joint allowing air
to get into the fuel system,to a dirty fuel filter, or
to a choked fuel pipe. The pre-filter in the fuel
lift pump (when fitted) should be cleaned by
washing in clean fuel Dil, but tbe final filter should
not need attention more than once in 1,000hours,
when a completely new filter element should he
fitted. If the conditions lead to dust or contamination of the fuel, decreasetbe maintenance
interval.
Always, after disturbing fuel line washers.
replace with ncw washersto ensurethe joints are
air tight.
Air Cleaner.
In accordance with periodical attentions,
Section F, clean the filtering element in paraffin,
and. if of tbe oil bath type, dip in oil.
In those filters wbicb need it, new engine oiJ
should be poured into the base, up to tbe level
mark.
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Page D2
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1
1
Page El
AND
DO KEEP THE ENGINE CLEAN.
DO keep this hook where it is conveniently
accessible.
DO pay particular attention to lubrication.
DO use only approved grades of lubricating oilo
DO keep all bolts and Duts tight.
DO close these drain cocks and refill with water
before attemp.tingto re-start next morning.
DO when in doubt, read this Manual.
DO eliminate all air from the fuel system and
keep all fuel oil unions AIR- TIGHT.
DO Nor
DO use only GENUINE PERKINS PARTS.
DO examine engine oil level in sump daily and
replenish if necessary.
DO completely change engine oil in accordance
with periodical attentions, SectionF.
DO renew element in lubricating oil filter in
accordance with periodical attentions,
Section F.
guess. For additional information contact suppliers of the Industrial Plant.
Tractor or Engine.
DO NOT neglect the routine attentions specified in SectionF.
DO NOT storefuel oil in a galvanisedcontainer.
DO NOT race the engine in neutral.
DO NOT run the engine unless the gauge
SHOWS OIL PRESSURE.
DO check oil flow to rocker shaft and examine
the valvespringsin accordancewith periodical
attentions, Section F.
DO NOT unnecessarilyinterfere with any adjustments.
DO use only filtered fuel oil. Never tip into
the tank a half-empty barrel of fuel oil, the
bung of which may have been out fOTweeks.
DO NOT break the fuel pump or venturi sealsremember if broken Jour Guarantee
may be void.
DO keep a check on the temperature of the
cooling water. lt should not be allowed to
boil. The best temperature is 170°F. or
77°C. but where a pressurisedradiator cap
is fitted then the coolant temperature may
be slightly higher.
DO NOT continue to run the engine if the
cooling water boils.
DO NOT forget to keep the fan belt adjusted.
DO attend immediately to fuel and lubricating
oil leaks.
DO NOT if the engine stops without apparent
reason, rail to make sure first of all
that fuel is reaching the fuel pump.
DO grind in valves when necessary.
DO check valve clearance from time to time
(.010 in./ .25 mm.) with warm engine.
DO tighten cylinder head DutS in correct order
(See Fig. H3).
DO quote engine number when ordering parts.
J
DO drain cylinder block if engine is being left
idle in frosty weather(drain tap on fuel pump
side of block).
DO remove pressurisedradiator filler cap before
draining the cooling system.
DO NOT continue to run the engine if black
smoke is coming from the exhaust.
DO NOT omit to wipe the engine over occasionally with a clean rag.
DO NOT take the fuel pump to pieces.
DO NOT use cotton waste or any fluffy cloth
when cleaning.
DO keep essentialparts in store.
DO NOT use any but approved brands of lubricating oil.
DO drain radiator if engine is being left idle in
frosty weather.
DO NOT subject the engine to continuous over.
loading.
Page FJ
A TTENTI 0 N S (F)
POST-DELIVERY CHECKOVER.
Af ter a customtr bas taken delivery of bis
Perkins diesel engille. it is advisable. in bis own
interest. thai a generaI check over of the engine
be carried out after the first 25 hours in service.
It is also recommended that this following
procedurehe adopted where an engine bas been
laid up tor a considerable period. before it is
again put into service.
This check over should comprise the following
points :I. Drain lubricating oil sump and re-fill up to
the ruIl mark on the dipstick with new clean
oil (Do not overfill). When the sump is
drained the sump strainer should he removed
and cleaned.
2. Check and if necessaryadjust slow running
speed.
3. Check external nuts tor tightness.
4. Check and adjust valve clearances(.010 in.
.25 mmo hot).
5. Check fuel pipes trom tank to fuel injection
pump common chamher tor leaks.
6. Check tor lubricating oil leaks. and rectify
if necessary.
7. Check cooling systemtor leaks and inspect
radiator water level.
8. Checkfan belt tor tension.
9. Carry out raad test to check general performanceof engine.
10. Check enginemounting balts tor tightness.
It is also advisable to check the cylinder head
studs to ascertain that they are tightened to the
correct torque as given on page B.l.
Thereafter maintenance periods should he in
accordancewith the following instructions.
It is assumedthai electrical equipmentwill have
already been checkedtor such points as dynamo
rate of charge. effectivenessof connections and
circuits etc.
Keep Eogioe Oeso.
DAll..V
Checkwatc:rin radiator.
Check oil level in sump (make sure the engine
is level),
EVERY SOHOURS
Check fan belt adjustment. (See Section R).
Clean air cleaner and renew Dil (See Date).
Top up batteries with distilled water.
EVERY 250 HOURS
Refill Greaseron Dynamo.
Clean water trap bowl and gauze element.
*Clean element in lubricating oil filter.
*Drain oil trom sump and renew.
*Clean strainer in sump.
Unscrew drain plug on final tuel filter. replace
plug when clean tuel appears.
Flush radiator with clean water.
Clean and treat the battery terminals.
*These periods should be decreasedto 100hours
maximum. when engineis operating under adverse
conditions.
EVERY 500 HOURS
Clean and checkatomisers.
Renew feIt element in lubricating oil filter.
Clean gauze trap in fuel oil filler (when fitted)
Clean strainer in lubricating oil filler.
EVERY 1,000HOURS
Drain fuel tank. remove and clean.
Inspect commutator and brushesof dynamo.
Removecylinder head cover.
Examine valve springs and check valve clearance.
Inspect valve rocker assemblyfor lubrication.
Renew element in final fuel filter.
Note. The time for cleaning the air cleaner
dependson operating conditions. therefore under
extremely dusty conditions. the time limit recommended above for cleaning should he decreased.
The correct maintenanceof the air cleaner win
greatly assist in reducing bare wear. thereby
extending the life of the engine.
I
I
PageF2
PRESERV AllON
OF LAID
UP ENGINES
Where an application which is powered by a
Perkins engine is to be laid up for several months
it is advisable that some measure of protection
be afforded the engine to ensure that it suffers
no ill effect during the intervening period before
operations are recommenced.
It is recommended, therefore, that the following
procedure be adopted and applied immediately
the unit is withdrawn from service.
I.
Thoroughly
clean aU external parts of the
engine.
Run the engine until well-warmed through.
Stop the engine and drain lubricating oil
sump.
3. Drain water from radiator and engine
cylinder block.
2.
4.
Remove and clean gauze strainer in sump
and ruil flow filter element.
5. Clean out engine breathing system.
6.
Af ter replacing filters, fill sump to correct
level with clean, new lubricating oil or with
a suitable preservative fluid.
7.
Remove atomisers and spray into cylinder
bores a t pint (.14 litres) of lubricating oil
divided between the cylinders.
8.
Replace atomisers and turn engine slowly
over compressions.
9.
Remove air cleaner and any intake pipe which
may be fitted between the air cleaner and
venturi. Carefully seal venturi orifice with
waterproofed adhesive tape or some ot her
suitable medium.
10. Remove exhaust pipe and seal opening in
manifoldas in . 9.'
11. Disconnect battery and store in fully charged
condition. Before storing, the bartery terminals should be treated to prevent corrosion.
The fuel system may either be drained and
charged with a suitable preservative or alternatively,
it may be left primed with normal fuel oil.
Where the Iatter course is taken, it should be
noted that deterioration of the fuel oil may be
occasionedduring the months the application is
idle.
If this occurs, the fuel oil may become contaminated with a wax-like substancewhich will
quickly clog the fuel filtering arrangement once
the engine is returned to service.
Therefore, before recommencingoperations in
respectof a unit primed with normal fuel oU which
bas lain idle for severalmonths it i5 recommended
that the fuel tank be drained and the interior of
the tank thoroughly cleaned. The fuel oU drained
off should be discarded as unfit for further use.
Fuel oil contained in the remainder of the fuel
system should also he dispelled and the paper
element in the final fuel filter renewed,following
which, the system may then be re-chargedwith
fresh, clean fuel oil.
Preparationsfor starting the engineshould then
be in accordancewith the procedure detaUedin
Section"C ".
NOTE:Where a preseryativeis used in the lubricating
oil sump, this should be drained off and replaced
by normallubricant prior to re-starting the engine
at the end of the storageperiod. In the caseof a
preservativebeingutilised to chargethe fuel system
this need not necessarilybe drained off before
returning the engine to service. Therefore, wben
a preservativeis used in this respect the relevant
manufacturers of the fluid should be contacted,
seekingtheir guidanceas to whether their product
should he drained away prior to re-starting the
engme.
When draining Marine engines,the end plate ot
the water pump should be removedto allow drainageof any water trapped betweenthe bladesof the
impellor. Af ter the pump bas been drained, the
impeUor sbould be lubricated with Marfak 2HD
Grease,after which the impellor should be turned
to ensure penetration of the grease. When the
engine is put back into service,under no circumstancesshould it be run with the interior of the
water pump dry.
l
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PageF 3
FROST
Precautionsagainst damage by trost should he
taken if the engine is to be left exposed to
inclement weather either by adequately draining
the water systemor where this is not convenient.
an anti-freezeof reputablemake and incorporating
a ~uitablecorrosion inhibitor may he used.
(a) Locking of the impelJor by ice due to thr:
pump drain hole being blocked by sedi.
ment.
Should it be your policy to protect enginestrom
trost damageby adding anti-freezeto the cooling
system.it is advisable that the manufacturers of
the relevant mixture be contacted to ascertain
Yv'hethertheir products are suitable tor use in
Perkins engines and also to ensure that their
products wil! have no harmful effect on the cooling systemgenerally. It is OUTexperiencethat the
best results are obtained from anti-freeze which
conforms to British Standard 3151.
Operators are therefore advised to take these
precautionswhen operating in temperaturesbeIoVv
freezing point :-
Where the use of an anti-freezeis contemplated
in respect of an L4 marine engine employing a
closed circuit cooling system. advice should be
soughttrom the relevant anti-freezemanufacturers
seekingassurancethat their product will have no
detrimental effect on the rubber impellor of the
freshwater pump.
When draining the water circulating system it
is not enough merely to open the radiator drain
tap; the ODeon the cylinder block must also be
opened. This tap is located midway along the
fuel pump side of the cylinder block.
---
-.,
..,
~
-,
Wnen the engine is drained the water pump is
also drained. but rotation of the pump may he
preventm by :-
(b) The locking of the seaJthrough the freezing
of globuJesof moisture between the sea]
and the gland.
(1) Before starting the engine,turn the fan and
"
ater pump by hand, this will indicateif
freezing bas taken place. If freezing bas
taken place, this should tree any ice formation.
(2) If it is impossibleto turn the pump by hand,
the radiator and engineshould be filled with
warm water.
(3) To avoid this trouble, the operator should,
when all water bas been drained. run the
engine tor a tew secondsat idling speed,
thus dispersing any moisture remaining in
the pump.
Af ter an anti-freezesolution bas been used.the
cooling system should be thoroughly flushed in
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions
before refilling with normal coolant.
If the foregoing action is taken, no harmful
effectsshould be experienced,but Perkins Engines
Ltd., cannot be held responsible for any Crost
damage or corrosion which may be incurred.
Page G 1
FILTERS
A prime consideration in the maintenance of
Dieselenginesis that of cleanliness. The air and
fuel oil that enters the cylinders must be scrupulously clean and so also must the lubricating oil.
In the Perkins L4 Diesel engine particular
attention bas beenpaid to the provision of means
foT ensuringcleanlinessin respectof these.
Three filtration systems are provided: Air,
Fuel Oil and Lubrication, and all that the operator
needsto do is to take steps to ensure that the
filters are kept in such a state that they will most
effectively perform their functions.
upon the surface of the oil carried in a reservoir
in the lower part of the filter casing.
As aresuit, particles of foreign matter are
carried into the oil by their own momentum and
are there trapped. The air then passesthrough a
steel wire element before Teachingthe indu~tion
manifold and in that element are deposited any
other particles of foreign matter which sti!l remain
in the air after its contact with the oil.
Maintenance.
Examine and replenish oil and clean in accor.
dance with periodical attentions. Section F.
Removetop cover and lift out element. Wash
in paraffin or fuel oil and allow to drain.
Empty oil from outer cas~ and scrape out
accumulatedsludge. Wash outer casewith paraffin or fuel oil and refill with oil to the level indicated (do not overfill).
Replaceelementand top cover, care to be taken
to seethat the joint ring is in good condition and
is sealingbefore tightening the top cover down.
Fig. G J. Gil BathAir Filter
AIR Fn. TERS
Air is filtered as it enters the inlet manifold by
use of ODeor the other of the followmg filters :
1. Dil Bath type.
2. Air Maze type (Tractor type).
The systemof operation of the air filters afford
a high measure of protection to the engine if
properly maintained.
The time for cleaningthe air cleanerdependson
operating conditions, therefore under extreme
dusty conditions, the time limit recommendedin
the periodical attentions for cleaning should be
decreased.(SeeSectionF).
The correct maintenanceof the air cleaner will
greatly assist in reducing bare wear, thereby
extending the life of the en'gine.
-J
J
J
J
Oil Bath Type Filter.
In this type of filter the incoming air impinges
Fig. G2.
Pre-filter
Air Maze type (Tractor type).
In the tractor oil bath filter the air is drawn in
through the intake pipe and down through the
centre of the filter to the oil bath. Here the air
impinges upon the surface of the oil and particles
of foreign matter are carried into the oil by their
own momentum and trapped. Tbe air then
passesup the sides of the filter through the wire
male and out through the connection at the top.
r
J
Fi!tels-conttnued
Page G2
Maintenance.
Examine, replenish oil and clean in accordance
with periodical attentions. SectionF.
Remove oil container and empty out the oil.
Scrapeout all accumulatedsludgeand thoroughly wash in paraffin or fuel oil
Inspect the wire gauzeand if necessaryremove
filter body from installation and wash in paraffin
or fuel oil. Allow to drain before re-assembly.
Refill oil container to the level indicated (do
not overfill) and re-assem
bIe to filter.
Fig. GJ
Fig. GS
IMPORTANT NOTE
Tbe efficiency of tbe cleaner is sucb tbat if tbe
cleaning of tbe filter is not carried out at appropriate intervals,engineperformancewill be seriously atfected, becausetbe presenceof irnpurities in
tbe cleanerwill restrict tbe air passage.
In tbe event of engineperformancebeing below
par it is a good plan first to cbeckup on tbe cleaner
to ascertainif clogging of tbe filter is tbe cause.
FUEL ou. Fll..TERS
Fig. G4.
Of all the factors on which satisfactoryoperation
of a Diesel engine depends,cleanlinessof fuel oil
is the most important. The efficient operation
and length of life of the fuel pump elementsand
of the atornisers,depends,fust, on the use of clean
fuel oil ; second,the provision of suitable filters;
third, attention to these filters.
Protection fot the Perkins L4 engineis provided
by the following filters, re-adingfrom the tank to
the pump.
(1) Water Trap.
(2) Pre-filter.
Filters-continued
Pa1!eG3
When re-assembling,take care that a good joint
is made betweenthe top of the bowl and the filter
body, as any leakage of air here, that is, on the
suction side of the fuel pump, rnay causeair looks
in the fuel system.
Paper Element Filter.
It is not possible to clean the paper element in
this filter.
It should be renewedevery 1,000hours. Every
250 hours unscrew the drain plug at the bottom
of the filter bowl and allow fuel to fiow through
until clean fuel oil appears. Replace drain plug.
To remove the element, unscrewthe larger nut
in the rentTeof the cover and drop the filter bowl
clear (SeeFigs. G3 and G4).
Remove the dirty element and throw away.
(Fig. G5).
Before putting new element in position, clean
the filter bowl and inspect the relief valve.
Ensure that the rubber joints are in good con.
dition, if not, replace by new.
1
Fig. G6. Fuel Filter in section showing fuel fiow throUgh
element
Tbe arrangement of these two filters varies
'lccording to application. Cn some applications
both filters are fitted, on others either one or the
other is fitted.
(3) Paper element type filter.
LUBRICAnNG On.. FILTERS
The importance of using clean lubricating oil
in the fust place, and providing means to ensure
Water Trap.
This filter varies according to application.
The gauze strainer is contained in an easily
removablebowl and should be cleaned in accordance with periodical attentions. SectionF.
Pre-filter.
This unit's main purpose is to protect the fuel
lift pump. It bas a comparatively coarseelement.
(See Fig. G .2).
This elementis contained in an easily removable
bowl and should be cleaned in accordancewith
periodical attentions. SectionF.
To remove element for cleaning, unscrew
knurled nut at the bottom of the bowl. Swing
the stirrup clear and remove filter bowl.
Removeelement and wash in paraffin or clean
fuel oil. Clean out and wash filter bowl in clean
paraffin or fuel oil.
Fig. G7
Fi/ters-continued
Page G4
Wash strainer in clean paraffin or fuel oil and
replace.
Sump Strainer.
The sump strainer is a wire gauzestrainer which
fits over the suction pipe to the lubricating oil
pump.
It should be cleanedin accordancewith periodical attentions (Section F).
For instructions regarding removal and cleaning
of sump strainer see Section P.
Maln (Full Flow) Filter.
The element of this filter should be removed
and thoroughly washed in paraffin. The time
period for cleaning and renewing the element is
given in "Periodical Attentions" Section F.
It is a good plan to have a spareelementand to
put this elementin the filter and the filter back into
service again whiJst the other element is being
cleaned. This procedure saves time.
Fig. G8.
f
,..
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r
that it is always clean in use, is hardly secondto
the importance of cleanlinessin respectof fuel oil.
It is imperative, therefore, that lubricating oil
fi1tersare not negiected. Moreover, if the periodical attentions recommendedare carried out and
thc correct grade of clean oil used,a very long lire
can he obtained from the Perkins engine.
To ensurcclcanliness,three filters are provided.
r
1. Oil Filler Strainer.
2. Sump Strainer.
3. Main (fuU flow) Filter.
Oil Filler Strainer.
The purpose of this strainer is to prevent large
objectsentering the sump when the engineis bejag
filled with lubricating oU. It should be cleaned
in accordance with periodical attentions. (See
Section F).
To Removeand Clean Dil Filler Strainer.
Tbe oi) filler strainer is situated at the bottom
of the Dil filler tube, betweenthe Dil fiJler and thc
cylinder block.
To remove for cleaning, unscrew the bolt at
thc base of the Dil filler, remove oil filler and
~trainer.
r
Fig. 09.
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1
1
rage G5
Filters-continued
(5) Remove by-passvalve assembly. This is
best etfected by means of a piece of wire
bent to form a hook at one end.
.,
(6) Removedrain plug at base of filter casing
and clean filter casing with paraffin.
(7) Re-assemblefilter unit in reverse order to
dismantling.
lt should be noted that the by-pass valve
assemblyshould always be replaced in a position
adjacent to where the filter is mounted to the
cylinder block.
.
CAUTION
Fig. GIO.
Ir tbe filter element is not cleaned as recommended, tbe flow of oil tbrough the filter is restricted. Tbis does not, however, prevent oil
passing to the engine, for when restriction takes
place, the by-pass valve opens and permits unfiltered oil to continue to flow round the engine.
The consequenceof this need not be described.
Do not, tberefore, omit to clean tbe element as
prescribed.
To Removeand Clean Element.
Unscrew nut on cover and remove cover.
Remove by-passvalve assembly(See Fig. G7).
Remove element (See Fig. G8).
Cleanelementin paraffin and allow to dry before
replacing (See Fig. G9).
Removedrain plug at base of filter casing and
clean filter casing witb paraffin.
To re-assemble,reverse order of procedure.
Ensure that tbe felt sealing ring around tbe bypass valve piston and tbe rubber sealing wasber
are in good condition.
NOTE - On certain applications, the lubricating
oil filter is fitted as shown in Figs. G.10 and 11.
To removeand clean the elementof this filter:
(1) Unscrewbolt and removetop cover.
(2) Removespring and elementpress\treplate.
(3) Removeelement.
(4) Cleanelementin paraffin or fuel oil. Allow
to dry before replacing.
Fig. GIl.
1
Page Hl
CYLINDER
HEAO
The Diesel engine rarely, if ever, needs the
periodical decarbonising that is accepted as a
matter of course with the petrol engine, insofar
that in an engine operating on the diesel cycle,
carbon, beyond a superficial coating, does not
fonn and accumulatein the combustion chamber
and on the pistons as in the case of the petrol
engine.
O~ing to its higher thermal efficiency,the valves
of the Dieselengineare also much more free from
trouble due to overheating; that is, of course,
providing the engine is reasonably maintained.
Af ter aperiod, dependingupon the condition~
under which the engine is operated, the valves
may need attention. This will become apparent
by loss of compression,in which casea top overhaul may be necessary.
Preparation.
Begin by assemblingall the joints and other
parts required, as called for in the Perkins parts
List.
(J'
Drain all water from the radiator and cylinder
block. The drain cock for the cylinder block is
on the fuel pump side of the engine. Disconnec
the exhaustpipe from the engineexhaustmanifoldt
Remove push rods.
Remove leak off pipes to atomisers.
Remove pressure pipes to atomisers.
Remove atomisers.
Remove main leak off pipe.
Uncouple union on pipe connecting the venturi
and the pneumatic governor (where fitted).
Take off cylinder head Duts and removecylinder
head completewith exhaustmanifold and venturi.
To RemoveValves.
All valves are numbered consecutivelyfrom I
to 8, commencing from the front of the engine.
The cylinder head is marked with corresponding
numbers opposite the valve seats, see Fig. H.2.
Compress the spring cap and springs with a
valve spring compressorand remove the split-cone
collets. Remove the spring caps and springs,
thus liberating the valve which can be taken
out when the cylinder head is turned upside
down.
Grinding Valves.
The valves and valve seats should be reconditioned in the orthodox way, using grinding
compound or by means of specialisedequipment.
The valve seat and face angle is 45°,
Uncoupleextemalconnectionsto the cylinder head.
Cylinder Head. To Remove.
Remove the air cleaner.
Take oir cylinder head cover.
Uncoupleunion on oil pipe to rocker assembly.
RemoveDuts holding rocker shaft assembly.
Remove retaining plates and lift oir rocker
assembly,bringing above named oil pipe with it.
Fig. Hl
J.
EXA1\IUNA nON.
Examine all parts for wear, having in mind tbe
following points:Valve Springs.
Valve springs deteriorate because of fatigue
resulting from the combined effect of heat and the
normal working of the springs. .Af ter aperiod
Showing Rocker Shaft Assembly
r
Cylinder Head Maintenance-contlnued
Page H2
headbottom faceis not lessthan .057ins. (1.45mm)
inlet and .053 ins. (1.35 mm) exhaust. Maximum
clearanceshould not exceed.140 ins. (3.56 mm)
inlet and exhaust. Check this by putting a straight
edge across the bottom face of the cylinder head
and measuring the distance between the straight
edgeand the valve head as illustrated in Fig. H.2.
Tbe efficiencyof a diesel enginedependslargely
on the maintenanceof good compressiontherefore,
when grinding in valves, make certain thai no
signs of pitting are left on the seatings. Valves
should he ground in until a continuous ., high
Fig. H2.
Checking Yalve Head Clearance and method
of marking valves
lhe spnng becomesweak and is then prone to
failure. This, of course, applies to all types of
engines.
A ncw set of springs shouid be fitted whenever
tbe engine undergoesa major overhaul.
Rocker Levers and Bosbes.
Washthe rocker assemblythoroughly in paraffin.
Examine the rocker lever bushesfor wear. The
rockers should be an easyfit on the shaft without
excessiveside play.
It: as a result of inadequate lubricatioD, aDY
rocker busheshave seizedODthe rocker shaft, the
rockers will have worked loose OD the bushes.
Should this have occurred it will be advisableto fit
new rockers andjor bushes.
Should it be necessaryto dismantie the rocker
shaft assemblyre-assem
bie as shown in Fig. H.l.
Valves and Valve Seats.
There will be little wear of the valve sterns or
their guides provided that the lubrication of these
parts has always beenadequate.
Examine the valves for cracks. Check wear
of valve sternsand their fit in guides. If the sterns
are wam fit ncw valves.
Number aU new valves to correspond with the
numbering of the old valves.
When fitting new valves take care that the
clearancebetweenthe valve head and the cylinder
mark" is present the full way round the seating,
both on the valve and on the valve seatingin tbc
head. At the same time care should be taken to
avoid unnecessarygrinding away of the seato.
Valve Guides.
Examinethe guidesfor wear, if necessaryreplacc
with ncw guides.
To remove oid guides : pressout, or uso a suitablc drift.
To fit ncw guides : clean and remove any hum.
Smear tbc outer surfacc with clean oil, and
using a suitable press, drive home hard
up to the collar. Care should be exercised
as the collar approaches the cylinder head as
the guides arc made of cast iron and therefore
comparatively brittIe.
Cylinder Head.
Remove exhaust manifold and clean off any
carbon deposit formed in the cylinder head.
Wasb out and thoroughly clean tbe water
passagesin tbe bead, subsequentlydrying out and
finally cleaning with compressedair.
If the water jacket of the cylinder head shows
signs of excessivescale, a proprietary brand of
de-scaling solution should be used.
CombustionChamberJoints.
It is not, as a rele, necessaryto remove the
covers of the combustion chambersduring a top
overhauI,ascarbon rarely fonns in thesechambers.
1
,
[J.-
Page H3
Cylinder Head ..\-faintenance-eontinued
Should it be necessaryto remove these covers
ncw copperjoints should be fitted when they are
replaced.
lf ncw copper joints are not available the old
unes may be used provided they are softened
before being re-fitted.
To softenthe joints heat them to a dull red heat
and quenchin cold water.
Special care is necessarywhen refitting these
covers to ensure that there are no leaks at the
joints otherwisethere will be a loss of compression
and the efficiencyof the engine-:villbe impaired.
Re-assemblyCylinder Head.
Replacevalves,valve springs,collars and collet~.
Replacecombustion chamber caps and joints.
Fit exhaust manifold gaskets and exhaust
manifold.
ReplacingCylinder Head.
Before replacing cylinder head it is extremely
important to ensure that the cylinder block and
cylinder head racesare perfectly clean.
When replacing the cylinder head a new gasket
should be used. Cover both sides with a thin
coating of good jointing compound and before
placing over the cylinder head studs ensure that
the gasket is correctly positioned. The gasket is
marked to indicate hcw it should be replaced.
Having placedthe gasket in position ensurethat
the cylinder bead face is perfectly clean and place
in position over the cylinder head studs.
To tighten thecylinder headDuts,a torque wrench
shouldbe used,setto the tensiongivenin SectionB,
and pulled down in the order marked in Fig. H.3.
With tb. push rods in position replacetbe rocker
shaft assembly. Examine the oil pipe union and
ensure that it is in good condition. Connect
union to cylinder head.
Where necessary,re-connect the pipe from the
pneumatic governor to the venturi.
Replace atomisers (See Section S).
Replaceleak off pipes and cold starting equipment.
For fitting of fuel pipes see Section S.
Valve Clearance.
Valveclearancesshouldbesetto .010in. (.25mIn)
When adjusting valve clearances the engine
should he turned to bring the respectivepistons to
T .D.C. on compression.
To adjust, slackenthe lock nut and with a .010in.
(.25 mm) feeIergaugebetweenthe top of the valve
stem and the rocker lever face, turn the adjusting
screw by meansof a screwdriveruntil the correct
clearanceis obtained. Tighten the lock-nut.
STARTING THE ENGINE
Proceed as instructed in Section C.
Af ter warming up, tbe engine should be sbut
down and the cylinder head Duts again tightened
witb a torque wrench, set to the tension given in
Section B. The nuts should be tightened in the
order shown in Fig. H.3.
Re-set valve clearance to .010 in. (.25 mm).
Tbe cylinder head cover cao aow be replac~d.
A ncw joint should be fitted and care should b~
taken to sec that it is correctly positioned
§
'-;;;;'
2~
."
@~6
Fig. H3. Diagram showing order in which cylinder head
nut.! must bc tightened
u
~, .i
u-
Page 11
The pistonsare of light alloy, with fully floating
gudgeonping,which work in the bush fitted to the
connectingrod small end. The gudgeon ping are
held in position by meansof circlips.
The pistons are fitted with three compression
rings, and two oil control or scraper rings. The
top compressionring is a plain compressionring,
the secondachrome plated compressionring and
the third is composed of four laminated rings.
(Seefig. J.2).
The tourth and fifth rings are slotted scrapers.
Pistonsare numberedfrom 1 to 4 commencing
with No. lat the front of the engine.
Each connectingrad and cap are also numbered
I and I, 2 and 2, etc. (Seefig. J.1).
The connecting rad and .cap mating faces are
serrated la ensurecorrect positioning and should
on no accountbe filed.
To RemovePistonsand Connecting Rod Assemblies.
Remove cylinder head assembly (seeSection H).
Removesump (seeSect.P).
RemoveIubricatingoiJpump
(seeSection P).
Turn engine until two conn.
ecting roos are at bottom
centre. then remove setscrews
and locking washers.
l1
Remove caps and hearing
shells.
Push piston and connecting
rad out of the top of the
Fig. J.1. Showing cylinders.
~,
markingof connec.
mg
d
ro
Turn
engine
until
remaining
s.
connectingrods are at bottom
centre. then repeat removal operations.
Should there be carbon ridges in the cylinder
aDres. remove them. using a scraper for the
purpose.
Keep each piston and connecting rad assembly
separate.each to each as marked.
To RemoveGudgeonPins.
Remove circlips trom the piston. using long
nosedpliers.
Ta remave the gudgeonpins. warm the pistons
in liquid to a temperature of loooF.-120oF.
(38°-49°C.). The pins can then be pushedout.
To Fit Small End Bushes.
Removepiston and connectingrad from engine.
Remove gudgeon ping (see above).
The small end bushes are a press fit into the
connectingrods.
Pressout aId bush with suitable press
Remove any sharp edges around smal! elld
parent bare.
Pressin new bush. ensure that oiI hole Ul bu:ih
coincides with hole in top of connecting rad.
Ream out new bush to guit gudgeon pin (see
Section V) and check for parallelism.
To Assembie Piston and Connecting Rod.
Insert gudgeon pin into position. to do this it
may be necessary to heat piston in liquid to a
temperature of looo-120oF.
(38°-49"C.).
The
gudgeon pin can then be pushed easily into position,
Tf original pistons are bejag used they must be
re-assembled to the same connecting rods. e.g.
piston stamped I must go with connecting rad
stamped with the figure 1. For markings of
connecting rad see fig. J .1.
Fit circiips. check to ensure that they fit correctly
into the grooves in the piston. Tt is advisable to
fit new circiips even if the oid ODesdo not appear
to be damaged or strained.
Fittings New Rings.
Pistonsand rings must be thoroughly washedto
remove any oil or greasewhich may be present.
Page 12
Pistonsand ConnectlngRods-conttnued
Fig. 1.2. Showingarrangementof piston rings.
I. Plain compressionring. 3. Laminatedcompressionring.
2. Chrome
presaion
plated
com-
4. and 5.
Slotted
scraper
ring.
ring.
NOTE. In the case of combine engines. the chrome
Dlated compression ring is omitted and replaced by a
plain compression ring of the same type as fitted in
No. 1 ring groove.
Check rings tor correct gap which must be
within the limits given in SectionV.
Fit the rings to the piston in the order shown in
fig. J.2. The gaps of the two compression and
scraper rings must be arranged so that they are
equally spacedaround the piston and not in line
with one another.
When fitting achrome plated compressionring.
care should be taken to ensure that it is fitted
correctly. The ring is suitably marked to indicate
how it should be replaced.
When fitting the third laminated compression
ring, care should be taken that the tour laminations are correctly assembied to the piston.
To assembieto piston, proceed as follows:Examine the laminations and it will be observed
that the tree endsof the ring are not cut squareto
the circumference but slope away either to the
right or lelt, dependingon which war up the ring
is tumed.
Fit the first segmentto the piston 50 that when
held horizontally in the palm of the hand and
radially compressed,the ring ends point downwards. Position this ring at the bottom of the
groove with the gap over the gudgeon pin bare.
Fit the secondsegmenton the top of the first,
so that when held compressedas describedabove,
the ring ends point upwards. Position the gap
at 1800to the first segmentgap.
The third segmentshould be fitted on the top
of the secondso that whencompressedasdescrib:d,
the ring ends point downwards. Position the gap
immediately above that of the first segment.
Fit the fourth segmenton top of the third so
that when held and compressed,the ring ends
point upwards. Position the gap above that of
the secondsegment.
When the four laminations are fitted to the
piston check that they are fitted correctly. If
fitted correctly there will appear a circumferential
gap between the bottom two laminations and the
top two laminations as illustrated in fig. J.3.
When fitting ncw rings to original pistons,
clean out piston ring grooves using the old ring
from the appropriate groove for this.
Examine the piston skirt and if there is any
scoring the piston must not he usedagain.
The piston should be examined carefully for
bruising of the ring groovesand to ensurethat the
rings move freely in their grooves.
NOTE. When fitting new rings to wom
cylinder liners, the ring gaps should be checkedat
a bore diameter of 4.250 in. (108 mm.).
To Fit Piston and Connecting Rod to Cylinder
Block.
AII connectingrods and capsare plainJymarked
with a number correspondingto their position in
the engine. For method of marking see Fig. J.J.
'[hese numhers are stamped on that side of the
connecting rods and caps which are machined to
take the locating lips of the hearings.
~~
,--J-~-\
C::::::::::--- I
,
I~////~/-
Fig. J.3. Showing how the laminated compression
ring should be fitted into its groove.
"'r
t
~
Page J3
Pistons and Connecting Rods-continued
l
When fitting pistons and connecting rods to
cylinder block and crankshaft, ensure that the side
of the connecting rod which is stamped with the
number goes to the camshaft side of the engine'
Insert the pistons and connecting rods into the
cylinder bores from the top, ensuring that piston
and Tod stamped No. I are fitted into No. I
cylinder bore and No. 2 into No. 2 cylinder bore
and so on counting from the front of the engine.
When fitting assemblies, deal with them in the
order land 4 then 2 and 3. Turn the crankshaft
until the appropriate crankpins are at B.D.C.
(J~
To minimise the possibility of breaking piston
rings, it is advisable to use a piston ring guide.
Take care not to damage the rings. Should
the piston accidentally drop partly into the
bore and is held suspended by a piston ring, it
must be taken out again and the ring examined to
sec if it is cracked or broken.
Pull the connecting Tod to the crankpin and
insert the half bearing.
Fit cap and cap half hearing.
NOTE. When replacing connecting Tod setscrews, new locking washers must always be
used.
The top and bottom half-shelis are not interchangeable with each other, due to the locating
lips of the two half-bearings being offset in
relation to one another.
Tlghten connecting Tod setscrews, using a torque
wrench set to the tension given in Section B.
Fitting New Pistons.
It is important, when fitting ncw pistons, to
checkthe distancefrom the crown of the piston to
the face of the cylinder block.
When the crank is at top dead centre the crown
of the piston must be .007 to .012 in. (.178 to .305
mm.) above the face of the cylinder block. If the
piston standshigher than this then the crown must
be reducedby taking the necessaryamount otT in
a lathe. If the piston height is below the minimum
figure quoted above, that piston must be rejected
if a first class performance is required.
To take this measurementthe piston assembly
and connecting rad must be fitted to tbe cylinder
block and crankshaft as previously described.
When assembied turn crankshaft to bring piston
to T .D.C. and place a straight edgeacrossthe top
of the piston and with a set of feeier gauges,
measuretbe distance between the straight edge
and tbe top face of the cylinder block. (SeC'
Fig. J.4).
ConnectingRod Weigbts.
The finishedweight of connectingrods in engine
sets should balance within two ounces.
In order to effect this, rods are batched as
follow~ :
Code
No.
Minimum
I~'eight
Maximum
Il'eight
12 4 Ib. 10oz.(2.10kg.) 4 Ib. 12oz.(2.15kg.)
13
14
4 Ib. ]2 oz. (2.15kg.)
4 lb. ]4 oz. (2.21kg.)
4 Ib. 14oz. (2.21kg.)
5 lb.
(2.27kg.)
It is necessary,therefore, when ordering spare~
for an individual enginethat the appropriate code
nurnber of the connecting rod set be quoted.
This code number can be found etchedeither on
Nos. I or 4 connecting rod on the machined
shoulder which is adjacent to the fuel pump side
of the engine.
Cn spare rods, however, tbe code nurnber is
Fig. 14. Checking di stance between straight edge and
cylinder block facc.
]
present on each rod.
~
~
.
Page KI
,.,
,
-,.
""1.
Tbe liners fitted to Perkins L4 engines are
centrifugal cast iron wet liners. Tbey are fianged
at tbe top and rubber type sealing rings are fitted
at the bottom. sec Fig. K.l.
In order to facilitate the fitting of the liners
when the two rings have been placed in position
on the liner, smear them with soft soap or soapy
water.
Under normal circumstancestbe liner would
only needto be renewedduring a major overbaul,
but shl)uld it be necessaryto remove tbe liner for
any other reason this caD be carried out without removal of the crankshaft.
Place liner in position and presshome by hand
ensuring that the rubber sealing rings remain in
their respectivegrooves.
If at any time the cylinder liners are removed.
and th~ sameliners are to be refitted. then before
removing the liners from the cylinder block.
ensurethey are suitably marked so that they may
be refitted to their original parent bare and in tbc
same position in that bare. that is. thrust side of
the liner to the thrust side of the cylinder block.
To RemoveLiners.
Remove cylinder head (See Section H).
Remove Sump (See Section P).
1
Remove oil pump (See Section P).
Disconnectconnectingrods and removepistons
(SeeSectionJ).
Remove liner using a suitab!e liner removing
tooI.
When the rubber sealing rings have cleared the
bottom landing, the liner can be removedby hand.
To Fit New Liners.
When fitting ncw liners, it is essentialthat ncw
pistons and rings are also fitted. On no account
should old pistons he fitted to new Iiners. For
fitting of new pistons see Section J
,..~
1;
:J~-
Over a period of service, corrosion may have
taken place at the inner ends of the Iandings.
This corrosionand any burrs which may he present
should be removedwith a scraperor emery cloth.
The liners are a push fit and no force is required
but should a liner require more pressurethan caD
be applied by the fingers, place a suitable piece
of wood across the top Bange and press home.
Fit the rubber sealing rings in the grooves
provided in tbe Iower diameter of the liner. (See
Fig. K.I). Care should be taken not to stretch
theserillgS as they are not elastic and if stretched
lViII not return to their farmer size.
Af ter fitting the liners the cylinder block should
be water tested to a pressureof 20 - 25 Ibs. per
sq. in. (1.4 - 1.76 kgjsq.cm).
Re-assembleengine as required and to instruc.
tions given for the various components.
,
1
-..
.,
-,.
-,
...,
-,
~
Page L
CRANKSHAFT AND MAIN BEARINGS
Tbe crankshaft runs in threepre-finishedreplaceable shell hearings, which are lead bronze lined
and indium flashed.
To RemoveCrankshaft.
Remove cylinder head (See Section H)."
Remove sump (See Section P).
Remove lubricating oir pump (See Section P.)
Remove pistons and connecting rods (Sec
Section J).
Take off timing case front cover and remove
idler gear.
Remove timing case bottom cover.
Remove starter motor.
Remove flywheel and assembly.
Remove the crankshaft Teat end seal.
Remove main hearing caps and half hearings.
Lift out crankshaft.
Crankshaft Regrinding.
E~aminationror Wear.
Beforeproceedingto regrind the Crankshaft,the
following points should be checkedto ensureit is
suitable fot further grinding.
Tbe Crankshaft should be crack-detected and
then demagnetisedin order to remove any polarisation which may be present.
Tbe main joumal and crankpin diametersshould
be checkedfot ovality and measuredto ascertain
the next appropriate size to which the Crankshaft
caD be reground, i.e. -.010" (-.25 mm), -.020"
(-.51 mm), -.030" (-.76 mm) from Standard. If
the crankshaft requires regrinding below -.030"
(-.76 mm), it is recommendedthat ncw crankshaft
he fitted.
It should be noted, however, that in the home
market, an exchangeschemeis in operation whereby reconditioned Crankshafts are available at a
certain cast, providing the Crankshaft being
exchangedis not damagedand is suitable for regrinding to a limit of -.030" (-.76 mm).
Regrinding.
All the necessaryinformation required for regrinding the Crankshaftis givenunder ' Crankshaft
Data '. All limits listed thereunder must he
adhered to and the main joumals and Crankpin
must be free from grinding marks.
Af ter regrinding, the sharp corners on the Dil
waysshould be removedand the Crankshaftcrackdetectedagain and demagnetised.
NOTE ;-It is important that the RADII on the
main journals and Crankpins are maintained. If
theseare neglected,a fatigue fracture is liable to
occur.
CRANKSHAFr DATA
Description Dimensions
Remarks
Main Joumal Diameter
STD.
2.99825/2..999
ins.
Surfacefinish
not to exceed
(76.16/76.17mm)
-.010 in.
2.98825/2.989ins.
16 micro ins.
(.4 microns).
(-.25 mm)
(75.90/75.92mm)
-.020 in.
2.97825/2.979ins.
(-.51 mm)
75.65/75.67mm)
-.030 in.
2.96825/2.969ins.
(-.76 mm)
75.39/75.41mm)
Mam Joumal Radü
-0
kin.
t +.015 in.
(3.18/3.56mIn)
Rear Main Joumal Width
STD.
2.0625/2.0635
ins.
(52.39/52.41mm)
Crankpio Diameter
STD.
2.74825/2.749 iBs.
(69.81/69.82 mm)
-.010 in.
2.73825/2.739 ins.
(-.25 mIn)
(69.55/69.57 mm)
-.020 in.
2.72825/2.729 ins.
(-.51 mIn)
(69.30/69.32 mm)
-.030 in.
2.71825/2.719 ins.)
(-.76 mm)
(69.04/69.06 mm)
Crankpin Radü
Must be
maintained.
Not to exceed
2.0785" (52.79
mm) after regrind.
Surfacefinish
not to exceed
16 micro ins.
(.4 microns)
-0
0Jt in.,
l +.015 in.
(4.76/5.13mm)
Crankpin Width
STD.
1.780/1.785ins.
(45.21/45.34mm)
(
This must be
maintained.
Not to exceed
1.80' (45.72
mm) after regrind.
Page L2
Should the Crankshaft rear flange need regrinding, the rear i in. (9.52 mm) of the flanse
width must not be ground. The remainingportion
of the flange width may be ground to a minimum
diameter of 5.238 in. (133.05mm). Surfacefinish
not to exceed 16 micro ins. (.4 microns).
To Fit Ne" Main Bearings and Thrust Washers.
The main bearings being of the pre-finished
strip type, the fitting of these should present nu
difficulty.
To prevent errors occurring in fitting top and
bottom half bearings, the locating lips, and the
recessesin the caps and bearing housings, are
offset in relation to one another.
The bearing caps and crankcaseare numbered
1-3. No. I being at the front of the engine.
To avoid the caps being inadvertently assembied
to the crankcasethe wrong war round the locating
dowels and dowel holes are also offset.
Under normat circumstancesby the time the
main hearingsrequire to be renewed,the crankshaft
will Deed to be removed for regrinding. However, if for any reasonone or more of the bearing~
should have to be renewed or removed for inspection,this caD be carried out on Nos. land 2
bearings without the necessity of removing the
crankshaft from the engine.
Proceedas follows :Remove sump (See Section P).
Take olf tbe cap of the hearing in question.
Slacken remaining bearing cap setscrewsone
or two turns.
Remove the lower half of the bearing from the
bearingcap.
With a suitable piece of wood push out the top
half of the hearingby rotating it on the crankshaft,
applying the tooi to the side opposite the locating
lip. The locating lips are on the camshaft side
of the engine.
Inspect the bearing shells and if thor require
renewing insert.a new half hearing in the top,
insertiIÏg plain end first. Fit new half hearing to
cap. Do not remove more than one bearing at
a time.
Replacecap and tighten setscrewsIjghtly b~fore
proceedingto next bearing.
Having replaced the bearings and caps pull
down the setscrewswith a torque wrench set to
the tension given in S~ction B.
Crankshaftand Main Bearings-continued
The thrust washers fit in the recesses provided
on either side of the rear main bearing housing and
should be assembied with the flat steel side to the
hearing housing. The end float of the crankshaft is
measured between the crank cheek and the thrust
washers. This measurement should be between
.0085 and .0155 in. (.22 and .39 mm). If greater
or smaller than this amount fit new thrust washers
or oversize thrust washers if necessary.
Crankshaft Rear End Seal.
On early engines,this sealconsistedof a housing
and rubber seal.
When removedit should be inspectedfor cracks
or scratcheson the bearingsurface. If this surface
is damagedin any way a new sealshould be fitted.
To fit a new seal proceed as follows :Removeold sealby pressingit out of the housing.
Lightly smear the outer edge of the new seal
with soft soap.
Place seal in position and press in by hand as
far as it will go, this should be approximately halfway in. Pressing in halfway by hand ensures
that the seal is centralised.
Pressin with a pressuntil the bevelled edge or
the seal is level with the outer face of thc:housing.
MODIFIED CRANKSHAFf AND REAR ou..
SEAL
Later L4 enginesincorporate a crankshaft and
rear oil seal of modified design. Neither of these
componentsare individually interchangeablewith
their earlier counterparts so that if the latest type
crankshaft is [0 be fitted to an engine previously
utilising an unmodified crankshaft,a modified rear
oil seal must also be fitted.
The modification to the crankshaft affects that
part of the shaft around which the rear oil sea!
is fitted. Whereas,previously, this portion of the
shaft had a nomina! diameterof 5* in. (133.4mm).
the equivalent nominaI dimension in the case of
the modified shaft is 3i in. (79.38 mm). Further.
more the modified crankshaft has a shallow spiral
oil groove machined to a depth of .004(.008 in.
(.10 to .20 mm) in that section upon which the
rear scat bears.
With the advent of this latest type crankshaft,
the bore of the modified rear Dil seal is machined
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Page L3
Crankshaftand Ma;n Bear;ngs-Cont;nued
to accommodatea rubber cored asbestosstrip.
This strip consists of two sections, one for each
of the two half-housingswhich now composethe
seal cover. The strip itself farms a positive seal
with the rear end of the crankshaft.
When fitting the seal with the crankshaft in
position, the following procedure should be
adopted :
I.
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Set up a half housing in a vice with the seal
recessuppermost.
2. SettIe approximately I in. (25.4 mm) of the
strip at each end into the ends of the groove,
ensuring that each end of the strip projects
.010/.020 in. (.25/.51 mIn) beyond the half
housing joint face. Allow the middle of the
seal to bulge out of the groove during this
opcration.
3. With the finger or thumb, pressthe remainder
of the strip into the groove working from the
centle. Then use any convenientround bar
to further bed the strip by rolling and pressing
its inner diameter. This procedure takes
advantageof the friction between tne strip
and the groove at the ends to compact the
rope, whilst ensuring that the projections of
the end racesof the rope remain as set. Fit
sameto other half housing in similar manner
9. Swivel the completesealhousing on the shaft
to bed in the strips and to establjsh that the
assemblyturns easily on the shaft.
10. Bolt the seal housingin positjon on the block
and rcoarmain hearingcap and finally tighten
with setscrews.
Replacing Crankshaft.
Ensurethat all oilways are clear (SeeLubricating
Diagram Fig. P.2).
Check main bearing setscrewsfor stretch or
damage to threads. Affected setscrewsmust be
scrapped.
In no case should setscrews.other than those
supplied by the engine manufacturer be used, as
they are of special heat treated high-grade steel.
7. Spread a film of graphited greaseover the
exposedinner diameter surface of the strip
Clean bearing housmgs and place top half
hearings in position.
Place crankshaft in position.
Fit lower halvesof hearingsto hearing caps and
place in position. Ensure that the thrust washers
on No. 3 hearing are fitted correctly.
Place tab washers in position and tighten setscrews.
For final tightening of the setscrewsa torque
wrench should he used, set to the tension given
in Section B.
Lock setscrewsin position by meansof the tab
washers.
Fit crankshaft rear end oil seal as previously
described.
Re-assembleengine as required :lnd to tbe
instructions given fot the various operations.
8. Assemblethe half housingsaround the rear
of the crankshaft and fasten together by the
two setscrews.
It is important that new locking washers of
the correct type are fitted when setscrewshave
been removed.
5. Remove all traces of the old joint from the
cylinder block rear face and fit new joint
treatedwith a suitablejointing compound.
6. Lightly paint the faces of the two housings
with a suitable jointing compound.
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Page M]
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DRIVE (M)
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To RemoveCamshaft.
.,
Removecylinder head (SeeSection H).
Remove timing case front cover.
Remove sump (See Section P).
Remove lubricating oil pump (See Section P\
Remove timing case' Power Take Olf' facing
cover.
Note timing marks (See Section N.l.)
1
Removeidler gear.
Ir engineis in a swivel stand, turn enginecompletely over. Ir not, lar engine over at an angle.
This wilt prevent the tappets dropping out when
the camshart is removed.
Removecamshaft.
To RemoveCamshaft Gear.
To removecamshaftgear from camshaftremove
the three setscrews in the centre of the gear.
The gear can now be removedfrom the camshaft.
To ReplaceCamsbaft Gear.
Tbe three clearanceholes drilled at equaI angies
are the holesfor attachingthe gearto the camshaft.
Tbc three slotted holes are for use with the fuel
pump.
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When fitting areplacementgear to the camshaft,
turn the camshaft untiI No. I cam is upright. It
will be observedthat a tapped hole on the camshaft hub is also at the top, in line with No. I cam.
Look at the gear and it will be noticed that one of
the holes in the gear has the letter .. D " adjacent
to it.
Placc the gear on the hub with thesetwo holes
in line
Replacesetscrewsand plaiD washers,finally lock
setscrewswith locking wire.
To Replace Camshaft.
See tbat tappets are in position.
Replace camsbaft.
Replace idler gear but do not lock idler gear
retaining setscrew.
Reset timing (SeeSection N).
Re-assembleengine as required and to tbe
instructions given for tbc various operations.
To RemoveFoei Pump.
Removefuel injection pipe lines from atomisers
and fuel pump.
Disconnect fuel supply lines.
Remove tbe setscrewsholding tbe fuel pump
to tbe timing caseand removefuel pump.
To remove tbe fuel pump gear remove tbe three
setscrewssecuring tbe gear to tbe fuel pump
adaptor.
To Replace Foei Pump.
Ir the gearbas beenremovedfrom tbe fuel pump
re-fit gear or, if necessary,fit replacementgear.
The three slotted holes in tbe gear are for fitting
the gear to the fuel pump adaptor.
Fit fueI pump to timing case.
Time fueI pump in conjunction witb the engine
as given in Section N.
Replace atomisers.
Connect-up fueI supply lines.
Replace fueI injection pipes.
When fitting a new or replacementfuel pump,
remove the pump inspectioncover and pour sufficient engine oil into the spring chamber untiI oil
comes out of the overflow. Refit the inspection
cover.
1
Page N 1
TIMING
(N
NOTE.- When checking and adjusting valve clearancesthe engineshould
be turned to bring the respective pistons to T.D.C. on compression.
The timing or resettÏl1gof the timing on the
Perkins L4 engine can be simply and expediently
carried out if the following instructions are fol.
lowed.
..,
It is well to rememb:r ..hat if tbc cylinder hcad
has been removed it does not, in any way, affect
the timing of the engine.
MARKINGS.
The timing gears are marked as shown in Fig. N.1
so that, if for any reason the timing has to be
broken, the engine can easily be re-set to its
original timing.
Tbere are two different markings on the Cuet
pump adaptor. One is a scribed line marked
with tbe letter .. S" whicb should coincide witb
tbe scribed line on the pointer of the Cuet pump,
wben the engine is set at T .D.C. firing on No. r
cylinder (Sec Fig. N .2).
Tbe altemative scribed line on tbe fuel pump
adaptor denotes spill timing, 21° B.T.C. In the
caseof L4 enginesfitted to the Marshall Crawler
Tractor, the spill timing is 24° B.T.D.C.
To obtain access to the fuel pump markings it
is necessary to remove the inspection plate situated
on the left hand side of the timing case.
To Re-set Engine to its Original Timing.
Remove atomisers.
Brlng Nos. I and 4 pistons to the top. That
T..D.C. bas been obtained can he checked by
examining tbe flywheel or tbc front end of the
crankshaft, where the key of the fan belt pulley
should he at tbc top of its periphcry.
Set fucl pump gear with scribed linc ., S" on
the fuel pump adaptor in line with the scribed line
on the pointer of the fuel pump.
Rotate camshaft to bring inlet and exhaust
valvesof No. 4 cylinder to rocking position.
With the crankshaft set as describedaboveplacc
idler gear in position, ensuring that the timing
marks line up correctly. Replace idlcr gear s"etscrew,tightcn and lock with tab washer.
VALVE n~G
If for any reason a new camshaft gear bas been
fitted it may be necessaryto re-time the engine.
Fit replacement gear as instructed in Section L
and proceed as follows :Bring Nos. I and 4 pistons to T .D.C. That
T .D.C. bas been obtained on Nos. I and 4 pistons
can be checked by examining the flywheel, or the
crankshaft at the front end where the key for the
fan belt pulley should be at the top of its periphery.
Remove idler gear.
1
1
Page N2
Turn camshaft until equal lift is obtainecl on
tbc tappcts of No. 4 cylinder.
Timing-conlinued
Turn thc enginc through two revoluûons of thc
crankshaft and checkthe fuel pump timing according to instructions for checking injection timing.
Turn fuel pump gear until scribed line marked
with the letter ,. S" on thc fuel pump adaptor is
in linc with the scribed linc on the pointer on the
fue) pump.
Placetbc idler gear in position.
Replace push rods and rocker sb;.ft assembly.
Check valve and injection timing. If found to be
correct, tighten idler gear retaining jetscrew and
lock witb tab washer. For settingvalveclearance1
and cbeckingvalve timing secmethod "To ChecJ:
Timing."
TO CHECK TIl\InNG.
To check timing proceed as follows
(a) Valve Timing.
Remove valve cover.
Remove atomisers.
Turn engine until equal lift is obtained on the
tappets of No. 4 cylinder. In this position, set
the clearance on No. I inlet valve to .025 in. (.64mm)
.,.-
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Turn enginein the normal direction of rotation
until the inlet push rad of No. 1 cylinder just
beginsto tighten. This is the point at which the
inlet valve begins10 open.
INJECTION TIMING.
If thc fucl pump bas beenremoved,or a replacement pump is to bc fitted it will be necessaryto
time thc fucl pump in conjunction with thc engine.
Proceed as follows :Remove atomisers.
Remove valve cover.
Turn enginc to bring Nos. 1 and 1 pistons to
tbc top, No. 1 piston being on thc compression
stroke, thc rockers of No. 4 cylinder being just
rocking.
Check that Nos. 1 and 4 pistons ace at T .D.C.
by cxamining thc flywhccl.
Turn the fuel pump gear until the scribed lino
marked .. S .. on the fuel pump adaptor is in lino
with the scribed lino on the pointer of the fuel
pump
Providing tbe engine is still set as mentioned
above, the fuel pump maf then be placed in
position and tbe securing setscrewstightened.
Checkthrougb the inspectionhole in tbe flywbeel
bousing that tbe flywbeel T .D.C. mark is centra!
witbin tbe inspection hole. Ifthe T.D.C. mark on
the flywhee! is witbin plus or minus 3° of T.D.C.
position, then the valve timing is correct.
Having checked the valve timing, thc valve
clearancesshould be re-set to .010 in. (.25 mm)
with engine warm. When checking and adjusting
valve clearancesthe engine should be tumed to
bring the respectivepistons to T.D.C. on compression.
T"
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(b) Injection Timing.
To check the fuel pump timing proceed as
follows ;R.emoveatomisers.
Remove valve cover.
r
Remove tbe inspection plate 011the side of the
timing case.
Turn the engine in the normal direction of
rotation and bring Nos. 1 and 4 pistons to the top,
No. 1 pistcn being on the compression strok~.
the rockers of No. 4 cylinder being just rocking.
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Timing -conllnued
Page N3
Check that Nos. 1 and 4 pistons are at T .O.C.
by examining the flywheel.
Check through tbe inspection hole that the
scribedline marked .. S " on the fuel pump adaptor
Sbould tbc scribed lines mentioned above not
coincide, adjustment CaDbe made by slackcning
tbe three setscrewsin tbe ccntre of tbe fuel pump
gear, tben turning thc fuel pump adaptor in thc
direction required.
is in line with the scribedline on the pointer of the
fuel pump (See Fig. N.2).
To obtam accessto tbe setscrewsremovc tbe
plate on thc front uf tbe timing casecover.
1
Fig. N2. Diagram showing fuel pump gear and scribed lines'
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Page PI
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SYSTEM
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Note :-Lubricating Gil SpeciJications
in Appendix
,
Tbe importance of correct and clean lubrication
cannot be stressedtoa highly and all referencesto
engineoil should be taken to mean lubricating oil
which raIls within the specificationsgiven in the
Appendix. Care should be taken that the oil
chosenis that specifiedfor the climatic conditions
undcr which the engine is operated.
Tbe sump should be filled with suitable lubriI."antto the correct level, but do not attempt to
overfill above the ruIl mark. Before filling, or
checking the dipstick. ensure that the engine is
level.
Gil Circulation.
Tbe system of lubrit:ation is pressure reed to
main and big end beanngs,to camstlaft bearings
and to vaJverocker assembly.
The pump draws oil through the strainer from
the sump and delivers it by an external pipe
inside tbe crankcasethrougb a drilling in tbe side
of tbe cylinder block ; thence through the lubricating oil filter bracket to the lubricating oil filter.
From the tilter it is delivered througb a second
drilling in the lubricating oil filter bracket and
cylinder block to the pressure rail wbich is an
internal passagewitbin the crankcase; holes are
drilled which lead from the pressure rail to tbe
crankshaft main hearingsand holes dril led in tbe
cranksbaft carry oil to the big end bearings.
Surplus oil returns to the sump.
A seal prevents oil leaking from the rear end
of the crankshaft.
The smalt end bushesare lubricated by splash
and lubricating oil mist.
A passagefrom tbe centremain bearing conveys
oil to tbe centre camshaft hearing which is also
in open communication with the top face of the
cylinder block by means of a vertical drilling.
In conjunction with tbe centrecamshaftjournal,
this Jatterdrilling servesto provide oil at a teduced
pressureto tbe top face of tbe cylinder block and
thenceto the rocker assembly.
The camshaft journal contains two drilled
passagesand when, as in Fig. P.2, these drillings
CP)
are in line with the feed from the centre main
be.\ring, oil flows to the top face of the cylinder
block. Since thesedrillings coincide but momentarily for every revolution of the camshaft,only a
reducedquantity of oil is deliveredto the drilling
leading to the top t:'lce of the cylinder block.
This drilling matchesup with a vertical passage
machinedthrough to the top face of the cylinder
head from whencethe oil is taken by an external
pipe to the hollow rocker shaft. Drillings in this
shaft allow the oil to passto the rockers,the overflow being returned to the sump by way of the
push rod chamber.
Gil also flows from the front main hearing
bracketvia a hole drilled in the front of the cylinder
block to the idler gear spigot from which it escapes
through a drilling in the boss of the idler gear
to lubricate the timing gears.
A further drilling from No. I Main Bearing
Housing conveysoil to the front camshafthearing,
surplus oil returning to the sump.
Oil Pressure.
Sec tbat oil pressureis registeredon the gauge.
The actual pressure may vary with individua!
engines and under different operating conditions
but shou!d he 25/50 Ibs. per sq.in. (1.76/3.52kg/
sq.cm) at working temperature and maximum
engine speed.
Ir the oil pressure,as registeredon the gauge, is
below normal check the following in tbe order
gJvenbelow.
(I) Dipstick. Ensure that there is sufficient oi!
in the sump.
(2) Oil pressure gauge. Check for accuracy
with master gauge.
(3) Lubricating oil filter. May be choked. clean
or re-ncw element(seeperiodical attentionsSection
F).
(4) Sumpstrainer. This may bechoked,remove,
clean and replace (for removal instructions sec
Page P.2).
(5) Lubricating oil pump. Ensure that suction
and delivery pipe unions are tight.
(6) Oil pressure relief valve. Foreign matter
may be preventing the valve from closing. For
cleaning ifistructions Page P.3.
Page P2
.
1
Lubrication System-continued
the climate in which the engine is operated (See
Appendix).
General.
Particular care must be taken to wipe oir any
water which may have splashedonto the enginear
any time, sincewater, which may find its war into
the sumpfrom the exterior, will tend to form sludge.
Failure to change the oil at the recommended
intervals is falseeconomyevenif the oil seemsgood
at the time of recommendedchange.
Dirty lubricating oil filters aggravatethe formation of sludge,which in turn will further choke the
filters. Regular filter inspection and cleaning at
the specified periods is essential,see Section F.
The OU PressureRelief Valve.
1he oil pressurereliefvalve which is incorporated
in the pump prevents the pressurebecoming excessiveas might otherwisehappenwhen the engine
is cold.
When the predetermined pressure is exceeded
the valve opensagainstthe spring and sameof the
oil is by-passedback into the sump. Tbat continues
until the oil warms up and fiows at the desired
oressure. Tbe valve then closes.
Cn early engines the oil pressurerelief valve
housingwas integral with the bottom cover of the
lubricating oil pump and to obtain accessto the
valve for cleaning, seePageP.3.
As from Engine No. 6032453,however, lubricating oil pumps ipcorporate a detachablepressure
relief valve which is screwedinto the outlet side
of the pump body, (SeeFig. P.l). The action of
this valve is identical to that described above,
and cleaning instructions are given on page P.3.
Men to Renewthe Oil.
Thc oil in tbc sump must be drained in accordance witb periodical attentions Section F and
replacedby new oil of a specificationsuitable for
To Remove,Clean and ReplaceSump Strainer.
Drain oil into a suitablereceptacleafter removing
the drain plug. Remove setscrewsholding sump
strainer cover. This cover is situated near the
drain plug.
Drop cover and strainer will come away witb
cover.
Wash and clean strainer in clean fuel oil or
paraffin.
To re-assemble,reversetbe order of operations.
Ensure that the oil pump suction pipe enters thc
hole provided in the strainer.
If reasonablecare is taken when removing and
replacing sump strainer cover, tbc joint wiIl not
require renewingevcry time the strainer is removed.
To RemoveSnmp.
Removedrain plug and drain ofT.oil.
Remove dipstick.
Remove sump strainer (as above).
Removeall setscrewssecuringsump to crankcase
and lower sump.
Removeall traces of old joints and sump cork
strip from timing casebottom cover and rear main
bearing cap.
To Replace Sump.
Assembiencw joints and cork strips.
Lightly smear crankcase races with a thin
coating of jointing compound and place joints
in position ensuring all holes line up.
".When placing joints in position it is important
OP'
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Lubricalion Sysiem-continued
that the mitred ends go right up into the recesses
of the timing case bottom cover and rear main
hearing cap.
Cut cork joints to required length and lightly
coat one face and the two sideswith jointing compound and place in position.
To facilitate assemblyof the sump, screw two
guide studs into the crankcase,one on each side.
The studs will position the sump accuratelyand
prevent displacementof the joints.
Placethe sump in position and insert the screws
Remove guide studs.
When all the setscrews have been inserted
tighten evenly all round. Do not overtighten
setscrews.
Replace sump strainer and cover plate as
previously described.
To Removeand Refit OU Pump.
Remove sump and sump strainer (see previous
headings).
Disconnect Dil pump delivery pipe from the
crankcaseunion.
Removesetscrewfrom centre main hearing cap
thus releasingthe Dil suction pipe.
Unscrew the lubricating oil pump locating setscrew. This screwis situated outside the cylinder
block (See Fig. Pol).
The oil pump may ncw be removed(SeeFig. Pol).
To refit, reversethe above order of operations.
To Removeand Clean OU PressureRelief Valve.
With engines prior to No. 6032453. the oil
pressurerelief valve forms part of the oil pump
bottom cover. The breaking pressureis set and
adjusted at the factory and unless special test
equipmentis available no attempt should be made
to dismantie the oil pressurerelief valve.
To obtain accessto the relief valve foT cleanin.R
proceedas follows :Removesump and sump strainer.
Removelubricating oil pump from engine.
Removethe setscrewssecuringthe bottom cover
and removebottom cover.
Wash the valve in clean fuel oil and blow the
valve dry with compressedair.
Secthat the balI and bali seatare perfectly clean
and bedding correctly.
Page P3
Re-assemblebottom cover to pump using a ncw
bottom coverjoint.
When re-assembling bottom cover to pump,
note the waming gjven on page P.4.
On engines subsequent to No. 6032453, the
lubricating oil pump relief valve may be rmloved
and cleaned without dismantling the pump from
the engine.
Af ter the sump bas beenremoved,break locking
wire, and unscrew the relief valve assemblyfrom
the sideof the oil pump body. Thereaftercleaning
of the valve assemblyshould be in accordancewith
instructions detailed below.
To DismantIe the Oil Pump.
Removepump from engine(Seeabove).
Removelocking wire from suction and delivery
pipe banjo balts and remove pipes. In the case
of enginessubsequentto No. 6032453,it will be
necessaryto remove the relief valve assemblyin
order to releasethe delivery or outlet pipe.
Removethe setscrewssecuringthe bottom cover
and gear housing.
Tbe idler gear can now be removed.
Pressoff spiral driving gear.
Tbe drive shaft and gear can now be removed.
To remove gear from shaft use suitable press.
To remove the idler gear shaft, withdraw the
split pin fust ; the shaft caD then be pressedout.
Unless areplacement shaft is to be fitted it is not
necessaryto remove this shaft and pin.
Tbe cleaning of the pressure relief valve bas
been dealt with under a previous heading.
Inspection.
All the parts of the pump should be cleaned
and inspected for wear. The fit of the shaft in
the pump body should be carefully checked. The
shaft should work easily without lateral movement
in the bushesfitted in the body. If the bushesare
wom they should be replaced.
If tbc oil pump gears show signs of wear they
shouid be renewed.
To Re-assemblethe Dil Pump.
Pressdrive shaft gear on to shaft The end of
the shaft should be flush with the bottom faceof the
gear.
Assembiegear and shaft to pump body.
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Page P4
-
Lubrication System continued
~
Assembie idler gear, pump housing and joint
to body; secureby using setscrewswith suitable
distancepieces.
Using a suitable press, press the spiral driving
gear on to tbe shaft. Tbe shaft end should be
just level with the top face of the spiral gear.
.,..
Check that there is clearancebetweenhousing
and gears.
Place bottom cover joint on bottom face of
housing and with a straight edgeand feeier gauge,
check tbe clearancebetweenthe straight edgeand
face of gears. This clearanceshould be .002in.
to .006 in. (.051 to . 152mm). ft is important that
this clearancedoes not exceed.006 in. (.152 mm)
otherwisethe pump output will be insufficient and
the lubricating system adversely affected.
Assembiebousing,joints, idler gear and bottom
coverto pump body, usingnew Sbakeproofwasbers
for tbc secunng setscrews.
..
WARNlJ."lG:-WHERE APPLICABLE, WHEN
RE-ASSEMBLING BOTrOM COVER CARE
MUST BE TAKEN TO ENSURE THAT
THE COVER IS ASSEMBLED WITH THE
OIL RELlEF VALVE ON THE DELlVERY
SIDE OF THE PUMP.
.,..
New joints should be used when carrying Qut
the above test.
Replace suction and delivery pipes and lock
banjo balts with locking wire.
Removesetscrews,pump housingand idlef gear.
Re-assemblcpump to enginc.
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Paee Q\
W A TER
PUMP(Q)
The cooling water is circulated by a centrifugal
type pump mounted on the front end of the
cylinder block and driven by a Vee belt from
the engine crankshaft. Provision is made for
fitting a fan on the front of the water pump pulley.
Tbe pump does not require greasing as the
I,earingsare treated with a special greasebefore
assembly.
When re-assemblingto cylinder block a new
joint should be used to cnsure that a watertight
joint is made.
To Dismande Water Pump.
Remove split pin from slotted nut securing
water pump pulley, and removenut and washer.
Removewater pump pulley.
.
Removeimpeller from shaft.
Remove front bearing retaining circlip using long
nosepliers for the purpose.
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Fil. Q.l. WaterPumpin Section
6. Hearings
12. DistantePiece
7. Plain Washer 13. Front Scal
I. Body
2. Impellcr
3. Sbaft
4. RcarScal
S.Throwcr
8. Split Pin
9. Slotted Nut
10. Pulley
11. Circlip
Retaining Plate
14. Front Scal
IS. Front Seal
Housing
To Remoyeand Refit Water Pump.
Slacken dynamo securing screws and remove
fan belt.
Removefan.
Unscrew nuts securingwater pump to cylinder
block and removewater pump.
To refit pump to cylinder block is a reversalof
the above procedure.
-
Removerear seal.
Using a suitable press,
press the shaft out of the
body from the impeller end
leaving tbe thrower loose
in the body. Thesecan now
be removedfrom the body.
Removethe front sealand
tlanges. The two bearings
and distance piece will still
be on the water pump shaft.
These can be removed by
means of a suitable press.
Inspection.
Ir the water pump drive
shaft shows signs of wear
in the region of the bearings, the shaft must be
renewed,as a wam shaft in
this region wilt allow the
inner race of the bearingto
rotate on the shaft.
Clean impeller and check for cracks and broken
blades.
Examine casing for cracks.
Washhearingsin thin lubricating oil and examine
for pitting, corrosion or wear. Ir necessaryrenew
hearings.
To Re-AssembleWater Pump.
1. Press rear hearing on to shaft, fit hearing
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Page Q2
distancepieceand then presson front bearing.
Ensure that each hearing end cover faces
outwards towards the ends of the shaft.
hand to ensure that ther\: is no undue re.
.istance to rotation.
8. Presson the pulley making certain that no
rearward axial movemem of the shaft is
incurred.
2. The front seal retaining plate should then he
placed in position against the back face of
the rear hearing. This retaining plate is
. dished' and when positioned, the centre
9. The impelle( should now be pressedon to the
shaft. With the impeller fitted. care should
be taken to ensurethat a clearanceof .015.025 in. (.38 to .64 mm) is maimainedbetween
the inner edge of the impeller vanes and the
water pump body. As a guide to obtaining a
correct clearancein this respect,the impeller
should be so positioned as to allow a straight
edgeto simultaneouslytouch the back face of
the pump body and the two raised extractor
hole racesin the teat of the impeller.
of the plate must not be in contact with the
rear bearing.
3. Fit the feit sealand sealhousing,so that these
bear on the retaining plate.
4. Prcssthe water pump thrower on to the shaft
so that the thrower Rangefaces towards the
rear bearing.
S. The whole of the foregoing assemblyshould
then be pressedinto the water pump body
from the front end, and the circlip securely
positioned in the recessforward of the front
bearing. Before pressing the assemblyinto
the pump body, however, the bearings and
the spacebetweenthe two bearingsshould be
half filled with a high melting point grease.
6. Fit the rear sealinto the pump body ensuring
that the carbon face is positioned towardsthe
rear ofthe pump body. When fitted, the seal
must rest squarelyon its scat and not be
canted in any way.
7. At this stage the shaft should be turned by
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10. Refit plain washerand slotted nut and secure
with a new split pin.
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Modified Water Pump
L4 enginessubsequentto No. 6036233,arc fittcd
with a modificd water pump.
This latcst assembly (Fig. Q.2) incorporates
largcr impcller shaft bcaringsthan thoseprcviously
utiliscd, and, accordingJy,thc interior dimensions
of tbc body have beenamcnded.
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In addition the dimensioningof the latcst water
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1. Body
2. Impe11cr
3. Shaft
4. RcarScal
5. Bcarings
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12.
Sclf Locking Nut
Pulley
Circlip
Distancc Piccc
Front ScaI Rctaining Platc
Fro t cal Housing
Front Scal
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Water
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Page Q3
pump body and pulley result in a very limited
clearancebetween these components so that the
labyrinth sealing effect obtained offers increased
restriction to the passageof dust to the water pump
front bearing.
A modification to the impeller shaft dispenses
with the thrower flange previously fitted at the rear
of the front seal and self-locking nut replacesthe
retaining slotted nut and split pin previously fitted
to retain the water pump pulley.
Sincethe width of the pump bearingshave been
increased,a shorter distance piece is now fttted
between the bearings, and the increasedbearing
diameter necessitatesthe use of a larger front
bearingretaining circlip.
The processof dismantling and reassemblyuf
the water pump asdetailedpreviouslyis applicable
to the latest type pump with the exceptionof those
remarks in respect of the thrower flange and
slotted pulley retaining nut and split pin.
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Page Rl
FAN
..,
AND DYNAMOBELT
Incorrect adjustment of the fan and dynamo
belt can result in the fraying of the belt and eventual failure. To ensure the belt is correctly
adjusted it should be checked every 50 hours.
Tight adjustmentwill tend to overloadthe bearings
in the dynamoand water pump which consequently
may result in damage to these components. If
the adjustment is too slack belt slip wi./l occur.
In the event of a new belt being fitted it is advisabie to check the adjustment again after a few
hours running to ensure no initial stretching has
occurred. Should this have developed re-:\dj ust
a~ already described.
1
Fig. Rl
This couJdresuJtin overheatingof the enginedue
to the reduced efficiency of the water pump and
the inability of the fan to draw cool air through
,
Method of CheckingCorrect AdjustmeDL
Pressthe fan belt with the thumb at the centre
poiDt betwecnthe water pump and the cranksbaft
pulley in a sideways direction (Sec Fig. R.l).
Check the amount of movement of tbe fan belt
which should he tin. (19.05 mm) if correctly
adjusted.
Metbod of Adjustment.
Unscrew the dynamo adjusting lever setscrew,
the setscrew securing adjusting lever to timing
case and dynamo support bracket bolts. Th~
dynamo caD then be moved inwards towards the
engine to slacken the belt and in an outwards
direction to ûghten it. When the belt is tensioned
correctly, tighten dynamo adjusting lever setscrew,
the setscrewsecuringadjustingleverto timing case,
and support bracket balts.
,
,
the radiator. The output of the dynamo would
also he reduccd.
DynamoBracket LO(.atingScrew.
This locatingscrewis adjustablewhen in position
in the rear arm of the dynamo support bracket,
and should alwaysbe tight againsttbe rear dynamo
lug before tbe support bracket nuts and bolts are
tightened.
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Page SI
FUEL
SY STENl (S)
This sectionis included mainly for the benefit of overseasusers,and for those in out-of-the way places.
As dcscribed, the maintenance and repair operations are made to appear quite simple: in
reality. the risk of amistake occurring which would causedamageto costly parts, is such as to make it
inadvisable for any but experts to undertake the work.
The principal componentsof tbe equipmentfor
delivering the fuel oil to tbe enginecylinders are:
filters, fuel lift pump, fuel pump and atomisers.
Tbe fuel lift pump ., lifts" tbe fuel from tbe
tank to tbe fuel pump which conveysit in measured
quantities, and at appropriate intervals, to the
atomisers.
Tbe normal course of tbe fuel from the tank
to the engineis by way of : first, the fuellift pump,
tben tbe paper element type fi1ter. tbe fuel pump
and the atomisers.
On certain installations the fuel system is
gravity red, and therefore no fuel lift pump is
fitted. Tbe fi1ter system in these applications
~onsistsof a water trap and a paper elementtype
filter.
Two conditions are essentialfor efficient operation.
First, that the fuel oil should he clean,free from
water,suspendeddirt, sand,or other foreign matter
and shouldconform to the following specification:
Britisb Standard2869 (1957) Class A.
Second, that tbe fuel reaches the fuel pump
in a perfectlyclean state.
Fuelshould he filtered beforeenteringthe tank.
Given theseconditions, ninety per cent at least
of potential engiDetroubles would be eliminated.
The attention of tbc operator is, on that account,
eamestly directed towards those paragraphs of
this Manual which refer to the care and upkeep
of tbe filtering apparatus.
The FueJLift Pump.
The Cue!lift pump is fitted in pressure red
systemsoniy. In the caseof gravity red systems,
the lift pump is removed and a blanking plate
fitted in its place.
The lift pump is of the simple spring-returned
plunger type. It is driven by one of the cams on
the camshaft of the fuel pump. on the side of
which it is fitted. It is shown in Fig. 5.1.
A hand primer is fitted, Fig. 5.1, for use if tlle
supply of fuel from the tank has at any time failed,
To use this primer unscrew me handle, which
is free to lift, and then pump by hand until the
pipes, lift pump and fuel pump are ruIl of fuel oiJ.
To ensure that this is so, proceed as instructed
on page 5.6.
Fuel Pump.
The fuel pump is an instrument of precision.
lts working parts are made to extremelyfine limits
and mishandling in any shape or form, or the
entry of the smallest particle of dirt into its
working parts, may damage it and diminish its
accuracyof operation. Hence the importance of
ensuring that the fuel is thoroughly fi1leredbefore
the pump is reached.
When fitting a new or replacementfuel pump,
removethe pump inspectioncover and pour suffi.
cient engine oil into the spring chamber until oil
comesout of the oil over.low. Refit the inspection
cover.
Thereafter,check the oil level and top up with
fresh oil when necessaryevery 100 hours or as
often as is necessaryto maintain the correct leve!.
The outside of the pump should be cleanedbefore
removing the inspectioncover to ensuredirt does
not enter thc pump.
Refer now to Fig. S.ll, the sectional Jrawing
of the fuel pump.
Fue/ fn;ection System-conttnued
Page 52
Oil is supplied from the lift pump through the
fuel inlet connection, 25, and entirely fills the
fuel pump gallery, 23. That is a tubular passage
running the fuillength of the Cue!pump and closed
at lhe end opposite to the inlet by the vent
plug. This fuel pump gallery is connectedthrough
small ports with all the pump barrels, 19.
In the baseof the body of the pump is a camshaft. In contact with each cam is a cam roller,
14.
The roller is held in close contact with the
cam by the spring, 15. The top of this tappet
is in closecontact with the lower end of the pump
plunger, 20, contact being maintained between
plunger and tappet by the pressureof the oU above
the plunger.
As the pump plunger falls, oil fiows into the
barrel through the port. As the plunger rises it
closesthe port and propels the oil past the delivery
valve, 21, into the pipe leading to the atomiser.
Fig. S.2 showshow the upper part of the pump
plunger is formed. Observe that an annular
groove is cut in the plunger. The lower edge of
this groove is level, or horizontal, the upper edge
B, is helical. In addition there is avertical groove
cut right to the top of the plunger and running
into the annular groove.
This groove is the meansof varying the quantity
of Cueldelivered per stroke. (See below).
The first sketch in Fig. S.3, shows the working
end of the plunger and barrel with the fuel port
in the latter, which, it should be remembered,is
in communication with the fuel gallery, 23, of
the pump (Fig. S.lI). The plunger is shown at
the bottom of its stroke with the cam at its bottom
dead centre.
As the camshaft turns the plunger rises, but
nothing happensuntil the top end of the plunger
bas reached the upper edge of the port in the
barrel and closes it. Then the oU is propelled
past the delivery valve and injection commences.
The camshaft of the fuel pump is direct driven
from the engine timing gear at half engine speed.
It is .. timed" like the magneto or distributor
of a petrol engine,so that the closing of the port
and commencing of fuel delivery to the engine,
that is, injection, comesat a predeterminedpoint
in the compressionstroke. The timing, of course,
is preciselythe sameCoreach cylinder.
Oil continues to fiow until the helical upper
edgeB of the groovein the pump plunger uncovers
the port. When that happens communication is
establishedbetweenthe oil above the plunger and
that in the gallery via la) lhe vertIcal Sroove.
(b) the annular groove. (c) the port in the pump
barrel. (See Fig. S.2).
11lat is the position shown in the secondsketch
of Fig. S.2.
Tbe Dil then ceasesto flow to the atomisersand
is merely by-passedthrough thesepassagesto tbe
fuel pump gallery.
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FIG. SI
FuEL LIFT PUMP.
B
E.
F.
(Tbe preliminary fiJler is not alwayssupplied).
TappetRoller.
S. PackingWasher.
FuelOutlet.
T. Valve Plugs.
Outlet Valve.
U. Copper-Asbestos
G.
H.
J.
Plunger Spring
Inlet Valve.
Inlet.
V.
W.
Sealing Washen
Spring Chamber Caps
Lift Pump Body.
N.
P.
Guide SpindIe.
Preliminary Filter
Y.
Gauze Container.
SpindIe Guide.
L.
Q.
R
Plunger.
Gauze.
ClampingNut.
Fir;na S'm"
X.
PreliminaryFilter
Z. Primer.
AC. Inlet Plug Filter
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Page S3
Fue/ lnjection System-continued
..,
..,
The upper, and helical edge of the annular
u
groovethus servesas a valve. The higher that
edge is in relation to the top of the plunger the
sooner the cut-oir and the less quantity of oil
supplied to the atomiser per stroke.
By varying the level of that edge the quantity
of oil supplied is controlled.
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To alter that level, so that it uncoversthe port
in the pump barrel to vary the quantity of fuel
delivered, the plunger is turned in its barre! by a
simple means to he describedshortly.
In
the
first
and
plunger
is tumed
vertical
groove
holes
helical
point
in
the
edge
and,
second
just
pump
of the
so
sketches
to one
far
extreme
clear
of
anc
barrel.
In
circular
as
of
of
port
quantity
two
the
the
port
position
the
is at its
in
tbc
concemed
That
S.2,
with
the
that
groove
the
Fig.
position
lowest
barrel
the
is
maximum
of oil is delivered.
is the
plunger
setting
for
of the
starting
tbc
engine.
In
the
third
sketches
shown
fot
a
is
livered
the
plunger
greater
or
The
FIG. SJ. Pump element
shown in section.
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to
oil
for
otber
of
is
shown
sketch. This
by
so
lesser
is
conform
demand
position
precise
varied
the
quantity
is
normal
The
position
tuming
fourth
plunger
set
running.
that
and
the
dewith
power.
extreme
the
plunger
in
the
fifth
is the"
stop .,
position : the vertical groove is now in line with
the delivery port to the fuel pump gallery, whicb
is thus put into communication with the top of
the plunger, and oil therefore,merely passesdown
this vertical groove as the pump plunger rises.
It is not deliveredto the atomisers.
Rotation of the. plunger into these different
positions is brought about in this war. Near the
lower end of each plunger are two lugs (see Fig.
5.3). The lugs are held in a slot on the actuating
sleeve which is mounted on the outside of the
pump barrel and can be rotated. Clampedto the
upper end of each sleeveis a toothed quadrant.
The teeth of the quadrant are engagedby a rack
on the control rad (Fig. 5.11). To and fro movement of the rack turns the quadrants, the sleeves
and the plungers.
Between the fuel pump and the atomisers are
delivery valves, 21, one to each pump plunger,
these serve the important purpose of preventing
dribble at the atomisers. They do that by causing
a sharp cut off in the oil supply at the end of
each injection.
Fig. 5.4 showsa delivery valve. It is at one and
the sametime a poppet valve and a piston valve.
The head is poppet valve shapedand below that
is a cylindrical portion which servesas a piston
valve. In the left-hand sketch of Fig. 5.4, the
valve is shown closed.
This valve bas a high lift, so that, as shown in
Fig. 5.4 the cylindrical part of the valve risesclear
of the valve scat when the valve is fully open.
The war in which this valve operatesto prevent
dribble at the atomiser is as follows :50 long as the fuel pump is delivering fuel oil
the pressureof that oil on the underside of the
valve keeps it wide open as in the third sketch
of Fig. 5.4.
r
Fue/ Injection System-cont/nll~d
Page S4
As soon as the helicat edge of the annular
groovc on the pump plunger uncovcrs the port
in the pump barrel the pressurcof the oil below
the dclivery valve falls and that valvc is promptly
closedby its spring. As it falls the effectsof the
withdrawal of the piston part of the valvc within
tbc seat causesa drop in pressurcin the pipe to
tbc atomiser, causing the nozzle valve to snap
on to its seat sharply, cutting off tbe fuel supply,
so tbat there is na dribble.
A steelpeg is used to centralise the upper end
or the valve spring and also to reducethe capacity
of the holder, thereby improving injection control.
PneumaöcGovernor.
Thc position of tbc control rack, by mcans of
\'thich the quantity of fucl delivered to tbc engine
is rcgulated as describedabove, is determined by
a pneumatic governor. This govemor, part of
\'thich is in tbe farm of a venturi in the enginc
induction system, operates the control rack
according to tbc degrecof vacuum in tbc vcnturi
passagc.
Tberc is a buttertly valve in the venturi. When
that valve is closed, or nearly closed, tbe suction
on tbc engine side of it is considerabie,lessening
as tbc valvc is opened.
A pipe, 29, connects this venturi passagcwitb
a governor casing which is mounted on tbc fucl
pump. See Fig. S.ll.
Reference to the drawing of tbc pneumatic
govemor, Fig. S.ll, will enable its operation to
be understood.
against the resistanceof the light spring shown
disposed within the right-hand chamber.
It will be appreciatedthat as the butterfly valve
is closed the vacuum increasesand the diaphragm
moves to the light.
The centte of the diaphragm is coupled to the
control rod of the fuel pump. Movement of this
rod towards the governor tends to reduce the
supply of fuel to the atomisers, as explained on
page S.3.
Thus, closing the butterfly valve increasesthe
vacuum in the chamber, moves the diaphragm
to the light, and reducesthe supp!y of Cue!to the
engine.
The butterfly valve is operated by the ordinary
throttle valve levers and in that way the speed
of the engineis controlled.
Now here is a point of the very greatestim
portance.
Any leaks in the joints of the pipe, 29, in the
pipe itself, or in the diaphragm, will diminish
the degree of vacuum and cause the engine to
run raster than it should and id!e erratically.
Hence the instructions, given later, urging cara
in ensuring that there are no air leaks in the
system.
If the pipe, 29, were to become detached, or
be !eft uncoupled, and the engine run, it wou!d
race and very smous damage be caused.
Hence the warning, repeated later, that the
engine must never be run unless the venturi
control unit, pipe and induction manifold are il1
position and all joints are tight.
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Tbc important elcmcnt is tbe tlexible leather
diaphragm, 28, which divides the space inside
tbc govcrnor casing into two compartments,one
of which, that on tbe right, is airtight.
This airtight compartment is in communication
with tbc venturi by means of a pipe, 29. The
vacuum in tbc vcnturi is thus cómmunicated to
tbe airtight compartmcnt and tbc right-hand side
of tbc diaphragrn.
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Tbc chambcr, to the left of the diaphragrn,
is not subject to vacuum.
Tbc diaphragrn, thereforc, is constantly subject
to a pressurc tending to move it to the right,
open
closed
FIG. 54. Delivery Valve.
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Contro1lingthe Idllng Speed.
An important function of this pneumatic
govemor is that of controlling the idling speed
of the engine.
Tbat is the speedat which it rotates when the
butterfly is in its nearly closed position. That
position is detennined and limited by an adjustable stop mounted on the body of the venturi.
With the butterfly valve control lever in this
limiting position the vacuum in the airtight
chamber is at a maximum and the diaphragm
together with the fuel pump control rad, is as
far to the right as the damping spring, des~ribed
below, will allow it to go. Tbe minimum quantity
of fuel, just sufficient to .. idle" the engine, is
then being delivered.
J
Vader these conditions there is a tendencyfor
the engine to .. hunt," that is, for its speed to
fluctuate.
It is to eliminate .. hunting" and to ensure a
oteadyidling speed,that the .. damping" mechanism shown on the extremeright of the pneumatic
govemor is provided. Refer agam to FIg. S.ll.
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Tbe idling control spindle, 33, which is under
the control of a small strong spring, 32, contacts
the centre of the diaphragm when the latter is in
the extremeright or .. idling " position and steadies
it.
Adjustment is provided for the positioo of this
spindie.
Screwing the adjustment in drives the spindie
further io and increasesthe idling speed.
Adjustmeot of the idliog speed is etfectcd by
altemate manipulation of the screw 00 the end
of the poeumatic governor and the stop foT the
venturi lever.
This is a very delicate operation, ooly to be
attempted by experts. Tt is complcted at the
works for every cngine.
There is another adjustable stop 00 the venturi
to limit the maximum speedof the engine,which
is sealed. Disturbance of this seal may iovolve
forfeiture of the manufacturer's guarantee.
Tostop the cngine the stop lever, 34, is moved
clockwisc, carrying the control rack with it and
tuming the pump plungcr into the position shown
,
..,
.,
...
Page S5.
Fuel lniection System-continued
in the fifth sketch of Fig. S.2, the "no Cue!" position
tion.
Atomisers.
Af ter leaving the fuel pump the fuel passes
through short steel pipcs, 35, to the atomisers.
Atomisers perform the function of injecting the
fue!, in the form of fine sprays,into the cylinders,
at the moment when the air in the cylinder has
been comprcssedand, as the result of the comprcssion, is at a temperature sufficient to ignite
the incoming fuel.
An atomiser compriscs two principal parts:
the nozzle,45, with its valve,44, and the atomiser
body, 41.
The atomiser nozzle and nozzle valves are the
important parts. They are shown in Fig. S.8.
Fuel is fed to tbc upper channel in the nozzle
from the atomiser body and travels thencealong a
number of drilled.holcs to the lower circumferential channel. The outlet from the Iatter is
normally closed by the valve as shown.
The atorniser body, complete with nozzle and
nozzle valve lis shown in Fig. S.ll. The nozzle is
held in place by the nozzle holder cap nut, 43.
This holds the upper face of the nozzle in close
contact with the corrcsponding lower face of the
atomiser body. A metal to metal joint is made
here.
Fuel is supplied thrOUgh the fue! inlet connection, 36, and passesthrOUghthe drilled holes
down to the channel in the face of the nozzle.
In the centreof the atomiser body is the spindle,
42, surmounted by the valve spring, 40, and
washer,on the top of which bearsthe compIession
screw,38. There is a lock nut on this screw. A
coveringnut protectsthe upper part of the :Itomiser
body and the comprcssionscrew.
The small quantity of fuel wbich by-passes
the nozzle valve and accumulatcs within thc
atomiser body, lubricatcs the mcchanism and is
led away by a pipe, 37, connectedto the teak-alT
nipp!e stud. At the start of injection the fue!
pump delivels fue! at a bigh prcssure into th~
channe! round the lower end of the nozzle. Tbe
prcssureof this fue! on the end surfaceof the cone
of the valve lifts it against the tension of the
spring and fuel passesthrough two small bo!cs in
the end of tbc nozzle as two fine sprays.
Page S6
Fue/ Injection System-continued
CAREOF THE INJEcnON EQUIPMENT.
THE FILTERS- SeeSection G.
LIFTPUMP.
Tbe inlet valve of the lift pump is accessible
after removal of the hand primer. Tbe outlet
valve is under the plug T, Fig. S.I. The$evalves
and their seatsmust he perfectly clean.
Tbe following are possibletroubles with the lift
pump and the way in which they can he remedied.
location
Condition
rcmedy
or suggestcd
for
correct
working
(a) Fuel tank
empty.
Fuel tank.
Must contain
quate supply.
an ade-
(b) Fuel cock
Fuel cock.
Must be open to iu
closed.
ruIl extent.
(c) Preliminary
Preliminary filter Remove by loosening
filter choked. gauze P.
round nut Q and lifting fixing strap R.
Wash in clean fuel
,lil or paraffin.
Ir
damaged. replace.
fake care to repJace
washer S.
(d) Inlet or
Valves F. & H.
Remove by unscrewing
outlet valve!
hexagon plug T, and
fouJed or
primer Z. Clean in
damaged.
fuel oil or paraffin.
Take care to screw
plug Tand primer. Z,
in to the full e~tent
when replacing.
(e) Plunger or
Plunger L and
E.~tract after unscrew.
tappet spintappet spindIe
jng cap V. Oean in
dIe fouled
N.
fuel oil or paraffin.
or damaged.
NOTE :
2.
If damaged, return
complete with body to
nearest
authorised
agent.
Lüt Pump does oot deüver Sufficient Fuel.
-
Possible Cause
Location
Condition
or suggested
remedy
for
correct
working.
(a) Connection
or pipes beo
tween the
lift pump
and Cuel
pump teak.
ing.
(b) !nIet or outIet valves
leaking.
(c) Plunger
leaking.
(d) Plunger
spring
darnaged.
(e) Preliminary
filter ob.trn~d.
Location.
Condition or suggcsted
rcmcdy for correct
working.
(f) Main pipe
line filter
obstructed.
(a) Air locked
system.
Main filter.
Llean and vent air as
i nstrUcted (In this page.
Main filter.
Vent air by opening
vent screw on main
filter and allowing fue!
(0 flow until perfectly
free from bubblcs. See
below.
...
r
Air Venting the Foei System.
1. Lift Pump does not deüver FueL
Possiblc Causc
Possible Cause
Connection pipe. Sec that aJI joints and
pipes are perfectly airtight.
Yalves F. & H.
rreat as for
Plunger L.
Treat as ror 1 (0).
Plunger
spring G.
Replace.
Preliminary
filter
Gg1l7~ P
Treat as for 1 (c).
(d).
If tbe fuel systembas been openedat any time,
sar for au overhaul, it is necessaryto ensurethat
all air bas been removed before attempting to
start the engine. This should he done as follows :
...
PressureFed Systems.
Slacken small plug on the top of final filter
and operate the hand primer on the fuel lift
pump until Cue!free from air bubb!esissuesfrom
the plug hole. Tighten the plug.
,...
Slackentbe bleed cock on the top of the fuel
pump.
Again operate the hand primer on the fuel lift
pump unti! fuel issuesfrom the bleed cock and all
signs of air have disappeared.
Tighten the b!eed cock securely and give the
primer a few more strokes in order to deliver tbe
Cue!througb the relief valve on tbe final filter
clearing this part of thc systcm of air.
r'"
r
Gravity Fed Systems.
Slacken small plug on the top of the final filter
and turn on fuel tank supply tap until fuel free
from air bubbles issues from the plug hole.
Tighten the plug.
Slacken the bleed cock on the top of the fuel
pump and allow fuel to run until no trace of air
remains.
,...
r-
Tighten the bleed cock securely whilst fuel is
still issuing.
ENGINE TROUBLES
Fuel injection difficulties can arise on the engine
from severalcauses.some of which mav he traced
,...
..
~
Pag~ 57
Iel InjectÎon System-continued
to the Cuet pump. Such difficulties, with the
likely causeand suggestedcure, are set out on the
following tabie. The fust move when a Cuelpump
is suspectedshould be to uncouple the piping
betweenthe fuel pump and the atomisers. If the
engineis then rotated with the pump control rod
set at ruil load position it will be seen whether
or not the Cuelis being deliver.ed. Observeeach
discharge outlet on the fuel pump to see if all
dischargeoutlets are in order. On the following
table the word .. pump " applies to the pump unit
2. Enginedoesnot pull.
block as a whole or to individual elements,and
the numbers reCerred10 are shown in Fig. S.ll.
Possible Cause.
..,
1. Engine will not Start, or Stops after a short
Quantity of
fuel delivered
per stroke
insufficient.
(a) Delivery
valve. 21
~b) Pressure
system
joints.
Ir leaking, clean joint
racesand tighten.
3. Engine emits black smoke.
Condition
Quantity of
Cue!delivered
per stroke
excessive.
Location.
Ca) Regulating
quadrant, 24.
or sugaested
remedy for correct
working.
Ir moved. duo to scrow
being 10050,proceed as
in (r)
time.
Po~iblc Causc.
Location.
Pump does not (a) Fuel cock.
deliver fuel.
(b) Fuel tank.
,
(c) Fuel inlet pipe
or filter
elements.
(d) Air in pump.
(e) Delivery
Valve.21.
...
Must contain an adequate supply.
Clean pipes. examine
filter elements and. if
choked. clean them as
descnbed in Section G.
Air vent filter and
(f) Pump
plunger.20.
Pump does
not deliver
fuel uniformly.
(g) Air in pump.
(h) Delivery valve
spring, 22.
(j) Delivery
valve.
(k) Tappet
spring, 1S
(1) Pump
plunger. 20.
(m) Fuel inlet
pipes or filter
elements.
(n) Fuellift
pump.
valve
I
J
J
and
Return the pump intact to the nearest
service station or to
Perkins Engines ltd.
Air vent filter and
pump as described on
page 56.
Replace if broken.
If damaged on face or
guide replace.
See (f) above.
5ee (f) above.
Proceed as (c)
This pump may not he
operating
efficiently.
See instructions
page 56.
,
on
Clean and inspect. Ir
worn or damaged. replace both
seating.
,
1
Must be open.
pump as described
page 56.
...,
,
Condition or suggcsted
remedy for correct
working.
on
:0) Tappet adjusting scrcw.
Proceedas in (f) above
:p) Cam profiles
Proceed as in (f) above
Control rad
hasjammcd.
(a) Pump
Proceedasin (r)
plunger.20.
(b) Control rod
Proceedasin (r)
NOTE : Ir air is in system, the suction side of lift
pump should fust be examined.
PNEUMAnc GOVERNOR
Adjustment of tbe pneumatic govemor is
etfected at the works when the engineis erected.
It is an operation requiring considerable skill.
Tbe idling stop on the buttertly valve and tbe
adjusting screw on the cap of the govemor have
to be manipulated altematively until smooth
running at the desired idling speed is achieved.
No subsequentadjustment is, in fact, needed.
Any deterioration in the smoothnessof idling is
due to some defect which bas arisen elsewhele
and should he looked for under the paragraphs
in tbis section devoted to care of tbe fuel system
generally.
MAINTENANCE
Tbe tmiest pinhole or crack in the leather
diaphragm will affect the operation of the governor. If such a .ault is suspected.test in this way.
(a) Remove vacuüm pipe.
(b) Move the stop lever into " stop" position.
(c) Place a finger over the diaphragm housing
union in order to seal it.
(d) Releasethe stop lever.
.
,..
Page S8
Fue/ Injection System-continued
,..
r
F"
r
r
,.
FIG. SS. Removing diaphragm from pneumatic govemor.
(e) Tbe control rod should then slowly return
to the maximum speed position after a
quick initial movement for a fraction of
the distance. Ir it returns quickly for the
whole movement and the housings are
clampedfirmly together,then the diaphragm
is leaking and should be replaced by an
authorised agent. Instructions for replacement are given below.
For preference,usea picce of sheetmetal about
tin. (19.0 mm.) wide, shaped at tbc end to fit
the curve of the rim, and sharpened to an edge
similar to that of a screwdriver.
If the diaphragm appearsto be sound as indicated by this test, suspectthe vacuum pipe and
test in a similar way. Replacethe union of this
pipe on the governor casing and uncouple it at
the butterfly end. Repeat the test as before but
placing the finger on the uncovered end of the
vacuum pipe.
Be careful not to mark tbc face of tbc fuel
pump on to which the governor casing fits.
To Renew Leather Diaphragm.
To renew the Ieather diaphragm proceed as
follows :
Disconnectthe vacuum pipe.
Take out the screws holding the pneumatic
governor in place.
Tbe diaphragm will then he accessible. lt is
held in a light U-section meml riJn which must be
prised from the casing. Sec Fig. S.5.
Great care must be exercisedin this operation.
,..
r
Lift the edgc of tbc rim carefully at! round.
When tbc rim is frec, slide tbc socket at tbe
back of tbc diaphragm off tbc pin in tbc control
rod.
To rcplace tbc diaphragm first place the socket
on tbc pin in tbc control rod.
Then prcssthe rim tirmJy in its place.
Replacc the governor casing. being careful to
screw the setscrewsvery tightly and evenly in
position.
CAunON.
Tbe pneumatic governor dep:.ndstor its action
upon pressurevariations set up in the air intake
pipe of the engine by the venturi control valve.
If this should be removed either by itself or with
the inlet manifold during overhaul or it the vaCUUJT,
pipe unions are not always kept perrectly tight.
then the governor may rail to operate causing
damage to the engine.
r
...
,...
,...
,..
,.
,...
,...
,...
,...
t
~
1
.,
IN NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHOULD THE
ENGINE BE RUN WITHOUT VENTURI
CONTROL UNIT. VACUUM
PIPE OR
rNLET MANJFOLD.
Atomisers.
Each atomiser body consists of a steel body
held to the cylinder head by means of a flange
and two studs.
Tbe joint between the atomiser and cylinder
head is made by a specialcopper washerbetween
the lower face of the nozzlecap nut and the metal
of the cylinder.
When preparing to fit the atomiser into place
in the cylinder head; care should be taken that
only this special type of copper washer is used
to make this joint. The metal of the cylinder
head, the facesof the copper joint ring, and the
correspondingface on the nozzle holder cap nut
should be perfectly clean if a leak-proof joint is
to resu[t.
1
1
u
~
Page
Fuel Injection System-cominued
If the union nuts have at any time been overtightened there is a risk that the nippies will have
cracked or been unduly compressed. If 50,
leakage will result.
In this connectionbear in mind that the working
pressurewhich thesejoints must sustain is several
thousand pounds per sq. in. Only a perfect
joint is satisfactory.
It is quite easyto replacethesenippies.
Clean up a length of pipe near the end, using a
fine cut file for the purpose, until the nipple wil!
slide on tI) it.
Remove tbe nipple and replace the union nut
and steel washer. The Iatter must have its coun.
tersunk face towards the nipple.
Now press the nipple on to the pipe, leaving
1/64 in. (.40 mm) of the Iatter protruding.
It is advisableto fit a ncw joint washer when
the atomiseris replacedafter having beenremoved
for any reason.
Hold the pipe in tbe vice 50 that the nii>Ple
rests on the washer and the washer rests on the
top of the vice.
Ensure that the old washer has been removed
from atomiseror cylinder head.
Rivet the protruding portion of the pipe over
the nipple.
This joint washer should be an easy, but not
loosefit for the atomiser nozzle, and it is because
this is such an important feature that the washers
especiallymade for the purpose should be used
and none other. On no account should ordinary
sparking plug type washers be used.
Take care that the hole in the pipe is not closed
whilst rivetting.
The atomiser can now be fitted in place, care
being taken to sec that it is an easy fit in the
cylinder head and on the holding-down studs,
so that it can be placed down on the copper
joint without force of any kind. The nuts on the
flange should then be tightened down evenly in
order to prevent the atomiser nozzle being canted
and so ,. nipped" in the cylinderhead. This is
very important, sinceany unevenness
in tightening
down may causedistortion of the atomisernozzle,
resulting in its failure, and will most certainly
result in blow-by.
Foei Pipes.
No two of the pressurepipes, from fuel pump
to atomisers,are alike. Keep this in mind when
replacing.
J
Examine the brass nippies which wlll be found
on each end of thesepipes.
Clean off witb a fine cut file.
When refitting take care that it is the brass
nipple which makes the joint and not the actual
riveted portion of the pipe.
Af ter fitting ncw nippies WASH THE FUEL
PIPE WITH CLEAN FUEL OIL, using either
the atomiser testing pump or the engine fuel
pump, thus removing any filings which may be
in the pipe.
Offer up the pipe to the delivery valve and
atomiser unions to check that the pipe fits square
at both ends. Do not fit one and then bend the
pipe to square it with the other union.
When fitting tbe pipe tighten the unions alternately a little at a time, first one end and then the
other.
If the nippIes have been properly fitted and the
pipe is squareto the unionsat eachend asdescribed
I'
.
Fuel JnjectionSystem-continued
Page SlO
previously,no force wiil be neededto makea good
joint. No force should be used.
~~
Use only a standard open-endedi in. by ,1çin.
spanner.
If the union is tightened excessivelythe nipple
may collapse and split. Tbe same danser exists
if the pipe is not square to and central with the
union.
Atomisers should he taken out for examination
at regular intervals. How long this interval should
be is difficult to advise, becauseof the widely
different conditions under which enginesoperate.
When combustion conditions in the engine are
good and the fuel tank and filtering system are
maintainedin fust classorder, it is often sufficient
if the atornisersare tested twicc yearly.
For detailed times refer to periodical mainteniince, Section F. It is no use taking atomisers
out for attention ~ess the equipment described
on page S.ll is available, or spare atomisersare
at hand for substitution.
The nearer thc ideal conditions of good fitting
with adequate cooling and absolutely clean fuel
arc realised, the less attention the atomiscrs will
nced, and so the langer their efficient life. In
this conncction, sinco there is no other item of
tbc equipment upon which thc performance of
an engine depends so much, it pays the uscr
handsomely to sec that the engine never runs
with anv of its atomisersout of order.
Troubles in Semce.
The first symptomsof atomisertroubles usually
rail in ODeor more of the following headings;I.
Knocking in one (or more) cylinders.
2. Engine overheating.
3. Loss of power.
4. Smoky exhaust (black).
5. Increased fuel consumption.
r
r
r
When changing an atomiser always remove the
pipe entircly. Never undo only ODeend, leaving
the other tight. Never bqid the pipe.
MAINTEN AN CE.
r
FIG. 56. 5howing plalc Cor holding Atorniscr whilc
is bcinl disrnantlcd.
r
Often tbe pamcular atomiser or atomisers
causing trouble maf he determined by releasing
thc pipe union nut on each atomiser in turn, with
the enginerunning at a fast .. tick-over." This will
r
prevent fuel heing pumped through the nozzle
to the enginecylinder, thereby altering the engine
revolutions. If after slackeninga pipe union nut
tbe cngine revolutions remain constant, this
denotesa faulty atomiser.
Tbe nuts from the flangcofthe doubtful atomiscr
should bc rcmovcd and tbc complete unit witbdrawn from tbc cylinder head and tumcd round.
atomiscr nozzle outwards, .. unwipcd" on its
pipc, and tbc unions re.tightcacd. After slackening tbc unions of tbc other atomiscr pipes (to
avoid the possibility of tbc enginc starting), the
enginc should bc tumcd until tbc nozzlc sprays
into tbc rir, whcn it wiJl bc sccnat onceif tbc spray
is in order. If tbc spray is unduly .. wct" or
.. streaky.. or obviouslyto anc side,or tbc atomiscr
nozzlc .. dribbles," tbe spray holes should be
probcd with the specialtooi ET.120.(SeefIg. S.9).
Ir aftcr probing tbc spray holes, tbc condition of
tbc atomiser is still faulty, removc tbc complete
unit.
Great care shou!d be taken to prevent the hand
from setting into contact with the spray. as the
working pressurewi!l cause oil to penetrate the
skin with case.
Tbc spare atomiser from the tooi kit should be
tltted, the faulty unit being placed in the tooi kit
securely wrapped in ciean grease-proofpaper or
rag for attention on the maint~nanc~!'I..nch
...
.
.
~
.
Page SII
Fue/ lnjection System-conlinued
The only exception is in the case of atomisers
fttted to L4 Enginesinstalled in Marshall Crawler
Tractors where the setting is 160 atmospheres.
Atomisers set at 120 atmosphereshave white
painted capsand the caps of atomisers set at 160
atmospheresare painted silver.
An altemative means of identiftcation is a tab
washer fttted under the atomiser cap nut bearing
the letter .. J " for 120 atmospheres,or the letter
" V .. for 160 atmospheres.
t~v:
i
u,
~
~~~rJ==Jft
~
c:;~;:,~
~
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
ç:l(I:~
9Jf);'"
~
-~k
~~~~
FIG. 57. AtomiserTestingPump.
ExaminadoDand TestiDg.
A bench suitable for working with atomisersis
preferably linoleum-covered with glass 00 top.
It should he enûrely reservedfor this work and
kept absolutelyfree from din. The use of cotton
wasteor fluffy rags must be absolutely forbidden.
The bench should have a dust proof drawer
for holding the atomiser cleaningtools and equipment describedin detail below.
A plate, made up as shown in Fig. 5.6, should
he securedto the bench. lts purposeis to hold the
atomiser securely whilst various maintenance
operaûons are proceeding.
An atomisertestingpump No. ET.122A(Fig. 5.7)
should he available. This outfit bas beenspecially
designed to provide a reliable means of tesûng
and setting the atomisers. It is made up of parts
similar to the injection equipmentfitted to engilles.
The doubtfuI atomiser should
be removed from its wrappings
and fitted nozzledownwards,and
I /"
still unwiped,(0 the testing pump
No observaûons should be
madeuntil at leastten fuil strokes
of the hand pump havebeengiven
to expel all air from the system.
J
J
J
A
~
~
I(.
l
-I:
-..,
rti: ~~
~
ca:.~
-~
Atomiser Pressures.
The pressureat which the spray
breaks should then be recorded
and checked against the recommended pressure which is 120
atmospheres.
L4 atomisers supplied under the Perpetuity
Schemehave green painted caps with white Ol
silver on the top or a tab washerunder the atomiser
cap nut signifying the setting and type.
The spray should now be observed for uniformity at a rate of pumping of not less than
20 strokes per minute.
Each should be a misty spray spreadingto about
3 inches(75 mIn) diameter at about one root away
from tbc atomiser nozzle, then breaking into a
vcry Me mist. There should be two spraysfrom
cach atomiser nozzle, one pointing outwards from
the top hole, and the other pointing downwards
from the lower hole, when the atomiser is in a
position correspunding to its working position.
An atomiseris good for serviceif, whenoperating
tbc atomiser testing pump at the abovc speed,it
gives two etfectivc sprays as above described.
An atomiser is dirty and requircs reconditioning if (a), when proccedingas abovc it throws out
solid wet jets and not braken up spray or (b),
if eithcr of the holesare chokedor partially choked
so that spray issues from one hole in the
atomiscr only or appreciably more spray issues
from one hole than the othcr.
In this connection, as tbc Perkins enginc idles
at about 500 r.p.m. the atolniser is never called
~
0---
I.
'rCMISD
NOULI
~:r
/~~~v
'TOMIS"00.., ,.asu.. 'Acr
FIG. S8. Diagrams of Atomiser and Atomiser
referencc in the lext.
NO~
Body
VALV!
the letters have
Page 512
upon to walk in the engine more slowly than 250
injectionsper minute. Thus by taking the atomiser
spray at 20 strokes per minute, ample margin is
allowed.
When removing an atomiser from the testing
pump close valve by rotating !he hand-wheeland
screw olf the union nut a little at a time so that
the pressure raIls gradually.
Atomisers are set to operate at th~ pressures
describedpreviously beforeleavingthe works. If a
ncw atomiser nozzle is fitted to an atomiser body
it is necessaryto reset the pressure. After the
atomiser bas been in service fOT same time, the
opening pressuretends to raIl, but provided that
the atomiser nozzle holes do not choke up, there
is no need to adjust the pressure.
NO ATTEMPT SHOULD BE MADE TO
ADJUST THE
INJECTION
PRESSURE
WITHOUT A PROPER TESTING PUMP
AND PRESSURE GAUGE AS DESCRIBED
AND
ILLUSTRATED.
IT
IS QUITE
IMPOSSIBLE TO ADJUST THE SETTING
OF ATOMISERS WITH ANY DEGREE OF
ACCURACY WITHOUT PROPER EQUIPMENT.
If the atomisers are interfered with, on the
assumption that so maar turns of the adjusting
screw representsso maar pounds, they may vary
asmuch as200poundsasbetweenoae and another.
With suchdifferencesbetweenatomisersthe engine
cannot possibly give of its best.
If the spray is still unsatisfactory,even after
brushing the carbon away. from around the
atomiser nozzle.with the fine wire brush specially
designedfor the purposeand illustrated in Fig. S.9,
the atomiser should be placed on the atomiser
holding plate already described, see Fig. S.6.
Before attempting to dismantle the atomiser,
the tension on the spring should be releasedby
unscrewingthe compressionscrew38. The nozzle
holder cap nut, 43, Fig. S.ll, should be slackened
with the special ring spanner provided, ETll6
(seeFig. S.IO). To hold the nozzle holder cap nut
in the vice or to use ill-fitting ,. packed.. or adjustable spannersor wrenchesis to invite disaster.
Examine the pressureface of the nozzle holder
cap nut to see it is not damagedso as to have
c. nipped" the atomiser nozzle in any way.
The nozzle holder cap nut should aow be
removedand the atomisernozzle completely lifted
from the atomiser body fOT examination. The
surfacesccA" and .. B .. in Fig. S8, on the top of
Fue/lnjection System-continued
the atomiser nozzle should he cLeanand bnght,
free from damage,likewisethe under-surface.. C ,.
of the flange, the face of the atomiser body" D ..
4nd the interior retaining shoulder of the nozzle
holder cap nut. All of thesemust registertogether
absolutely cLeanlyand squarely to fonn the high
pressure joint between the atomiser body and
nozzle.
The atomiser body should now he removed
from the plate, and together with the cap nut
immersedin clean paraffin and left to soak in a
suitable container. The nozzle valve should be
grasped by the stalk between finger and thumb
and withdrawn, carefully, for examination. The
stem of the nozzle valve should be clean and
bright, and free from high spots, bad scratches
or dull patches, and the grooves free from dirt.
meta! particles or other foreign matter.
The stem and the valve scat of the nozzl~
valve should now be examined, and if dirty, or
.. coked" cleaned until bright metal is shown.
r
r
~
..
rr
Cleaning.
Assumingthat the nozzlevalve bas beensoaking
and the two surfaces.. A" and .. B" on the top
of the atomiser nozzle flange already mentioned,
are clean and free from damage,the inside of the
atomiser nozzle should he examined.The kit of
tools shownin Figs. S9and SlO, are recomrnended.
The three small drilled passages.. G" (Fig. S8),
should be explored to seethat they are clear and
clean, followed by an examination of the valve
stem bore in which the nozzle valve slides. This
surface should be clean and bright and free from
high spots or scratches or dull patches. The
valve seating .. 1" (Fig. S8) should now come
under observation under a strong light to ascertain whether or not it is free from dirt or carbon.
If this is not so, and indeed, in any case, it is
advisablc to usc tbc soft brass scat scraper No.
ETO70 (scc Fig. S9) to remove any carbon or
particles that may he imprisoned on the scat.
The gallery .. H" (Fig. S8)shouldncw be cleancd
with tbc ajd of the special soft brass scraper No.
ETO71(sec Fig. S9) to ensurethat it is also clean
and frec from dirt or carbon.
The spray holes in tbc atomiser nozzle end
should he probed with thc specialtooi ET120(see
Fig. S9).
In caseswhere the holes cannot be cleaned by
this process, the complete atomiscr should be
rctumed securclywrappedand packedas described
r
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.
L:
Fuei[njection System-continued
~
Page SI3
taken to ensure that the highly ground
face .. D " (Fig. S8) is clean and free
COMPLETEKIT
ET. 141
from scratches. This face must register
with the atomiser nozzle flange cleanly
and squarelyto forn1a high-pressure
joint
and must, therefore, he handled in such
a war as to avoid damageto the surface.
The exterior of the atomiser body, of
course,should be cleanedthoroughly from
dirt and grease in the usual manner.
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Periodically,
the
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it
is
of
advisable
the
atomiser
to
dismantie
body
to
examine the springs,40 (Fig. S11),spring
plate, and nozzle spindie, 42. Wben
dismantling, the special spanners, Nos.
,~",
ETl17 and ETl18 (sec Fig. SlO) should
be applied for the removal of the nozzle
bolder spring cap, 39 (Fig. SII) which
is revealed after the removal of the
covering protection cap. The interior of
gj;;::;"~ l ~l-- ET.I2.0 II ET.124
,
ET.138
the atomiser body and the palts removed
E.T068
ET.O71
11:069
ET.072
should he washed carefully to remove
any dirt or moisture. If the spring
FIG. S9. Complete Kit of TooI, for use when cleanin~
and the parts are in good condition,
and overhauling atomisers.
above. Assuming that the spray holes have been
they should be re-assem
bied carefully,
cleaned satisfactorily, the atomiser nozzle caD
aud perferably after having been slightly coated
then he placedin the container to soak in paraffio
with lubricating oil.
or preferably assembiedin the atomiser flushing
tooi No. ET427 (Fig. SlO)and thoroughly flushed
The serviceablelife of the atomiser valve spring
through to ensure that all carbon particles are
can be considerablyenhancedby careful treatment,
removed trom the inside of the atomiser nozzle.
and greatcareshould be taken to avoid the damage
Tbe nozzle valve should now he polished by
likely to be causedby moisture, corrosion arising
rubbing with an absolutely clean cloth-a piece
in storage,handling, or by reasonof condensation
of used boiled cotton is best-upon which there
owing to temperature changes in service. It is
is no suggestionof fluff. Particular attention should
recommendedthat these valve springs should be
he given to the valve seato This and the smaller
inspected, cleaned and greased whenever the
I.-ylindricalportion above it, called the .. stem"
atomisers
are removed for cleaning, whilst care
and .. cone" in Fig. S8, can he cleaned with the
should be taken in storing sparesto preclude alf
fine brass wire brush. Toensure that the stem
possibility of the accessof moisture.
and coneare free from any particles,the soft brass
stem cleaner No. ETOn should be applied with
Re-Assemblyof Atomisers.
a rotary action, pressingthe nozzle valve into the
cleaning tooi with the fingers.
Tbe atomiserbody and atomisernozzlemay now
Af ter ensuringthat the exterior of the atomiser
be assembIedcarefully, after having immersedthe
nozzle is clean and free from carbon, the valve
pressureracesof each in clean fuel oil, to ensure
and atomiser nozzle may be assem
bied together.
that they are free from dirt. Tbe nozzleholder cap
This should be after the two parts have been
nut, 43, should be ~crewedon to the body by
thoroughly washed in clean paraffin or fuel oil
use of the special spanner. Excessivetightening
and placed together, preferably with the tingers
of the nozzle holder cap nut may result in conwhilst submergedin the clean oil.
striction or distortion of the atomiser nozzle and
Tbe atomiserbody shouldnow receiveattention:
its consequentfailure ; care should be exercised
it should be washedin clean paraffin. care bein~
to ensurethat the leveraeeaDDliedis not cxcessive.
J
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I
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Fue/lnjection System-connnuea
Page 514
Af ter cleaning, the atomiser shou!d he tested
alwayson the atomiser testing pump as previously
described. If the pressure at \\hich the spray
breaksis not that quoted above it can he adjusted
by the spring adjusting screw and lock nut, using
spanner ET119 (Fig. SlO).
A perfect atomiser, when tested by pumping
Cue! through it in the open air gives a short
.. pinging" sound as the fuel emergesfrom the
IntercbangeabiUty
r
.
The rnodified atomiser is interchangeablewith
the previous type providing a new type auxiliary
teak-oIrpipe is fitted. To ensure this. new type
teak-oIr pip~s are autornatically supplied with all
Sparesand Reconditionedatornisersof the modified type. Previoustype Reconditionedatomisers
äre älS0supplied with the previous type auxiliary
teak-oIrpipes in order to effect interchangeability
with enginesincorporating the later type atornisers.
holes, no matter how slowly tbe fuel be pumped.
After tbe atomiser has been in service for some
time, the .. pinging" changes to a crackling
sound. It is not until tbe atomisersounds.. dead"
r
r
that its condition is likely to affect tbe running of
the engine.
When replacing tbe atomiser in the cylinder
head follow carefully tbe instructions for fitting
given on page S9.
WASHERS
MODIFlED ATO~ERS
As from EngineNo. 6012782a modified atomiser
was introduced on L4 engines. the two main
differencesfrom the previous type being the auxiliary leak-off pipe connectionand the atomiseradjusting screw(seeFig. 5.12).
The auxiliary leak-off pipe connectionis now on
the side of the atomiser body fixing fiangewhereas
previously it was situatedjust abovethe inlet pipe
union nut. This of coursenecessitatesa new type
auxiliary leak-off pipe.
LOCKNUT
ADJUSTING
SCREW
SHIMWASHER
-
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NOZZLE
-SPINOLE
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INLET
The atomiser adjusting screw now screws
directly into the atomiser body and also comprises
the atomiser valve spring cap.
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Fig. S12. Diagram of Modified Atomiset
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Page Tl
CT)
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Certain L4 enginesare equippedwith a mechanical governor in place of the pneumatic governor.
This governoris set and adjustedbefore the engine
leaves the factory and no further adjustment
shouid be necessary.
Any settings and adjustments which may be
necessary,as when the engine has undergone a
major overhaulor the fuel pump hasbeenremoved,
should only be carried out by trained personnel.
,
.1
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Instrucûons tor adjusÛDgMechanical Governor.
To carry out the Collowinginstructions it will be
necessaryto remove the cover, situated at the
front of the govemor, and the govemor housing
rear cover.
Preliminary Settings.
1. Ensure that the governor weights move
freely when operated with the finger. If they are
stiff it is probably due to distortion set up in the
weight carrier when holding screwsare tightened.
To correct this it will be necessaryto remove
carrier plate and seetbat tbe rear face is clean and
free from dirt. Seealso that tbe front of the fuel
pump gear is clean and free from dirt.
2. Hold the stop controllever on the fuel pump
in the stop position and screwin tbe idling spring
control screw until the spring is coil bound, i.e.,
until adjustmentof the screwjust begins to move
tbc stop control lever. Wben this position is
FIG. T2
reached, unscrew adjusting screw oDe turn. The
idling spring control screw is situated at the rear
of the fuel pump (See Fig. T .3).
3. Reducetension on mainspring with control
lever in ruil speed position.
4. Set eccentricspring anchorageto innermost
position (R. Min. See Fig. T.l).
5. Place govemor lever in the idle position,
presstoes of forked lever on to sleevetbrust race
and adjust fuel pump actuating lever until this is.
clear of fuel pump push rad by ,tç in. (1.59 mm)
when fuel pump control rad is at maximum fuel
position (See Fig. T.2).
Allen key 5/32in. across flats is required to
unlock and lock fuel pump actuating lever.
J
Seethat, by moving the weightsto the outermost
position, the fuel purup control rad moves to the
point of no fuel (within ,tç in. (1.59 mm) of total
control rad movement).
Test Bed Procedure.
A. Start engineand warm up to 160°F.(71°C.),
water and oil.
FIG. T
J
J
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B. Set engineto rated load and speed. lt win
he necessaryto increasethe main spring tension
Page T2
.\{ echanica/ Governor-continued
WARNING. In no circumstancesshould any
attempt be made to increaseidling speedwith the
idling spring control screw.
i)
SCREW-IDLING CON TROL
(FUEL PUMP)
E. Finally re-check governing from ruIl load,
three-quarterand half load to no load to ensure
the governor is stabIe throughout its range.
Field Procedure.
Tbe preliminary settingsare as already described
and should be carried out, then proceedas follows.
1. Start engineand warm up to 160cF.(71cC.).
~
FIG. T3
2. Set lever to running position and check
maximum no laad r.p.m. Such inertia laad as is
available, should then be applied and removed in
rapid successionto check the stability of the
governor. Any necessarycorrection should be
made as described in Test Bed Procedure, paragraph C.
3. Carry out operation D in Test Bed Procedure.
until full laad caDjust be obtained at tbe appropriate speed. Main spring tension adjustment is
carried out by alteration of the govemor spring
control lever adjusting screw (See Fig. T.4).
C. Graduallyremoveload, note sustainedoverrun speed. If this is satisfactory,regain load and
try a sudden removal to check stability of the
govemor.
Greater stability may be obtained by increasing
tbc effectiveradius R of tbe spring lever by rotating
thc spring anchorage. Eccentric adjustment between R. Min and R. Max being obtainable (see
Fig. T.1).
D. Having obtained satisfactorygoverning, set
lever to idling position and check light load idling
speed. Adjust as necessaryon the idling stop
screw (Fig. T.4). Ir it is not possible to reduce
idling speedto tbe required r.p.m. by adjustment
of tbe idling stop screw, it wil! be necessaryto
slightly reduce the load in tbe idling spring.
This cao be obtained by screwing out tbe fuel
pump idling spring control screw at tbe TeaTof
the fuel pump (SeeFig. T.3).
4. Finally re-check maximum no laad r .p.m.
and idling r.p.m.
.
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FLYWHEEL AND
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the base of an indicator stand to the fiange
of Secure
the crankshaft.
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ensurethat the mating facesof the cylinder block,
or back plate (when fitted) and housing are perfectly clean and free from bum.
Put the housing on to the studs, replace spring
washers and nuts. Tighten nuts evenly, do not
overtighten so as to allow adjustment.
Alignment of Flywheel Housing Bore.
.
~,;;~'
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f,~;":r~
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ra
"""..:::::~
Fis. UI
It is most important tbat tbe flywbeel bousing
he correctly aligned witb tbe cranksbaft. tberefore
if a bousing bas been removed tbe greatestcare
must be taken on replacementto ensureaccuracy
of alignment.
For conveniencein turning tbe engine it is
advisable to release (but not remove) tbe nuts
holding tbe atomisersin place when carrying out
alignment of flywheel and flywheel housing.
To Remo'feFlywheel.
Remove the locking wire from the set screws
which securetbe flywheelto the crankshaft flange.
Turn the engineto bring oae setscrewto tbe top.
Removetros setscrewand screwin a stud in its
place as a temporary measure, to prevent the
tlywheel from dropping.
Remove remainder of setscrews.
Remove flywheel.
To Remo'feFlywheel Ho~ing.
Removeflywheel.
Removal of Duts and spring washersfrom the
studs securingtbe flywheel housing to the cylinder
block. or back plate (if fitted) win enable the
flywheel housing to be removed.
To Refit Flywheel Housing.
Before fitting or refitting flywheel housing
Set the needIeof the gaugeto the interior of the
bored hole in the fiywheel housing. (See fig. UI).
Turn tilt crankshaft and check that this hole is
~ntral. The housing is adjusted until the bored
hole is central with the crankshaft within the
following limits (total indicator.reading).
Diameter
of Houslng
Bore ~x. Allowance
(T.I.R.)
Up to 14-1:
in
0.006in
(362mrn)
(0,15mm)
14-1:to 2Ot in
0.008in
(362 to 511 mm)
(0,20mm)
2Ot to 251 in
0.010in
(511 to 648 mm)
(0,25mm)
251 to 31 in
0.012in
(648 to 787 mm)
(0,30mm)
Alignment of Flywheel Housing Face.
With the base of the indicator standstill secured
.,
f1i~'
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Fig.U2
/
faze U2
to tbe cranksbaft flange, adjust to set tbe needIe
of tbe indicator against tbe vertical machined
face on the flywhee1housing.(Seefig. U2).
Turn cranksbaftand checkthat this faceis at right
anglesto tbe cranksbaft axis. This facing must be
within tbe following limits (tota1indicator reading)
ofbeing at truc right anglesto tbecranksbaft.
Diameter
ofHousing
Bore Max.Allowance
(T.I.R.)
Up to 141 in
0.006 in
(362mm)
(0,15mm)
141 to 2Ot in
0.008 in
(362 to 511 mm)
(0,20 mm)
2Ot to 25t in
0.010 in
(511 to 648 mm)
(0,25 mm)
25t to 31 in
0.012 in
(648 to 787 mm)
(0,30 mm)
AU adjustments to bring tbe flywbee1bousing
within tbe limits specifiedmust be on tbe flywhee1
housing and under NO CONOmONS must tbe
rear of tbe cylinder b1ock or adaptor plate be
interfered witb.
When tbe housing is aligned to tbe above limits
tighten the securing Guts evenly.
Ream tbe two dowe1holes and fit the correct
length and size of dowe1s.
To Reit Flywheel.
The flywhee1shou1dbe rep1acedin the reverse
FlywheeJand Flywheel Housing-continued
Fig. U4
order to wnen removing but the following must
also be carried out:
Secthat the flywhecl face and crankshaft flange
are perfectly clean and free from burrs before
fitting the flywheel.
When replacing the setscrewstighten evenly,
and for final tightening, a torque wrenchshould be
used, set to the tensionrecommendedin SectionB.
Checking Alignment of Flywheel.
When the flywheel bas been removed, it is
necessaryto check the alignment on replacement.
Replaceflywheel as mentionedabove.
Secure the base of a dial indicator stand to
tbe flywheel housing.
Witb the flywheel at top centre set the needle of
tbe indicator on tbe flywheel periphery at T .D.C.
(seeFig. U.3).
Turn the crankshaft and check the clock. The
flywheel should run truc within .012 in. (.31 mm)
(total indicator reading).
With tbc base of thc indicator stand still bolted
to tbc flywheel housing, adjust to bring thc
indicator needIeagainstthc vertical machined face
of the flywheel. (Seefig. U4.)
Again turn the crankshaft and check the clock.
The flywheel should be within 0.001 in. per inch
(0,02 mmoper 25 mm.) of radius from the centre
of flywheel to indicator needIe.
When tbe flywheel bas been checked fot thc
correct limits, lock thc setscrewswith we.
L
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Page VI
SCHEDULE OF CLEARANCES& TOLERANCES (V:
All threads ~ed 00 the L4 Eogine except 00 prGprietary equipment
and the crankshaft are Unified Series, aod Americao Pipe Series. Tbe
crankshaft aod starting dog nut are threaded1 inch Americao Natiooal
Fine of 14 T.P.I.
The new threads are not interchangeable with B.S.F. and althougb
B.S.W. have the same number of threads per inch as the Unified Coarse
Series, intercbanging is not recommended,doe to a difference in thread form.
U
u
The data regarding clearnncesand tolerancesare given as a guide
for personnel engagedupon major overhauls.
2. Tbe figures in the column .. Permissible Dimensions,t are the
drawing sizesto which tbe parts are made. These dimensionsare
given in limit farm and representtbe minimum and maximum sizes
to which parts may be accepted when new, as, ror example,
.4985
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The difference
-" ~
minimum
'1
and maximum dimensions
3.
quoted in para. 2 is known as thc manufacturing tolerance. This
tolerancc is necessary as an aid to manufacture and its numerical
valuc is an expression of the accuracy of the design; it mayalso be
considered as a numerical expression of the desired quality of workmanship. For the example referred to in para 2 thc tolerance is
0.0005.
4.
If when carrying out a major overhaul it is found that a bush and
corresponding shaft have worn and that the majority of wear has
taken place in the bush it may be necessary to renew the bush only.
Similarly if the majority of wear has taken place on the shaft it
might only be necessary to rencw thc shaft.
5.
During the overhaul of wom components personal initiative must
be exercised at all times. It is obviously uneconomical to return
wom parts to service with an expectation of lire which may involve
labour costs agaiÎ1 at an carly date.
6.
Further information can be obtained on request [rom the Service
Division, Perkins Engines Ltd., Peterborough, England.
To ensure rou obtain the best results from your engine
and to safeguard your own guarantee, fit only genuine
Perkins Parts.
These are readily obtainable throughout
the wor Id.
PageV2
SCHEDULE
.
OF BunnING CLEARANCES AND TOLERk~CESTO BB ADHEREDTO
WHEN OVERHAULING ENGINES TO FACTORY STANDARDS (ENGINE TYPE L4)
.
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Page V3
SCHEDULE OF BmLD~G
CLEARANCES AND TOLERANCES TO BE ADHERED TO
WHEN OVERHAUUNG ENGrnES TO FACTORY STANDARDS ~NGrnE TYPE L4)
Page V4
SCHEDULE OF BUn.DING CLEARANCES AND TOLERANCES TO BE ADHERED TO
WHEN OVERHAULING ENGINES TO FACTORY STANDARDS (ENGINE TYPE U)
T
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Page Y5
SCHEDULE OF BrnLD~G CLEARANCES AND TOLERANCES TO BE ADHERED TO
WHEN OVERHAULING ENG~
TO FACTORY STANDARDS (ENGINE TYPE U)
.
L4 MARINE ENGINES-W.l
c
""'Oc
...,
L4 MARINE
Settingsand Data.
Maximum Rating- 58 B.H.P. at 2,000 r.p.m.
Sump Capacity - ] gallons (13.6 litres).
Engine Types.
There are two principal types of L4 Marine
~ngine, one type having pneumatic governing
and the other having mechanicalgoverning.
The standard pneumatic governing is set tor
variabie speedwhich is controlled by a lever from
the air intake venturi.
The mechanically governed engine is virtually
identical to its pneumatic governed counterpart,
the one main difference being the mechanica!
governor incorporated in the timing gear housing.
This governor also is of variabie speed and is
controlled by a lever on the side of the governor
housing forward of the fuel injection pump.
Gearboxes.
The 1..4Marine enginemay be fitted with either
a mechanicalor hydraulic operated gearbox.
[n bath casesthe drive to the gearbox is taken
from an input shaft fitted to the engineflywheel.
Lubrication of the mechanicaI gearbox is by
meansof gravity. The gearbox possesses
its own
sump from which the oil is picked up by a rotating
disc and de!ivered to a drip plate at the top of
the gearbox which passesthe lubricant to the
working parts.
The hydraulic gearbox incorporates its own
oil pump and is in no war dependent on the
enginetor its oil supply.
Where an oil operated gearbox is fitted to an
engine employing pneumatic goveming, a single
lever throttle control systemmay be incorporated
linking the gearbox to the enginethrottle. By this
means gearbox engagement is determined by
movement of the throttle lever. With the engine
idling, initial movement of the throttle lever
effectscomplete engagementof the gearoox without increasing engine speed. Engine r.p.m. may
then be increaseri by further opening of the
throttle control lever beyond a predetermined
point.
Thus the engine cannot be speededin neutra!
gear, thert'by eliminating the risk of damagewhen
the gearoox is engaged. When changing trom
(W)
ahead to astern or vice versa. the engine throttle
must passthrough the idling position. thus enabling
an easygear changeto be attained.
In conjunction with tbis control system. provision may be madefor the fitting of a cable to the
throttle so that the throttle may be partly opened
to assisteasystarting.
When an oil operated gearbox is fitted. an oi]
cooler must be fitted in order to cao] the gearbox
oil. The mounting for this cooler is on the top
of the gearbox.
An inter-locking control may afso be usedin the
case of a pneumatically governed engine fitted
with a mechanica!gearbox.
The system employed ensuresthat the engine
throttle is automatical]y returned to id]ing when
the gear lever enters the neutral position. An
amp]e measure of protection is thus afforded
the gearbox. inasmuch as when engaging or
changing gears. the engine throttle must alway~
be in or pass through the idling position. However with enginesutilising mechanica]governing,
irrespectiveof t~ type of gearbox fitted. there is
no systemof Iinkage offered whereby the gearbox
may be effectively coupled to the engine throttle
controls.
Reduction gears of 2: 1 and 3: 1 fot Ieft or
right hand rotation propellors. may be fitted as
optional equipment.
N.B. When converting a mechanical gearbox
from straight through drive to 2: I or 3: 1
coupling at the rear of the box must be replaced
reduction. the split type balI race behind the
by a standard type of balI race.
Gearbox and Input ShaftRemoval.
Both types of gearbox may be removed in the
following manner:Disconnectpropellor shaft.
Remove 12 setscrewsand washers located
around gearbox periphery.
Withdraw gearboxtrom input shaft.
The input shaft which is affixed to the engine
flywheel may be removedas follows :Cut locking wire.
1
1
t4 MARINE ENGINES-W.2
Remove eight securing setscrews and
washers.
.
Replacing Input Shaft and Gearbox.
First ensure that the tlywheel housing and tlywheel are correctly aligned (SeeSection U).
Using the eight setscrewscompletewith washers.
fit the input shaft to the engine tlywheel and
tighten evenly.
Securethe baseof a clock gaugesecurelyto the
ftywheelhousing and adjust the clock so as to set
the needle on the outside diameter of the input
shaft. and check that the shaft is central. The
limit in respectof inpu1 shaft concentricity is set
at .003 in. (.076 mm) total indicator reading.
With satisfactory alignment attained. the securing setscrewsshould then be wired together.
The gearbox may then be eased into position
on the input shaft. With the mechanicalgearbox.
care should be taken to ensurethat tbe key on the
input shaft is in line with the keyway in the gearbox hearing. Secure the gearbox to the tlywheel
hou.~ingby meansof the 12 setscrewsand washers
and refit propellor shaft.
Locating Ring-Mechanical Gearbox.
A modified bevel locating ring locking plate has
been incorporated in mechanical gearboxes for
fitment to L4 marine engines.
This latest locking plate is trucker in section
than the original type and of different specification
material and bas been incorporated to eliminate
any possibility of bending or failure of the plate
in service.
With the advent of tbis modification, the locking
medium whereby this plate is secured,was altered
so that now two holes -fr; in. B.S.F. by -f6. in.
(14.29 mm) deep are drilled and tapped in the
locating ring and pinion cageto accommodatetwo
Allen grubscrews-fr; in. B.S.F. by tin. (12.70mm)
long.
It should be noted that after assembly,the edges
of the slots accommodatingthe bevel ring locating
plates should be peenedover as also should the
drillings into wbich are fitted the grubscrews.
Details of thesemodifications are illustrated in
Figure W.l illustration and it is recommendedthat
all gears sent in for servicebe similarly modified
when necessary.
Electrical Equipment.
With the L4 Marine engine. a 12-volt earth
return systemis employedas standard equipment.
A 12 or 24-volt insulating return system may be
fitted as optional extra. The dynamo is lo~atedon
the starboard sideof the engine. The starter motor
is flange mounted on the port side cf the engine.
the starter pinion engagingwith the starter ring c>n
the flywheel at the aft end of the engine.
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1 and 2. From the 1/8" Diameter Pilot holes in t evellocating Ring. drill two holes 17/64# Diameter to a depth of
3/8" in bevel wh~1 casiCWand tap 5/16" B.S.F. to a depth
ot 1/4" in bevel wheel cAing to accommodate two Allen
Screws 5/16" B.S.F. x 1/2" in length. These two holes
must not be drilled and tapped until the bevel locating
ring has been locked in position with locking plates and
slots peenedover.
3. Bevel locating ring locking slots peened over locking
plates.
or
r
or
Water Circulation.
The engine may he so arranged as ro accommodare any one of the foIIowing three types of
cooling system.
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or
L4 MARINE ENGINES-W.3
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along the keel of the craft. Prior to reaching the
water pump, the coolant passesthrough the lubricating oU cooler which is fitted as standard equipment to engines employing this type of cooling
system. The coolant then enters the engineat the
forward end of the cylinder block and is expelled
at the forward end of the cylinder head. From
the cylinder head the water is discharged back
into the keel pipes via the exhaustmaillfold cooling jacket. It will be observedthat this is a closed
circuit type of cooling system, the water in the
keel pipes being cooled by the water through
which the craft passes.
With this type of cooling system,a thermostat
is fitted as optional extra.
Information regardingdimensionsof Keel Pipes
may be obtainedon requestfrom .ServiceDivision, Perkins EnginesLimited, Peterborough.
Indirect Cooling System (Heat Exchanger).
This type of cooling system utilised in conjunction with a heat exchanger,incorporatestwo
separate water pumps, viz. the rubber impeller
and centrifugal types.
The rubber impeller type pump is used to
circulate sea water through the heat exchanger
which is affixed to the front of the cylinder head.
Overboard dischargeis taken through the exhaust
manifold cooling jacket. The lubricating oil cooler
which is standardequipmentwith indirectly cooled
engines is fitted to the front end of the engine
sump and is on the suction side of the sea water
pump.
Circulation of the closed fresh water systemis
etIected by means of the centrifugal pump which
is belt driven from the crankshaft pulley. Water is
drawn from the heat exchanger and enters the
cylinder block at the rear of the water pump.
Af ter circulation through the engine, the water is
expelled from the front of the cylinder head back
into the heat exchanger.
The top part of the heat exchanger fornls a
header tank fjr the fresh water and a pressure
type filler ca{f with overflow pipes is provided.
The valve in the cap operates between 3* and
4i-lbs./sq. in. (.23-.30 kg/sq. cm.) A thermostat
is supplied as standard for this type of cooIing
system.
Water Pum~.
From the foregoing it will be apparent that alt
L4 Marine engines, irrespective of application,
incorporate the rubber impeller type of water
pump, while those enginesutilising indirect (heat
~
lA MARINE ENGINES-W.4
exchanger)cooling also incorporate a water pump
of the centrifugal variety.
CeotrüugalType Water Pump.
Sincethe centrifugal type water pump employed
on those Marine engines incorporating indirect
(heat exchanger) cooling systems is identica!
with that pump titted to L4 engines in genera!.
maintenanceinstructions for this type of pump
may be obtained by referring to Section Q.
Rubber Impeller Type.
This type of pump is gear driven inasmuchas a
gear wheel attached to the impeller driving shaft
is in constant meshwith the enginecamshaft gear
whee!. the pump itse!f being !ocated on the starboard side of the engine directly below the
dynamo.
Removal aod Dismaotling.
First dis~onnect water inlet and outlet hoge
connections. The pump may then be detached by
removing the setscrews that secure it to the engine
timing case.
To dismantie the pump, proceed as follows :Remove rear end cover.
Remove impeller.
Remove wearplate.
W ith the front bearing cover removed. a suitable
press may be used to press out the impeller shaft
together with the front bearing, leaving the driving
gear wheelloose in its housing.
The cam in the impeller housing maf then he
detached by removing the single securing setscrew.
Remove rubber seal in impeller housing.
Remove rubber .. 0 ,. ring.
Remove distance-pieces.
The driving gear wheel housing and impeller
shaft rear hearing may then be removed from the
pump body.
Finally remove front rubber seal.
To reassemble the water pump, the reverse
order of the above procedure should be adopted,
care being taken 'when replacing the rubber
impeller that the blades alllay in the same direction relative tv the rotation of the pump. i.e.
blades trailing.
When reassembling, ensure that the rubber
impeller is coated with a layer of water resisting
grease. It should also be noted that, if necessary,
the impeller may be dismantled without removing
the water pump.
When replacing the cam fitted in the impeller
housing. be certain to treat the entire top surface.
rear face and securing setscrewhole with a suitable jointing compound.NOTE : This cam will go
into placeone war only.
With the assembied pump fitted to the engine.
backlash between the pump and I:amshaft gears
should be .003 in. to .009 in. (.08 to .23 mm). To
achieve this in production. two joints may have
been fitted betweenthe pump gear wheel housing
and the ~ngine timing case. Should this be SQ.
ensure that both joints (or two new joints) are
replacedwhen refitting the pump.
ti the engine is to be withdrawn from service
for any length of time it will be necessaryto
effect lubrication of the rubber impeller at the
commencementof the storage period. Tbis may
be achieved by removing the end cover (Item 1.
Fig. W.2) and placing glycerine betweenthe vanes
if the impeller (Item 2. Fig. W.2).
Exhaust Manifold.
The exhaust manifold is water cooled and
constructed of cast iron. An air releasecock is
provided at the forward end of the manifold
jacket. whereby any air present in th~ water
cooling systemmay be removed.
OU Cooler.
Provision is made at the front end of tl.e sump
for the fitment of an enginelubricating oir cooler.
With this, heat from the engine oir is lost as it
circulates round a systemof tubes through which
are pumped water from the cooling system.
With the fitting of a hydraulic gearbox, a
further similar type oir c;ooler must be titted in
order to cool the gearbox oir.tThe mounting for
this additional cooler is on the top of the gearbox.
The pump necessaryto lift the oil is ~nclosedin
the gearboxSump Oir Pump (Hand Operated).
On the majority of marine installations it is
impossible to gain accessto the sump drain plug
which is situated on the bottom of the sump.
Therefore, in order to facilitate the draining ot
the engine oil. a hand pump may be provided
This pump when used must be titted ~'emotefrom
the engine. Drainage of the sump is etfected by
operation of the pump after attachir:g a length of
suitable piping to the inlet side of the pump and
placing the free end of the pipe into the SIImpvia
the dipstick orifice.
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1.4 MARINE
EN GINEs-
W .5
L4 MARINE ENGINES
DAlLY
Check Dil level in sump and gearbox.
Checkcooling water circulation.
Checklubricating oil pressure.
Check water level in header tank of heat
exchangerwhen fitted.
strainer (when fitted).
Examine engine holding down balts.
Drain oil trom sump and fill with new lubricatlt.
Clean feIt elementin lubricating oil filter.
Unscrew drain plug on final fuel filter. replace
.vhenclean fuel appears.
EVERY 50 HOURS
Clean gearbox oil filter (hydraulic type gearbo~
only).
Check. and if necessary.top up batteries with
distilled water.
EVERY 500 HOURS
Clean and checkatomisers.
Renew feIt elementin lubricating oil filter.
Clean gauze trap in Jubricating filter body.
EVERY 100 HOURS
Check oil level in reduction gearbox where
fitted.
Lubricate and examine adjustment of single
lever throttle control (if fitted).
Clean pre-filter if fitted to lift pump.
Checkoil fi(lw to rocker shaft.
Examine valve springs and check tappets.
Examine and clean water inlet weed trap and
EVERY 1,000HOURS
When fitted. examine heat exchangerfur scale
formation and de-scaJeif necessary.
Inspect commutators and brushes of dynamo
and starter motor.
Renew element in Final Fuel Filter.
WheneverEngine is removednom Boat.
Clean sump strainer.
Cleanout fuel tank.
For preservation of laid up engines see page F .2.
,.
~
APPROVED
Available trom V. L. Churchill & Co. Ltd., Daventry, Northamptonshire, England.
PD IC Valve Guide Remover and Replacer
Engine Type: All
With tbis tooI. all valve guidescan he removedand
replaced provided pulIer bars are available.
PD IC-I PuIIer Bars
Engine Type: All
Two bars are supplied for usewith PD ICto suit
h in and i in i/ct valve guide bores.
PD IC-2 Valve Guide RepJacingStop
EngineType: 4.99 4.107 4.108
When the valve guide is replaced using one of
thesestops.it will ensurethat the guide protrudes
the correct amount above tbe top face of the
cylinder head.
4.203
38 U3 Piston AssemblyRing
Engine Type: All
This is an expandable piston assemblyring for
Stct.and oversizepistonson all enginetypes.
PD 37 Flywheel Runout Gauge
Engine Type: All
With this tooi, a check caD speedily be made on
the alignment of the ftywheel,ftywheelhousing or
back plate.
PD 418 PNon Height and Vatve Depth Gauge
Engine Type: All
For checkingpiston heightsand valve depths.
PD 155A SomDAdjustable ruller
Engine Type: All
CaD be used with suitable adaptors to remove
water pump pulley, oil pump drive gears and
camshaft gear.
PD 155A-l Small Adjustable PuUerAdaptors
Engine Type :
J'
J'
PD lSSA-2 SDM1DAdjustable PuJIer Adaptors
Engine Type: P3 P4 P6
To remove Iow position water pump pulley.
PD lSSA-4 smaU Adjustabie ruller Adaptor
EngineType:
P3.144 3.152 B3.152 4.192 4.203
Removal of Dil pump gear.
No. 3 Tension Wrench
Engine Type: All
t in squaredrive 25 to 170lbf ft.
PD IC-3 Valve Guide Replacing Stop
Engine Type: 6.354 4.236
Remarks: SeePD 1C.2
PD lC-4 Valve Guide ReplacingStop
Engine Type :
P3 P3.144 B3.152 3.152 4.192
P4 P6 6.288 6.305
Remarks: SeePD lC.2
R6 P3.144 3.152 83.152 4.192 4.203
Removeswater pump pulley on1yon
6.305 L4 4.270 4.99 4.107 4.108
Removeswater pump pulley and camshaft gear
on
6.354
PD ISO Cylinder Liner Remover and Replacer
Engine Type :
6.354 4.236 3.152 03.152 4.203 04.203
6.305
PD 150-1Cylbt«tr Liner Remover/RepfaéerPa~
Engine Type :
6.354 4.236 3.152 03.152 4.203 D4.203
6.305
For usewith PD 150.
316X Vatve SeatCutter HandJe
EngineType: AII
This tooi is required for the operation of ali
cutters and pilots.
316-10Valve Seat Cutter Pilot
Engine Type:
P3 P3.144 3.152 B3.152 4.107 4.99 4.108
4.192 4.203 P4 P6 6.288 6.305
This pilot is suitable for all guides that have a
nominal frr in i/d bore.
316-12ValveSeatCutterPilot
Engine Type:
L4 4.270 R6 F340 56 4.236 6.354
This pilot is suitable for all guides having a
nominal t in iid bore.
316-125VaJveSeatCutter Pilot
EngineType: 4.236(0.015in oversize)
This piJot is for vaJve bores which have been
reamed0.015 in oversize.
7066Orcfip Pliers
Engine Type : AII
Two types of points are available. t in shaft size.
t in - 1 in "B" shaft sire I in - 3 in.
316-13Valve SeatCutter Pilot
Engine Type: 4.236(0.030in oversize)
This piJot is for vaJve bores which have been
reamed0.030 in oversize.
3SSConnectingRod Alignment Jig
Engine Type: All
Enables a quick check to be made on the alignment of connecting rods - various adaptors are
required as follows :-
PD 137 Valve Bore Reamer (0.015 in overstz.e)
EngineType: 4.236
This reamer is only suitable for guideJesscyl'inder
heads.
PD 138 Valve Bore Reamer (0.030 in oversize)
Engine Type: 4.236
This reamer is onJysuitable for guideJesscyJinder
heads.
PD 317-23Valve SeatCutter Exhaust
PD 317-26Valve SeatCutter fnlet
317-G22Glaze Breaker Exhaust
317-G2.5GJazeBreaker fnlet
Engine Type :
P3 P3.144 B3.152 3.152 4.192 4.203 P4
P6 6.288 6.305
The above cutters have beendesignedto cut seats
to the correct angle and at the same time reduce
seat width. It is strongly recommendedthat the
glaze breakers be used first as this will greatly
reducethe chattering of the cutters.
PD 317-2.5Valve SeatCutter Exbaust
PD 317-29Valve SeatCutter fnlet
317-GJOGlaze Breaker Exhaust and fnlet
Engine Type :
L4 4.270 R6 F340
Remarks: SeePD 317-23
PD 336-1 Adaptor
Engine Type :
P3 P3.I44 B3.152 3.152 4.192 4.203 P4
P6 6.288 6.305
This adaptor is fitted into the big end bore when
checking alignment. (Thin wall bearings only).
PD 336-3 Adaptor
Engine Type: L4 4.270
Remarks: SeePD 336-1
PD 336-5 Adaptor
Engine Type: 4.99 4.107
Remarks: SeePD 336-1
PD 336-6 Adaptor
Engine Type: 6.354 4.236
Remarks: SeePD 336-1
6118 VaJveSpring Compressor
Engine Type: All
Thirivalve spring compressorbas beendesig.'1ed
to
remove valve springs without removing the cylinder head, providing the adaptors are available.
PD 6118-1Valve Spring CompressorAdaptor
Engine Type: 4.99 4.107 4.108
The adaptor is fitted to the rocker shaft securing
studs.
317-30Valve SeatCutter Exbaust and Inlet
317G-JOGlaze Breaker Exbaust and fnlet
Engine Type :
6.354 4.236 D4.203 D3.152
Remarks: SeePD 317-23
PD 317-18Valve SeatCutter Exhaust
PD 317-22VaJveSeatCutter InJet
317-G19
Glaze Breaker Exhaust and fnJet
Engine Type:
336 Multi-PurI")8e Con. Rod Arbor
Engine Type: All
Required with the above tooI.
.
4.99 4.107 4.108
Remarks: SeePD 317-23
FC9900 Ato~r
Tester
EngineType: All
This is a portable tester fitted with a paper filter
element.
PD 6118-2 Valve Spring CompressorAdaptor
Engine Type:
P3 P4 P6 6.288 6.305 S6
Remarks: SeePD 6118-1
PD 6118-3 Valve Spring CompressorAdaptor
Engine Type :
P3.144 B3.152 3.152 4.192 4.203 L4
4.270 R6 F340
Remarks: SeePD 6118-1
PD 6118-4VaJveSpring CompressorAdaptor
Engine Type: 6.354 4.236
Remarks: SeePD 6118-1
T
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PD 130Foei PumpAllen ScrewWreoch
Engine Type: 4.192 4.203 4.99 4.107 4.108
Used to removethe Allen Screwsecuringthe fuel
injection pump.
6000CCompressionTester
EngineType: Seeadaptor details
Usedlor testingcylinder compressionswhen using
[he following adaptors.
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~
6000C-3Com~on
Tester Adaptor
Engine Type :
P3 P6 P3.144 83.152 3.152 P4 4.192.
4.203 6.288 6.305 L4 R6 F340
This adaptor replacesthe atomiserlor compres-
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6000C-9 Com~D
Tester Adaptor
Engine Type: 4.99 4.107 4.108
Remarks: See 600)(;-3
6400 Crankshait F1l1etRadii Rollblg Tooi
Engine Types :
P4 4.192 4.203 P6 6.288 6.305 4.270
For co1d rolling of fillet radii on certain crankshaft
main joumals.
6400-1 Adaptor Set
For use with the above.
SjOR testing.
~
6000c-4 Com~on
Tester Adaptor
Engine Type : 6.354 4.270 4.236
Remarks: See6000c-3
.
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