First Aid for Emergencies

First Aid for Emergencies
First Aid for Emergencies
November 2009
avfoodstorage@gmail.com
Disclaimer: Most of these emergency medical procedures are for survival situations when
doctors and hospital are NOT available for 72+ hours. Obtain professional medical treatment
whenever and as quickly as possible.
WARNING: Some of the following pictures contain graphic pictures of injuries.
“Be prepared in all things against the day when tribulation and desolation are
sent forth upon the wicked” Doctrine & Covenants 29:8
―If anyone has any doubt concerning the terrible things that can and
will afflict mankind, let him read the 24th chapter of Matthew. Among
other things the Lord says: ―Ye shall hear of wars and rumors of wars.
… ―For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom:
and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers
places. All these are the beginning of sorrows. …‖
―Occasions such 9/11 pull us up sharply to a realization that
“Life is fragile, peace is fragile, civilization itself is
fragile. We have been counseled again and again concerning
self-reliance. We cannot provide against every
contingency. But we can provide against many
contingencies.” Gordon B. Hinckley Oct. 2001
Emergency First Aid
When Disaster Strikes…Will You Be a Help or A Hindrance?
What Is First Aid?
Under Normal Circumstance: Care given until emergency professionals
arrive
Under Emergency Conditions: No Help will be arriving; you are the
Emergency ―Professional‖
How you prepare now will greatly determine how much help you will be
to your family and neighbors.
Basic First Aid: We all have some basic first aid skills: taking out splinters, fixing a scraped
knee, taking care of bee stings, blisters, paper cuts and sunburn. But what happens when disaster
strikes…Chaos begins. Emergency personal will be busy with schools, building collapses, fires,
damaged hospitals, impassable roads all of which mean you will probably not get any medical
help for at least 72 hours. Do you have the skills and supplies to handle:
Lacerations
bleeding
shock
head injury
burns
broken bones
Scene and Personal Safety
When disaster strikes you have to do two things first before you can be of help to others.
1) Scene Safety: Is the area structurally sound and safe to be in? Are there gas leaks,
electrical lines down or water or sewer lines broken? Is there fire? Are there any chemical
spills or leaks?
2) Personal Safety: In order to protect yourself from blood borne pathogens and other
biological pathogens you will need to wear protective equipment. This includes: a helmet
to protect your head from falling debris, goggles to keep sharp objects or liquids from
getting in your eyes, a mask to protect your lungs from smoke and dust and gloves to
protect your hands from cuts.
When helping people with medical emergencies use Proper Hygiene and Sanitation
1) Proper Hygiene: Wash hands frequently, wear latex gloves, change or disinfect after
each patient, wear a mask and goggles, keep dressings sterile, and avoid contact with
bodily fluids.
2) Sanitation: Control disposal of bacterial sources, put waste products in plastic bags, tie
off, and mark as medical waste and bury human waste.
Assessing the Victim
Determines the extent of injuries and treatment.
Determines the type of treatment needed.
Documents injuries.
Patient Care: As Easy As… ABC (for all patients)
A…Airway: Is the airway open?
B…Breathing: Are they breathing?
Bleeding: Is there heavy bleeding:
C…Circulation: Do they have a pulse?
If One Rescuer and One Victim
Head-To-Toe Assessment (head to toe then back)
• Head.
• Neck.
• Shoulders.
• Chest.
• Arms.
• Abdomen.
• Pelvis.
• Legs.
• Back.
Indicators of Internal Injuries
 Bruising.
 Swelling.
 Severe pain.
 Disfigurement.
REMEMBER . . . Provide immediate treatment for life-threatening injuries.
Emergency Medical Operations
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Triage
Treatment
Transport
Morgue
TRIAGE: meaning-to Sort
Method of determining who is at greater risk of death than others if not treated immediately.
When to triage:
More victims than rescuers.
Resources are limited.
Time is critical.
More Than One Victim –
Remember RPM
Respirations.
Rapid and shallow breathing.
Perfusion.
Capillary refill of greater than 2 seconds, or
Radial pulse absent.
Mental Status
Failure to follow simple commands.
Squeeze my hand.
Triage Tags
When triaging quickly check for RPM, tag and move on. Your goal is 20 seconds per victim.
START
Simple Triage And Rapid Treatment
Allows rescuers to do the most good,
for the greatest number of victims
in the shortest amount of time.
START Flowchart (30-2-Can Do)
1)GREEN/Minor: Ask them to walk to safe area.
2)Breathing less than 30 breaths per minute- step 6
Breathing over 30 breaths per minute –RED/immediate
3)No breathing, open airway, breaths-RED/immediate
4)Still no breathing- BLACK/dead
5)Breathing good-check pulse, more than 2 seconds-RED
Less than 2 seconds, step 6
6) Mental Status: can’t follow simple commands-RED
Can Do/Follows simple commands-YELLOW
Breathing
Airway Obstruction
Most common airway obstruction?
Tongue
HEAD-TILT/CHIN-LIFT
Step 1: Shake shoulder and ask, ―Can you hear me?‖
Step 2: Look, Listen and Feel
Look- At chest to watch for it rising
Listen: At nose for breath sounds
Feel: Feel for breath coming out of nose
Step 3: Palm on forehead;
Two fingers of other hand under chin;
Tilt the head, lift the chin
Step 4: Look, Listen and Fell again.
If Triaging Tag BLACK and move on.
If Only One Victim…Still Not Breathing?
 Check Airway
 Re-Position Head/Neck
 Look, Listen, Feel
If Still NOT breathing,
begin rescue breathing.
Rescue Breathing
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Keep head tilted
Pinch nose shut.
Breathe: blow until chest rises
Repeat
Watch for chest to rise.
Check for pulse, if no pulse, start CPR.
CPR
(when emergency services available)
In Disaster Conditions:
When no help available.
If no pulse in 2 minutes.
The victim will not survive.
CPR for family only.
CHOKING
CHOKING
•Ask are you choking?
•If coughing just watch.
•Give no food or water.
•If bluish or can’t breathe:
Unconscious
Push down and up
Pregnant or Obese
Squeeze above belly
Baby under 1 year
Thrust downward
By Yourself
Fall against hard chair.
Heart Attack
Heart Attacks in Women
(symptoms can be different than men)
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Dizziness
Unusual Fatigue
Sleep Disturbance
Feels Impending Doom
Few Feel Chest Pain
Stopping a Heart Attack
Within 10 Seconds of Symptoms
*Take deep breath
*Cough hard and long
*Repeat every 2 seconds
Forces air in lungs, heart to beat,
blood to circulate. Can reset heart rhythm.
If no 911 or defib machine available…pray…make comfortable
SHOCK
Shock can be a life threatening condition that results in not enough blood getting to the brain and
other vital organs. It can threaten life even though the injuries or conditions that caused it may
not otherwise be fatal. It is caused by a loss of blood volume, a reduced rate of blood flow or an
insufficient supply of oxygen. Injury-related shock, commonly referred to as traumatic shock, is
decidedly different from electric shock, insulin shock, and other special forms of shock.
Signs of Shock
a. Pale (or bluish) skin, cold to the touch and possibly moist and clammy. In the case of victims
with dark skin pigmentation, it may be necessary to rely primarily on the color of the mucous
membranes on the inside of the mouth, on the inside of the eyelids or in the fingernail or toenail
beds.
b. Weakness.
c. Rapid pulse (usually over 100 beats per minute or over about 17 beats in 10 seconds), often
too faint (due to decreased blood pressure) to be felt at the wrist but perceptible in the artery at
the side of the neck or in the artery near the groin.
d. Increased rate of breathing, possibly shallow, possibly deep an irregular.
e. Eyes look sunken, with a vacant expression, and pupils may be widely dilated.
f. Vomit or retching from nausea.
g. A person may complain of severe thirst.
Treating For Shock
Keep victim calm.
Maintain open airway.
Control any bleeding.
Splint any broken bones first.
Raise feet 8-12 inches.
Cover with blanket (cold), keep in shade (hot).
DO NOT give shock victims anything to eat or drink, unless:
the injured person can drink by himself; surgery not likely
within 6 hours; no abdominal injury; they stay conscious.
If head Injury, raise head, not feet
If spinal injury, keep flat.
If vomiting, turn head to side.
Bleeding and Wounds
Wounds Basic Principles
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All wounds are considered dirty wounds until they have been treated.
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Always wear gloves when treating victims.
If there is an ―arterial‖ bleed wear your mask and goggles as well.
Always remember to watch for signs of shock
Rules of Dressing
No active bleeding.
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Remove dressing, flush, and check for signs of infection every 4 to 6 hours.
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Swelling
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Discoloration
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Discharge
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Red striations from the wound site.
Active bleeding.
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Redress over existing dressing.
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Maintain pressure and elevation.
Steri Strips and Stitches
Remember cleaning the wound is more important than closing the
wound. ―when in doubt leave them out‖
Steri strips are an excellent alternative for suturing.
1) First, get the wound as clean as possible. Flush out the wound with
water for between 3-5 minutes. The more water the better. If you happen
to have a first-aid kit apply iodine or peroxide to kill any more germs.
2) Find a small needle that is no longer than 2 inches long. Sterilize said
needle by holding it over a flame (lighter, camp fire, etc) for 60-90
seconds. Thread the needle with the finest material you have available
but as a rule cotton gathers the most germs. 3) Your first pierce should be
as far away from the cut as the wound is deep. Shove the needle through
to the other side, pulling as tightly as possible, tying a knot and cutting the thread. Repeat every
quarter inch or so. 4) Infection is your worst enemy after you have finished your stitching so
keep it covered as much as possible. If it doesn't get infected you should be able to remove the
stitches in about 2 weeks.
Abrasions
Abrasions are shallow wounds or scrapes on the surface of the skin.
TreatmentWash with soap and water or hydrogen peroxide.
Dry the area surrounding the wound, with sterile gauze.
Apply a light coating of polysporin antibiotic ointment.
After the ointment has been applied use sterile bandages to dress the
wound. Depending on the size of the wound you will use either
4‖x4‖ or a 5‖x9‖ bandages for the dressing.
Change bandages everyday for 2-3 days.
When changing the bandages remember to look for signs of infection.
Punctures
 Wash hands so you don’t infect wound.
 First, check to see that nothing is left in the wound.
 Check to see if the object that caused the wound is intact. If a
piece is missing, it may be stuck in the wound.
 Allow the wound to bleed freely, but if bleeding is heavy or
squirting out, apply pressure until it stops.
 If bleeding won't stop, you will need emergency care.
 If little bleeding wash wound well to flush out all dirt. Use q-tip
dipped in alcohol if necessary.
 Apply light coat of Neosporin. Bandage.
 Check frequently for infection.
 Follow rules for wound care.
Lacerations
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Irrigate the wound thoroughly with saline or water.
Use a irrigation syringe if necessary.
The wound should be free from any sort of debris.
Use anti-microbial surgical soap. Then rinse again.
Minor Wounds- Close w/ steri strips or staples. You may use
polysporin ointment when covering the wound. Bandage.
• Major wounds- follow same cleaning steps… treatment will
differ depending on circumstances.
• Be very caution to keep clean.
• Watch for infection (red lines, fever)
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Seek medical treatment ASAP.
Saline Solution: 1 quart boiled water, 2 t. salt.
Hint: Honey or a paste of sugar and water can be used on wounds to stop infection.
Amputations
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Treat for shock.
Stop the bleeding.
Elevate the stump to help the bleeding stop.
Use tourniquet as a last resort to stop the bleeding.
Keep severed parts cool and clean if possible.
Prepare a disinfectant solution of 1 oz. povidone-iodine
solution and 1 liter disinfected water.
o After the solution sets for 5min use an irrigation syringe to forcefully remove any debris
within the wound.
o You will probably use a ½ liter to a full liter of solution to irrigate properly. Sometimes
more the wound is especially dirty. Rinse the solution from the wound with water.
Excessive Bleeding
Arterial bleeding.
Arteries transport blood under high pressure.
Spurting.
Venous bleeding
Veins transport blood under low pressure.
Flowing.
Capillary bleeding.
Capillaries carry blood under low pressure.
Oozing.
Controlling Bleeding – D.E.P.T.
Direct Pressure: on the wound with dressing.
Elevation: Raise above the level of the heart.
Pressure Points.
Brachial point for the arm.
Femoral point for the leg.
Treat for Shock
Tourniquet: remember-life or limb
Severe Bleeding/ Tourniquet
-Use Pressure Points to stop bleeding.
-Hold tightly for 15 minutes.
-If blood soaks dressing ADD on top of not
replace previous dressing.
TOURNIQUETS
To use or not to use
Absolute last resort.
Matter of life or limb.
Once applied, can be removed only by proper medical authorities.
DO NOT LOOSEN OR REMOVE.
If applied, note date and time.
Leave tourniquet in plain sight (do not cover with clothing).
Tourniquet to be placed between the wound and heart, as close as possible to the wound.
Tourniquet should be tight enough to stop the bleeding.
Can halt severe blood loss when all other means have failed and professional help will not arrive
before the patient bleeds to death.
Never use rope, wire, string, or any other material that can cut into patient’s flesh.
Photo shows pressure bandage on wound, tourniquet above that, twist and tie in place.
REMEMBER . . . LIFE OR LIMB.
Treating Impaled Objects
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Immobilize.
Do not move or remove the object.
Control bleeding.
Clean and dress the wound.
Wrap.
Signs of Infection
A wound is infected if:
 It becomes red, swollen, hot, and painful,
 It has pus,
 It begins to smell bad.
The infection is spreading to other parts of the body if:
 It causes fever,
 There is a red line above the wound,
 Lymph nodes become swollen and tender.
Read more in… Where There is No Doctor
Infection Indicators-Lymph Nodes
Lymph nodes - often called ―glands‖ are little traps for germs that form small lumps under the
skin when they get infected.
Swollen lymph nodes behind the ear are a sign of an infection on the head or scalp, often caused
by sores or lice.
Swollen nodes below the ear and on the neck indicate infections of the ear, face, or head.
Swollen nodes below the jaw indicate infections of the teeth or throat.
Swollen nodes in the armpit indicate an infection of the arm, head, or breast.
Swollen nodes in the groin indicate an infection of the leg, foot, genitals, or anus
Trauma
Trauma includes the more serious injuries including: head, neck, chest,
abdominal and spinal injuries; sprains and broken bones and burns. For
many of these injuries until medical help is available the most you will be
able to do is keep the victims comfortable and to try and prevent more
serious complications.
Trauma Assessment
As with a serious injury you need to consider the ABCDE’s
Airway w/neck injury Breathing
Circulation
Disability
Exposure
Airway: To open airway with neck or head injury support the neck.
Breathing: If they are still not breathing, try rescue breathing.
Circulation: Do they have a good pulse? If not is there a bleeding problem?
Disability: Are there any physical or mental limitations that may require extra medical assistance
during the rescue process?
Exposure: Remove victims from any chemical/toxic material/cold/smoke as soon as possible.
Trauma Recognition
Trauma injuries are divided into three groups:
-Visible Injuries: Injuries you can see
-Internal Injuries: Internal injuries that you suspect.
-Death (no respiration, no pulse, pupils fixed and dilated, non-reactive to light).
Possible Internal Injuries If Victim…
• Fell from height
• Crushed under structure
• Electrocution
• Smoke Inhalation/Burns
Head Trauma
Under 5 and over 55 most vulnerable.
Subdural hematoma is the deadliest of the three.
Signs & Symptoms Of Closed Head, Neck, Or Spinal Injury
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Change in consciousness.
Inability to move one or more body parts.
Severe pain or pressure.
Tingling or numbness in extremities.
Difficulty breathing or seeing.
Blood or fluid in the nose or ears.
Bruising behind the ear.
―Raccoon‖ eyes.
―Uneven‖ pupils.
Seizures.
Nausea or vomiting.
Treatment
ABC’S
Immobilize C-spine (neck)
Control Bleeding
Monitor Mental Status
Ice
If Patient Vomits, Protect Airway
Make Comfortable
Airway
Situations that can cause Airway Problems:
Foreign Bodies
Facial or Laryngeal Fracture
Facial Burns
C-Spine Precautions
Chest Trauma
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Breathing Considerations with Chest Trauma
Is Airway open, Are they breathing?
Look, Listen and Feel for irregularities.
Breathing problems can be caused by:
Collapsed lung, internal bleeding, Carbon monoxide poisoning and chest wound.
If you have oxygen, give to patient.
Signs and Symptoms: Chest Trauma
• Consider what caused the injury
• Bruising
• Pain when breathing in.
• Tenderness
• Deformity
• Chest movement uneven when breathing
Chest Trauma: Treatment
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ABC’s
Rib Fracture: Wrap to Stabilize
Place 2‖ wide adhesive tape over flail section
Sucking Chest Wound: Dressing Taped 3 sides
Treat For Shock
Abdominal Injury
Abdominal Trauma: Signs & Symptoms
• Weak Rapid Pulse
• Pale, Cool, Moist Skin
• Abdominal Pain With Tenderness and/or Rigidity
• Nausea or Vomiting
• Vomit That Is Bright Red or Looks Like Coffee Grounds
• Dark Tarry or Bright Red Stools
• Back Pain (kidney damage)
Abdominal Trauma: Treatment
• ABC’s
• Position on back with knees bent
• Treat for shock
• Stabilize foreign object: don’t remove
• Cover exposed organs with loose moist dressing
• Cover dressing loosely with plastic
Strains, Sprains & Fractures
Sprains and Strains
• Sprain: Stretching or tearing ligaments or other structures in a joint
• Strain: Stretching or tearing a muscle or a tendon
(a pulled muscle)
• Treatment: “RICE” Rest, Immobilize, Cold, and Elevation
Treatment
• Immobilize the injury and joints above and below the injury.
• If questionable, treat as a fracture
Broken Bone Symptoms
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Swelling
Bruising
Deformity, angulation, shortening
Pain
Numbness
Crackling sound with movement
A snap or pop heard at the time of the injury
Bleeding
Inability to use injured body part
Exposed bone ends (open fracture)
Treatment
Watch and treat for Shock
Apply ice to reduce swelling and bleeding
Apply gentle pressure to control bleeding
Realign limb only if there is no circulation: blue, cold, no pulse
Splint the injury
Treating Open Fractures
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Do not draw exposed bones back into tissue.
Do not irrigate wound.
Place a moist dressing over bone end to prevent drying
Cover wound.
Splint fracture without disturbing wound.
Colloidal Silver
Splinting Materials
Rigid materials (for the splint)
Board, folded magazine or newspaper or cardboard – most common.
Soft materials (padding for the splint 1-2‖ thick)
Towels, blankets, clothes, pillows.
Guidelines For Splinting
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Support the injured area.
Splint injury in the position that you find it.
Do not try to realign bones.
Check for color, warmth, and sensation.
Immobilize above and below the injury.
Burns
Severity of Burns
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Temperature of burning agent.
Period of time exposed.
Area of the body affected.
Size of the area burned.
Depth of the burn.
1st Degree Burn
The least serious burns are those in which only the outer layer of skin is burned.
The outer layer of skin hasn't been burned through. Treat a first-degree burn as
a minor burn unless it involves substantial portions of the hands, feet, face,
groin or buttocks, or a major joint.
• Epidermis (top layer)
• Reddened, dry skin.
• Pain and possible swelling
2nd Degree Burns
When the first layer of skin has been burned through and the second layer of
skin (dermis) also is burned, the injury is called a second-degree burn. If the
second-degree burn is no larger than 3 inches (7.5 centimeters) in diameter,
treat it as a minor burn. If the burned area is larger or if the burn is on the
hands, feet, face, groin or buttocks, or over a major joint, treat it as a major
burn and get medical help immediately.
 Burns first and second layer of skin.
 Reddened, blistered skin.
 Wet appearance.
 Severe Pain and swelling.
Third Degree Burns
The most serious burns are painless, involve all layers of the
skin and cause permanent tissue damage. Fat, muscle and even
bone may be affected. Areas may be charred black or appear
dry and white. Difficulty inhaling and exhaling, carbon
monoxide poisoning, or other toxic effects may occur if smoke
inhalation accompanies the burn.
Electrical burn
Treating Burns
Burns are ugly, they hurt, and they are scary. But they can be treated with simple first aid steps.
In fact, they are the one injury that must be treated before medical help arrives. The fact is that
burns, unless treated right away, will get worse. They'll get deeper below the surface of the skin
because the heat continues to do damage.
First Degree Burn:
Cool the burn with low pressure running water for 5-15 minutes.
Give aspirin for pain.
Treat with aloe vera or burn cream.
Second Degree Burns:
Submerge the burned area in cold water (as cold as possible) or for large area
gently pour cool water over.
Apply a cool, wet cloth to the affected area—but only if the dressing is wrapped
in plastic so it won’t stick to the burn. Can use silvadine.
Treat for shock.
Minor burn: simply pat the area dry and place a loose sterile cloth over it.
Give Tylenol for pain.
Third Degree Burns:
Treat for ABC’s
Remove any tight clothing or jewelry that's not on the actual burned area.
Submerge the burned area under cold running water, but avoid ice.
Too much cold can exacerbate shock.
Keep the injured person still. Do not let him or her walk around.
Treat for shock, raising burned area above heart if possible.
Place a loose, sterile cloth over the area, if large area use sheet.
Get help ASAP. Third-degree burn victims are prime candidates for infection,
pneumonia, and other complications.
The DON’Ts
DON’T use ice.
DON’T apply antiseptics, ointments, butter, or any other ―home‖ remedies.
DON’T remove shreds of tissue.
DON’T break blisters.
DON’T remove adhered particles of clothing.
Common Health Issues
Asthma; Allergic Reactions; Seizures; Diabetes; Others: COPD, CHF…
If you or a family member has pre-existing medical conditions you MUST pre-plan.
Asthma
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Signs and Symptoms of Asthma
Labored and rapid breathing
Coughing (non-productive and tight)
Wheezing
Shortness of breath (speaking in short phrases)
Anxiety, restlessness
Blue tint to skin
Different From: COPD, CHF, Pnuemonia
Allergic Reaction Symptoms
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Hives, rashes, itchy skin
Swollen Face, eyes, throat, tongue
Sneezing, difficulty breathing, coughing
Flushed or pale skin
Tightness in chest and throat
Unconsciousness
Different From: Sepsis, Diabetes, Stroke
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Seizures Symptoms
Muscle twitching, rigidity, violent rhythmic contractions
Incontinence
Trauma to tongue
Altered mental status
Different From: Stroke, Diabetes, Fainting
Diabetic Coma & Insulin Shock
Diabetic Coma Symptoms:
Hyperglycemia = high sugar
Dehydration
Frequent thirst/urination
Weak rapid pulse
Fatigue
Nausea and vomiting
Abdominal pain
Altered mental status
Rapid, deep sigh-like breathing
Insulin Shock:
Hypoglycemia = low sugar
Confused, irritable, aggressive
Pale, cool, moist skin
Full rapid pulse
Rapid onset
Unconscious
Hungry
Weak
Seizures
What Can You Do to Prepare?
Know what you need; have extra medications and supplies at home; and have a plan for power if
you need it if the power goes out. ALSO: Share your plan with others. They can’t help if they
don’t know what your problems are or what to do. Let them know what kinds of medical
problems you have, what kinds of problems you
might have, what kinds of medications you have
and where they are stored and what they can do for
you. YOU are your own expert. It is YOUR
responsibility to train others to help you.
 Extra Medications
 Tell a Friend and neighbor
 Medical Notebook
What to Include in Notebook
(keep in easy to find place-show others where)
Medical history
Your medical problems
Symptoms of problems
What to do if there is a problem
Current medications
Dose and frequency of medication (log)
Where medications are located (cabinet, bathroom, refrigerator)
Allergies to medications
Information
Doctors and phone numbers
Family member to contact and phone numbers
Preparing for Worst Case Scenarios
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Common Corpse Myths
Dead bodies cause epidemics.
Treating body with lime or disinfectant is
useful.
You can ―catch something‖ from a dead body.
You should bury bodies quickly in mass graves.
Caring for the Dead
1)Wear gloves when handling a body. Masks are not necessary except for smell.
2)Let family have time to grieve and say good-bye.
3) Take photos ASAP after death of: head, whole dressed body, any identifying marks.
4)Keep their personal effects with them.
5) Use thick plastic sheeting, tarps or sheeting to wrap body in.
6) Use string, tape, shoestrings, belts, etc for securing body.
7) ID tag: name, description of person-sex/hair color/skin color, etc; where found
Wrapping a Body
Materials Needed: tape or string; ID tag; tarp or sheet
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1) Dead Body
2) Tie ankles together with string or tape.
3) Cross arms over chest; tie wrists together with string or tape.
4) Center body on tarp or sheet.
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5) Attach ID tag to foot. Put all personal effects with the body.
6) Fold tarp over head and feet.
7) Fold one side of tarp over the body.
8) Fold the other side of tarp over the body.
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9) Secure feet together at ankles.
10) Secure at waist.
11) Secure at neck.
12) Secure name tag at feet.
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13) Keep body cold or bury.
14) If no pick-up for days; bury 3-6 feet deep, mark grave. Have service if family available.
15) Wash hands thoroughly when finished.
What Can You Do to Prepare?
1) Get a first aid kit; add to it when you can.
2) Add specialty kits: burn, birthing, suturing kits if able to.
3) Personal medications: have a 2-12 week supply of your daily medications.
4) Wilderness First Aid book for reference.
5) Get Red Cross training, if possible. Available at AV Medical College
6) Get CERT trained –Community Emergency Response Team (antelopevalleycert.com)
CERT training is offered free of charge and participants have no obligation or
commitment to respond or act in the event of a disaster.
Emergency Preparedness
CERT Organization
Fire Safety
Disaster Psychology
Emergency Medical Operations
One victim Terrorism
Triage Course
Disaster Simulation Exercise
Review Light Search and Rescue Operations
7) Participate in Great Shake Out and local CERT and Red Cross drills.
Beyond First Aid
In an emergency situation there could be many injuries that will be difficult to take care of. It is
during times of trouble that we instinctively turn towards the Lord using prayer and priesthood
blessings to bring comfort and healing. (don’t forget to have oil as part of your first aid supplies).
There may be other things you might want to prepare for. If you feel moved, you may want to
learn more about helping during births or suturing for example. Also there will be many people
who are afraid or distressed. Be prepared to help them by being calm and caring. Be prepared to
feel stress and anguish yourself as you serve. Talking to others about this can help.
You don’t need to be a Super Hero.
You just need to be Prepared.
REMINDER Some of these emergency medical procedures are for survival situations ONLY.
Obtain professional medical treatment whenever possible.
When Ye Are Prepared, Ye Shall Not Fear
“Be not troubled for when all these things shall come to pass, ye may know
that the promises which have been made unto you shall be fulfilled”
D & C 45:35
Created by Debbie Kent
This and other handouts can be found at peaceofpreparedness.com
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