PDF 922 KB, 30 pgs

PDF 922 KB, 30 pgs
BUILDING ENVELOPE
Alexander Zhivov, Ph.D., Dale Herron, and Richard Liesen, Ph.D.
USACE Engineer Research and Development Center
Specifications
The building envelope performs various tasks, which includes protection from wind, rain,
irradiation, heat and cold, visibility and glare protection, fire protection, noise protection, and
physical security. At the same time, the building envelope must fulfill internal space
requirements, which include thermal, acoustic, and visual comfort along with requirements for
humidity conditions for both comfort, and mold and mildew growth prevention.
Thermal performance of the building envelope influences the energy demand of a building in
two ways. It affects annual energy consumption, therefore the operating costs for building
heating, cooling, and humidity control. It also influences peak loads which consequently
determine the size of heating, cooling and energy generation equipment and in this way has an
impact on investment costs. In addition to energy saving and investment cost reduction, a better
insulated building provides other significant advantages, including higher thermal comfort
because of warmer surface temperatures on the interior surfaces in winter and lower
temperatures in summer. This also results in a lower risk of mold growth on internal surfaces.
There are several prescriptive sets of building criteria available to attain the thermal and comfort
benefits specified above, and ASHRAE has published several of them. The ASHRAE Standard
90.1-2007 provides prescriptive requirements for building envelopes as a function of assembly
type, climate zone, and building type are listed in Section 5.5 and Tables 5.5-1 to 5.5-8 in the
Standard published by ASHRAE. This is a minimum code and when adopted by an enforcing
jurisdiction this becomes the minimum code allowed by law. Figure 1 shows a map of the
climate zones used in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 and in the remainder of this document.
Figure 1. Climate Zones in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
To help designers with meeting above code goals or requirements for building several building
types ASHRAE has published their Advanced Energy Design Guides. The building types that
are currently available are small office buildings, small retail buildings, K-12 school buildings,
small warehouses and self-storage buildings, and small healthcare facilities which give
prescriptive requirements and energy conservation measures to achieve 30% energy savings
over ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999. These Advanced Energy Design Guides can
be obtained from the ASHRAE bookstore or downloaded for free from the following website:
http://www.ashrae.org/technology/page/938
Studies conducted by USACE in collaboration with DOE and ASHRAE resulted in prescriptive
thermal properties (shown in Tables 1 through 7) of the building envelop components which
shall be followed to meet the Section 109 of EPAct 2005 requirement for 30% over the ASHRAE
Standard 90.1-2004 building energy performance. These requirements shall be met with all new
construction and major renovation projects.
Table 1. Barracks – UEPH and Training.
Item
Component(1)
Climate Zones
1
Roof
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Assembly Max Uvalue
U-0.0388
U-0.0388
U-0.0388
U-0.0325
U-0.0325
U-0.0245
U-0.0245
U-0.0245
Insulation Entirely
Above Deck
R-25ci
R-25ci
R-25ci
R-30ci
R-30ci
R-40ci
R-40ci
R-40ci
Attic and Other
R-38
R-38
R-38
R-49
R-49
R-60
R-60
R-60
Solar Reflectance (2)
High
High
High
High
High
Low
Low
Low
Assembly Max Uvalue
U-0.0676
U-0.0676
U-0.0676
U-0.0676
U-0.0512
U-0.0373
U-0.0373
U-0.0373
Mass
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-19.5
R-19 +
R-3ci
R-19 +
R-3ci
R-19 +
R-3ci
Steel Framed
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-12.5ci
R-13 +
R-18.8ci
R-13 +
R-18.8ci
R-13 +
R-18.8ci
Wood Framed and
Other
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-15.6ci
R-13 +
R-15.6ci
R-13 +
R-15.6ci
Floors Over
Unconditioned
Space
Assembly Max Uvalue
Mass
Steel Joists
Wood Framed and
Others
U-0.1067
U-0.0739
U-0.0739
U-0.0521
U-0.0521
U-0.0377
U-0.0377
U-0.0377
R-6.3ci
R-13
R-13
R-10.4ci.
R-13
R-13
R-10.4ci.
R-13
R-13
R-16.7ci.
R-19
R-19
R-16.7ci.
R-19
R-19
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
Slab-on-Grade
Assembly Max Uvalue
F-0.730
F-0.730
F-0.730
F-0.520
F-0.520
F-0.510
F-0.510
F-0.434
Unheated
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
R-15.0 for
24 in.
R-15.0 for
24 in.
R-20.0 for
24 in.
R-20.0 for
24 in.
R-20.0 for
48 in
Walls
Doors
Air Tightness
(4)
Vertical
Glazing
Swinging
U-0.70
U-0.70
U-0.70
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
Non-swinging
U-1.45
U-1.45
U-1.45
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
Max Leakage at ±75Pa 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2
Blower Test Pressures
Window to Wall Ratio 10% - 20%
(WWR)
Thermal transmittance U-0.45
(Assembly Maximum)
Solar heat gain
0.25
coefficient (SHGC)
10% - 20%
10% - 20%
10% - 20%
10% - 20%
10% - 20%
10% - 20%
10% - 20%
U-0.45
U-0.45
U-0.45
U-0.42
U-0.42
U-0.33
U-0.33
0.25
0.31
0.31
0.39
0.39
NR (3)
NR (3)
2
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Table 2. Tactical Equipment Maintenance Facility - TEMF
Item
Component(1)
Climate Zones
1
Roof
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Assembly Max Uvalue
U-0.0750
U-0.0750
U-0.0660
U-0.0490
U-0.0490
U-0.0490
Insulation Entirely
Above Deck
R-15ci
R-15ci
R-15ci
R-20ci
R-20ci
R-20ci
R-25ci
R-30ci
Metal Building
R-13 + R-13 R-13 + R-13 R-19 + R-19 R-19 +
R-11 LS
R-19 +
R-11 LS
R-19 +
R-11 LS
R-19 +
R-11 LS
R-25 +
R-11 LS
U-0.0388
U-0.0325
Attic and Other
R-19
R-19
R-19
R-38
R-38
R-38
R-49
R-49
Solar Reflectance (2)
High
High
High
High
High
Low
Low
Low
Assembly Max Uvalue
U-0.1667
U-0.1667
U-0.1667
U-0.1667
U-0.0595
U-0.0595
U-0.0595
U-0.0391
Mass
R-11.4
R-11.4
R-11.4
R-11.4
R-15.0
R-15.0
R-15.0
R-11.4 +
3.0ci
Steel Framed
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-13 +
12.5ci
R-13 +
12.5ci
R-13 +
12.5ci
R-13 +
18.8ci
Metal Building
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-13 +
13.0ci
R-13 +
13.0ci
R-13 +
13.0ci
R-13 +
19.5ci
Floors Over
Unconditioned
Space
Assembly Max Uvalue
Mass
Steel Joists
Wood Framed and
Others
U-0.1067
U-0.1067
U-0.1067
U-0.0739
U-0.0521
U-0.0377
U-0.0377
U-0.0377
R-6.3ci
R-13
R-13
R-6.3ci
R-13
R-13
R-6.3ci
R-13
R-13
R-10.4ci.
R-13
R-13
R-16.7ci.
R-19
R-19
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
Slab-on-Grade
Assembly Max Uvalue
Unheated
F-0.730 ;
F-0.730 ;
F-0.730 ;
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
F-0.520 ;
R-15.0 for
24 in.
F-0.520 ;
R-15.0 for
24 in.
F-0.510 ;
R-20.0 for
24 in.
F-0.510 ;
R-20.0 for
24 in.
F-0.434 ;
R-20.0 for
48 in.
Assembly Max Uvalue
Heated
NA
F-0.900 ;
R-10 for
24 in
F-0.860 ;
R-15.0 for
24 in.
F-0.843 ;
R-20 for
24 in.
F-0.688;
R-20.0 for
48 in
F-0.688;
R-20.0 for
48 in
F-0.671;
R-25.0 for
48 in
F-0.671;
R-25.0 for
48 in
Walls
Doors
Air Tightness
(4)
Vertical
Glazing
Skylights
Swinging
U-0.70
U-0.70
U-0.70
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
Non-swinging
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
Max Leakage at ±75Pa 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2
Test Pressures
Window to Wall Ratio < 10%
(WWR)
Thermal transmittance U-0.56
Solar heat gain
0.25
coefficient (SHGC)
Percent Roof Area
≤ 2%
< 10%
< 10%
< 10%
< 10%
< 10%
< 10%
< 10%
U-0.45
0.25
U-0.45
0.37
U-0.42
0.39
U-0.42
0.39
U-0.42
0.39
U-0.33
U-0.33
NR (3)
NR (3)
≤ 2%
≤ 2%
≤ 2%
≤ 2%
≤ 2%
≤ 2%
≤ 2%
Thermal transmittance U-1.36
U-1.36
U-0.69
U-0.69
U-0.69
U-0.69
U-0.69
U-0.58
Solar heat gain
coefficient (SHGC)
0.19
0.19
0.34
0.39
0.49
0.64
NR (3)
0.19
3
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Table 3. Battalion HQ - BHQ
Item
Component(1)
Climate Zones
1
Roof
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Assembly Max Uvalue
U-0.0481
U-0.0388
U-0.0388
U-0.0388
U-0.0325
U-0.0325
U-0.0245
U-0.0245
Insulation Entirely
Above Deck
R-20ci
R-25ci
R-25ci
R-25ci
R-30ci
R-30ci
R-40ci
R-40ci
Attic and Other
R-30
R-38
R-38
R-38
R-49
R-49
R-60
R-60
Solar Reflectance (2)
High
High
High
High
High
Low
Low
Low
Assembly Max Uvalue
U-0.1242
U-0.1242
U-0.1242
U-0.0676
U-0.0676
U-0.0676
U-0.0512
U-0.0373
Mass
R-6.5ci
R-6.5ci
R-6.5ci
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-19
R-19 +
R-3ci
Steel Framed
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-12.5ci
R-13 +
R-18.8ci
Wood Framed and
Other
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-15.6ci
Floors Over
Unconditioned
Space
Assembly Max Uvalue
Mass
Steel Joists
Wood Framed and
Others
U-0.1067
U-0.0739
U-0.0739
U-0.0739
U-0.0521
U-0.0377
U-0.0377
U-0.0377
R-6.3ci
R-13
R-13
R-10.4ci.
R-13
R-13
R-10.4ci.
R-13
R-13
R-10.4ci.
R-13
R-13
R-16.7ci.
R-19
R-19
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
Slab-on-Grade
Assembly Max Uvalue
F-0.730
F-0.730
F-0.730
F-0.520
F-0.520
F-0.510
F-0.510
F-0.434
Unheated
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
R-15.0 for
24 in.
R-15.0 for
24 in.
R-20.0 for
24 in.
R-20.0 for
24 in.
R-20.0 for
48 in
Walls
Doors
Air Tightness
(4)
Vertical
Glazing
Swinging
U-0.70
U-0.70
U-0.70
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
Non-swinging
U-1.45
U-1.45
U-1.45
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
Max Leakage at ±75Pa 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2
Blower Test Pressures
Window to Wall Ratio 10%-20% (WWR)
East/West
10%-40% North/South
10%-20% East/West
10%-40% North/South
10%-20% East/West
10%-40% North/South
Thermal transmittance U-0.56
(Assembly Maximum)
U-0.45
Solar heat gain
coefficient (SHGC)
0.25
0.25
South Overhangs
Yes;
Yes;
Yes;
Yes;
Yes;
Yes;
Yes;
NR (3)
Projection
Projection
Projection
Projection
Projection
Projection
Projection
Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4
U-0.45
10%-20% East/West
10%-40% North/South
U-0.42
10%-20% East/West
10%-40% North/South
U-0.42
10%-20% East/West
10%-40% North/South
U-0.42
10%-20% East/West
10%-40% North/South
U-0.33
10%-20% East/West
10%-40% North/South
U-0.33
0.37
0.39
0.39
0.39
NR (3)
NR (3)
4
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Table 4. Central Operating Facilities - COF
Item
Component(1)
Climate Zones
1
Roof
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Assembly Max Uvalue
U-0.0481
U-0.0481
U-0.0388
U-0.0388
U-0.0388
U-0.0388
U-0.0325
U-0.0325
Insulation Entirely
Above Deck
R-20ci
R-20ci
R-25ci
R-25ci
R-25ci
R-25ci
R-30ci
R-30ci
Attic and Other
R-30
R-30
R-38
R-38
R-38
R-38
R-49
R-49
Solar Reflectance (2)
High
High
High
High
High
Low
Low
Low
Assembly Max Uvalue
U-0.1242
U-0.1242
U-0.0847
U-0.0676
U-0.0676
U-0.0676
U-0.0595
Mass
R-6.5ci
R-6.5ci
R-10
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-15.0
R-11.4 +
R-3.0ci
Steel Framed
R-13
R-13
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-12.5ci
R-13 +
R-18.8ci
Wood Framed and
Other
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-13.0ci
R-13 +
R-19.5ci
Floors Over
Unconditioned
Space
Assembly Max Uvalue
Mass
Steel Joists
Wood Framed and
Others
U-0.1067
U-0.1067
U-0.0739
U-0.0739
U-0.0521
U-0.0377
U-0.0377
U-0.0377
R-6.3ci
R-13
R-13
R-6.3ci
R-13
R-13
R-10.4ci.
R-13
R-13
R-10.4ci.
R-13
R-13
R-16.7ci.
R-19
R-19
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
Slab-on-Grade
Assembly Max Uvalue
Unheated
F-0.730 ;
F-0.730 ;
F-0.730 ;
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
F-0.520 ;
R-15.0 for
24 in.
F-0.520 ;
R-15.0 for
24 in.
F-0.510 ;
R-20.0 for
24 in.
F-0.510 ;
R-20.0 for
24 in.
F-0.434 ;
R-20.0 for
48 in.
Assembly Max Uvalue
Heated
F-1.020;
R-7.5 for
12 in
F-0.900 ;
R-10 for
24 in
F-0.860 ;
R-15.0 for
24 in.
F-0.843 ;
R-20 for
24 in.
F-0.688;
R-20.0 for
48 in
F-0.688;
R-20.0 for
48 in
F-0.671;
R-25.0 for
48 in
F-0.671;
R-25.0 for
48 in
Walls
Doors
U-0.0391
Swinging
U-0.70
U-0.70
U-0.70
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
Non-swinging
U-1.45
U-1.45
U-1.45
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
(4)
Max Leakage at ±75Pa 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2
Blower Test Pressures
Vertical
Glazing
Window to Wall Ratio < 15%
(WWR)
< 15%
< 15%
< 15%
< 15%
< 15%
< 15%
< 15%
Thermal transmittance U-0.56
(Assembly Maximum)
U-0.45
U-0.45
U-0.42
U-0.42
U-0.42
U-0.33
U-0.33
Solar heat gain
coefficient (SHGC)
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.45
NR (3)
South Overhangs
Yes;
Yes;
Yes;
Yes;
Yes;
Yes;
Yes;
NR (3)
Projection
Projection
Projection
Projection
Projection
Projection
Projection
Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4
Air Tightness
5
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Table 5. Child Development Centers – CDC
Item
Component(1)
Climate Zones
1
Roof
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Assembly Max Uvalue
U-0.0481
U-0.0388
U-0.0388
U-0.0388
U-0.0388
U-0.0325
U-0.0245
U-0.0245
Insulation Entirely
Above Deck
R-20ci
R-25ci
R-25ci
R-25ci
R-25ci
R-30ci
R-40ci
R-40ci
Attic and Other
R-30
R-38
R-38
R-38
R-38
R-49
R-60
R-60
Solar Reflectance (2)
High
High
High
High
High
Low
Low
Low
Assembly Max Uvalue
U-0.1242
U-0.1242
U-0.0847
U-0.0676
U-0.0676
U-0.0676
U-0.0595
Mass
R-6.5ci
R-6.5ci
R-10
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-15.0
R-11.4 +
R-3.0ci
Steel Framed
R-13
R-13
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-12.5ci
R-13 +
R-18.8ci
Wood Framed and
Other
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-13.0ci
R-13 +
R-19.5ci
Floors Over
Unconditioned
Space
Assembly Max Uvalue
Mass
Steel Joists
Wood Framed and
Others
U-0.1067
U-0.1067
U-0.0739
U-0.0739
U-0.0521
U-0.0377
U-0.0377
U-0.0377
R-6.3ci
R-13
R-13
R-6.3ci
R-13
R-13
R-10.4ci.
R-13
R-13
R-10.4ci.
R-13
R-13
R-16.7ci.
R-19
R-19
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
Slab-on-Grade
Assembly Max Uvalue
Unheated
F-0.730 ;
F-0.730 ;
F-0.730 ;
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
F-0.520 ;
R-15.0 for
24 in.
F-0.520 ;
R-15.0 for
24 in.
F-0.510 ;
R-20.0 for
24 in.
F-0.510 ;
R-20.0 for
24 in.
F-0.434 ;
R-20.0 for
48 in.
Assembly Max Uvalue
Heated
F-1.020;
R-7.5 for
12 in
F-1.020;
R-7.5 for
12 in
F-0.860 ;
R-15.0 for
24 in.
F-0.843 ;
R-20 for
24 in.
F-0.688;
R-20.0 for
48 in
F-0.688;
R-20.0 for
48 in
F-0.671;
R-25.0 for
48 in
F-0.671;
R-25.0 for
48 in
Walls
Doors
U-0.0391
Swinging
U-0.70
U-0.70
U-0.70
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
Non-swinging
U-1.45
U-1.45
U-1.45
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
(4)
Max Leakage at ±75Pa 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2
Blower Test Pressures
Vertical
Glazing
Window to Wall Ratio < 20%
(WWR)
< 20%
< 20%
< 20%
< 20%
< 20%
< 20%
< 20%
Thermal transmittance U-0.56
(Assembly Maximum)
U-0.45
U-0.45
U-0.42
U-0.42
U-0.42
U-0.33
U-0.33
Solar heat gain
coefficient (SHGC)
0.25
0.25
0.37
0.39
0.39
0.39
0.45
NR (3)
South Overhangs
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
Air Tightness
6
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Table 6. Dining Facilities - DFAC
Item
Component(1)
Climate Zones
1
Roof
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Assembly Max Uvalue
U-0.0634
U-0.0634
U-0.0481
U-0.0481
U-0.0481
U-0.0388
U-0.0388
U-0.0388
Insulation Entirely
Above Deck
R-15ci
R-15ci
R-20ci
R-20ci
R-20ci
R-25ci
R-25ci
R-25ci
Attic and Other
R-19
R-19
R-30
R-30
R-30
R-38
R-38
R-38
Solar Reflectance (2)
High
High
High
High
High
Low
Low
Low
Assembly Max Uvalue
U-0.1242
U-0.1242
U-0.0847
U-0.0676
U-0.0676
U-0.0676
U-0.0676
Mass
R-6.5ci
R-6.5ci
R-10
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-11.4 +
R-3.0ci
Steel Framed
R-13
R-13
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-18.8ci
Wood Framed and
Other
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-19.5ci
Floors Over
Unconditioned
Space
Assembly Max Uvalue
Mass
Steel Joists
Wood Framed and
Others
U-0.1067
U-0.1067
U-0.0739
U-0.0739
U-0.0521
U-0.0377
U-0.0377
U-0.0377
R-6.3ci
R-13
R-13
R-6.3ci
R-13
R-13
R-10.4ci.
R-13
R-13
R-10.4ci.
R-13
R-13
R-16.7ci.
R-19
R-19
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
Slab-on-Grade
Assembly Max Uvalue
Unheated
F-0.730 ;
F-0.730 ;
F-0.730 ;
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
F-0.520 ;
R-15.0 for
24 in.
F-0.520 ;
R-15.0 for
24 in.
F-0.510 ;
R-20.0 for
24 in.
F-0.510 ;
R-20.0 for
24 in.
F-0.434 ;
R-20.0 for
48 in.
Assembly Max Uvalue
Heated
F-1.020;
R-7.5 for
12 in
F-1.020;
R-7.5 for
12 in
F-0.860 ;
R-15.0 for
24 in.
F-0.843 ;
R-20 for
24 in.
F-0.688;
R-20.0 for
48 in
F-0.688;
R-20.0 for
48 in
F-0.671;
R-25.0 for
48 in
F-0.671;
R-25.0 for
48 in
Walls
Doors
U-0.0391
Swinging
U-0.70
U-0.70
U-0.70
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
Non-swinging
U-1.45
U-1.45
U-1.45
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
(4)
Max Leakage at ±75Pa 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2
Blower Test Pressures
Vertical
Glazing
Window to Wall Ratio < 20%
(WWR)
< 20%
< 20%
< 20%
< 20%
< 20%
< 20%
< 20%
Thermal transmittance U-1.22
(Assembly Maximum)
U-1.22
U-0.57
U-0.42
U-0.42
U-0.42
U-0.33
U-0.33
Solar heat gain
coefficient (SHGC)
0.25
0.25
0.37
0.39
0.39
0.39
NR (3)
NR (3)
South Overhangs
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
Percent Roof Area
≤4%
≤4%
≤4%
≤4%
≤4%
≤4%
≤4%
None
Thermal transmittance U-1.36
(Assembly Maximum)
U-1.36
U-0.69
U-0.69
U-0.69
U-0.69
U-0.69
NR (3)
Solar heat gain
coefficient (SHGC)
0.19
0.19
0.34
0.39
0.49
0.64
NR (3)
Air Tightness
Skylights
(Dining and
Servery)
0.19
7
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Table 7. Army Reserve Center - ARC
Item
Component (1)
Climate Zones
1
Roof
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Assembly Max Uvalue
U-0.0388
U-0.0388
U-0.0388
U-0.0388
U-0.0388
U-0.0325
U-0.0245
U-0.0245
Insulation Entirely
Above Deck
R-25ci
R-25ci
R-25ci
R-25ci
R-25ci
R-30ci
R-40ci
R-40ci
Attic and Other
R-38
R-38
R-38
R-38
R-38
R-49
R-60
R-60
Solar Reflectance (2)
High
High
High
High
High
Low
Low
Low
Assembly Max Uvalue
U-0.0847
U-0.0847
U-0.0847
U-0.0676
U-0.0676
U-0.0676
U-0.0595
Mass
R-10
R-10
R-10
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-15.0
R-11.4 +
R-3.0ci
Steel Framed
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-7.5ci
R-13 +
R-12.5ci
R-13 +
R-18.8ci
Wood Framed and
Other
R-13
R-13
R-13
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-3.8ci
R-13 +
R-13.0ci
R-13 +
R-19.5ci
Floors Over
Unconditioned
Space
Assembly Max Uvalue
Mass
Steel Joists
Wood Framed and
Others
U-0.1067
U-0.1067
U-0.0739
U-0.0739
U-0.0521
U-0.0377
U-0.0377
U-0.0377
R-6.3ci
R-13
R-13
R-6.3ci
R-13
R-13
R-10.4ci.
R-13
R-13
R-10.4ci.
R-13
R-13
R-16.7ci.
R-19
R-19
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
R-25.1ci.
R-30
R-30
Slab-on-Grade
Assembly Max Uvalue
Unheated
F-0.730 ;
F-0.730 ;
F-0.730 ;
NR (3)
NR (3)
NR (3)
F-0.520 ;
R-15.0 for
24 in.
F-0.520 ;
R-15.0 for
24 in.
F-0.510 ;
R-20.0 for
24 in.
F-0.510 ;
R-20.0 for
24 in.
F-0.434 ;
R-20.0 for
48 in.
Assembly Max Uvalue
Heated
F-1.020;
R-7.5 for
12 in
F-1.020;
R-7.5 for
12 in
F-0.860 ;
R-15.0 for
24 in.
F-0.843 ;
R-20 for
24 in.
F-0.688;
R-20.0 for
48 in
F-0.688;
R-20.0 for
48 in
F-0.671;
R-25.0 for
48 in
F-0.671;
R-25.0 for
48 in
Walls
Doors
U-0.0391
Swinging
U-0.70
U-0.70
U-0.70
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
Non-swinging
U-1.45
U-1.45
U-1.45
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
U-0.50
(4)
Max Leakage at ±75Pa 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2 0.25 cfm/ft2
Blower Test Pressures
Vertical
Glazing
Window to Wall Ratio < 15%
(WWR)
< 15%
< 15%
< 15%
< 15%
< 15%
< 15%
< 15%
Thermal transmittance U-0.56
(Assembly Maximum)
U-0.45
U-0.45
U-0.42
U-0.42
U-0.42
U-0.33
U-0.33
Solar heat gain
coefficient (SHGC)
0.25
0.25
0.31
0.39
0.39
0.39
NR (3)
NR (3)
South Overhangs
Yes;
Yes;
Yes;
Yes;
Yes;
Yes;
Yes;
NR (3)
Projection
Projection
Projection
Projection
Projection
Projection
Projection
Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4 Factor = 0.4
Air Tightness
8
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Notes:
1. U-values and R-values for assemblies and their definitions, requirements, and determinations can
be found in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007, Normative Appendix A.
2. High/Low Surface Reflectance: Light colored and Cool Roofs reflect and emit the sun's heat back
to the sky instead of transferring it to the building below. "Coolness" is measured by two properties,
solar reflectance and thermal emittance. Both properties are measured from 0 to 1 and the higher
the value, the "cooler" the roof. For details, please see “Roofs” section.
3. NR means there is no requirement or recommendation for a component in this climate zone.
4. Increased Building Air tightness. Building air leakage (measured in cfm/ft2) is the average volume
of air (measured in cubic feet per minute) that passes through a unit area of the building envelope
(measured in square feet) when the building is maintained at a specified internal pressure (measured
in Pascals). The air tightness requirement adopted by the U.S. Army for new construction and major
retrofits requires that the leakage rate must not exceed 0.25 cfm/ft2 at 75 Pa. For details, see
Attachment 12, “Building Air Tightness and Air Barrier Continuity Requirements.”
9
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Exterior Wall Insulation for Renovation Projects
Alexander Zhivov
USACE Engineer Research and Development Center
In retrofit projects, older buildings can be insulated from the outside (Figure 2 [left]) or the inside
(Figure 2 [middle]). The best way to insulate a building wall is on the outside of the structure
since this minimizes problems with thermal bridges and does not reduce the usable floor area.
With sufficient exterior insulation the dew point temperature should not occur within the wall
cavity, thus reducing the risk of condensation. With current technologies, external insulation
offers different color and texture options and improves the look of the façade.
Figure 2. Retrofitted Army barracks with exterior insulation (left), interior insulation of the
retrofitted administrative building at the Rock Island Arsenal (center, right).
However, with some buildings (e.g., historic buildings) external insulation may not be approved,
therefore internal insulation shall be used when necessary. In these cases, improving the wall
insulation must be done internally. The interior of the wall structure can be insulated with
fiberglass (blown or batts), mineral wool, foam, or other insulating materials. Insulation can also
be applied to the interior surface of the walls, or a combination of wall cavity insulation and
interior surface insulation may be used. The choice of techniques and materials depends on the
wall structure, building use, current furnishings and need to preserve interior space, etc.
While the energy savings of a specific increase in wall R-value (with proper vapor barrier and
sealing of wall openings) will be the same whether the insulation is applied externally or
internally, the costs of internal insulation can vary widely depending on product, materials,
requirements for interior finishing, and costs of accessing the wall from the interior. Insulating
the wall from inside will also entail more inconvenience for the building’s residents and
disruption of activities. Internal insulation reduces usable floor area and may have poorer
aesthetics. Because the technology choice and cost of internal wall insulation is so buildingspecific, this technology fact sheet will focus on EIFS (Exterior Insulation Finishing System)
only. However, the energy savings estimates for EFIS can be applied to projects where internal
insulation is being considered.
EIFS (Exterior Insulation Finishing System) increases a building envelope’s R-value by about R3.85 per inch. Typically, 1, 2, 4, 6 or 8 inch (2.54, 5.08, 10.16, 15.24 or 20.32 cm) thicknesses
10
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
are installed. Up to 40 cm insulation can be glued and anchored to the wall. Sometimes, anchor
systems limit the thickness of insulation. For each thickness of insulation, there are two
alternative installation types. The less expensive option is known as a “face-sealed system,”
where the outermost layer of the exterior facade is sealed to help repel moisture. Alternatively, a
more expensive “drainage system” option avoids moisture buildup within the wall by installing a
barrier behind the actual insulation (Figure 3). This barrier is able to remove any moisture that
penetrates the outer layer, thereby preventing mold or fungal growth, corrosion of the building
wall and/or freezing in winter. Such events could lead to separation of the EIFS from the
building wall, creating a path for more moisture intrusion. Differences in the two installation
methods have negligible effect on the energy performance of the building; however, the
difference is reflected in the cost of installation and prevention of water damage.
Figure 3. EFIS Construction.
The reduced thermal conductivity from retrofitting a building with EPS typically results in 10% to
40% energy savings, depending on the initial level of insulation and the climate. Energy savings
tend to taper off quickly beyond two inches of insulation in warmer climates, but colder climates
often benefit significantly with additional thickness of insulation, because protection from a
larger temperature differential is needed. Therefore, thicker insulation layers are most cost
effective to install in colder climate zones. In addition to energy saving and investment cost
reduction (from being able to install smaller sized HVAC equipment), a better insulated building
provides other significant advantages, including higher thermal comfort because of warmer
temperatures on the interior surfaces in winter and lower temperatures in summer. This also
results in a lower risk of mold growth on internal surfaces.
EIFS also offers benefits during construction of new buildings. For instance, the system offers
significant savings on construction costs, compared to a brick veneer system. The light weight
of EIFS could also offer potential savings in the building’s structural steel as the weight of the
façade is reduced. In addition to contributing to energy cost savings, decreased infiltration
improves air quality inside the building by keeping much dust, pollen, and car exhaust from
entering. Also, reduction in drafts, noise and humidity contribute to the comfort of individuals
inside the building.
The effect on annual energy use and costs of retrofitting an existing barracks with improved
exterior wall construction is examined in this analysis. To estimate the achievable savings, a
11
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
number of pre- and post-retrofit year-long simulations were performed using the EnergyPlus 3.0
building energy simulation software, which models heating, cooling and ventilation flows through
buildings, among other criteria.
The baseline building is assumed to be an existing barracks, dormitory or multi-family building
built either to meet the minimum requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 (ASHRAE 1989)
by climate zone (Baseline 1) or to have been built prior to 1960, using typical construction
practices of the time with little or no insulation (Baseline 2). The barracks are three stories high
with an area of 30,465ft2 (2,691 m2) and include 40 two-bedroom apartment units, a lobby on
the main floor and laundry rooms on each floor. The barracks were assumed to be unoccupied
during the hours of 8 AM – 5 PM Monday through Friday. Further details on the barracks and
the baseline heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used are included in [5]
The application of EIFS was evaluated for 15 U.S. locations The U.S. locations were selected
as representative cities for the climate zones by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [4].
Flat utility tariffs were assumed for each location (i.e., no energy demand charges are included).
The U.S. energy costs are based on Energy Information Administration (EIA) 2007 average data
for commercial rates in each state and may not reflect the utility rates at a specific location (EIA
2008). The climate characteristics, energy costs and building details and construction
parameters of all simulations are in [5].
Several different systems were modeled, each summarized in Table 8. Along with the added
insulation, improvements in the air tightness of the barracks were modeled. The air tightness
improvements ranged from the baseline of 1.00 cfm/ft2 at 75 Pa to 0.85 cfm/ft2 at 75 Pa. Proper
installation of the EIFS on the walls and around windows and doors is expected to reduce
infiltration to some extent. The full 15% reduction (to 0.85 cfm/ft2 at 75 Pa) modeled might
require some additional work to seal the barracks, which is not included in the cost estimates.
Best practice is to improve the building’s airtightness at the same time as the EIFS installation,
using the same construction crew; the additional costs for ensuring proper window and door
frame sealing are minimal while the EIFS is being installed. Therefore, the 15% reduced
infiltration is assumed in all the analyses presented here.
Table 8. U.S. Scenario Descriptions
Building Walls
Tested
Baseline
Wall Construction
Additional Insulation
(ft2·hr·ºF/Btu)
Air Leakage
(cfm/ft2 @ 75 Pa)
Baseline 1
-
Wood framing with fiberglass insulation
and brick facade
-
1.00
Baseline 2
-
Same as Baseline 1, but pre-1960
construction
-
1.00
1” EPS
1
Baseline with 1 inch EPS
R-3.85
0.85
2” EPS
1
Baseline with 2 inch EPS
R-7.70
0.85
4” EPS
1
Baseline with 4 inch EPS
R-15.4
0.85
6” EPS
1
Baseline with 6 inch EPS
R-23.1
0.85
8” EPS
1
Baseline with 8 inch EPS
R-30.8
0.85
1” EPS
2
Baseline with 1 inch EPS
R-3.85
0.85
2” EPS
2
Baseline with 2 inch EPS
R-7.70
0.85
4” EPS
2
Baseline with 4 inch EPS
R-15.4
0.85
6” EPS
2
Baseline with 6 inch EPS
R-23.1
0.85
8” EPS
2
Baseline with 8 inch EPS
R-30.8
0.85
12
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Two baseline scenarios were used when studying the U.S. locations to describe potential
existing conditions of barracks prior to a retrofit:
Baseline 1: This baseline accounts for pre-retrofit barracks with exterior walls consisting of
wood framing with fiberglass insulation and brick façade meeting the minimum requirements of
ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989.
Baseline 2: This baseline also accounts for pre-retrofit barracks with exterior walls consisting of
wood framing and brick facade. However, in this scenario, the existing building is assumed to
have been built using pre-1960 typical construction practices with no prior insulation
incorporated.
Table 9 lists the cost estimates for each type of insulation. Recommended practice is to use the
drainage system. In humid climates, any flaw in the vapor barrier, either from mistakes in
installation or post-installation penetrations of the vapor barrier or façade, can result in
condensation within the wall. Because of the prevalence of this type of problem, provision for
drainage is essential in warm, humid climates. In colder climates, face-sealed EIFS (i.e., without
the drainage) is prevalent. However, even in cold climates, penetrations in the vapor barrier or
façade can allow moisture intrusion in summer or winter. Unrepaired, this can result in
significant moisture-caused damage or fungal growth. Government buildings and public housing
(i.e., not privately-owned residences) are more likely both to experience damage from careless
usage or vandalism and to not have such damages repaired promptly.
Table 9. U.S. Retrofit Costs for External Insulation ($/sq ft).
System Thickness
Face-Sealed
1”
2”
4”
6”
8”
7.00
7.20
7.60
8.00
8.40
Drainage
8.00
8.20
8.60
9.00
9.40
Insulation Only
0.20
0.40
0.80
1.20
1.60
Figure 4 demonstrates the HVAC energy savings achievable with various thicknesses of
insulation in selected U.S. locations. These energy savings can also translate to reduced HVAC
system capacity required to heat or cool the building. Baseline 1 assumes the building meets
ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989; such buildings will already have some insulation in cold climates
but little to no wall insulation in warm climates. For cold climates, the EIFS in Baseline 1 yields
up to about 10% to 15% reduction in peak HVAC energy use (for 8 inch EIFS compared to the
baseline). Such savings would usually result in a negligible to small capital cost savings for the
HVAC system. For hot and humid climates, on the other hand, a 20% to 40% HVAC peak
energy savings can be expected (for 8 inch EIFS compared to the baseline, which is typically an
uninsulated building); this could represent a significant capital cost savings if the building’s
HVAC system is renovated along with the building’s envelope.
The EIFS installed in Baseline 2, which is applied to pre-1960 construction with no insulation,
results in much greater savings in HVAC energy use in cold climates (approximately 40%
savings). Baseline 2 scenarios in hotter climates typically see savings ranging from 20% to
40%, since Baselines 1 and 2 for these climate zones are usually identical or very close.
13
50%
50%
45%
45%
40%
40%
HVAC Energy Savings
HVAC Energy Savings
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
35%
30%
25%
20%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
15%
10%
10%
5%
5%
0%
0%
Figure 4. HVAC Annual Percentage Energy Savings for Baselines 1 (left) and 2 (right).
$1.00
$1.00
$0.90
$0.90
$0.80
$0.80
Annual Energy Cost Savings ($/ft2)
Annual Energy Cost Savings ($/ft2)
Figure 5 shows the expected annual energy cost savings for U.S. locations in Baselines 1 and
2. When comparing to the Baseline 1 building, warmer climates (e.g., Miami, FL) see average
savings between $0.15-0.30 per sq. ft. depending on the EIFS thickness; however, these
buildings are not as likely to see significant increases in savings beyond a 1- to 2-inch layer of
insulation. Colder climates (e.g., Boise, ID), however, see average savings of only $0.10-0.20
per sq. ft. for the first inch of EIFS because the building already is insulated (ASHRAE 90.11989). Such buildings in colder climates do tend to benefit from additional insulation thickness.
This can be seen when comparing to the Baseline 2 building with no pre-retrofit insulation. The
warmer climate buildings exhibit similar cost savings as in Baseline 1, because the Baseline 1
buildings have little wall insulation. The greatest savings are seen in colder climate zones since
they have the largest temperature differential to overcome, and unlike Baseline 1 (which already
has appropriate levels of insulation for specific climate zones), Baseline 2 cold climate buildings
have little insulation.
$0.70
$0.60
$0.50
$0.40
$0.30
$0.20
$0.70
$0.60
$0.50
$0.40
$0.30
$0.20
$0.10
$0.10
$0.00
$0.00
Figure 5. Annual Energy Cost Savings for Baselines 1 (left) and 2 (right) for U.S. Locations.
14
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
60
60
55
55
50
50
45
45
40
40
Payback (yrs)
Payback (yrs)
A rough indicator of the economic feasibility of EIFS is the ratio of capital cost to annual energy
savings, sometimes referred to as “simple payback” (SPB). (The simple payback period for the
U.S. locations is calculated based on the annual energy cost savings combined with estimates
of the retrofit cost. Interest and inflation are neglected.) As previously mentioned, results from
only the drainage EIFS are presented. Figure 6 shows SPB for Baseline 1 and 2, respectively.
The SPB period is much shorter in Baseline 2 because more significant energy savings are
realized due to there being no prior insulation. Furthermore, Figure 7 shows that Baseline 1
buildings have similar SPB since insulation installed in accordance with ASHRAE 90.1-1989 is
designed to match the climate zone. Overall, buildings with no prior insulation are much better
candidates for external wall insulation, especially in colder climates.
35
30
25
35
30
25
20
20
15
15
10
10
5
5
0
0
Figure 6. SPB Period for Baselines 1 (left) and 2 (right) with Drainage System Installation.
Baseline 1 vs Baseline 2
25
15
0-5 yr payback period
Energy Savings (kWh/ft^2)
20
14
5-10 yr payback period
15
12
10
11
10
7
3
15
5
14
12
13
9
10
7
11
9
8
10-15 yr payback period
4
6
5
6
13
1 Miami, FL
2 Houston, TX
3 Phoenix, AZ
4 Memphis, TN
5 El Paso, TX
6 San Francisco, CA
7 Baltimore, MD
8 Albuquerque, NM
9 Seattle, WA
10 Chicago, IL
11 Boise, ID
12 Burlington, VT
13 Helena, MT
14 Duluth, MN
15 Fairbanks, AK
2
8
4 1 1
2
5
3
15+ yr payback period
0
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
Energy Savings (%)
Figure 7. Comparison of SPB Periods for Baselines 1 (Red) and 2 (Blue) with 4” Thickness – U.S.
Locations
15
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Wall insulation is most cost-effective in cold climates. Buildings in hot climates buildings will also
benefit from increasing wall R-value, but the benefit per inch of insulation tends to be less than
in cold climates because the temperature differential between the building interior and ambient
air is greater in cold weather (e.g., T of about 15 – 25 C, about 30 – 40 F) than in hot
weather (e.g., T of about 10 – 15 C, about 20 – 30 F ). Existing buildings in warm climates
are likely to have little to no pre-existing wall insulation. In colder climates, they are likely to
already have been insulated to some extent. While adding insulation to a warm or moderate
climate building may result in appreciable energy reduction in terms of percent, the magnitude
of energy saved is smaller, and therefore the cost savings are smaller. The primary costs of
EIFS are the initial set-up (project preparation, scaffolding, etc.) and the façade. Therefore, if a
building’s façade needs repair or replacement, adding insulation though EIFS is strongly
recommended. The cost of the insulation itself is small compared to the rest of the project. For
new construction, insulation to the extent possible should be included when constructing the
walls. For a retrofit project requiring a new façade, it is recommended to install the maximum
amount of insulation physically possible.
While the cost of additional insulation is small compared to the cost of the wall or façade, it is
not negligible. The “optimal” level of insulation based on life cycle costs can be determined from
building energy simulation models. For retrofit projects in moderate climates, an additional layer
of 5 cm (2 inches) of insulation of may be sufficient (adding R 8), and 4 inches (R 15) should be
considered in hot climates. For cold or very cold climates, additional insulation thickness (up to
20 cm or 8 inches, R 30) is usually justified.
Windows
Alexander Zhivov, PhD and James Miller
USACE Engineer Research and Development Center
Michael Deru, PhD.,
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
Nils Petermann
Alliance to Save Energy
For new designs and major retrofits windows will be selected to improve visual and thermal
comfort and provide an opportunity for energy savings. While window replacement for energy
conservation reason only is typically not cost efficient, energy efficient windows for new
construction and major retrofit projects which include window replacement requirement is cost
efficient and shall be specified. The selection of windows for cold climates shall be based on a
window’s ability to retain heat inside the building and reduce infiltration, whereas in warm
climates, on the capacity to block heat gain from the sun and reduced infiltration. The main
energy related parameters of a window are its insulation value, transparency to solar radiation,
and air tightness.
Recommendations are provided in this section, but the prescriptive requirements are shown in
the Tables 1 – 7 for all climate zones and 8 building types.
The U-factor expresses a window’s insulation value, its resistance to heat flow when there is a
difference between inside and outside temperature. The U-factor is measured in Btu/hr-sq ft-°F
(W/sq m-°C). The lower the U-factor, the greater a window's resistance to heat flow.
A window’s transparency to the heat carried by solar radiation is expressed in the solar heat
gain coefficient (SHGC). The SHGC is the fraction of solar heat admitted by the window on a
16
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
range of 0 to 1. A window’s transparency to visible light is expressed as its visible transmittance
(VT) on a range of 0 to 1.
The air-leakage (AL) rating of a window indicates its air tightness. It expresses the rate of airleakage around a window at a specific pressure difference in units of cubic feet per minute per
square foot of frame area (cfm/sq ft) or cubic meters per minute per square meter of frame
area.(cmm/sq m).
Figure 8. Critical window performance parameters.
Figure 9 shows an example of the label verifying that the energy properties of windows are
rated according to nationally accepted standards and certified by the National Fenestration
Rating Council (NFRC).
Figure 9. Example of the window label
with energy performance ratings
according to nationally accepted
standards certified by the National
Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC).
Table 10 shows a range of window options used in barracks located in different climates and
their energy-related characteristics. Window options I and II are conventional windows typically
used in new construction and retrofit projects with only minimal energy-efficiency, whereas the
other options (A through F) provide different energy-efficiency benefits in different climates.
Table 10. Window options with Default Values for Barracks Buildings.
Window
Option
U-factor
Glazing type
Frame type
(imp./metric)
AL
SHGC
VT
(imp./metric)
I
2-pane, tinted
Aluminum
0.76/4.3
0.56
0.51
0.2/0.06
II
2-pane, uncoated
Non-metal
0.49/2.8
0.56
0.59
0.2/0.06
A
2-pane, low-solar-gain low-E
Aluminum, thermal break
0.47 / 2.7
0.33
0.55
0.2 / 0.06
B
2-pane, low-solar-gain low-E
Non-metal
0.34 / 1.9
0.30
0.51
0.2 / 0.06
17
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Window
Option
U-factor
Glazing type
Frame type
(imp./metric)
AL
SHGC
VT
(imp./metric)
C
2-pane, high-solar-gain low-E
Non-metal
0.36 / 2.0
0.49
0.54
0.2 / 0.06
D
3-pane, low-solar-gain low-E
Non-metal
0.26 / 1.4
0.25
0.40
0.1 / 0.03
E
3-pane, high-solar-gain low-E
Non-metal
0.27 / 1.5
0.38
0.47
0.1 / 0.03
F
3-pane, high-solar-gain low-E
Non-metal, insulated
0.18 / 1.0
0.40
0.50
0.1 / 0.03
A study conducted by the USACE Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC-CERL)
in collaboration with National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) using EnergyPlus software
to simulate energy use of a representative three story Army barrack building in 15 U.S. climate
locations with the commonly used new and replacement window practices and advanced
window options listed in Table 10. According to these studies improved window technologies
will achieve annual site energy use savings in all climates with the most significant impact in the
colder climates (Figure 10).
12%
Annual Energy Savings
10%
8%
6%
Window I
Window II
Window A
Window B
Window C
Window D
Window E
Window F
4%
2%
0%
Figure 10. Annual energy savings for U.S. cities representing different climates (Compared to
baseline windows)
When windows replacement is planned as an energy conservation projects, it is important to
determine if a basic window replacement project using current baseline window technologies
will save enough energy to offset the project costs and achieve a reasonable payback. Figure
11 shows the modeled payback for replacement of the ASHRAE 90.1-1989 windows with
currently available baseline windows. Window I (aluminum frame) was chosen as the baseline
replacement window for Climate Zones 1A, 2A, 2B and 3A because the additional strength of an
aluminum frame is warranted in hurricane susceptible areas, Window II is a typical replacement
window for Climates 3B-7 and Window C is a typical replacement choice for climate 8. Based on
the results shown in Figure 11, an energy conservation window replacement project in Zone 3C
(San Francisco) is not viable while a window replacement project in Zone 3B (El Paso, TX)
would be considered to be marginally viable. In other climate zones, a simple back ranges
between 1 and 8 years.
18
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Payback (Yrs) with Respect to ASHRAE Std 90.1-1989 Windows Using
Conventional Replacement Options
16.0
14.0
12.0
Window I
Window II
10.0
Window C
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
TX
FL
Ph
oe
n
n,
m
i,
ou
st
o
M
ia
H
ix
,A
M
em
Z
ph
is
,T
El
N
Sa
Pa
so
n
Fr
,T
an
X
cis
co
Ba
,C
ltim
A
or
Al
e,
bu
M
qu
D
er
qu
e,
N
Se
M
at
tle
,W
C
A
hi
ca
go
,I
L
Bo
ise
Bu
,I
rli
D
ng
to
n,
VT
H
el
en
a,
M
D
T
ul
ut
h,
Fa
M
irb
N
an
ks
,A
K
0.0
Figure 11. Modeled payback results of an energy conservation project using current baseline
quality replacement windows.
For new construction and major building renovation projects or projects to replace failed or
failing windows, one can assume that the cost of replacing the existing windows with currently
available conventional replacement windows is a sunk cost. For these projects, one should
conduct an analysis to determine if the additional cost of premium replacement windows rather
than conventional replacement windows can be justified.
The marginal installed cost (Cpremium minus Cconventional) is divided by the marginal annual energy
savings (Spremium minus Sconventional) to arrive at the payback for the investment in premium quality
replacement windows. Note that although a window replacement project in Zone 3C (San
Francisco) is not justifiable for an energy conservation project, for a major renovation or repair
project; we assume that the original windows will be replaced anyway. As a result, installation of
conventional replacement windows is a sunk cost. Therefore, even in Zone 3C, one should
perform an analysis to determine if premium quality windows can be justified.
The results of an engineering analysis for renovation/repair projects in the fifteen climate zones
are shown in Figures 12, 13, 14 below. One can see that for each of the climate zones, there
are at least two high performance replacement window options that satisfy the assumed ten
year payback criteria. Table 11 lists several premium quality replacement windows options
recommended for each of the fifteen U.S. climate zones which satisfy the ten year payback
criteria, while in moderate and cold climates the payback is under 4 years.
19
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Payback (Yrs) with Respect to Conventional Replacement Window I
14.0
Window A
12.0
Window B
Window C
Window D
10.0
Window E
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
Miami, FL
Houston, TX
Phoenix, AZ
Memphis, TN
Figure 12. Modeled payback results of upgrading to premium quality replacement windows from
current baseline quality replacement windows (Zones 1A, 2A, 2B, and 3A) for new construction
and a major renovation or repair projects.
Payback (Yrs) with Respect to Conventional Replacement Window II
12.0
Window B
Window C
10.0
Window D
8.0
Window E
6.0
4.0
2.0
N
T
M
h,
D
ul
ut
a,
H
el
en
to
n,
lin
g
M
VT
D
,I
Bu
r
o,
Bo
is
e
IL
A
C
hi
ca
g
t tl
e,
Se
a
Al
bu
qu
er
qu
e,
or
e,
N
W
M
D
M
A
C
Ba
lti
m
nc
is
co
,
Fr
a
Sa
n
El
P
as
o,
TX
0.0
Figure 13. Modeled payback results of upgrading to premium quality replacement windows from
current baseline quality replacement windows (Zones 3B, 4A, 4B, 4C, 5A, 5B, 6A, 6B and 7A) for
new construction and a major renovation or repair project.
20
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Payback (Yrs) with Respect to Optional Replacement Window C
12.0
10.0
Window D
Window E
Window F
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
Fairbanks, AK
Figure 14. Modeled payback results of upgrading to premium quality replacement windows from
current baseline quality replacement windows (Zone 8) for new construction and a major
renovation or repair project.
Table 11. Window recommendations for barracks located in
different U.S. climates.
Zone
1A
Climate
Very hot
Efficient Window Options
A, B
2A,B
Hot
A, B,
3A,B,C
Warm
A, B
4A,B,C
Mixed
B, C
5A,B
Cool
B, C, D, E
6A,B
Cold
C, D, E
7
Very cold
C, E, F
8
Subarctic
E, F
Operable windows provide building occupants with a connection to the outdoors and can serve
to provide additional natural ventilation (under appropriate outdoor conditions) if the mechanical
systems are shut down because of problems or servicing. Operable windows shall not be used
in hot and humid climates (Zones 1a, 2a, and 3a) to prevent mold problems.
The ventilation characteristics of a window that provides a modest connection to the outdoors
are different from a window that can provide a portion of the cooling requirements for the interior
space. The ventilation function of an operable sash must be incorporated into the total
fenestration design. It may not be feasible or necessary to make all windows operable in office
or commercial buildings. A small awning or sliding window below a fixed window can provide the
desired effect. All operable windows must have appropriate switches to disarm air-conditioning
systems controlling sensible load (DOAS controlling latent load shall be operated all the time).
Table 12 shows a range of window options (A through D) and their energy related
characteristics for administrative buildings which provide energy-efficiency benefits in different
climates.
21
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Table 12. Window options with Default Values for Administrative Buildings.
Window
Option
U-factor
Glazing type
Frame type
(imp./metric)
SHG
C
Incremental
VT
cost ($ per ft2)
A
2-pane, reflective coating
Aluminum, thermal break
0.54 / 3.1
0.17 0.10
B
2-pane, low-E, tinted
Aluminum, thermal break
0.46 / 2.6
0.27 0.43
$1.25
$1.75
C
2-pane, low-E
Aluminum, thermal break
0.46 / 2.6
0.34 0.57
$1.50
D
3-pane, low-E
Insulated
0.20 / 1.1
0.22 0.37
$8.00
Table 13 lists window options for administrative buildings that shall be considered in different
climates. Efficient window options are recommended based on the climate-specific
considerations —a low SHGC for warm climates and a low U-factor for cold climates.
Aluminum-framed window A is among the recommended options for regions where hurricane
considerations might require the sturdiness of aluminum (1A, 2A, 2B, 3A).
Table 13. Window recommendations for administrative buildings located in
different U.S. climates
Zone
1A
Climate
Efficient window options
Very hot – humid
A, B
2A,B
Hot
A, B
3A
Warm -humid
B
3B,C
Warm (dry, marine)
B, C
4A,B,C
Mixed
B, C
5A,B
Cool
B, C
6A,B
Cold
B, C, D
7
Very cold
C, D
8
Subarctic
C, D
Roofs
Andre Desjarlais, ORNL, Alexander Zhivov Ph.D., Richard Liesen Ph.D.
USACE Engineer Research and Development Center
Roofs are vulnerable to solar gain in summer and heat loss in winter. Dark, non-reflective roofing
surfaces create heat island effects by absorbing energy from the sun and radiating it as heat. Solar
reflectance is the fraction of solar energy that a roof reflects. Thermal emittance is a measure of the
roof’s ability to radiate any heat absorbed back into the air, rather than the building below. Both
properties are measured on a scale of zero to one; the higher the values, the cooler the roof.
High-reflectance and high thermal emittance roofs (often referred to as “cool roofs”) can reflect heat
instead of absorbing it, thereby reducing the building’s interior temperature and the running time of
the air conditioning system. In winter “cool” roofs might have a negative effect on the building
energy consumption by increasing load on the heating system compared to standard roofs.
Cool roofs are typically white and have a smooth surface. Commercial roof products that qualify
as cool roofs fall into three categories: single-ply, liquid-applied, and metal panels. For roofing
products, the values for solar reflectance and thermal emittance shall be determined by a
laboratory accredited by a nationally recognized accreditation organization, such as the Cool
Roof Rating Council CRRC-1 Product Rating Program, and shall be labeled and certified by the
manufacturer.
22
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
In order to be considered a cool roof, a solar reflectance of 0.67 when tested in accordance with ASTM
C1549,
ASTM E903, or ASTM E1918 and, in addition, a minimum thermal emittance of 0.75 when tested in
accordance
with ASTM C1371 or ASTM E408, or a minimum Solar Reflective Index of 78 when determined in
accordance
with the Solar Reflectance Index method in ASTM E1980 where standard white is SRI = 100 and
standard black
has SRI = 0. An SRI can be determined by the following equations:
SRI = 123.97 – 141.35(x) + 9.655(x2)
where
x
20.797    0.603  
9.5205    12.0
Where  is the solar absorbance (= 1 – solar reflectance) and  is the thermal emissivity, which were
derived from
ASTM E1980 assuming a medium wind speed.
Cool roof options exist for most traditional roofing materials. Each cool roof product offers a
different level of reflectance and emissivity, as well as different costs. For flat-roofed buildings,
metal roofs, coatings and membranes are feasible options. For sloped roofed buildings, metal
roofs, reflective tiles and architectural shingles are feasible and more aesthetically pleasing
(Figure 15).
Figure 15. TEMF
building at Fort Bliss
with a reflective white
metal roof.
Metal Roofs: Several metal roof products have earned the ENERGY STAR® label, thanks to the
development of pigments that make metal roofs highly reflective. Cool metal roof products are
extremely durable and, at a cost of approximately $2 per square foot, are generally less expensive
than reflective tiles.
Membranes (single-ply): These flexible or semi-flexible pre-fabricated sheets consist of EPDM
(ethylene-propylene-dieneterpolymer), PVC (polyvinyl chloride) or TPO (thermoplastic polyolefin).
They can be applied over existing low-slope roofs using heat-sealed seams or caulk. Some are selfcleaning and mold resistant. The cost of single-ply roofing varies from $1.50 to $3 per square foot,
including materials, installation and reasonable preparation work (Figure 16).
23
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Figure 16. Duro-Last Cool Zone® roofing
system with a single-ply, 40 mil membrane
roofing material and a polyvinyl chloride
polymer blend demonstrated through the Navy
Technology Validation (Techval) Program.
Coatings: There elastomeric, polyurethane or acrylic liquids are the consistency of thick paint. They
can be applied over existing low-slope roofs with a roller or power sprayer and last from 10 to 20
years. Cool roof coatings may cost between $0.75 and $1.50 per square foot for materials and labor
(Figure 17).
Reflective Tiles: Clay or concrete tiles can incorporate special pigments that reflect solar energy
while mimicking traditional colors, including green, brown and terra cotta. These tiles are extremely
durable and especially suitable for new homes or for construction projects where a white roof might
be aesthetically unacceptable (Figure 18). They cost approximately $3 per square foot.
Architectural shingles: These products resemble traditional roofing shingles but have the reflective
properties characteristic of other cool roof materials. The shingles are available in a variety of
colors, and the difference in cost between architectural shingles and conventional asphalt shingles
is minimal (Figure 18).
(a)
(b)
Figure 17. Reflective roof coating (a), and reflective roof membrane (b).
24
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 18. White metal roof (a), roof tile coatings (b), and architectural shingles (c)
(http://www.elkcorp.com).
Reflective "cool roofs" which reduce the building cooling load, are available in many colors besides
white, though roof color, has an impact on energy usage. Table 14 lists the reflectance and
emittance values by roof type and color for new and aged roofing materials (ORNL).
25
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Table 14. Characteristics of reflective roofing materials.
Roofing Type
Color
New Solar
Reflectance
Aged Solar
Reflectance
New Thermal
Emittance
SRI
(ASTM
E1980
0.70 – 0.85
0.50 –0.65
0.85
84 – 106
Roof Coatings
White
Roof Coatings
Grey or Tan
0.70
0.50
0.85
84
Roof Coatings
Terra Cotta or Brown
0.40
0.30
0.85
43
Roof Coatings
Aluminized
0.50
0.40
0.50
42
Metal Paint
Red
0.25
0.25
0.83
22
Metal Paint
Terra Cotta
0.35
0.35
0.83
36
Metal Paint
Bright Red
0.35
0.35
0.83
36
Metal Paint
Beige/Off White
0.55
0.55
0.83
63
Metal Paint
Tan
0.45
0.45
0.83
49
Metal Paint
Dark Blue
0.25
0.25
0.83
22
Metal Paint
Medium to Light Blue
0.32
0.32
0.83
32
Metal Paint
Dark Brown
0.25
0.25
0.83
22
Metal Paint
Medium to Light Brown
0.32
0.32
0.83
32
Metal Paint
Dark Green
0.25
0.25
0.83
22
Metal Paint
Medium to Light Green
0.32
0.32
0.83
32
Metal Paint
White
0.65
0.65
0.83
77
Metal Paint
Bright White
0.70
0.70
0.83
84
Metal Paint
Black
0.25
0.25
0.83
22
Metal Paint
Dark Grey
0.25
0.25
0.83
22
Metal Paint
Medium to Light Grey
0.35
0.35
0.83
36
Metal Paint
Pearlescent Colors
0.35
0.35
0.75
32
Galvalume
Unpainted
0.65
0.55
0.05
45
Copper Metal
Unpainted
0.85
0.18
0.03
89
Galvanized Steel
Unpainted
0.40
0.20
0.50
26
EPDM Membrane
Black
0.05
0.10
0.85
0
TPO Membrane
White
0.80
0.60
0.85
99
TPO Membrane
Grey
0.50
0.40
0.85
57
PVC Membrane
White
0.80
0.60
0.85
99
PVC Membrane
Grey
0.50
0.40
0.85
57
Asphalt Shingle
Dark Color
0.10
0.10
0.85
4
Asphalt Shingle
Light Color
0.25
0.25
0.85
23
Modified Bitumen Cap Sheet
Dark Color
0.10
0.10
0.85
4
Modified Bitumen Cap Sheet
Light Color
0.25
0.25
0.85
23
Modified Bitumen Cap Sheet
White
0.50-0.60
0.40 – 0.45
0.85
57 - 71
Studies conducted under the IEA ECBCS Annex 46 showed that “cool roofs” are cost effective over
air-conditioned spaces only for buildings located in climate zones 1-5. In these locations, a
minimum of 75% of the entire roof surface not used for roof penetrations, renewable energy power
systems (e.g., photovoltaics or solar thermal collectors), harvesting systems for rainwater to be
used on-site, and buildings shall be covered with roofing products that comply with one or more of
the following:
1. Have a minimum initial SRI of 78 for a low-sloped roof (a slope less than or equal to 2:12) and a
minimum initial SRI of 29 for a steep-sloped roof (a slope of more than 2:12).
5. Comply with the criteria for the USEPA’s Energy Star Program Requirements for Roof Products
– Eligibility Criteria.
26
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
For industrial buildings with only heating and ventilation, cool roofs can improve the comfort
conditions (and hence productivity) in the space.
In colder climates (DOE Zones 6-8), the amount of energy cost savings for a cool roof may be
significantly less than in warmer climates and can be offset by increased energy use for heating.
In the case of industrial ventilated and heated, but not air-conditioned buildings, “cool roofs” reduce
indoor air temperature during the hot part of the year and therefore improves worker’s comfort and
productivity and is cost effective in all climates.
Typically cool roofs are only installed during new construction or planned re-roofing projects. The
cost of a cool roof versus a standard roof depends on the type of cool roof selected. Some cool roof
products, e.g. metal roofs or membrane roofs, cost about the same as their traditional counterparts
while others cost slightly more.
For specific projects use the Department of Energy’s Cool Roof Calculator to calculate savings
associated with cool roof technologies. List of the Energy Star “cool” roofing materials and
manufacturers can be obtained from the following websites:
http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=roof_prods.pr_roof_products.
Also, a list of cool roof manufacturers and suppliers can be obtained from the Cool Roofs Rating
Council Web site at:
www.coolroofs.org.
27
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Hygro-Thermal Requirements for Building Envelopes
Ray Patenaude
The Homes Agency
Hygro-Thermal Control. The exterior wall not only provides a structure that keeps the building
from falling down, it also separates the outdoor elements of temperature and moisture from the
interior of the building. To do this the wall assembly must exclude rain, air, vapor and heat or
cold. If these environmental conditions cannot be controlled then moisture will form within the
wall assembly or the interior surface of the wall. Accumulation of moisture will increase the risk
of mold and mildew contamination.
Hygro-thermal control is accomplished with the use of four principal control layers, in order of
importance:

Rain control layer consisting of a water barrier

Air control layer consisting of an air barrier

Vapor control layer consisting of a vapor barrier

Thermal control layer consisting of insulation.
These control layers are placed against the outside of the structure of the building to protect the
structure and the interior of the building.
The control layers are protected from ultraviolet and rain by use of a cladding system installed
on the exterior of the building. Between the cladding and the control layers a drainage gap is
installed to allow drainage of rain water which gets past the cladding system. It is important to
provide flashing within the drainage gap to drain accumulated water out and away from the
building. Of course, the flashing should terminate above the grade of the soil outside the
building.
It is important to provide an interior wall finish such as a latex paint, textured finish or some
other material which will allow moisture to pass thru it into the conditioned space which has a
permeability of greater than 15 perms. Vinyl wall coverings should not be used on exterior walls.
The interior conditioned space should be conditioned with an HVAC system which provides
relatively dry air at or below 55° F dew point. In addition the interior spaces should be positively
pressured to assure that any outdoor air will not penetrate the air barrier control layer. This can
be accomplished with the use of a dedicated outdoor ventilation air system (DOAS). The DOAS
should provide more ventilation air then is exhausted from the building. In addition, ventilation
air should be dried by the DOAS to assure a space condition at or below 55° F dew point. This
resultant interior air will help control moisture condensation on interior spaces which will reduce
the risk of mold and mildew contamination.
Mold Detection Technologies for Building Interiors. Suspected mold or mildew
contamination within the interior spaces can be tested using one of the following testing
methods:
1. Spore Trap Mold Testing. Spore trap testing is the oldest and most frequently used and least
expensive mold test method, although it has limitations in being able to detect hidden mold. This
mold test collects a large volume of air and deposits the particles on a glass slide containing an
28
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
adhesive. The slide is viewed microscopically to differentiate between mold types and determine
the quantities of mold spores present with a sensitivity of 13 spores/cubic meter.
2. Mold Volatile Organic Compounds (MVOCs) Testing. Metabolic by-products are produced during
the growth of the mold. As mold “consumes” its food, the chemical reactions of enzymes,
substrates and mold growth produce carbon dioxide, water, and volatile organic compounds
(VOCs). Since these compounds are volatile, they will diffuse through walls into living or office
areas where they can be detected. Testing for MVOCs is accomplished by using vacuum
cylinders to obtain samples of the air with laboratory analysis using gas chromatograph/mass
spectrometers. This method does not differentiate between different types of mold; however, it is
very sensitive, and has the advantage of detecting hidden mold.
3. Lateral Flow Immunoassay/Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Detection. The lateral flow
immunoassay is a presumptive field test for mold. A sample containing an unknown suspected
biological contaminant is placed on the strip where it reacts with the dye-labeled antibodies. As
the dye-labeled antibody-contaminant complex binds to contaminant-specific antibodies attached
further down the test strip, a visible sample line forms along with the control test line. In the
absence of target contaminants, only the single control line forms. To enhance the sensitivity of
detection, an electronic reader can report the intensity of the faint line barely visible to the naked
eye within 15 minutes. The test only indicates that one or more of 24 of the 26 Group 1 molds
(associated with health problems) may be present in the solutionized sample. It does not identify
which mold is present. Positive identification of the mold type must still be accomplished by PCR,
a type of DNA testing. PCR can be used to identify individual genera/species accurately and
fairly quickly. PCR methods have been used in other venues since the early 1980’s, however, the
method was only recently customized by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a
screening tool to evaluate the potential risk of indoor mold growth. This test can identify and
quantify the unknown mold from among 36 species of mold known to produce mycotoxins. It can
differentiate between different types of mold, based on as little as a single strand of DNA from 1
mold spore.
4. Fluorometric Mold Detection. The Fluorometric detection method determines the activity of a
fungal enzyme. Although it does not differentiate between the types of mold, it has high
sensitivity. In the lab, samples taken from a mold contaminated surface are washed to transfer
the mold into a solution, which is put into a dish that contains the nutrients that molds need to
grow. After being incubated, the organisms in the solution that are alive will form visible colonies
in the dish, which can be quantified.
References
Deru, M. and K. Benne, “Summary of Data Reduction for Project: Barracks – Wall Insulation,”
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, January 14, 2009
Deru, M. and K. Benne, “Barracks Energy Conservation Measure: Enhanced Exterior Wall
Construction – International Locations,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden,
CO, May 2008
“DryVit case study project,” Lyman Davidson Dooley, Inc., Nashville, TN, 2006.
Briggs, R.S., Lucas, R.G., and Taylor, T.; Climate Classification for Building Energy Codes and
Standards: Part 2 - Zone Definitions, Maps and Comparisons, Technical and
Symposium Papers, ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Chicago, IL, January, 2003.
Benne, K. and M. Deru, “Reference Barracks Building,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory,
Golden, CO, in preparation, February 2009.
29
Energy and Water Conservation Design Requirements for SRM Projects
Deru, M. and K. Benne, Army Baseline Building Description: Barracks Facility - International
Locations, NREL, March 2009
Deru, M., Benne, K., "Administrative Building Energy Conservation Measure Window
Replacement(Draft)", National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado, April
24, 2008.
ASHRAE (1989). ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1989 Energy Efficient Design of New
Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. Atlanta, GA: American Society of
Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
Briggs, R.S., Lucas, R.G., and Taylor, T.; Climate Classification for Building Energy Codes and
Standards: Part 2 - Zone Definitions, Maps and Comparisons, Technical and
Symposium Papers, ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Chicago, IL, January, 2003.
EIA (2008). Energy Information Administration. www.eia.doe.gov. Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Department of Energy.
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