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TUNING
MANUAL
1999 Suspension Forks
• TABLE OF CONTENTS
• Chapter 1
Introduction ..............................................................2
• Chapter 2
Before You Begin .....................................................2
• Chapter 3
Real Technical Stuff Explained Simply ...................3
• Chapter 4
Pre Set Up Tips.........................................................5
• Chapter 5
Suspension Set Up 101 ............................................5
• Chapter 6
Tuning 1999 TPC Manitous ....................................7
• Chapter 7
Troubleshooting Tips ..............................................11
shocks. If the information here seems at first complicated, don’t get
frustrated. The MRD techs who wrote this manual have many years
experience with suspension and only through much time and effort
have learned the intricacies of suspension technology. With time, and
the information provided in this manual, you too can gain the necessary insight to make your suspension work optimally.
Some thoughts on 1999 forks before we begin. For 1999, the travel of
most of the forks has been increased. Most 1999 SX forks now have
80 millimeters of travel versus 70 millimeters the year before (the SX
Carbon is the exception, putting out 70 millimeters), the Spyder R has
80 millimeters of travel and the X-Vert line of forks now have 100
millimeters of travel or up. This, of course, means that you now have
more tunable travel, but, in addition, the standard setup of 1999 forks
is designed to use this increased travel to create a plusher ride. We’re
sure you noticed this on your first ride on the fork.
Before you begin your tuning, we recommend taking a few rides and
getting accustomed to the longer travel and softer feel of the
suspension. You may even find that the stock set up is perfect for you,
even though the spring charts in this tuning manual recommend
something different entirely.
Also, before you begin tuning your fork, start a log book that tracks
the changes your have made to the fork and the conditions (i.e., wet,
dry, big bump hits, small repetitive bumps) you rode the fork in.
Make sure you put a rating on how the fork felt that day somewhere
on that same page. That way you can also return to this setting should
you encounter similar conditions again. Be aware that the outside
temperature should also be considered when tuning the fork as well.
A hot day, for example, will have an effect on the stiffness of the fork
(because MCU’s and oil are sensitive to temperature), so make sure
you write down the weather in your log book as well. It might seem
like a lot of work when you’re writing it out, but a well-kept log book
will pay dividends in suspension performance.
• Chapter 8
Maintaining Suspension Bliss .................................12
• Chapter 9
Disassembly/Reassembly ........................................13
• Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
Thank you for choosing a Manitou suspension fork. The 1999
Manitou suspension forks have been designed to give you more
performance than ever. To take best advantage of your fork though,
you’ll need to tune it to your own particular riding style and weight.
By reading this MRD Tuning Manual, you will gain the knowledge
necessary to do this and make your fork work perfectly.
A note on MRD (Manitou Racing Development). Manitou Racing
Development is the race division of Manitou that is responsible for
developing products for use by top pro racers like John Tomac, Shaun
Palmer and Hubert Pallhuber. The information included in this manual is a result of many years spent working with these racers and is
written by MRD tech mechanics who’s job it is to ensure that
Manitou riders are riding perfectly-tuned suspension forks and
2 - 1999 MANITOU TUNING MANUAL
• Chapter 2: BEFORE YOU BEGIN
1. TPC EXPLAINED
TPC stands for Twin Piston Chamber, the next generation in damping
technology. A TPC fork consists of four main components: the compression assembly, the rebound assembly, the inner leg and the fork fluid.
TPC is an open system like an open-bath fork, but better. TPC is
contained like a cartridge, but better. What does all this mean? TPC
provides a damping system that’s more reliable than a typical
cartridge (no more blown cartridges) as well as being easier to care
for than an open bath (no more frequent and messy oil changes). It’s
also lighter than an oil bath design because oil and springs are only
needed in one leg each.
2. HOW TPC WORKS
The theory behind TPC is oil displacement. For those unfamiliar with
physics, simply visualize a bucket filled close to the top with water.
What happens if a brick is lowered slowly into the bucket?
The displacement of the brick—the space that it takes up—replaces a
similar amount of water; the water has been displaced and the water
level in the bucket rises.
riding, but since keeping track of hours in the saddle can be difficult,
make sure you work it into your maintenance schedule.
Compression
Piston
Compression
Adjustment
• Chapter 3: REAL TECHNICAL STUFF
EXPLAINED SIMPLY
Outer Leg
Inner Leg
This section is for those who want to know the basics behind
suspension before they get started trying to tune their suspension fork.
Damping, preload or other terms, are defined in this section.
Oil
A. THE PURPOSE OF SPRINGS AND PRELOAD
Leak-Proof
Seal
Rebound
Piston
Rebound
Adjustment
TPC works on this same principle. As the lower or rebound shaft
enters the inner leg (as the fork is compressed), it pushes fork fluid up
through the compression valve resulting in displacement much like
the brick being introduced in the bucket. The compression piston
controls or dampens this oil flow, allowing the fork to control the
reaction to bumps. As the shaft returns to its original position, the
fluid level does likewise through the rebound piston that offers return
surface control. A benefit of this design is that the fork has very little
compression damping over small bumps, permitting it to be very
plush. Conversely, on large bumps when more oil is pushed through the
compression piston at a higher speed, there is more compression damping,
exactly what you want on on big hits.
3. TPC SPORT EXPLAINED
TPC Sport is very similar to TPC. The four main components are
compression assembly, rebound assembly, the inner leg and the fork
fluid, and the theory behind the function of TPC Sport is oil displacement (again like TPC). As the lower (rebound) assembly is
compressed, fork fluid flow through the compression valve to provide
compression damping; as the fork extends, the oil flows back through
the rebound piston, providing rebound damping. The difference
between the two designs is that TPC Sport uses simple orifices to
monitor oil flow through the piston where TPC has shim stacks to
control oil flow.
4. ABOUT MICROLUBE
All 1999 forks come standard with the Microlube lubrication system.
Located at the back of the fork, at the top of the slider tubes, is a small
fitting which is the heart of the Microlube system. All you need now
is a Microlube grease gun (85-3812) and Manitou’s Prep M (85-3810)
suspension fork lube. Once you have the two aforementioned pieces,
the next step is to brush off any dirt from the grease ports then just put
the tip of the grease gun (85-3812) into the small eye and squeeze a
few times. After you’ve given the fork a few squirts, push down on the
fork and see if you feel any stiction (notchiness as the fork compresses). If you do, continue injecting grease and checking for stiction until it
is eliminated. Don’t overdo it either. Some people think that if a little is
good, a lot will be great. That’s not true with Microlube. The proper amount
of grease is when stiction is eliminated-no more, no less.
A suspension fork or rear shock unit uses springs primarily to support
the weight of the rider and bicycle, as well as isolate both from
impacts encountered while riding over rocks, holes, jumps and other
obstacles. Generally speaking, you want to use a spring with a rate
just stiff enough to prevent bottoming on all but the biggest bumps.
Spring Rate Defined
Spring rate is a measure of the spring’s stiffness or softness and is rated by the amount of force (weight)
necessary to compress the spring a given distance; it’s
most often expressed in pounds per inch or kilograms
per centimeter. A coil spring’s rate is determined by its
wire diameter, the number of coils and the coil diameter. An MCU’s spring rate is determined by its SP2
durometer hardness and density of the mixture.
Manitou forks from 1997 onward use a combination of coil spring and
MCUs. Why? A coil spring, by nature, wants to release all of its energy
from compression, thus providing a very lively, active ride on small-to
medium-size continuous hits. An MCU also does a good job on small
stuff, however, an MCU’s spring rate ramps up very quickly the more
it’s compressed. Around the middle of fork’s stroke, an all MCU fork
begins to feel dead and adds a harsh packing feel to the fork.
This is where the coil spring comes in. Manitou’s coil springs feature
a constant or straight rate. This means that if it’s rated a 50 pounds per
inch, 50 pounds of force is required to compress it one inch; 100
pounds are required to compress it two inches (50 pounds x 2
inches=100 pounds) and so on (see Figure 2). On the other hand, an
MCU which requires 50 pounds of force to compress one inch is
likely to jump to 150 pounds (or more) needed for two inches. This is
known as a progressive spring rate.
As such, there are several advantages to combining a coil spring with
MCUs. For example, it provides a truly progressive spring rate, with
both suppleness on small bumps and protection from bottoming out
due to big hits; it allows you to take advantage of the full travel
designed into the fork; the combination of an MCU and coil spring is
lighter than a single progressively-wound coil spring would be; and it
provides added options when it comes to dialing in the springs.
Something to remember with Microlube is that it does not mean the
end to servicing your fork. Periodically, depending on the conditions
you ride in, you’ll have to disassemble the fork, clean it thoroughly
and then reassemble it. We recommend doing this every 100 hours of
1999 MANITOU TUNING MANUAL - 3
3"
shim stack, it encounters more resistance if it tries to flow faster, due
to added speed and force. Damping adjusters allow you to alter how
easily the fluid flows, thus helping to control the speed at which the
fork both compresses and returns. If damping systems didn’t exist, a
fork would behave like a pogo stick, resulting in very poor control of
your bike.
4"
• The Benefits of Compression Damping
5"
Compression damping usually permits the use of lighter-rate fork
springs than would be possible in non-damped forks. That’s because
compression damping affects the down stroke or compression phase
of suspension movement, sharing the workload with the spring(s) as
speed and force increase (thus, the term “speed-sensitive”). The use
of compression damping results in a wider range of optimum performance, as it’s possible to maintain a plush, supple ride over small hits
and still resist hard bottoming on hard landings. (thanks to the speed
sensitivity of the compression damping).
0"
100 Lbs.
1"
200 Lbs.
300 Lbs.
2"
FREE
LENGTH
6"
100 LBS./IN. RATE
50 LBS./IN. RATE
50 LBS./IN. RATE
+2"
+1"
0"
200 Lbs.
200 Lbs.
1"
2"
200 Lbs.
3"
4"
5"
6"
Figure 1
Fork spring compression is dependent on the weight placed
on them, the length and the progressivity on the spring.
Preload is a term that is often misunderstood. Defined, preload is
the amount you initially compress a spring in order to control the
point at which it begins to move. It is useful because it provides a
quick and easy way to alter ride height without having to change
the springs.
• The Benefits of Rebound Damping
As you hopefully learned in school, for every action, there is an equal
and opposite reaction. Therefore, when a spring (coil, elastomer,
MCU) is compressed, it wants to return to its decompressed state; in
other words, it wants to rebound [see Figure 2]. If allowed to rebound
completely freely, the resulting suspension action would result in a very
pogo-stick like ride, with the fork returning very quickly and erratically.
Rebound damping slows and controls the extension stroke to keep the
front wheel on the ground at all times.
Spring Note: MCUs and other elastomer springs, even those made of
high-resiliency material, do absorb some energy when compressed
and will not have the same amount of rebound energy as a coil spring.
On a coil spring, preload increases the amount of force required to begin
to move the spring. It does not alter the overall spring rate. In other
words, it still takes the same amount of force to continue to
compress the spring, regardless of how much it’s been preloaded.
Preload does affect overall spring rate in an MCU. This is because
MCUs work by being compressed and distorted. More preload on an
MCU compresses and distorts it, which results in it being farther
along its progressive curve due to the inherently progressive nature of
the material.
But preload is not the end-all to spring woes. If it becomes necessary
to increase preload to near maximum adjustment, the fork has springs
with too light a rate and they need to be changed. Preloading MCU or
coil springs too much not only restricts travel, but tends to make the
ride of the fork harsh and makes rebound control more difficult.
B. DAMPING: WHAT IT IS & WHY IT’S IMPORTANT
Damping is the act of absorbing shock by changing the energy of
motion into heat and then dissipating it by way of an oil-based fluid.
The purpose of a damping system (such as that contained in a
suspension fork) is to limit both the rate at which a spring is compressed (compression damping) when it hits a bump and to slow the
resulting rate of return (rebound damping).
Piston and shim stack damping, like that used in TPC Damping
systems, is speed-sensitive. That means the resistance to movement
increases with speed and force. When talking about speed in reference
to damping, it is the speed of fork movement being referred to, not the
speed of the bike. As fluid tries to flow through a given piston and
4 - 1999 MANITOU TUNING MANUAL
Absorption
Shock
Dissipation
Figure 2
Shock causes the spring to compress and absorb. Rebound
occurs as the spring returns, dissipating the energy of the bump.
C. ABOUT HYDRAULIC DAMPING INTERNALS
1999 Manitou forks feature either a TPC (Twin Piston Chamber) on
TPC Sport Damping System, that can easily be serviced and tuned by
a competent owner or qualified technician.
Damping can be dialed in with TPC by either changing fluid viscosity
or the amount and sizes of the shims. The damping of TPC Sport,
because it uses orifices in the piston to provide damping rather than
shim stacks, can only be altered by changing the weight of the fork
oil. The stock fork fluid is Maxima 5-weight; other weight fluids are
recommended options depending on your weight and riding style. We
recommend Maxima fork fluid for optimum performance and service
life. The accompanying chart (see Figure 3) shows how different fluid
weights affect damping, though the graphs have been exaggerated to
make the differences more visual.
Such things as minute changes in rider position and increased
fatigue may lead to incorrect judgments about suspension set
tings and required adjustments.
OIL VISCOSITY GRAPH
•
7.5 wt
5 wt
2.5 wt
Figure 3
The heavier the fork oil weight, the more damping it will
provide. 5-weight Maxima oil is stock in Manitou TPC and
TPC Sport forks, but this oil viscosity can be increased or
decreased in weight for differing riding conditions and styles.
The TPC shim stack (see fig. 4) meters fluid flow through the
damping piston within the cartridge. Changing the number of shims,
their thickness and their diameter will alter damping character as will
changing the oil weight. You can’t change the diameter of the shim
closest to the piston though, as this is fixed and based on the piston’s
ports and its diameter. Changing a large-diameter shim has more
effect than changing a small-diameter shim.
• Chapter 4: PRE-SET UP TIPS
Service
Servicing your fork is the first step that should be
taken before any tuning is performed. The owner’s
manual you received with the fork provides detailed
descriptions on how to accomplish this. Servicing your
fork will also provide some familiarity with your fork
parts, so that when you get to the point of tuning the
fork, you will feel comfortable taking it apart and
making changes. Luckily, new for 1999 features like
Microlube (see “About Microlube”on page 4) make
servicing your fork easier than ever. If you did not
receive an owner’s manual, contact your bicycle
dealer or call Manitou at (805)257-4411, or download
from www.answerproducts.com
•
•
•
•
•
Always keep a record of adjustment changes made and the
performance differences that resulted. When proper settings are
achieved for a particular course, terrain or conditions, they
should be written down for future reference.
If the suspension fork is new, break it in with at least one hour of
riding before making any evaluations or changes.
The three major factors which must be considered in suspension
tuning are rider weight, rider ability and course conditions.
Additional influences include the rider’s style and the rider’s
positioning on the bicycle.
Make suspension changes in small increments. A little bit goes a
long way, and it’s very easy to over-adjust a setting.
On full-suspension bicycles, the front and rear suspension must
be balanced in order to provide the best-performing total pack
age. Same brand front and rear components is not the key, nor
necessary, for suspension harmony. Proper set up and suspension
balance is the key to superior performance, so keep in mind that
a front suspension change often requires a similar change to the
rear and vice-versa.
When evaluating suspension performance, the rider must ride as
consistently as possible and recognize the effects of his input.
• Chapter 5: SUSPENSION SET UP 101
With the preceding points in mind, let’s begin with suspension set up.
First of all, remember that the Manitou’s damping and spring characteristics have been determined by a team of very experienced test
riders, which should make the standard settings work well for most
riders under most conditions (meaning a 150- to 170-pound Sport-to
Expert-level rider with a bike using geometry typical of current
mountain bikes and riding primarily dry terrain).
If you’re outside of these parameters, your suspension may need
dialing in to get in the ballpark. Those who are heavier or more experienced than average may need stiffer springs; likewise, those who are
lighter or less experienced may need softer springs. Be aware that
changing spring rates often requires a change in rebound damping
adjustment to compensate (refer to “Real Technical Stuff Explained
Simply”). Also, don’t be fooled: sometimes you may think the fork is
bottoming when it’s not; the sensation may be due to an overly stiff
spring rate or excessive damping. Conversely, a harsh sensation may
be due to a soft spring rate which is causing the suspension to ride too
far into the firm portion of its travel. Here’s how to dial-in your
suspension as quickly, yet correctly, as possible.
1. SET SAG BEFORE ALL ELSE
In order to ensure optimum performance of your Manitou fork, the
preload on the springs must be correctly adjusted to obtain the proper
ride height or “sag.” Suspension sag helps the tires to remain in contact
with the ground under dynamic loading as braking and cornering.
Have a friend help you measure sag. One person can adjust the
preload, but it takes two to measure sag. The only equipment needed
is a tape measure, a pencil and a piece of paper. Here’s how to do it:
1. Measure the distance from the front axle’s centerline to the
bottom of the upper crown when no one’s sitting on the bike.
(Remember the exact locations of the two points because
you’ll need to use them later.)
2. Write this distance down.
3. Have the rider sit on the bike. It’s important to be in the nor
mal riding position with feet on the pedals; this is where
having a helper comes in handy.
4. Measure the distance between the same two points as in
step one.
5. Subtract the second measurement from the first. The result
is the static sag or ride height.
Correctly adjusted springs should yield 20 percent of the fork’s travel
in sag, approximately 8-10mm for a suspension fork that offers 6570mm of travel, 10-12mm for a 75-80mm-travel fork, 18-25mm for a
100-115mm-travel fork and 30-35mm for a 160mm-travel fork. If
your fork doesn’t have the correct sag, use the preload adjuster (refer
to page 7 “Tuning ‘99 Manitous). You should be able to use between
0 and eight clicks (not turns) on the preload adjusters to achieve the
correct sag. If more than eight clicks are required (indicating more
1999 MANITOU TUNING MANUAL - 5
preload is needed for correct sag), stiffer springs are needed (refer to
page 7 “Tuning ‘99 Manitous). If it requires less than the 0 click setting
(indicating less preload is needed), softer springs are needed.
If you have a full-suspension bicycle you should also follow the same
procedures when adjusting the shock (see below “A Balanced Bike is
Best”). Remember: Make only one change at a time so you can keep
track of what does what and keep a written record you so can return
to your original settings if something goes wrong. Sometimes, an
adjustment will produce an undesirable effect so you’ll want to
return to the previous setting.
PRING
S
Preload
Adjustment
D
R E LO A
Compression
Damping
Adjustment
PRESSIO
OM
C
+
P
N
-
-
+
DA
M PIN
G
DECREASE
INCREASE
Should a spring change be necessary, you’ll be glad that Manitou
forks allow doing so by simply changing one or more of the MCUs .
Changing MCUs will make a noticeable difference in effective spring
rate and will be much less expensive than changing the coil spring.
2. GET FAMILIAR WITH YOUR TPC FORK
After you set the sag, before you started making further changes you
must establish a baseline or point of reference to test your bike on.
Lay out a test course so you can determine how the suspension
works in an unaltered state first and then how it compares in practically identical conditions after adjustments are made. The course
shouldn’t be too long (15 to 20 minutes per lap is fine). It should be
rough and similar to the most demanding conditions you ride.
After coming up with a satisfactory test-course layout, ride a lap.
Concentrate on how the suspension performs, your body positioning
in various sections on the course and how the bicycle handles. When
you’re done with the lap, try the following exercise to help get
familiar with what suspension adjustments produce what results.
With your bike and fork in its normal upright position, turn the fork’s
rebound damping adjuster knob (TPC Forks only TPC Sport is nonadjustable), counterclockwise, all the way into position number one
(slowest return); write down where it was so you don’t forget.
Rebound Damping Adjustment
ROTATE
INCREASE
REBOUND DAMPING
DECREASE
REBOUND DAMPING
Now ride the test course again, attempting to duplicate the effort and
body positioning used on the first lap, and note how the fork acts.
Concentrate on how the bike handles and what it does where. After
finishing the lap, turn the rebound knob clockwise to the fully open
position (quickest return) and ride another lap, taking the same
mental notes. After these three laps, you should have a good idea of
how the bike handles at the extreme ends of fork rebound damping
adjustment and how that compares to the original setting. The
differences should be rather pronounced.
6 - 1999 MANITOU TUNING MANUAL
DECREASE
COMPRESSION
DAMPING
INCREASE
COMPRESSION
DAMPING
Generally speaking, cross-country riders prefer rebound damping on the
slow side. That’s because at their slower actual speeds, the time between
bumps tends to be longer. Also, with slower rebound settings the fork is
not as active while climbing.
Downhill riders, on the other hand, because of the high speeds result
in a shorter time between bumps, and, as a result, typically prefer
quicker rebound. Remember that a properly adjusted suspension
system may bottom very slightly at least once on a lap, or run, under
hard riding. If it doesn’t bottoming occasionally, you won’t be taking
advantage of all the suspension travel.
3. REAR SUSPENSION: A BALANCED BIKE IS BEST
If you have a full-suspension bicycle, you must make sure that both
ends work in unison. This is what is termed having balanced
suspension. It is not necessary to have the same brand front and rear
components to achieve a balanced, high-performance package. The
important factors are quality, tuneable components that the rider takes
the time to set up properly.
After the fork’s sag is set correctly, perform the following quick check
to see if the rear suspension is in reasonably good balance:
1. Hold the bike upright on level ground.
2. While standing next to the bike, pull on the front brake lever
so the bike doesn’t go anywhere.
3. Place your foot on the pedal closest to you and lower the
pedal to bottom dead center.
4. Now push down on the pedal with your foot and note the
attitude of the bike. Do it a few times. If the suspension is
well balanced, the bike will maintain a level attitude as it’s
pushed down and rebounds. (i.e., the front and rear suspension
will compress equally)
5. Next, sit on the bike in your normal riding position. If either
the front or rear end drops beyond proper “ride sag”, you’ll
need to adjust the preload and/or change springs. If you’ve
adjusted the fork’s preload, chances are you’ll need to adjust
the shock preload or even change its spring rate in order to
achieve better balance. Consult the shock owner’s manual if
you’re not sure how to do this.
• Chapter 6: TUNING 1999
TPC MANITOUS
Now that you have a basic understanding of the theory behind TPC,
See “Before you Begin” to review let’s look at another benefit: The
compression and rebound damping can be tuned completely independent of each other. This can be done in one of two ways depending
upon the particular model Manitou. Adjustments can be made either
internally or externally and can be done without having to remove the
fork fluid. Most riders will find the stock setting quite satisfactory. If
a different setting is desired, refer to page 8 “TPC Valve Stack
Tuning”. This section identifies what tuning and adjustments can be
made by diving into the internals of the fork. Experiment and exhaust
external tuning adjustments before you attempt procedures that
require disassembly or replacement of fork components. Once a
problem is identified, it’s easier to determine a solution and the
steps necessary to achieve it.
when the compression piston hits the fluid upon reinstallation. (See
“Checking Oil Level” below. At that point, the top of the assembly
should still be sticking out of the leg approximately two inches. If the oil
level is less than one inch or greater than three inches, follow the steps
in the section “Checking Oil Level” below.
Internal damping adjustment using set screw. Turn clockwise to increase compression damping.
Turn counterclockwise to decrease compression
damping. Standard setting is 4.5 turns out from fully closed.
1. SWITCHING SPRINGS
3. EXTERNAL COMPRESSION AND REBOUND
DAMPING ADJUSTMENTS
If you can’t attain proper sag using the procedures explained in the
previous section (Set Sag Before All Else), change either the MCU or
the coil spring.
A simple turn is all that’s required to make external damping adjustments,
due to the knobs at the top (compression) and bottom (rebound) of the
left fork leg. The stock settings for 1999 SX models are 12 clicks out
from fully closed on compression and six clicks out from fully closed
on rebound. 1999 X-Vert forks are set to 12 clicks out from fully
closed on both compression and rebound. Once again, the stock
settings should be quite satisfactory for most riders, but thanks to the
external knobs, experimenting or fine-tuning is quick and easy.
1. Remove the preload adjuster by unscrewing the cap from the
top of the crown/leg assembly. A pair of channel locks may
be necessary; if so, use only light pressure. Remember: The
springs are housed only in one leg so remove the cap from
the right side only (Rider right).
2. With the adjuster assembly removed, the spring stack is
now accessible.
3. Select the appropriate MCU or coil spring (refer to the
following spring charts for proper rate).
4. Put the new MCU or coil spring in the old one’s place in the
spring stack, apply a liberal amount of light grease to the
spring stack (particularly the plastic spring connectors and
the coil spring that may come in contact with the inside of
the leg). Reinstall the spring stack inside the leg.
5. Reinstall the preload adjuster assembly, taking care not to
cross-thread the cap. It should thread in by hand and does
not need to be tightened with a wrench. Making it fingersnug is quite acceptable.
6. With the new spring rate, it’ll be necessary to ensure that the
sag is set correctly, so run through that procedure again,
making any adjustments required.
2. INTERNAL COMPRESSION
DAMPING ADJUSTMENTS (1999 SX ONLY)
Internal damping adjustments are done via a small set screw housed
in the piston seat The stock setting for the compression damping
adjuster (the upper piston in TPC) is four and a half turns out from
fully closed. If you ever get “lost” or forget the settings, always return
to the stock settings. In addition, make only one change at a time.
Note: See below for instructions on how to remove both the compression and rebound assembly.
Once you make the desired adjustments, reinstall the assembly. Now
is also a good time to check the oil level. You should be able to feel
4. REMOVING THE REBOUND DAMPING ASSEMBLY
To remove the rebound damping assembly, the fork must
be disassembled first (please refer to “Manitou Disassembly
Procedure” Chapter 8, page 12). Once the slider has been pulled off
the inner leg, turn the inner leg assembly upside-down. With the fork
upside-down, reinstall the damper dropout nut then stroke the shaft 3-4
times. Notice that the fork fluid is slowly being pushed to the compression side of the leg.
The rebound damping assembly can now be removed with a 15/16inch wrench. Be careful when removing the assembly as a small
amount of fork fluid may remain on top of the piston. In addition,
ensure that no contaminants enter the now-exposed fluid.
To reinstall the assembly, torque the end cap as specified in the
owner’s manual. Turn the fork right side up and stroke the rebound
shaft a few times to transfer fluid back down to the bottom of the leg.
Remove the damper dropout nut and follow the steps outlined in
Chapter 8, page 13“Manitou Reassembly Procedure.”
5. CHECKING THE OIL LEVEL
Having the correct oil level is critical to keep a TPC fork working its
best (although slightly varying oil height will not alter the performance of the fork). To measure the oil level, all that’s required is a
tape measure. Begin by unscrewing the compression valve assembly
at the top of the left fork leg. Leave the spring stack (riders: right side)
installed as it should not be removed to check oil height. Once the
assembly is completely unthreaded from the inner leg, pull the assembly about halfway out. You should be able to feel when the piston is
no longer in the fork fluid. When this happens, slowly lower the
assembly to where it again contracts the oil, which can be felt by
increased resistance, and measure the distance from the top of the
crown to the top O-ring (located on the knob above the cap threads).
This distance should be approximately two inches, but can range from
1999 MANITOU TUNING MANUAL - 7
one to three inches. Note: Running the oil level greater than three
inches risks fork damage or possible personal injury.
6. CHANGING FORK FLUID
Though all suspension forks demand fluid changes in order to maintain
damping and prevent internal damage, a TPC or TPC Sport equipped
fork needs fluid changes far less frequently because the TPC design
doesn’t break fluid down quickly due to its greater oil volume. We
recommend changing fluid just once a year for heavy users and only
every other year for sport and recreational users.
The first step in changing the fluid is to remove the compression
damping assembly. Next, pour the old fluid out of the top of the leg
into a clear container in order to inspect the fluid. Dark fluid is normal and not an indication of a problem. If metal flakes or other contaminants are present, disassemble the entire left leg following the procedures outlined in Chapter 8, page 12 “Manitou Disassembly
Procedure” and page 7 “Removing the Rebound Damping
Assembly.” Flush all parts off with a suitable cleaning solution,
wipe clean and then reassemble if no damaged parts are found. Some
discoloration (grey, cloudy) is normal in old fork fluid. Fill the leg with
the recommended amount of fluid (Manitous are filled at the factory
with 5-weight Maxima) and set the oil level according to the previous
section “Checking Oil Level.” Reinstall the compression damping
assembly.
7. TPC VALVE STACK TUNING
The valve shim stacks in a TPC fork are the ultimate tuning devices.
However, determining the correct combination of shims is time consuming and a tedious process that would take weeks to explain and
longer to learn. The standard valving in your TPC fork has been tested and developed during many months of racing on the World Cup
circuit, but should you wish to customize your fork’s valve shim
stacks, keep the following hints in mind:
Damping Technology
Low Speed
Flow
High Speed
Flow
Soft Low
Speed
Stiffer Low
Speed
Figure 4
(Shim Stack Tuning)
8 - 1999 MANITOU TUNING MANUAL
1. Make only small changes—a little bit goes a long way.
2. Always keep notes on what you’ve tried and how it worked.
3. Do not change the diameter of the shim closest to the piston.
This shim must always cover the entire port (22mm for
compression and 18 or 16mm for rebound, depending on
whether you have an X-Vert 30mm dia. inner leg or SX fork
28.6mm dia. inner leg).
4. Changing the larger diameter shim(s) will have greater effect
on damping characteristics.
5. More shims and/or thicker shims will increase damping.
(See figure 4).
6. Fewer shims and/or thinner shims will decrease damping.
(See figure 4).
8. TUNING 1999 TPC SPORT
TPC (or Twin Piston Damping) is one of the hottest developments in
suspension technology and it’s more-moderately priced brother, TPC
Sport, is equally revolutionary. Like TPC, TPC Sport uses separate
pistons for rebound and compression, no leak seals and large oil volume to eliminate heat-related problems. It is not adjustable
externally, but that doesn’t mean you can not vary the feel of the fork;
changing the fork oil weight in your TPC Sport-equipped fork will
significantly change the damping character of the fork. See
“Changing Fork Fluid” for instructions on how to do this.
The standard fork oil in your fork is Maxima 5-weight. This should
work fine for most riders, but if you find the settings are not to your
liking, increasing or decreasing the oil weight will increase or
decrease the TPC Sport damping in your fork. See page 9, “1999
TPC AND TPC SPORT FORK TUNING” for recommended oil
weights. Remember though, changing the oil weight will affect
both compression and rebound damping equally; so while you may
be slowing rebound down by say, adding heavier fork oil, you also
may be adding compression damping to the point of the fork feeling harsh. The best thing to do is to experiment with different oil
weights until you find that perfect setting for you. Since changing
the fluid is so simple (all you must do is remove the compression
rod-the cap on the left leg when you view the fork from abovedrain the oil and refill), it’s not too difficult finding that perfect
feel. Note: Changing the size of the orifice holes of the TPC Sport
rebound or compression pistons will affect the damping of the fork
components, but it is not recommended. Not only do you risk damaging the fork permanently, but you will also void the warranty on
the fork and most likely compromise the performance as well.
1999 TPC AND TPC SPORT FORK TUNING
(Other Model Years Require Different Tuning Specifications)
The following tuning charts will help determine the optimum springs and settings for you to start with, depending on which model fork you have.
MODEL
RIDER WEIGHT
SPRING STACK
COMPRESSION
DAMPING*
REBOUND
DAMPING*
TPC Damped Forks
SX
Standard Set Up
SX-R
Standard Set Up
SX-Ti
Standard Set Up
SX Carbon
Standard Set Up
X-Vert
Standard Set Up
X-Vert R
Standard Set Up
X-Vert Carbon
Standard Set Up
100-125 lbs.
std. coil (2) 2Ó red (1) 2Ó blue
18 clicks
10 clicks
125-130 lbs.
std. coil (3) 2Ó red
15 clicks
8 clicks
150-170 lbs.
std. coil (2) 2Ó red (1) 2Ó yel
12 clicks
6 clicks
170-190 lbs.
std. coil (1) 2Ó red (2) 2Ó yel
8 clicks
6 clicks
190+lbs.
std. coil (3) 2Ó yel
5 clicks
4 clicks
100-125 lbs.
std. coil (2) 2Ó red (1) 2Ó blue
18 clicks
10 clicks
125-150 lbs.
std. coil (3) 2Ó red
15 clicks
8 clicks
150-170 lbs.
std. coil (2) 2Ó red (1) 2Ó yel
12 clicks
6 clicks
170-190 lbs.
std. coil (1) 2Ó red (2) 2Ó yel
8 clicks
6 clicks
190+lbs.
std. coil (3) 2Ó yel
5 clicks
4 clicks
100-125 lbs.
120 Ti coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 2Ó blue
18 clicks
10 clicks
125-130 lbs.
140 Ti coil (2) 2Ó red
15 clicks
8 clicks
150-170 lbs.
140 Ti coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 2Ó yel
12 clicks
6 clicks
170-190 lbs.
140 Ti coil (2) 2Ó yel
8 clicks
6 clicks
190+lbs.
Ti coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 2Ó yel
5 clicks
4 clicks
100-125 lbs.
120 lb. Ti coil (1) red or blue
18 clicks
10 clicks
125-150 lbs.
140 lb. Ti coil (1) blue
15 clicks
8 clicks
150-170 lbs.
140 Ti coil (1) red
12 clicks
6 clicks
170-190 lbs.
140 Ti coil (1) yel
8 clicks
6 clicks
190+lbs.
160 Ti coil (1) yel
5 clicks
4 clicks
100-125 lbs.
120 lb. coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 1Ó red (1) 2Ó blue
18 clicks
10 clicks
125-150 lbs.
140 lb. coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 1Ó red (1) 2Ó blue
15 clicks
8 clicks
150-170 lbs.
140 lb. coil (2) 2Ó red (1) 1Ó red
12 clicks
6 clicks
170-190 lbs. 1
140 lb. coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 1Ó red (1) 1Ó yel
8 clicks
6 clicks
190+ lbs.
160 lb. coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 1Ó red (1) 1Ó yel
5 clicks
4 clicks
100-125 lbs.
120 lb. coil (2) 2Ó red (1) 2Ó blue
18 clicks
10 clicks
125-150 lbs.
140 lb. coil (2) 2Ó red (1) 2Ó blue
15 clicks
8 clicks
150-170 lbs.
140 lb. coil (3) 2Ó red
12 clicks
6 clicks
170-190 lbs.
140 lb. coil (2) 2Ó red (1) 2Ó yel
8 clicks
6 clicks
190+ lbs.
160 lb. coil (2) 2Ó red (1) 2Ó yel
5 clicks
4 clicks
100-125 lbs.
(1) 140 lb. Ti coil (1) 120 Ti coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 2Ó blue
20 clicks
20 clicks
125-150 lbs.
(2) 140 lb. Ti coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 2Ó blue
18 clicks
18 clicks
150-170 lbs.
(2) 140 lb. Ti coil (2) 2Ó red
16 clicks
16 clicks
170-190 lbs.
(2) 140 lb. Ti coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 2Ó yel
14 clicks
14 clicks
190+ lbs.
(1) 140 lb. Ti coil (1) 160 Ti coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 2Ó yel
12 clicks
12 clicks
*Settings are from full close
Note: Use only 1998 and 1999 MCUÕs
1999 MANITOU TUNING MANUAL - 9
MODEL
RIDER WEIGHT
SPRING STACK
OIL WEIGHT
TPC Damped Forks
Spyder
Standard Set Up
100-125 lbs.
std. coil (1) 4Ó blue (1) 2Ó red
125-150 lbs.
std. coil (1) 4Ó red (1) 2Ó blue
150-170 lbs.
std. coil (1) 4Ó red (1) 2Ó red
170-190 lbs.
std. coil (1) 4Ó red (1) 2Ó yel
190+lbs.
std. coil (1) 4Ó yel (1) 2Ó red
100-125 lbs.
std. coil (1) 1.5Ó red (2) 2Ó blue
5 weight
125-150 lbs.
std. coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 1.5Ó red (2) 2Ó blue
5 weight
150-170 lbs.
std. coil (2) 2Ó red (1) 1.5Ó red
5 weight
170-190 lbs.
std. coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 1.5Ó red (1) 2Ó yel
7.5 weight
190+lbs.
std. coil (1) 1.5Ó red (2) 2Ó yel
15 weight
100-125 lbs.
std. coil (2) 2Ó red (1) 2Ó blue
5 weight
125-130 lbs.
std. coil (3) 2Ó red
5 weight
TPC Sport
Damped Forks
Spyder R
Standard Set Up
SX-E
Standard Set Up
X-VERT E
Standard Set Up
X-Vert T
Standard Set Up
150-170 lbs.
std. coil (2) 2Ó red (1) 2Ó yel
5 weight
170-190 lbs.
std. coil (1) 2Ó red (2) 2Ó yel
7.5 weight
190+lbs. 160
std. coil (3) 2Ó yel
15 weight
100-125 lbs.
std. coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 1Ó red (2) 1Ó blue
5 weight
125-150 lbs.
std. coil (2) 2Ó red (1) 1Ó red (1) 1Ó blue
5 weight
150-170 lbs.
std. coil (3) 2Ó red (1) 1Ó red
5 weight
170-190 lbs.
std. coil (2) 2Ó red (1) 1Ó red (1) 1Ó yel
7.5 weight
190+lbs.
std. coil (2) 2Ó red (1) 1Ó red (1) 1Ó yel
15 weight
100-125 lbs.
120 lb. coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 1Ó red (1) 2Ó blue
5 weight
125-150 lbs.
140 lb. coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 1Ó red (1) 2Ó blue
5 weight
150-170 lbs.
140 lb. coil (2) 2Ó red (1) 1Ó red
5 weight
170-190 lbs. 1
140 lb. coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 1Ó red (1) 1Ó yel
7.5 weight
190+ lbs.
160 lb. coil (1) 2Ó red (1) 1Ó red (1) 1Ó yel
15 weight
Note: Use only 1998 and 1999 MCUÕs
1999 SPRING TUNING KITS
85-3844
85-3845
85-3846
85-3755
85-3756
85-3757
SPYDER SOFT RIDE KIT
SPYDER MEDIUM RIDE KIT
SPYDER FIRM RIDE KIT
SPYDER R SOFT RIDE KIT
SPYDER R MEDIUM RIDE KIT
SPYDER R FIRM RIDE KIT
85-3751
85-3752
85-3753
SX E SOFT RIDE KIT
SX E MEDIUM RIDE KIT
SX E FIRM RIDE KIT
85-3751
85-3752
85-3753
85-3751
85-3752
85-3753
SX SOFT RIDE KIT
SX MEDIUM RIDE KIT
SX FIRM RIDE KIT
SX R SOFT RIDE KIT
SX R MEDIUM RIDE KIT
SX R FIRM RIDE KIT
SUSPENSION FLUIDS
85-3814
85-3820
85-3822
MAXIMA SUSPENSION FLUID 5-WT-8OZ.
MAXIMA SUSPENSION FLUID 7.5-WT-8OZ.
MAXIMA SUSPENSION FLUID 10.-WT-8OZ.
CONTINUED
10 - 1999 MANITOU TUNING MANUAL
1999 SPRING TUNING KITS CONT.
85-3841
85-3842
85-3843
85-3841
85-3842
85-3843
SX TI SOFT RIDE KIT
SX TI MEDIUM RIDE KIT
SX TI FIRM RIDE KIT
SX CARBON SOFT RIDE KIT
SX CARBON MEDIUM RIDE KIT
SX CARBON FIRM RIDE KIT
85-3838
85-3839
85-3840
85-3871
85-3872
85-3872
85-3838
85-3839
85-3840
85-3841
85-3842
85-3843
X-VERT E SOFT RIDE KIT
X-VERT E MEDIUM RIDE KIT
X-VERT E FIRM RIDE KIT
X-VERT R AND T SOFT RIDE KIT
X-VERT R AND T MEDIUM RIDE KIT
X-VERT R AND T FIRM RIDE KIT
X-VERT SOFT RIDE KIT
X-VERT MEDIUM RIDE KIT
X-VERT FIRM RIDE KIT
X-VERT CARBON SOFT RIDE KIT
X-VERT CARBON MEDIUM RIDE KIT
X-VERT CARBON FIRM RIDE KIT
OBSERVATIONS
LIKELY CAUSE
Fork extends too quickly;
wheel springs up from ground
after landing from jumps; difficult to maintain straight path
in rocks; front end tries to
climb berm or groove while
cornering; tall ride height;
hard to turn into corner
Not enough rebound damping
Fork rarely bottoms; harsh
feel; tall ride height despite
soft spring and/or minimum
preload; hard to turn into
corner
Too much compression
damping
Fork feels too hard or stiff
Too much rebound damping;
spring rate too stiff; too much
compression damping; fork
fluid weight too heavy; spring
rate possibly bit soft
Fork feels too soft
Spring rate too soft; compression damping too light; fork
fluid weight too light; fork fluid
worn out; cartridge lacks fork
fluid
Harsh feel, especially through
successive rapid hits (braking
bumps, etc.); bottoming after
3-4 successive large hits; failure to rebound after landing
from jumps; low ride height;
easy to turn into corner; fork
bottoms despite correct
compression damping &
spring rate
Too much rebound damping
Fork bottoms; “diving” feel
while braking for turns; easy
to turn into corner; fork
unstable
Not enough compression
damping
Spring rate too soft
SERVICE MANUALS
X-VERT FORKS 062168
SX FORKS
062167
SPYDER FORKS 062166
• Chapter 7: TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS
A. IDENTIFYING PROBLEMS
Following are symptoms that will help you identify a suspension
problem. Remember that some problems might be due to more than
one cause and that it is easier to pinpoint the cause by looking for
more than one symptom. While riding, pay attention to how the
suspension feels and what that feel might be attributed to.
OBSERVATIONS
LIKELY CAUSE
B. TYPICAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
Fork bottoms; needs more
than maximum preload; front
end too low on downhills
Spring rate too soft or fork oil
weight too low
Compression damping
too soft backed out too far
Fork rarely/never bottoms;
doesn’t use full travel
Spring rate too stiff; Fork oil
weight too high or
compression damping too firm
Static sag excessive; front
end too low entering turns;
front end “knifes” (oversteers, turns in too easily)
Not enough preload
Spring rate too soft
Static sag non/barely existent; fork feels stiff or harsh;
hard to turn into corner; lowspeed turning ability sluggish
Too much preload
Spring rate too stiff
Here are some typical problems encountered by riders in various situations and what can be done to solve them, step by step—or at least
help alleviate their severity until an authorized technician can be
consulted. If you have one of these problems and wish to solve it, start
with solution one. If that doesn’t solve it completely, try
solution two. Still not good? Go to solution three.
Front end searches or is nervous when descending hills
1. Increase spring preload
2. Increase compression damping
3. Use stiffer springs
4. Increase rebound damping
Front end “washes out” in turns (understeers, tends to
push outward)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Increase rebound damping
Reduce preload
Reduce compression damping
Use softer springs
1999 MANITOU TUNING MANUAL - 11
Front end “knifes” in turns (oversteers, tends
to turn inward, dives)
1. Reduce rebound damping
2. Increase preload
3. Increase compression damping
4. Use stiffer springs
Fork doesn’t respond to small bumps in turns
1.
2.
3.
4.
Reduce rebound damping
Reduce compression damping
Reduce preload
Use softer springs
• Chapter 8: MAINTAINING
SUSPENSION BLISS
Don’t forget, though, that like any moving part, a Manitou suspension
fork requires regular maintenance. If it doesn’t receive such service, it
will lose performance, wear out quickly, negating all of the work put
into dialing it in—not to mention the money it cost in the first place.
Riding in severe conditions such as mud and water make regular maintenance even more important. If you maintain your fork on a regular
basis and microlube it often, you won’t have wasted your time and you
won’t waste your fork. Thus, learn how to maintain your Manitou
properly in this section.
The fork boots and wiper seals that are standard equipment on all 1999
Manitou forks greatly reduce the chance of contamination from the elements. We recommend keeping the fork boots on at all times—even in
good conditions—for extended service life and optimum performance.
When servicing the fork, take the time to inspect all parts for excessive wear or damage. Pay close attention to the bushings, which can
be damaged by contamination in severe conditions. Replace any worn
or damaged parts that are discovered. This will ensure optimum
performance from the fork.
There are basically four things that will require attention: the
stanchions (inner legs), the bushings in the outer legs, the spring
stack and the damping fluid. All of this requires disassembly of the
fork. It isn’t particularly difficult, but those uncomfortable with
disassembling mechanical things should let a qualified technician do
it. The last thing you want to do is butcher the things that allow your
Manitou fork to work.
One thing to remember is that the fork fluid needs changing regularly,
just like the oil in a car’s engine. Fresh fluid ensures
quality, consistent damping, and it also acts as a lubricant for the
piston and inner wall. When changing fork fluid, we recommend that
you also replace the TPC chamber seals and replace any parts that are
excessively worn or broken. Manitou offers rebuild kits for all forks
that makes this both easy and convenient.
MANITOU DAMPER REBUILD KITS
X-Vert Comp
85-3805
X-Vert E Comp
85-3801
X-Vert R/Carbon Comp 85-3817
X-Vert T Comp
85-3816
MANITOU BUSHING-SEAL REBUILD KITS
1999 Spyder/R
SX/E/R/Ti
X-Vert/E/R/Ti
SERVICE SCHEDULE
If you simply bolted on a new Manitou and rode, you’d notice an
immediate improvement over other suspension forks. One of the benefits of investing in a Manitou fork is the ability to adjust the
suspension for riders of very different sizes and abilities, as well as
variations in terrain and conditions. Yes, it takes a little time and
effort, but if you dial in your suspension, you’ll find each ride more
enjoyable and rewarding, and you’ll be able to ride faster easier and
with more control.
For those who go to the races, look for the Manitou Racing
Development technical-support vehicles at many major events worldwide. They’re there for you. Our technicians will try to answer any
technical questions or solve equipment problems. We offer emergency service out of these vehicles to riders of all levels, not just our
sponsored elite. Our goal is to ensure that our customers enjoy each
event to its fullest. For more information...don’t forget to check our
website at www.answerproducts.com.
Suggested Service For Manitou Forks/Normal Conditions
Short/Sporadic Rides
1999 Spyder R Rebound
SX RR/TI Carbon Rbd
SX Rebound
SX E Rebound
X-Vert/R Rebound
X-Vert E/T Rebound
X-Vert Carbon Rbd
Spyder R/Sx E Comp
SX Comp
SX R/Ti/Carbon Comp
85-3802
85-3804
85-3807
85-3806
85-3808
85-3809
85-3819
85-3801
85-3803
85-3805
12 - 1999 MANITOU TUNING MANUAL
Long/Frequent Rides
Lube fork as needed with
Prep M grease via Microlube
lubrication ports
Lube fork as needed with
Prep M grease via Microlube
lubrication ports
Disassemble fork per owner’s
manual; clean and grease
every 4-5 months
Grease spring stack as needed
Disassemble fork per owner’s
manual; clean and grease
every 8-10 weeks
Grease spring stack as needed
Service TPC and TPC Sport
by changing fork fluid every
year
Service TPC and TPC Sport
by changing fork fluid every
year
Suggested Service For Manitou Forks/Severe Conditions
(mud, rain, snow, extreme dust)
Short/Sporadic Rides
MANITOU DAMPER REBUILD KITS
85-3826
85-3827
85-3828
Long/Frequent Ride
Lube fork as needed with
Prep M grease via Microlube
lubrication ports
Lube fork as needed with
Prep M grease via Microlube
lubrication ports
Disassemble fork per owner’s
manual; clean and grease
every 6-8 weeks
Disassemble fork per owner’s
manual; clean and grease
every 4-6 weeks
Grease spring stack as needed
Grease spring stack as needed
Service TPC and TPC Sport
by changing fork fluid every
8 months
Service TPC and TPC Sport
by changing fork fluid every
8 months
• Chapter 9: DISASSEMBLY/
REASSEMBLY
A. MANITOU DISASSEMBLY PROCEDURE
All 1996 and later Manitou oil-damped forks use the same general
disassembly/assembly methods. The fork doesn’t have to be removed
from the bicycle for general disassembly/assembly or cleaning, as the
crown and inner legs can remain on the bike. Here’s how to remove
the outer legs and arch assembly:
1. Remove the lower compression rod screw from the right-leg
dropout with a 4mm Allen wrench.
2. Pop out the damping adjuster knob from the left-leg dropout
(a small screwdriver may be helpful for this). Then remove
the retainer screw with an 8mm Allen wrench.
3. Pull down on the outer leg assembly (sliders) to separate
them from the inner legs and the crown.
4. Remove the fork boots.
(NOTE: Removing the dust seal every time the fork is disassembled
is not recommended. The seal and bushings in each leg may be
cleaned and regreased while in place.)
Inspection
1. Clean all parts thoroughly with non flammable solvent.
2. Check the fork boots and felt wipers for excess wear, tears
or other obvious damage.
3. Check the dust seals for tears or other damage; replace the
seals if necessary.
4. Inspect both the lower and upper bushings for excessive
wear or damage; replace them if necessary.
5. Check each outer leg/arch assembly for nicks or deep
gouges on both the inner and outer surfaces; replace
if necessary.
6. Check each inner leg for deep gouges and other obvious
damage. Minor wear resulting in color change is not detri
mental to the gold-anodized surface. If there’s excessive
wear or damage, replace the inner leg.
7. Check the inner legs at the bottom of the crown for cracks
or flaking of the anodizing. Replace the leg if a crack is
discovered or if the gold anodizing is starting to flake.
8. Check the underside of the crown for cracks; replace if cracked.
(NOTE: Before proceeding with the rest of the reassembly process,
make sure that the black second-stage elastomer, the cup washer and
the orange third-stage elastomer are installed on the compression rod,
and that the detent ball and orange third-stage elastomer are installed
on the damper shaft.)
4. Slide the fork boots onto the inner legs; push them up until
they are in position beneath the crown and lightly grease
the inner leg.
5. Slide the outer leg/arch assembly onto the inner legs and
fully compress the fork.
6. Install the compression-rod screw back into the right-leg
dropout with a 4mm Allen wrench and the dropout nut into
the left-leg dropout with an 8mm Allen wrench. Tighten to a
torque reading between 10-30 inch-lb. (1.1-3.5 N-m).
Beware: Over-torquing the dropout nut may damage the
damper shaft.
7. Pop the damping adjuster knob back into the left-leg
dropout. (An O-ring holds the knob in place.)
8. Slide the skirt of each fork boot onto the outer leg’s corre
sponding groove. Be sure the skirt’s lip sits down into the
corresponding groove. Be sure the skirt’s lip sits down into
the groove.
GLOSSARY of USEFUL TERMS
Compression damping: The act of controlling the compression of a
fork by changing the energy of motion into heat and then dissipating
it by way of an oil-based fluid.
Coil Spring: A wound spring made of metal.
Damping: The act of absorbing shock by changing the energy of
motion into heat and then dissipating it by way of an oil-based fluid.
Elastomer: A urethane bumper which is used as a spring in a
suspension fork.
MCU:A urethane bumper, like an elastomer, which is used as a
spring; a special process forces air into the elastomer during construction allowing it to both compress and deform, providing limited
damping in some uses.
Preload: The loading of a spring via dial adjuster.
Rebound damping: The act of controlling the extension of a fork by
changing the energy of motion into heat and then dissipating it by way
of an oil-based fluid.
Sag: The amount the suspension settles under normal rider weight.
Spring rate:A measure of the spring’s stiffness or softness.
B. MANITOU REASSEMBLY PROCEDURE
1. After thoroughly inspecting the fork and replacing parts
where necessary, lightly grease the inner diameter of the top
and bottom bushings.
2. Liberally grease the wiper.
3. Grease the compression rod lightly.
TPC: (Twin Piston Chamber ): Manitou’s revolutionary system of
damping which uses two independent pistons for control of compression and rebound damping.
MRD: Manitou Racing Development is the division of Manitou
Performance Bicycle Components responsible for ensuring that
Manitou-sponsored racers are riding the best suspension forks and
shocks in the world.
1999 MANITOU TUNING MANUAL - 13
SERVICE MANUALS
1999 Spyder
062166
1999 SX
062167
1999 X-Vert
062168
MANITOU DAMPER REBUILD KITS
1999 Spyder R Rebound
SX RR/TI Carbon Rbd
SX Rebound
SX E Rebound
X-Vert/R Rebound
X-Vert E/T Rebound
X-Vert Carbon Rbd
Spyder R/Sx E Comp
SX Comp
SX R/Ti/Carbon Comp
1999 SPRING TUNING KITS
85-3844
85-3845
85-3846
85-3755
85-3756
85-3757
SPYDER SOFT RIDE KIT
SPYDER MEDIUM RIDE KIT
SPYDER FIRM RIDE KIT
SPYDER R SOFT RIDE KIT
SPYDER R MEDIUM RIDE KIT
SPYDER R FIRM RIDE KIT
85-3751
85-3752
85-3753
85-3751
85-3752
85-3753
85-3751
85-3752
85-3753
SX E SOFT RIDE KIT
SX E MEDIUM RIDE KIT
SX E FIRM RIDE KIT
SX SOFT RIDE KIT
SX MEDIUM RIDE KIT
SX FIRM RIDE KIT
SX R SOFT RIDE KIT
SX R MEDIUM RIDE KIT
SX R FIRM RIDE KIT
85-3841
85-3842
85-3843
85-3841
85-3842
85-3843
SX TI SOFT RIDE KIT
SX TI MEDIUM RIDE KIT
SX TI FIRM RIDE KIT
SX CARBON SOFT RIDE KIT
SX CARBON MEDIUM RIDE KIT
SX CARBON FIRM RIDE KIT
85-3838
85-3839
85-3840
85-3871
85-3872
85-3872
85-3838
85-3839
85-3840
85-3841
85-3842
85-3843
X-VERT E SOFT RIDE KIT
X-VERT E MEDIUM RIDE KIT
X-VERT E FIRM RIDE KIT
X-VERT R AND T SOFT RIDE KIT
X-VERT R AND T MEDIUM RIDE KIT
X-VERT R AND T FIRM RIDE KIT
X-VERT SOFT RIDE KIT
X-VERT MEDIUM RIDE KIT
X-VERT FIRM RIDE KIT
X-VERT CARBON SOFT RIDE KIT
X-VERT CARBON MEDIUM RIDE KIT
X-VERT CARBON FIRM RIDE KIT
85-3802
85-3804
85-3807
85-3806
85-3808
85-3809
85-3819
85-3801
85-3803
85-3805
MANITOU DAMPER REBUILD KITS
X-Vert Comp
85-3805
X-Vert E Comp
85-3801
X-Vert R/Carbon Comp 85-3817
X-Vert T Comp
85-3816
MANITOU BUSHING-SEAL REBUILD KITS
1999 Spyder/R
SX/E/R/Ti
X-Vert/E/R/Ti
85-3826
85-3827
85-3828
LUBRICANTS
85-3810 Manitou Prep M lubricant
85-3812 Manitou Prep M lube gun
MRD LOCKOUT
85-3704 1999 Manitou
85-3734 1999 Manitou
85-3759 1999 Manitou
85-3703 1998 Manitou
SX-E
SX, SXR, SX Ti
SX Carbon
SX
Log on to our website at www.answerproducts.com and you can
download service manuals for 1999 model year forks.
Part No. 85-3578
ANSWER PRODUCTS, INC.
28209 AVENUE STANFORD, VALENCIA, CA 91355
$2.95 U.S.
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